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Sample records for american canis species

  1. Polymorphism of alpha 1 antitrypsin in North American species of Canis

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    Federoff, N.E.; Kueppers, F.

    2000-01-01

    a1-Antitrypsin (A1AT) is a major protease inhibitor present in all mammalian sera that have thus far been investigated. A1AT is also highly polymorphic and is therefore a useful genetic marker. Previously reported A1AT polymorphism in domestic dogs consisted of two alleles designated as PiM and PiS which exhibited frequencies of 0.72 and 0.28, respectively, in a group of randomly collected mongrel dogs. North American species of Canis, which included gray wolves (n=29), Mexican wolves (n=20), coyotes (n=24), wolfdog crosses (n=9), and red wolves (n=27) were tested for A1AT polymorphism. A1AT phenotypes were determined by isoelectric focusing, followed by direct immunoblotting using a specific antiserum. A1AT concentrations were determined by radial immunodiffusion. Concentrations of A1AT were similar to those found in domestic dogs (2.26 + 0.3 mg/ml SD) and tended to be higher in females than in males, possibly indicating that A1AT may be hormonally influenced in females. Three phenotypic band patterns were observed (M, MS, S). The allele frequencies for domestic dogs and gray wolves were very similar, 0.72 and 0.69 for PiM and 0.28 and 0.31 for PiS, respectively. The Mexican wolves had a significantly lower frequency of PiS= 0.10. Coyotes and red wolves were all found to be monomorphic for the PiS allele and were indistinguishable from each other in that respect.

  2. Hybridization among three native North American Canis species in a region of natural sympatry.

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    Frank Hailer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Population densities of many species throughout the world are changing due to direct persecution as well as anthropogenic habitat modification. These changes may induce or increase the frequency of hybridization among taxa. If extensive, hybridization can threaten the genetic integrity or survival of endangered species. Three native species of the genus Canis, coyote (C. latrans, Mexican wolf (C. lupus baileyi and red wolf (C. rufus, were historically sympatric in Texas, United States. Human impacts caused the latter two to go extinct in the wild, although they survived in captive breeding programs. Morphological data demonstrate historic reproductive isolation between all three taxa. While the red wolf population was impacted by introgressive hybridization with coyotes as it went extinct in the wild, the impact of hybridization on the Texas populations of the other species is not clear. METHODOLOGY/ PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We surveyed variation at maternally and paternally inherited genetic markers (mitochondrial control region sequence and Y chromosome microsatellites in coyotes from Texas, Mexican wolves and red wolves from the captive breeding programs, and a reference population of coyotes from outside the historic red wolf range. Levels of variation and phylogenetic analyses suggest that hybridization has occasionally taken place between all three species, but that the impact on the coyote population is very small. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate that the factors driving introgressive hybridization in sympatric Texan Canis are multiple and complex. Hybridization is not solely determined by body size or sex, and density-dependent effects do not fully explain the observed pattern either. No evidence of hybridization was identified in the Mexican wolf captive breeding program, but introgression appears to have had a greater impact on the captive red wolves.

  3. Presence of Leishmania and Brucella Species in the Golden Jackal Canis aureus in Serbia

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    Duško Ćirović

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The golden jackal Canis aureus occurs in south-eastern Europe, Asia, the Middle East, the Caucasus, and Africa. In Serbia, jackals neared extinction; however, during the last 30 years, the species started to spread quickly and to increase in number. Few studies in the past have revealed their potential role as carriers of zoonotic diseases. Animal samples were collected over a three-year period (01/2010–02/2013 from 12 sites all over Serbia. Of the tissue samples collected, spleen was chosen as the tissue to proceed; all samples were tested for Leishmania species and Brucella species by real-time PCR. Of the 216 samples collected, 15 (6.9% were positive for Leishmania species, while four (1.9% were positive for B. canis. The potential epidemiologic role of the golden jackal in carrying and dispersing zoonotic diseases in Serbia should be taken under consideration when applying surveillance monitoring schemes.

  4. Parasite species of the endangered Iberian wolf (Canis lupus signatus) and a sympatric widespread carnivore.

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    Figueiredo, Ana; Oliveira, Lucia; Madeira de Carvalho, Luís; Fonseca, Carlos; Torres, Rita Tinoco

    2016-08-01

    Parasites have a profound impact on wildlife population dynamics. However, until some years ago, studies on the occurrence and prevalence of wildlife parasites were neglected comparatively with the studies on humans and domestic animals. In this study, we determined the parasite prevalence of two sympatric wild canids: the endangered Iberian wolf (Canis lupus signatus) and the widespread red fox (Vulpes vulpes), in central Portugal. From November 2014 to July 2015, fresh fecal samples from both species were collected monthly in several transects distributed throughout the study area. All samples were submitted to several coprological techniques. In total, 6 helminth parasites (Crenosoma vulpis, Angiostrongylus vasorum, Toxocara canis, Trichuris vulpis, Ancylostomatidae, Toxascaris leonina), and a protozoa (Balantidium coli) were identified based on size and morphology. The red fox was infected by seven different parasites while the Iberian wolf was infected by four. All parasites present in wolf were also present in the red fox. C. vulpis had the higher prevalence in red fox, while Ancylostomatidae were the most prevalent parasites in wolf. To our knowledge, this is the first study in this isolated subpopulation of the Iberian wolf. Our results show that both carnivores carry parasites that are of concern as they are pathogenic to humans and other wild and domestic animals. We suggest that surveillance programs must also include monitoring protocols of wildlife; particularly endangered species.

  5. Parasite species of the endangered Iberian wolf (Canis lupus signatus and a sympatric widespread carnivore

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    Ana Figueiredo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Parasites have a profound impact on wildlife population dynamics. However, until some years ago, studies on the occurrence and prevalence of wildlife parasites were neglected comparatively with the studies on humans and domestic animals. In this study, we determined the parasite prevalence of two sympatric wild canids: the endangered Iberian wolf (Canis lupus signatus and the widespread red fox (Vulpes vulpes, in central Portugal. From November 2014 to July 2015, fresh fecal samples from both species were collected monthly in several transects distributed throughout the study area. All samples were submitted to several coprological techniques. In total, 6 helminth parasites (Crenosoma vulpis, Angiostrongylus vasorum, Toxocara canis, Trichuris vulpis, Ancylostomatidae, Toxascaris leonina, and a protozoa (Balantidium coli were identified based on size and morphology. The red fox was infected by seven different parasites while the Iberian wolf was infected by four. All parasites present in wolf were also present in the red fox. C. vulpis had the higher prevalence in red fox, while Ancylostomatidae were the most prevalent parasites in wolf. To our knowledge, this is the first study in this isolated subpopulation of the Iberian wolf. Our results show that both carnivores carry parasites that are of concern as they are pathogenic to humans and other wild and domestic animals. We suggest that surveillance programs must also include monitoring protocols of wildlife; particularly endangered species.

  6. RAD sequencing and genomic simulations resolve hybrid origins within North American Canis

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    Rutledge, L. Y.; Devillard, S.; Boone, J. Q.; Hohenlohe, P. A.; White, B. N.

    2015-01-01

    Top predators are disappearing worldwide, significantly changing ecosystems that depend on top-down regulation. Conflict with humans remains the primary roadblock for large carnivore conservation, but for the eastern wolf (Canis lycaon), disagreement over its evolutionary origins presents a significant barrier to conservation in Canada and has impeded protection for grey wolves (Canis lupus) in the USA. Here, we use 127 235 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified from restriction-site associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) of wolves and coyotes, in combination with genomic simulations, to test hypotheses of hybrid origins of Canis types in eastern North America. A principal components analysis revealed no evidence to support eastern wolves, or any other Canis type, as the product of grey wolf × western coyote hybridization. In contrast, simulations that included eastern wolves as a distinct taxon clarified the hybrid origins of Great Lakes-boreal wolves and eastern coyotes. Our results support the eastern wolf as a distinct genomic cluster in North America and help resolve hybrid origins of Great Lakes wolves and eastern coyotes. The data provide timely information that will shed new light on the debate over wolf conservation in eastern North America. PMID:26156129

  7. Comparative NMR studies of diffusional water permeability of red blood cells from different species: XVI Dingo (Canis familiaris dingo) and dog (Canis familiaris).

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    Benga, Gheorghe; Chapman, Bogdan E; Matei, Horea; Cox, Guy C; Romeo, Tony; Mironescu, Eugen; Kuchel, Philip W

    2010-03-08

    As part of a programme of comparative measurements of Pd (diffusional water permeability) the RBCs (red blood cells) from dingo (Canis familiaris dingo) and greyhound dog (Canis familiaris) were studied. The morphologies of the dingo and greyhound RBCs [examined by light and SEM (scanning electron microscopy)] were found to be very similar, with regard to aspect ratio and size; the mean diameters were estimated to be the same (approximately 7.2 microm) for both dingo and greyhound RBCs. The water diffusional permeability was monitored by using an Mn2+-doping 1H NMR technique at 400 MHz. The Pd (cm/s) values of dingo and greyhound RBCs were similar: 6.5 x 10(-3) at 25 degrees C, 7.5 x 10(-3) at 30 degrees C, 10 x 10(-3) at 37 degrees C and 11.5 x 10(-3) at 42 degrees C. The inhibitory effect of a mercury-containing SH (sulfhydryl)-modifying reagent PCMBS (p-chloromercuribenzene sulfonate) was investigated. The maximal inhibition of dingo and greyhound RBCs was reached in 15-30 min at 37 degrees C with 2 mmol/l PCMBS. The values of maximal inhibition were in the range 72-74% when measured at 25 degrees C and 30 degrees C, and approximately 66% at 37 degrees C. The lowest value of Pd (corresponding to the basal permeability to water) was approximately 2-3 x 10(-3) cm/s in the temperature range 25-37 degrees C. The Ea,d (activation energy of water diffusion) was 25 kJ/mol for dingo RBC and 23 kJ/mol for greyhound RBCs. After incubation with PCMBS, the values of Ea,d increased, reaching 46-48 kJ/mol in the condition of maximal inhibition of water exchange. The electrophoretograms of membrane polypeptides of the dingo and greyhound RBCs were compared and seen to be very similar. We postulate that the RBC parameters reported in the present study are characteristic of all canine species and, in particular in the two cases presented here, these parameters have not been changed by the peculiar Australian habitat over the millennia (as in the case of the dingo) or over

  8. Babesia canis canis, Babesia canis vogeli, Babesia canis rossi: differentiation of the three subspecies by a restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis on amplified small subunit ribosomal RNA genes.

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    Carret, C; Walas, F; Carcy, B; Grande, N; Précigout, E; Moubri, K; Schetters, T P; Gorenflot, A

    1999-01-01

    The parasites Babesia canis and Babesia gibsoni (phylum Apicomplexa) are responsible for canine babesiosis throughout the world. Babesia canis was previously described as a group of three biologically different subspecies, namely B. canis canis, B. canis vogeli, and B. canis rossi. We report partial sequences of small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (ssu-rDNA) of each subspecies amplified in vitro with primers derived from a semi-conserved region of the ssu-rDNA genes in other Babesia species. The polymerase chain reaction combined with a restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, using HinfI and TaqI restriction enzymes, confirmed the separation of B. canis into three subspecies. These sequences were compared with previously published sequences of other Babesia species. A phylogenetic approach showed that the three subspecies of B. canis belong to the clade of Babesia species sensu stricto where B. canis canis clusters with B. canis rossi whereas B. canis vogeli might form a monophyletic group with the cluster B. divergens and B. odocoilei. Our results show that the three subspecies of B. canis can readily be differentiated at the molecular level and suggest that they might be considered as true species.

  9. Rafinesque’s names for western American mammals, including the earliest scientific name for the coyote (Canis latrans Say, 1822), based on the apocryphal journal of Charles Le Raye

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    Woodman, Neal

    2015-01-01

    In 1817, the naturalist Constantine S. Rafinesque named nine new species of mammals from the American West, indicating the recently published journal of Charles Le Raye as the primary source for his descriptions. Le Raye was purported to be a French Canadian fur trader who, as a captive of the Sioux, had traveled across broad portions of the Missouri and Yellowstone river drainages a few years before the Lewis and Clark Expedition (1804-1806) traversed much of the same region. Le Raye's journal was relied upon by generations of scholars as a valuable source documenting the native peoples and natural history of the Upper Missouri river in the era just prior to European settlement. Subsequent research, however, has shown that Le Raye never existed, and his purported journal is fraudulent. Despite this, Rafinesque's creation of the names followed conventional and accepted practice at the time, and they are porentially available. Fortunately, much of the Le Raye journal was based on verifiable sources, such as Patrick Gass's published account of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. Identification of the original source materials makes it possible to establish the correct application of Rafinesque's names and to determine their current status. This process reveals that the earliest scientific name for the coyote (Canis latrans Say, 1822) was Canis chlorops Rafinesque, 1817; this name is now a nomen oblitum, however, and is no longer available.

  10. The wolf (Canis lupus) as an indicator species for the sylvatic Trichinella cycle in the Central Balkans.

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    Teodorović, Vlado; Vasilev, Dragan; Ćirović, Duško; Marković, Marija; Ćosić, Nada; Djurić, Spomenka; Djurković-Djaković, Olgica

    2014-10-01

    Wildlife is the most important reservoir of Trichinella spp. worldwide. Although the Balkans are a recognized European endemic region for Trichinella infections, data on wildlife are scarce. To monitor the circulation of these zoonotic parasites in the Central Balkan region, the wolf (Canis lupus) was selected because of its abundance (>2,000 individuals) and because it is at the top of the food chain. A total of 116 carcasses of wolves were collected in Serbia and in the neighboring areas of Macedonia and Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H) between 2006 and 2013. Trichinella spp. larvae were found in 54 (46.5%) wolves. The great majority (90.5%) originated from Serbia, where 52 of the 105 examined animals were Trichinella positive (49.5%; 95% confidence interval  =39.9-59.1). One positive animal each was found in B&H and Macedonia. All larvae were identified as Trichinella britovi. The high prevalence of Trichinella infection in wolves suggests that this carnivore can be a good indicator species for the risk assessment of the sylvatic Trichinella cycle in the Central Balkans.

  11. Characterization of a Toxocara canis species-specific excretory-secretory antigen (TcES-57) and development of a double sandwich ELISA for diagnosis of visceral larva migrans

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    Iddawela, R.D.; R.P.V.J Rajapakse; Perera, N.A.N.D.; Agatsuma, Takeshi

    2007-01-01

    This study describes the isolation of a Toxocara canis species-specific excretory-secretory (ES) antigen and the development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on this antigen. Analysis of the ES antigens of T. canis, Toxocara vitulorum, Ascaris lumbricoides and Necator americanus larval antigen was performed by SDS-PAGE followed by western blotting. A 57 kDa T. canis-specific antibody fraction (TcES-57) was identified by western blotting and labelling with anti-Toxocara an...

  12. In vitro efficacy of shampoos containing miconazole, ketoconazole, climbazole or accelerated hydrogen peroxide against Microsporum canis and Trichophyton species.

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    Moriello, Karen A

    2017-04-01

    Objectives The objective was to evaluate the antifungal efficacy of shampoo formulations of ketoconazole, miconazole or climbazole and accelerated hydrogen peroxide wash/rinse against Microsporum canis and Trichophyton species spores. Methods Lime sulfur (1:16)-treated control, enilconazole (1:100)-treated control, accelerated hydrogen peroxide (AHP 7%) 1:20 and a 1:10 dilution of shampoo formulations of miconazole 2%, miconazole 2%/chlorhexidine gluconate 2-2.3%, ketoconazole 1%/chlorhexidine 2%, climbazole 0.5%/chlorhexidine 3% and sterile water-untreated control were tested in three experiments. In the first, a suspension of infective spores and hair/scale fragments was incubated with a 1:10, 1:5 and 1:1 dilution of spores to test solutions for 10 mins. In the second, toothbrushes containing infected cat hair in the bristles were soaked and agitated in test solutions for 10 mins, rinsed, dried and then fungal cultured (n = 12×). In the third, a 3 min contact time combined with an AHP rinse was tested (n = 10×). Good efficacy was defined as no growth. Results Water controls grew >300 colony-forming units/plate and all toothbrushes were culture-positive prior to testing. For the suspension tests, all test products showed good efficacy. Miconazole 2%, ketoconazole 1% and AHP showed good efficacy after a 10 min contact time. Good efficacy was achieved with a shorter contact time (3 mins) only if combined with an AHP rinse. Conclusions and relevance Lime sulfur and enilconazole continued to show good efficacy. In countries or situations where these products cannot be used, shampoos containing ketoconazole, miconazole or climbazole are alternative haircoat disinfectants, with a 10 min contact time or 3 mins if combined with an AHP rinse.

  13. Species longevity in North American fossil mammals.

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    Prothero, Donald R

    2014-08-01

    Species longevity in the fossil record is related to many paleoecological variables and is important to macroevolutionary studies, yet there are very few reliable data on average species durations in Cenozoic fossil mammals. Many of the online databases (such as the Paleobiology Database) use only genera of North American Cenozoic mammals and there are severe problems because key groups (e.g. camels, oreodonts, pronghorns and proboscideans) have no reliable updated taxonomy, with many invalid genera and species and/or many undescribed genera and species. Most of the published datasets yield species duration estimates of approximately 2.3-4.3 Myr for larger mammals, with small mammals tending to have shorter species durations. My own compilation of all the valid species durations in families with updated taxonomy (39 families, containing 431 genera and 998 species, averaging 2.3 species per genus) yields a mean duration of 3.21 Myr for larger mammals. This breaks down to 4.10-4.39 Myr for artiodactyls, 3.14-3.31 Myr for perissodactyls and 2.63-2.95 Myr for carnivorous mammals (carnivorans plus creodonts). These averages are based on a much larger, more robust dataset than most previous estimates, so they should be more reliable for any studies that need species longevity to be accurately estimated. © 2013 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  14. Antimicrobial effects of aqueous plant extracts on the fungi Microsporum canis and Trichophyton rubrum and on three bacterial species.

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    Maoz, M; Neeman, I

    1998-01-01

    Aqueous extracts of 10 plants were tested for their ability to inhibit Trichophyton rubrum and Microsporum canis, the aetiological agents of dermal fungal infections in humans. These extracts were also evaluated for their activity against some bacteria. Aqueous extracts from the leaves of Inula viscosa produced detectable antifungal activity against these dermatophytes.

  15. Ctenocephalides felis felis vs. Ctenocephalides canis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae: some issues in correctly identify these species Ctenocephalides felis felis vs. Ctenocephalides canis: (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae: algumas questões para identificar corretamente estas espécies

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    Pedro Marcos Linardi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Ctenocephalides felis felis is one of the most important ectoparasites of dogs and cats throughout the world, because of its geographical distribution, dual parasitological action as an infesting agent and a vector of diseases, the economic losses and the acquired resistance against common insecticides. In Brazil, it surpasses Ctenocephalides canis in distribution, number of host species infested, prevalence and epidemiological importance. However, in some studies the species have been misidentified on the basis of their morphological characters included in taxonomic keys. The morphological variations of chaetotaxy, especially those on the dorsal margin of the hind tibia and lateral metanotal area (LMA, found in certain specimens, have sometimes been erroneously treated as hybrids, in spite of the nonexistence of the two species of Ctenocephalides in the same municipality or region. This review focuses on the characteristics used for interspecific diagnosis and intraspecific variations found between the species. Data on distribution, hosts, prevalence and parasitological action are also presented as an auxiliary means for recognizing the species.Ctenocephalides felis felis é um dos mais importantes ectoparasitos de cães e gatos no mundo inteiro, em virtude de sua distribuição geográfica, dupla ação parasitológica como agente infestante e vetor de doenças, perdas econômicas e resistência adquirida contra inseticidas comuns. No Brasil, ela sobrepuja Ctenocephalides canis em distribuição, número de espécies de hospedeiros infestadas, prevalência e importância epidemiológica. Todavia, em alguns estudos, as espécies têm sido incorretamente identificadas pelos caracteres morfológicos incluídos em chaves taxonômicas. As variações morfológicas de quetotaxia, especialmente aquelas da margem dorsal da tibia posterior e área metanotal lateral (LMA encontradas em certos exemplares, algumas vezes têm sido erroneamente consideradas

  16. The prevalence of Anaplasma platys and a potential novel Anaplasma species exceed that of Ehrlichia canis in asymptomatic dogs and Rhipicephalus sanguineus in Taiwan

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    YUASA, Yumi; TSAI, Yi-Lun; CHANG, Chao-Chin; HSU, Tien-Huan; CHOU, Chi-Chung

    2017-01-01

    Canine anaplasmosis is regarded as an infection by Anaplasma platys rather than zoonotic Anaplasma phagocytophilum in subtropical areas based on the assumption that the common dog tick species is Rhipicephalus sanguineus, which transmits E. canis and presumably A. platys. We investigated asymptomatic dogs and dog ticks from 16 communities in Nantou County, Taiwan to identify common dog tick species and to determine the prevalence of Anaplasma and Ehrlichia spp. Of total 175 canine blood samples and 315 ticks, including 306 R. sanguineus and 9 Haemaphysalis hystricis, 15 dogs and 3 R. sanguineus ticks were positive for E. canis, while 47 dogs and 71 R. sanguineus ticks were positive for A. platys, via nested PCR for 16S rDNA and DNA sequencing of selected positive amplicons. However, among the dogs and ticks that were positive to A. platys 16S rDNA, only 20 dogs and 11 ticks were positive to nested PCR for A. platys groEL gene. These results revealed the importance of searching for novel Anaplasma spp. closely related to A. platys in dogs and ticks. Seropositivity to a commercial immunochromatographic test SNAP 4Dx Anaplasma sp. was not significantly associated with PCR positivity for A. platys but with infestation by ticks carrying A. platys (P<0.05). Accordingly, R. sanguineus may be involved in transmission of A. platys but may not act as a reservoir of E. canis and PCR results for 16S rDNA could be a problematic diagnostic index for A. platys infection. PMID:28781347

  17. A case of wound dual infection with Pasteurella dagmatis and Pasteurella Canis resulting from a dog bite - limitations of Vitek-2 system in exact identification of Pasteurella species

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    2011-01-01

    Background Pasteurella species, widely known as indigenous orgganisms in the oral and gastrointestinal floras of many wild and domestic animals, are important pathogens in both animals and humans. Human infections due to Pasteurella species are in most cases associated with infected injuries following animal bites. We encountered a rare case of dual infections caused by different two Pasteurella species occurred in a previously healthy 25-year-old female sustaining injury by a dog-bite. Methodology Exudates from the open wound of her dog-bite site, together with the saliva of the dog were submitted for bacteriological examination. Predominantly appearing grayish-white smooth colonies with almost the same colonial properties but slightly different glistening grown on chocolate and sheep blood agar plates were characterized morphologically by Gram's stain, biochemically by automated instrument using Vitek 2 system using GN cards together with commercially available kit system, ID-Test HN-20 rapid panels, and genetically by sequencing the 16S rRNA genes of the organism using a Taq DyeDeoxy Terminator Cycle Sequencing and a model 3100 DNA sequencer instrument. Results The causative isolates from the dog-bite site were finally identified as P. canis and P. dagmatis from the findings of the morphological, cultural, and biochemical properties together with the comparative sequences of the 16S rRNA genes. Both the isolates were highly susceptible to many antibiotics and the patient was successfully treated with the administration of so-called the first generation cephalosporin, cefazolin followed by so-called the third generation cephalosporin, cefcapene pivoxil. The isolate from the dog was subsequently identified as P. canis, the same species as the isolate from the patient. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this was the second report of a dual infection with Pasteurella species consisting of P. dagmatis and P. canis resulting from a dog-bite, followed by the

  18. A case of wound dual infection with Pasteurella dagmatis and Pasteurella canis resulting from a dog bite -- limitations of Vitek-2 system in exact identification of Pasteurella species.

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    Akahane, T; Nagata, M; Matsumoto, T; Murayama, T; Isaka, A; Kameda, T; Fujita, M; Oana, K; Kawakami, Y

    2011-12-02

    Pasteurella species, widely known as indigenous organisms in the oral and gastrointestinal floras of many wild and domestic animals, are important pathogens in both animals and humans. Human infections due to Pasteurella species are in most cases associated with infected injuries following animal bites. We encountered a rare case of dual infections caused by different two Pasteurella species occurred in a previously healthy 25-year-old female sustaining injury by a dog-bite. Exudates from the open wound of her dog-bite site, together with the saliva of the dog were submitted for bacteriological examination. Predominantly appearing grayish-white smooth colonies with almost the same colonial properties but slightly different glistening grown on chocolate and sheep blood agar plates were characterized morphologically by Gram's stain, biochemically by automated instrument using Vitek 2 system using GN cards together with commercially available kit system, ID-Test HN-20 rapid panels, and genetically by sequencing the 16S rRNA genes of the organism using a Taq DyeDeoxy Terminator Cycle Sequencing and a model 3100 DNA sequencer instrument. The causative isolates from the dog-bite site were finally identified as P. canis and P. dagmatis from the findings of the morphological, cultural, and biochemical properties together with the comparative sequences of the 16S rRNA genes. Both the isolates were highly susceptible to many antibiotics and the patient was successfully treated with the administration of so-called the first generation cephalosporin, cefazolin followed by so-called the third generation cephalosporin, cefcapene pivoxil. The isolate from the dog was subsequently identified as P. canis, the same species as the isolate from the patient. To the best of our knowledge, this was the second report of a dual infection with Pasteurella species consisting of P. dagmatis and P. canis resulting from a dog-bite, followed by the first report of dual infections due to P

  19. A case of wound dual infection with Pasteurella dagmatis and Pasteurella Canis resulting from a dog bite - limitations of Vitek-2 system in exact identification of Pasteurella species

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    Akahane T

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pasteurella species, widely known as indigenous orgganisms in the oral and gastrointestinal floras of many wild and domestic animals, are important pathogens in both animals and humans. Human infections due to Pasteurella species are in most cases associated with infected injuries following animal bites. We encountered a rare case of dual infections caused by different two Pasteurella species occurred in a previously healthy 25-year-old female sustaining injury by a dog-bite. Methodology Exudates from the open wound of her dog-bite site, together with the saliva of the dog were submitted for bacteriological examination. Predominantly appearing grayish-white smooth colonies with almost the same colonial properties but slightly different glistening grown on chocolate and sheep blood agar plates were characterized morphologically by Gram's stain, biochemically by automated instrument using Vitek 2 system using GN cards together with commercially available kit system, ID-Test HN-20 rapid panels, and genetically by sequencing the 16S rRNA genes of the organism using a Taq DyeDeoxy Terminator Cycle Sequencing and a model 3100 DNA sequencer instrument. Results The causative isolates from the dog-bite site were finally identified as P. canis and P. dagmatis from the findings of the morphological, cultural, and biochemical properties together with the comparative sequences of the 16S rRNA genes. Both the isolates were highly susceptible to many antibiotics and the patient was successfully treated with the administration of so-called the first generation cephalosporin, cefazolin followed by so-called the third generation cephalosporin, cefcapene pivoxil. The isolate from the dog was subsequently identified as P. canis, the same species as the isolate from the patient. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this was the second report of a dual infection with Pasteurella species consisting of P. dagmatis and P. canis resulting from a

  20. Fatal Babesia canis canis infection in a splenectomized Estonian dog.

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    Tiškina, Valentina; Capligina, Valentina; Must, Külli; Berzina, Inese; Ranka, Renate; Jokelainen, Pikka

    2016-01-25

    A previously splenectomized dog from Estonia was presented with a sudden lack of appetite and discoloration of the urine. Despite supportive therapy, its condition deteriorated dramatically during 1 day. Severe thrombocytopenia and high numbers of protozoan hemoparasites were evident in blood smears, and the hematocrit dropped from 46 to 33 %. The dog was euthanized before specific antibabesial treatment was initiated. Blood samples from the dog and from two other dogs in the same household tested positive for Babesia using molecular methods, and the sequences of partial 18S rRNA gene confirmed the causative species as Babesia canis canis. The risk of severe, rapidly progressing babesiosis in splenectomized dogs merits awareness.

  1. Occurrence of Coxiella burnetii, Ehrlichia canis, Rickettsia species and Anaplasma phagocytophilum-like bacterium in ticks collected from dogs and cats in South Africa

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    Khethiwe Mtshali

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ticks are major vectors of arthropod-borne infections and transmit a wide variety of zoonotic pathogens. This study was conducted mainly to determine the occurrence of canine tick-borne bacterial and rickettsial pathogens especially those with zoonotic potential. We examined 276 Rhipicephalus sanguineus, 38 Haemaphysalis elliptica and 4 Amblyomma hebraeum ticks from 90 dogs and 4 cats from the Free State, KwaZulu-Natal, North West and Mpumalanga provinces. DNA of Coxiella burnetii (41%, Ehrlichia or Anaplasma (18%, Rickettsia spp. (37%, Anaplasma phagocytophilum-like bacterium (18% and Ehrlichia canis (19% was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR from a total of 147 pooled DNA samples. All samples were negative for the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi DNA. Ehrlichia canis was detected in samples from all the provinces except the North West; A. phagocytophilum was absent in KwaZulu-Natal samples, whereas Rickettsia species and C. burnetii were detected in all sampled provinces. The PCRpositive samples were confirmed by direct sequencing of the product. Data from this study calls for a joint effort by both veterinary and medical sectors to conduct epidemiological studies of the zoonotic pathogens in both animals and humans.

  2. Bioluminescence patterns among North American Armillaria species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihail, Jeanne D

    2015-06-01

    Bioluminescence is widely recognized among white-spored species of Basidiomycota. Most reports of fungal bioluminescence are based upon visual light perception. When instruments such as photomultipliers have been used to measure fungal luminescence, more taxa have been discovered to produce light, albeit at a range of magnitudes. The present studies were undertaken to determine the prevalence of bioluminescence among North American Armillaria species. Consistent, constitutive bioluminescence was detected for the first time for mycelia of Armillaria calvescens, Armillaria cepistipes, Armillaria gemina, Armillaria nabsnona, and Armillaria sinapina and confirmed for mycelia of Armillaria gallica, Armillaria mellea, Armillaria ostoyae, and Armillaria tabescens. Emission spectra of mycelia representing all species had maximum intensity in the range 515-525 nm confirming that emitted light was the result of bioluminescence rather than chemiluminescence. Time series analysis of 1000 consecutive luminescence measurements revealed a highly significant departure from random variation. Mycelial luminescence of eight species exhibited significant, stable shifts in magnitude in response to a series of mechanical disturbance treatments, providing one mechanism for generating observed luminescence variation.

  3. New species of Ehrlichia isolated from Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus shows an ortholog of the E. canis major immunogenic glycoprotein gp36 with a new sequence of tandem repeats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz Alejandro Cabezas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ehrlichia species are the etiological agents of emerging and life-threatening tick-borne human zoonoses that inflict serious and fatal infections in companion animals and livestock. The aim of this paper was to phylogeneticaly characterise a new species of Ehrlichia isolated from Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus from Minas Gerais, Brazil. Methods The agent was isolated from the hemolymph of Rhipicephalus (B. microplus engorged females that had been collected from naturally infested cattle in a farm in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. This agent was then established and cultured in IDE8 tick cells. The molecular and phylogenetic analysis was based on 16S rRNA, groEL, dsb, gltA and gp36 genes. We used the maximum likelihood method to construct the phylogenetic trees. Results The phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA, groEL, dsb and gltA showed that the Ehrlichia spp isolated in this study falls in a clade separated from any previously reported Ehrlichia spp. The molecular analysis of the ortholog of gp36, the major immunoreactive glycoproteins in E. canis and ortholog of the E. chaffeensis gp47, showed a unique tandem repeat of 9 amino acids (VPAASGDAQ when compared with those reported for E. canis, E. chaffeensis and the related mucin-like protein in E. ruminantium. Conclusions Based on the molecular and phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA, groEL, dsb and gltA genes we concluded that this tick-derived microorganism isolated in Brazil is a new species, named E. mineirensis (UFMG-EV, with predicted novel antigenic properties in the gp36 ortholog glycoprotein. Further studies on this new Ehrlichia spp should address questions about its transmissibility by ticks and its pathogenicity for mammalian hosts.

  4. Comparative Evaluation of the Vector Competence of Four South American Populations of the Rhipicephalus sanguineus Group for the Bacterium Ehrlichia canis, the Agent of Canine Monocytic Ehrlichiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes-Filho, Jonas; Krawczak, Felipe S; Costa, Francisco B; Soares, João Fábio; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the vector competence of four populations of Rhipicephalus sanguineus group ticks for the bacterium Ehrlichia canis, the agent of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME). Ticks (larvae and nymphs) from the four populations-one from São Paulo state, southeastern Brazil (BSP), one from Rio Grande do Sul state, southern Brazil (BRS), one from Argentina (ARG), and one from Uruguay (URU)-were exposed to E. canis infection by feeding on dogs that were experimentally infected with E. canis. Engorged ticks (larvae and nymphs) were allowed to molt to nymphs and adults, respectively, which were tested by molecular analysis (E. canis-specific PCR assay) and used to infest naïve dogs. Through infestation of adult ticks on naïve dogs, after nymphal acquisition feeding on E. canis-infected dogs, only the BSP population was shown to be competent vectors of E. canis, i.e., only the dogs infested with BSP adult ticks developed clinical illness, seroconverted to E. canis, and yielded E. canis DNA by PCR. This result, demonstrated by two independent replications, is congruent with epidemiological data, since BSP ticks were derived from São Paulo state, Brazil, where CME is highly endemic. On the other hand, BRS, ARG, and URU ticks were derived from a geographical region (South America southern cone) where CME has never been properly documented. Molecular analysis of unfed adults at 30 days post molting support these transmission results, since none of the BRS, ARG, and URU ticks were PCR positive, whereas 1% of the BSP nymphs and 31.8% of the BSP adults contained E. canis DNA. We conclude that the absence or scarcity of cases of CME due to E. canis in the South America southern cone is a result of vector incompetence of the R. sanguineus group ticks that prevail on dogs in this part of South America.

  5. ECOLOGICAL SUCCESSION PATTERN OF THE INSECT SPECIES ASSOCIATED WITH THE CARCASS OF THE FREE-RANGING URBAN DOG, Canis domesticus (L.: A TOOL FOR FORENSIC ENTOMOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FARZANA PERVEEN

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The free-ranging urban dog, Canis domesticus (L. carcass decomposition in tropical region, i.e., Takht-i-Bahi, Mardan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan during 15-25 May 2011 was characterized by 5 stages, i.e., fresh (12 h, bloated (13-48 h, active (49-96 h, advanced (97-144 h and dry (145-265 h and the ecological succession pattern of insect species collected were identified into 11 species of 3 orders. The insect species associated with the carcass of C. domesticus found that the blow flies, Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart and house fly, Musca domestica (Linnaeus, 1758 were found in the fresh, bloat and active decay stages. However, the blow fly, C. megacephala (Fabricius; flesh fly, Parasarcophaga ruficornis (Meigen and the hornet wasp, Vespa orientalis (Linnaeus were existed in the fresh and bloat stages. Moreover, cheese fly, Piophila casei (Linnaeus was found bloat and active decay stages. Further, the hide beetle, Dermestes maculates (Geer, clown beetle, Hister sp. (Gullenhal; ham beetle, Necrobia rufipes (Fabricus and skin beetle, Trox sp. (Harold completed their life cycle in active decay, advance decay and dry stages. Furthermore, the jummper ant, Myrmecia pilosula (Smith was collected from only fresh stage. The specimens of insect species were collected minimum 0.8% of V. orientalis and maximum 21.3% of 2 species, i.e., C. rufifacies and M. domestica. The temperature, humidity and rainfalls were found affected insect larvae, pupae and adults, and rate of decomposition of C. domesticus. The average temperature, humidity and rainfalls were 35.34±1.54, 38.8% and 3.8 mm, respectively, of 11 experimental days. This research will be helpful for forensic entomologist for a case study of death to investigate of crimes in tropical region of Pakistan.

  6. Molecular detection of Ehrlichia canis in dogs in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazari, Mojgan; Lim, Sue Yee; Watanabe, Mahira; Sharma, Reuben S K; Cheng, Nadzariah A B Y; Watanabe, Malaika

    2013-01-01

    An epidemiological study of Ehrlichia canis infection in dogs in Peninsular Malaysia was carried out using molecular detection techniques. A total of 500 canine blood samples were collected from veterinary clinics and dog shelters. Molecular screening by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed using genus-specific primers followed by PCR using E. canis species-specific primers. Ten out of 500 dogs were positive for E. canis. A phylogenetic analysis of the E. canis Malaysia strain showed that it was grouped tightly with other E. canis strains from different geographic regions. The present study revealed for the first time, the presence of genetically confirmed E. canis with a prevalence rate of 2.0% in naturally infected dogs in Malaysia.

  7. Oligotyping reveals differences between gut-microbiomes of free-ranging sympatric Namibian carnivores (Acinonyx jubatus, Canis mesomelas on a bacterial species-like level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian eMenke

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent gut microbiome studies in model organisms emphasize the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on the variation of the bacterial composition and its impact on the overall health status of the host. Species occurring in the same habitat might share a similar microbiome, especially if they overlap in ecological and behavioral traits. So far, the natural variation in microbiomes of free-ranging wildlife species has not been thoroughly investigated. The few existing studies exploring microbiomes through 16S rRNA gene reads clustered sequencing reads into operational taxonomic units (OTUs based on a similarity threshold (e.g. 97%. This approach, in combination with the low resolution of target databases, generally limits the level of taxonomic assignments to the genus level. However, distinguishing natural variation of microbiomes in healthy individuals from abnormal microbial compositions that affect host health requires knowledge of the normal microbial flora at a high taxonomic resolution. This gap can now be addressed using the recently published oligotyping approach, which can resolve closely related organisms into distinct oligotypes by utilizing subtle nucleotide variation. Here, we used Illumina MiSeq to sequence amplicons generated from the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene to investigate the gut microbiome of two free-ranging sympatric Namibian carnivore species, the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus and the black-backed jackal (Canis mesomelas. Bacterial phyla with proportions > 0.2 % were identical for both species and included Firmicutes, Fusobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria. At a finer taxonomic resolution, black-backed jackals exhibited 69 bacterial taxa with proportions ≥ 0.1 %, whereas cheetahs had only 42. Finally, oligotyping revealed that shared bacterial taxa consisted of distinct oligotype profiles. Thus, in contrast to 3 % OTUs, oligotyping can detect fine-scale taxonomic differences between

  8. Oligotyping reveals differences between gut microbiomes of free-ranging sympatric Namibian carnivores (Acinonyx jubatus, Canis mesomelas) on a bacterial species-like level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menke, Sebastian; Wasimuddin; Meier, Matthias; Melzheimer, Jörg; Mfune, John K E; Heinrich, Sonja; Thalwitzer, Susanne; Wachter, Bettina; Sommer, Simone

    2014-01-01

    Recent gut microbiome studies in model organisms emphasize the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on the variation of the bacterial composition and its impact on the overall health status of the host. Species occurring in the same habitat might share a similar microbiome, especially if they overlap in ecological and behavioral traits. So far, the natural variation in microbiomes of free-ranging wildlife species has not been thoroughly investigated. The few existing studies exploring microbiomes through 16S rRNA gene reads clustered sequencing reads into operational taxonomic units (OTUs) based on a similarity threshold (e.g., 97%). This approach, in combination with the low resolution of target databases, generally limits the level of taxonomic assignments to the genus level. However, distinguishing natural variation of microbiomes in healthy individuals from "abnormal" microbial compositions that affect host health requires knowledge of the "normal" microbial flora at a high taxonomic resolution. This gap can now be addressed using the recently published oligotyping approach, which can resolve closely related organisms into distinct oligotypes by utilizing subtle nucleotide variation. Here, we used Illumina MiSeq to sequence amplicons generated from the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene to investigate the gut microbiome of two free-ranging sympatric Namibian carnivore species, the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) and the black-backed jackal (Canis mesomelas). Bacterial phyla with proportions >0.2% were identical for both species and included Firmicutes, Fusobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria. At a finer taxonomic resolution, black-backed jackals exhibited 69 bacterial taxa with proportions ≥0.1%, whereas cheetahs had only 42. Finally, oligotyping revealed that shared bacterial taxa consisted of distinct oligotype profiles. Thus, in contrast to 3% OTUs, oligotyping can detect fine-scale taxonomic differences between microbiomes.

  9. Molecular assessment of the transplacental transmission of Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Brucella canis and Ehrlichia canis in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taques, Isis Indaiara Gonçalves Granjeiro; Barbosa, Tatiane Rodrigues; Martini, Andresa de Cássia; Pitchenin, Letícia Camara; Braga, Ísis Assis; de Melo, Andréia Lima Tomé; Nakazato, Luciano; Dutra, Valéria; de Aguiar, Daniel Moura

    2016-12-01

    Given the fact that numerous microbial species can be detected in pregnant female dogs, the objective of this study was to assess the transplacental transmission of Brucella canis, Ehrlichia canis, Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii in stillborn puppies. This study involved 41 stillborn puppies, 78.6% of which were positive for T. gondii, 52.4% for N. caninum and 59.5% for B. canis. E. canis was not detected in any of the analyzed puppies. Pregnancy is an important physiological condition for the transmission of infectious agents to puppies and transplacental transmission may be epidemiologically relevant in the spread of these opportunistic agents.

  10. Aquaculture sourcebook: a guide to North American species

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Iversen, E.S; Hale, K.K

    1992-01-01

    ... for successful North American aquacultural ventures. Concise details are given for over a hundred individual species, including not only those raised for human consumption, but also organisms reared for feed, bait, or other purposes...

  11. Endocarditis caused by Streptococcus canis: an emerging zoonosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacave, Guillaume; Coutard, Aymeric; Troché, Gilles; Augusto, Sandrine; Pons, Stéphanie; Zuber, Benjamin; Laurent, Virginie; Amara, Marlène; Couzon, Brigitte; Bédos, Jean-Pierre; Pangon, Béatrice; Grimaldi, David

    2016-02-01

    We report a human case of infective endocarditis caused by Streptococcus canis. Identification was carried out from positive blood culture using mass spectrometry and SodA gene sequencing. S. canis related zoonotic invasive infections may have been previously underdiagnosed due to inadequate identification of group G Streptococcus species.

  12. Two New American Species of Hordeum (Poaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bothmer, Roland Von; Jacobsen, Niels; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke

    1985-01-01

    Two new species of Hordeum are described, viz. the diploid H. erectifolium, native to Argentina, and H. guatemalense, native to Guatemala.......Two new species of Hordeum are described, viz. the diploid H. erectifolium, native to Argentina, and H. guatemalense, native to Guatemala....

  13. A comparison of facial color pattern and gazing behavior in canid species suggests gaze communication in gray wolves (Canis lupus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayoko Ueda

    Full Text Available As facial color pattern around the eyes has been suggested to serve various adaptive functions related to the gaze signal, we compared the patterns among 25 canid species, focusing on the gaze signal, to estimate the function of facial color pattern in these species. The facial color patterns of the studied species could be categorized into the following three types based on contrast indices relating to the gaze signal: A-type (both pupil position in the eye outline and eye position in the face are clear, B-type (only the eye position is clear, and C-type (both the pupil and eye position are unclear. A-type faces with light-colored irises were observed in most studied species of the wolf-like clade and some of the red fox-like clade. A-type faces tended to be observed in species living in family groups all year-round, whereas B-type faces tended to be seen in solo/pair-living species. The duration of gazing behavior during which the facial gaze-signal is displayed to the other individual was longest in gray wolves with typical A-type faces, of intermediate length in fennec foxes with typical B-type faces, and shortest in bush dogs with typical C-type faces. These results suggest that the facial color pattern of canid species is related to their gaze communication and that canids with A-type faces, especially gray wolves, use the gaze signal in conspecific communication.

  14. A comparison of facial color pattern and gazing behavior in canid species suggests gaze communication in gray wolves (Canis lupus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Sayoko; Kumagai, Gaku; Otaki, Yusuke; Yamaguchi, Shinya; Kohshima, Shiro

    2014-01-01

    As facial color pattern around the eyes has been suggested to serve various adaptive functions related to the gaze signal, we compared the patterns among 25 canid species, focusing on the gaze signal, to estimate the function of facial color pattern in these species. The facial color patterns of the studied species could be categorized into the following three types based on contrast indices relating to the gaze signal: A-type (both pupil position in the eye outline and eye position in the face are clear), B-type (only the eye position is clear), and C-type (both the pupil and eye position are unclear). A-type faces with light-colored irises were observed in most studied species of the wolf-like clade and some of the red fox-like clade. A-type faces tended to be observed in species living in family groups all year-round, whereas B-type faces tended to be seen in solo/pair-living species. The duration of gazing behavior during which the facial gaze-signal is displayed to the other individual was longest in gray wolves with typical A-type faces, of intermediate length in fennec foxes with typical B-type faces, and shortest in bush dogs with typical C-type faces. These results suggest that the facial color pattern of canid species is related to their gaze communication and that canids with A-type faces, especially gray wolves, use the gaze signal in conspecific communication.

  15. Helicobacter canis colonization in sheep: a Zoonotic link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swennes, Alton G; Turk, Michelle L; Trowel, Elise M; Cullin, Cassandra; Shen, Zeli; Pang, Jassia; Petersson, Katherine H; Dewhirst, Floyd E; Fox, James G

    2014-02-01

    Helicobacter canis has been associated with hepatobiliary and gastrointestinal disease in dogs, cats, and humans. Infection has not been documented in other species. Sheep feces subjected to microaerobic culture. Isolates were characterized by genus-specific PCR, restriction fragment length polymorphism, biochemical profiling, and 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Helicobacter canis was isolated from sheep feces and confirmed by the above methods. These isolates are distinct from other sheep-origin enterohepatic Helicobacter species previously isolated. This study identifies sheep as H. canis reservoirs potentially important in zoonotic or foodborne transmission. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Gutierrezia mendocina (Asteraceae, Astereae, a new South American species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratto, F.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A taxonomic revision of the South American species of Gutierrezia has revealed a new species from Argentina, characterised by its stems with the base prostrate and rooting, turbinate heads and white ray florets. This species, found in the Department of Tunuyán of Mendoza Province (Argentina, is described and illustrated and a key to differentiate it from allied species is given.En el marco de la revisión taxonómica del género Gutierrezia para Sudamérica fue hallada una nueva especie de Argentina, caracterizada por sus tallos con la porción basal postrada, enraizante en los nudos, capítulos con involucro turbinado y flores liguladas blancas. Se describe e ilustra la especie encontrada en el Departamento de Tunuyán de la Provincia de Mendoza (Argentina, y se incluye una clave para diferenciarla de las especies afines.

  17. Experimentally induced clinical Cystoisospora canis coccidiosis in dogs with prior natural patent Cystoisospora ohioensis-like or C. canis infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houk, Alice E; O'Connor, Thomas; Pena, Hilda F J; Gennari, Solange Maria; Zajac, Anne M; Lindsay, David S

    2013-10-01

    Diarrhea caused by intestinal coccidia (Cystoisospora species) is a common problem in pet dogs and in dogs in animal shelters. Cystoisospora canis has the largest oocysts of the 4 named species of coccidia infecting dogs. The present study examined an isolate of C. canis obtained from a dog from São Paulo, SP, Brazil. Oocysts sporulated within 2 days at room temperature, and 20 sporulated oocysts were measured at 37.6 by 28.6 μm (range 35-42 by 26-31 μm). Most sporulated oocysts contained 2 sporocysts, each with 4 sporozoites, although a few (coccidiosis using sulfadimethoxine was recommended. Dog CRU had a natural C. canis infection and did not develop clinical disease after oral infection with C. canis oocysts. This dog had a prepatent period of 9 days and a patent period of 3 days, corresponding to experimental infection with the new isolate of C. canis. It excreted fewer C. canis oocysts than did the other dogs. The 4 dogs with natural C. ohioensis-like infection all developed clinical disease, and 1 required treatment. The prepatent period was 9-10 days, and the patent period was 10-11 days in these dogs. All 6 dogs not naturally infected with Cystoisospora developed clinical disease, and 2 required treatment. The prepatent period was 9-10 days, and the patent period was 8-12 days. The present study confirms that C. canis is a primary pathogen for young dogs. It demonstrates that prior infection with C. canis but not C. ohioensis-like coccidia confers some resistance to clinical disases and a decrease in oocyst production in dogs challenged with C. canis.

  18. Molecular detection of Ehrlichia canis, Hepatozoon canis and Babesia canis vogeli in stray dogs in Mahasarakham province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piratae, Supawadee; Pimpjong, Kiattisak; Vaisusuk, Kotchaphon; Chatan, Wasupon

    2015-01-01

    Canine tick borne diseases showing distribution worldwide have caused morbidity and mortality in dogs. This study observed the mainly tick borne pathogens described for dogs in Thailand, Ehrlichia canis, Hepatozoon canis and Babesia canis vogeli. From May to July 2014, blood samples were collected from 79 stray dogs from 7 districts of Mahasarakham province to molecular surveyed for 16s rRNA gene of E. canis and 18s rRNA gene of H. canis and B. canis vogeli. Twenty eight (35.44%) of stray dogs showed the infection with tick borne pathogens. The prevalence of E. canis infection was the highest with 21.5% (17/79). DNA of H. canis and B. canis vogeli were detected at the prevalence of 10.1% (8/79) and 6.3% (5/79), respectively. Co-infection between E. canis and B. canis vogeli were identified in 2 (2.5%) dogs. The results indicated that a wide range of tick borne pathogens are circulation in the canine population in Mahasarakham province. This study is the first report on prevalence of E. canis, H. canis and B. canis vogeli in stray dogs in Mahasarakham, a province in northern part of Thailand. This data providing is important to understand the prevalence of E. canis, H. canis and B. canis vogeli infection in stray dogs in this region, which will assist in the management of these blood parasite.

  19. Molecular and serological detection of Ehrlichia canis and Babesia vogeli in dogs in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Hernández, G; André, M R; Faria, J L M; Munhoz, T D; Hernandez-Rodriguez, M; Machado, R Z; Tinucci-Costa, M

    2012-05-25

    Ehrlichiosis and babesiosis are tick-borne diseases, caused mainly by Ehrlichia canis and Babesia canis, respectively, with a worldwide occurrence in dogs, whose main vector is the brown-dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus. The present work aimed to detect the presence of E. canis and Babesia sp. in 91 dog blood samples in Colombia, by molecular and serological techniques. We also performed sequence alignment to indicate the identity of the parasite species infecting these animals. The present work shows the first molecular detection of E. canis and B. vogeli in dogs from Colombia. Immunoglobulin-G (IgG) antibodies to E. canis and Babesia vogeli were found in 75 (82.4%) and 47 (51.6%) sampled dogs, respectively. Thirty-seven (40.6%) and 5 (5.5%) dogs were positive in PCR for E. canis and Babesia sp., respectively. After sequencing, amplicons showed 99% of identity with isolates of E. canis and B. vogeli. The phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA-Anaplasmataceae sequences and 18S rRNA-piroplasmid sequences supported the identity of the found E. canis and B. vogeli DNAs, respectively. The present work shows the first molecular detection of E. canis and B. vogeli in dogs in Colombia.

  20. Quantity discrimination in wolves (Canis lupus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewelina eUtrata

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Quantity discrimination has been studied extensively in different non-human animal species. In the current study, we tested eleven hand-raised wolves (Canis lupus in a two-way choice task. We placed a number of food items (one to four sequentially into two opaque cans and asked the wolves to choose the larger amount. Moreover, we conducted two additional control conditions to rule out non-numerical properties of the presentation that the animals might have used to make the correct choice. Our results showed that wolves are able to make quantitative judgments at the group, but also at the individual level even when alternative strategies such as paying attention to the surface area or time and total amount are ruled out. In contrast to previous canine studies on dogs (Canis familiaris and coyotes (Canis latrans, our wolves’ performance did not improve with decreasing ratio, referred to as Weber’s law. However, further studies using larger quantities than we used in the current setup are still needed to determine whether and when wolves’ quantity discrimination conforms to Weber’s law.

  1. Risk evaluation of the Arctic environmental POP exposure based on critical body residue and critical daily dose using captive Greenland sledge dogs (Canis familiaris) as surrogate species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonne, Christian; Gustavson, Kim; Eulaers, Igor; Desforges, Jean-Pierre; Letcher, Robert J; Rigét, Frank F; Styrishave, Bjarne; Dietz, Rune

    2016-03-01

    The risk from POP (persistent organic pollutant) exposure and subsequent reproductive, immunotoxic and liver histopathological effects was evaluated in a classical parallel trial on Greenland sledge dogs (Canis familiaris) fed contaminated minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) blubber. First the critical body residues (CBRs) were estimated using the physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for seven POP compounds based on rat critical daily doses (CDDs). These were then compared with the actual daily oral POP doses (DD) and body residues (BR) in the sledge dogs by calculating risk quotients (RQDD: DD/CDD; RQBR: BR/CBR; ≥1 indicates risk). The results showed that risk quotients for reproductive, immunotoxic and liver histopathological effects were significantly lowest in the control group (pPOP exposure negatively impacts steroid hormones, various immune parameters, as well as liver histopathology in sledge dogs. It is also clear that RQBR is the best reflector of health effects from POP exposure and that it is especially accurate in predicting immune and reproductive effects. We recommend that PBPK modelled (CBR) and RQBR should be used in the assessment of POP exposure and health effects in Arctic top predators. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Autochthonous canine babesiosis caused by Babesia canis canis in Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzina, Inese; Capligina, Valentina; Baumanis, Viesturs; Ranka, Renate; Cirule, Dina; Matise, Ilze

    2013-09-23

    This is the first report of confirmed canine babesiosis in Latvia supporting the observed geographical expansion of this disease. Between 2009 and 2011 three dogs which have not traveled outside of Latvia were diagnosed with babesiosis. Hematological analysis and serological tests for granulocytic anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis and borreliosis were negative (Idexx SNAP 4Dx test). Peripheral blood erythrocytes of the three dogs contained large Babesia that were identified as Babesia canis canis by PCR. Sequences of partial 18S rRNA gene were 98-100% similar to the sequences of B. canis canis isolated from dogs in other European countries. We conclude that these are the first autochthonous canine babesiosis cases reported from Latvia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. New localities of Dermacentor reticulatus tick (vector of Babesia canis canis) in central and eastern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zygner, W; Górski, P; Wedrychowicz, H

    2009-01-01

    Dermacentor reticulatus tick is a vector and final host of Babesia canis canis, protozoan parasite of the dog. In Poland and other European countries, endemic regions for canine babesiosis caused by B. canis canis are the same as endemic regions for D. reticulatus. In many of these regions, canine babesiosis is the most prevalent tick-borne disease in dogs. In Europe, increasing range of geographical distribution of D. reticulatus is observed. A consequence of this fact may be increasing range of canine babesiosis. D. reticulatus is one of the most common ticks occurring in Poland, however, it occurs mainly in the north-eastern and eastern part of the country, and there are many areas in which this species has not been reported yet. In this study, D. reticulatus ticks were collected from March 2007 to November 2008 in central and eastern Mazowsze region, and in some localities in Białystok and Lublin regions. Twenty four new sites for D. reticulatus, mainly in central and eastern regions of Mazowsze Province have been found. 18 localities are placed on banks of the fishing ponds or in river valleys and 6 are forests borders or barren lands and meadows, not situated near rivers or other water reservoirs. All tick-rich sites are localized in river valleys or on pond banks. However, statistical analysis showed that there were no differences in the density of ticks between groups of areas. These results show that the occurrence of D. reticulatus in newly detected areas has became endemic. Probably woodless, unregulated river valleys are important migration tracts for this species of tick and enable them to penetrate new territories. It seems likely that geographical range of D. reticulatus is widening from east to west of Poland what can induce an increase in the number of canine babesiosis cases in areas non-endemic for B. canis canis and its vector. Climate change may be also partially responsible for earlier beginning of tick's seasonal activity as well as for

  4. Genetic differentiation and species cohesion in two widespread Central American Begonia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twyford, A D; Kidner, C A; Ennos, R A

    2014-04-01

    Begonia is one of the ten largest plant genera, with over 1500 species. This high species richness may in part be explained by weak species cohesion, which has allowed speciation by divergence in allopatry. In this study, we investigate species cohesion in the widespread Central American Begonia heracleifolia and Begonia nelumbiifolia, by genotyping populations at microsatellite loci. We then test for post-zygotic reproductive barriers using experimental crosses, and assess whether sterility barriers are related to intraspecific changes in genome size, indicating major genome restructuring between isolated populations. Strong population substructure was found for B. heracleifolia (FST=0.364, F'ST=0.506) and B. nelumbiifolia (FST=0.277, F'ST=0.439), and Bayesian admixture analysis supports the division of most populations into discrete genetic clusters. Moderate levels of inferred selfing (B. heracleifolia s=0.40, B. nelumbiifolia s=0.62) and dispersal limitation are likely to have contributed to significant genetic differentiation (B. heracleifolia Jost's D=0.274; B. nelumbiifolia D=0.294). Interpopulation crosses involving a divergent B. heracleifolia population with a genome size ∼10% larger than the species mean had a ∼20% reduction in pollen viability compared with other outcrosses, supporting reproductive isolation being polymorphic within the species. The population genetic data suggest that Begonia populations are only weakly connected by gene flow, allowing reproductive barriers to accumulate between the most isolated populations. This supports allopatric divergence in situ being the precursor of speciation in Begonia, and may also be a common speciation mechanism in other tropical herbaceous plant groups.

  5. Characterization of the functional and anatomical differences in the atrial and ventricular myocardium from three species of elasmobranch fishes: smooth dogfish (Mustelus canis), sandbar shark (Carcharhinus plumbeus), and clearnose skate (Raja eglanteria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Julie; Bushnell, Peter; Steffensen, John; Pedersen, Morten; Qvortrup, Klaus; Brill, Richard

    2017-02-01

    We assessed the functional properties in atrial and ventricular myocardium (using isolated cardiac strips) of smooth dogfish (Mustelus canis), clearnose skate (Raja eglanteria), and sandbar shark (Carcharhinus plumbeus) by blocking Ca(2+) release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) with ryanodine and thapsigargin and measuring the resultant changes in contraction-relaxation parameters and the force-frequency relationship at 20 °C and 30 °C. We also examined ultrastructural differences with electron microscopy. In tissues from smooth dogfish, net force (per cross-sectional area) and measures of the speeds of contraction and relaxation were all higher in atrial than ventricular myocardium at both temperatures. Atrial-ventricular differences were evident in the other two species primarily in measures of the rates of contraction and relaxation. Ryanodine-thapsigargin treatment reduced net force and its maximum positive first derivative (i.e., contractility), and increased time to 50 % relaxation in atrial tissue from smooth dogfish at 30 °C. It also increased times to peak force and half relaxation in clearnose skate atrial and ventricular tissue at both temperatures, but only in atrial tissue from sandbar shark at 30 °C; indicating that SR involvement in excitation-contraction (EC) coupling is species- and temperature-specific in elasmobranch fishes, as it is in teleost fishes. Atrial and ventricular myocardium from all three species displayed a negative force-frequency relationship, but there was no evidence that SR involvement in EC coupling was influenced by heart rate. SR was evident in electron micrographs, generally located in proximity to mitochondria and intercalated discs, and to a lesser extent between the myofibrils; with mitochondria being more numerous in ventricular than atrial myocardium in all three species.

  6. Effect of Saprotrophic Soil Fungi on Toxocara canis Eggs

    OpenAIRE

    Ciarmela, M. L.; Arambarri, A. M.; Basualdo, J. A.; Minvielle, M. C.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to assess the ovicidal activity of Chrysosporium merdarium, Trichoderma harzianum, Fusarium oxysporum, F. moniliforme and F. sulphureum isolated from public areas in the city of La Plata, Argentina, on Toxocara canis eggs in vitro. Each species were cultured on water agar 2% with a suspension of immature-stage T. canis eggs. At 4, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days post-culture, they were observed by light and scanning electron microscopy. One hundred eggs were evaluated a...

  7. Morphoagronomic genetic diversity in american wild rice species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Ann Veasey

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available To characterize the genetic variability among species and populations of South American wild rice, eleven populations of Oryza glumaepatula, seven of O. grandiglumis, four of O. latifolia and one of O. alta, from Brazil and Argentina, were evaluated. A greenhouse experiment was conducted in completely randomized blocks with 23 treatments. Twenty morphoagronomic traits were assessed. Univariate analyses were performed with 16 quantitative traits with the partitioning of populations within species. Significant differences (pVisando caracterizar a diversidade genética entre espécies e populações de arroz selvagem da América do Sul, foram avaliadas 11 populações de Oryza glumaepatula, sete de O. grandiglumis, quatro de O. latifolia e uma população de O. alta, originárias do Brasil e Argentina. Foi conduzido um experimento em casa-de-vegetação em blocos ao acaso com 23 tratamentos. Vinte caracteres agro-morfológicos foram avaliados. Análises univariadas foram realizadas para 16 caracteres quantitativos, desdobrando-se o efeito de populações dentro de espécies. Diferenças significativas (p<0,001 entre espécies foram observadas para todos os caracteres bem como entre populações dentro de espécies. A mais variável foi O. glumaepatula seguida de O. latifolia. Análises de agrupamento e discriminante canônica confirmaram a separação das populações de O. glumaepatula das espécies tetraplóides, e a grande variação genética entre populações de O. latifolia. Diferenças morfológicas entre as três espécies tetraplóides parecem suficientes para classificá-las como espécies pelo menos na condição statu nascendi.

  8. Development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for rapid diagnosis of Babesia canis infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, H; Aysul, N; Liu, Z; Salih, D A; Karagenc, T; Beyer, D; Kullmann, B; Ahmed, J S; Seitzer, U

    2010-04-01

    Vector-borne diseases are rising in interest due to global warming, which is believed to impact on the distribution of vectors into new areas thus influencing the occurrence and epidemiology of vector-borne pathogens. Babesia canis belongs to the Piroplasmidae and there are three described subspecies, namely B. canis canis, B. canis rossi and B. canis vogeli. They are each transmitted by a different tick-species, Dermacentor reticulatus, Haemaphysalis leachi and Rhipicephalus sanguineus, respectively. There are also differences in the geographical distribution and pathogenicity to dogs of each subspecies. In this study, we aimed to establish a rapid and easy to perform DNA-based test using loop-mediated isothermal amplification to detect all three Babesia canis subspecies in one assay.

  9. Giardia canis: ultrastructural analysis of G. canis trophozoites transfected with full length G. canis virus cDNA transcripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardia canis virus (GCV) is a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) virus of the family Totiviridae. In this study, the full-length cDNA of the G. canis virus was constructed in pPoly2/sfinot vector and RNA was transcribed in vitro. Virus-free G. canis trophozoites were transfected with in vitro transcribed ...

  10. Comparative acute toxicity of DDT metabolites among American and European species of planarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, J C; Wells, M R

    1987-01-01

    1. DDT metabolism in a North American species of planarian leads to the formation of metabolites more toxic than the parent compound. 2. The increased toxicity of DDT metabolites is similar to acute toxicity data reported previously in a European species. 3. It is suggested that planarians lack a direct mechanism for DDT detoxification, since two North American and one European species are known to metabolize DDT initially to DDE and DDD.

  11. IgG antibody responses in mice coinfected with Toxocara canis and other helminths or protozoan parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lescano, Susana A Zevallos; Nakhle, Maria Cristina; Ribeiro, Manoel Carlos S A; Chieffi, Pedro Paulo

    2012-01-01

    The immune response expressed by IgG antibodies in BALB/c mice experimentally infected with Toxocara canis, was studied with the aim of verifying the possible in vivo cross-reactivity between antigens of T. canis and other parasites (Ascaris suum, Taenia crassiceps, Schistosoma mansoni, Strongyloides venezuelensis and Toxoplasma gondii). Experiments included three groups of mice: one infected only by T. canis, another with one of the other species of parasites and a third concomitantly infected with T. canis and the other species in question. Animals were bled by orbital plexus at 23, 38 and 70 days post infection (p.i.). Sera were analyzed for anti-Toxocara antibodies by ELISA and Immunoblotting, using excretion-secretion antigens (ES), obtained from culture of third-stage larvae of T. canis. For all experiments a control group comprised by ten non-infected mice was used. Only in the case of A. suum infection, in these experimental conditions, the occurrence of cross-reactivity with T. canis was observed. However, in the case of co-infection of T. canis - S. mansoni, T. canis - S. venezuelensis and T. canis - T. crassiceps the production of anti-Toxocara antibodies was found at levels significantly lower than those found in mice infected with T. canis only. Co-infection with S. mansoni or S. venezuelensis showed lower mortality rates compared to what occurred in the animals with single infections. Results obtained in mice infected with T. canis and T. gondii showed significant differences between the mean levels of the optical densities of animals infected with T. canis and concomitantly infected with the protozoan only in the 23rd day p.i.

  12. IgG Antibody responses in mice coinfected with Toxocara canis and other helminths or protozoan parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana A. Zevallos Lescano

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The immune response expressed by IgG antibodies in BALB/c mice experimentally infected with Toxocara canis, was studied with the aim of verifying the possible in vivo cross-reactivity between antigens of T. canis and other parasites (Ascaris suum, Taenia crassiceps, Schistosoma mansoni, Strongyloides venezuelensis and Toxoplasma gondii. Experiments included three groups of mice: one infected only by T. canis, another with one of the other species of parasites and a third concomitantly infected with T. canis and the other species in question. Animals were bled by orbital plexus at 23, 38 and 70 days post infection (p.i.. Sera were analyzed for anti-Toxocara antibodies by ELISA and Immunoblotting, using excretion-secretion antigens (ES, obtained from culture of third-stage larvae of T. canis. For all experiments a control group comprised by ten non-infected mice was used. Only in the case of A. suum infection, in these experimental conditions, the occurrence of cross-reactivity with T. canis was observed. However, in the case of co-infection of T. canis - S. mansoni, T. canis - S. venezuelensis and T. canis - T. crassiceps the production of anti-Toxocara antibodies was found at levels significantly lower than those found in mice infected with T. canis only. Co-infection with S. mansoni or S. venezuelensis showed lower mortality rates compared to what occurred in the animals with single infections. Results obtained in mice infected with T. canis and T. gondii showed significant differences between the mean levels of the optical densities of animals infected with T. canis and concomitantly infected with the protozoan only in the 23rd day p.i.

  13. Chromosome analysis in the Kruger National Park - the chromosomes of the saddle-backed jackal Canis Mesomelas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Wallace

    1977-08-01

    Full Text Available Among the present-day members of the Canidae family are included the dogs and foxes (Wurster and Benirschke 1968. The genus Canis is represented in Africa by four species of jackal (Bigaike 1972. This paper presents the chromosome Findings in a male saddle-backed jackal Canis mesomelas studied in the Kruger National Park, Republic of South Africa.

  14. New South American species of Lamiinae (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galileo, Maria Helena M.; Santos-Silva, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Two new species of cerambycid beetles are described from South America: Ataxia camiriensis (Pteropliini), from Bolivia, and Falsamblesthis uniformis (Forsteriini), from Peru. The new species are included in previous keys. PMID:28138276

  15. A review of North American Recent Radiolucina (Bivalvia, Lucinidae with the description of a new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Garfinkle

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available North American members in the genus Radiolucina are reviewed. A lectotype for the type species, Radiolucina amianta, is designated and descriptions and illustrations are provided. A description of a new species, Radiolucina jessicae, from the west coast of Mexico is presented. Key diagnostic species characteristics are outlined and compared among members of the genus.

  16. Variation in male and female genitalia among ten species of North American Anthocoris (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Anthocoridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We compared morphology of internal reproductive anatomy and genitalia among 10 species of North American Anthocoris (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Anthocoridae). Reproductive structures of males, including internal reproductive organs (testes, seminal vesicles, ejaculatory bulb, phallus), the left parame...

  17. First isolation and molecular characterization of Ehrlichia canis in Costa Rica, Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, L E; Meneses, A I; Salazar, L; Jiménez, M; Romero, J J; Aguiar, D M; Labruna, M B; Dolz, G

    2011-08-01

    The present study investigated Ehrlichia species in blood samples from dogs suspected of clinical ehrlichiosis, using molecular and isolation techniques in cell culture. From a total of 310 canine blood samples analyzed by 16S rRNA nested PCR, 148 (47.7%) were positive for Ehrlichia canis. DNA from Ehrlichia chaffeensis or Ehrlichia ewingii was not detected in any sample using species-specific primers in separated reactions. Leukocytes from five PCR-positive dogs were inoculated into DH82 cells; successful isolation of E. canis was obtained in four samples. Partial sequence of the dsb gene of eight canine blood samples (including the five samples for in vitro isolation) was obtained by PCR and their analyses through BLAST showed 100% of identity with the corresponding sequence of E. canis in GenBank. This study represents the first molecular diagnosis, isolation, and molecular characterization of E. canis in dogs from Costa Rica.

  18. Species Diversity and Growth Forms in Tropical American Palm Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Henrik; Kahn, Francis; Millán, Betty;

    2011-01-01

    To advance our understanding of the processes that govern the assembly of palm communities and the local coexistence of numerous palm species, we here synthesize available information in the literature on species diversity and growth-form composition in palm communities across the Americas. Ameri...

  19. SCM-positive Streptococcus canis are predominant among pet-associated group G streptococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkühlen, Gerd-Josef; Pägelow, Dennis; Valentin-Weigand, Peter; Fulde, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus (S.) canis is a neglected zoonotic pathogen with increasing impor- tance. Since knowledge about its distribution in pets in Germany is scant, we designed a study and tested 335 dogs and 71 cats for colonization by S. canis. S. canis was isolated from swabs taken from the perianal region by culture and subsequent identification was performed biochemically as well as by PCR. In total, 15.8% (53) of the canine and 8.5% (six) of the feline strains grown on Staphlyo- coccus/Streptococcus Selective Agar were tested positive for the Lancefield group G antigen. The vast majority of strains expressing the Lancefield Group G carbohy- drate (56 out of 59) were further identified as S. canis underlining their outstanding role among animal-associated Group G streptococci (GGS). Furthermore, 90.0% of the canine and 83.3% of the feline S. canis strains harbour the species-specific anti- phagocytic M protein homologue SCM, which has been described as an important virulence factor. In contrast, emm-genes typically encoded by human-specific GGS could not be detected in any of the S. canis isolates. Taken together, this study provides insights into the distribution of the neglected zoonotic pathogen S. canis in a population of pets in Germany. The presence of SCM in the vast majority of strains indicates their pathogenic potential.

  20. Amanita viscidolutea, a new species from Brazil with a key to Central and South American species of Amanita section Amanita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menolli, Nelson; Capelari, Marina; Baseia, Iuri Goulart

    2009-01-01

    We described and illustrated Amanita viscidolutea sp. nov. from specimens collected in the state of Rio Grande do Norte, northeastern Brazil. The main characteristics of the new species are its yellow pileus with white margin, the viscidity of the pileal surface, an exannulate stipe and inamyloid basidiospores. We also present an artificial dichotomous key to Central and South American species of Amanita (subgenus Amanita) section Amanita.

  1. High throughput pyrosequencing technology for molecular differential detection of Babesia vogeli, Hepatozoon canis, Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys in canine blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewkong, Worasak; Intapan, Pewpan M; Sanpool, Oranuch; Janwan, Penchom; Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Kongklieng, Amornmas; Tantrawatpan, Chairat; Boonmars, Thidarut; Lulitanond, Viraphong; Taweethavonsawat, Piyanan; Chungpivat, Sudchit; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2014-06-01

    Canine babesiosis, hepatozoonosis, ehrlichiosis, and anaplasmosis are tick-borne diseases caused by different hemopathogens. These diseases are causes of morbidity and mortality in dogs. The classic method for parasite detection and differentiation is based on microscopic observation of blood smears. The limitations of the microscopic method are that its performance requires a specially qualified person with professional competence, and it is ineffective in differentiating closely related species. This study applied PCR amplification with high throughput pyrosequencing for molecular differential detection of the following 4 hemoparasites common to tropical areas in dog blood samples: Babesia vogeli, Hepatozoon canis, Ehrlichia canis, and Anaplasma platys. PCR was initially used to amplify specific target regions of the ribosomal RNA genes of each parasite using 2 primer pairs that included 18S rRNA for protozoa (B. vogeli and H. canis) and 16S rRNA for rickettsia (E. canis and A. platys). Babesia vogeli and H. canis were discriminated using 9 nucleotide positions out of 30 base pairs, whereas E. canis and A. platys were differentiated using 15 nucleotide positions out of 34 base pairs that were determined from regions adjacent to 3' ends of the sequencing primers. This method provides a challenging alternative for a rapid diagnosis and surveillance of these tick-borne diseases in canines.

  2. Occurrence of Leishmania chagasi, Trypanosoma cruzi, Babesia canis vogeli, Anaplasma platys, and Ehrlichia canis in canine blood donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Augusto Constantino Seabra da Cruz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The transfusion of blood components is common in a veterinary clinic; however, the safety of this therapeutic measure cannot always be guaranteed. Studies show a high risk of haemoparasite transmission during blood transfusion in canines. These parasites include Leishmania chagasi, Anaplasma platys, and Ehrlichia canis, which are endemic to the city of Cuiabá. This study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of L. chagasi, Trypanosoma cruzi, Babesia (canis vogeli, A. platys, and E. canis in canine blood donor candidates, and identify possible factors associated with the infection of these agents. Sixty-six canines were evaluated using serologic and molecular tests, for the presence of the Leishmania species. While one canine sample showed a positive result for L. chagasi with indirect fluorescent antibody test, with titer of 1:40, and seven canine samples were positive using DPP, all other samples were negative when using PCR and ELISA. All canines were negative for T. cruzi when using PCR. The B. (c. vogeli infection was identified in one canine and A. platys was identified in six canines. E. canis was identified in 17 canines, with a prevalence of 25.7%. There were no significant factors associated with the infection of the pathogens investigated. Given the observation of infection, even in the absence of clinical symptoms, emphasis must be placed on the need for the use of more sensitive and specific diagnostic methods for the screening of donor canines.

  3. Updated generalized biomass equations for North American tree species

    Science.gov (United States)

    David C. Chojnacky; Linda S. Heath; Jennifer C. Jenkins

    2014-01-01

    Historically, tree biomass at large scales has been estimated by applying dimensional analysis techniques and field measurements such as diameter at breast height (dbh) in allometric regression equations. Equations often have been developed using differing methods and applied only to certain species or isolated areas. We previously had compiled and combined (in meta-...

  4. Comparative transcriptomics of wild North American Vitis species

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cultivated grapevine (Vitis vinifera) is one of the world’s most important fruit crops. While grapes are now cultivated across the world, biotic and abiotic stresses often limit the production of grapes. Compared with the cultivated grape, wild grapevine species possess adaptive traits for str...

  5. Ehrlichial infection in Cameroonian canines by Ehrlichia canis and Ehrlichia ewingii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndip, L M; Ndip, R N; Esemu, S N; Dickmu, V L; Fokam, E B; Walker, D H; McBride, J W

    2005-11-30

    Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Ehrlichia ewingii are agents of emerging human ehrlichioses in North America and are transmitted primarily by Amblyomma americanum ticks, while Ehrlichia canis is the globally distributed cause of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME) and is transmitted by the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Although E. canis and Ehrlichia ruminantium are endemic in Africa, the presence of ehrlichial agents in dogs and ticks in Cameroon has not been investigated. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of ehrlichial infections in Cameronian dogs using a combination of serologic and molecular methods. Peripheral blood was collected, clinical signs and the presence or absence of ticks on dogs (n=104) presenting for various reasons at local veterinary clinics around the Mount Cameroon region were noted. IFA identified 33 dogs (32%) with antibodies reactive with E. canis, and reactivity of these sera with all major E. canis antigens (200, 140, 95, 75, 47, 36, 28, and 19-kDa) was confirmed by immunoblotting. Multicolor real-time PCR detected ehrlichial DNA (E. canis (15) and E. ewingii (2)) in 17 dogs (16.3%), all of which had attached ticks at time of presentation. The dsb amplicons (378 bp) from E. canis and E. ewingii were identical to gene sequences from North American isolates. This study identifies canine ehrlichiosis as a prevalent unrecognized cause of disease in Cameroonian canines.

  6. Importance of hybridization between indigenous and nonindigenous freshwater species: an overlooked threat to North American biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, William L; Lodge, David M; Feder, Jeffrey L

    2002-04-01

    Biodiversity of North American freshwaters is among the greatest in the world. However, due to extensive habitat degradation, pollution, and introductions of nonindigenous species, this biodiversity is also among the most endangered. Unlike habitat degradation and pollution, nonindigenous species represent a permanent loss of biodiversity because their removal or control is often impossible. Most species introduced into nonnative North American ranges, however, are not from Eurasia but have been introduced from geographically isolated regions within North America. Although the ecological effects of introduced species have been widely documented, the effects of hybridization, especially between closely related species, represents an equally serious mechanism of extinction but is much less studied. Identification of which species are likely to hybridize after contact is of critical importance to prevent the further loss of native species. Molecular phylogenetics serves as a powerful tool to identify freshwater species at risk of introgression, if we can assume that genetic distance is a good predictor of the potential for hybridization. Although not a thorough review of all cases of hybridization, this article documents the extent and effects of hybridization in fishes, crayfishes, mussels, and other invertebrates in light of the currently accepted phylogenetic relationships. We suggest this approach may be the first step in addressing the potential threat of hybridization between many of the closely related species in North American fresh waters.

  7. Anticancer activities of selected species of North American lichen extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Gajendra; El-Naggar, Atif M; St Clair, Larry L; O'Neill, Kim L

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is the second leading cause of human deaths in the USA. Despite continuous efforts to treat cancer over the past 50 years, human mortality rates have not decreased significantly. Natural products, such as lichens, have been good sources of anticancer drugs. This study reports the cytotoxic activity of crude extracts of 17 lichen species against Burkitt's lymphoma (Raji) cells. Out of the 17 lichen species, extracts from 14 species showed cytotoxicity against Raji cells. On the basis of IC50 values, we selected Xanthoparmelia chlorochroa and Tuckermannopsis ciliaris to study the mechanism of cell death. Viability of normal lymphocytes was not affected by the extracts of X. chlorochroa and T. ciliaris. We found that extracts from both lichens decreased proliferation, accumulated cells at the G0 /G1 stage, and caused apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Both lichen extracts also caused upregulation of p53. The T. ciliaris extract upregulated the expression of TK1 but X. chlorochroa did not. We also found that usnic, salazinic, constictic, and norstictic acids were present in the extract of X. chlorochroa, whereas protolichesterinic acid in T. ciliaris extracts. Our data demonstrate that lichen extracts merit further research as a potential source of anticancer drugs.

  8. Effect of Saprotrophic Soil Fungi on Toxocara canis Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciarmela, M. L.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to assess the ovicidal activity of Chrysosporium merdarium, Trichoderma harzianum, Fusarium oxysporum, F. moniliforme and F. sulphureum isolated from public areas in the city of La Plata, Argentina, on Toxocara canis eggs in vitro. Each species were cultured on water agar 2% with a suspension of immature-stage T. canis eggs. At 4, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days post-culture, they were observed by light and scanning electron microscopy. One hundred eggs were evaluated and scored according to Lỳsek’s ovicidal effect classification. These procedures were repeated three times which each fungal species. Chrysosporium merdarium and F. oxysporum showed very high ovicidal activity, F. sulphureum high ovicidal activity, F. moniliforme intermediate ovicidal activity and T. harzianum did not affect the viability of T. canis eggs. Taking into account the effects on human and animal health and the environment, the species with better prospects for studying its potential use as biological control was F. sulphureum.

  9. Meta-analysis of relationships between human offtake, total mortality and population dynamics of gray wolves (Canis lupus)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Creel, Scott; Rotella, Jay J

    2010-01-01

    Following the growth and geographic expansion of wolf (Canis lupus) populations reintroduced to Yellowstone National Park and central Idaho in 1995-1996, Rocky Mountain wolves were removed from the endangered species list in May 2009...

  10. Meta-Analysis of Relationships between Human Offtake, Total Mortality and Population Dynamics of Gray Wolves (Canis lupus): e12918

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scott Creel; Jay J Rotella

    2010-01-01

      Following the growth and geographic expansion of wolf (Canis lupus) populations reintroduced to Yellowstone National Park and central Idaho in 1995-1996, Rocky Mountain wolves were removed from the endangered species list in May 2009...

  11. The Relative Importance of Three Specific Climatic Factors on North American Breeding Bird Species Richness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M.; Lin, Y.

    2017-09-01

    Understanding of the relationships between bird species and environment facilitates protecting avian biodiversity and maintaining nature sustaining. However, the effects of many climatic factors on bird richness have not been fully grasped. To fill this gap, this study investigated the relationships between the richness of three typical North American breeding bird species and three climatic factors at the monthly scale. Based on the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) data during 1967-2014, the relationships between the numbers of Carolina wren, Cerulean warbler, and Red-bellied woodpecker and the three climatic factors of precipitation, vapor pressure, and potential evapotranspiration were examined using the method of Pearson linear regression analysis. The results indicated that the three climatic factors have correlations with the richness of the breeding bird species but in different modes, e.g., strong correlations for the non-migratory species but weak correlations for the migratory species.

  12. Glacial refugia and modern genetic diversity of 22 western North American tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David R; Hamann, Andreas

    2015-04-07

    North American tree species, subspecies and genetic varieties have primarily evolved in a landscape of extensive continental ice and restricted temperate climate environments. Here, we reconstruct the refugial history of western North American trees since the last glacial maximum using species distribution models, validated against 3571 palaeoecological records. We investigate how modern subspecies structure and genetic diversity corresponds to modelled glacial refugia, based on a meta-analysis of allelic richness and expected heterozygosity for 473 populations of 22 tree species. We find that species with strong genetic differentiation into subspecies had widespread and large glacial refugia, whereas species with restricted refugia show no differentiation among populations and little genetic diversity, despite being common over a wide range of environments today. In addition, a strong relationship between allelic richness and the size of modelled glacial refugia (r(2) = 0.55) suggest that population bottlenecks during glacial periods had a pronounced effect on the presence of rare alleles.

  13. Potassium incorporation in fruits of South American tropical species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cid, Alberto S.; Anjos, Roberto M.; Macario, Kita D.; Veiga, Rodrigo; Lacerda, Thiago [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Velasco, Hugo; Rizzoto, Marcos; Valladares, Daniel [Univesidad Nacional de San Luis (Argentina); Zamboni, Cibelle B.; Medeiros, Ilca M.A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Full text: This work proposes the use of a new mathematical model liable for describing the temporal evolution of potassium concentration in fruits of tropical species. Studies of the potassium incorporation are important for two main reasons: a) from the physiological point of view, this flux characterizes the dynamics of the demand of this essential macro nutrient during the gestation period of the fruit; and b) from a radioecological perspective, potassium is a chemical analogue of cesium, particularly of {sup 137}Cs, one of the most important contaminant deposited after accidental releases of radionuclides into the environment. Therefore, describing the potassium incorporation, we can obtain crucial information on how this radionuclide can enter to the human food chain trough fruits. Nutrients accumulation by fruits has been extensively studied for different trees. These investigations have been addressed to evaluate the nutritional status at different stages of the fruit development, estimating the amount of the soil nutrient removal and then to know the better time to program the control and supply of fertilizers. The fruit quality and its aptitude to the conservation are closely related with de nutrient content and the equilibrium between them. The rate of the weight increment in fruit is not uniform. The dry mass accumulation is small in the initial period, later a more expressive increment is observed and, finally during the maturation period, a lower dry mass accumulation was observed. The lengths in days of each one of these grown phases depend of the fruit type. A sigmoid grown model appears to be a very good approximation. The nutrient accumulations follow characteristics patterns along these fruit grown phases. When food-chain model are used to describe the radionuclide key transfer processes for dose assessment, the steady state radionuclide concentration is assumed in each compartment. In many cases that could be a strict simplification of the

  14. Fundamental species traits explain provisioning services of tropical American palms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cámara-Leret, Rodrigo; Faurby, Søren; Macía, Manuel J

    2017-01-01

    Human well-being around the globe rests on the provisioning services delivered by 15% of the Earth’s 350,000 plant species. Species’ traits influence the way in which plants are utilised1, yet it is not well understood which traits underpin different human needs2. Here, we focus on palms, one...... of the most economically important plant groups globally3, and show that provisioning services related to basic needs, such as food and medicine, show a strong link with different combinations of traits. We integrate data from 2,201 interviews on plant utilisation from three biodiversity hotspots in South...... we show that our findings hold even when accounting for phylogenetic clustering of traits and utility due to phylogenetic relatedness5. Beyond expanding our understanding of how local stakeholders perceive and explore biodiversity in mega-diverse forests, our trait- and phylogeny-based approach helps...

  15. [Helminths of wolves (Canis lupus) from south Mazurian Lakeland, a coprological study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloch, Agnieszka; Bajer, Anna

    2003-01-01

    52 wolf scats collected during winter 2001/2002 in Puszcza Piska and Napiwodzko-Ramuckic forests were examined using Fulleborn's method. The overall helminth prevalence was 28.8%. Six helminth species were recorded, the most frequent species were Uncinaria stenocepmhala/Ancylostoma caninmu (treated together; found in 6 samples), Toxocara canis and Trichuris vulpis (both identified in 4 samples). The mean intensity of egg expulsion was 2.0 eggs/g feces, the most intense infection was this with Toxocara canis (average 23.0 eggs/g feces). There were observed differences in prevalence of parasite' species between packs. Present paper is first such an investigation in northeastern Poland.

  16. Toxocara canis y asma bronquial Toxocara canis and bronchial asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de los Ángeles López

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A fin de evaluar la relación entre la infección por Toxocara canis y los síntomas del asma bronquial en niños de una región subtropical con alta prevalencia de toxocariosis, se estudiaron 47 niños con asma y 53 sin asma como grupo control. Se efectuó el examen físico completo, registrándose datos clínicos y epidemiológicos. En los niños con asma se categorizó el patrón de presentación, frecuencia y gravedad de los síntomas con una escala de I a IV. Se investigó la presencia de anticuerpos anti-Toxocara canis en ambos grupos mediante el método de ELISA en fase sólida, empleando antígeno de excreción/secreción y se efectuó dosaje de Ig E total. Los resultados muestran una seropositividad del 55% en el total de los niños, del 57.4% en los niños con asma y del 52.8% en los controles. En los niños con sintomatología más grave (grado II, III y IV hubo un 67.7% de seropositivos, mientras que en los niños con síntomas de grado I la seropositividad fue de 37.5% (p = 0.0470. La infección por T. canis actuaría como un co-factor agravante de los síntomas del asma bronquial.In order to evaluate the association between the infection by Toxocara canis and the symptoms of asthma in children from a subtropical region with high prevalence of toxocariasis, 47 asthmatic children and 53 non-asthmatics as a control group were studied. A complete physical examination was performed and clinical and epidemiological data were registered. In asthmatic children the frequency and severity of symptoms were classified in grades I to IV. The presence of anti-Toxocara canis antibodies in both groups was evaluated employing a solid phase ELISA method with excretion/secretion antigens, and total Ig E was also measured. Results showed a total seropositivity of 55%, 57.4% in children with asthma and 52.8% in the control group. Among asthmatics with severe symptoms (grade II, III and IV, there was a 67.7% of seropositivity while in children with

  17. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the gp200 protein of Ehrlichia canis from dogs in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chia-Chia; Hsieh, Yu-Chen; Tsang, Chau-Loong; Chung, Yang-Tsung

    2010-12-01

    Ehrlichia (E.) canis is a Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacterium responsible for canine monocytic ehrlichiosis. Currently, the genetic diversity of E. canis strains worldwide is poorly defined. In the present study, sequence analysis of the nearly full-length 16S rDNA (1,620 bp) and the complete coding region (4,269 bp) of the gp200 gene, which encodes the largest major immunoreactive protein in E. canis, from 17 Taiwanese samples was conducted. The resultant 16S rDNA sequences were found to be identical to each other and have very high homology (99.4~100%) with previously reported E. canis sequences. Additionally, phylogenetic analysis of gp200 demonstrated that the E. canis Taiwanese genotype was genetically distinct from other reported isolates obtained from the United States, Brazil, and Israel, and that it formed a separate clade. Remarkable variations unique to the Taiwanese genotype were found throughout the deduced amino acid sequence of gp200, including 15 substitutions occurring in two of five known species-specific epitopes. The gp200 amino acid sequences of the Taiwanese genotype bore 94.4~94.6 identities with those of the isolates from the United States and Brazil, and 93.7% homology with that of the Israeli isolate. Taken together, these results suggest that the Taiwanese genotype represents a novel strain of E. canis that has not yet been characterized.

  18. Identification and characterization of the arginine deiminase system of Streptococcus canis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitzmann, A; Bergmann, S; Rohde, M; Chhatwal, G S; Fulde, M

    2013-02-22

    Although Streptococcus (S.) canis is known to cause severe infections in dogs and cats and harbors a clear zoonotic potential, knowledge about physiology and pathogenesis is mostly elusive. The arginine deiminase system (ADS) has been described in certain streptococcal species and its role in the establishment of infection has been suggested. In this study we focused on the identification and characterization of the ADS in S. canis. Using genome sequencing and subsequent in silico analysis we identified the ADS of S. canis as a gene cluster composed of seven genes. RT-PCR analysis revealed that the ADS of S. canis is transcribed in four transcriptional units, comprising three monocistronical mRNAs and one operon structure. As a secondary metabolic pathway, the ADS of S. canis is strictly regulated by carbon catabolite repression (CCR) and arginine as demonstrated on transcriptional, translational, and enzymatical level, respectively. Furthermore, growth kinetics with a chemically defined medium clearly showed that arginine, the substrate of the ADS, is essential for the biological fitness of S. canis. Using Immuno-electron microscopy analysis, we observed a surface-exposed localization of the ADS enzymes arginine deiminase (ArcA), ornithine carbamoyltransferase (ArcB), and carbamate kinase (ArcC), respectively, which might suggest the contribution of the ADS to the development of streptococcal infections.

  19. Checklist of American sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae: genera, species, and their distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma Helena Fernandes Shimabukuro

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Phlebotomine sand flies are dipteran insects of medical importance because many species are involved in the transmission of pathogens between human and non-human animals. A total of 530 American species of sand flies is presented in an updated checklist, along with their author(s and year of publication using the classification by Galati (1995, 2003. Distribution by country is also provided.

  20. Babesia canis and Babesia rossi co-infection in an untraveled Nigerian dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamani, Joshua; Sannusi, Abdulrahim; Dogo, A Goni; Tanko, James T; Egwu, Kinsley O; Tafarki, Agbadu E; Ogo, Isaac N; Kemza, Sarah; Onovoh, Emmanuel; Shamaki, David; Lombin, Lami H; Catto, Victoria; Birkenheuer, Adam J

    2010-10-29

    A sexually intact 6-month-old female Alsatian dog was presented to the Veterinary Clinic of the National Veterinary Research Institute, Vom, Plateau State, Nigeria, for the following complaints: anorexia, hemoglobinuria, fever, tick infestation and general malaise. Microscopy revealed piroplasms with a wide range of sizes (1-5 μm in length) in red blood cells, raising a suspicion of a co-infection with two or more Babesia species. Specific PCR assays for canine Babesia spp. and DNA sequencing revealed the presence of Babesia canis and Babesia rossi co-infection. This study constitutes the first report of co-infection with B. canis and B. rossi in the West African sub-region and the first report of autochthonous B. canis on the African continent. Practitioners should be aware of potential changes in the species/sub-species of Babesia causing canine babesiosis in this region.

  1. The American Oystercatcher (Haematopus palliatus) Working Group: 15 years of collaborative focal species research and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Theodore R.

    2017-01-01

    The American Oystercatcher (Haematopus palliatus) Working Group formed spontaneously in 2001 as coastal waterbird biologists recognized the potential for American Oystercatchers to serve as focal species for collaborative research and management. Accomplishments over the past 15 years include the establishment of rangewide surveys, color-banding protocols, mark-resight studies, a revision of the Birds of North America species account, and new mechanisms for sharing ideas and data. Collaborations among State, Federal, and private sector scientists, natural resource managers, and dedicated volunteers have provided insights into the biology and conservation of American Oystercatchers in the United States and abroad that would not have been possible without the relationships formed through the Working Group. These accomplishments illustrate how broad collaborative approaches and the engagement of the public are key elements of effective shorebird conservation programs.

  2. Working across cultures to protect Native American natural and cultural resources from invasive species in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janice M. Alexander; Susan J. Frankel; Nina Hapner; John L. Phillips; Virgil Dupuis

    2017-01-01

    Invasive species know no boundaries; they spread regardless of ownership, and actions by neighboring landowners can influence local and regional populations and impacts. Native Americans and mainstream Western society (representing the prevalent attitudes, values, and practices of US society) both depend on forests for food, fiber, and emotional well-being, but in...

  3. Significant differences in alkaloid content of Coptis chinensis (Huanglian, from its related American species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skeels Matthew

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The growing popularity of Chinese herbal medicine in the United States has prompted large-scale import of raw herbs from Asia. Many of the Asian herbs have phylogenetically related North American species. We compared three phylogenetically related species, namely Coptis chinensis (Huanglian, Hydrastis canadensis and Coptis trifolia to show whether they can be substituted by one another in terms of alkaloid content. Methods We used microwave assisted extraction to obtain alkaloids berberine, coptisine, palmatine and hydrastine. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was used to quantify each alkaloid. Results Hydrastis canadensis has the most berberine, whereas Coptis trifolia has the most coptisine. Hydrastine and palmatine were unique to Hydrastis canadensis and Coptis chinensis respectively. Conclusion Neither Hydrastis canadensis nor Coptis trifolia contains all the alkaloids found in Coptis chinensis used in Chinese medicine. Substitutes of this Chinese species by its American relatives are not recommended.

  4. Characterization of the functional and anatomical differences in the atrial and ventricular myocardium from three species of elasmobranch fishes: smooth dogfish (Mustelus canis), sandbar shark (Carcharhinus plumbers), and clearnose skate (Raja eglanteria)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Julie; Bushnell, Peter; Steffensen, John;

    2016-01-01

    We assessed the functional properties in atrial and ventricular myocardium (using isolated cardiac strips) of smooth dogfish (Mustelus canis), clearnose skate (Raja eglanteria), and sandbar shark (Carcharhinus plumbeus) by blocking Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) with ryanodine...... positive first derivative (i.e., contractility), and increased time to 50 % relaxation in atrial tissue from smooth dogfish at 30 °C. It also increased times to peak force and half relaxation in clearnose skate atrial and ventricular tissue at both temperatures, but only in atrial tissue from sandbar shark...

  5. Classification of Babesia canis strains in Europe based on polymorphism of the Bc28.1-gene from the Babesia canis Bc28 multigene family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcy, B; Randazzo, S; Depoix, D; Adaszek, L; Cardoso, L; Baneth, G; Gorenflot, A; Schetters, T P

    2015-07-30

    The vast majority of clinical babesiosis cases in dogs in Europe is caused by Babesia canis. Although dogs can be vaccinated, the level of protection is highly variable, which might be due to genetic diversity of B. canis strains. One of the major merozoite surface antigens of B. canis is a protein with a Mr of 28 kDa that belongs to the Bc28 multigene family, that comprises at least two genes, Bc28.1 and a homologous Bc28.2 gene. The two genes are relatively conserved but they are very distinct in their 3' ends, enabling the design of specific primers. Sequencing of the Bc28.1 genes from 4 genetically distinct B. canis laboratory strains (A8, B, 34.01 and G) revealed 20 mutations at conserved positions of which three allowed the classification of B. canis strains into three main groups (A, B and 34.01/G) by RFLP. This assay was subsequently used to analyze blood samples of 394 dogs suspected of clinical babesiosis from nine countries in Europe. All blood samples were first analyzed with a previously described assay that allowed detection of the different Babesia species that infect dogs. Sixty one percent of the samples contained detectable levels of Babesia DNA. Of these, 98.3% were positive for B. canis, the remaining cases were positive for B. vogeli. Analysis of the Bc28.1 gene, performed on 178 of the B. canis samples, revealed an overall dominance of genotype B (62.4%), followed by genotypes A (37.1%) and 34 (11.8%). Interestingly, a great variation in the geographical distribution and prevalence of the three B. canis genotypes was observed; in the North-East genotype A predominated (72.1% A against 27.9% B), in contrast to the South-West where genotype B predominated (10.3% A against 89.7% B). In the central part of Europe intermediate levels were found (26.0-42.9% A against 74.0-57.1% B, from West to East). Genotype 34 was only identified in France (26.9% among 78 samples) and mostly as co-infection with genotypes A or B (61.9%). A comparative analysis of

  6. First phylogenetic analysis of Ehrlichia canis in dogs and ticks from Mexico. Preliminary study

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina G. Sosa-Gutiérrez; Teresa Quintero-Martinez; Margarita Vargas-Sandoval; Guadalupe Gordillo-Pérez

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Phylogenetic characterization of Ehrlichia canis in dogs naturally infected and ticks, diagnosed by PCR and sequencing of 16SrRNA gene; compare different isolates found in American countries. Materials and methods. Were collected Blood samples from 139 dogs with suggestive clinical manifestations of this disease and they were infested with ticks; part of 16SrRNA gene was sequenced and aligned, with 17 sequences reported in American countries. Two phylogenetic trees were constructed...

  7. Genetic diversity of neotropical Myotis (chiroptera: vespertilionidae with an emphasis on South American species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxanne J Larsen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cryptic morphological variation in the Chiropteran genus Myotis limits the understanding of species boundaries and species richness within the genus. Several authors have suggested that it is likely there are unrecognized species-level lineages of Myotis in the Neotropics. This study provides an assessment of the diversity in New World Myotis by analyzing cytochrome-b gene variation from an expansive sample ranging throughout North, Central, and South America. We provide baseline genetic data for researchers investigating phylogeographic and phylogenetic patterns of Myotis in these regions, with an emphasis on South America. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Cytochrome-b sequences were generated and phylogenetically analyzed from 215 specimens, providing DNA sequence data for the most species of New World Myotis to date. Based on genetic data in our sample, and on comparisons with available DNA sequence data from GenBank, we estimate the number of species-level genetic lineages in South America alone to be at least 18, rather than the 15 species currently recognized. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide evidence that the perception of lower species richness in South American Myotis is largely due to a combination of cryptic morphological variation and insufficient sampling coverage in genetic-based systematic studies. A more accurate assessment of the level of diversity and species richness in New World Myotis is not only helpful for delimiting species boundaries, but also for understanding evolutionary processes within this globally distributed bat genus.

  8. Molecular Phylogeny of the Myxobolus and Henneguya Genera with Several New South American Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carriero, Mateus Maldonado; Adriano, Edson A.; Silva, Márcia R. M.; Ceccarelli, Paulo S.; Maia, Antonio A. M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study consists of a detailed phylogenetic analysis of myxosporeans of the Myxobolus and Henneguya genera, including sequences from 12 Myxobolus/Henneguya species, parasites of South American pimelodids, bryconids and characids. Maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony analyses, based on 18 S rDNA gene sequences, showed that the strongest evolutionary signal is the phylogenetic affinity of the fish hosts, with clustering mainly occurring according to the order and/or family of the host. Of the 12 South American species studied here, six are newly described infecting fish from the Brazilian Pantanal wetland. Henneguya maculosus n. sp. and Myxobolus flavus n. sp. were found infecting both Pseudoplatystoma corruscans and Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum; Myxobolus aureus n. sp. and Myxobolus pantanalis n. sp. were observed parasitizing Salminus brasiliensis and Myxobolus umidus n. sp. and Myxobolus piraputangae n. sp. were detected infecting Brycon hilarii. PMID:24040037

  9. Expanding the North American Breeding Bird Survey analysis to include additional species and regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, John; Niven, Daniel; Pardieck, Keith L.; Ziolkowski, David; Link, William

    2017-01-01

    The North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) contains data for >700 bird species, but analyses often focus on a core group of ∼420 species. We analyzed data for 122 species of North American birds for which data exist in the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) database but are not routinely analyzed on the BBS Summary and Analysis Website. Many of these species occur in the northern part of the continent, on routes that fall outside the core survey area presently analyzed in the United States and southern Canada. Other species not historically analyzed occur in the core survey area with very limited data but have large portions of their ranges in Mexico and south. A third group of species not historically analyzed included species thought to be poorly surveyed by the BBS, such as rare, coastal, or nocturnal species. For 56 species found primarily in regions north of the core survey area, we expanded the scope of the analysis, using data from 1993 to 2014 during which ≥3 survey routes had been sampled in 6 northern strata (Bird Conservation regions in Alaska, Yukon, and Newfoundland and Labrador) and fitting log-linear hierarchical models for an augmented BBS survey area that included both the new northern strata and the core survey area. We also applied this model to 168 species historically analyzed in the BBS that had data from these additional northern strata. For both groups of species we calculated survey-wide trends for the both core and augmented survey areas from 1993 to 2014; for species that did not occur in the newly defined strata, we computed trends from 1966 to 2014. We evaluated trend estimates in terms of established credibility criteria for BBS results, screening for imprecise trends, small samples, and low relative abundance. Inclusion of data from the northern strata permitted estimation of trend for 56 species not historically analyzed, but only 4 of these were reasonably monitored and an additional 13 were questionably monitored; 39

  10. Species Profiles: Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (South Atlantic): American Eel,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-07-01

    economic importance, if applicable. A three-ring binder is used for this series so that new profiles can be added as they are prepared . This project is...bands of small, pectinate or setiform teeth. A long The American eel is an important tooth patch also occurs on the vomer. prey species of larger marine...Fahay 1978). et al. (1978) collected glass eels Prior to completion of the differenti- from the Cooper River, South Carolina, ation process , some

  11. Agrotis Ochsenheimer (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae): a systematic analysis of South American species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Blas, Germán

    2014-03-03

    The genus Agrotis Ochsenheimer, 1816 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) contains about 300 described species distributed worldwide, excepting the Poles. For South America 93 species have been described. Different diagnostic characters have been proposed for species from the northern Hemisphere, mostly from male genitalia. Recently, numerous South American species of the genus have been transferred to other genera. In this work, a systematic revision was undertaken of the South American species of Agrotis, restricting to 20 the number of species of this genus for the region and transferring the other species to different genera and/or synonymizing with other species.Based on a detailed study of the external morphology and genitalia of both sexes, several nomen clatural changes are proposed. New generic synonymy: Mesembreuxoa Hampson = Feltia Walker. New Agrotis synonymies include: Scotia forsteri Köhler = A. propriens (Dyar); Agrotis peruviana hampsoni Draudt, Rhizagrotis triclava Draudt, and Euxoa andina Köhler = A. peruviana (Hampson); Lycophotia achromatica Hampson, Feltia malefida patagiata Aurivillius, Prout and Meyrick, Agrotis psammophila Köhler, and Scotia (Feltia) canietensis Köhler = A. malefida Guenée; Chorizagrotis benefida Draudt = A. experta (Walker); Agrotis livens Köhler and Agrotis capayana Köhler = A. araucaria (Hampson). Species transferred to Feltia Walker tent. include: Scotia aspersula Köhler, n. comb.; Porosagrotis brachystria Hampson, n. comb.; Agrotis carrascoi Köhler, n. comb.; Mesembreuxoa chilensis Hampson, n. comb.; Euxoa clavisigna Dognin, n. comb.; Euxoa conifrons Draudt, n. comb.; Agrotis consternans Hayes, n. comb.; Euxoa coquimbensis Hampson, n. comb.; Mesembreuxoa fasicola Dyar, n. comb.; Chorizagrotis forasmicans Köhler, n. comb.; Agrotis giselae León, n. comb.; Agrotis gypaetina Guenée, n. comb.; Agrotis hispidula Guenée, n. comb.; Euxoa incarum Cockerell, n. comb.; Agrotis india Köhler, n. comb.; Scotia mansa Köhler, n

  12. Detection of Babesia canis vogeli and Hepatozoon canis in canine blood by a single-tube real-time fluorescence resonance energy transfer polymerase chain reaction assay and melting curve analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongklieng, Amornmas; Intapan, Pewpan M; Boonmars, Thidarut; Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Janwan, Penchom; Sanpool, Oranuch; Lulitanond, Viraphong; Taweethavonsawat, Piyanan; Chungpivat, Sudchit; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2015-03-01

    A real-time fluorescence resonance energy transfer polymerase chain reaction (qFRET PCR) coupled with melting curve analysis was developed for detection of Babesia canis vogeli and Hepatozoon canis infections in canine blood samples in a single tube assay. The target of the assay was a region within the 18S ribosomal RNA gene amplified in either species by a single pair of primers. Following amplification from the DNA of infected dog blood, a fluorescence melting curve analysis was done. The 2 species, B. canis vogeli and H. canis, could be detected and differentiated in infected dog blood samples (n = 37) with high sensitivity (100%). The detection limit for B. canis vogeli was 15 copies of a positive control plasmid, and for H. canis, it was 150 copies of a positive control plasmid. The assay could simultaneously distinguish the DNA of both parasites from the DNA of controls. Blood samples from 5 noninfected dogs were negative, indicating high specificity. Several samples can be run at the same time. The assay can reduce misdiagnosis and the time associated with microscopic examination, and is not prone to the carryover contamination associated with the agarose gel electrophoresis step of conventional PCR. In addition, this qFRET PCR method would be useful to accurately determine the range of endemic areas or to discover those areas where the 2 parasites co-circulate.

  13. The Growth and Species-by-site Interaction of 18 Central American Multipurpose Tree Species Grown at 15 Tropical Sites World-wide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    From a world-wide plant introduction trial series utilising 25 central American species planted at over 100 sites in nearly 60 countries, eighteen species planted at 15 sites in the tropics were chosen for further study of the factors determining site productivity and site by species interactions. The species were Acacia pennatula, Acacia farnesiana, Albizia guachapele, Ateleia herbert-smithii, Caesalpinia coriaria, Caesalpinia eriostachys, Caesalpinia velutina, Enterolobium cyclocarpum, Gliricidia sepi...

  14. Short communication: Streptococcus canis is able to establish a persistent udder infection in a dairy herd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Król, Jarosław; Twardoń, Jan; Mrowiec, Jacek; Podkowik, Magdalena; Dejneka, Grzegorz; Dębski, Bogdan; Nowicki, Tadeusz; Zalewski, Wojciech

    2015-10-01

    Bovine mastitis caused by Streptococcus canis is relatively rare. Consequently, many epidemiologic aspects of the infection, including factors that mediate crossing of host species barriers by the pathogen, infectiousness of the microorganism to the mammary gland, and the course of the disease within a herd, are still not elucidated. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to describe results of a 15-mo observation of subclinical Strep. canis mastitis on a dairy farm housing 76 lactating Holstein-Friesian cows. Upon 3 visits to the farm during a period between April 2013 and June 2014, Strep. canis was cultured from milk samples of 17 (22.4% of the herd), 7 (9.6%), and 8 (11.3%) cows, respectively. The isolates obtained were characterized phenotypically by means of the API Strep identification kit (bioMérieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France), as well as genetically by using random amplified polymorphic DNA and macrorestriction analysis of the chromosomal DNA by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. All strains displayed the same biochemical features, and the molecular methods revealed that the isolates belonged to a single clone or were very closely related. Results of the study indicate that Strep. canis is capable of causing intramammary infections of long duration, behaving in a contagious manner. Because a persistently infected cow may serve as the source of Strep. canis infection for other animals, effective control of this type of udder infection within a herd may require similar measures to those adopted in Streptococcus agalactiae eradication programs.

  15. First phylogenetic analysis of Ehrlichia canis in dogs and ticks from Mexico. Preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina G. Sosa-Gutiérrez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Phylogenetic characterization of Ehrlichia canis in dogs naturally infected and ticks, diagnosed by PCR and sequencing of 16SrRNA gene; compare different isolates found in American countries. Materials and methods. Were collected Blood samples from 139 dogs with suggestive clinical manifestations of this disease and they were infested with ticks; part of 16SrRNA gene was sequenced and aligned, with 17 sequences reported in American countries. Two phylogenetic trees were constructed using the Maximum likelihood method, and Maximum parsimony. Results. They were positive to E. canis 25/139 (18.0% dogs and 29/139 (20.9% ticks. The clinical manifestations presented were fever, fatigue, depression and vomiting. Rhipicephalus sanguineus Dermacentor variabilis and Haemaphysalis leporis-palustris ticks were positive for E. canis. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the sequences of dogs and ticks in Mexico form a third group diverging of sequences from South America and USA. Conclusions. This is the first phylogenetic analysis of E. canis in Mexico. There are differences in the sequences of Mexico with those reported in South America and USA. This research lays the foundation for further study of genetic variability.

  16. Isozyme variation of Microsporum canis and M. cookei from New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpanya, M F; Jarvis, B D; Baxter, M

    1998-10-01

    Fifty-four isolates of Microsporum canis (Arthroderma otae) from humans, cats and dogs obtained from Auckland, Palmerston North and Wellington, New Zealand and 18 M. cookei and two Diheterospori spp. from soils were examined for variation using eight isozyme loci. M. canis isolates were from infected and non-infected cases. Isozyme analysis separated the three species which were further subdivided into electrophoretic types (ETs). Clustering analysis using normalized percentage disagreement (PTC) average linkage method revealed two clusters for M. cookei with two subclusters in cluster 2. M. canis had three main divisions (clusters 3, 4 and 5) and Diheterospora formed a separate division. The presence of isolates from different sources in the same clusters and lack of statistical significance as measured by confidence intervals suggests the existence of isolates with common lineage.

  17. Data on the parasitological status of golden jackal (Canis aureus L., 1758) in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takács, András; Szabó, László; Juhász, Lajos; Takács, András Attila; Lanszki, József; Takács, Péter Tamás; Heltai, Miklós

    2014-03-01

    In Hungary, twenty Canis aureus individuals were submitted to parasitological examinations in 2010-2012. Two Coccidia: Cystoisospora canis (15%) and Toxoplasma-type oocysts (5%), one Trematoda: Alaria alata (10%), six Cestoda: Mesocestoides lineatus (20%), Echinococcus granulosus (10%), Dipylidium caninums (5%), Taenia hydatigena (15%), Taenia pisiformis (20%), Taenia crassiceps (40%), and nine Nematoda: Angiostrongylus vasorum (10%), Crenosoma vulpis (30%), Capillaria aerophila (5%), Toxocara canis (20%), Toxascaris leonina (15%), Trichuris vulpis (10%), Ancylostoma caninum (45%), Uncinaria stenocephala (40%), Capillaria plica (45%) have been identified. Angiostronglyus vasorum has been reported from carnivores in Europe, Africa, South America and North America. The helminth A. vasorum or French heartworm is a metastrongylid nematode, widely distributed in Western Europe, that infects the pulmonary arterial tree of dogs, various species of foxes, wolves, Eurasian badgers, coyotes and stoats. To our knowledge, this is the first report of natural A. vasorum infection in golden jackal.

  18. Endoparasites of the coyote (Canis latrans), a recent migrant to insular newfoundland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridger, Kimberly E; Baggs, Eric M; Finney-Crawley, Jean

    2009-10-01

    This study provides the first data on the helminth fauna of the coyote (Canis latrans) in insular Newfoundland. Sixty-nine coyotes were collected between 2001 and 2003 and examined for helminths. A total of 10 helminth species were recorded: the cestodes Taenia ovis krabbei (9%), Taenia hydatigena (4%), Taenia pisiformis (1%), and Mesocestoides spp. (5%); and the nematodes Toxocara canis (19%), Toxascaris leonina (1%), Crenosoma vulpis (19%), Physaloptera rara (6%), Uncinaria stenocephala (3%), and Angiostrongylus vasorum (1%). No significant differences (P< or =0.05) were detected between sexes. Mesocestoides spp., T. canis, and C. vulpis were more prevalent in juveniles than adults. Angiostrongylus vasorum is reported in coyotes for the second time in Newfoundland, Canada.

  19. Diagnostic PCR tests for Microsporum audouinii, M. canis and Trichophyton infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brillowska-Dabrowska, Anna; Swierkowska, Aleksandra; Lindhardt Saunte, Ditte Marie

    2010-01-01

    Since traditional diagnosis of dermatophyte infections is slow, we present a rapid new PCR test for detection of Trichophyton spp., Microsporum canis and M. audouinii infections. The performance of the test was evaluated with: 58 dermatophyte isolates; 10 yeast, mould and human DNA control samples......; 25 routine specimens from patients suspected of having dermatophytosis; 10 hair specimens from guinea pigs experimentally infected with M. canis; and two samples from un-infected control animals. DNA was prepared by a 10-min procedure from pure cultures as previously described. The 302 bp PCR product...... was obtained for 35/35 Trichophyton isolates (10 species included) and the 279 bp for 3/3 M. canis and 4/4 M. audouinii samples. None of the 2 E. floccosum, 11 M. gypseum, 3 M M. persicolor or 12 control samples (yeast, mould, human DNA) were positive with either of the two PCR tests. Among the patient...

  20. Survival and development of Lymantria monacha (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) on North American and introduced Eurasian tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keena, M A

    2003-02-01

    Lymantria monacha (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), the nun moth, is a Eurasian pest of conifers that has potential for accidental introduction into North America. To project the potential host range of this insect if introduced into North America, survival and development of L. monacha on 26 North American and eight introduced Eurasian tree species were examined. Seven conifer species (Abies concolor, Picea abies, P. glauca, P. pungens, Pinus sylvestris with male cones, P. menziesii variety glance, and Tsuga canadensis) and six broadleaf species (Betula populifolia, Malus x domestica, Prunus serotiaa, Quercus lobata, Q. rubra, and Q. velutina) were suitable for L. monacha survival and development. Eleven of the host species tested were rated as intermediate in suitability, four conifer species (Larix occidentalis, P. nigra, P. ponderosa, P. strobus, and Pseudotsuga menziesii variety menziesii) and six broadleaf species (Carpinus caroliniana, Carya ovata, Fagus grandifolia, Populus grandidentata, Q. alba, and Tilia cordata) and the remaining 10 species tested were rated as poor (Acer rubrum, A. platanoidies, A. saccharum, F. americana, Juniperus virginiana, Larix kaempferi, Liriodendron tulipfera, Morus alba, P. taeda, and P. deltoides). The phenological state of the trees had a major impact on establishment, survival, and development of L. monacha on many of the tree species tested. Several of the deciduous tree species that are suitable for L. monacha also are suitable for L. dispar (L.) and L. mathura Moore. Establishment of L. monacha in North America would be catastrophic because of the large number of economically important tree species on which it can survive and develop, and the ability of mated females to fly and colonize new areas.

  1. Molecular perspective on the American transisthmian species of Macrobrachium (Caridea, Palaemonidae

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    Leonardo Pileggi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The closure of the Isthmus of Panama (about 3.1 million years ago separated previously continuous populations and created two groups of extant species, which live now in the Pacific and Atlantic drainage systems. This relatively recent event was a trigger to diversification of various species in the Neotropics, nonetheless there are exemplars that do not show sufficient morphologic variability to separate them by traditional morphological tools. About 60 years ago, some freshwater decapod species with high morphological similarity were separate by previous researchers, based on geographical distribution, in Pacific and Atlantic and considered as “sister species”. However, the complete isolation of these prawns by this geographical barrier is questionable, and it has generated doubts about the status of the following transisthmian pairs of sibling species: Macrobrachium occidentale × M. heterochirus, M. americanum × M. carcinus, M. digueti × M. olfersii, M. hancocki × M. crenulatum, M. tenellum × M. acanthurus and M. panamense × M. amazonicum. Here we evaluated the relation among these pairs of sibling species in a molecular phylogenetic context. We generated 95 new sequences: 26 sequences of 16S rDNA, 25 of COI mtDNA and 44 of 18S nDNA. In total, 181 sequences were analyzed by maximum likelihood phylogenetic method, including 12 Macrobrachium transisthmian species, as well as seven other American Macrobrachium species, and two other palaemonids. Our analysis corroborated the morphological proximity of the sibling species. Despite the high degree of morphological similarities and considerable genetic diversification encountered among the transisthmian sister species, our data support the conclusion that all species included in sibling groups studied herein are valid taxonomic entities, but not all pairs of siblings form natural groups.

  2. Molecular perspective on the American transisthmian species of Macrobrachium (Caridea, Palaemonidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pileggi, Leonardo G.; Rossi, Natália; Wehrtmann, Ingo S.; Mantelatto, Fernando L.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The closure of the Isthmus of Panama (about 3.1 million years ago) separated previously continuous populations and created two groups of extant species, which live now in the Pacific and Atlantic drainage systems. This relatively recent event was a trigger to diversification of various species in the Neotropics, nonetheless there are exemplars that do not show sufficient morphologic variability to separate them by traditional morphological tools. About 60 years ago, some freshwater decapod species with high morphological similarity were separate by previous researchers, based on geographical distribution, in Pacific and Atlantic and considered as “sister species”. However, the complete isolation of these prawns by this geographical barrier is questionable, and it has generated doubts about the status of the following transisthmian pairs of sibling species: Macrobrachium occidentale × Macrobrachium heterochirus, Macrobrachium americanum × Macrobrachium carcinus, Macrobrachium digueti × Macrobrachium olfersii, Macrobrachium hancocki × Macrobrachium crenulatum, Macrobrachium tenellum × Macrobrachium acanthurus and Macrobrachium panamense × Macrobrachium amazonicum. Here we evaluated the relation among these pairs of sibling species in a molecular phylogenetic context. We generated 95 new sequences: 26 sequences of 16S rDNA, 25 of COI mtDNA and 44 of 18S nDNA. In total, 181 sequences were analyzed by maximum likelihood phylogenetic method, including 12 Macrobrachium transisthmian species, as well as seven other American Macrobrachium species, and two other palaemonids. Our analysis corroborated the morphological proximity of the sibling species. Despite the high degree of morphological similarities and considerable genetic diversification encountered among the transisthmian sister species, our data support the conclusion that all species included in sibling groups studied herein are valid taxonomic entities, but not all pairs of siblings form natural

  3. Species delimitation and phylogeography of Aphonopelma hentzi (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Theraphosidae: cryptic diversity in North American tarantulas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris A Hamilton

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The primary objective of this study is to reconstruct the phylogeny of the hentzi species group and sister species in the North American tarantula genus, Aphonopelma, using a set of mitochondrial DNA markers that include the animal "barcoding gene". An mtDNA genealogy is used to consider questions regarding species boundary delimitation and to evaluate timing of divergence to infer historical biogeographic events that played a role in shaping the present-day diversity and distribution. We aimed to identify potential refugial locations, directionality of range expansion, and test whether A. hentzi post-glacial expansion fit a predicted time frame. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A Bayesian phylogenetic approach was used to analyze a 2051 base pair (bp mtDNA data matrix comprising aligned fragments of the gene regions CO1 (1165 bp and ND1-16S (886 bp. Multiple species delimitation techniques (DNA tree-based methods, a "barcode gap" using percent of pairwise sequence divergence (uncorrected p-distances, and the GMYC method consistently recognized a number of divergent and genealogically exclusive groups. CONCLUSIONS: The use of numerous species delimitation methods, in concert, provide an effective approach to dissecting species boundaries in this spider group; as well they seem to provide strong evidence for a number of nominal, previously undiscovered, and cryptic species. Our data also indicate that Pleistocene habitat fragmentation and subsequent range expansion events may have shaped contemporary phylogeographic patterns of Aphonopelma diversity in the southwestern United States, particularly for the A. hentzi species group. These findings indicate that future species delimitation approaches need to be analyzed in context of a number of factors, such as the sampling distribution, loci used, biogeographic history, breadth of morphological variation, ecological factors, and behavioral data, to make truly integrative decisions about what

  4. Revision of the Bee Genus Chlerogella (Hymenoptera, Halictidae, Part II: South American Species and Generic Diagnosis

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    Michael Engel

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The South American species of the rare bee genus Chlerogella Michener (Halictinae: Augochlorini are revised, completing the study of the genus. Chlerogella diversity is significantly expanded beyond the five previously described South American species of Cherlogella azurea (Enderlein, comb. n., C. nasus (Enderlein, C. mourella Engel, C. octogesima (Brooks & Engel, comb. n., and C. buyssoni (Vachal. Twenty-two new species are described – C. agaylei sp. n., C. arhyncha sp. n., C. borysthenis sp. n., C. breviceps sp. n., C. cochabambensis sp. n., C. cooperella sp. n., C. cyranoi sp. n., C. dolichorhina sp. n., C. elysia sp. n., C. eumorpha sp. n., C. euprepia sp. n., C. hauseri sp. n., C. hypermeces sp. n., C. materdonnae sp. n., C. oresbios sp. n., C. picketti sp. n., C. rostrata sp. n., C. silvula sp. n., C. terpsichore sp. n., C. tychoi sp. n., C. vachali sp. n., C. xuthopleura sp. n. – and the distribution of the genus is expanded beyond Perú and Ecuador to include Bolivia, Colombia, and Venezuela. The female of C. azurea is described for the first time while the placement of Halictus buyssoni Vachal in Chlerogella is considered tentative, following the usage of previous authors, as the holotype and sole specimen is untraceable. The genus is newly diagnosed based on a greater understanding of variation in malar length across the species and a dichotomous key is provided. New floral records for species of Chlerogella include Psychotria pongoana Standl. (Rubiaceae and a putative record on Phragmopedium longifolium (Warsz. & Rchb.f. Rolfe (Orchidaceae.

  5. Characterization of qnrB-like genes in Citrobacter species of the American Type Culture Collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saga, Tomoo; Sabtcheva, Stefana; Mitsutake, Kotaro; Ishii, Yoshikazu; Tateda, Kazuhiro; Yamaguchi, Keizo; Kaku, Mitsuo

    2013-06-01

    Among five American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) Citrobacter strains, qnrB60 in Citrobacter freundii ATCC 6879, an isolate from the preantibiotic era, and qnrB61 in Citrobacter braakii ATCC 51113(T), a type strain belonging to the C. freundii complex, were identified. Meanwhile, a truncated qnrB-like pseudogene was identified in C. freundii ATCC 8090(T) and ATCC 43864. No qnrB-like sequence was found in Citrobacter koseri ATCC 27028(T). These findings underscore the close relationship between this species and qnrB.

  6. Association of Ehrlichia canis, Hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. and Anaplasma platys and severe anemia in dogs in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewmongkol, Gunn; Lukkana, Nicha; Yangtara, Sarawut; Kaewmongkol, Sarawan; Thengchaisri, Naris; Sirinarumitr, Theerapol; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn; Fenwick, Stanley G

    2017-03-01

    Canine tick-borne bacteria; Ehrlichia canis, hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. and Anaplasma spp., are organisms transmitted by Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks. However, only a few clinical studies evaluating dogs infected with these organisms and anemia condition have been published. In this study, the potential tick-borne bacteria linked to anemia were investigated in eighty-one blood samples selected from anemic dogs using a broad range nested-PCR of the 16S rRNA gene. Positive results were shown in 12/81 blood specimens (14.81%). Nucleotide sequences from the PCR products were analyzed using BLAST and resulted in identification of Ehrlichia canis (8), Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum (1) and Anaplasma platys (3). Two other PCR assays were used to detect and identify the positive results of these pathogens including a specific PCR for Ehrlichia canis (gp36) and a specific nested-PCR for hemoplasma species (16S rRNA) and the phylogenetic analyses of E. canis and canine hemoplasmas were performed using these two loci. These specific PCRs revealed co-infection of E. canis and Mycoplasma haemocanis in two cases. These two male dogs had presented with jaundice, severe hemolytic anemia, severe thrombocytopenia, leukocytosis, mild azotemia and hepatitis. Ehrlichia canis was detected in a significantly greater number of severe anemia cases (PCVcanis infections (odds ratio: 7.11, p=0.020). However, no statistical differences were detected between E. canis detection and degrees of thrombocytopenia or leukopenia. From the results of this study, we conclude that the severity of anemia is associated with E. canis infections rather than the severity of thrombocytopenia.

  7. Two new and two redescribed species of Anonchotaenia (Cestoda: Paruterinidae) from South American birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Anna J; Georgiev, Boyko B; Waeschenbach, Andrea; Mariaux, Jean

    2014-10-01

    several species of different passerine families that participate in mixed-species foraging flocks in the Atlantic Forest. A diversity of species of other families join these flocks and are among the substantial number of South American passerine species yet to be examined for cestodes.

  8. Genetic diversity of Ehrlichia canis in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, D M; Zhang, X; Melo, A L T; Pacheco, T A; Meneses, A M C; Zanutto, M S; Horta, M C; Santarém, V A; Camargo, L M A; McBride, J W; Labruna, M B

    2013-06-28

    Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis is a highly prevalent disease in Brazil, where the genetic diversity of Ehrlichia canis remains undefined. In this study, we used the TRP36 gene to examine the genetic diversity of E. canis strains from naturally infected dogs residing in five distinct geographic regions in Brazil. E. canis DNA was detected in 82/126 (65%) dogs by dsb-specific PCR and E. canis was isolated in cell culture from 13 dogs. Sequences obtained from dsb genes amplified from the isolates were identical to the US E. canis strain. An extended molecular characterization based on the TRP36 gene identified two major genogroups based on differences among eight isolates. Isolates with tandem repeat amino acid sequence (TEDSVSAPA) identical to the previously reported TRP36 sequence were found in the midwest, northeast and southeast regions of Brazil, and classified into the US genogroup. A novel Brazilian genotype with a different tandem repeat sequence (ASVVPEAE) was also identified in midwest, northern and southern regions. Similarity in the N-terminal sequence of a US genogroup member with the Brazilian genogroup suggested that genomic recombination between the two genogroups may have occurred. Other subtypes within the Brazilian genogroup were also identified using C-terminal amino acid divergence. We identified two distinct major Brazilian genogroups and several subtypes based on analysis of TRP36, and such information will be useful for further genotyping and possible associations with disease severity, understanding of the genetic and antigenic variability of E. canis, and for developing strain-specific vaccines and diagnostic methods based on TRP36.

  9. Evolution of leaf blade anatomy in Allium (Amaryllidaceae) subgenus Amerallium with a focus on the North American species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashayekhi, Saeideh; Columbus, J Travis

    2014-01-01

    Reconstructing ancestral states is a useful method to understand the pathway and patterns of character evolution and to test specific hypotheses within a phylogenetic context. Using a phylogenetic hypothesis of the subgenus Amerallium and related subgenera based on molecular data, we reconstructed the evolutionary history of leaf blade anatomical characters and identified those characters that are most congruent with phylogenetic relationships. Furthermore, we used these character histories to investigate the evolution of terete leaves and explore a possible correlation between environment and leaf anatomy in the North American species. Sixty-seven North American and Old World species were sampled from all major infrageneric taxa and lineages for transectional leaf anatomy. To provide a phylogenetic framework for interpretation, representatives of Old World Amerallium and related subgenera were added to a published data matrix of North American taxa and ITS, ETS, trnL-F, and rpL32-trnL sequences. Four anatomical characters, namely leaf-blade shape in transection, presence versus absence of palisade mesophyll, distribution and orientation of vascular bundles, and position of laticifer cells, were found to be congruent with phylogenetic relationships and useful diagnostic traits within North American species. Character reconstructions show that terete leaves in North American species evolved from flattened leaves via a possible transition from subterete to terete leaves. Furthermore, terete leaves possess traits that are indicative of possible adaptation to xeric environments. The findings from this study provide valuable information for understanding the evolution of leaf-blade anatomy in North American Allium species.

  10. Porites randalli: A new coral species (Scleractinia, Poritidae) from American Samoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsman, Z.H.; Birkeland, C.

    2009-01-01

    A new species of scleractinian coral, Porites randalli spec. nov. (Scleractinia, Poritidae), previously known as Porites sp. 2, is described from American Samoa. P. randalli typically forms small pale green colonies that are usually <5 cm in diameter, with a surface reticulated with small (0.5 cm-2 cm) nubbins or protuberances. Colonies have been observed between 1-12 m depths in a variety of reef habitats and are among the most common corals in American Samoa. Corallites are approximately 1 mm in diameter and are sunken with a visible ring of pali. The columella is either lacking or small, with 1,2 or no radii, six pali (five large and a small one on the dorsal septum). Corallite walls rise gradually with concentric rows of denticles. Porites randalli spec. nov. is an example of cryptic diversity; it is a small coral that at first glance can be overlooked or mistaken for a young colony of other species. ?? 2009 Magnolia Press.

  11. Spatial ecology and demography of eastern coyotes (Canis latrans) in western Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Morin, Dana Janine

    2015-01-01

    Coyote (Canis latrans) range expansion in the Central Appalachian Mountains has stimulated interest in ecology of this predator and potential impacts to prey populations. This is particularly true in the Ridge and Valley Region in western Virginia where white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) populations are restricted by low nutritional carrying capacity and are subject to two other predators, bobcats (Lynx rufus) and American black bears (Ursus americanus), in addition to an active hunte...

  12. Species distribution and antifungal susceptibility profile of Candida spp. bloodstream isolates from Latin American hospitals

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    Godoy Patrício

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available From March 1999 to March 2000, we conducted a prospective multicenter study of candidemia involving five tertiary care hospitals from four countries in Latin America. Yeast isolates were identified by classical methods and the antifungal susceptibility profile was determined according to the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards microbroth assay method. During a 12 month-period we were able to collect a total of 103 bloodstream isolates of Candida spp. C. albicans was the most frequently isolated species accounting for 42% of all isolates. Non-albicans Candida species strains accounted for 58% of all episodes of candidemia and were mostly represented by C. tropicalis (24.2% and C. parapsilosis (21.3%. It is noteworthy that we were able to identify two cases of C. lusitaniae from different institutions. In our casuistic, non-albicans Candida species isolates related to candidemic episodes were susceptible to fluconazole. Continuously surveillance programs are needed in order to identify possible changes in the species distribution and antifungal susceptibility patterns of yeasts that may occurs after increasing the use of azoles in Latin American hospitals.

  13. Biology of three species of North American Triatominae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae fed on rabbits

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    José Alejandro Martínez-Ibarra

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Aspects related to hatching, lifetime, number of blood meals for molting, mortality, feeding time, and postfeeding defecation delay were evaluated and compared in each instar of three North American Triatominae: Triatoma gerstaeckeri, Triatoma lecticularia and Triatoma protracta, all of them fed on rabbits. No significant differences (p > 0.05 were found among the three species regarding mean hatching rate, which was close to 20 days. Egg-to-adult development times were significantly shorter (p < 0.05 for T. lecticularia. Number of blood meals for molting to next instar ranged from one to five for T. protracta, and from one to six for T. gerstaeckeri and T. lecticularia. Mortality rates were higher in younger nymphs of T. lecticularia and T. protracta, while rates in T. gerstaeckeri were higher in fifth-instar nymphs. Mean feeding time was longest in T. gerstaeckeri, followed by T. lecticularia. More than twice the number of T. gerstaeckeri nymphs completed the development process, if compared to the nymphs from the other two species. Defecation delay was less than 10 min for T. lecticularia, T. protracta and the youngest nymphs of T. gerstaeckeri. Results point out that these three species may be important potential vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi for human populations, in areas of Mexico where these species are currently present.

  14. Fecal shedding of Toxocara canis and other parasites in foxes and coyotes on Prince Edward Island, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wapenaar, Wendela; Barkema, Herman W; O'Handley, Ryan

    2013-04-01

    Knowledge of parasites shed by wild canids can assist in recognizing risk to human and domestic animal health. Our aim was to estimate the prevalence of patent infections with Toxocara canis and other parasites in foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and coyotes (Canis latrans) in Prince Edward Island, Canada. Identification of parasite species was based on microscopic examination of feces, with the use of a sucrose fecal flotation method. Sample collection was performed in winter on carcasses of 271 and 185 hunted or trapped foxes and coyotes, respectively. One or more parasite species were observed in 242 (89%) foxes and 128 (69%) coyotes. Toxocara canis, Uncinaria stenocephala, Capillaria spp., Mesocestoides, Taenidd spp., Alaria spp., Cryptocotyle lingua, Sarcocystis spp., Neospora caninum-like coccidia, and other coccidia were identified. A third of juvenile foxes were shedding T. canis and had a high prevalence of Capillaria spp., especially in juvenile foxes (69%). Taenidd eggs, Alaria spp. and Sarcocystis spp. were more common in coyotes (24, 18, and 9%, respectively) than foxes (8, 11, and 1%, respectively). Despite the limitations of fecal flotation to identify parasite species, the high prevalence of T. canis warrants the attention of public health professionals.

  15. Central American ants of the genus Megalomyrmex Forel (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): six new species and keys to workers and males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudinot, Brendon E; Sumnicht, Theodore P; Adams, Rachelle M M

    2013-11-04

    Megalomyrmex Forel is a distinctive lineage of Neotropical ants, some of which are specialized parasites or predators of the fungus-growing ants Attini. Here we review and key the Central American fauna. Six new species are described from both female castes: M. brandaoi sp. n., M. fungiraptor sp. n., M. longinoi sp. n., M. milenae sp. n., M. megadrifti sp. n. and M. osadrifti sp. n. A worker-based key to all Central American species is presented, and all species are illustrated. Megalomyrmex drifti Kempf is redescribed and the first descriptions of queens for M. miri Brandão and M. foreli Emery are provided. New biological information, several new geographic records, and a discussion of the species-group schema of Brandão (1990) are presented. The male sex of Megalomyrmex is diagnosed at the genus-level and keyed to species for the Central American fauna, where known. The male of each species treated in the key is diagnosed, described, or redescribed. Males are known for fourteen out of twenty total Central American Megalomyrmex species. A distinct but unassociated male is described and keyed (M. male 01). The males of M. miri Brandão and M. wettereri Brandão are described for the first time, and the distinctness of these two species is confirmed. One potential synapomorphy of Megalomyrmex present in males and workers is the presence of a carina which posteriorly delimits the basalmost region of the petiolar dorsum. 

  16. The effect of organic acids on base cation leaching from the forest floor under six North American tree species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, F.A.; Geibe, C.; Holmstrom, S.; Lundstrom, U.S.; Breemen, van N.

    2001-01-01

    Organic acidity and its degree of neutralization in the forest floor can have large consequences for base cation leaching under different tree species. We investigated the effect of organic acids on base cation leaching from the forest floor under six common North American tree species. Forest floor

  17. Native mycorrhizal fungi replace introduced fungal species on Virginia pine and American chestnut planted on reclaimed mine sites of Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivanand Hiremath; Kirsten Lehtoma; Jenise M. Bauman

    2014-01-01

    Plant-microbe community dynamics influence the natural succession of plant species where pioneer vegetation facilitates the establishment of a distantly related, later successional plant species. This has been observed in the case of restoration of the American chestnut (Castanea dentata) on abandoned mine land where Virginia pine (Pinus...

  18. The effect of organic acids on base cation leaching from the forest floor under six North American tree species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, F.A.; Geibe, C.; Holmstrom, S.; Lundstrom, U.S.; Breemen, van N.

    2001-01-01

    Organic acidity and its degree of neutralization in the forest floor can have large consequences for base cation leaching under different tree species. We investigated the effect of organic acids on base cation leaching from the forest floor under six common North American tree species. Forest floor

  19. Ecologia del Lupo (Canis lupus) in Provincia di Genova: distribuzione, consistenza, alimentazione e impatto sulla zootecnia

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Schenone; Claudio Aristarchi; Alberto Meriggi

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Wolf Canis lupus ecology in Genoa province (northern Italy): species range, population, diet, and impact on livestock breeding
    From 1998 to 2003 we monitored the wolf population of Genoa province (Northern Italy) to define its range and number, and to know the feeding habits of the species and the predation impact upon animal husbandry. By recording and mapping all the presence signs (sighti...

  20. SCM, the M Protein of Streptococcus canis Binds Immunoglobulin G

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Simone; Eichhorn, Inga; Kohler, Thomas P.; Hammerschmidt, Sven; Goldmann, Oliver; Rohde, Manfred; Fulde, Marcus

    2017-01-01

    The M protein of Streptococcus canis (SCM) is a virulence factor and serves as a surface-associated receptor with a particular affinity for mini-plasminogen, a cleavage product of the broad-spectrum serine protease plasmin. Here, we report that SCM has an additional high-affinity immunoglobulin G (IgG) binding activity. The ability of a particular S. canis isolate to bind to IgG significantly correlates with a scm-positive phenotype, suggesting a dominant role of SCM as an IgG receptor. Subsequent heterologous expression of SCM in non-IgG binding S. gordonii and Western Blot analysis with purified recombinant SCM proteins confirmed its IgG receptor function. As expected for a zoonotic agent, the SCM-IgG interaction is species-unspecific, with a particular affinity of SCM for IgGs derived from human, cats, dogs, horses, mice, and rabbits, but not from cows and goats. Similar to other streptococcal IgG-binding proteins, the interaction between SCM and IgG occurs via the conserved Fc domain and is, therefore, non-opsonic. Interestingly, the interaction between SCM and IgG-Fc on the bacterial surface specifically prevents opsonization by C1q, which might constitute another anti-phagocytic mechanism of SCM. Extensive binding analyses with a variety of different truncated SCM fragments defined a region of 52 amino acids located in the central part of the mature SCM protein which is important for IgG binding. This binding region is highly conserved among SCM proteins derived from different S. canis isolates but differs significantly from IgG-Fc receptors of S. pyogenes and S. dysgalactiae sub. equisimilis, respectively. In summary, we present an additional role of SCM in the pathogen-host interaction of S. canis. The detailed analysis of the SCM-IgG interaction should contribute to a better understanding of the complex roles of M proteins in streptococcal pathogenesis. PMID:28401063

  1. Babesia canis vogeli, Ehrlichia canis, and Anaplasma platys infection in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Izzi, Salah; Martin, Donald S; Chan, Roxanne Y Y; Leutenegger, Christian M

    2013-12-01

    A 12-month-old male neutered mixed breed dog was presented with a history of diarrhea, lethargy, emaciation, polydypsia, and sniffling. Physical examination findings included pale mucous membranes, increased heart and respiratory rates, and normal rectal temperature (38°C). Hematologic abnormalities included anemia and thrombocytopenia. Biochemical abnormalities included hypoalbuminemia, hyperbilirubinemia, and elevated ALP and ALT activities. A SNAP 4Dx test result was positive for Ehrlichia canis. Babesia canis vogeli organisms were found in the peripheral blood films, while morulae of E canis were not seen. Real-time polymerase chain reaction testing confirmed the presence of both B c vogeli and E canis organisms, and also was positive for Anaplasma platys infection. The dog recovered following treatment with doxycycline and imidocarb dipropionate, with normal hematology and biochemical profiles.

  2. Serology, molecular detection and risk factors of Ehrlichia canis infection in dogs in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrantes-González, Alexander V; Jiménez-Rocha, Ana E; Romero-Zuñiga, Juan José; Dolz, Gaby

    2016-10-01

    A cross-sectional study combining different serological and molecular techniques for the detection of Ehrlichia species in dogs and their ticks was carried out with data from all regions of Costa Rica. A seroprevalence of 32.1% (131/408), and infection with E. canis of 3.2% (13/407) was found, whereas 6.9% (9/130) of ticks attached to the dogs were PCR positive to E. canis. Higher prevalences were found outside the Greater Metropolitan Area (GMA). Risk factors associated with E. canis seropositivity were age, between 2 and 7 years (RR: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.2-2.2) and 8-15 years (RR: 1.8, 95% CI: 1.2-3.0), number of dogs/total of households [Dogs per Household Ratio (DHR) ≥3.1 (RR: 2.0; 95% CI: 1.4-3.0)], number of dogs infested with at least one tick/total of dogs sampled [Tick Infestation Prevalence (TIP)≥31% (RR: 2.1; 95% CI:1.3-3.3)] and living outside the GMA (RR: 1.7; 95% CI: 1.2-2.4) and being a mixed-breed dog (RR: 1.5; 95% CI: 1.1-2.1). Risk factors for E. canis PCR positive dogs were a depressive attitude (OR: 11.2; 95% CI: 1.1-115.9), fever (OR:4.8; 95% CI:1.2-19.3), DHR≥3.1 (OR: 5.7; 95% CI:1.7-19.2)], number of ticks/total of dogs sampled [Tick Distribution Ratio (TDR) ≥2.1 (OR: 6.5; 95% CI: 1.3-31.8)], and TIP≥40% (OR: 5.7; 95% CI: 1.7-19.2). This paper describes E. canis seroprevalence, PCR prevalence and tick analysis in dogs from Costa Rica, with associated clinical signs and owner perceptions. In summary, most of the E. canis infections in dogs in our country seemed to pass unnoticed by owners. Since most of the seropositive dogs (97.7%, 131/134) were negative for E. canis DNA in their blood, it is important to determine in future studies if these dogs recovered from the E. canis infection without any medication, or are persistently infected, and will develop chronic disease.

  3. A new species of Ascocotyle (Trematoda: Heterophyidae) from the South American sea lion, Otaria flavescens, off Patagonia, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Orts, Jesús Servando; Montero, Francisco Esteban; Crespo, Enrique Alberto; García, Néstor Aníbal; Raga, Juan Antonio; Aznar, Francisco Javier

    2012-08-01

    We describe a new heterophyid species, Ascocotyle (Ascocotyle) patagoniensis n. sp., based on specimens collected from the intestines of the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens from Patagonia (Argentina). Ascocotyle (A.) patagoniensis n. sp. is distinguished from the other species of the subgenus by the number of circumoral spines, which are arranged in 2 rows of 18 to 23. The new species also differs from the other species in having a gonotyl without papillae. The specimens exhibited the widest seminal receptacle described for a species of this subgenus. Species of the subgenus Ascocotyle usually infect fish-eating birds or mammals in freshwater or brackish habitats. Ascocotyle (A.) patagoniensis n. sp. is the first species of the subgenus described from a marine mammal. However, no metacercariae of Ascocotyle spp. were found in 542 marine teleosts from 20 species collected in the same locality. The life cycle of the marine species from the Ascocotyle -complex infecting pinnipeds remains elusive.

  4. Multiplexed shotgun genotyping resolves species relationships within the North American genus Penstemon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessinger, Carolyn A; Freeman, Craig C; Mort, Mark E; Rausher, Mark D; Hileman, Lena C

    2016-05-01

    Evolutionary radiations provide opportunities to examine large-scale patterns in diversification and character evolution, yet are often recalcitrant to phylogenetic resolution due to rapid speciation events. The plant genus Penstemon has been difficult to resolve using Sanger sequence-based markers, leading to the hypothesis that it represents a recent North American radiation. The current study demonstrates the utility of multiplexed shotgun genotyping (MSG), a style of restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RADseq), to infer phylogenetic relationships within a subset of species in this genus and provide insight into evolutionary patterns. We sampled genomic DNA, primarily from herbarium material, and subjected it to MSG library preparation and Illumina sequencing. The resultant sequencing reads were clustered into homologous loci, aligned, and concatenated into data matrices that differed according to clustering similarity and amount of missing data. We performed phylogenetic analyses on these matrices using maximum likelihood (RAxML) and a species tree approach (SVDquartets). MSG data provide a highly resolved estimate of species relationships within Penstemon. While most species relationships were highly supported, the position of certain taxa remains ambiguous, suggesting that increased taxonomic sampling or additional methodologies may be required. The data confirm that evolutionary shifts from hymenopteran- to hummingbird-adapted flowers have occurred independently many times. This study demonstrates that phylogenomic approaches yielding thousands of variable sites can greatly improve species-level resolution of recent and rapid radiations. Similar to other studies, we found that less conservative similarity and missing data thresholds resulted in more highly supported topologies. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  5. Expression analysis and identification of antimicrobial peptide transcripts from six North American frog species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Laura S.; Fellers, Gary M.; Marranca, Jamie Marie; Kleeman, Patrick M.

    2013-01-01

    Frogs secrete antimicrobial peptides onto their skin. We describe an assay to preserve and analyze antimicrobial peptide transcripts from field-collected skin secretions that will complement existing methods for peptide analysis. We collected skin secretions from 4 North American species in the field in California and 2 species in the laboratory. Most frogs appeared healthy after release; however, Rana boylii in the Sierra Nevada foothills, but not the Coast Range, showed signs of morbidity and 2 died after handling. The amount of total RNA extracted from skin secretions was higher in R. boylii and R. sierrae compared to R. draytonii, and much higher compared to Pseudacris regilla. Interspecies variation in amount of RNA extracted was not explained by size, but for P. regilla it depended upon collection site and date. RNA extracted from skin secretions from frogs handled with bare hands had poor quality compared to frogs handled with gloves or plastic bags. Thirty-four putative antimicrobial peptide precursor transcripts were identified. This study demonstrates that RNA extracted from skin secretions collected in the field is of high quality suitable for use in sequencing or quantitative PCR (qPCR). However, some species do not secrete profusely, resulting in very little extracted RNA. The ability to measure transcript abundance of antimicrobial peptides in field-collected skin secretions complements proteomic analyses and may provide insight into transcriptional mechanisms that could affect peptide abundance.

  6. In vitro evaluation of the antibacterial activity of extracts from 34 species of North American lichens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Gajendra; Raphael, Jocelyn; Leavitt, Steven D; St Clair, Larry L

    2014-10-01

    The emergence of antibiotic resistant pathogens is a serious global health threat. Hence, the search for new antibiotic drugs from various natural sources should be given high priority. Lichens produce a variety of low molecular weight metabolic compounds and many cultures have utilized these compounds in traditional medicine for centuries. Report the antibiotic properties of extracts from 34 North American lichens screened against four pathogenic bacteria. The micro-well dilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of acetone and methanol extracts of 34 lichen species against four bacterial strains. Major chemical compounds in each species were identified using thin layer chromatography (TLC). Most of the lichen extracts demonstrated inhibitory effects against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) with MIC values ranging from 3.9 to 500 µg/ml. In addition, extracts from three species, Letharia columbiana (Nutt.) J. W. Thomson (Parmeliaceae), Letharia vulpina (L.) Hue (Parmeliaceae), and Vulpicida canadensis (Räsänen) J.-E. Mattsson & M. J. Lai (Parmeliaceae) (MIC = 125-500 µg/ml) were also effective against Escherichia coli. Generally, acetone extractions were found to be more effective than methanol extractions. Results of this study show that lichen extracts provide significant antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. These results suggest that lichens may be an important potential source of antibacterial drugs.

  7. Clinical Sarcocystis neurona, Sarcocystis canis, Toxoplasma gondii, and Neospora caninum infections in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Chapman, Jennifer L; Rosenthal, Benjamin M; Mense, M; Schueler, Ronald L

    2006-04-15

    Sarcocystis neurona, Sarcocystis canis, Toxoplasma gondii, and Neospora caninum are related apicomplexans that can cause systemic illness in many species of animals, including dogs. We investigated one breeder's 25 Basset Hounds for these infections. In addition, tissues from dogs and other non-canine hosts previously reported as S. canis infections were studied retrospectively. Schizonts resembling those of S. neurona, and recognized by polyclonal rabbit anti-S. neurona antibodies, were found in six of eight retrospective cases, as well as in two additional dogs (one Basset Hound, one Springer Spaniel) not previously reported. S. neurona schizonts were found in several tissues including the central nervous system, lungs, and kidneys. Fatal toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in an adult dog, and neosporosis was diagnosed in an adult and a pup related to the one diagnosed with S. neurona. No serological reactivity to S. neurona antibodies occurred when S. canis-like liver schizonts were retrospectively assayed from two dogs, a dolphin, a sea lion, a horse, a chinchilla, a black or either of two polar bears. Sequencing conserved (18S) and variable (ITS-1) portions of nuclear ribosomal DNA isolated from the schizont-laden liver of a polar bear distinguished it from all previously characterized species of Sarcocystis. We take this genetic signature as provisionally representative of S. canis, an assumption that should be tested with future sequencing of similar liver infections in other mammalian hosts. These findings further extend the uncharacteristically broad intermediate host range for S. neurona, which also causes a neurologic disease in cats, mink, raccoons, skunks, Pacific harbor seals, ponies, zebras, lynxes, and sea otters. Further work is necessary to delineate the causative agent(s) of other cases of canine sarcocystosis, and in particular to specify the attributes of S. canis, which corresponds morphologically to infections reported from wide range of terrestrial

  8. Low salinity residual ballast discharge and exotic species introductions to the North American Great Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niimi, Arthur J; Reid, Donald M

    2003-10-01

    Exotic species introductions to the North American Great Lakes have continued even though ballast water management strategies were implemented in the early 1990s. Overseas vessels that arrive with little or no exchangeable ballast on board have been suspected to be an important source for discharging low salinity ballast containing low salinity tolerant organisms in this region. Residual ballast averaged 18.1+/-13.4 per thousand salinity among 62 samples taken primarily from bottom tanks on 26 vessels that entered the Great Lakes in 1999 and 2000. Sampling of 2-4 tanks each on nine vessels indicated all carried at least one tank of residual ballast of

  9. Antibodies reactive with Bartonella henselae and Ehrlichia canis in dogs from the communal lands of Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.J. Kelly

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The prevalences of antibodies against Bartonella henselae and Ehrlichia canis were determined in sera from 228 dogs in 5 communal lands of Zimbabwe, areas where traditional subsistence agro-pastoralism is practised. The sera were collected from apparently healthy dogs during routine rabies vaccination programmes and tested with indirect fluorescent antibody assays using B. henselae (Houston-I and E. canis (Oklahoma as antigens. We found reactive antibodies (>1:80 against B. henselae in 14 % of the dogs tested. Seropositive animals were found in Bikita (41 %; 17/42, Omay (13 %; 6/48, Chinamora (5 %; 2/38 and Matusadona (15 %; 7/48. No seropositive dogs were found in Chiredzi (0 %; 0/52. Antibodies reactive with E. canis (>1:80 were found in 34%of the dogs tested, from Bikita (88 %; 37/42, Chiredzi (31 %; 16/52, Omay (17 %; 8/48, Chinamora (26 %; 10/38 and Matusadona (15 %; 7/48. Our survey shows dogs in the communal lands of Zimbabwe are frequently exposed to E. canis and B. henselae or closely related species. Further studies are indicated to determine the pathogenicity of the organisms infecting these dogs and their clinical significance.

  10. Molecular detection of Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis in dogs from Kabylie, Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahmani, Mustapha; Loudahi, Abdelghani; Mediannikov, Oleg; Fenollar, Florence; Raoult, Didier; Davoust, Bernard

    2015-03-01

    Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys are bacteria belonging to the Anaplasmataceae family that cause acute, self-limiting and sometimes fatal vector-borne infections in dogs. These bacteria have been reported worldwide and are transmitted mainly by Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Aside from a report on E. canis once in 1935, no other Anaplasmataceae bacteria have been reported in Algeria to date. The aim of this study was to identify the microbial species implicated in ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis by a molecular epidemiological survey in dogs. The study was carried out in Kabylie, in northeast Algeria. Sampling was performed in 11 municipalities in the province of Tizi Ouzou and 2 municipalities in the province of Béjaïa. Peripheral blood samples from 110 dogs were screened by qPCR, which is capable of identifying most Anaplasmataceae bacteria. Out of 110, a total of 13 samples screened positive (7/110 E. canis and 6/110 A. platys), and two genetic variants of A. platys and one of E. canis were identified. This is the first study to report the presence of A. platys in dogs from Algeria using a molecular investigative method. This survey was conducted in early spring. As tick activity can affect the prevalence of these pathogens in dogs, further investigations are needed to establish the year-round prevalence of these infections.

  11. First description of natural Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys infections in dogs from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiras, Diego Fernando; Craviotto, María Belén; Vezzani, Darío; Eyal, Osnat; Baneth, Gad

    2013-03-01

    Bacteria belonging to the Anaplasmataceae family are vector transmitted agents that affect a variety of vertebrate hosts including the tick-borne pathogens Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys, which cause canine monocytic ehrlichiosis and cyclic thrombocytopenia, respectively. These two infections, typically reported from tropical and sub-tropical regions, have not been previously reported in dogs from Argentina. A total of 86 blood samples from dogs with suspected rickettsial disease and 28 non-suspected dogs were studied. Analysis included evaluation of hematological findings, PCR for Ehrlichia and Anaplasma species and sequencing of the positive PCR products. E. canis was detected in the blood of six dogs and A. platys in eighteen. All the dogs categorized as non-suspected were negative by PCR. Co-infection with Hepatozoon canis and Babesia vogeli was documented. This first report of E. canis and A. platys infections in dogs from Argentina indicates that these tick-borne infections have a considerably broader range than previously recognized in South America.

  12. Use of Recombinant Antigens for Sensitive Serodiagnosis of American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis Caused by Different Leishmania Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Camila Massae; Sanchez, Maria Carmen Arroyo; Celeste, Beatriz Julieta; Duthie, Malcolm S.; Guderian, Jeffrey; Reed, Steven G.; de Brito, Maria Edileuza Felinto; Campos, Marliane Batista; de Souza Encarnação, Helia Valeria; Guerra, Jorge; de Mesquita, Tirza Gabrielle Ramos; Pinheiro, Suzana Kanawati; Ramasawmy, Rajendranath; Silveira, Fernando Tobias; de Assis Souza, Marina

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) (also known as cutaneous leishmaniasis [CL]) is caused by various species of protozoa of the genus Leishmania. The diagnosis is achieved on a clinical, epidemiological, and pathological basis, supported by positive parasitological exams and demonstration of leishmanin delayed-type hypersensitivity. Serological assays are not routinely used in the diagnosis because many are considered to have low sensitivity and the particular Leishmania species causing the disease can lead to variable performance. In the present study, we generated recombinant versions of two highly conserved Leishmania proteins, Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis-derived Lb8E and Lb6H, and evaluated both in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Recombinant Lb6H (rLb6H) had better performance and reacted with 100.0% of the ATL and 89.4% of the VL samples. These reactions with rLb6H were highly specific (98.5%) when compared against those for samples from healthy control individuals. We then assessed rLb6H against sera from ATL patients infected with different species of Leishmania prevalent in Brazil [Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis, L. (Viannia) braziliensis, and L. (V.) guyanensis] and samples from patients with other infectious diseases. In analyses of 500 sera, ELISA using rLb6H detected all 219 ATL samples (sensitivity of 100.0%) with an overall specificity of 93.9% (considering healthy individuals and other infectious diseases patients). Only a minority of samples from Chagas disease patients possessed antibodies against rLb6H, and all of these responses were low (with a highest reactivity index of 2.2). Taken together, our data support further evaluation of rLb6H and the potential for its routine use in the serological diagnosis of ATL. PMID:27927927

  13. A taxonomic revision of the Southern South American species of the genus Fannia Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera: Fanniidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Martha Cecilia Dominguez

    2007-01-01

    The Southern South American species of the genus Fannia Robineau-Desvoidy are revised. Twenty five valid species are recognized for the region in the present study: Fannia albitarsis Stein, Fannia anthracina (Walker), Fannia bigoti Stein, Fannia canicularis (Linnaeus), Fannia confusa Pont & Carvalho, Fannia coxata Shannon & Del Ponte, Fannia femoralis (Stein), Fannia flavicornis Stein, Fannia flavipalpis Stein, Fannia fusconotata (Rondani), Fannia heydenii (Wiedemann), Fannia hirtifemur (Stei...

  14. Fungal ovicidal activity on Toxocara canis eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Souza Maia Filho, Fernando; Nunes Vieira, Juliana; Aires Berne, Maria Elisabeth; Stoll, Franciele Elisa; Da Silva Nascente, Patricia; Pötter, Luciana; Brayer Pereira, Daniela Isabel

    2013-01-01

    Visceral toxocariasis is a parasitic zoonosis caused by Toxocara canis. The prevalence of this parasite in dogs, soil contamination and the resistance of eggs increase human exposure to the disease. Moreover, the difficulties of the control measures justify the need for alternative ones. The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro ovicidal activity of fungi isolated from soils from public places in the city of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, on Toxocara canis. Samples of soil from ten localities were inoculated onto Petri dishes with 2% water-agar (WA) that contained antibiotics, and incubated at 25°C/21 days. Isolated fungi were tested in vitro for ovicidal activity, with five replicates. One mL of an embryonated Toxocara canis egg suspension (10(3) eggs) was poured over the fungal cultures after 10 days of growth. At intervals of 7, 14 and 21 days, 100 eggs were removed from each plaque and evaluated by optical microscopy. Acremonium, Aspergillus, Bipolaris, Fusarium, Gliocladium, Mucor and Trichoderma were isolated from the soil. A significant ovicidal type 3 effect was observed in Trichoderma, Fusarium solani complex and Acremonium. Those isolates from the genus Trichoderma showed their ovicidal effect on the 14th day of fungus-egg interaction. The other fungal genera tested showed a type 2 effect. These results suggest that the use of Trichoderma and Fusarium solani complex in biological control of T. canis is promising; however, further studies should be performed. Copyright © 2012 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. A Spectroscopic Study of HL Canis Majoris

    OpenAIRE

    Sheets, H. A.; Thorstensen, John R.

    2005-01-01

    We present optical spectroscopy of the dwarf nova HL Canis Majoris over a span of four years. The observations were made during standstill, outburst, and quiescence. We determine an orbital period of 0.2167867 +/- 0.0000017 days, based on radial velocities determined from H-alpha, H-beta, and He I 5876 emission. We also present equivalent widths of the spectral features in outburst and in quiescence.

  16. Canine vector-borne co-infections: Ehrlichia canis and Hepatozoon canis in the same host monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baneth, Gad; Harrus, Shimon; Gal, Arnon; Aroch, Itamar

    2015-02-28

    The protozoon Hepatozoon canis and the rickettsia Ehrlichia canis are tick-borne pathogens, transmitted by Rhipicephalus sanguineus, which cause canine hepatozoonosis and canine monocytic ehrlichiosis, respectively. Co-infection of the same host monocytes with H. canis and E. canis confirmed by molecular characterization of the infecting agents and quantitative assessment of co-infected cells is described for the first time in three naturally-infected dogs. Blood smear evaluation indicated that at least 50% of the leukocytes infected with H. canis gamonts contained E. canis morulae. Co-infection of the same host cell demonstrated in this report suggests that infection with one pathogen may permit or enhance invasion or prolonged cellular survival of the other.

  17. The transmission of Babesia canis to the wild dog Lycaon pictus (Temminck) and black-backed jackal Canis mesomelas Schreber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Heerden, J

    1980-06-01

    Babesia canis was successfully transmitted from the domestic dog to 3 wild dogs Lycaon pictus and 4 black-backed jackals Canis mesomelas. Both wild dogs and black-backed jackals showed no clinical signs or clinical pathological evidence of disease. Trophozoites of Babesia canis were found in peripheral blood smears from all experimental animals. The disease was also successfully transmitted from both black-backed jackals and wild dogs to the domestic dog.

  18. Comparative Foraging Efficiency of Two Sympatric Jackals, Silver-Backed Jackals (Canis mesomelas and Golden Jackals (Canis aureus, in the Ngorongoro Crater, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Temu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The foraging efficiency of two sympatric species of jackals, silver-backed jackals (Canis mesomelas and golden jackals (Canis aureus, was studied in the Ngorongoro crater from July 2014 through May 2015. The focal animal observation method was used and individuals of both species were followed as they foraged from morning to evening. Observations of individuals of both jackal species were made from a vehicle using binoculars and a spotting scope. Three major parameters were used for determination of foraging efficiency: distance travelled while foraging, time spent foraging, and amount of food secured in foraging period. The Mann–Whitney U test showed no significant difference (P>0.05 in distance travelled per unit time of foraging between the two species in the dry and wet seasons, respectively. Golden jackals secured a significantly higher amount of food than the silver-backed jackals in the wet season (Mann–Whitney U test, P<0.05, U=1035.4. Hunting of prey larger than Thomson’s gazelle (Eudorcas thomsonii fawns was not common. Both species mainly fed on smaller prey such as invertebrates and rodents and scavenged opportunistically. Efficient foraging is crucial for both jackal species especially during their breeding season when they are provisioning dependent pups.

  19. The susceptibility of Asian, European and North American Fraxinus species to the ash dieback pathogen Hymenoscyphus fraxineus reflects their phylogenetic history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lene R.; McKinney, Lea V.; Hietala, Ari M.;

    2016-01-01

    that there is species-specific variation in disease susceptibility among European and North American Fraxinus species, but a wider comparison at the genus level has been missing so far. We assessed disease symptoms and pathogen apothecium development in 17 Fraxinus species from Asia, Europe and North America exposed...... susceptibility where closely related Asian, European and North American species in section Fraxinus had relatively high levels of H. fraxineus DNA in the leaves and supported high production of apothecia. Leaves from some North American species also contained relatively high levels of H. fraxineus DNA, supported...

  20. Interspecific coordination and intraspecific plasticity of fine root traits in North American temperate tree species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Marie Tobner

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Fine roots play an important role in nutrient and water absorption and hence overall tree performance. However, current understanding of the ecological role of belowground traits lags considerably behind those of aboveground traits. In this study, we used data on specific root length (SRL, fine root diameter (D and branching intensity (BI of two datasets to examine interspecific trait coordination as well as intraspecific trait variation across ontogenetic stage and soil conditions (i.e. plasticity. The first dataset included saplings of twelve North American temperate tree species grown in monocultures in a common garden experiment to examine interspecific trait coordination. The second dataset included adult and juvenile individuals of four species (present in both datasets co-occurring in natural forests on contrasting soils (i.e. humid organic, mesic and xeric podzolic. The three fine root traits investigated were strongly coordinated, with high SRL being related to low D and high BI. Fine root traits and aboveground life-strategies (i.e. relative growth rate were weakly coordinated and never significant. Intraspecific responses to changes in ontogenetic stage or soil conditions were trait dependent. SRL was significantly higher in juveniles compared to adults for A. balsamea and A. rubrum, but did not vary with soil condition. BI did not vary significantly with either ontogeny or soil conditions, while D was generally significantly lower in juveniles and higher in humid organic soils. D also had the least total (natural variation most of which was due to changes in the environment (plasticity. This study brings support for the emerging evidence for interspecific root trait coordination in trees. It also indicates that intraspecific responses to both ontogeny and soil conditions are trait dependent and less concerted. D appears to be a better indicator of environmental change than SRL and BI.

  1. Canis mtDNA HV1 database: a web-based tool for collecting and surveying Canis mtDNA HV1 haplotype in public database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thai, Quan Ke; Chung, Dung Anh; Tran, Hoang-Dung

    2017-06-26

    Canine and wolf mitochondrial DNA haplotypes, which can be used for forensic or phylogenetic analyses, have been defined in various schemes depending on the region analyzed. In recent studies, the 582 bp fragment of the HV1 region is most commonly used. 317 different canine HV1 haplotypes have been reported in the rapidly growing public database GenBank. These reported haplotypes contain several inconsistencies in their haplotype information. To overcome this issue, we have developed a Canis mtDNA HV1 database. This database collects data on the HV1 582 bp region in dog mitochondrial DNA from the GenBank to screen and correct the inconsistencies. It also supports users in detection of new novel mutation profiles and assignment of new haplotypes. The Canis mtDNA HV1 database (CHD) contains 5567 nucleotide entries originating from 15 subspecies in the species Canis lupus. Of these entries, 3646 were haplotypes and grouped into 804 distinct sequences. 319 sequences were recognized as previously assigned haplotypes, while the remaining 485 sequences had new mutation profiles and were marked as new haplotype candidates awaiting further analysis for haplotype assignment. Of the 3646 nucleotide entries, only 414 were annotated with correct haplotype information, while 3232 had insufficient or lacked haplotype information and were corrected or modified before storing in the CHD. The CHD can be accessed at http://chd.vnbiology.com . It provides sequences, haplotype information, and a web-based tool for mtDNA HV1 haplotyping. The CHD is updated monthly and supplies all data for download. The Canis mtDNA HV1 database contains information about canine mitochondrial DNA HV1 sequences with reconciled annotation. It serves as a tool for detection of inconsistencies in GenBank and helps identifying new HV1 haplotypes. Thus, it supports the scientific community in naming new HV1 haplotypes and to reconcile existing annotation of HV1 582 bp sequences.

  2. Meta-analysis of relationships between human offtake, total mortality and population dynamics of gray wolves (Canis lupus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Creel

    Full Text Available Following the growth and geographic expansion of wolf (Canis lupus populations reintroduced to Yellowstone National Park and central Idaho in 1995-1996, Rocky Mountain wolves were removed from the endangered species list in May 2009. Idaho and Montana immediately established hunting seasons with quotas equaling 20% of the regional wolf population. Combining hunting with predator control, 37.1% of Montana and Idaho wolves were killed in the year of delisting. Hunting and predator control are well-established methods to broaden societal acceptance of large carnivores, but it is unprecedented for a species to move so rapidly from protection under the Endangered Species Act to heavy direct harvest, and it is important to use all available data to assess the likely consequences of these changes in policy. For wolves, it is widely argued that human offtake has little effect on total mortality rates, so that a harvest of 28-50% per year can be sustained. Using previously published data from 21 North American wolf populations, we related total annual mortality and population growth to annual human offtake. Contrary to current conventional wisdom, there was a strong association between human offtake and total mortality rates across North American wolf populations. Human offtake was associated with a strongly additive or super-additive increase in total mortality. Population growth declined as human offtake increased, even at low rates of offtake. Finally, wolf populations declined with harvests substantially lower than the thresholds identified in current state and federal policies. These results should help to inform management of Rocky Mountain wolves.

  3. How Many Parasites Species a Frog Might Have? Determinants of Parasite Diversity in South American Anurans.

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    Karla Magalhães Campião

    Full Text Available There is an increasing interest in unveiling the dynamics of parasite infection. Understanding the interaction patterns, and determinants of host-parasite association contributes to filling knowledge gaps in both community and disease ecology. Despite being targeted as a relevant group for conservation efforts, determinants of the association of amphibians and their parasites in broad scales are poorly understood. Here we describe parasite biodiversity in South American amphibians, testing the influence of host body size and geographic range in helminth parasites species richness (PSR. We also test whether parasite diversity is related to hosts' phylogenetic diversity. Results showed that nematodes are the most common anuran parasites. Host-parasite network has a nested pattern, with specialist helminth taxa generally associated with hosts that harbour the richest parasite faunas. Host size is positively correlated with helminth fauna richness, but we found no support for the association of host geographic range and PSR. These results remained consistent after correcting for uneven study effort and hosts' phylogenic correlation. However, we found no association between host and parasite diversity, indicating that more diversified anuran clades not necessarily support higher parasite diversity. Overall, considering both the structure and the determinants of PRS in anurans, we conclude that specialist parasites are more likely to be associated with large anurans, which are the ones harbouring higher PSR, and that the lack of association of PSR with hosts' clade diversification suggests it is strongly influenced by ecological and contemporary constrains.

  4. First record of Wolbachia in South American terrestrial isopods: prevalence and diversity in two species of Balloniscus (Crustacea, Oniscidea

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    Mauricio Pereira Almerão

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wolbachia are endosymbiotic bacteria that commonly infect arthropods, inducing certain phenotypes in their hosts. So far, no endemic South American species of terrestrial isopods have been investigated for Wolbachia infection. In this work, populations from two species of Balloniscus (B. sellowii and B. glaber were studied through a diagnostic PCR assay. Fifteen new Wolbachia 16S rDNA sequences were detected. Wolbachia found in both species were generally specific to one population, and five populations hosted two different Wolbachia 16S rDNA sequences. Prevalence was higher in B. glaber than in B. sellowii, but uninfected populations could be found in both species. Wolbachia strains from B. sellowii had a higher genetic variation than those isolated from B. glaber. AMOVA analyses showed that most of the genetic variance was distributed among populations of each species rather than between species, and the phylogenetic analysis suggested that Wolbachia strains from Balloniscus cluster within Supergroup B, but do not form a single monophyletic clade, suggesting multiple infections for this group. Our results highlight the importance of studying Wolbachia prevalence and genetic diversity in Neotropical species and suggest that South American arthropods may harbor a great number of diverse strains, providing an interesting model to investigate the evolution of Wolbachia and its hosts.

  5. Viability and fertilizing capacity of cryopreserved sperm from three North American acipenseriform species: A retrospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, A.; Wayman, W.R.; Dean, J.C.; Urbanyi, B.; Tiersch, T.R.; Mims, S.D.; Johnson, D.; Jenkins, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Populations of sturgeon across the globe are threatened due to unregulated harvest and habitat loss, and the status varies among species across North America. Ready access to viable and functional sperm would contribute to recovery programmes for these species. In this study, we examined the motility, viability (cell membrane integrity) of cryopreserved sperm from three North American acipenseriform species and fertilizing capacity. Milt samples were collected from captive shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum), wild paddlefish (Polyodon spathula) and pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) and cryopreserved using combinations of Modified Tsvetkova's (MT) extender, Original Tsvetkova's extender, and modified Hanks' balanced salt solution, along with the cryoprotectants methanol (MeOH) or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). A dual-staining technique using the fluorescent stains SYBR-14 and propidium iodide was employed with flow cytometry to determine the percentages of spermatozoa that were viable by virtue of having intact membranes. The percentage of viable spermatozoa ranged from 5% to 12% in shortnose sturgeon, 30-59% in paddlefish, and 44-58% in pallid sturgeon. In the first experiment with shortnose sturgeon sperm, methanol allowed for higher values for dependent variables than did DMSO, and sperm viability generally correlated with post-thaw motility. However, fertilization rate, neurulation, or hatching rates were independent from these factors. In the second experiment with shortnose sturgeon, 5% MeOH combined with MT yielded higher values for all parameters tested than the other combinations: viability was correlated with motility, fertilization rate, and hatching rate. Overall, viability and post-thaw motility was not affected by the use of hyperosmotic extenders (OT) or cryoprotectants (DMSO), but their use decreased fertilization percentages. For paddlefish sperm (experiment 3), MT combined with 10% MeOH was clearly a good choice for cryopreservation

  6. Production of Toxocara cati TES-120 Recombinant Antigen and Comparison with its T. canis Homolog for Serodiagnosis of Toxocariasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahabiun, Farzaneh; Sadjjadi, Seyed Mahmoud; Yunus, Muhammad Hafiznur; Rahumatullah, Anizah; Moghaddam, Mohammad Hosein Falaki; Saidin, Syazwan; Noordin, Rahmah

    2015-08-01

    Toxocariasis is a cosmopolitan zoonotic disease caused by the infective larvae of Toxocara canis and T. cati. Diagnosis in humans is usually based on clinical symptoms and serology. Immunoglobulin G (IgG)-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits using T. canis excretory-secretory (TES) larval antigens are commonly used for serodiagnosis. Differences in the antigens of the two Toxocara species may influence the diagnostic sensitivity of the test. In this study, T. cati recombinant TES-120 (rTES-120) was cloned, expressed, and compared with its T. canis homolog in an IgG4-western blot. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of T. cati rTES-120 were 70% (33/47) and 100% (39/39), respectively. T. canis rTES-120 showed 57.4% sensitivity and 94.4% specificity. When the results of assays using rTES-120 of both species were considered, the diagnostic sensitivity was 76%. This study shows that using antigens from both Toxocara species may improve the serodiagnosis of toxocariasis.

  7. Diagnostic PCR tests for Microsporum audouinii, M. canis and Trichophyton infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brillowska-Dabrowska, Anna; Swierkowska, Aleksandra; Lindhardt Saunte, Ditte Marie

    2010-01-01

    Since traditional diagnosis of dermatophyte infections is slow, we present a rapid new PCR test for detection of Trichophyton spp., Microsporum canis and M. audouinii infections. The performance of the test was evaluated with: 58 dermatophyte isolates; 10 yeast, mould and human DNA control samples...... was obtained for 35/35 Trichophyton isolates (10 species included) and the 279 bp for 3/3 M. canis and 4/4 M. audouinii samples. None of the 2 E. floccosum, 11 M. gypseum, 3 M M. persicolor or 12 control samples (yeast, mould, human DNA) were positive with either of the two PCR tests. Among the patient...... specimens, seven were T. rubrum positive, two for T. mentagrophytes, one was positive for T. tonsurans and 15 were dermatophyte negative by routine investigation (culture and/or pan-dermatophyte + T. rubrum multiplex PCR). The PCR results with our procedures were in 100% agreement with these results...

  8. Helicobacter canis bacteremia in a renal transplant patient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vusse, M. L.; van Son, W. J.; Ott, A.; Manson, W.

    2014-01-01

    Here we present a case report of a 41-year-old woman suffering from high fever and bacteremia due to Helicobacter canis, 11months after kidney transplantation. Identification of H.canis was achieved by 16s rDNA sequence analysis of a positive blood culture. The patient was restored fully to health a

  9. Helicobacter canis bacteremia in a renal transplant patient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vusse, M. L.; van Son, W. J.; Ott, A.; Manson, W.

    Here we present a case report of a 41-year-old woman suffering from high fever and bacteremia due to Helicobacter canis, 11months after kidney transplantation. Identification of H.canis was achieved by 16s rDNA sequence analysis of a positive blood culture. The patient was restored fully to health

  10. [The prevalence of Babesia canis canis in marsh ticks (Dermacentor reticulatus) in the Saarland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beelitz, Pamela; Schumacher, Stefan; Marholdt, Fritz; Pfister, Kurt; Silaghi, Cornelia

    2012-01-01

    An accumulation of autochthonous cases of canine babesiosis caused by Babesia canis has been registered in a small animal clinic in the Saarland since the beginning of 2006, some cases with fatal outcome. This study aims to contribute to the explanation of strong focal occurrence of infections with B. canis in this region.Therefore, patient owners who had presented their dogs in the years 2006 and 2007 because of babesiosis and who had claimed not having left the Saarland with their dogs at least six months before the outbreak of Babesiosis, were asked for their dog walking habits. Accordingly, a selection often tick collection sites of various landscape structures was made.Tick sampling by flagging the vegetation took place every month from March to December 2008. The collected ticks were identified morphologically. In eight of ten collecting sites a total of 397 adult Dermacentor reticulatus ticks were collected from March to December with the highest frequencies during the months of May, October and November. All collected specimens were examined by genus-specific conventional PCR for the presence of Babesia-DNA. In positive samples, the PCR-products were differentiated by sequencing. ten D. reticulatus (2.5%) ticks examined were found positive for DNA of B. canis canis originating from three out of eight collection sites. Consequently, an endemic distribution of D. reticulatus was confirmed and a natural

  11. Revision of the species of the genus Cathorops (Siluriformes: Ariidae from Mesoamerica and the Central American Caribbean, with description of three new species

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    Alexandre P. Marceniuk

    Full Text Available The ariid genus Cathorops includes species that occur mainly in estuarine and freshwater habitats of the eastern and western coasts of southern Mexico, Central and South America. The species of Cathorops from the Mesoamerica (Atlantic slope and Caribbean Central America are revised, and three new species are described: C. belizensis from mangrove areas in Belize; C. higuchii from shallow coastal areas and coastal rivers in the Central American Caribbean, from Honduras to Panama; and C. kailolae from río Usumacinta and lago Izabal basins in Mexico and Guatemala. Additionally, C. aguadulce, from the río Papaloapan basin in Mexico, and C. melanopus from the río Motagua basin in Guatemala and Honduras, are redescribed and their geographic distributions are revised.

  12. Antibody response to Hepatozoon canis in experimentally infected dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baneth, G; Shkap, V; Samish, M; Pipano, E; Savitsky, I

    1998-01-31

    Canine hepatozoonosis is a disease caused by the tick-borne protozoan Hepatozoon canis. Five puppies were inoculated by ingestion of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks experimentally infected with H. canis, and all became infected with H. canis: gametocytes were detected in blood smears from four dogs and schizonts were observed in the spleen and bone marrow of the fifth. Antibodies reactive with H. canis gametocytes were detected by the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFA), with IgM detected initially in all dogs 16 to 39 days post infection (PI) and IgG 22 to 43 days PI. The presence of gametocytes was first observed within peripheral blood neutrophils in Giemsa-stained blood smears between days 28 and 43 PI. Gametocyte-reactive antibodies were detected before the appearance of blood gametocytes in three of the four parasitemic dogs and also in a dog with no observed parasitemia. The detection of serum antibodies prior to the detection of blood gametocytes, or without apparent parasitemia, suggests that antibodies reactive with gametocytes may be formed against earlier forms of the parasite developing in the parenchymal tissues. Sera of dogs experimentally infected with Babesia canis, Babesia gibsoni and Ehrlichia canis exhibited no reactivity when tested with H. canis antigen. Additionally, sera positive for H. canis were not reactive with antigens of Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Leishmania donovani and E. canis. In conclusion, incoculation of dogs with ticks infected with H. canis results in production of antibodies reactive with peripheral blood gametocytes. Detection of IgG titres would be beneficial for the diagnosis of progressive infections with undetectable parasitemia, for seroprevalence studies, and as an adjunct to IgM titres in early infections.

  13. Multiplex real-time qPCR for the detection of Ehrlichia canis and Babesia canis vogeli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg, Ofer; Baneth, Gad; Eyal, Osnat; Inbar, Jacob; Harrus, Shimon

    2010-10-29

    Ehrlichia canis and Babesia canis vogeli are two tick-borne canine pathogens with a worldwide importance. Both pathogens are transmitted by Rhipicephalus sanguineus, the brown dog tick, which has an increasing global distribution. A multiplex quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assay for the simultaneous detection of the tick-borne pathogens E. canis and B. canis vogeli was developed using dual-labeled probes. The target genes were the 16S rRNA of E. canis and the heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) of B. canis vogeli. The canine beta actin (ACTB) gene was used as an internal control gene. The assay was conducted without using any pre-amplification steps such as nested reactions. The sensitivity of each reaction in the multiplex qPCR assay was tested in the presence of high template concentrations of the other amplified genes in the same tube and in the presence of canine DNA. The detection threshold of the multiplex assay was 1-10 copies/μl in all channels and the amplifications of the B. canis hsp70 and ACTB were not affected by the other simultaneous reactions, while minor interference was observed in the amplification of the E. canis 16S rRNA gene. This assay would be useful for diagnostic laboratories and may save time, labor and costs.

  14. Helminth parasites of the wolf Canis lupus from Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagrade, G; Kirjusina, M; Vismanis, K; Ozoliņs, J

    2009-03-01

    Thirty-four wolves were collected between 2003 and 2008 from throughout Latvia and examined for helminths. A total of 17 helminth species were recorded: the trematode Alaria alata (85.3%); the cestodes Diphyllobothrium latum (2.9%), Echinococcus granulosus (2.9%), Echinococcus multilocularis (5.9%), Mesocestoides lineatus (5.9%), Taenia crassiceps (8.8%), Taenia hydatigena (41.2%), Taenia (ovis) krabbei (8.8%), Taenia multiceps (47.1%), Taenia pisiformis (20.6%), Taenia polyacantha (11.8%), Taenia spp. (8.8%); and the nematodes Ancylostoma caninum (2.9%), Crenosoma vulpis (9.1%), Eucoleus aerophilus (36.4%), Pearsonema plica (41.4%), Trichinella spp. (69.7%), Toxocara canis (5.8%), and Uncinaria stenocephala (41.2%). Alaria alata presented the highest mean intensity (403.8). All animals were infected with at least one species of parasite, while the maximum recorded in one specimen was eight. No differences in the intensity or prevalence of any helminth species were found among the host based on age and gender, except for T. multiceps which was more prevalent in adults than in juveniles.

  15. Medical management of pyometra in three red wolves (Canis rufus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kadie; Wolf, Karen N

    2013-12-01

    Pyometra is a serious, life-threatening disease of both domestic and non-domestic species often requiring ovariohysterectomy to preserve the life of the animal. Medical management of pyometra has been successful in domestic and non-domestic species, and the consideration of such treatment is of marked importance in a critically endangered species. Of the canids, the red wolf (Canis rufus) is second only to African hunting dogs (Lycaon pictus) in terms of the prevalence of both cystic endometrial hyperplasia and pyometra. In this report, three red wolves were medically managed for pyometra. Aside from vaginal discharge, none of the wolves exhibited clinical signs, nor were there reflective inflammatory changes in the laboratory findings. All wolves received standard treatment for pyometra, including prostaglandin F2alpha and antibiotic therapy, while one wolf was more aggressively managed with uterine lavage. Pyometra recurred in two of the treated wolves, while the most aggressively managed wolf continues to show ultrasonographic resolution 2 yr posttreatment. Aggressive medical management of pyometra should be considered a treatment option in certain red wolf females, as it may preserve the animal's reproductive potential.

  16. Endocarditis por Brucella canis: primer caso documentado en un paciente adulto en Argentina Brucella canis endocarditis: first documented case in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Manias

    2013-03-01

    unable to classify the isolate as to genus and species. The strain was sent to the INEI-ANLIS "Dr. Carlos G. Malbran" where it was identified as Brucella canis. The antimicrobial treatment was switched to doxycycline, rifampicin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole with good evolution of the patient. The clinical significance of this case report lies in the possible failure of the empiric antibiotic therapy administered for endocarditis, since B. canis did not respond to the conventional antimicrobial treatment for this pathology.

  17. A review of the Central American and Caribbean species of the ant genus Eurhopalothrix Brown and Kempf, 1961 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae), with a key to New World species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longino, John T

    2013-01-01

    The ant genus Eurhopalothrix occurs throughout the Neotropics and Australasian tropics, where it is an inhabitant of forest leaf litter and soil. The New World species are reviewed, with an emphasis on the fauna of the MesoAmerican corridor and the Caribbean. Previously unappreciated characters of mandibular dentition and labrum shape vary dramatically among species and species groups. A total of 28 New World species are recognized, of which 14 are described as new. A key to workers of all New World species is provided. Eurhopalothrix procera is reported for the first time in the New World. The following new species are described: E. cimu Longino, sp. nov., E. circumcapillum Longino, sp. nov., E. guadeloupensis Longino, sp. nov., E. hunhau Longino, sp. nov., E. mabuya Longino, sp. nov., E. machaquila Longino, sp. nov., E. megalops Longino, sp. nov., E. ortizae Longino, sp. nov., E. oscillum Longino, sp. nov., E. semicapillum Longino, sp. nov., E. sepultura Longino, sp. nov., E. vulcan Longino, sp. nov., E. xibalba Longino, sp. nov., and E. zipacna Longino. sn. nov. Eurhopalothrix schmidti (Menozzi) is removed from synonymy with E. gravis (Mann).

  18. Isolation of Primary Fibroblast Culture from Wildlife: the Panthera onca Case to Preserve a South American Endangered Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestre-Citrinovitz, Ana Cecilia; Sestelo, Adrián Jorge; Ceballos, María Belén; Barañao, José Lino; Saragüeta, Patricia

    2016-10-10

    Cell line establishment of somatic cells is a valuable resource to preserve genetic material of rare, difficult-to-find, endangered and giant species like Jaguar (Panthera onca), the largest South American felid. This unit focuses on the isolation and culture of fibroblasts from Jaguar skin and muscle biopsies, and ear cartilage dissection immediately after death to preserve one of the several endangered species in this biome. These culture techniques enabled us to contribute 570 samples from 45 autochthonous and endangered species, including Jaguar. The fibroblasts obtained are a part of the Genetic Bank of Buenos Aires Zoo with the 6700 samples, including tissues such as muscle, ovarian, testicular, blood, fibroblast cultures, sperm, hair, and fluids and cells from 450 individuals of 87 different species. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  19. The ecological future of the North American bison: Conceiving long-term, large-scale conservation of a species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, E.W.; Redford, K.; Weber, Bill; Aune, K.; Baldes, Dick; Berger, J.; Carter, Dave; Curtin, C.; Derr, James N.; Dobrott, S.J.; Fearn, Eva; Fleener, Craig; Forrest, Steven C.; Gerlach, Craig; Gates, C. Cormack; Gross, J.E.; Gogan, P.; Grassel, Shaun M.; Hilty, Jodi A.; Jensen, Marv; Kunkel, Kyran; Lammers, Duane; List, R.; Minkowski, Karen; Olson, Tom; Pague, Chris; Robertson, Paul B.; Stephenson, Bob

    2008-01-01

    Many wide-ranging mammal species have experienced significant declines over the last 200 years; restoring these species will require long-term, large-scale recovery efforts. We highlight 5 attributes of a recent range-wide vision-setting exercise for ecological recovery of the North American bison (Bison bison) that are broadly applicable to other species and restoration targets. The result of the exercise, the “Vermejo Statement” on bison restoration, is explicitly (1) large scale, (2) long term, (3) inclusive, (4) fulfilling of different values, and (5) ambitious. It reads, in part, “Over the next century, the ecological recovery of the North American bison will occur when multiple large herds move freely across extensive landscapes within all major habitats of their historic range, interacting in ecologically significant ways with the fullest possible set of other native species, and inspiring, sustaining and connecting human cultures.” We refined the vision into a scorecard that illustrates how individual bison herds can contribute to the vision. We also developed a set of maps and analyzed the current and potential future distributions of bison on the basis of expert assessment. Although more than 500,000 bison exist in North America today, we estimated they occupy social values of previous times. By formulating an inclusive, affirmative, and specific vision through consultation with a wide range of stakeholders, we hope to provide a foundation for conservation of bison, and other wide-ranging species, over the next 100 years.

  20. Taxonomic revision of the South American catfish genus Ageneiosus (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae) with the description of four new species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Frank R.V.; Rapp Py-Daniel, Lúcia H.; Walsh, Stephen J.

    2017-01-01

    The catfish genus Ageneiosus in the exclusively Neotropical family Auchenipteridae is revised. Species of Ageneiosus are widely distributed in all major South American continental drainages except the São Francisco River basin and small rivers along the Brazilian east coast. The taxonomic revision was based on examination of available type specimens, additional museum material and comparisons of original descriptions. A suite of morphometric, meristic and qualitative characters of internal and external anatomy were used to diagnose valid species and determine synonyms. Thirteen valid species are recognized in the genus Ageneiosus, some of which are widely distributed across South America. Ageneiosus pardalis is the only trans-Andean species in the genus. Ageneiosus polystictus and Ageneiosus uranophthalmus are more widely distributed than previously reported. Ageneiosus marmoratus is a junior synonym of Ageneiosus inermis. Ageneiosus dentatus is a valid species and its name is removed from the synonymy of Ageneiosus ucayalensis. Four new species are described: Ageneiosus akamai, Ageneiosus apiaka, Ageneiosus intrusus and Ageneiosus lineatus, all from the Amazon River basin. A dichotomous key for all 13 valid species of Ageneiosus species is provided.

  1. Integrative taxonomy and species delimitation in harvestmen: a revision of the western North American genus Sclerobunus (Opiliones: Laniatores: Travunioidea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahan Derkarabetian

    Full Text Available Alpha taxonomy, and specifically the delimitation of species, is becoming increasingly objective and integrative. The use of coalescent-based methods applied to genetic data is providing new tools for the discovery and delimitation of species. Here, we use an integrative approach via a combination of discovery-based multivariate morphological analyses to detect potential new species. These potential species are then used as a priori species in hypothesis-driven validation analyses with genetic data. This research focuses on the harvestmen genus Sclerobunus found throughout the mountainous regions of western North America. Based on our analyses, we conduct a revision of Sclerobunus resulting in synonymy of Cyptobunus with Sclerobunus including transfer of S. cavicolens comb. nov. and elevation of both subspecies of S. ungulatus: S. ungulatus comb. nov. and S. madhousensis comb. nov., stat. nov. The three subspecies of S. robustus are elevated, S. robustus, S. glorietus stat. nov., and S. idahoensis stat. nov. Additionally, five new species of Sclerobunus are described from New Mexico and Colorado, including S. jemez sp. nov., S. klomax sp. nov., S. skywalkeri sp. nov., S. speoventus sp. nov., and S. steinmanni sp. nov. Several of the newly described species are single-cave endemics, and our findings suggest that further exploration of western North American cave habitats will likely yield additional new species.

  2. A Molecular survey of Anaplasma spp., Rickettsia spp., Ehrlichia canis and Babesia microti in foxes and fleas from Sicily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torina, A; Blanda, V; Antoci, F; Scimeca, S; D'Agostino, R; Scariano, E; Piazza, A; Galluzzo, P; Giudice, E; Caracappa, S

    2013-11-01

    Fleas (Insecta: Siphonaptera) are obligate bloodsucking insects, which parasitize birds and mammals, and are distributed throughout the world. Several species have been implicated in pathogen transmission. This study aimed to monitor red foxes and the fleas isolated from them in the Palermo and Ragusa provinces of Sicily, Italy, as these organisms are potential reservoirs and vectors of pathogens. Thirteen foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and 110 fleas were analysed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect DNA of the pathogens Ehrlichia canis, Babesia microti, Rickettsia spp., Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Anaplasma platys, Anaplasma marginale and Anaplasma ovis. In the foxes, A. ovis was detected in only one animal, whereas the prevalence of the E. canis pathogen was 31%. B. microti and Rickettsia spp. were not detected. Of all of the collected fleas, 75 belonged to the species Xenopsylla cheopis, 32 belonged to Ctenocephalides canis, two belonged to Ctenocephalides felis and one belonged to Cediopsylla inaequalis. In the fleas, the following pathogens were found: A. ovis (prevalence 25%), A. marginale (1%), A. phagocytophilum (1%), Rickettsia felis (2%) and E. canis (3%). X. cheopis was the flea species most frequently infected with Anaplasma, in particular A. ovis (33%), A. marginale (1%) and A. phagocytophilum (1%). Both C. felis exemplars were positive for R. felis. E. canis was found in the lone C. inaequalis and also in 3% of the X. cheopis specimens. No fleas were positive for B. microti or A. platys. As foxes often live in proximity to domestic areas, they may constitute potential reservoirs for human and animal parasites. Further studies should be performed on fleas to determine their vectorial capacity.

  3. Growth of Ehrlichia canis, the causative agent of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis, in vector and non-vector ixodid tick cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrolho, Joana; Simpson, Jennifer; Hawes, Philippa; Zweygarth, Erich; Bell-Sakyi, Lesley

    2016-06-01

    Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis is caused by Ehrlichia canis, a small gram-negative coccoid bacterium that infects circulating monocytes. The disease is transmitted by the brown dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l. and is acknowledged as an important infectious disease of dogs and other members of the family Canidae worldwide. E. canis is routinely cultured in vitro in the canine monocyte-macrophage cell line DH82 and in non-vector Ixodes scapularis tick cell lines, but not in cells derived from its natural vector. Here we report infection and limited propagation of E. canis in the tick cell line RSE8 derived from the vector R. sanguineus s.l., and successful propagation through six passages in a cell line derived from the experimental vector Dermacentor variabilis. In addition, using bacteria semi-purified from I. scapularis cells we attempted to infect a panel of cell lines derived from non-vector species of the tick genera Amblyomma, Dermacentor, Hyalomma, Ixodes and Rhipicephalus with E. canis and, for comparison, the closely-related Ehrlichia ruminantium, causative agent of heartwater in ruminants. Amblyomma and non-vector Dermacentor spp. cell lines appeared refractory to infection with E. canis but supported growth of E. ruminantium, while some, but not all, cell lines derived from Hyalomma, Ixodes and Rhipicephalus spp. ticks supported growth of both pathogens. We also illustrated and compared the ultrastructural morphology of E. canis in DH82, RSE8 and I. scapularis IDE8 cells. This study confirms that E. canis, like E. ruminantium, is able to grow not only in cell lines derived from natural and experimental tick vectors but also in a wide range of other cell lines derived from tick species not known to transmit this pathogen.

  4. Toxocara canis and the allergic process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Grecco Zaia

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The protective effect of infectious agents against allergic reactions has been thoroughly investigated. Current studies have demonstrated the ability of some helminths to modulate the immune response of infected hosts. The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between Toxocara canis infection and the development of an allergic response in mice immunised with ovalbumin (OVA. We determined the total and differential blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cells using BALB/c mice as a model. To this end, the levels of interleukin (IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10 and anti-OVA-IgE were measured using an ELISA. The inflammatory process in the lungs was observed using histology slides stained with haematoxylin and eosin. The results showed an increase in the total number of leukocytes and eosinophils in the blood of infected and immunised animals at 18 days after infection. We observed a slight lymphocytic inflammatory infiltrate in the portal space in all infected mice. Anti-OVA-IgE levels were detected in smaller proportions in the plasma of immunised and infected mice compared with mice that were only infected. Therefore, we concluded that T. canis potentiates inflammation in the lungs in response to OVA, although anti-OVA-IgE levels suggest a potential reduction of the inflammatory process through this mechanism.

  5. Toxocara canis and the allergic process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaia, Mauricio Grecco; de Oliveira, Sandra Regina Pereira; de Castro, Cynthia Aparecida; Soares, Edson Garcia; Afonso, Ana; Monnazzi, Luis Gustavo S; Peitl, Oscar; Faccioli, Lúcia Helena; Anibal, Fernanda de Freitas

    2015-01-01

    The protective effect of infectious agents against allergic reactions has been thoroughly investigated. Current studies have demonstrated the ability of some helminths to modulate the immune response of infected hosts. The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between Toxocara canis infection and the development of an allergic response in mice immunised with ovalbumin (OVA). We determined the total and differential blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cells using BALB/c mice as a model. To this end, the levels of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5 and IL-10 and anti-OVA-IgE were measured using an ELISA. The inflammatory process in the lungs was observed using histology slides stained with haematoxylin and eosin. The results showed an increase in the total number of leukocytes and eosinophils in the blood of infected and immunised animals at 18 days after infection. We observed a slight lymphocytic inflammatory infiltrate in the portal space in all infected mice. Anti-OVA-IgE levels were detected in smaller proportions in the plasma of immunised and infected mice compared with mice that were only infected. Therefore, we concluded that T. canis potentiates inflammation in the lungs in response to OVA, although anti-OVA-IgE levels suggest a potential reduction of the inflammatory process through this mechanism. PMID:26517650

  6. Hepatozoon canis and Leishmania spp. coinfection in dogs diagnosed with visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgado, Fernanda Nazaré; Cavalcanti, Amanda Dos Santos; Miranda, Luisa Helena de; O'Dwyer, Lúcia Helena; Silva, Maria Regina Lucas da; Menezes, Rodrigo Caldas; Andrade da Silva, Aurea Virgínia; Boité, Mariana Côrtes; Cupolillo, Elisa; Porrozzi, Renato

    2016-01-01

    This study describes the occurrence of dogs naturally co-infected with Hepatozoon canis and two Leishmania species: L. infantum or L. braziliensis. Four dogs serologically diagnosed with Visceral Leishmaniasis were euthanized. Liver and spleen samples were collected for histopathological analysis and DNA isolation. H. canis meronts were observed in tissues from all four dogs. H. canis infection was confirmed by PCR followed by sequencing of a fragment of 18S rRNA gene. Leishmania detection and typing was confirmed by ITS1' PCR-RFLP and parasite burden was calculated using ssrRNA quantitative qPCR. A DPP - Dual Path platform test was performed. One out (Dog #2) of four animals was asymptomatic. Dogs #1 and #4 were infected by L. infantum and were DPP test positive. Dogs #2 and #3 were infected by L. braziliensis and were DPP test negative. Furthermore, visceral dissemination was observed in Dogs #2 and #3, since L. braziliensis was detected in liver and spleen samples. The visceral dissemination of L. braziliensis associated with systemic signs suggested that this co-infection could influence the parasite burden and disease progression.

  7. Use of cranial characters in taxonomy of the Minnesota wolf (Canis sp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David; Nowak, Ronald M.; Weisberg, Sanford

    2011-01-01

    Minnesota wolves (Canis sp.) sometimes are reported to have affinity to a small, narrow-skulled eastern form (Canis lupus lycaon Schreber, 1775) and sometimes to a larger, broader western form (Canis lupus nubilus Say, 1823). We found that pre-1950 Minnesota wolf skulls were similar in size to those of wolves from southeastern Ontario and smaller than those of western wolves. However, Minnesota wolf skulls during 1970–1976 showed a shift to the larger, western form. Although Minnesota skull measurements after 1976 were unavailable, rostral ratios from 1969 through 1999 were consistent with hybridization between the smaller eastern wolf and the western form. Our findings help resolve the different taxonomic interpretations of Minnesota skull morphology and are consistent with molecular evidence of recent hybridization or intergradation of the two forms of wolves in Minnesota. Together these data indicate that eastern- and western-type wolves historically mixed and hybridized in Minnesota and continue to do so. Our findings are relevant to a recent government proposal to delist wolves from the endangered species list in Minnesota and surrounding states.

  8. Detection of Leishmania infantum, Babesia canis, and rickettsiae in ticks removed from dogs living in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotta, Michele; Nicetto, Martina; Fogliazza, Alessandro; Montarsi, Fabrizio; Caldin, Marco; Furlanello, Tommaso; Solano-Gallego, Laia

    2012-12-01

    The aims of this study were to determine natural infections by Anaplasma phagocytophilum/Anaplasma platys, Bartonella henselae, Ehrlichia canis, Leishmania infantum, Rickettsia spp., Babesia spp., and Hepatozoon spp. by molecular methods in ticks (n=91) removed from dogs with clinical signs and laboratory abnormalities compatible with tick-borne diseases (n=22) living in Italy and to assess the distribution and species of ticks encountered. Ticks from dogs living in southern Italy were all identified as Rhipicephalus sanguineus (n=25), ticks from central Italy included Rh. sanguineus (n=8) and Ixodes ricinus (n=9), ticks from northern Italy included Rh. sanguineus (n=45), Dermacentor marginatus (n=3), and one I. ricinus. Leishmania infantum, Rickettsia spp., and Babesia canis were the only pathogens detected in 7 (8%), 4 (4%), and 2 (2%) out of 91 ticks, respectively. L. infantum was detected in I. ricinus from central Italy and in Rh. sanguineus from northern and central Italy. Rickettsia conorii and Ri. massiliae were detected in Rh. sanguineus ticks from central and southern Italy (Sicily), respectively. Bab. canis was detected in D. marginatus ticks from northern Italy.

  9. Infestation of Wild-caught American Bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) by Multiple Species of Metazoan Parasites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lemke, Laura B; Dronen, Norman; Fox, James G; Nambiar, Prashant R

    2008-01-01

    The American bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) is an aquatic, carnivorous member of the family Ranidae that is used extensively in physiology education programs and in various physiology, toxicology, sensorineural, and genetics research...

  10. Diet of wolves Canis lupus returning to Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanszki, József; Márkus, Márta; Ujváry, Dóra; Szabó, Adám; Szemethy, László

    2012-04-01

    At the end of the nineteenth century, the wolf Canis lupus was extinct in Hungary and in recent decades has returned to the northern highland area of the country. The diet of wolves living in groups in Aggteleki National Park was investigated using scat analysis (n = 81 scats) and prey remains (n = 31 carcasses). Throughout the year wolves (average, minimum two wolves per year) consumed mostly wild-living ungulates (mean percent of biomass consumed, B% 97.2%; relative frequency of occurrence, %O 74.0%). The wild boar Sus scrofa was the most common prey item found in wolf scat (%B 35.6%) and is also the most commonly occurring ungulate in the study areas. The second most commonly occurring prey item in wolf scat was red deer Cervus elaphus (B% 32.8%). Conversely, prey remain analyses revealed wild boar as the second most commonly utilised prey species (%O 16.1%) after red deer (%O 67.7%). The roe deer Capreolus capreolus that occurs at lower population densities was the third most commonly utilised prey species. The importance of low population density mouflon Ovis aries, livestock and other food types was low. The results are similar to those found in the northern part of the Carpathian Mountains.

  11. North American Species of Cerambycid Beetles in the Genus Neoclytus Share a Common Hydroxyhexanone-Hexanediol Pheromone Structural Motif.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Ann M; Millar, Jocelyn G; Moreira, Jardel A; McElfresh, J Steven; Mitchell, Robert F; Barbour, James D; Hanks, Lawrence M

    2015-08-01

    Many species of cerambycid beetles in the subfamily Cerambycinae are known to use male-produced pheromones composed of one or a few components such as 3-hydroxyalkan-2-ones and the related 2,3-alkanediols. Here, we show that this pheromone structure is characteristic of the cerambycine genus Neoclytus Thomson, based on laboratory and field studies of 10 species and subspecies. Males of seven taxa produced pheromones composed of (R)-3-hydroxyhexan-2-one as a single component, and the synthetic pheromone attracted adults of both sexes in field bioassays, including the eastern North American taxa Neoclytus caprea (Say), Neoclytus mucronatus mucronatus (F.), and Neoclytus scutellaris (Olivier), and the western taxa Neoclytus conjunctus (LeConte), Neoclytus irroratus (LeConte), and Neoclytus modestus modestus Fall. Males of the eastern Neoclytus acuminatus acuminatus (F.) and the western Neoclytus tenuiscriptus Fall produced (2S,3S)-2,3-hexanediol as their dominant or sole pheromone component. Preliminary data also revealed that males of the western Neoclytus balteatus LeConte produced a blend of (R)-3-hydroxyhexan-2-one and (2S,3S)-2,3-hexanediol but also (2S,3S)-2,3-octanediol as a minor component. The fact that the hydroxyketone-hexanediol structural motif is consistent among these North American species provides further evidence of the high degree of conservation of pheromone structures among species in the subfamily Cerambycinae.

  12. Ehrlichia canis in Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks in the Ivory Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socolovschi, Cristina; Gomez, José; Marié, Jean-Lou; Davoust, Bernard; Guigal, Pierre-Michel; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2012-12-01

    Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis caused by Ehrlichia canis is distributed globally, but its prevalence in Africa is poorly known. In the study reported herein, 27% of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks collected from watchdogs in Abidjan, Ivory Coast, were positive for E. canis using quantitative real-time PCR. A new molecular strategy is proposed that can be used not only for epidemiological study, but also for the diagnosis of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis. Our findings show for the first time the presence of E. canis using molecular tools in the Ivory Coast, providing direct evidence for the presence of this pathogen.

  13. Diagnosis of canine monocytotropic ehrlichiosis (Ehrlichia canis): an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrus, Shimon; Waner, Trevor

    2011-03-01

    Canine monocytotropic ehrlichiosis (CME), caused by the rickettsia Ehrlichia canis, an important canine disease with a worldwide distribution. Diagnosis of the disease can be challenging due to its different phases and multiple clinical manifestations. CME should be suspected when a compatible history (living in or traveling to an endemic region, previous tick exposure), typical clinical signs and characteristic hematological and biochemical abnormalities are present. Traditional diagnostic techniques including hematology, cytology, serology and isolation are valuable diagnostic tools for CME, however a definitive diagnosis of E. canis infection requires molecular techniques. This article reviews the current literature covering the diagnosis of infection caused by E. canis.

  14. New species of Diabrotica Chevrolat (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae and a key to Diabrotica and related genera: results of a synopsis of North and Central American Diabrotica species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Derunkov

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The following 18 new species of Diabrotica are described and illustrated as a result of the synopsis of North and Central American species: D. barclayi sp. nov., Guatemala; D. caveyi sp. nov., Costa Rica; D. costaricensis sp. nov., Costa Rica; D. dmitryogloblini sp. nov., Mexico; D. duckworthorum sp. nov., Honduras; D. hartjei sp. nov., Panama; D. josephbalyi sp. nov., Costa Rica; D. lawrencei sp. nov., Mexico; D. mantillerii sp. nov., Panama; D. martinjacobyi sp. nov., Honduras; D. mitteri sp. nov., Panama; D. perkinsi sp. nov., Guatemala; D. redfordae sp. nov., Costa Rica; D. reysmithi sp. nov., Costa Rica; D. salvadorensis sp. nov., El Salvador; D. sel sp. nov., Panama; D. spangleri sp. nov., Costa Rica; D. waltersi sp. nov., Panama. In addition, a key to separate Diabrotica from related genera is presented.

  15. Phylogeography of the Golden Jackal (Canis aureus) in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yumnam, Bibek; Negi, Tripti; Maldonado, Jesús E; Fleischer, Robert C; Jhala, Yadvendradev V

    2015-01-01

    The golden jackal (Canis aureus) is one of the most common and widely distributed carnivores in India but phylogeographic studies on the species have been limited across its range. Recent studies have observed absence of mitochondrial (mt) DNA diversity in European populations while some North African populations of golden jackal were found to carry gray wolf (Canis lupus lupaster) mtDNA lineages. In the present study, we sequenced 440 basepairs (bp) of control region (CR) and 412 bp of cytochrome b (cyt b) gene of mtDNA from 62 golden jackals sampled from India (n = 55), Israel (n = 2) and Bulgaria (n = 5), to obtain a total of eighteen haplotypes, comprising sixteen from India and one each from Israel and Bulgaria. Except for three previously described haplotypes represented by one cyt b and one CR haplotype both from India, and one CR haplotype from Bulgaria, all haplotypes identified in this study are new. Genetic diversity was high in golden jackals compared to that reported for other canids in India. Unlike the paraphyletic status of African conspecifics with the gray wolf, the Indian (and other Eurasian) golden jackal clustered in a distinct but shallow monophyletic clade, displaying no evidence of admixture with sympatric and related gray wolf and domestic dog clades in the region. Phylogeographic analyses indicated no clear pattern of genetic structuring of the golden jackal haplotypes and the median joining network revealed a star-shaped polytomy indicative of recent expansion of the species from India. Indian haplotypes were observed to be interior and thus ancestral compared to haplotypes from Europe and Israel, which were peripheral and hence more derived. Molecular tests for demographic expansion confirmed a recent event of expansion of golden jackals in the Indian subcontinent, which can be traced back ~ 37,000 years ago during the late Pleistocene. Our results suggest that golden jackals have had a potentially longer evolutionary history in India

  16. Revision of the South American genus Tetragonopterus Cuvier, 1816 (Teleostei: Characidae) with description of four new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Gabriel S C; Melo, Bruno F; Oliveira, Claudio; Benine, Ricardo C

    2016-11-27

    The systematics of the characid genus Tetragonopterus is reviewed based on morphological and molecular data of specimens from its entire geographical range encompassing all major South American river drainages from Orinoco basin southward to the La Plata basin. Eight previously described species (T. anostomus, T. araguaiensis, T. argenteus, T. carvalhoi, T. chalceus, T. denticulatus, T. georgiae n. comb., and T. rarus) are recognized as valid, four of which are redescribed (T. argenteus, T. chalceus, T. georgiae, and T. rarus), and four new species from the Brazilian Shield in the Amazon and São Francisco river basins are herein described. We also provide evidence for the reallocation of Moenkhausia georgiae into Tetragonopterus and recognize T. akamai as junior synonym of T. anostomus. DNA barcodes of Tetragonopterus revealed genetic support for each recognized species and provided valuable population-level information within T. argenteus, T. chalceus, T. georgiae, and T. rarus.

  17. Phylogenetic analysis of Saccharum s.l. (Poaceae; Andropogoneae), with emphasis on the circumscription of the South American species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welker, Cassiano A D; Souza-Chies, Tatiana T; Longhi-Wagner, Hilda M; Peichoto, Myriam Carolina; McKain, Michael R; Kellogg, Elizabeth A

    2015-02-01

    Polyploidy and reticulate evolution are often a complication for discovering phylogenetic relationships between genera and species. Despite the huge economic importance of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum-Poaceae, Andropogoneae), the limits of the genus Saccharum and its species are complex and largely unresolved, involving both polyploidy and reticulate evolution. This study aimed to assess the phylogenetic relationships of Saccharum s.l., including Erianthus and Tripidium, as well as investigate the taxonomic circumscription of the South American species of the genus. Molecular cloning and sequencing of five regions of four low-copy nuclear loci were performed, including Aberrant panicle organization1 (apo1), Dwarf8 (d8), two exons of Erect panicle2 (ep2-ex7 and ep2-ex8), and Retarded palea1 (rep1). Concatenated trees were reconstructed using Maximum Parsimony, Maximum Likelihood, and Bayesian Inference analyses. The allopolyploid origin of Saccharum was demonstrated using evidence from nuclear genes. The samples of Saccharum s.l. grouped in two distinct clades, with S. arundinaceum and S. ravennae (= Tripidium, or Erianthus sect. Ripidium) apart from all other species analyzed of the genus. Saccharum angustifolium, S. asperum, and S. villosum correspond to distinct clades (different species). The plants with intermediate morphology between S. angustifolium and S. villosum presented a pattern of paralogues consistent with a hybrid origin. Saccharum s.l. is polyphyletic and Tripidium should be recognized as a distinct genus. However, no strong evidence was found to support the segregation of Erianthus. The taxonomic circumscription of the South American species of the genus was resolved and the occurrence of natural hybrids was documented. Better understanding of the phylogenetic relationships of Saccharum and relatives may be useful for sugarcane breeders to identify potential taxa for interspecific and intergeneric crosses in the genetic improvement of sugarcane

  18. Detection and molecular characterization of canine babesiosis causative agent Babesia canis in the naturally infected dog in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulauskas, Algimantas; Radzijevskaja, Jana; Karvelienė, Birutė; Grigonis, Aidas; Aleksandravičienė, Asta; Zamokas, Gintaras; Babickaitė, Lina; Sabūnas, Vytautas; Petkevičius, Saulius

    2014-10-15

    Canine babesiosis caused by Babesia canis is an emerging infectious disease in Europe. Although previously uncommon, canine babesiosis has become quite frequent in Lithuania during the past decade. In the last few years an increasing number of cases with a wide variety of clinical signs have been recorded throughout the country. In Lithuania the identification of the disease agent in veterinarian clinics is based on a microscopic analysis of size and morphology. To date, no data on the genetic characterization of Babesia species in dogs have been documented for Lithuania. A total of 123 blood samples from dogs showing clinical signs of babesiosis on the basis of veterinary examination were tested for the presence of babesial parasites. Babesia isolated from dogs were detected and characterized by nested-PCR and sequence analysis of a fragment of the 18S rRNA gene. Babesia parasites were detected in blood smears of 94 dogs (76.4%). The molecular analysis revealed the presence of B. canis in 108 dogs (87.8%). Two genotypes of B. canis were distinguished on the basis on two nucleotide (GA → AG) substitutions observed in 18S rRNA gene sequences. The results of the present study provide knowledge of the distribution of B. canis genotypes in dogs in Lithuania, and show the necessity to use a molecular analysis for an accurate diagnosis of canine babesiosis.

  19. Species discovery and diversity in Lobocriconema (Criconematidae: Nematoda) and related plant-parasitic nematodes from North American ecoregions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, T O; Bernard, E C; Harris, T; Higgins, R; Olson, M; Olson, S; Lodema, M; Matczyszyn, J; Mullin, P; Sutton, L; Powers, K S

    2016-03-03

    There are many nematode species that, following formal description, are seldom mentioned again in the scientific literature. Lobocriconema thornei and L. incrassatum are two such species, described from North American forests, respectively 37 and 49 years ago. In the course of a 3-year nematode biodiversity survey of North American ecoregions, specimens resembling Lobocriconema species appeared in soil samples from both grassland and forested sites. Using a combination of molecular and morphological analyses, together with a set of species delimitation approaches, we have expanded the known range of these species, added to the species descriptions, and discovered a related group of species that form a monophyletic group with the two described species. In this study, 148 specimens potentially belonging to the genus Lobocriconema were isolated from soil, individually measured, digitally imaged, and DNA barcoded using a 721 bp region of cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI). One-third of the specimens were also analyzed using amplified DNA from the 3' region of the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (18SrDNA) and the adjacent first internal transcribed spacer (ITS1). Eighteen mitochondrial haplotype groups, falling into four major clades, were identified by well-supported nodes in Bayesian and maximum likelihood trees and recognized as distinct lineages by species delimitation metrics. Discriminant function analysis of a set of morphological characters indicated that the major clades in the dataset possessed a strong morphological signal that decreased in comparisons of haplotype groups within clades. Evidence of biogeographic and phylogeographic patterns was apparent in the dataset. COI haplotype diversity was high in the southern Appalachian Mountains and Gulf Coast states and lessened in northern temperate forests. Lobocriconema distribution suggests the existence of phylogeographic patterns associated with recolonization of formerly glaciated regions by eastern

  20. The biology of three Mexican-American species of Triatominae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatoma recurva, Triatoma protracta and Triatoma rubida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alejandro Martínez-Ibarra

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The values of biological parameters related to hatching, lifespan, the number of blood meals between moults, mortality, time lapse before the beginning of feeding, feeding time and defecation delay for each instar of three Mexican-American species of Triatominae, Triatoma recurva, Triatoma protracta (former subspecies protracta and Triatoma rubida (former subspecies uhleri, were evaluated and compared. No significant (p > 0.05 differences were recorded among the three species with respect to the average time required to hatch. This time was approximately 19 days. The average egg-to-adult development time was significantly (p < 0.05 shorter for T. rubida. The number of blood meals at each nymphal instar varied from one-five for each species. The mortality rates were higher for the first-instar nymphs of the three species studied. The mean time lapse before the beginning of feeding was between 0.3-3 min for most nymphs of all instars of each species studied. The mean feeding time was the longest for T. recurva, followed by T. protracta. The defecation delay was less than 10 min for T. recurva and T. rubida. Given these results, only T. rubida should be considered an important potential vector of Trypanosoma cruzi transmission to humans in areas of Mexico where these species exist, whereas T. recurva and T. protracta would be of secondary importance.

  1. Historical climates explain contrasting dormancy-breaking requirements in North American, Asian, and European woody species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohner, Constantin M.; Benito, Blas M.; Fridley, Jason D.; Svenning, Jens-Christian; Renner, Susanne S.

    2016-04-01

    Leaf-out times in temperate woody species are determined by winter chilling and spring warming, with day length playing a minor role. The species-specific relative importance of these phenological cues determines the sensitivity of leaf unfolding to climate warming in the globe's temperate forests. Using experimental and monitoring data on leaf-out cues in 495 woody species [about 1/3rd each from Asia, Europe, and North America (NA)], we show that NA species have higher winter chilling and spring warming requirements than do European and Asian species of similar genetic stock. The continent effect remained significant when controlling for the modern climates that species are adapted to, suggesting that contrasting historic climate conditions led to the differentiation of leaf-out strategies among NA, European, and Asian plants. The NA flora experienced more and longer periods of climatic instability and harshness (esp. since the Pliocene) than did southern Europe and East Asia, which may explain why NA species have higher dormancy requirements and leaf-out later than Asian species, which are characterized by a more shallow dormancy. That species from Asia require significantly less chilling than their NA relatives suggests contrasting responses of NA and Asian temperate forests to continued climate warming. Earlier leaf-out in NA trees and shrubs will be constrained by unmet chilling requirements as winters get warmer, whereas Asian woody species generally lack such temperature limitations.

  2. No evidence for niche segregation in a North American Cattail (Typha) species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie-Gopsill, Andrew; Kirk, Heather; Drunen, Wendy Van; Freeland, Joanna R; Dorken, Marcel E

    2012-05-01

    Interspecific hybridization can lead to a breakdown of species boundaries, and is of particular concern in cases in which one of the parental species is invasive. Cattails (Typha spp.) have increased their abundance in the Great Lakes region of North America over the past 150 years. This increase in the distribution of cattails is associated with hybridization between broad-leaved (Typha latifolia) and narrow-leaved cattails (T. angustifolia). The resulting hybrids occur predominantly as F(1)s, which are known as T. × glauca, although later-generation hybrids have also been documented. It has been proposed that in sympatric populations, the parental species and hybrids are often spatially segregated according to growth in contrasting water depths, and that this should promote the maintenance of parental species. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the two species and their hybrids segregate along a water-depth gradient at sites where they are sympatric. We identified the two parental species and their hybrids using molecular genetic markers (SSR), and measured shoot elevations (a proxy for water depth) at 18 sites in Southern Ontario, Canada. We found no evidence for niche segregation among species based on elevation. Our data indicate that all three lineages compete for similar habitat where they co-occur suggesting that there is potential for an overall loss of biodiversity in the species complex, particularly if the hybrid lineage is more vigorous compared to the parental species, as has been suggested by other authors.

  3. Infections with Ehrlichia canis and Borrelia burgdorferi in a dog

    OpenAIRE

    Tsachev Ilia; Simeonov R.; Petrov Vladimir

    2007-01-01

    A clinical case of Ehrlichia canis and Borrelia burgdorferi infections in a 5year-old male German Shepherd is described. Clinical, serological, necropsy and histopathological examinations supporting the diagnosis have been performed.

  4. Infections with Ehrlichia canis and Borrelia burgdorferi in a dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsachev Ilia

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A clinical case of Ehrlichia canis and Borrelia burgdorferi infections in a 5year-old male German Shepherd is described. Clinical, serological, necropsy and histopathological examinations supporting the diagnosis have been performed.

  5. Streptococcus canis arthritis in a cat breeding colony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglauer, F; Kunstýr, I; Mörstedt, R; Farouq, H; Wullenweber, M; Damsch, S

    1991-01-01

    This is the first description of a pathologic condition--arthritis in cats affecting mainly one joint, i.e. monarthritis--caused by Streptococcus canis (S. canis), of the Lancefield serologic group G. Six cases were recorded in a closed cat breeding colony during a 6 month period in 1988, and one additional case in 1990. Therapy with penicillin and streptomycin led to full recovery in four of six cases. The bacterium had been detected from different purulent processes sporadically--including one case of purulent arthritis in 1982--as a nosocomial infection since 1980, the year the breeding colony was established. A possible genetic predisposition (high inbreeding) may have contributed to the accumulation of the six cases in 1988. Although S. canis was isolated in mouse, rat, rabbit and dog, cat and man seem to be more frequently affected. There are some similarities between S. canis-arthritis in cat and man.

  6. TROMBOCITOPENIA IMMUNOMEDIATA SECONDARIA IN CANI NATURALMENTE INFETTI DA LEISHMANIA INFANTUM

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Lo studio si prefigge di indagare, mediante immunofluorescenza indiretta e citometria a flusso, se la presenza di anticorpi anti-piastrine può essere associata all’occorrenza di trombocitopenia immunomediata in cani naturalmente infetti da Leishmania infantum.

  7. Genetic blueprint of the zoonotic pathogen Toxocara canis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Xing-Quan; Korhonen, Pasi K.; Cai, Huimin;

    2015-01-01

    Toxocara canis is a zoonotic parasite of major socioeconomic importance worldwide. In humans, this nematode causes disease (toxocariasis) mainly in the under-privileged communities in developed and developing countries. Although relatively well studied from clinical and epidemiological perspectives...

  8. TROMBOCITOPENIA IMMUNOMEDIATA SECONDARIA IN CANI NATURALMENTE INFETTI DA LEISHMANIA INFANTUM

    OpenAIRE

    Prisco, Michele

    2009-01-01

    Lo studio si prefigge di indagare, mediante immunofluorescenza indiretta e citometria a flusso, se la presenza di anticorpi anti-piastrine può essere associata all’occorrenza di trombocitopenia immunomediata in cani naturalmente infetti da Leishmania infantum.

  9. First record of coccidiosis in Wolves, Canis Lupus

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Mech L.; Kurtz, H.J.

    1999-01-01

    Three 4-month-old Wolf (Canis lupus) pups in the Superior National Forest of Minnesota died during August and September 1997, apparently from coccidiosis. This appears to be the first record of coccidiosis in Wolves.

  10. Endangered Species and North American Waterfowl Management Plan Joint Venture Areas,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Recovery Plans that meet the recovery plan requirements; and the percent of Corps acreage included within North American Waterfowl Management Joint ... Venture Implementation Plans where proposed work has been accomplished. This report seeks to provide this information. In summary, the Corps has

  11. Crown plasticity and competition for canopy space: a new spatially implicit model parameterized for 250 North American tree species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drew W Purves

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Canopy structure, which can be defined as the sum of the sizes, shapes and relative placements of the tree crowns in a forest stand, is central to all aspects of forest ecology. But there is no accepted method for deriving canopy structure from the sizes, species and biomechanical properties of the individual trees in a stand. Any such method must capture the fact that trees are highly plastic in their growth, forming tessellating crown shapes that fill all or most of the canopy space. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We introduce a new, simple and rapidly-implemented model--the Ideal Tree Distribution, ITD--with tree form (height allometry and crown shape, growth plasticity, and space-filling, at its core. The ITD predicts the canopy status (in or out of canopy, crown depth, and total and exposed crown area of the trees in a stand, given their species, sizes and potential crown shapes. We use maximum likelihood methods, in conjunction with data from over 100,000 trees taken from forests across the coterminous US, to estimate ITD model parameters for 250 North American tree species. With only two free parameters per species--one aggregate parameter to describe crown shape, and one parameter to set the so-called depth bias--the model captures between-species patterns in average canopy status, crown radius, and crown depth, and within-species means of these metrics vs stem diameter. The model also predicts much of the variation in these metrics for a tree of a given species and size, resulting solely from deterministic responses to variation in stand structure. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This new model, with parameters for US tree species, opens up new possibilities for understanding and modeling forest dynamics at local and regional scales, and may provide a new way to interpret remote sensing data of forest canopies, including LIDAR and aerial photography.

  12. Process-based modeling of species' responses to climate change - a proof of concept using western North American trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, M. E.; Merow, C.; Record, S.; Menlove, J.; Gray, A.; Cundiff, J.; McMahon, S.; Enquist, B. J.

    2013-12-01

    Current attempts to forecast how species' distributions will change in response to climate change suffer under a fundamental trade-off: between modeling many species superficially vs. few species in detail (between correlative vs. mechanistic models). The goals of this talk are two-fold: first, we present a Bayesian multilevel modeling framework, dynamic range modeling (DRM), for building process-based forecasts of many species' distributions at a time, designed to address the trade-off between detail and number of distribution forecasts. In contrast to 'species distribution modeling' or 'niche modeling', which uses only species' occurrence data and environmental data, DRMs draw upon demographic data, abundance data, trait data, occurrence data, and GIS layers of climate in a single framework to account for two processes known to influence range dynamics - demography and dispersal. The vision is to use extensive databases on plant demography, distributions, and traits - in the Botanical Information and Ecology Network, the Forest Inventory and Analysis database (FIA), and the International Tree Ring Data Bank - to develop DRMs for North American trees. Second, we present preliminary results from building the core submodel of a DRM - an integral projection model (IPM) - for a sample of dominant tree species in western North America. IPMs are used to infer demographic niches - i.e., the set of environmental conditions under which population growth rate is positive - and project population dynamics through time. Based on >550,000 data points derived from FIA for nine tree species in western North America, we show IPM-based models of their current and future distributions, and discuss how IPMs can be used to forecast future forest productivity, mortality patterns, and inform efforts at assisted migration.

  13. Crown plasticity and competition for canopy space: a new spatially implicit model parameterized for 250 North American tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, Drew W; Lichstein, Jeremy W; Pacala, Stephen W

    2007-09-12

    Canopy structure, which can be defined as the sum of the sizes, shapes and relative placements of the tree crowns in a forest stand, is central to all aspects of forest ecology. But there is no accepted method for deriving canopy structure from the sizes, species and biomechanical properties of the individual trees in a stand. Any such method must capture the fact that trees are highly plastic in their growth, forming tessellating crown shapes that fill all or most of the canopy space. We introduce a new, simple and rapidly-implemented model--the Ideal Tree Distribution, ITD--with tree form (height allometry and crown shape), growth plasticity, and space-filling, at its core. The ITD predicts the canopy status (in or out of canopy), crown depth, and total and exposed crown area of the trees in a stand, given their species, sizes and potential crown shapes. We use maximum likelihood methods, in conjunction with data from over 100,000 trees taken from forests across the coterminous US, to estimate ITD model parameters for 250 North American tree species. With only two free parameters per species--one aggregate parameter to describe crown shape, and one parameter to set the so-called depth bias--the model captures between-species patterns in average canopy status, crown radius, and crown depth, and within-species means of these metrics vs stem diameter. The model also predicts much of the variation in these metrics for a tree of a given species and size, resulting solely from deterministic responses to variation in stand structure. This new model, with parameters for US tree species, opens up new possibilities for understanding and modeling forest dynamics at local and regional scales, and may provide a new way to interpret remote sensing data of forest canopies, including LIDAR and aerial photography.

  14. Molecular characterization of Ehrlichia canis infecting dogs, Buenos Aires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicuttin, Gabriel L; De Salvo, María N; Gury Dohmen, Federico E

    2016-07-01

    Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME) is a worldwide potentially fatal tick-borne rickettsial disease of dogs caused by Ehrlichia canis and transmitted by Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato. CME diagnosis includes indirect (serology) and direct (e.g. blood smears and PCR) methods. PCR is more sensitive and specific than direct microscopic examination and positive PCR results confirm infection, whereas positive serologic test results only confirm exposure. The aim of the present study was to perform a molecular characterization of E. canis from canine samples of the Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires. We studied 223 blood samples of dogs submitted to our institute for CME diagnoses. The samples were initially screened for Anaplasmataceae family by PCR, resulting in 30 positive dogs (13.4%). Subsequently, positive DNAs were analyzed by nested PCR 16S rRNA specific for E. canis or Anaplasma platys, resulting in 15 (6.7%) and 16 (7.2%) positive dogs, respectively. For molecular characterization, samples positive for E. canis were subjected to amplification of a fragment of the dsb and p28 genes. The nucleotide sequences obtained for the dsb fragment resulted in 100% identity with others E. canis found in dogs from different regions of worldwide. The nucleotide sequences obtained for p28 gene resulted in 100% of identity with each other and closely with E. canis str. Jaboticabal (Brazil). Identity with others sequences of E. canis ranged from 76.9 to 79.7%. The occurrence of canine cases molecularly confirmed in Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires highlights the need for more studies in order to understand epidemiological factors associated with CME, especially the disease transmission dynamic in South America given the existence of two lineages of R. sanguineus sensu lato with different vectorial capacity for transmission of E. canis.

  15. Quantitative metrics for assessing predicted climate change pressure on North American tree species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin M. Potter; William W. Hargrove

    2013-01-01

    Changing climate may pose a threat to forest tree species, forcing three potential population-level responses: toleration/adaptation, movement to suitable environmental conditions, or local extirpation. Assessments that prioritize and classify tree species for management and conservation activities in the face of climate change will need to incorporate estimates of the...

  16. DNA-based identification and phylogeny of North American Armillaria species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amy L. Ross-Davis; John W. Hanna; Ned B. Klopfenstein

    2011-01-01

    Because Armillaria species display different ecological behaviors across diverse forest ecosystems, it is critical to identify Armillaria species accurately for any assessment of forest health. To further develop DNA-based identification methods, partial sequences of the translation elongation factor-1 alpha (EF-1α) gene were used to examine the phylogenetic...

  17. Comparison of odor-active compounds in grapes and wines from vitis vinifera and non-foxy American grape species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qun; Gates, Matthew J; Lavin, Edward H; Acree, Terry E; Sacks, Gavin L

    2011-10-12

    Native American grape (Vitis) species have many desirable properties for winegrape breeding, but hybrids of these non-vinifera wild grapes with Vitis vinifera often have undesirable aromas. Other than the foxy-smelling compounds in Vitis labrusca and Vitis rotundifolia , the aromas inherent to American Vitis species are not well characterized. In this paper, the key odorants in wine produced from the American grape species Vitis riparia and Vitis cinerea were characterized in comparison to wine produced from European winegrapes (V. vinifera). Volatile compounds were extracted by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and identified by gas chromatography-olfactometry/mass spectrometry (GC-O/MS). On the basis of flavor dilution values, most grape-derived compounds with fruity and floral aromas were at similar potency, but non-vinifera wines had higher concentrations of odorants with vegetative and earthy aromas: eugenol, cis-3-hexenol, 1,8-cineole, 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine (IBMP), and 3-isopropyl-2-methoxypyrazine (IPMP). Elevated concentrations of these compounds in non-vinifera wines were confirmed by quantitative GC-MS. Concentrations of IBMP and IPMP were well above sensory threshold in both non-vinifera wines. In a follow-up study, IBMP and IPMP were surveyed in 31 accessions of V. riparia, V. rupestris, and V. cinerea. Some accessions had concentrations of >350 pg/g IBMP or >30 pg/g IPMP, well above concentrations reported in previous studies of harvest-ripe vinifera grapes. Methyl anthranilate and 2-aminoacetophenone, key odorants responsible for the foxiness of V. labrusca grapes, were undetectable in both the V. riparia and V. cinerea wines (<10 μg/L).

  18. Two new species of freshwater flatworms (Platyhelminthes: Tricladida: Continenticola) from South American caves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Stella; Morais, Ana Laura; Bichuette, Maria Elina; Leal-Zanchet, Ana

    2016-03-14

    The diversity of freshwater triclads in the Neotropical region is considered to be low, but extensive areas of South America remain almost unexplored. Herein we describe two cave-dwelling, new species of Girardia, one from a transition zone of the Cerrado and Caatinga phytophysiognomies and the other from the Cerrado phytophysiognomy. The species from the Cerrado-Caatinga transition is a troglobite, eyeless and whitish; the species from the Cerrado area is possibly a troglophile, since it shows heavily pigmented body and eyes. Each species is easily recognized by a unique combination of features in its external morphology and copulatory apparatus. The two new species of Girardia show a restricted distribution, even the troglophile, and occur in caves without legal protection. Therefore, they must be considered as vulnerable organisms in a conservation context.

  19. Ecological changes in Coyotes (Canis latrans in response to the ice age megafaunal extinctions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie A Meachen

    Full Text Available Coyotes (Canis latrans are an important species in human-inhabited areas. They control pests and are the apex predators in many ecosystems. Because of their importance it is imperative to understand how environmental change will affect this species. The end of the Pleistocene Ice Age brought with it many ecological changes for coyotes and here we statistically determine the changes that occurred in coyotes, when these changes occurred, and what the ecological consequences were of these changes. We examined the mandibles of three coyote populations: Pleistocene Rancho La Brean (13-29 Ka, earliest Holocene Rancho La Brean (8-10 Ka, and Recent from North America, using 2D geometric morphometrics to determine the morphological differences among them. Our results show that these three populations were morphologically distinct. The Pleistocene coyotes had an overall robust mandible with an increased shearing arcade and a decreased grinding arcade, adapted for carnivory and killing larger prey; whereas the modern populations show a gracile morphology with a tendency toward omnivory or grinding. The earliest Holocene populations are intermediate in morphology and smallest in size. These findings indicate that a niche shift occurred in coyotes at the Pleistocene/Holocene boundary - from a hunter of large prey to a small prey/more omnivorous animal. Species interactions between Canis were the most likely cause of this transition. This study shows that the Pleistocene extinction event affected species that did not go extinct as well as those that did.

  20. A protected area influences genotype-specific survival and the structure of a Canis hybrid zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, John F; Patterson, Brent R; Mahoney, Peter J

    2014-02-01

    It is widely recognized that protected areas can strongly influence ecological systems and that hybridization is an important conservation issue. However, previous studies have not explicitly considered the influence of protected areas on hybridization dynamics. Eastern wolves are a species of special concern and their distribution is largely restricted to a protected population in Algonquin Provincial Park (APP), Ontario, Canada, where they are the numerically dominant canid. We studied intrinsic and extrinsic factors influencing survival and cause-specific mortality of hybrid and parental canids in the three-species hybrid zone between eastern wolves, eastern coyotes, and gray wolves in and adjacent to APP. Mortality risk for eastern wolves in areas adjacent to APP was significantly higher than for other sympatric Canis types outside of APP, and for eastern wolves and other canids within APP. Outside of APP, the annual mortality rate of all canids by harvest (24%) was higher than for other causes of death (4-7%). Furthermore, eastern wolves (hazard ratio = 3.5) and nonresidents (transients and dispersing animals, hazard ratio = 2.7) were more likely to die from harvest relative to other Canis types and residents, respectively. Thus, eastern wolves dispersing from APP were especially vulnerable to harvest mortality. For residents, eastern wolf survival was more negatively influenced by increased road density than for other Canis types, further highlighting the sensitivity of eastern wolves to human disturbance. A cycle of dispersal from APP followed by high rates of mortality and hybridization appears to maintain eastern wolves at low density adjacent to APP, limiting the potential for expansion beyond the protected area. However, high survival and numerical dominance of eastern wolves within APP suggest that protected areas can allow rare hybridizing species to persist even if their demographic performance is compromised and barriers to hybridization are largely

  1. Intestinal macro- and microparasites of wolves (Canis lupus L.) from north-eastern Poland recovered by coprological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloch, Agnieszka; Bednarska, Małgorzata; Bajer, Anna

    2005-01-01

    Wolf scats collected during ecological studies in Mazury lake district in NE Poland were analysed for intestinal micro- and macroparasites. Five nematode species were identified: Ancylostoma caninum (Ercolani, 1859), Uncinaria stenocephala (Railliet, 1884), Trichuris vulpis (Froelich, 1789), Toxocara canis (Werner, 1782) and Toxascaris leonina (von Linstow, 1902). Among cestode species there were identified infections with Dipylidium caninum (Linnaeus, 1785). The overall helminth prevalence was 63.5 % and average intensity was 15.4 +/- 8.0 eggs /1g of sample. The most prevalent parasite was T. vulpis (38.5 %) and the most abundant infections were by T. canis. Almost 55 % of samples (28/51) were positive for C. parvum oocysts and 46.7 % (14/30) for Giardia spp. cysts. The pack factor affected the distribution of some of macro- and microparasites. The identified parasite fauna of wolves in Mazury lake district consists of several micro- and macroparasites of interest for public health.

  2. Spatial genetic and morphologic structure of wolves and coyotes in relation to environmental heterogeneity in a Canis hybrid zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, John F; Patterson, Brent R; Wheeldon, Tyler J

    2012-12-01

    Eastern wolves have hybridized extensively with coyotes and gray wolves and are listed as a 'species of special concern' in Canada. However, a distinct population of eastern wolves has been identified in Algonquin Provincial Park (APP) in Ontario. Previous studies of the diverse Canis hybrid zone adjacent to APP have not linked genetic analysis with field data to investigate genotype-specific morphology or determine how resident animals of different ancestry are distributed across the landscape in relation to heterogeneous environmental conditions. Accordingly, we studied resident wolves and coyotes in and adjacent to APP to identify distinct Canis types, clarify the extent of the APP eastern wolf population beyond the park boundaries and investigate fine-scale spatial genetic structure and landscape-genotype associations in the hybrid zone. We documented three genetically distinct Canis types within the APP region that also differed morphologically, corresponding to putative gray wolves, eastern wolves and coyotes. We also documented a substantial number of hybrid individuals (36%) that were admixed between 2 or 3 of the Canis types. Breeding eastern wolves were less common outside of APP, but occurred in some unprotected areas where they were sympatric with a diverse combination of coyotes, gray wolves and hybrids. We found significant spatial genetic structure and identified a steep cline extending west from APP where the dominant genotype shifted abruptly from eastern wolves to coyotes and hybrids. The genotypic pattern to the south and northwest was a more complex mosaic of alternating genotypes. We modelled genetic ancestry in response to prey availability and human disturbance and found that individuals with greater wolf ancestry occupied areas of higher moose density and fewer roads. Our results clarify the structure of the Canis hybrid zone adjacent to APP and provide unique insight into environmental conditions influencing hybridization dynamics between

  3. Comparisons of ectomycorrhizal colonization of transgenic american chestnut with those of the wild type, a conventionally bred hybrid, and related fagaceae species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, Katherine M; Horton, Thomas R; Maynard, Charles A; Stehman, Stephen V; Oakes, Allison D; Powell, William A

    2015-01-01

    American chestnut (Castanea dentata [Marsh.] Borkh.) dominated the eastern forests of North America, serving as a keystone species both ecologically and economically until the introduction of the chestnut blight, Cryphonectria parasitica, functionally eradicated the species. Restoration efforts include genetic transformation utilizing genes such as oxalate oxidase to produce potentially blight-resistant chestnut trees that could be released back into the native range. However, before such a release can be undertaken, it is necessary to assess nontarget impacts. Since oxalate oxidase is meant to combat a fungal pathogen, we are particularly interested in potential impacts of this transgene on beneficial fungi. This study compares ectomycorrhizal fungal colonization on a transgenic American chestnut clone expressing enhanced blight resistance to a wild-type American chestnut, a conventionally bred American-Chinese hybrid chestnut, and other Fagaceae species. A greenhouse bioassay used soil from two field sites with different soil types and land use histories. The number of colonized root tips was counted, and fungal species were identified using morphology, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), and DNA sequencing. Results showed that total ectomycorrhizal colonization varied more by soil type than by tree species. Individual fungal species varied in their colonization rates, but there were no significant differences between colonization on transgenic and wild-type chestnuts. This study shows that the oxalate oxidase gene can increase resistance against Cryphonectria parasitica without changing the colonization rate for ectomycorrhizal species. These findings will be crucial for a potential deregulation of blight-resistant American chestnuts containing the oxalate oxidase gene.

  4. Tyrosine-phosphorylated Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Ehrlichia canis tandem repeat orthologs contain a major continuous cross-reactive antibody epitope in lysine-rich repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Jere W; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Wakeel, Abdul; Kuriakose, Jeeba A

    2011-08-01

    A small subset of major immunoreactive proteins have been identified in Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Ehrlichia canis, including three molecularly and immunologically characterized pairs of immunoreactive tandem repeat protein (TRP) orthologs with major continuous species-specific epitopes within acidic tandem repeats (TR) that stimulate strong antibody responses during infection. In this study, we identified a fourth major immunoreactive TR-containing ortholog pair and defined a major cross-reactive epitope in homologous nonidentical 24-amino-acid lysine-rich TRs. Antibodies from patients and dogs with ehrlichiosis reacted strongly with recombinant TR regions, and epitopes were mapped to the N-terminal TR region (18 amino acids) in E. chaffeensis and the complete TR (24 amino acids) in E. canis. Two less-dominant epitopes were mapped to adjacent glutamate/aspartate-rich and aspartate/tyrosine-rich regions in the acidic C terminus of E. canis TRP95 but not in E. chaffeensis TRP75. Major immunoreactive proteins in E. chaffeensis (75-kDa) and E. canis (95-kD) whole-cell lysates and supernatants were identified with TR-specific antibodies. Consistent with other ehrlichial TRPs, the TRPs identified in ehrlichial whole-cell lysates and the recombinant proteins migrated abnormally slow electrophoretically a characteristic that was demonstrated with the positively charged TR and negatively charged C-terminal domains. E. chaffeensis TRP75 and E. canis TRP95 were immunoprecipitated with anti-pTyr antibody, demonstrating that they are tyrosine phosphorylated during infection of the host cell.

  5. Molecular perspective on the American transisthmian species of Macrobrachium ( Caridea , Palaemonidae )

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo Pileggi; Natalia Rossi; Ingo Wehrtmann; Fernando Mantelatto

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The closure of the Isthmus of Panama (about 3.1 million years ago) separated previously continuous populations and created two groups of extant species, which live now in the Pacific and Atlantic drainage systems. This relatively recent event was a trigger to diversification of various species in the Neotropics, nonetheless there are exemplars that do not show sufficient morphologic variability to separate them by traditional morphological tools. About 60 years ago, some freshwater d...

  6. Molecular detection of Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma bovis, Anaplasma platys, Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii and Babesia canis vogeli in ticks from Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrus, S; Perlman-Avrahami, A; Mumcuoglu, K Y; Morick, D; Eyal, O; Baneth, G

    2011-03-01

    : Ticks are vectors of important pathogens of human and animals. Therefore, their microbial carriage capacity is constantly being investigated. The aim of this study was to characterize the diversity of domestic animal pathogens in ticks collected from vegetation and the ground, from different parts of Israel. Non-engorged questing adult ticks were collected from 13 localities. A total of 1196 ticks in 131 pools-83 pools of Rhipicephalus turanicus and 48 of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (with two to ten ticks per pool)-were included in this study. In addition, 13 single free-roaming Hyalomma spp. ticks were collected. Screening by molecular techniques revealed the presence of Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma platys, Anaplasma bovis and Babesia canis vogeli DNA in R. turanicus ticks. E. canis, A. bovis, B. canis vogeli and Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii DNA sequences were detected in R. sanguineus ticks. Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii DNA was also detected in Hyalomma spp. ticks. Neither Hepatozoon spp. nor Bartonella spp. DNA was detected in any of the ticks examined. This study describes the first detection of E. canis in the tick R. turanicus, which may serve as a vector of this canine pathogen; E. canis was the most common pathogen detected in the collected questing ticks. It also describes the first detection of A. bovis and Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii in Israel. To the best of the author's knowledge, this is the first report describing the detection of DNA of the latter two pathogens in R. sanguineus, and of A. bovis in R. turanicus.

  7. Diversification and species boundaries of Rhinebothrium (Cestoda; Rhinebothriidea in South American freshwater stingrays (Batoidea; Potamotrygonidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian B Reyda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neotropical freshwater stingrays (Batoidea: Potamotrygonidae host a diverse parasite fauna, including cestodes. Both cestodes and their stingray hosts are marine-derived, but the taxonomy of this host/parasite system is poorly understood. METHODOLOGY: Morphological and molecular (Cytochrome oxidase I data were used to investigate diversity in freshwater lineages of the cestode genus Rhinebothrium Linton, 1890. Results were based on a phylogenetic hypothesis for 74 COI sequences and morphological analysis of over 400 specimens. Cestodes studied were obtained from 888 individual potamotrygonids, representing 14 recognized and 18 potentially undescribed species from most river systems of South America. RESULTS: Morphological species boundaries were based mainly on microthrix characters observed with scanning electron microscopy, and were supported by COI data. Four species were recognized, including two redescribed (Rhinebothrium copianullum and R. paratrygoni, and two newly described (R. brooksi n. sp. and R. fulbrighti n. sp.. Rhinebothrium paranaensis Menoret & Ivanov, 2009 is considered a junior synonym of R. paratrygoni because the morphological features of the two species overlap substantially. The diagnosis of Rhinebothrium Linton, 1890 is emended to accommodate the presence of marginal longitudinal septa observed in R. copianullum and R. brooksi n. sp. Patterns of host specificity and distribution ranged from use of few host species in few river basins, to use of as many as eight host species in multiple river basins. SIGNIFICANCE: The level of intra-specific morphological variation observed in features such as total length and number of proglottids is unparalleled among other elasmobranch cestodes. This is attributed to the large representation of host and biogeographical samples. It is unclear whether the intra-specific morphological variation observed is unique to this freshwater system. Nonetheless, caution is urged when

  8. Diversification and Species Boundaries of Rhinebothrium (Cestoda; Rhinebothriidea) in South American Freshwater Stingrays (Batoidea; Potamotrygonidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyda, Florian B.; Marques, Fernando P. L.

    2011-01-01

    Background Neotropical freshwater stingrays (Batoidea: Potamotrygonidae) host a diverse parasite fauna, including cestodes. Both cestodes and their stingray hosts are marine-derived, but the taxonomy of this host/parasite system is poorly understood. Methodology Morphological and molecular (Cytochrome oxidase I) data were used to investigate diversity in freshwater lineages of the cestode genus Rhinebothrium Linton, 1890. Results were based on a phylogenetic hypothesis for 74 COI sequences and morphological analysis of over 400 specimens. Cestodes studied were obtained from 888 individual potamotrygonids, representing 14 recognized and 18 potentially undescribed species from most river systems of South America. Results Morphological species boundaries were based mainly on microthrix characters observed with scanning electron microscopy, and were supported by COI data. Four species were recognized, including two redescribed (Rhinebothrium copianullum and R. paratrygoni), and two newly described (R. brooksi n. sp. and R. fulbrighti n. sp.). Rhinebothrium paranaensis Menoret & Ivanov, 2009 is considered a junior synonym of R. paratrygoni because the morphological features of the two species overlap substantially. The diagnosis of Rhinebothrium Linton, 1890 is emended to accommodate the presence of marginal longitudinal septa observed in R. copianullum and R. brooksi n. sp. Patterns of host specificity and distribution ranged from use of few host species in few river basins, to use of as many as eight host species in multiple river basins. Significance The level of intra-specific morphological variation observed in features such as total length and number of proglottids is unparalleled among other elasmobranch cestodes. This is attributed to the large representation of host and biogeographical samples. It is unclear whether the intra-specific morphological variation observed is unique to this freshwater system. Nonetheless, caution is urged when using morphological

  9. Molecular and parasitological survey of Hepatozoon canis (Apicomplexa: Hepatozoidae) in dogs from rural area of Sao Paulo state, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubini, Adriano Stefani; dos Santos Paduan, Karina; Von Ah Lopes, Viviane; O'Dwyer, Lucia Helena

    2008-04-01

    Hepatozoon canis is a protozoan that infects dogs and is transmitted by the ingestion of the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Two distinct species of Hepatozoon genus can infect dogs, H. canis and H. americanum. Routine tests to detect the disease are based on direct examination of gametocytes on Giemsa-stained blood smears. The objectives of this study were the investigation of infection prevalence in rural area dogs, the comparison of diagnostics by blood smear examination and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the association of infection with tick infestation. Blood smears, collected by puncture of the cephalic vein and ear margin capillary bed from 150 dogs, were examined. This technique detected 17 positive animals (11.3%), with 14 (9.3%) in peripheral blood and seven (4.7%) in cephalic vein blood. PCR tests detected 80 (53.3%) positive animals. R. sanguineus and Amblyomma spp. were found in 36 of the dogs (24%), in equal proportions. The identified species for Amblyomma genus were A. cajennense and A. ovale. Data analysis showed that PCR was much more sensitive when compared to blood smear examination. Hepatozoon species was previously identified as closely related to H. canis.

  10. Chrysomelids American diabroticines Hosts and natural enemies. Biology-feasibility for control of pest species (Crisomelidos Diabroticinos americanos Hospederos y enemigos naturales Biologia y factibili manejo especies plagas

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chrysomelids in the Diabroticites include some of the most important pest species of the American continent. The chemical and management techniques used to date to control them are: crop rotation to prevent re-infection of host crops, especially in the species that display an egg diapause; insec...

  11. Gomphrena claussenii, the first South-American metallophyte species with indicator-like Zn and Cd accumulation and extreme metal tolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomaz Villafort Carvalho, M.; Amaral, D.C.; Guilherme, L.R.; Aarts, M.G.M.

    2013-01-01

    Plant species with the capacity to tolerate heavy metals are potentially useful for phytoremediation since they have adapted to survive and reproduce under toxic conditions and to accumulate high metal concentrations. Gomphrena claussenii Moq., a South-American species belonging to the

  12. Gomphrena claussenii, the first South-American metallophyte species with indicator-like Zn and Cd accumulation and extreme metal tolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomaz Villafort Carvalho, M.; Amaral, D.C.; Guilherme, L.R.; Aarts, M.G.M.

    2013-01-01

    Plant species with the capacity to tolerate heavy metals are potentially useful for phytoremediation since they have adapted to survive and reproduce under toxic conditions and to accumulate high metal concentrations. Gomphrena claussenii Moq., a South-American species belonging to the Amaranthaceae

  13. Mast species composition alters seed fate in North American rodent-dispersed hardwoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichti, Nathanael I; Steele, Michael A; Zhang, Hao; Swihart, Robert K

    2014-07-01

    Interactions between plants and scatter-hoarding animals may shift from mutualism to predation as a function of the resources available to those animals. Because seed species differ in their nutrient content and defenses to predation, resource selection and cache management by scatter-hoarders, and thus seed fate, may also depend on the relative availability of different seed types. We tracked the fates of tagged Castanea dentata, Quercus alba, and Q. rubra seeds presented to rodents in pairwise combinations and found that C. dentata, which has moderate dormancy prior to germination, survived better in the presence of Q. alba (no dormancy) than with Q. rubra (longer dormancy). Decisions made by scatter-hoarders in response to the composition of available seed resources can alter the relationship between masting and seed dispersal effectiveness in individual tree species and may have influenced the evolution of asynchrony among species-specific masting patterns in temperate forests. In theory, preferential allocation of certain seed species to storage or consumption could also result in indirect apparent predation by one seed species on another.

  14. Human case of bacteremia caused by Streptococcus canis sequence type 9 harboring the scm gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniyama, Daisuke; Abe, Yoshihiko; Sakai, Tetsuya; Kikuchi, Takahide; Takahashi, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus canis (Sc) is a zoonotic pathogen that is transferred mainly from companion animals to humans. One of the major virulence factors in Sc is the M-like protein encoded by the scm gene, which is involved in anti-phagocytic activities, as well as the recruitment of plasminogen to the bacterial surface in cooperation with enolase, and the consequent enhancement of bacterial transmigration and survival. This is the first reported human case of uncomplicated bacteremia following a dog bite, caused by Streptococcus canis harboring the scm gene. The similarity of the 16S rRNA from the infecting species to that of the Sc type strain, as well as the amplification of the species-specific cfg gene, encoding a co-hemolysin, was used to confirm the species identity. Furthermore, the isolate was confirmed as sequence type 9. The partial scm gene sequence harbored by the isolate was closely related to those of other two Sc strains. While this isolate did not possess the erm(A), erm(B), or mef(A), macrolide/lincosamide resistance genes, it was not susceptible to azithromycin: its susceptibility was intermediate. Even though human Sc bacteremia is rare, clinicians should be aware of this microorganism, as well as Pasteurella sp., Prevotella sp., and Capnocytophaga sp., when examining and treating patients with fever who maintain close contact with companion animals.

  15. Influences on Understanding and Belief About the Origin of Species in Chinese and American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Erin Irene

    Although beliefs about origins and evolutionary knowledge have been considered independent, research has suggested that both are influenced by cognitive constraints of psychological essentialism and teleology. Most research supporting these claims has been conducted with children from Western cultures; little is known about the psychological processes underpinning beliefs and knowledge about the natural world outside Western contexts or during adolescence. Claims about the universality of beliefs, knowledge, and the possible relationship between should be made after examining samples that differ in theoretically relevant ways from a typical Western sample, such as a Chinese sample in which religious explanations are rare or an adolescent sample in which brain development promotes the coordination of conflicting information. To examine how belief and knowledge are related in Western- and non-Western samples, as well as the factors that predict both independently, 238 Chinese (M = 15.85 years old, SD = .85 years; 36.6% male) and 277 American adolescents (M = 15.80 years, SD = 1.34 years; 51.6% male) were recruited from their high schools to participate. Adolescents completed a survey measuring beliefs about the origin of living and non-living exemplars, evolutionary knowledge, and variables that were likely to influence belief and knowledge such as science preference, epistemology, psychological essentialism, teleological reasoning, and religious beliefs. American adolescents were more creationist than Chinese adolescents. Chinese adolescents displayed more sophisticated evolutionary knowledge than American adolescents although overall performance was low. Finally, there was no relationship between belief and knowledge for American adolescents yet there was a small, positive relationship for Chinese adolescents such that adolescents who believed in creation also tended to demonstrate more evolutionary knowledge. Additional analyses employed mediation techniques to

  16. Indigenous American species of the Bemisia tabaci complex are still widespread in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Leonardo da F; Marubayashi, Julio M; De Marchi, Bruno R; Yuki, Valdir A; Pavan, Marcelo A; Moriones, Enrique; Navas-Castillo, Jesús; Krause-Sakate, Renate

    2014-10-01

    Bemisia tabaci is a complex of at least 36 putative cryptic species. Since the late 1980s, the Middle East-Asia Minor 1 species (MEAM1, formerly known as the B biotype), has emerged in many tropical and subtropical regions of the world and in some areas has displaced the indigenous populations of B. tabaci. Based on analysis of the mtCOI gene, two indigenous species native to America have been reported: New World (NW, formerly the A biotype) and New World 2 (NW2). NW is present at least in Argentina, Brazil, Martinique, Mexico, Texas and Venezuela, and NW2 in Argentina, Bolivia and Brazil. Wild plants (Euphorbia sp. and Ipomoea sp.), as well as important crops such as tomato, bean and cotton, are still hosts for native B. tabaci populations in the Americas. MEAM1 has not completely displaced the native B. tabaci from the Americas. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Photoprotective implications of leaf variegation in E. dens-canis L. and P. officinalis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban, Raquel; Fernández-Marín, Beatriz; Becerril, José María; García-Plazaola, José Ignacio

    2008-08-25

    Variegated leaves occur rarely in nature, but there are some species, primarily in the forest understory, that possess this characteristic. We recently studied two variegated plants: Erytronium dens-canis L., which is characterised by a pattern of red patches and Pulmonaria officinalis L., with light green spots. These non-green areas could attenuate light reaching mesophyll cells with respect to green sections. The aim of the study was to verify whether such red and light green parts are more photoprotected than green ones and if this trait could be of adaptive value. Red patches in E. dens-canis were due to a single layer of red cells in the upper parenchyma, which accumulated anthocyanins. Light green spots in P. officinalis were caused by the presence of loosely arranged cells instead of a well-established layer of packed cells in the palisade parenchyma. Chlorophyll fluorescence imaging was performed under light treatment, showing a greater decrease of photochemical efficiency in red and light green patches than in green sections. Differences in the extent of photochemical efficiency among patches were not attributable to different activation of the xanthophyll cycle. These observations failed to confirm our initial hypothesis, but they questioned the physiological reason for this higher sensitivity in red and light green patches of photosynthetic tissues. Chlorophyll fluorescence imaging was therefore performed in the field. The same pattern of photochemical efficiency was maintained only in E. dens-canis. The current results demonstrate that in both species the benefits of variegation, if any, are different from enhanced photosynthetic performance.

  18. Identifying the North American plum species phylogenetic signal using nuclear, mitochondrial, and chloroplast DNA markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premise of the study: Prunus L. phylogeny has extensively studied using cpDNA sequences. CpDNA has a slow rate of evolution which is beneficial to determine species relationships at a deeper level. However, a limitation of the chloroplast based phylogenies is its transfer by interspecific hybridizat...

  19. Comprehensive database of diameter-based biomass regressions for North American tree species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer C. Jenkins; David C. Chojnacky; Linda S. Heath; Richard A. Birdsey

    2004-01-01

    A database consisting of 2,640 equations compiled from the literature for predicting the biomass of trees and tree components from diameter measurements of species found in North America. Bibliographic information, geographic locations, diameter limits, diameter and biomass units, equation forms, statistical errors, and coefficients are provided for each equation,...

  20. Effects of urbanization on carnivore species distribution and richness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miguel A. Ordeñana; Kevin R. Crooks; Erin E. Boydston; Robert N. Fisher; Lisa M. Lyren; Shalene Siudyla; Christopher D. Haas; Sierra Harris; Stacie A. Hathaway; Greta M. Turschak; A. Keith Miles; Dirk H. Van Vuren

    2010-01-01

    ... (distance to urban edge) and intensity (percentage of area urbanized) on carnivore occurrence and species richness in natural habitats close to the urban boundary. Coyotes (Canis latrans) and bobcats (Lynx rufus...

  1. Revised description and classification of atypical isolates of Pasteurella multocida from bovine lungs based on genotypic characterization to include variants previously classified as biovar 2 of Pasteurella canis and Pasteurella avium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik; Angen, Øystein; Olsen, John E.

    2004-01-01

    -DNA hybridizations between strains of P. multocida, biovar 2 variants of P. avium and P. canis, and P. multocida subsp. septica confirmed similarity at the species level. It is proposed, on the basis of genotypic similarity, that P. multocida be reclassified to include the biovar 2 variants of P. avium and P. canis...... as essential for identification to the species level. A format reclassification of the species is not possible, however, since too few strains have been found to vary in these key characters. Considering the phenotypic diversity of P. multocida, identification will have to depend partly on genotypic methods...

  2. MICROSPORUM CANIS RINGWORM EPIDEMIC IN TEHRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Emami

    1982-09-01

    Full Text Available Twenty Patients, a family, their neighbors, and friends; with lesions suspicious of Ringworm infection, were referred to us within a period of 80 days. The Source of infection was found to be 3 persian Cats (a mother and two kittens living with the family. The cats had multiple lesions around their nose and on abdomen which reveales the Prevalence of cutaneous fungi both on direct microscopic examination and culture. Sixteen of the 20 pateints examined 80% were positive both in Microscopic examination and culture. The rest were negative because they have used topical and systemic antifungal drugs. Of these positives 12(75% had Tinea corporis and 4(25% had Tinea capitis. The ege range of the patients with Tinea corporis was 2-9 years and for those with Tinea corpois was 5- 48 years. The causative agent in this epidemic was Microsporum canis which was most probably transmitted from the cats to this family, their friends and neighbors.

  3. Comparison of synthesis of 15α-hydroxylated steroids in males of four North American lamprey species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Mara B.; Young, Bradley A.; Close, David A.; Semeyn, Jesse; Robinson, T. Craig; Bayer, Jennifer M.; Li, Weiming

    2006-01-01

    Recent studies have provided evidence that 15α-hydroxytestosterone (15α-T) and 15α-hydroxyprogesterone (15α-P) are produced in vitro and in vivo in adult male sea lampreys (Petromyzonmarinus), and that circulatory levels increase in response to injections with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). We examined four species from the Petromyzontidae family including silver lampreys (Ichthyomyzon unicuspis), chestnut lampreys (I. castaneus), American brook lampreys (Lethenteron appendix), and Pacific lampreys (Entosphenus tridentatus) to determine if these unusual steroids were unique to sea lampreys or a common feature in lamprey species. In vitro production was examined through incubations of testis with tritiated precursors, and 15α-T and 15α-P production was confirmed in all species through co-elution with standards on both high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and thin layerchromatography. In vivo production was proven by demonstrating that HPLC-fractionated plasma had peaks of immunoreactive 15α-T and 15α-P that co-eluted with standards through using previously developed radioimmunoassays for 15α-T and 15α-P. The possible functionality of 15α-T and 15α-P was further examined in silver and Pacific lampreys by investigating the effect of injection of either type of lamprey GnRH on plasma concentrations of 15α-T and 15α-P. Injections with exogenous GnRH did not affect circulatory levels of either steroid in silver lampreys, and only GnRH III elicited higher levels of both steroids in Pacific lampreys. The 15α-hydroxylase enzyme(s) for steroids appeared to present in adult males of all species examined, but the question of whether 15α-hydroxylated steroids are functional in these lamprey species, and the significance of the 15-hydroxyl group, requires further research.

  4. Revision of the species of the genus Cathorops (Siluriformes: Ariidae from Mesoamerica and the Central American Caribbean, with description of three new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre P. Marceniuk

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The ariid genus Cathorops includes species that occur mainly in estuarine and freshwater habitats of the eastern and western coasts of southern Mexico, Central and South America. The species of Cathorops from the Mesoamerica (Atlantic slope and Caribbean Central America are revised, and three new species are described: C. belizensis from mangrove areas in Belize; C. higuchii from shallow coastal areas and coastal rivers in the Central American Caribbean, from Honduras to Panama; and C. kailolae from río Usumacinta and lago Izabal basins in Mexico and Guatemala. Additionally, C. aguadulce, from the río Papaloapan basin in Mexico, and C. melanopus from the río Motagua basin in Guatemala and Honduras, are redescribed and their geographic distributions are revised.O gênero de ariídeos Cathorops inclui espécies que habitam principalmente águas doces e estuarinas das plataformas orientais e ocidentais do sul do México, Américas do Sul e Central. Neste estudo, se apresenta uma revisão das espécies de Cathorops da Mesoamérica (bacias do Atlântico e Caribe centroamericano, incluindo a descrição de três espécies novas: C. belizensis, de áreas de manglar em Belice; C. higuchii, de águas costeiras rasas e rios costeiros do Caribe centroamericano, desde Honduras até o Panamá; e C. kailolae, das bacias do rio Usumacinta e lago Izabal no México e Guatemala. Adicionalmente, se redescrevem C. aguadulce, da bacia do rio Papaloapan no México, e C. melanopus, da bacia do rio Motagua na Guatemala e Honduras, apresentando-se uma revisão de suas distribuições geográficas.

  5. Toxocara canis y Síndrome Larva Migrans Visceralis (Toxocara canis and Syndrome Larva Migrans Visceralis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. MV Pedro De la Fé Rodríguez

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN.- Se abordaron las principales características biológicas y ecológicas de Toxocara canis, resaltando su clasificación taxonómica, morfología y relación con el medio ambiente. Sobre la interacción de este parásito con los hospedadores definitivos (cánidos y parténicos (humanos se consideraron su ciclo biológico, patogenia, características clínicas, diagnóstico, epidemiología, control y pronóstico. ABSTRACT.- In the present article was broached the main biological and ecological characteristics of Toxocara canis, taking in consideration its taxonomic classification, morphology and relationship with the environment. On the aspect concerning to the interaction of this parasite with the definitive host (canids and the paratenic host (humans they were considered its biological cycle, pathogeny, clinical symptoms, diagnosis, epidemiology, control and prognosis.

  6. Trophic cascades linking wolves (Canis lupus), coyotes (Canis latrans), and small mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, B.J.; Harlow, H.J.; Harlow, T.S.; Biggins, D.; Ripple, W.J.

    2012-01-01

    When large carnivores are extirpated from ecosystems that evolved with apex predators, these systems can change at the herbivore and plant trophic levels. Such changes across trophic levels are called cascading effects and they are very important to conservation. Studies on the effects of reintroduced wolves in Yellowstone National Park have examined the interaction pathway of wolves (Canis lupus L., 1758) to ungulates to plants. This study examines the interaction effects of wolves to coyotes to rodents (reversing mesopredator release in the absence of wolves). Coyotes (Canis latrans Say, 1823) generally avoided areas near a wolf den. However, when in the proximity of a den, they used woody habitats (pine or sage) compared with herbaceous habitats (grass or forb or sedge)- when they were away from the wolf den. Our data suggested a significant increase in rodent numbers, particularly voles (genus Microtus Schrank, 1798), during the 3-year study on plots that were within 3 km of the wolf den, but we did not detect a significant change in rodent numbers over time for more distant plots. Predation by coyotes may have depressed numbers of small mammals in areas away from the wolf den. These factors indicate a top-down effect by wolves on coyotes and subsequently on the rodents of the area. Restoration of wolves could be a powerful tool for regulating predation at lower trophic levels.

  7. Angiostrongylus vasorum in 20 cani della provincia di Chieti, Italia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Morelli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A seguito di un caso di Angiostrongylus vasorum, diagnosticato all’inizio del 2008 nella provincia di Chieti, è stata organizzata una ricerca parassitologica al fine di indagare la presenza del parassita nei cani nella stessa area. Da gennaio a settembre 2008 sono stati esaminati 178 cani, 56 carcasse e 122 campioni di feci. Nelle carcasse sono stati ricercati i parassiti adulti nel ventricolo destro e nell’arteria polmonare e le forme larvali in tessuti di organi interni e cervello. Nelle feci è stata ricercata la forma larvale L1 con tre metodiche diagnostiche utilizzate correntemente per la ricerca di endoparassiti e larve di strongili broncopolmonari. Sono stati diagnosticati 20 casi (8,9% con identificazione di parassiti adulti in 5 cani e larve L1 in altri 15 soggetti. L’esame anatomopatologico delle carcasse dei cani con nematodi adulti ha evidenziato polmonite, pleurite, schiuma rossastra in trachea, versamento di liquido sieroemorragico in cavità toracica e ingrossamento di linfonodi medinici e meseraici. L’esame istologico dei tessuti ha evidenziato quadri gravi e sovrapponibili con lesioni da localizzazione dei parassiti in reni, linfonodi e cervello. Il numero cospicuo di casi riscontrati ha reso indispensabile considerare l’angiostrongilosi nelle diagnosi differenziali degli esami clinici e autoptici di cani della provincia di Chieti (Italia e dei territori confinanti.

  8. Invasion of an asexual American water flea clone throughout Africa and rapid displacement of a native sibling species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergeay, Joachim; Verschuren, Dirk; De Meester, Luc

    2006-11-22

    The huge ecological and economic impact of biological invasions creates an urgent need for knowledge of traits that make invading species successful and factors helping indigenous populations to resist displacement by invading species or genotypes. High genetic diversity is generally considered to be advantageous in both processes. Combined with sex, it allows rapid evolution and adaptation to changing environments. We combined paleogenetic analysis with continent-wide survey of genetic diversity at nuclear and mitochondrial loci to reconstruct the invasion history of a single asexual American water flea clone (hybrid Daphnia pulexxDaphnia pulicaria) in Africa. Within 60 years of the original introduction of this invader, it displaced the genetically diverse, sexual population of native D. pulex in Lake Naivasha (Kenya), despite a formidable numerical advantage of the local population and continuous replenishment from a large dormant egg bank. Currently, the invading clone has spread throughout the range of native African D. pulex, where it appears to be the only occurring genotype. The absence of genetic variation did not hamper either the continent-wide establishment of this exotic lineage or the effective displacement of an indigenous and genetically diverse sibling species.

  9. Experimental infection of six North American fish species with the North Carolina strain of spring Viremia of Carp Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmenegger, Eveline J.; Sanders, George E.; Conway, Carla M.; Binkowski, Fred P.; Winton, James R.; Kurath, Gael

    2016-01-01

    Spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) is a rhabdoviral pathogen associated with disease outbreaks in cultured and wild fish worldwide. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio carp), and koi (C. carpio koi) suffer the highest mortalities from SVCV infections, while other cyprinid fish species have varying susceptibility. Although salmonid fish typically are considered refractory to infection by SVCV, there have been a few reports suggesting infection has occurred in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). There have been no reports of Percid fish being infected with SVCV. Since the first North American outbreak of SVCV at a North Carolina koi farm in 2002 there have been eight subsequent detections or outbreaks of SVCV among fish species from the families of Cyprinidae andCentrarchidae within the US and Canada. Thus, this exotic virus is considered a potential threat to native and cultured fish populations in North America. We performed multiple experimental challenges with fish species from three families (Salmonidae, Cyprinidae, and Percidae) to identify the potential risk associated with SVCV exposure of resident fish populations in North America.

  10. Molecular diversity and relationships of North American Elymus trachycaulus and the Eurasian E. caninus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Genlou; Tang, Hemei; Salomon, Björn

    2006-05-01

    The morphological similarity of Elymus trachycaulus to the Eurasian E. caninus has often been noted. This has lead to controversial and contradicting taxonomic treatments. Nevertheless, there has been no systematic investigation on molecular genetic similarity between E. trachycaulus and E. caninus. In this study, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was used to study the similarity between the two species. RAPD analysis of 38 samples representing E. caninus and E. trachycaulus complex yielded 111 interpretable RAPD bands. The Jaccard's similarity values for E. caninus ranged from 0.38 between accessions H10345 and H10353 to 0.97 between accessions H8745 and H10096, with an average of 0.67. The Jaccard's similarity values for E. trachycaulus complex ranged from 0.09 between E. trachycaulus ssp. subsecundus (PI 537321) and E. trachycaulus ssp. violaceus (PI 272612) to 0.78 between accessions PI 315368 and PI 372644, with an average of 0.43. The results from different analyses (NJ and PCA) were similar but not identical. The molecular genetic separation between E. caninus and E. trachycaulus was consistent. The PCA analysis clearly separated all E. caninus accessions from E. trachycaulus and its subspecies. The NJ analysis also showed separation between most accessions of E. caninus and E. trachycaulus. Further analysis excluding E. trachycaulus ssp. subsecundus and ssp. violaceus revealed that E. caninus species and E. trachycaulus species were clearly separated into two distinct groups. The RAPD data thus support the treatment of E. caninus and E. trachycaulus as distinct species. The analyses further indicate that E. violaceus is nested within E. trachycaulus, and more related to E. trachycaulus complex rather than to E. caninus.

  11. Chriolepis prolata, a new species of Atlantic goby (Teleostei: Gobiidae) from the North American continental shelf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Philip A; Findley, Lloyd T

    2015-01-08

    A new species of seven-spined goby of the genus Chriolepis is described from five specimens collected from the continental shelf of the northeastern Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean off South Carolina in depths of ca 54 to 110 m. The "Platform Goby", Chriolepis prolata, is distinguishable from all other western Atlantic species currently assigned to the genus Chriolepis and the morphologically similar genus Varicus in having pelvic-fin rays one through four branched, the fifth (innermost) pelvic-fin ray unbranched and relatively long (longer than the second ray to longer than all other pelvic-fin rays); most lateral body scales ctenoid, extending anteriorly in a wedge to a level anterior to the first dorsal-fin insertion or nearly to the pectoral-fin axil, with two or more rows of small cycloid scales extending anteriorly to near the pectoral-fin axil, cycloid scales along the bases of the dorsal and anal fins, and no scales on the belly; and the first two anal-fin pterygiophores inserted anterior to the first haemal spine. It closely resembles C. bilix but differs from that species which has a scaled belly, a shorter fifth pelvic-fin ray, prolonged dorsal-fin spines and smaller teeth in the lower jaw. An earlier report of C. bilix from Florida waters apparently refers to C. prolata. 

  12. Cytogenetics and characterization of microsatellite loci for a South American pioneer tree species, Croton floribundus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestrini, Milene; Pinto-Maglio, Cecília A F; Zucchi, Maria I; dos Santos, Flavio A M

    2013-12-01

    Despite the recent advances in plant population genetic studies, the lack of information regarding pedigree, ploidy level, or mode of inheritance for many polyploids can compromise the analysis of the molecular data produced. The aim of this study was to examine both microsatellite and cytogenetic characteristics of the pioneer tree Croton floribundus Spreng. (Euphorbiaceae) to test for the occurrence of polyploidy in the species and to evaluate its implications for the appropriate use of SSR markers. Seven microsatellite markers were developed and screened for 62 individuals from a semi-deciduous tropical forest in Brazil. Chromosome number, meiotic behavior, and pollen viability were evaluated from male flower buds. All SSR loci were highly polymorphic. The number of bivalents observed in meiosis n = 56 (2n = 8× = 112) and the maximum number of alleles per individual (Ni = 8) demonstrated the occurrence of polyploidy in C. floribundus. The normal meiotic pairing and the high pollen viability suggested that C. floribundus is a regular and stable polyploid, most likely an allopolyploid. The combined SSR and cytogenetic data provided new evidence on the origin and evolution of the species as well as assured the accurate use of SSR loci for population genetic studies of the polyploid pioneer species.

  13. Prevalence of antibodies against Rickettsia conorii, Babesia canis, Ehrlichia canis, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum antigens in dogs from the Stretto di Messina area (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennisi, Maria-Grazia; Caprì, Alessandra; Solano-Gallego, Laia; Lombardo, Gabriella; Torina, Alessandra; Masucci, Marisa

    2012-12-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the seroprevalence for Rickettsia conorii, Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Babesia canis in outdoor-kennelled dogs (n=249) from the Stretto di Messina (Italy) and to compare seroprevalence in 2 public shelters and 4 privately-owned kennels where different tick-preventive measures were implemented in order to focus on the specific sanitary risk posed by public shelters in southern Italy for tick-borne pathogens. R. conorii (72%) and B. canis (70%) were the most prevalent infections when compared to E. canis (46%) and A. phagocytophilum (38%). Seroprevalence for R. conorii, E. canis, and A. phagocytophilum was significantly higher in public shelters than in private kennels. However, B. canis seropositivity was similar in both types of kennels. In addition, in private kennels where a regular ectocide treatment was carried out by means of spot-on devices, dogs did not present E. canis and A. phagocytophilum antibodies. One hundred fifty-one dogs out of 249 (61%) were seropositive to more than one pathogen with R. conorii and B. canis the most common ones. Coinfections were more frequently found in public-shelter dogs. This study demonstrated high seroprevalences against R. conorii, B. canis, E. canis, and A. phagocytophilum in kennelled dogs from both coastal sites of the Stretto di Messina and the importance of regular tick-bite prevention by means of individual spot-on devices.

  14. Partial characterization of proteolytic enzymes of Microsporum canis and Microsporum cookei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpanya, M F; Baxter, M

    1996-01-01

    Characterization by proteinase inhibitors of the enzymes produced by Microsporum spp. revealed that Microsporum canis and Microsporum cookei produce serine proteinase(s), but only M. canis expresses aspartic and cysteine proteinases and probably a metalloproteinase. Both M. canis and M. cookei expressed metalloelastinolytic proteinases. All the proteinase types have been implicated in the pathogenicity of a wide range of microorganisms.

  15. Isolation of viable neospora caninum from brains of wild gray wolves (canis lupus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neospora caninum is a common cause of abortion in cattle worldwide. Canids, including the dog and the dingo (Canis familiaris), the coyote (Canis latrans), and the gray wolf (Canis lupus) are its definitive hosts, but also can act as intermediate hosts by harbor tissue stages of the parasite that ca...

  16. Stability of CaNi5Hx stored at temperatures between 20 and 150 degrees C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Oluf; Møller, T.S.; Bjerrum, Niels

    2002-01-01

    The stability of CaNi5Hx stored at different temperatures was studied as a function of time. In general AB(5) metal hydrides are known to be metastable with a tendency to disproportionate at elevated temperatures. In the present study samples of CaNi5 were stored in the hydrided state (as CaNi5...

  17. Molecular diagnosis of Hepatozoon canis in symptomatic dogs in the city of Goiania, Goiás, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.C. Duarte

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT More than 300 species have been described in the genus Hepatozoon, occurring in different vertebrates. Among these, only Hepatozoon canis and Hepatozoon americanum are seen in dogs. Different methods may be used for laboratory diagnosis. The most common of these is direct parasitological examination of parasite stages in blood smears. The aim of this investigation was to conduct a phylogenetic study on Hepatozoon isolates from symptomatic dogs in the city of Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil. Blood samples were obtained from 40 symptomatic dogs that had been referred to the Veterinary Hospital of the Federal University of Goiás. Among these, only two samples were positive for Hepatozoon spp. using the direct parasitological method. These samples were then subjected to a DNA extraction process and amplification of a fragment of the 18S rRNA by means of PCR. Subsequently, the PCR products from each sample were purified and sequenced. The sequences obtained were then analyzed using the BLASTn algorithm, which identified both sequences of this study as Hepatozoon canis. By applying the Mega4 software, it was confirmed that these isolates of H. canis from dogs in Goiânia are similar to other reference isolates of the same species from other regions of Brazil and worldwide.

  18. Characteristics, immunological events, and diagnostics of Babesia spp. infection, with emphasis on Babesia canis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostro Krzysztof

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Vector-borne infection constitutes a significant health issue in dogs worldwide. Recent reports point to an increasing number of canine vector-borne disease cases in European countries, including Poland. Canine babesiosis caused by various Babesia species is a protozoal tick-borne disease with worldwide distribution and significant veterinary importance. The development and application of molecular methods have increased our knowledge about canine babesiosis, its prevalence, and clinical and pathological aspects of the infection. Parasitologists and veterinary surgeons need an accurate description of the species responsible for canine babesiosis to improve diagnostic and therapeutic methods, as well as predictions for the course of the disease. Therefore, we decided to summarise recent knowledge concerning Babesia species and B. canis.

  19. Gomphrena claussenii, the first South American metallophyte species with indicator-like Zn and Cd accumulation and extreme metal tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina eT. Villafort Carvalho

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Plant species with the capacity to tolerate heavy metals are potentially useful for phytoremediation since they have adapted to survive and reproduce under toxic conditions and to accumulate high metal concentrations. Gomphrena claussenii Moq., a South-American species belonging to the Amaranthaceae, is found at a zinc (Zn mining area in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Through soil and hydroponic experiments, the metal tolerance and accumulation capacities of G. claussenii were assessed and the effects on physiological characteristics were compared with a closely-related non-tolerant species, Gomphrena elegans Mart. Gomphrena. claussenii plants grown in soil sampled at the Zn smelting area accumulated up to 5318 µg g-1 of Zn and 287 µg g-1 of Cd in shoot dry biomass after 30 days of exposure. Plants were grown in hydroponics containing up to 3000 µM of Zn and 100 µM of Cd for G. claussenii and 100 µM of Zn and 5 µM of Cd for G. elegans. Gomphrena claussenii proved to be an extremely tolerant species to both Zn and Cd, showing only slight metal toxicity symptoms at the highest treatment levels, without significant decrease in biomass and no effects on root growth, whereas the non-tolerant species G. elegans showed significant toxicity effects at the highest exposure levels. Both species accumulated more Zn and Cd in roots than in shoots. In G. elegans over 90% of the Cd remained in the roots, but G. claussenii showed a root:shoot concentration ratio of around 2, with shoots reaching 0.93 % Zn and 0.13 % Cd on dry matter base. In G. claussenii shoots, the concentrations of other minerals, such as Fe and Mn, were only affected by the highest Zn treatment while in G. elegans the Fe and Mn concentrations in shoots decreased drastically at both Zn and Cd treatments. Taking together, these results indicate that G. claussenii is a novel metallophyte, extremely tolerant of high Zn and Cd exposure and an interesting species for further

  20. Exploring the bacterial microbiota associated with native South American species of Aphis (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arneodo, J D; Ortego, J

    2014-06-01

    Aphids harbor a variety of bacterial endosymbionts, including the obligate symbiont Buchnera aphidicola and diverse facultative symbionts. The former supplies its host with essential amino acids. The latter are not indispensable for insect survival, but often improve their host's fitness. To date, the study of such associations was restricted to aphids of Holarctic origin. The bacterial microbiota of seven Aphis species from Argentina was investigated. The presence of B. aphidicola was assessed by specific PCR. Additional symbionts were identified through PCR with eubacterial universal primers, cloning, and sequencing of nearly complete 16S rRNA gene, intergenic spacer region, and partial 23S rRNA gene and subjected to phylogenetic analysis. Infection with B. aphidicola was confirmed in every species analyzed. The facultative symbiont Serratia symbiotica was detected in Aphis malalhuina Mier Durante, Nieto Nafría & Ortego, 2003, Aphis senecionicoides Blanchard, 1944, and Aphis schinifoliae Blanchard, 1939, while Hamiltonella defensa was identified in Aphis mendocina Mier Durante, Ortego & Nieto Nafría, 2006. Arsenophonus sp. was found infecting Aphis melosae Mier Durante & Ortego, 1999, and a new, undescribed Aphis sp. In Aphis danielae Remaudière, 1994, no facultative symbionts could be recorded. When analyzing the highly conserved 16S rRNA gene, the phylogenetic tree grouped the S. symbiotica, H. defensa, and Arsenophonus isolates into three well-defined clusters showing little variability among clones corresponding to the same aphid host species. This article reports for the first time the endosymbionts associated with aphids native to South America. Despite their geographic origin, the qualitative composition of their microbiota revealed no evident differences from that described for aphids in the Northern Hemisphere.

  1. A review of the regeneration dynamics of North American boreal forest tree species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, D.F.; Charron, I. [Concordia Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada)] [and others

    1999-06-01

    A discussion is included of parameters that are important in an eventual model of recruitment. A framework is put in place for a general model that can be used anywhere in the North American boreal forest for the forecasting of regeneration density following both human and natural-induced disturbance. The forecasting must be of the density of the predisturbance dormant seed bank, asexual buds, and advanced regeneration, as well as the input of postdisturbance seeds and asexual stems. Five biotic parameters are discussed that are basic for the understanding of recruitment, as well as four disturbance related factors. The recruitment parameters are: basal area, seed mass, asexual reproduction capacity, dormant seed bank capacity, and shade tolerance. The four defining qualities of disturbance are: colonization distance, return time, severity, and specificity. The aim is to arrive at the functions and parameter initializations that would make up a recruitment subroutine within a landscape simulator. This was not carried out successfully. The gaps in knowledge that must be filled in before a realistic recruitment subroutine is attained are identified. 151 refs.

  2. Integrated morphological and molecular identification of cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) and dog fleas (Ctenocephalides canis) vectoring Rickettsia felis in central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Andrea L; Hii, Sze-Fui; Jirsová, Dagmar; Panáková, Lucia; Ionică, Angela M; Gilchrist, Katrina; Modrý, David; Mihalca, Andrei D; Webb, Cameron E; Traub, Rebecca J; Šlapeta, Jan

    2015-06-15

    Fleas of the genus Ctenocephalides are the most common ectoparasites infesting dogs and cats world-wide. The species Ctenocephalides felis and Ctenocephalides canis are competent vectors for zoonotic pathogens such as Rickettsia felis and Bartonella spp. Improved knowledge on the diversity and phylogenetics of fleas is important for understanding flea-borne pathogen transmission cycles. Fleas infesting privately owned dogs and cats from the Czech Republic (n=97) and Romania (n=66) were subjected to morphological and molecular identification and phylogenetic analysis. There were a total of 59 (60.82%) cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis felis), 30 (30.93%) dog fleas (Ctenocephalides canis), 7 (7.22%) European chicken fleas (Ceratophyllus gallinae) and 1 (1.03%) northern rat flea (Nosopsyllus fasciatus) collected in the Czech Republic. Both C. canis and C. felis felis were identified in Romania. Mitochondrial DNA sequencing at the cox1 gene on a cohort of 40 fleas revealed the cosmopolitan C. felis felis clade represented by cox1 haplotype 1 is present in the Czech Republic. A new C. felis felis clade from both the Czech Republic and Romania is also reported. A high proportion of C. canis was observed from dogs and cats in the current study and phylogeny revealed that C. canis forms a sister clade to the oriental cat flea Ctenocephalides orientis (syn. C. felis orientis). Out of 33 fleas tested, representing C. felis felis, C. canis and Ce. gallinae, 7 (21.2%) were positive for R. felis using diagnostic real-time PCR targeting the gltA gene and a conventional PCR targeting the ompB gene. No samples tested positive for Bartonella spp. using a diagnostic real-time PCR assay targeting ssrA gene. This study confirms high genetic diversity of C. felis felis globally and serves as a foundation to understand the implication for zoonotic disease carriage and transmission by the flea genus Ctenocephalides.

  3. Mycoplasma canis and urogenital disease in dogs in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    L'Abee-Lund, T.M.; Heiene, R.; Friis, N.F.

    2003-01-01

    Mycoplasmas identified as Mycoplasma canis were isolated from nine dogs with clinical signs of urogenital disease in Norway over a period of 20 months. Some of the dogs had been treated unsuccessfully with antibiotics, and three were euthanased as a result of severe persistent disease. Seven...... of the dogs had a urinary tract infection, one had chronic purulent epididymitis and one had chronic prostatitis. Overt haematuria was frequently observed among the dogs with cystitis. M canis was isolated in pure culture from seven of the dogs and in mixed culture from the other two. In three cases...... the mycoplasma was cultivated only from urinary sediment, and it was typically obtained in smaller numbers than would be considered indicative of a urinary tract infection. In contrast with most mycoplasmas, the M canis isolated from all the dogs grew on ordinary blood agar plates used for routine...

  4. Contrasting demographic history and gene flow patterns of two mangrove species on either side of the Central American Isthmus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerón-Souza, Ivania; Gonzalez, Elena G; Schwarzbach, Andrea E; Salas-Leiva, Dayana E; Rivera-Ocasio, Elsie; Toro-Perea, Nelson; Bermingham, Eldredge; McMillan, W Owen

    2015-08-01

    Comparative phylogeography offers a unique opportunity to understand the interplay between past environmental events and life-history traits on diversification of unrelated but co-distributed species. Here, we examined the effects of the quaternary climate fluctuations and palaeomarine currents and present-day marine currents on the extant patterns of genetic diversity in the two most conspicuous mangrove species of the Neotropics. The black (Avicennia germinans, Avicenniaceae) and the red (Rhizophora mangle, Rhizophoraceae) mangroves have similar geographic ranges but are very distantly related and show striking differences on their life-history traits. We sampled 18 Atlantic and 26 Pacific locations for A. germinans (N = 292) and R. mangle (N = 422). We performed coalescence simulations using microsatellite diversity to test for evidence of population change associated with quaternary climate fluctuations. In addition, we examined whether patterns of genetic variation were consistent with the directions of major marine (historical and present day) currents in the region. Our demographic analysis was grounded within a phylogeographic framework provided by the sequence analysis of two chloroplasts and one flanking microsatellite region in a subsample of individuals. The two mangrove species shared similar biogeographic histories including: (1) strong genetic breaks between Atlantic and Pacific ocean basins associated with the final closure of the Central American Isthmus (CAI), (2) evidence for simultaneous population declines between the mid-Pleistocene and early Holocene, (3) asymmetric historical migration with higher gene flow from the Atlantic to the Pacific oceans following the direction of the palaeomarine current, and (4) contemporary gene flow between West Africa and South America following the major Atlantic Ocean currents. Despite the remarkable differences in life-history traits of mangrove species, which should have had a strong influence on seed

  5. CROMOSOMAS DE ESPECIES AMERICANAS DE SIDA (MALVACEAE Chromosomes of American species of Sida (Malvaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela I. Lavia

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available

    En este trabajo se presentan los números cromosómicos de 26 accesiones del género Sida
    (Malvaceae de Argentina, Bolivia, Brasil, México y Paraguay, pertenecientes a 15 especies.
    Para las siguientes 8 especies se cita el número cromosómico por primera vez: S. Charpinii
    Krapov. 2n=14, S. ciliaris L. 2n=16, S. Monteiroi Krapov. 2n=16, S. anomala A. St.-Hil. 2n=16,
    S. Cristobaliana Krapov. 2n=32, S. dubia A. St.-Hil. & Naudin 2n=14, S. Poeppigiana
    (K.Schum. Fryxell 2n=14 y S. Leitaofilhoi Krapov. 2n=14
    Chromosome numbers are reported for 26 accessions of Sida (Malvaceae from Argentina,
    Bolivia, Brazil, México and Paraguay representing 15 species. First chromosome counts are
    cited for the following 8 species: S. Charpinii Krapov. 2n=14, S. ciliaris L. 2n=16, S. Monteiroi
    Krapov. 2n=16, S. anomala A. St.-Hil. 2n=16, S. Cristobaliana Krapov. 2n=32, S. dubia A. St.-Hil.
    & Naudin 2n=14, S. Poeppigiana (K.Schum. Fryxell 2n=14 and S. Leitaofilhoi Krapov. 2n=14

  6. Book review, Amati cani, José Jorge Letria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Graziani

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Con Amati cani ci discostiamo per una volta dalle pubblicazioni a carattere scientifico, per dare il giusto risalto ad un’interessante raccolta di narrativa che esplora il rapporto tra l'uomo e il suo miglior amico. José Jorge Latria, noto soprattutto per essere un esponente di spicco della canzone politica portoghese e per le sue opere poetiche, teatrali e di letteratura per ragazzi, nello scrivere questo libro compie un vero e proprio atto d’amore verso i cani, con il preciso intento di costringere i lettori ad eliminare dal proprio vocabolario il gratuito modo di dire ‘mondo cane’. L’Autore delinea brevi ritratti di cani che, da Argo in poi, hanno accompagnato da amici veri i loro celebri padroni nella buona e nella cattiva sorte: racconta cioè la storia di quei cani che non sono sprofondati nella voragine dell’oblio perchè i loro padroni hanno raggiunto la celebrità nel mondo della letteratura, della politica, del cinema, delle scienze o della musica. Con a fianco un amico fedele come un cane, la vita ha avuto un sapore diverso per Ernest Hemingway, Isaac Newton, Sigmund Freud, Buster Keaton, Marilyn Monroe, Pablo Picasso, John Steinbeck, Lord Byron, Tim Burton e altri ancora, tutti personaggi che sono presenti in questo libro grazie ai cani che hanno condiviso con loro la vita e le memorie. La lettura di Amati cani dà piacere poichè in ognuno di questi racconti batte, affettuoso e delicato, il cuore di un cane; ma dà anche un pò da pensare in quanto celebra in maniera molto tenera l’amore, la fedeltà e la solidarietà tra l’uomo e il suo speciale amico a quattro zampe.

  7. The American cranberry: first insights into the whole genome of a species adapted to bog habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) is one of only three widely-cultivated fruit crops native to North America- the other two are blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) and native grape (Vitis spp.). In terms of taxonomy, cranberries are in the core Ericales, an order for which genome sequence data are currently lacking. In addition, cranberries produce a host of important polyphenolic secondary compounds, some of which are beneficial to human health. Whereas next-generation sequencing technology is allowing the advancement of whole-genome sequencing, one major obstacle to the successful assembly from short-read sequence data of complex diploid (and higher ploidy) organisms is heterozygosity. Cranberry has the advantage of being diploid (2n = 2x = 24) and self-fertile. To minimize the issue of heterozygosity, we sequenced the genome of a fifth-generation inbred genotype (F ≥ 0.97) derived from five generations of selfing originating from the cultivar Ben Lear. Results The genome size of V. macrocarpon has been estimated to be about 470 Mb. Genomic sequences were assembled into 229,745 scaffolds representing 420 Mbp (N50 = 4,237 bp) with 20X average coverage. The number of predicted genes was 36,364 and represents 17.7% of the assembled genome. Of the predicted genes, 30,090 were assigned to candidate genes based on homology. Genes supported by transcriptome data totaled 13,170 (36%). Conclusions Shotgun sequencing of the cranberry genome, with an average sequencing coverage of 20X, allowed efficient assembly and gene calling. The candidate genes identified represent a useful collection to further study important biochemical pathways and cellular processes and to use for marker development for breeding and the study of horticultural characteristics, such as disease resistance. PMID:24927653

  8. Systematic B-metal substitution in CaNi5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Oluf; Bjerrum, Niels

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this work has been to study the effect of B metal substitutions in CaNi5 (AB(5)) which is known to suffer from poor cycling stability as a hydride electrode material. Systematic monosubstitutions of nickel with the most common other B metals (i.e. Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn and Sn...... be concluded that CaNi5 is much less tolerant towards B-metal substitution than LaNi5. This fact makes it less possible that the problem with cycling stability of Ca-based hydride electrodes can be solved by substitutions. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science S.A. All rights reserved....

  9. White pine blister rust resistance in North American, Asian and european species - results from artificial inoculartion trials in Oregon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Sniezko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Dorena Genetic Resource Center (DGRC has used artificial inoculation trials to evaluate progenies of thousands of Pinus monticola and P. lambertiana selections from Oregon and Washington for resistance to white pine blister rust caused by Cronartium ribicola. In addition, early results are now available for P. albicaulis and P. strobiformis. DGRC has also recently evaluated seed orchard progenies of P. strobus, as well as bulked seedlots from P. armandii and P. peuce. The majority of P. monticola, P. lambertiana, P. albicaulis, and P. strobus progenies are very susceptible to blister rust. However, resistance exists in all these species. P. strobiformis showed relatively high levels of resistance for the eight progenies tested. Resistance in P. armandii was mainly reflected in the very low percentage of cankered seedlings; for P. peuce, the high percentage of cankered seedlings alive three years after inoculation was notable. R-genes are present in some of the North American five-needle pine species, but partial resistance traits (e.g. bark reaction will play a major role in breeding activities for P. monticola and P. lambertiana and will likely be the key to developing durable resistance.

  10. White pine blister rust resistance in North American, Asian and european species - results from artificial inoculartion trials in Oregon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Sniezko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Dorena Genetic Resource Center (DGRC has used artificial inoculation trials to evaluate progenies of thousands of Pinus monticola and P. lambertiana selections from Oregon and Washington for resistance to white pine blister rust caused by Cronartium ribicola. In addition, early results are now available for P. albicaulis and P. strobiformis. DGRC has also recently evaluated seed orchard progenies of P. strobus, as well as bulked seedlots from P. armandii and P. peuce. The majority of P. monticola, P. lambertiana, P. albicaulis, and P. strobus progenies are very susceptible to blister rust. However, resistance exists in all these species. P. strobiformis showed relatively high levels of resistance for the eight progenies tested. Resistance in P. armandii was mainly reflected in the very low percentage of cankered seedlings; for P. peuce, the high percentage of cankered seedlings alive three years after inoculation was notable. R-genes are present in some of the North American five-needle pine species, but partial resistance traits (e.g. bark reaction will play a major role in breeding activities for P. monticola and P. lambertiana and will likely be the key to developing durable resistance.

  11. White pine blister rust resistance in North American, Asian and European species - results from artificial inoculation trials in Oregon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Sniezko

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Dorena Genetic Resource Center (DGRC has used artificial inoculationtrials to evaluate progenies of thousands of Pinus monticola and P. lambertiana selections from Oregon and Washington for resistance to white pine blister rust caused by Cronartium ribicola. In addition, early results are now available for P.albicaulis and P. strobiformis. DGRC has also recently evaluated seed orchard progenies of P.strobus, as well as bulked seedlots from P. armandii and P. peuce.The majority of P. monticola, P. lambertiana, P. albicaulis, and P. strobus progenies are very susceptible to blister rust. However, resistance exists in all these species. P.strobiformis showed relatively high levels of resistance for the eight progenies tested.Resistance in P. armandii was mainly reflected in the very low percentage of cankered seedlings; for P. peuce, the high percentage of cankered seedlings alive three years after inoculation was notable. R-genes are present in some of the North American five-needle pine species, but partial resistance traits (e.g. bark reactionwill play a major role in breeding activities for P. monticola and P. lambertiana and will likely be the key to developing durable resistance.

  12. Gene repertoire evolution of Streptococcus pyogenes inferred from phylogenomic analysis with Streptococcus canis and Streptococcus dysgalactiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefébure, Tristan; Richards, Vince P; Lang, Ping; Pavinski-Bitar, Paulina; Stanhope, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes, is an important human pathogen classified within the pyogenic group of streptococci, exclusively adapted to the human host. Our goal was to employ a comparative evolutionary approach to better understand the genomic events concomitant with S. pyogenes human adaptation. As part of ascertaining these events, we sequenced the genome of one of the potential sister species, the agricultural pathogen S. canis, and combined it in a comparative genomics reconciliation analysis with two other closely related species, Streptococcus dysgalactiae and Streptococcus equi, to determine the genes that were gained and lost during S. pyogenes evolution. Genome wide phylogenetic analyses involving 15 Streptococcus species provided convincing support for a clade of S. equi, S. pyogenes, S. dysgalactiae, and S. canis and suggested that the most likely S. pyogenes sister species was S. dysgalactiae. The reconciliation analysis identified 113 genes that were gained on the lineage leading to S. pyogenes. Almost half (46%) of these gained genes were phage associated and 14 showed significant matches to experimentally verified bacteria virulence factors. Subsequent to the origin of S. pyogenes, over half of the phage associated genes were involved in 90 different LGT events, mostly involving different strains of S. pyogenes, but with a high proportion involving the horse specific pathogen S. equi subsp. equi, with the directionality almost exclusively (86%) in the S. pyogenes to S. equi direction. Streptococcus agalactiae appears to have played an important role in the evolution of S. pyogenes with a high proportion of LGTs originating from this species. Overall the analysis suggests that S. pyogenes adaptation to the human host was achieved in part by (i) the integration of new virulence factors (e.g. speB, and the sal locus) and (ii) the construction of new regulation networks (e.g. rgg, and to some extent speB).

  13. Gene repertoire evolution of Streptococcus pyogenes inferred from phylogenomic analysis with Streptococcus canis and Streptococcus dysgalactiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tristan Lefébure

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pyogenes, is an important human pathogen classified within the pyogenic group of streptococci, exclusively adapted to the human host. Our goal was to employ a comparative evolutionary approach to better understand the genomic events concomitant with S. pyogenes human adaptation. As part of ascertaining these events, we sequenced the genome of one of the potential sister species, the agricultural pathogen S. canis, and combined it in a comparative genomics reconciliation analysis with two other closely related species, Streptococcus dysgalactiae and Streptococcus equi, to determine the genes that were gained and lost during S. pyogenes evolution. Genome wide phylogenetic analyses involving 15 Streptococcus species provided convincing support for a clade of S. equi, S. pyogenes, S. dysgalactiae, and S. canis and suggested that the most likely S. pyogenes sister species was S. dysgalactiae. The reconciliation analysis identified 113 genes that were gained on the lineage leading to S. pyogenes. Almost half (46% of these gained genes were phage associated and 14 showed significant matches to experimentally verified bacteria virulence factors. Subsequent to the origin of S. pyogenes, over half of the phage associated genes were involved in 90 different LGT events, mostly involving different strains of S. pyogenes, but with a high proportion involving the horse specific pathogen S. equi subsp. equi, with the directionality almost exclusively (86% in the S. pyogenes to S. equi direction. Streptococcus agalactiae appears to have played an important role in the evolution of S. pyogenes with a high proportion of LGTs originating from this species. Overall the analysis suggests that S. pyogenes adaptation to the human host was achieved in part by (i the integration of new virulence factors (e.g. speB, and the sal locus and (ii the construction of new regulation networks (e.g. rgg, and to some extent speB.

  14. Intra-specific pelage color variation in a South American small rodent species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Sandoval Salinas

    Full Text Available Abstract Intra-specific color variation is often underestimated by researchers, and among mammals, intra-specific differences in coloration are poorly documented for most species. The main goal of this study was to apply an objective color measurement methodology to the study of a specific problem: the detection, if any, of patterns of changes in the fur color of specimens of Akodon budini in relation to biological (i.e., sex and environmental (i.e., season variables. We hypothesize that coat color will be more homogeneous in males than in females and that coat color will be darker in winter than in summer, the latter being orange. We measured the pelage color on five points over the dorsal surface of 26 A. budini museum specimens using a spectroradiometer and a diffuse illumination cabin. We used Principal Component Analysis to describe the association between the color variables, sex and season, and each of the observations. We then used general linear models of Analysis of Variance to examine relationships between color data, season, and sex. The results clearly confirm the hypothesis related to seasonal coat color change but do not directly confirm the hypothesis related to changes in coat color in relation to sex, and we show the complexity of the studied pattern. In conclusion, undoubtedly, the studied variables should accordingly be considered when studying the coloration of specimens for characterization, identification and discrimination of different taxonomic units based on color.

  15. Identification of serum biomarkers in dogs naturally infected with Babesia canis canis using a proteomic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Canine babesiosis is a tick-borne disease that is caused by the haemoprotozoan parasites of the genus Babesia. There are limited data on serum proteomics in dogs, and none of the effect of babesiosis on the serum proteome. The aim of this study was to identify the potential serum biomarkers of babesiosis using proteomic techniques in order to increase our understanding about disease pathogenesis. Results Serum samples were collected from 25 dogs of various breeds and sex with naturally occurring babesiosis caused by B. canis canis. Blood was collected on the day of admission (day 0), and subsequently on the 1st and 6th day of treatment. Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) of pooled serum samples of dogs with naturally occurring babesiosis (day 0, day 1 and day 6) and healthy dogs were run in triplicate. 2DE image analysis showed 64 differentially expressed spots with p ≤ 0.05 and 49 spots with fold change ≥2. Six selected spots were excised manually and subjected to trypsin digest prior to identification by electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry on an Amazon ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Mass spectrometry data was processed using Data Analysis software and the automated Matrix Science Mascot Daemon server. Protein identifications were assigned using the Mascot search engine to interrogate protein sequences in the NCBI Genbank database. A number of differentially expressed serum proteins involved in inflammation mediated acute phase response, complement and coagulation cascades, apolipoproteins and vitamin D metabolism pathway were identified in dogs with babesiosis. Conclusions Our findings confirmed two dominant pathogenic mechanisms of babesiosis, haemolysis and acute phase response. These results may provide possible serum biomarker candidates for clinical monitoring of babesiosis and this study could serve as the basis for further proteomic investigations in canine babesiosis. PMID:24885808

  16. Ehrlichia canis em cães atendidos em hospital veterinário de Botucatu, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Ehrlichia canis in dogs attended in a veterinary hospital from Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana E. H. Ueno

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo investigou a etiologia da erliquiose monocítica canina em 70 cães atendidos no Hospital Veterinário da Universidade Estadual Paulista, na cidade de Botucatu, durante 2001 e 2002. Os cães foram avaliados segundo achados clínicos, epidemiológicos e laboratoriais e pela amplificação parcial e sequenciamento do gene dsb de Ehrlichia. DNA de Ehrlichia canis foi amplificado e sequenciado em 28 (40,0% cães. Observou-se maior frequência deanimais positivos com idade até 12 meses (P 0,05 e 42,2% (P > 0,05 dos cães PCR positivos, respectivamente. Vinte e cinco cães com anemia ( 0,05 frente à infecção por E. canis. Todos os 28 cães positivos na PCR apresentaram trombocitopenia (This study investigated the etiology of canine ehrlichiosis and possible clinical and epidemiological data associated with the infection in 70 dogs suspect of ehrlichiosis attended at the Veterinary Hospital of the São Paulo State University in Botucatu city during 2001 and 2002. Dogs were evaluated by clinical-epidemiological and hematological data and molecular analysis by partial amplification and DNA sequencing of the ehrlichial dsb gene. E. canis DNA was amplified and sequenced in 28 (40.0% dogs. Dogs younger than 12 months old showed significantly higher infection rates (65.0%; P 0.05, and 42.4% (P > 0.05 of the PCR-positive dogs, respectively. Twenty-five anemic ( 0.05. All 28 PCR-positive dogs showed thrombocytopenia (<175 × 10³ platelets.µL-1 and revealed statistical significance (P < 0.05. E. canis was the only Ehrlichia species found in dogs in the studied region, with higher infection rates in younger dogs, and statisticallyassociated with thrombocytopenia.

  17. A taxonomic revision of the Southern South American species of the genus Fannia Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera: Fanniidae

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    Martha Cecilia Dominguez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Southern South American species of the genus Fannia Robineau-Desvoidy are revised. Twenty five valid species are recognized for the region in the present study: Fannia albitarsis Stein, Fannia anthracina (Walker, Fannia bigoti Stein, Fannia canicularis (Linnaeus, Fannia confusa Pont & Carvalho, Fannia coxata Shannon & Del Ponte, Fannia femoralis (Stein, Fannia flavicornis Stein, Fannia flavipalpis Stein, Fannia fusconotata (Rondani, Fannia heydenii (Wiedemann, Fannia hirtifemur (Stein, Fannia incisurata (Zetterstedt, Fannia petrocchiae Shannon & Del Ponte, Fannia punctiventris Malloch, Fannia pusilla (Bigot, Fannia pusio (Wiedemann, Fannia scalaris (Fabricius, Fannia schnusei Stein, Fannia setosa (Bigot, Fannia tucumanensis Albuquerque, Fannia tumidifemur Stein and three new species from Argentina are described: two from the province of San Luis (Fannia roigi sp. nov. and Fannia hermani sp. nov. and one from the province of Mendoza (Fannia losgateados sp. nov.. The unknown male of Fannia fusconotata is described for the first time. The Neotropical Fannia euchaetophora Carvalho is synonymized with Fannia flavicornis Stein. Redescriptions are provided for all known species and genitalic illustrations given for both sexes. Keys for each sex are given, and knowledge on the geographical distribution of all species is updated and summarized.Las especies de Fannia de America del Sur Austral son revisadas. Se reconocen 25 especies para la region en el presente estudio: Fannia albitarsis Stein, Fannia anthracina (Walker, Fannia bigoti Stein, Fannia canicularis (Linnaeus, Fanniaconfusa Pont&Carvalho, Fannia coxata Shannon & Del Ponte, Fannia femoralis (Stein, Fannia flavicornis Stein, Fannia flavipalpis Stein, Fannia fusconotata (Rondani, Fannia heydenii (Wiedemann, Fannia hirtifemur (Stein, Fannia incisurata (Zetterstedt, Fannia petrocchiae Shannon & Del Ponte, Fannia punctiventris Malloch, Fannia pusilla (Bigot, Fannia pusio (Wiedemann, Fannia

  18. The Dogs of CA-SRI-2: Osteometry of Canis familiaris from Santa Rosa Island, California

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    Courtney Hofman

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Domesticated dogs (Canis familiaris are an important human companion around the world and have long been a focus of archaeological research. Osteometric analysis of six dogs from a Late Holocene Chumash village on Santa Rosa Island, California indicates that adults, juvenile/young adults, and a puppy were present. Similar to dogs on other Channel Islands, these dogs fall into the large Indian dog category, standing some 43-54 cm tall, with mesaticephalic or mild brachycephalic facial characteristics. No cutmarks were found on the bones, but one of the mandibles was burned. The CA-SRI-2 dogs appear to have eaten high trophic marine foods similar to what humans consumed, documenting the close bond between dogs and humans on the Channel Islands and broader North American Pacific Coast.

  19. The resistance of a North American bat species (Eptesicus fuscus to White-nose Syndrome (WNS.

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    Craig L Frank

    Full Text Available White-nose Syndrome (WNS is the primary cause of over-winter mortality for little brown (Myotis lucifugus, northern (Myotis septentrionalis, and tricolored (Perimyotis subflavus bats, and is due to cutaneous infection with the fungus Pseudogymnoascus (Geomyces destructans (Pd. Cutaneous infection with P. destructans disrupts torpor patterns, which is thought to lead to a premature depletion of body fat reserve. Field studies were conducted at 3 WNS-affected hibernation sites to determine if big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus are resistant to Pd. Radio telemetry studies were conducted during 2 winters to determine the torpor patterns of 23 free-ranging E. fuscus hibernating at a site where Pd occurs. The body fat contents of free-ranging E. fuscus and M. lucifugus during hibernation at 2 different WNS-affected sites were also determined. The numbers of bats hibernating at the same site was determined during both: a 4-7 years prior to the arrival of Pd, and, b 2-3 years after it first appeared at this site. The torpor bouts of big brown bats hibernating at a WNS-affected site were not significantly different in length from those previously reported for this species. The mean body fat content of E. fuscus in February was nearly twice that of M. lucifugus hibernating at the same WNS-affected sites during this month. The number of M. lucifugus hibernating at one site decreased by 99.6% after P. destructans first appeared, whereas the number of E. fuscus hibernating there actually increased by 43% during the same period. None of the E. fuscus collected during this study had any visible fungal growth or lesions on their skin, whereas virtually all the M. lucifugus collected had visible fungal growth on their wings, muzzle, and ears. These findings indicate that big brown bats are resistant to WNS.

  20. The genome of obligately intracellular Ehrlichia canis revealsthemes of complex membrane structure and immune evasion strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mavromatis, K.; Kuyler Doyle, C.; Lykidis, A.; Ivanova, N.; Francino, P.; Chain, P.; Shin, M.; Malfatti, S.; Larimer, F.; Copeland,A.; Detter, J.C.; Land, M.; Richardson, P.M.; Yu, X.J.; Walker, D.H.; McBride, J.W.; Kyrpides, N.C.

    2005-09-01

    Ehrlichia canis, a small obligately intracellular, tick-transmitted, gram-negative, a-proteobacterium is the primary etiologic agent of globally distributed canine monocytic ehrlichiosis. Complete genome sequencing revealed that the E. canis genome consists of a single circular chromosome of 1,315,030 bp predicted to encode 925 proteins, 40 stable RNA species, and 17 putative pseudogenes, and a substantial proportion of non-coding sequence (27 percent). Interesting genome features include a large set of proteins with transmembrane helices and/or signal sequences, and a unique serine-threonine bias associated with the potential for O-glycosylation that was prominent in proteins associated with pathogen-host interactions. Furthermore, two paralogous protein families associated with immune evasion were identified, one of which contains poly G:C tracts, suggesting that they may play a role in phase variation and facilitation of persistent infections. Proteins associated with pathogen-host interactions were identified including a small group of proteins (12) with tandem repeats and another with eukaryotic-like ankyrin domains (7).

  1. [Dermacentor reticulatus (Fabricius, 1794)--distribution, biology and vector for Babesia canis in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heile, Cornelia; Heydorn, Alfred-Otto; Schein, Eberhard

    2006-01-01

    This work deals with occurrence, distribution as well as biology and vectorial capacity of the ornate dog tick (Dermacentor (D.) reticulatus). Until 30 years ago this tick has only been described in a few natural foci in southern Germany. Its distribution has however expanded in the course of the last years. With the exception of northern Germany it is now covering large areas of Germany. This is particularly the case in the Upper Rhine Valley, Saarland and the Mark Brandenburg. However, it is endemic in many other areas of Germany as well. The transformation of agricultural land into fallow land, an increase in host reservoirs and climatic changes are discussed as main contributors to this change. Little is known about the role of this species as a vector for virus, rickettsia, bacteria and protozoa as well as its medical and veterinary importance. D. reticulatus is a vector for Babesia canis canis. It is reported here about a case of autochthonous babesiosis in a dog from Berlin/Brandenburg.

  2. Fusarium solani species complex associated with carapace lesions and branchitis in captive American horseshoe crabs Limulus polyphemus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuxbury, Kathryn A; Shaw, Gillian C; Montali, Richard J; Clayton, Leigh Ann; Kwiatkowski, Nicole P; Dykstra, Michael J; Mankowski, Joseph L

    2014-07-03

    Captive American horseshoe crabs Limulus polyphemus housed at the National Aquarium presented with a variety of shell and gill lesions over a 3 yr period. Carapace lesions were located on both the dorsal and ventral prosoma and opisthosoma and included multifocal circular areas of tan discoloration, ulcerations, and/or pitting lesions, extending from superficial to full thickness. Gill lesions involved both the book gill cover (operculum) and individual book gill leaflets and included multifocal circular areas of tan discoloration, tan to off-white opaque proliferative lesions, and/or areas of black discoloration. Histopathology revealed fungal hyphae, with variable morphology throughout the thickened and irregular cuticle of the carapace and occasionally penetrating into subcuticular tissues, with associated amebocytic inflammation. Book gill leaflets were infiltrated by fungal hyphae and contained necrotic debris and amebocytes. Thirty-eight of 39 animals (97%) evaluated via histopathological examination had intralesional fungal hyphae. Fungal cultures of carapace and gill lesions were attempted in 26 tissue samples from 15 individuals and were positive in 13 samples (50%), with 10 cultures (77%) yielding identification to genus. Fusarium sp. was identified in 8 of the 10 cultures (80%) via culture morphology. The Fusarium solani species complex was confirmed in 6 of these 8 (75%) via polymerase chain reaction amplification of 2 different ribosomal-specific sequences of isolated fungal DNA. Ante-mortem systemic and topical treatments were performed on some affected individuals, but no appreciable change in lesions was observed. Mycotic dermatitis and branchitis are serious health issues for captive American horseshoe crabs.

  3. The in vitro effect of prolactin on the growth, motility and expression of prolactin receptors in larvae of Toxocara canis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-Güitrón, L E; Morales-Montor, J; Muñoz-Guzmán, M A; Nava-Castro, K E; Ramírez-Álvarez, H; Moreno-Méndoza, N A; Hernández-Cervantes, R; Alba-Hurtado, F

    2016-07-15

    The in vitro effect of prolactin (PRL) on the growth and motility of Toxocara canis larvae was assessed. Additionally, the expression and location of prolactin receptors (PRL-Rs) were determined in the larvae. Larvae of T. canis were incubated with different concentrations of PRL for different periods of time. The stimulated larvae accelerated their enlargement and increased their motility. The mean percentage of PRL-R+ cells in non-stimulated larvae, measured by flow cytometry was 7.3±0.3%. Compared with non-stimulated larvae, the mean fluorescence intensity (p<0.05) increased in larvae incubated with 40ng/mL of PRL for 10 days. A 465-bp length fragment was amplified from larvae gDNA by PCR. The sequence of this fragment showed 99% similarity with the gene fragment that codes for the PRL-R of the domestic dog. A high concentration of PRL-Rs was immune-located in the posterior region of the larval intestine; therefore, the intestinal cells in this region were most likely the targets for this hormone. Based on these results, PRL-Rs were identified in T. canis larvae, and the in vitro stimulation with PRL increased the number of these receptors, accelerated the growth and modified the activity of larvae. All of the above suggest that T. canis larvae are evolutionarily adapted to recognize the PRL of their definitive host and furthermore might explain the reactivation of tissue-arrested larvae during the gestation of bitches, which does not occur in gestating females of other species.

  4. Serodetection of Ehrlichia canis amongst dogs in central Namibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyarara, Rutendo; Tubbesing, Ulf; Soni, Minty; Noden, Bruce H

    2015-06-01

    Ehrlichia canis is a major pathogen in dogs throughout Africa, yet it has not been reported in Namibia. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of canine ehrlichiosis in central Namibia using the ImmunoComb assay (Biogal, Galed Laboratories). The study included 76 dogs that presented to the Rhino Park Veterinary Clinic in the north-western suburb of Khomasdal, Windhoek, Namibia, as well as 30 stray dogs from the Windhoek branch of the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. Of the 106 dogs tested, 53.8% were seropositive at titres > 1:80. Dogs that presented with symptoms of E. canis infection had a significantly higher seroprevalence (86.6%) compared with apparently healthy dogs (41.6%) (P = 0.00). Location of habitation was significant (P canis living in the northern or north-western part of Windhoek. As the first study to serologically establish E. canis as a major pathogen in dogs in central Namibia, it is notable that the highest proportion of seropositive dogs came from low-income areas. Further investigation is necessary to describe the ecology of this important tick-borne pathogen of companion animals in Namibia.

  5. Serodetection of Ehrlichia canis amongst dogs in central Namibia

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    Rutendo Manyarara

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ehrlichia canis is a major pathogen in dogs throughout Africa, yet it has not been reported in Namibia. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of canine ehrlichiosis in central Namibia using the ImmunoComb assay (Biogal, Galed Laboratories. The study included 76 dogs that presented to the Rhino Park Veterinary Clinic in the north-western suburb of Khomasdal, Windhoek, Namibia, as well as 30 stray dogs from the Windhoek branch of the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. Of the 106 dogs tested, 53.8% were seropositive at titres > 1:80. Dogs that presented with symptoms of E. canis infection had a significantly higher seroprevalence (86.6% compared with apparently healthy dogs (41.6% (P = 0.00. Location of habitation was significant (P < 0.017, with a high percentage of dogs exposed to E. canis living in the northern or north-western part of Windhoek. As the first study to serologically establish E. canis as a major pathogen in dogs in central Namibia, it is notable that the highest proportion of seropositive dogs came from low-income areas. Further investigation is necessary to describe the ecology of this important tick-borne pathogen of companion animals in Namibia.

  6. Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) death by stick impalement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber-Meyer, Shannon; Schmidt, Lori; Mech, L. David

    2017-01-01

    Although Canis lupus L. (Gray Wolf) individuals are sometimes impaled by sticks, we could find no documentation of natural impalement by sticks as a cause of death for wild Wolves. Here we report on a wild Gray Wolf from northeastern Minnesota that died due to stick puncture of its thorax and abdomen.

  7. MRI findings of spinal visceral larva migrans of Toxocara canis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, In Ho, E-mail: leeinho1974@hanmail.ne [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-dong, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiology, Chungnam National University Hospital, 33 Munhwa-ro, Jung-gu, Daejeon 301-721 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Tae, E-mail: st7.kim@hotmail.co [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-dong, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Dae Kun, E-mail: odk6464@nate.co [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-dong, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyung-Jin, E-mail: hyungkim@skku.ed [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-dong, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Keon Ha, E-mail: somatom@skku.ed [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-dong, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Pyoung, E-mail: drpjeon@gmail.co [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-dong, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Hong Sik, E-mail: byun5474@skku.ed [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-dong, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-08-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the MRI findings of visceral larva migrans (VLS) of Toxocara canis in spinal cord. Materials and methods: We retrospectively reviewed spinal MRI findings in eight patients with serologically proven Toxocara canis between 2005 and 2008. We evaluated the location, length, extent and migration of the lesion, MR signal intensity (SI), enhancement pattern, and swelling of the spinal cord. We evaluated clinical features including presenting symptoms and signs and treatment response. Results: Total 8 patients (M = 8; age range 36-79 years) were included. The lesions were located in the cervical or thoracic spinal cord in all patients. All lesions showed high SI and minimal or mild swelling of involved spinal cord on T2WI and focal nodular enhancement on posterior or posterolateral segment of spinal cord. The length of involved lesion was relatively short in most patients. There was a migration of lesion in one patient. In spite of albendazole or steroid treatment, neurological symptoms or signs were not significantly improved in all patients. Conclusion: Although all lesions show non-specific imaging findings like non-tumorous myelopathy mimicking transverse myelitis, single lesion, focal nodular enhancement on posterior or posterolateral segment of spinal cord, relatively short segmental involvement and migration of lesion may be characteristic findings of spinal VLM of Toxocara canis. In addition, the reluctant response to the treatment may be characteristic of spinal VLM of Toxocara canis.

  8. Investigation of tick vectors of Hepatozoon canis in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demoner, Larissa de Castro; Rubini, Adriano Stefani; Paduan, Karina dos Santos; Metzger, Betina; de Paula Antunes, João Marcelo Azevedo; Martins, Thiago Fenandes; Mathias, Maria Izabel Camargo; O'Dwyer, Lucia Helena

    2013-12-01

    Hepatozoon canis is a common apicomplexan parasite of dogs. In Brazil, in addition to Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Amblyomma ovale, Amblyomma cajennense, and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus have been suggested to act as vectors. The present study aimed to evaluate, under controlled conditions, the acquisition of H. canis by A. ovale, R. sanguineus, and A. cajennense after feeding on naturally infected dogs. Cytological and histophatological examinations were performed to recover oocysts and other sporogonic stages of the protozoan from the experimentally infected nymphs and adults. None of the R. sanguineus (n=30) or A. cajennense nymphs (n=15) that were dissected after feeding on H. canis naturally infected dogs became infected by the hemoparasite. Likewise, none of the R. sanguineus (n=165) and A. cajennense (n=114) adult ticks that were fed as nymphs on dogs demonstrated infection. Additionally, A. cajennense adult ticks were incapable of acquiring the infection, since no parasite was found in 62 adults that fed on H. canis-infected dogs. With regard to A. ovale ticks, 2 different infestations were carried out. Firstly, a dog with naturally occurring hepatozoonosis was infested with A. ovale adults originating from Rondônia, Brazil. Ticks fed to full engorgement. A total of 31 adults was collected from the dog and dissected on the third day after natural detachment. Oocysts were detected in 13 (42%) of the ticks. The second experimental infestation was carried out using adult ticks originating from São Paulo, Brazil. Surprisingly, of the 103 dissected ticks, only one (1%) contained oocysts in the hemocoel. No other sporogonic stage was found. Results indicate that different strains of A. ovale ticks may exist in Brazil with different susceptibilities to pathogens. Furthermore, it is possible that R. sanguineus and A. cajennense have little or no importance in the transmission of H. canis in rural areas of Brazil.

  9. Prevalence of antibodies to spotted fever group Rickettsia spp. and Ehrlichia spp. in coyotes (Canis latrans) in Oklahoma and Texas, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkey, Lindsay A; West, Misti D; Barrett, Anne W; Saucier, Jill M; O'Connor, Tom P; Paras, Kelsey L; Reiskind, Michael H; Reichard, Mason V; Little, Susan E

    2013-07-01

    Coyotes (Canis latrans) are commonly infested with ticks, including Amblyomma americanum, the predominant vector of Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Ehrlichia ewingii; Dermacentor variabilis, an important vector of Rickettsia rickettsii; and Amblyomma maculatum, a major vector of Rickettsia parkeri, a spotted fever group (SFG) Rickettsia. To determine the degree to which coyotes are infected with or exposed to tick-borne bacterial disease agents, serum samples collected from coyotes in Oklahoma and Texas were tested for antibodies reactive to R. rickettsii, Ehrlichia canis, E. chaffeensis, E. ewingii, Borrelia burgdorferi, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum by indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) testing or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Of the coyotes tested, 60% (46/77) and 64% (47/74) had antibodies reactive to R. rickettsii and E. chaffeensis, respectively, on IFA. Additionally, 5% (4/77) had antibodies reactive to E. canis, but not B. burgdorferi or A. phagocytophilum, on SNAP(®) 4Dx(®) ELISA; subsequent serologic analysis by plate ELISA using species-specific peptides revealed antibodies to E. ewingii, E. canis, and E. chaffeensis in 46% (23/50), 18% (9/50), and 4% (2/50) of serum samples, respectively. Taken together, these data indicate that coyotes in this region are commonly exposed to SFG Rickettsia and E. ewingii and that further consideration of coyotes as a component of the maintenance cycle for these pathogens may be warranted.

  10. Ecology of the macrophyte Podostemum ceratophyllum Michx. (Hornleaf riverweed), a widespread foundation species of eastern North American rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, James; Freeman, Mary C.

    2017-01-01

    Podostemum ceratophyllum, commonly called Hornleaf Riverweed, occurs in mid-order montane and piedmont rivers of eastern North America, where the plant grows submerged and attached to rocks and stable substrates in swift, aerated water. Multiple studies, mostly conducted in the southern portions of the plant’s range, have shown that Podostemum can variously influence benthic communities in flowing waters. However, a synthetic review of the biology and ecology of the plant is needed to inform conservation, particularly because P. ceratophyllum is reported to be in decline in much of its range, for mostly unknown reasons. We have thus summarized the literature showing that Podostemum provides substantial habitat for invertebrates and fish, may be consumed by invertebrates, turtles, and other vertebrates, removes and sequesters dissolved elements (i.e., nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium, zinc, etc.) from the water column, and contributes organic matter to the detrital pool. Podostemum may be tolerant to some forms of pollution but appears vulnerable to sedimentation, epiphytic over-growth, and hydrologic changes that result in desiccation, and possibly increased herbivory pressure. Much remains unknown about Podostemum, including aspects of morphological variation, seed dispersal, and tolerance to changes in temperature and water chemistry. Nonetheless, Podostemum may be considered a foundation species, whose loss from eastern North American rivers is likely to affect higher trophic levels and ecosystem processes.

  11. Detection of genotype-specific Ehrlichia canis exposure in Brazilian dogs by TRP36 peptide ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Daniel M; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Braga, Isis A; Taques, Isis I G G; McBride, Jere W

    2016-02-01

    We recently characterized a novel genotype of Ehrlichia canis based on the tandem repeat (TR) sequence of the TRP36 gene in Brazil. The TR amino acid sequence of the Brazilian (Br) genotype (ASVVPEAE) was divergent from the previously described US genotype (TEDSVSAPA) of E. canis. In this study, we developed an ELISA based on TRP36 TR synthetic peptides from both Br and US E. canis TRP36 genotypes to serologically detect and distinguish infections caused by these genotypes. Sera from 30 Brazilian dogs naturally infected with E. canis, sera from dogs experimentally infected E. canis (Jake and Cuiabá #1 strains) and E. chaffeensis (Arkansas strain) and 12 seronegative E. canis dogs were evaluated. Fifteen naturally infected Brazilian dogs had antibodies that reacted with the US TRP36 (n=9) or Br TRP36 (n=6) only, and 13 dogs had antibodies that reacted with both TPR36 peptides suggesting that these dogs were exposed to both genotypes. Most dogs (n=28) had antibodies that reacted with the highly conserved E. canis TRP19 peptide; however, two dogs had antibodies to E. canis TRP19, but did not have TRP36 antibodies, raising the possibility that another novel TRP36 genotype is circulating in Brazil. Our results demonstrate that synthetic peptides based on the TR region of E. canis TRP36 can be used to serologically distinguish infections or identify coinfections by different genotypes, and to determine the seroprevalence of various E. canis genotypes in Brazil.

  12. The situation of the wolf (Canis lupus in the area of the Regional Park of the Simbruini Mountains / La situazione del Lupo (Canis lupus nell'area del Parco Naturale Regionale dei Monti Simbruini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Verucci

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This work presents the results of a field research on the species Canis lupus in the Regional Park of the Simbruini Mountains. In relation to Wolf conservation, an investigation on feral and free-roving dogs was carried out. The method of snowtracking was used for Wolves and Feral dogs, the method of sighting was used for free-roving dogs. The research underlines the importance of the Simbruini Mountains for the protection of Wolf in central Apennines and the factors, at present, threatening its survival. Riassunto Nel presente lavoro vengono illustrati i risultati di una ricerca sul campo sulla specie Canis lupus nel Parco Naturale Regionale dei Monti Simbruini. In relazione agli aspetti riguardanti la conservazione del Lupo, è stata compiuta un'indagine sul fenomeno del randagismo canino. Per i lupi e i cani inselvatichiti è stato usato il metodo dello snowtracking, per le altre categorie di Cani è stato utilizzato il metodo dell'avvistamento. La ricerca ha messo in luce l'importanza dell'area dei Simbruini per la salvaguardia del Lupo nell'Appennino centrale e i fattori che, attualmente, ne minacciano la sopravvivenza.

  13. Antispila oinophylla new species (Lepidoptera, Heliozelidae, a new North American grapevine leafminer invading Italian vineyards: taxonomy, DNA barcodes and life cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik van Nieukerken

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A grapevine leafminer Antispila oinophylla van Nieukerken & Wagner, sp. n., is described both from eastern North America (type locality: Georgia and as a new important invader in North Italian vineyards (Trentino and Veneto Region since 2006. The species is closely related to, and previously confused with A. ampelopsifoliella Chambers, 1874, a species feeding on Virginia creeper Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L. Planchon., and both are placed in an informal A. ampelopsifoliella group. Wing pattern, genitalia, and DNA barcode data all confirm the conspecificity of native North American populations and Italian populations. COI barcodes differ by only 0–1.23%, indicating that the Italian populations are recently established from eastern North America. The new species feeds on various wild Vitis species in North America, on cultivated Vitis vinifera L. in Italy, and also on Parthenocissus quinquefolia in Italy. North American Antispila feeding on Parthenocissus include at least two other species, one of which is A. ampelopsifoliella. Morphology and biology of the new species are contrasted with those of North American Antispila Hübner, 1825 species and European Holocacista rivillei (Stainton, 1855. The source population of the introduction is unknown, but cases with larvae or pupae, attached to imported plants, are a likely possibility. DNA barcodes of the three European grapevine leafminers and those of all examined Heliozelidae are highly diagnostic. North American Vitaceae-feeding Antispila form two species complexes and include several as yet unnamed taxa. The identity of three out of the four previously described North American Vitaceae-feeding species cannot be unequivocally determined without further revision, but these are held to be different from A. oinophylla. In Italy the biology of A. oinophylla was studied in a vineyard in the Trento Province (Trentino-Alto Adige Region in 2008 and 2009. Mature larvae overwinter inside their cases

  14. [Factors associated with Ehrlichia canis infection in dogs infested with ticks from Huanuco, Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerto-Medina, Edward; Dámaso-Mata, Bernardo

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the frequency and associated factors of Ehrlichia canis infection in dogs. Blood samples from 150 dogs infested with ticks in 10 veterinary clinics in the city of Huanuco in Peru were collected. The dogs were randomly selected without regard to breed, age or sex. Ehrlichia canis antibodies were detected by chromatographic immunoassay.51.3% of dogs were infected with Ehrlichia canis. In the multivariate analysis, factors associated with the presence of Ehrlichia canis were: poor health of the dog (p = 0.049), a higher average of tick infestation (p = 0.018), and adult dogs (p = 0.038). The frequency of Ehrlichia canis in dogs of this city is high. Control of the brown dog tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus) vector of Ehrlichia canis is recommended.

  15. Disodium cromoglycate prevents ileum hyperreactivity to histamine in Toxocara canis-infected guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá-Nunes, A; Corrado, A P; Baruffi, M D; Faccioli, L H

    2003-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether Toxocara canis infection in guinea pigs provokes changes in ileum responsiveness to histamine. Ileum segments from control and T. canis-infected groups were placed at isometric conditions and submitted to various doses of histamine. No changes were observed between controls and T. canis-infected groups at days 3, 6 and 12 after infection. However, at days 18 and 24 after infection, there was a significant increase in ileum responsiveness to histamine in T. canis-infected group. Pre-incubation of ileum segments with 1mgml(-1) disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) prevented the increased responsiveness to histamine in T. canis-infected guinea pigs and did not affect ileum contractility in non-infected animals. These results indicate that T. canis-infected guinea pigs develop increased intestinal responsiveness to histamine and that DSCG prevents alterations in smooth-muscle contractility.

  16. Echinococcus multilocularis and Trichinella spiralis in golden jackals (Canis aureus) of Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Széll, Z; Marucci, G; Pozio, E; Sréter, T

    2013-10-18

    Over the last decades the distribution area of the golden jackal (Canis aureus) has increased significantly in Europe, particularly in the Balkan Peninsula and in Central Europe. Vagrant individuals were described in many European countries. Herein, we report Echinococcus multilocularis (total worm count: 412) and Trichinella spiralis (101 larvae/g for muscles of the lower forelimb) infections in two golden jackals shot in Hungary. It is a new host record of E. multilocularis and T. spiralis in Europe and Hungary, respectively. As jackals migrate for long distances through natural ecological corridors (e.g., river valleys), they may play a significant role in the long distance spread of zoonotic parasites into non-endemic areas of Europe. Therefore, monitoring zoonotic parasites in this host species can be recommended in the European Union.

  17. A serosurvey of diseases of free-ranging gray wolves (Canis lupus) in Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carstensen, Michelle; Giudice, John H.; Hildebrand, Erik C.; Dubey, J. P.; Erb, John; Stark, Dan; Hart, John; Barber-Meyer, Shannon M.; Mech, L. David; Windels, Steve K.; Edwards, Andrew J.

    2017-01-01

    We tested serum samples from 387 free-ranging wolves (Canis lupus) from 2007 to 2013 for exposure to eight canid pathogens to establish baseline data on disease prevalence and spatial distribution in Minnesota's wolf population. We found high exposure to canine adenoviruses 1 and 2 (88% adults, 45% pups), canine parvovirus (82% adults, 24% pups), and Lyme disease (76% adults, 39% pups). Sixty-six percent of adults and 36% of pups exhibited exposure to the protozoan parasite Neospora caninum. Exposure to arboviruses was confirmed, including West Nile virus (37% adults, 18% pups) and eastern equine encephalitis (3% adults). Exposure rates were lower for canine distemper (19% adults, 5% pups) and heartworm (7% adults, 3% pups). Significant spatial trends were observed in wolves exposed to canine parvovirus and Lyme disease. Serologic data do not confirm clinical disease, but better understanding of disease ecology of wolves can provide valuable insight into wildlife population dynamics and improve management of these species.

  18. A Serosurvey of Diseases of Free-Ranging Gray Wolves (Canis lupus) in Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carstensen, Michelle; Giudice, John H; Hildebrand, Erik C; Dubey, J P; Erb, John; Stark, Dan; Hart, John; Barber-Meyer, Shannon; Mech, L David; Windels, Steve K; Edwards, Andrew J

    2017-02-13

    We tested serum samples from 387 free-ranging wolves ( Canis lupus ) from 2007 to 2013 for exposure to eight canid pathogens to establish baseline data on disease prevalence and spatial distribution in Minnesota's wolf population. We found high exposure to canine adenoviruses 1 and 2 (88% adults, 45% pups), canine parvovirus (82% adults, 24% pups), and Lyme disease (76% adults, 39% pups). Sixty-six percent of adults and 36% of pups exhibited exposure to the protozoan parasite Neospora caninum . Exposure to arboviruses was confirmed, including West Nile virus (37% adults, 18% pups) and eastern equine encephalitis (3% adults). Exposure rates were lower for canine distemper (19% adults, 5% pups) and heartworm (7% adults, 3% pups). Significant spatial trends were observed in wolves exposed to canine parvovirus and Lyme disease. Serologic data do not confirm clinical disease, but better understanding of disease ecology of wolves can provide valuable insight into wildlife population dynamics and improve management of these species.

  19. Divergence of the TRP36 protein (gp36) in Ehrlichia canis strains found in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Daniel M; Melo, Andreia L T

    2015-03-01

    The molecular characterization of 16S rRNA gene and immunoreactive proteins of Ehrlichia canis usually provide little information about the overall diversity of this organism. On the other hand, distinct sequences of the Tandem Repeat Protein 36 (TRP36/gp36) gene of E. canis have been reported, indicating substantial degree of diversity. The present letter aims to update and discuss the molecular divergence of the TRP36 protein between strains of E. canis isolated in different countries including Brazil.

  20. Detection of Antibodies Reactive with Ehrlichia canis in a Kennel in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Tsachev, Ilia

    2006-01-01

    A seroepidemiological study on Ehrlichia canis infection was performed in 16 dogs in a kennel in the region of Plovdiv in Bulgaria. For this purpose, anti-E. canis antibodies were detected by the indirect immunofluorescence antibody test. The results showed that 75% of the dogs examined were positive to E. canis. The antibody titres 1:100, 1:200 and 1:400 were detected.

  1. Prevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Toxocara canis Infection in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Camilo Romero Núñez; Germán David Mendoza Martínez; Selene Yañez Arteaga; Martha Ponce Macotela; Patricia Bustamante Montes; Ninfa Ramírez Durán

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine seroprevalence and identify risk factors associated with Toxocara canis infection. A clinical and epidemiological questionnaire and body mass index were used to assess the risk factors associated with human toxocariasis in 108 children with an age range of 2–16 years. Antibodies against Toxocara canis were detected using an ELISA test kit. Chi-square analysis and odds ratio (OR) were used to identify risk factors associated with Toxocara canis sero...

  2. Notes to Mesocestoides Vaillant, 1863 (Cestoda and findings of Mesocestoides sp. parasitizing Canis familiaris (Carnivora in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Tenora

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The partial critical analysis of the situation in systematic-taxonomic arrangement of tapeworms from the genus Mesocestoides Vaillant, 1863 was performed. The attention is drawn to a number of problems preventing the uniform opinion on the species value within the genus Mesocestoides. The own material of that genus from Canis familiaris (gravid segments of cestodes from dog faeces, locality of Jílmoví, southern Moravia is presented. The study is an appropriate complement to the abstract published by Borkovcová and Tenora (2003.

  3. A new star-forming region in Canis Major

    CERN Document Server

    Magakian, T Yu; Bally, J

    2016-01-01

    A new southern star-formation region, located at an estimated distance of ~1.5 kpc in the Lynds 1664 dark cloud in Canis Major, is described. Lynds 1664 contains several compact star clusters, small stellar groups, and young stars associated with reflection nebulae. Narrow-band H{\\alpha} and [SII] images obtained with 4-m CTIO telescope reveal more than 20 new Herbig-Haro objects associated with several protostellar outflows.

  4. [Molecular identification of Ehrlichia canis in a dog from Arica, Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Javier; Abarca, Katia; Mundaca, M Isabel; Caballero, Carla; Valiente-Echeverría, Fernando

    2012-10-01

    We report a molecular confirmed case of canine ehrlichiosis caused by Ehrlichia canis. A 10-year old female crossbred Siberian from the city of Arica, which was infested by ticks, presented hemorrhagic manifestations (hematomas and snout bleeding) and prostration. Blood cell count revealed thrombocytopenia (30,000 platelets/ mm³). Immunochromatographic rapid testing for E. canis IgG was positive. Amplification and sequencing of a fragment of the 16S rRNA gen from a blood sample showed 100% homology with E. canis from Perú. This is the first report of E. canis in Chile, an agent with known zoonotic potential.

  5. Measurement of Reactive Oxygen Species, Reactive Nitrogen Species, and Redox-Dependent Signaling in the Cardiovascular System: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griendling, Kathy K; Touyz, Rhian M; Zweier, Jay L; Dikalov, Sergey; Chilian, William; Chen, Yeong-Renn; Harrison, David G; Bhatnagar, Aruni

    2016-08-19

    Reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species are biological molecules that play important roles in cardiovascular physiology and contribute to disease initiation, progression, and severity. Because of their ephemeral nature and rapid reactivity, these species are difficult to measure directly with high accuracy and precision. In this statement, we review current methods for measuring these species and the secondary products they generate and suggest approaches for measuring redox status, oxidative stress, and the production of individual reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. We discuss the strengths and limitations of different methods and the relative specificity and suitability of these methods for measuring the concentrations of reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species in cells, tissues, and biological fluids. We provide specific guidelines, through expert opinion, for choosing reliable and reproducible assays for different experimental and clinical situations. These guidelines are intended to help investigators and clinical researchers avoid experimental error and ensure high-quality measurements of these important biological species.

  6. Vertical transmission of Toxocara canis in successive generations of mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizandra Roselaine Schoenardie

    Full Text Available Visceral toxocariasis is a neglected zoonosis caused byToxocara canis larvae in unusual hosts. In dogs, the definitive host, the infection occurs mainly through transplacental and transcolostral transmission. Studies on experimental models have shown that vertical transmission may result from acute infections. Considering that toxocariasis is characterized as a chronic infection, with possible reactivation of larvae present in the brain, this study evaluated the presence of larvae in the brain of female BALB/c mice and their offspring with chronic infection during three successive pregnancies. ELISA-TES was used to evaluate the antibody levels. T. canis larvae were detected in the brain tissue of the mice during the three successive generations evaluated. The offspring's IgG level gradually decreased, and mean absorbance (ABS above the cutoff point (0.070 was observed only at 30 (0.229 and 50 (0.096 days of age, while IgM was not detected. The infections in the offspring confirmed that vertical transmission of T. canis larvae occurred during chronic toxocariasis in three successive generations of mice.

  7. ENCUESTA EXPLORATORIA DE INFECCION POR Brucella canis EN PERROS DE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Pardo D

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar la presencia de anticuerpos a B. canis en perros domésticos y callejeros del municipio de Villavicencio, Colombia. Materiales y métodos. Se utilizó la prueba de aglutinación rápida en placa con antígeno menos mucoide (M- en 201 muestras de suero. En dos animales seropositivos se realizó intento de aislamiento por hemocultivo en medio selectivo para Brucella (oxoid®. En un animal seropositivo, con crecimiento bacteriano con características morfológicas sugestivas a B. canis se realizó histopatología de testículo, bazo e hígado. Resultados. La seropositividad general fue de 1.49% y correspondió a tres caninos machos, dos de los cuales presentaron signos clínicos de epididimitis y orquitis (unilateral. El cultivo y la histopatología no fueron concluyentes para el diagnostico de B. canis. Conclusiones. La seropositividad fue baja y sugiere que la población estudiada no ha estado en contacto con la bacteria. La presencia de reactores puede estar asociado con falsos positivos. El no aislamiento de la bacteria no indica que la enfermedad no exista por lo que se requiere de nuevos estudios.

  8. Studies on the control of Toxocara canis in breeding kennels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, M A; Jacobs, D E; Hutchinson, M J; Dick, I G

    1994-10-01

    The control of Toxocara canis was investigated in naturally infected unweaned puppies. Anthelmintic treatments were administered to three litters of pups at 2, 4 and 6 weeks of age. When either a new combination anthelmintic containing febantel, pyrantel embonate and praziquantel or fenbendazole was used, the faecal egg output over the first 7 weeks of life was reduced by more than 80% and worm burdens by over 90%. In contrast, piperazine adipate had no appreciable effect on T. canis egg output, even though worm burdens were reduced by 86% by 7 weeks of age. In a further trial using three litters, the worm burden of pups treated with the combination anthelmintic was profiled before and after the 2 week dose and after the 4 week dose. Although worm numbers were substantially reduced by treatment, there was evidence of significant reinfection taking place throughout the control programme. It is concluded that more potent anthelmintics can provide longer term benefits by reducing the numbers of T. canis eggs shed into the environment, but that multiple dosing remains essential for this purpose.

  9. Seroprevalence of Ehrlichia canis infection in stray dogs from Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Bogićević

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Canine Monocytic Ehrlichiosis is a zoonotic bacterial disease with worldwide distribution. With regards to the population of stray dogs, the disease is facilitated due to their lifestyle and the lack of anti-parasitic protection. The aim of this study was to provide serological data on the presence of a specific Ehrlichia canis IgG antibodies in stray dogs, originating from 7 municipalities in Serbia. During the period from April 2013 to June 2014, 217 canine sera were submitted to the laboratory of the Department of Infectious Diseases of Animals and Bees, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine in Belgrade. An immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT was performed to detect antibodies to Ehrlichia canis (cut off, 1:50. Seropositive dogs were found in 5 out of 7 counties with a seroprevalence varying from 3.57% to 20% and an overall seroprevalence of 11.06% (24/217. There was no statistically significant difference between the prevalence of infection and the host age or gender. Results showed that stray dogs contribute to maintaining and spreading of Ehrlichia canis in Serbia. Due to the close relationship between people and dogs, it is of great importance to constantly monitor and improve prevention of this disease.

  10. Stellar populations in the Canis Major over-density

    CERN Document Server

    Carraro, Giovanni; Vazquez, Ruben A

    2008-01-01

    We performed a photometric multicolor survey of the core of the Canis Major over-density at l 244, -8.0, reaching V = 22 and covering 0.3 x 1 degree. The main aim is to unravel the complex mixture of stellar populations toward this Galactic direction, where in the recent past important signatures of an accretion event have been claimed to be detected. While our previous investigations were based on disjointed pointings aimed at revealing the large scale structure of the third Galactic Quadrant, we now focus on a complete coverage of a smaller field centered on the Canis Major over-density. A large wave-length baseline, in the UBVRI bands, allows us to build up a suite of colour colour and colour magnitude diagrams, providing a much better diagnostic tool to disentangle the stellar populations of the region. In fact, the simple use of one colour magnitude diagram, widely employed in all the previous studies defending the existence of the Canis Major galaxy, does not allow one to separate the effects of the dif...

  11. Clinical, morphological, and molecular characterization of Penicillium canis sp. nov., isolated from a dog with osteomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Daniel K; Sutton, Deanna A; Swenson, Cheryl L; Bailey, Chris J; Wiederhold, Nathan P; Nelson, Nathan C; Thompson, Elizabeth H; Wickes, Brian L; French, Stephanie; Fu, Jianmin; Vilar-Saavedra, Paulo; Peterson, Stephen W

    2014-07-01

    Infections caused by Penicillium species are rare in dogs, and the prognosis in these cases is poor. An unknown species of Penicillium was isolated from a bone lesion in a young dog with osteomyelitis of the right ilium. Extensive diagnostic evaluation did not reveal evidence of dissemination. Resolution of lameness and clinical stability of disease were achieved with intravenous phospholipid-complexed amphotericin B initially, followed by long-term combination therapy with terbinafine and ketoconazole. A detailed morphological and molecular characterization of the mold was undertaken. Sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer revealed the isolate to be closely related to Penicillium menonorum and Penicillium pimiteouiense. Additional sequence analysis of β-tubulin, calmodulin, minichromosome maintenance factor, DNA-dependent RNA polymerase, and pre-rRNA processing protein revealed the isolate to be a novel species; the name Penicillium canis sp. nov. is proposed. Morphologically, smooth, ovoid conidia, a greenish gray colony color, slow growth on all media, and a failure to form ascomata distinguish this species from closely related Penicillium species.

  12. Angiostrongylus species in wild carnivores in the Iberian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrikagoitia, X; Barral, M; Juste, R A

    2010-11-24

    A survey of Angiostrongylus parasites was carried out between 2003 and 2006 in wild carnivore species in the Basque Country (Northern Spain). Parasitological examination consisted in the dissection of heart and lungs for the extraction of adult worms. Nematodes were identified using morphometrical features and also PCR amplification and sequencing analysis. The animal species included in this study were Eurasian badger (Meles meles), Weasel (Mustela nivalis), Beech marten (Martes foina), Pine marten (Martes martes), Polecat (Mustela putorius), American mink (Mustela vison), Red fox (Vulpes vulpes), Wolf (Canis lupus), Wild cat (Felis silvestris), and Small-spotted genet (Genetta genetta). Angiostrongylus parasites were only found in foxes and badgers at prevalences of 33.3% and 24%, respectively. Identification of the nematodes by morphometrical features revealed that foxes were infected with A. vasorum while badgers were infected by a different species of Angiostrongylus most likely A. daskalovi. Sequencing data of the second internal transcribed spacer region of ribosomal DNA (ITS2) of isolates from each species confirmed the species difference. The high prevalence of Angiostrongylus found in the present survey, indicates that the wild cycle of two different species of Angiostrongylus is present in the Basque Country. To our knowledge this is the first report of A. daskalovi in the Iberian Peninsula.

  13. The Subgenus Stegomyia of Aedes in the Afrotropical Region. 1. The Africanus Group of Species (Diptera: Culicidae) (Contributions of the American Entomological Institute. Volume 26, Number 1, 1990)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    vector of urban yellow fever in African and American tropics. The significance of members of the subgenus Stegomyia in transmitting arboviruses in Africa...cannot be overemphasized. African species of Stegomyia have been implicated as natural hosts, vectors , and/or reservoirs of 8 viruses, 6 of which...cause human illness: Chikungunya, dengue 1 and 2, Dugbe, Rift Valley Fever, yellow fever and Zika . Chikungunya, dengue and yellow fever are the most

  14. Isozyme variation within and among populations of Microsporum species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpanya, M F; Jarvis, B D; Baxter, M

    1998-12-01

    Isozyme variation among 54 isolates of Microsporum canis, 18 Microsporum cookei isolates and two Diheterospora isolates were studied using starch gel electrophoresis. Of eight enzymes examined, four were polymorphic (EST, G6P, MDH and PEP), having from two to four electrophoretic forms. Within each species, consistent and reproducible isozyme patterns of the eight enzyme systems were obtained. Phenotypic diversity (H) in M. canis was higher than in M. cookei (H = 0.459 and H = 0.408 respectively), but phenotypic differentiation of M. canis isolates from different geographical regions (Auckland, Wellington and Palmerston North, New Zealand) was low, with a proportion of total diversity (Gst) of 0.151 found among the localities. The results suggest that the isolates of M. canis from different geographical regions are closely related, supporting the theory of a common lineage.

  15. Trade-Offs between Drought Survival and Rooting Strategy of Two South American Mediterranean Tree Species: Implications for Dryland Forests Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan F. Ovalle

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Differences in water-acquisition strategies of tree root systems can determine the capacity to survive under severe drought. We evaluate the effects of field water shortage on early survival, growth and root morphological variables of two South American Mediterranean tree species with different rooting strategies during two growing seasons. One year-old Quillaja saponaria (deep-rooted and Cryptocarya alba (shallow-rooted seedlings were established under two watering treatments (2 L·week−1·plant−1 and no water in a complete randomized design. Watering improved the final survival of both species, but the increase was only significantly higher for the shallow-rooted species. The survival rates of deep- and shallow-rooted species was 100% and 71% with watering treatment, and 96% and 10% for the unwatered treatment, respectively. Root morphological variables of deep-rooted species such as surface area, volume, and diameter were higher under unwatered treatment. On the other hand, shallow-rooted species had a higher total root dry mass, length, surface area with watering treatments. Our findings suggest that deep-rooted species are highly recommended for reforestation in dry conditions, even under low soil water availability. Water supplements during the summer season can attenuate the differences between deep- and shallow-rooted species in their ability to survive drought during the early stage.

  16. Protozoan and helminth parasite fauna of free-living Croatian wild wolves (Canis lupus) analyzed by scat collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermosilla, Carlos; Kleinertz, Sonja; Silva, Liliana M R; Hirzmann, Jörg; Huber, Djuro; Kusak, Josip; Taubert, Anja

    2017-01-15

    The European wolf (Canis lupus) is a large carnivore species present in limited areas of Europe with several small populations still being considered as endangered. Wolves can be infected by a wide range of protozoan and metazoan parasites with some of them affecting free-living wolf health condition. On this account, an epidemiological survey was conducted to analyze the actual parasite fauna in Croatian wild wolves. In total, 400 individual faecal samples were collected during field studies on wolf ecology in the years 2002-2011. Parasite stages were identified by the sodium acetate acetic acid formalin (SAF)-technique, carbolfuchsin-stained faecal smears and Giardia/Cryptosporidium coproantigen-ELISAs. A subset of taeniid eggs-positive wolf samples was additionally analyzed by PCR and subsequent sequencing to identify eggs on Echinococcus granulosus/E. multilocularis species level. In total 18 taxa of parasites were here detected. Sarcocystis spp. (19.1%) occurred most frequently in faecal samples, being followed by Capillaria spp. (16%), ancylostomatids (13.1%), Crenosoma vulpis (4.6%), Angiostrongylus vasorum (3.1%), Toxocara canis (2.8%), Hammondia/Neospora spp. (2.6 %), Cystoisospora ohioensis (2.1%), Giardia spp. (2.1%), Cystoisospora canis (1.8%), Cryptosporidium spp. (1.8%), Trichuris vulpis (1.5%), Taenia spp. (1.5%), Diphyllobothrium latum (1.5%), Strongyloides spp. (0.5%), Opisthorchis felineus (0.5%), Toxascaris leonina (0.3%), Mesocestoides litteratus (0.3%) and Alaria alata (0.3%). Some of the here identified parasites represent relevant pathogens for wolves, circulating between these carnivorous definitive hosts and a variety of mammalian intermediate hosts, e. g. Taenia spp. and Sarcocystis spp., while others are considered exclusively pathogenic for canids (e.g. A. vasorum, C. vulpis, T. vulpis, Cystoisospora spp.). This study provides first records on the occurrence of the two relevant anthropozoonotic parasites, Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium

  17. A survey for infection with Dirofilaria immitis, Ehrlichia canis, Borrelia burgdorferi, and Babesia canis in feral and client-owned dogs in the Turks and Caicos Islands, British West Indies

    OpenAIRE

    Hoff, Brent; McEwen, Beverly; Peregrine, Andrew S.

    2008-01-01

    The frequency of infection with Dirofilaria immitis and Babesia canis and seropositivity to Ehrlichia canis and Borrelia burgdorferi in feral and client-owned dogs was determined. Feral dogs were 14.8 and 11.2 times more likely to be seropositive to D. immitis and E. canis, respectively, than were client-owned dogs. None of the dogs tested positive for B. burgdorferi or B. canis.

  18. Mycorrhizal detection of native and non-native truffles in a historic arboretum and the discovery of a new North American species, Tuber arnoldianum sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Rosanne A; Zurier, Hannah; Bonito, Gregory; Smith, Matthew E; Pfister, Donald H

    2016-10-01

    During a study comparing the ectomycorrhizal root communities in a native forest with those at the Arnold Arboretum in Massachusetts (USA), the European species Tuber borchii was detected on the roots of a native red oak in the arboretum over two successive years. Since T. borchii is an economically important edible truffle native to Europe, we conducted a search of other roots in the arboretum to determine the extent of colonization. We also wanted to determine whether other non-native Tuber species had been inadvertently introduced into this 140-year-old Arboretum because many trees were imported into the site with intact soil and roots prior to the 1921 USDA ban on these horticultural practices in the USA. While T. borchii was not found on other trees, seven other native and exotic Tuber species were detected. Among the North American Tuber species detected from ectomycorrhizae, we also collected ascomata of a previously unknown species described here as Tuber arnoldianum. This new species was found colonizing both native and non-native tree roots. Other ectomycorrhizal taxa that were detected included basidiomycetes in the genera Amanita, Russula, Tomentella, and ascomycetes belonging to Pachyphlodes, Helvella, Genea, and Trichophaea. We clarify the phylogenetic relationships of each of the Tuber species detected in this study, and we discuss their distribution on both native and non-native host trees.

  19. Limit of detection of Toxocara canis larvae in experimentally contaminated bovine milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edlayne Larissa Gretter Machado Pereira

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the limit of detection of Toxocara canis larvae in experimentally contaminated commercial bovine milk samples, based on a centrifuge-sedimentation technique. Firstly, bovine milk (whole and skim samples were contaminated with 50 T. canis larvae in order to evaluate the interference of milk fat with the recovery of the larvae. Next, the effects of 10% formalin (100 ?L, ether (100 ?L, and a combination of both solutions on the recovery of the larvae was examined. Thereafter, the limit of detection of the larvae was determined using the solution (from step 2 considered optimal for degreasing the milk sample. Samples were contaminated with aliquots of 1, 5, 10, 25, and 50 larvae. For each milk sample (1.0 mL, 15 repetitions were analysed. The recovery of the larvae from the skim milk samples was higher (p = 0.0031 than that from the whole milk samples. No significant difference (p = 0.5681 was observed with regard to the percentage of recovered larvae when comparing the degreasing solutions. Nevertheless, the formalin-ether combination was more efficient for recovering the larvae (73.1% than ether (71.9%, formalin (67.6%, and pure whole milk (70.0%. Concerning the limit of detection (using formalin-ether, all the samples contaminated with 5, 10, 25, and 50 larvae tested positive (minimum: 62.7%. Of the samples contaminated with a single larva, 66.7% tested positive. These results suggest that the centrifugation-sedimentation technique may be useful for recovering larvae of Toxocara spp. in naturally or experimentally contaminated milk samples obtained from a wide range of animal species.

  20. Canine babesiosis in Romania due to Babesia canis and Babesia vogeli: a molecular approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionita, Mariana; Mitrea, Ioan Liviu; Pfister, Kurt; Hamel, Dietmar; Buzatu, Catalin Marius; Silaghi, Cornelia

    2012-05-01

    Canine babesiosis is a tick-borne disease caused by the protozoa Babesia spp. that affects dogs worldwide. In Romania, canine babesiosis has become quite frequent in the last few years, with a wide variety of clinical signs, ranging from mild, nonspecific illness to peracute collapse, and even death. Traditionally, a Babesia infection in dogs is diagnosed based on the morphologic appearance of the intraerythrocytic piroplasms observed in peripheral blood smears. To date, no data on genetic characterization of Babesia species in dogs has been documented for Romania. Therefore, a molecular survey on natural Babesia infections of dogs in Romania using polymerase chain reaction and genetic sequence analysis of a fragment of the ssRNA gene was performed. A total number of 16 blood samples were tested for the presence of Babesia DNA. Blood samples were collected from 11 dogs with symptoms of babesiosis and microscopically proven positive for Babesia and from a group of five asymptomatic dogs, not tested microscopically for Babesia, which were included in the study for comparative analysis. The piroplasm-specific PCR amplifying the partial 18S rRNA gene confirmed Babesia spp. infection in all 11 samples from dogs with clinical babesiosis, and in one of the clinically normal dogs. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of Babesia canis in all clinically affected dogs and Babesia vogeli in one clinically normal dog. This is the first molecular evidence of B. canis and B. vogeli in dogs from Romania. The results of the study provide basic information toward a better understanding of the epidemiology of canine babesiosis in Romania and will help to promote an effective control program.

  1. 76 FR 81665 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revising the Listing of the Gray Wolf (Canis lupus...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-28

    ... and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revising the Listing of the Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) in the Western...-AX57 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revising the Listing of the Gray Wolf (Canis lupus... Minnesota population of gray wolves (Canis lupus) to conform to current statutory and policy...

  2. A critical reflection on current control of Toxocara canis in household dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijsse, E.R.

    2016-01-01

    Toxocara canis is a roundworm that is common worldwide and also in Dutch household dogs. Adult stages of T. canis can be present in the small intestines of dogs where they produce large numbers of eggs that are shed in the environment (patent infection). Because very young dogs and humans can develo

  3. 75 FR 24741 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Mexican Wolf (Canis lupus baileyi) Conservation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Mexican Wolf (Canis lupus... availability of the Mexican Wolf Conservation Assessment (assessment). The assessment provides scientific information relevant to the conservation of the Mexican wolf (Canis lupus baileyi) in Arizona and New...

  4. A critical reflection on current control of Toxocara canis in household dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijsse, E.R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314103198

    2016-01-01

    Toxocara canis is a roundworm that is common worldwide and also in Dutch household dogs. Adult stages of T. canis can be present in the small intestines of dogs where they produce large numbers of eggs that are shed in the environment (patent infection). Because very young dogs and humans can

  5. Molecular identification of Taenia spp. in wolves (Canis lupus), brown bears (Ursus arctos) and cervids from North Europe and Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavikainen, Antti; Laaksonen, Sauli; Beckmen, Kimberlee; Oksanen, Antti; Isomursu, Marja; Meri, Seppo

    2011-09-01

    Taenia tapeworms of Finnish and Swedish wolves (Canis lupus) and Finnish brown bears (Ursus arctos), and muscle cysticerci of Svalbard reindeer (Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus), Alaskan Grant's caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti) and Alaskan moose (Alces americanus) were identified on the basis of the nucleotide sequence of a 396 bp region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene. Two species were found from wolves: Taenia hydatigena and Taenia krabbei. The cysticerci of reindeer, caribou and one moose also represented T. krabbei. Most of the cysticercal specimens from Alaskan moose, however, belonged to an unknown T. krabbei-like species, which had been reported previously from Eurasian elks (Alces alces) from Finland. Strobilate stages from two bears belonged to this species as well. The present results suggest that this novel Taenia sp. has a Holarctic distribution and uses Alces spp. as intermediate and ursids as final hosts.

  6. Aspects of reproductive ecology of Clusia valerioi Standl. and Clusia peninsulae Hammel (sp. nov.), two Central American species of Clusiaceae with resin flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochwallner, H; Vogel, S; Huber, W; Hammel, B E; Weber, A

    2012-01-01

    Clusia valerioi Standl. and C. peninsulae Hammel, sp. nov. (formally established in the Appendix), two Central American species of Clusiaceae offering resin as a floral reward, were studied in the Piedras Blancas National Park, SW Costa Rica. Basic data on phenology, flower structure, course of anthesis, flower visitors, flower visitation and pollination processes, fruit development and seed dispersal are communicated. Resin collection and pollen release are reported and documented in greater detail. The significance of stingless bees for pollination is confirmed, but honeybees were also observed to visit the flowers and to collect resin. The seeds of C. valerioi, exhibiting a clearly ornithochorous character syndrome, were observed to be eaten and dispersed by four species of the tanager family (Thraupidae) and one species of finch (Fringillidae). Ants were also observed to carry away the seeds. © 2011 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  7. Use of Anecdotal Occurrence Data in Species Distribution Models: An Example Based on the White-Nosed Coati (Nasua narica in the American Southwest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James N. Stuart

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Species distributions are usually inferred from occurrence records. However, these records are prone to errors in spatial precision and reliability. Although influence of spatial errors has been fairly well studied, there is little information on impacts of poor reliability. Reliability of an occurrence record can be influenced by characteristics of the species, conditions during the observation, and observer’s knowledge. Some studies have advocated use of anecdotal data, while others have advocated more stringent evidentiary standards such as only accepting records verified by physical evidence, at least for rare or elusive species. Our goal was to evaluate the influence of occurrence records with different reliability on species distribution models (SDMs of a unique mammal, the white-nosed coati (Nasua narica in the American Southwest. We compared SDMs developed using maximum entropy analysis of combined bioclimatic and biophysical variables and based on seven subsets of occurrence records that varied in reliability and spatial precision. We found that the predicted distribution of the coati based on datasets that included anecdotal occurrence records were similar to those based on datasets that only included physical evidence. Coati distribution in the American Southwest was predicted to occur in southwestern New Mexico and southeastern Arizona and was defined primarily by evenness of climate and Madrean woodland and chaparral land-cover types. Coati distribution patterns in this region suggest a good model for understanding the biogeographic structure of range margins. We concluded that occurrence datasets that include anecdotal records can be used to infer species distributions, providing such data are used only for easily-identifiable species and based on robust modeling methods such as maximum entropy. Use of a reliability rating system is critical for using anecdotal data.

  8. Descripción de una grahamella del perro, Grahamella canis n. sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arístides Herrer

    1944-03-01

    Full Text Available En tres perros, de un total de 75 que fueron sometidos a hemocultivos, se ha recogido una grahamella que se describe con el nombre de Grahamella canis n. sp. La infección natural del perro parece ser imperceptible por medio de frotis de sangre. La G. canis se aisla fácilmente en cultivo en el medio semisólido de Noguchi y el agar sangre, consiguiéndose resiembras con regularidad solamente en este último. Los hemocultivos desarrollan tanto a 28º como a 37ºC. y son infectantes para su huésped. Tanto perros normales como esplenectomizados se pueden infectar experimentalmente con cultivos, obteniéndose mayor parasitismo en los esplenectomizados. Al mismo tiempo es posible obtener infecciones mixtas de Grahamella canis y Bartonella canis. La G. canis desarrolla in vitro en sangre citratada.

  9. Serological cross-reactivity of Trypanosoma cruzi, Ehrlichia canis, Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum and Babesia canis to Leishmania infantum chagasi tests in dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Maurício Franco Zanette; Valéria Marçal Felix de Lima; Márcia Dalastra Laurenti; Claudio Nazaretian Rossi; Juliana Peloi Vides; Rafael Felipe da Costa Vieira; Alexander Welker Biondo; Mary Marcondes

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the serological cross-reactivity between Leishmania sp. and other canine pathogens. Methods: Positive serum samples for Ehrlichia canis, Babesia canis, Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum and Trypanosoma cruzi were tested using three serological methods enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and Kalazar Detect™, for canine visceral leishmaniasis. Results: Of the 57 dog samples tes...

  10. Do dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) prefer family?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Jennifer; Vonk, Jennifer

    2015-10-01

    Kin recognition requires the ability to discriminate between one's own genetic relatives and non-relatives. There are two mechanisms that aid in kin discrimination: phenotype matching and familiarity. Dogs may be a good model for assessing these mechanisms as dogs are a promiscuous social species with a keen sense of smell. Domestic dogs of both sexes were presented with two scents (close kin, distant-kin) and preference was assessed through three measures (latency to approach, number of visits, time spent). Experiment 1 explored the possibility of phenotype matching as subjects had no contact with sires, whose scent was presented alongside a control male's scent. Experiment 2 explored recognition of siblings raised with the subjects and then separated at seven weeks of age. Whereas female dogs in this experiment did not show a statistically significant preference, male dogs showed a preference for distant-kin when presented with sire and female sibling samples.

  11. Coral diversity and the severity of disease outbreaks: a cross-regional comparison of Acropora white syndrome in a species-rich region (American Samoa) with a species-poor region (Northwestern Hawaiian Islands).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeby, G.S.; Bourne, D.G.; Wilson, B.; Work, Thierry M.

    2011-01-01

    The dynamics of the coral disease, Acropora white syndrome (AWS), was directly compared on reefs in the species-poor region of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) and the species-rich region of American Samoa (AS) with results suggesting that biodiversity, which can affect the abundance of susceptible hosts, is important in influencing the impacts of coral disease outbreaks. The diversity-disease hypothesis predicts that decreased host species diversity should result in increased disease severity of specialist pathogens. We found that AWS was more prevalent and had a higher incidence within the NWHI as compared to AS. Individual Acropora colonies affected by AWS showed high mortality in both regions, but case fatality rate and disease severity was higher in the NWHI. The site within the NWHI had a monospecific stand of A. cytherea; a species that is highly susceptible to AWS. Once AWS entered the site, it spread easily amongst the abundant susceptible hosts. The site within AS contained numerous Acropora species, which differed in their apparent susceptibility to infection and disease severity, which in turn reduced disease spread. Manipulative studies showed AWS was transmissible through direct contact in three Acropora species. These results will help managers predict and respond to disease outbreaks.

  12. Systematic status of wild Canis in North-central Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David; Nowak, Ronald M.

    2010-01-01

    Skulls of wild Canis collected 2003–2004 in north-central Texas are morphometrically similar to a series taken there and in nearby areas in 1964–1971, which was considered to represent a population of Coyotes (C. latrans) modified through introgression from Red Wolves (C. rufus). A few of the new specimens closely resemble small examples of Red Wolves. Such affinity is supported by authoritative examination of living and videotaped animals. The persistence of influence of Red Wolves, long after presumed extirpation through hybridization and human persecution, may be relevant to wolf conservation.

  13. Development and Evaluation of a Seminested PCR for Detection and Differentiation of Babesia gibsoni (Asian Genotype) and B. canis DNA in Canine Blood Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Birkenheuer, Adam J.; Levy, Michael G.; Breitschwerdt, Edward B.

    2003-01-01

    Canine babesiosis has recently been recognized as an emerging infectious disease of dogs in North America. We sought to develop a seminested PCR to detect and differentiate Babesia gibsoni (Asian genotype), B. canis subsp. vogeli, B. canis subsp. canis, and B. canis subsp. rossi DNA in canine blood samples. An outer primer pair was designed to amplify an ∼340-bp fragment of the 18S rRNA genes from B. gibsoni (Asian genotype), B. canis subsp. vogeli, B. canis subsp. rossi, and B. canis subsp. ...

  14. Two new species and one new subspecies of the South American catfish genus Corydoras (Pisces, Siluriformes, Callichthyidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijssen, H.

    1971-01-01

    This paper contains descriptions and figures of two new species of Corydoras Lacépède, 1803, C. weitzmani from Peru, and C. blochi from Guyana, Brazil, and Venezuela. The latter species is represented by two subspecies, C. blochi blochi from the Amazonas, Branco, Orinoco, and Essequibo drainages, an

  15. Biodiversity and biogeography of Fusarium species from northeastern North American asparagus fields based on microbiological and molecular approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vujanovic, V.; Hamel, C.; Yergeau, E.; St-Arnaud, M.

    2006-01-01

    Sixteen Fusarium species were recovered from 52 asparagus commercial fields, representing all major ecological (edaphic and climatic) area of asparagus production in the province of Québec, eastern Canada. This study extends our understanding of the geographic range of these species. It also provide

  16. Biodiversity and biogeography of Fusarium species from northeastern North American asparagus fields based on microbiological and molecular approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vujanovic, V.; Hamel, C.; Yergeau, E.; St-Arnaud, M.

    2006-01-01

    Sixteen Fusarium species were recovered from 52 asparagus commercial fields, representing all major ecological (edaphic and climatic) area of asparagus production in the province of Québec, eastern Canada. This study extends our understanding of the geographic range of these species. It also

  17. Revision of the West Indian Wattius Kaszab (Tenebrionidae, Toxicini, Eudysantina) with lectotype designations for Pascoe’s South American species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Aaron D.; Sanchez, Lucio A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Wattius species occurring in the West Indies are revised for the first time. Wattius cucullatus (Pascoe), previously reported from Cuba, is diagnosed and restricted to Brazil. Wattius asperulus (Pascoe), currently a synonym of Wattius cucullatus, from Colombia is diagnosed and resurrected. All species found in the West Indies are endemic to the islands and form a single informal species-group. Three species are described: Wattius andersoni sp. n. from Cuba, Wattius emmabaconae sp. n. from Hispaniola (Dominican Republic), and Wattius viatorus sp. n. from Cuba and the Bahamas, and lectotypes are designated for Calymmus cucullatus Pascoe and Calymmus asperulus Pascoe. A key to the West Indian species is provided. PMID:26798241

  18. Giemsa C-banding in two polyploid, South American Hordeum species, H. tetraploidum and H. lechleri, and their aneuploid hybrids with H. vulgare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde-Laursen, Ib; Bothmer, R. von

    1986-01-01

    American taxa of the same sections suggest a rather close relationship and support that the biological basis for their classification with different sections is questionable. C-banding patterns identified the chromosomes of parental genomes in interspecific hybrids between the two species and H. vulgare....... The hybrids were stably aneuploid. Both had lost and acquired H. vulgare chromosomes. Thus, somatic elimination of chromosomes was combined with multiplication of chromosomes. The observations of stably aneuploid hybrids have implications for the exploitation of alien germplasm. The activity of non-H. vulgare...

  19. Zoonotic enteric parasites transmitted from dogs in Egypt with special concern to Toxocara canis infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maysa A. I. Awadallah

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This work aimed to study the role played by dogs in transmitting zoonotic enteric parasites to humans in Egypt and to analyze the risk factors associated with the occurrence of such infection in dogs. Serodiagnosis of anti-Toxocara immunoglobulin G (IgG antibodies among human beings as well as analyzing risk factors predispose to Toxocara canis infection in human beings are another objectives of this study. Materials and Methods: From June to December 2013, a total of 130 fecal samples from 4 dog populations (Military, nomadic and domiciled dogs from rural and high standard districts and 150 stool samples of 6 occupational groups were examined for the presence of enteric parasitic infection. Moreover, 150 serum samples were collected from humans from whom stool samples were collected and examined for the presence of anti-T. canis antibodies. Results: Enteric parasites were detected in 30% of fecal samples from 4 dog populations in Egypt. High infectivity had been reported in nomadic dogs (63.33% (Crude odds ratios [COR]=67.36, 95% confidence interval [CI]=8.09-560.8, p˂0.000, followed by domiciled dogs from rural areas (40% (COR=26, 95% CI=3.14-215.54, p=0.003, domiciled dogs from high standard areas (23.33% (COR=11.87, 95% CI=1.37-102.69, p=0.025 and military dogs (2.5%. Twelve species of enteric parasites were identified, Ancylostomatidae (6.15%, T. canis and Cryptosporidium spp. (5.38%, each, Heterophyes spp. (3.85%, Toxocara leonina and Blastocystis spp. (3.07%, Taenidae eggs (2.31%, Hymenolepis diminuta (1.54% and Entamoeba canis, Cyclospora cayetanensis, and Paragonimus spp. (0.77%, each. Univariate logestic regression revealed significant association of age (COR=4.73, 95% CI=2.13-10.53, p˂0.000, gender (COR=2.63, 95% CI=1.22-5.68, p˂0.014, housing system (COR=5.10, 95% CI=2.04-12.75, p˂0.000 with enteric parasitic infection in dogs. However, breeds (COR=6.91, 95% CI=0.88-54.52, p=0.067 and type of feeding (COR ranged from 3.5 to

  20. Toxocara canis: una zoonosis frecuente a nivel mundial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Rojas-Salamanca

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La toxocariasis, causada principalmente por Toxocara canis, es una de las zoonosis más comunes a nivel mundial; se presenta con mayor frecuencia en niños, asociada a condiciones desfavorables de higiene, hacinamiento, convivencia con perros parasitados, el nivel socioeconómico, la ubicación geográfica y los entornos en los cuales los animales depositan sus heces, lo que se convierte en un gran foco de contaminación para los humanos. El Toxocara canis ingresa al ser humano por contacto directo con heces de perro o por contaminación de alimentos. La carga parasitaria es de vital importancia, ya que está relacionada directamente con la gravedad de la enfermedad, con los diferentes síndromes que se producen y con la respuesta inmune desencadenada por el organismo, teniendo en cuenta el ciclo de vida que se lleva a cabo en el organismo humano. Para esta enfermedad no se puede realizar un diagnóstico por técnicas coproparasitológicas, por lo cual es necesario utilizar otros métodos, como el aumento de leucocitos con presencia de eosinofilia, la prueba de ELISA y, en algunos casos, por medio de biopsias.

  1. Demodicosis caused by Demodex canis and Demodex cornei in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivajothi, S; Sudhakara Reddy, B; Rayulu, V C

    2015-12-01

    Two mongrel dogs aged between 7 and 9 months in a same house were presented to the clinics with a history of chronic dermatitis associated with pruritus. Clinical examination revealed presence of primary and secondary skin lesions on the face, around the ears, chin, neck, fore limbs and lateral abdomen. Examination of skin scrapings revealed Demodex cornei (majority) and D. canis (minority) in both the dogs. By using hair pluck examination D. canis were detected and by tape impression smears examination large number of adult short-tail Demodex mites were found. D. cornei was identified by based on the morphological characters including short opisthosoma with blind and round terminal end. Mean length of total body, opisthosoma of both types of the mites were differed statistically significant (P  0.05). Dogs were treated with daily oral ivermectin @ 500 μg/kg/day, external application of amitraz along with supportive therapy. After completion of 45 days of therapy dogs were recovered completely without any side effects.

  2. A serological and molecular survey of Babesia vogeli, Ehrlichia canis and Rickettsia spp. among dogs in the state of Maranhão, northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Pereira da Costa

    Full Text Available This study evaluated exposure and infection by tick-borne agents (Babesia vogeli, Ehrlichia canis and Rickettsia spp. in 172 dogs in rural areas and 150 dogs in urban areas of the municipality of Chapadinha, state of Maranhão, northeastern Brazil, using molecular and serological methods. Overall, 16.1% of the sampled dogs (52/322 were seroreactive to B. vogeli, with endpoint titers ranging from 40 to 640. For E. canis, 14.6% of the dogs (47/322 were seroreactive, with endpoint titers from 80 to 163,840. Antibodies reactive to at least one of the five species of Rickettsia were detected in 18.9% of the dogs (61/322, with endpoint titers ranging from 64 to 4,096. High endpoint titers were observed for Rickettsia amblyommii. Three (0.9% and nine (2.8% canine blood samples were PCR-positive for Babesia spp. and E. canis. The ticks collected from urban dogs were all Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato, whereas the rural dogs were infested by R. sanguineus s.l, Amblyomma cajennense sensu lato and Amblyomma ovale. One A. ovale tick was found to be infected by Rickettsia bellii. This study provides an epidemiological background for controlling and preventing canine tick-borne diseases in a neglected region of Brazil.

  3. 77 FR 7175 - Endangered and Threatened Species Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-10

    ... threatened wildlife species, 50 CFR 17.62 for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for threatened plant... recovery purposes to conduct presence/absence surveys of Mexican long-nosed bat (Leptonycteris nivalis... bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus ridgwayi) Mexican gray wolf (Canis lupus baileyi) Mount Graham...

  4. The Genome of the Obligately Intracellular Bacterium Ehrlichia canis Reveals Themes of Complex Membrane Structure and Immune Evasion Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mavromatis, K [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Doyle, C Kuyler [Center for Biodenfense and Emerging Infectious Diseases; Lykidis, A [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Francino, M P [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chain, Patrick S [ORNL; Shin, M [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Malfatti, Stephanie [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Larimer, Frank W [ORNL; Copeland, A [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Detter, J C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Richardson, P M [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Yu, X J [Center for Biodenfense and Emerging Infectious Diseases; Walker, D H [Center for Biodenfense and Emerging Infectious Diseases; McBride, J W [Center for Biodenfense and Emerging Infectious Diseases; Kyripides, N C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute

    2006-01-01

    Ehrlichia canis, a small obligately intracellular, tick-transmitted, gram-negative, {alpha}-proteobacterium, is the primary etiologic agent of globally distributed canine monocytic ehrlichiosis. Complete genome sequencing revealed that the E. canis genome consists of a single circular chromosome of 1,315,030 bp predicted to encode 925 proteins, 40 stable RNA species, 17 putative pseudogenes, and a substantial proportion of noncoding sequence (27%). Interesting genome features include a large set of proteins with transmembrane helices and/or signal sequences and a unique serine-threonine bias associated with the potential for O glycosylation that was prominent in proteins associated with pathogen-host interactions. Furthermore, two paralogous protein families associated with immune evasion were identified, one of which contains poly(G-C) tracts, suggesting that they may play a role in phase variation and facilitation of persistent infections. Genes associated with pathogen-host interactions were identified, including a small group encoding proteins (n = 12) with tandem repeats and another group encoding proteins with eukaryote-like ankyrin domains (n = 7).

  5. RAD genotyping reveals fine-scale genetic structuring and provides powerful population assignment in a widely distributed marine species, the American lobster (Homarus americanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benestan, Laura; Gosselin, Thierry; Perrier, Charles; Sainte-Marie, Bernard; Rochette, Rémy; Bernatchez, Louis

    2015-07-01

    Deciphering genetic structure and inferring connectivity in marine species have been challenging due to weak genetic differentiation and limited resolution offered by traditional genotypic methods. The main goal of this study was to assess how a population genomics framework could help delineate the genetic structure of the American lobster (Homarus americanus) throughout much of the species' range and increase the assignment success of individuals to their location of origin. We genotyped 10 156 filtered SNPs using RAD sequencing to delineate genetic structure and perform population assignment for 586 American lobsters collected in 17 locations distributed across a large portion of the species' natural distribution range. Our results revealed the existence of a hierarchical genetic structure, first separating lobsters from the northern and southern part of the range (FCT  = 0.0011; P-value = 0.0002) and then revealing a total of 11 genetically distinguishable populations (mean FST  = 0.00185; CI: 0.0007-0.0021, P-value < 0.0002), providing strong evidence for weak, albeit fine-scale population structuring within each region. A resampling procedure showed that assignment success was highest with a subset of 3000 SNPs having the highest FST . Applying Anderson's (Molecular Ecology Resources, 2010, 10, 701) method to avoid 'high-grading bias', 94.2% and 80.8% of individuals were correctly assigned to their region and location of origin, respectively. Lastly, we showed that assignment success was positively associated with sample size. These results demonstrate that using a large number of SNPs improves fine-scale population structure delineation and population assignment success in a context of weak genetic structure. We discuss the implications of these findings for the conservation and management of highly connected marine species, particularly regarding the geographic scale of demographic independence.

  6. Genetic Variation of North American Triatomines (Insecta: Hemiptera: Reduviidae): Initial Divergence between Species and Populations of Chagas Disease Vector

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The triatomines vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi are principal factors in acquiring Chagas disease. For this reason, increased knowledge of domestic transmission of T. cruzi and control of its insect vectors is necessary. To contribute to genetic knowledge of North America Triatominae species, we studied genetic variations and conducted phylogenetic analysis of different triatomines species of epidemiologic importance. Our analysis showed high genetic variations between different geographic popul...

  7. Inhibitory effect of interferon gamma on frequency of Ehrlichia canis-infected cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, Tomoko; Wada, Makoto

    2013-12-15

    Ehrlichia canis is an obligate intracellular bacterium that infects the macrophage-monocyte cells of dogs, causing canine monocytic ehrlichiosis. Interferon-γ (IFN-γ), along with other cytokines, mediates the immune response to such intracellular bacterial invasions. To determine the role of IFN-γ in the immunity of dogs to E. canis infection, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and white blood cells (WBC) were collected from E. canis-infected dogs and added to a culture of E. canis in DH82 cells. The number of E. canis inclusion-positive cells was significantly reduced in cultures containing PBMC and WBC from E. canis-infected dogs compared to uninfected dogs. However, this resistance was inhibited by the addition of an anti-dog IFN-γ antibody. Resistance was also observed when PBMC were added to the Cell Culture Inserts, which prohibited contact of PBMC to DH82 cells, while allowed the diffusion of soluble cell products. The results of this study indicate that resistance was not dependent on cell to cell contact, but was associated with soluble cell products, such as IFN-γ. The addition of recombinant canine IFN-γ to the E. canis culture also reduced the number of infected cells. A commercial recombinant canine IFN-γ, which is sold in Japan, was also effective at reducing E. canis-infected cell number. These results indicate that IFN-γ has an inhibitory effect on the frequency of E. canis-infected cells in vitro and that contact between effector and target cells is not necessary for the resistance.

  8. Use of an automated system for detection of canine serum antibodies against Ehrlichia canis glycoprotein 36.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroff, Scott; Sokolchik, Irene; Woodring, Todd; Woodruff, Colby; Atkinson, Brett; Lappin, Michael R

    2014-07-01

    Ehrlichia canis is the most common cause of monocytotropic ehrlichiosis in dogs around the world. The purpose of the present study was to validate a new automated fluorescence system (Accuplex4™ BioCD system; Antech Diagnostics, Lake Success, New York) to detect antibodies against the E. canis immunodominant glycoprotein 36 (gp36). Sera and blood samples (ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid) were collected from mixed sex beagles ( n = 8) on days 0, 3, 7, 10, 14, 17, 21, 28, 42, 49, 56, 63, 70, 77, 84, and 98 after intravenous inoculation with culture-derived E. canis. Sera were assayed using the Accuplex4 BioCD system (Accuplex4), an E. canis indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT), and a commercially available kit. A complete blood cell count and a proprietary E. canis polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were performed on each blood sample. On the day thrombocytopenia was first detected for each dog, E. canis DNA was amplified from blood of all dogs. At those times, E. canis antibodies were detected in 7 of 8 dogs by the Accuplex4, 1 of 8 dogs by the commercial kit, and 4 of 8 dogs by IFAT. Ehrlichia canis DNA was amplified from blood before seroconversion in any antibody assay for 6 dogs. Antibodies against gp36 were detected by Accuplex4 within 3 days of PCR-positive test results and were detected up to 25 days sooner than the commercial kit. After starting doxycycline treatment, E. canis DNA was no longer amplified by PCR assay, but serum antibodies remained detectable by all assays.

  9. Molecular identification and characterization of Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis in dogs in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almazán, Consuelo; González-Álvarez, Vicente H; Fernández de Mera, Isabel G; Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; Rodríguez-Martínez, Rafael; de la Fuente, José

    2016-03-01

    The tick-borne pathogens Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys are the causative agents of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME) and canine cyclic thrombocytopenia (CCT). Although molecular evidence of E. canis has been shown, phylogenetic analysis of this pathogen has not been performed and A. platys has not been identified in Mexico, where the tick vector Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (s.l.) is common. The aim of this research was to screen, identify and characterize E. canis and A. platys by PCR and phylogenetic analysis in dogs from La Comarca Lagunera, a region formed by three municipalities, Torreon, Gomez-Palacio and Lerdo, in the Northern states of Coahuila and Durango, Mexico. Blood samples and five engorged R. sanguineus s.l. ticks per animal were collected from 43 females and 57 male dogs presented to veterinary clinics or lived in the dog shelter from La Comarca Lagunera. All the sampled dogs were apparently healthy and PCR for Anaplasma 16S rRNA, Ehrlichia 16S rRNA, and E. canis trp36 were performed. PCR products were sequenced and used for phylogenetic analysis. PCR products were successfully amplified in 31% of the samples using primers for Anaplasma 16S rRNA, while 10% and 4% amplified products using primers for Ehrlichia 16S rRNA and E. canis trp36 respectively. Subsequent sequencing and phylogenetic analyses of these products showed that three samples corresponded to A. platys and four to E. canis. Based on the analysis of trp36 we confirmed that the E. canis strains isolated from Mexico belong to a conservative clade of E. canis and are closely related to strains from USA. In conclusion, this is the first molecular identification of A. platys and the first molecular characterization and phylogenetic study of both A. platys and E. canis in dogs in Mexico.

  10. Phlebotomine fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae and species abundance in an endemic area of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in southeastern Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Frederico Loiola

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to identify the phlebotomine fauna and species abundance in domiciliary and peridomiciliary (hen-house and guava-tree environments, on a lake shore, a cultivated area of coffee and banana, and a forested area of Conceição da Aparecida municipality, southeastern the state of Minas Gerais, to provide information for the control and epidemiological surveillance of leishmaniasis in this area. The captures were carried out monthly between May 2001 and November 2002, with automatic light and Shannon traps. A total of 1444 sand flies were captured, 951 (76.5% with automatic light traps and 493 (23.5% with the Shannon trap. Thirteen species were captured, the most frequent being Nyssomyia whitmani (62.7%, Migonemyia migonei (21.4%, Pintomyia fischeri (6.9%, and Evandromyia lenti (3.6%. Species abundance was determined using the automatic light traps installed in the six environments. The most abundant species according to the standardized index of species abundance were Ny. whitmani (1.0 and Mg. migonei (0.82. In view of the dominance of these two species, known vectors of cutaneous leishmaniasis in other Brazilian areas, their participation in the transmission of the disease in this county is suggested. The diversity and evenness indexes in the domicile were the lowest due to the high frequency (83% of Ny. whitmani. The capture of Lutzomyia longipalpis, rarely recorded in the south-eastern and southern regions of Minas Gerais, is also noteworthy.

  11. CWD prions remain infectious after passage through the digestive system of coyotes (Canis latrans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Tracy A; Fischer, Justin W; Spraker, Terry R; Kong, Qingzhong; VerCauteren, Kurt C

    2015-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a geographically expanding prion disease of wild and captive cervids in North America. Disease can be transmitted directly, animal to animal, or indirectly via the environment. CWD contamination can occur residually in the environment via soil, water, and forage following deposition of bodily fluids such as urine, saliva, and feces, or by the decomposition of carcasses. Recent work has indicated that plants may even take up prions into the stems and leaves. When a carcass or gut pile is present in the environment, a large number of avian and mammalian species visit and consume the carrion. Additionally, predators like coyotes, likely select for disease-compromised cervids. Natural cross-species CWD transmission has not been documented, however, passage of infectious prion material has been observed in the feces of crows. In this study we evaluated the ability of CWD-infected brain material to pass through the gastrointestinal tract of coyotes (Canis latrans) following oral ingestion, and be infectious in a cervidized transgenic mouse model. Results from this study indicate that coyotes can pass infectious prions via their feces for at least 3 days post ingestion, demonstrating that mammalian scavengers could contribute to the translocation and contamination of CWD in the environment.

  12. Trichinella britovi in the jackal Canis aureus from south-west Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirjalali, H; Rezaei, S; Pozio, E; Naddaf, S R; Salahi-Moghaddam, A; Kia, E B; Shahbazi, F; Mowlavi, Gh

    2014-12-01

    Trichinellosis is an important helminthic food-borne zoonosis, which is caused by nematodes of the genus Trichinella. Although, Trichinella spp. has been detected frequently in Iranian wildlife, this parasitic infection is not considered a major public health problem. This is largely because Islamic codes forbid consumption of pork meat in this country. However, knowledge about this zoonotic pathogen is important because human trichinellosis has been documented in countries where most of the population is Muslim. The aims of the present work were to investigate whether Trichinella spp. was still circulating in wildlife of the Khuzestan Province (south-west Iran) about 30 years after the first investigation, to identify the aetiological agent at the species level by molecular analyses, and to review the literature on Trichinella spp. in animals of Iran. During the winter 2009-2010, muscle samples from 32 road-killed animals (14 dogs and 18 jackals, Canis aureus) were collected. Muscle samples were digested and Trichinella sp. larvae were isolated from two jackals. The Trichinella sp. larvae have been identified as Trichinella britovi by molecular analyses. These results confirm that T. britovi is the prevalent species circulating in wild animals of Iran.

  13. Development of a non-invasive polysomnography technique for dogs (Canis familiaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kis, Anna; Szakadát, Sára; Kovács, Enikő; Gácsi, Márta; Simor, Péter; Gombos, Ferenc; Topál, József; Miklósi, Adám; Bódizs, Róbert

    2014-05-10

    Recently dogs (Canis familiaris) have been demonstrated to be a promising model species for studying human behavior as they have adapted to the human niche and developed human-like socio-cognitive skills. Research on dog behavior, however, has so far almost exclusively focused on awake functioning. Here we present a self-developed non-invasive canine polysomnography method that can easily be applied to naive pet dogs. N=22 adult pet dogs (with their owners present) and N=12 adult humans participated in Study I. From these subjects, N=7 dogs returned on two more occasions for Study II. In Study I, we give a descriptive analysis of the sleep electroencephalogram of the dog and compare it to human data. In order to validate our canine polysomnography method in Study II, we compare the sleep macrostructure and the EEG spectrum of dogs after a behaviorally active day without sleep versus passive day with sleep. In Study I, we found that dogs' sleep EEG resembled that of human subjects and was generally in accordance with previous literature using invasive technology. In Study II, we show that similarly to previous results on humans daytime load of novel experiences and sleep deprivation affects the macrostructural and spectral aspects of subsequent sleep. Our results validate the family dog as a model species for studying the effects of pre-sleep activities on the EEG pattern under natural conditions and, thus, broaden the perspectives of the rapidly growing fields of canine cognition and sleep research.

  14. Aislamiento de Brucella canis en un humano conviviente con caninos infectados. Informe de un caso.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Olivera

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To report a case of bacteremia in a woman living in close contact with dogs infected with Brucella canis. Methods: Previous written consent of the woman a blood sample was taken to perform rapid agglutination test, immunofluorescence, and hemoculture. Results: Brucella canis was isolated and the isolation was confirmed by the Instituto Nacional ANLIS «Carlos G. Malbran» from Argentina. The woman did not present any symptoms associated with brucellosis. Conclusion: There is a risk of contamination by B. canis for people keeping tight contact with infected dogs.

  15. Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Sarcocystis neurona, and Sarcocystis canis-like infections in marine mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Zarnke, R; Thomas, N J; Wong, S K; Van Bonn, W; Briggs, M; Davis, J W; Ewing, R; Mense, M; Kwok, O C H; Romand, S; Thulliez, P

    2003-10-30

    Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Sarcocystis neurona, and S. canis are related protozoans that can cause mortality in many species of domestic and wild animals. Recently, T. gondii and S. neurona were recognized to cause encephalitis in marine mammals. As yet, there is no report of natural exposure of N. caninum in marine mammals. In the present study, antibodies to T. gondii and N. caninum were assayed in sera of several species of marine mammals. For T. gondii, sera were diluted 1:25, 1:50, and 1:500 and assayed in the T. gondii modified agglutination test (MAT). Antibodies (MAT > or =1:25) to T. gondii were found in 89 of 115 (77%) dead, and 18 of 30 (60%) apparently healthy sea otters (Enhydra lutris), 51 of 311 (16%) Pacific harbor seals (Phoca vitulina), 19 of 45 (42%) sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) [corrected] 5 of 32 (16%) ringed seals (Phoca hispida), 4 of 8 (50%) bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus), 1 of 9 (11.1%) spotted seals (Phoca largha), 138 of 141 (98%) Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), and 3 of 53 (6%) walruses (Odobenus rosmarus). For N. caninum, sera were diluted 1:40, 1:80, 1:160, and 1:320 and examined with the Neospora agglutination test (NAT) using mouse-derived tachyzoites. NAT antibodies were found in 3 of 53 (6%) walruses, 28 of 145 (19%) sea otters, 11 of 311 (3.5%) harbor seals, 1 of 27 (3.7%) sea lions, 4 of 32 (12.5%) ringed seals, 1 of 8 (12.5%) bearded seals, and 43 of 47 (91%) bottlenose dolphins. To our knowledge, this is the first report of N. caninum antibodies in any marine mammal, and the first report of T. gondii antibodies in walruses and in ringed, bearded, spotted, and ribbon seals. Current information on T. gondii-like and Sarcocystis-like infections in marine mammals is reviewed. New cases of clinical S. canis and T. gondii infections are also reported in sea lions, and T. gondii infection in an Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus).

  16. Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Sarcocystis neurona, and Sarcocystis canis-like infections in marine mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J.P.; Zarnke, R.; Thomas, N.J.; Wong, S.K.; Vanbonn, W.; Briggs, M.; Davis, J.W.; Ewing, R.; Mense, M.; Kwok, O.C.H.; Romand, S.; Thulliez, P.

    2003-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Sarcocystis neurona, and S. canis are related protozoans that can cause mortality in many species of domestic and wild animals. Recently, T. gondii and S. neurona were recognized to cause encephalitis in marine mammals. As yet, there is no report of natural exposure of N. caninum in marine mammals. In the present study, antibodies to T. gondii and N. caninum were assayed in sera of several species of marine mammals. For T. gondii, sera were diluted 1:25, 1:50, and 1:500 and assayed in the T. gondii modified agglutination test (MAT). Antibodies (MAT a?Y1:25) to T. gondii were found in 89 of 115 (77%) dead, and 18 of 30 (60%) apparently healthy sea otters (Enhydra lutris), 51 of 311 (16%) Pacific harbor seals (Phoca vitulina), 19 of 45 (42%) sea lions (Zalophus californianus), 5 of 32 (16%) ringed seals (Phoca hispida), 4 of 8 (50%) bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus), 1 of 9 (11.1%) spotted seals (Phoca largha), 138 of 141 (98%) Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), and 3 of 53 (6%) walruses (Odobenus rosmarus). For N. caninum, sera were diluted 1:40, 1:80, 1:160, and 1:320 and examined with the Neospora agglutination test (NAT) using mouse-derived tachyzoites. NAT antibodies were found in 3 of 53 (6%) walruses, 28 of 145 (19%) sea otters, 11 of 311 (3.5%) harbor seals, 1 of 27 (3.7%) sea lions, 4 of 32 (12.5%) ringed seals, 1 of 8 (12.5%) bearded seals, and 43 of 47 (91%) bottlenose dolphins. To our knowledge, this is the first report of N. caninum antibodies in any marine mammal, and the first report of T. gondii antibodies in walruses and in ringed, bearded, spotted, and ribbon seals. Current information on T. gondii-like and Sarcocystis-like infections in marine mammals is reviewed. New cases of clinical S. canis and T. gondii infections are also reported in sea lions, and T. gondii infection in an Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus).

  17. Biodiversity and biogeography of Fusarium species from northeastern North American asparagus fields based on microbiological and molecular approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujanovic, Vladimir; Hamel, Chantal; Yergeau, Etienne; St-Arnaud, Marc

    2006-02-01

    Sixteen Fusarium species were recovered from 52 asparagus commercial fields, representing all major ecological (edaphic and climatic) area of asparagus production in the province of Québec, eastern Canada. This study extends our understanding of the geographic range of these species. It also provides climatological and edaphic properties linked to community changes and adaptations. Fusarium oxysporum and F. proliferatum were omnipresent and abundant in all five ecological area under study, whereas F. redolens was less frequently found. Species of Fusarium that produce carmine red pigmentation on potato dextrose agar, i.e., F. acuminatum, F. avenaceum, etc., were common at the northern limit of asparagus production. Abundance of red Fusarium species corresponded with a low isolation frequency of F. proliferatum. Nevertheless, F. proliferatum had a high recovery rate throughout Québec asparagus growing areas, under climatic conditions as cold as those of northern Europe where this species is uncommon in asparagus fields. In the light of these results, redefinition of the geographical distribution of F. proliferatum in asparagus fields is proposed. Intraspecific molecular differences in F. proliferatum and F. oxysporum were detected in the EF-1 alpha sequences and compared with well-characterized strains of North America.

  18. New species of parasitic quill mites of the genus Picobia (Acari: Syringophilidae: Picobiinae) from North American birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoracki, Maciej; Hendricks, Sarah A; Spicer, Greg S

    2010-09-01

    Five new species of the genus Picobia are described and illustrated: (1) P. leucophaeus sp. nov. from the Laughing Gull Leucophaeus atricilla L. (Charadriiformes: Laridae) from Texas; (2) P. troglodytes sp. nov. from the House Wren Troglodytes aedon Vieillot (Passeriformes: Troglodytidae) from California; (3) P. cardinalis sp. nov. from the Northern Cardinal Cardinalis cardinalis (L.) (Passeriformes: Cardinalidae) from Texas; (4) P. carpodacus sp. nov. from the Purple Finch Carpodacus purpureus (Gmelin) (Passeriformes: Fringillidae) from California; and (5) P. psaltriparus sp. nov. from the Bushtit Psaltriparus minimus (Townsend) (Passeriformes: Aegithalidae) from Texas. Two avian species from the family Picidae (Piciformes) are recorded as new hosts for P. dryobatis (Fritsch, 1958): the Downy Woodpecker Picoides pubescens (L.) from Texas and the Ladder-backed Woodpecker Picoides scalaris (Wagler) from California. Additionally, all named species of the genus Picobia with their host associations and distributions are summarized in tabular form.

  19. Seabird nutrient subsidies benefit non-nitrogen fixing trees and alter species composition in South American coastal dry forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Havik

    Full Text Available Marine-derived nutrients can increase primary productivity and change species composition of terrestrial plant communities in coastal and riverine ecosystems. We hypothesized that sea nutrient subsidies have a positive effect on nitrogen assimilation and seedling survival of non-nitrogen fixing species, increasing the relative abundance of non-nitrogen fixing species close to seashore. Moreover, we proposed that herbivores can alter the effects of nutrient supplementation by preferentially feeding on high nutrient plants. We studied the effects of nutrient fertilization by seabird guano on tree recruitment and how these effects can be modulated by herbivorous lizards in the coastal dry forests of northwestern Peru. We combined field studies, experiments and stable isotope analysis to study the response of the two most common tree species in these forests, the nitrogen-fixing Prosopis pallida and the non-nitrogen-fixing Capparis scabrida. We did not find differences in herbivore pressure along the sea-inland gradient. We found that the non-nitrogen fixing C. scabrida assimilates marine-derived nitrogen and is more abundant than P. pallida closer to guano-rich soil. We conclude that the input of marine-derived nitrogen through guano deposited by seabirds feeding in the Pacific Ocean affects the two dominant tree species of the coastal dry forests of northern Peru in contrasting ways. The non-nitrogen fixing species, C. scabrida may benefit from sea nutrient subsidies by incorporating guano-derived nitrogen into its foliar tissues, whereas P. pallida, capable of atmospheric fixation, does not.

  20. Two new species of Temnocephala (Platyhelminthes, Temnocephalida) from the South American snake-necked turtle Hydromedusa tectifera (Testudines, Chelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volonterio, Odile

    2010-12-01

    Temnocephala brevicornis Monticelli, 1889 is the only species of the genus Temnocephala Blanchard, 1849 reported from chelonians to date. During a survey of the species of Temnocephala extant in southern Uruguay, two new species were found on the chelonian Hydromedusa tectifera Cope, 1869. They are described here as Temnocephala pereirai n. sp. and Temnocephala cuocoloi n. sp. Both resemble T. brevicornis, but differ in the morphometry of the penial stylet, and in qualitative details of the reproductive complex. Temnocephala pereirai n. sp. differs from T. brevicornis by having a massive, cylindrical sphincter in the distal portion of the vagina, and a seminal vesicle that opens into the subpolar to equatorial portion of the contractile vesicle. In addition, the penial stylet in Temnocephala pereirai n. sp. is large in relation to body size, straight and more slender, having the distal portion of its shaft slightly sinuous, and a smaller introvert equipped with about 16 distal crowns of smaller spines. Temnocephala cuocoloi n. sp. is most similar to T. brevicornis, but differs by having a smaller, curved penial stylet that has a smaller introvert in relation to stylet size, with about 10 distal crowns of smaller spines. A key to the species of the Temnocephala from chelonians is provided. This study supports the validity of the following characters previously proposed for the taxonomy of the genus Temnocephala: the shape of the sphincters in the female reproductive system, the shape of the penial stylet, and the number, size, and position of spines in the introvert.

  1. Targets of an invasive species: Oviposition preference and larval performance of Cactoblastis cactorum on 14 North American Opuntioid cacti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), the cactus moth, is a well-known biological control agent for cactus species of the genus Opuntia. The arrival of the moth in Florida and its subsequent spread through the southeastern United States poses a threat to opuntioid diversity in North Americ...

  2. New records and redescriptions of American species of Mesocyclops and of Diacyclops bernardi (Petkovski, 1986) (Copepoda: Cyclopoida)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reid, Janet W.

    1993-01-01

    Recent collections in the south central U.S.A. have included three neotropical and one probably introduced species that are presently assigned to the cyclopoid copepod genus Mesocyclops. Mesocyclops longisetus var. curvatus Dussart, 1987, is reported from Louisiana, U.S.A., and Panama; published

  3. Artemia biodiversity in Asia with the focus on the phylogeography of the introduced American species Artemia franciscana Kellogg, 1906.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eimanifar, Amin; Van Stappen, Gilbert; Marden, Brad; Wink, Michael

    2014-10-01

    Asia harbors a diverse group of sexual and asexual Artemia species, including the invasive Artemia franciscana, which is native to the Americas. The phylogeny of Asian Artemia species and the phylogeography of the introduced A. franciscana from 81 sampling localities in Eurasia, Africa and America were elucidated using mitochondrial (COI) and nuclear DNA (ITS1) sequences. According to a COI phylogeny, 6 distinctive genetic groups were recognized, with a complex phylogeographic structure among Asian Artemia. A haplotype complex which includes parthenogenetic lineages is distributed in 39 inland geographical localities in Asia, illustrating a wide distribution with a narrow genetic structure on this continent. The invasive A. franciscana was discovered in 31 geographical localities along the southern and eastern coastal regions of Asia. Three sexual species (A. sinica, A. tibetiana and A. urmiana) have a restricted distribution in certain geographical localities in Asia. In contrast to COI phylogeny reconstruction, ITS1 sequences showed inconsistency with the COI tree, indicating incomplete lineage sorting which provided the low genetic divergence in the Asian clade. Asian A. franciscana showed higher haplotype diversity as compared to the source population from the Great Salt Lake (USA), which could be attributed to multiple introductions by mass dispersal in Asia via human activities. The invasive success of A. franciscana in Asia could lead to a long-term biodiversity disturbance of the autochthonous Artemia species on the continent.

  4. Genetic and morphological variability in South American rodent Oecomys (Sigmodontinae, Rodentia): evidence for a complex of species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, C C; Flores, T; Pieczarka, J C; Rossi, R V; Sampaio, M I C; Rissino, J D; Amaral, P J S; Nagamachi, C Y

    2012-01-01

    The rodent genus Oecomys (Sigmodontinae) comprises ~16 species that inhabit tropical and subtropical forests in Central America and South America. In this study specimens of Oecomys paricola Thomas, 1904 from Belém and Marajó island, northern Brazil, were investigated using cytogenetic, molecular and morphological analyses. Three karyotypes were found, two from Belém (2n = 68, fundamental number (FN) = 72 and 2n = 70, FN = 76) and a third from Marajó island (2n = 70, FN = 72). No molecular or morphological differences were found between the individuals with differing cytotypes from Belém, but differences were evident between the individuals from Belém and Marajó island. Specimens from Belém city region may represent two cryptic species because two different karyotypes are present in the absence of significant differences in morphology and molecular characteristics. The Marajó island and Belém populations may represent distinct species that have been separated for some time, and are in the process of morphological and molecular differentiation as a consequence of reproductive isolation at the geographic and chromosomal levels. Thus, the results suggest that O. paricola may be a complex of species.

  5. Seabird nutrient subsidies benefit non-nitrogen fixing trees and alter species composition in South American coastal dry forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havik, G.; Catenazzi, A.; Holmgren, M.

    2014-01-01

    Marine-derived nutrients can increase primary productivity and change species composition of terrestrial plant communities in coastal and riverine ecosystems. We hypothesized that sea nutrient subsidies have a positive effect on nitrogen assimilation and seedling survival of non-nitrogen fixing spec

  6. Genetic and morphological variability in South American rodent Oecomys (Sigmodontinae, Rodentia): evidence for a complex of species

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C. C. Rosa; T. Flores; J. C. Pieczarka; R. V. Rossi; M. I. C. Sampaio; J. D. Rissino; P. J. S. Amaral; C. Y. Nagamachi

    2012-12-01

    The rodent genus Oecomys (Sigmodontinae) comprises ∼16 species that inhabit tropical and subtropical forests in Central America and South America. In this study specimens of Oecomys paricola Thomas, 1904 from Belém and Marajó island, northern Brazil, were investigated using cytogenetic, molecular and morphological analyses. Three karyotypes were found, two from Belém ($2n = 68$, fundamental number (FN) = 72 and $2n = 70$, FN = 76) and a third from Marajó island ($2n = 70$, FN = 72). No molecular or morphological differences were found between the individuals with differing cytotypes from Belém, but differences were evident between the individuals from Belém and Marajó island. Specimens from Belém city region may represent two cryptic species because two different karyotypes are present in the absence of significant differences in morphology and molecular characteristics. The Marajó island and Belém populations may represent distinct species that have been separated for some time, and are in the process of morphological and molecular differentiation as a consequence of reproductive isolation at the geographic and chromosomal levels. Thus, the results suggest that O. paricola may be a complex of species.

  7. Isolation and structure elucidation of secondary metabolites in Central and South American Calea species and their biochemical systematic implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ober, A.G.

    1984-01-01

    Fourteen species of the genus Calea (Family Compositae, Tribe Heliantheae) from Central and northern South America, including the type species for the genus, were investigated chemically to determine their secondary metabolites. The taxa studied were C. leptocephala Blake, C. megacephala Rob, and Greenm., and C. trichotoma B. Smith from Mexico, C. prunifolia Kunth (syn. C. pittieri) from Costa Rica, C. prunifolia Kunth from Panama, C. jamaicensis L. from Jamaica, and the Venezuelan species C. berteriana DC., C. divaricata Benthem, C. oliverii Rob. and Greenm., C. prunifolia Kunth, C. septuplinervia Hieron., C. solidaginea Kunth, and C. subcordata Kunth. The chemical investigation of these Calea species, undertaken as part of biochemical systematic study, has resulted in the isolation of 83 compounds, of which 38 are new natural products. The isolated compounds were represented by a dioxin derivative, 3 benzofuranes, 5 chromenes, 12 flavones, and 62 sesquiterpene lactones. The structures of the new compounds were established by chemical and spectroscopic methods. These methods included MS, IR, UV, and CD, /sup 1/H NMR, /sup 13/C NMR, and single crystal x-ray diffraction analysis.

  8. Multiple proteinases from two Microsporum species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpanya, M F; Baxter, M

    1996-01-01

    Enzyme expression of 67 isolates of two Microsporum species, M. canis and M. cookei, were compared in both shake and stationary cultures using substrate copolymerized SDS-PAGE. Most M. canis isolates expressed more proteolytic bands in shake culture, while M. cookei isolates expressed more in stationary culture. M. canis isolates expressed up to six proteinases of different relative mobilities (122, 64, 62, 45, 31 and 25 kDa). M. cookei expressed up to seven proteinases in stationary culture (67, 66, 64, 62, 45, 42 and 39 kDa). Those of 67 and 66 kDa were not expressed in shake culture. The proteinases expressed by M. cookei were similar to those expressed by M. canis except for 122 and 25 kDa. With the exception of isolates from non-infected cats, 25 kDa was also commonly expressed by isolates from infected hosts in the shake culture treatment. The differences in enzyme expression obtained may reflect differences in the contrasting ecological roles of the two species.

  9. Searching for RR Lyrae stars in the Canis Major Overdensity

    CERN Document Server

    Mateu, Cecilia; Zinn, Robert; Miller, Lissa; .,; 10.1017/S1743921307008459

    2009-01-01

    The Canis Major overdensity (CMa) was initially proposed to be the remnant of a tidally disrupting dSph galaxy. Since its nature is still subject of debate, the goal of the present work was to conduct a large-scale RR Lyrae survey in CMa, in order to see if there is an overdensity of these stars. The survey spans a total area of ~34 sq. deg. with observations in V and R filters, made with the 1.0m Jurgen Stock Schmidt telescope at the National Astronomical Observatory of Venezuela. Current results in a subregion, including spectroscopic observations, show that the small number of RR Lyrae stars found can be accounted for by the halo and thick disk components of our Galaxy.

  10. Pulmonary neuroendocrine tumor in a female wolf (Canis lupus lupus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    SHIRAKI, Ayako; YOSHIDA, Toshinori; KAWASHIMA, Masahi; MURAYAMA, Hirotada; NAGAHARA, Rei; ITO, Nanao; SHIBUTANI, Makoto

    2017-01-01

    A 17-year-old female wolf (Canis lupus lupus) had a right lung mass that was adhered to the thoracic cavity. Histopathological examination revealed that the mass consisted of sheets, cord or ribbon-like structures of monotonous, small, cuboidal cells with round, oval or short-spindle nuclei and scant clear cytoplasm, demarcated by a fine fibrovascular stroma. Focal necrosis, congestion and thrombi were observed. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells diffusely expressed cytokeratin AE1/AE3, and some expressed chromogranin A, neural cell adhesion molecule (CD56) and thyroid transcription factor-1. The number of proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive tumor cells was low. A diagnosis of pulmonary neuroendocrine tumor was based on the resemblance to carcinoids. PMID:28190820

  11. Prolonged intensive dominance behavior between gray wolves, Canis lupus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David; Cluff, H. Dean

    2010-01-01

    Dominance is one of the most pervasive and important behaviors among wolves in a pack, yet its significance in free-ranging packs has been little studied. Insights into a behavior can often be gained by examining unusual examples of it. In the High Arctic near Eureka, Nunavut, Canada, we videotaped and described an unusually prolonged and intensive behavioral bout between an adult male Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) and a male member of his pack, thought to be a maturing son. With tail raised, the adult approached a male pack mate about 50 m from us and pinned and straddled this packmate repeatedly over 6.5 minutes, longer than we had ever seen in over 50 years of studying wolves. We interpreted this behavior as an extreme example of an adult wolf harassing a maturing offspring, perhaps in prelude to the offspring?s dispersal.

  12. Confirmed case of feline mycetoma due to Microsporum canis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kano, Rui; Edamura, Kazuya; Yumikura, Hisayoshi; Maruyama, Haruhiko; Asano, Kazuyuki; Tanaka, Shigeo; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko

    2009-01-01

    The first case of feline true mycetoma because of a dermatophyte has been reported in this manuscript, although pseudomycetoma has been described in dogs and cats. The patient was a 9-year-old castrated male Persian cat weighing 4.2 kg with subcutaneous nodules on the dorsal trunk. Physical examination revealed two subcutaneous nodules (2.5 x 5.0 cm and 3.5 x 5.0 cm in size) that drained purulent exudates with cement-like substances containing yellowish granules. The impression smear of the yellowish granules demonstrated by PAS staining that they were masses of fungal septated hyphae (3-4 mum of width). From the nodular inflammation with fibrosis, fistulae draining from deep tissue and many grains containing abundant hyphal filaments, the case was diagnosed as mycetoma, complying with the definitive criteria of mycetoma. The etiologic fungus was molecularly as well as morphologically identified as Microsporum canis.

  13. Probable Pulmonary Blastomycosis in a Wild Coyote (Canis latrans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis E. Rodríguez-Tovar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A female coyote (Canis latrans was fatally injured by a vehicle on a road in San Luis Potosi, Mexico. Because of deteriorating clinical signs, the animal was euthanized. Postmortem examination of the lungs showed numerous small multifocal white nodules (0.5–1 cm diameter disseminated throughout. Histopathologic examination revealed multifocal coalescing granulomas with abundant macrophages, numerous neutrophils, fibroblasts, plasma cells, and lymphocytes. Abundant intracellular and extracellular thick-walled, refractile, spherical yeasts (10–15 μm were observed within the granulomas. The yeasts were intensely PAS-positive, with granular protoplasm. Broad-based single budding yeasts were occasionally present. Based on the microscopic findings of the pulmonary lesions and the morphological features of the organism, a diagnosis of chronic pyogranulomatous pneumonia caused by Blastomyces dermatitidis was made. To our knowledge, the case described herein is the first report of pulmonary blastomycosis in a wild coyote.

  14. Pasteurella canis Isolation following Penetrating Eye Injury: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor-Khairul Rashid

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 3-year-old boy presented with history of trauma to the left eye after he accidentally injured his eye with a broom stick made up from coconut skewers. There was history of cats as their pets but not dogs. Ocular examination revealed left superonasal conjunctival laceration and scleral perforation with prolapsed vitreous. Fundus examination showed minimal vitreous haemorrhage and flat retina. Conjunctiva swab at the wound site was sent for gram staining, culture, and sensitivity. He underwent scleral suturing, vitreous tap, and intravitreal injection of Ceftazidime and Amikacin. Vitreous tap was sent for gram stained, culture and sensitivity. Postoperatively, he was started empirically on IV Ciprofloxacin 160 mg BD, Guttae Ciprofloxacin, and Guttae Ceftazidime. Conjunctiva swab grew Pasteurella canis which was sensitive to all Beta lactams, Ciprofloxacin, Chloramphenicol, and Aminoglycoside. Post-operative was uneventful, absent signs of endophthalmitis or orbital cellulitis.

  15. Anthelmintic tests on Toxocara canis infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, P E; Clarkson, M J; Kerslake, M

    1981-04-04

    One hundred and forty mice were infected orally with 1000 embryonated Toxocara canis eggs. Groups of 10 mice were then treated with high doses of piperazine, mebendazole, oxfendazole, albendazole, fenbendazole and diethylcarbamazine for four days, either immediately after infection or three weeks after infection. The mice were killed three to six weeks after treatment and the number of larvae in the brains and muscles estimated and compared with those in untreated mice. Few larvae were recovered from the muscles of any of the mice, including the untreated controls, despite the use of a variety of recognised techniques. Large numbers of live larvae were recovered from the brains of the mice and there was no significant difference between the treated and untreated mice.

  16. Iron metabolism and oxidative profile of dogs naturally infected by Ehrlichia canis: Acute and subclinical disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottari, Nathieli B; Crivellenti, Leandro Z; Borin-Crivellenti, Sofia; Oliveira, Jéssica R; Coelho, Stefanie B; Contin, Catarina M; Tatsch, Etiane; Moresco, Rafael N; Santana, Aureo E; Tonin, Alexandre A; Tinucci-Costa, Mirela; Da Silva, Aleksandro S

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the oxidant profile and iron metabolism in serum of dogs infected by Ehrlichia canis. Banked sera samples of dogs were divided into two groups: negative control (n = 17) and infected by E. canis on acute (n = 24), and subclinical (n = 18) phases of the disease. The eritrogram, leucogram, and platelet counts were evaluate as well as iron, ferritin, and transferrin levels, latent iron binding capacity (LIBC), and transferrin saturation index (TSI) concentration. In addition, the advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) in sera were also analyzed. Blood samples were examined for the presence of E. canis by PCR techniques. History and clinical signals were recorded for each dog. During the acute phase of the disease, infected animals showed thrombocytopenia and anemia when compared to healthy animals (P canis showed changes in the iron metabolism and developed an oxidant status in consequence of disease pathophysiology.

  17. First molecular detection of Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys in ticks from dogs in Cebu, Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ybañez, Adrian P; Perez, Zandro O; Gabotero, Shirleny R; Yandug, Ryan T; Kotaro, Matsumoto; Inokuma, Hisashi

    2012-12-01

    Ehrlichia canis infection of dogs in the Philippines has been detected by serological and peripheral blood smear examination methods, but not by molecular means. Anaplasma platys infection in dogs has not yet been officially reported, although it is suspected to occur in the country. Thus, sensitive and specific molecular techniques were used in this study to demonstrate the presence of both E. canis and A. platys in the Philippines. A total of 164 Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks was collected from 36 dogs. Seven tick samples were found positive with E. canis and one sample with A. platys. To further characterize these pathogens, molecular analyses based on citrate synthase and heat-shock operon genes were also performed. Philippine strains were found to be not divergent from strains from other countries. The present results are the first molecular detection and analyses of E. canis and A. platys in ticks from dogs in the Philippines.

  18. Genetic blueprint of the zoonotic pathogen Toxocara canis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Xing-Quan; Korhonen, Pasi K.; Cai, Huimin

    2015-01-01

    Toxocara canis is a zoonotic parasite of major socioeconomic importance worldwide. In humans, this nematode causes disease (toxocariasis) mainly in the under-privileged communities in developed and developing countries. Although relatively well studied from clinical and epidemiological perspectives...

  19. Wolf (Canis lupus) Generation Time and Proportion of Current Breeding Females by Age

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mech, L David; Barber-Meyer, Shannon M; Erb, John

    2016-01-01

    Information is sparse about aspects of female wolf (Canis lupus) breeding in the wild, including age of first reproduction, mean age of primiparity, generation time, and proportion of each age that breeds in any given year...

  20. Demography of a harvested population of wolves (Canis lupus) in west-central Alberta, Canada

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Webb, N.F; Allen, J.R; Merrill, E.H

    2011-01-01

    Wolves ( Canis lupus L., 1758) are subject to liberal public harvests throughout most of their range in North America, yet detailed information on populations where sport harvest is the primary source of mortality are limited...

  1. Survival on the Border: A Population Model to Evaluate Management Options for Norway's Wolves Canis lupus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Joseph Bull; Erlend B. Nilsen; Atle Mysterud; E. J. Milner-Gulland

    2009-01-01

    We present an individual-based model of the Norwegian wolf Canis lupus population, which is used to evaluate the effectiveness of current and potential management policies in fulfilling the Norwegian...

  2. SEROLOGIC DETECTION OF EHRLICHIA CANIS AND EHRLICHIA CHAFFENSIS IN STAFF OF VETERINARY CLINICS IN LIMA

    OpenAIRE

    Paulino R., Analí; Laboratorio de Patología Clínica y Biología Molecular, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima-Perú.; Li E., Olga; Laboratorio de Patología Clínica y Biología Molecular, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima-Perú.; Hoyos S., Luis; Laboratorio de Patología Clínica y Biología Molecular, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú.; Suárez A., Francisco; Laboratorio de Medicina Veterinaria Preventiva, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima.; Díaz C., Diego; Clínica de Animales Menores, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to detect seropositivity against Ehrlichia canis and Ehrlichia chaffeensis in staff of veterinary clinics and in persons that had contact with dogs affected by canine ehrlichosis using the indirect immunofluorescence test. Ninety serum samples were used, 55 men and 35 women. Results indicated 23.3% of seropositivity to E. canis and 20.0% to E. chaffeensis, without statistical differences due to gender. El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar la pres...

  3. Behavioral changes in Rattus norvegicus coinfected by Toxocara canis and Toxoplasma gondii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maisa Leite de Queiroz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Using an elevated plus maze apparatus and an activity cage, behavioral changes in Rattus norvegicus concomitantly infected by Toxocara canis and Toxoplasma gondii were studied, during a period of 120 days. Rats infected by Toxocara canis or Toxoplasma gondii showed significant behavioral changes; however, in the group coinfected by both parasites a behavioral pattern similar to that found in the group not infected was observed thirty days after infection, suggesting the occurrence of modulation in the behavioral response.

  4. ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF LAPACHOL, β-LAPACHONE AND ITS DERIVATIVES AGAINST Toxocara canis LARVAE

    OpenAIRE

    MATA-SANTOS, Taís; PINTO, Nitza França; Hilton Antônio MATA-SANTOS; DE MOURA, Kelly Gallan; Carneiro, Paula Fernandes; CARVALHO, Tatiane dos Santos; DEL RIO, Karina Pena; PINTO, Maria do Carmo Freire Ribeiro; MARTINS, Lourdes Rodrigues; Juliana Montelli FENALTI; da Silva, Pedro Eduardo Almeida; Scaini, Carlos James

    2015-01-01

    Anthelmintics used for intestinal helminthiasis treatment are generally effective; however, their effectiveness in tissue parasitosis (i.e. visceral toxocariasis) is moderate. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of lapachol, β-lapachone and phenazines in relation to the viability of Toxocara canis larvae. A concentration of 2 mg/mL (in duplicate) of the compounds was tested using microculture plates containing Toxocara canis larvae in an RPMI-1640 environment, incubate...

  5. Toxocara Canis IgG Seropositivity in Patients with Chronic Urticaria

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    Mehmet Burak-Selek

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to investigate IgG antibody levels specific to Toxocara canis (T. canis, a parasite which subsists in dog’s intestine, on serum samples obtained from patients with chronic urticaria (CU to evaluate effective risk in CU etiopathogenesis.In this study, 73 patients diagnosed with CU and 109 healthy individuals as control group, were included. Various factors such as sex, age, education and income, daily hand washing habits, history of dog owning and soil eating were questioned in patient anamnesis. T. canis IgG antibodies were detected using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA kit prepared with T. canis larval excretory-secretory antigens. Positive results were confirmed with western blot (WB WB test.We found T. canis IgG positivity in 17.8% (n=13 of patients (n=73 with CU. But we did not observe any T. canis IgG positivity in healthy controls (n=109. Low molecular weight bands (24-35 kDa were observed in 11 samples in WB analyses while two of the samples were weakly positive. It is revealed that dog owning history increases T. canis seropositivity12.9 times while insufficient daily hand washing habit (less than six times a day increasesseropositivity 20.7 times. Our study showed that T. canis may trigger CU since we found17.8% seropositivity in 73 patients with CU and none in 109 healthy individuals.Moreover, various socio-demographic characteristics have been shown to affect T. canisseropositivity in patients with CU. 

  6. Evidence for unapparent Brucella canis infections among adults with occupational exposure to dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, W S; Lucero, N E; Brower, A; Heil, G L; Gray, G C

    2014-11-01

    Human serological assays designed to detect brucellosis will miss infections caused by Brucella canis, and low levels of periodic bacteremia limit diagnosis by blood culture. Recent B. canis outbreaks in dogs and concomitant illnesses in caretakers suggest that unapparent human infections may be occurring. With more than a quarter of a million persons in occupations involving dogs, and nearly 80 million dog owners in the United States, this pathogen is an under-recognized human health threat. To investigate occupational exposure to B. canis, we adapted a commercial canine serological assay and present the first controlled seroepidemiological study of human B. canis infections in recent years. 306 adults with occupational exposure to dogs and 101 non-matched, non-canine-exposed subjects were enrolled. Antibodies were detected using the canine D-Tec(®) CB rapid slide agglutination test (RSAT) kit with a secondary 2-mercaptoethanol (ME)-RSAT. Results were validated on a blinded subset of sera with an additional RSAT and indirect enzyme-linked immunoassay at the National Administration of Laboratories and Health Institutes (ANLIS) in Argentina. Seroprevalence ranged from 10.8% (RSAT) to 3.6% (ME-RSAT) among canine-exposed subjects. Kennel employees were more likely to test RSAT seropositive compared with other canine exposures (OR = 2.7; 95% CI, 1.3-5.8); however, low seroprevalence limited meaningful occupational risk factor analyses. Two seropositive participants reported experiencing symptoms consistent with brucellosis and having exposure to B. canis-infected dogs; however, temporality of symptom onset with reported exposure could not be determined. D-Tec(®) CB results had substantial agreement with ANLIS assays (Cohen's kappa = 0.60-0.68). These data add to a growing body of literature suggesting that people occupationally exposed to dogs may be at risk of unapparent B. canis infection. It seems prudent to consider B. canis as an occupational public health

  7. Brucella canis Is an Intracellular Pathogen That Induces a Lower Proinflammatory Response than Smooth Zoonotic Counterparts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacón-Díaz, Carlos; Altamirano-Silva, Pamela; González-Espinoza, Gabriela; Medina, María-Concepción; Alfaro-Alarcón, Alejandro; Bouza-Mora, Laura; Jiménez-Rojas, César; Wong, Melissa; Barquero-Calvo, Elías; Rojas, Norman; Guzmán-Verri, Caterina

    2015-01-01

    Canine brucellosis caused by Brucella canis is a disease of dogs and a zoonotic risk. B. canis harbors most of the virulence determinants defined for the genus, but its pathogenic strategy remains unclear since it has not been demonstrated that this natural rough bacterium is an intracellular pathogen. Studies of B. canis outbreaks in kennel facilities indicated that infected dogs displaying clinical signs did not present hematological alterations. A virulent B. canis strain isolated from those outbreaks readily replicated in different organs of mice for a protracted period. However, the levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and IL-12 in serum were close to background levels. Furthermore, B. canis induced lower levels of gamma interferon, less inflammation of the spleen, and a reduced number of granulomas in the liver in mice than did B. abortus. When the interaction of B. canis with cells was studied ex vivo, two patterns were observed, a predominant scattered cell-associated pattern of nonviable bacteria and an infrequent intracellular replicative pattern of viable bacteria in a perinuclear location. The second pattern, responsible for the increase in intracellular multiplication, was dependent on the type IV secretion system VirB and was seen only if the inoculum used for cell infections was in early exponential phase. Intracellular replicative B. canis followed an intracellular trafficking route undistinguishable from that of B. abortus. Although B. canis induces a lower proinflammatory response and has a stealthier replication cycle, it still displays the pathogenic properties of the genus and the ability to persist in infected organs based on the ability to multiply intracellularly. PMID:26438796

  8. Two new species of South American freshwater crayfish genus Parastacus Huxley, 1879 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Parastacidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Felipe Bezerra; Buckup, Ludwig; Gomes, Kelly Martinez; Araujo, Paula Beatriz

    2016-08-30

    Two new species of Parastacus Huxley, 1879 are described from material collected in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil: Parastacus fluviatilis sp. nov. from highland streams and Parastacus caeruleodactylus sp. nov. from wetlands. Parastacus fluviatilis sp. nov. is distinguished mainly by large chelipeds with dense setae cover on the cutting edge of fingers, telson subtriangular with two lateral blunt spines and strongly concave ventral surface of lateral process of thoracic sternites 6 and 7. Parastacus caeruleodactylus sp. nov. is distinguished mainly by blue cheliped fingers and a large gap between them, reduced abdomen, dorsal and ventral margins of dactylus, propodus and carpus of second pair of pereiopods with tufts of long setae and mid-dorsal carina of exopod of uropods unarmed. According to IUCN Red List criteria both species are considered endangered. Habitat characterization and a method for defining the shape of second abdominal pleura are also provided.

  9. Development and validation of PCR-based assays for diagnosis of American cutaneous leishmaniasis and identification of the parasite species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graça, Grazielle Cardoso da; Volpini, Angela Cristina; Romero, Gustavo Adolfo Sierra; Oliveira Neto, Manoel Paes de; Hueb, Marcia; Porrozzi, Renato; Boité, Mariana Côrtes; Cupolillo, Elisa

    2012-08-01

    In this study, PCR assays targeting different Leishmania heat-shock protein 70 gene (hsp70) regions, producing fragments ranging in size from 230-390 bp were developed and evaluated to determine their potential as a tool for the specific molecular diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). A total of 70 Leishmania strains were analysed, including seven reference strains (RS) and 63 previously typed strains. Analysis of the RS indicated a specific region of 234 bp in the hsp70 gene as a valid target that was highly sensitive for detection of Leishmania species DNA with capacity of distinguishing all analyzed species, after polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). This PCR assay was compared with other PCR targets used for the molecular diagnosis of leishmaniasis: hsp70 (1400-bp region), internal transcribed spacer (ITS)1 and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6pd). A good agreement among the methods was observed concerning the Leishmania species identification. Moreover, to evaluate the potential for molecular diagnosis, we compared the PCR targets hsp70-234 bp, ITS1, G6pd and mkDNA using a panel of 99 DNA samples from tissue fragments collected from patients with confirmed CL. Both PCR-hsp70-234 bp and PCR-ITS1 detected Leishmania DNA in more than 70% of the samples. However, using hsp70-234 bp PCR-RFLP, identification of all of the Leishmania species associated with CL in Brazil can be achieved employing a simpler and cheaper electrophoresis protocol.

  10. Development and validation of PCR-based assays for diagnosis of American cutaneous leishmaniasis and identificatio nof the parasite species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazielle Cardoso da Graça

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, PCR assays targeting different Leishmania heat-shock protein 70 gene (hsp70 regions, producing fragments ranging in size from 230-390 bp were developed and evaluated to determine their potential as a tool for the specific molecular diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL. A total of 70 Leishmania strains were analysed, including seven reference strains (RS and 63 previously typed strains. Analysis of the RS indicated a specific region of 234 bp in the hsp70 gene as a valid target that was highly sensitive for detection of Leishmania species DNA with capacity of distinguishing all analyzed species, after polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorfism (PCR-RFLP. This PCR assay was compared with other PCR targets used for the molecular diagnosis of leishmaniasis: hsp70 (1400-bp region, internal transcribed spacer (ITS1 and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6pd. A good agreement among the methods was observed concerning the Leishmania species identification. Moreover, to evaluate the potential for molecular diagnosis, we compared the PCR targets hsp70-234 bp, ITS1, G6pd and mkDNA using a panel of 99 DNA samples from tissue fragments collected from patients with confirmed CL. Both PCR-hsp70-234 bp and PCR-ITS1 detected Leishmania DNA in more than 70% of the samples. However, using hsp70-234 bp PCR-RFLP, identification of all of the Leishmania species associated with CL in Brazil can be achieved employing a simpler and cheaper electrophoresis protocol.

  11. Experimental infection and co-infection of dogs with Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis: hematologic, serologic and molecular findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diniz PPVP

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rhipicephalus sanguineus is a ubiquitous tick responsible for transmitting Ehrlichia canis and most likely Anaplasma platys to dogs, as either single or co-infections. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of either simultaneous or sequential experimental infections with E. canis and A. platys on hematological and serological parameters, duration of infection, and efficacy of doxycycline therapy in dogs infected with one or both organisms. Six dogs per group were either uninfected, A. platys infected, E. canis infected, A. platys and E. canis co-infected, A. platys infected and E. canis challenged or E. canis infected and A. platys challenged at day 112 post-infection (PI. Doxycycline treatment was initiated at 211 days PI, followed by dexamethasone immunosuppression beginning 410 days PI. Results Initially, transient decreases in hematocrit occurred in all groups infected with E. canis, but the mean hematocrit was significantly lower in the A. platys and E. canis co-infected group. All dogs except the controls developed marked thrombocytopenia after initial infection followed by gradually increased platelet counts by 112 days PI in groups with the single infections, while platelet counts remained significantly lower in the A. platys and E. canis co-infected group. Both sequential and simultaneous infections of A. platys and E. canis produced an enhanced humoral immune response to A. platys when compared to infection with A. platys alone. Likewise, co-infection with E. canis and A. platys resulted in a more persistent A. platys infection compared to dogs infected with A. platys only, but nearly all A. platys infected dogs became A. platys PCR negative prior to doxycycline treatment. E. canis infected dogs, whether single or co-infected, remained thrombocytopenic and E. canis PCR positive in blood for 420 days. When treated with doxycycline, all E. canis infected dogs became E. canis PCR negative and the

  12. Rediscovery of the Central American Colubrid snake, Sibon argus, with comments on related species from the region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, J.M.; McDiarmid, R.W.

    1992-01-01

    Sibon argus Cope, 1875, long known only from the holotype, is redescribed based on material from Costa Rica and Panama. It differs from the only other member of the genus having an ocellate dorsal pattern (S. longifrenis) in its attenuate habitus, enlarged blunt head, protuberant eyes, and high segmental counts (ventrals 181-201, subcaudals 112-121, total segmental counts 294-312). Sibon longifrenis of Atlantic slope Costa Rica and western Panama (ventrals 151-173, subcaudals 82-103, total segmental counts 231-275) is also redescribed. These species differ from all other Sibon in having an ocellate pattern and an enlarged penultimate supralabial bordering the orbit. The allied species, S. annulatus (Costa Rica and Panama) and S. dimidiatus (Mexico to southwestern Costa Rica), are shown to be distinct from S. argus and S. longifenis in scalation and coloration. Although allopatric, S. annulatus and S. dimidiatus differ from one another most strikingly in adult coloration, postmental character states, and ventral counts (x = 175.8 in annulatus and 193.6 in dimidiatus), and are regarded as valid species. Sibon annulatus occurs sympatrically with S. argus in Panama and with S. longifrenis in Costa Rica. Although S. argus and S. longifrenis occur in the same general area on the Atlantic slope of Costa Rica, they have not yet been taken at the same locality.

  13. Morphofunctional structure of the lingual papillae in three species of South American Camelids: Alpaca, guanaco, and llama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdoğan, Serkan; Villar Arias, Silvia; Pérez, William

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the anatomical and functional characteristics of the lingual papilla among the Camelidae. For this purpose, tongues of alpaca, guanaco, and llama were used. Numerous long and thin filiform papillae were located in the median groove and none were detected on the rest of the dorsal surface of the lingual apex in alpaca. Secondary papillae originated from the base of some filiform papillae on the ventral surface of alpaca tongue. The bases of some filiform papillae of the lateral surface of the lingual apex were inserted into conspicuous grooves in guanaco and tips of filiform papillae on the dorsal surface of the lingual body were ended by bifurcated apex. On the dorsal surface of the lingual apex of llama, there were no filiform papillae but there were numerous filiform papillae on both the lateral margins of the ventral surface of the lingual apex. Fungiform papillae were distributed randomly on dorsal lingual surface and ventral margins of the tongues of all camelid species. Lenticular papillae were located on the lingual torus and varied in size and topographical distribution for each species. Circumvallate papillae had irregular surfaces in llama and alpaca, and smooth surface in guanaco. In conclusion, llama and alpaca tongues were more similar to each other, and tongues of all camelid species displayed more similarities to those of Bactrian and dromedary camels in comparison with other herbivores and ruminants.

  14. Molecular Diagnosis of Ehrlichia canis in Dogs and Ticks Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) in Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pat-Nah, Henry; Rodriguez-Vivas, Roger Ivan; Bolio-Gonzalez, Manuel Emilio; Villegas-Perez, Sandra Luz; Reyes-Novelo, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Ehrlichia canis is the etiological agent behind canine monocytic ehrlichiosis, and the tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille) is its main vector. Blood smear and nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques were used to identify E. canis infection in dogs and R. sanguineus, and explore factors possibly associated with infection in dogs in Yucatan, Mexico. Blood samples were taken and ticks R. sanguineus collected from 50 dogs (10 house dogs and 40 in an animal control center). Data were collected on dog age, sex, body condition, and signs associated with platelet deficiencies (epistaxis). Blood smears were analyzed to identify E. canis morulae and generate platelet counts. Nested PCR analysis was done on blood samples and 200 ticks. A χ(2) test was done to identify factors associated with the E. canis infection in the tested dogs. The overall prevalence for infection, as determined by PCR, was 36% (18 out of 50). All positive dogs were from samples collected from the animal shelter, representing prevalence, for this sampling site, of 45% (18 out of 40). Morulae in monocytes were identified in only 4% of samples. Dog origin (i.e. animal control center) was the only variable associated with E. canis infection (P canis infection is present in both dogs and the brown dog ticks R. sanguineus in Yucatan, Mexico.

  15. Molecular detection of Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys in dogs in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasta, Camila Serina; dos Santos, Andrea Pires; Messick, Joanne Belle; Oliveira, Simone Tostes; Biondo, Alexander Welker; Vieira, Rafael Felipe da Costa; Dalmolin, Magnus Larruscaim; González, Félix Hilario Diaz

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the occurrence of Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis infection in dogs in Porto Alegre, Southern Brazil; and to investigate their association with hematological abnormalities. Serum samples from 196 dogs were first tested using dot-ELISA for antibodies against Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia canis. Peripheral blood samples from 199 dogs were subjected to 16S rRNA nested PCR (nPCR) for A. platys and E. canis, followed by DNA sequencing to ensure pathogen identity. A total of 19/196 samples (9.69%) were positive for Anaplasma spp. using ELISA and 28/199 (14.07%) samples were positive for A. platys by nested PCR. All the dog samples were negative for E. canis, both in anti-E. canis antibody tests and in nested PCR. There were no significant differences in hematological parameters between A. platys-PCR positive and negative dogs and Anaplasma spp. serologically positive dogs, except for basophil counts, which were higher in nPCR-positive dogs. This is the first report showing A. platys presence in dogs in Southern Brazil. In conclusion, hematological parameters may not be sufficient to diagnose A. platys infection in dogs in Southern Brazil, probably due either to low pathogenicity or to chronic infection. On the other hand, E. canis may either have very low occurrence or be absent in dogs in Porto Alegre.

  16. Novel genotype of Ehrlichia canis detected in samples of human blood bank donors in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouza-Mora, Laura; Dolz, Gaby; Solórzano-Morales, Antony; Romero-Zuñiga, Juan José; Salazar-Sánchez, Lizbeth; Labruna, Marcelo B; Aguiar, Daniel M

    2017-01-01

    This study focuses on the detection and identification of DNA and antibodies to Ehrlichia spp. in samples of blood bank donors in Costa Rica using molecular and serological techniques. Presence of Ehrlichia canis was determined in 10 (3.6%) out of 280 blood samples using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the ehrlichial dsb conserved gene. Analysis of the ehrlichial trp36 polymorphic gene in these 10 samples revealed substantial polymorphism among the E. canis genotypes, including divergent tandem repeat sequences. Nucleotide sequences of dsb and trp36 amplicons revealed a novel genotype of E. canis in blood bank donors from Costa Rica. Indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) detected antibodies in 35 (35%) of 100 serum samples evaluated. Thirty samples showed low endpoint titers (64-256) to E. canis, whereas five sera yielded high endpoint titers (1024-8192); these five samples were also E. canis-PCR positive. These findings represent the first report of the presence of E. canis in humans in Central America.

  17. The occurrence of Dirofilaria immitis, Borrelia burgdorferi, Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma phagocytophium in dogs in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Z; Yu, D; Mao, J; Zhang, Z; Yu, J

    2012-06-01

    A survey of the occurrence of Dirofilaria immitis, Borrelia burgdorferi, Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma phagocytophium in dogs was undertaken in the People's Republic of China between October 2008 and October 2009. A total of 600 blood samples were taken from dogs in four cities in China: 300 in Beijing, 150 in Shenzhen, 30 in Shanghai and 120 in Zhengzhou. All samples were tested for the heartworm antigen and antibodies of canine B. burgdorferi, E. canis and A. phagocytophium by using the canine SNAP® 4Dx® test kit. The occurrence of D. immitis, B. burgdorferi, E. canis and A. phagocytophium was 1.17% (7/600), 0.17% (1/600), 2.17% (13/600) and 0.5% (3/600), respectively. In Shenzhen city 2% (3/150), 8.67% (13/150) and 2% (3/150) of samples were positive for D. immitis, E. canis and A. phagocytophium, respectively. The occurrence of heartworm antigen was 0.33% (1/300) in Beijing, 2.00% (3/150) in Shenzhen, 3.33% (1/30) in Shanghai and 1.67% (2/120) in Zhengzhou. We found E. canis and A. phagocytophium only at one site, Shenzhen, while the only occurrence of B. burgdorferi was at Beijing. In conclusion, the dog population in China is at potential risk for D. immitis, B. burgdorferi, E. canis and A. phagocytophium infection, the risk being especially high in southern China.

  18. Occurrence of different strains of Babesia canis in dogs in eastern Poland

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    Łyp Paweł

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to carry out a genetic analysis of Babesia canis isolates detected in dogs in eastern Poland and to study the correlation of the protozoa variant with a specific geographical region. Material and Methods: PCR was used to identify strains of B. canis from naturally infected animals (240 dogs from four provinces: Mazowieckie, Lublin, Podlasie, and Podkarpacie by amplifying and sequencing a fragment of the 18S rRNA gene. Results: Sequencing the PCR products led to the identification of four variants of B. canis. Two previously described protozoa variants (18S rRNA-A and 18S rRNA-B were observed in all provinces. Additionally, in the Mazowieckie and Lublin provinces a B. canis variant which contributed to the development of acute or atypical babesiosis was observed. The fourth variant of B. canis was detected only in dogs from the Lublin province, and the course of the disease was subclinical in all dogs infected with this variant. Conclusion: These results indicate the appearance of a new fourth B. canis genotype in Poland and confirm that it is still necessary to study the relationships between the genetic structure of protozoa, geographical distribution of the parasites, and clinical course of the disease.

  19. The Carbohydrate assimilation pattern in Iranian typical and atypical strains of Microsporum Canis

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    Zaini F

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available The values of fourteen carbohydrates assimilation patterns were investigated for typical and atypical strains of Microsporum canis. Thiry eight strains of typical and twenty two strains of atypical Microsporum canis, Microsporum canis NCPF 352 and one Microsporum distortum were included in this study. Statistical analysis of the results indicated that despite limited variations within the pattern of carbohydrate utilization, no correlation. The results also revealed that erythritol and trehalose were best utilized for sporulation by the typical and atypical strains of Microsporum canis. Production of obundant macroconidia, microconidia and chlamydoconidia by use of erythritol and trehalose suggested that these two carbohydrates were effective in production of fluffly appearance in colonies examined. The Microsporum canis NCPF 352 strongly utilized glucose, mannitol and melibiose in addition to the two above-mentioned carbohydrates. Weak erythritol assimilation was observed by Microsporum distortum.Carbohydrate utilization pattern is unable to differentiate typical and atypical strains of Microsporum canis. But it could be regarded as a valuable aid for identification of Microsporum distortum as well as marker in epidemiological investigations.

  20. [Toxocara canis eggs as bait for soil fungus in a subtropical city].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojanich, María Viviana; Sarmiento, María Mercedes; Giusiano, Gustavo; Mangiaterra, Magdalena; Basualdo, Juan Ángel

    2015-01-01

    The use of different isolation techniques allows the recovery of fungi based on their ability to use selective substrates. The sprinkle method is a technique for the recovery of nematophagous fungi in the soil. These fungi are natural predators of nematodes and are widely distributed in nature. To detect possible fungi with nematophagous ability in the soil of city parks in Corrientes (Argentina). The soil samples were taken from an area of ground between two trees and to no more than 2cm deep. The isolation was performed according to the sprinkle method with Toxocara canis eggs as bait. Eighteen soil samples were collected, and 6 genera and 8 species of fungi were isolated. The sprinkle method, simple and efficient, has the advantage of using a small amount of untreated soil for the isolation of fungi that can grow on the eggs of geohelminths. The genera Bipolaris, Fusarium, Purpureocillium, Curvularia, Phoma and Scytalidium were isolated in this study. No other studies describing the interaction between the genera Curvularia, Phoma and Scytalidium with nematode eggs have been found in the literature, thus more studies are required to determine what is their real action on these eggs. Copyright © 2014 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Serum biochemistry of captive and free-ranging gray wolves (Canis lupus)

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    Constable, Peter; Hinchcliff, Ken; Demma, Nick; Callahan, Margaret; Dale, B.W.; Fox, Kevin; Adams, Layne G.; Wack, Ray; Kramer, Lynn

    1998-01-01

    Normal serum biochemistry values are frequently obtained from studies of captive sedentary (zoo) or free-ranging (wild) animals. It is frequently assumed that values from these two populations are directly referable to each other. We tested this assumption using 20 captive gray wolves (Canis lupus) in Minnesota, USA, and 11 free-ranging gray wolves in Alaska, USA. Free-ranging wolves had significantly (P<0.05) lower sodium, chloride, and creatine concentrations and significantly higher potassium and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) concentrations; BUN to creatine ratios; and alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and creatine kinase activities relative to captive wolves. Corticosteroid-induced alkaline phosphatase activity (a marker of stress in domestic dogs) was detected in 3 of 11 free-ranging wolves and in 0 of 20 captive wolves (P = 0.037). This study provides clear evidence that serum biochemical differences can exist between captive and free-ranging populations of one species. Accordingly, evaluation of the health status of an animal should incorporate an understanding of the potential confounding effect that nutrition, activity level, and environmental stress could have on the factor(s) being measured.

  2. Duration of immunity in red wolves (Canis rufus) following vaccination with a modified live parvovirus and canine distemper vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kadie; Case, Allison; Woodie, Kathleen; Waddell, William; Reed, Holly H

    2014-09-01

    There is growing information available regarding duration of immunity for core vaccines in both domestic and nondomestic species. Vaccination protocols in nondomestic canids have frequently followed guidelines developed for the domestic dog; however, these protocols can be inappropriate for nondomestic canids such as the African wild dog (Lycaon pictus), leaving some animals susceptible to infectious disease and others at risk for contracting vaccine-induced disease. In this study, red wolves (Canis rufus) were vaccinated against canine distemper virus (CDV) and canine parvovirus (CPV) and vaccination titers were followed annually for 3 yr. One hundred percent of wolves developed and maintained a positive titer to CDV for 3 yr and 96.9% of wolves developed and maintained a positive titer to CPV for 3 yr. Seroconversion for canine adenovirus was sporadic. The results of this study support decreasing the frequency of vaccine administration in the red wolf population to a triennial basis.

  3. Brucella canis: inquéritos sorológico e bacteriológico em população felina Brucella canis: serological and bacteriological surveys in the feline population

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    Maria Helena Matiko Akao Larsson

    1984-02-01

    Full Text Available De 134 soros de felinos domésticos examinados pela prova de soroaglutinação lenta em tubos, 4 (3% foram positivos para Brucella canis, todos com título igual a 100. Não se obteve êxito na tentativa de isolamento de Brucella canis através de hemocultura desses animais.Of the 134 feline sera tested by tube agglutination test, 4 (3% were positive for Brucella canis antibodies, all with titer 100. It was not possible to isolate Brucella canis by blood culture in the case of these animals.

  4. Factors associated with Ehrlichia canis infection in dogs infested with ticks from Huánuco, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Huerto-Medina, Edward; Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria. Universidad Nacional Hermilio Valdizán. Huánuco, Perú.; Dámaso-Mata, Bernardo; Facultad de Medicina. Universidad Nacional Hermilio Valdizán. Huánuco, Perú.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the frequency and associated factors of Ehrlichia canis infection in dogs. Bloodsamples from 150 dogs infested with ticks in 10 veterinary clinics in the city of Huanuco in Peru were collected. The dogswere randomly selected without regard to breed, age or sex. Ehrlichia canis antibodies were detected by chromatographicimmunoassay.51.3% of dogs were infected with Ehrlichia canis. In the multivariate analysis, factors associated with thepresence of Ehrlich...

  5. Transmission of Ehrlichia canis by Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks feeding on dogs and on artificial membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourie, Josephus J; Stanneck, Dorothee; Luus, Herman G; Beugnet, Frederic; Wijnveld, Michiel; Jongejan, Frans

    2013-11-08

    A South African strain of Ehrlichia canis was isolated and used to infect a laboratory-bred Beagle dog. Rhipicephalus sanguineus nymphs, which fed on this dog, moulted to adult ticks which carried infection rates of E. canis between 12% and 19% and were used in a series of in vivo and in vitro experiments. Five groups of 6 dogs were challenged with the infected R. sanguineus ticks, which were removed 24h, 12h, 6h or 3h after the ticks had been released onto the dogs. The animals were monitored for fever and thrombocytopenia and were considered infected if they became serologically positive for E. canis antibodies as well as PCR positive for E. canis DNA. Seven dogs became infected with E. canis in the following groups: Group 1 (24h tick challenge) 1 out of 6; Group 2 (12h) 1 of 6; Group 3 (6h) 2 of 6; Group 4 (6h) 2 of 6 and Group 5 (3h) 1 out of 6. Six of those 7 infected dogs developed fever and a significant thrombocytopenia. One dog did not show any symptoms, but seroconverted and was found PCR positive on several occasions. Five additional dogs were PCR positive on one test sample only but were not considered infected because they did not develop any specific E. canis antibodies. In vitro, R. sanguineus ticks attached and fed on bovine blood through silicone membranes with attachment rates up to 72.5% after 24h increasing to 84.2% at 72 h. The ticks transmitted E. canis as soon as 8h post application as demonstrated by E. canis DNA found in the nutritive blood medium. In conclusion, transmission of E. canis by R. sanguineus ticks starts within a few hours after attachment, which is earlier than previously thought. These findings underpin the need for acaricides to provide either a repellent, an anti-attachment and/or a rapid killing effect against ticks in order to decrease the risk of transmission of E. canis.

  6. Diagnosis of Hepatozoon canis in young dogs by cytology and PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Hepatozoon canis is a widespread tick-borne protozoan affecting dogs. The diagnosis of H. canis infection is usually performed by cytology of blood or buffy coat smears, but this method may not be sensitive. Our study aimed to evaluate the best method to achieve a parasitological diagnosis of H. canis infection in a population of receptive young dogs, previously negative by cytology and exposed to tick infestation for one summer season. Results A total of 73 mongrel dogs and ten beagles younger than 18 months of age, living in an animal shelter in southern Italy where dogs are highly infested by Rhipicephalus sanguineus, were included in this study. In March-April 2009 and in October 2009, blood and bone marrow were sampled from each dog. Blood, buffy coat and bone marrow were examined by cytology only (at the first sampling) and also by PCR for H. canis (second sampling). In March-April 2009, only one dog was positive for H. canis by cytological examination, whereas in October 2009 (after the summer season), the overall incidence of H. canis infection by cytological examinations was 43.9%. Molecular tests carried out on samples taken in October 2009 showed a considerably higher number of dogs positive by PCR (from 27.7% up to 51.2% on skin and buffy coat tissues, respectively), with an overall positivity of 57.8%. All animals, but one, which were positive by cytology were also PCR-positive. PCR on blood or buffy coat detected the highest number of H. canis-positive dogs displaying a sensitivity of 85.7% for both tissues that increased up to 98% when used in parallel. Twenty-six (74.8%) out of the 28 H. canis-positive dogs presented hematological abnormalities, eosinophilia being the commonest alteration observed. Conclusions The results suggest that PCR on buffy coat and blood is the best diagnostic assay for detecting H. canis infection in dogs, although when PCR is not available, cytology on buffy coat should be preferred to blood smear evaluation

  7. Predicting patch occupancy in fragmented landscapes at the rangewide scale for an endangered species: an example of an American warbler

    KAUST Repository

    Collier, Bret A.

    2011-08-25

    AIM: Our objective was to identify the distribution of the endangered golden-cheeked warbler (Setophaga chrysoparia) in fragmented oak-juniper woodlands by applying a geoadditive semiparametric occupancy model to better assist decision-makers in identifying suitable habitat across the species breeding range on which conservation or mitigation activities can be focused and thus prioritize management and conservation planning. LOCATION: Texas, USA. METHODS: We used repeated double-observer detection/non-detection surveys of randomly selected (n = 287) patches of potential habitat to evaluate warbler patch-scale presence across the species breeding range. We used a geoadditive semiparametric occupancy model with remotely sensed habitat metrics (patch size and landscape composition) to predict patch-scale occupancy of golden-cheeked warblers in the fragmented oak-juniper woodlands of central Texas, USA. RESULTS: Our spatially explicit model indicated that golden-cheeked warbler patch occupancy declined from south to north within the breeding range concomitant with reductions in the availability of large habitat patches. We found that 59% of woodland patches, primarily in the northern and central portions of the warbler\\'s range, were predicted to have occupancy probabilities ≤0.10 with only 3% of patches predicted to have occupancy probabilities >0.90. Our model exhibited high prediction accuracy (area under curve = 0.91) when validated using independently collected warbler occurrence data. MAIN CONCLUSIONS: We have identified a distinct spatial occurrence gradient for golden-cheeked warblers as well as a relationship between two measurable landscape characteristics. Because habitat-occupancy relationships were key drivers of our model, our results can be used to identify potential areas where conservation actions supporting habitat mitigation can occur and identify areas where conservation of future potential habitat is possible. Additionally, our results can be

  8. Object permanence in domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) and gray wolves (Canis lupus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiset, Sylvain; Plourde, Vickie

    2013-05-01

    Recent evidence suggests that phylogenetic constraints exerted on dogs by the process of domestication have altered the ability of dogs to represent the physical world and the displacement of objects. In this study, invisible (Experiment 1) and visible (Experiment 2) displacement problems were administered to determine whether domestic dogs' and gray wolves' cognitive capacities to infer the position of a hidden object differ. The results revealed that adult dogs and wolves performed similarly in searching for disappearing objects: Both species succeeded the visible displacement tasks but failed the invisible displacement problems. We conclude that physical cognition for finding hidden objects in domestic dogs and gray wolves is alike and unrelated to the process of domestication.

  9. A review on the Late Villafranchian medium-sized canid Canis arnensis based on the evidence from Poggio Rosso (Tuscany, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolini Lucenti, Saverio; Rook, Lorenzo

    2016-11-01

    The fossil canid material recovered from the Early Pleistocene site of Poggio Rosso offers the opportunity to revise the taxonomical status of the Arno River dog, Canis arnensis. To date, the identification of this species is still a matter of debate due, on the one hand, to the poor state of preservation of the type specimens, and on the other hand to the lack of homogeneous descriptions and a clear diagnosis. The fossils recovered from Poggio Rosso show a good state of preservation with little (if any) plastic deformation, allowing re-evaluation of the dental and cranial characters typical of this species, as well as the proposal, for the first time, of a precise and specific diagnosis. The anatomical and morphometric features of C. arnensis exclude a close taxonomical relationship with the coeval Canis etruscus, suggesting instead a closer affinity to modern canids. The C. arnensis arrived in Italy around 1.9 Ma as the result of a dispersal event, and Poggio Rosso is the first Italian site recording the occurrence of this species. The dispersal of C. arnensis represents the arrival of the first modern canids in Europe and is therefore a significantly important biochronological event in European faunal assemblages.

  10. Different lines of evidence used to delimit species in ticks: A study of the South American populations of Amblyomma parvum (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, Santiago; Gerardi, Monize; Szabó, Matias P J; Mastropaolo, Mariano; Martins, Thiago F; Labruna, Marcelo B; Beati, Lorenza; Estrada-Peña, Agustín; Guglielmone, Alberto A

    2016-10-01

    The goal of this work was to combine different lines of evidence besides that of molecular markers to delimit species in ticks when the molecular data are not totally congruent. Two groups (Argentina, Brazil) of South American populations of Amblyomma parvum were compared to test whether the splitting of these two lineages suggested by genetic analyses is complete. Comparative studies of reproductive compatibility, morphological analyses of fixed characters, and comparison of population distributions in spatially defined ecological niches were performed.The morphological comparisons of both discrete and morphometric characters showed no differences among A. parvum ticks from Argentina and Brazil. The intercrosses and backcrosses showed evidence of pre- and post-zygotic compatibility between the two groups. No significant differences in environmental traits were found which would justify the separation of the records of A. parvum in distinct groups. Although the gene flow between the two groups of populations is limited, the absence of reproductive barriers, the lack of significant morphological differences, and the absence of significant differences in the niche preferences indicate that populations of A. parvum from Argentina and Brazil should be treated as a single species. The speciation conjectures suggested by some analyses of mitochondrial DNA sequences were not supported when different lines of evidences were compared.

  11. First detection and molecular characterization of Ehrlichia canis from dogs in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamani, Joshua; Lee, Chung-Chan; Haruna, Ayuba M; Chung, Ping-Jun; Weka, Paul R; Chung, Yang-Tsung

    2013-02-01

    The present study aimed to detect the presence of Ehrlichia canis in naturally infected dogs in Nigeria, using a combination of PCR and sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene and two genes encoding the tandem repeat-containing proteins (TRPs), TRP19 and TRP36. Out of a total of 100 blood samples collected from domestic dogs presented to veterinary hospitals in Jos, the capital city of Plateau State of Nigeria, 11 were positive in nested PCR for E. canis. Sequencing results for these amplicons showed that all of the 16S rDNA sequences (1623 bp) or the TRP19 coding sequences (414 bp) were identical to each other and had very high similarities (99.3-100%) with those from other E. canis strains accessible in GenBank. The TRP36 gene sequences derived from the 11 Nigerian isolates were identical to each other except for the number of the 27-bp repeat unit in a tandem repeat region, which was found to be 8, 12 or 18. Without considering the number of tandem repeats, these sequences had 100% identity to that of the reported Cameroon 71 isolate, but distinctly differed from those obtained from other geographically distant E. canis strains previously published. A phylogenetic tree of E. canis based on the TRP36 amino acid sequences showed that the Nigerian isolates and the Cameroon 71 isolate fell into a separate clade, indicating that they may share a common ancestor. Overall, this study not only provides the first molecular evidence of E. canis infections in dogs from Nigeria but also highlights the value of the TRP36 gene as a tool to classify E. canis isolates and to elucidate their phylogeographic relationships.

  12. Validation of an ELISA method for the serological diagnosis of canine brucellosis due to Brucella canis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Maria Zoraida Daltro; Vale, Vera; Keid, Lara; Freire, Songeli Menezes; Meyer, Roberto; Portela, Ricardo Wagner; Barrouin-Melo, Stella Maria

    2011-06-01

    In the present study, the validation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for serodiagnosis of canine brucellosis is described. Two different antigenic extracts, obtained by heat or ultrasonic homogenization of microbial antigens from a wild isolate of Brucella canis bacteria, were compared by ELISA and Western blot (WB). A total of 145 canine sera were used to define sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the ELISA as follows: (1) sera from 34 animals with natural B. canis infection, confirmed by blood culture and PCR, as well as 51 sera samples from healthy dogs with negative results by the agar-gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test for canine brucellosis, were used as the control panel for B. canis infection; and (2) to scrutinize the possibility of cross reactions with other common dog infections in the same geographical area in Brazil, 60 sera samples from dogs harboring known infections by Leptospira sp., Ehrlichia canis, canine distemper virus (CDV), Neospora caninum, Babesia canis and Leishmania chagasi (10 in each group) were included in the study. The ELISA using heat soluble bacterial extract (HE-antigen) as antigen showed the best values of sensitivity (91.18%), specificity (100%) and accuracy (96.47%). In the WB analyses, the HE-antigen showed no cross-reactivity with sera from dogs with different infections, while the B. canis sonicate had various protein bands identified by those sera. The performance of the ELISA standardized with the heat soluble B. canis antigen indicates that this assay can be used as a reliable and practical method to confirm infection by this microorganism, as well as a tool for seroepidemiological studies.

  13. Digital gene expression analysis of Microsporum canis exposed to berberine chloride.

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    Chen-Wen Xiao

    Full Text Available Berberine, a natural isoquinoline alkaloid of many medicinal herbs, has an active function against a variety of microbial infections including Microsporum canis (M. canis. However, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. To study the effect of berberine chloride on M. canis infection, a Digital Gene Expression (DGE tag profiling was constructed and a transcriptome analysis of the M. canis cellular responses upon berberine treatment was performed. Illumina/Hisseq sequencing technique was used to generate the data of gene expression profile, and the following enrichment analysis of Gene Ontology (GO and Pathway function were conducted based on the data of transcriptome. The results of DGE showed that there were 8476945, 14256722, 7708575, 5669955, 6565513 and 9303468 tags respectively, which was obtained from M. canis incubated with berberine or control DMSO. 8,783 genes were totally mapped, and 1,890 genes have shown significant changes between the two groups. 1,030 genes were up-regulated and 860 genes were down-regulated (P<0.05 in berberine treated group compared to the control group. Besides, twenty-three GO terms were identified by Gene Ontology functional enrichment analysis, such as calcium-transporting ATPase activity, 2-oxoglutarate metabolic process, valine catabolic process, peroxisome and unfolded protein binding. Pathway significant enrichment analysis indicated 6 signaling pathways that are significant, including steroid biosynthesis, steroid hormone biosynthesis, Parkinson's disease, 2,4-Dichlorobenzoate degradation, and tropane, piperidine and Isoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis. Among these, eleven selected genes were further verified by qRT-PCR. Our findings provide a comprehensive view on the gene expression profile of M. canis upon berberine treatment, and shed light on its complicated effects on M. canis.

  14. Babesia canis and other tick-borne infections in dogs in Central Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welc-Faleciak, Renata; Rodo, Anna; Siński, Edward; Bajer, Anna

    2009-12-23

    Vector-borne infections constitute increasing health problem in dogs worldwide, including sled dogs, dramatically decreasing the fitness of working dogs and even leading to death. In the period 2006-2008 eighty-two blood samples were collected from eight sled dog kennels in Central Poland. The prevalence of four vector-borne infections (Babesia canis, Bartonella sp., Anaplasma/Ehrlichia and Borrelia burgdorferi) was estimated in 82 sled dogs using PCR and nested PCR for diagnosis and the same methods were used to identify the vector-borne pathogens in 26 dogs presenting at veterinary clinics with symptoms of vector-borne diseases. None of four studied vector-borne pathogens was detected in samples originating from veterinary clinics. Among the remaining 82 dogs B. canis infections were confirmed in three dogs undergoing treatment for babesiosis. The DNA of tick-borne pathogens was also found among 22 (27.8%) of the 79 apparently healthy dogs, including 20 cases of B. canis infection (25.3%), one case of B. burgdorferi s.l. infection and one case of Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection. No evidence of Bartonella spp. and Ehrlichia canis infections were found in this set of samples. Sequencing of a Babesia fragment of 18S rDNA amplified from acute (n=5) and asymptomatic (n=5) cases revealed that all isolates were identical to the Babesia canis canis sequence, originally isolated from Dermacentor reticulatus ticks in Poland. A range of factors was shown to affect the distribution of babesiosis in sled dogs. The data are also discussed in respect to the health risk factors generated by asymptomatic B. canis infections and the efficiency of chemoprophylaxis measures taken by sled dog owners.

  15. Critical analysis of vector-borne infections in dogs: Babesia vogeli, Babesia gibsoni, Ehrlichia canis and Hepatozoon canis in Punjab, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singla, Lachhman Das; Sumbria, Deepak; Mandhotra, Ajay; Bal, M S; Kaur, Paramjit

    2016-12-01

    There are few published studies on various vector borne diseases of dogs in India and most depict clinical infection in dogs, diagnosed by observation of the haemopathogens in stained blood smears. This study provides the first report regarding molecular confirmation and ancestral relationship analysis of blood smears positive cases of assorted haemopathogens in Punjab province of India. On blood smear examination, haemopathogens were observed in 124 out of 778 (15.95%, 95% CI: 13.53- 18.68) blood smears. Further polymerase chain reactions (PCR) was used on bloods smear positive cases to validate the results. Out of 778 blood samples, Babesia gibsoni was most common parasite infecting dogs (15.04%, 95% CI: 12.7-17.72), followed by Ehrlichia canis (0.39%, 95% CI: 0.0-1.13), infection of Babesia vogeli and Hepatozoon canis was same (0.26%, 95% CI: 0.0-0.9). Among various risk factors studied (age, sex, season), prevalence of infection was non-significantly higher in 1-2 year of age group (19.88%, 95% CI: 14.45-26.71), regarding sex same prevalence was recorded (15.94%), and chances of infection was highest in pre-monsoon i.e. summer (18.26%, 95% CI: 14.49-22.76). Phylogenetic analysis revealed ancestral background of Ludhiana isolates of B. vogeli, B. gibsoni, H. canis, and E. canis with the isolates of Philippines, Mongolia and Tunisia.

  16. Targets of an invasive species: oviposition preference and larval performance of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) on 14 North American opuntioid cacti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezorek, Heather A; Stiling, Peter D; Carpenter, James E

    2010-12-01

    Cactoblastis cactorum Berg (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), the cactus moth, is a well-known biological control agent of prickly pear cactus (Cactaceae: Opuntia Miller). The arrival of the moth in Florida and its subsequent spread through the southeastern United States poses a threat to opuntioid diversity in North America. Of particular concern are the ecological and economic impacts the moth could have in the southwestern United States and Mexico, where both native and cultivated Opuntia species are important resources. It is unknown which species would best support larval development if the moth were to spread further westward in North America. This study aimed to determine if ovipositing females demonstrate preferences for any of 14 common opuntioids native to or naturalized in Mexico and the southwestern United States; which of these opuntioids best support larval development; and if oviposition preference correlates with larval performance, as predicted by simple adaptive models. Results from a field experiment showed that female moths preferred O. engelmannii Salm-Dyck ex Engelmann variety linguiformis (Griffiths) Parfitt and Pinkava and O. engelmannii variety engelmannii for oviposition. A generalized linear model showed number of cladodes and degree of spininess to be significant predictors of oviposition activity. Results from a no-choice larval survival experiment showed Consolea rubescens (Salm-Dyck ex de Candolle.) Lemaire and O. streptacantha Lemaire to be the best hosts. Epidermal toughness was a significant predictor of most larval fitness parameters. In general, oviposition preference was not correlated with larval performance. A lack of co-evolutionary history between C. cactorum and North American opuntioid species may help explain this disconnect.

  17. Specialization for aggression in sexually dimorphic skeletal morphology in grey wolves (Canis lupus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Jeremy S; Brandt, Ellissa K

    2014-07-01

    Aggressive behaviour is important in the life history of many animals. In grey wolves (Canis lupus), territory defence through direct competition with conspecifics is severe and often lethal. Thus, performance in aggressive encounters may be under strong selection. Additionally, grey wolves frequently kill large dangerous prey species. Because both sexes actively participate in aggressive activities and prey capture, wolves are expected to exhibit a low level of musculoskeletal sexual dimorphism. However, male wolves more often lead in agonistic encounters with conspecifics and must provision the nursing female during the pup-rearing period of the breeding season. These behaviours may select for males that exhibit a higher degree of morphological adaptation associated with aggression and prey capture performance. To test this prediction, we assessed skeletal sexual dimorphism in three subspecies of grey wolves using functional indices reflecting morphological specialization for aggression. As expected, sexual dimorphism in skeletal shape was limited. However, in two of three subspecies, we found sexually dimorphic traits in the skull, forelimbs and hindlimbs that are consistent with the hypothesis that males are more specialized for aggression. These characters may also be associated with selection for improved prey capture performance by males. Thus, the sexually dimorphic functional traits identified by our analysis may be adaptive in the contexts of both natural and sexual selection. Several of these traits may conflict with locomotor economy, indicating the importance of aggression in the life history of male grey wolves. The presence of functional specialization for aggression in a generally monogamous species indicates that sexual dimorphism in specific musculoskeletal traits may be widespread among mammals. © 2014 Anatomical Society.

  18. Antigenic profiling of Yersinia pestis infection in the Wyoming coyote (Canis latrans)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernati, G.; Edwards, W.H.; Rocke, T.E.; Little, S.F.; Andrews, G.P.

    2011-01-01

    Although Yersinia pestis is classified as a "high-virulence" pathogen, some host species are variably susceptible to disease. Coyotes (Canis latrans) exhibit mild, if any, symptoms during infection, but antibody production occurs postinfection. This immune response has been reported to be against the F1 capsule, although little subsequent characterization has been conducted. To further define the nature of coyote humoral immunity to plague, qualitative serology was conducted to assess the antiplague antibody repertoire. Humoral responses to six plasmid-encoded Y. pestis virulence factors were first examined. Of 20 individual immune coyotes, 90% were reactive to at least one other antigen in the panel other than F1. The frequency of reactivity to low calcium response plasmid (pLcr)-encoded Yersinia protein kinase A (YpkA) and Yersinia outer protein D (YopD) was significantly greater than that previously observed in a murine model for plague. Additionally, both V antigen and plasminogen activator were reactive with over half of the serum samples tested. Reactivity to F1 was markedly less frequent in coyotes (35%). Twenty previously tested antibody-negative samples were also examined. While the majority were negative across the panel, 15% were positive for 1-3 non-F1 antigens. In vivo-induced antigen technology employed to identify novel chromosomal genes of Y. pestis that are up-regulated during infection resulted in the identification of five proteins, including a flagellar component (FliP) that was uniquely reactive with the coyote serum compared with immune serum from two other host species. Collectively, these data suggest that humoral immunity to pLcr-encoded antigens and the pesticin plasmid (pPst)-encoded Pla antigen may be relevant to plague resistance in coyotes. The serologic profile of Y. pestis chromosomal antigens up-regulated in vivo specific to C. latrans may provide insight into the differences in the pathogen-host responses during Y. pestis infection.

  19. Retrospective analysis of clinical and laboratory findings in hunting dogs with serologic reactions to tick-borne pathogens (Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi, Babesia canis, Ehrlichia canis, Ricketsia conorii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spasojević-Kosić Ljubica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Seroprevalence of tick-borne infections in endemic areas could be high. In this study, we investigated the seroprevalence of tick-borne pathogens (Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi, Babesia canis, Ehrlichia canis, Rickettsia conorii in hunting dogs, naturally infected with one or more pathogens. Serological test results of the investigated animals were compared to those from clinical examination, as well as from haematological and biochemical analyses. A total of 74.14% dogs were seropositive (R.conorii 44.83%, B. canis 32.76%, B. burgdorferi 25.86%, E. canis 13.79%, A. phagocytophilum 8.47%, with 25.86% of dogs seropositive to two pathogens, 15.52% seropositive to three pathogens, and 1.72% of dogs seropositive to four pathogens. Among all registered clinical signs, only pyrexia (p<0.05 and arrhythmia (p<0.05 were significant in seropositive dogs. There was no significant difference between seropositive and seronegative dogs regarding the majority of haematological and biochemical parameters. Statistically significant difference was registered for particular haematological (number of red blood cells and seroreactivity to B. burgdorferi and biochemical parameters (albumin concentration and seroreactivity to E. canis, and AST and seroreactivity to R. conorii but these values were not clinically significant. The high exposure to tick-borne pathogens suggests that ectoparasitic profilactic treatment is not adequate in examined population of hunting dogs. Clinical finding of pyrexia need to be further investigated and explained etiologically, which means that molecular diagnosis should be used in order to identify larger number of pathogens because of the possibility of coinfection. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31084

  20. Cross-fostering in gray wolves (Canis lupus lupus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharis, Inger; Amundin, Mats

    2015-01-01

    Cross-fostering in canids, with captive-bred pups introduced into endangered wild populations, might aid conservation efforts by increasing genetic diversity and lowering the risk of inbreeding depression. The gray wolf (Canis lupus lupus) population in Scandinavia suffers from severe inbreeding due to a narrow genetic base and geographical isolation. This study aimed at evaluating the method to cross-foster wolf pups from zoo-born to zoo-born litters. The following was assessed: female initial acceptance of foster pups, growth rate in relation to age difference between foster pups and pups in recipient litters and survival over the first 33 weeks. The study included four litters added by two foster pups in each. The age differences between the foster pups and the recipient litters were 2-8 days. After augmentation, all four females accepted the foster pups, demonstrated by her moving the entire litter to a new den site. Growth rate was dependent on the age difference of the pups in the foster litters, with a considerably slower growth rate in the 8 days younger pups. However, these pups later appeared to be at no disadvantage. Foster pups had a higher survival rate than females' pups, however, the causes of death were probably not kin or non-kin related. The results indicate that cross-fostering works in gray wolves and that this might be a plausible way to increase genetic variation in the wild population. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Inbreeding and inbreeding depression in endangered red wolves (Canis rufus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzeski, Kristin E; Rabon, David R; Chamberlain, Michael J; Waits, Lisette P; Taylor, Sabrina S

    2014-09-01

    In natural populations, the expression and severity of inbreeding depression can vary widely across taxa. Describing processes that influence the extent of inbreeding and inbreeding depression aid in our understanding of the evolutionary history of mating systems such as cooperative breeding and nonrandom mate selection. Such findings also help shape wildlife conservation theory because inbreeding depression reduces the viability of small populations. We evaluated the extent of inbreeding and inbreeding depression in a small, re-introduced population of red wolves (Canis rufus) in North Carolina. Since red wolves were first re-introduced in 1987, pedigree inbreeding coefficients (f) increased considerably and almost every wild born wolf was inbred (average f = 0.154 and max f = 0.383). The large inbreeding coefficients were due to both background relatedness associated with few founders and numerous close relative matings. Inbreeding depression was most evident for adult body size and generally absent for direct fitness measures such as reproductive success and survival; no lethal equivalents (LE = 0.00) were detected in juvenile survival. The lack of strong inbreeding depression in direct measures of fitness could be due to a founder effect or because there were no outbred individuals for comparison. Our results highlight the variable expression of inbreeding depression across traits and the need to measure a number of different traits when evaluating inbreeding depression in a wild population. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Where and How Wolves (Canis lupus) Kill Beavers (Castor canadensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gable, Thomas D; Windels, Steve K; Bruggink, John G; Homkes, Austin T

    2016-01-01

    Beavers (Castor canadensis) can be a significant prey item for wolves (Canis lupus) in boreal ecosystems due to their abundance and vulnerability on land. How wolves hunt beavers in these systems is largely unknown, however, because observing predation is challenging. We inferred how wolves hunt beavers by identifying kill sites using clusters of locations from GPS-collared wolves in Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota. We identified 22 sites where wolves from 4 different packs killed beavers. We classified these kill sites into 8 categories based on the beaver-habitat type near which each kill occurred. Seasonal variation existed in types of kill sites as 7 of 12 (58%) kills in the spring occurred at sites below dams and on shorelines, and 8 of 10 (80%) kills in the fall occurred near feeding trails and canals. From these kill sites we deduced that the typical hunting strategy has 3 components: 1) waiting near areas of high beaver use (e.g., feeding trails) until a beaver comes near shore or ashore, 2) using vegetation, the dam, or other habitat features for concealment, and 3) immediately attacking the beaver, or ambushing the beaver by cutting off access to water. By identifying kill sites and inferring hunting behavior we have provided the most complete description available of how and where wolves hunt and kill beavers.

  3. Mating System of Free-Ranging Dogs (Canis familiaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Pal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fourteen females belonging to five groups were selected for the study of mating system in free-ranging domestic dogs (Canis familiaris All the matings occurred between August and December with a peak in late monsoon months (September to November. Both males and females differed in their degree of attractiveness to the opposite sex. The duration of courting association increased with the number of courting males in an association. The females exhibited selectivity by readily permitting some males to mate and avoiding, or even attacking others, if they attempted to mount. Frequency of mounting in courting association increased with the number of males present. There was a positive correlation between the duration of courting association and the frequency of mounting. The young adult males were more likely to copulate successfully than the old adult males. There was a negative correlation between the number of males present in an association and the number of successful copulations. In this study, six types of mating (monogamy, polygyny, promiscuity, polyandry, opportunity and rape were recorded. Mean (±S.E. duration of copulatory ties was 25.65 (±1.43 min. Several natural factors influencing the duration of copulatory ties were identified.

  4. Large dust grains in the wind of VY Canis Majoris

    CERN Document Server

    Scicluna, P; Wesson, R; Blommaert, J A D L; Kasper, M; Voshchinnikov, N V; Wolf, S

    2015-01-01

    Massive stars live short lives, losing large amounts of mass through their stellar wind. Their mass is a key factor determining how and when they explode as supernovae, enriching the interstellar medium with heavy elements and dust. During the red supergiant phase, mass-loss rates increase prodigiously, but the driving mechanism has proven elusive. Here we present high-contrast optical polarimetric-imaging observations of the extreme red supergiant VY Canis Majoris and its clumpy, dusty, mass-loss envelope, using the new extreme-adaptive-optics instrument SPHERE at the VLT. These observations allow us to make the first direct and unambiguous detection of submicron dust grains in the ejecta; we derive an average grain radius $\\sim$ 0.5 $\\mu$m, 50 times larger than in the diffuse ISM, large enough to receive significant radiation pressure by photon scattering. We find evidence for varying grain sizes throughout the ejecta, highlighting the dynamical nature of the envelope. Grains with 0.5 $\\mu$m sizes are likel...

  5. Non-Invasive Cytology Brush PCR for the Diagnosis and Causative Species Identification of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba, Milena; Adaui, Vanessa; Arevalo, Jorge; Low, Donald E.; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Boggild, Andrea K.

    2012-01-01

    Background Traditional methods of detecting Leishmania from cutaneous lesions involve invasive diagnostic procedures, such as scrapings, which cause discomfort, require technical expertise, and carry risks of invasive procedures. We compared the performance of 2 novel, molecular-based non-invasive methods for the diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). Methods Consecutive patients presenting to the Leishmania Clinic at the Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia were enrolled. PCR was performed on filter paper lesion impressions (FPLIs), cytology brushes, and lancets for detection of Leishmania DNA. Smears from lesion scrapings and leishmanin skin test were also performed. Outcome measures were sensitivity and specificity. Composite reference standard was any 2 of 5 tests positive. Species identification was performed by PCR assays of positive specimens. Results Ninety patients with 129 lesions were enrolled, 117 of which fulfilled reference criteria for a diagnosis of CL. Of these 117 lesions, 113 were positive by PCR of lancets used for lesion scrapings versus 116 by PCR of FPLIs (p = 0.930) or 116 by PCR of cytology brushes (p = 0.930). Sensitivity and specificity of PCR on lancets were 96.6% [95% CI 93.3–99.9%] and 100%, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity of FPLI PCR were 99.1% [95% CI 97.4–100%] and 100%, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity of cytology brush PCR were 99.1% [95% CI 97.4–100%] and 100%, respectively. Giemsa-stained lesion smear and leishmanin skin test had inferior sensitivities at 47.9% [95% CI 38.9–57.0%] and 82.3% [95% CI 73.9–90.7%], respectively, compared to PCR of invasive or non-invasive specimens (p<0.001). Conclusions Cytology brush PCR constitutes a sensitive and specific alternative to traditional diagnostic assays performed on invasive specimens such as lesion scrapings. It performs comparatively to non-invasive FPLI PCR. This novel, rapid, and well-tolerated method has the potential for widespread use in

  6. Synovial fluid cytology in experimental acute canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (Ehrlichia canis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodorou, Konstantina; Leontides, Leonidas; Siarkou, Victoria I; Petanides, Theodoros; Tsafas, Konstantinos; Harrus, Shimon; Mylonakis, Mathios E

    2015-05-15

    Evidence-based information of a cause-and-effect relationship between Ehrlichia canis infection and polyarthritis in naturally- or experimentally-infected dogs is currently lacking. The aim of this prospective study was to investigate whether synovial fluid cytological evidence of arthritis could be documented in dogs with acute monocytic ehrlichiosis. Direct synovial fluid cytology smears from eight Beagle dogs experimentally infected with E. canis were examined prior to, and on 21, 35 and 63 days post-inoculation. The cytological variables assessed included cellularity, percentages of mononuclear cells and neutrophils, macrophage reactivity and evidence of E. canis morulae. The median cellularity and percentages of mononuclear cells and neutrophils prior to inoculation did not differ when compared to post-inoculation cytological evaluation. Increased cellularity, E. canis morulae or cytological evidence of arthritis or macrophage reactivity were not observed throughout the course of the study. In the present study, no cytological evidence of arthritis was found in dogs with experimental acute canine monocytic ehrlichiosis, suggesting that E. canis infection should be considered a rather uncommon cause of arthritis in dogs.

  7. Occurrence of Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys in household dogs from northern Parana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Gislaine Cristina Ferreira; Benitez, Aline do Nascimento; Girotto, Aline; Taroda, Alessandra; Vidotto, Marilda Carlos; Garcia, João Luis; de Freitas, Julio Cesar; Arlington, Selwyn Headley; Vidotto, Odilon

    2012-01-01

    Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis caused primarily by Ehrlichia canis and canine thrombocytic anaplasmosis induced by Anaplasma platys are important emerging zoonotic tick-borne diseases of dogs. There is evidence that these pathogens can also affect humans. This study evaluated the presence of E. canis and A. platys in blood samples collected from 256 domiciled dogs in the municipality of Jataizinho, located in north region of the State of Parana, Brazil, by PCR assay. The occurrence of E. canis and A. platys was 16.4% (42/256) and 19.4% (49/256), respectively; while 5.47% (14/256) of the dogs evaluated were co-infected by these two organisms. The presence of E. canis and A. platys was not significantly associated with the variables evaluated (sex, age, outdoor access, and presence of ticks during blood collection). Infection of dogs by E. canis was associated with anemia and thrombocytopenia, while infection induced by A. platys was related only to thrombocytopenia. Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis and canine thrombocytic anaplasmosis should be included in the differential diagnoses when these hematological alterations are observed during routine laboratory evaluation of dogs.

  8. First record of autochthonous canine ehrlichiosis caused by Ehrlichia canis in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morar, Doru; Dărăbuş, Gheorghe; Imre, Mirela; Ilie, Marius Stelian; Imre, Kálmán

    2015-06-01

    This case study describes the first genetically confirmed and clinically manifested autochthonous Ehrlichia canis infection in a 9-year-old female mixed-breed dog from Romania. Health screening of the dog included clinical examination, evaluation of stained peripheral blood smear and hematologic variables, as well as serologic testing and molecular analysis. Clinical signs included fever, apathy, dehydration, pale mucous membranes, and weakness. The microscopic examination of the blood smear and immunologic assays for Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and E canis antibodies, and for Dirofilaria immitis antigen yielded negative results. Hematologic abnormalities included moderate nonregenerative anemia, leucopenia with neutropenia, and moderate thrombocytopenia. The biochemical abnormalities identified were hypoalbuminemia, and mildly increased serum enzyme activities of AST and ALT. In addition, increased urea and creatinine levels associated with low urine specific gravity and proteinuria were also present. Nested PCR amplification of the partial E canis 16S rRNA gene demonstrated the presence of this rickettsial pathogen in the dog's blood, which subsequently was confirmed through sequencing based on the 100% homology with GenBank deposited E canis isolates. After specific treatment with doxycycline (10 mg/kg, orally, SID) for one month, the proteinuria, and hematologic and serum biochemical abnormalities with the exception of mild azotemia resolved. This report supports the geographical expansion of canine ehrlichiosis caused by E canis in nonendemic regions of Europe.

  9. Urinary creatinine to serum creatinine ratio and renal failure index in dogs infected with Babesia canis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zygner, Wojciech; Gójska-Zygner, Olga; Wesołowska, Agnieszka; Wędrychowicz, Halina

    2013-09-01

    Urinary creatinine to serum creatinine (UCr/SCr) ratio and renal failure index (RFI) are useful indices of renal damage. Both UCr/SCr ratio and RFI are used in differentiation between prerenal azotaemia and acute tubular necrosis. In this work the authors calculated the UCr/SCr ratio and RFI in dogs infected with Babesia canis and the values of these indices in azotaemic dogs infected with the parasite. The results of this study showed significantly lower UCr/SCr ratio in dogs infected with B. canis than in healthy dogs. Moreover, in azotaemic dogs infected with B. canis the UCr/SCr ratio was significantly lower and the RFI was significantly higher than in non-azotaemic dogs infected with B. canis. The calculated correlation between RFI and duration of the disease before diagnosis and treatment was high, positive and statistically significant (r = 0.89, p < 0.001). The results of this study showed that during the course of canine babesiosis caused by B. canis in Poland acute tubular necrosis may develop.

  10. Trichoderma virens as a biocontrol of Toxocara canis: In vivo evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Maia Filho, Fernando; da Silva Fonseca, Anelise Oliveira; Persici, Beatriz Maroneze; de Souza Silveira, Julia; Braga, Caroline Quintana; Pötter, Luciana; de Avila Botton, Sônia; Brayer Pereira, Daniela Isabel

    Microorganisms have been widely studied as biological control agents of parasites of medical and veterinary importance. Coprophagous arthropods, bacteria and fungi are among the different organisms evaluated as potential biological control agents. Nematophagous fungi capture and digest the free forms of nematodes in the soil. Due to its zoonotic potential, Toxocara canis have been brought to the attention of researchers. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the administration of embryonated T. canis eggs exposed to the nematophagous fungus Trichoderma virens reduces parasite infection in experimental animals. Embryonated T. canis eggs were exposed to T. virens mycelium for 15 days at 25°C. Subsequently, 100 fungus-exposed eggs were orally administered to 20 Swiss mice. As a positive control, another 20 mice received 100 embryonated eggs that were not exposed to the fungus. After 48h, the animals were killed, and heart, lungs and liver were harvested for the recovery of larvae. The organs of the animals that received embryonated T. canis eggs exposed to the fungus showed a lower mean larval recovery when compared with the animals that received embryonated eggs without fungus exposure (p<0.05). The exposure of T. canis eggs to T. virens reduces the experimental infection, demonstrating the potential of this nematophagous fungus as a biocontrol agent. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Micología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Babesia canis vogeli infection in dogs and ticks in the semiarid region of Pernambuco, Brazil

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    Andreina C. Araujo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:This study aimed to report the prevalence of Babesia canis vogeli in dogs and ticks in the urban and rural areas of Petrolina, Pernambuco. Serum and peripheral blood samples of 404 dogs were tested by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA and by blood smears, respectively. The presence of tick infestation was evaluated, and some specimens were submitted to DNA amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The presence of antibodies anti-B. canis vogeli was determinate in 57.9% (234/404 of dogs. The direct detection of Babesia spp was obtained in 0.5% (2/404 dogs by visualization of intraerythrocytic forms. Infestation by Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato was observed in 54.5% (220/404 of dogs in both urban and rural areas. DNA of Babesia canis vogeli were obtained by PCR in 6% individual (3/50 and 8.7% of pool of ticks (7/80. The risk factors for the presence of anti-B. canis vogeli antibodies, as determined through the application of logistic regression models (P<0.05, were the following: medium breed size variables (P<0.001; contact with areas of forest (P=0.021; and access on the street (P=0.046. This study describes, for the first time, the confirmation of infection of B. canis vogeli in dogs and ticks in the semiarid region of Pernambuco, Brazil.

  12. Números cromosómicos en especies sudamericanas andinas de Lupinus (Leguminosae CHROMOSOME NUMBERS IN SOUTH AMERICAN ANDEAN SPECIES OF LUPINUS (LEGUMINOSAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maristela Fiess Camillo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Se determinó el número cromosómico en 22 poblaciones de 16 especies del género Lupinus
    L. de la región Andina. Todos presentaron 2n=48 cromosomas con excepción de L.
    bandelierae C. P. Smith (2n=36. Estos son los primeros recuentos cromosómicos para L.
    arvensis Benth., L. chilensis C. P. Smith, L. chlorolepsis C. P. Smith, L. chrysanthus Ulbr., L.
    lindleyanus Agardh, L. mantaroensis C. P. Smith, L. piurensis C. P. Smith, L. proculaustrinus
    C. P. Smith, L. prostratus Agardh, L. pulvinaris Ulbr., L. pycnostachys C. P. Smith, L.
    smithianus Kunth y L. tominensis Wedd. Este trabajo también confirmó recuentos
    cromosómicos para L. mutabilis Sweet, L. semperflorens Benth. (2n=48 y L. bandelierae
    (2n=36. Los resultados claramente confirman que, citológicamente, la mayoría de los Lupinus
    andinos son más próximos de las especies norteamericanas qué a las del este de América del
    Sur
    Chromosome numbers were determined in 22 accessions of 16 Lupinus L. species from the
    Andean region. All had 2n=48 chromosomes, except L. bandelierae C. P. Smith (2n=36.
    These are the first chromosome countings for L. arvensis Benth., L. chilensis C. P. Smith, L.
    chlorolepsis C. P. Smith, L. chrysanthus Ulbr., L. lindleyanus Agardh, L. mantaroensis C. P.
    Smith, L. piurensis C. P. Smith, L. proculaustrinus C. P. Smith, L. prostratus Agardh, L.
    pulvinaris Ulbr., L. pycnostachys C. P. Smith, L. smithianus Kunth and L. tominensis Wedd.
    The present study also confirmed literature data on chromosome numbers of L. mutabilis
    Sweet, L. semperflorens Benth. (2n=48 and L. bandelierae (2n=36. The results clearly
    confirm that, cytologically, the vast majority of Andean species are closer to the North
    American than to the eastern South American taxa

  13. The efficacy of Advantix® to prevent transmission of Ehrlichia canis to dogs by Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourie, Josephus Johannes; Luus, Herman Gerhardus; Stanneck, Dorothee; Jongejan, Frans

    2013-01-01

    The capacity of a topical combination of imidacloprid and permethrin (Advantix(®)) to prevent transmission of Ehrlichia canis was studied in two groups of six dogs. One group served as controls, whereas the other group was treated. All dogs were exposed to E. canis-infected Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks on Days 7, 14, 21 and Day 28 post acaricidal treatment. The adult R. sanguineus ticks were released into the individual kennels of the dogs to simulate natural tick exposure. In situ tick counts were conducted on Day 9, 16 and 23 and any remaining ticks were counted and removed on Day 30. The efficacy of the acaricidal treatment against R. sanguineus ranged between 96.1% and 98.9% at 48 h post-application and lasted up to 4 weeks. Four out of six control dogs became infected with E. canis, as demonstrated by the presence of specific E. canis antibodies and the detection by PCR of E. canis DNA in blood samples. These dogs became thrombocytopenic and displayed fever and were consecutively rescue-treated by doxycycline. None of the six treated dogs became infected with E. canis, as confirmed by the lack of specific antibodies and absence of E. canis DNA in blood samples. Advantix(®) prevented transmission of E. canis and provided protection against monocytic ehrlichiosis for 4 weeks post acaricidal treatment.

  14. 78 FR 35663 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Removing the Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) From the List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-13

    ... and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Removing the Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) From the List of Endangered... Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Removing the Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) From the List of... group hunters, normally living in packs of 7 or less, but sometimes attaining pack sizes of 20 or more...

  15. 78 FR 54614 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Removing the Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) From the List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 RIN 1018-AY00 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants... Protections for the Mexican Wolf (Canis lupus baileyi) by Listing It as Endangered AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... endangered status for the Mexican wolf by listing it as a subspecies (Canis lupus baileyi), and we...

  16. Chromosomal evolution of the Canidae. I. Species with high diploid numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne, R K; Nash, W G; O'Brien, S J

    1987-01-01

    The Giemsa banding patterns of seven canid species, including the grey wolf (Canis lupus), the maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), the bush dog (Speothos venaticus), the crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous), the grey fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), the bat-eared fox (Otocyon megalotis), and the fennec (Fennecus zerda), are presented and compared. Relative to other members of Canidae, these species have high diploid complements (2n greater than 64) consisting of largely acrocentric chromosomes. They show a considerable degree of chromosome homoeology, but relative to the grey wolf, each species is either missing chromosomes or has unique chromosomal additions and rearrangements. Differences in chromosome morphology among the seven species were used to reconstruct their phylogenetic history. The results suggest that the South American canids are closely related to each other and are derived from a wolf-like progenitor. The fennec and the bat-eared fox seem to be recent derivatives of a lineage that branched early from the wolf-like canids and which also includes the grey fox.

  17. Linking nursery nutritional status and water availability post-planting under intense summer drought: the case of a South American Mediterranean tree species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovalle JF

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Drought-avoidance traits of South American Mediterranean tree species are crucial attributes to be considered in nursery practices aimed at improving the performance of seedlings exposed to intense summer drought in dryland reforestation projects. In this study, we determined the relation between nursery fertilization doses and the development of drought-avoidance traits of the soapbark tree Quillaja saponaria (Mol. under contrasting watering regimes following post-planting. Seedlings were grown for 6 months using four increasing doses of controlled-release fertilizer (0, 3, 6, and 12 g L-1 of Basacote® Plus 15:8:12. After outplanting, half of the seedlings were watered weekly and the other half were left unwatered for one growing season from September 2011 to May 2012. Seedlings were periodically measured for morphological and ecophysiological parameters, and carefully harvested for root measurements at the end of the study. Our results showed that high fertilization doses produced significantly larger seedlings in the nursery with high nitrogen and phosphorous foliar concentrations, which resulted in a significantly higher shoot dry mass after outplanting. Unfertilized seedlings grown with water application had a significantly higher stem diameter, root dry mass and lower shoot/root compared with seedlings with high fertilizer dose. These results highlight the ability of this species to maintain drought-avoidance traits, such as high xylem water potential and chlorophyll fluorescence, during the first 3 months of the 7-month drought period. High nutrient loading, although resulting in improved shoot productivity after outplanting, did not make a significant contribution to the early development of drought-avoidance traits in Q. saponaria.

  18. Comparison of the protection effectiveness of acrylic polyurethane coatings containing bark extracts on three heat-treated North American wood species: Surface degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocaefe, Duygu; Saha, Sudeshna

    2012-04-01

    High temperature heat-treatment of wood is a very valuable technique which improves many properties (biological durability, dimensional stability, thermal insulating characteristics) of natural wood. Also, it changes the natural color of wood to a very attractive dark brown color. Unfortunately, this color is not stable if left unprotected in external environment and turns to gray or white depending on the wood species. To overcome this problem, acrylic polyurethane coatings are applied on heat-treated wood to delay surface degradations (color change, loss of gloss, and chemical modifications) during aging. The acrylic polyurethane coatings which have high resistance against aging are further modified by adding bark extracts and/or lignin stabilizer to enhance their effectiveness in preventing the wood aging behavior. The aging characteristic of this coating is compared with acrylic polyurethane combined with commercially available organic UV stabilizers. In this study, their performance on three heat-treated North American wood species (jack pine, quaking aspen and white birch) are compared under accelerated aging conditions. Both the color change data and visual assessment indicate improvement in protective characteristic of acrylic polyurethane when bark extracts and lignin stabilizer are used in place of commercially available UV stabilizer. The results showed that although acrylic polyurethane with bark extracts and lignin stabilizer was more efficient compared to acrylic polyurethane with organic UV stabilizers in protecting heat-treated jack pine, it failed to protect heat-treated aspen and birch effectively after 672 h of accelerated aging. This degradation was not due to the coating adhesion loss or coating degradation during accelerated aging; rather, it was due to the significant degradation of heat-treated aspen and birch surface beneath this coating. The XPS results revealed formation of carbonyl photoproducts after aging on the coated surfaces and

  19. Brucella canis infection in dogs attended in veterinary clinics from patos, Paraíba state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annielle Regina Fonseca Fernandes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available To determine the frequency of anti-Brucella canis antibodies in dogs attended in veterinary clinics from Patos, Paraíba State, Brazil, as well as to identify risk factors and to isolate and identify the agent, 193 dogs were used. Agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGID was used to detect B. canis antibodies in sera. Isolation of B. canis was carried out in blood and bone marrow from seropositive animals. Six animals tested seropositive in AGID, resulting in a frequency of 3.11%. B. canis was isolated from bone marrow of one seropositive animal, with confirmation by PCR. Lack of cleaning of the dog's environment was identified as risk factor (odds ratio = 7.91. This is the first report of isolation of B. canis in dogs from the Northeast region of Brazil.

  20. Isolation of viable Neospora caninum from brains of wild gray wolves (Canis lupus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Jenkins, M C; Ferreira, L R; Choudhary, S; Verma, S K; Kwok, O C H; Fetterer, R; Butler, E; Carstensen, M

    2014-03-17

    Neospora caninum is a common cause of abortion in cattle worldwide. Canids, including the dog and the dingo (Canis familiaris), the coyote (Canis latrans), and the gray wolf (Canis lupus) are its definitive hosts that can excrete environmentally resistant oocysts in the environment, but also can act as intermediate hosts, harboring tissue stages of the parasite. In an attempt to isolate viable N. caninum from tissues of naturally infected wolves, brain and heart tissue from 109 wolves from Minnesota were bioassayed in mice. Viable N. caninum (NcWolfMn1, NcWolfMn2) was isolated from the brains of two wolves by bioassays in interferon gamma gene knockout mice. DNA obtained from culture-derived N. caninum tachyzoites of the two isolates were analyzed by N. caninum-specific Nc5 polymerase chain reaction and confirmed diagnosis. This is the first report of isolation of N. caninum from tissues of any wild canid host.

  1. Stability of CaNi5Hx stored at temperatures between 20 and 150 degrees C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Oluf; Møller, T.S.; Bjerrum, Niels

    2002-01-01

    The stability of CaNi5Hx stored at different temperatures was studied as a function of time. In general AB(5) metal hydrides are known to be metastable with a tendency to disproportionate at elevated temperatures. In the present study samples of CaNi5 were stored in the hydrided state (as CaNi5......Hsimilar to4.7) at temperatures between 20 and 150degreesC. After different periods of time, up to 120 days, the hydrogen absorption capacity was measured electrochemically. Significant capacity decays were observed at temperatures of 40degreesC and higher. The capacity decay with storage time tended...... to stop at a level of 147 mAh/g corresponding to 1.83 hydrogen atoms per calcium atom. X-ray diffraction revealed that the CaCu5 structure was preserved after the degradation. A mathematical model for the decay is proposed....

  2. Effect of fenbendazole on Toxocara canis larvae in tissues of infected dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P

    1979-05-01

    The effect of fenbendazole therapy was studied in six dogs fed 10,000 embryonated Toxocara canis eggs. At 47 days after they were fed T canis, four dogs were given fenbendazole in two divided doses totaling 50 mg/kg of body weight each day for 14 days. Two infected dogs were not given fenbendazole. All dogs were necropsied at the end of treatment and the foci were counted in the lungs; their skeletal muscles were digested in 1% trypsin for the recovery of larvae. The T canis larvae were not recovered from the skeletal muscle of the four infected dogs treated with fenbendazole; 15 and 42 larvae/100 g of skeletal muscle were recovered from the two nonmedicated infeected dogs. The number of grossly visible foci on surfaces of lungs in treated dogs was markedly less than in the nonmedicated infected dogs. The results indicate that fenbendazole might be effective in preventing prenatal infection in dogs.

  3. Comparative Experimental Infection Study in Dogs with Ehrlichia canis, E. chaffeensis, Anaplasma platys and A. phagocytophilum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Arathy D S; Cheng, Chuanmin; Ganta, Chanran K; Sanderson, Michael W; Alleman, Arthur R; Munderloh, Ulrike G; Ganta, Roman R

    2016-01-01

    Dogs acquire infections with the Anaplasmataceae family pathogens, E. canis, E. chaffeensis, E. ewingii, A. platys and A. phagocytophilum mostly during summer months when ticks are actively feeding on animals. These pathogens are also identified as causing diseases in people. Despite the long history of tick-borne diseases in dogs, much remains to be defined pertaining to the clinical and pathological outcomes of infections with these pathogens. In the current study, we performed experimental infections in dogs with E. canis, E. chaffeensis, A. platys and A. phagocytophilum. Animals were monitored for 42 days to evaluate infection-specific clinical, hematological and pathological differences. All four pathogens caused systemic persistent infections detectible throughout the 6 weeks of infection assessment. Fever was frequently detected in animals infected with E. canis, E. chaffeensis, and A. platys, but not in dogs infected with A. phagocytophilum. Hematological differences were evident in all four infected groups, although significant overlap existed between the groups. A marked reduction in packed cell volume that correlated with reduced erythrocytes and hemoglobin was observed only in E. canis infected animals. A decline in platelet numbers was common with E. canis, A. platys and A. phagocytophilum infections. Histopathological lesions in lung, liver and spleen were observed in all four groups of infected dogs; infection with E. canis had the highest pathological scores, followed by E. chaffeensis, then A. platys and A. phagocytophilum. All four pathogens induced IgG responses starting on day 7 post infection, which was predominantly comprised of IgG2 subclass antibodies. This is the first detailed investigation comparing the infection progression and host responses in dogs after inoculation with four pathogens belonging to the Anaplasmataceae family. The study revealed a significant overlap in clinical, hematological and pathological changes resulting from the

  4. Comparative Experimental Infection Study in Dogs with Ehrlichia canis, E. chaffeensis, Anaplasma platys and A. phagocytophilum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arathy D S Nair

    Full Text Available Dogs acquire infections with the Anaplasmataceae family pathogens, E. canis, E. chaffeensis, E. ewingii, A. platys and A. phagocytophilum mostly during summer months when ticks are actively feeding on animals. These pathogens are also identified as causing diseases in people. Despite the long history of tick-borne diseases in dogs, much remains to be defined pertaining to the clinical and pathological outcomes of infections with these pathogens. In the current study, we performed experimental infections in dogs with E. canis, E. chaffeensis, A. platys and A. phagocytophilum. Animals were monitored for 42 days to evaluate infection-specific clinical, hematological and pathological differences. All four pathogens caused systemic persistent infections detectible throughout the 6 weeks of infection assessment. Fever was frequently detected in animals infected with E. canis, E. chaffeensis, and A. platys, but not in dogs infected with A. phagocytophilum. Hematological differences were evident in all four infected groups, although significant overlap existed between the groups. A marked reduction in packed cell volume that correlated with reduced erythrocytes and hemoglobin was observed only in E. canis infected animals. A decline in platelet numbers was common with E. canis, A. platys and A. phagocytophilum infections. Histopathological lesions in lung, liver and spleen were observed in all four groups of infected dogs; infection with E. canis had the highest pathological scores, followed by E. chaffeensis, then A. platys and A. phagocytophilum. All four pathogens induced IgG responses starting on day 7 post infection, which was predominantly comprised of IgG2 subclass antibodies. This is the first detailed investigation comparing the infection progression and host responses in dogs after inoculation with four pathogens belonging to the Anaplasmataceae family. The study revealed a significant overlap in clinical, hematological and pathological

  5. Toxocara canis, Trichinella spiralis and Taenia solium helminthozoonoses: seroprevalence among selected populations in north India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, B B; Sharma, R; Gill, J P S

    2015-09-01

    Helminthozoonoses are being considered as a research priority in India and many other tropical and subtropical countries. Taenia solium and Trichinella spiralis are emerging public health and food safety issues in the country and the developing world. The asymptomatic Ta. solium carriers act as important risk for neurocysticercosis, leading to adult onset epilepsy in the country. Human toxocariasis is another common zoonosis which occurs due to larvae of Toxocara canis or T. cati. The current study was planned to obtain baseline seropositivity data for Ta. solium, To. canis and Tr. spiralis antibodies among selected populations in Punjab province of northern India. In the present study, 122 human subjects belonging to selected occupations viz. farmers and veterinary practitioners were screened using the RIDASCREEN(®) Ta. solium IgG, RIDASCREEN(®) Toxocara IgG and RIDASCREEN(®) Trichinella IgG enzyme immunoassays for the qualitative determination of IgG antibodies against Ta. solium, Tr. spiralis and To. canis, respectively in human serum. The seropositivity of To. canis, Tr. spiralis and Ta. solium infections were found to be 22.13, 5.73 and 11.47 %, respectively in human serum samples. The relative risk of being infected for To. canis, Tr. spiralis and Ta. solium infections was found to be 1.91 (95 % CI 0.786-4.669), 2.61 (95 % CI 0.3258-20.94) and 1.596 (95 % CI 0.427-5.3893) times high respectively in farmers when compared to veterinary practitioners. The present study indicates that exposure to To. canis and Ta. solium is not uncommon among farmers and veterinary practitioners in this part of the country. These results provided evidence of Tr. spiralis among selected human populations in the country and demand more research related to trichinellosis in their respective animal and human hosts.

  6. North-South differentiation and a region of high diversity in European wolves (Canis lupus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stronen, Astrid V; Jędrzejewska, Bogumiła; Pertoldi, Cino; Demontis, Ditte; Randi, Ettore; Niedziałkowska, Magdalena; Pilot, Małgorzata; Sidorovich, Vadim E; Dykyy, Ihor; Kusak, Josip; Tsingarska, Elena; Kojola, Ilpo; Karamanlidis, Alexandros A; Ornicans, Aivars; Lobkov, Vladimir A; Dumenko, Vitalii; Czarnomska, Sylwia D

    2013-01-01

    European wolves (Canis lupus) show population genetic structure in the absence of geographic barriers, and across relatively short distances for this highly mobile species. Additional information on the location of and divergence between population clusters is required, particularly because wolves are currently recolonizing parts of Europe. We evaluated genetic structure in 177 wolves from 11 countries using over 67K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci. The results supported previous findings of an isolated Italian population with lower genetic diversity than that observed across other areas of Europe. Wolves from the remaining countries were primarily structured in a north-south axis, with Croatia, Bulgaria, and Greece (Dinaric-Balkan) differentiated from northcentral wolves that included individuals from Finland, Latvia, Belarus, Poland and Russia. Carpathian Mountain wolves in central Europe had genotypes intermediate between those identified in northcentral Europe and the Dinaric-Balkan cluster. Overall, individual genotypes from northcentral Europe suggested high levels of admixture. We observed high diversity within Belarus, with wolves from western and northern Belarus representing the two most differentiated groups within northcentral Europe. Our results support the presence of at least three major clusters (Italy, Carpathians, Dinaric-Balkan) in southern and central Europe. Individuals from Croatia also appeared differentiated from wolves in Greece and Bulgaria. Expansion from glacial refugia, adaptation to local environments, and human-related factors such as landscape fragmentation and frequent killing of wolves in some areas may have contributed to the observed patterns. Our findings can help inform conservation management of these apex predators and the ecosystems of which they are part.

  7. Patterns of Exposure of Iberian Wolves (Canis lupus) to Canine Viruses in Human-Dominated Landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millán, Javier; López-Bao, José Vicente; García, Emilio J; Oleaga, Álvaro; Llaneza, Luis; Palacios, Vicente; de la Torre, Ana; Rodríguez, Alejandro; Dubovi, Edward J; Esperón, Fernando

    2016-03-01

    Wildlife inhabiting human-dominated landscapes is at risk of pathogen spill-over from domestic species. With the aim of gaining knowledge in the dynamics of viral infections in Iberian wolves (Canis lupus) living in anthropized landscapes of northern Spain, we analysed between 2010 and 2013 the samples of 54 wolves by serology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for exposure to four pathogenic canine viruses: canine distemper virus (CDV), canine parvovirus-2 (CPV), canine adenovirus 1 and 2 (CAV-1 and CAV-2) and canine herpesvirus. Overall, 76% of the studied wolves presented evidence of exposure to CPV (96% by HI, 66% by PCR) and 75% to CAV (75% by virus neutralization (VN), 76% by PCR, of which 70% CAV-1 and 6% CAV-2). This represents the first detection of CAV-2 infection in a wild carnivore. CPV/CAV-1 co-infection occurred in 51% of the wolves. The probability of wolf exposure to CPV was positively and significantly correlated with farm density in a buffer zone around the place where the wolf was found, indicating that rural dogs might be the origin of CPV infecting wolves. CPV and CAV-1 appear to be enzootic in the Iberian wolf population, which is supported by the absence of seasonal and inter-annual variations in the proportion of positive samples detected. However, while CPV may depend on periodical introductions by dogs, CAV-1 may be maintained within the wolf population. All wolves were negative for exposure to CDV (by VN and PCR) and CHV (by PCR). The absence of acquired immunity against CDV in this population may predispose it to an elevated rate of mortality in the event of a distemper spill-over via dogs.

  8. A SURVEY OF DISEASES IN CAPTIVE RED WOLVES (CANIS RUFUS), 1997-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeley, Kathryn E; Garner, Michael M; Waddell, William T; Wolf, Karen N

    2016-03-01

    Conservation efforts to preserve the red wolf (Canis rufus) have been in progress since the 1970s through the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Red Wolf Recovery Program and the Association of Zoos and Aquarium's Red Wolf Species Survival Plan. An ongoing part of this project has been to monitor mortality trends, particularly to look for potential genetic conditions resulting from inbreeding given the small founding population of only 14 individuals. An initial survey was conducted in the 1990s but a comprehensive assessment of the population has not been done since then. This retrospective review evaluates mortality in the population from 1997 to 2012 through analysis of gross necropsy and histology records provided by cooperating institutions that housed red wolves during the time period of interest. Of the 378 red wolves that died during this 15-yr period, 259 animals had gross necropsy records, histology records, or both that were evaluated. The major causes of neonatal death were parental trauma, stillbirth, or pneumonia. Overall, juveniles had very low mortality rates with only 12 wolves aged 30 days to 6 mo dying during the study period. The most common cause of death within the adult populations was neoplasia, with epithelial neoplasms, carcinomas, and adenocarcinomas being the most common types reported. Gastrointestinal disease was the second most common cause of death, particularly gastric dilation and volvulus, inflammatory bowel disease, and gastrointestinal perforations. These findings are in stark contrast to causes of mortality in the wild population, which are primarily due to human-related activities such as vehicular trauma, gunshot, or poisoning. Overall, the captive population has few health problems, but an increase in inflammatory bowel disease in particular warrants further investigation.

  9. The effect of oxytocin on biological motion perception in dogs (Canis familiaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, Krisztina; Kis, Anna; Kanizsár, Orsolya; Hernádi, Anna; Gácsi, Márta; Topál, József

    2016-05-01

    Recent studies have shown that the neuropeptide oxytocin is involved in the regulation of several complex human social behaviours. There is, however, little research on the effect of oxytocin on basic mechanisms underlying human sociality, such as the perception of biological motion. In the present study, we investigated the effect of oxytocin on biological motion perception in dogs (Canis familiaris), a species adapted to the human social environment and thus widely used to model many aspects of human social behaviour. In a within-subjects design, dogs (N = 39), after having received either oxytocin or placebo treatment, were presented with 2D projection of a moving point-light human figure and the inverted and scrambled version of the same movie. Heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) were measured as physiological responses, and behavioural response was evaluated by observing dogs' looking time. Subjects were also rated on the personality traits of Neuroticism and Agreeableness by their owners. As expected, placebo-pretreated (control) dogs showed a spontaneous preference for the biological motion pattern; however, there was no such preference after oxytocin pretreatment. Furthermore, following the oxytocin pretreatment female subjects looked more at the moving point-light figure than males. The individual variations along the dimensions of Agreeableness and Neuroticism also modulated dogs' behaviour. Furthermore, HR and HRV measures were affected by oxytocin treatment and in turn played a role in subjects' looking behaviour. We discuss how these findings contribute to our understanding of the neurohormonal regulatory mechanisms of human (and non-human) social skills.

  10. North-South differentiation and a region of high diversity in European wolves (Canis lupus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid V Stronen

    Full Text Available European wolves (Canis lupus show population genetic structure in the absence of geographic barriers, and across relatively short distances for this highly mobile species. Additional information on the location of and divergence between population clusters is required, particularly because wolves are currently recolonizing parts of Europe. We evaluated genetic structure in 177 wolves from 11 countries using over 67K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP loci. The results supported previous findings of an isolated Italian population with lower genetic diversity than that observed across other areas of Europe. Wolves from the remaining countries were primarily structured in a north-south axis, with Croatia, Bulgaria, and Greece (Dinaric-Balkan differentiated from northcentral wolves that included individuals from Finland, Latvia, Belarus, Poland and Russia. Carpathian Mountain wolves in central Europe had genotypes intermediate between those identified in northcentral Europe and the Dinaric-Balkan cluster. Overall, individual genotypes from northcentral Europe suggested high levels of admixture. We observed high diversity within Belarus, with wolves from western and northern Belarus representing the two most differentiated groups within northcentral Europe. Our results support the presence of at least three major clusters (Italy, Carpathians, Dinaric-Balkan in southern and central Europe. Individuals from Croatia also appeared differentiated from wolves in Greece and Bulgaria. Expansion from glacial refugia, adaptation to local environments, and human-related factors such as landscape fragmentation and frequent killing of wolves in some areas may have contributed to the observed patterns. Our findings can help inform conservation management of these apex predators and the ecosystems of which they are part.

  11. The High Amplitude delta Scuti Star AD Canis Minoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsen, R. A.; Napier-Munn, T.

    2016-12-01

    The high amplitude delta Scuti star AD Canis Minoris was studied by photoelectric photometry (PEP) during one night in in February 2011 and by digital single lens reflex (DSLR) photometry during seven nights in January and February 2016. Nine light curve peaks were captured, eight of them by DSLR photometry. A review of the literature enabled us to tabulate 109 times of maximum since 1959, to which we added 9 times of maximum from our data, thus creating the largest dataset to date for this star. Assuming a linear ephemeris, the period of AD CMi was calculated to be 0.122974511 (+/- 0.000000004) d, almost identical to that quoted in earlier literature. We constructed an observed minus computed (O-C) diagram which exhibited a quasi-sinusoidal shape, and fitted a weighted model characterised by combined quadratic and trigonometric functions. The fit indicates that the shape of the O-C diagram is attributable to the effects of a slow increase in the pulsation period of AD CMi at a constant rate, and the light time effect of a binary pair, confirming the results from previous authors, and updating most of the coefficients of the equation for the fitted model. The values of all of the coefficients in the function are statistically significant. The rate of increase in the pulsation period of AD CMi was calculated from the entire dataset to be dP/dt = 6.17 (+/- 0.75) x 10-9 d yr-1 or dP/Pdt = 5.01 (+/- 0.61) x 10-8 yr-1.

  12. Serological evidence of exposure to Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Central Italian healthy domestic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebani, Valentina V; Bertelloni, Fabrizio

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the present survey was to estimate the seroprevalences of Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in the Central Italian feline population. Serum samples of 560 healthy domestic cats were examined by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFAT), considering an antibody titre of 1:40 as cut-off. Seroprevalences of 6.4% and 4.5% were found for E. canis and A. phagocytophilum, respectively. Adult, mixed breed cats showed seroprevalences higher than younger and purebred subjects, whereas no differences were observed in relation to gender and living conditions.

  13. Prevalence of rare Eimeria canis from the non descript dogs of Mathura, Uttar Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikrant Sudan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A wide range of parasites particularly helminths, arthropods and protozoans affect dogs but when it comes to intestinal coccidians, their number is scanty.  Eimeria canis is perhaps the most under reported parasite of dogs. The present paper deals with the prevalence of E.canis in dogs with no possible history of deworming from Mathura region, India.  Finally, the morphology of the parasite, present scenario, reasons for under reporting vis-à-vis future projections are being described.

  14. ELEVATED TRANS-MAMMARY TRANSMISSION OF Toxocara canis LARVAE IN BALB/c MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula de Lima Telmo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Toxocariasis is a widespread zoonosis and is considered an important worldwide public health problem. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of trans-mammary Toxocara canis infection in newborn BALB/c mice nursed by females experimentally infected with 1,200 eggs after delivery. After 50 days of age, the presence of larvae in different organs of the offspring was investigated. Trans-mammary infection was confirmed in 73.9% of the mice that had been nursed by infected females. These data show a high trans-mammary transmission of T. canis and confirm the significance of this transmission route in paratenic hosts.

  15. Detection of Ehrlichia canis in Dogs by IFA Test and Dot-ELISA

    OpenAIRE

    ERDEĞER, Jale

    2003-01-01

    Ehrlichia canis is the causative agent of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME). The aim of this study was to detect E. canis antibodies in dogs by the IFA and dot-ELISA techniques. Blood sera from 239 dogs were collected as material. IFA test and dot-ELISA were performed with commercially available test kits. The IFA test was applied according to the procedure in the IFA kit. The Immunocomb test system was used in dot-ELISA. Agreement between these techniques was analysed by the kappa (K) tes...

  16. Uji Efektivitas Beberapa Minyak Atsiri terhadap Pertumbuhan Microsporum canis secara in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bunga Saridewi Nurmansyah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakDermatofitosis merupakan masalah kesehatan masyarakat yang penting di daerah tropis. Minyak atsiri merupakan salah satu potensi alam Indonesia yang diketahui memiliki daya antifungi. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengetahui efektivitas beberapa minyak atsiri (serai wangi, kayu manis dan cengkeh sebagai antijamur dalam mengendalikan pertumbuhan Microsporum canis penyebab dermatofitosis secara in vitro. Penelitian dilakukan di Laboratorium Fitopatologi KP Balittro Laing Solok dari  Februari sampai April 2014. Studi eksperimental ini dilakukan dengan metode pengenceran disusun  dalam Desain Rancang Acak Lengkap dalam Faktorial. Faktor pertama adalah jenis minyak atsiri (daun serai wangi, daun kayu manis, daun cengkeh. Faktor kedua adalah tingkat konsentrasi minyak atsiri (100 ppm, 250 ppm, 500 ppm, 1000 ppm dan 2000 ppm. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa minyak atsiri daun serai wangi, daun kayu manis dan daun sarasah cengkeh efektif dalam menekan pertumbuhan M. canis secara in vitro. Ketiga minyak atsiri pada konsentrasi 500 ppm telah mampu menghambat pertumbuhan M. canis hingga 100%. Minyak atsiri daun sarasah cengkeh memiliki efek antifungi paling tinggi (89,17%, diikuti minyak atsiri daun serai wangi (80,98% dan kayu manis (77,07%.                Kata kunci: minyak atsiri, serai wangi, cengkeh, kayumanis, microsporum canis AbstractDermatophytosis is an important public health problem in tropical areas. Essential oil is one of natural potential from Indonesia has been predicted as antifungal. The objective of this study was to detect effectivity some essential oils such as citronella, cinnamon and clove as antifungal to control the growth of dermatophyte infections caused by Microsporum canis by in vitro . The study was done  in the Laboratory of Phytopathology KP Balitro of Laing Solok from February until April 2014. This is an experimental study with dilution method arranged in Complete Randomized Design in

  17. Ehrlichia canis infection in a dog with no history of travel outside the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, H E; Mugford, A R; Humm, K R; Kellett-Gregory, L M

    2013-08-01

    A two-year-old female neutered Tibetan terrier was referred following a one-month history of lethargy, inappetence and pancytopenia, which had been poorly responsive to immunosuppressive and fluoroquinolone treatment. The dog was diagnosed with pure red cell aplasia and was found to be positive for Ehrlichia canis by both antibody titre measurement and polymerase chain reaction. The dog lived in London and had not travelled outside the UK. The dog was treated with doxycycline, prednisolone and ciclosporin, but died as a result of gastrointestinal tract haemorrhage. To the authors' knowledge, this represents the first reported case of Ehrlichia canis in a dog in the UK with no previous travel history.

  18. Ancylostoma genettae, A. protelesis, A. somaliense: three new species from wild Carnivora in the Somali Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macchioni, G

    1995-12-01

    Ancylostoma braziliense was found in Somalia in Acinonyx jubatus, Canis familiaris, C. mesomelas, Crocuta crocuta, Felis catus, F. libyca, Genetta genetta, Otocyon megalotis, Proteles cristatus; A. caninum in A. jubatus, C. familiaris, C. mesomelas, C. crocuta; A. duodenale in C. crocuta; A. iperodontatum in Lynx caracal; A. paraduodenale in Felis serval; A. tubaeforme in A. jubatus, F. catus, F. libyca; Arthrocephalus gambiense in Ichneumia albicauda; Uncinaria parvibursata in Mellivora capensis. In addition, three new species of Ancylostoma were collected: A. genettae in Genetta genetta, A. protelesis in Proteles cristatus, A. somaliense in Canis mesomelas. These new species are described and illustrated.

  19. Differentiation of Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati based on PCR-RFLP analyses of rDNA-ITS and mitochondrial cox1 and nad1 regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikaeili, Fattaneh; Mathis, Alexander; Deplazes, Peter; Mirhendi, Hossein; Barazesh, Afshin; Ebrahimi, Sepideh; Kia, Eshrat Beigom

    2017-09-26

    The definitive genetic identification of Toxocara species is currently based on PCR/sequencing. The objectives of the present study were to design and conduct an in silico polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method for identification of Toxocara species. In silico analyses using the DNASIS and NEBcutter softwares were performed with rDNA internal transcribed spacers, and mitochondrial cox1 and nad1 sequences obtained in our previous studies along with relevant sequences deposited in GenBank. Consequently, RFLP profiles were designed and all isolates of T. canis and T. cati collected from dogs and cats in different geographical areas of Iran were investigated with the RFLP method using some of the identified suitable enzymes. The findings of in silico analyses predicted that on the cox1 gene only the MboII enzyme is appropriate for PCR-RFLP to reliably distinguish the two species. No suitable enzyme for PCR-RFLP on the nad1 gene was identified that yields the same pattern for all isolates of a species. DNASIS software showed that there are 241 suitable restriction enzymes for the differentiation of T. canis from T. cati based on ITS sequences. RsaI, MvaI and SalI enzymes were selected to evaluate the reliability of the in silico PCR-RFLP. The sizes of restriction fragments obtained by PCR-RFLP of all samples consistently matched the expected RFLP patterns. The ITS sequences are usually conserved and the PCR-RFLP approach targeting the ITS sequence is recommended for the molecular differentiation of Toxocara species and can provide a reliable tool for identification purposes particularly at the larval and egg stages.

  20. Serological cross-reactivity of Trypanosoma cruzi, Ehrlichia canis, Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum and Babesia canis to Leishmania infantum chagasi tests in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Franco Zanette

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the serological cross-reactivity between Leishmania sp. and other canine pathogens. Methods: Positive serum samples for Ehrlichia canis, Babesia canis, Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum and Trypanosoma cruzi were tested using three serological methods enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT and Kalazar Detect™, for canine visceral leishmaniasis. Results: Of the 57 dog samples tested, 24 (42.1% tested positive using one of the three serological methods: 10/57 (17.5% for ELISA, 11/57 (19.3% for IFAT and 3/57 (5.3% for Kalazar Detect™. Conclusions: Our results demonstrated that the presence of other infectious agents may lead to cross-reactivity on leishmaniasis serological tests.

  1. Molecular detection of Anaplasma platys, Ehrlichia canis, Hepatozoon canis and Rickettsia monacensis in dogs from Maio Island of Cape Verde archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauzi, Stefania; Maia, João P; Epis, Sara; Marcos, Ricardo; Pereira, Cristina; Luzzago, Camilla; Santos, Marta; Puente-Payo, Pablo; Giordano, Alessia; Pajoro, Massimo; Sironi, Giuseppe; Faustino, Augusto

    2016-07-01

    Tick-borne diseases are emerging worldwide and have an important zoonotic relevance. Dogs play an important role in the epidemiology of several zoonotic tick-borne pathogens acting as sentinels and/or reservoirs. This study focused on the molecular identification of tick-borne pathogens in blood samples of 153 autochthonous asymptomatic dogs in Maio Island, Cape Verde archipelago. Eighty-four (54.9%) dogs were positive for one or more pathogens. Fifty-five (35.9%) dogs were infected with Hepatozoon canis, 53 (34.6%) with Anaplasma platys, five (3.3%) with Ehrlichia canis and Rickettsia monacensis, an emerging human pathogen, was also identified in a single dog (0.7%). The former three pathogens cause important canine tick-borne diseases that are transmitted or potentially transmitted by Rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l., the only hard tick identified in Cape Verde. Furthermore, Wolbachia spp. was amplified from the blood of one dog. None of the dogs were positive for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Midichloria mitochondrii, Bartonella spp., Babesia spp. or Theileria spp. Fifty-four (35.3%) animals showed single infections and 30 (19.6%) co-infections, with A. platys and H. canis co-infection being the most frequent (28 dogs, 18.3%). The frequency of E. canis infection was statistically different among age groups (P=0.017), being higher among dogs older than 4 years compared to younger dogs. Infection by A. platys was also statistically different among age groups (P=0.031), being higher in dogs younger than 2 years compared to older dogs. The statistical analyses showed no significant association of PCR positivity with gender or location. The frequency of tick-borne pathogens detected in dogs in Maio Island, including R. monacensis, highlights the need to improve diagnosis and control in order to prevent the risk of transmission of these pathogens among dogs and humans living in or travelling to this touristic island.

  2. Steroid hormones in blood plasma from Greenland sledge dogs (Canis familiaris) dietary exposed to organohalogen polluted minke whalte (Balaenoptera acuterostrata) blubber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Dietz, Rune; Letcher, Robert J.;

    2014-01-01

    conducted in Greenland sledge dogs (Canis familiaris) as a sentinel species for adverse effects on steroid homeostasis. The control and exposed groups were composed of four sister-bitches all fed pork fat (Suis suis) and organohalogen contaminated minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) blubber......Persistent organic pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are known to disrupt steroidogenesis and subsequent concentrations of circulating endogenous hormones. This is also suspected to occur in Arctic predatory species, such as polar bears (Ursus maritimus) and a study was therefore...

  3. SEROLOGICAL SURVEY OF Ehrlichia SPECIES IN DOGS, HORSES AND HUMANS: ZOONOTIC SCENERY IN A RURAL SETTLEMENT FROM SOUTHERN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Felipe da Costa Vieira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY The aims of this study were to determine the seroprevalence of Ehrlichia spp. and risk factors for exposure in a restricted population of dogs, horses, and humans highly exposed to tick bites in a Brazilian rural settlement using a commercial ELISA rapid test and two indirect immunofluorescent assays (IFA with E. canis and E. chaffeensis crude antigens. Serum samples from 132 dogs, 16 horses and 100 humans were used. Fifty-six out of 132 (42.4% dogs were seropositive for E. canis. Dogs > one year were more likely to be seropositive for E. canis than dogs ≤ one year (p = 0.0051. Ten/16 (62.5% and 8/16 (50% horses were seropositive by the commercial ELISA and IFA, respectively. Five out of 100 (5% humans were seropositive for E. canis and E. chaffeensis. Rhipicephalus sanguineus (n = 291, 97.98% on dogs and Amblyomma cajennense (n = 25, 96.15% on horses were the most common ticks found. In conclusion, anti-Ehrlichia spp. antibodies were found in horses; however, the lack of a molecular characterization precludes any conclusion regarding the agent involved. Additionally, the higher seroprevalence of E. canis in dogs and the evidence of anti-Ehrlichia spp. antibodies in humans suggest that human cases of ehrlichiosis in Brazil might be caused by E. canis, or other closely related species.

  4. Serological survey of Ehrlichia species in dogs, horses and humans: zoonotic scenery in a rural settlement from southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Rafael Felipe da Costa; Vieira, Thállitha Samih Wischral Jayme; Nascimento, Denise do Amaral Gomes; Martins, Thiago F; Krawczak, Felipe S; Labruna, Marcelo B; Chandrashekar, Ramaswamy; Marcondes, Mary; Biondo, Alexander Welker; Vidotto, Odilon

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the seroprevalence of Ehrlichia spp. and risk factors for exposure in a restricted population of dogs, horses, and humans highly exposed to tick bites in a Brazilian rural settlement using a commercial ELISA rapid test and two indirect immunofluorescent assays (IFA) with E. canis and E. chaffeensis crude antigens. Serum samples from 132 dogs, 16 horses and 100 humans were used. Fifty-six out of 132 (42.4%) dogs were seropositive for E. canis. Dogs > one year were more likely to be seropositive for E. canis than dogs ≤ one year (p = 0.0051). Ten/16 (62.5%) and 8/16 (50%) horses were seropositive by the commercial ELISA and IFA, respectively. Five out of 100 (5%) humans were seropositive for E. canis and E. chaffeensis. Rhipicephalus sanguineus (n = 291, 97.98%) on dogs and Amblyomma cajennense (n = 25, 96.15%) on horses were the most common ticks found. In conclusion, anti-Ehrlichia spp. antibodies were found in horses; however, the lack of a molecular characterization precludes any conclusion regarding the agent involved. Additionally, the higher seroprevalence of E. canis in dogs and the evidence of anti-Ehrlichia spp. antibodies in humans suggest that human cases of ehrlichiosis in Brazil might be caused by E. canis, or other closely related species.

  5. A novel combination of fipronil and permethrin (Frontline Tri-Act®/Frontect®) reduces risk of transmission of Babesia canis by Dermacentor reticulatus and of Ehrlichia canis by Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks to dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongejan, Frans; de Vos, Christa; Fourie, Josephus J; Beugnet, Frederic

    2015-11-19

    The ability of Frontline Tri-Act®/Frontect®, a topical ectoparasiticide containing fipronil and permethrin for dogs, to prevent the transmission of Babesia canis as well as Ehrlichia canis was evaluated by infesting dogs with infected vector ticks. For the Babesia canis study, 16 dogs were randomly allocated to two groups. Eight dogs were treated on day 0 with a topical spot-on formulation containing 6.76 % w/v fipronil plus 50.48 % w/v permethrin and eight dogs served as the untreated control group. Dermacentor reticulatus ticks, with a B. canis infection rate ranging between 2 and 10 %, were placed onto dogs on days 7, 14, 21 and 28. In situ tick counts were performed on Days 9, 16 and 23. Ticks were counted and removed on Day 30. Infection of the dogs with B. canis was monitored by rectal temperature readings, clinical examinations and blood smears as well as PCR and IFA (indirect fluorescent antibody assay). For the Ehrlichia canis study, another 16 dogs were allocated to two groups. Eight dogs were treated with the fipronil and permethrin combination on days 0 and 28 and eight dogs served as untreated controls. Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks, carrying an infection rate of 13 % for E. canis, were released in the sleeping kennels of the dogs on days 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49 and 56. Ticks were counted in situ on the dogs on a weekly basis. All ticks were removed and counted on the final assessment day 58. Infection of the dogs with E. canis was monitored by rectal temperature, clinical examinations, and testing of blood samples by PCR, IFA and platelet counts. B. canis was transmitted by D. reticulatus ticks to all eight untreated control dogs and to one treated dog, which was confirmed by blood smears, PCR and IFA. E.canis was transmitted by R. sanguineus ticks to all eight untreated control dogs. Two of the dogs in the treated group were found positive based on PCR and/or IFA. Frontline Tri-Act®/Frontect® significantly lowered the risk for dogs to

  6. Locating hybrid individuals in the red wolf (Canis rufus) experimental population area using a spatially targeted sampling strategy and faecal DNA genotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jennifer R; Lucash, Chris; Schutte, Leslie; Waits, Lisette P

    2007-05-01

    Hybridization with coyotes (Canis latrans) continues to threaten the recovery of endangered red wolves (Canis rufus) in North Carolina and requires the development of new strategies to detect and remove coyotes and hybrids. Here, we combine a spatially targeted faecal collection strategy with a previously published reference genotype data filtering method and a genetic test for coyote ancestry to screen portions of the red wolf experimental population area for the presence of nonred wolf canids. We also test the accuracy of our maximum-likelihood assignment test for identifying hybrid individuals using eight microsatellite loci instead of the original 18 loci and compare its performance to the Bayesian approach implemented in newhybrids. We obtained faecal DNA genotypes for 89 samples, 73 of which were matched to 23 known individuals. The performance of two sampling strategies - comprehensive sweep and opportunistic spot-check was evaluated. The opportunistic spot-check sampling strategy required less effort than the comprehensive sweep sampling strategy but identified fewer individuals. Six hybrids or coyotes were detected and five of these individuals were subsequently captured and removed from the population. The accuracy and power of the genetic test for coyote ancestry is decreased when using eight loci; however, nonred wolf canids are identified with high frequency. This combination of molecular and traditional field-based approaches has great potential for addressing the challenge of hybridization in other species and ecosystems.

  7. Estimating population density and connectivity of American mink using spatial capture-recapture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Angela K.; Sutherland, Christopher S.; Royle, Andy; Hare, Matthew P.

    2016-01-01

    Estimating the abundance or density of populations is fundamental to the conservation and management of species, and as landscapes become more fragmented, maintaining landscape connectivity has become one of the most important challenges for biodiversity conservation. Yet these two issues have never been formally integrated together in a model that simultaneously models abundance while accounting for connectivity of a landscape. We demonstrate an application of using capture–recapture to develop a model of animal density using a least-cost path model for individual encounter probability that accounts for non-Euclidean connectivity in a highly structured network. We utilized scat detection dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) as a means of collecting non-invasive genetic samples of American mink (Neovison vison) individuals and used spatial capture–recapture models (SCR) to gain inferences about mink population density and connectivity. Density of mink was not constant across the landscape, but rather increased with increasing distance from city, town, or village centers, and mink activity was associated with water. The SCR model allowed us to estimate the density and spatial distribution of individuals across a 388 km2 area. The model was used to investigate patterns of space usage and to evaluate covariate effects on encounter probabilities, including differences between sexes. This study provides an application of capture–recapture models based on ecological distance, allowing us to directly estimate landscape connectivity. This approach should be widely applicable to provide simultaneous direct estimates of density, space usage, and landscape connectivity for many species.

  8. Epsilon Canis Majoris and the ionization of the local cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallerga, J. V.; Welsh, B. Y.

    1995-01-01

    The Lyman continuum radiation from the brightest extreme ultraviolet (EUV) source, the B2 II star epsilon Canis Majoris (Adara), is so intense that it dominates the local stellar EUV radiation field at wavelengths longer than 450 A and therefore sets a lower limit to the ionization of hydrogen in the Local Cloud. Using the EUV (70-730 A) spectrum of epsilon CMa taken with the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer Satellite (EUVE) and simple models that extrapolate this spectrum to the Lyman edge at 912 A, we have determined the local interstellar hydrogen photionizatin parameter Gamma solely from epsilon CMa to be 1.1 x 10(exp -15)/s. This fiugre is a factor of 7 greater than previous estimates of Gamma calculated for all nearby stars combined (Bruhweiler & Cheng 1988). Using measured values of the density and temperature of neutral interstellar hydrogen gas in the Local Cloud, we derive a particle density of ionized hydrogen n(H(+)) and electrons n(sub e) of 0.015-0.019/cu cm assuming ionization equilibrium and a helium ionization fraction of less than 20%. These values correspond to a hydrogen ionizatin fraction, chi(sub H) from 19% to 15%, respectively. The range of these derived quantities is due to the uncertainties in the local values of the neutral hydrogen and helium interstellar densities derived from both (1) solar backscatter measurements of Ly alpha lines of hydrogen and helium (1216 and 584 A), and (2) the average neutral densities along the line of sight to nearby stars. The local proton density produced by epsilon CMa is enough to allow the ionization mechanism of Ripken & Fahr (1983) to work at the heliopause and explain the discrepancy between the neutral hydrogen density derived from solar backscatter measurements and line-of-sight averages to nearby stars. A large value of electron density in the Local Cloud of n(sub e) is approximately 0.3-0.7/cu cm (T = 7000 K) has recently been reported by Lallement et al. (1994) using observations of Mg II and Mg I

  9. Possible Transmission of Cryptosporidium canis among Children and a Dog in a Household▿

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Lihua; Cama, Vitaliano A.; Cabrera, Lilia; Ortega, Ynes; Pearson, Julie; Gilman, Robert H.

    2007-01-01

    In a longitudinal cohort diarrhea study, a girl living in Lima, Peru, and her brother and dog were diagnosed with Cryptosporidium canis infections during the same period. Both children had transient diarrhea, but the dog was asymptomatic. This is the first report of possible transmission of cryptosporidiosis between humans and dogs.

  10. Detection of Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys DNA using multiplex PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rufino, Claudia Pinheiro; Moraes, Pablo Henrique Gonçalves; Reis, Thais; Campos, Ruan; Aguiar, Délia Cristina Figueira; McCulloch, John Anthony; Meneses, Andre Marcelo Conceição; Gonçalves, Evonnildo Costa

    2013-12-01

    We hereby propose a novel sensitive, specific, and cost-efficient method to detect Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys DNA from canine whole blood samples by multiplex PCR. Blood samples from hemoparasited dogs attending the Veterinary Hospital at the Universidade Federal Rural da Amazônia-UFRA, Belém, Brazil, were collected in tubes containing EDTA. Amplification of E. canis and A. platys 16S rDNA by nested (n) PCR was successfully achieved by using primers specific to the Anaplasmataceae in the first round of PCR, followed by a second round of PCR using E. canis-specific primers in conjunction with A. platys-specific primers. The amplicons obtained were cloned and sequenced, yielding sequences of 478 and 473 bp (including primers) pertaining to regions of the 16S rDNA of E. canis and A. platys, respectively. The protocol we here propose may help to measure the prevalence of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME) and canine cyclic thrompocytopenia, not only in northern Brazil, where there is no data available, but also elsewhere.

  11. Toxocara canis: impact of preweaning nutritional deprivation on the pathogenesis of pneumonia in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Daniela S; Rocha, Gutemberg M

    2005-08-01

    The present study was conducted to better understand the immure response to Toxocara canis pneumonia in mice with preweaning nutritional deprivation. Breast-fed Swiss mice, undernourished due to large litter size (up to 15 pups) and paired controls with only 5-8 pups were used. At 21 days old, both groups were infected with T. canis larvae. Liver retinol, retinyl palmitate, and inflammatory infiltrate in lungs were compared in both groups. Significantly lower levels of retinol and retinyl palmitate in liver tissue confirmed the hypovitaminosis A (P nutritionally deprived animals. Histological analysis showed similar eosinophilic infiltration in both groups at day 3 but was significantly more severe in undernourished mice at day 20 post-infection (P = 0.01). The present findings indicate that preweaning undernourishment is associated with a more severe inflammation in response to T. canis pneumonia. It suggests that vitamin A deficiency that persists after nutritional rehabilitation, may contribute to the severity of T. canis infection. The authors suggest that nutritional status should be carefully investigated in patients with more severe clinical findings.

  12. Prevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Toxocara canis Infection in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Romero Núñez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine seroprevalence and identify risk factors associated with Toxocara canis infection. A clinical and epidemiological questionnaire and body mass index were used to assess the risk factors associated with human toxocariasis in 108 children with an age range of 2–16 years. Antibodies against Toxocara canis were detected using an ELISA test kit. Chi-square analysis and odds ratio (OR were used to identify risk factors associated with Toxocara canis seropositivity. The prevalence of antibodies against Toxocara canis was greater (P=0.02 in males than females (28.84% and 16.07%, resp.. Chi-square analysis and odds ratio revealed just one variable with P1.0 was associated with seropositivity: the possession of dogs under one year old (OR=1.78. Although not significant, the OR values suggest that other factors may be epidemiologically important for Toxocara presence such as not washing hands before meals, malnutrition, obesity, and use of public parks. Children in the age group >12 and 2 and <11 years old age group (4.62%. Toxocariosis infection needs to be prevented by pet deworming and hygienic measures after contact with dogs.

  13. Prevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Toxocara canis Infection in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero Núñez, Camilo; Mendoza Martínez, Germán David; Yañez Arteaga, Selene; Ponce Macotela, Martha; Bustamante Montes, Patricia; Ramírez Durán, Ninfa

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine seroprevalence and identify risk factors associated with Toxocara canis infection. A clinical and epidemiological questionnaire and body mass index were used to assess the risk factors associated with human toxocariasis in 108 children with an age range of 2–16 years. Antibodies against Toxocara canis were detected using an ELISA test kit. Chi-square analysis and odds ratio (OR) were used to identify risk factors associated with Toxocara canis seropositivity. The prevalence of antibodies against Toxocara canis was greater (P = 0.02) in males than females (28.84% and 16.07%, resp.). Chi-square analysis and odds ratio revealed just one variable with P 1.0 was associated with seropositivity: the possession of dogs under one year old (OR = 1.78). Although not significant, the OR values suggest that other factors may be epidemiologically important for Toxocara presence such as not washing hands before meals, malnutrition, obesity, and use of public parks. Children in the age group >12 and 2 and <11 years old age group (4.62%). Toxocariosis infection needs to be prevented by pet deworming and hygienic measures after contact with dogs. PMID:23844404

  14. Gray wolf (Canis lupus) is a natural definitive host for Neospora caninum

    Science.gov (United States)

    The gray wolf (Canis lupus) was found to be a new natural definitive host for Neospora caninum. This finding is based on the recovery of Neospora-like oocysts from the feces of 3 of 73 wolves from Minnesota examined at necropsy, and on successful amplification of N. caninum-specific sequences from ...

  15. Isolation and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from the gray wolf Canis lupus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little is known of the genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii circulating in wildlife. In the present study feral gray wolf (Canis lupus) from Minnesota were examined for T. gondii infection. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 130 (52.4%) of 248 wolves tested by the modified agglutination test...

  16. Lambdapapillomavirus 2 in a gray wolf (Canis lupus) from Minnesota with oral papillomatosis and sarcoptic mange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Susan N.; Windels, Steve K.; Adams, Marie; Hall, Jeffrey S.

    2017-01-01

    Oral papillomatosis was diagnosed in a gray wolf (Canis lupus) with sarcoptic mange from Minnesota, USA found dead in February 2015. Intranuclear inclusion bodies were evident histologically, and papillomaviral antigens were confirmed using immunohistochemistry. Sequencing of the L1 papillomavirus gene showed closest similarity to Lambdapapillomavirus 2.

  17. Sarcocystis arctica (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae): ultrastructural description and its new host record, the Alaskan wolf (Canis lupus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarcocystis sarcocysts are common in muscles of herbivores but are rare in muscles of carnivores. Here, we report sarcocysts in muscle of an Alaskan wolf (Canis lupus) from Alaska, USA for the first time. Sarcocysts extracted from tongue of the wolf were up to 900 µm long, slender, and appeared to h...

  18. Serological survey of diseases of free-ranging gray wolves (Canis lupus) in Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    We tested serologic samples from 387 free-ranging wolves (Canis lupus) from 2007–2013 for exposure to 8 canid pathogens to establish baseline data on disease prevalence and spatial distribution in Minnesota’s wolf population. We found high exposure to canine adenovirus 1 and 2 (88% adults, 45% pups...

  19. Killing of a muskox, Ovibus moschatus, by two wolves, Canis lupis, and subsequent caching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L.D.; Adams, L.G.

    1999-01-01

    The killing of a cow Muskox (Ovibos moschatus) by two Wolves (Canis lupus) in 5 minutes during summer on Ellesmere Island is described. After two of the four feedings observed, one Wolf cached a leg and regurgitated food as far as 2.3 km away and probably farther. The implications of this behavior for deriving food-consumption estimates are discussed

  20. A specimen of Canis cf. C. etruscus (Mammalia, Carnivora) from the Middle Villafranchian of the Oosterschelde

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reumer, J.W.F.; Piskoulis, P.

    A recent find of a Middle Villafranchian (c. 2.35–2.10 Ma) Canis cf. C. etruscus in the trawlings from the Oosterschelde concerns the oldest dog known from the Netherlands and is the first appearance record of this canid in the North Sea Basin. It shows that the tribe Canini was dispersed beyond

  1. Differential expression of iron acquisition genes by Brucella melitensis and Brucella canis during macrophage infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Eskra

    Full Text Available Brucella spp. cause chronic zoonotic disease often affecting individuals and animals in impoverished economic or public health conditions; however, these bacteria do not have obvious virulence factors. Restriction of iron availability to pathogens is an effective strategy of host defense. For brucellae, virulence depends on the ability to survive and replicate within the host cell where iron is an essential nutrient for the growth and survival of both mammalian and bacterial cells. Iron is a particularly scarce nutrient for bacteria with an intracellular lifestyle. Brucella melitensis and Brucella canis share ~99% of their genomes but differ in intracellular lifestyles. To identify differences, gene transcription of these two pathogens was examined during infection of murine macrophages and compared to broth grown bacteria. Transcriptome analysis of B. melitensis and B. canis revealed differences of genes involved in iron transport. Gene transcription of the TonB, enterobactin, and ferric anguibactin transport systems was increased in B. canis but not B. melitensis during infection of macrophages. The data suggest differences in iron requirements that may contribute to differences observed in the lifestyles of these closely related pathogens. The initial importance of iron for B. canis but not for B. melitensis helps elucidate differing intracellular survival strategies for two closely related bacteria and provides insight for controlling these pathogens.

  2. Characterization of excretory-secretory antigens of adult Toxocara canis by western blotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhakar, N R; Samanta, S; Sahu, Shivani; Raina, O K; Gupta, S C; Goswami, T K; Lokesh, K M; Kumar, Ashok

    2014-06-01

    Toxocara canis is one of the most common helminth worm of dogs which continues to stimulate both public health concern alongside the higher scientific interest. It may cause visceral and ocular damage in humans especially in children. The identification of specific antigens of T. canis is important so as to develop better diagnostic techniques. Excretory-secretory (ES) antigens were prepared by culturing the adult T. canis worms in RPMI 1640 medium without serum supplementation followed by ammonium sulphate precipitation. These antigens were separated using sodium dodecyl sulphate-electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Recovered proteins ranged from 30 to 384 kDa. The specific reactivity of the T. canis excretory-secretory (TC-ES) proteins was checked by western blotting. The immuno-reactivity of the naturally infected dog sera with the TC-ES antigens showed five bands at 43, 57,105, 139 and 175 kDa. The immuno-reactivity of the hyper immune serum raised in rabbits against TC-ES antigens was observed with ten polypeptides of 21, 25, 30, 37, 45, 50, 57, 69, 77 and 105 kDa. Common antigens band were observed at 57 and 105 KDa. These antigens merit further evaluation as candidate for use in diagnosis of toxocariasis in humans and adult dogs.

  3. A gray wolf (Canis lupus) delivers live prey to a pup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David

    2014-01-01

    A two-year-old sibling Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) carefully captured an Arctic Hare (Lepus arcticus) leveret alive on Ellesmere Island, Nunavut, Canada, and delivered it alive to a pup 28–33 days old. This appears to be the first observation of a Gray Wolf delivering live prey to a pup.

  4. BEHAVIORAL AND MEMORY CHANGES IN Mus musculus COINFECTED BY Toxocara canis AND Toxoplasma gondii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Motta Corrêa

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Several researchers have stated that parasites can alter the behavior of their hosts, in order to increase the transmission rate, principally when prey-predator relationships are a reliable way of infection transmission. The aim of this study was to verify the occurrence of changes in anxiety and short-term memory patterns in experimentally infected Mus musculus by Toxocara canis and/or Toxoplasma gondii. Forty male Mus musculus (Balb/c eight-week-old were divided into four groups of 10 mice each. One group was infected with 300 eggs of Toxocara canis; a second group was submitted to infection with 10 cysts of Toxoplasma gondii; a third group was concomitantly infected with both parasites with the same inoculums and the last group was maintained without infection. The anxiety levels were evaluated using an elevated plus maze and an actometer; the short-term memory was determined by a two-way active avoidance equipment. The determination of anxiety levels were conducted 40 and 70 days after infection and the short-term memory was evaluated 140 days after infection. Mice chronically infected by Toxoplasma gondii showed impaired learning and short-term memory, but no significant differences were found in mice infected by Toxocara canis or concomitantly infected by Toxocara canis and Toxoplasma gondii when compared to non infected mice.

  5. Hair Contamination of Sheepdog and Pet Dogs with Toxocara Canis Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR Khezri

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: We tried to investigate the hair contamination of pet dogs and farm sheepdog with Toxocara eggs in terms of the different sex and age groups in north-west of Iran (Urmia and its sub­urbs.Methods: Hair samples were collected from a total of 138 pet and farm sheepdogs from November 2008 to June 2009 in Urmia City and the suburb (West Azerbaijan-Iran and examined for the pres­ence of T. canis eggs.Results: T. canis eggs found in 60 samples altogether (pet and shepherd dogs showed a contamina­tion rate of 36.2%. The number of observed T. canis eggs in each microscope field was va­ried from 1 to > 400. The age of the dog was found a significant factor to influence the prevalence and intensity of contamination, with 82% of all the eggs recovered from puppies (six months and younger. Additionally, the numbers of eggs in farm sheepdogs were significantly higher than pet dogs (P<0.05.Conclusions: This report shows that direct contact with T. canis infected dogs, particularly puppies from shepherd dogs, may pose a serious hazard to human. Besides, as they may harbor a considera­ble number of eggs on their hair, they can contaminate the soil and the environment.

  6. The First Case Report of Human Infestation with Ctenocephalides canis in Behbahan (Khuzestan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Bahrami

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: The adjacent of residential buildings in the countryside with livestock causes external parasites to be transferred easily and feed on the human hosts. Due to fleas haematophagus nature they are able to transfer pathogens from animal to animal or animal to human and thus they are considered as zoonotic pathogens. Therefore, identification of fleas is necessary. Methods: In the present study 30 infested people with biting signs and 800 sheep and goats were investigated. About 50 fleas from infested people and 160 from animals were collected. Samples were cleared with KOH and recognized based on proper identification keys. Results: Based on the results it seems that sheep and goats were infested with Ctenocephalides canis and Pulex irritans. Out of the 160 studied fleas from sheep and goats 118 (73.7% were identified as C. canis and 42 (26.3% as P. irritans. Out of 50 collected fleas from infested people 43 (86% were identified as C. canis and 7 (14% as P. irritans. Conclusion: The present report is the first report of man infestation with canine fleas or C. canis. According to climate condition and employment of most of villagers to traditional animal husbandry, it seems that there is a proper condition for external parasites (such as fleas growth and proliferation. Therefore, studies based on infestation identification and report can be considered for control strategic programs.

  7. Prevalence and risk factors associated with Toxocara canis infection in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero Núñez, Camilo; Mendoza Martínez, Germán David; Yañez Arteaga, Selene; Ponce Macotela, Martha; Bustamante Montes, Patricia; Ramírez Durán, Ninfa

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine seroprevalence and identify risk factors associated with Toxocara canis infection. A clinical and epidemiological questionnaire and body mass index were used to assess the risk factors associated with human toxocariasis in 108 children with an age range of 2-16 years. Antibodies against Toxocara canis were detected using an ELISA test kit. Chi-square analysis and odds ratio (OR) were used to identify risk factors associated with Toxocara canis seropositivity. The prevalence of antibodies against Toxocara canis was greater (P = 0.02) in males than females (28.84% and 16.07%, resp.). Chi-square analysis and odds ratio revealed just one variable with P 1.0 was associated with seropositivity: the possession of dogs under one year old (OR = 1.78). Although not significant, the OR values suggest that other factors may be epidemiologically important for Toxocara presence such as not washing hands before meals, malnutrition, obesity, and use of public parks. Children in the age group >12 and 2 and pet deworming and hygienic measures after contact with dogs.

  8. Molecular detection of novel Anaplasmataceae closely related to Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis in the dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Armanda D S; Mohammed, Osama B; Bennett, Nigel C; Petevinos, Charalambos; Alagaili, Abdulaziz N

    2015-09-30

    Serological surveys have confirmed Anaplasma marginale and Anaplasma phagocytophilum infections in dromedary camels, but molecular surveys and genetic characterisation of camel-associated Anaplasma species are lacking. In this study, we detected tick-borne Anaplasmataceae in 30 of 100 (30%) healthy dromedary camels screened using a combined 16S rRNA-groEL PCR-sequencing approach. Nucleotide sequencing confirmed Anaplasmataceae genome presence in 28 of the 33 16S rRNA PCR-positive samples, with two additional positive samples, for which 16S rRNA sequence data were ambiguous, being identified by groEL gene characterisation. Phylogenetic analyses of a 1289 nt segment of the 16S rRNA gene confirmed the presence of a unique Ehrlichia lineage and a discrete Anaplasma lineage, comprising three variants, occurring at an overall prevalence of 4% and 26%, respectively. Genetic characterisation of an aligned 559 nt groEL gene region revealed the camel-associated Anaplasma and Ehrlichia lineages to be novel and most closely related to Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis. Based on the confirmed monophyly, minimum pairwise genetic distances between each novel lineage and its closest sister taxon, and the inability to isolate the bacteria, we propose that Candidatus status be assigned to each. This first genetic characterisation of Anaplasmataceae from naturally infected, asymptomatic dromedary camels in Saudi Arabia confirms the presence of two novel lineages that are phylogenetically linked to two pathogenic canid species of increasing zoonotic concern.

  9. The Role of Anthropogenic Influence on Biological Signal Field (BSF Characteristics of the Wolf, Canis lupus lupus (Canidae, Carnivora

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    Shkvyria M. G.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the current research includes studying the biological signal field (BSF characteristics of the wolf (Canis lupus lupus Linnaeus, 1758 at different values of anthropogenic load on territories with conservation (Białowieża National park (Poland and hunting status of the species (Chornobyl Exclusion Zone (Ukraine. The research in Białowieża Primeval Forest was conducted in two stages: study of the BSF characteristics of the wolf and finding correlation between data acquired from Ukraine (the first stage, and over-time study of intensity of the biological signal field (the second stage. In result of the first stage, there was no significant dependence on the characteristics of the territory and the differences between the behavior of wolves in the Białowieża Primeval Forest (conservation status of the species and the Exclusion Zone (game status. During the second stage it was determined that provided variance of the intensity between territory groups was insufficient, the degree of significance to animals of area categories varied with the stages of the pack’s life. It was found that the main factors which govern the character of wolf activity are not the level of the anthropic load and hunting pressure, but periods of the life cycle and spatial structure of groups.

  10. The first case of Brucella canis in Sweden: background, case report and recommendations from a northern European perspective

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    Holst Bodil

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Infection with Brucella canis has been diagnosed in Sweden for the first time. It was diagnosed in a three-year-old breeding bitch with reproductive disturbances. Fifteen in-contact dogs were tested repeatedly and all of them were negative for B. canis. The source of infection could not be defined. The present article describes the case and the measures undertaken and gives a short review over B. canis. Recommendations on how to avoid the infection in non-endemic countries are given.

  11. Exposición al parásito Toxocara canis en una población escolar de la comuna 7 del distrito de Santa Marta, Colombia.

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    Dary Luz Mendoza Meza

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa toxocariosis es una zoonosis producida por ingesta de huevos infectantes de parásitos del género Toxocara, presentes en el suelo contaminado. La infección humana por Toxocara canis es una de las causas principales del síndrome de migración visceral larvaria. La principal fuente de la enfermedad son los caninos infectados con el parásito. En el Distrito de Santa Marta la población de caninos es alta, sin embargo, no se conoce la prevalencia de la toxocariosis en estos animales ni en el humano. El propósito del presente estudio fue establecer la exposición a Toxocara canis en escolares entre 2 y 16 años de la comuna 7 del Distrito de Santa Marta. Se determinaron los niveles sanguíneos de IgG contra el antígeno de secreción/excreción de larvas L2 de Toxocara canis y los niveles de IgE total. También se evaluó la presencia de parasitismo intestinal y de factores epidemiológicos y clínicos relacionados con la toxocariosis humana. En una muestra de 133 niños, el 42,1% fueron seropositivos a Toxocara canis y 92,5% tuvo niveles sanguíneos de IgE total elevados. Los factores epidemiológicos asociados con la exposición al Toxocara fueron ausencia de agua potable (p <0,0001, ausencia de alcantarillado (p = 0,034, contacto con el suelo (p <0,0001 y presencia de mascotas (perro, p =0,013 y gato, p =0,0069. También se encontró relación estadísticamente significativa con la infección por otros helmintos (p = 0,0069 y la IgE total elevada (p = 0,0134. No se encontró relación estadísticamente significativa con la infección intestinal por protozoos, con la desnutrición aguda (WAZ ≤ -2SD o con la desnutrición crónica (HAZ ≤ -2SD. (DUAZARY 2010, 183 - 190AbstractThe toxocariosis is a zoonosis caused by ingestion of infective eggs of parasites toxocara species, present in the contaminated soil. Human infection by Toxocara canis is a major cause of visceral larva migration syndrome. The main source of the disease are

  12. Territory quality determines social group composition in Ethiopian wolves Canis simensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallents, Lucy A; Randall, Deborah A; Williams, Stuart D; Macdonald, David W

    2012-01-01

    1. We contrast the value of four different models to predict variation in territory size as follows: resource density (the ideal free distribution), population density, group size and intruder pressure (relative resource-holding potential). In the framework of the resource dispersion hypothesis, we test the effect of resource abundance and spatial variation in resource distribution on the age/sex composition of social groups. 2. We explore these drivers of territory size and group size/composition in Ethiopian wolves Canis simensis in the Bale Mountains, Ethiopia, using fine-scale distribution maps of their major prey species based on satellite-derived vegetation maps. 3. The number of adult males is correlated with territory size, while prey density, wolf population density and intruder pressure are not associated with territory size. On average, each additional adult male increases territory size by 1.18 km(2). 4. Prey abundance increases with territory size (average biomass accumulation of 6.5 kg km(-2)), and larger territories provide greater per capita access to prime foraging habitat and prey. 5. The age/sex composition of wolf packs is more closely related to territory quality than territory size. Subordinate adult females are more likely to be present in territories with greater proportions of prime giant molerat Tachyoryctes macrocephalus habitat (i.e. >80% of Web Valley territories and >20% in Sanetti/Morebawa), and more yearlings (aged 12-23 months) occur in territories with greater overall prey biomass. 6. Wolf packs with restricted access to good foraging habitat tend to defend more exclusive territories, having a lower degree of overlap with neighbouring packs. 7. The greater per capita access to prey in large groups suggests a strong evolutionary advantage of collaborative territorial defence in this species, although the relative costs of territorial expansion vs. exclusion depend upon the spatial distribution of resources. We propose a model

  13. Prevalence and diversity of Hepatozoon canis in naturally infected dogs in Japanese islands and peninsulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Dakhly, Khaled Mohamed; Goto, Minami; Noishiki, Kaori; El-Nahass, El-Shaymaa; Hirata, Akihiro; Sakai, Hiroki; Takashima, Yasuhiro; El-Morsey, Ahmed; Yanai, Tokuma

    2013-09-01

    Canine hepatozoonosis is a worldwide protozoal disease caused by Hepatozoon canis and Hepatozoon americanum and is transmitted by ixodid ticks, Rhipicephalus and Amblyomma spp., respectively. H. canis infection is widespread in Africa, Europe, South America, and Asia, including Japan. The objective of this study was to study the distribution pattern and diversity of H. canis in naturally infected dogs in nine Japanese islands and peninsulas. Therefore, 196 hunting dogs were randomly sampled during the period from March to September 2011 and the ages and sexes were identified. Direct microscopy using Giemsa-stained blood smears revealed H. canis gametocytes in the peripheral blood of 45 (23.6%) dogs. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed on EDTA-anticoagulated blood, initially with the common primer set (B18S-F and B18S-R) amplifying the 1,665-bp portion of the 18S rRNA gene, and then with the specific primer set (HepF and HepR) amplifying about 660 bp fragments of the same gene. Based on PCR, 84 (42.9%) dogs were positive using the common primer and 81 (41.3%) were positive using the specific primer. The current investigation indicated that all screened areas, except for Sado Island and Atsumi Peninsula, were infected. Yaku Island had the highest infection rate (84.6% in males and 100.0% in females), while Ishigaki Island showed the lowest infection rates (8.3% in males and 17.7% in females). Both sexes were infected with no significant difference. However, diversity of infection among the surveyed islands and peninsulas was significantly different (P < 0.05). Although H. canis has previously been reported in dogs in Japan, the higher infection rate described in the current study and the diversity of infection in a wide range of islands strongly encourage prospective studies dealing with the prevention and treatment of the infection in dogs, as well as control of ticks.

  14. Serological survey of Brucella canis in dogs in urban Harare and selected rural communities in Zimbabwe

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    Simbarashe Chinyoka

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted in order to detect antibodies for Brucella canis (B. canis in dogs from urban Harare and five selected rural communities in Zimbabwe. Sera from randomly selected dogs were tested for antibodies to B. canis using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Overall, 17.6% of sera samples tested (57/324, 95% CI: 13.5–21.7 were positive for B. canis antibodies. For rural dogs, seroprevalence varied from 11.7% – 37.9%. Rural dogs recorded a higher seroprevalence (20.7%, 95% CI: 15.0–26.4 compared with Harare urban dogs (12.7%, 95% CI: 6.9–18.5 but the difference was not significant (p = 0.07. Female dogs from both sectors had a higher seroprevalence compared with males, but the differences were not significant (p > 0.05. Five and two of the positive rural dogs had titres of 1:800 and 1:1600, respectively, whilst none of the positive urban dogs had a titre above 1:400. This study showed that brucellosis was present and could be considered a risk to dogs from the studied areas. Further studies are recommended in order to give insight into the epidemiology of brucellosis in dogs and its possible zoonotic consequences in Zimbabwe. Screening for other Brucella spp. (Brucella abortus, Brucella melitensis and Brucella suis other than B. canis is also recommended.

  15. Detection of Dirofilaria immitis and Ehrlichia species in coyotes (Canis latrans), from rural Oklahoma and Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paras, Kelsey L; Little, Susan E; Reichard, Mason V; Reiskind, Michael H

    2012-07-01

    There is a lack of knowledge regarding the prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis and Ehrlichia spp. in coyotes in Oklahoma and Texas. Documenting the prevalence of these vector-borne disease agents in coyotes from Oklahoma and Texas underscores the importance of wild canids as reservoir hosts that infect companion animals and humans. To learn more about the sylvatic cycle of D. immitis and Ehrlichia spp. in coyotes from Oklahoma and Texas, we tested for infection with and exposure to, respectively, these disease agents. Coyote carcasses were collected opportunistically from animal control experts and hunters in seven counties in Oklahoma and Texas from January to March, 2010. Serum samples from 77 coyotes were tested with a commercial ELISA test. Five (6.5%) coyotes had D. immitis antigens, and four (5.2%) had antibodies to Ehrlichia spp. The overall prevalence of D. immitis was low relative to studies from the eastern United States. Little is known about the prevalence of Ehrlichia spp. throughout the United States, but coyotes from rural Oklahoma in the current study had a higher exposure rate than those reported from California, and a lower rate than data from an earlier study from Oklahoma.

  16. Status summary: The red wolf (Canis rufus): Endangered species report 7

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Provides life history requirements and status of red wolf in United States. Includes information on taxonomic history, home range, reproduction, food, and...

  17. Ehrlichia canis in dogs in a semiarid region of Northeastern Brazil: serology, molecular detection and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanikawa, A; Labruna, M B; Costa, A; Aguiar, D M; Justiniano, S V; Mendes, R S; Melo, A L T; Alves, C J; Azevedo, S S

    2013-06-01

    This study investigated infection by Ehrlichia spp. agents by PCR, immunofluorescence assay test (IFAT), and by Giemsa-stained blood smears in 108 dogs from a semiarid region of the state of Paraíba, Northeastern Brazil. Seventy-five (69.4%) of the 108 dogs were found to be seropositive to Ehrlichia canis, while only four dogs (3.7%) were positive in real-time PCR for E. canis. In six dogs (5.6%) E. canis-like morulae were observed in monocytes. Animals that stayed in environment whose floor was dried dirt, and dogs whose owners reported low frequency of cleaning the dog environment had higher (Pcanis. Increasing seropositivity was found in older dogs (P=0.012). This study provides the first molecular detection of E. canis in the semiarid region of Northeastern Brazil.

  18. Identification of new 18S rRNA strains of Babesia canis isolated from dogs with subclinical babesiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łyp, P; Adaszek, Ł; Furmaga, B; Winiarczyk, S

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we used PCR to detect and characterize B. canis from naturally infected dogs in Poland with subclinical babesiosis by amplifying and sequencing a portion of the 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene. Venous blood samples were collected from ten dogs with subclinical babesiosis. A 559-bp fragment of the B. canis 18S rRNA gene was amplified by PCR. Sequencing of the PCR products led to the identification of a new variant of Babesia canis, differing from the previously detected protozoa genotypes (18S rRNA-A and 18S rRNA-B) with nucleotide substitutions in positions 150 and 151 of the tested gene fragment. The results indicate the emergence within the Polish territory of a new, previously unencountered Babesia canis genotype responsible for the development of subclinical babesiosis.

  19. Introduced marine species in Pago Pago Harbor, Fagatele Bay and the national park coast, American Samoa: survey of October 2002 (NODC Accession 0002177)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The biological communities at ten sites around the Island of Tutuila, American Samoa were surveyed in October 2002 by a team of four investigators. Diving...

  20. Introduced Marine Species in Pago Pago Harbor, Fagatele Bay and the National Park Coast, American Samoa: Survey of October 2002 (NODC Accession 0002177)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The biological communities at ten sites around the Island of Tutuila, American Samoa were surveyed in October 2002 by a team of four investigators. Diving...

  1. In vitro culture and structural differences in the major immunoreactive protein gp36 of geographically distant Ehrlichia canis isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweygarth, Erich; Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; Josemans, Antoinette I; Oosthuizen, Marinda C; Matjila, Paul T; Lis, Katarzyna; Broniszewska, Marzena; Schöl, Heidrun; Ferrolho, Joana; Grubhoffer, Libor; Passos, Lygia M F

    2014-06-01

    Ehrlichia canis, the etiologic agent of canine ehrlichiosis, is an obligate intracytoplasmic Gram-negative tick-borne bacterium belonging to the Anaplasmataceae family. E. canis is distributed worldwide and can cause serious and fatal infections in dogs. Among strains of E. canis, the 16S rRNA gene DNA sequences are highly conserved. Using this gene to genetically differentiate isolates is therefore difficult. As an alternative, the gene gp36, which encodes for a major immunoreactive protein in E. canis, has been successfully used to characterize the genetic diversity of this pathogen. The present study describes the isolation and continuous propagation of a Spanish and 2 South African isolates of E. canis in IDE8 tick cells. Subsequently, canine DH82 cell cultures were infected using initial bodies obtained from infected IDE8 cultures. It was possible to mimic the life cycle of E. canis in vitro by transferring infection from tick cells to canine cells and back again. To characterize these E. canis strains at the molecular level, the 16S rRNA and gp36 genes were amplified by PCR, sequenced, and aligned with corresponding sequences available in GenBank. All 16S rRNA sequences amplified in this study were identical to previously reported E. canis strains. Maximum likelihood analysis based on the gp36 amino acid sequences showed that the South African and Spanish strains fall into 2 well-defined phylogenetic clusters amongst other E. canis strains. The members of these 2 phylogenetic clusters shared 2 unique molecular properties in the gp36 amino acid sequences: (i) deletion of glycine 117 and (ii) the presence of an additional putative N-linked glycosylation site. We further show correlation between the putative secondary structure and the theoretical isoelectric point (pI) of the gp36 amino acid sequences. A putative role of gp36 as an adhesin in E. canis is discussed. Overall, we report the successful in vitro culture of 3 new E. canis strains which present

  2. Sequential Evaluation of Dogs Naturally Infected with Ehrlichia canis, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, Ehrlichia equi, Ehrlichia ewingii, or Bartonella vinsonii

    OpenAIRE

    Breitschwerdt, Edward B.; Hegarty, Barbara C.; Hancock, Susan I.

    1998-01-01

    Historically, disease manifestations in dogs seroreactive to Ehrlichia canis antigens by indirect immunofluorescent antibody testing have been attributed to infection with either E. canis or Ehrlichia ewingii. A 1996 study by Dawson and colleagues provided PCR evidence that healthy dogs from southeastern Virginia could be naturally infected with Ehrlichia chaffeensis. This observation stimulated us to determine which Ehrlichia spp. infected sick dogs that were referred to our hospital from th...

  3. The transmission of canine ehrlichiosis to the Wild Dog Lycaon pictus (Temminck) and Black-backed Jackal Canis mesomelas Schreber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Heerden, J

    1979-12-01

    Canine ehrlichiosis was successfully transmitted from the domestic dog to three Wild Dogs Lycaon pictus and three Black-backed Jackals Canis mesomelas. Wild Dogs showed symptoms of anorexia and depression as well as anaemia, leucopaenia and mild thrombocytopaenia. Black-backed Jackals were asymptomatic. Morulae of Ehrlichicia canis were found in peripheral blood smears from all experimental animals. The disease was also successfully transmitted from Black-backed Jackal to the domestic dog.

  4. Early detection of Brucella canis via quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, L K; Bjork, J K; Gallup, J M; Boggiatto, P M; Bellaire, B H; Petersen, C A

    2014-02-01

    Canine brucellosis is a reportable zoonotic disease that can lead to canine reproductive losses and human infection through contact with infected urine or other genitourinary secretions. Although many locations require testing and euthanasia of positive dogs, current diagnosis is limited by the time required for seroconversion, for example, presence of B. canis-specific antibodies. The goal of this study was to determine the diagnostic ability of Brucella canis-specific quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay to detect B. canis in field samples prior to serological positivity for faster diagnosis and prevention of transmission within kennels or in households. Two kennels, one of which was located in the owner's home, were sampled following observation of suggestive clinical signs and positive serology of at least one dog. Specimens obtained were comparatively analysed via serology and qPCR analysis. 107 dogs were analysed for B. canis infection via qPCR: 105 via whole-blood samples, 65 via vaginal swab, six via urine and seven via genitourinary tract tissue taken at necropsy. Forty-five dogs were found to be infected with canine brucellosis via qPCR, of which 22 (48.89%) were seropositive. A statistically significant number (P = 0.0228) of qPCR-positive dogs, 5/25 (20.00%), seroconverted within a 30-day interval after initial serologic testing. As compared to serology, qPCR analysis of DNA from vaginal swabs had a sensitivity of 92.31% and specificity of 51.92%, and qPCR analysis of DNA from whole-blood samples had a sensitivity of 16.67% and specificity of 100%. B. canis outer membrane protein 25 DNA qPCR from non-invasive vaginal swab and urine samples provided early detection of B. canis infection in dogs prior to detection of antibodies. This assay provides a critical tool to decrease zoonotic spread of canine brucellosis, its associated clinical presentation(s), and emotional and economic repercussions.

  5. Molecular and serological detection of Ehrlichia canis in naturally exposed dogs in Iran: an analysis on associated risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maazi, Nadi; Malmasi, Abdolali; Shayan, Parviz; Nassiri, Seyed Mahdi; Salehi, Taghi Zahraei; Fard, Mojdeh Sharifian

    2014-03-01

    The general aim of this study, which was conducted for the first time in Iran, was to evaluate the seroprevalence and geographical distribution of Ehrlichia canis in a dog population in Iran, followed by molecular confirmation using PCR and sequencing. Blood samples were collected from 240 dogs in different areas of Alborz and Tehran Provinces and initially analyzed using the immunofluorescent antibody (IFA) test to detect anti-Ehrlichia canis IgG antibodies. Subsequently, nested PCR was performed based on a fragment of the 16S rRNA gene of E. canis on serologically positive samples. The results showed that 40/240 dogs (16.6%) presented anti-Ehrlichia canis IgG antibodies and that nine of the blood samples from the 40 seropositive dogs (22.5%) contained E. canis DNA, which was confirmed by sequencing. The seroprevalence of E. canis tended to be higher in purebred, one to three-year-old male dogs living in the Plain zone, in rural areas; however, this difference was not statistically significant.

  6. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Ehrlichia canis Infection among Companion Dogs of Mashhad, North East of Iran, 2009–2010

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    Maneli Ansari-Mood

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aims of this study were to determine the seroprevalence of canine ehrlichiosis and risk factors of this disease in companion dogs’ population of Mashhad, North East of Iran. Canine Monocytic Ehrlichiosis (CME is a zoonotic disease transmitted by ticks, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, and caused by an obligate intracellular bacterium, Ehrlichia canis.Methods: During September 2009 until November 2010, 250 companion dogs from Mashhad, North-East of Iran, were examined for serum antibody detection against E. canis by means of immunofluorescence assay test (IFAT and factors associated with a positive antibody response.Results: There was a very low prevalence of anti-E. canis antibodies (0.8%, 2/250 among studied dogs. The antibody titers for two seropositive dogs were 1:80 and 1:160, respectively. One (0.4% of seropositive dogs was infested with, R. sanguineus. In blood smears from one of infested dogs (0.4%, typical morulae of E. canis was observed in lymphocytes. The results confirm that the lowest occurrence of reactive dogs indoors probably related to low tick infestion.Conclusion: This is the first report that describes serological evidences of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis in North- East of Iran. Results suggested that E. canis infection in owned pet dogs from North of Khorasan was not endemic from 2009 to 2010. Additional molecular studies are necessary to confirm E. canis infection and to identify the local strains of the organism.

  7. Serological survey for antibodies reactive with Ehrlichia canis and E. chaffeensis in dogs from the Bloemfontein area, South Africa

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    A-M Pretorius

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Sera from 161 dogs in the Bloemfontein area in South Africa were tested for the presence of antibodies reactive with Ehrlichia canis and E. chaffeensis by indirect fluorescent antibody testing. Overall, 68 (42 % of the dogs had significant antibody titres (>1/64 against E. canis and 61 (38 % had significant titres (>1/64 against E. chaffeensis. Seven (11 % dogs had higher titres to E. chaffeensis than E. canis (1/2048 and 1/1024 (2 dogs; 1/1024 and 1/512 (2 dogs; 1/2048 and 1/512; 1/512 and 1/256 and 1/512 and <1/64, respectively. The remaining seropositive dogs had equal (n=26; 42 % or 2- (n=17; 25 %, 3- (n=13; 2% or 4-fold (n= 5; 7 % higher titres against E. canis. Dogs from economically depressed, high-density suburbs (60/112; 48 % had significantly higher prevalences of antibodies against E. canis than those from more affluent, low-density suburbs (8/49; 14 % (c2 19.38, p < 0.001. Higher titres to E. chaffeensis than E. canis were found in dogs from affluent, low-density suburbs (3/49 and in dogs from economically depressed, high-density suburbs (4/112.

  8. A preliminary study to evaluate the immune responses induced by immunization of dogs with inactivated Ehrlichia canis organisms

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    Sunita Mahan

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Ehrlichia canis is an intracellular pathogen that causes canine monocytic ehrlichiosis. Although the role of antibody responses cannot be discounted, control of this intracellular pathogen is expected to be by cell mediated immune responses. The immune responses in dogs immunized with inactivated E. canis organisms in combination with Quil A were evaluated. Immunization provoked strong humoral and cellular immune responses, which were demonstrable by Western blotting and lymphocyte proliferation assays. By Western blotting antibodies to several immunodominant E. canis proteins were detected in serum from immunized dogs and antibody titres increased after each immunization. The complement of immunogenic proteins recognized by the antisera were similar to those recognized in serum from infected dogs. Upon challenge with live E. canis, rapid anamnestic humoral responses were detected in the serum of immunized dogs and primary antibody responses were detected in the serum from control dogs. Following immunization, a lymphocyte proliferative response (cellular immunity was detected in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNs of immunized dogs upon stimulation with E. canis antigens. These responses were absent from non-immunized control dogs until after infection with live E. canis, when antigen specific-lymphocyte proliferation responses were also detected in the PBMNs of the control dogs. It can be thus concluded that immunization against canine monocytic ehrlichiosis may be feasible. However, the immunization regimen needs to be optimized and a detailed investigation needs to be done to determine if this regimen can prevent development of acute and chronic disease.

  9. Fungalysin and dipeptidyl-peptidase gene transcription in Microsporum canis strains isolated from symptomatic and asymptomatic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathy, Anne; Baldo, Aline; Schoofs, Laura; Cambier, Ludivine; Defaweux, Valérie; Tabart, Jérémy; Maréchal, Françoise; Symoens, Françoise; Mignon, Bernard

    2010-11-20

    Microsporum canis is the main pathogenic fungus that causes a superficial cutaneous infection called dermatophytosis in domestic carnivores. In cats, M. canis causes symptomatic or asymptomatic infection. Recent conflicting data raise the question of whether the clinical status of the infected cat (symptomatic or asymptomatic) is directly correlated to the proteolytic activity of M. canis strains. Here, the transcription of fungalysin and dipeptidyl-peptidase genes (DPP) of M. canis was compared between four strains isolated from symptomatic and asymptomatic cats during the first steps of the infection process, namely in arthroconidia, during adherence of arthroconidia to corneocytes and during early invasion of the epidermis, using a new ex vivo model made of feline epidermis. There was no detectable transcription of the fungalysin genes in arthroconidia or during the first steps of the infection process for any of the tested strains, suggesting that these proteases play a role later in the infection process. Among DPP, the DPP IV gene was the most frequently transcribed both in arthroconidia and later during infection (adherence and invasion), but no significant differences were observed between M. canis strains isolated from symptomatic and asymptomatic cats. This study shows that the clinical aspect of M. canis feline dermatophytosis depends upon factors relating to the host rather than to the proteolytic activity of the infective fungal strain.

  10. Arctic lineage-canine distemper virus as a cause of death in Apennine wolves (Canis lupus in Italy.

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    Daria Di Sabatino

    Full Text Available Canine distemper virus (CDV infection is a primary threat affecting a wide number of carnivore species, including wild animals. In January 2013, two carcasses of Apennine wolves (Canis lupus were collected in Ortona dei Marsi (L'Aquila province, Italy by the local Veterinary Services. CDV was immediately identified either by RT-PCR or immunohistochemistry in lung and central nervous tissue samples. At the same time, severe clinical signs consistent with CDV infection were identified and taped (Videos S1-S3 from three wolves rescued in the areas surrounding the National Parks of the Abruzzi region by the Veterinary Services. The samples collected from these symptomatic animals also turned out CDV positive by RT-PCR. So far, 30 carcasses of wolves were screened and CDV was detected in 20 of them. The sequencing of the haemagglutinin gene and subsequent phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the identified virus belonged to the CDV Arctic lineage. Strains belonging to this lineage are known to circulate in Italy and in Eastern Europe amongst domestic dogs. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of CDV Arctic lineage epidemics in the wild population in Europe.

  11. An Interferometric Spectral-Line and Imaging Survey of VY Canis Majoris in the 345 GHz Band

    CERN Document Server

    Kaminski, T; Young, K H; Menten, K M; Patel, N A

    2013-01-01

    A spectral line survey of the oxygen-rich red supergiant VY Canis Majoris was made between 279 and 355 GHz with the Submillimeter Array. Two hundred twenty three spectral features from 19 molecules (not counting isotopic species of some of them) were observed, including the rotational spectra of TiO, TiO2, and AlCl for the first time in this source. The parameters and an atlas of all spectral features is presented. Observations of each line with a synthesized beam of ~0.9 arcsec, reveal the complex kinematics and morphology of the nebula surrounding VY CMa. Many of the molecules are observed in high lying rotational levels or in excited vibrational levels. From these, it was established that the main source of the submillimeter-wave continuum (dust) and the high excitation molecular gas (the star) are separated by about 0.15 arcsec. Apparent coincidences between the molecular gas observed with the SMA, and some of the arcs and knots observed at infrared wavelengths and in the optical scattered light by the Hu...

  12. Being a victim or an aggressor: Different functions of triadic post-conflict interactions in wolves (Canis lupus lupus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordoni, Giada; Palagi, Elisabetta

    2015-01-01

    Animals adopt different behavioral strategies to cope with the conflict of interests coming from the competition over limited resources. Starting from the study on chimpanzees, post-conflict third-party affiliation (the affiliative contact provided by a third-party toward the victim--VTA--or the aggressor--ATA) was investigated mainly in primates. Later, this post-conflict mechanism has been demonstrated also in other mammals, such as wallabies, horses, dolphins, domestic dogs, and wolves. Here, we present data on triadic post-conflict affiliation in wolves (Canis lupus lupus) by exploring some of the hypotheses already proposed for primates and never tested before in other social mammals. In this carnivore species, the study of VTA and ATA revealed that these strategies cannot be considered as a unique behavioral category since they differ in many functional aspects. VTA serves to protect the victim by reducing the likelihood of reiterated attacks from the previous aggressor and to reinforce the relationship shared by the third-party and the victim. On the other hand, ATA has a role in bystander protection by limiting the renewed attacks of the previous aggressor toward uninvolved group-members (potential third-parties). In conclusion, exploring VTA and ATA gives the opportunity to concurrently demonstrate some functional differences in triadic post-conflict affiliation according to the different targets of bystanders (victims or aggressors). The data comparison between primates and other social mammals should permit to open new lines of research. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Arctic lineage-canine distemper virus as a cause of death in Apennine wolves (Canis lupus) in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Sabatino, Daria; Lorusso, Alessio; Di Francesco, Cristina E; Gentile, Leonardo; Di Pirro, Vincenza; Bellacicco, Anna Lucia; Giovannini, Armando; Di Francesco, Gabriella; Marruchella, Giuseppe; Marsilio, Fulvio; Savini, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) infection is a primary threat affecting a wide number of carnivore species, including wild animals. In January 2013, two carcasses of Apennine wolves (Canis lupus) were collected in Ortona dei Marsi (L'Aquila province, Italy) by the local Veterinary Services. CDV was immediately identified either by RT-PCR or immunohistochemistry in lung and central nervous tissue samples. At the same time, severe clinical signs consistent with CDV infection were identified and taped (Videos S1-S3) from three wolves rescued in the areas surrounding the National Parks of the Abruzzi region by the Veterinary Services. The samples collected from these symptomatic animals also turned out CDV positive by RT-PCR. So far, 30 carcasses of wolves were screened and CDV was detected in 20 of them. The sequencing of the haemagglutinin gene and subsequent phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the identified virus belonged to the CDV Arctic lineage. Strains belonging to this lineage are known to circulate in Italy and in Eastern Europe amongst domestic dogs. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of CDV Arctic lineage epidemics in the wild population in Europe.

  14. Who are the real bird brains? Qualitative differences in behavioral flexibility between dogs (Canis familiaris) and pigeons (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laude, Jennifer R; Pattison, Kristina F; Rayburn-Reeves, Rebecca M; Michler, Daniel M; Zentall, Thomas R

    2016-01-01

    Pigeons given a simultaneous spatial discrimination reversal, in which a single reversal occurs at the mid