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Sample records for american cancer society

  1. American Cancer Society/American Society of Clinical Oncology Breast Cancer Survivorship Care Guideline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runowicz, Carolyn D; Leach, Corinne R; Henry, N Lynn; Henry, Karen S; Mackey, Heather T; Cowens-Alvarado, Rebecca L; Cannady, Rachel S; Pratt-Chapman, Mandi L; Edge, Stephen B; Jacobs, Linda A; Hurria, Arti; Marks, Lawrence B; LaMonte, Samuel J; Warner, Ellen; Lyman, Gary H; Ganz, Patricia A

    2016-02-20

    The purpose of the American Cancer Society/American Society of Clinical Oncology Breast Cancer Survivorship Care Guideline is to provide recommendations to assist primary care and other clinicians in the care of female adult survivors of breast cancer. A systematic review of the literature was conducted using PubMed through April 2015. A multidisciplinary expert workgroup with expertise in primary care, gynecology, surgical oncology, medical oncology, radiation oncology, and nursing was formed and tasked with drafting the Breast Cancer Survivorship Care Guideline. A total of 1,073 articles met inclusion criteria; and, after full text review, 237 were included as the evidence base. Patients should undergo regular surveillance for breast cancer recurrence, including evaluation with a cancer-related history and physical examination, and should be screened for new primary breast cancer. Data do not support performing routine laboratory tests or imaging tests in asymptomatic patients to evaluate for breast cancer recurrence. Primary care clinicians should counsel patients about the importance of maintaining a healthy lifestyle, monitor for post-treatment symptoms that can adversely affect quality of life, and monitor for adherence to endocrine therapy. Recommendations provided in this guideline are based on current evidence in the literature and expert consensus opinion. Most of the evidence is not sufficient to warrant a strong evidence-based recommendation. Recommendations on surveillance for breast cancer recurrence, screening for second primary cancers, assessment and management of physical and psychosocial long-term and late effects of breast cancer and its treatment, health promotion, and care coordination/practice implications are made.This guideline was developed through a collaboration between the American Cancer Society and the American Society of Clinical Oncology and has been published jointly by invitation and consent in both CA: A Cancer Journal for

  2. American Cancer Society: the world's wealthiest "nonprofit" institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, S S

    1999-01-01

    The American Cancer Society is fixated on damage control--diagnosis and treatment--and basic molecular biology, with indifference or even hostility to cancer prevention. This myopic mindset is compounded by interlocking conflicts of interest with the cancer drug, mammography, and other industries. The "nonprofit" status of the Society is in sharp conflict with its high overhead and expenses, excessive reserves of assets and contributions to political parties. All attempts to reform the Society over the past two decades have failed; a national economic boycott of the Society is long overdue.

  3. Graphic Narratives and Cancer Prevention: A Case Study of an American Cancer Society Comic Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakow, Melinda

    2017-05-01

    As the interest in graphic medicine grows, health communicators have started engaging readers with compelling visual and textual accounts of health and illness, including via comic books. One context where comics have shown promise is cancer communication. This brief report presents an early example of graphic medicine developed by the American Cancer Society. "Ladies … Wouldn't It Be Better to Know?" is a comic book produced in the 1960s to provide the public with lay information about the Pap test for cervical cancer prevention and detection. An analysis of a key narrative attribute, plot development, illustrates the central role that perceived barriers played in this midcentury public health message, a component that remains a consideration of cancer communication design today. This case study of an early graphic narrative identifies promising cancer message features that can be used to address and refute barriers to cervical cancer screening and connects contemporary research with historical efforts in public health communication.

  4. American brachytherapy society (ABS) guidelines for brachytherapy of esophageal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nag, Subir; Gaspar, Laurie; Herskovic, Arnold; Mantravadi, Prasad; Speiser, Burton

    1996-01-01

    Introduction: There is wide variation in the indications, techniques, treatment regimens and dosimetry being used to treat cancer of the esophagus and no guidelines exist for optimal therapy. Methods: The Clinical Research Committee of the ABS met to formulate consensus guidelines for brachytherapy in esophageal cancer. Results: Good candidates for brachytherapy include patients with unifocal disease, with thoracic tumor 10 cm primary regional lymph adenopathy or tumor located in the gastro-esophageal junction or cervical esophagus. Contraindications include tracheo-esophageal fistula or stenosis that cannot be by-passed. The esophageal or nasogastric tube inserted should have a diameter of 6-10 mm whenever possible. If 5FU-based chemotherapy and 50 Gy external beam (EBRT) are used, it is suggested that the low dose rate brachytherapy (LDR) dose be 20 Gy at 0.4-1 Gy/hr, prescribed at 1 cm from the source. If high dose rate (HDR) is used, the dose recommended is 10 Gy in 2 weekly fractions of 5 Gy each, given after EBRT. Chemotherapy is not usually given concurrently with brachytherapy, and when it is, the brachytherapy dose is reduced. The length of esophagus treated by brachytherapy includes the post-EBRT involved area and a 1-2 cm margin proximally and distally. Supportive care, given during EBRT includes an antifungal agent (e.g., diflucan) and carafate. Gradual dilatation of the esophagus is required post-treatment for esophageal strictures. Conclusion: Guidelines were developed for brachytherapy in esophageal cancer. As more clinical data becomes available, these guidelines will be updated by the ABS

  5. American Society of Echocardiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Society of Echocardiography Join Ase Renew Member Portal Log In Membership Member Portal Log In Join ASE Renew Benefits Rates FASE – Fellow of the American Society of Echocardiography Member Referral Program FAQs Initiatives Advocacy Awards, Grants, ...

  6. American Society of Clinical Oncology Policy Statement Update: Genetic and Genomic Testing for Cancer Susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Mark E; Bradbury, Angela R; Arun, Banu; Domchek, Susan M; Ford, James M; Hampel, Heather L; Lipkin, Stephen M; Syngal, Sapna; Wollins, Dana S; Lindor, Noralane M

    2015-11-01

    The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) has long affirmed that the recognition and management of individuals with an inherited susceptibility to cancer are core elements of oncology care. ASCO released its first statement on genetic testing in 1996 and updated that statement in 2003 and 2010 in response to developments in the field. In 2014, the Cancer Prevention and Ethics Committees of ASCO commissioned another update to reflect the impact of advances in this area on oncology practice. In particular, there was an interest in addressing the opportunities and challenges arising from the application of massively parallel sequencing-also known as next-generation sequencing-to cancer susceptibility testing. This technology introduces a new level of complexity into the practice of cancer risk assessment and management, requiring renewed effort on the part of ASCO to ensure that those providing care to patients with cancer receive the necessary education to use this new technology in the most effective, beneficial manner. The purpose of this statement is to explore the challenges of new and emerging technologies in cancer genetics and provide recommendations to ensure their optimal deployment in oncology practice. Specifically, the statement makes recommendations in the following areas: germline implications of somatic mutation profiling, multigene panel testing for cancer susceptibility, quality assurance in genetic testing, education of oncology professionals, and access to cancer genetic services. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  7. American Society of Clinical Oncology position statement on obesity and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligibel, Jennifer A; Alfano, Catherine M; Courneya, Kerry S; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Burger, Robert A; Chlebowski, Rowan T; Fabian, Carol J; Gucalp, Ayca; Hershman, Dawn L; Hudson, Melissa M; Jones, Lee W; Kakarala, Madhuri; Ness, Kirsten K; Merrill, Janette K; Wollins, Dana S; Hudis, Clifford A

    2014-11-01

    Rates of obesity have increased significantly over the last three decades in the United States and globally. In addition to contributing to heart disease and diabetes, obesity is a major unrecognized risk factor for cancer. Obesity is associated with worsened prognosis after cancer diagnosis and also negatively affects the delivery of systemic therapy, contributes to morbidity of cancer treatment, and may raise the risk of second malignancies and comorbidities. Research shows that the time after a cancer diagnosis can serve as a teachable moment to motivate individuals to adopt risk-reducing behaviors. For this reason, the oncology care team--the providers with whom a patient has the closest relationships in the critical period after a cancer diagnosis--is in a unique position to help patients lose weight and make other healthy lifestyle changes. The American Society of Clinical Oncology is committed to reducing the impact of obesity on cancer and has established a multipronged initiative to accomplish this goal by 1) increasing education and awareness of the evidence linking obesity and cancer; 2) providing tools and resources to help oncology providers address obesity with their patients; 3) building and fostering a robust research agenda to better understand the pathophysiology of energy balance alterations, evaluate the impact of behavior change on cancer outcomes, and determine the best methods to help cancer survivors make effective and useful changes in lifestyle behaviors; and 4) advocating for policy and systems change to address societal factors contributing to obesity and improve access to weight management services for patients with cancer. © 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  8. American Society of Clinical Oncology guidance statement: the cost of cancer care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meropol, Neal J; Schrag, Deborah; Smith, Thomas J; Mulvey, Therese M; Langdon, Robert M; Blum, Diane; Ubel, Peter A; Schnipper, Lowell E

    2009-08-10

    Advances in early detection, prevention, and treatment have resulted in consistently falling cancer death rates in the United States. In parallel with these advances have come significant increases in the cost of cancer care. It is well established that the cost of health care (including cancer care) in the United States is growing more rapidly than the overall economy. In part, this is a result of the prices and rapid uptake of new agents and other technologies, including advances in imaging and therapeutic radiology. Conventional understanding suggests that high prices may reflect the costs and risks associated with the development, production, and marketing of new drugs and technologies, many of which are valued highly by physicians, patients, and payers. The increasing cost of cancer care impacts many stakeholders who play a role in a complex health care system. Our patients are the most vulnerable because they often experience uneven insurance coverage, leading to financial strain or even ruin. Other key groups include pharmaceutical manufacturers that pass along research, development, and marketing costs to the consumer; providers of cancer care who dispense increasingly expensive drugs and technologies; and the insurance industry, which ultimately passes costs to consumers. Increasingly, the economic burden of health care in general, and high-quality cancer care in particular, will be less and less affordable for an increasing number of Americans unless steps are taken to curb current trends. The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) is committed to improving cancer prevention, diagnosis, and treatment and eliminating disparities in cancer care through support of evidence-based and cost-effective practices. To address this goal, ASCO established a Cost of Care Task Force, which has developed this Guidance Statement on the Cost of Cancer Care. This Guidance Statement provides a concise overview of the economic issues facing stakeholders in the cancer

  9. The American Society of Clinical Oncology's Efforts to Support Global Cancer Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Saghir, Nagi S.; Cufer, Tanja; Cazap, Eduardo; de Guzman, Roselle; Othieno-Abinya, Nicholas Anthony; Sanchez, Jose Angel; Pyle, Doug

    2016-01-01

    Despite much progress in the management of malignant diseases, the number of new cases and cancer-related deaths continues to rise around the world. More than half of new cases occur in economically developing countries, where more than two thirds of cancer deaths are expected. However, implementation of all necessary steps to accomplish the dissemination of state-of-the-art prevention, diagnosis, and management will require increased allocation of resources, and, more importantly, harmonization of the efforts of hundreds of national and international public health agencies, policy-setting bodies, governments, pharmaceutical companies, and philanthropic organizations. More than 30% of the members of the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) reside and practice outside US borders, and more than half of attendees at all of the scientific congresses and symposia organized by ASCO are international. As cancer has become an increasingly global disease, ASCO has evolved as a global organization. The ASCO Board of Directors currently includes members from France, Brazil, and Canada. In 2013, the ASCO Board of Directors identified a number of strategic priorities for the future. Recognizing the importance of non-US members to the society, their first strategic priority was improving the society's service to non-US members and defining these members' identity in the international oncology community. This article reviews current ASCO activities in the international arena and its future plans in global oncology. PMID:26578614

  10. American Epilepsy Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for the AES Annual Meeting. More info here . Epilepsy Currents American Epilepsy Society Journal Impact Factor More ... P450 enzyme overexpression during spontaneous recurrent seizures More Epilepsy Professional News AES Status Epilepticus guideline for treatment ...

  11. American Geriatrics Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Learn More Social Media Facebook Twitter LinkedIn Instagram Social Media Bar Right Menu Annual Meeting Donate to our Foundation Contact Us American Geriatrics Society 40 Fulton St., 18th Floor New York, NY ...

  12. American Society of Clinical Oncology/College of American Pathologists guideline recommendations for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 testing in breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolff, Antonio C.; Hammond, M. Elizabeth H.; Schwartz, Jared N.; Hagerty, Karen L.; Allred, D. Craig; Cote, Richard J.; Dowsett, Mitchell; Fitzgibbons, Patrick L.; Hanna, Wedad M.; Langer, Amy; McShane, Lisa M.; Paik, Soonmyung; Pegram, Mark D.; Perez, Edith A.; Press, Michael F.; Rhodes, Anthony; Sturgeon, Catharine; Taube, Sheila E.; Tubbs, Raymond; Vance, Gail H.; van de Vijver, Marc; Wheeler, Thomas M.; Hayes, Daniel F.

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: To develop a guideline to improve the accuracy of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) testing in invasive breast cancer and its utility as a predictive marker. METHODS: The American Society of Clinical Oncology and the College of American Pathologists convened an expert panel,

  13. Primary Prevention of Cervical Cancer: American Society of Clinical Oncology Resource-Stratified Guideline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvina Arrossi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To provide resource-stratified (four tiers, evidence-based recommendations on the primary prevention of cervical cancer globally. Methods: The American Society of Clinical Oncology convened a multidisciplinary, multinational panel of oncology, obstetrics/gynecology, public health, cancer control, epidemiology/biostatistics, health economics, behavioral/implementation science, and patient advocacy experts. The Expert Panel reviewed existing guidelines and conducted a modified ADAPTE process and a formal consensus-based process with additional experts (consensus ratings group for one round of formal ratings. Results: Existing sets of guidelines from five guideline developers were identified and reviewed; adapted recommendations formed the evidence base. Five systematic reviews, along with cost-effectiveness analyses, provided evidence to inform the formal consensus process, which resulted in agreement of ≥ 75%. Recommendations: In all resource settings, two doses of human papillomavirus vaccine are recommended for girls age 9 to 14 years, with an interval of at least 6 months and possibly up to 12 to 15 months. Individuals with HIV positivity should receive three doses. Maximal and enhanced settings: if girls are age ≥ 15 years and received their first dose before age 15 years, they may complete the series; if no doses were received before age 15 years, three doses should be administered; in both scenarios, vaccination may be through age 26 years. Limited and basic settings: if sufficient resources remain after vaccinating girls age 9 to 14 years, girls who received one dose may receive additional doses between age 15 and 26 years. Maximal, enhanced, and limited settings: if ≥ 50% coverage in the priority female target population, sufficient resources, and cost effectiveness, boys may be vaccinated to prevent other noncervical human papillomavirus–related cancers and diseases. Basic settings: vaccinating boys is not recommended

  14. Primary Prevention of Cervical Cancer: American Society of Clinical Oncology Resource-Stratified Guideline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrossi, Silvina; Temin, Sarah; Garland, Suzanne; Eckert, Linda O'Neal; Bhatla, Neerja; Castellsagué, Xavier; Alkaff, Sharifa Ezat; Felder, Tamika; Hammouda, Doudja; Konno, Ryo; Lopes, Gilberto; Mugisha, Emmanuel; Murillo, Rául; Scarinci, Isabel C; Stanley, Margaret; Tsu, Vivien; Wheeler, Cosette M; Adewole, Isaac Folorunso; de Sanjosé, Silvia

    2017-10-01

    To provide resource-stratified (four tiers), evidence-based recommendations on the primary prevention of cervical cancer globally. The American Society of Clinical Oncology convened a multidisciplinary, multinational panel of oncology, obstetrics/gynecology, public health, cancer control, epidemiology/biostatistics, health economics, behavioral/implementation science, and patient advocacy experts. The Expert Panel reviewed existing guidelines and conducted a modified ADAPTE process and a formal consensus-based process with additional experts (consensus ratings group) for one round of formal ratings. Existing sets of guidelines from five guideline developers were identified and reviewed; adapted recommendations formed the evidence base. Five systematic reviews, along with cost-effectiveness analyses, provided evidence to inform the formal consensus process, which resulted in agreement of ≥ 75%. In all resource settings, two doses of human papillomavirus vaccine are recommended for girls age 9 to 14 years, with an interval of at least 6 months and possibly up to 12 to 15 months. Individuals with HIV positivity should receive three doses. Maximal and enhanced settings: if girls are age ≥ 15 years and received their first dose before age 15 years, they may complete the series; if no doses were received before age 15 years, three doses should be administered; in both scenarios, vaccination may be through age 26 years. Limited and basic settings: if sufficient resources remain after vaccinating girls age 9 to 14 years, girls who received one dose may receive additional doses between age 15 and 26 years. Maximal, enhanced, and limited settings: if ≥ 50% coverage in the priority female target population, sufficient resources, and cost effectiveness, boys may be vaccinated to prevent other noncervical human papillomavirus-related cancers and diseases. Basic settings: vaccinating boys is not recommended. It is the view of the American Society of Clinical Oncology that

  15. Fertility Preservation for Patients With Cancer: American Society of Clinical Oncology Clinical Practice Guideline Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loren, Alison W.; Mangu, Pamela B.; Beck, Lindsay Nohr; Brennan, Lawrence; Magdalinski, Anthony J.; Partridge, Ann H.; Quinn, Gwendolyn; Wallace, W. Hamish; Oktay, Kutluk

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To update guidance for health care providers about fertility preservation for adults and children with cancer. Methods A systematic review of the literature published from March 2006 through January 2013 was completed using MEDLINE and the Cochrane Collaboration Library. An Update Panel reviewed the evidence and updated the recommendation language. Results There were 222 new publications that met inclusion criteria. A majority were observational studies, cohort studies, and case series or reports, with few randomized clinical trials. After review of the new evidence, the Update Panel concluded that no major, substantive revisions to the 2006 American Society of Clinical Oncology recommendations were warranted, but clarifications were added. Recommendations As part of education and informed consent before cancer therapy, health care providers (including medical oncologists, radiation oncologists, gynecologic oncologists, urologists, hematologists, pediatric oncologists, and surgeons) should address the possibility of infertility with patients treated during their reproductive years (or with parents or guardians of children) and be prepared to discuss fertility preservation options and/or to refer all potential patients to appropriate reproductive specialists. Although patients may be focused initially on their cancer diagnosis, the Update Panel encourages providers to advise patients regarding potential threats to fertility as early as possible in the treatment process so as to allow for the widest array of options for fertility preservation. The discussion should be documented. Sperm and embryo cryopreservation as well as oocyte cryopreservation are considered standard practice and are widely available. Other fertility preservation methods should be considered investigational and should be performed by providers with the necessary expertise. PMID:23715580

  16. American brachytherapy society (ABS) consensus guidelines for brachytherapy of esophageal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaspar, Laurie E.; Nag, Subir; Herskovic, Arnold; Mantravadi, Rao; Speiser, Burton

    1997-01-01

    Introduction: There is wide variation in the indications, treatment regimens, and dosimetry for brachytherapy in the treatment of cancer of the esophagus. No guidelines for optimal therapy currently exist. Methods and Materials: Utilizing published reports and clinical experience, representatives of the Clinical Research Committee of the American Brachytherapy Society (ABS) formulated guidelines for brachytherapy in esophageal cancer. Results: Recommendations were made for brachytherapy in the definitive and palliative treatment of esophageal cancer. (A) Definitive treatment: Good candidates for brachytherapy include patients with unifocal thoracic adeno- or squamous cancers ≤ 10 cm in length, with no evidence of intra-abdominal or metastatic disease. Contraindications include tracheal or bronchial involvement, cervical esophagus location, or stenosis that cannot be bypassed. The esophageal brachytherapy applicator should have an external diameter of 6-10 mm. If 5FU-based chemotherapy and 45-50-Gy external beam are used, recommended brachytherapy is either: (i) HDR 10 Gy in two weekly fractions of 5 Gy each; or (ii) LDR 20 Gy in a single course at 0.4-1 Gy/hr. All doses are specified 1 cm from the midsource or middwell position. Brachytherapy should follow external beam radiation therapy and should not be given concurrently with chemotherapy. (B) Palliative treatment: Patients with adeno- or squamous cancers of the thoracic esophagus with distant metastases or unresectable local disease progression/recurrence after definitive radiation treatment should be considered for brachytherapy with palliative intent. After limited dose (30 Gy) EBRT, the recommended brachytherapy is either: (i) HDR 10-14 Gy in one or two fractions; or (ii) LDR 20-25 Gy in a single course at 0.4-1 Gy/hr. The need for external beam radiation in newly diagnosed patients with a life expectancy of less than 3 months is controversial. In these cases, HDR of 15-20 Gy in two to four fractions or

  17. Tobacco control: reducing cancer incidence and saving lives. American Society of Clinical Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-06-01

    The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) supports the elimination of tobacco products. Toward that goal, ASCO urges the adoption of national policy that strengthens regulation of the sale, promotion, and distribution of such products. To reduce cancer mortality, our regulatory policies must recognize that the nicotine within tobacco is an addictive substance, the use of which leads to 30% of all cancer deaths and a total of 419,000 deaths each year. Tobacco-related advertising and promotion should be banned. At a minimum, national policies should: ban billboards; limit advertising to black and white text only; prohibit the sale or giveaway of products that contain tobacco brand names or logos; prohibit brand name sponsorship of sporting or entertainment events; and require stronger and more prominent warning labels on all tobacco products. Despite existing state laws prohibiting sale of tobacco products to minors, children are able to buy such products easily. National regulation of the sale and distribution of tobacco products is necessary to eliminate children's access to tobacco. Where sales are permitted, they should be limited to face-to-face purchases by individuals 18 and older. Vending machines and other means of distributing tobacco without a face-to-face purchase should be outlawed. To the extent tobacco sales are allowed to continue, the federal government should mandate that the tobacco industry contribute substantial funds for a national public education campaign to prevent young people from smoking and other tobacco use. ASCO has long advocated a substantial increase (in the range of $2) in the federal excise tax on cigarettes and other tobacco products- a measure known to decrease consumption, particularly among children. Revenue from a tax on tobacco products should be used to support retraining for tobacco farmers, biomedical research, health care delivery, and antitobacco education. United State trade policies should discourage the export

  18. American Society of Clinical Oncology/College Of American Pathologists guideline recommendations for immunohistochemical testing of estrogen and progesterone receptors in breast cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammond, M.E.; Hayes, D.F.; Dowsett, M.; Allred, D.C.; Hagerty, K.L.; Badve, S.; Fitzgibbons, P.L.; Francis, G.; Goldstein, N.S.; Hayes, M.; Hicks, D.G.; Lester, S.; Love, R.; Mangu, P.B.; McShane, L.; Miller, K.; Osborne, C.K.; Paik, S.; Perlmutter, J.; Rhodes, A.; Sasano, H.; Schwartz, J.N.; Sweep, F.C.; Taube, S.; Torlakovic, E.E.; Valenstein, P.; Viale, G.; Visscher, D.; Wheeler, T.; Williams, R.B.; Wittliff, J.L.; Wolff, A.C.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: To develop a guideline to improve the accuracy of immunohistochemical (IHC) estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PgR) testing in breast cancer and the utility of these receptors as predictive markers. METHODS: The American Society of Clinical Oncology and the College of

  19. American Society of Clinical Oncology/College of American Pathologists guideline recommendations for immunohistochemical testing of estrogen and progesterone receptors in breast cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammond, M.E.; Hayes, D.F.; Dowsett, M.; Allred, D.C.; Hagerty, K.L.; Badve, S.; Fitzgibbons, P.L.; Francis, G.; Goldstein, N.S.; Hayes, M.; Hicks, D.G.; Lester, S.; Love, R.; Mangu, P.B.; McShane, L.; Miller, K.; Osborne, C.K.; Paik, S.; Perlmutter, J.; Rhodes, A.; Sasano, H.; Schwartz, J.N.; Sweep, F.C.; Taube, S.; Torlakovic, E.E.; Valenstein, P.; Viale, G.; Visscher, D.; Wheeler, T.; Williams, R.B.; Wittliff, J.L.; Wolff, A.C.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: To develop a guideline to improve the accuracy of immunohistochemical (IHC) estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PgR) testing in breast cancer and the utility of these receptors as predictive markers. METHODS: The American Society of Clinical Oncology and the College of

  20. American Society of Clinical Oncology/College of American Pathologists guideline recommendations for immunohistochemical testing of estrogen and progesterone receptors in breast cancer (unabridged version).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammond, M.E.; Hayes, D.F.; Dowsett, M.; Allred, D.C.; Hagerty, K.L.; Badve, S.; Fitzgibbons, P.L.; Francis, G.; Goldstein, N.S.; Hayes, M.; Hicks, D.G.; Lester, S.; Love, R.; Mangu, P.B.; McShane, L.; Miller, K.; Osborne, C.K.; Paik, S.; Perlmutter, J.; Rhodes, A.; Sasano, H.; Schwartz, J.N.; Sweep, F.C.; Taube, S.; Torlakovic, E.E.; Valenstein, P.; Viale, G.; Visscher, D.; Wheeler, T.; Williams, R.B.; Wittliff, J.L.; Wolff, A.C.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: To develop a guideline to improve the accuracy of immunohistochemical (IHC) estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PgR) testing in breast cancer and the utility of these receptors as predictive markers. METHODS: The American Society of Clinical Oncology and the College of

  1. Promoting Employee Health Through an American Cancer Society Program, The CEOs Challenge, Washington State, 2013-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jeffrey R; Parrish, Amanda T; Kohn, Marlana; Hammerback, Kristen; McMillan, Becca; Hannon, Peggy A

    2015-12-17

    Evidence-based practices in the workplace can increase levels of healthy eating, cancer screening, physical activity, and tobacco cessation but are underused, even in large workplaces. This report summarizes an evaluation of the first year of The CEOs Challenge, a program developed by the American Cancer Society to promote implementation and maintenance of health-promoting, evidence-based workplace practices by large companies. Use of 17 evidence-based practices by 17 companies in the Washington State Chapter of the American Cancer Society's CEOs Against Cancer network was assessed via survey and scored from 0 to 100. Companies received a written report of their baseline performance, followed by at least quarterly consultations with American Cancer Society staff members trained to assist in implementation of these practices. Follow-up performance was measured at 1 year. At baseline, implementation scores were 54.8 for cancer screening, 46.5 for healthy eating, 59.8 for physical activity, and 68.2 for tobacco cessation. At follow-up, scores increased by 19.6 for cancer screening, 19.4 for healthy eating, 16.0 for physical activity, and 9.4 points for tobacco cessation. The CEOs Challenge is a promising approach to chronic disease prevention via the workplace. It brings together one of the nation's largest health-promoting voluntary agencies with the nation's largest employers to promote evidence-based practices targeted at the most common causes of disease and death. The program increased the adoption of these practices and was well-accepted.

  2. American Society of Clinical Oncology Policy Statement: The Role of the Oncologist in Cancer Prevention and Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zon, Robin T.; Goss, Elizabeth; Vogel, Victor G.; Chlebowski, Rowan T.; Jatoi, Ismail; Robson, Mark E.; Wollins, Dana S.; Garber, Judy E.; Brown, Powel; Kramer, Barnett S.

    2009-01-01

    Oncologists have a critical opportunity to utilize risk assessment and cancer prevention strategies to interrupt the initiation or progression of cancer in cancer survivors and individuals at high risk of developing cancer. Expanding knowledge about the natural history and prognosis of cancers positions oncologists to advise patients regarding the risk of second malignancies and treatment-related cancers. In addition, as recognized experts in the full spectrum of cancer care, oncologists are afforded opportunities for involvement in community-based cancer prevention activities. Although oncologists are currently providing many cancer prevention and risk assessment services to their patients, economic barriers exist, including inadequate or lack of insurance, that may compromise uniform patient access to these services. Additionally, insufficient reimbursement for existing and developing interventions may discourage patient access to these services. The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO), the medical society representing cancer specialists involved in patient care and clinical research, is committed to supporting oncologists in their wide-ranging involvement in cancer prevention. This statement on risk assessment and prevention counseling, although not intended to be a comprehensive overview of cancer prevention describes the current role of oncologists in risk assessment and prevention; provides examples of risk assessment and prevention activities that should be offered by oncologists; identifies potential opportunities for coordination between oncologists and primary care physicians in prevention education and coordination of care for cancer survivors; describes ASCO's involvement in education and training of oncologists regarding prevention; and proposes improvement in the payment environment to encourage patient access to these services. PMID:19075281

  3. Sociodemographic inequalities in barriers to cancer pain management: a report from the American Cancer Society's Study of Cancer Survivors-II (SCS-II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Kevin D; Alcaraz, Kassandra I; Kamson, Chelsey; Fallon, Elizabeth A; Smith, Tenbroeck G

    2016-10-01

    Research has increasingly documented sociodemographic inequalities in the assessment and management of cancer-related pain. Most studies have focused on racial/ethnic disparities, while less is known about the impact of other sociodemographic factors, including age and education. We analyzed data from a large, national, population-based study of cancer survivors to examine the influence of sociodemographic factors, and physical and mental health comorbidities on barriers to cancer pain management. The study included data from 4707 cancer survivors in the American Cancer Society's Study of Cancer Survivors-II, who reported experiencing pain from their cancer. A multilevel, socioecological, conceptual framework was used to generate a list of 15 barriers to pain management, representing patient, provider, and system levels. Separate multivariable logistic regressions for each barrier identified sociodemographic and health-related inequalities in cancer pain management, controlling for years since diagnosis, disease stage, and cancer treatment. Two-thirds of survivors reported at least 1 barrier to pain management. While patient-related barriers were most common, the greatest disparities were noted in provider- and system-level barriers. Specifically, inequalities by race/ethnicity, education, age, and physical and mental health comorbidities were observed. Findings indicate survivors who were nonwhite, less educated, older, and/or burdened by comorbidities were most adversely affected. Future efforts in research, clinical practice, and policy should identify and/or implement new strategies to address sociodemographic inequalities in cancer pain management. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. American Head and Neck Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... research and insights. Comments This field is for validation purposes and should be left unchanged. This iframe ... and Announcements Copyright ©2016 · American Head and Neck Society · Privacy and Return Policy Managed by BSC Management, ...

  5. Recommendations for Obesity Clinical Trials in Cancer Survivors: American Society of Clinical Oncology Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligibel, Jennifer A; Alfano, Catherine M; Hershman, Dawn; Ballard, Rachel M; Bruinooge, Suanna S; Courneya, Kerry S; Daniels, Elvan C; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Frank, Elizabeth S; Goodwin, Pamela J; Irwin, Melinda L; Levit, Laura A; McCaskill-Stevens, Worta; Minasian, Lori M; O'Rourke, Mark A; Pierce, John P; Stein, Kevin D; Thomson, Cynthia A; Hudis, Clifford A

    2015-11-20

    Observational evidence has established a relationship between obesity and cancer risk and outcomes. Interventional studies have demonstrated the feasibility and benefits of lifestyle change after cancer diagnosis, and guidelines recommend weight management and regular physical activity in cancer survivors; however, lifestyle interventions are not a routine part of cancer care. The ASCO Research Summit on Advancing Obesity Clinical Trials in Cancer Survivors sought to identify the knowledge gaps that clinical trials addressing energy balance factors in cancer survivors have not answered and to develop a roadmap for the design and implementation of studies with the potential to generate data that could lead to the evidence-based incorporation of weight management and physical activity programs into standard oncology practice. Recommendations highlight the need for large-scale trials evaluating the impact of energy balance interventions on cancer outcomes, as well as the concurrent conduct of studies focused on dissemination and implementation of interventions in diverse populations of cancer survivors, including answering critical questions about the degree of benefit in key subgroups of survivors. Other considerations include the importance of incorporating economic metrics into energy balance intervention trials, the need to establish intermediate biomarkers, and the importance of integrating traditional and nontraditional funding sources. Establishing lifestyle change after cancer diagnosis as a routine part of cancer care will require a multipronged effort to overcome barriers related to study development, funding, and stakeholder engagement. Given the prevalence of obesity and inactivity in cancer survivors in the United States and elsewhere, energy balance interventions hold the potential to reduce cancer morbidity and mortality in millions of patients, and it is essential that we move forward in determining their role in cancer care with the same care and

  6. American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) and American College of Radiology (ACR) Practice Guideline for the Transperineal Permanent Brachytherapy of Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenthal, Seth A.; Bittner, Nathan H.J.; Beyer, David C.; Demanes, D. Jeffrey; Goldsmith, Brian J.; Horwitz, Eric M.; Ibbott, Geoffrey S.; Lee, W. Robert; Nag, Subir; Suh, W. Warren; Potters, Louis

    2011-01-01

    Transperineal permanent prostate brachytherapy is a safe and efficacious treatment option for patients with organ-confined prostate cancer. Careful adherence to established brachytherapy standards has been shown to improve the likelihood of procedural success and reduce the incidence of treatment-related morbidity. A collaborative effort of the American College of Radiology (ACR) and American Society for Therapeutic Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) has produced a practice guideline for permanent prostate brachytherapy. The guideline defines the qualifications and responsibilities of all the involved personnel, including the radiation oncologist, physicist and dosimetrist. Factors with respect to patient selection and appropriate use of supplemental treatment modalities such as external beam radiation and androgen suppression therapy are discussed. Logistics with respect to the brachtherapy implant procedure, the importance of dosimetric parameters, and attention to radiation safety procedures and documentation are presented. Adherence to these practice guidelines can be part of ensuring quality and safety in a successful prostate brachytherapy program.

  7. Electronic nicotine delivery systems: a policy statement from the American Association for Cancer Research and the American Society of Clinical Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, Thomas H; Goniewicz, Maciej L; Hanna, Nasser H; Hatsukami, Dorothy K; Herbst, Roy S; Hobin, Jennifer A; Ostroff, Jamie S; Shields, Peter G; Toll, Benjamin A; Tyne, Courtney A; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula; Warren, Graham W

    2015-02-01

    Combustible tobacco use remains the number one preventable cause of disease, disability, and death in the United States. Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), which include e-cigarettes, are devices capable of delivering nicotine in an aerosolized form. ENDS use by both adults and youth has increased rapidly, and some have advocated these products could serve as harm-reduction devices and smoking cessation aids. ENDS may be beneficial if they reduce smoking rates or prevent or reduce the known adverse health effects of smoking. However, ENDS may also be harmful, particularly to youth, if they increase the likelihood that nonsmokers or formers smokers will use combustible tobacco products or if they discourage smokers from quitting. The American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) and the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) recognize the potential ENDS have to alter patterns of tobacco use and affect the public's health; however, definitive data are lacking. AACR and ASCO recommend additional research on these devices, including assessing the health impacts of ENDS, understanding patterns of ENDS use, and determining what role ENDS have in cessation. Key policy recommendations include supporting federal, state, and local regulation of ENDS; requiring manufacturers to register with the FDA and report all product ingredients, requiring childproof caps on ENDS liquids, and including warning labels on products and their advertisements; prohibiting youth-oriented marketing and sales; prohibiting child-friendly ENDS flavors; and prohibiting ENDS use in places where cigarette smoking is prohibited. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research and American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  8. International association for the study of lung cancer/american thoracic society/european respiratory society international multidisciplinary classification of lung adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, William D; Brambilla, Elisabeth; Noguchi, Masayuki; Nicholson, Andrew G; Geisinger, Kim R; Yatabe, Yasushi; Beer, David G; Powell, Charles A; Riely, Gregory J; Van Schil, Paul E; Garg, Kavita; Austin, John H M; Asamura, Hisao; Rusch, Valerie W; Hirsch, Fred R; Scagliotti, Giorgio; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya; Huber, Rudolf M; Ishikawa, Yuichi; Jett, James; Sanchez-Cespedes, Montserrat; Sculier, Jean-Paul; Takahashi, Takashi; Tsuboi, Masahiro; Vansteenkiste, Johan; Wistuba, Ignacio; Yang, Pan-Chyr; Aberle, Denise; Brambilla, Christian; Flieder, Douglas; Franklin, Wilbur; Gazdar, Adi; Gould, Michael; Hasleton, Philip; Henderson, Douglas; Johnson, Bruce; Johnson, David; Kerr, Keith; Kuriyama, Keiko; Lee, Jin Soo; Miller, Vincent A; Petersen, Iver; Roggli, Victor; Rosell, Rafael; Saijo, Nagahiro; Thunnissen, Erik; Tsao, Ming; Yankelewitz, David

    2011-02-01

    Adenocarcinoma is the most common histologic type of lung cancer. To address advances in oncology, molecular biology, pathology, radiology, and surgery of lung adenocarcinoma, an international multidisciplinary classification was sponsored by the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer, American Thoracic Society, and European Respiratory Society. This new adenocarcinoma classification is needed to provide uniform terminology and diagnostic criteria, especially for bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC), the overall approach to small nonresection cancer specimens, and for multidisciplinary strategic management of tissue for molecular and immunohistochemical studies. An international core panel of experts representing all three societies was formed with oncologists/pulmonologists, pathologists, radiologists, molecular biologists, and thoracic surgeons. A systematic review was performed under the guidance of the American Thoracic Society Documents Development and Implementation Committee. The search strategy identified 11,368 citations of which 312 articles met specified eligibility criteria and were retrieved for full text review. A series of meetings were held to discuss the development of the new classification, to develop the recommendations, and to write the current document. Recommendations for key questions were graded by strength and quality of the evidence according to the Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach. The classification addresses both resection specimens, and small biopsies and cytology. The terms BAC and mixed subtype adenocarcinoma are no longer used. For resection specimens, new concepts are introduced such as adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) and minimally invasive adenocarcinoma (MIA) for small solitary adenocarcinomas with either pure lepidic growth (AIS) or predominant lepidic growth with ≤ 5 mm invasion (MIA) to define patients who, if they undergo complete resection, will have 100% or near 100

  9. Sexism in modern American society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibraeva B. M.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available the authors of the article consider that modern life is still full of various stereotypes. One of the most controversial questions in this article is the issue of discrimination against women in contemporary American society, and it is hard to believe, because this country claims to be a main guarantor of the human rights and freedoms.

  10. American Brachytherapy Society Task Group Report: Combination of brachytherapy and external beam radiation for high-risk prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spratt, Daniel E; Soni, Payal D; McLaughlin, Patrick W; Merrick, Gregory S; Stock, Richard G; Blasko, John C; Zelefsky, Michael J

    To review outcomes for high-risk prostate cancer treated with combined modality radiation therapy (CMRT) utilizing external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) with a brachytherapy boost. The available literature for high-risk prostate cancer treated with combined modality radiation therapy was reviewed and summarized. At this time, the literature suggests that the majority of high-risk cancers are curable with multimodal treatment. Several large retrospective studies and three prospective randomized trials comparing CMRT to dose-escalated EBRT have demonstrated superior biochemical control with CMRT. Longer followup of the randomized trials will be required to determine if this will translate to a benefit in metastasis-free survival, disease-specific survival, and overall survival. Although greater toxicity has been associated with CMRT compared to EBRT, recent studies suggest that technological advances that allow better definition and sparing of critical adjacent structures as well as increasing experience with brachytherapy have improved implant quality and the toxicity profile of brachytherapy. The role of androgen deprivation therapy is well established in the external beam literature for high-risk disease, but there is controversy regarding the applicability of these data in the setting of dose escalation. At this time, there is not sufficient evidence for the omission of androgen deprivation therapy with dose escalation in this population. Comparisons with surgery remain limited by differences in patient selection, but the evidence would suggest better disease control with CMRT compared to surgery alone. Due to a series of technological advances, modern combination series have demonstrated unparalleled rates of disease control in the high-risk population. Given the evidence from recent randomized trials, combination therapy may become the standard of care for high-risk cancers. Copyright © 2016 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  11. Summary of presentations from the 46th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology: focus on non-small cell lung cancer (2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinchcombe, Thomas E; Baggstrom, Maria Q; Somaiah, Neeta; Simon, George R; Govindan, Ramaswamy

    2011-01-01

    The promising results of crizotinib in molecularly selected patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) whose tumor cells had a novel fusion protein involving anaplastic lymphoma kinase presented at the 2010 American Society of Clinical Oncology reinforce once again the importance of understanding molecular heterogeneity of lung cancer and careful patient selection. Several other important issues were the subject of presentations related to lung cancer at the recently concluded American Society of Clinical Oncology annual meeting. The articles covered a wide variety of topics including optimal staging techniques to detect mediastinal nodal involvement, the role of platinum-based doublet chemotherapy in the management of elderly patients with advanced NSCLC, use of maintenance therapy with gemcitabine, and the impact of early introduction of organized palliative care in improving the quality of life of patients with advanced NSCLC. This report provides a brief overview of the presentations related to lung cancer that are relevant to clinical practice and future research.

  12. Reference values of the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual Well-Being: a report from the American Cancer Society's studies of cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Alexis R; Salsman, John M; Stein, Kevin D; Cella, David

    2015-06-01

    Health-related quality of life measures are common in oncology research, trials, and practice. Spiritual well-being has emerged as an important aspect of health-related quality of life and the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual Well-Being; The 12-item Spiritual Well-Being Scale (FACIT-Sp-12) is the most widely used measure of spiritual well-being among those with cancer. However, there is an absence of reference values with which to facilitate the interpretation of scores in research and clinical practice. The objective of the current study was to provide FACIT-Sp-12 reference values from a representative sample of adult cancer survivors. As part of the American Cancer Society's Study of Cancer Survivors-II, a national cross-sectional study of cancer survivors (8864 survivors) completed questionnaires assessing demographic characteristics, clinical information, and the FACIT-Sp-12. Scores were calculated and summarized by FACIT-Sp-12 subscale and total scores across age, sex, race/ethnicity, time after treatment, and cancer type. Student t tests for independent samples found that women reported significantly higher FACIT-Sp-12 scores (P<.001). Analyses of variance found significant main effects for FACIT-Sp-12 scores by age (P<.01), race/ethnicity (P<.05), and cancer type (P<.001). Post hoc comparisons revealed that older adults (those aged 60-69 years and 70-79 years) and black non-Hispanic individuals reported the highest FACIT-Sp-12 scores compared with those aged 18 to 39 years (P<.05; Cohen d [an effect size used to indicate the standardized difference between 2 means], 0.20-0.50) and white non-Hispanic individuals (P<.05; Cohen d, 0.02-0.62), respectively. All other significant main effects were small in magnitude (effect size range, 0.001-0.032). These data will aid in the interpretation of the magnitude and meaning of FACIT-Sp-12 scores, and allow for comparisons of scores across studies. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  13. Clinical Cancer Advances 2018: Annual Report on Progress Against Cancer From the American Society of Clinical Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymach, John; Krilov, Lada; Alberg, Anthony; Baxter, Nancy; Chang, Susan Marina; Corcoran, Ryan; Dale, William; DeMichele, Angela; Magid Diefenbach, Catherine S; Dreicer, Robert; Epstein, Andrew S; Gillison, Maura L; Graham, David L; Jones, Joshua; Ko, Andrew H; Lopez, Ana Maria; Maki, Robert G; Rodriguez-Galindo, Carlos; Schilsky, Richard L; Sznol, Mario; Westin, Shannon Neville; Burstein, Harold

    2018-04-01

    A MESSAGE FROM ASCO'S PRESIDENT I remember when ASCO first conceived of publishing an annual report on the most transformative research occurring in cancer care. Thirteen reports later, the progress we have chronicled is remarkable, and this year is no different. The research featured in ASCO's Clinical Cancer Advances 2018 report underscores the impressive gains in our understanding of cancer and in our ability to tailor treatments to tumors' genetic makeup. The ASCO 2018 Advance of the Year, adoptive cell immunotherapy, allows clinicians to genetically reprogram patients' own immune cells to find and attack cancer cells throughout the body. Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy-a type of adoptive cell immunotherapy-has led to remarkable results in young patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and in adults with lymphoma and multiple myeloma. Researchers are also exploring this approach in other types of cancer. This advance would not be possible without robust federal investment in cancer research. The first clinical trial of CAR T-cell therapy in children with ALL was funded, in part, by grants from the National Cancer Institute (NCI), and researchers at the NCI Center for Cancer Research were the first to report on possible CAR T-cell therapy for multiple myeloma. These discoveries follow decades of prior research on immunology and cancer biology, much of which was supported by federal dollars. In fact, many advances that are highlighted in the 2018 Clinical Cancer Advances report were made possible thanks to our nation's support for biomedical research. Funding from the US National Institutes of Health and the NCI helps researchers pursue critical patient care questions and addresses vital, unmet needs that private industry has little incentive to take on. Federally supported cancer research generates the biomedical innovations that fuel the development and availability of new and improved treatments for patients. We need sustained federal

  14. Systemic therapy in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer:American Society of Clinical Oncology and Cancer Care Ontario clinical practice guideline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Ethan; Loblaw, D Andrew; Oliver, Thomas K; Carducci, Michael; Chen, Ronald C; Frame, James N; Garrels, Kristina; Hotte, Sebastien; Kattan, Michael W; Raghavan, Derek; Saad, Fred; Taplin, Mary-Ellen; Walker-Dilks, Cindy; Williams, James; Winquist, Eric; Bennett, Charles L; Wootton, Ted; Rumble, R Bryan; Dusetzina, Stacie B; Virgo, Katherine S

    2014-10-20

    To provide treatment recommendations for men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). The American Society of Clinical Oncology and Cancer Care Ontario convened an expert panel to develop evidence-based recommendations informed by a systematic review of the literature. When added to androgen deprivation, therapies demonstrating improved survival, improved quality of life (QOL), and favorable benefit-harm balance include abiraterone acetate/prednisone, enzalutamide, and radium-223 ((223)Ra; for men with predominantly bone metastases). Improved survival and QOL with moderate toxicity risk are associated with docetaxel/prednisone. For asymptomatic/minimally symptomatic men, improved survival with unclear QOL impact and low toxicity are associated with sipuleucel-T. For men who previously received docetaxel, improved survival, unclear QOL impact, and moderate to high toxicity risk are associated with cabazitaxel/prednisone. Modest QOL benefit (without survival benefit) and high toxicity risk are associated with mitoxantrone/prednisone after docetaxel. No benefit and excess toxicity are observed with bevacizumab, estramustine, and sunitinib. Continue androgen deprivation (pharmaceutical or surgical) indefinitely. Abiraterone acetate/prednisone, enzalutamide, or (223)Ra should be offered; docetaxel/prednisone should also be offered, accompanied by discussion of toxicity risk. Sipuleucel-T may be offered to asymptomatic/minimally symptomatic men. For men who have experienced progression with docetaxel, cabazitaxel may be offered, accompanied by discussion of toxicity risk. Mitoxantrone may be offered, accompanied by discussion of limited clinical benefit and toxicity risk. Ketoconazole or antiandrogens (eg, bicalutamide, flutamide, nilutamide) may be offered, accompanied by discussion of limited known clinical benefit. Bevacizumab, estramustine, and sunitinib should not be offered. There is insufficient evidence to evaluate optimal sequences or

  15. The Black Man in American Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Framingham Public Schools, MA.

    GRADE OR AGES: Junior high school. SUBJECT MATTER: The black man in American society. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: There are four major parts each with an overview. The four parts concern a) the African heritage of the black man, b) the American exploitation of the black man, c) the black man's contribution to American society, d) the…

  16. American Society of Clinical Oncology Position Statement: Strategies for Reducing Cancer Health Disparities Among Sexual and Gender Minority Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griggs, Jennifer; Maingi, Shail; Blinder, Victoria; Denduluri, Neelima; Khorana, Alok A; Norton, Larry; Francisco, Michael; Wollins, Dana S; Rowland, Julia H

    2017-07-01

    ASCO is committed to addressing the needs of sexual and gender minority (SGM) populations as a diverse group at risk for receiving disparate care and having suboptimal experiences, including discrimination, throughout the cancer care continuum. This position statement outlines five areas of recommendations to address the needs of both SGM populations affected by cancer and members of the oncology workforce who identify as SGM: (1) patient education and support; (2) workforce development and diversity; (3) quality improvement strategies; (4) policy solutions; and (5) research strategies. In making these recommendations, the Society calls for increased outreach and educational support for SGM patients; increased SGM cultural competency training for providers; improvement of quality-of-care metrics that include sexual orientation and gender information variables; and increased data collection to inform future work addressing the needs of SGM communities.

  17. Topic Modeling of Smoking- and Cessation-Related Posts to the American Cancer Society's Cancer Survivor Network (CSN): Implications for Cessation Treatment for Cancer Survivors Who Smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westmaas, J Lee; McDonald, Bennett R; Portier, Kenneth M

    2017-08-01

    Smoking is a risk factor in at least 18 cancers, and approximately two-thirds of cancer survivors continue smoking following diagnosis. Text mining of survivors' online posts related to smoking and quitting could inform strategies to reduce smoking in this vulnerable population. We identified posts containing smoking/cessation-related keywords from the Cancer Survivors Network (CSN), an online cancer survivor community of 166 000 members and over 468 000 posts since inception. Unsupervised topic model analysis of posts since 2000 using Latent Dirichlet Allocation extracted 70 latent topics which two subject experts inspected for themes based on representative terms. Posterior analysis assessed the distribution of topics within posts, and the range of themes discussed across posts. Less than 1% of posts (n = 3998) contained smoking/cessation-related terms, and covered topics related to cancer diagnoses, treatments, and coping. The most frequent smoking-related topics were quit smoking methods (5.4% of posts), and the environment for quitters (2.9% of posts), such as the stigma associated with being a smoker diagnosed with cancer and lack of empathy experienced compared to nonsmokers. Smoking as a risk factor for one's diagnosis was a primary topic in only 1.7% of smoking/cessation-related posts. The low frequency of smoking/cessation-related posts may be due to expected criticism/stigma for smoking but may also suggests a need for health care providers to address smoking and assist with quitting in the diagnostic and treatment process. Topic model analysis revealed potential barriers that should be addressed in devising clinical or population-level interventions for cancer survivors who smoke. Although smoking is a major risk factor for cancer, little is known about cancer patients' or survivors' views or concerns about smoking and quitting. This study used text mining of posts to an online community of cancer patients and survivors to investigate contexts in which

  18. The American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Treatment of Colon Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Jon D; Eskicioglu, Cagla; Weiser, Martin R; Feingold, Daniel L; Steele, Scott R

    2017-10-01

    The American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons is dedicated to ensuring high-quality patient care by advancing the science, prevention, and management of disorders and diseases of the colon, rectum, and anus. The Clinical Practice Guidelines Committee is composed of society members who are chosen because they have demonstrated expertise in the specialty of colon and rectal surgery. This committee was created to lead international efforts in defining quality care for conditions related to the colon, rectum, and anus. This is accompanied by developing Clinical Practice Guidelines based on the best available evidence. These guidelines are inclusive and not prescriptive. Their purpose is to provide information on which decisions can be made, rather than to dictate a specific form of treatment. These guidelines are intended for the use of all practitioners, health care workers, and patients who desire information about the management of the conditions addressed by the topics covered in these guidelines. It should be recognized that these guidelines should not be deemed inclusive of all proper methods of care or exclusive of methods of care reasonably directed to obtaining the same results. The ultimate judgment regarding the propriety of any specific procedure must be made by the physician in light of all the circumstances presented by the individual patient.

  19. An Official American Thoracic Society Research Statement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slatore, Christopher G; Horeweg, Nanda; Jett, James R

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pulmonary nodules are frequently detected during diagnostic chest imaging and as a result of lung cancer screening. Current guidelines for their evaluation are largely based on low-quality evidence, and patients and clinicians could benefit from more research in this area. METHODS......: In this research statement from the American Thoracic Society, a multidisciplinary group of clinicians, researchers, and patient advocates reviewed available evidence for pulmonary nodule evaluation, characterized six focus areas to direct future research efforts, and identified fundamental gaps in knowledge...... demographic and nodule characteristics with patient-level outcomes. Methods to share data from registries are also necessary. CONCLUSIONS: This statement may help researchers to develop impactful and innovative research projects and enable funders to better judge research proposals. We hope...

  20. American Vacuum Society: A multidisciplinary organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beavis, L.C.

    1979-01-01

    This presentation is based upon that which was to be given by the Society President at the 25th National Symposium of the American Vacuum Society, 29 November 1978, in San Francisco, California. The talk to the Society by its President was an innovation of the 1979 Program Committee. The intention is that such a presentation be given each year at the awards acceptance plenary session along with those of the Welch and, when appropriate, Gaede--Langmuir awards. To be discussed are the recent highlights of Society activity, the direction the Society is taking, and an example of the multidisciplinary activities of Society members

  1. Recommendations on disease management for patients with advanced human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive breast cancer and brain metastases: American Society of Clinical Oncology clinical practice guideline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishna, Naren; Temin, Sarah; Chandarlapaty, Sarat; Crews, Jennie R; Davidson, Nancy E; Esteva, Francisco J; Giordano, Sharon H; Gonzalez-Angulo, Ana M; Kirshner, Jeffrey J; Krop, Ian; Levinson, Jennifer; Modi, Shanu; Patt, Debra A; Perez, Edith A; Perlmutter, Jane; Winer, Eric P; Lin, Nancy U

    2014-07-01

    To provide formal expert consensus-based recommendations to practicing oncologists and others on the management of brain metastases for patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) -positive advanced breast cancer. The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) convened a panel of medical oncology, radiation oncology, guideline implementation, and advocacy experts and conducted a systematic review of the literature. When that failed to yield sufficiently strong quality evidence, the Expert Panel undertook a formal expert consensus-based process to produce these recommendations. ASCO used a modified Delphi process. The panel members drafted recommendations, and a group of other experts joined them for two rounds of formal ratings of the recommendations. No studies or existing guidelines met the systematic review criteria; therefore, ASCO conducted a formal expert consensus-based process. Patients with brain metastases should receive appropriate local therapy and systemic therapy, if indicated. Local therapies include surgery, whole-brain radiotherapy, and stereotactic radiosurgery. Treatments depend on factors such as patient prognosis, presence of symptoms, resectability, number and size of metastases, prior therapy, and whether metastases are diffuse. Other options include systemic therapy, best supportive care, enrollment onto a clinical trial, and/or palliative care. Clinicians should not perform routine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to screen for brain metastases, but rather should have a low threshold for MRI of the brain because of the high incidence of brain metastases among patients with HER2-positive advanced breast cancer. © 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  2. American Society of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Learn More Explore career opportunities in pediatric hematology/oncology Visit the ASPHO Career Center. Learn More Join ... Privacy Policy » © The American Society of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology

  3. Screening Mammography for Women in Their 40s: The Potential Impact of the American Cancer Society and U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Breast Cancer Screening Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitman, Jenifer A; McGinty, Geraldine B; Soman, Rohan R; Drotman, Michele B; Reichman, Melissa B; Arleo, Elizabeth Kagan

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to review screening mammograms obtained in one practice with the primary endpoint of determining the rate of detection of breast cancer and associated prognostic features in women 40-44 and 45-49 years old. The retrospective cohort study included women in their 40s with breast cancer detected at screening from June 2014 through May 2016. The focus was on cancer detection rate, pathologic findings, and risk factors. A total of 32,762 screens were performed, and 808 biopsies were recommended. These biopsies yielded 224 breast cancers (cancer detection rate, 6.84 per 1000 screens). Women 40-49 years old had 18.8% of cancers detected; 50-59 years, 21.8%; 60-69 years, 32.6%; and 70-79 years, 21.4%. Among the 40- to 49-year-old women, women 40-44 years old underwent 5481 (16.7%) screens, had 132 biopsies recommended, and had 20 breast cancers detected (cancer detection rate, 3.6/1000). Women 45-49 years old underwent 5319 (16.2%) screens, had 108 biopsies recommended, and had 22 breast cancers detected (cancer detection rate, 4.1/1000). Thus, women 40-44 years old had 8.9% and women 45-49 years old had 9.8% of all screen-detected breast cancers. Of these only a small percentage of women with detected cancers had a first-degree relative with breast cancer (40-44 years, 15%; 45-49 years, 32%) or a BRCA mutation (40-44 years, 5%; 45-49 years, 5%), and over 60% of the cancers were invasive. Women 40-49 years old had 18.8% of all screen-detected breast cancers. The two cohorts (40-44 and 45-49 years old) had similar incidences of screen-detected breast cancer (8.9%, 9.8%) and cancer detection rates within performance benchmark standards, supporting a similar recommendation for both cohorts and the American College of Radiology recommendation of annual screening mammography starting at age 40.

  4. Conducting Cancer Control and Survivorship Research via Cooperative Groups: A Report from the American Society of Preventive Oncology

    OpenAIRE

    Palesh, Oxana; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Mustian, Karen; Minasian, Lori; Rowland, Julia; Sprod, Lisa; Janelsins, Michelle; Peppone, Luke; Sloan, Jeff; Engquist, Karen Basen; Jones, Lee; Buist, Diana; Paskett, Electra

    2011-01-01

    As the number of cancer survivors expands, the need for cancer control and survivorship research becomes increasingly important. The National Cancer Institute (NCI) Cooperative Groups may offer a viable platform to perform such research. Observational, preventive, and behavioral research can often be performed within the cooperative group setting, especially if resources needed for evaluation are fairly simple, if protocols are easily implemented within the typical clinical setting, and if in...

  5. Are the American Society for Radiation Oncology Guidelines Accurate Predictors of Recurrence in Early Stage Breast Cancer Patients Treated with Balloon-Based Brachytherapy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moira K. Christoudias

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO consensus statement (CS provides guidelines for patient selection for accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI following breast conserving surgery. The purpose of this study was to evaluate recurrence rates based on ASTRO CS groupings. A single institution review of 238 early stage breast cancer patients treated with balloon-based APBI via balloon based brachytherapy demonstrated a 4-year actuarial ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR rate of 5.1%. There were no significant differences in the 4-year actuarial IBTR rates between the “suitable,” “cautionary,” and “unsuitable” ASTRO categories (0%, 7.2%, and 4.3%, resp., P=0.28. ER negative tumors had higher rates of IBTR than ER positive tumors. The ASTRO groupings are poor predictors of patient outcomes. Further studies evaluating individual clinicopathologic features are needed to determine the safety of APBI in higher risk patients.

  6. American Society of Clinical Oncology Clinical Practice Guideline Update on Chemotherapy for Stage IV Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Azzoli, Christopher G.; Giaccone, Giuseppe; Temin, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    ASCO published a guideline on use of chemotherapy in advanced stage non–small-cell lung cancer in 1997. The latest update covers treatment with chemotherapy and biologic agents and reviews literature from 2002 to 2009.

  7. Increasing Breast Cancer Surveillance among African American Breast Cancer Survivors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thompson, Hayley

    2005-01-01

    ...; they also are at considerable risk for breast cancer recurrence. According to the American Society of Clinical Oncology, survivors should undergo careful breast cancer surveillance, including annual mammography and breast self-exam...

  8. Conducting cancer control and survivorship research via cooperative groups: a report from the American Society of Preventive Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palesh, Oxana; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Mustian, Karen; Minasian, Lori; Rowland, Julia; Sprod, Lisa; Janelsins, Michelle; Peppone, Luke; Sloan, Jeff; Engquist, Karen Basen; Jones, Lee; Buist, Diana; Paskett, Electra D

    2011-05-01

    As the number of cancer survivors expands, the need for cancer control and survivorship research becomes increasingly important. The National Cancer Institute (NCI) Cooperative Groups may offer a viable platform to perform such research. Observational, preventive, and behavioral research can often be performed within the cooperative group setting, especially if resources needed for evaluation are fairly simple, if protocols are easily implemented within the typical clinical setting, and if interventions are well standardized. Some protocols are better suited to cooperative groups than are others, and there are advantages and disadvantages to conducting survivorship research within the cooperative group setting. Behavioral researchers currently involved in cooperative groups, as well as program staff within the NCI, can serve as sources of information for those wishing to pursue symptom management and survivorship studies within the clinical trial setting. The structure of the cooperative groups is currently changing, but going forward, survivorship is bound to be a topic of interest and one that perhaps may be more easily addressed using the proposed more centralized structure. ©2011 AACR.

  9. A practice guideline from the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics and the National Society of Genetic Counselors: referral indications for cancer predisposition assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampel, Heather; Bennett, Robin L; Buchanan, Adam; Pearlman, Rachel; Wiesner, Georgia L

    2015-01-01

    The practice guidelines of the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) and the National Society of Genetic Counselors (NSGC) are developed by members of the ACMG and NSGC to assist medical geneticists, genetic counselors, and other health-care providers in making decisions about appropriate management of genetic concerns, including access to and/or delivery of services. Each practice guideline focuses on a clinical or practice-based issue and is the result of a review and analysis of current professional literature believed to be reliable. As such, information and recommendations within the ACMG and NSGC joint practice guidelines reflect the current scientific and clinical knowledge at the time of publication, are current only as of their publication date, and are subject to change without notice as advances emerge. In addition, variations in practice, which take into account the needs of the individual patient and the resources and limitations unique to the institution or type of practice, may warrant approaches, treatments, and/or procedures that differ from the recommendations outlined in this guideline. Therefore, these recommendations should not be construed as dictating an exclusive course of management, nor does the use of such recommendations guarantee a particular outcome. Genetic counseling practice guidelines are never intended to displace a health-care provider's best medical judgment based on the clinical circumstances of a particular patient or patient population. Practice guidelines are published by the ACMG or the NSGC for educational and informational purposes only, and neither the ACMG nor the NSGC "approve" or "endorse" any specific methods, practices, or sources of information.Cancer genetic consultation is an important aspect of the care of individuals at increased risk of a hereditary cancer syndrome. Yet several patient, clinician, and system-level barriers hinder identification of individuals appropriate for cancer genetics

  10. Follow-up care, surveillance protocol, and secondary prevention measures for survivors of colorectal cancer: American Society of Clinical Oncology clinical practice guideline endorsement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyerhardt, Jeffrey A; Mangu, Pamela B; Flynn, Patrick J; Korde, Larissa; Loprinzi, Charles L; Minsky, Bruce D; Petrelli, Nicholas J; Ryan, Kim; Schrag, Deborah H; Wong, Sandra L; Benson, Al B

    2013-12-10

    The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) has a policy and set of procedures for endorsing recent clinical practice guidelines that have been developed by other professional organizations. The Cancer Care Ontario (CCO) Guideline on Follow-up Care, Surveillance Protocol, and Secondary Prevention Measures for Survivors of Colorectal Cancer was reviewed by ASCO for methodologic rigor and considered for endorsement. The ASCO Panel concurred with the CCO recommendations and recommended endorsement, with the addition of several qualifying statements. Surveillance should be guided by presumed risk of recurrence and functional status of the patient (important within the first 2 to 4 years). Medical history, physical examination, and carcinoembryonic antigen testing should be performed every 3 to 6 months for 5 years. Patients at higher risk of recurrence should be considered for testing in the more frequent end of the range. A computed tomography scan (abdominal and chest) is recommended annually for 3 years, in most cases. Positron emission tomography scans should not be used for surveillance outside of a clinical trial. A surveillance colonoscopy should be performed 1 year after the initial surgery and then every 5 years, dictated by the findings of the previous one. If a colonoscopy was not preformed before diagnosis, it should be done after completion of adjuvant therapy (before 1 year). Secondary prevention (maintaining a healthy body weight and active lifestyle) is recommended. If a patient is not a candidate for surgery or systemic therapy because of severe comorbid conditions, surveillance tests should not be performed. A treatment plan from the specialist should have clear directions on appropriate follow-up by a nonspecialist.

  11. The American nuclear Society's educational outreach programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zacha, N.J.

    1994-01-01

    The American Nuclear Society has an extensive program of public educational outreach in the area of nuclear science and technology. A teacher workshop program provides up to five days of hands-on experiments, lectures, field trips, and lesson plan development for grades 6-12 educators. Curriculum materials have been developed for students in grades kindergarten through grade 12. A textbook review effort provides reviews of existing textbooks as well as draft manuscripts and textbook proposals, to ensure that the information covered on nuclear science and technology is accurate and scientifically sound

  12. Relationship of epidermal growth factor receptor activating mutations with histologic subtyping according to International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer/American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society 2011 adenocarcinoma classification and their impact on overall survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkata Nagarjuna Maturu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is limited Indian data on epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR gene activating mutations (AMs prevalence and their clinicopathologic associations. The current study aimed to assess the relationship between EGFR AM and histologic subtypes and their impact on overall survival (OS in a North Indian cohort. Patients and Methods: Retrospective analysis of nonsmall cell lung cancer patients who underwent EGFR mutation testing (n = 186 over 3 years period (2012-2014. EGFR mutations were tested using polymerase chain reaction amplification and direct sequencing. Patients were classified as EGFR AM, EGFR wild type (WT or EGFR unknown (UKN. Histologically adenocarcinomas (ADC were further categorized as per the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer/American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society-2011 classification. Results: Overall EGFR AM prevalence was 16.6%. The ratio of exon 19 deletions to exon 21 L858R mutations was 3.17:1. Female sex (P = 0.002, never smoking status (P = 0.002, metastatic disease (P = 0.032, and nonsolid subtype of ADC (P = 0.001 were associated with EGFR AM on univariate logistic regression analysis (LRA. On multivariate LRA, solid ADC was negatively associated with EGFR AM. Median OS was higher in patients with EGFR AM (750 days as compared to EGFR-WT (459 days or EGFR-UKN (291 days for the overall population and in patients with Stage IV disease (750 days vs. 278 days for EGFR-WT, P = 0.024. On univariate Cox proportional hazard (CPH analysis, smoking, poor performance status (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group ≥ 2, EGFR-UKN status, and solid ADC were associated with worse OS while female sex and lepidic ADC had better OS. On multivariate CPH analysis, lepidic ADC (hazard ratio [HR] =0.12 and EGFR-WT/EGFR-UKN (HR = 2.39 and HR = 3.30 respectively were independently associated with OS in separate analyses. Conclusions: Histologic subtyping of ADC performed on small biopsies is

  13. American Nuclear Society exchanges of information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Temple, O.J.

    2000-01-01

    Many are familiar with the technical journals and other publications that American Nuclear Society (ANS) members receive. However, there is a whole series of documents that is helpful to any nuclear society group for a modest fee or no fee. The author is referring to documents such as the ANS Bylaws and Rules, which have been made available to almost every existing nuclear society in the world. He remembers working with groups from Russia, Europe, China, Japan, Brazil, France, Germany, and others when they sought the experience of ANS in establishing a society. Financial planning guides are available for meetings, international conferences, technical expositions, and teacher workshops. Periodically, the ANS publishes position papers on the uses and handling of fuel materials and other publications helpful to public relations and teacher training courses. A few have had distributions in the hundreds of thousands, and one went as high as 750,000. Some of these have been translated in part into Spanish, French, Portuguese, and Japanese. Nuclear Standards are developed by a series of ANS committees consisting of about 1000 experts--the largest technical operation of ANS. Buyers guides and directories are very helpful in promoting the commerce in the nuclear industry. The Utility Directory covers utilities all over the globe. Radwaste Solutions, the new name for the former Radwaste Magazine, covers the efforts made by all sectors--private, government, and utility--to deal with radioactive waste. In the author's opinion, the one area in which all societies are weak is in interfacing with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Since his retirement 9 yr ago, he has become much more aware of the IAEA as a news and technical information source. The ANS is trying to be more aware of what the IAEA is doing for everyone

  14. Cancer statistics for African Americans, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSantis, Carol; Naishadham, Deepa; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2013-05-01

    In this article, the American Cancer Society estimates the number of new cancer cases and deaths for African Americans and compiles the most recent data on cancer incidence, mortality, survival, and screening prevalence based upon incidence data from the National Cancer Institute, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries and mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics. It is estimated that 176,620 new cases of cancer and 64,880 deaths will occur among African Americans in 2013. From 2000 to 2009, the overall cancer death rate among males declined faster among African Americans than whites (2.4% vs 1.7% per year), but among females, the rate of decline was similar (1.5% vs 1.4% per year, respectively). The decrease in cancer death rates among African American males was the largest of any racial or ethnic group. The reduction in overall cancer death rates since 1990 in men and 1991 in women translates to the avoidance of nearly 200,000 deaths from cancer among African Americans. Five-year relative survival is lower for African Americans than whites for most cancers at each stage of diagnosis. The extent to which these disparities reflect unequal access to health care versus other factors remains an active area of research. Overall, progress in reducing cancer death rates has been made, although more can and should be done to accelerate this progress through ensuring equitable access to cancer prevention, early detection, and state-of-the-art treatments. Copyright © 2013 American Cancer Society, Inc.

  15. Re-examining the Contributions of Faith, Meaning, and Peace to Quality of Life: a Report from the American Cancer Society's Studies of Cancer Survivors-II (SCS-II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canada, Andrea L; Murphy, Patricia E; Fitchett, George; Stein, Kevin

    2016-02-01

    Prior research on spirituality in cancer survivors has often failed to distinguish the specific contributions of faith, meaning, and peace, dimensions of spiritual well-being, to quality of life (QoL), and has misinterpreted mediation analyses with these indices. We hypothesized a model in which faith would have a significant indirect effect on survivors' functional QoL, mediated through meaning and/or peace. Data were from the American Cancer Society's Study of Cancer Survivors-II (N = 8405). Mediation analyses were conducted with the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual Well-being Scale (FACIT-Sp) predicting the mental component summary (i.e., mental functioning) as well as the physical component summary (i.e., physical functioning) of the SF-36. The indirect effect of faith through meaning on mental functioning, 0.4303 (95 % CI, 0.3988, 0.4649), and the indirect effect of faith through meaning and peace on physical functioning, 0.1769 (95 % CI, 0.1505, 0.2045), were significant. The study findings suggest that faith makes a significant contribution to cancer survivors' functional QoL. Should future longitudinal research replicate these findings, investigators may need to reconsider the role of faith in oncology QoL studies.

  16. Electronic Publishing and The American Astronomical Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milkey, R. W.

    1999-12-01

    Electronic Publishing has created, and will continue to create, new opportunities and challenges for representing scientific work in new media and formats. The AAS will position itself to take advantage of these, both for newly created works and for improved representation of works already published. It is the view of the AAS that we hold the works that we publish in trust for our community and are obligated to protect the integrity of these works and to assure that they continue to be available to the research community. Assignment of copyright to the AAS by the author plays a central role in the preservation of the integrity and accessability of the literature published by the American Astronomical Society. In return for such assignment the AAS allows the author to freely use the work for his/her own purpose and to control the grant of permission to third parties to use such materials. The AAS retains the right to republish the work in whatever format or medium, and to retain the rights after the author's death. Specific advantages to this approach include: Assurance of the continued availability of the materials to the research and educational communities; A guarantee of the intellectual integrity of the materials in the archive; Stimulation of the development of new means of presentation or of access to the archival literature; and Provision of a uniformity of treatment for copyright issues and to relieve the individual authors of much of the administrative work.

  17. American Institute for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Phytochemicals in your food Red and processed meat Sugar and cancer risk Alcohol and cancer risk Physical Activity Are ... Updates: Diabetes Rates are High and Rising, That Links with Cancer Apples and Oranges, What Americans are Eating and ...

  18. A Qualitative Study Comparing the Assay Performance Characteristics Between the 2007 and the 2013 American Society for Clinical Oncology and College of American Pathologists HER2 Scoring Methods in Mucinous Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chi-Kuan; Lee, Ming-Yung; Lin, Wea-Lung; Wang, Yu-Ting; Han, Chih-Ping; Yu, Cheng-Ping; Chao, Wan-Ru

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The remarkable success of trastuzumab and other newly developed anti-HER2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2) therapies in breast, gastric, or gastroesophageal junction cancer patients has supported us to investigate the HER2 status and its possible therapeutic implication in mucinous epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). However, there is currently no standardization of HER2 scoring criteria in mucinous EOC. In this study, we aimed to compare both the assay performance characteristics of the 2007 and the 2013 American Society for Clinical Oncology and College of American Pathologists scoring methods. Forty-nine tissue microarray samples of mucinous EOC from Asian women were analyzed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) tests using the 2007 and the 2013 criteria, respectively. The overall concordance between IHC and FISH by the 2007 criteria was 97.92 % (kappa = 0.921), and that by the 2013 criteria was 100% (kappa = 1.000). The percentage of Her2 FISH-amplified cases showed an increasing trend significantly through their corresponding HER2 IHC ordinals by the 2007 and the 2013 criteria, respectively (P < 0.001, P < 0.001). After excluding equivocal cases, the specificity (100%) and positive predictive value (100%) were unchanged under either the 2007 or the 2013 criteria. The sensitivity (100%), negative predictive value (NPV) (100%), and accuracy (100%) of HER2 IHC were higher under the 2013 criteria than those (sensitivity 87.5%, NPV 97.6%, and accuracy 97.9%) under the 2007 criteria. Of the total 49 cases, the number (n = 4) of HER2 IHC equivocal results under the 2013 criteria was 4-fold higher than that (n = 1) under the 2007 criteria (8.16% vs 2.04%). Conclusively, if first tested by IHC, the 2013 criteria caused more equivocal HER2 IHC cases to be referred to Her2 FISH testing than the 2007 criteria. That decreased the false-negative rate of HER2 status and increased the detection

  19. American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Upcoming Meetings Online Education Archived Meetings Faculty Resources Sports Medicine Fellowships Traveling Fellowship Submit an Abstract Submit ... Support AOSSM Research Publications Toggle American Journal of Sports Medicine Sports Health: A Multidisciplinary Approach Orthopaedic Journal ...

  20. North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition Skip to Navigation NASPGHAN Annual Meeting and Postgraduate ... transition well. Moreover, Doc4me provides information about medications, nutrition and living with IBD. Please help us promote ...

  1. American Nuclear Society 1994 student conference eastern region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This report contains abstracts from the 1994 American Nuclear Society Student Conference. The areas covered by these abstracts are: fusion and plasma physics; nuclear chemistry; radiation detection; reactor physics; thermal hydraulics; and corrosion science and waste issues.

  2. American Nuclear Society 1994 student conference eastern region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report contains abstracts from the 1994 American Nuclear Society Student Conference. The areas covered by these abstracts are: fusion and plasma physics; nuclear chemistry; radiation detection; reactor physics; thermal hydraulics; and corrosion science and waste issues

  3. American Contact Dermatitis Society Core Allergen Series: 2017 Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalock, Peter C; Dunnick, Cory A; Nedorost, Susan; Brod, Bruce; Warshaw, Erin; Mowad, Christen

    The American Contact Dermatitis Society Core Allergen Series was introduced in 2012. After 4 years of use, changes in our recommended allergens are necessary. For the updated series, we have reordered the first 4 panels to approximately mirror the current TRUE Test and removed parthenolide, triclosan, glutaraldehyde, and jasmine. Polymyxin B, lavender, sodium benzoate, ethylhexylglycerin, and benzoic acid are new additions to the American Contact Dermatitis Society series.

  4. An Official American Thoracic Society/American College of Chest Physicians Clinical Practice Guideline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Girard, Timothy D; Alhazzani, Waleed; Kress, John P

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Interventions that lead to earlier liberation from mechanical ventilation can improve patient outcomes. This guideline, a collaborative effort between the American Thoracic Society (ATS) and the American College of Chest Physicians (CHEST), provides evidence-based recommendations to o...

  5. Modernizing Clinical Trial Eligibility Criteria: Recommendations of the American Society of Clinical Oncology–Friends of Cancer Research HIV Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uldrick, Thomas S.; Ison, Gwynn; Rudek, Michelle A.; Noy, Ariela; Schwartz, Karl; Bruinooge, Suanna; Schenkel, Caroline; Miller, Barry; Dunleavy, Kieron; Wang, Judy; Zeldis, Jerome; Little, Richard F.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose People with HIV are living longer as a result of effective antiretroviral therapy. Cancer has become a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in this patient population. However, studies of novel cancer therapeutics have historically excluded patients with HIV. Critical review of eligibility criteria related to HIV is required to accelerate development of and access to effective therapeutics for HIV-infected patients with cancer and make studies more generalizable to this patient population. Methods From January through April 2016, the HIV Working Group conducted a series of teleconferences; a review of 46 New Drug Applications from registration studies of unique agents studied in adults with cancer that led to the initial US Food and Drug Administration approval of that agent from 2011 to 2015; and a review of HIV-related eligibility criteria from National Cancer Institute–sponsored studies. Results were discussed and refined at a multistakeholder workshop held May 12, 2016. The HIV Working Group developed recommendations for eligibility criteria that focus on pharmacologic and immunologic considerations in this patient population and that balance patient safety, access to appropriate investigational agents, and study integrity. Results Exclusion of patients with HIV remains common in most studies of novel cancer agents. Models for HIV-related eligibility criteria in National Cancer Institute–sponsored studies are instructive. HIV infection itself should no longer be an exclusion criterion for most studies. Eligibility criteria related to HIV infection that address concurrent antiretroviral therapy and immune status should be designed in a manner that is appropriate for a given cancer. Conclusion Expanding clinical trial eligibility to be more inclusive of patients with HIV is justified in most cases and may accelerate the development of effective therapies in this area of unmet clinical need. PMID:28968173

  6. Modernizing Clinical Trial Eligibility Criteria: Recommendations of the American Society of Clinical Oncology-Friends of Cancer Research HIV Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uldrick, Thomas S; Ison, Gwynn; Rudek, Michelle A; Noy, Ariela; Schwartz, Karl; Bruinooge, Suanna; Schenkel, Caroline; Miller, Barry; Dunleavy, Kieron; Wang, Judy; Zeldis, Jerome; Little, Richard F

    2017-11-20

    Purpose People with HIV are living longer as a result of effective antiretroviral therapy. Cancer has become a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in this patient population. However, studies of novel cancer therapeutics have historically excluded patients with HIV. Critical review of eligibility criteria related to HIV is required to accelerate development of and access to effective therapeutics for HIV-infected patients with cancer and make studies more generalizable to this patient population. Methods From January through April 2016, the HIV Working Group conducted a series of teleconferences; a review of 46 New Drug Applications from registration studies of unique agents studied in adults with cancer that led to the initial US Food and Drug Administration approval of that agent from 2011 to 2015; and a review of HIV-related eligibility criteria from National Cancer Institute-sponsored studies. Results were discussed and refined at a multistakeholder workshop held May 12, 2016. The HIV Working Group developed recommendations for eligibility criteria that focus on pharmacologic and immunologic considerations in this patient population and that balance patient safety, access to appropriate investigational agents, and study integrity. Results Exclusion of patients with HIV remains common in most studies of novel cancer agents. Models for HIV-related eligibility criteria in National Cancer Institute-sponsored studies are instructive. HIV infection itself should no longer be an exclusion criterion for most studies. Eligibility criteria related to HIV infection that address concurrent antiretroviral therapy and immune status should be designed in a manner that is appropriate for a given cancer. Conclusion Expanding clinical trial eligibility to be more inclusive of patients with HIV is justified in most cases and may accelerate the development of effective therapies in this area of unmet clinical need.

  7. Breast Cancer Risk in American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Risk in American Women On This Page What ... risk of developing the disease. Personal history of breast cancer : Women who have had breast cancer are more ...

  8. Democratization in the Gulf Monarchies and American Civil Society

    OpenAIRE

    Azam, M. Nazrul Islam and Muhammad; Azam, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    The paper deals with the efforts made by American private sector and civil society actors after 2000 to popularize democratic values and norms in the six Gulf states, namely Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. The study is focused on areas including politics, education, culture, media, human rights, and women empowerment. The paper also deals with approaches adopted, goals and objectives set and strategies devised and employed by the American NGOs regardi...

  9. Democratization in the Gulf Monarchies and American Civil Society

    OpenAIRE

    Azam, M. Nazrul Islam and Muhammad

    2010-01-01

    The paper deals with the efforts made by American private sector and civil society actors after 2000 to popularize democratic values and norms in the six Gulf states, namely Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. The study is focused on areas including politics, education, culture, media, human rights, and women empowerment. The paper also deals with approaches adopted, goals and objectives set and strategies devised and employed by the American NGOs regardi...

  10. Development of radiation shielding standards in the American Nuclear Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trubey, D.K.

    1975-11-01

    The American Nuclear Society (ANS) is a standards-writing organization-member of the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). The ANS Standards Committee has a subcommittee denoted ANS-6, Shielding, whose charge is to establish standards in connection with radiation protection and shielding, to provide shielding information to other standards writing groups, and to prepare recommended sets of shielding data and test problems. This paper is a progress report of this subcommittee

  11. Quality of cancer family history and referral for genetic counseling and testing among oncology practices: a pilot test of quality measures as part of the American Society of Clinical Oncology Quality Oncology Practice Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Marie E; Kadlubek, Pamela; Pham, Trang H; Wollins, Dana S; Lu, Karen H; Weitzel, Jeffrey N; Neuss, Michael N; Hughes, Kevin S

    2014-03-10

    Family history of cancer (CFH) is important for identifying individuals to receive genetic counseling/testing (GC/GT). Prior studies have demonstrated low rates of family history documentation and referral for GC/GT. CFH quality and GC/GT practices for patients with breast (BC) or colon cancer (CRC) were assessed in 271 practices participating in the American Society of Clinical Oncology Quality Oncology Practice Initiative in fall 2011. A total of 212 practices completed measures regarding CFH and GC/GT practices for 10,466 patients; 77.4% of all medical records reviewed documented presence or absence of CFH in first-degree relatives, and 61.5% of medical records documented presence or absence of CFH in second-degree relatives, with significantly higher documentation for patients with BC compared with CRC. Age at diagnosis was documented for all relatives with cancer in 30.7% of medical records (BC, 45.2%; CRC, 35.4%; P ≤ .001). Referall for GC/GT occurred in 22.1% of all patients with BC or CRC. Of patients with increased risk for hereditary cancer, 52.2% of patients with BC and 26.4% of those with CRC were referred for GC/GT. When genetic testing was performed, consent was documented 77.7% of the time, and discussion of results was documented 78.8% of the time. We identified low rates of complete CFH documentation and low rates of referral for those with BC or CRC meeting guidelines for referral among US oncologists. Documentation and referral were greater for patients with BC compared with CRC. Education and support regarding the importance of accurate CFH and the benefits of proactive high-risk patient management are clearly needed.

  12. Diversity in the American Society of Anesthesiologists Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, Paloma; Duce, Lorent; Adams, Jerome; Ross, Vernon H; Thompson, Kelli M; Wong, Cynthia A

    2017-05-01

    Women and minorities are underrepresented in US academic medicine. The Sullivan Commission on Diversity in the Healthcare Workforce emphasized the importance of diverse leadership for reducing health care disparities. The objective of this study was to evaluate the demographics of the American Society of Anesthesiologists leadership. We hypothesized that the percentage of women and underrepresented minorities is less than that of their respective proportions in the general physician workforce. An electronic survey was developed by the authors and mailed to 595 members of the American Society of Anesthesiologists leadership who had valid email addresses, including the members of the 2014 House of Delegates and state society leaders who were not the members of the House of Delegates. Univariate statistics were used to characterize survey responses and the probability distributions were estimated using the binomial distribution. A one-sample t test was used to compare the percentage of women and minorities in the survey pool to that of the corresponding percentages in the general physician workforce (38.0% women and 8.9% minorities), and the US population (51.0% women and 32.0% minorities). The survey response rate was 54%. A total of 21.1% (95% confidence interval: 16.4%-25.7%) of respondents were women and 6.0% (95% confidence interval: 3.3%-8.7%) were minorities. The proportion of women in the American Society of Anesthesiologist leadership was lower than the general medical workforce and the US population (P leadership of the American Society of Anesthesiologists. Efforts should be made to increase the diversity of the American Society of Anesthesiologists leadership with the goal of reducing overall anesthesia workforce disparities.

  13. A history of the American Society for Clinical Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Joel D.

    2009-01-01

    One hundred years ago, in 1909, the American Society for Clinical Investigation (ASCI) held its first annual meeting. The founding members based this new society on a revolutionary approach to research that emphasized newer physiological methods. In 1924 the ASCI started a new journal, the Journal of Clinical Investigation. The ASCI has also held an annual meeting almost every year. The society has long debated who could be a member, with discussions about whether members must be physicians, what sorts of research they could do, and the role of women within the society. The ASCI has also grappled with what else the society should do, especially whether it ought to take a stand on policy issues. ASCI history has reflected changing social, political, and economic contexts, including several wars, concerns about the ethics of biomedical research, massive increases in federal research funding, and an increasingly large and specialized medical environment. PMID:19348041

  14. the american colonization society's west african enterprise--colonial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    as the "American Society for Colonizing Free People of Color in the ... Significantly, findlay's brother-in-law was Elias Caldwell, Clerk of ... Representatives, and John Randolph of Virginia into the fledgling .... to Africa enterprise, one could easily despair for its success. The U.S . ..... Center, Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama.

  15. Brief overview of American Nuclear Society's research reactor standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, Wade J.

    1984-01-01

    The American Nuclear Society (ANS) established the research reactor standards group in 1968. The standards group, known as ANS-15, was established for the purpose of developing, preparing, and maintaining standards for the design, construction, operation, maintenance, and decommissioning of nuclear reactors intended for research and training

  16. Dilemmas of American Policy; Crucial Issues in Contemporary Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Samuel DuBois; And Others

    This volume contains four papers dealing with key social issues confronting American society; racial conflict; education (especially concerning national policies and goals); rationale for limited war for a nonmilitaristic nation; and the generation gap. Dr. Cook discusses black identity and white response and the problem of inculcating hope where…

  17. Practical Implications of the Publication of Consensus Guidelines by the American Society for Radiation Oncology: Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation and the National Cancer Data Base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaitelman, Simona F., E-mail: sfshaitelman@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Lin, Heather Y.; Smith, Benjamin D. [Department of Biostatistics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Shen, Yu; Bedrosian, Isabelle [Department of Breast Surgery, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Marsh, Gary D.; Bloom, Elizabeth S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Vicini, Frank A. [Michigan Healthcare Professionals/21st Century Oncology, Farmington Hills, MI (United States); Buchholz, Thomas A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Babiera, Gildy V. [Department of Breast Surgery, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Purpose: To examine utilization trends of accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) in the American College of Surgeons' National Cancer Database and changes in APBI use after the 2009 publication of the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) guidelines. Methods and Materials: A total of 399,705 women were identified who were diagnosed from 2004 to 2011 with nonmetastatic invasive breast cancer or ductal carcinoma in situ who were treated with breast-conserving surgery and radiation therapy to the breast. Patients were divided by the type of treatment received (whole breast irradiation or APBI) and by suitability to receive APBI as defined by the ASTRO guidelines. Logistic regression was applied to study APBI use overall and within guideline categorization, and a multivariable model was created to determine predictors of treatment with brachytherapy-based APBI based on guideline categorization. Results: For all patients, APBI use increased, from 3.8% in 2004 to 10.6% in 2011 (P<.0001). Overall rates of APBI utilization were higher among “suitable” than “cautionary”/“unsuitable” patients (14.8% vs 7.1%, P<.0001). The majority of APBI treatment was delivered using brachytherapy, for which use peaked in 2008. Starting in 2009, among “suitable” patients, utilization of APBI via brachytherapy plateaued, whereas for “cautionary”/“unsuitable” patients, treatment with brachytherapy-based APBI declined and then plateaued. Conclusion: Use of APBI across all patient groups increased from 2004 through 2008. After publication of the ASTRO APBI guidelines in 2009, rates of brachytherapy-based APBI treatment plateaued among “suitable” patients and declined and then plateaued among “cautionary”/“unsuitable” patients. Our study highlights how large national databases can be used to assess national trends in radiation use in response to the publication of guidelines.

  18. Second-Line Hormonal Therapy for Men With Chemotherapy-Naïve, Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer: American Society of Clinical Oncology Provisional Clinical Opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virgo, Katherine S; Basch, Ethan; Loblaw, D Andrew; Oliver, Thomas K; Rumble, R Bryan; Carducci, Michael A; Nordquist, Luke; Taplin, Mary-Ellen; Winquist, Eric; Singer, Eric A

    2017-06-10

    Purpose ASCO provisional clinical opinions (PCOs) offer direction to the ASCO membership after publication or presentation of potential practice-changing data. This PCO addresses second-line hormonal therapy for chemotherapy-naïve men with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) who range from being asymptomatic with only biochemical evidence of CRPC to having documented metastases but minimal symptoms. Clinical Context The treatment goal for CRPC is palliation. Despite resistance to initial androgen deprivation therapy, most men respond to second-line hormonal therapies. However, guidelines have neither addressed second-line hormonal therapy for nonmetastatic CRPC nor provided specific guidance with regard to the chemotherapy-naïve population. Recent Data Six phase III randomized controlled trials and expert consensus opinion inform this PCO. Provisional Clinical Opinion For men with CRPC, a castrate state should be maintained indefinitely. Second-line hormonal therapy (eg, antiandrogens, CYP17 inhibitors) may be considered in patients with nonmetastatic CRPC at high risk for metastatic disease (rapid prostate-specific antigen doubling time or velocity) but otherwise is not suggested. In patients with radiographic evidence of metastases and minimal symptoms, enzalutamide or abiraterone plus prednisone should be offered after discussion with patients about potential harms, benefits, costs, and patient preferences. Radium-223 and sipuleucel-T also are options. No evidence provides guidance about the optimal order of hormonal therapies for CRPC beyond second-line treatment. Prostate-specific antigen testing every 4 to 6 months is reasonable for men without metastases. Routine radiographic restaging generally is not suggested but can be considered for patients at risk for metastases or who exhibit symptoms or other evidence of progression. Additional information is available at www.asco.org/genitourinary-cancer-guidelines and www.asco.org/guidelineswiki .

  19. The focus of women in The American Fertility Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haseltine, F P; Wentz, A C

    1984-09-01

    This article reports survey responses from 71 female members of the American Fertility Society during the Society's 1984 annual meeting. Survey questions concern 1) demographic factors such as rank, degree, title, address, and number of children, 2) field of specialization and research interests, and 3) what the Society can do for its meeting participants. The typical respondent is a physician living in the Eastern United States and employed as an assistant professor in an academic setting. In vitro fertilization is the greatest area of interest, followed by general practice, endocrine and male infertility, contraception, and fertility surgery. Survey responses show that women are interested in 1) networking, 2) increased visibility at professional meetings, 3) information about research possibilities and grants, 4) child care provision at Society meetings, and 5) more basic science and physiology oriented presentions in the program. In response to networking interests, the Society will make available information from the surveyed members. Since 16% of respondents have a PH.D., and 77% are employed in academics, the Society should consider more basic presentations. The need for day care indicates changes in Society membership. The Society plans to conduct similar surveys on a regular basis.

  20. Society of Surgical Oncology–American Society for Radiation Oncology Consensus Guideline on Margins for Breast-Conserving Surgery With Whole-Breast Irradiation in Stages I and II Invasive Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran, Meena S. [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale School of Medicine, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Schnitt, Stuart J. [Department of Pathology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Giuliano, Armando E. [Department of Surgery, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California (United States); Harris, Jay R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Khan, Seema A. [Department of Surgery, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Horton, Janet [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Klimberg, Suzanne [Department of Surgery, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Fayetteville, Arkansas (United States); Chavez-MacGregor, Mariana [Department of Medical Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Freedman, Gary [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Houssami, Nehmat [School of Public Health, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Johnson, Peggy L. [Advocate in Science, Susan G. Komen, Wichita, Kansas (United States); Morrow, Monica, E-mail: morrowm@mskcc.org [Breast Service, Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: To convene a multidisciplinary panel of breast experts to examine the relationship between margin width and ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR) and develop a guideline for defining adequate margins in the setting of breast conserving surgery and adjuvant radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: A multidisciplinary consensus panel used a meta-analysis of margin width and IBTR from a systematic review of 33 studies including 28,162 patients as the primary evidence base for consensus. Results: Positive margins (ink on invasive carcinoma or ductal carcinoma in situ) are associated with a 2-fold increase in the risk of IBTR compared with negative margins. This increased risk is not mitigated by favorable biology, endocrine therapy, or a radiation boost. More widely clear margins than no ink on tumor do not significantly decrease the rate of IBTR compared with no ink on tumor. There is no evidence that more widely clear margins reduce IBTR for young patients or for those with unfavorable biology, lobular cancers, or cancers with an extensive intraductal component. Conclusions: The use of no ink on tumor as the standard for an adequate margin in invasive cancer in the era of multidisciplinary therapy is associated with low rates of IBTR and has the potential to decrease re-excision rates, improve cosmetic outcomes, and decrease health care costs.

  1. Society of Surgical Oncology–American Society for Radiation Oncology Consensus Guideline on Margins for Breast-Conserving Surgery With Whole-Breast Irradiation in Stages I and II Invasive Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, Meena S.; Schnitt, Stuart J.; Giuliano, Armando E.; Harris, Jay R.; Khan, Seema A.; Horton, Janet; Klimberg, Suzanne; Chavez-MacGregor, Mariana; Freedman, Gary; Houssami, Nehmat; Johnson, Peggy L.; Morrow, Monica

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To convene a multidisciplinary panel of breast experts to examine the relationship between margin width and ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR) and develop a guideline for defining adequate margins in the setting of breast conserving surgery and adjuvant radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: A multidisciplinary consensus panel used a meta-analysis of margin width and IBTR from a systematic review of 33 studies including 28,162 patients as the primary evidence base for consensus. Results: Positive margins (ink on invasive carcinoma or ductal carcinoma in situ) are associated with a 2-fold increase in the risk of IBTR compared with negative margins. This increased risk is not mitigated by favorable biology, endocrine therapy, or a radiation boost. More widely clear margins than no ink on tumor do not significantly decrease the rate of IBTR compared with no ink on tumor. There is no evidence that more widely clear margins reduce IBTR for young patients or for those with unfavorable biology, lobular cancers, or cancers with an extensive intraductal component. Conclusions: The use of no ink on tumor as the standard for an adequate margin in invasive cancer in the era of multidisciplinary therapy is associated with low rates of IBTR and has the potential to decrease re-excision rates, improve cosmetic outcomes, and decrease health care costs

  2. American Brachytherapy Society recommendations for reporting morbidity after prostate brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nag, Subir; Ellis, Rodney J.; Merrick, Gregory S.; Bahnson, Robert; Wallner, Kent; Stock, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To standardize the reporting of brachytherapy-related prostate morbidity to guide ongoing clinical practice and future investigations. Methods: Members of the American Brachytherapy Society (ABS) with expertise in prostate brachytherapy performed a literature review and, guided by their clinical experience, formulated specific recommendations for reporting on morbidity related to prostate brachytherapy. Results: The ABS recommends using validated, patient-administered health-related quality-of-life instruments for the determination of baseline and follow-up data regarding bowel, urinary, and sexual function. Both actuarial and crude incidences should be reported, along with the temporal resolution of specific complications, and correlated with the doses to the normal tissues. The International Prostate Symptom Score is recommended to assess urinary morbidity, and any dysuria, gross hematuria, urinary retention, incontinence, or medication use should be quantified. Likewise, the ''Sexual Health Inventory for Men,'' which includes the specific erectile questions of the International Index of Erectile Function, is the preferred instrument for reporting sexual function, and the loss of sexual desire, incidence of hematospermia, painful orgasm (orgasmalgia), altered orgasm intensity, decreased ejaculatory volume, use of erectile aids, and use of hormones for androgen deprivation should be quantified. The ABS recommends adoption of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer acute and late radiation morbidity scoring scheme for reporting rectal morbidity and noting the incidence of rectal steroid, laser, or antidiarrheal use. Conclusion: It is important to focus on health-related quality-of-life issues in the treatment of prostate cancer, because the control rates are very similar between appropriate treatment modalities. The ABS recommends using the International Prostate Symptom Score, International Index of

  3. Tracking the workforce: the American Society of Clinical Oncology workforce information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkwood, M Kelsey; Kosty, Michael P; Bajorin, Dean F; Bruinooge, Suanna S; Goldstein, Michael A

    2013-01-01

    In anticipation of oncologist workforce shortages projected as part of a 2007 study, the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) worked with a contractor to create a workforce information system (WIS) to assemble the latest available data on oncologist supply and cancer incidence and prevalence. ASCO plans to publish findings annually, reporting on new data and tracking trends over time. THE WIS REPORT IS COMPOSED OF THREE SECTIONS: supply, new entrants, and cancer incidence and prevalence. Tabulations of the number of oncologists in the United States are derived mainly from the American Medical Association Physician Masterfile. Information on fellows and residents in the oncology workforce pipeline come from published sources such as Journal of the American Medical Association. Incidence and prevalence estimates are published by the American Cancer Society and National Cancer Institute. The WIS reports a total of 13,084 oncologists working in the United States in 2011. Oncologists are defined as those physicians who designate hematology, hematology/oncology, or medical oncology as their specialty. The WIS compares the characteristics of these oncologists with those of all physicians and tracks emerging trends in the physician training pipeline. Observing characteristics of the oncologist workforce over time allows ASCO to identify, prioritize, and evaluate its workforce initiatives. Accessible figures and reports generated by the WIS can be used by ASCO and others in the oncology community to advocate for needed health care system and policy changes to help offset future workforce shortages.

  4. Tracking the Workforce: The American Society of Clinical Oncology Workforce Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkwood, M. Kelsey; Kosty, Michael P.; Bajorin, Dean F.; Bruinooge, Suanna S.; Goldstein, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In anticipation of oncologist workforce shortages projected as part of a 2007 study, the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) worked with a contractor to create a workforce information system (WIS) to assemble the latest available data on oncologist supply and cancer incidence and prevalence. ASCO plans to publish findings annually, reporting on new data and tracking trends over time. Methods: The WIS report is composed of three sections: supply, new entrants, and cancer incidence and prevalence. Tabulations of the number of oncologists in the United States are derived mainly from the American Medical Association Physician Masterfile. Information on fellows and residents in the oncology workforce pipeline come from published sources such as Journal of the American Medical Association. Incidence and prevalence estimates are published by the American Cancer Society and National Cancer Institute. Results: The WIS reports a total of 13,084 oncologists working in the United States in 2011. Oncologists are defined as those physicians who designate hematology, hematology/oncology, or medical oncology as their specialty. The WIS compares the characteristics of these oncologists with those of all physicians and tracks emerging trends in the physician training pipeline. Conclusion: Observing characteristics of the oncologist workforce over time allows ASCO to identify, prioritize, and evaluate its workforce initiatives. Accessible figures and reports generated by the WIS can be used by ASCO and others in the oncology community to advocate for needed health care system and policy changes to help offset future workforce shortages. PMID:23633965

  5. American Chemical Society. Division of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The meeting of the 201st American Chemical Society Division of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology was comprised from a variety of topics in this field including: nuclear chemistry, nuclear physics, and nuclear techniques for environmental studies. Particular emphasis was given to fundamental research concerning nuclear structure (seven of the nineteen symposia) and studies of airborne particle monitoring and transport (five symposia). 105 papers were presented

  6. Current Status and Recommendations for the Future of Research, Teaching, and Testing in the Biological Sciences of Radiation Oncology: Report of the American Society for Radiation Oncology Cancer Biology/Radiation Biology Task Force, Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallner, Paul E., E-mail: pwallner@theabr.org [21st Century Oncology, LLC, and the American Board of Radiology, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Anscher, Mitchell S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia (United States); Barker, Christopher A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Bassetti, Michael [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin Carbone Cancer Center, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Bristow, Robert G. [Departments of Radiation Oncology and Medical Biophysics, Princess Margaret Cancer Center/University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Cha, Yong I. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Norton Cancer Center, Louisville, Kentucky (United States); Dicker, Adam P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Formenti, Silvia C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University, New York, New York (United States); Graves, Edward E. [Departments of Radiation Oncology and Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Hahn, Stephen M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania (United States); Hei, Tom K. [Center for Radiation Research, Columbia University, New York, New York (United States); Kimmelman, Alec C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Kirsch, David G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Kozak, Kevin R. [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin (United States); Lawrence, Theodore S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan (United States); Marples, Brian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Oakland University, Oakland, California (United States); and others

    2014-01-01

    In early 2011, a dialogue was initiated within the Board of Directors (BOD) of the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) regarding the future of the basic sciences of the specialty, primarily focused on the current state and potential future direction of basic research within radiation oncology. After consideration of the complexity of the issues involved and the precise nature of the undertaking, in August 2011, the BOD empanelled a Cancer Biology/Radiation Biology Task Force (TF). The TF was charged with developing an accurate snapshot of the current state of basic (preclinical) research in radiation oncology from the perspective of relevance to the modern clinical practice of radiation oncology as well as the education of our trainees and attending physicians in the biological sciences. The TF was further charged with making suggestions as to critical areas of biological basic research investigation that might be most likely to maintain and build further the scientific foundation and vitality of radiation oncology as an independent and vibrant medical specialty. It was not within the scope of service of the TF to consider the quality of ongoing research efforts within the broader radiation oncology space, to presume to consider their future potential, or to discourage in any way the investigators committed to areas of interest other than those targeted. The TF charge specifically precluded consideration of research issues related to technology, physics, or clinical investigations. This document represents an Executive Summary of the Task Force report.

  7. The American Nuclear Society's international student exchange program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bornstein, I.

    1988-01-01

    The American Nuclear Society's (ANS's) International Student Exchange Program sponsors bilateral exchanges of students form graduate schools in American universities with students from graduate schools in France, the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG), and Japan. The program, now in its 12th year, was initiated in response to an inquiry to Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) from the director of the Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay proposing to send French nuclear engineering students to the United States for summer jobs. The laboratory was asked to accept two students to work on some nuclear technology activity and ANS was invited to send American students to France on an exchange basis. To date, 200 students have taken part in the program. It has been a maturing and enriching experience for them, and many strong and enduring friendships have been fostered among the participants, many of whom will become future leaders in their countries

  8. Minutes of the 45. meeting of the American society of therapeutic radiology and oncology (Astro)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racadot, S.; Mazeron, J.J.

    2003-01-01

    The forty fifth meeting of the American Society of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO) held at the center of congress in Salt Lake city in october 2003. 542 scientific works have been presented, whom 221 orally. Escalation of radiation doses in prostate cancers have been studied. Fractionation and hormones therapy in prostate cancers are reported. The bladder cancers made the object of information, the bronchi cancer ( non at small cells and at small cells) have been analysed. Cancers of the ORL sphere, mammary gland and brain metastases were presented. The radiotherapy as a palliative treatment of bone metastases made the object of a report. The receptors of the epidermoid growth factor has been shown as an important factor to predict the tumor response to irradiation. (N.C.)

  9. An official American thoracic society/European respiratory society statement: Key concepts and advances in pulmonary rehabilitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Spruit (Martijn); S.J. Singh (Sally); C. Garvey (Chris); R. Zu Wallack (Richard); L. Nici (Linda); C. Rochester (Carolyn); K. Hill (Kylie); A.E. Holland (Anne); S.C. Lareau (Suzanne); W.D.-C. Man (William); F. Pitta (Fabio); L. Sewell (Louise); J. Raskin (Jonathan); J. Bourbeau (Jean); R. Crouch (Rebecca); F.M.E. Franssen (Frits); R. Casaburi (Richard); J.H. Vercoulen (Jan); I. Vogiatzis (Ioannis); R.A.A.M. Gosselink (Rik); E.M. Clini (Enrico); T.W. Effing (Tanja); F. Maltais (François); J. van der Palen (Job); T. Troosters; D.J.A. Janssen (Daisy); E. Collins (Eileen); J. Garcia-Aymerich (Judith); D. Brooks (Dina); B.F. Fahy (Bonnie); M.A. Puhan (Milo); M. Hoogendoorn (Martine); R. Garrod (Rachel); A.M.W.J. Schols (Annemie); B. Carlin (Brian); R. Benzo (Roberto); P. Meek (Paula); M. Morgan (Mike); M.P.M.H. Rutten-van Mölken (Maureen); A.L. Ries (Andrew); B. Make (Barry); R.S. Goldstein (Roger); C.A. Dowson (Claire); J.L. Brozek (Jan); C.F. Donner (Claudio); E.F.M. Wouters (Emiel)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Pulmonary rehabilitation is recognized as a core component of themanagement of individuals with chronic respiratory disease. Since the 2006 American Thoracic Society (ATS)/European Respiratory Society (ERS) Statement on Pulmonary Rehabilitation, there has been considerable

  10. 18th Middle Atlantic Regional Meeting, American Chemical Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The Proceedings of the 18th Middle Atlantic Regional Meeting of the American Chemical Society held May 21-23, 1984, include information about the meeting, e.g. area map and list of exhibitors, and abstracts for most of the 397 papers. A few papers are only title listed. The papers are arranged into sections dealing with analytical chemistry, biochemistry, chemical education, environmental chemistry, fuel chemistry, history of chemistry, industrial and engineering chemistry, inorganic chemistry, photochemistry, physical chemistry, polymer chemistry, and polymeric materials. Sections are also included to highlight undergraduate research and papers by chemical technicians and younger chemists. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 36 papers

  11. American College of Radiology-American Brachytherapy Society practice parameter for electronically generated low-energy radiation sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, Phillip M; Gaspar, Laurie E; Buzurovic, Ivan; Demanes, D Jeffrey; Kasper, Michael E; Nag, Subir; Ouhib, Zoubir; Petit, Joshua H; Rosenthal, Seth A; Small, William; Wallner, Paul E; Hartford, Alan C

    This collaborative practice parameter technical standard has been created between the American College of Radiology and American Brachytherapy Society to guide the usage of electronically generated low energy radiation sources (ELSs). It refers to the use of electronic X-ray sources with peak voltages up to 120 kVp to deliver therapeutic radiation therapy. The parameter provides a guideline for utilizing ELS, including patient selection and consent, treatment planning, and delivery processes. The parameter reviews the published clinical data with regard to ELS results in skin, breast, and other cancers. This technical standard recommends appropriate qualifications of the involved personnel. The parameter reviews the technical issues relating to equipment specifications as well as patient and personnel safety. Regarding suggestions for educational programs with regard to this parameter,it is suggested that the training level for clinicians be equivalent to that for other radiation therapies. It also suggests that ELS must be done using the same standards of quality and safety as those in place for other forms of radiation therapy. Copyright © 2017 American Brachytherapy Society and American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Overview of space nuclear technologies and the American Nuclear Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singleterry, R.C. Jr.

    2000-01-01

    The American Nuclear Society (ANS) has seen an aspect of the universe where nuclear technology is the best energy source available for power, transportation, etc. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been exploiting this aspect of the universe by sending machines and humans into it and exploring, colonizing, industrializing, developing, inhabiting, etc. Space is the final frontier, and nuclear technology is the best suited for today's or the next century's space exploration and development. Many aspects of nuclear technology and its uses in space will be needed. ANS encompasses these and many more aspects of nuclear technology, and all have some role to play in the exploration and development of space. It should be ANS's intent to be an advisory body to NASA on the nuclear aspects of space exploration

  13. An official American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society statement: research questions in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartolome R. Celli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a leading cause of morbidity, mortality and resource use worldwide. The goal of this official American Thoracic Society (ATS/European Respiratory Society (ERS Research Statement is to describe evidence related to diagnosis, assessment, and management; identify gaps in knowledge; and make recommendations for future research. It is not intended to provide clinical practice recommendations on COPD diagnosis and management. Clinicians, researchers and patient advocates with expertise in COPD were invited to participate. A literature search of Medline was performed, and studies deemed relevant were selected. The search was not a systematic review of the evidence. Existing evidence was appraised and summarised, and then salient knowledge gaps were identified. Recommendations for research that addresses important gaps in the evidence in all areas of COPD were formulated via discussion and consensus. Great strides have been made in the diagnosis, assessment and management of COPD, as well as understanding its pathogenesis. Despite this, many important questions remain unanswered. This ATS/ERS research statement highlights the types of research that leading clinicians, researchers and patient advocates believe will have the greatest impact on patient-centred outcomes.

  14. Position of the American Dietetic Association and American Society for Nutrition: obesity, reproduction, and pregnancy outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; King, Janet C

    2009-05-01

    Given the detrimental influence of maternal overweight and obesity on reproductive and pregnancy outcomes for the mother and child, it is the position of the American Dietetic Association and the American Society for Nutrition that all overweight and obese women of reproductive age should receive counseling on the roles of diet and physical activity in reproductive health prior to pregnancy,during pregnancy, and in the inter conceptional period, in order to ameliorate these adverse outcomes. The effect of maternal nutritional status prior to pregnancy on reproduction and pregnancy outcomes is of great public health importance. Obesity in the United States and worldwide has grown to epidemic proportions, with an estimated 33% of US women classified as obese. This position paper has two objectives: (a) to help nutrition professionals become aware of the risks and possible complications of overweight and obesity for fertility,the course of pregnancy, birth outcomes, and short- and long-term maternal and child health outcomes;and (b) related to the commitment to research by the American Dietetic Association and the American Society for Nutrition, to identify the gaps in research to improve our knowledge of the risks and complications associated with being overweight and obese before and during pregnancy.Only with an increased knowledge of these risks and complications can health care professionals develop effective strategies that can be implemented before and during pregnancy as well as during the inter conceptional period to ameliorate adverse outcomes.

  15. Promoting Ocean Literacy through American Meteorological Society Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passow, Michael; Abshire, Wendy; Weinbeck, Robert; Geer, Ira; Mills, Elizabeth

    2017-04-01

    American Meteorological Society Education Programs provide course materials, online and physical resources, educator instruction, and specialized training in ocean, weather, and climate sciences (https://www.ametsoc.org/ams/index.cfm/education-careers/education-program/k-12-teachers/). Ocean Science literacy efforts are supported through the Maury Project, DataStreme Ocean, and AMS Ocean Studies. The Maury Project is a summer professional development program held at the US Naval Academy designed to enhance effective teaching of the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics of oceanography. DataStreme Ocean is a semester-long course offered twice a year to participants nationwide. Created and sustained with major support from NOAA, DS Ocean explores key concepts in marine geology, physical and chemical oceanography, marine biology, and climate change. It utilizes electronically-transmitted text readings, investigations and current environmental data. AMS Ocean Studies provides complete packages for undergraduate courses. These include online textbooks, investigations manuals, RealTime Ocean Portal (course website), and course management system-compatible files. It can be offered in traditional lecture/laboratory, completely online, and hybrid learning environments. Assistance from AMS staff and other course users is available.

  16. An Official American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society Statement: Key Concepts and Advances in Pulmonary Rehabilitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruit, Martijn A.; Singh, Sally J.; Garvey, Chris; ZuWallack, Richard; Nici, Linda; Rochester, Carolyn; Hill, Kylie; Holland, Anne E.; Lareau, Suzanne C.; Man, W.D.C.; Pitta, Fabio; Sewell, Louise; Raskin, Jonathan; Bourbeau, Jean; Crouch, Rebecca; Franssen, Frits M.E.; Casaburi, Richard; Vercoulen, Jan H.; Vogiatzit, Ioannis; Gosselink, Rik; Clini, Enrico M.; Effing, T.W.; Maltais, Francois; van der Palen, Jacobus Adrianus Maria; Troosters, Thierry; Janssen, Daisy J.A.; Collins, Eileen; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith; Brooks, Dina; Fahy, Bonnie F.; Puhan, Milo A.; Hoogendoorn, Martine; Garrod, Rachel; Schols, Annemie M.W.J.; Carlin, Brian; Benzo, Roberto; Meek, Paula; Morgan, Mike; Rutten-van Mölken, Maureen P.M.H.; Ries, Andrew L.; Make, Barry; Goldstein, Roger S.; Dowson, Claire A.; Brozek, Jan L.; Donner, Claudio F.; Wouters, Emiel F.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Pulmonary rehabilitation is recognized as a core component of the management of individuals with chronic respiratory disease. Since the 2006 American Thoracic Society (ATS)/European Respiratory Society (ERS) Statement on Pulmonary Rehabilitation, there has been considerable growth in our

  17. American Meteor Society Fireball reporting system and mobile application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankey, M.

    2014-07-01

    The American Meteor Society (AMS) founded in 1911 pioneered the visual study of meteors and has collected data relating to meteor observations and bright fireballs for over 100 years. In December 2010, the online fireball reporting system was upgraded to an interactive application that utilizes Google Maps and other programmatic methods to pinpoint the observer's location, azimuth and elevation values with a high degree of precision. The AMS has collected 10s of 1000s of witness reports relating to 100s of events each year since the new application was released. Three dimensional triangulation methods that average the data collected from witnesses have been developed that can determine the start and end points of the meteor with an accuracy of web application. Users can file a new report directly on the phone or update the values submitted through a web report. After web users complete their fireball report online, they are prompted to download the app and update their observation with the more precise data provided by the sensors in the mobile device. The mobile app also provides an accurate means for the witness to report the elapsed time of the fireball. To log this value, the user drags the device across the sky where they saw the fireball. This process is designed to require no button click or user interaction to start and stop the time recording. A count down initiates the process and once the user's phone crosses the plane of azimuth for the end point of the fireball the velocity timer automatically stops. Users are asked to log the recording three times in an effort to minimize error. The three values are then averaged into a final score. Once enough witnesses have filed reports, elapsed time data collected from the mobile phone can be used to determine the velocity of the fireball. With the velocity, trajectory solution and RA/DEC the AMS can plot orbital estimates for significant fireball events reported to the society. Our hope is that overtime this

  18. American Thoracic Society member survey on climate change and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarfaty, Mona; Bloodhart, Brittany; Ewart, Gary; Thurston, George D; Balmes, John R; Guidotti, Tee L; Maibach, Edward W

    2015-02-01

    The American Thoracic Society (ATS), in collaboration with George Mason University, surveyed a random sample of ATS members to assess their perceptions of, clinical experiences with, and preferred policy responses to climate change. An e-mail containing an invitation from the ATS President and a link to an online survey was sent to 5,500 randomly selected U.S. members; up to four reminder e-mails were sent to nonrespondents. Responses were received from members in 49 states and the District of Columbia (n = 915); the response rate was 17%. Geographic distribution of respondents mirrored that of the sample. Survey estimates' confidence intervals were ±3.5% or smaller. Results indicate that a large majority of ATS members have concluded that climate change is happening (89%), that it is driven by human activity (68%), and that it is relevant to patient care ("a great deal"/"a moderate amount") (65%). A majority of respondents indicated they were already observing health impacts of climate change among their patients, most commonly as increases in chronic disease severity from air pollution (77%), allergic symptoms from exposure to plants or mold (58%), and severe weather injuries (57%). A larger majority anticipated seeing these climate-related health impacts in the next 2 decades. Respondents indicated that physicians and physician organizations should play an active role in educating patients, the public, and policy makers on the human health effects of climate change. Overall, ATS members are observing that human health is already adversely affected by climate change and support responses to address this situation.

  19. 2016 Updated American Society of Clinical Oncology/Oncology Nursing Society Chemotherapy Administration Safety Standards, Including Standards for Pediatric Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuss, Michael N; Gilmore, Terry R; Belderson, Kristin M; Billett, Amy L; Conti-Kalchik, Tara; Harvey, Brittany E; Hendricks, Carolyn; LeFebvre, Kristine B; Mangu, Pamela B; McNiff, Kristen; Olsen, MiKaela; Schulmeister, Lisa; Von Gehr, Ann; Polovich, Martha

    2016-12-01

    Purpose To update the ASCO/Oncology Nursing Society (ONS) Chemotherapy Administration Safety Standards and to highlight standards for pediatric oncology. Methods The ASCO/ONS Chemotherapy Administration Safety Standards were first published in 2009 and updated in 2011 to include inpatient settings. A subsequent 2013 revision expanded the standards to include the safe administration and management of oral chemotherapy. A joint ASCO/ONS workshop with stakeholder participation, including that of the Association of Pediatric Hematology Oncology Nurses and American Society of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, was held on May 12, 2015, to review the 2013 standards. An extensive literature search was subsequently conducted, and public comments on the revised draft standards were solicited. Results The updated 2016 standards presented here include clarification and expansion of existing standards to include pediatric oncology and to introduce new standards: most notably, two-person verification of chemotherapy preparation processes, administration of vinca alkaloids via minibags in facilities in which intrathecal medications are administered, and labeling of medications dispensed from the health care setting to be taken by the patient at home. The standards were reordered and renumbered to align with the sequential processes of chemotherapy prescription, preparation, and administration. Several standards were separated into their respective components for clarity and to facilitate measurement of adherence to a standard. Conclusion As oncology practice has changed, so have chemotherapy administration safety standards. Advances in technology, cancer treatment, and education and training have prompted the need for periodic review and revision of the standards. Additional information is available at http://www.asco.org/chemo-standards .

  20. An American Paradox: Hunger in an Affluent Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, George S.

    1974-01-01

    Nutritionally vulnerable mothers and children, American Indians and Alaskan Natives, migrant laborers, and the elderly are described as the hungry in America. Additional and more effective government food programs are proposed as the solution. (DE)

  1. Cancer statistics for African Americans, 2016: Progress and opportunities in reducing racial disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSantis, Carol E; Siegel, Rebecca L; Sauer, Ann Goding; Miller, Kimberly D; Fedewa, Stacey A; Alcaraz, Kassandra I; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2016-07-01

    In this article, the American Cancer Society provides the estimated number of new cancer cases and deaths for blacks in the United States and the most recent data on cancer incidence, mortality, survival, screening, and risk factors for cancer. Incidence data are from the National Cancer Institute, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries, and mortality data are from the National Center for Health Statistics. Approximately 189,910 new cases of cancer and 69,410 cancer deaths will occur among blacks in 2016. Although blacks continue to have higher cancer death rates than whites, the disparity has narrowed for all cancers combined in men and women and for lung and prostate cancers in men. In contrast, the racial gap in death rates has widened for breast cancer in women and remained level for colorectal cancer in men. The reduction in overall cancer death rates since the early 1990s translates to the avoidance of more than 300,000 deaths among blacks. In men, incidence rates from 2003 to 2012 decreased for all cancers combined (by 2.0% per year) as well as for the top 3 cancer sites (prostate, lung, and colorectal). In women, overall rates during the corresponding time period remained unchanged, reflecting increasing trends in breast cancer combined with decreasing trends in lung and colorectal cancer rates. Five-year relative survival is lower for blacks than whites for most cancers at each stage of diagnosis. The extent to which these disparities reflect unequal access to health care versus other factors remains an active area of research. Progress in reducing cancer death rates could be accelerated by ensuring equitable access to prevention, early detection, and high-quality treatment. CA Cancer J Clin 2016;66:290-308. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society, Inc.

  2. ACC/AATS/AHA/ASE/ASNC/HRS/SCAI/SCCT/SCMR/STS 2017 Appropriate Use Criteria for Multimodality Imaging in Valvular Heart Disease: A Report of the American College of Cardiology Appropriate Use Criteria Task Force, American Association for Thoracic Surgery, American Heart Association, American Society of Echocardiography, American Society of Nuclear Cardiology, Heart Rhythm Society, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography, Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance, and Society of Thoracic Surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, John U; Kort, Smadar; Mehran, Roxana; Schoenhagen, Paul; Soman, Prem; Dehmer, Greg J; Doherty, John U; Schoenhagen, Paul; Amin, Zahid; Bashore, Thomas M; Boyle, Andrew; Calnon, Dennis A; Carabello, Blase; Cerqueira, Manuel D; Conte, John; Desai, Milind; Edmundowicz, Daniel; Ferrari, Victor A; Ghoshhajra, Brian; Mehrotra, Praveen; Nazarian, Saman; Reece, T Brett; Tamarappoo, Balaji; Tzou, Wendy S; Wong, John B; Doherty, John U; Dehmer, Gregory J; Bailey, Steven R; Bhave, Nicole M; Brown, Alan S; Daugherty, Stacie L; Dean, Larry S; Desai, Milind Y; Duvernoy, Claire S; Gillam, Linda D; Hendel, Robert C; Kramer, Christopher M; Lindsay, Bruce D; Manning, Warren J; Mehrotra, Praveen; Patel, Manesh R; Sachdeva, Ritu; Wann, L Samuel; Winchester, David E; Wolk, Michael J; Allen, Joseph M

    2018-04-01

    This document is 1 of 2 companion appropriate use criteria (AUC) documents developed by the American College of Cardiology, American Association for Thoracic Surgery, American Heart Association, American Society of Echocardiography, American Society of Nuclear Cardiology, Heart Rhythm Society, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography, Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance, and Society of Thoracic Surgeons. This document addresses the evaluation and use of multimodality imaging in the diagnosis and management of valvular heart disease, whereas the second, companion document addresses this topic with regard to structural heart disease. Although there is clinical overlap, the documents addressing valvular and structural heart disease are published separately, albeit with a common structure. The goal of the companion AUC documents is to provide a comprehensive resource for multimodality imaging in the context of valvular and structural heart disease, encompassing multiple imaging modalities. Using standardized methodology, the clinical scenarios (indications) were developed by a diverse writing group to represent patient presentations encountered in everyday practice and included common applications and anticipated uses. Where appropriate, the scenarios were developed on the basis of the most current American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines. A separate, independent rating panel scored the 92 clinical scenarios in this document on a scale of 1 to 9. Scores of 7 to 9 indicate that a modality is considered appropriate for the clinical scenario presented. Midrange scores of 4 to 6 indicate that a modality may be appropriate for the clinical scenario, and scores of 1 to 3 indicate that a modality is considered rarely appropriate for the clinical scenario. The primary objective of the AUC is to provide a framework for the assessment of these scenarios by practices that will

  3. ACC/AATS/AHA/ASE/ASNC/HRS/SCAI/SCCT/SCMR/STS 2017 Appropriate Use Criteria for Multimodality Imaging in Valvular Heart Disease : A Report of the American College of Cardiology Appropriate Use Criteria Task Force, American Association for Thoracic Surgery, American Heart Association, American Society of Echocardiography, American Society of Nuclear Cardiology, Heart Rhythm Society, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography, Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance, and Society of Thoracic Surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, John U; Kort, Smadar; Mehran, Roxana; Schoenhagen, Paul; Soman, Prem

    2017-12-01

    This document is 1 of 2 companion appropriate use criteria (AUC) documents developed by the American College of Cardiology, American Association for Thoracic Surgery, American Heart Association, American Society of Echocardiography, American Society of Nuclear Cardiology, Heart Rhythm Society, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography, Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance, and Society of Thoracic Surgeons. This document addresses the evaluation and use of multimodality imaging in the diagnosis and management of valvular heart disease, whereas the second, companion document addresses this topic with regard to structural heart disease. Although there is clinical overlap, the documents addressing valvular and structural heart disease are published separately, albeit with a common structure. The goal of the companion AUC documents is to provide a comprehensive resource for multimodality imaging in the context of valvular and structural heart disease, encompassing multiple imaging modalities.Using standardized methodology, the clinical scenarios (indications) were developed by a diverse writing group to represent patient presentations encountered in everyday practice and included common applications and anticipated uses. Where appropriate, the scenarios were developed on the basis of the most current American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines.A separate, independent rating panel scored the 92 clinical scenarios in this document on a scale of 1 to 9. Scores of 7 to 9 indicate that a modality is considered appropriate for the clinical scenario presented. Midrange scores of 4 to 6 indicate that a modality may be appropriate for the clinical scenario, and scores of 1 to 3 indicate that a modality is considered rarely appropriate for the clinical scenario.The primary objective of the AUC is to provide a framework for the assessment of these scenarios by practices that will

  4. American Brachytherapy Society consensus report for accelerated partial breast irradiation using interstitial multicatheter brachytherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepel, Jaroslaw T; Arthur, Douglas; Shaitelman, Simona; Polgár, Csaba; Todor, Dorin; Zoberi, Imran; Kamrava, Mitchell; Major, Tibor; Yashar, Catheryn; Wazer, David E

    To develop a consensus report for the quality practice of accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) using interstitial multicatheter brachytherapy (IMB). The American Brachytherapy Society Board appointed an expert panel with clinical and research experience with breast brachytherapy to provide guidance for the current practice of IMB. This report is based on a comprehensive literature review with emphasis on randomized data and expertise of the panel. Randomized trials have demonstrated equivalent efficacy of APBI using IMB compared with whole breast irradiation for select patients with early-stage breast cancer. Several techniques for placement of interstitial catheters are described, and importance of three-dimensional planning with appropriate optimization is reviewed. Optimal target definition is outlined. Commonly used dosing schemas include 50 Gy delivered in pulses of 0.6-0.8 Gy/h using pulsed-dose-rate technique and 34 Gy in 10 fractions, 32 Gy in eight fractions, or 30 Gy in seven fractions using high-dose-rate technique. Potential toxicities and strategies for toxicity avoidance are described in detail. Dosimetric constraints include limiting whole breast volume that receives ≥50% of prescription dose to 0.75 (>0.85 preferred), V 150  < 45 cc, and V 200  < 14 cc. Using an optimal implant technique coupled with optimal planning and appropriate dose constraints, a low rate of toxicity and a good-to-excellent cosmetic outcome of ≥90% is expected. IMB is an effective technique to deliver APBI for appropriately selected women with early-stage breast cancer. This consensus report has been created to assist clinicians in the appropriate practice of APBI using IMB. Copyright © 2017 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Official Executive Summary of an American Thoracic Society/American College of Chest Physicians Clinical Practice Guideline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Gregory A; Girard, Timothy D; Kress, John P

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This clinical practice guideline addresses six questions related to liberation from mechanical ventilation in critically ill adults. It is the result of a collaborative effort between the American Thoracic Society (ATS) and American College of Chest Physicians (CHEST). METHODS: A mult...

  6. The Power of Women in Three American Indian Societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, Clara Sue

    1978-01-01

    The persistence of the Indian woman's biological function and role in the society has provided a sense of security and stability in the changing Indian world, and their flexibility in adapting to other roles has been a survival factor in processes of acculturation. (Author/EB)

  7. The Pan-American Federation of Neurological Societies (PAFNS): A New Regional Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Marco T; Román, Gustavo C

    2016-07-15

    The Pan-American Federation of Neurological Societies (PAFNS) was created on 15 November 2011 during the 20th World Congress of Neurology in Marrakech by virtue of the "Declaration of Morocco" signed by the WFN Latin American delegates and ratified on 5 March 2012 by delegates attending the 13th Pan-American Congress of Neurology in La Paz, Bolivia. On 20 March 2013 delegates attending the 65th Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Neurology in San Diego, California, USA, gave formal approval to the PAFNS Constitution. The neurological societies from the following countries have approved and signed the constitution as founding members and active ordinary members: Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Uruguay, and Venezuela. The Ibero-American Stroke Society (SIECV), the Commission on Latin American Affairs of the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) and the World Sleep Society have requested the status of Associate Members. The WFN and the American Academy of Neurology provided seed grants for the creation of the Pan-American Federation of Neurological Societies. PAFNS represents a major step for the improvement of regional neurological care, education and research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. American Pediatric Society 2013 presidential address: 125th anniversary of the American Pediatric Society--lessons from the past to guide the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Barbara J

    2013-10-01

    This year is the 125th anniversary of the American Pediatric Society (APS), a time to reflect on the past 125 years of child health and child health research, a time to consider the health of America's children in a social and global context, and a time to consider the future. This paper is a combination of pediatric and APS history and personal story.

  9. Understanding and effectively addressing breast cancer in African American women: Unpacking the social context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David R; Mohammed, Selina A; Shields, Alexandra E

    2016-07-15

    Black women have a higher incidence of breast cancer before the age of 40 years, more severe disease at all ages, and an elevated mortality risk in comparison with white women. There is limited understanding of the contribution of social factors to these patterns. Elucidating the role of the social determinants of health in breast cancer disparities requires greater attention to how risk factors for breast cancer unfold over the lifecourse and to the complex ways in which socioeconomic status and racism shape exposure to psychosocial, physical, chemical, and other individual and community-level assaults that increase the risk of breast cancer. Research that takes seriously the social context in which black women live is also needed to maximize the opportunities to prevent breast cancer in this underserved group. Cancer 2016;122:2138-49. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  10. Genomics of Colorectal Cancer in African Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Brim, Hassan; Ashktorab, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide studies are increasingly becoming a must, especially for complex diseases such as cancer where multiple genes and diverse molecular mechanisms are known to be involved in genes’ function alteration. In this review, we report our latest genomic and epigenomic findings in African-American colorectal cancer patients. This population suffers a higher burden of the disease and most investigators in this field are looking for the underlying genetic and epigenetic targets that might be r...

  11. Biopesticides: State of the Art and Future Opportunities by the American Chemical Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter from an American Chemical Society symposium reviews areas including how EPA views the benefits of biopesticides, related laws and legal requirements, biopesticide registration, and biopesticide data requirements.

  12. Comparison of British Thoracic Society and American Thoracic Society reintroduction guidelines for anti-tuberculous therapy induced liver injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuberi, B. F.; Alvi, H.; Zuberi, F. F.; Salahuddin, J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To compare the efficacy of British Thoracic Society and American Thoracic Society guidelines for re-introduction of anti-tuberculous therapy after drug-induced liver injury, and to assess the ease of administration of each guideline on a scale of 1-10. Methods: The randomised prospective interventional study was conducted at the Department of Medicine and Pulmonology, Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, from December 2011 to November 2013. Patients with anti-tuberculous therapy drug-induced liver injury were selected. Hepatotoxic anti-tuberculous therapy was stopped and modified anti-tuberculous therapy was started. Patients were followed weekly till clinical and biochemical parameters got stabilised. After stabilisation, the patients were randomised to one of the two groups to receive re-introduction of anti-tuberculous therapy under the guidelines of British Thoracic Society (Group I) or those of American Thoracic Society (Group II). Means of the groups were analysed by Student's t test and proportions were compared by chi-square test. Multivariate analysis was done for age, body mass index and serum albumin for recurrence of drug-induced liver injury after the re-introduction. P value <0.05 was taken as significant. Results: Of the total 325 patients, 163(50.15%) were in Group I, while 162(49.84%) were in Group II. The frequency of recurrence of drug-induced liver injury in Group I was 16 (9.8%) and in Group II it was 18 (11.1%). There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups (p<0.7). Age was positively related with drug-induced liver injury, while body mass index and serum albumin were negatively associated. Conclusion: There was no significant difference between the two major guidelines though the American Thoracic Society guideline was easier to follow. (author)

  13. Image Guided Cervical Brachytherapy: 2014 Survey of the American Brachytherapy Society

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grover, Surbhi, E-mail: Surbhi.grover@uphs.upenn.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Harkenrider, Matthew M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stritch School of Medicine, Loyola University Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Cho, Linda P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham & Women' s Hospital/Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Erickson, Beth [Department Radiation Oncology, Froedtert Hospital and Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (United States); Small, Christina [Department of Public Health Sciences, Stritch School of Medicine, Loyola University Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Small, William [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stritch School of Medicine, Loyola University Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Viswanathan, Akila N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham & Women' s Hospital/Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Purpose: To provide an update of the 2007 American brachytherapy survey on image-based brachytherapy, which showed that in the setting of treatment planning for gynecologic brachytherapy, although computed tomography (CT) was often used for treatment planning, most brachytherapists used point A for dose specification. Methods and Materials: A 45-question electronic survey on cervical cancer brachytherapy practice patterns was sent to all American Brachytherapy Society members and additional radiation oncologists and physicists based in the United States between January and September 2014. Responses from the 2007 survey and the present survey were compared using the χ{sup 2} test. Results: There were 370 respondents. Of those, only respondents, not in training, who treat more than 1 cervical cancer patient per year and practice in the United States, were included in the analysis (219). For dose specification to the target (cervix and tumor), 95% always use CT, and 34% always use MRI. However, 46% use point A only for dose specification to the target. There was a lot of variation in parameters used for dose evaluation of target volume and normal tissues. Compared with the 2007 survey, use of MRI has increased from 2% to 34% (P<.0001) for dose specification to the target. Use of volume-based dose delineation to the target has increased from 14% to 52% (P<.0001). Conclusion: Although use of image-based brachytherapy has increased in the United States since the 2007 survey, there is room for further growth, particularly with the use of MRI. This increase may be in part due to educational initiatives. However, there is still significant heterogeneity in brachytherapy practice in the United States, and future efforts should be geared toward standardizing treatment.

  14. The 2017 hormone therapy position statement of The North American Menopause Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    The 2017 Hormone Therapy Position Statement of The North American Menopause Society (NAMS) updates the 2012 Hormone Therapy Position Statement of The North American Menopause Society and identifies future research needs. An Advisory Panel of clinicians and researchers expert in the field of women's health and menopause was recruited by NAMS to review the 2012 Position Statement, evaluate new literature, assess the evidence, and reach consensus on recommendations, using the level of evidence to identify the strength of recommendations and the quality of the evidence. The Panel's recommendations were reviewed and approved by the NAMS Board of Trustees.Hormone therapy (HT) remains the most effective treatment for vasomotor symptoms (VMS) and the genitourinary syndrome of menopause (GSM) and has been shown to prevent bone loss and fracture. The risks of HT differ depending on type, dose, duration of use, route of administration, timing of initiation, and whether a progestogen is used. Treatment should be individualized to identify the most appropriate HT type, dose, formulation, route of administration, and duration of use, using the best available evidence to maximize benefits and minimize risks, with periodic reevaluation of the benefits and risks of continuing or discontinuing HT.For women aged younger than 60 years or who are within 10 years of menopause onset and have no contraindications, the benefit-risk ratio is most favorable for treatment of bothersome VMS and for those at elevated risk for bone loss or fracture. For women who initiate HT more than 10 or 20 years from menopause onset or are aged 60 years or older, the benefit-risk ratio appears less favorable because of the greater absolute risks of coronary heart disease, stroke, venous thromboembolism, and dementia. Longer durations of therapy should be for documented indications such as persistent VMS or bone loss, with shared decision making and periodic reevaluation. For bothersome GSM symptoms not

  15. Recent advances in gastrointestinal oncology - updates and insights from the 2009 annual meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsueh Chung-Tsen

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We have reviewed the pivotal presentations related to gastrointestinal malignancies from 2009 annual meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology with the theme of "personalizing cancer care". We have discussed the scientific findings and the impact on practice guidelines and ongoing clinical trials. Adding trastuzumab to chemotherapy improved the survival of patients with advanced gastric cancer overexpressing human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. Gemcitabine plus cisplatin has become a new standard for first-line treatment of advanced biliary cancer. Octreotide LAR significantly lengthened median time to tumor progression compared with placebo in patients with metastatic neuroendocrine tumors of the midgut. Addition of oxaliplatin to fluoropyrimidines for preoperative chemoradiotherapy in patients with stage II or III rectal cancer did not improve local tumor response but increased toxicities. Bevacizumab did not provide additional benefit to chemotherapy in adjuvant chemotherapy for stage II or III colon cancer. In patients with resected stage II colon cancer, recurrence score estimated by multigene RT-PCR assay has been shown to provide additional risk stratification. In stage IV colorectal cancer, data have supported the routine use of prophylactic skin treatment in patients receiving antibody against epidermal growth factor receptor, and the use of upfront chemotherapy as initial management in patients with synchronous metastasis without obstruction or bleeding from the primary site.

  16. Gallbladder cancer: South American experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Gerardo F; Gentile, Alberto; Parada, Luis A

    2016-10-01

    Large differences in terms of incidence and mortality due to gallbladder cancer (GBC) have been reported worldwide. Moreover, it seems that GBC has unique characteristics in South America. We surveyed the literature looking for information about the epidemiology, basic and translational research, and clinical trials performed in South America in order to critically analyze the magnitude of this health problem in the region. Compared to other geographic areas, age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) for GBC in women are very high, particularly in many western areas of South America. Genetic, as well as dietary and environmental factors likely contribute to the pathogenesis of this disease in the area. Compared to other regions the profile of abnormalities of key genes such as KRAS and TP53 in GBC seems to slightly differ in South America, while the clinical behavior appears to be similar with a median overall survival (OS) of 6.5 to 8 months in advanced GBC. In contrast to Europe and USA, prophylactic cholecystectomy is a common practice in western areas of South America. GBC particularly affects women in South America, and represents a significant public health problem. It appears to have peculiarities that pose an urgent need for additional research aimed to discover risk factors, molecular events associated with its development and new treatment options for this lethal disease.

  17. The Society of Thoracic Surgeons, The Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists, and The American Society of ExtraCorporeal Technology: Clinical Practice Guidelines-Anticoagulation During Cardiopulmonary Bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore-Lesserson, Linda; Baker, Robert A; Ferraris, Victor A; Greilich, Philip E; Fitzgerald, David; Roman, Philip; Hammon, John W

    2018-02-01

    Despite more than a half century of "safe" cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), the evidence base surrounding the conduct of anticoagulation therapy for CPB has not been organized into a succinct guideline. For this and other reasons, there is enormous practice variability relating to the use and dosing of heparin, monitoring heparin anticoagulation, reversal of anticoagulation, and the use of alternative anticoagulants. To address this and other gaps, The Society of Thoracic Surgeons, the Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists, and the American Society of Extracorporeal Technology developed an Evidence Based Workgroup. This was a group of interdisciplinary professionals gathered to summarize the evidence and create practice recommendations for various aspects of CPB. To date, anticoagulation practices in CPB have not been standardized in accordance with the evidence base. This clinical practice guideline was written with the intent to fill the evidence gap and to establish best practices in anticoagulation therapy for CPB using the available evidence. To identify relevant evidence, a systematic review was outlined and literature searches were conducted in PubMed using standardized medical subject heading (MeSH) terms from the National Library of Medicine list of search terms. Search dates were inclusive of January 2000 to December 2015. The search yielded 833 abstracts, which were reviewed by two independent reviewers. Once accepted into the full manuscript review stage, two members of the writing group evaluated each of 286 full papers for inclusion eligibility into the guideline document. Ninety-six manuscripts were included in the final review. In addition, 17 manuscripts published before 2000 were included to provide method, context, or additional supporting evidence for the recommendations as these papers were considered sentinel publications. Members of the writing group wrote and developed recommendations based on review of the articles obtained and achieved

  18. Developing a research agenda for the American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons: results of a delphi approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Caroline G; Cima, Robert R; Koltun, Walter A; Littlejohn, Charles E; Ricciardi, Rocco; Temple, Larissa K; Rothenberger, David A; Baxter, Nancy N

    2009-05-01

    By use of a systematic approach, the aim of this project was to survey a group of colorectal specialists and reach a consensus on the research questions of highest importance in terms of clinical care. A modified Delphi process was performed. In Round 1 research questions were solicited from members of The American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons. A review group categorized the results, combined similar questions, and presented them to The American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons membership in Round 2 for prioritizing according to importance. In Round 3 the 50 questions with the highest scores in Round 2 were reranked by The American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons membership to produce the 20 highest-priority research questions. A total of 203 respondents in Round 1 submitted 746 questions. The review team reduced these to 105 individual questions encompassing 21 topics in colorectal surgical practice. In Rounds 2 and 3, 399 and 360 respondents, respectively, prioritized the questions presented. The final 20 items included 14 questions related to colorectal cancer, and 6 were on benign disease topics. The research agenda produced by this study reflects the clinical issues of greatest importance to colorectal surgeons. The results are of potential benefit to researchers, funding organizations, medical journals, and ultimately, patients.

  19. The 2012 Hormone Therapy Position Statement of The North American Menopause Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Objective This position statement aimed to update the evidence-based position statement published by The North American Menopause Society (NAMS) in 2010 regarding recommendations for hormone therapy (HT) for postmenopausal women. This updated position statement further distinguishes the emerging differences in the therapeutic benefit-risk ratio between estrogen therapy (ET) and combined estrogen-progestogen therapy (EPT) at various ages and time intervals since menopause onset. Methods An Advisory Panel of expert clinicians and researchers in the field of women’s health was enlisted to review the 2010 NAMS position statement, evaluate new evidence, and reach consensus on recommendations. The Panel’s recommendations were reviewed and approved by the NAMS Board of Trustees as an official NAMS position statement. Results Current evidence supports the use of HT for perimenopausal and postmenopausal women when the balance of potential benefits and risks is favorable for the individual woman. This position statement reviews the effects of ET and EPT on many aspects of women’s health and recognizes the greater safety profile associated with ET. Conclusions Recent data support the initiation of HT around the time of menopause to treat menopause-related symptoms and to prevent osteoporosis in women at high risk of fracture. The more favorable benefit-risk ratio for ET allows more flexibility in extending the duration of use compared with EPT, where the earlier appearance of increased breast cancer risk precludes a recommendation for use beyond 3 to 5 years. PMID:22367731

  20. Fractionation for Whole Breast Irradiation: An American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) Evidence-Based Guideline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Benjamin D.; Bentzen, Soren M.; Correa, Candace R.; Hahn, Carol A.; Hardenbergh, Patricia H.; Ibbott, Geoffrey S.; McCormick, Beryl; McQueen, Julie R.; Pierce, Lori J.; Powell, Simon N.; Recht, Abram; Taghian, Alphonse G.; Vicini, Frank A.; White, Julia R.; Haffty, Bruce G.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: In patients with early-stage breast cancer treated with breast-conserving surgery, randomized trials have found little difference in local control and survival outcomes between patients treated with conventionally fractionated (CF-) whole breast irradiation (WBI) and those receiving hypofractionated (HF)-WBI. However, it remains controversial whether these results apply to all subgroups of patients. We therefore developed an evidence-based guideline to provide direction for clinical practice. Methods and Materials: A task force authorized by the American Society for Radiation Oncology weighed evidence from a systematic literature review and produced the recommendations contained herein. Results: The majority of patients in randomized trials were aged 50 years or older, had disease Stage pT1-2 pN0, did not receive chemotherapy, and were treated with a radiation dose homogeneity within ±7% in the central axis plane. Such patients experienced equivalent outcomes with either HF-WBI or CF-WBI. Patients not meeting these criteria were relatively underrepresented, and few of the trials reported subgroup analyses. For patients not receiving a radiation boost, the task force favored a dose schedule of 42.5 Gy in 16 fractions when HF-WBI is planned. The task force also recommended that the heart should be excluded from the primary treatment fields (when HF-WBI is used) due to lingering uncertainty regarding late effects of HF-WBI on cardiac function. The task force could not agree on the appropriateness of a tumor bed boost in patients treated with HF-WBI. Conclusion: Data were sufficient to support the use of HF-WBI for patients with early-stage breast cancer who met all the aforementioned criteria. For other patients, the task force could not reach agreement either for or against the use of HF-WBI, which nevertheless should not be interpreted as a contraindication to its use.

  1. The American Brachytherapy Society recommendations for low-dose-rate brachytherapy for carcinoma of the cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nag, Subir; Chao, Clifford; Erickson, Beth; Fowler, Jeffery; Gupta, Nilendu; Martinez, Alvaro; Thomadsen, Bruce

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: This report presents guidelines for using low-dose-rate (LDR) brachytherapy in the management of patients with cervical cancer. Methods: Members of the American Brachytherapy Society (ABS) with expertise in LDR brachytherapy for cervical cancer performed a literature review, supplemented by their clinical experience, to formulate guidelines for LDR brachytherapy of cervical cancer. Results: The ABS strongly recommends that radiation treatment for cervical carcinoma (with or without chemotherapy) should include brachytherapy as a component. Precise applicator placement is essential for improved local control and reduced morbidity. The outcome of brachytherapy depends, in part, on the skill of the brachytherapist. Doses given by external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy depend upon the initial volume of disease, the ability to displace the bladder and rectum, the degree of tumor regression during pelvic irradiation, and institutional practice. The ABS recognizes that intracavitary brachytherapy is the standard technique for brachytherapy for cervical carcinoma. Interstitial brachytherapy should be considered for patients with disease that cannot be optimally encompassed by intracavitary brachytherapy. The ABS recommends completion of treatment within 8 weeks, when possible. Prolonging total treatment duration can adversely affect local control and survival. Recommendations are made for definitive and postoperative therapy after hysterectomy. Although recognizing that many efficacious LDR dose schedules exist, the ABS presents suggested dose and fractionation schemes for combining external beam radiotherapy with LDR brachytherapy for each stage of disease. The dose prescription point (point A) is defined for intracavitary insertions. Dose rates of 0.50 to 0.65 Gy/h are suggested for intracavitary brachytherapy. Dose rates of 0.50 to 0.70 Gy/h to the periphery of the implant are suggested for interstitial implant. Use of differential source activity or

  2. Health beliefs and cancer prevention practices of Filipino American women

    OpenAIRE

    Ko, Celine M.

    2006-01-01

    Cancer is the number one cause of death among Asian Americans, and Filipino Americans are the second largest Asian American group in number. Filipino American women have relatively low rates of breast and colorectal cancer screening compared to their White counterparts; however, they experience higher numbers of late-stage diagnoses and mortality rates. Thus, early detection of cancer and maintenance of healthy prevention behaviors are very important. Little is known about this community's pr...

  3. The American brachytherapy society survey of brachytherapy practice for carcinoma of the cervix in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, S; Orton, C; Young, D; Erickson, B

    1999-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to survey the brachytherapy practice for cervical cancer in the United States. The Clinical Research Committee of the American Brachytherapy Society (ABS) performed a retrospective survey of individual physicians of the ABS and American Society of Therapeutic Radiologists and Oncologists regarding the details of the brachytherapy techniques they personally used in the treatment of cervical cancer patients for the year 1995. The replies (some of which may have been an estimate only) were tabulated. The scope of this survey did not allow us to verify the data by chart audits. A total of about 3500 questionnaires were mailed out; 521 responses were received. Of these responders, 206 (40%) did not perform any brachytherapy for carcinoma of the cervix in 1995. Of the other 315 responders reporting a total of 4892 patients treated in 1995, 88% used low dose rate (LDR) while 24% used high dose rate (HDR). There was a wide variation in the doses used. For LDR treatments, the median total external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) dose was 45 and 50 Gy and the LDR dose was 42 and 45 Gy for early and advanced cancers, respectively. For HDR treatments, the median EBRT dose was 48 and 50 Gy and the median HDR dose was 29 and 30 Gy for early and advanced cancers, respectively. The median dose per fraction was 6 Gy for a median of five fractions. Interstitial brachytherapy was used as a component of the treatment in 6% of the patients by 21% of responders. Very few responders treated with pulsed or medium dose rates. This retrospective survey showed the current brachytherapy practice pattern in the treatment of cervical cancer in the United States and can serve as a basis for future prospective national brachytherapy data registry. There was wide variation in the practice pattern, emphasizing the urgent need for consensus on these issues. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  4. American Society for Pain Management Nursing position statement: pain management at the end of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Janice; Drew, Debra; Dunwoody, Colleen

    2013-09-01

    Pain at the end of life continues to be of great concern as it may be unrecognized or untreated. While nurses have an ethical obligation to reduce suffering at the end of life, barriers remain regarding appropriate and adequate pain management at the end of life. This position statement from the American Society for Pain Management Nursing contains recommendations for nurses, prescribers, and institutions that would improve pain management for this vulnerable population. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Synopsis of History of American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology 1958-2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montana, Gustavo S.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a synopsis of the history of the association of radiation oncologists in the United States, currently known as the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO), with the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the organization. Methods and Materials: The history of ASTRO, from its beginning as the American Club of Therapeutic Radiologists, is the subject of a book that is to be released with the occasion of the 50th Annual Meeting of the Society in 2008. This book was prepared by members of ASTRO's History Committee and History Working Subcommittee. The source material for the book was the archives of the Society and recorded interviews, conducted by members of the subcommittee, of members of the Society and of the past and present Society staff. The book was also based on previously published material. This article used the source material used for the Society anniversary book. Results: This synopsis of the history of the Society will provide a source of reference for anyone interested in the history of the Society from its foundation in 1958 to the present, 2008

  6. Review of the American Physical Society light water reactor safety study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budnitz, R.J.

    1975-11-01

    The issue of light-water reactor (LWR) safety has been the subject of a part-time, year-long study sponsored by the American Physical Society and supported by the National Science Foundation and the former Atomic Energy Commission. The 1974-1975 study produced a Report by the Study Group to the Society. The Report's ''Summary of Conclusions and Major Recommendations'' section is presented

  7. American Society for Pain Management Nursing Position Statement: Pain Management in Patients with Substance Use Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Oliver, June; Coggins, Candace; Compton, Peggy; Hagan, Susan; Matteliano, Deborah; Stanton, Marsha; St. Marie, Barbara; Strobbe, Stephen; Turner, Helen N.

    2012-01-01

    The American Society for Pain Management Nursing (ASPMN) has updated its position statement on managing pain in patients with substance use disorders. This position statement is endorsed by the International Nurses Society on Addictions (IntNSA) and includes clinical practice recommendations based on current evidence. It is the position of ASPMN and IntNSA that every patient with pain, including those with substance use disorders, has the right to be treated with dignity, respect, and high qu...

  8. American Society of Maxillofacial Surgeons 2006 to 2016: Another Decade of Excellence in Education and Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumit, Gaby; Totonchi, Ali; Wexler, Andy; Gosain, Arun K

    2017-09-01

    Over the past 10 years, the American Society of Maxillofacial Surgeons (ASMS) has continued to advance to meet its mission of being the premier organization to represent maxillofacial and pediatric plastic surgery in the United States. These advances are focused on education of its members, to include the American Society of Maxillofacial Surgeons basic course, the preconference symposium, the annual meeting, two basic maxillofacial courses per year, advanced maxillofacial courses, a boot camp for craniofacial fellows, a cleft course, quarterly webinars, sponsored fellowships, a visiting professorship, and the ASMS journal. In addition, the ASMS has continued to advance as the premier national organization representing maxillofacial and pediatric plastic surgery in the United States, thereby positioning the organization as a primary advocate for these surgical specialties. Outreach of the ASMS has grown over the past decade and now includes representatives to the American Society of Plastic Surgeons/Plastic Surgery Foundation, the American Board of Plastic Surgeons, the American Medical Association, and most recently a seat as a governor with the American College of Surgeons. The ASMS has also initiated an annual Summer Leadership Seminar to explore topics of relevance in a changing health care environment. The present report outlines the major initiatives of the ASMS over the past 10 years.

  9. Maintaining Life-saving Testing for Patients With Infectious Diseases: Infectious Diseases Society of America, American Society for Microbiology, and Pan American Society for Clinical Virology Recommendations on the Regulation of Laboratory-developed Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliendo, Angela M; Couturier, Marc R; Ginocchio, Christine C; Hanson, Kimberly E; Miller, Melissa B; Walker, Kimberly E; Frank, Gregory M

    2016-07-15

    In 2014, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) proposed to regulate laboratory-developed tests (LDTs)-diagnostics designed, manufactured, and used within a single laboratory. The Infectious Diseases Society of America, the American Society for Microbiology, and the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology recognize that the FDA is committed to protecting patients. However, our societies are concerned that the proposed regulations will limit access to testing and negatively impact infectious diseases (ID) LDTs. In this joint commentary, our societies discuss why LDTs are critical for ID patient care, hospital infection control, and public health responses. We also highlight how the FDA's proposed regulation of LDTs could impair patient access to life-saving tests and stifle innovation in ID diagnostics. Finally, our societies make specific recommendations for the FDA's consideration to reduce the burden of the proposed new rules on clinical laboratories and protect patients' access to state-of-the art, quality LDTs. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. History of atomic layer deposition and its relationship with the American Vacuum Society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parsons, G.N.; Elam, J.W.; George, S.M.; Haukka, S.; Jeon, H.; Kessels, W.M.M.; Leskelä, M.; Poodt, P.; Ritala, M.; Rossnagel, S.M.

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the history of atomic layer deposition (ALD) and its relationship with the American Vacuum Society (AVS). The authors describe the origin and history of ALD science in the 1960s and 1970s. They also report on how the science and technology of ALD progressed through the 1990s

  11. NREL Scientist Selected for Major Award by the American Chemical Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    contributions to the advancement of surface chemistry. The 160,000-member American Chemical Society selected Dr Chemistry. The award recognizes his many research, teaching, writing and administrative accomplishments adjunct professor of chemistry, physics and engineering at the University of Denver and the author or co

  12. Multi-disciplinary summit on genetics services for women with gynecologic cancers: A Society of Gynecologic Oncology White Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Leslie M; Pothuri, Bhavana; Swisher, Elizabeth M; Diaz, John P; Buchanan, Adam; Witkop, Catherine T; Bethan Powell, C; Smith, Ellen Blair; Robson, Mark E; Boyd, Jeff; Coleman, Robert L; Lu, Karen

    2017-08-01

    To assess current practice, advise minimum standards, and identify educational gaps relevant to genetic screening, counseling, and testing of women affected by gynecologic cancers. The Society of Gynecologic Oncology (SGO) organized a multidisciplinary summit that included representatives from the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG), the American Society Clinical Oncology (ASCO), the National Society of Genetic Counselors (NSGC), and patient advocacy groups, BrightPink and Facing our Risk of Cancer Empowered (FORCE). Three subject areas were discussed: care delivery models for genetic testing, barriers to genetic testing, and educational opportunities for providers of genetic testing. The group endorsed current SGO, National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN), and NSGC genetic testing guidelines for women affected with ovarian, tubal, peritoneal cancers, or DNA mismatch repair deficient endometrial cancer. Three main areas of unmet need were identified: timely and universal genetic testing for women with ovarian, fallopian tube, and peritoneal cancers; education regarding minimum standards for genetic counseling and testing; and barriers to implementation of testing of both affected individuals as well as cascade testing of family members. Consensus building among all stakeholders resulted in an action plan to address gaps in education of gynecologic oncology providers and delivery of cancer genetics care. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Time, trust, and transparency: Lessons learned from collecting blood biospecimens for cancer research from the Asian American community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Julie H T; Chen, Moon S

    2018-04-01

    Biospecimens from racially diverse groups are needed to advance cancer research. The Asian American Cancer Education Study was developed to increase the number and proportion of blood biospecimen donations from Asian Americans for cancer research. The authors' targeted approach included 2 types of community engagement, in-reach (within institution to Asian American patients with cancer) and outreach (external to institution to the general Asian American community). Participants received in-language biospecimen education followed by the opportunity to donate blood biospecimens. Outreach participants donated through our community biospecimen blood drives, and in-reach participants consented to donating an extra tube of blood during their routine blood draws as a patient. Donated blood biospecimens were spun down to serum and plasma to be stored in a biorepository or were sent to the laboratory to test for cancer-related risk factors. Three hundred eighty-eight Asian Americans donated 1127 blood biospecimens for cancer research. Four hundred twenty tubes of plasma and serum are currently being stored at the cancer center's biorepository, 39 tubes have been used for cancer genomic research, and 668 tubes were used to characterize cancer-related risk factors. Building upon the past decade of the National Cancer Institute-funded Asian American Network for Cancer Awareness, Research, and Training's foundation of trust and service among Asian Americans, researchers were able to leverage relationships not only to introduce the idea of biospecimen contribution to the community but to also exceed expectations with regard to the quantity of blood biospecimens collected from Asian Americans. Cancer 2018;124:1614-21. © 2018 American Cancer Society. © 2018 American Cancer Society.

  14. SOCIAL CLEAVAGES IN THE AMERICAN SOCIETY AS A FACTOR OF 2016 PRESIDENTIAL CAMPAIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Kanevskiy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Current article is dedicated to analysis of social cleavages in the American elections and the ways they influenced on presidential election in 2016. Originally developed by S. Rokkan and S.M. Lipset, social cleavages became a classic theme for contemporary political sociology. However, despite the fact that the theory has been developing primarily by Americans, it has been rarely used to analyze electoral system in the USA. Traditionally it’s been aimed at European and developing countries where electoral fragmentation is seen more clearly. But recent changes in the American society and the political system demonstrate the emergence of social cleavages that had not been inherent before. The article shows how American electoral space transformed since the 1980s and how it became more fragmented under the influence of social, economic and ideological factors. Elections in 2016 became a watershed for social cleavages that accumulated through time and aggravated even more considering internal crises in the Democratic and more so in the Republican parties. Donald Trump’s victory is an impersonation of the American party system crisis and of the mainstream politicians’ inability to find proper explanation of the changing electorate. Author shows that American society today is polarized even more than many European countries while group identification determines vectors of political change.

  15. Joint American Nuclear Society and Health Physics Society Conference: Applicability of Radiation Response Models to Low Dose Protection Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glines, Wayne M; Markham, Anna

    2018-05-01

    Seventy-five years after the Hanford Site was initially created as the primary plutonium production site for atomic weapons development under the Manhattan Project, the American Nuclear Society and the Health Physics Society are sponsoring a conference from 30 September through 3 October 2018, in Pasco, Washington, titled "Applicability of Radiation Response Models to Low Dose Protection Standards." The goal of this conference is to use current scientific data to update the approach to regulating low-level radiation doses; i.e., to answer a quintessential question of radiation protection-how to best develop radiation protection standards that protect human populations against detrimental effects while allowing the beneficial uses of radiation and radioactive materials. Previous conferences (e.g., "Wingspread Conference," "Arlie Conference") have attempted to address this question; but now, almost 20 y later, the key issues, goals, conclusions, and recommendations of those two conferences remain and are as relevant as they were then. Despite the best efforts of the conference participants and increased knowledge and understanding of the science underlying radiation effects in human populations, the bases of current radiation protection standards have evolved little. This 2018 conference seeks to provide a basis and path forward for evolving radiation protection standards to be more reflective of current knowledge and understanding of low dose response models.

  16. A Genome-Wide Breast Cancer Scan in African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    SNPs from the African American breast cancer scan to COGs , a European collaborative study which is has designed a SNP array with that will be genotyped...Award Number: W81XWH-08-1-0383 TITLE: A Genome-wide Breast Cancer Scan in African Americans PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Christopher A...SUBTITLE A Genome-wide Breast Cancer Scan in African Americans 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-08-1-0383 5c. PROGRAM

  17. The Society of Thoracic Surgeons, The Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists, and The American Society of ExtraCorporeal Technology: Clinical Practice Guidelines-Anticoagulation During Cardiopulmonary Bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore-Lesserson, Linda; Baker, Robert A; Ferraris, Victor A; Greilich, Philip E; Fitzgerald, David; Roman, Philip; Hammon, John W

    2018-02-01

    Despite more than a half century of "safe" cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), the evidence base surrounding the conduct of anticoagulation therapy for CPB has not been organized into a succinct guideline. For this and other reasons, there is enormous practice variability relating to the use and dosing of heparin, monitoring heparin anticoagulation, reversal of anticoagulation, and the use of alternative anticoagulants. To address this and other gaps, The Society of Thoracic Surgeons, the Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists, and the American Society of Extracorporeal Technology developed an Evidence Based Workgroup. This was a group of interdisciplinary professionals gathered to summarize the evidence and create practice recommendations for various aspects of CPB. To date, anticoagulation practices in CPB have not been standardized in accordance with the evidence base. This clinical practice guideline was written with the intent to fill the evidence gap and to establish best practices in anticoagulation therapy for CPB using the available evidence. To identify relevant evidence, a systematic review was outlined and literature searches were conducted in PubMed using standardized medical subject heading (MeSH) terms from the National Library of Medicine list of search terms. Search dates were inclusive of January 2000 to December 2015. The search yielded 833 abstracts, which were reviewed by two independent reviewers. Once accepted into the full manuscript review stage, two members of the writing group evaluated each of 286 full papers for inclusion eligibility into the guideline document. Ninety-six manuscripts were included in the final review. In addition, 17 manuscripts published before 2000 were included to provide method, context, or additional supporting evidence for the recommendations as these papers were considered sentinel publications. Members of the writing group wrote and developed recommendations based on review of the articles obtained and achieved

  18. Kokes Award for the 24th North American Catalysis Society Meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rioux, Robert M. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2016-05-02

    The objective of the Richard. J. Kokes Travel Award program is to encourage the participation of students in the biennial North American Catalysis Society (NACS) Meetings. The Kokes Award covers a significant portion of the transportation, lodging, and conference registration costs. Eligible students must be enrolled at a North American university and need to present a paper at the meeting. The Kokes awardee will be required to contribute some time to the organizing committee to assist in meeting operations and to be present at the meeting during the entire time. Similar to the 23rd Kokes Award program, undergraduate students are also eligible for the 24th Kokes Award program.

  19. Fourth American Physical Society Topical Conference on Shock Waves in Condensed Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Shock Waves in Condensed Matter

    1986-01-01

    The Fourth American Physical Society Topical Conference on Shock Waves in Condensed Matter was held in Spokane, Washington, July 22-25, 1985. Two hundred and fifty scientists and engineers representing thirteen countries registered at the conference. The countries represented included the United States of America, Australia, Canada, The People's Repub­ lic of China, France, India, Israel, Japan, Republic of China (Taiwan), United Kingdom, U. S. S. R, Switzerland and West Germany. One hundred and sixty-two technical papers, cov­ ering recent developments in shock wave and high pressure physics, were presented. All of the abstracts have been published in the September 1985 issue of the Bulletin of the American Physical Society. The topical conferences, held every two years since 1979, have become the principal forum for shock wave studies in condensed materials. Both formal and informal technical discussions regarding recent developments conveyed a sense of excitement. Consistent with the past conferences, th...

  20. Standardized Competencies for Parenteral Nutrition Prescribing: The American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenter, Peggi; Boullata, Joseph I; Ayers, Phil; Gervasio, Jane; Malone, Ainsley; Raymond, Erica; Holcombe, Beverly; Kraft, Michael; Sacks, Gordon; Seres, David

    2015-08-01

    Parenteral nutrition (PN) provision is complex, as it is a high-alert medication and prone to a variety of potential errors. With changes in clinical practice models and recent federal rulings, the number of PN prescribers may be increasing. Safe prescribing of this therapy requires that competency for prescribers from all disciplines be demonstrated using a standardized process. A standardized model for PN prescribing competency is proposed based on a competency framework, the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (A.S.P.E.N.)-published interdisciplinary core competencies, safe practice recommendations, and clinical guidelines. This framework will guide institutions and agencies in developing and maintaining competency for safe PN prescription by their staff. © 2015 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  1. Shared Decision Making in ICUs: An American College of Critical Care Medicine and American Thoracic Society Policy Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kon, Alexander A; Davidson, Judy E; Morrison, Wynne; Danis, Marion; White, Douglas B

    2016-01-01

    Shared decision making is endorsed by critical care organizations; however, there remains confusion about what shared decision making is, when it should be used, and approaches to promote partnerships in treatment decisions. The purpose of this statement is to define shared decision making, recommend when shared decision making should be used, identify the range of ethically acceptable decision-making models, and present important communication skills. The American College of Critical Care Medicine and American Thoracic Society Ethics Committees reviewed empirical research and normative analyses published in peer-reviewed journals to generate recommendations. Recommendations approved by consensus of the full Ethics Committees of American College of Critical Care Medicine and American Thoracic Society were included in the statement. Six recommendations were endorsed: 1) DEFINITION: Shared decision making is a collaborative process that allows patients, or their surrogates, and clinicians to make healthcare decisions together, taking into account the best scientific evidence available, as well as the patient's values, goals, and preferences. 2) Clinicians should engage in a shared decision making process to define overall goals of care (including decisions regarding limiting or withdrawing life-prolonging interventions) and when making major treatment decisions that may be affected by personal values, goals, and preferences. 3) Clinicians should use as their "default" approach a shared decision making process that includes three main elements: information exchange, deliberation, and making a treatment decision. 4) A wide range of decision-making approaches are ethically supportable, including patient- or surrogate-directed and clinician-directed models. Clinicians should tailor the decision-making process based on the preferences of the patient or surrogate. 5) Clinicians should be trained in communication skills. 6) Research is needed to evaluate decision

  2. Cancer Fatalism, Literacy, and Cancer Information Seeking in the American Public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Lindsay C; Smith, Samuel G

    2016-08-01

    Information seeking is an important behavior for cancer prevention and control, but inequalities in the communication of information about the disease persist. Conceptual models have suggested that low health literacy is a barrier to information seeking, and that fatalistic beliefs about cancer may be a mediator of this relationship. Cancer fatalism can be described as deterministic thoughts about the external causes of the disease, the inability to prevent it, and the inevitability of death at diagnosis. This study aimed to examine the associations between these constructs and sociodemographic factors, and test a mediation model using the American population-representative Health Information and National Trends Survey (HINTS 4), Cycle 3 (n = 2,657). Approximately one third (34%) of the population failed to answer 2/4 health literacy items correctly (limited health literacy). Many participants agreed with the fatalistic beliefs that it seems like everything causes cancer (66%), that one cannot do much to lower his or her chances of getting cancer (29%), and that thinking about cancer makes one automatically think about death (58%). More than half of the population had "ever" sought information about cancer (53%). In analyses adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics and family cancer history, people with limited health literacy were less likely to have ever sought cancer information (odds ratio [OR] = 0.63; 0.42-0.95) and more frequently endorsed the belief that "there's not much you can do . . ." (OR = 1.61; 1.05-2.47). This fatalistic belief partially explained the relationship between health literacy and information seeking in the mediation model (14% mediation). Interventions are needed to address low health literacy and cancer fatalism to increase public interest in cancer-related information. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  3. 77 FR 56650 - Food and Drug Administration/American Glaucoma Society Workshop on the Validity, Reliability, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-13

    ...] Food and Drug Administration/American Glaucoma Society Workshop on the Validity, Reliability, and... entitled ``FDA/American Glaucoma Society (AGS) Workshop on the Validity, Reliability, and Usability of... research. The purpose of this public workshop is to provide a forum for discussing the validity...

  4. 75 FR 80730 - Francis Slakey on Behalf of the American Physical Society; Receipt of Petition for Rulemaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ... [Docket No. PRM-70-9; NRC-2010-0372] Francis Slakey on Behalf of the American Physical Society; Receipt of... the NRC by Francis Slakey on behalf of the American Physical Society (APS). The petition was docketed... that over the next few years, the NRC would be reviewing license applications for new technologies, and...

  5. Kokes Awards for the 23rd North American Catalysis Society Meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, Gary [University of Kentucky Research Foundation, Lexington, KY (United States)

    2014-01-31

    The Tri-State Catalysis Society awarded 107 Kokes Travel Awards. The program was very successful and to date this was the most Kokes Travel Awards ever awarded at a North American Catalysis Society Meeting. It provided students who merited an award the opportunity to attend the meeting, present a paper in the form of either an oral presentation or a poster presentation, and to serve the North American Catalysis Society by participating in the organization of the meeting. Students worked very hard during the week of the meeting to make it a success. Financial support for the Kokes awards was provided by DOE, NSF, NACS, as well as the Tri-State Catalysis Society, the latter through fund raising activities, and other donations. AT the meeting, each student received over $1050 in kind to offset the costs of registration fees ($260), hotel accommodations ($295.7), transportation ($400 travel allowance), as well as T-shirts ($20), and banquet tickets ($95 provided by donations from society members). In addition, for the first time, students received certificates that were signed by the President of NACS, Professor Enrique Iglesia, and by the Kokes Awards Chair, Gary Jacobs (see last page). A list of meeting co-chairs (i.e., Uschi M. Graham, Umit S. Ozkan, and Madan Bhassin) and the honorary chair (Burtron H. Davis) was also included on the certificate, along with the name of the recipient. The awardees were chosen on a merit-based guideline which also included the requirements of having a presentation accepted at the meeting and being a student at a North American University. The Richard J. Kokes Student Travel Award Committee (Gary Jacobs, Rodney Andrews, and Peter Smirniotis) with help from the Organizing Committee were able to secure money from four sources as detailed in Table 1. As detailed by our Treasurer, Dr. Helge Toufar of Clariant, the total amount spent was $105,000.

  6. Minutes of the 48. meeting of the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, J.M.; Mazeron, J.J.

    2007-01-01

    Four parts are treated in this article: Cancers of the O.R.L. sphere, prostate cancers, breast cancer and anal channel. About the O.R.L. sphere cancers, Comparison between several works are made: american and European tests that conclude to the superiority of a chemotherapy using cisplatin on a classical radiotherapy after excision of epidermoid carcinomas of the O.R.L. sphere. Two other tests, one from Hong Kong and the other one from Singapore, are related; The first test studied a concomitant chemotherapy face to an adjuvant chemotherapy in locally evolved nasopharynx cancer. The second one ( Singapore) has compared radiotherapy and radiotherapy with concomitant chemotherapy by cisplatin. Concerning the prostate cancer, the question of dose escalation is developed, followed by a comparison between radiotherapy and hormonotherapy with goserelin. About the breast cancer, two canadian tests are related: the first one concerns the comparison between a conformal radiotherapy with intensity modulation a classical radiotherapy with two tangential beams. The results are in favour of R.C.M.I ( conformal radiotherapy with intensity modulation). The second tests compared a chemotherapy with tamoxifen with and without radiotherapy, the conclusions are in favour of chemotherapy with radiotherapy. The last part was devoted to the anal channel, and compared two chemotherapy with radiotherapy, one using 5-fluoro-uracil and mitomycin, the second one 5-fluoro-uracil and cisplatin. The treatment with 5-fluoro-uracil and mitomycin stays the preferred one. (N.C.)

  7. 594 THE AMERICAN CANCER SOCIETY* .18 June 1955

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    series of excellent movie films (many in full colour) on the problem of the early diagnosis of ... are available to support worth-while educational projects such as ... to face the difficult physical, emotional and financial burdens of a long-term ...

  8. American Society of Clinical Oncology Strategic Plan for Increasing Racial and Ethnic Diversity in the Oncology Workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkfield, Karen M; Flowers, Christopher R; Patel, Jyoti D; Rodriguez, Gladys; Robinson, Patricia; Agarwal, Amit; Pierce, Lori; Brawley, Otis W; Mitchell, Edith P; Head-Smith, Kimberly T; Wollins, Dana S; Hayes, Daniel F

    2017-08-01

    In December 2016, the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Board of Directors approved the ASCO Strategic Plan to Increase Racial and Ethnic Diversity in the Oncology Workforce. Developed through a multistakeholder effort led by the ASCO Health Disparities Committee, the purpose of the plan is to guide the formal efforts of ASCO in this area over the next three years (2017 to 2020). There are three primary goals: (1) to establish a longitudinal pathway for increasing workforce diversity, (2) to enhance ASCO leadership diversity, and (3) to integrate a focus on diversity across ASCO programs and policies. Improving quality cancer care in the United States requires the recruitment of oncology professionals from diverse backgrounds. The ASCO Strategic Plan to Increase Racial and Ethnic Diversity in the Oncology Workforce is designed to enhance existing programs and create new opportunities that will move us closer to the vision of achieving an oncology workforce that reflects the demographics of the US population it serves.

  9. Making contact for contact dermatitis: a survey of the membership of the American Contact Dermatitis Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nezafati, Kaveh A; Carroll, Bryan; Storrs, Frances J; Cruz, Ponciano D

    2013-01-01

    The American Contact Dermatitis Society (ACDS) is the principal organization representing the subspecialty of contact dermatitis in the United States. The aim of this study was to characterize ACDS members with respect to demographic characteristics, patch-test practices, and sentiments regarding the Society and its journal Dermatitis. We conducted cross-sectional postal and online surveys of ACDS members. More than a third of ACDS members responded to the survey, 92% of whom practice dermatology, and most of whom are community practitioners. Responders manage patients with allergic and irritant dermatitis at a similar frequency. On average, they patch test 4 patients per week using 66 allergens per patient, which often include customized trays. Almost half of these practitioners learned patch testing from their residency programs. Most of the responders read and value the Society journal, value the Contact Allergen Management Program database, and attend society meetings. The ACDS is comprised overwhelmingly of dermatologists who are primarily community-based, young relative to the start of their practices, and use the Society's resources for continuing education.

  10. Ethno-Religiosity in Orthodox Christianity: A Source of Solidarity & Multiculturalism in American Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Durante

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study will analyze the processes of community organization implemented by Eastern Orthodox Christian ethno-religious groups, and Greek Orthodox Christian communities in particular, to establish themselves in American civil society. It will be argued that the symbiotic relationship formed between ethnicity and religion in this tradition, as well as the democratized grassroots mode of community organization that American civil society fosters, contributes to a strong sense of belonging amongst members of the ethno-religious Orthodox Christian congregations. In turn, this sense of belonging has produced a multi-layered mechanism for solidarity-building in these communities. It will then be suggested that in addition to contributing to America’s religious diversity, the preservation of ethno-linguistic heritage by the various Orthodox Christian churches simultaneously contributes to America’s poly-ethnicity and linguistic diversity as well. Last, it will be argued that the continued survival of ethno-religiosity in American Orthodoxy can either lead to further isolation amongst the separate ethnic congregations, or it can alternatively open avenues for the cultivation of a form of Orthodox Christian multiculturalism that supports neither homogeneity nor isolationism.

  11. Cancer of the esophagus and esophagogastric junction-Major changes in the American Joint Committee on Cancer eighth edition cancer staging manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Thomas W; Gress, Donna M; Patil, Deepa T; Hofstetter, Wayne L; Kelsen, David P; Blackstone, Eugene H

    2017-07-08

    Answer questions and earn CME/CNE New to the eighth edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) Cancer Staging Manual for epithelial cancers of the esophagus and esophagogastric junction are separate, temporally related cancer classifications: 1) before treatment decision (clinical); 2) after esophagectomy alone (pathologic); and 3) after preresection therapy followed by esophagectomy (postneoadjuvant pathologic). The addition of clinical and postneoadjuvant pathologic stage groupings was driven by a lack of correspondence of survival, and thus prognosis, between both clinical and postneoadjuvant pathologic cancer categories (facts about the cancer) and pathologic categories. This was revealed by a machine-learning analysis of 6-continent data from the Worldwide Esophageal Cancer Collaboration, with consensus of the AJCC Upper GI Expert Panel. Survival is markedly affected by histopathologic cell type (squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma) in clinically and pathologically staged patients, requiring separate stage grouping for each cell type. However, postneoadjuvant pathologic stage groups are identical. For the future, more refined and granular data are needed. This requires: 1) more accurate clinical staging; 2) innovative solutions to pathologic staging challenges in endoscopically resected cancers; 3) integration of genomics into staging; and 4) precision cancer care with targeted therapy. It is the responsibility of the oncology team to accurately determine and record registry data, which requires eliminating both common errors and those related to incompleteness and inconsistency. Despite the new complexity of eighth edition staging of cancers of the esophagus and esophagogastric junction, these key concepts and new directions will facilitate precision cancer care. CA Cancer J Clin 2017;67:304-317. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  12. Differences in cultural beliefs and values among African American and European American men with prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes Halbert, Chanita; Barg, Frances K; Weathers, Benita; Delmoor, Ernestine; Coyne, James; Wileyto, E Paul; Arocho, Justin; Mahler, Brandon; Malkowicz, S Bruce

    2007-07-01

    Although cultural values are increasingly being recognized as important determinants of psychological and behavioral outcomes following cancer diagnosis and treatment, empirical data are not available on cultural values among men. This study evaluated differences in cultural values related to religiosity, temporal orientation, and collectivism among African American and European American men. Participants were 119 African American and European American men who were newly diagnosed with early-stage and locally advanced prostate cancer. Cultural values were evaluated by self-report using standardized instruments during a structured telephone interview. After controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, African American men reported significantly greater levels of religiosity (Beta = 24.44, P cultural values, clinical experiences with prostate cancer may also be important. This underscores the importance of evaluating the effects of both ethnicity and clinical factors in research on the influence of cultural values on cancer prevention and control.

  13. Reduced disparities and improved surgical outcomes for Asian Americans with colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulhern, Kayln C; Wahl, Tyler S; Goss, Lauren E; Feng, Katey; Richman, Joshua S; Morris, Melanie S; Chen, Herbert; Chu, Daniel I

    2017-10-01

    Studies suggest Asian Americans may have improved oncologic outcomes compared with other ethnicities. We hypothesized that Asian Americans with colorectal cancer would have improved surgical outcomes in mortality, postoperative complications (POCs), length of stay (LOS), and readmissions compared with other racial/ethnic groups. We queried the 2011-2014 American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program for patients who underwent surgery for colorectal cancer and stratified patients by race. Primary outcome was 30-d mortality with secondary outcomes including POCs, LOS, and 30-d readmission. Stepwise backward logistic regression analyses and incident rate ratio calculations were performed to identify risk factors for disparate outcomes. Of the 28,283 patients undergoing colorectal surgery for malignancy, racial/ethnic groups were divided into Caucasian American (84%), African American (12%), or Asian American (4%). On unadjusted analyses, compared with other racial/ethnic groups, Asian Americans were more likely to have normal weight, not smoke, and had lower American Society of Anesthesiologists score of 1 or 2 (P Asian Americans had the shortest LOS and the lowest rates of complications due to ileus, respiratory, and renal complications (P Asian American race was independently associated with less postoperative ileus (odds ratio 0.8, 95% confidence interval 0.66-0.98, P American and Caucasian American patients, respectively (P Asian Americans undergoing surgery for colorectal cancer have shorter LOS and fewer POCs when compared with other racial/ethnic groups without differences in 30-d mortality or readmissions. The mechanism(s) underlying these disparities will require further study, but may be a result of patient, provider, and healthcare system differences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Screening for cancer: advice for high-value care from the American College of Physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilt, Timothy J; Harris, Russell P; Qaseem, Amir

    2015-05-19

    Cancer screening is one approach to reducing cancer-related morbidity and mortality rates. Screening strategies vary in intensity. Higher-intensity strategies are not necessarily higher value. High-value strategies provide a degree of benefits that clearly justifies the harms and costs incurred; low-value screening provides limited or no benefits to justify the harms and costs. When cancer screening leads to benefits, an optimal intensity of screening maximizes value. Some aspects of screening practices, especially overuse and underuse, are low value. Screening strategies for asymptomatic, average-risk adults for 5 common types of cancer were evaluated by reviewing clinical guidelines and evidence syntheses from the American College of Physicians (ACP), U.S. Preventive Services Task Force, American Academy of Family Physicians, American Cancer Society, American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, American Gastroenterological Association, and American Urological Association. "High value" was defined as the lowest screening intensity threshold at which organizations agree about screening recommendations for each type of cancer and "low value" as agreement about not recommending overly intensive screening strategies. This information is supplemented with additional findings from randomized, controlled trials; modeling studies; and studies of costs or resource use, including information found in the National Cancer Institute's Physician Data Query and UpToDate. The ACP provides high-value care screening advice for 5 common types of cancer; the specifics are outlined in this article. The ACP strongly encourages clinicians to adopt a cancer screening strategy that focuses on reaching all eligible persons with these high-value screening options while reducing overly intensive, low-value screening.

  15. American Society of Radiation Oncology Recommendations for Documenting Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy Treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, Timothy; Das, Rupak; Low, Daniel; Yin Fangfang; Balter, James; Palta, Jatinder; Eifel, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Despite the widespread use of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for approximately a decade, a lack of adequate guidelines for documenting these treatments persists. Proper IMRT treatment documentation is necessary for accurate reconstruction of prior treatments when a patient presents with a marginal recurrence. This is especially crucial when the follow-up care is managed at a second treatment facility not involved in the initial IMRT treatment. To address this issue, an American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) workgroup within the American ASTRO Radiation Physics Committee was formed at the request of the ASTRO Research Council to develop a set of recommendations for documenting IMRT treatments. This document provides a set of comprehensive recommendations for documenting IMRT treatments, as well as image-guidance procedures, with example forms provided.

  16. Early Women Sociologist and the American Sociological Society: the Patterns of Exclusion and Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Jo Deegan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available American sociology owes a significant debt to early women professionals. Although discriminatedagainst as full colleagues, they nonetheless contributed to sociological thoughtand participated in professional activities. Evidence of both the barriers and opportunitiesaffecting these early female leaders is found in the records of the American SociologicalSociety during its founding years; i.e., from 1906-1931. Analysis of this information, aswell as personal documents of sociologists working during this period, reveals that womendid participate within a restricted range of “expertise”, often associated with traditionalsex roles. Jane Addams was a significant figure in these early years and was a leader withinthe separate, more institutionally limited female sociologist’s network.

  17. American Indian Men's Perceptions of Breast Cancer Screening for American Indian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippi, Melissa K; Pacheco, Joseph; James, Aimee S; Brown, Travis; Ndikum-Moffor, Florence; Choi, Won S; Greiner, K Allen; Daley, Christine M

    2014-01-01

    Screening, especially screening mammography, is vital for decreasing breast cancer incidence and mortality. Screening rates in American Indian women are low compared to other racial/ethnic groups. In addition, American Indian women are diagnosed at more advanced stages and have lower 5-year survival rate than others. To better address the screening rates of American Indian women, focus groups (N=8) were conducted with American Indian men (N=42) to explore their perceptions of breast cancer screening for American Indian women. Our intent was to understand men's support level toward screening. Using a community-based participatory approach, focus groups were audio-taped, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using a text analysis approach developed by our team. Topics discussed included breast cancer and screening knowledge, barriers to screening, and suggestions to improve screening rates. These findings can guide strategies to improve knowledge and awareness, communication among families and health care providers, and screening rates in American Indian communities.

  18. American Society for Pain Management nursing position statement: pain management in patients with substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, June; Coggins, Candace; Compton, Peggy; Hagan, Susan; Matteliano, Deborah; Stanton, Marsha; St Marie, Barbara; Strobbe, Stephen; Turner, Helen N

    2012-10-01

    The American Society for Pain Management Nursing (ASPMN) has updated its position statement on managing pain in patients with substance use disorders. This position statement is endorsed by the International Nurses Society on Addictions (IntNSA) and includes clinical practice recommendations based on current evidence. It is the position of ASPMN and IntNSA that every patient with pain, including those with substance use disorders, has the right to be treated with dignity, respect, and high-quality pain assessment and management. Failure to identify and treat the concurrent conditions of pain and substance use disorders will compromise the ability to treat either condition effectively. Barriers to caring for these patients include stigmatization, misconceptions, and limited access to providers skilled in these two categories of disorders. Topics addressed in this position statement include the scope of substance use and related disorders, conceptual models of addiction, ethical considerations, addiction risk stratification, and clinical recommendations.

  19. American Society for Microbiology resources in support of an evidence-based approach to teaching microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkel, Susan M

    2016-08-01

    Numerous national reports have addressed the need for changing how science courses in higher education are taught, so that students develop a deeper understanding of critical concepts and the analytical and cognitive skills needed to address future challenges. This review presents some evidence-based approaches to curriculum development and teaching. Results from discipline-based education research indicate that it is critically important for educators to formulate learning goals, provide frequent and authentic assessments and actively engage students in their learning. Professional societies can play a role in helping to put these changes into practice. To this end, the American Society for Microbiology has developed a number of educational programs and resources, which are described here to encourage the implementation of student-centered learning in microbiology education. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Insurrections, Bank and Private Contracts: How Society shaped the Constitutional Order during the American Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Battistini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Looking at the revolutionary context of Pennsylvania, the essay analyzes the continuous movement of rebellions during the American Revolution in order to highlight the process of institutionalization of the constitutional order, namely the changeable power relationship that shaped society. The essay reconstructs: 1 the battle for free trade and freedom of property and the resulting rising of the mercantile class as a national elite; 2 the mercantile political project of ordering society by creating a national system of public credit based upon the institution of the public debt and the foundation of the first national bank; 3 the vicissitudes of the bank by analyzing Dissertations of Government, the Affairs of the Bank and Paper Money (1786, one of the most underrated pamphlets of Thomas Paine. By this way, the essay shows how the principle of popular sovereignty and the language of rebellion were intended to be institutionalized as part of the constitutional order that was formalized in 1787-88.

  1. Defining refractory migraine: results of the RHSIS Survey of American Headache Society members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulman, Elliott A; Peterlin, B Lee; Lake, Alvin E; Lipton, Richard B; Hanlon, Alexandra; Siegel, Sherry; Levin, Morris; Goadsby, Peter J; Markley, Herbert G

    2009-04-01

    To gauge consensus regarding a proposed definition for refractory migraine proposed by Refractory Headache Special Interest Section, and where its use would be most appropriate. Headache experts have long recognized that a subgroup of headache sufferers remains refractory to treatment. Although different groups have proposed criteria to define refractory migraine, the definition remains controversial. The Refractory Headache Special Interest Section of the American Headache Society developed a definition through a consensus process, assisted by a literature review and initial membership survey. A 12-item questionnaire was distributed at the American Headache Society meeting in 2007 during a platform session and at the Refractory Headache Special Interest Section symposium. The same questionnaire was subsequently sent to all American Headache Society members via e-mail. A total of 151 responses from AHS members form the basis of this report. The survey instrument was designed using Survey Monkey. Frequencies and percentages of the survey were used to describe survey responses. American Headache Society members agreed that a definition for refractory migraine is needed (91%) that it should be added to the International Classification of Headache Disorders-2 (86%), and that refractory forms of non-migraine headache disorders should be defined (87%). Responders believed a refractory migraine definition would be of greatest value in selecting patients for clinical drug trials. The current refractory migraine definition requires a diagnosis of migraine, interference with function or quality of life despite modification of lifestyle factors, and adequate trials of acute and preventive medicines with established efficacy. The proposed criteria for the refractory migraine definition require failing 2 preventive medications to meet the threshold for failure. Although 42% of respondents agreed with the working definition of refractory migraine, 43% favored increasing the

  2. Overview of the ANS [American Nuclear Society] mathematics and computation software standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smetana, A.O.

    1991-01-01

    The Mathematics and Computations Division of the American Nuclear Society sponsors the ANS-10 Standards Subcommittee. This subcommittee, which is part of the ANS Standards Committee, currently maintains four ANSI/ANS software standards. These standards are: Recommended Programming Practices to Facilitate the Portability of Scientific Computer Programs, ANS-10.2; Guidelines for the Documentation of Computer Software, ANS-10.3; Guidelines for the Verification and Validation of Scientific and Engineering Computer Programs for the Nuclear Industry, ANS-10.4; and Guidelines for Accommodating User Needs in Computer Program Development, ANS-10.5. 5 refs

  3. Pain: metaphor, body, and culture in Anglo-American societies between the eighteenth and twentieth centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Joanna

    2014-10-02

    This article explores the relationship between metaphorical languages, body, and culture, and suggests that such an analysis can reveal a great deal about the meaning and experience of pain in Anglo-American societies between the eighteenth and twentieth centuries. It uses concepts within embodied cognition to speculate on how historians can write a history of sensation. Bodies are actively engaged in the linguistic processes and social interactions that constitute painful sensations. Language is engaged in a dialogue with physiological bodies and social environments. And culture collaborates in the creation of physiological bodies and metaphorical systems.

  4. The American Society of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology workforce assessment: Part 2-Implications for fellowship training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavey, P J; Hilden, J M; Matthews, D; Dandoy, C; Badawy, S M; Shah, M; Wayne, A S; Hord, J

    2018-02-01

    The American Society of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology (ASPHO) solicited information from division directors and fellowship training program directors to capture pediatric hematology/oncology (PHO) specific workforce data of 6 years (2010-2015), in response to an increase in graduating fellows during that time. Observations included a stable number of physicians and advanced practice providers (APPs) in clinical PHO, an increased proportion of APPs hired compared to physicians, and an increase in training-level first career positions. Rapid changes in the models of PHO care have significant implications to current and future trainees and require continued analysis to understand the evolving discipline of PHO. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Symposium for Alfred Wolf's 75th birthday at American Chemical Society meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-02

    This report contains abstracts from the symposium presented by the Division of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology of the American Chemical Society. Sessions covered the following topics: Therapeutic radionuclides--Making the right choice; Aspects of nuclear science; Nuclear structure with large gamma-ray detector arrays and their auxiliary devices; Thirty years of research in nuclear dynamics--From fission to the quark-gluon plasma; Chelated metal ions for diagnosis and therapy; Radiochemistry--Basic and applied; and Applications of small accelerators in science and industry.

  6. NASA/American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) Summer Faculty Fellowship Program, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwari, S.N.

    1991-09-01

    In a series of collaborations between NASA research and development centers and nearby universities, engineering faculty members spent 10 weeks working with professional peers on research. The Summer Faculty Program Committee of the American Society of Engineering Education supervises the programs. The objects were the following: (1) to further the professional knowledge of qualified engineering and science faculty members; (2) to stimulate and exchange ideas between participants and NASA; (3) to enrich and refresh the research and teaching activities of the participants' institutions; and (4) to contribute to the research objectives of the NASA center

  7. Symposium for Alfred Wolf's 75th birthday at American Chemical Society meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This report contains abstracts from the symposium presented by the Division of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology of the American Chemical Society. Sessions covered the following topics: Therapeutic radionuclides--Making the right choice; Aspects of nuclear science; Nuclear structure with large gamma-ray detector arrays and their auxiliary devices; Thirty years of research in nuclear dynamics--From fission to the quark-gluon plasma; Chelated metal ions for diagnosis and therapy; Radiochemistry--Basic and applied; and Applications of small accelerators in science and industry

  8. Respiratory health equality in the United States. The American thoracic society perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celedón, Juan C; Roman, Jesse; Schraufnagel, Dean E; Thomas, Alvin; Samet, Jonathan

    2014-05-01

    Because the frequency of major risk factors for respiratory diseases (e.g., tobacco use) differs across demographic groups (defined by socioeconomic status, race/ethnicity, sexual orientation, health care access, occupation, or other characteristics), health disparities are commonly encountered in pediatric and adult pulmonary, critical care, and sleep medicine. As part of its policy on respiratory health disparities, the American Thoracic Society (ATS) Executive Committee created a Health Equality Subcommittee of the Health Policy Committee, with an initial mandate of defining respiratory health equality and, as a subsequent task, providing recommendations to the ATS leadership as to how our society may help attain such equality in the United States. After receiving input from the ATS assemblies and committees, the subcommittee developed this document on respiratory health equality. This document defines respiratory health disparities and respiratory health equality, and expands on a recent ATS and European Respiratory Society policy statement on disparities in respiratory health. Attainment of respiratory health equality requires the ending of respiratory health disparities, which can be achieved only through multidisciplinary efforts to eliminate detrimental environmental exposures while promoting a healthy lifestyle, implementing all components of high-quality health care (prevention, screening, diagnosis, and treatment), and conducting research that will lead to better prevention and management of respiratory diseases for everyone. The ATS recognizes that such efforts must include all stakeholders: members of society at large, governmental and nongovernmental organizations, and other professional societies. The ATS urges all of its members and those of sister societies to work to achieve this laudable goal.

  9. National Native American Breast Cancer Survivor's Network

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burhansstipanov, Linda

    2002-01-01

    .... The purpose of this project is to improve the survival from breast cancer and quality of life after being diagnosed with breast cancer for both the patient and loved ones of the cancer patient...

  10. National Native American Breast Cancer Survivor's Network

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burhansstipanov, Linda

    2003-01-01

    .... The purpose of this project is to improve the survival from breast cancer and quality of life after being diagnosed with breast cancer for both the patient and loved ones of the cancer patient...

  11. Adjuvant and Salvage Radiation Therapy After Prostatectomy: American Society for Radiation Oncology/American Urological Association Guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valicenti, Richard K., E-mail: Richard.valicenti@ucdmc.ucdavis.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Davis School of Medicine, Davis, California (United States); Thompson, Ian [Department of Urology, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas (United States); Albertsen, Peter [Division of Urology, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, Connecticut (United States); Davis, Brian J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Medical School, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Goldenberg, S. Larry [Department of Urologic Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Wolf, J. Stuart [Department of Urology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Sartor, Oliver [Department of Medicine and Urology, Tulane Medical School, New Orleans, Louisiana (United States); Klein, Eric [Glickman Urological Kidney Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Hahn, Carol [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Michalski, Jeff [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Roach, Mack [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Faraday, Martha M. [Four Oaks, Inc (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this guideline was to provide a clinical framework for the use of radiation therapy after radical prostatectomy as adjuvant or salvage therapy. Methods and Materials: A systematic literature review using PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane database was conducted to identify peer-reviewed publications relevant to the use of radiation therapy after prostatectomy. The review yielded 294 articles; these publications were used to create the evidence-based guideline statements. Additional guidance is provided as Clinical Principles when insufficient evidence existed. Results: Guideline statements are provided for patient counseling, use of radiation therapy in the adjuvant and salvage contexts, defining biochemical recurrence, and conducting a restaging evaluation. Conclusions: Physicians should offer adjuvant radiation therapy to patients with adverse pathologic findings at prostatectomy (ie, seminal vesicle invastion, positive surgical margins, extraprostatic extension) and salvage radiation therapy to patients with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) or local recurrence after prostatectomy in whom there is no evidence of distant metastatic disease. The offer of radiation therapy should be made in the context of a thoughtful discussion of possible short- and long-term side effects of radiation therapy as well as the potential benefits of preventing recurrence. The decision to administer radiation therapy should be made by the patient and the multidisciplinary treatment team with full consideration of the patient's history, values, preferences, quality of life, and functional status. The American Society for Radiation Oncology and American Urological Association websites show this guideline in its entirety, including the full literature review.

  12. Adjuvant and Salvage Radiation Therapy After Prostatectomy: American Society for Radiation Oncology/American Urological Association Guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valicenti, Richard K.; Thompson, Ian; Albertsen, Peter; Davis, Brian J.; Goldenberg, S. Larry; Wolf, J. Stuart; Sartor, Oliver; Klein, Eric; Hahn, Carol; Michalski, Jeff; Roach, Mack; Faraday, Martha M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this guideline was to provide a clinical framework for the use of radiation therapy after radical prostatectomy as adjuvant or salvage therapy. Methods and Materials: A systematic literature review using PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane database was conducted to identify peer-reviewed publications relevant to the use of radiation therapy after prostatectomy. The review yielded 294 articles; these publications were used to create the evidence-based guideline statements. Additional guidance is provided as Clinical Principles when insufficient evidence existed. Results: Guideline statements are provided for patient counseling, use of radiation therapy in the adjuvant and salvage contexts, defining biochemical recurrence, and conducting a restaging evaluation. Conclusions: Physicians should offer adjuvant radiation therapy to patients with adverse pathologic findings at prostatectomy (ie, seminal vesicle invastion, positive surgical margins, extraprostatic extension) and salvage radiation therapy to patients with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) or local recurrence after prostatectomy in whom there is no evidence of distant metastatic disease. The offer of radiation therapy should be made in the context of a thoughtful discussion of possible short- and long-term side effects of radiation therapy as well as the potential benefits of preventing recurrence. The decision to administer radiation therapy should be made by the patient and the multidisciplinary treatment team with full consideration of the patient's history, values, preferences, quality of life, and functional status. The American Society for Radiation Oncology and American Urological Association websites show this guideline in its entirety, including the full literature review

  13. The American Society for Radiation Oncology's 2010 core physics curriculum for radiation oncology residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ying; Bernstein, Karen De Amorim; Chetty, Indrin J; Eifel, Patricia; Hughes, Lesley; Klein, Eric E; McDermott, Patrick; Prisciandaro, Joann; Paliwal, Bhudatt; Price, Robert A; Werner-Wasik, Maria; Palta, Jatinder R

    2011-11-15

    In 2004, the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) published its first physics education curriculum for residents, which was updated in 2007. A committee composed of physicists and physicians from various residency program teaching institutions was reconvened again to update the curriculum in 2009. Members of this committee have associations with ASTRO, the American Association of Physicists in Medicine, the Association of Residents in Radiation Oncology, the American Board of Radiology (ABR), and the American College of Radiology. Members reviewed and updated assigned subjects from the last curriculum. The updated curriculum was carefully reviewed by a representative from the ABR and other physics and clinical experts. The new curriculum resulted in a recommended 56-h course, excluding initial orientation. Learning objectives are provided for each subject area, and a detailed outline of material to be covered is given for each lecture hour. Some recent changes in the curriculum include the addition of Radiation Incidents and Bioterrorism Response Training as a subject and updates that reflect new treatment techniques and modalities in a number of core subjects. The new curriculum was approved by the ASTRO board in April 2010. We anticipate that physicists will use this curriculum for structuring their teaching programs, and subsequently the ABR will adopt this educational program for its written examination. Currently, the American College of Radiology uses the ASTRO curriculum for their training examination topics. In addition to the curriculum, the committee updated suggested references and the glossary. The ASTRO physics education curriculum for radiation oncology residents has been updated. To ensure continued commitment to a current and relevant curriculum, the subject matter will be updated again in 2 years. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The American Society for Radiation Oncology’s 2010 Core Physics Curriculum for Radiation Oncology Residents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Ying; De Amorim Bernstein, Karen; Chetty, Indrin J.; Eifel, Patricia; Hughes, Lesley; Klein, Eric E.; McDermott, Patrick; Prisciandaro, Joann; Paliwal, Bhudatt; Price, Robert A.; Werner-Wasik, Maria; Palta, Jatinder R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: In 2004, the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) published its first physics education curriculum for residents, which was updated in 2007. A committee composed of physicists and physicians from various residency program teaching institutions was reconvened again to update the curriculum in 2009. Methods and Materials: Members of this committee have associations with ASTRO, the American Association of Physicists in Medicine, the Association of Residents in Radiation Oncology, the American Board of Radiology (ABR), and the American College of Radiology. Members reviewed and updated assigned subjects from the last curriculum. The updated curriculum was carefully reviewed by a representative from the ABR and other physics and clinical experts. Results: The new curriculum resulted in a recommended 56-h course, excluding initial orientation. Learning objectives are provided for each subject area, and a detailed outline of material to be covered is given for each lecture hour. Some recent changes in the curriculum include the addition of Radiation Incidents and Bioterrorism Response Training as a subject and updates that reflect new treatment techniques and modalities in a number of core subjects. The new curriculum was approved by the ASTRO board in April 2010. We anticipate that physicists will use this curriculum for structuring their teaching programs, and subsequently the ABR will adopt this educational program for its written examination. Currently, the American College of Radiology uses the ASTRO curriculum for their training examination topics. In addition to the curriculum, the committee updated suggested references and the glossary. Conclusions: The ASTRO physics education curriculum for radiation oncology residents has been updated. To ensure continued commitment to a current and relevant curriculum, the subject matter will be updated again in 2 years.

  15. American Fisheries Society 136th Annual Meeting Lake Placid, NY 10-14 September, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einhouse, D.; Walsh, M.G.; Keeler, S.; Long, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    The New York Chapter of the American Fisheries Society and the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation invite you to experience the beauty of New York's famous Adirondack Park as the American Fisheries Society (AFS) convenes its 136th Annual Meeting in the legendary Olympic Village of Lake Placid, NY, 10-14 September 2006. Our meeting theme "Fish in the Balance" will explore the interrelation between fish, aquatic habitats, and man, highlighting the challenges facing aquatic resource professionals and the methods that have been employed to resolve conflicts between those that use or have an interest in our aquatic resources. As fragile as it is beautiful, the Adirondack Region is the perfect location to explore this theme. Bordered by Mirror Lake and its namesake, Lake Placid, the Village of Lake Placid has small town charm, but all of the conveniences that a big city would provide. Whether its reliving the magic of the 1980 hockey team's "Miracle on Ice" at the Lake Placid Olympic Center, getting a panoramic view of the Adirondack high peaks from the top of the 90 meter ski jumps, fishing or kayaking in adjacent Mirror Lake, hiking a mountain trail, or enjoying a quiet dinner or shopping excursion in the various shops and restaurants that line Main Street, Lake Placid has something for everyone.

  16. American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO) Emerging Technology Committee report on electronic brachytherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Catherine C; Yom, Sue S; Podgorsak, Matthew B; Harris, Eleanor; Price, Robert A; Bevan, Alison; Pouliot, Jean; Konski, Andre A; Wallner, Paul E

    2010-03-15

    The development of novel technologies for the safe and effective delivery of radiation is critical to advancing the field of radiation oncology. The Emerging Technology Committee of the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology appointed a Task Group within its Evaluation Subcommittee to evaluate new electronic brachytherapy methods that are being developed for, or are already in, clinical use. The Task Group evaluated two devices, the Axxent Electronic Brachytherapy System by Xoft, Inc. (Fremont, CA), and the Intrabeam Photon Radiosurgery Device by Carl Zeiss Surgical (Oberkochen, Germany). These devices are designed to deliver electronically generated radiation, and because of their relatively low energy output, they do not fall under existing regulatory scrutiny of radioactive sources that are used for conventional radioisotope brachytherapy. This report provides a descriptive overview of the technologies, current and future projected applications, comparison of competing technologies, potential impact, and potential safety issues. The full Emerging Technology Committee report is available on the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology Web site. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Full-text publication of abstracts presented at meetings of a Latin American scientific society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicembrino, Manuela; Anderson, Mariana; Vely, Ana Gabriela; Ossorio, María Fabiana; Ferrero, Fernando

    2014-12-01

    To estimate the proportion of abstracts presented at meetings of the Latin American Society for Pediatric Research that are fully-published, to describe the reasons for not publishing papers, and to assess the impact of funding on the publication rate. Abstracts presented at meetings held between 2005 and 2009 were included. Authors were contacted and invited to take a survey on the publication of their work or the reasons not to do it. Information was collected on 232 (71.4%) of the 325 abstracts presented. Of these, 58.6% were fully-published (136/232). Funded studies (40.0%) had more chances of publication (OR: 2.2; 95% CI: 1.2-3.9). "Lack of time" was the most common reason for failure to publish (35/96). 58.6% of abstracts presented at meetings of the Latin American Society for Pediatric Research, were published as full-text articles; lack of time was the most common reason for failure to publish. Funded research had more chances of being published.

  18. Meeting American Geriatrics Society Competencies: Are Residents Meeting Expectations for Quality Care of Older Adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bynum, Debra L; Wilson, Lindsay A; Ong, Thuan; Callahan, Kathryn E; Dalton, Thomas; Ohuabunwa, Ugochi

    2015-09-01

    In order to determine how often internal medicine and family medicine residents performed specific actions related to the geriatric competencies established by the American Geriatrics Society (AGS) when caring for older hospitalized adults, a cross-sectional anonymous survey of residents at the University of North Carolina, University of Washington, Wake Forest University, Duke University, and Emory University was undertaken. Data on frequency of self-reported behaviors were analyzed, with comparisons made for different levels of training, institution, and program. A total of 375 residents responded for an overall response rate of 48%. Residents reported that they often do not demonstrate all of the AGS recommended core competencies when caring for older adults in the hospital setting. Residents report more frequently performing activities that are routinely integrated into hospital systems such as reviewing medication lists, working with an interdisciplinary team, evaluating for inappropriate bladder catheters, and evaluating for pressure ulcers. There were no consistent differences between institutions and only minor differences noted between Family Medicine and Internal Medicine residents. Operationalizing core competencies by integrating them into hospital systems' quality process indicators may prompt more consistent high-quality care and ensure systems support residents' competence. © 2015, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2015, The American Geriatrics Society.

  19. The American Society for Clinical Pathology's 2015 Wage Survey of Medical Laboratories in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Edna; Fisher, Patrick B

    2017-05-01

    To inform the pathology and laboratory field of the most recent national wage data from the American Society for Clinical Pathology (ASCP). Historically, the results of this biennial survey have served as a basis for additional research on laboratory recruitment, retention, education, marketing, certification, and advocacy. The 2015 wage survey was conducted through collaboration between the ASCP's Institute of Science, Technology, and Policy in Washington, DC, and the ASCP Board of Certification in Chicago, Illinois. Electronic survey invitations were sent to individuals who are currently practicing in the field. Data reveal increased salaries since 2013 for all staff-level laboratory professionals surveyed except phlebotomists and pathologists' assistants. Laboratory assistants and phlebotomists, regardless of level, continue to have lower salaries while pathologists' assistants and administration personnel have higher salaries than the rest of the laboratory professions surveyed. Survey results put emphasis on strategic recruitment and retention by laboratory training programs and institutions that hire laboratory professionals. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  20. The American Society for Clinical Pathology's 2014 vacancy survey of medical laboratories in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Edna; Ali, Asma M; Soles, Ryan M; Lewis, D Grace

    2015-09-01

    To determine the extent and distribution of workforce shortages within the nation's medical laboratories. Historically, the results of this biennial survey have served as a basis for additional research on laboratory recruitment, retention, education, marketing, certification, and advocacy. The 2014 Vacancy Survey was conducted through collaboration between American Society for Clinical Pathology's Institute of Science, Technology, and Policy in Washington, DC, and the Evaluation, Measurement, and Assessment Department and Board of Certification in Chicago, Illinois. Data were collected via an Internet survey that was distributed to individuals who were able to report on staffing and certifications for their laboratories. Data reveal increased overall vacancy rates since 2012 for all departments surveyed except cytology and cytogenetics. Also, results show higher anticipated retirement rates for both staff and supervisors. Overall certification rates are highest among laboratory personnel in cytogenetics, hematology/coagulation, and flow cytometry departments and lowest among phlebotomy, specimen processing, and anatomic pathology. Factors such as retirement and the improving economy are driving the need for more laboratory professionals. Recruitment of qualified laboratory professionals in the workforce and students in laboratory programs will be the key in fulfilling the higher vacancies revealed from the survey results in 2014. Copyright© by the American Society for Clinical Pathology.

  1. Clinical Utilization of Repeated Open Application Test Among American Contact Dermatitis Society Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gabrielle E; Botto, Nina; Butler, Daniel C; Murase, Jenny E

    2015-01-01

    The repeated open application test (ROAT) provides useful information regarding allergens in suspected cases of allergic contact dermatitis; however, standardized methodology has not been established. The aim of this study was to assess how ROAT is used in clinical and research settings. We distributed a survey regarding ROAT practice to the American Contact Dermatitis Society and conducted a literature review of ROAT utilization in research. A total of 67 American Contact Dermatitis Society members participated in the survey. Respondents most frequently recommend application of leave-on products twice daily (46.0%) and rinse-off products once daily (43.5%). The most commonly used anatomical sites include the forearm (38.7%) and antecubital fossa (32.3%). Most respondents continue ROAT for 1 (49.2%) or 2 weeks (31.7%). Literature review of 32 studies (26 leave-on, 6 rinse-off) revealed that application frequency is most common at twice daily for both leave-on (96.2%) and rinse-off (50.0%) products. The most common anatomical site is the forearm (62.5%), with an overall study duration of 3 to 4 weeks (65.6%). When comparing ROAT clinical and research practice, the majority trend was consistent for leave-on product application frequency and anatomical site, but not for rinse-off product application frequency, or overall duration. Further research is needed to determine best practice recommendations.

  2. American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO) Emerging Technology Committee Report on Electronic Brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Catherine C.; Yom, Sue S.; Podgorsak, Matthew B.; Harris, Eleanor; Price, Robert A.; Bevan, Alison; Pouliot, Jean; Konski, Andre A.; Wallner, Paul E.

    2010-01-01

    The development of novel technologies for the safe and effective delivery of radiation is critical to advancing the field of radiation oncology. The Emerging Technology Committee of the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology appointed a Task Group within its Evaluation Subcommittee to evaluate new electronic brachytherapy methods that are being developed for, or are already in, clinical use. The Task Group evaluated two devices, the Axxent Electronic Brachytherapy System by Xoft, Inc. (Fremont, CA), and the Intrabeam Photon Radiosurgery Device by Carl Zeiss Surgical (Oberkochen, Germany). These devices are designed to deliver electronically generated radiation, and because of their relatively low energy output, they do not fall under existing regulatory scrutiny of radioactive sources that are used for conventional radioisotope brachytherapy. This report provides a descriptive overview of the technologies, current and future projected applications, comparison of competing technologies, potential impact, and potential safety issues. The full Emerging Technology Committee report is available on the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology Web site.

  3. American Society of Clinical Oncology Summit on Addressing Obesity Through Multidisciplinary Provider Collaboration: Key Findings and Recommendations for Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligibel, Jennifer A; Alfano, Catherine M; Hershman, Dawn L; Merrill, Janette K; Basen-Engquist, Karen; Bloomgarden, Zachary T; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Dixon, Suzanne; Hassink, Sandra G; Jakicic, John M; Morton, John Magaña; Okwuosa, Tochi M; Powell-Wiley, Tiffany M; Rothberg, Amy E; Stephens, Mark; Streett, Sarah E; Wild, Robert A; Westman, Eric A; Williams, Ronald J; Wollins, Dana S; Hudis, Clifford A

    2017-11-01

    Given the increasing evidence that obesity increases the risk of developing and dying from malignancy, the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) launched an Obesity Initiative in 2013 that was designed to increase awareness among oncology providers and the general public of the relationship between obesity and cancer and to promote research in this area. Recognizing that the type of societal change required to impact the obesity epidemic will require a broad-based effort, ASCO hosted the "Summit on Addressing Obesity through Multidisciplinary Collaboration" in 2016. This meeting was held to review current challenges in addressing obesity within the respective health care provider communities and to identify priorities that would most benefit from a collective and cross-disciplinary approach. Efforts focused on four key areas: provider education and training; public education and activation; research; and policy and advocacy. Summit attendees discussed current challenges in addressing obesity within their provider communities and identified priorities that would most benefit from multidisciplinary collaboration. A synopsis of recommendations to facilitate future collaboration, as well as examples of ongoing cooperative efforts, provides a blueprint for multidisciplinary provider collaboration focused on obesity prevention and treatment. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  4. An Official American Thoracic Society Research Statement: Implementation Science in Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Curtis H; Krishnan, Jerry A; Au, David H; Bender, Bruce G; Carson, Shannon S; Cattamanchi, Adithya; Cloutier, Michelle M; Cooke, Colin R; Erickson, Karen; George, Maureen; Gerald, Joe K; Gerald, Lynn B; Goss, Christopher H; Gould, Michael K; Hyzy, Robert; Kahn, Jeremy M; Mittman, Brian S; Mosesón, Erika M; Mularski, Richard A; Parthasarathy, Sairam; Patel, Sanjay R; Rand, Cynthia S; Redeker, Nancy S; Reiss, Theodore F; Riekert, Kristin A; Rubenfeld, Gordon D; Tate, Judith A; Wilson, Kevin C; Thomson, Carey C

    2016-10-15

    Many advances in health care fail to reach patients. Implementation science is the study of novel approaches to mitigate this evidence-to-practice gap. The American Thoracic Society (ATS) created a multidisciplinary ad hoc committee to develop a research statement on implementation science in pulmonary, critical care, and sleep medicine. The committee used an iterative consensus process to define implementation science and review the use of conceptual frameworks to guide implementation science for the pulmonary, critical care, and sleep community and to explore how professional medical societies such as the ATS can promote implementation science. The committee defined implementation science as the study of the mechanisms by which effective health care interventions are either adopted or not adopted in clinical and community settings. The committee also distinguished implementation science from the act of implementation. Ideally, implementation science should include early and continuous stakeholder involvement and the use of conceptual frameworks (i.e., models to systematize the conduct of studies and standardize the communication of findings). Multiple conceptual frameworks are available, and we suggest the selection of one or more frameworks on the basis of the specific research question and setting. Professional medical societies such as the ATS can have an important role in promoting implementation science. Recommendations for professional societies to consider include: unifying implementation science activities through a single organizational structure, linking front-line clinicians with implementation scientists, seeking collaborations to prioritize and conduct implementation science studies, supporting implementation science projects through funding opportunities, working with research funding bodies to set the research agenda in the field, collaborating with external bodies responsible for health care delivery, disseminating results of implementation

  5. Cancer Support Needs for African American Breast Cancer Survivors and Caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes-Maslow, Lindsey; Allicock, Marlyn; Johnson, La-Shell

    2016-03-01

    Improved cancer screening and treatment advances have led to higher cancer survival rates in the United States. However, racial disparities in breast cancer survival persist for African American women who experience lower survival rates than white women. These disparities suggest that unmet needs related to survivorship still exist. This study focuses on the challenges that both African American cancer survivors and caregivers face across the cancer continuum. Five African American focus groups examined cancer survivor and caregiver support needs. Focus groups were recorded, transcribed, and uploaded into Atlas.ti. Thematic content analysis was applied to the text during the coding process. Themes were identified and emphasized based on the research team's integrated and unified final codes. Forty-one African Americans participated in five focus groups: 22 cancer survivors and 19 caregivers. Participants discussed five themes: (1) a culture that discourages the discussion of cancer; (2) lack of support services for African American cancer survivors; (3) lack of support services for cancer caregivers; (4) need for culturally appropriate cancer resources, including resources targeted at African American women; and (5) aspects that were helpful to cancer survivors and caregivers, including connecting with other survivors and caregivers, and having strong social support networks. We gained new insight into the unmet support needs for survivors and caregivers, especially when coping with the cancer experience continuum. While some cancer and caregiver support services exist, our study reveals a great need for services that incorporate the cultural differences that exist across races.

  6. Genetic Counseling for Breast Cancer Susceptibility in African American Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hughes, Chanita

    2004-01-01

    .... The objectives of this study are to develop a Culturally Tailored Genetic (CTGC) protocol for African American women and evaluate its impact on decision-making and satisfaction about BRCAl/2 testing, quality of life, and cancer control practices...

  7. Differences in Knowledge of Breast Cancer Screening Among African American, Arab American, and Latina Women

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Karen Patricia; Mabiso, Athur; Todem, David; Hammad, Adnan; Hamade, Hiam; Hill-Ashford, Yolanda; Robinson-Lockett, Murlisa; Palamisono, Gloria; Zambrana, Ruth E.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction We examined differences in knowledge and socioeconomic factors associated with 3 types of breast cancer screening (breast self-examination, clinical breast examination, and mammogram) among African American, Arab, and Latina women. Methods Community health workers used a community-based intervention to recruit 341 women (112 Arab, 113 Latina, and 116 African American) in southeastern Michigan to participate in a breast cancer prevention intervention from August through October 20...

  8. Differences in knowledge of breast cancer screening among African American, Arab American, and Latina women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Karen Patricia; Mabiso, Athur; Todem, David; Hammad, Adnan; Hill-Ashford, Yolanda; Hamade, Hiam; Palamisono, Gloria; Robinson-Lockett, Murlisa; Zambrana, Ruth E

    2011-01-01

    We examined differences in knowledge and socioeconomic factors associated with 3 types of breast cancer screening (breast self-examination, clinical breast examination, and mammogram) among African American, Arab, and Latina women. Community health workers used a community-based intervention to recruit 341 women (112 Arab, 113 Latina, and 116 African American) in southeastern Michigan to participate in a breast cancer prevention intervention from August through October 2006. Before and after the intervention, women responded to a previously validated 5-item multiple-choice test on breast cancer screening (possible score range: 0 to 5) in their language of preference (English, Spanish, or Arabic). We used generalized estimating equations to analyze data and to account for family-level and individual correlations. Although African American women knew more about breast cancer screening at the baseline (pretest median scores were 4 for African American, 3 for Arab and 3 for Latina women), all groups significantly increased their knowledge after participating in the breast cancer prevention intervention (posttest median scores were 5 for African American and 4 for Arab and Latina women). Generalized estimating equations models show that Arab and Latina women made the most significant gains in posttest scores (P American, Arab, and Latina women to promote adherence to breast cancer screening guidelines.

  9. Recognition of American Physiological Society Members Whose Research Publications Had a Significant Impact on the Discipline of Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipton, Charles M.

    2013-01-01

    Society members whose research publication during the past 125 yr had an important impact on the discipline of physiology were featured at the American Physiological Society (APS)'s 125th Anniversary symposium. The daunting and challenging task of identifying and selecting significant publications was assumed by the Steering Committee of the…

  10. Growing the science of agronomy by growing the profession: a Message from the President of the American Society of Agronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    We often refer to the American Society of Agronomy (ASA) as being both a scientific and professional society. Membership within the organization includes a wide range of people from diverse regions and cultures of the world working with complex and diverse cropping systems. Yet members are unified...

  11. Shared Decision Making in Intensive Care Units: An American College of Critical Care Medicine and American Thoracic Society Policy Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kon, Alexander A.; Davidson, Judy E.; Morrison, Wynne; Danis, Marion; White, Douglas B.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Shared decision-making (SDM) is endorsed by critical care organizations, however there remains confusion about what SDM is, when it should be used, and approaches to promote partnerships in treatment decisions. The purpose of this statement is to define SDM, recommend when SDM should be used, identify the range of ethically acceptable decision-making models, and present important communication skills. Methods The American College of Critical Care Medicine (ACCM) and American Thoracic Society (ATS) Ethics Committees reviewed empirical research and normative analyses published in peer-reviewed journals to generate recommendations. Recommendations approved by consensus of the full Ethics Committees of ACCM and ATS were included in the statement. Main Results Six recommendations were endorsed: 1) Definition: Shared decision-making is a collaborative process that allows patients, or their surrogates, and clinicians to make health care decisions together, taking into account the best scientific evidence available, as well as the patient’s values, goals, and preferences. 2) Clinicians should engage in a SDM process to define overall goals of care (including decisions regarding limiting or withdrawing life-prolonging interventions) and when making major treatment decisions that may be affected by personal values, goals, and preferences. 3) Clinicians should use as their “default” approach a SDM process that includes three main elements: information exchange, deliberation, and making a treatment decision. 4) A wide range of decision-making approaches are ethically supportable including patient- or surrogate-directed and clinician-directed models. Clinicians should tailor the decision-making process based on the preferences of the patient or surrogate. 5) Clinicians should be trained in communication skills. 6) Research is needed to evaluate decision-making strategies. Conclusions Patient and surrogate preferences for decision-making roles regarding value

  12. Stomach cancer incidence rates among Americans, Asian Americans and Native Asians from 1988 to 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeerae Kim

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Stomach cancer is the second most common cancer in Eastern Asia, accounting for approximately 50% of all new cases of stomach cancer worldwide. Our objective was to compare the stomach cancer incidence rates of Asian Americans in Los Angeles with those of native Asians to assess the etiology of stomach cancer from 1988 to 2011. To examine these differences, Asian Americans (Korean, Japanese, Chinese, and Filipino Americans living in Los Angeles, California, USA and native Asians (from Korea, Japan, China, and the Philippines were selected for this study. Using the Cancer Incidence in Five Continents database, stomach cancer incidence rates were examined. Data from the National Cancer Registry of Korea were used for native Koreans. Between native countries, the incidence rates in Japan, China, the Philippines, and the US declined over time, but the incidence in Korea has remained constant. The incidences among Asian immigrants were lower than those among native Asians. The incidence rates of males were approximately 2 times higher than those among females in Asian countries were. The effect of immigration on stomach cancer incidence suggests that lifestyle factors are a significant determinant of stomach cancer risk. However, the incidence in Korea remains the highest of these countries

  13. Laboratory compliance with the American Society of Clinical Oncology/college of American Pathologists guidelines for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 testing: a College of American Pathologists survey of 757 laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhleh, Raouf E; Grimm, Erin E; Idowu, Michael O; Souers, Rhona J; Fitzgibbons, Patrick L

    2010-05-01

    To ensure quality human epidermal growth receptor 2 (HER2) testing in breast cancer, the American Society of Clinical Oncology/College of American Pathologists guidelines were introduced with expected compliance by 2008. To assess the effect these guidelines have had on pathology laboratories and their ability to address key components. In late 2008, a survey was distributed with the HER2 immunohistochemistry (IHC) proficiency testing program. It included questions regarding pathology practice characteristics and assay validation using fluorescence in situ hybridization or another IHC laboratory assay and assessed pathologist HER2 scoring competency. Of the 907 surveys sent, 757 (83.5%) were returned. The median laboratory accessioned 15 000 cases and performed 190 HER2 tests annually. Quantitative computer image analysis was used by 33% of laboratories. In-house fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed in 23% of laboratories, and 60% of laboratories addressed the 6- to 48-hour tissue fixation requirement by embedding tissue on the weekend. HER2 testing was performed on the initial biopsy in 40%, on the resection specimen in 6%, and on either in 56% of laboratories. Testing was validated with only fluorescence in situ hybridization in 47% of laboratories, whereas 10% of laboratories used another IHC assay only; 13% used both assays, and 12% and 15% of laboratories had not validated their assays or chose "not applicable" on the survey question, respectively. The 90% concordance rate with fluorescence in situ hybridization results was achieved by 88% of laboratories for IHC-negative findings and by 81% of laboratories for IHC-positive cases. The 90% concordance rate for laboratories using another IHC assay was achieved by 80% for negative findings and 75% for positive cases. About 91% of laboratories had a pathologist competency assessment program. This survey demonstrates the extent and characteristics of HER2 testing. Although some American Society of

  14. The American Society of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology workforce assessment: Part 1-Current state of the workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hord, Jeffrey; Shah, Mona; Badawy, Sherif M; Matthews, Dana; Hilden, Joanne; Wayne, Alan S; Salsberg, Edward; Leavey, Patrick S

    2018-02-01

    The American Society of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology (ASPHO) recognized recent changes in medical practice and the potential impact on pediatric hematology-oncology (PHO) workforce. ASPHO surveyed society members and PHO Division Directors between 2010 and 2016 and studied PHO workforce data collected by the American Board of Pediatrics and the American Medical Association to characterize the current state of the PHO workforce. The analysis of this information has led to a comprehensive description of PHO physicians, professional activities, and workplace. It is important to continue to collect data to identify changes in composition and needs of the PHO workforce. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Physical Activity and Cervical Cancer Testing among American Indian Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muus, Kyle J.; Baker-Demaray, Twyla B.; Bogart, T. Andy; Duncan, Glen E.; Jacobsen, Clemma; Buchwald, Dedra S.; Henderson, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Studies have shown that women who engage in high levels of physical activity have higher rates of cancer screening, including Papanicalaou (Pap) tests. Because American Indian (AI) women are at high risk for cervical cancer morbidity and mortality, we examined Pap screening prevalence and assessed whether physical activity was associated…

  16. An examination of gender differences in the American Fisheries Society peer-review process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, Grace; Frantz, Cynthia M; Kocovsky, Patrick; DeVries, Dennis R.; Cooke, Steven J.; Claussen, Julie

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the possibility of gender differences in outcomes throughout the peer review process of American Fisheries Society (AFS) journals. For each manuscript submitted to four AFS journals between January 2003 and December 2010, we collated information regarding the gender and nationality of authors, gender of associate editor, gender of reviewers, reviewer recommendations, associate editor's decision, and publication status of the manuscript. We used hierarchical linear modeling to test for differences in manuscript decision outcomes associated with author, reviewer, and associate editor gender. Gender differences were present at some but not every stage of the review process and were not equal among the four journals. Although there was a small gender difference in decision outcomes, we found no evidence of bias in editors’ and reviewers’ recommendations. Our results support the conclusion that the current single-blind review system does not result in bias against female authors within AFS journals.

  17. University papers in American Nuclear Society (ANS) transactions with enrollment and degrees-III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffey, D.; Wiggins, P.F.

    1986-01-01

    Statistics on nuclear engineering course offerings, enrollment, degrees, and papers published in the American Nuclear Society (ANS) Transactions were presented in 1966 at a conference at the University of West Virginia and in several subsequent publications. Since the 1970s, enrollment and degree data have been compiled by the US Department of Energy and its predecessors. These are the latest statistics. Universities, with perhaps 300 professors of nuclear engineering, continue to contribute substantially to the Transactions. Identification of nuclear engineering at universities is suffering because of reduced enrollment and much less graduate research support. This and the foreign student situation deserve serious attention by those concerned with nuclear engineering in university, government, and industrial communities

  18. American Chemical Society Student Affiliates Chapters: More Than Just Chemistry Clubs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, Ingrid; Collazo, Carmen

    2003-10-01

    Chemistry educators often examine and implement various instructional techniques, such as mentoring programs, to advance learning objectives and to equip students with analytical and technical skills, as well as the skills required of chemical science professionals. Student organizations, such as an American Chemical Society Student Affiliates (SA) chapter, can create a learning environment for undergraduates by engaging them in activities that develop communication, teamwork and inquiry, analysis, and problem-solving skills within a real-world setting. The environment is student-based, has personal meaning for the learner, emphasizes a process-and-product orientation, and emphasizes evaluation. Participation in SAs enhance the traditional chemistry curriculum, complementing the learning goals and meeting learning objectives that might not otherwise be addressed in the curriculum. In this article we discuss how SA chapters enhance the educational experience of undergraduate chemical science students, help develop new chemistry professionals, and shape enthusiastic and committed future chemical science leaders.

  19. Proceedings of the 2013 Meeting of the Australasian Section of the American Oil Chemists Society (AAOCS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Murphy

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Australasian section of the American Oil Chemists Society (AAOCS held their biennial meeting in Newcastle, Australia from 6 to 8 November, 2013. Over 150 scientists, researchers and industry representatives gathered for three days of talks and discussions on a variety of lipid related topics. The AAOCS awarded its inaugural AAOCS Award for Scientific Excellence in Lipid Research to Dr Allan Green from the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO. Dr Green is deputy chief of the CSIRO Division of Plant Industry and has been active in lipid research for several decades. His main research focus is on plant breeding and genetic engineering techniques to develop improved oilseeds with enhanced human nutritional value and novel industrial uses. Refer to “AAOCS Award for Scientific Excellence in Lipid Research” for more detail of his contributions [1].

  20. Achieving Speaker Gender Equity at the American Society for Microbiology General Meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadevall, Arturo

    2015-08-04

    In 2015, the American Society for Microbiology (ASM) General Meeting essentially achieved gender equity, with 48.5% of the oral presentations being given by women. The mechanisms associated with increased female participation were (i) making the Program Committee aware of gender statistics, (ii) increasing female representation among session convener teams, and (iii) direct instruction to try to avoid all-male sessions. The experience with the ASM General Meeting shows that it is possible to increase the participation of female speakers in a relatively short time and suggests concrete steps that may be taken to achieve this at other meetings. Public speaking is very important for academic advancement in science. Historically women have been underrepresented as speakers in many scientific meetings. This article describes concrete steps that were associated with achieving gender equity at a major meeting. Copyright © 2015 Casadevall.

  1. Atopic Dermatitis Guideline. Position Paper from the Latin American Society of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Sánchez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As in other regions, the incidence of atopic dermatitis in Latin America has been increasing in recent years. Although there are several clinical guidelines, many of their recommendations cannot be universal since they depend on the characteristics of each region. Thus, we decided to create a consensus guideline on atopic dermatitis applicable in Latin America and other tropical regions, taking into account socio-economic, geographical, cultural and health care system characteristics. The Latin American Society of Allergy Asthma and Immunology (SLAAI conducted a systematic search for articles related to the pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of dermatitis using various electronic resources such as Google, Pubmed, EMBASE (Ovid and Cochrane data base. We have also looked for all published articles in Latin America on the subject using LILACS (Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences database. Each section was reviewed by at least two members of the committee, and the nal version was subsequently approved by all of them, using the Delphi methodology for consensus building. Afterward, the nal document was shared for external evaluation with physicians, specialists (allergists, dermatologists and pediatricians, patients and academic institutions such as universities and scienti c societies related to the topic. All recommendations made by these groups were taken into account for the nal drafting of the document. There are few original studies conducted in Latin America about dermatitis; however, we were able to create a practical guideline for Latin America taking into account the particularities of the region. Moreover, the integral management was highlighted including many of the recommendations from different participants in the health care of this disease (patients, families, primary care physicians and specialists. This practical guide presents a concise approach to the diagnosis and management of atopic dermatitis that

  2. Nuclear reactor pressure vessel surveillance capsule examinations. Application of American Society for Testing and Materials Standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrin, J.S.

    1978-01-01

    A series of pressure vessel surveillance capsules is installed in each commercial nuclear power plant in the United States. A capsule typically contains neutron dose meters, thermal monitors, tensile specimens, and Charpy V-notch impact specimens. In order to determine property changes of the pressure vessel resulting from irradiation, surveillance capsules are periodically removed during the life of a reactor and examined. There are numerous standards, regulations, and codes governing US pressure vessel surveillance capsule programmes. These are put out by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Committee of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, and the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). A majority of the pertinent ASTM standards are under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee E-10 on Nuclear Applications and Measurements of Radiation Effects. The standards, regulations, and codes pertaining to pressure vessel surveillance play an important role in ensuring reliability of the nuclear pressure vessels. ASTM E 185-73 is the Standard Recommended Practice for Surveillance Tests for Nuclear Reactors. This standard recommends procedures for both the irradiation and subsequent testing of surveillance capsules. ASTM E 185-73 references many additional specialized ASTM standards to be followed in specific areas of a surveillance capsule examination. A key element of surveillance capsule programmes is the Charpy V-notch impact test, used to define curves of fracture behaviour over a range of temperatures. The data from these tests are used to define the adjusted reference temperature used in determining pressure-temperature operating curves for a nuclear power plant. (author)

  3. Current Ketamine Practice: Results of the 2016 American Society of Pain Management Nursing Survey on Ketamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaess, Cynthia C; Jungquist, Carla R

    2018-06-01

    Ketamine is increasingly utilized for a variety of pain management challenges. Audience comments from a ketamine presentation at the 2015 American Society of Pain Management Nursing (ASPMN) Conference reflected wide variation in ketamine practices as well as barriers to use. The goal was to gain a greater understanding of ASPMN member practice patterns and barriers related to ketamine as adjunctive therapy for pain management. A questionnaire survey design was used. Respondents represented 35 states and 2 countries. The participants were 146 respondents from ASPMN membership (1,485 members). The survey was distributed by ASPMN on SurveyMonkey. Practice setting and ketamine administration practices were assessed with areas for comments. Results were reviewed using frequencies to describe responses and formatted into tables. Comments were individually reviewed and grouped into common themes. Administration of ketamine as an analgesic was reported by 63% of respondents. Continuous intravenous ketamine infusions were the most common route of administration (65%); however, wide variability in dosing and length of therapy was reported. A wide variety of practices and challenges related to ketamine utilization were noted. Numerous studies have indicated the analgesic benefits of ketamine in pain management. The lack of practice standardization has created challenges to its consistent use and outcome measurement. Additionally, the off-label use of ketamine for pain management creates its own unique challenges. However, given the current national climate with intense focus on pain management, interdisciplinary practitioners have an ideal opportunity to evaluate ketamine's use in a comprehensive approach to pain management. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Atopic dermatitis guideline. Position paper from the Latin American Society of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Jorge; Páez, Bruno; Macías, A; Olmos, C; de Falco, A

    2014-01-01

    As in other regions, the incidence of atopic dermatitis in Latin America has been increasing in recent years. Although there are several clinical guidelines, many of their recommendations cannot be universal since they depend on the characteristics of each region. Thus, we decided to create a consensus guideline on atopic dermatitis applicable in Latin America and other tropical regions, taking into account socio-economic, geographical, cultural and health care system characteristics. The Latin American Society of Allergy Asthma and Immunology (SLAAI) conducted a systematic search for articles related to the pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of dermatitis using various electronic resources such as Google, Pubmed, EMBASE (Ovid) and Cochrane data base. We have also looked for all published articles in Latin America on the subject using LILACS (Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences) database. Each section was reviewed by at least two members of the committee, and the final version was subsequently approved by all of them, using the Delphi methodology for consensus building. Afterward, the final document was shared for external evaluation with physicians, specialists (allergists, dermatologists and pediatricians), patients and academic institutions such as universities and scientific societies related to the topic. All recommendations made by these groups were taken into account for the final drafting of the document. There are few original studies conducted in Latin America about dermatitis; however, we were able to create a practical guideline for Latin America taking into account the particularities of the region. Moreover, the integral management was highlighted including many of the recommendations from different participants in the health care of this disease (patients, families, primary care physicians and specialists). This practical guide presents a concise approach to the diagnosis and management of atopic dermatitis that can be

  5. ACC/AATS/AHA/ASE/ASNC/SCAI/SCCT/STS 2017 Appropriate Use Criteria for Coronary Revascularization in Patients With Stable Ischemic Heart Disease : A Report of the American College of Cardiology Appropriate Use Criteria Task Force, American Association for Thoracic Surgery, American Heart Association, American Society of Echocardiography, American Society of Nuclear Cardiology, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography, and Society of Thoracic Surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Manesh R; Calhoon, John H; Dehmer, Gregory J; Grantham, James Aaron; Maddox, Thomas M; Maron, David J; Smith, Peter K

    2017-10-01

    The American College of Cardiology, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society of Thoracic Surgeons, and American Association for Thoracic Surgery, along with key specialty and subspecialty societies, have completed a 2-part revision of the appropriate use criteria (AUC) for coronary revascularization. In prior coronary revascularization AUC documents, indications for revascularization in acute coronary syndromes and stable ischemic heart disease (SIHD) were combined into 1 document. To address the expanding clinical indications for coronary revascularization, and to align the subject matter with the most current American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines, the new AUC for coronary artery revascularization were separated into 2 documents addressing SIHD and acute coronary syndromes individually. This document presents the AUC for SIHD.Clinical scenarios were developed to mimic patient presentations encountered in everyday practice. These scenarios included information on symptom status; risk level as assessed by noninvasive testing; coronary disease burden; and, in some scenarios, fractional flow reserve testing, presence or absence of diabetes, and SYNTAX score. This update provides a reassessment of clinical scenarios that the writing group felt were affected by significant changes in the medical literature or gaps from prior criteria. The methodology used in this update is similar to the initial document but employs the recent modifications in the methods for developing AUC, most notably, alterations in the nomenclature for appropriate use categorization.A separate, independent rating panel scored the clinical scenarios on a scale of 1 to 9. Scores of 7 to 9 indicate that revascularization is considered appropriate for the clinical scenario presented. Scores of 1 to 3 indicate that revascularization is considered rarely appropriate for the clinical scenario, whereas scores in the mid-range of 4 to 6 indicate that

  6. ACC/AATS/AHA/ASE/ASNC/SCAI/SCCT/STS 2016 Appropriate Use Criteria for Coronary Revascularization in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndromes : A Report of the American College of Cardiology Appropriate Use Criteria Task Force, American Association for Thoracic Surgery, American Heart Association, American Society of Echocardiography, American Society of Nuclear Cardiology, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography, and the Society of Thoracic Surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Manesh R; Calhoon, John H; Dehmer, Gregory J; Grantham, James Aaron; Maddox, Thomas M; Maron, David J; Smith, Peter K

    2017-04-01

    The American College of Cardiology, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society of Thoracic Surgeons, and American Association for Thoracic Surgery, along with key specialty and subspecialty societies, have completed a 2-part revision of the appropriate use criteria (AUC) for coronary revascularization. In prior coronary revascularization AUC documents, indications for revascularization in acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and stable ischemic heart disease were combined into 1 document. To address the expanding clinical indications for coronary revascularization, and in an effort to align the subject matter with the most current American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines, the new AUC for coronary artery revascularization were separated into 2 documents addressing ACS and stable ischemic heart disease individually. This document presents the AUC for ACS. Clinical scenarios were developed to mimic patient presentations encountered in everyday practice and included information on symptom status, presence of clinical instability or ongoing ischemic symptoms, prior reperfusion therapy, risk level as assessed by noninvasive testing, fractional flow reserve testing, and coronary anatomy. This update provides a reassessment of clinical scenarios that the writing group felt to be affected by significant changes in the medical literature or gaps from prior criteria. The methodology used in this update is similar to the initial document but employs the recent modifications in the methods for developing AUC, most notably, alterations in the nomenclature for appropriate use categorization. A separate, independent rating panel scored the clinical scenarios on a scale of 1 to 9. Scores of 7 to 9 indicate that revascularization is considered appropriate for the clinical scenario presented. Scores of 1 to 3 indicate that revascularization is considered rarely appropriate for the clinical scenario, whereas scores in the mid-range (4 to 6

  7. Evaluation of American Indian Science and Engineering Society Intertribal Middle School Science and Math Bowl Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AISES, None

    2013-09-25

    The American Indian Science and Engineering Society (AISES) has been funded under a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) grant (Grant Award No. DE-SC0004058) to host an Intertribal Middle-School Science and Math Bowl (IMSSMB) comprised of teams made up of a majority of American Indian students from Bureau of Indian Education-funded schools and public schools. The intent of the AISES middle school science and math bowl is to increase participation of American Indian students at the DOE-sponsored National Science Bowl. Although national in its recruitment scope, the AISES Intertribal Science and Math Bowl is considered a “regional” science bowl, equivalent to the other 50 regional science bowls which are geographically limited to states. Most regional bowls do not have American Indian student teams competing, hence the AISES bowl is meant to encourage American Indian student teams to increase their science knowledge in order to participate at the national level. The AISES competition brings together teams from various American Indian communities across the nation. Each team is provided with funds for travel to and from the event, as well as for lodging and meals. In 2011 and 2012, there were 10 teams participating; in 2013, the number of teams participating doubled to 20. Each Science and Math Bowl team is comprised of four middle school — grades 6 through 8 — students, one alternate, and a teacher who serves as advisor and coach — although in at least two cases, the coach was not a teacher, but was the Indian Education Coordinator. Each team member must have at least a 3.0 GPA. Furthermore, the majority of students in each team must be comprised of American Indian, Alaska Native or Native Hawaiian students. Under the current DOE grant, AISES sponsored three annual middle school science bowl competitions over the years 2011, 2012 and 2013. The science and math bowls have been held in late March concurrently with the National American Indian Science and

  8. Publications Rates for Podium and Poster Presentations from the American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Benjamin R; Kunas, Grace C; Deland, Jonathan T; Ellis, Scott J

    2017-01-01

    National orthopaedic meetings are used to disseminate current research through podium and poster abstract presentations. Not all of these abstracts go on to full-text journal publication. The purpose of this study was to determine the publication rates of podium and poster presentations from the American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society (AOFAS) annual meetings between 2008 and 2012. All accepted podium and poster abstracts from the 2008-2012 AOFAS annual meetings were compiled from the AOFAS office, Physician Resource Center website, and hardcopy meeting programs. PubMed and Google Scholar searches were performed for journal publications using key words in the presentation abstracts and authors' names. Full-text journal publication rates for the presentations were calculated per year, as were the most common journals of publication. Overall full-text publication rate was 73.7% for podium presentations and 55.8% for posters. Podium presentations were published in a journal significantly more often than posters ( P poster presentations, respectively ( P = .124). The most common journal for podium and poster publications was Foot & Ankle International. Podium abstracts were significantly more likely to be published compared to posters. The AOFAS overall full-text journal publication rate was one of the higher reported rates compared with other national orthopedic society meetings, which have ranged from 34% to 73%.

  9. Preschool Multiple-Breath Washout Testing. An Official American Thoracic Society Technical Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Paul D; Latzin, Philipp; Ramsey, Kathryn A; Stanojevic, Sanja; Aurora, Paul; Davis, Stephanie D; Gappa, Monika; Hall, Graham L; Horsley, Alex; Jensen, Renee; Lum, Sooky; Milla, Carlos; Nielsen, Kim G; Pittman, Jessica E; Rosenfeld, Margaret; Singer, Florian; Subbarao, Padmaja; Gustafsson, Per M; Ratjen, Felix

    2018-03-01

    Obstructive airway disease is nonuniformly distributed throughout the bronchial tree, although the extent to which this occurs can vary among conditions. The multiple-breath washout (MBW) test offers important insights into pediatric lung disease, not available through spirometry or resistance measurements. The European Respiratory Society/American Thoracic Society inert gas washout consensus statement led to the emergence of validated commercial equipment for the age group 6 years and above; specific recommendations for preschool children were beyond the scope of the document. Subsequently, the focus has shifted to MBW applications within preschool subjects (aged 2-6 yr), where a "window of opportunity" exists for early diagnosis of obstructive lung disease and intervention. This preschool-specific technical standards document was developed by an international group of experts, with expertise in both custom-built and commercial MBW equipment. A comprehensive review of published evidence was performed. Recommendations were devised across areas that place specific age-related demands on MBW systems. Citing evidence where available in the literature, recommendations are made regarding procedures that should be used to achieve robust MBW results in the preschool age range. The present work also highlights the important unanswered questions that need to be addressed in future work. Consensus recommendations are outlined to direct interested groups of manufacturers, researchers, and clinicians in preschool device design, test performance, and data analysis for the MBW technique.

  10. State, market and civil society: Latin American development in comparative perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menno Vellinga

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In the 1980s Latin America made a radical break with the model of development that had been pursued by most countries on the continent for the last fifty years and implemented a new development strategy, defined along neo-liberal lines. These changes have taken place under conditions of increasing globalization, e.g. they had to be realized increasingly within globally defined parameters and structures. The relationship between the state, the market and civil society was redefined. The traditional structures of interest representation of groups and classes, their legitimacy and effectiveness underwent significant changes in many countries. In this article we will explore the nature of these changes and their consequences for state reform and the relation to problems of national development. We will do so in a comparative perspective, including experiences from South East Asia. The debate about the relationship between state, market and civil society has received a new impetus from the 2008 crisis of the international financial system and the widely spread criticism of the workings of the market capitalism that it has generated. For Latin American development the conclusions of this debate and their possible translation into concrete policies are of the utmost importance.

  11. Cultural macroevolution on neighbor graphs : vertical and horizontal transmission among Western North American Indian societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towner, Mary C; Grote, Mark N; Venti, Jay; Borgerhoff Mulder, Monique

    2012-09-01

    What are the driving forces of cultural macroevolution, the evolution of cultural traits that characterize societies or populations? This question has engaged anthropologists for more than a century, with little consensus regarding the answer. We develop and fit autologistic models, built upon both spatial and linguistic neighbor graphs, for 44 cultural traits of 172 societies in the Western North American Indian (WNAI) database. For each trait, we compare models including or excluding one or both neighbor graphs, and for the majority of traits we find strong evidence in favor of a model which uses both spatial and linguistic neighbors to predict a trait's distribution. Our results run counter to the assertion that cultural trait distributions can be explained largely by the transmission of traits from parent to daughter populations and are thus best analyzed with phylogenies. In contrast, we show that vertical and horizontal transmission pathways can be incorporated in a single model, that both transmission modes may indeed operate on the same trait, and that for most traits in the WNAI database, accounting for only one mode of transmission would result in a loss of information.

  12. New Strategies and Challenges in Lung Proteomics and Metabolomics. An Official American Thoracic Society Workshop Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowler, Russell P; Wendt, Chris H; Fessler, Michael B; Foster, Matthew W; Kelly, Rachel S; Lasky-Su, Jessica; Rogers, Angela J; Stringer, Kathleen A; Winston, Brent W

    2017-12-01

    This document presents the proceedings from the workshop entitled, "New Strategies and Challenges in Lung Proteomics and Metabolomics" held February 4th-5th, 2016, in Denver, Colorado. It was sponsored by the National Heart Lung Blood Institute, the American Thoracic Society, the Colorado Biological Mass Spectrometry Society, and National Jewish Health. The goal of this workshop was to convene, for the first time, relevant experts in lung proteomics and metabolomics to discuss and overcome specific challenges in these fields that are unique to the lung. The main objectives of this workshop were to identify, review, and/or understand: (1) emerging technologies in metabolomics and proteomics as applied to the study of the lung; (2) the unique composition and challenges of lung-specific biological specimens for metabolomic and proteomic analysis; (3) the diverse informatics approaches and databases unique to metabolomics and proteomics, with special emphasis on the lung; (4) integrative platforms across genetic and genomic databases that can be applied to lung-related metabolomic and proteomic studies; and (5) the clinical applications of proteomics and metabolomics. The major findings and conclusions of this workshop are summarized at the end of the report, and outline the progress and challenges that face these rapidly advancing fields.

  13. Official American Thoracic Society technical standards: spirometry in the occupational setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redlich, Carrie A; Tarlo, Susan M; Hankinson, John L; Townsend, Mary C; Eschenbacher, William L; Von Essen, Susanna G; Sigsgaard, Torben; Weissman, David N

    2014-04-15

    This document addresses aspects of the performance and interpretation of spirometry that are particularly important in the workplace, where inhalation exposures can affect lung function and cause or exacerbate lung diseases, such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or fibrosis. Issues that previous American Thoracic Society spirometry statements did not adequately address with respect to the workplace were identified for systematic review. Medline 1950-2012 and Embase 1980-2012 were searched for evidence related to the following: training for spirometry technicians; testing posture; appropriate reference values to use for Asians in North America; and interpretative strategies for analyzing longitudinal change in lung function. The evidence was reviewed and technical recommendations were developed. Spirometry performed in the work setting should be part of a comprehensive workplace respiratory health program. Effective technician training and feedback can improve the quality of spirometry testing. Posture-related changes in FEV1 and FVC, although small, may impact interpretation, so testing posture should be kept consistent and documented on repeat testing. Until North American Asian-specific equations are developed, applying a correction factor of 0.88 to white reference values is considered reasonable when testing Asian American individuals in North America. Current spirometry should be compared with previous tests. Excessive loss in FEV1 over time should be evaluated using either a percentage decline (15% plus loss expected due to aging) or one of the other approaches discussed, taking into consideration testing variability, worker exposures, symptoms, and other clinical information. Important aspects of workplace spirometry are discussed and recommendations are provided for the performance and interpretation of workplace spirometry.

  14. Embryo transfer techniques: an American Society for Reproductive Medicine survey of current Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Thomas L; Lee, Malinda S; Bendikson, Kristin A; Reindollar, Richard H

    2017-04-01

    To better understand practice patterns and opportunities for standardization of ET. Cross-sectional survey. Not applicable. Not applicable. An anonymous 82-question survey was emailed to the medical directors of 286 Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology member IVF practices. A follow-up survey composed of three questions specific to ET technique was emailed to the same medical directors. Descriptive statistics of the results were compiled. The survey assessed policies, protocols, restrictions, and specifics pertinent to the technique of ET. There were 117 (41%) responses; 32% practice in academic settings and 68% in private practice. Responders were experienced clinicians, half of whom had performed Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Defining High-Quality Palliative Care in Oncology Practice: An American Society of Clinical Oncology/American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine Guidance Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickel, Kathleen E; McNiff, Kristen; Buss, Mary K; Kamal, Arif; Lupu, Dale; Abernethy, Amy P; Broder, Michael S; Shapiro, Charles L; Acheson, Anupama Kurup; Malin, Jennifer; Evans, Tracey; Krzyzanowska, Monika K

    2016-09-01

    Integrated into routine oncology care, palliative care can improve symptom burden, quality of life, and patient and caregiver satisfaction. However, not all oncology practices have access to specialist palliative medicine. This project endeavored to define what constitutes high-quality primary palliative care as delivered by medical oncology practices. An expert steering committee outlined 966 palliative care service items, in nine domains, each describing a candidate element of primary palliative care delivery for patients with advanced cancer or high symptom burden. Using modified Delphi methodology, 31 multidisciplinary panelists rated each service item on three constructs: importance, feasibility, and scope within medical oncology practice. Panelists endorsed the highest proportion of palliative care service items in the domains of End-of-Life Care (81%); Communication and Shared Decision Making (79%); and Advance Care Planning (78%). The lowest proportions were in Spiritual and Cultural Assessment and Management (35%) and Psychosocial Assessment and Management (39%). In the largest domain, Symptom Assessment and Management, there was consensus that all symptoms should be assessed and managed at a basic level, with more comprehensive management for common symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, dyspnea, and pain. Within the Appropriate Palliative Care and Hospice Referral domain, there was consensus that oncology practices should be able to describe the difference between palliative care and hospice to patients and refer patients appropriately. This statement describes the elements comprising high-quality primary palliative care for patients with advanced cancer or high symptom burden, as delivered by oncology practices. Oncology providers wishing to enhance palliative care delivery may find this information useful to inform operational changes and quality improvement efforts. Copyright © 2016 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  16. American Indian Women Cancer Survivor's Needs and Preferences: Community Support for Cancer Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnette, Catherine E; Roh, Soonhee; Liddell, Jessica; Lee, Yeon-Shim

    2018-03-15

    Cancer (the focus of this inquiry) is the leading cause of death among American Indian and Alaska Native women. The purpose of this study was to identify American Indian women cancer survivors' needs and preferences related to community supports for their cancer experience. This qualitative study examined female American Indian cancer survivors' needs and preferences about community support. The sample included 43 American Indian women cancer survivors (the types of cancer survivors included cervical cancer: n = 14; breast cancer: n = 14; and colon and other types: n = 15) residing in the Northern Plains region, in the state of South Dakota. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis and were collected between June of 2014 and February of 2015. When asked about their needs and preferences, 82% of participants (n = 35) of female American Indian cancer survivors reported at least one of the following most commonly reported themes: cancer support groups (n = 31, 72%), infrastructure for community support (n = 17, 40%), and cancer education (n = 11, 26%). In addition to the aforementioned themes, 33% of participants (n = 14) indicated the need for an improved healthcare system, with 11% (n = 5) of participants expressly desiring the integration of spirituality and holistic healing options. The majority of American Indian women cancer survivor participants of this study identified a need for more community-based support systems and infrastructures to aid with the cancer survivor experience. Results warrant a community approach to raise awareness, education, and support for American Indian cancer survivors.

  17. Knowledge of colorectal cancer screening guidelines and intention to obtain screening among nonadherent Filipino, Hmong, and Korean Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoh, Janice Y; Tong, Elisa K; Sy, Angela U; Stewart, Susan L; Gildengorin, Ginny L; Nguyen, Tung T

    2018-04-01

    Nonadherence to colorectal cancer (CRC) screening among Asian Americans is high but not well understood. This study examined correlates of screening intention among Filipino, Hmong, and Korean Americans who were nonadherent to CRC screening. Using cross-sectional, preintervention survey data from 504 Asian Americans (115 Filipinos, 185 Hmong, and 204 Koreans) aged 50-75 years who were enrolled in a multisite cluster randomized controlled trial of lay health educator intervention, we analyzed correlates of self-reported CRC screening nonadherence, which was defined as not being up-to-date for fecal occult blood test, sigmoidoscopy, or colonoscopy. Only 26.8% of participants indicated intention to obtain screening within 6 months (Hmong: 12.4%; Korean: 30.8%; and Filipino: 42.6%; P Filipinos, which was unexplained by socio-demographics, health care factors, perceived needs for CRC screening, or knowledge of screening guidelines. CRC screening intention among nonadherent Filipino, Hmong, and Korean Americans was low. Targeting knowledge of CRC screening guidelines may be effective strategies for increasing CRC screening intention among nonadherent Asian Americans. Cancer 2018;124:1560-7. © 2018 American Cancer Society. © 2018 American Cancer Society.

  18. Readability of patient education materials on the American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine website.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltorai, Adam E M; Han, Alex; Truntzer, Jeremy; Daniels, Alan H

    2014-11-01

    The recommended readability of patient education materials by the American Medical Association (AMA) and National Institutes of Health (NIH) should be no greater than a sixth-grade reading level. However, online resources may be too complex for some patients to understand, and poor health literacy predicts inferior health-related quality of life outcomes. This study evaluated whether the American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine (AOSSM) website's patient education materials meet recommended readability guidelines for medical information. We hypothesized that the readability of these online materials would have a Flesch-Kincaid formula grade above the sixth grade. All 65 patient education entries of the AOSSM website were analyzed for grade level readability using the Flesch-Kincaid formula, a widely used and validated tool to evaluate the text reading level. The average (standard deviation) readability of all 65 articles was grade level 10.03 (1.44); 64 articles had a readability score above the sixth-grade level, which is the maximum level recommended by the AMA and NIH. Mean readability of the articles exceeded this level by 4.03 grade levels (95% CI, 3.7-4.4; P reading level of US adults. Mean readability of the articles exceeded this level by 2.03 grade levels (95% CI, 1.7-2.4; P online AOSSM patient education materials exceeds the readability level recommended by the AMA and NIH, and is above the average reading level of the majority of US adults. This online information may be of limited utility to most patients due to a lack of comprehension. Our study provides a clear example of the need to improve the readability of specific education material in order to maximize the efficacy of multimedia sources.

  19. A Survey of the American Society of Anesthesiologists Regarding Environmental Attitudes, Knowledge, and Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ard, John L; Tobin, Katherine; Huncke, Tessa; Kline, Richard; Ryan, Susan M; Bell, Charlotte

    2016-04-01

    Our planet is in the midst of an environmental crisis. Government and international agencies such as the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change urge radical and transformative change at every level of how we conduct our personal and professional lives. The health care industry contributes to climate change. According to a study from the University of Chicago, the health care sector accounts for 8% of the United States' total greenhouse gas emissions. In an effort to understand the current state of environmental practice, attitudes, and knowledge among anesthesiologists in the United States, we conducted a survey of American anesthesiologists regarding environmental sustainability. The environmental survey was sent out by e-mail to a random sampling of 5200 members of the American Society of Anesthesiologists. This process was repeated a second time. A total of 2189 anesthesiologists of 5200 responded to the survey, a 42% response rate. Of the survey respondents, 80.1% (confidence interval, 78.2%-81.9%) were interested in recycling. Respondents reported recycling in 27.7% of operating rooms where they work. The majority of respondents (67%; confidence interval, 64%-69%) reported there was insufficient information on how to recycle intraoperatively. Respondents supported sustainability practices such as reprocessing equipment, using prefilled syringes, and donating unused equipment and supplies. The affirmative response rate was 48.4% for reprocessing equipment, 56.6% for using prefilled syringes, and 65.1% for donating equipment and supplies to medical missions. Questions about hospital-wide organization of sustainability programs elicited many "I don't know" responses. Eighteen percent of responders indicated the presence of a sustainability or "green" task force. A total of 12.6% of responders indicated the presence of a mandate from hospital leadership to promote sustainability programs. Two important conclusions drawn from the survey data are a lack of

  20. The American Society for Radiation Oncology's 2015 Core Physics Curriculum for Radiation Oncology Residents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burmeister, Jay; Chen, Zhe; Chetty, Indrin J.; Dieterich, Sonja; Doemer, Anthony; Dominello, Michael M.; Howell, Rebecca M.; McDermott, Patrick; Nalichowski, Adrian; Prisciandaro, Joann; Ritter, Tim; Smith, Chadd; Schreiber, Eric; Shafman, Timothy; Sutlief, Steven; Xiao, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) Physics Core Curriculum Subcommittee (PCCSC) has updated the recommended physics curriculum for radiation oncology resident education to improve consistency in teaching, intensity, and subject matter. Methods and Materials: The ASTRO PCCSC is composed of physicists and physicians involved in radiation oncology residency education. The PCCSC updated existing sections within the curriculum, created new sections, and attempted to provide additional clinical context to the curricular material through creation of practical clinical experiences. Finally, we reviewed the American Board of Radiology (ABR) blueprint of examination topics for correlation with this curriculum. Results: The new curriculum represents 56 hours of resident physics didactic education, including a 4-hour initial orientation. The committee recommends completion of this curriculum at least twice to assure both timely presentation of material and re-emphasis after clinical experience. In addition, practical clinical physics and treatment planning modules were created as a supplement to the didactic training. Major changes to the curriculum include addition of Fundamental Physics, Stereotactic Radiosurgery/Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy, and Safety and Incidents sections, and elimination of the Radiopharmaceutical Physics and Dosimetry and Hyperthermia sections. Simulation and Treatment Verification and optional Research and Development in Radiation Oncology sections were also added. A feedback loop was established with the ABR to help assure that the physics component of the ABR radiation oncology initial certification examination remains consistent with this curriculum. Conclusions: The ASTRO physics core curriculum for radiation oncology residents has been updated in an effort to identify the most important physics topics for preparing residents for careers in radiation oncology, to reflect changes in technology and practice since

  1. American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) 2012 Workforce Study: The Radiation Oncologists' and Residents' Perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohar, Surjeet; Fung, Claire Y.; Hopkins, Shane; Miller, Robert; Azawi, Samar; Arnone, Anna; Patton, Caroline; Olsen, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) conducted the 2012 Radiation Oncology Workforce Survey to obtain an up-to-date picture of the workforce, assess its needs and concerns, and identify quality and safety improvement opportunities. The results pertaining to radiation oncologists (ROs) and residents (RORs) are presented here. Methods: The ASTRO Workforce Subcommittee, in collaboration with allied radiation oncology professional societies, conducted a survey study in early 2012. An online survey questionnaire was sent to all segments of the radiation oncology workforce. Respondents who were actively working were included in the analysis. This manuscript describes the data for ROs and RORs. Results: A total of 3618 ROs and 568 RORs were surveyed. The response rate for both groups was 29%, with 1047 RO and 165 ROR responses. Among ROs, the 2 most common racial groups were white (80%) and Asian (15%), and the male-to-female ratio was 2.85 (74% male). The median age of ROs was 51. ROs averaged 253.4 new patient consults in a year and 22.9 on-treatment patients. More than 86% of ROs reported being satisfied or very satisfied overall with their career. Close to half of ROs reported having burnout feelings. There was a trend toward more frequent burnout feelings with increasing numbers of new patient consults. ROs' top concerns were related to documentation, reimbursement, and patients' health insurance coverage. Ninety-five percent of ROs felt confident when implementing new technology. Fifty-one percent of ROs thought that the supply of ROs was balanced with demand, and 33% perceived an oversupply. Conclusions: This study provides a current snapshot of the 2012 radiation oncology physician workforce. There was a predominance of whites and men. Job satisfaction level was high. However a substantial fraction of ROs reported burnout feelings. Perceptions about supply and demand balance were mixed. ROs top concerns reflect areas of attention for the

  2. Survey of International Members of the American Thoracic Society on Climate Change and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarfaty, Mona; Kreslake, Jennifer; Ewart, Gary; Guidotti, Tee L; Thurston, George D; Balmes, John R; Maibach, Edward W

    2016-10-01

    The American Thoracic Society (ATS), in collaboration with George Mason University, surveyed international members of the society to assess perceptions, clinical experiences, and preferred policy responses related to global climate change. A recruitment email was sent by the ATS President in October 2015 to 5,013 international members. Subsequently, four reminder emails were sent to nonrespondents. Responses were received from 489 members in 68 countries; the response rate was 9.8%. Half of respondents reported working in countries in Asia (25%) or Europe (25%), with the remainder in South America (18%), North America (Canada and Mexico) (18%), Australia or New Zealand (9%), and Africa (6%). Survey estimate confidence intervals were ± 5% or smaller. A high percentage of international ATS survey respondents judged that climate change is happening (96%), that it is driven by human activity (70%), and that it is relevant to patient care ("a great deal"/"a moderate amount") (80%). A majority of respondents also indicated they are already observing health impacts of climate change among their patients; most commonly as increases in chronic disease severity from air pollution (88%), allergic symptoms from exposure to plants or mold (72%), and severe weather injuries (69%). An even larger majority anticipated seeing these climate-related health impacts in the next two decades. Respondents further indicated that physicians and physician organizations should play an active role in educating patients, the public, and policy makers on the human health effects of climate change. International ATS respondents, like their counterparts in the U.S., observed that human health is already adversely affected by climate change, and support responses to address this situation.

  3. Clinical trials: understanding and perceptions of female Chinese-American cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Shin-Ping; Chen, Hueifang; Chen, Anthony; Lim, Jeanette; May, Suepattra; Drescher, Charles

    2005-12-15

    Under-representation of minority and female participants prompted the U.S. legislature to mandate the inclusion of women and minorities in federally funded research. Recruitment of minorities to participate in clinical trials continues to be challenging. Although Asian Americans constitute one of the major minority groups in the U.S., published literature contains sparse data concerning the participation of Asian Americans in cancer clinical trials. The authors completed qualitative, semistructured interviews with 34 participants: Chinese-American female cancer patients ages 20-85 years or their family members. Interviews were conducted in Cantonese, Mandarin, or English and were audiotaped. Chinese interviews were translated into English, and all interviews were transcribed subsequently into English. A team of five coders individually reviewed then met to discuss the English transcripts. The authors used the constant comparative technique throughout the entire coding process as part of the analysis. Among participants, 62% lacked any knowledge of clinical trials, and many expressed negative attitudes toward clinical trials. Barriers to participation included inadequate resources, language issues, and a lack of financial and social support. Facilitating factors included recommendations by a trusted oncologist or another trusted individual and information in the appropriate language. It is noteworthy that family members played an important role in the cancer experience of these participants. To promote participation, there is a need to increase knowledge of clinical trials among Chinese cancer patients. It also is necessary to examine the applicability of current patient-physician communication and interaction models. In addition, decision-making based on Asian philosophies within the context of Euro-American bioethics requires further study. Cancer 2005. (c) 2005 American Cancer Society.

  4. European Society of Gynaecological Oncology Guidelines for the Management of Patients With Vulvar Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oonk, Maaike H. M.; Planchamp, Francois; Baldwin, Peter; Bidzinski, Mariusz; Brannstrom, Mats; Landoni, Fabio; Mahner, Sven; Mahantshetty, Umesh; Mirza, Mansoor; Petersen, Cordula; Querleu, Denis; Regauer, Sigrid; Rob, Lukas; Rouzier, Roman; Ulrikh, Elena; van der Velden, Jacobus; Vergote, Ignace; Woelber, Linn; van der Zee, Ate G. J.

    Objective The aim of this study was to develop clinically relevant and evidence-based guidelines as part of European Society of Gynaecological Oncology's mission to improve the quality of care for women with gynecologic cancers across Europe. Methods The European Society of Gynaecological Oncology

  5. European Society of Gynaecological Oncology Guidelines for the Management of Patients With Vulvar Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oonk, Maaike H. M.; Planchamp, François; Baldwin, Peter; Bidzinski, Mariusz; Brännström, Mats; Landoni, Fabio; Mahner, Sven; Mahantshetty, Umesh; Mirza, Mansoor; Petersen, Cordula; Querleu, Denis; Regauer, Sigrid; Rob, Lukas; Rouzier, Roman; Ulrikh, Elena; van der Velden, Jacobus; Vergote, Ignace; Woelber, Linn; van der Zee, Ate G. J.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop clinically relevant and evidence-based guidelines as part of European Society of Gynaecological Oncology's mission to improve the quality of care for women with gynecologic cancers across Europe. The European Society of Gynaecological Oncology Council nominated

  6. European Society of Gynaecological Oncology (ESGO) Guidelines for Ovarian Cancer Surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Querleu, Denis; Planchamp, Francois; Chiva, Luis; Fotopoulou, Christina; Barton, Desmond; Cibula, David; Aletti, Giovanni; Carinelli, Silvestro; Creutzberg, Carien; Davidson, Ben; Harter, Philip; Lundvall, Lene; Marth, Christian; Morice, Philippe; Rafii, Arash; Ray-Coquard, Isabelle; Rockall, Andrea; Sessa, Christiana; van der Zee, Ate; Vergote, Ignace; duBois, Andreas

    Objective The aim of this study was to develop clinically relevant and evidence-based guidelines as part of European Society of Gynaecological Oncology's mission to improve the quality of care for women with gynecological cancers across Europe. Methods The European Society of Gynaecological Oncology

  7. The Asian American Network for Cancer Awareness, Research, and Training’s Role in Cancer Awareness, Research, and Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Moon S.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to describe the content for the Asian American Network for Cancer Awareness Research and Training (AANCART) with respect to Asian American demographic characteristics and their cancer burden, highlights of accomplishments in various AANCART regions, aspirations for AANCART, and an interim assessment of AANCART’s activities to date. Methods The author compiled literature and other data references to describe the context for Asian American demographic characteristics and their cancer burden. As the AANCART Principal Investigator, he collected data from internal AANCART reports to depict highlights of accomplishments in various AANCART regions and offer evidence that AANCART’s first two specific aims have been attained. Principal Findings With respect to our first specific aim, we have built an infrastructure for cancer awareness, research and training operationally at a Network-wide basis through program directors for biostatistics, community, clinical, and research and in our four original AANCART regions: New York, Seattle, San Francisco, and Los Angeles. With respect to our second specific aim, we have established partnerships as exemplified by working collaboratively with New York’s Charles B. Wang Community Health Center in securing external funding with them for a tobacco control initiative and nationally with the American Cancer Society. With respect to our third specific aim, we have been fortunate to assist at least eight junior investigators in receiving NCI-funded pilot studies. The most notable change was the transfer of AANCART’s national headquarters from Columbus, Ohio to Sacramento, California along with potentially an increased diversification of Asian American ethnic groups as well as an expansion to Hawaii and Houston. Conclusion As of the end of year 2 of AANCART, AANCART’s two specific aims have been achieved. We are focusing on our third specific aim. PMID:15352772

  8. Gerald J. Marks, M.D., FACS (1925-), founder of the Society of American Gastrointestinal Endoscopic Surgeons (SAGES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Theresa P; Cowan, Scott W; Yeo, Charles J

    2018-03-01

    This historical vignette describes the professional career of Gerald J. Marks, the founder of the Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons and the International Federation of Societies of Endoscopic Surgeons. Dr. Marks is also the founding Associate Editor of Surgical Endoscopy, which celebrated its 30th anniversary in 2017. Dr. Marks is a renowned colorectal surgeon, an accomplished watercolor artist, and a fascinating personality.

  9. Cancer risk among Danish male Seventh-Day Adventists and other temperance society members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, O M

    1983-06-01

    Cancer risk was studied in 781 male Seventh-Day Adventists (SDA) and 808 male members of other temperance societies. Standardized morbidity ratios for all cancers were 0.69 among SDA and 1.05 among other temperants. Significantly decreased risks of cancers were noted among SDA for cancer of the colon [observed/expected (O/E): 0.13], cancer of the respiratory system (O/E: 0.17), cancer of the lung (O/E: 0.15), and cancer of the bladder including papilloma (O/E: 0.13). No significant deviations from expectations were noted among members of other temperance societies. Thus risks of tobacco-associated cancers were markedly decreased among SDA. The risk of alcohol-associated cancers (cancers of the oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, and larynx) taken together was also decreased (O/E: 0.7), although not significantly so. When the results were compared with those of a previous study of Danish brewery workers who had a high average daily beer intake, the present investigation provides further support that the alleged association between beer consumption and the occurrence of rectal cancer is of a noncausal nature. The explanation for the decreased risk of colon cancer should probably be sought in the dietary practices of SDA.

  10. Reporting of Uncertainty at the 2013 Annual Meeting of the American Society for Radiation Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W. Robert

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The annual meeting of the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) is designed to disseminate new scientific findings and technical advances to professionals. Best practices of scientific dissemination require that some level of uncertainty (or imprecision) is provided. Methods and Materials: A total of 279 scientific abstracts were selected for oral presentation in a clinical session at the 2013 ASTRO Annual Meeting. A random sample of these abstracts was reviewed to determine whether a 95% confidence interval (95% CI) or analogous measure of precision was provided for time-to-event analyses. Results: A sample of 140 abstracts was reviewed. Of the 65 abstracts with Kaplan-Meier or cumulative incidence analyses, 6 included some measure of precision (6 of 65 = 9%; 95% CI, 2-16). Of the 43 abstracts reporting ratios for time-to-event analyses (eg, hazard ratio, risk ratio), 22 included some measure of precision (22 of 43 = 51%; 95% CI, 36-66). Conclusions: Measures of precision are not provided in a significant percentage of abstracts selected for oral presentation at the Annual Meeting of ASTRO

  11. American Thoracic Society and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Implementation Research Workshop Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Bruce G; Krishnan, Jerry A; Chambers, David A; Cloutier, Michelle M; Riekert, Kristin A; Rand, Cynthia S; Schatz, Michael; Thomson, Carey C; Wilson, Sandra R; Apter, Andrea; Carson, Shannon S; George, Maureen; Gerald, Joe K; Gerald, Lynn; Goss, Christopher H; Okelo, Sande O; Mularski, Richard A; Nguyen, Huong Q; Patel, Minal R; Szefler, Stanley J; Weiss, Curtis H; Wilson, Kevin C; Freemer, Michelle

    2015-12-01

    To advance implementation research (IR) in respiratory, sleep, and critical care medicine, the American Thoracic Society and the Division of Lung Diseases from the NHLBI cosponsored an Implementation Research Workshop on May 17, 2014. The goals of IR are to understand the barriers and facilitators of integrating new evidence into healthcare practices and to develop and test strategies that systematically target these factors to accelerate the adoption of evidence-based care. Throughout the workshop, presenters provided examples of IR that focused on the rate of adoption of evidence-based practices, the feasibility and acceptability of interventions to patients and other stakeholders who make healthcare decisions, the fidelity with which practitioners use specific interventions, the effects of specific barriers on the sustainability of an intervention, and the implications of their research to inform policies to improve patients' access to high-quality care. During the discussions that ensued, investigators' experience led to recommendations underscoring the importance of identifying and involving key stakeholders throughout the research process, ensuring that those who serve as reviewers understand the tenets of IR, managing staff motivation and turnover, and tackling the challenges of scaling up interventions across multiple settings.

  12. Medical risk assessment in dentistry: use of the American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, S; Shehabi, Z; Morgan, C

    2016-02-12

    Medical risk assessment is essential to safe patient management and the delivery of appropriate dental care. The American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status (ASA PS) Classification is widely used within medicine and dentistry, but has received significant criticism. This is the first UK survey to assess the consistency of medical risk assessment in dentistry. (i) To determine the use and consistency of the ASA PS among dentists and anaesthetists. (ii) To consider the appropriateness of the ASA PS in relation to dental treatment planning and delivery of care. A cross-sectional online questionnaire was distributed to anaesthetists and dental practitioners in general practice, community and hospital dental services. Questions focused on professional backgrounds, use of the ASA PS, alternative approaches to risk assessment in everyday practice and scoring of eight hypothetical patients using ASA PS. There were 101 responses, 82 were complete. Anaesthetists recorded ASA PS score more frequently than dental practitioners and found it more useful. Inconsistencies were evident in the assignment of ASA PS scores both between and within professional groups. Many dental practitioners did not use or find ASA PS helpful, with significant inconsistencies in its use. An awareness of alternative assessment scales may be useful across settings. Accepting its limitations, it would be helpful for all dentists to be educated in ASA PS and its use in medical risk assessment, particularly in relation to conscious sedation.

  13. A 10-year analysis of American Society For Radiation Oncology Junior Faculty Career Development Awards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimple, Randall J; Kao, Gary D

    2013-03-15

    Between 2000 and 2010, the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) awarded 22 Junior Faculty Career Development Awards (JFA) totaling $4.4 million. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of these awards on the grantees' career development, including current position, publications, and subsequent independent grant funding. Each awardee was requested via email and telephone to provide an updated curriculum vitae, a National Institutes of Health (NIH) biosketch, and information regarding current position of employment. Twenty-one of the 22 JFA recipients complied. Reported grant funding was extracted from each candidate's CV, and the amounts of NIH grants obtained were confirmed via NIH REPORTER. Reported publications were confirmed via PubMed. All survey respondents (21 of 21) have remained in academic positions. Subsequent aggregate grant funding totaled more than $25 million (range, $0-$4.1 million), 5.9 times the initial investment. NIH grant funding totaled almost $15 million, 3 times the initial investment. Awardees have published an average of 34.6 publications (range, 0-123) for an overall rate of 4.5 papers/year (range, 1-11). ASTRO JFAs over the past decade have been strongly associated with grantees remaining in academic positions, success in attracting private and NIH grants, and publication productivity. In an era of dwindling federal research funding, the support provided by the ASTRO JFA may be especially helpful to support the research careers of promising junior faculty members. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A 10-Year Analysis of American Society for Radiation Oncology Junior Faculty Career Development Awards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimple, Randall J.; Kao, Gary D.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Between 2000 and 2010, the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) awarded 22 Junior Faculty Career Development Awards (JFA) totaling $4.4 million. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of these awards on the grantees' career development, including current position, publications, and subsequent independent grant funding. Methods: Each awardee was requested via email and telephone to provide an updated curriculum vitae, a National Institutes of Health (NIH) biosketch, and information regarding current position of employment. Twenty-one of the 22 JFA recipients complied. Reported grant funding was extracted from each candidate's CV, and the amounts of NIH grants obtained were confirmed via NIH REPORTER. Reported publications were confirmed via PubMed. Results: All survey respondents (21 of 21) have remained in academic positions. Subsequent aggregate grant funding totaled more than $25 million (range, $0-$4.1 million), 5.9 times the initial investment. NIH grant funding totaled almost $15 million, 3 times the initial investment. Awardees have published an average of 34.6 publications (range, 0-123) for an overall rate of 4.5 papers/year (range, 1-11). Conclusions: ASTRO JFAs over the past decade have been strongly associated with grantees remaining in academic positions, success in attracting private and NIH grants, and publication productivity. In an era of dwindling federal research funding, the support provided by the ASTRO JFA may be especially helpful to support the research careers of promising junior faculty members

  15. Interests diffusion on a semantic multiplex. Comparing Computer Science and American Physical Society communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostino, Gregorio; De Nicola, Antonio

    2016-10-01

    Exploiting the information about members of a Social Network (SN) represents one of the most attractive and dwelling subjects for both academic and applied scientists. The community of Complexity Science and especially those researchers working on multiplex social systems are devoting increasing efforts to outline general laws, models, and theories, to the purpose of predicting emergent phenomena in SN's (e.g. success of a product). On the other side the semantic web community aims at engineering a new generation of advanced services tailored to specific people needs. This implies defining constructs, models and methods for handling the semantic layer of SNs. We combined models and techniques from both the former fields to provide a hybrid approach to understand a basic (yet complex) phenomenon: the propagation of individual interests along the social networks. Since information may move along different social networks, one should take into account a multiplex structure. Therefore we introduced the notion of "Semantic Multiplex". In this paper we analyse two different semantic social networks represented by authors publishing in the Computer Science and those in the American Physical Society Journals. The comparison allows to outline common and specific features.

  16. Highlights of the American Nuclear Society topical meeting on the treatment and handling of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasewitz, A.G.; Lerch, R.E.; Richardson, G.L.

    1983-01-01

    The American Nuclear Society Topical Meeting on the Treatment and Handling of Radioactive Wastes was held in Richland, Washington, from 19-22 April 1982. The object of the meeting was to provide a thorough assessment of the status of technology. The response to the meeting was excellent: 123 papers were presented. There were 505 registrations; 83 were from outside the USA, representing 13 countries. The large and diverse attendance provided a broad technological view and perspective. The following major points emerged from the conference: (1) In an extensive world-wide effort, techniques are being developed to cover all phases of radioactive waste management. (2) A broad and deep technological base has been developed. (3) Many adequate processes are ready for actual application while others are ready for demonstration of applicability. These demonstrations are important to further public acceptance of nuclear energy. (4) At the present level of maturity, systematic analyses should be performed to determine actual requirements for the treatment and handling of radioactive wastes. These analyses can be used to focus our research and development, and demonstration activities to achieve treatment and conditioning systems which are both appropriate and cost-effective. (author)

  17. Autoimmune Retinopathy: Current Concepts and Practices (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, H Nida; Grange, Landon; Akanda, Marib; Fox, Austin

    2017-08-01

    To elicit and evaluate opinions in the diagnosis and management of nonparaneoplastic autoimmune retinopathy (npAIR) among members of the American Uveitis Society (AUS) and to further the development of consensus and criteria in the diagnosis and management of npAIR. We hypothesize that despite lack of any clear guidelines, a general consensus in the clinical diagnosis and treatment of npAIR exists among uveitis experts. A literature review was performed and a panel of uveitis experts was consulted to formulate a survey regarding the diagnosis and management of npAIR. An online survey of 10 questions was developed, and a link was distributed through the AUS membership discussion list. We defined "general consensus" as meaning that a majority (>50%) of the respondents provided the same answer to a question. Fifty-four members of the AUS responded to the survey. Thirty-eight members (70.4%) see one to three AIR patients per year. Greater than 50% consensus was reached on most items, particularly items relating to diagnostic features and tests (up to 96% consensus). The diagnosis and management of npAIR is challenging, as standardized clinical and laboratory diagnostic criteria have yet to be established. The results of this study support the presence of consensus regarding certain aspects of npAIR, but also indicate the need for developing clear clinical diagnostic criteria and treatment guidelines.

  18. An American Thoracic Society Official Research Statement: Future Directions in Lung Fibrosis Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Eric S; Borok, Zea; Brown, Kevin K; Eickelberg, Oliver; Guenther, Andreas; Jenkins, R Gisli; Kolb, Martin; Martinez, Fernando J; Roman, Jesse; Sime, Patricia

    2016-04-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis encompasses a group of lung-scarring disorders that occur owing to known or unknown insults and accounts for significant morbidity and mortality. Despite intense investigation spanning decades, much remains to be learned about the natural history, pathophysiology, and biologic mechanisms of disease. To identify the most pressing research needs in the lung fibrosis community and to provide a roadmap of priorities to investigators, funding agencies, patient advocacy groups, and other interested stakeholders. An ad hoc international working group of the American Thoracic Society with experience in clinical, translational, and bench-based research in fibrotic lung diseases was convened. The group used an iterative consensus process to identify successes and challenges in pulmonary fibrosis research. The group identified five main priority areas in which substantial resources should be invested to advance our understanding and to develop novel therapies for patients with pulmonary fibrosis. These priorities include develop newer models of human lung fibrosis, engage current and new stakeholders to provide sustained funding for the initiatives, create a global infrastructure for storing patient-derived materials, establish collaborative preclinical and clinical research networks in fibrotic lung disease, and create a global lung fibrosis initiative that unites these multifaceted efforts into a single virtual umbrella structure. Despite recent advances in the treatment of some forms of lung fibrosis, many gaps in knowledge about natural history, pathophysiology, and treatment remain. Investment in the research priorities enumerated above will help address these shortcomings and enhance patient care worldwide.

  19. A 10-Year Analysis of American Society for Radiation Oncology Junior Faculty Career Development Awards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimple, Randall J., E-mail: rkimple@humonc.wisc.edu [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Kao, Gary D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: Between 2000 and 2010, the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) awarded 22 Junior Faculty Career Development Awards (JFA) totaling $4.4 million. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of these awards on the grantees' career development, including current position, publications, and subsequent independent grant funding. Methods: Each awardee was requested via email and telephone to provide an updated curriculum vitae, a National Institutes of Health (NIH) biosketch, and information regarding current position of employment. Twenty-one of the 22 JFA recipients complied. Reported grant funding was extracted from each candidate's CV, and the amounts of NIH grants obtained were confirmed via NIH REPORTER. Reported publications were confirmed via PubMed. Results: All survey respondents (21 of 21) have remained in academic positions. Subsequent aggregate grant funding totaled more than $25 million (range, $0-$4.1 million), 5.9 times the initial investment. NIH grant funding totaled almost $15 million, 3 times the initial investment. Awardees have published an average of 34.6 publications (range, 0-123) for an overall rate of 4.5 papers/year (range, 1-11). Conclusions: ASTRO JFAs over the past decade have been strongly associated with grantees remaining in academic positions, success in attracting private and NIH grants, and publication productivity. In an era of dwindling federal research funding, the support provided by the ASTRO JFA may be especially helpful to support the research careers of promising junior faculty members.

  20. Vapor Pressure and Predicted Stability of American Contact Dermatitis Society Core Allergens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jou, Paul C.; Siegel, Paul D.; Warshaw, Erin M.

    2018-01-01

    Background Accurate patch testing is reliant on proper preparation of patch test allergens. The stability of patch test allergens is dependent on several factors including vapor pressure (VP). Objective This investigation reviews the VP of American Contact Dermatitis Society Core Allergens and compares stability predictions based on VP with those established through clinical testing. Methods Standard references were accessed for determining VP in millimeters of mercury and associated temperature in degrees celsius. If multiple values were listed, VP at temperatures that most approximate indoor storage conditions (20°C and 25°C) were chosen. For mixes, the individual component with the highest VP was chosen as the overall VP, assuming that the most volatile substance would evaporate first. Antigens were grouped into low (≤0.001 mm Hg), moderate (0.001 mm Hg), and high (≥1 mm Hg) volatility using arbitrary cutoff values. Conclusions This review is consistent with previously reported data on formaldehyde, acrylates, and fragrance material instability. Given lack of testing data, VP can be useful in predicting patch test compound stability. Measures such as air-tight multidose reagent containers, sealed single-application dispensers, preparation of patches immediately before application, and storage at lower temperatures may remedy some of these issues. PMID:27427821

  1. American Contact Dermatitis Society Contact Allergy Management Program: An Epidemiologic Tool to Quantify Ingredient Usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheman, Andrew; Severson, David

    2016-01-01

    The usage prevalence of ingredients in topical products is important to dermatologists and industry. To determine the prevalence of methylisothiazolinone (MI) in various types of consumer products The Contact Allergy Management Program (CAMP) database was mapped and sorted in spreadsheet format to determine the prevalence of MI in various types of consumer products. Methylisothiazolinone was found in 13.2% of 4660 total products in CAMP. High usage of MI was seen in dishwashing products (64%), shampoos (53%), bathroom/kitchen/all-purpose cleaners (47%), hair conditioners (45%), hair dyes (43%), laundry additives/fresheners/softeners (30%), soaps/cleansers (29%), and surface cleaners/disinfectants (27%). Of the products containing MI, MI alone (without methylchloroisothiazolinone) was most common in makeup products (100%), cleaning/dish/laundry products (>99%), moisturizers (82%), shaving products (78%), sunscreens (71%), and antiaging products (67%). The American Contact Dermatitis Society's CAMP is a valuable tool to collect epidemiologic data on the incidence of specific ingredient usage in various types of topical products.

  2. An official American thoracic society workshop report: developing performance measures from clinical practice guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Jeremy M; Gould, Michael K; Krishnan, Jerry A; Wilson, Kevin C; Au, David H; Cooke, Colin R; Douglas, Ivor S; Feemster, Laura C; Mularski, Richard A; Slatore, Christopher G; Wiener, Renda Soylemez

    2014-05-01

    Many health care performance measures are either not based on high-quality clinical evidence or not tightly linked to patient-centered outcomes, limiting their usefulness in quality improvement. In this report we summarize the proceedings of an American Thoracic Society workshop convened to address this problem by reviewing current approaches to performance measure development and creating a framework for developing high-quality performance measures by basing them directly on recommendations from well-constructed clinical practice guidelines. Workshop participants concluded that ideally performance measures addressing care processes should be linked to clinical practice guidelines that explicitly rate the quality of evidence and the strength of recommendations, such as the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) process. Under this framework, process-based performance measures would only be developed from strong recommendations based on high- or moderate-quality evidence. This approach would help ensure that clinical processes specified in performance measures are both of clear benefit to patients and supported by strong evidence. Although this approach may result in fewer performance measures, it would substantially increase the likelihood that quality-improvement programs based on these measures actually improve patient care.

  3. Recommendations for a Standardized Pulmonary Function Report. An Official American Thoracic Society Technical Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culver, Bruce H; Graham, Brian L; Coates, Allan L; Wanger, Jack; Berry, Cristine E; Clarke, Patricia K; Hallstrand, Teal S; Hankinson, John L; Kaminsky, David A; MacIntyre, Neil R; McCormack, Meredith C; Rosenfeld, Margaret; Stanojevic, Sanja; Weiner, Daniel J

    2017-12-01

    The American Thoracic Society committee on Proficiency Standards for Pulmonary Function Laboratories has recognized the need for a standardized reporting format for pulmonary function tests. Although prior documents have offered guidance on the reporting of test data, there is considerable variability in how these results are presented to end users, leading to potential confusion and miscommunication. A project task force, consisting of the committee as a whole, was approved to develop a new Technical Standard on reporting pulmonary function test results. Three working groups addressed the presentation format, the reference data supporting interpretation of results, and a system for grading quality of test efforts. Each group reviewed relevant literature and wrote drafts that were merged into the final document. This document presents a reporting format in test-specific units for spirometry, lung volumes, and diffusing capacity that can be assembled into a report appropriate for a laboratory's practice. Recommended reference sources are updated with data for spirometry and diffusing capacity published since prior documents. A grading system is presented to encourage uniformity in the important function of test quality assessment. The committee believes that wide adoption of these formats and their underlying principles by equipment manufacturers and pulmonary function laboratories can improve the interpretation, communication, and understanding of test results.

  4. 1997 NASA-ODU American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) Summer Faculty Fellowship Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Surendra N. (Compiler); Young, Deborah B. (Compiler)

    1998-01-01

    Since 1964, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has supported a program of summer faculty fellowships for engineering and science educators. In a series of collaborations between NASA research and development centers and nearby universities, engineering faculty members spend 10 weeks working with professional peers on research. The Summer Faculty Program Committee of the American Society for Engineering Education supervises the programs. Objectives of the program are as follows: (1) To further the professional knowledge of qualified engineering and science faculty members, (2) To stimulate and exchange ideas between participants and NASA; (3) To enrich and refresh the research and teaching activities of participants' institutions; and (4) To contribute to the research objectives of the NASA center. Program description is as follows: College or university faculty members will be appointed as Research Fellows to spend 10 weeks in cooperative research and study at the NASA Langley Research Center. The Fellow will devote approximately 90 percent of the time to a research problem and the remaining time to a study program. The study program will consist of lectures and seminars on topics of interest or that are directly relevant to the Fellows' research topics. The lectures and seminar leaders will be distinguished scientists and engineers from NASA, education, and industry.

  5. Trends in Orbital Decompression Techniques of Surveyed American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Shani S; Null, Robert C; Timoney, Peter J; Sokol, Jason A

    To assess current members of the American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery (ASOPRS) regarding preference in surgical techniques for orbital decompression in Graves' disease. A 10-question web-based, anonymous survey was distributed to oculoplastic surgeons utilizing the ASOPRS listserv. The questions addressed the number of years of experience performing orbital decompression surgery, preferred surgical techniques, and whether orbital decompression was performed in collaboration with an ENT surgeon. Ninety ASOPRS members participated in the study. Most that completed the survey have performed orbital decompression surgery for >15 years. The majority of responders preferred a combined approach of floor and medial wall decompression or balanced lateral and medial wall decompression; only a minority selected a technique limited to 1 wall. Those surgeons who perform fat decompression were more likely to operate in collaboration with ENT. Most surgeons rarely remove the orbital strut, citing risk of worsening diplopia or orbital dystopia except in cases of optic nerve compression or severe proptosis. The most common reason given for performing orbital decompression was exposure keratopathy. The majority of surgeons perform the surgery without ENT involvement, and number of years of experience did not correlate significantly with collaboration with ENT. The majority of surveyed ASOPRS surgeons prefer a combined wall approach over single wall approach to initial orbital decompression. Despite the technological advances made in the field of modern endoscopic surgery, no single approach has been adopted by the ASOPRS community as the gold standard.

  6. Understanding participation by African Americans in cancer genetics research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Jasmine A; Barg, Frances K; Weathers, Benita; Guerra, Carmen E; Troxel, Andrea B; Domchek, Susan; Bowen, Deborah; Shea, Judy A; Halbert, Chanita Hughes

    2012-01-01

    Understanding genetic factors that contribute to racial differences in cancer outcomes may reduce racial disparities in cancer morbidity and mortality. Achieving this goal will be limited by low rates of African American participation in cancer genetics research. We conducted a qualitative study with African American adults (n = 91) to understand attitudes about participating in cancer genetics research and to identify factors that are considered when making a decision about participating in this type of research. Participants would consider the potential benefits to themselves, family members, and their community when making a decision to participate in cancer genetics research. However, concerns about exploitation, distrust of researchers, and investigators' motives were also important to participation decisions. Individuals would also consider who has access to their personal information and what would happen to these data. Side effects, logistical issues, and the potential to gain knowledge about health issues were also described as important factors in decision making. African Americans may consider a number of ethical, legal, and social issues when making a decision to participate in cancer genetics research. These issues should be addressed as part of recruitment efforts.

  7. European Society of Gynaecological Oncology Guidelines for the Management of Patients With Vulvar Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oonk, Maaike H M; Planchamp, François; Baldwin, Peter

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop clinically relevant and evidence-based guidelines as part of European Society of Gynaecological Oncology's mission to improve the quality of care for women with gynecologic cancers across Europe. METHODS: The European Society of Gynaecological...... Oncology Council nominated an international development group made of practicing clinicians who provide care to patients with vulvar cancer and have demonstrated leadership and interest in the management of patients with vulvar cancer (18 experts across Europe). To ensure that the statements are evidence...

  8. Ultrasound-Guided Core-Needle Versus Vacuum-Assisted Breast Biopsy: A Cost Analysis Based on the American Society of Breast Surgeons' Mastery of Breast Surgery Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Ian; Vasquez, Tony; Tawfik, Sara; Grady, Sean

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the cost-efficacy of vacuum-assisted ultrasound-guided breast biopsy instruments compared to ultrasound-guided 14-gauge spring-loaded core-needle biopsy. The American Society of Breast Surgeons' Mastery of Breast Surgery Registry was reviewed. Biopsy findings, any rebiopsy, and the instrument used were abstracted for 31,451 ultrasound-guided biopsy procedures performed between 2001 and July 2014. Rates of cancer diagnosis and rebiopsy were calculated for each instrument. A linear mathematical model was developed to calculate total cost per cancer diagnosis, including procedural costs and the costs of any additional surgical rebiopsy procedures. Mean cost per cancer diagnosis with confidence limits was then determined for 14-gauge spring-loaded core-needle biopsy and 14 different vacuum-assisted instruments. For 14-gauge spring-loaded core-needle biopsy, mean cost per cancer diagnosis was $4346 (4327-$4366). For the vacuum-assisted instruments, mean cost per cancer diagnosis ranged from a low of $3742 ($3732-$3752) to a high of $4779 ($4750-$4809). Vacuum-assisted instruments overall were more cost-effective than core with a mean cost per cancer diagnosis of $4052 ($4038-$4067) (p cancer diagnosis of $3978 ($3964-$3991) (p cancer diagnosis of $4369 ($4350-$4388), a result no better than core (p breast biopsy had a lower mean cost per cancer diagnosis than 14-gauge spring-loaded core-needle biopsy. This advantage was only seen in tethered vacuum-assisted instruments. Within device families, larger instruments tended to outperform smaller instruments.

  9. Obesity is associated with breast cancer in African-American women but not Hispanic women in South Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkissyan, Marianna; Wu, Yanyuan; Vadgama, Jaydutt V

    2011-08-15

    Obesity is considered a risk factor for breast cancer. Modifying life styles that reduce obesity offers the potential for prevention and improved outcomes from cancer. The effects of obesity and breast cancer among African-American women and Hispanic women have been explored in a limited number of studies. The objective of the current study was to investigate the association of obesity with breast cancer in a minority cohort. This was a cross-sectional study of 471 African-American and Hispanic women with and without breast cancer in South Los Angeles. Data regarding body mass index (BMI) and clinical factors were obtained by medical record abstraction. Data were assessed using logistic regression with multivariate analysis. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to assess disease-free survival. Women with breast cancer were more likely to be obese (BMI >30 kg/m(2)) than women without breast cancer (odds ratio [OR], 2.0; P = .01). There was a significant association of being overweight or obese and breast cancer among postmenopausal women (OR, 2.3 [P = .03] and 2.9 [P obesity and breast cancer was significant only among African-American women (OR, 2.70; P American women (OR, 4.8; P obesity and later disease stage at diagnosis (P = .06). An association also was observed between higher BMI (for cutoff points of both 30 kg/m(2) and 28 kg/m(2)) and poorer disease-free survival (P = .045 and P = .019, respectively). The current data suggested an association between obesity and breast cancer, especially among postmenopausal women and most significantly in the African-American cohort. Copyright © 2011 American Cancer Society.

  10. The Big Chill: Changes in American Politics and Society from the Late 1960s to the Present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, David S.

    This essay looks at three kinds of changes in American society over the period from the late 1960s to the mid-1990s. First, data from the Cooperative Institutional Research Program (CIRP) are used to measure trends in college freshmen's political identification, materialism, concern for law and order, and concern for helping others. In all these…

  11. Position of the American Dietetic Association, School Nutrition Association, and Society for Nutrition Education: Comprehensive School Nutrition Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Marilyn; Mueller, Constance G.; Fleischhacker, Sheila

    2010-01-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association (ADA), School Nutrition Association (SNA), and Society for Nutrition Education (SNE) that comprehensive, integrated nutrition services in schools, kindergarten through grade 12, are an essential component of coordinated school health programs and will improve the nutritional status, health,…

  12. Executive Summary of the American College of Surgeons/Surgical Infection Society Surgical Site Infection Guidelines-2016 Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Kristen A; Minei, Joseph P; Laronga, Christine; Harbrecht, Brian G; Jensen, Eric H; Fry, Donald E; Itani, Kamal M F; Dellinger, E Patchen; Ko, Clifford Y; Duane, Therese M

    Guidelines regarding the prevention, detection, and management of surgical site infections (SSIs) have been published previously by a variety of organizations. The American College of Surgeons (ACS)/Surgical Infection Society (SIS) Surgical Site Infection (SSI) Guidelines 2016 Update is intended to update these guidelines based on the current literature and to provide a concise summary of relevant topics.

  13. An Official American Thoracic Society Research Statement : Current Challenges Facing Research and Therapeutic Advances in Airway Remodeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prakash, Y S; Halayko, Andrew J; Gosens, Reinoud; Panettieri Jr., Reynold A; Camoretti-Mercado, Blanca; Penn, Raymond B; Burgess, Janette K

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Airway remodeling (AR) is a prominent feature of asthma and other obstructive lung diseases that is minimally affected by current treatments. The goals of this Official American Thoracic Society (ATS) Research Statement are to discuss the scientific, technological, economic, and

  14. Knowledge and Attitudes about Colon Cancer Screening among African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Aimee S.; Daley, Christine M.; Greiner, K. Allen

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To explore knowledge and attitudes about colorectal cancer (CRC) screening among African American patients age 45 and older at a community health center serving low-income and uninsured patients. Methods: We conducted 7 focus groups and 17 additional semistructured interviews. Sessions were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed…

  15. Genetic Counseling for Breast Cancer Susceptibility in African American Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hughes, Chanita

    2005-01-01

    .... The objectives of this study are to develop a Culturally Tailored Genetic (CTGC) protocol for African American women and evaluate its impact on decision-making and satisfaction about BRCA1/2 testing, quality of life, and cancer control practices...

  16. Christianity and Eugenics: The Place of Religion in the British Eugenics Education Society and the American Eugenics Society, c.1907–1940

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Graham J.

    2014-01-01

    Historians have regularly acknowledged the significance of religious faith to the eugenics movement in Britain and the USA. However, much of this scholarship suggests a polarised relationship of either conflict or consensus. Where Christian believers participated in the eugenics movement this has been represented as an abandonment of ‘orthodox’ theology, and the impression has been created that eugenics was a secularising force. In contrast, this article explores the impact of religious values on two eugenics organisations: the British Eugenics Education Society, and the American Eugenics Society. It is demonstrated that concerns over religion resulted in both these organisations modifying and tempering the public work that they undertook. This act of concealing and minimising the visibly controversial aspects of eugenics is offered as an addition to the debate over ‘mainline’ versus ‘reform’ eugenics. PMID:24778464

  17. Christianity and Eugenics: The Place of Religion in the British Eugenics Education Society and the American Eugenics Society, c.1907-1940.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Graham J

    2014-05-01

    Historians have regularly acknowledged the significance of religious faith to the eugenics movement in Britain and the USA. However, much of this scholarship suggests a polarised relationship of either conflict or consensus. Where Christian believers participated in the eugenics movement this has been represented as an abandonment of 'orthodox' theology, and the impression has been created that eugenics was a secularising force. In contrast, this article explores the impact of religious values on two eugenics organisations: the British Eugenics Education Society, and the American Eugenics Society. It is demonstrated that concerns over religion resulted in both these organisations modifying and tempering the public work that they undertook. This act of concealing and minimising the visibly controversial aspects of eugenics is offered as an addition to the debate over 'mainline' versus 'reform' eugenics.

  18. Psychological Aspects of European Cosmology in American Society: African and European Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Joseph A.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the Eurocentric nature of the United States social reality, and investigates psychological and mental health implications for the African-American community. Outlines the basic themes, emphases and criteria of Euro-American cosmology and describes how it can come to dominate the Afro-American's self-consciousness. Suggests ways to…

  19. The american brachytherapy society recommendations for permanent prostate brachytherapy postimplant dosimetric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nag, Subir; Bice, William; Wyngaert, Keith de; Prestidge, Bradley; Stock, Richard; Yu Yan

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this report is to establish guidelines for postimplant dosimetric analysis of permanent prostate brachytherapy. Methods: Members of the American Brachytherapy Society (ABS) with expertise in prostate dosimetry evaluation performed a literature review and supplemented with their clinical experience formulated guidelines for performing and analyzing postimplant dosimetry of permanent prostate brachytherapy. Results: The ABS recommends that postimplant dosimetry should be performed on all patients undergoing permanent prostate brachytherapy for optimal patient care. At present, computed tomography (CT)-based dosimetry is recommended, based on availability cost and the ability to image the prostate as well as the seeds. Additional plane radiographs should be obtained to verify the seed count. Until the ideal postoperative interval for CT scanning has been determined, each center should perform dosimetric evaluation of prostate implants at a consistent postoperative interval. This interval should be reported. Isodose displays should be obtained at 50%, 80%, 90%, 100%, 150%, and 200% of the prescription dose and displayed on multiple cross-sectional images of the prostate. A dose-volume histogram (DVH) of the prostate should be performed and the D 90 (dose to 90% of the prostate gland) reported by all centers. Additionally, the D 80, D 100, the fractional V 80, V 90, V 100, V 150, and V 200, (i.e., the percentage of prostate volume receiving 80%, 90%, 100%, 150%, and 200% of the prescribed dose, respectively), the rectal, and urethral doses should be reported and ultimately correlated with clinical outcome in the research environment. On-line real-time dosimetry, the effects of dose heterogeneity, and the effects of tissue heterogeneity need further investigation. Conclusion: It is essential that postimplant dosimetry should be performed on all patients undergoing permanent prostate brachytherapy. Guidelines were established for the performance

  20. Shunt-dependent hydrocephalus: management style among members of the American Society of Pediatric Neurosurgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Mark R; Sandoval-Garcia, Carolina; Bragg, Taryn; Iskandar, Bermans J

    2017-09-01

    OBJECTIVE The authors conducted a survey to evaluate differences in the understanding and management of shunt-dependent hydrocephalus among members of the American Society of Pediatric Neurosurgeons (ASPN). METHODS Surveys were sent to all 204 active ASPN members in September 2014. One hundred thirty responses were received, representing a 64% response rate. Respondents were asked 13 multiple-choice and free-response questions regarding 4 fundamental problems encountered in shunted-hydrocephalus management: shunt malfunction, chronic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) overdrainage, chronic headaches, and slit ventricle syndrome (SVS). RESULTS Respondents agreed that shunt malfunction occurs most often as the result of ventricular catheter obstruction. Despite contrary evidence in the literature, most respondents (66%) also believed that choroid plexus is the tissue most often found in obstructed proximal catheters. However, free-text responses revealed that the respondents' understanding of the underlying pathophysiology of shunt obstruction was highly variable and included growth, migration, or adherence of choroid plexus, CSF debris, catheter position, inflammatory processes, and CSF overdrainage. Most respondents considered chronic CSF overdrainage to be a rare complication of shunting in their practice and reported wide variation in treatment protocols. Moreover, despite a lack of evidence in the literature, most respondents attributed chronic headaches in shunt patients to medical reasons (for example, migraines, tension). Accordingly, most respondents managed headaches with reassurance and/or referral to pain clinics. Lastly, there were variable opinions on the etiology of slit ventricle syndrome (SVS), which included early shunting, chronic overdrainage, and/or loss of brain compliance. Beyond shunt revision, respondents reported divergent SVS treatment preferences. CONCLUSIONS The survey shows that there is wide variability in the understanding and management of

  1. An official American Thoracic Society workshop report: assessment and palliative management of dyspnea crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mularski, Richard A; Reinke, Lynn F; Carrieri-Kohlman, Virginia; Fischer, Mark D; Campbell, Margaret L; Rocker, Graeme; Schneidman, Ann; Jacobs, Susan S; Arnold, Robert; Benditt, Joshua O; Booth, Sara; Byock, Ira; Chan, Garrett K; Curtis, J Randall; Donesky, Doranne; Hansen-Flaschen, John; Heffner, John; Klein, Russell; Limberg, Trina M; Manning, Harold L; Morrison, R Sean; Ries, Andrew L; Schmidt, Gregory A; Selecky, Paul A; Truog, Robert D; Wang, Angela C C; White, Douglas B

    2013-10-01

    In 2009, the American Thoracic Society (ATS) funded an assembly project, Palliative Management of Dyspnea Crisis, to focus on identification, management, and optimal resource utilization for effective palliation of acute episodes of dyspnea. We conducted a comprehensive search of the medical literature and evaluated available evidence from systematic evidence-based reviews (SEBRs) using a modified AMSTAR approach and then summarized the palliative management knowledge base for participants to use in discourse at a 2009 ATS workshop. We used an informal consensus process to develop a working definition of this novel entity and established an Ad Hoc Committee on Palliative Management of Dyspnea Crisis to further develop an official ATS document on the topic. The Ad Hoc Committee members defined dyspnea crisis as "sustained and severe resting breathing discomfort that occurs in patients with advanced, often life-limiting illness and overwhelms the patient and caregivers' ability to achieve symptom relief." Dyspnea crisis can occur suddenly and is characteristically without a reversible etiology. The workshop participants focused on dyspnea crisis management for patients in whom the goals of care are focused on palliation and for whom endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation are not consistent with articulated preferences. However, approaches to dyspnea crisis may also be appropriate for patients electing life-sustaining treatment. The Ad Hoc Committee developed a Workshop Report concerning assessment of dyspnea crisis; ethical and professional considerations; efficient utilization, communication, and care coordination; clinical management of dyspnea crisis; development of patient education and provider aid products; and enhancing implementation with audit and quality improvement.

  2. Fitness plus American Society of Anesthesiologists grade improve outcome prediction after endovascular aneurysm repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boult, Margaret; Cowled, Prue; Barnes, Mary; Fitridge, Robert A

    2017-09-01

    Although the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) grade was established for statistical purposes, it is often used prognostically. However, older patients undergoing elective surgery are typically ASA III, which limits patient stratification. We look at the prognostic effect on early complications and survival of using ASA and self-reported physical fitness to stratify patients undergoing endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms. Data were extracted from a trial database. All patients were assigned a fitness level (A (fit) or B (unfit)) based on their self-reported ability to walk briskly for 1 km or climb two flights of stairs. Fitness was used to stratify ASA III patients, with fitter patients assigned ASA IIIA and less fit patients ASA IIIB. Outcomes assessed included survival, reinterventions, endoleak, all early and late complications and early operative complications. A combined ASA/fitness scale (II, IIIA, IIIB and IV) correlated with 1- and 3-year survival (1-year P = 0.001, 3-year P = 0.001) and early and late complications (P = 0.001 and P = 0.05). On its own, ASA predicted early complications (P = 0.0004) and survival (1-year P = 0.01, 3-year P = 0.01). Fitness alone was predictive for survival (1-year P = 0.001, 3-year P = 0.001) and late complications (P = 0.009). This study shows that even a superficial assessment of fitness is reflected in surgical outcomes, with fitter ASA III patients showing survival patterns similar to ASA II patients. Physicians should be alert to differences in fitness between patients in the ASA III group, despite similarities based on preexisting severe systemic disease. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  3. Report by a special panel of the American Nuclear Society: Protection and management of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bengelsdorf, H.

    1996-01-01

    The American Nuclear Society (ANS) established an independent and prestigious panel several months ago to take the matter up where the US National Academy of Science (NAS) left off. The challenge was to look at the broader issue of what to do with civil plutonium, as well as excess weapons material. In terms of approach, the report focused on several short- and long-term issues. The short-term focus was on the disposition of excess weapons plutonium, while the longer-range issue concerned the disposition of the plutonium being produced in the civil nuclear fuel cycle. For the short term, the ANS panel strongly endorsed the concept that all plutonium scheduled for release from the US and Russian weapons stocks should be converted to a form that is intensively radioactive in order to protect the plutonium from theft of seizure (the spent fuel standard). However, since the conversion will at best take several years to complete, the panel has concluded that immediate emphasis should be placed on the assurance that all unconverted materials are protected as securely as when they were part of the active weapon stockpiles. More importantly, the panel also recommended prompt implementation of the so-called reactor option for disposing of surplus US and Russian weapons plutonium. The longer-term issues covered by the panel were those posed by the growing stocks of both separated plutonium and spent fuel generated in the world's civil nuclear power programs. These issues included what fuel cycle policies should be prudently pursued in light of proliferation risks and likely future energy needs, what steps should be taken in regard to the increase in the demand for nuclear power in the future, and how civil plutonium in its various forms should be protected and managed to minimize proliferation. Overall, the panel concluded that plutonium is an energy resource that should be used and not a waste material to be disposed of

  4. Conflict of interest and professional medical associations: the North American Spine Society experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofferman, Jerome A; Eskay-Auerbach, Marjorie L; Sawyer, Laura S; Herring, Stanley A; Arnold, Paul M; Muehlbauer, Eric J

    2013-08-01

    Recently the financial relationships between industry and professional medical associations have come under increased scrutiny because of the concern that industry ties may create real or perceived conflicts of interest. Professional medical associations pursue public advocacy as well as promote medical education, develop clinical practice guidelines, fund research, and regulate professional conduct. Therefore, the conflicts of interest of a professional medical association and its leadership can have more far-reaching effects on patient care than those of an individual physician. Few if any professional medical associations have reported their experience with implementing strict divestment and disclosure policies, and among the policies that have been issued, there is little uniformity. We describe the experience of the North American Spine Society (NASS) in implementing comprehensive conflicts of interest policies. A special feature article. We discuss financial conflicts of interest as they apply to professional medical associations rather than to individual physicians. We describe the current policies of disclosure and divestment adopted by the NASS and how these policies have evolved, been refined, and have had no detrimental impact on membership, attendance at annual meetings, finances, or leadership recruitment. No funding was received for this work. The authors report no potential conflict-of-interest-associated biases in the text. The NASS has shown that a professional medical association can manage its financial relationships with industry in a manner that minimizes influence and bias. The NASS experience can provide a template for other professional medical associations to help manage their own possible conflicts of interest issues. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Genitourinary syndrome of menopause: new terminology for vulvovaginal atrophy from the International Society for the Study of Women's Sexual Health and the North American Menopause Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portman, David J; Gass, Margery L S

    2014-10-01

    In 2012, the Board of Directors of the International Society for the Study of Women's Sexual Health (ISSWSH) and the Board of Trustees of The North American Menopause Society (NAMS) acknowledged the need to review current terminology associated with genitourinary tract symptoms related to menopause. The 2 societies cosponsored a terminology consensus conference, which was held in May 2013. Members of the consensus conference agreed that the term genitourinary syndrome of menopause (GSM) is a medically more accurate, all-encompassing, and publicly acceptable term than vulvovaginal atrophy. GSM is defined as a collection of symptoms and signs associated with a decrease in estrogen and other sex steroids involving changes to the labia majora/minora, clitoris, vestibule/introitus, vagina, urethra and bladder. The syndrome may include but is not limited to genital symptoms of dryness, burning, and irritation; sexual symptoms of lack of lubrication, discomfort or pain, and impaired function; and urinary symptoms of urgency, dysuria and recurrent urinary tract infections. Women may present with some or all of the signs and symptoms, which must be bothersome and should not be better accounted for by another diagnosis. The term was presented and discussed at the annual meeting of each society. The respective Boards of NAMS and ISSWSH formally endorsed the new terminology--genitourinary syndrome of menopause (GSM)--in 2014.

  6. The American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, the European Society of Regional Anaesthesia and Pain Therapy, and the Asian Australasian Federation of Pain Societies Joint Committee recommendations for education and training in ultrasound-guided interventional pain procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narouze, Samer N; Provenzano, David; Peng, Philip; Eichenberger, Urs; Lee, Sang Chul; Nicholls, Barry; Moriggl, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    The use of ultrasound in pain medicine for interventional axial, nonaxial, and musculoskeletal pain procedures is rapidly evolving and growing. Because of the lack of specialty-specific guidelines for ultrasonography in pain medicine, an international collaborative effort consisting of members of the Special Interest Group on Ultrasonography in Pain Medicine from the American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, the European Society of Regional Anaesthesia and Pain Therapy, and the Asian Australasian Federation of Pain Societies developed the following recommendations for education and training in ultrasound-guided interventional pain procedures. The purpose of these recommendations is to define the required skills for performing ultrasound-guided pain procedures, the processes for appropriate education, and training and quality improvement. Training algorithms are outlined for practice- and fellowship-based pathways. The previously published American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine and European Society of Regional Anaesthesia and Pain Therapy education and teaching recommendations for ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia served as a foundation for the pain medicine recommendations. Although the decision to grant ultrasound privileges occurs at the institutional level, the committee recommends that the training guidelines outlined in this document serve as the foundation for educational training and the advancement of the practice of ultrasonography in pain medicine.

  7. Self-expandable metal stents for obstructing colonic and extracolonic cancer: European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) Clinical Guideline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hooft, Jeanin E.; van Halsema, Emo E.; Vanbiervliet, Geoffroy; Beets-Tan, Regina G. H.; Dewitt, John M.; Donnellan, Fergal; Dumonceau, Jean-Marc; Glynne-Jones, Robert G. T.; Hassan, Cesare; Jiménez-Perez, Javier; Meisner, Søren; Muthusamy, V. Raman; Parker, Michael C.; Regimbeau, Jean-Marc; Sabbagh, Charles; Sagar, Jayesh; Tanis, Pieter J.; Vandervoort, Jo; Webster, George J.; Manes, Gianpiero; Barthet, Marc A.; Repici, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    This Guideline is an official statement of the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE). This Guideline was also reviewed and endorsed by the Governing Board of the American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ASGE). The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and

  8. Self-Expandable Metal Stents for Obstructing Colonic and Extracolonic Cancer: European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) Clinical Guideline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hooft, J. E.; van Halsema, E. E.; Vanbiervliet, G.; Beets-Tan, R. G. H.; DeWitt, J. M.; Donnellan, F.; Dumonceau, J. M.; Glynne-Jones, R. G. T.; Hassan, C.; Jimenez-Perez, J.; Meisner, S.; Muthusamy, V. Raman; Parker, M. C.; Regimbeau, J. M.; Sabbagh, C.; Sagar, J.; Tanis, P. J.; Vandervoort, J.; Webster, G. J.; Manes, G.; Barthet, M. A.; Repici, A.

    2014-01-01

    This Guideline is an official statement of the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE). This Guideline was also reviewed and endorsed by the Governing Board of the American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ASGE). The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and

  9. African Americans' and Hispanics' information needs about cancer care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Antonia, Teresita; Ung, Danielle; Montiel-Ishino, F Alejandro; Nelson, Alison; Canales, Jorge; Quinn, Gwendolyn P

    2015-06-01

    Few studies have reported on African American and Hispanic (AA and H) populations' informational needs when seeking cancer care at an institution that offers clinical trials. Moffitt Cancer Center (MCC) sought to identify and examine the decision making process, the perceptions, and the preferred channels of communication about cancer care services for AA and H communities in order to develop a list of marketing recommendations. Five focus groups (N = 45) consisting of two AA and three H were conducted in four counties of the MCC catchment area in Tampa, FL. Participants were asked about their perceptions, knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about cancer care and MCC. Focus groups were audio-recorded and verbatim transcripts were analyzed using content analysis. Similarities in responses were found between AA and H participants. Participants received general health and cancer information from media sources and word of mouth and preferred to hear patient testimonials. There were concerns about costs, insurance coverage, and the actual geographic location of the cancer center. In general, H participants were not opposed to participating in cancer clinical trials/research, whereas, AA participants were more hesitant. A majority of participants highly favored an institution that offered standard care and clinical trials. AA and H participants shared similar concerns and preferences in communication channels, but each group had specific informational needs. The perceptions and preferences of AA and H must be explored in order to successfully and efficiently increase cancer clinical trial participation.

  10. Role delineation study for the American Society for Pain Management Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willens, Joyce S; DePascale, Christine; Penny, James

    2010-06-01

    task). The consequences of the degree would be the inability of the newly certified pain management nurse to perform duties or tasks in each domain was rated from 0 (no harm) to 4 (extreme harm). The first domain received the highest average frequency rating. The pharmacologic domain received the highest mean rating on consequence. The reliability of all scales was 0.95 or higher, which indicated that the questionnaire consistently measured what it was intended to measure. The quality of the questionnaire is an indicator that certification is one measure of nursing excellence. (c) 2010 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effective colorectal cancer education for Asian Americans: a Michigan program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tsu-Yin; Kao, John Y; Hsieh, Hsing-Fang; Tang, Yu-Ying; Chen, Judy; Lee, Janilla; Oakley, Deborah

    2010-06-01

    Asian Americans are among the fastest growing population groups in the USA. Despite the fact that colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most common cancer for this group, Asian Americans have low CRC screening rates. An established health promotion program, Healthy Asian Americans Project (HAAP), expanded to include community-based CRC education during 2005-2006. Using Asian-language media, HAAP promoted awareness throughout local Asian Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Hmong, Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese American communities and recruited men and women over 50 years to attend health fairs at local community/cultural centers. Evaluation data from 304 participants in an evidence-based educational intervention showed significantly increased knowledge and attitudes about the importance of screening. Follow-up conducted between 6 and 12 months showed that 78% of those receiving the educational intervention had been screened in the last 12 months, compared with the 37% who had ever been screened with any of the tests prior to the study. This community-based health promotion program reached underserved populations and the educational intervention improved CRC screening rates. This and similar programs may help lower CRC mortality among Asian Americans.

  12. Breast cancer literacy and health beliefs related to breast cancer screening among American Indian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Soonhee; Burnette, Catherine E; Lee, Yeon-Shim; Jun, Jung Sim; Lee, Hee Yun; Lee, Kyoung Hag

    2018-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the health beliefs and literacy about breast cancer and their relationship with breast cancer screening among American Indian (AI) women. Using the Health Belief Model (HBM) and hierarchical logistic regression with data from a sample of 286 AI female adults residing in the Northern Plains, we found that greater awareness of breast cancer screening was linked to breast cancer screening practices. However, perceived barriers, one of the HBM constructs, prevented such screening practices. This study suggested that culturally relevant HBM factors should be targeted when developing culturally sensitive breast cancer prevention efforts.

  13. “Abandon All Hope Ye Who Enter Here”: The Critique Of Consumer Society In American Psycho and Fight Club

    OpenAIRE

    Liktor, Coşkun

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the politics of two films, namely American Psycho (Mary Harron, 2000) and Fight Club (David Fincher, 1999), both of which portray a privileged, white collar protagonist suffering from a personality disorder that leads him to commit violent acts. Set in the late 20th century America characterized by rampant consumerism, stark materialism and fierce competition, both films suggest that it is the debilitating impact of the commodifed, commodity-driven consumer society that ...

  14. Hispanic immigrants and bilingual education after proposition 227 : a case study of attitudes about language and culture in American Society

    OpenAIRE

    小林, ひろみ

    2009-01-01

    Public criticism of bilingual education or bilingualism in the United States has been growing since the early 1990s. As part of the argument against bilingual education, Hispanic immigrants have been portrayed as a monolithic group clinging to their own language and culture and reluctant to assimilate into American society. Proposition 227, which officially ended bilingual education programs in California public schools, was passed on June 2, 1998. Race and ethnicity were reflected in the ...

  15. Disparities in cervical cancer survival among Asian-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, Van T; Davies, Kalatu R; Chan, Wenyaw; Mulla, Zuber D; Cantor, Scott B

    2016-01-01

    We compared overall survival and influencing factors between Asian-American women as a whole and by subgroup with white women with cervical cancer. Cervical cancer data were from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry; socioeconomic information was from the Area Health Resource File. We used standard tests to compare characteristics between groups; the Kaplan-Meier method with log-rank test to assess overall survival and compare it between groups; and Cox proportional hazards models to determine the effect of race and other covariates on overall survival (with and/or without age stratification). Being 3.3 years older than white women at diagnosis (P Asian-American women were more likely to be in a spousal relationship, had more progressive disease, and were better off socioeconomically. Women of Filipino, Japanese, and Korean origin had similar clinical characteristics compared to white women. Asian-American women had higher 36- and 60-month survival rates (P = .004 and P = .013, respectively), higher overall survival rates (P = .049), and longer overall survival durations after adjusting for age and other covariates (hazard ratio = 0.77, 95% confidence interval: 0.68-0.86). Overall survival differed across age strata between the two racial groups. With the exception of women of Japanese or Korean origin, Asian-American women grouped by geographic origin had better overall survival than white women. Although Asian-American women, except those of Japanese or Korean origin, had better overall survival than white women, their older age at cervical cancer diagnosis suggests that they have less access to screening programs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Disparities in cervical cancer survival among Asian American women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, Van T.; Davies, Kalatu R.; Chan, Wenyaw; Mulla, Zuber D.; Cantor, Scott B.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We compared overall survival and influencing factors between Asian American women as a whole and by subgroup with white women with cervical cancer. Methods Cervical cancer data were from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry; socioeconomic information was from the Area Health Resource File. We used standard tests to compare characteristics between groups; the Kaplan-Meier method with log-rank test to assess overall survival and compare it between groups; and Cox proportional hazards models to determine the effect of race and other covariates on overall survival (with/without age-stratification). Results Being 3.3 years older than white women at diagnosis (pAsian American women were more likely to be in a spousal relationship, had more progressive disease, and were better off socioeconomically. Women of Filipino, Japanese, and Korean origin had similar clinical characteristics compared with white women. Asian American women had higher 36- and 60-month survival rates (p=0.004 and p=0.013, respectively), higher overall survival rates (p=0.049), and longer overall survival durations after adjusting for age and other covariates (hazard ratio=0.77, 95% confidence interval: 0.68–0.86). Overall survival differed across age strata between the two racial groups. With the exception of women of Japanese or Korean origin, Asian American women grouped by geographic origin had better overall survival than white women. Conclusions Although Asian American women, except those of Japanese or Korean origin, had better overall survival than white women, their older age at cervical cancer diagnosis suggests that they have less access to screening programs. PMID:26552330

  17. Comparison of current practices of cardiopulmonary perfusion technology in Iran with American Society of Extracorporeal Technology's standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faravan, Amir; Mohammadi, Nooredin; Alizadeh Ghavidel, Alireza; Toutounchi, Mohammad Zia; Ghanbari, Ameneh; Mazloomi, Mehran

    2016-01-01

    Standards have a significant role in showing the minimum level of optimal optimum and the expected performance. Since the perfusion technology staffs play an the leading role in providing the quality services to the patients undergoing open heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass machine, this study aimed to assess the standards on how Iranian perfusion technology staffs evaluate and manage the patients during the cardiopulmonary bypass process and compare their practice with the recommended standards by American Society of Extracorporeal Technology. In this descriptive study, data was collected from 48 Iranian public hospitals and educational health centers through a researcher-created questionnaire. The data collection questionnaire assessed the standards which are recommended by American Society of Extracorporeal Technology. Findings showed that appropriate measurements were carried out by the perfusion technology staffs to prevent the hemodilution and avoid the blood transfusion and unnecessary blood products, determine the initial dose of heparin based on one of the proposed methods, monitor the anticoagulants based on ACT measurement, and determine the additional doses of heparin during the cardiopulmonary bypass based on ACT or protamine titration. It was done only in 4.2% of hospitals and health centers. Current practices of cardiopulmonary perfusion technology in Iran are inappropriate based on the standards of American Society of Cardiovascular Perfusion. This represents the necessity of authorities' attention to the validation programs and development of the caring standards on one hand and continuous assessment of using these standards on the other hand.

  18. Latin American Consensus for Pediatric Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation 2017: Latin American Pediatric Critical Care Society Pediatric Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Herce, Jesús; Almonte, Enma; Alvarado, Manuel; Bogado, Norma Beatriz; Cyunel, Mariana; Escalante, Raffo; Finardi, Christiane; Guzmán, Gustavo; Jaramillo-Bustamante, Juan C; Madrid, Claudia C; Matamoros, Martha; Moya, Luis Augusto; Obando, Grania; Reboredo, Gaspar; López, Lissette R; Scheu, Christian; Valenzuela, Alejandro; Yerovi, Rocío; Yock-Corrales, Adriana

    2018-03-01

    To develop a Latin American Consensus about Pediatric Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation. To clarify, reinforce, and adapt some specific recommendations for pediatric patients and to stimulate the implementation of these recommendations in clinical practice. Expert consensus recommendations with Delphi methodology. Latin American countries. Experts in pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation from 19 Latin American countries. Delphi methodology for expert consensus. The goal was to reach consensus with all the participating experts for every recommendation. An agreement of at least 80% of the participating experts had to exist in order to deliver a recommendation. Two Delphi voting rounds were sent out electronically. The experts were asked to score between 1 and 9 their level of agreement for each recommendation. The score was then classified into three groups: strong agreement (score 7-9), moderate agreement (score 4-6), and disagreement (score 1-3). Nineteen experts from 19 countries participated in both voting rounds and in the whole process of drafting the recommendations. Sixteen recommendations about organization of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, prevention, basic resuscitation, advanced resuscitation, and postresuscitation measures were approved. Ten of them had a consensus of 100%. Four of them were agreed by all the participants except one (94.7% consensus). One recommendation was agreed by all except two experts (89.4%), and finally, one was agreed by all except three experts (84.2%). All the recommendations reached a level of agreement. This consensus adapts 16 international recommendations to Latin America in order to improve the practice of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in children. Studies should be conducted to analyze the effectiveness of the implementation of these recommendations.

  19. American Society of Clinical Oncology Obesity Initiative: Rationale, Progress, and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligibel, Jennifer A; Wollins, Dana

    2016-12-10

    Obesity is increasingly being linked to the risk of developing and dying from cancer. In recognition of the growing contribution of obesity to cancer risk and outcomes, ASCO made obesity and cancer one of its core initiatives in 2014. The goals of this initiative included raising awareness of the relationship between obesity and cancer, providing tools and resources to oncology providers and patients to help encourage conversations regarding weight management in cancer survivors, fostering a robust research agenda, and advocating for access to evidence-based weight management programs for cancer survivors. Efforts to date have included developing patient and provider toolkits focused on weight management and physical activity, publishing a policy statement outlining ASCO's initiatives in this area, and hosting a summit focused on obesity research in cancer populations. As ASCO has defined its priorities in the area of obesity and cancer, it has become increasingly clear that obesity is a problem that extends far beyond its impact on cancer risk and outcomes. Many groups, including those focused on heart disease, diabetes, and endocrinology, have been developing, testing, and implementing obesity prevention and treatment strategies for years. As ASCO moves forward with its obesity initiative, the next steps will focus on forging collaboration with groups working on obesity-related initiatives both within and outside of the field of cancer to learn from their efforts and to partner with them on efforts to increase the education of medical professionals; raising awareness in lay populations regarding the negative health consequences of obesity and effective strategies to foster weight loss; developing collaborative research initiatives; and working together to advocate for the societal changes that will be needed to combat the obesity epidemic in the United States and beyond.

  20. International Society of Geriatric Oncology Consensus on Geriatric Assessment in Older Patients With Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wildiers, Hans; Heeren, Pieter; Puts, Martine; Topinkova, Eva; Janssen-Heijnen, Maryska L. G.; Extermann, Martine; Falandry, Claire; Artz, Andrew; Brain, Etienne; Colloca, Giuseppe; Flamaing, Johan; Karnakis, Theodora; Kenis, Cindy; Audisio, Riccardo A.; Mohile, Supriya; Repetto, Lazzaro; Van Leeuwen, Barbara; Milisen, Koen; Hurria, Arti

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To update the International Society of Geriatric Oncology (SIOG) 2005 recommendations on geriatric assessment (GA) in older patients with cancer. Methods SIOG composed a panel with expertise in geriatric oncology to develop consensus statements after literature review of key evidence on the

  1. Survey of the American Neurotology Society on Cochlear Implantation: Part 1, Candidacy Assessment and Expanding Indications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Matthew L; Sladen, Douglas P; Gurgel, Richard K; Tombers, Nicole M; Lohse, Christine M; Driscoll, Colin L

    2018-01-01

    To examine practice variance of cochlear implant candidacy assessment and off-label indications across centers in the United States. Cross-sectional survey of the American Neurotology Society (ANS). A total of 81 surveys were returned from ANS members who report regular involvement in cochlear implant care. Overall there was a broad distribution in age and clinical experience, with most respondents reporting ACGME accreditation in neurotology and employment at an academic center. The annual volume of cochlear implant surgeries varied considerably across centers.Seventy-eight percent of respondents performed cochlear implantation for at least one of the following indications within the last 2 years: profound hearing loss in children less than 12 months of age (35, 43%), children with asymmetrical hearing loss where at least one ear was better than performance cutoff for age (25, 31%), adults with asymmetrical hearing where at least one ear was better than the performance cutoff for adult criteria (49, 61%), single-sided deafness (37, 46%), and ipsilateral vestibular schwannoma (28, 35%). Centers with a higher annual implant volume more frequently performed off-label implantation in all queried populations (all, p≤0.001), and performed surgery on infants with congenital deafness at a younger age (p = 0.013), compared with centers with lower surgical volume.When surveyed regarding speech perception testing practices for adult candidacy assessment, 75 (100%) respondents who answered this question reported routine use of AzBio sentences, 42 (56%) CNC word scores, and 26 (35%) HINT testing; only 7 (9%) reported using BKB-SIN testing and 6 (8%) reported using CUNY scores. Fifty-one (68%) reported routine use of speech-in-noise testing to determine adult cochlear implant candidacy, 21 (28%) reported selective use only when patient scores were borderline in quiet, and 3 (4%) reported that their center does not currently use testing in noise for candidacy determination

  2. Minimal Clinically Important Differences for American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society Score in Hallux Valgus Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Hiok Yang; Chen, Jerry Yongqiang; Zainul-Abidin, Suraya; Ying, Hao; Koo, Kevin; Rikhraj, Inderjeet Singh

    2017-05-01

    The American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society (AOFAS) score is one of the most common and adapted outcome scales in hallux valgus surgery. However, AOFAS is predominantly physician based and not patient based. Although it may be straightforward to derive statistical significance, it may not equate to the true subjective benefit of the patient's experience. There is a paucity of literature defining MCID for AOFAS in hallux valgus surgery although it could have a great impact on the accuracy of analyzing surgical outcomes. Hence, the primary aim of this study was to define the Minimal Clinically Important Difference (MCID) for the AOFAS score in these patients, and the secondary aim was to correlate patients' demographics to the MCID. We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study. A total of 446 patients were reviewed preoperatively and followed up for 2 years. An anchor question was asked 2 years postoperation: "How would you rate the overall results of your treatment for your foot and ankle condition?" (excellent, very good, good, fair, poor, terrible). The MCID was derived using 4 methods, 3 from an anchor-based approach and 1 from a distribution-based approach. Anchor-based approaches were (1) mean difference in 2-year AOFAS scores of patients who answered "good" versus "fair" based on the anchor question; (2) mean change of AOFAS score preoperatively and at 2-year follow-up in patients who answered good; (3) receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves method, where the area under the curve (AUC) represented the likelihood that the scoring system would accurately discriminate these 2 groups of patients. The distribution-based approach used to calculate MCID was the effect size method. There were 405 (90.8%) females and 41 (9.2%) males. Mean age was 51.2 (standard deviation [SD] = 13) years, mean preoperative BMI was 24.2 (SD = 4.1). Mean preoperative AOFAS score was 55.6 (SD = 16.8), with significant improvement to 85.7 (SD = 14.4) in 2 years ( P value

  3. Kokes Awards for the 25th North American Catalysis Society Meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pylypenko, Svitlana [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States). Chemistry Dept. and Materials Science Program

    2018-03-13

    The biennial North American Catalysis Society (NACS) meeting is the premiere conferences in the area of catalysis, surface science, and reaction engineering. The 25th installment of this meeting will be held the week of June 4-9, 2017 in Denver, CO at the Hyatt Regency Hotel. Meeting objectives include bringing together leading researchers for intensive scientific exchange, providing students with an opportunity to present their work and interact with leaders in the field, and participate in service to scientific/technical community. Financial support to offset a portion of the associated costs – and specifically, registration fees, airline tickets, and hotel accommodations – encourages greater participation by graduate and undergraduate students, and often provides them the only opportunity to attend and meaningfully contribute to the conference. The funds sought in this proposal will be in support of the Richard J. Kokes Travel Award program. The eligibility criteria for undergraduates and graduate students applying for a merit-based Awards are that they must study at a university within the United States and present either a poster or presentation at the meeting. In the previous meeting in Pittsburgh, NACS received 200 applications and funded 110 students. Similarly, during the meeting in Louisville, NACS received 225 applications and funded nearly half of them. The NACS has an on-going tradition of encouraging graduate students (and more recently, undergraduates as well) to participate in and serve at the national meetings Providing financial support is one of the most effective means of accomplishing this goal. Their attendance significantly broadens their scientific training beyond what can be accomplished in the classroom, and offers them an opportunity to improve their communication and presentation skills. As an attendee to the 25th NAM, students will participate by listening to presentations from leading researchers from the U.S. and abroad, and they

  4. An Official American Thoracic Society Workshop Report 2015. Stem Cells and Cell Therapies in Lung Biology and Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Darcy E; Cardoso, Wellington V; Gilpin, Sarah E; Majka, Susan; Ott, Harald; Randell, Scott H; Thébaud, Bernard; Waddell, Thomas; Weiss, Daniel J

    2016-08-01

    The University of Vermont College of Medicine, in collaboration with the NHLBI, Alpha-1 Foundation, American Thoracic Society, Cystic Fibrosis Foundation, European Respiratory Society, International Society for Cellular Therapy, and the Pulmonary Fibrosis Foundation, convened a workshop, "Stem Cells and Cell Therapies in Lung Biology and Lung Diseases," held July 27 to 30, 2015, at the University of Vermont. The conference objectives were to review the current understanding of the role of stem and progenitor cells in lung repair after injury and to review the current status of cell therapy and ex vivo bioengineering approaches for lung diseases. These are all rapidly expanding areas of study that both provide further insight into and challenge traditional views of mechanisms of lung repair after injury and pathogenesis of several lung diseases. The goals of the conference were to summarize the current state of the field, discuss and debate current controversies, and identify future research directions and opportunities for both basic and translational research in cell-based therapies for lung diseases. This 10th anniversary conference was a follow up to five previous biennial conferences held at the University of Vermont in 2005, 2007, 2009, 2011, and 2013. Each of those conferences, also sponsored by the National Institutes of Health, American Thoracic Society, and respiratory disease foundations, has been important in helping guide research and funding priorities. The major conference recommendations are summarized at the end of the report and highlight both the significant progress and major challenges in these rapidly progressing fields.

  5. An official American Thoracic Society workshop report: stem cells and cell therapies in lung biology and diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Daniel J; Chambers, Daniel; Giangreco, Adam; Keating, Armand; Kotton, Darrell; Lelkes, Peter I; Wagner, Darcy E; Prockop, Darwin J

    2015-04-01

    The University of Vermont College of Medicine and the Vermont Lung Center, in collaboration with the NHLBI, Alpha-1 Foundation, American Thoracic Society, European Respiratory Society, International Society for Cell Therapy, and the Pulmonary Fibrosis Foundation, convened a workshop, "Stem Cells and Cell Therapies in Lung Biology and Lung Diseases," held July 29 to August 1, 2013 at the University of Vermont. The conference objectives were to review the current understanding of the role of stem and progenitor cells in lung repair after injury and to review the current status of cell therapy and ex vivo bioengineering approaches for lung diseases. These are all rapidly expanding areas of study that both provide further insight into and challenge traditional views of mechanisms of lung repair after injury and pathogenesis of several lung diseases. The goals of the conference were to summarize the current state of the field, discuss and debate current controversies, and identify future research directions and opportunities for both basic and translational research in cell-based therapies for lung diseases. This conference was a follow-up to four previous biennial conferences held at the University of Vermont in 2005, 2007, 2009, and 2011. Each of those conferences, also sponsored by the National Institutes of Health, American Thoracic Society, and Respiratory Disease Foundations, has been important in helping guide research and funding priorities. The major conference recommendations are summarized at the end of the report and highlight both the significant progress and major challenges in these rapidly progressing fields.

  6. Validation of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine guidelines/recommendations in white European men presenting for couple's infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventimiglia, Eugenio; Capogrosso, Paolo; Boeri, Luca; Ippolito, Silvia; Scano, Roberta; Moschini, Marco; Gandaglia, Giorgio; Papaleo, Enrico; Montorsi, Francesco; Salonia, Andrea

    2016-10-01

    To retrospectively validate the American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM) guidelines/recommendations concerning endocrine evaluation in a cohort of white European men presenting for couple's infertility. Retrospective study. Academic reproductive medicine outpatient clinic. Cohort of 1,056 consecutive infertile men (noninterracial infertile couples). Testicular volume was assessed with a Prader orchidometer. Serum hormones were measured (8-10 a.m.) in all cases. Hypogonadism was defined as total T Society definition. Semen analysis values were assessed based on the 2010 World Health Organisation reference criteria. ASRM indications for endocrine assessment in infertile men (sperm concentration Society classification criteria. Conversely, 37 (23.7%) out of 156 patients with biochemical hypogonadism would have been overlooked. The overall predictive accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of the ASRM guidelines was 58%, 76%, and 39%, respectively. Our nomogram was not reliable enough to predict hypogonadism, despite demonstrating a significantly higher predictive accuracy (68%) than the ASRM guidelines. The current findings show that the ASRM guidelines/recommendations for male infertility workup may not be suitable for application in white European infertile men. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Genomic Profiling of Prostate Cancers from African American Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Castro

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available African American (AA men have a higher incidence and significantly higher mortality rates from prostate cancer than white men, but the biological basis for these differences are poorly understood. Few studies have been carried out to determine whether there are areas of allelic loss or gain in prostate cancers from AA men that are over-represented in or specific to this group. To better understand the molecular mechanisms of prostate cancer in AA men, we have analyzed 20 prostate cancers from AA men with high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism arrays to detect genomic copy number alterations. We identified 17 regions showing significant loss and 4 regions with significant gains. Most of these regions had been linked to prostate cancer by previous studies of copy number alterations of predominantly white patients. We identified a novel region of loss at 4p16.3, which has been shown to be lost in breast, colon, and bladder cancers. Comparison of our primary tumors with tumors from white patients from a previously published cohort with similar pathological characteristics showed higher frequency of loss of at numerous loci including 6q13-22, 8p21, 13q13-14, and 16q11-24 and gains of 7p21 and 8q24, all of which had higher frequencies in metastatic lesions in this previously published cohort. Thus, the clinically localized cancers from AA men more closely resembled metastatic cancers from white men. This difference may in part explain the more aggressive clinical behavior of prostate cancer in AA men.

  8. Adherence to the cancer prevention recommendations of the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research and mortality: a census-linked cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohse, Tina; Faeh, David; Bopp, Matthias; Rohrmann, Sabine

    2016-09-01

    Modifiable lifestyle factors linked to cancer offer great potential for prevention. Previous studies suggest an association between adherence to recommendations on healthy lifestyle and cancer mortality. The aim of this study was to examine whether adherence to the cancer prevention recommendations of the World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) and the American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) is associated with reduced all-cause, total cancer, and specific cancer type mortality. We built a lifestyle score that included 3 categories, based on the recommendations of the WCRF/AICR. Applying Cox regression models, we investigated the association with all-cause, total cancer, and specific cancer type mortality; in addition, we included cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. We used census- and death registry-linked survey data allowing a mortality follow-up for ≤32 y. Our analysis included 16,722 participants. Information on lifestyle score components and confounders was collected at baseline. Over a mean follow-up of 21.7 y, 3730 deaths were observed (1332 cancer deaths). Comparing best with poorest category of the lifestyle score showed an inverse association with all-cause (HR: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.75, 0.89) and total cancer (men only, HR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.57, 0.84) mortality. We estimated that ∼13% of premature cancer deaths in men would have been preventable if lifestyle score levels had been high. Inverse associations were observed for lung, upper aerodigestive tract, stomach, and prostate cancer mortality [men and women combined, HR: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.51, 0.99; HR: 0.49; 95% CI: 0.26, 0.92; HR: 0.34; 95% CI: 0.14, 0.83; HR: 0.48; 95% CI: 0.28, 0.82 (men only), respectively]. CVD mortality was not associated with the lifestyle score (men and women combined, HR: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.82, 1.13). Our results support the importance of adhering to recommendations for a healthy lifestyle with regard to all-cause and cancer mortality. To reduce the burden of cancer in the

  9. Healthcare barriers and supports for American Indian women with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddell, Jessica L; Burnette, Catherine E; Roh, Soonhee; Lee, Yeon-Shim

    2018-05-18

    Although American Indian (AI) women continue to experience cancer at higher rates and have not seen the same decline in cancer prevalence as the general U.S. population, little research examines how interactions with health care providers may influence and exacerbate these health disparities. The purpose of the study was to understand the experiences of AI women who receive cancer treatment, which is integral for eradication of AI cancer disparities among women. A qualitative descriptive methodology was used with a sample of 43 AI women with breast, cervical, colon, and other types of cancer from the Northern Plains region of South Dakota. Interviews were conducted from June 2014 to February 2015. Qualitative content analysis revealed that women experienced: (a) health concerns being ignored or overlooked; (b) lack of consistent and qualified providers; (c) inadequate healthcare infrastructure; (d) sub-optimal patient-healthcare provider relationships; (e) positive experiences with healthcare providers; and (f) pressure and misinformation about treatment. Results indicate the types of support AI women may need when accessing healthcare. Culturally informed trainings for healthcare professionals may be needed to provide high-quality and sensitive care for AI women who have cancer, and to support those providers already providing proper care.

  10. Post-treatment problems of African American breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsevick, Andrea M; Leader, Amy; Bradley, Patricia K; Avery, Tiffany; Dean, Lorraine T; DiCarlo, Melissa; Hegarty, Sarah E

    2016-12-01

    African American breast cancer survivors (AABCS) have a lower survival rate across all disease stages (79 %) compared with White survivors (92 %) and often have more aggressive forms of breast cancer requiring multimodality treatment, so they could experience a larger burden of post-treatment quality of life (QOL) problems. This paper reports a comprehensive assessment of the number, severity, and domains of problems faced by AABCS within 5 years after treatment completion and identifies subgroups at risk for these problems. A population-based random sample was obtained from the Pennsylvania Cancer Registry of African American females over 18 years of age who completed primary treatment for breast cancer in the past 5 years. A mailed survey was used to document survivorship problems. Two hundred ninety-seven AABCS completed the survey. The median number of survivor problems reported was 15. Exploratory factor analysis of the problem scale revealed four domains: emotional problems, physical problems, lack of resources, and sexuality problems. Across problem domains, younger age, more comorbid conditions, and greater medical mistrust were risk factors for more severe problems. The results demonstrated that AABCS experienced significant problem burden in the early years after diagnosis and treatment. In addition to emotional and physical problem domains that were documented in previous research, two problem domains unique to AABCS included lack of resources and sexuality concerns. At risk groups should be targeted for intervention. The study results reported in this manuscript will inform future research to address problems of AABCS as they make the transition from cancer patient to cancer survivor.

  11. Validation of the Society of Critical Care Medicine and American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition Recommendations for Caloric Provision to Critically Ill Obese Patients: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogensen, Kris M; Andrew, Benjamin Y; Corona, Jasmine C; Robinson, Malcolm K

    2016-07-01

    The Society of Critical Care Medicine (SCCM) and American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (ASPEN) recommend that obese, critically ill patients receive 11-14 kcal/kg/d using actual body weight (ABW) or 22-25 kcal/kg/d using ideal body weight (IBW), because feeding these patients 50%-70% maintenance needs while administering high protein may improve outcomes. It is unknown whether these equations achieve this target when validated against indirect calorimetry, perform equally across all degrees of obesity, or compare well with other equations. Measured resting energy expenditure (MREE) was determined in obese (body mass index [BMI] ≥30 kg/m(2)), critically ill patients. Resting energy expenditure was predicted (PREE) using several equations: 12.5 kcal/kg ABW (ASPEN-Actual BW), 23.5 kcal/kg IBW (ASPEN-Ideal BW), Harris-Benedict (adjusted-weight and 1.5 stress-factor), and Ireton-Jones for obesity. Correlation of PREE to 65% MREE, predictive accuracy, precision, bias, and large error incidence were calculated. All equations were significantly correlated with 65% MREE but had poor predictive accuracy, had excessive large error incidence, were imprecise, and were biased in the entire cohort (N = 31). In the obesity cohort (n = 20, BMI 30-50 kg/m(2)), ASPEN-Actual BW had acceptable predictive accuracy and large error incidence, was unbiased, and was nearly precise. In super obesity (n = 11, BMI >50 kg/m(2)), ASPEN-Ideal BW had acceptable predictive accuracy and large error incidence and was precise and unbiased. SCCM/ASPEN-recommended body weight equations are reasonable predictors of 65% MREE depending on the equation and degree of obesity. Assuming that feeding 65% MREE is appropriate, this study suggests that patients with a BMI 30-50 kg/m(2) should receive 11-14 kcal/kg/d using ABW and those with a BMI >50 kg/m(2) should receive 22-25 kcal/kg/d using IBW. © 2015 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  12. Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer consensus statement on immunotherapy for the treatment of bladder carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamat, Ashish M; Bellmunt, Joaquim; Galsky, Matthew D; Konety, Badrinath R; Lamm, Donald L; Langham, David; Lee, Cheryl T; Milowsky, Matthew I; O'Donnell, Michael A; O'Donnell, Peter H; Petrylak, Daniel P; Sharma, Padmanee; Skinner, Eila C; Sonpavde, Guru; Taylor, John A; Abraham, Prasanth; Rosenberg, Jonathan E

    2017-08-15

    The standard of care for most patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) is immunotherapy with intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), which activates the immune system to recognize and destroy malignant cells and has demonstrated durable clinical benefit. Urologic best-practice guidelines and consensus reports have been developed and strengthened based on data on the timing, dose, and duration of therapy from randomized clinical trials, as well as by critical evaluation of criteria for progression. However, these reports have not penetrated the community, and many patients do not receive appropriate therapy. Additionally, several immune checkpoint inhibitors have recently been approved for treatment of metastatic disease. The approval of immune checkpoint blockade for patients with platinum-resistant or -ineligible metastatic bladder cancer has led to considerations of expanded use for both advanced and, potentially, localized disease. To address these issues and others surrounding the appropriate use of immunotherapy for the treatment of bladder cancer, the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC) convened a Task Force of experts, including physicians, patient advocates, and nurses, to address issues related to patient selection, toxicity management, clinical endpoints, as well as the combination and sequencing of therapies. Following the standard approach established by the Society for other cancers, a systematic literature review and analysis of data, combined with consensus voting was used to generate guidelines. Here, we provide a consensus statement for the use of immunotherapy in patients with bladder cancer, with plans to update these recommendations as the field progresses.

  13. Open Access and its impact on the Knowledge Society: Latin American Case Studies Insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Soledad RAMÍREZ MONTOYA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In a changing society, open access may represent an alternative growth and resources to the educational community, from the opportunities given to students, to teachers, researchers and administrators of educational institutions. The aim of this paper is to analyze the opportunities and challenges that gives open access to the educational community, through the presentation of a conceptual vision and practical cases in Latin America, on the issue of open educational resources, repositories, journals and open access policies –from universities and government agencies or financing– and its link to a knowledge society. The findings are presented on three key elements: opportunities, challenges and opportunities open to access the knowledge society.

  14. Colorectal cancer beliefs, knowledge, and screening among Filipino, Hmong, and Korean Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Mi T; Jeong, Matthew B; Nguyen, Vickie V; Sharp, Michael T; Yu, Edgar P; Yu, Filmer; Tong, Elisa K; Kagawa-Singer, Marjorie; Cuaresma, Charlene F; Sy, Angela U; Tsoh, Janice Y; Gildengorin, Ginny L; Stewart, Susan L; Nguyen, Tung T

    2018-04-01

    To the authors' knowledge, there are few studies to date regarding colorectal cancer (CRC) beliefs, knowledge, and screening among multiple Asian American populations, who are reported to have lower CRC screening rates compared with white individuals. The current study was performed to assess knowledge and beliefs regarding the causes of CRC, its prevention, and factors associated with CRC screening among 3 Asian American groups. The authors conducted an in-language survey with Filipino (Honolulu, Hawaii), Hmong (Sacramento, California), and Korean (Los Angeles, California) Americans aged 50 to 75 years who were sampled through social networks. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were conducted to assess factors associated with CRC screening. The sample of 981 participants was 78.3% female and 73.8% reported limited proficiency in English. Few of the participants were aware that age (17.7%) or family history (36.3%) were risk factors for CRC; 6.2% believed fate caused CRC. Only 46.4% of participants knew that screening prevented CRC (74.3% of Filipino, 10.6% of Hmong, and 55.8% of Korean participants; PFilipino, 72.0% of Hmong, and 51.4% of Korean participants; PFilipino, 43.8% of Hmong, and 41.4% of Korean participants; PFilipino), having a family history of CRC, having health insurance or a regular source of health care, and knowing that a fatty diet caused CRC. Believing that fate caused CRC and that praying prevented it were found to be negatively associated with ever screening. Factors associated with being up to date for CRC screening included being born in the United States, having a family history of CRC, and having access to health care. Knowledge regarding the causes of CRC and its prevention among Filipino, Hmong, and Korean individuals is low. However, health care access, not knowledge or beliefs, was found to be a key determinant of CRC screening. Cancer 2018;124:1552-9. © 2018 American Cancer Society. © 2018 American Cancer Society.

  15. The First Year Out: Understanding American Teens after High School. Morality and Society Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clydesdale, Tim

    2007-01-01

    Wild parties, late nights, and lots of sex, drugs, and alcohol. Many assume these are the things that define an American teenager's first year after high school. But the reality is really quite different. As Tim Clydesdale reports in "The First Year Out", teenagers generally manage the increased responsibilities of everyday life immediately after…

  16. Interventional spine and pain procedures in patients on antiplatelet and anticoagulant medications: guidelines from the American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, the European Society of Regional Anaesthesia and Pain Therapy, the American Academy of Pain Medicine, the International Neuromodulation Society, the North American Neuromodulation Society, and the World Institute of Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narouze, Samer; Benzon, Honorio T; Provenzano, David A; Buvanendran, Asokumar; De Andres, José; Deer, Timothy R; Rauck, Richard; Huntoon, Marc A

    2015-01-01

    Interventional spine and pain procedures cover a far broader spectrum than those for regional anesthesia, reflecting diverse targets and goals. When surveyed, interventional pain and spine physicians attending the American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine (ASRA) 11th Annual Pain Medicine Meeting exhorted that existing ASRA guidelines for regional anesthesia in patients on antiplatelet and anticoagulant medications were insufficient for their needs. Those surveyed agreed that procedure-specific and patient-specific factors necessitated separate guidelines for pain and spine procedures. In response, ASRA formed a guidelines committee. After preliminary review of published complication reports and studies, committee members stratified interventional spine and pain procedures according to potential bleeding risk as low-, intermediate-, and high-risk procedures. The ASRA guidelines were deemed largely appropriate for the low- and intermediate-risk categories, but it was agreed that the high-risk targets required an intensive look at issues specific to patient safety and optimal outcomes in pain medicine. The latest evidence was sought through extensive database search strategies and the recommendations were evidence-based when available and pharmacology-driven otherwise. We could not provide strength and grading of these recommendations as there are not enough well-designed large studies concerning interventional pain procedures to support such grading. Although the guidelines could not always be based on randomized studies or on large numbers of patients from pooled databases, it is hoped that they will provide sound recommendations and the evidentiary basis for such recommendations.

  17. Living in Two Worlds: The Development and Transition of Mormon Education in American Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esplin, Scott C.; Randall, E. Vance

    2014-01-01

    Religious organisations have long relied on education to transmit cherished values, working within society to preserve their worldview. Therefore, when a religious education system is restructured, it can act as a barometer of change, revealing societal values and reflecting negotiated roles. Like other faiths, the Church of Jesus Christ of…

  18. Running in Place: How American Families are Faring in a Changing Economy and an Individualistic Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zill, Nicholas; Nord, Christine Winquist

    The reasons given for the apparent decline in family well-being include weakened family values, poor parenting, detrimental behavior of parents and young people, and social and economic forces in the larger society that make it difficult for families to perform their functions well. So great is the concern that some observers are convinced that…

  19. Opting out or denying discrimination? How the framework of free choice in American society influences perceptions of gender inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Nicole M; Levine, Cynthia S

    2011-10-01

    American women still confront workplace barriers (e.g., bias against mothers, inflexible policies) that hinder their advancement at the upper levels of organizations. However, most Americans fail to recognize that such gender barriers still exist. Focusing on mothers who have left the workforce, we propose that the prevalent American assumption that actions are a product of choice conceals workplace barriers by communicating that opportunities are equal and that behavior is free from contextual influence. Study 1 reveals that stay-at-home mothers who view their own workplace departure as an individual choice experience greater well-being but less often recognize workplace barriers and discrimination as a source of inequality than do mothers who do not view their workplace departure as an individual choice. Study 2 shows that merely exposing participants to a message that frames actions in terms of individual choice increases participants' belief that society provides equal opportunities and that gender discrimination no longer exists. By concealing the barriers that women still face in the workplace, this choice framework may hinder women's long-term advancement in society.

  20. Choosing wisely in headache medicine: the American Headache Society's list of five things physicians and patients should question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loder, Elizabeth; Weizenbaum, Emma; Frishberg, Benjamin; Silberstein, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to draw attention to tests and procedures associated with low-value care in headache medicine, the American Headache Society (AHS) joined the Choosing Wisely initiative of the American Board of Internal Medicine Foundation. The AHS president appointed an ad hoc "Choosing Wisely" task force of the AHS. The committee surveyed AHS members to develop a candidate list of items for the AHS "Top 5" list of low-value care in headache medicine. Through a process of literature review and consensus, the final list of five items was chosen. Draft recommendations went through several rounds of revision and a process of outside review. The AHS Board of Directors approved the final list of "Five Things." The five recommendations approved by the AHS Board of Directors are: (1) don't perform neuroimaging studies in patients with stable headaches that meet criteria for migraine; (2) don't perform computed tomography imaging for headache when magnetic resonance imaging is available, except in emergency settings; (3) don't recommend surgical deactivation of migraine trigger points outside of a clinical trial; (4) don't prescribe opioid- or butalbital-containing medications as a first-line treatment for recurrent headache disorders; and (5) don't recommend prolonged or frequent use of over-the-counter pain medications for headache. We recommend that headache medicine specialists and other physicians who evaluate and treat headache disorders should use this list when discussing care with patients. © 2013 American Headache Society.

  1. American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) and American College of Radiology (ACR) Practice Guideline for the Performance of High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, Beth A.; Demanes, D. Jeffrey; Ibbott, Geoffrey S.; Hayes, John K.; Hsu, I-Chow J.; Morris, David E.; Rabinovitch, Rachel A.; Tward, Jonathan D.; Rosenthal, Seth A.

    2011-01-01

    High-Dose-Rate (HDR) brachytherapy is a safe and efficacious treatment option for patients with a variety of different malignancies. Careful adherence to established standards has been shown to improve the likelihood of procedural success and reduce the incidence of treatment-related morbidity. A collaborative effort of the American College of Radiology (ACR) and American Society for Therapeutic Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) has produced a practice guideline for HDR brachytherapy. The guideline defines the qualifications and responsibilities of all the involved personnel, including the radiation oncologist, physicist and dosimetrists. Review of the leading indications for HDR brachytherapy in the management of gynecologic, thoracic, gastrointestinal, breast, urologic, head and neck, and soft tissue tumors is presented. Logistics with respect to the brachytherapy implant procedures and attention to radiation safety procedures and documentation are presented. Adherence to these practice guidelines can be part of ensuring quality and safety in a successful HDR brachytherapy program.

  2. Tales from the hundred year history of the American Physical Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustig, H.

    1999-05-01

    The tale to be told on this occasion - a tale only slightly out of school - is that of the punctuated evolution of the APS in pursuing its hundred years old mission, "the advancement and diffusion of the knowledge of physics". For long periods this goal was pursued, singlemindedly and impressively, through scientfic meetings and the Society's journals. However, within a year of its founding, the APS,in concert with other scientific societies, had already "lobbied" successfully for the establishment of the Bureau of Standards. But then all was quiet on the public front until after World War II. Since that time there have been three waves of forays into the public arena. The first, which spanned the "McCarthy period", was in defense of the freedom of scientists to practice their profession across national boundaries; of the right to announce the results of their research even if they trod on powerful toes (the Astin case); and of individual physicists, such as E.U. Condon and J.Robert Oppenheimer,who had been unfairly accused and badly treated. The second wave occurred in the late sixties and early seventies when, initially much pushed by activist members, the Society's leadership came to grips with broad social issues, such as segregation in the South, the Equal Rights Amendment, and, eventually, arms control and nuclear weapons. The third immersion in public affairs, which is still very much in progress, can be characterized as worrying and speaking out on what physics can do for the country (provide authoritative studies on nuclear energy, renewables, directed energy weapons, etc.) and what the country can do for physics (provide more money). Although lobbying for better funding is still a relatively minor occupation of the Society, it raises the question how physics -an elitist pursuit -can be truthfully and effectively "sold" in a democratic and egalitarian society.

  3. Healing pathways: art therapy for American Indian cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warson, Elizabeth

    2012-04-01

    There is a paucity of research addressing quality of life factors for American Indian and Alaska Native cancer survivors. Complementary forms of therapy, such as art therapy, are beginning to address quality of life factors through the "healing" arts for cancer survivors. The purpose of this mixed methods pilot was to explore the effects of culturally relevant art interventions on stress reduction for American Indian cancer survivors and their family members. Forty-six adult participants attended one of three workshops held within two settlements of the Coharie tribe and one southeastern urban tribal center. The data collected consisted of a pretest and posttest State-Trait Personality Inventory (STPI) and artwork resulting from three directed interventions. The artwork was analyzed using qualitative coding methods; however, the scores from the STPI were inconclusive because the inventory was determined to be culturally biased. While statistical significance was not achieved, the findings from qualitative coding reinforced a native concept of wellness focusing on the complex interaction between mind, body, spirit, and context. This pilot study also demonstrated how a community-driven approach was instrumental in the development of the overall workshop format. An expansion of the pilot study is also presented with preliminary results available in 2012.

  4. Inter society consensus for the management of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitoia, F.; Califano, I.; Vázquez, A.; Faire, E.; Gauna, A.; Orlandi, A.; Vanelli, A.; Novelli, J.L.; Mollerach, A.; Cabezón, C.; Fadel, A.; San Martín, A.; Figari, M.

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of differentiated thyroid cancer increased exponentially worldwide. Although these tumors usually have an excellent prognosis, multiple changes occurred in the therapeutic approach and follow-up in recent years. This situation, mainly related to the stratification by the risk of recurrence of the disease, made it necessary to build a consensus among representative members from the three Argentinean societies that are usually involved in the management of these patients, (Argentinean Society of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Argentinean Association of Head and Neck Surgery and Argentinean Association of Biology and Nuclear Medicine). The recommendations were done according to personal experiences and review of bibliography. (authors) [es

  5. Japanese Society of Medical Oncology Clinical Guidelines: Molecular Testing for Colorectal Cancer Treatment, Third Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Kentaro; Taniguchi, Hiroya; Yoshino, Takayuki; Akagi, Kiwamu; Ishida, Hideyuki; Ebi, Hiromichi; Nakatani, Kaname; Muro, Kei; Yatabe, Yasushi; Yamaguchi, Kensei; Tsuchihara, Katsuya

    2018-06-01

    The Japanese Society of Medical Oncology (JSMO) previously published 2 editions of the clinical guidelines: "Japanese guidelines for testing of KRAS gene mutation in colorectal cancer" in 2008 and "Japanese Society of Medical Oncology Clinical Guidelines: RAS (KRAS/NRAS) mutation testing in colorectal cancer patients" in 2014. These guidelines have contributed to the proper use of KRAS and RAS mutation testing, respectively. Recently, clinical utility, particularly for colorectal cancer (CRC) patients with BRAF V600E mutation or DNA mismatch-repair (MMR) deficiency, has been established. Therefore, the guideline members decided these genetic alterations should also be involved. The aim of this revision is to properly carry out testing for BRAF V600E mutation and MMR deficiency in addition to RAS mutation. The revised guidelines include the basic requirements for testing for these genetic alterations based on recent scientific evidence. Furthermore, because clinical utility of comprehensive genetic testing using next-generation sequencing and somatic gene testing of analyzing circulating tumor DNA has increasingly evolved with recent advancements in testing technology, we noted the current situation and prospects for these testing technologies and their clinical implementation in the revised guidelines. © 2018 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  6. Readings on American Society. The Audio-Lingual Literary Series II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Shigeo; Ney, James W.

    This text contains 11 lessons based on an adaptation of the 1964 essay "Automation: Road to Lifetime Jobs" by A.H. Raskin and 14 lessons based on an adaptation of John Fischer's 1948 essay "Unwritten Rules of American Politics." The format of the book and the lessons is the same as that of the other volumes of "The Audio-Lingual Literary Series."…

  7. 2014 President's plenary international psycho-oncology society: moving toward cancer care for the whole patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bultz, Barry D; Travado, Luzia; Jacobsen, Paul B; Turner, Jane; Borras, Josep M; Ullrich, Andreas W H

    2015-12-01

    The International Psycho-oncology Society (IPOS) has just celebrated its 30th anniversary. The growth of psychosocial oncology has been exponential, and this relatively new field is becoming a core service that focuses on prevention, reducing the burden of cancer, and enhancing the quality of life from time of diagnosis, through treatment, survivorship, and palliative care. Looking back over the past 30 years, we see that cancer care globally has evolved to a new and higher standard. Today, 'cancer care for the whole patient' is being accomplished with an evidence-based model that addresses psychosocial needs and integrates psycho-oncology into the treatment and care of patients. The President's Plenary Session in Lisbon, Portugal, highlighted the IPOS Mission of promoting global excellence in psychosocial care of people affected by cancer through our research, public policy, advocacy, and education. The internationally endorsed IPOS Standard of Quality Cancer Care, for example, clearly states the necessity of integrating the psychosocial domain into routine care, and that distress should be measured as the sixth vital sign after temperature, blood pressure, pulse, respiratory rate, and pain. The plenary paper also discussed the global progress being made in Europe, North America, and Australia in providing quality cancer care for the whole patient. Collaborative partnerships between IPOS and organizations such as the European Partnership Action Against Cancer and the World Health Organization are essential in building capacity for the delivery of high-quality psycho-oncology services in the future. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Assisted reproductive technology in the United States: 2001 results generated from the American Society for Reproductive Medicine/Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    To summarize the procedures and outcomes of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) that were initiated in the United States in 2001. Data were collected electronically using the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology (SART) Clinic Outcome Reporting System software and submitted to the American Society for Reproductive Medicine/SART Registry. Three hundred eighty-five clinics submitted data on procedures performed in 2001. Data were collated after November 2002 [corrected] so that the outcomes of all pregnancies would be known. Incidence of clinical pregnancy, ectopic pregnancy, abortion, stillbirth, and delivery. Programs reported initiating 108,130 cycles of ART treatment. Of these, 79,042 cycles involved IVF (with and without micromanipulation), with a delivery rate per retrieval of 31.6%; 340 were cycles of gamete intrafallopian transfer, with a delivery rate per retrieval of 21.9%; 661 were cycles of zygote intrafallopian transfer, with a delivery rate per retrieval of 31.0%. The following additional ART procedures were also initiated: 8,147 fresh donor oocyte cycles, with a delivery rate per transfer of 47.3%; 14,509 frozen ET procedures, with a delivery rate per transfer of 23.5%; 3,187 frozen ETs employing donated oocytes or embryos, with a delivery rate per transfer of 27.4%; and 1,366 cycles using a host uterus, with a delivery rate per transfer of 38.7%. In addition, 112 cycles were reported as combinations of more than one treatment type, 8 cycles as research, and 85 as embryo banking. As a result of all procedures, 29,585 deliveries were reported, resulting in 41,168 neonates. In 2001, there were more programs reporting ART treatment and a significant increase in reported cycles compared with 2000.

  9. Validation of the Infectious Diseases Society of America/American Thoracic Society criteria to predict severe community-acquired pneumonia caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontou, Paschalina; Kuti, Joseph L; Nicolau, David P

    2009-10-01

    Severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is usually defined as pneumonia that requires intensive care unit (ICU) admission; the primary pathogen responsible for ICU admission is Streptococcus pneumoniae. In this study, the 2007 Infectious Diseases Society of America/American Thoracic Society (IDSA/ATS) consensus criteria for ICU admission were compared with other severity scores in predicting ICU admission and mortality. We retrospectively studied 158 patients with pneumococcal CAP (1999-2003). Clinical and laboratory features at the emergency department were recorded and used to calculate the 2007 IDSA/ATS rule, the 2001 ATS rule, 2 modified 2007 IDSA/ATS rules, the Pneumonia Severity Index (PSI), and the CURB (confusion, urea, respiratory rate, blood pressure) score. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value (NPV) were assessed for the various indices. We also determined the criteria that were independently predictive of ICU admission and of mortality in our population. The 2007 IDSA/ATS criteria performed as well as the 2001 ATS rule in predicting ICU admission both demonstrated high sensitivity (90%) and NPV (97%). For the prediction of mortality, the best tool proved to be the PSI score (sensitivity, 95%; NPV, 99%). The variables associated with ICU admission in this patient population included tachypnea, confusion, Pao(2)/Fio(2) ratio of 250 or lower, and hypotension requiring fluid resuscitation. Mechanical ventilation and PSI class V were independently associated with mortality. This study confirms the usefulness of the new criteria in predicting severe CAP. The 2001 ATS criteria seem an attractive alternative because they are simple and as effective as the 2007 IDSA/ATS criteria.

  10. Attitudes Regarding Labial Hypertrophy and Labiaplasty: A Survey of Members of the Society of Gynecologic Surgeons and the North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westermann, Lauren B; Oakley, Susan H; Mazloomdoost, Donna; Crisp, Catrina C; Kleeman, Steven D; Benbouajili, Janine M; Pauls, Rachel N

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe gynecologists' attitudes toward labial hypertrophy and explore possible differences among providers for pediatric/adolescent patients. This was an institutional review board-approved, cross-sectional survey of physician attendees at 2 national meetings in 2014: the Society of Gynecologic Surgeons (SGS) and the North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology (NASPAG). The survey was designed to query demographics and impressions regarding labial hypertrophy and labiaplasty. Three hundred sixty-five surveys were completed (response rate, 50%); 268 were analyzed: 55% from SGS and 45% from NASPAG. Most were older than 41 years; 170 (63%) were women, and 93 (35%) were men. More men than women attended SGS (60%); however, women were the majority at NASPAG (94%).Most respondents believed labial hypertrophy to be infrequently reported and "a condition that impacts body image." Common symptoms were "discomfort with exercise" and "dissatisfaction with appearance naked." The majority felt this to impact sexual function "in some cases," citing "self-esteem" and "comfort" most often.Concerning therapies for provided labial hypertrophy, 83% of practitioners provide reassurance, whereas 77% would offer labiaplasty. Expertise with labiaplasty varied; 28% felt "very comfortable," and 11% felt "very uncomfortable."Provider preference for treatment differed based on meeting attendance. After logistic regression controlling for sex and age, attendance at SGS remained associated with offering labiaplasty (P = 0.001; odds ratio, 4.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.8-9.3), whereas NASPAG attendance was associated with providing reassurance (P = 0.008; odds ratio, 0.30; 95% confidence interval, 0.10-0.70). Although the majority surveyed view labial hypertrophy to be bothersome, gynecologists caring for our youngest patients are more likely to provide reassurance. Consensus guidelines are needed to aid practitioners in appropriate management

  11. Indicators of the Knowledge based Society: Comparison between European and Latin American countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villavicencio, D.; Morales, A.; Amaro, M

    2016-07-01

    There has been a great deal of attention paid to measuring Information Society developments. Therehave been efforts to develop new statistics and systems of indicators to measure the diffusion of new information technologies in business and to examine levels of use and styles of use (e.g. e-Commerce). These efforts are ongoing and provide valuable material with which to compare different countries, regions and industrial sectors. (Author)

  12. Atypical subtrochanteric and diaphyseal femoral fractures: report of a task force of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shane, Elizabeth; Burr, David; Ebeling, Peter R

    2010-01-01

    Reports linking long-term use of bisphosphonates (BPs) with atypical fractures of the femur led the leadership of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR) to appoint a task force to address key questions related to this problem. A multidisciplinary expert group reviewed pertinent...... published reports concerning atypical femur fractures, as well as preclinical studies that could provide insight into their pathogenesis. A case definition was developed so that subsequent studies report on the same condition. The task force defined major and minor features of complete and incomplete...

  13. NASA/American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) Summer Faculty Fellowship Program, 1985. [Space Stations and Their Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilton, R. G. (Editor); Williams, C. E. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    The 1985 NASA/ASEE Summer Faculty Fellowship Research Program was conducted by Texas A&M University and the Johnson Space Center. The ten week program was operated under the auspices of the American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE). The faculty fellows spent the time at JSC engaged in research projects commensurate with their interests and background and worked in collaboration with NASA/JSC colleagues. This document is a compilation of the final reports of their research during the summer of 1985.

  14. The Department of Energy/American Chemical Society Summer School in Nuclear and Radiochemistry at San Jose State University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinard, W.F.; Silber, H.B.

    2005-01-01

    A Summer School in Nuclear Chemistry sponsored by the U. S. Department of Energy and the American Chemical Society has been held at San Jose State University for the past 20 years. The intent of the program is to introduce outstanding college students to the field of nuclear and radiochemistry with the goal that some of these students will consider careers on nuclear science. The program features radiochemistry experiments along with radiation safety training, guest lectures by well known nuclear scientists and field trips to nuclear chemistry facilities in the San Francisco area. (author)

  15. Results of a lay health education intervention to increase colorectal cancer screening among Filipino Americans: A cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuaresma, Charlene F; Sy, Angela U; Nguyen, Tung T; Ho, Reginald C S; Gildengorin, Ginny L; Tsoh, Janice Y; Jo, Angela M; Tong, Elisa K; Kagawa-Singer, Marjorie; Stewart, Susan L

    2018-04-01

    Filipino colorectal cancer (CRC) screening rates fall below Healthy People 2020 goals. In this study, the authors explore whether a lay health educator (LHE) approach can increase CRC screening among Filipino Americans ages 50 to 75 years in Hawai'i. A cluster randomized controlled trial from 2012 through 2015 compared an intervention, which consisted of LHEs delivering 2 education sessions and 2 telephone follow-up calls on CRC screening plus a CRC brochure versus an attention control, in which 2 lectures and 2 follow-up calls on nutrition and physical activity plus a CRC brochure were provided. The primary outcome was change in self-reported ever receipt of CRC screening at 6 months. Among 304 participants (77% women, 86% had > 10 years of residence in the United States), the proportion of participants who reported ever having received CRC screening increased significantly in the intervention group (from 80% to 89%; P = .0003), but not in the control group (from 73% to 74%; P = .60). After covariate adjustment, there was a significant intervention effect (odds ratio, 1.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.0-3.5). There was no intervention effect on up-to-date screening. This first randomized controlled trial for CRC screening among Hawai'i's Filipinos used an LHE intervention with mixed, but promising, results. Cancer 2018;124:1535-42. © 2018 American Cancer Society. © 2018 American Cancer Society.

  16. Internet Recruitment of Asian American Breast Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Eun-Ok; Lee, Yaelim; Ji, Xiaopeng; Zhang, Jingwen; Kim, Sangmi; Chee, Eunice; Chee, Wonshik; Tsai, Hsiu-Min; Nishigaki, Masakazu; Yeo, Seon Ae; Shapira, Marilyn M; Mao, Jun James

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to identify practical issues in Internet recruitment of racial/ethnic minorities by analyzing an Internet intervention study conducted with Asian American breast cancer survivors, and to propose directions for recruitment of racial/ethnic minorities for future Internet research. Six practical issues were identified: (a) a relatively fewer number of Internet communities/groups; (b) hindrances in establishing authenticity; (c) difficulties in gaining entrée from the webmasters or Web site owners of Internet communities/groups; (d) the necessity of racially/ethnically matched research team members; (e) flexibility required in recruitment strategies; and (f) strategies to overcome the low response rate.

  17. Hypoglycemia and diabetes: a report of a workgroup of the American Diabetes Association and the Endocrine Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaquist, Elizabeth R; Anderson, John; Childs, Belinda; Cryer, Philip; Dagogo-Jack, Samuel; Fish, Lisa; Heller, Simon R; Rodriguez, Henry; Rosenzweig, James; Vigersky, Robert

    2013-05-01

    To review the evidence about the impact of hypoglycemia on patients with diabetes that has become available since the past reviews of this subject by the American Diabetes Association and The Endocrine Society and to provide guidance about how this new information should be incorporated into clinical practice. Five members of the American Diabetes Association and five members of The Endocrine Society with expertise in different aspects of hypoglycemia were invited by the Chair, who is a member of both, to participate in a planning conference call and a 2-day meeting that was also attended by staff from both organizations. Subsequent communications took place via e-mail and phone calls. The writing group consisted of those invitees who participated in the writing of the manuscript. The workgroup meeting was supported by educational grants to the American Diabetes Association from Lilly USA, LLC and Novo Nordisk and sponsorship to the American Diabetes Association from Sanofi. The sponsors had no input into the development of or content of the report. The writing group considered data from recent clinical trials and other studies to update the prior workgroup report. Unpublished data were not used. Expert opinion was used to develop some conclusions. Consensus was achieved by group discussion during conference calls and face-to-face meetings, as well as by iterative revisions of the written document. The document was reviewed and approved by the American Diabetes Association's Professional Practice Committee in October 2012 and approved by the Executive Committee of the Board of Directors in November 2012 and was reviewed and approved by The Endocrine Society's Clinical Affairs Core Committee in October 2012 and by Council in November 2012. The workgroup reconfirmed the previous definitions of hypoglycemia in diabetes, reviewed the implications of hypoglycemia on both short- and long-term outcomes, considered the implications of hypoglycemia on treatment outcomes

  18. Increase in female faculty in American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy-sponsored programming over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enestvedt, Brintha K; DeVivo, Rebecca S; Schmitt, Colleen M; Calderwood, Audrey H

    2018-04-01

    Female representation in medicine is increasing across all levels of medical training, yet women hold fewer senior leadership positions than men. National recognition, including participation as faculty in society-sponsored programs, is one component of academic advancement. The aim of this study was to characterize female representation among faculty in courses sponsored by the American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ASGE). We performed a retrospective review of demographic data, including faculty gender and role, year, and program type, from the ASGE database of its sponsored programs between 2009 and 2014. Female faculty rates were compared with the rate of female membership in the ASGE and by faculty role and course type over time. Between 2009 and 2014 there were a total of 2020 ASGE course faculty positions of which women comprised 19%. There was a significant increase in the proportion of women that served as course faculty over time (P < .0005). Female faculty participation exceeded the ASGE female domestic membership rate in all years. Women were more likely to serve as course directors than lecturers (25% vs 18%, P = .004) and to participate in smaller courses (P = .0003). We found an increase in female participation in ASGE programming over time, suggesting that specialty societies are making efforts to improve female representation at the national level. Future work should evaluate whether or not these opportunities translate into leadership roles for women within their own institutions or lead to promotions for women over time. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Multi-generational perspectives on health, cancer, and biomedicine: Northeastern Native American perspectives shaped by mistrust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canales, Mary K; Weiner, Diane; Samos, Markos; Wampler, Nina S

    2011-08-01

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death among Native Americans, who have-some of the poorest cancer survival rates of any race/ethnicity nationwide. Considering the cancer burden experienced by Native Americans and the lack of research exploring Northeastern tribal communities' cancer experiences, a qualitative investigation of Native Americans' cancer coping strategies and health education needs was undertaken. Data were collected through group (74) and individual (17) interviews with 91 Native Americans from the Northeast. Relationships between intergenerational mistrust, individual mistrust, and utilization of biomedical health care systems for Northeastern Native Americans are presented. Trust is central to the provider-patient relationship and the foundation for developing and maintaining connections to Native American communities. Intergenerational mistrust, shaped by historical and contemporary issues of prejudice and miscommunication, affect cancer health experiences and views. Approaches for reducing mistrust and building relationships between health care providers and Native communities are highlighted.

  20. Research on stored biological samples: views of African American and White American cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentz, Rebecca D; Billot, Laurent; Wendler, David

    2006-04-01

    Proposals on consent for research with biological samples should be informed by empirical studies of individuals' views. Studies to date queried mostly white research subjects. The aim of this study was to compare the views of two groups of patients: cancer patients at a university clinic (Winship Cancer Institute at Emory Healthcare) and cancer patients at an inner city county hospital (Grady) who were given the option of tissue banking. Overall, 315/452 (70%) patients completed the survey. The Grady cohort was 86% African American; the Winship cohort was 82% White. The vast majority (95%) of individuals in both cohorts agreed to provide a biological sample for future research. Both cohorts were willing for their samples to be used to study cancer and other diseases, including Alzheimer disease. Few participants preferred to control the disease to be studied (10%) or wished to be contacted again for consent for each future research project (11%). In our sample, almost all clinical patients, regardless of site of care, ethnicity or socioeconomic status, were willing to provide a biological sample for research purposes and allow investigators to determine the research to be done without contacting the patients again. These findings support the recommendation to offer individuals a simplified consent with a one-time binary choice whether to provide biological samples for future research. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Disparities in psychosocial cancer care: a report from the International Federation of Psycho-oncology Societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Luigi; Fujisawa, Daisuke; Odyio, Philip; Asuzu, Chioma; Ashley, Laura; Bultz, Barry; Travado, Luzia; Fielding, Richard

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the study was to understand the characteristics of the International Federation of Psycho-oncology Societies (FPOS) and possible disparities in providing psychosocial care in countries where psycho-oncology societies exist. A survey was conducted among 29 leaders of 28 countries represented within the FPOS by using a questionnaire covering (i) characteristics of the society; (ii) characteristics of the national health care system; (iii) level of implementation of psycho-oncology; and (iv) main problems of psycho-oncology in the country. Twenty-six (90%) FPOS returned the questionnaires. One-third reported to have links with and support from their government, while almost all had links with other scientific societies. The FPOS varied in their composition of members' professions. Psychosocial care provision was covered by state-funded health services in a minority of countries. Disparities between countries arose from different causes and were problematic in some parts of the world (eg, Africa and SE Asia). Elsewhere (eg, Southern Europe and Eastern Europe), austerity policies were reportedly responsible for resource shortages with negative consequences on psychosocial cancer care. Half of FPOS rated themselves to be integrated into mainstream provision of care, although lack of funding was the most common complain. The development and implementation of psycho-oncology is fragmented and undeveloped, particularly in some parts of the world. More effort is needed at national level by strong coalitions with oncology societies, better national research initiatives, cancer plans, and patient advocacy, as well as by stronger partnership with international organizations (eg, World Health Organization and Union for International Cancer Control). Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. [The Alliance for the Prevention of Colorectal Cancer in Spain. A civil commitment to society].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morillas, Juan Diego; Castells, Antoni; Oriol, Isabel; Pastor, Ana; Pérez-Segura, Pedro; Echevarría, José Manuel; Caballero, Begoña; González-Navarro, Andrés; Bandrés, Fernando; Brullet, Enric; Iniesta, Antonio; Carballo, Fernando; Bouzas, Rosa; Ariza, Aurelio; Ibisate, Alfredo; García-Alfonso, Pilar; Escudero, Beatriz; Camacho, Silvia; Fernández-Marcos, Ana; González, Teresa; Quintero, Enrique; Lanas, Angel; Marzo, Mercè; Mascort, Juanjo; Andréu, Monserrat; Cerezo, Laura; Vázquez-Sequeiros, Enrique; Borrás, Josep María; Salas, Dolores; Ascunce, Nieves; Portillo, Isabel; Herráiz, Mayte; Valle, María Luisa; Sotoca, Amalia; Nieto, Santiago; Hué, Carlos; Paz-Ares, Luis

    2012-03-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the most common malignant tumor in Spain, when men and women are considered together, and the second leading cause of cancer death. Every week in Spain over 500 cases of CRC are diagnosed, and nearly 260 people die from the disease. Epidemiologic estimations for the coming years show a significant increase in the number of annual cases. CRC is a perfectly preventable tumor and can be cured in 90% of cases if detected in the early stages. Population-based screening programs have been shown to reduce the incidence of CRC and mortality from the disease. Unless early detection programs are established in Spain, it is estimated that in the coming years, 1 out of 20 men and 1 out of 30 women will develop CRC before the age of 75. The Alliance for the Prevention of Colorectal Cancer in Spain is an independent and non-profit organization created in 2008 that integrates patients' associations, altruistic non-governmental organizations and scientific societies. Its main objective is to raise awareness and disseminate information on the social and healthcare importance of CRC in Spain and to promote screening measures, early detection and prevention programs. Health professionals, scientific societies, healthcare institutions and civil society should be sensitized to this highly important health problem that requires the participation of all sectors of society. The early detection of CRC is an issue that affects the whole of society and therefore it is imperative for all sectors to work together. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. y AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  3. Commercial gambling and values in American society: The social construction of risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abt, V; McGurrin, M C

    1992-12-01

    Human existence is rooted in the individual's confrontation with risk from birth through death. Factors beyond individual control constantly produce random threats to the individual's welfare. The anxieties created by these events often cannot be resolved by the individual, but require the explanatory support of cultural values and belief systems. These values and belief systems allow a sense that socially managed activities can reduce adverse consequences to the individual in the face of random circumstances. This paper discusses the relationships among public policy, American values, and gambling as a cultural buffer to existential anxieties caused by chance events.

  4. Interventional Spine and Pain Procedures in Patients on Antiplatelet and Anticoagulant Medications (Second Edition): Guidelines From the American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, the European Society of Regional Anaesthesia and Pain Therapy, the American Academy of Pain Medicine, the International Neuromodulation Society, the North American Neuromodulation Society, and the World Institute of Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narouze, Samer; Benzon, Honorio T; Provenzano, David; Buvanendran, Asokumar; De Andres, José; Deer, Timothy; Rauck, Richard; Huntoon, Marc A

    2018-04-01

    The American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine (ASRA) 2012 survey of meeting attendees showed that existing ASRA anticoagulation guidelines for regional anesthesia were insufficient for their needs. Those surveyed agreed that procedure-specific and patient-specific factors required separate guidelines for pain and spine procedures. In response, a guidelines committee was formed. After preliminary review of published complications reports and studies, the committee stratified interventional spine and pain procedures according to potential bleeding risk: low-, intermediate-, and high-risk procedures. The ASRA regional anesthesia anticoagulation guidelines were largely deemed appropriate for the low- and intermediate-risk categories, but the high-risk category required further investigation. The first guidelines specific to interventional spine and pain procedures were published in 2015. Recent reviews evaluating bleeding complications in patients undergoing specific interventional pain procedures, the development of new regional anesthesia and acute pain guidelines, and the development of new anticoagulants and antiplatelet medications necessitate complementary updated guidelines. The authors desired coordination with the authors of the recently updated regional and acute pain anticoagulation guidelines. The latest evidence was sought through extensive database search strategies and the recommendations were evidence based when available and pharmacology driven otherwise. We could not provide strength and grading of these recommendations because there are not enough well-designed large studies concerning interventional pain procedures to support such grading. Although the guidelines could not always be based on randomized studies or on large numbers of patients from pooled databases, it is hoped that they will provide sound recommendations and the evidentiary basis for such recommendations. This publication is intended as a living document to be updated

  5. Society for immunotherapy of cancer (SITC) statement on the proposed changes to the common rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Howard L; Butterfield, Lisa H; Coulie, Pierre G; Demaria, Sandra; Ferris, Robert L; Galon, Jérôme; Khleif, Samir N; Mellman, Ira; Ohashi, Pamela S; Overwijk, Willem W; Topalian, Suzanne L; Marincola, Francesco M

    2016-01-01

    The Common Rule is a set of ethical principles that provide guidance on the management of human subjects taking part in biomedical and behavioral research in the United States. The elements of the Common Rule were initially developed in 1981 following a revision of the Declaration of Helsinki in 1975. Most academic facilities follow the Common Rule in the regulation of clinical trials research. Recently, the government has suggested a revision of the Common Rule to include more contemporary and streamlined oversight of clinical research. In this commentary, the leadership of the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC) provides their opinion on this plan. While the Society recognizes the considerable contribution of clinical research in supporting progress in tumor immunotherapy and supports the need for revisions to the Common Rule, there is also some concern over certain elements which may restrict access to biospecimens and clinical data at a time when high throughput technologies, computational biology and assay standardization is allowing major advances in understanding cancer biology and providing potential predictive biomarkers of immunotherapy response. The Society values its professional commitment to patients for improving clinical outcomes with tumor immunotherapy and supports continued discussion with all stakeholders before implementing changes to the Common Rule in order to ensure maximal patient protections while promoting continued clinical research at this historic time in cancer research.

  6. III. The Second Type of Secret Society among the Northwest Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Jacobsen

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available I. The Medicine Man and the Kosijut (Shaman. The type of secret society formed by the medicine men or shamans is called Pak-hallas among the Kwakiutl, or Pak-kwalla, and Allo-kwalla among the Bella Coola.  Found on the Northwest Coast of America as well as in Siberia, they can be divided into two classes.  One class is formed by those who heal illnesses, the other by those who distinguish themselves before the people through miracles and fortune telling. They perform all their deeds not thro...

  7. Adherence to Analgesics for Cancer Pain: A Comparative Study of African Americans and Whites Using an Electronic Monitoring Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meghani, Salimah H; Thompson, Aleda M L; Chittams, Jesse; Bruner, Deborah W; Riegel, Barbara

    2015-09-01

    Despite well-documented disparities in cancer pain outcomes among African Americans, surprisingly little research exists on adherence to analgesia for cancer pain in this group. We compared analgesic adherence for cancer-related pain over a 3-month period between African Americans and whites using the Medication Event Monitoring System (MEMS). Patients (N = 207) were recruited from outpatient medical oncology clinics of an academic medical center in Philadelphia (≥18 years of age, diagnosed with solid tumors or multiple myeloma, with cancer-related pain, and at least 1 prescription of oral around-the-clock analgesic). African Americans reported significantly greater cancer pain (P < .001), were less likely than whites to have a prescription of long-acting opioids (P < .001), and were more likely to have a negative Pain Management Index (P < .001). There were considerable differences between African Americans and whites in the overall MEMS dose adherence, ie, percentage of the total number of prescribed doses that were taken (53% vs 74%, P < .001). On subanalysis, analgesic adherence rates for African Americans ranged from 34% (for weak opioids) to 63% (for long-acting opioids). Unique predictors of analgesic adherence varied by race; income levels, analgesic side effects, and fear of distracting providers predicted analgesic adherence for African Americans but not for whites. Perspective: Despite evidence of disparities in cancer pain outcomes among African Americans, surprisingly little research exists on African Americans' adherence to analgesia for cancer pain. This prospective study uses objective measures to compare adherence to prescribed pain medications between African American and white patients with cancer pain. Copyright © 2015 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Differential Serum Cytokine Levels and Risk of Lung Cancer between African and European Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine, Sharon R.; Mechanic, Leah E.; Enewold, Lindsey; Bowman, Elise D.; Ryan, Bríd M.; Cote, Michele L.; Wenzlaff, Angela S.; Loffredo, Christopher A.; Olivo-Marston, Susan; Chaturvedi, Anil; Caporaso, Neil E.; Schwartz, Ann G.; Harris, Curtis C.

    2015-01-01

    Background African Americans have a higher risk of developing lung cancer than European Americans. Previous studies suggested that certain circulating cytokines were associated with lung cancer. We hypothesized that variations in serum cytokine levels exist between African Americans and European Americans, and increased circulating cytokine levels contribute to lung cancer differently in the two races. Methods Differences in ten serum cytokine levels, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GMCSF), interferon (IFN)-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α between 170 African-American and 296 European-American controls from the National Cancer Institute-Maryland (NCI-MD) case-control study were assessed. Associations of the serum cytokine levels with lung cancer were analyzed. Statistically significant results were replicated in the prospective Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial and the Wayne State University (WSU) Karmanos Cancer Institute case-control study. Results Six cytokines: IL-4, IL-5, IL-8, IL-10, IFNγ, and TNFα, were significantly higher among European-American as compared to African-American controls. Elevated IL-6 and IL-8 levels were associated with lung cancer among both races in all three studies. Elevated IL-1β, IL-10 and TNFα levels were associated with lung cancer only among African Americans. The association between elevated TNFα levels and lung cancer among European Americans was significant after adjustment for additional factors. Conclusions Serum cytokine levels vary by race and might contribute to lung cancer differently between African Americans and European Americans. Impact Future work examining risk prediction models of lung cancer can measure circulating cytokines to accurately characterize risk within racial groups. PMID:26711330

  9. Fifth joint meeting of the American Urological Association and the Japanese Urological Association International Affiliate Society Meeting at the 105th Annual Meeting of the American Urological Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Robert P; Seki, Narihito; Gotoh, Momokazu; Chai, Toby C; Kaplan, Steven A; Inoue, Keiji; Trachtenberg, John; Kikuchi, Eiji; Nishiyama, Hiroyuki; Chang, Sam S; Lee, Cheryl; Muto, Satoru; Ito, Kazuto; Andriole, Gerald L; Eto, Masatoshi; Sumitomo, Makoto; Kamba, Tomomi; Wood, Chrsitopher G; Margulis, Vitaly; Naito, Seiji; Egawa, Shin

    2010-08-01

    We are heartily grateful for the warm support of all of the people concerned, including the moderators and panelists of both societies for giving us the opportunity to hold the 5(th) American Urological Association/Japanese Urological Association (AUA/JUA) International Affiliate Society Meeting, held once again at the 105th Annual Meeting of the American Urological Association (29 May-3 June 2010, San Francisco, California, USA). The year of 2010 is a memorable one, being the start of reciprocal collaborations between the AUA and the JUA. The JUA, in collaboration with the AUA, is promoting an academic exchange program whereby outstanding and promising Japanese and American junior faculty members will be given the opportunity to work in the USA and Japan for 1 month. The program not only allows the sharing of knowledge and experience, but also is designed to foster a closer alliance between the AUA and JUA, and assists in identifying future leaders within both organizations. The AUA and JUA will have an exhibit booth at each other's annual meeting, promoting our new joint activities. Both the JUA and AUA will organize educational courses in Hawaii in 2011. With all of these activities, the JUA hopes it will provide greater opportunities for young Japanese urologists to participate in educational projects in the USA. We would like to thank Professor Anton J. Bueschen, President of AUA, Professor Robert C Flanigan, Secretary General of AUA and the staff of the AUA and JUA for supporting our program. At the same time, we need the support of all the members and their valuable suggestions. We look forward to further participation of AUA members to this meeting. Seiji Naito md, President of JUA Shin Egawa md, Chairman of the International Committee of JUA.

  10. Voices About a Stigma: Cancer in the Opinion of Three Different Segments in Brazilian Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Gabriel de Oliveira Cardoso; Biancovilli, Priscila; Jurberg, Claudia

    2017-06-01

    The viewpoints of Brazilian opinion leaders regarding cancer are not yet well defined. Examining public perceptions of three segments of society through a qualitative study may provide clues to understanding the negative view that the population still has about the disease. Journalists, scientists and teachers participated in discussions in six focus group sessions. The findings were studied using the content analysis method, showing similar elements among these professionals, regardless of area of operation. We identified a negative view that may be contributing to or mirroring the vision of society that associates the illness with death and suffering. Although these opinion leaders believe they are able to filter certain negative aspects of media dissemination about cancer, when the disease affects them personally, the feeling of despair resembles common sense. Words such as "cure" are viewed with prejudice. On the other hand, a morbid approach arouses interest on the subject. It was also noted that the disclosure of a celebrity with cancer stands out as a decoy in the consumption of news. Such distortions may support actions that enhance communication about cancer, structured on pillars such as prevention, early diagnosis and cure.

  11. The American Society for Radiation Oncology's 2010 Core Physics Curriculum for Radiation Oncology Residents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao Ying, E-mail: ying.xiao@jefferson.edu [Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States); De Amorim Bernstein, Karen [Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY (United States); Chetty, Indrin J. [Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Eifel, Patricia [M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Hughes, Lesley [Cooper University Hospital, Camden, NJ (United States); Klein, Eric E. [Washington University, Saint Louis, MO (United States); McDermott, Patrick [William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Prisciandaro, Joann [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Paliwal, Bhudatt [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Price, Robert A. [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Werner-Wasik, Maria [Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Palta, Jatinder R. [University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: In 2004, the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) published its first physics education curriculum for residents, which was updated in 2007. A committee composed of physicists and physicians from various residency program teaching institutions was reconvened again to update the curriculum in 2009. Methods and Materials: Members of this committee have associations with ASTRO, the American Association of Physicists in Medicine, the Association of Residents in Radiation Oncology, the American Board of Radiology (ABR), and the American College of Radiology. Members reviewed and updated assigned subjects from the last curriculum. The updated curriculum was carefully reviewed by a representative from the ABR and other physics and clinical experts. Results: The new curriculum resulted in a recommended 56-h course, excluding initial orientation. Learning objectives are provided for each subject area, and a detailed outline of material to be covered is given for each lecture hour. Some recent changes in the curriculum include the addition of Radiation Incidents and Bioterrorism Response Training as a subject and updates that reflect new treatment techniques and modalities in a number of core subjects. The new curriculum was approved by the ASTRO board in April 2010. We anticipate that physicists will use this curriculum for structuring their teaching programs, and subsequently the ABR will adopt this educational program for its written examination. Currently, the American College of Radiology uses the ASTRO curriculum for their training examination topics. In addition to the curriculum, the committee updated suggested references and the glossary. Conclusions: The ASTRO physics education curriculum for radiation oncology residents has been updated. To ensure continued commitment to a current and relevant curriculum, the subject matter will be updated again in 2 years.

  12. Spiritual Needs among Patients with Chronic Pain Diseases and Cancer Living in a Secular Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Büssing, Arndt; Janko, Annina; Baumann, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    . Methods In an anonymous cross-sectional study, standardized questionnaires were provided to German patients with chronic pain diseases (and cancer), i.e., Spiritual Needs Questionnaire (SpNQ), Spirituality/Religiosity and Coping (SpREUK-15), Spiritual Well-being (FACIT-Sp), Brief Multidimensional Life......Objective Research has shown that several patients report unmet psychosocial and spiritual needs. While most studies focus on patients with advanced stages of disease, we intended to identify unmet spiritual needs in patients with chronic pain diseases and cancer living in a secular society...... Satisfaction Scale, Interpretation of Illness Questionnaire, and Escape from Illness (Escape). Results We enrolled 392 patients (67% women, mean age 56.3 ± 13.6 years; 61% Christian denomination) with chronic pain diseases (86%) and cancer (14%). Religious Needs (mean score 0.5 ± 0.8 on the scale...

  13. Mammography Screening Among African-American Women with a Family History of Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lipkus, Issac

    1997-01-01

    Comparisons were made between African-American women with and without a family history of breast cancer with respect to mammography screening, attitudes towards mammography screening and perceptions...

  14. The situation-specific theory of pain experience for Asian American cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Eun-Ok

    2008-01-01

    Studies have indicated the need for theories that explain and target ethnic-specific cancer pain experiences, including those of Asian Americans. In this article, I present a situation-specific theory that explains the unique cancer pain experience of Asian Americans. Unlike other existing theories, this situation-specific theory was developed on the basis of evidence, including a systematic literature review and research findings, making it comprehensive and highly applicable to research and practice with Asian American patients with cancer. Thus, this theory would strengthen the interconnections among theory, evidence, and practice in pain management for Asian American cancer patients.

  15. Results of high-energy transurethral microwave thermotherapy in patients categorized according to the American Society of Anesthesiologists operative risk classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'Ancona, F. C.; van der Bij, A. K.; Francisca, E. A.; Kho, H.; Debruyne, F. M.; Kiemeney, L. A.; de la Rosette, J. J.

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate the relation between the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) classification and response to transurethral microwave thermotherapy (TUMT) in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Two hundred forty-seven patients with symptomatic BPH

  16. Recognition of American Physiological Society members whose research publications had a significant impact on the discipline of physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipton, Charles M

    2013-03-01

    Society members whose research publication during the past 125 yr had an important impact on the discipline of physiology were featured at the American Physiological Society (APS)'s 125th Anniversary symposium. The daunting and challenging task of identifying and selecting significant publications was assumed by the Steering Committee of the History of Physiology Interest Group, who requested recommendations and rationales from all Sections, select Interest Groups, and active senior APS members. The request resulted in recommendations and rationales from nine Sections, one Interest Group, and 28 senior members, identifying 38 publications and 43 members for recognition purposes. The publication recommendations included 5 individuals (Cournand, Erlanger, Gasser, Hubel, and Wiesel) whose research significantly contributed to their selection for the Nobel Prize in Medicine or Physiology, 4 individuals who received multiple recommendations [i.e., Cannon (3), Curran (2), Fenn (3), and Hamilton (2)], and 11 members who had been APS Presidents. Of the recommended articles, 33% were from the American Journal of Physiology, with the earliest being published in 1898 (Cannon) and the latest in 2007 (Sigmund). For the brief oral presentations, the History of Physiology Steering Committee selected the first choices of the Sections or Interest Group, whereas rationales and representation of the membership were used for the presentations by senior members.

  17. Prostate Cancer in African-American Men: Serum Biomarkers for Early Detection Using Nanoparticles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Phelan, Catherine M

    2008-01-01

    We have blood samples from 40 African-American men with prostate cancer and 30 ethnically-matched control healthy men with questionnaire data on demographics, general health and cancer family history...

  18. The Society of Thoracic Surgeons, The Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists, and The American Society of ExtraCorporeal Technology: Clinical Practice Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Bypass--Temperature Management During Cardiopulmonary Bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelman, Richard; Baker, Robert A; Likosky, Donald S; Grigore, Alina; Dickinson, Timothy A; Shore-Lesserson, Linda; Hammon, John W

    2015-08-01

    In order to improve our understanding of the evidence-based literature supporting temperature management during adult cardiopulmonary bypass, The Society of Thoracic Surgeons, the Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiology and the American Society of ExtraCorporeal Technology tasked the authors to conduct a review of the peer-reviewed literature, including: 1) optimal site for temperature monitoring, 2) avoidance of hyperthermia, 3) peak cooling temperature gradient and cooling rate, and 4) peak warming temperature gradient and rewarming rate. Authors adopted the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association method for development clinical practice guidelines, and arrived at the following recommendations: CLASS I RECOMMENDATIONS: a)The oxygenator arterial outlet blood temperature is recommended to be utilized as a surrogate for cerebral temperature measurement during CPB. (Class I, Level C) b)To monitor cerebral perfusate temperature during warming, it should be assumed that the oxygenator arterial outlet blood temperature under-estimates cerebral perfusate temperature. (Class I, Level C) c)Surgical teams should limit arterial outlet blood temperature to<37°C to avoid cerebral hyperthermia. (Class 1, Level C) d)Temperature gradients between the arterial outlet and venous inflow on the oxygenator during CPB cooling should not exceed 10°C to avoid generation of gaseous emboli. (Class 1, Level C) e)Temperature gradients between the arterial outlet and venous inflow on the oxygenator during CPB rewarming should not exceed 10°C to avoid out-gassing when blood is returned to the patient. (Class 1, Level C) CLASS IIa a)Pulmonary artery or nasopharyngeal temperature recording is reasonable for weaning and immediate post-bypass temperature measurement. (Class IIa, Level C)b)Rewarming when arterial blood outlet temperature ≥30° C: i.To achieve the desired temperature for separation from bypass, it is reasonable to maintain a temperature gradient between

  19. Using social media to create a professional network between physician-trainees and the American Society of Nephrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariff, Afreen I; Fang, Xiangming; Desai, Tejas

    2013-07-01

    Twitter is the fastest growing social media network. It offers participants the ability to network with other individuals. Medical societies are interested in helping individuals network to boost recruitment, encourage collaboration, and assist in job placement. We hypothesized that the American Society of Nephrology (ASN) successfully used Twitter to create a network between participants and itself to stay connected with its members. Tweets from 3 Twitter networking sessions during Kidney Week 2011 were analyzed for content. These messages were used to create a network between all participants of the networking sessions. The network was analyzed for strength and influence by calculating clustering coefficients (CC) and eigenvector centrality (EC) scores, respectively. Eight moderators and 9 trainees authored 376 Twitter messages. Most tweets by trainees (64%) and moderators (61%) discussed 1 of 3 themes: networking, education, or navigating Kidney Week 2011. A total of 25 online network connections were established during the 3 sessions; 20% were bidirectional. The CC for the network was 0.300. All moderators formed at least 1 connection, but 7 of the 9 trainees failed to make any connections. ASN made 5 unidirectional and 0 bidirectional connections with a low EC of 0.108. ASN was unable to form powerful connections with trainees through Twitter, but medical societies should not be discouraged by the results reported in this investigation. As societies become more familiar with Twitter and understand the mechanisms to develop connections, these societies will have a greater influence within increasingly stronger networks. Copyright © 2013 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Maintaining the competitiveness of the American fisheries society journals: an assessment based on influence and cost-effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, David A.; Link, Jason S.; Steinich, Dave R.; Wahl, David H.; Mather, Martha E.

    2009-01-01

    Recent changes in the landscape of scientific publishing prompted the Publications Overview Committee of the American Fisheries Society (AFS) to review the Society's portfolio of scientific journals. We evaluated journals based on metrics in two categories: (1) citation-based measures of the influence of a journal on the scientific literature, and (2) measures of the cost-effectiveness of a journal (citation rate adjusted for subscription cost). Over the long-term, we found that ecology journals had far stronger citation-based influence than fisheries and aquatic sciences journals, and that journals publishing primarily basic research had stronger influence than journals publishing applied research (including four AFS journals and Fisheries magazine). In evaluating the current status of fisheries and aquatic sciences journals, we found that metrics of influence and cost-effectiveness provided considerably different portrayals of journals relative to their peers. In terms of citation-based influence, we found that the AFS journal Transactions of the American Fisheries Society (TAFS) and Fisheries magazine were competitive with highly regarded peer fisheries journals, but that North American Journal of Aquaculture (NAJA) and Journal of Aquatic Animal Health (JAAH) were less influential than their peers. The citation-based influence of North American Journal of Fisheries Management (NAJFM) was intermediate between TAFS/Fisheries and NAJA/JAAH. For journals like NAJFM and NAJA, we expect that much of the scientific influence on policy and management is not captured by citations in the primary literature, and alternative methods of evaluation may be needed. All of the AFS journals ranked highly with regard to cost-effectiveness because their subscription costs are low, and these rankings are in accordance with membership needs and the strategic mission of AFS to provide broad and timely dissemination of scientific information. We conclude by suggesting

  1. Ovarian cancer clinical trial endpoints: Society of Gynecologic Oncology white paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Thomas J.; Armstrong, Deborah K.; Brady, Mark F.; Coleman, Robert L.; Einstein, Mark H.; Monk, Bradley J.; Mannel, Robert S.; Thigpen, J. Tate; Umpierre, Sharee A.; Villella, Jeannine A.; Alvarez, Ronald D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the value of multiple clinical endpoints in the unique setting of ovarian cancer. Methods A clinical trial workgroup was established by the Society of Gynecologic Oncology to develop a consensus statement via multiple conference calls, meetings and white paper drafts. Results Clinical trial endpoints have profound effects on late phase clinical trial design, result interpretation, drug development, and regulatory approval of therapeutics. Selection of the optimal clinical trial endpoint is particularly provocative in ovarian cancer where long overall survival (OS) is observed. The lack of new regulatory approvals and the lack of harmony between regulatory bodies globally for ovarian cancer therapeutics are of concern. The advantages and disadvantages of the numerous endpoints available are herein discussed within the unique context of ovarian cancer where both crossover and post-progression therapies potentially uncouple surrogacy between progression-free survival (PFS) and OS, the two most widely supported and utilized endpoints. The roles of patient reported outcomes (PRO) and health related quality of life (HRQoL) are discussed, but even these widely supported parameters are affected by the unique characteristics of ovarian cancer where a significant percentage of patients may be asymptomatic. Original data regarding the endpoint preferences of ovarian cancer advocates is presented. Conclusions Endpoint selection in ovarian cancer clinical trials should reflect the impact on disease burden and unique characteristics of the treatment cohort while reflecting true patient benefit. Both OS and PFS have led to regulatory approvals and are clinically important. OS remains the most objective and accepted endpoint because it is least vulnerable to bias; however, the feasibility of OS in ovarian cancer is compromised by the requirement for large trial size, prolonged time-line for final analysis, and potential for unintended loss of treatment effect

  2. Ovarian cancer clinical trial endpoints: Society of Gynecologic Oncology white paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Thomas J; Armstrong, Deborah K; Brady, Mark F; Coleman, Robert L; Einstein, Mark H; Monk, Bradley J; Mannel, Robert S; Thigpen, J Tate; Umpierre, Sharee A; Villella, Jeannine A; Alvarez, Ronald D

    2014-01-01

    To explore the value of multiple clinical endpoints in the unique setting of ovarian cancer. A clinical trial workgroup was established by the Society of Gynecologic Oncology to develop a consensus statement via multiple conference calls, meetings and white paper drafts. Clinical trial endpoints have profound effects on late phase clinical trial design, result interpretation, drug development, and regulatory approval of therapeutics. Selection of the optimal clinical trial endpoint is particularly provocative in ovarian cancer where long overall survival (OS) is observed. The lack of new regulatory approvals and the lack of harmony between regulatory bodies globally for ovarian cancer therapeutics are of concern. The advantages and disadvantages of the numerous endpoints available are herein discussed within the unique context of ovarian cancer where both crossover and post-progression therapies potentially uncouple surrogacy between progression-free survival (PFS) and OS, the two most widely supported and utilized endpoints. The roles of patient reported outcomes (PRO) and health related quality of life (HRQoL) are discussed, but even these widely supported parameters are affected by the unique characteristics of ovarian cancer where a significant percentage of patients may be asymptomatic. Original data regarding the endpoint preferences of ovarian cancer advocates is presented. Endpoint selection in ovarian cancer clinical trials should reflect the impact on disease burden and unique characteristics of the treatment cohort while reflecting true patient benefit. Both OS and PFS have led to regulatory approvals and are clinically important. OS remains the most objective and accepted endpoint because it is least vulnerable to bias; however, the feasibility of OS in ovarian cancer is compromised by the requirement for large trial size, prolonged time-line for final analysis, and potential for unintended loss of treatment effect from active post-progression therapies

  3. Treatment of Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma: American Society of Clinical Oncology Clinical Practice Guideline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindler, Hedy L; Ismaila, Nofisat; Armato, Samuel G; Bueno, Raphael; Hesdorffer, Mary; Jahan, Thierry; Jones, Clyde Michael; Miettinen, Markku; Pass, Harvey; Rimner, Andreas; Rusch, Valerie; Sterman, Daniel; Thomas, Anish; Hassan, Raffit

    2018-05-01

    Purpose To provide evidence-based recommendations to practicing physicians and others on the management of malignant pleural mesothelioma. Methods ASCO convened an Expert Panel of medical oncology, thoracic surgery, radiation oncology, pulmonary, pathology, imaging, and advocacy experts to conduct a literature search, which included systematic reviews, meta-analyses, randomized controlled trials, and prospective and retrospective comparative observational studies published from 1990 through 2017. Outcomes of interest included survival, disease-free or recurrence-free survival, and quality of life. Expert Panel members used available evidence and informal consensus to develop evidence-based guideline recommendations. Results The literature search identified 222 relevant studies to inform the evidence base for this guideline. Recommendations Evidence-based recommendations were developed for diagnosis, staging, chemotherapy, surgical cytoreduction, radiation therapy, and multimodality therapy in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma. Additional information is available at www.asco.org/thoracic-cancer-guidelines and www.asco.org/guidelineswiki .

  4. Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation Consensus Statement From the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Benjamin D.; Arthur, Douglas W.; Buchholz, Thomas A.; Haffty, Bruce G.; Hahn, Carol A.; Hardenbergh, Patricia H.; Julian, Thomas B.; Marks, Lawrence B.; Todor, Dorin A. Ph.D.; Vicini, Frank A.; Whelan, Timothy J.; White, Julia; Wo, Jennifer Y.; Harris, Jay R.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To present guidance for patients and physicians regarding the use of accelerated partial-breast irradiation (APBI), based on current published evidence complemented by expert opinion. Methods and Materials: A systematic search of the National Library of Medicine's PubMed database yielded 645 candidate original research articles potentially applicable to APBI. Of these, 4 randomized trials and 38 prospective single-arm studies were identified. A Task Force composed of all authors synthesized the published evidence and, through a series of meetings, reached consensus regarding the recommendations contained herein. Results: The Task Force proposed three patient groups: (1) a 'suitable' group, for whom APBI outside of a clinical trial is acceptable, (2) a 'cautionary' group, for whom caution and concern should be applied when considering APBI outside of a clinical trial, and (3) an 'unsuitable' group, for whom APBI outside of a clinical trial is not generally considered warranted. Patients who choose treatment with APBI should be informed that whole-breast irradiation (WBI) is an established treatment with a much longer track record that has documented long-term effectiveness and safety. Conclusion: Accelerated partial-breast irradiation is a new technology that may ultimately demonstrate long-term effectiveness and safety comparable to that of WBI for selected patients with early breast cancer. This consensus statement is intended to provide guidance regarding the use of APBI outside of a clinical trial and to serve as a framework to promote additional clinical investigations into the optimal role of APBI in the treatment of breast cancer.

  5. Cancer-specific mortality of Asian Americans diagnosed with cancer: a nationwide population-based assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Quoc-Dien; Nguyen, Paul L; Leow, Jeffrey J; Dalela, Deepansh; Chao, Grace F; Mahal, Brandon A; Nayak, Manan; Schmid, Marianne; Choueiri, Toni K; Aizer, Ayal A

    2015-06-01

    Racial disparities in cancer survival outcomes have been primarily attributed to underlying biologic mechanisms and the quality of cancer care received. Because prior literature shows little difference exists in the socioeconomic status of non-Hispanic whites and Asian Americans, any difference in cancer survival is less likely to be attributable to inequalities of care. We sought to examine differences in cancer-specific survival between whites and Asian Americans. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program was used to identify patients with lung (n = 130 852 [16.9%]), breast (n = 313 977 [40.4%]), prostate (n = 166 529 [21.4%]), or colorectal (n = 165 140 [21.3%]) cancer (the three leading causes of cancer-related mortality within each sex) diagnosed between 1991 and 2007. Fine and Gray's competing risks regression compared the cancer-specific mortality (CSM) of eight Asian American groups (Chinese, Filipino, Hawaiian/Pacific Islander, Japanese, Korean, other Asian, South Asian [Indian/Pakistani], and Vietnamese) to non-Hispanic white patients. All P values were two-sided. In competing risks regression, the receipt of definitive treatment was an independent predictor of CSM (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.37, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.35 to 0.40; HR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.53 to 0.58; HR = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.60 to 0.62; and HR = 0.27, 95% CI = 0.25 to 0.29) for prostate, breast, lung, and colorectal cancers respectively, all P < .001). In adjusted analyses, most Asian subgroups (except Hawaiians and Koreans) had lower CSM relative to white patients, with hazard ratios ranging from 0.54 (95% CI = 0.38 to 0.78) to 0.88 (95% CI = 0.84 to 0.93) for Japanese patients with prostate and Chinese patients with lung cancer, respectively. Despite adjustment for potential confounders, including the receipt of definitive treatment and tumor characteristics, most Asian subgroups had better CSM than non-Hispanic white patients. These findings suggest that underlying genetic

  6. Study shows aspirin reduces the risk and recurrence of prostate cancer in African-American men | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    African-American men who take a daily dose of aspirin experience a significantly lower risk of developing advanced prostate cancer – the aggressive and deadly form of the disease – than African-American men who do not regularly use aspirin, according to a study from the Center for Cancer Research (CCR) Laboratory of Human Carcinogenesis. Learn more...

  7. The Politics of Identity: Re-Examining the Appetite for Affirmative Action Policies in Higher Education among African-Americans in a Post-Racial Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Tarsha D.

    2014-01-01

    Broad inferences have been made that the election of a Black American President indicates that America now functions in a post-racist society. This optimism has fueled a major discussion for changes in American policies which directly affect minorities; in particular, those related to affirmative action in higher education are under attack. Due to…

  8. Breast cancer among American Japanese in the San Francisco Bay area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, J E

    1977-12-01

    The Japanese-American population was particularly well suited for the study of cancer occurrence because: 1) An American-born population as well as the immigrant Japanese-American population could be studied; 2) good cancer incidence and mortality data from Japan could be compared with data from the United States; and 3) some differences in the rate of occurrence of several specific cancer sites in Japan as compared with the United States were striking. The most significant of these involved the gastrointestinal tract and sex organs. Data were presented concerning cancer incidence rates for the Japanese-American population of the San Francisco Bay area. The high gastric rates for the Japanese in Japan were reduced in a stepwise fashion in the immigrant Japanese-American population to the American-born Japanese who were approaching the low rate of the United States. Colon cancer rates, which were low in Japan, approached the rates in the United States in both the immigrants from Japan and in Japanese Americans. The low rates of cancers of the breast, uterine corpus, and ovary of Japanese women in Japan and for prostate cancer among men rapidly approached the higher rates for these cancer sites that existed in the United States. A study of nutritional factors related to the increase of cancer of the breast in Japanese Americans is being conducted.

  9. Meskhetian Turks in Fourth Land: Identity and Socio-economic Integration into American Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa YAVUZ ALPTEKIN

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the socio-cultural life in the new land and integration processes into the host community of the 75 Meskhetian Turkish households resettled in Denver, Colorado. The traditional homeland of the Meskhetian Turks, as one of the dozens, if not hundreds, immigrant communities living the U.S.A., is Akhaltsikhe, a district in the region Samtskhe-Javakheti within the borders of the modern-day Georgia. In 1944, the Meskhetian Turks were forcibly removed from their homeland and exiled en masse to various countries in Central Asia by the Soviet Union. A significant part of those resettled in Uzbekistan were transferred to the city of Krasnodar in Russia, after the Ferghana Events of 1989. In 2004, due to the conditions of resettlement, 12,500 Meskhetian Turks immigrated to the U.S, under a refugee program, and dispersed throughout 26 states. Using the methods such as surveys, in-depth interviews and participant observation with an integrated approach, this study examined the family and community social structure of the Meskhetian Turks currently living intensively in Denver, Colorado. The study illustrated their cultural aspects, and tried to identify the present day of the process of integration into the U.S. society, as well as to envisage the probable future of this integration.

  10. Coming Home? The Integration of Hmong Refugees from Wat Tham Krabok, Thailand into American Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grit Grigoleit

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In December 2003, the U.S. State Department officially announced the acceptance of roughly 15,000 Hmong refugees from Wat Tham Krabok, Thailand, into the United States of America. The Hmong refugees were scheduled to be resettled for family reunification in established Hmong communities. As social science research on migration indicates, the existence of ethnic communities is crucial for a successful adaptation to a host society for newcomers. Ethnic communities thereby serve as a buffer zone and provide initial assistance,which is especially important when governmental integration measures are not sufficient. In the case of the Hmong refugee resettlement, the U.S. economic and social incorporation efforts were inefficient, due to cutbacks in U.S. Federal funding and welfare reforms, causinga greater reliance on the receiving Hmong communities. This raises a number of questions about how much an ethnic community can absorb and is able to bear in order to fulfill the newcomers’ needs. What are the limits and how does this affect the initial integration of thenewcomers?

  11. Breast cancer characteristics at diagnosis and survival among Arab-American women compared to European- and African-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley Alford, Sharon; Schwartz, Kendra; Soliman, Amr; Johnson, Christine Cole; Gruber, Stephen B; Merajver, Sofia D

    2009-03-01

    Data from Arab world studies suggest that Arab women may experience a more aggressive breast cancer phenotype. To investigate this finding, we focused on one of the largest settlements of Arabs and Iraqi Christians (Chaldeans) in the US, metropolitan Detroit- a SEER reporting site since 1973. We identified a cohort of primary breast cancer cases diagnosed 1973-2003. Using a validated name algorithm, women were identified as being of Arab/Chaldean descent if they had an Arab last or maiden name. We compared characteristics at diagnosis (age, grade, histology, SEER stage, and marker status) and overall survival between Arab-, European-, and African-Americans. The cohort included 1,652 (2%) women of Arab descent, 13,855 (18%) African-American women, and 63,615 (80%) European-American women. There were statistically significant differences between the racial groups for all characteristics at diagnosis. Survival analyses overall and for each SEER stage showed that Arab-American women had the best survival, followed by European-American women. African-American women had the poorest overall survival and were 1.37 (95% confidence interval: 1.23-1.52) times more likely to be diagnosed with an aggressive tumor (adjusting for age, grade, marker status, and year of diagnosis). Overall, Arab-American women have a distribution of breast cancer histology similar to European-American women. In contrast, the stage, age, and hormone receptor status at diagnosis among Arab-Americans was more similar to African-American women. However, Arab-American women have a better overall survival than even European-American women.

  12. Problems of Journalism; Proceedings of the 1975 Annual Convention of the American Society of Newspaper Editors (Washington, D.C., April 16-18, 1975).

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Society of Newspaper Editors, Easton, PA.

    This document reports the 1975 proceedings of the American Society of Newspaper Editors (ASNE) convention held in Washington, D.C., April 16-18. The contents include a list of officers and directors, past presidents of the society, and a copy of the ASNE Code of Ethics. Also contained in the document are reports on such individual sessions as…

  13. Longitudinal analysis of domain-level breast cancer literacy among African-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabiso, Athur; Williams, Karen Patricia; Todem, David; Templin, Thomas N

    2010-02-01

    Functional breast cancer literacy was assessed among African-American women and measured at the domain level over time. We used the Kin Keeper(SM) Cancer Prevention Intervention to educate 161 African-American women on three domains of breast cancer literacy: (i) cancer awareness, (ii) knowledge of breast cancer screening modalities and (iii) cancer prevention and control. A breast cancer literacy assessment was administered pre- and post-educational intervention at two time points followed by another assessment 12 months after the second intervention. Generalized estimating equations were specified to predict the probability of correctly answering questions in each domain over time. Domain-level literacy differentials exist; at baseline, women had higher test scores in the breast cancer prevention and control domain than the cancer awareness domain (odds ratio = 1.67, 95% confidence interval 1.19-2.34). After Kin Keeper(SM) Cancer Prevention Intervention, African-American women consistently improved their breast cancer literacy in all domains over the five time stages (P < 0.001) though at different rates for each domain. Differences in domain-level breast cancer literacy highlight the importance of assessing literacy at the domain level. Interventions to improve African-American women's breast cancer literacy should focus on knowledge of breast cancer screening modalities and cancer awareness domains.

  14. Impact of Chinese Herbal Medicine on American Society and Health Care System: Perspective and Concern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winston I. Lu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many Americans, not completely satisfied with traditional western medicine, have turned to alternative and complementary medicine which explains the increasing popularity of the herbal products and the Chinese herbal medicine. The lack of government regulations and the increasing advertisements by the manufactures have created an impression to the common public that the natural herbal remedies are inherently safer and cheaper than conventional medicine. The skyrocketing rise of healthcare cost and the adverse reaction and side effects incurred from the prescribed drugs have both reinforced such an impression. Herbs in the USA and in many European countries have been prepared as capsules, tablets, teas, lozenges, juice extracts, tincture, and ointments. Most of the herbs are administered as a single herb in the USA and Europe. However, the traditional Chinese herbal medicine contains multiple active ingredients from various herbs and is prepared as concoctions by simmering them for hours to produce pharma-therapeutic properties useful for the treatment of a particular disease. Those prepared concoctions are taken gingerly with specific treatment purposes. In the USA and some European counties, herbs are distributed and labeled as dietary supplements and are taken by many individuals for a long period of time creating some medical and dental complex problems among them, especially in terms of anesthesia-surgery complications. This paper provides insight into basic differences in how herbs are prepared before administration to the patients in China versus a single unprepared herb sold in the USA and Europe. Also addressed are the interdisciplinary issues with health professionals, the proper regulations for better quality control of imported herbs, and the proper warning on the labels of the herbs.

  15. The definition of chronic lung disease in patients undergoing cardiac surgery: a comparison between the Society of Thoracic Surgeons and the American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society Classifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, L; Holmes, S D; Lamberti, J; Halpin, L; Hunt, S; Ad, N

    2012-12-01

    Early and late outcomes following cardiac surgery may be adversely affected in patients with chronic lung disease (CLD) and the presence of CLD is definition dependent. The purpose of this study was to compare the Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) definitions for CLD to the modified American Thoracic Society (ATS)/European Respiratory Society (ERS) definitions in diagnosing and classifying CLD among a cohort of cardiac surgery patients. A prospectively-designed study whereby high risk patients for CLD presenting for non-emergent cardiac surgery and had a history of asthma, a 10 or more pack year history of smoking or a persistent cough were included. All patients underwent spirometry testing within two weeks of surgery. The presence and severity of CLD was coded two times: 1) STS definitions with spirometry; 2) ATS/ERS guidelines. The rate of misclassification was determined using concordance and discordance rates. Sensitivity analysis of the STS spirometry definitions was calculated against the ATS/ERS definitions and respective classifications. The discordant rate for the STS spirometry driven definitions versus the ATS/ERS definitions was 21%. Forty patients (21%) classified as no CLD by the STS spirometry definition were found to have CLD by the ATS/ERS definition. The STS classification had 68% sensitivity (84/124) when identifying any CLD and only 26% sensitivity (14/54) when identifying moderate CLD. The current STS spirometry driven definitions for CLD did not perform as well as the ATS/ERS definitions in diagnosing and classifying the degree of CLD. Consideration should be given to using the ATS/ERS definitions.

  16. ANS [American Nuclear Society] topical meeting on radiological accidents: Perspectives and emergency planning: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-03-01

    The increasing use of radioactive materials and the increasing public concern about possible accidents involving these materials has led to greater emphasis on preparing for such emergencies. The ANS Topical Meeting on Radiological Accidents - Perspectives and Emergency Planning provided a review of experiences with radiological accidents. The meeting covered some of the most important aspects of radiological accidents. Papers were presented which dealt with radiological accident experience. Technical response to accidents is of primary interest to many in the nuclear community; most of the papers submitted fell into this area. So many of these papers dealt with the use of computers in response that a session on that topic was arranged. A very significant impact of most radiological accidents is the cost, especially the cost of cleanup. There were papers on what is known about costs and associated current topics, such as modification and extension of the Price-Anderson Act. At least as important as the technical response to accidents is how society attempts to deal with them. A session on institutional issues was included to discuss how governments and other organizations respond to and deal with accidents. Medical effects of accidents are of great concern to the public. Invited papers to review the effects of high doses of radiation as well as very low doses were included in that session. Although the nuclear industry has an excellent safety record, this fact often does not agree with the public perception of the industry. The final session explored the public response to and perception of radiological emergencies and accidents. This subject will ultimately determine the future use of radioactive materials in this country

  17. Japanese Society for Cancer of the Colon and Rectum (JSCCR) guidelines 2016 for the treatment of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Toshiaki; Muro, Kei; Ajioka, Yoichi; Hashiguchi, Yojiro; Ito, Yoshinori; Saito, Yutaka; Hamaguchi, Tetsuya; Ishida, Hideyuki; Ishiguro, Megumi; Ishihara, Soichiro; Kanemitsu, Yukihide; Kawano, Hiroshi; Kinugasa, Yusuke; Kokudo, Norihiro; Murofushi, Keiko; Nakajima, Takako; Oka, Shiro; Sakai, Yoshiharu; Tsuji, Akihito; Uehara, Keisuke; Ueno, Hideki; Yamazaki, Kentaro; Yoshida, Masahiro; Yoshino, Takayuki; Boku, Narikazu; Fujimori, Takahiro; Itabashi, Michio; Koinuma, Nobuo; Morita, Takayuki; Nishimura, Genichi; Sakata, Yuh; Shimada, Yasuhiro; Takahashi, Keiichi; Tanaka, Shinji; Tsuruta, Osamu; Yamaguchi, Toshiharu; Yamaguchi, Naohiko; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Kotake, Kenjiro; Sugihara, Kenichi

    2018-02-01

    Japanese mortality due to colorectal cancer is on the rise, surpassing 49,000 in 2015. Many new treatment methods have been developed during recent decades. The Japanese Society for Cancer of the Colon and Rectum Guidelines 2016 for the treatment of colorectal cancer (JSCCR Guidelines 2016) were prepared to show standard treatment strategies for colorectal cancer, to eliminate disparities among institutions in terms of treatment, to eliminate unnecessary treatment and insufficient treatment, and to deepen mutual understanding between health-care professionals and patients by making these Guidelines available to the general public. These Guidelines were prepared by consensus reached by the JSCCR Guideline Committee, based on a careful review of the evidence retrieved by literature searches, and in view of the medical health insurance system and actual clinical practice settings in Japan. Therefore, these Guidelines can be used as a tool for treating colorectal cancer in actual clinical practice settings. More specifically, they can be used as a guide to obtaining informed consent from patients and choosing the method of treatment for each patient. As a result of the discussions held by the Guideline Committee, controversial issues were selected as Clinical Questions, and recommendations were made. Each recommendation is accompanied by a classification of the evidence and a classification of recommendation categories based on the consensus reached by the Guideline Committee members. Here we present the English version of the JSCCR Guidelines 2016.

  18. Youth, Gener & TIC: Imaginaries in the Construction of Information Society in Latin American

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonder, Gloria

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects upon the social imaginary that sustains the dissemination of new information and communication technologies (ICTs as a condition for them to be accepted and granted social and subjective meaning. Based on applied research on digital literacy programs for Latin American youth, the paper delves into the construction of youth both as a category and as a social group. It analyzes the main characteristics and problems of youth in current environments, especially in Latin America, providing data on their access to ICTs. Based on a typology of the programs reviewed and a comparative analysis of adults and youth representations and assessment of ICTs, the article examines the dominant educational discourses and practices that encourage access to technology of excluded or at-risk youth population. It also discusses the ways in which these programs characterize and implement a gender equity approach.A partir de una investigación aplicada sobre programas de alfabetización digital de jóvenes latinoamericanas/os, el artículo ofrece una reflexión sobre los imaginarios sociales que sostienen la difusión de las nuevas tecnologías de información y comunicación (TIC como condición para su aceptación y asignación de sentido social y subjetivo. Incursiona en el proceso de construcción de la juventud como concepto y como grupo social, presentando las principales características y problemáticas que experimentan las y los jóvenes en los contextos actuales, especialmente en América Latina, y brinda datos sobre su acceso a las TIC. A través de una tipología de los programas estudiados y de un análisis comparado de las representaciones y valoraciones de las TIC por parte de adultos y jóvenes, interroga sobre los discursos y las prácticas educativas dominantes que incentivan el acceso de la juventud excluida o en riesgo al mundo tecnológico y sobre las formas en que caracterizan y aplican al enfoque de equidad de género.

  19. Readability of sports medicine-related patient education materials from the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons and the American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganta, Abhishek; Yi, Paul H; Hussein, Khalil; Frank, Rachel M

    2014-04-01

    Although studies have revealed high readability levels of orthopedic patient education materials, no study has evaluated sports medicine-related patient education materials. We conducted a study to assess the readability of sports medicine-related patient education materials from the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS) and the American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine (AOSSM). All sports medicine patient education articles available online in 2012 from the AAOS and the AOSSM, including the Stop Sports Injuries Campaign (STOP), were identified, and their readability was assessed with the Flesch-Kinkaid (FK) readability test. Mean overall FK grade level of the 170 articles reviewed (104 from AAOS, 36 from AOSSM, 30 from STOP) was 10.2. Mean FK levels for the 3 sources were 9.5 (AAOS), 11.0 (AOSSM), and 11.5 (STOP) (P = .16). Fifteen (8.8%) of the 170 articles had a readability level at or below eighth grade (average reading level of US adults); only 2 (1.2%) of the 170 articles were at or below the recommended sixth-grade level. The majority of sports medicine-related patient education materials from AAOS and AOSSM had reading levels higher than recommended, indicating that the majority of the patient population may find it difficult to comprehend these articles.

  20. Atypical subtrochanteric and diaphyseal femoral fractures: report of a task force of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shane, Elizabeth; Burr, David; Ebeling, Peter R

    2010-01-01

    Reports linking long-term use of bisphosphonates (BPs) with atypical fractures of the femur led the leadership of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR) to appoint a task force to address key questions related to this problem. A multidisciplinary expert group reviewed pertinent...... to designate a femoral fracture as atypical. Minor features include their association with cortical thickening, a periosteal reaction of the lateral cortex, prodromal pain, bilaterality, delayed healing, comorbid conditions, and concomitant drug exposures, including BPs, other antiresorptive agents...... published reports concerning atypical femur fractures, as well as preclinical studies that could provide insight into their pathogenesis. A case definition was developed so that subsequent studies report on the same condition. The task force defined major and minor features of complete and incomplete...

  1. Computational benchmark problems: a review of recent work within the American Nuclear Society Mathematics and Computation Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodds, H.L. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    An overview of the recent accomplishments of the Computational Benchmark Problems Committee of the American Nuclear Society Mathematics and Computation Division is presented. Solutions of computational benchmark problems in the following eight areas are presented and discussed: (a) high-temperature gas-cooled reactor neutronics, (b) pressurized water reactor (PWR) thermal hydraulics, (c) PWR neutronics, (d) neutron transport in a cylindrical ''black'' rod, (e) neutron transport in a boiling water reactor (BWR) rod bundle, (f) BWR transient neutronics with thermal feedback, (g) neutron depletion in a heavy water reactor, and (h) heavy water reactor transient neutronics. It is concluded that these problems and solutions are of considerable value to the nuclear industry because they have been and will continue to be useful in the development, evaluation, and verification of computer codes and numerical-solution methods

  2. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) Summer Faculty Fellowship Program, 1989, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, William B., Jr. (Editor); Goldstein, Stanley H. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    The 1989 Johnson Space Center (JSC) National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) Summer Faculty Fellowship Program was conducted by Texas A and M University and JSC. The 10-week program was operated under the auspices of the ASEE. The program at JSC, as well as the programs at other NASA Centers, was funded by the Office of University Affairs, NASA Headquarters, Washington, D.C. The objectives of the program, which began nationally in 1964 and at JSC in 1965, are: (1) to further the professional knowledge of qualified engineering and science faculty members; (2) to stimulate an exchange of ideas between participants and NASA; (3) to enrich and refresh the research and teaching activities of participants' institutions; and (4) to contribute to the research objective of the NASA Centers.

  3. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) Summer Faculty Fellowship Program 1988, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannerot, Richard B.; Goldstein, Stanley H.

    1989-01-01

    The 1988 Johnson Space Center (JSC) National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) Summer Faculty Fellowship Program was conducted by the University of Houston and JCS. The 10-week program was operated under the auspices of the ASEE. The program at JSC, as well as the programs at other NASA Centers, was funded by the Office of University Affairs, NASA Headquarters, Washington, D.C. The objectives of the program, which began in 1965 at JSC and in 1964 nationally, are: (1) to further the professional knowledge of qualified engineering and science faculty members; (2) to stimulate an exchange of ideas between participants and NASA; (3) to enrich and refresh the research and teaching activities of participants' institutions; and (4) to contribute to the research objectives of the NASA Centers.

  4. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) Summer Faculty Fellowship Program, 1989, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, William B., Jr. (Editor); Goldstein, Stanley H. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    The 1989 Johnson Space Center (JSC) National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) Summer Faculty Fellowship Program was conducted by Texas A and M University and JSC. The 10-week program was operated under the auspices of the ASEE. The program at JSC, as well as the programs at other NASA Centers, was funded by the Office of University Affairs, NASA Headquarters, Washington, D.C. The objectives of the program, which began nationally in 1964 and at JSC in 1965, are: (1) to further the professional knowledge of qualified engineering and science faculty members; (2) to stimulate an exchange of ideas between participants and NASA; (3) to enrich and refresh the research and teaching activities of participants' institutions; and (4) to contribute to the research objective of the NASA Centers.

  5. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) Summer Faculty Fellowship Program 1988, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannerot, Richard B. (Editor); Goldstein, Stanley H. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    The 1988 Johnson Space Center (JSC) National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) Summer Faculty Fellowship Program was conducted by the University of Houston and JSC. The 10-week program was operated under the auspices of the ASEE. The program at JSC, as well as the programs at other NASA Centers, was funded by the Office of University Affairs, NASA Headquarters, Washington, D.C. The objectives of the program, which began in 1965 at JSC and in 1964 nationally, are (1) to further the professional knowledge of qualified engineering and science faculty members; (2) to stimulate an exchange of ideas between participants and NASA; (3) to enrich and refresh the research and teaching activities of participants' institutions; and (4) to contribute to the research objectives of the NASA Centers.

  6. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) Summer Faculty Fellowship Program, 1992, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannerot, Richard B. (Editor); Goldstein, Stanley H. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    The 1992 Johnson Space Center (JSC) National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) Summer Faculty Fellowship Program was conducted by the University of Houston and JSC. The program at JSC, as well as the programs at other NASA Centers, was funded by the Office of University Affairs, NASA Headquarters Washington, DC. The objectives of the program, which began nationally in 1964 and at JSC in 1965, are (1) to further the professional knowledge of qualified engineering and science faculty members; (2) to stimulate an exchange of ideas between participants and NASA; (3) to enrich and refresh the research and teaching activities of participants' institutions; and (4) to contribute to the research objective of the NASA Centers. This document contains reports 13 through 24.

  7. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) Summer Faculty Fellowship Program, 1987, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, William B., Jr. (Editor); Goldstein, Stanley H. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    The 1987 Johnson Space Center (JCS) National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) Summer Faculty Fellowship program was conducted by Texas A and M University and JSC. The 10-week program was operated under the auspices of ASEE. The basic objectives of the program are: to further the professional knowledge of qualified engineering and science faculty members; to stimulate an exchange of ideas between participants and NASA; to enrich and refresh the research and teaching activities of participants' institutions; and to contribute to the research objective of the NASA Centers. This document is a compilation of the final reports on the research projects done by the faculty fellows during the summer of 1987.

  8. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) Summer Faculty Fellowship Program, 1992, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannerot, Richard B. (Editor); Goldstein, Stanley H. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    The 1992 Johnson Space Center (JSC) National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) Summer Faculty Fellowship Program was conducted by the University of Houston and JSC. The program at JSC, as well as the programs at other NASA Centers, was funded by the Office of University Affairs, Washington, DC. The objectives of the program, which began nationally in 1964 and at JSC in 1965, are (1) to further the professional knowledge of qualified engineering and science faculty members; (2) to stimulate an exchange of ideas between participants and NASA; (3) to enrich and refresh the research and teaching activities of participants' institutions; and (4) to contribute to the research objective of the NASA Centers. This document is a compilation of the final reports 1 through 12.

  9. Management of Thyroid Peroxidase Antibody Euthyroid Women in Pregnancy: Comparison of the American Thyroid Association and the Endocrine Society Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Mehran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of thyroid autoantibodies is relatively high in women of childbearing age. There is evidence that positive thyroperoxidase antibody even in euthyroid women may increase the risk of spontaneous and recurrent pregnancy loss and preterm delivery. However, the evidence is not enough to justify recommendation on the screening of pregnant women for thyroid autoantibodies or LT4 supplementation for reducing maternal or fetal complications. In this paper we reviewed the related evidence and compared the new guidelines of the American Thyroid Association and Endocrine Society with respect to the screening and management of positive thyroperoxidase antibody in euthyroid pregnant women. As there was no major contradiction or disagreement between the two guidelines, either one of two guidelines may be used by clinicians for the appropriate management of thyroid autoimmunity during pregnancy.

  10. Barriers to cancer screening in Hmong Americans: the influence of health care accessibility, culture, and cancer literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee Yun; Vang, Suzanne

    2010-06-01

    Hmong Americans face high cancer mortality rates even in comparison to their Asian American counterparts, and report low utilization of cancer screenings. To date, no study has been conducted on the cultural barriers this population faces in undergoing cancer screenings. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to examine the existing knowledge regarding the barriers to cancer screening for Hmong Americans. Potential barriers were identified from this examination to include: health access factors (type of health insurance, ethnicity of provider, low English proficiency, and years spent in the U.S.); cultural factors (belief in the spiritual etiology of diseases, patriarchal values, modesty, and mistrust of the western medical system); and cancer literacy factors (cancer and prevention illiteracy). Based on this review, potential cultural and ethnic group-specific prevention strategies and cancer health policies are discussed to address these barriers and enhance screening behavior among the Hmong.

  11. Recommendations for the follow-up care of female breast cancer survivors: a guideline of the Spanish Society of Medical Oncology (SEOM), Spanish Society of General Medicine (SEMERGEN), Spanish Society for Family and Community Medicine (SEMFYC), Spanish Society for General and Family Physicians (SEMG), Spanish Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology (SEGO), Spanish Society of Radiation Oncology (SEOR), Spanish Society of Senology and Breast Pathology (SESPM), and Spanish Society of Cardiology (SEC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnadas, A; Algara, M; Cordoba, O; Casas, A; Gonzalez, M; Marzo, M; Montero, A; Muñoz, M; Ruiz, A; Santolaya, F; Fernandez, T

    2018-06-01

    The increased incidence and decreased mortality of breast cancer have produced an increased number of breast cancer survivors. The type of sequelae and comorbidities that these patients present call for a collaborative follow-up by hospital-based specialized care and primary care. In this document, we present a guideline drafted and agreed among scientific societies whose members care for breast cancer survivors. The purpose of this guideline is to achieve the shared and coordinated follow-up of these patients by specialized care and primary care professionals. In it, we review the health issues derived from the treatments performed, with recommendations about the therapeutic approach to each of them, as well as a proposal for joint follow-up by primary and specialized care.

  12. Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer consensus statement on immunotherapy for the treatment of renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rini, Brian I; McDermott, David F; Hammers, Hans; Bro, William; Bukowski, Ronald M; Faba, Bernard; Faba, Jo; Figlin, Robert A; Hutson, Thomas; Jonasch, Eric; Joseph, Richard W; Leibovich, Bradley C; Olencki, Thomas; Pantuck, Allan J; Quinn, David I; Seery, Virginia; Voss, Martin H; Wood, Christopher G; Wood, Laura S; Atkins, Michael B

    2016-01-01

    Immunotherapy has produced durable clinical benefit in patients with metastatic renal cell cancer (RCC). In the past, patients treated with interferon-alpha (IFN) and interleukin-2 (IL-2) have achieved complete responses, many of which have lasted for multiple decades. More recently, a large number of new agents have been approved for RCC, several of which attack tumor angiogenesis by inhibiting vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF) and VEGF receptors (VEGFR), as well as tumor metabolism, inhibiting the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Additionally, a new class of immunotherapy agents, immune checkpoint inhibitors, is emerging and will play a significant role in the treatment of patients with RCC. Therefore, the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC) convened a Task Force, which met to consider the current role of approved immunotherapy agents in RCC, to provide guidance to practicing clinicians by developing consensus recommendations and to set the stage for future immunotherapeutic developments in RCC.

  13. Saudi Oncology Society and Saudi Urology Association combined clinical management guidelines for prostate cancer 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljubran, Ali; Abusamra, Ashraf; Alkhateeb, Sultan; Alotaibi, Mohammed; Rabah, Danny; Bazarbashi, Shouki; Alkushi, Hussain; Al-Mansour, Mubarak; Alharbi, Hulayel; Eltijani, Amin; Alghamdi, Abdullah; Alsharm, Abdullah; Ahmad, Imran; Murshid, Esam

    2018-01-01

    This is an update to the previously published Saudi guidelines for the evaluation and medical and surgical management of patients diagnosed with prostate cancer. Prostate cancer is categorized according to the stage of the disease using the tumor node metastasis staging system 7 th edition. The guidelines are presented with supporting evidence levels based on a comprehensive literature review, several internationally recognized guidelines, and the collective expertise of the guidelines committee members (authors) who were selected by the Saudi Oncology Society and Saudi Urological Association. Local factors, such as availability, logistic feasibility, and familiarity of various treatment modalities, have been taken into consideration. These guidelines should serve as a roadmap for the urologists, oncologists, general physicians, support groups, and health-care policymakers in the management of patients diagnosed with adenocarcinoma of the prostate.

  14. Tweeting the Meeting: Twitter Use at The American Society of Breast Surgeons Annual Meeting 2013-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attai, Deanna J; Radford, Diane M; Cowher, Michael S

    2016-10-01

    Twitter social media is being used to disseminate medical meeting information. Meeting attendees and other interested parties have the ability to follow and participate in conversations related to meeting content. We analyzed Twitter activity generated from the 2013-2016 American Society of Breast Surgeons Annual Meetings. The Symplur Signals database was used to determine number of tweets, tweets per user, and impressions for each meeting. The number of unique physicians, patients/caregivers/advocates, and industry participants was determined. Physician tweeters were cross-referenced with membership and attendance rosters. Tweet transcripts were analyzed for content and tweets were categorized as either scientific, social, administrative, industry promotion, or irrelevant. From 2013 to 2016, the number of tweets increased by 600 %, the number of Twitter users increased by 450 %, and the number of physician tweeters increased by 457 %. The number of impressions (tweets × followers) increased from more than 3.5 million to almost 20.5 million, an increase of 469 %. The majority of tweets were informative (70-80 %); social tweets ranged from 13 to 23 %. A small percentage (3-6 %) of tweets were related to administrative matters. There were very few industry or irrelevant tweets. Twitter social media use at the American Society of Breast Surgeons annual meeting showed a substantial increase during the time period evaluated. The use of Twitter during professional meetings is a tremendous opportunity to share information. The authors feel that medical conference organizers should encourage Twitter participation and should be educating attendees on the proper use of Twitter.

  15. American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery estimation of metabolic and bariatric procedures performed in the United States in 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Wayne J; DeMaria, Eric J; Brethauer, Stacy A; Mattar, Samer G; Rosenthal, Raul J; Morton, John M

    2018-03-01

    Bariatric surgery, despite being the most successful long-lasting treatment for morbid obesity, remains underused as only approximately 1% of all patients who qualify for surgery actually undergo surgery. To determine if patients in need are receiving appropriate therapy, the American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery created a Numbers Taskforce to specify annual rate of use for obesity treatment interventions. The objective of this study was to determine metabolic and bariatric procedure trends since 2011 and to provide the best estimate of the number of procedures performed in the United States in 2016. United States. We reviewed data from the Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery Accreditation and Quality Improvement Program, National Surgical Quality Improvement Program, Bariatric Outcomes Longitudinal Database, and Nationwide Inpatient Sample. In addition, data from industry and outpatient centers were used to estimate outpatient center activity. Data from 2016 were compared with the previous 5 years of data. Compared with 2015, the total number of metabolic and bariatric procedures performed in 2016 increased from approximately 196,000 to 216,000. The sleeve gastrectomy trend is increasing, and it continues to be the most common procedure. The gastric bypass and gastric band trends continued to decrease as seen in previous years. The percentage of revision procedures and biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch procedures increased slightly. Finally, intragastric balloons placement emerged as a significant contributor to the cumulative total number of procedures performed. There is increasing use of metabolic and bariatric procedures performed in the United States from 2011 to 2016, with a nearly 10% increase noted from 2015 to 2016. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Multidimensional Diagnostic Criteria for Chronic Pain: Introduction to the ACTTION-American Pain Society Pain Taxonomy (AAPT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworkin, Robert H; Bruehl, Stephen; Fillingim, Roger B; Loeser, John D; Terman, Gregory W; Turk, Dennis C

    2016-09-01

    A variety of approaches have been used to develop diagnostic criteria for chronic pain. The published evidence of the reliability and validity of existing diagnostic criteria is limited, and these criteria have typically not been used in clinical practice. The availability of a widely accepted, consistently applied, and evidence-based taxonomy of diagnostic criteria would improve the quality of clinical research on chronic pain and would be of great value in clinical practice. To address the need for evidence-based diagnostic criteria for the major chronic pain conditions, the Analgesic, Anesthetic, and Addiction Clinical Trial Translations, Innovations, Opportunities, and Networks (ACTTION) public-private partnership with the US Food and Drug Administration and the American Pain Society (APS) have collaborated on the development of the ACTTION-APS Pain Taxonomy (AAPT). AAPT provides a multidimensional framework that is applied systematically in the development of diagnostic criteria. This article (1) describes the background and rationale for AAPT; (2) presents the AAPT taxonomy and the specific conditions for which diagnostic criteria have been developed (to be published separately); (3) briefly reviews the 5 dimensions that constitute the AAPT multidimensional framework and describes the 7 accompanying articles that discuss these dimensions and other important issues involving AAPT; and (4) provides an overview of next steps, specifically, the general processes by which the initial set of diagnostic criteria (for which the evidence base has been drawn from the literature, systematic reviews, and secondary analyses of existing databases) will undergo additional assessments of reliability and validity. To address the need for evidence-based diagnostic criteria for the major chronic pain conditions, the AAPT provides a multidimensional framework that is applied systematically in the development of diagnostic criteria. The long-term objective of AAPT is to advance

  17. Topical, geospatial, and temporal diffusion of the 2015 North American Menopause Society position statement on nonhormonal management of vasomotor symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Janet S; Laine, Tei; Harrison, Blake; LePage, Meghan; Pierce, Taran; Hoteling, Nathan; Börner, Katy

    2017-10-01

    We sought to depict the topical, geospatial, and temporal diffusion of the 2015 North American Menopause Society position statement on the nonhormonal management of menopause-associated vasomotor symptoms released on September 21, 2015, and its associated press release from September 23, 2015. Three data sources were used: online news articles, National Public Radio, and Twitter. For topical diffusion, we compared keywords and their frequencies among the position statement, press release, and online news articles. We also created a network figure depicting relationships across key content categories or nodes. For geospatial diffusion within the United States, we compared locations of the 109 National Public Radio (NPR) stations covering the statement to 775 NPR stations not covering the statement. For temporal diffusion, we normalized and segmented Twitter data into periods before and after the press release (September 12, 2015 to September 22, 2015 vs September 23, 2015 to October 3, 2015) and conducted a burst analysis to identify changes in tweets from before to after. Topical information diffused across sources was similar with the exception of the more scientific terms "vasomotor symptoms" or "vms" versus the more colloquial term "hot flashes." Online news articles indicated media coverage of the statement was mainly concentrated in the United States. NPR station data showed similar proportions of stations airing the story across the four census regions (Northeast, Midwest, south, west; P = 0.649). Release of the statement coincided with bursts in the menopause conversation on Twitter. The findings of this study may be useful for directing the development and dissemination of future North American Menopause Society position statements and/or press releases.

  18. Cross-cultural examination of the structure of the Revised American Pain Society Patient Outcome Questionnaire (APS-POQ-R).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botti, Mari; Khaw, Damien; Jørgensen, Emmy Brandt; Rasmussen, Bodil; Hunter, Susan; Redley, Bernice

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated the cross-cultural factor stability and internal consistency of the Revised American Pain Society Patient Outcome Questionnaire (APS-POQ-R), a measure of the quality of postoperative pain management used internationally. We conducted exploratory factor analysis (EFA) of APS-POQ-R data from 2 point prevalence studies comprising 268 and 311 surveys of Danish and Australian medical-surgical patients, respectively. Parallel analysis indicated 4- and 3-factor solutions for Danish and Australian patients, respectively, which accounted for 58.1% and 52.9% of variance. Internal consistency was unsatisfactory among both Danish (Cronbach α = .54) and Australian (Cronbach α = .63) cohorts. There was a high degree of between-group similarity in item-factor loadings of variables coded as "pain experience," but not "pain management." This finding reflected cross-cultural differences in ratings of treatment satisfaction. For Danish patients, satisfaction was associated with the degree of pain severity and activity interference, whereas for Australian patients, satisfaction was associated with their perceived ability to participate in treatment. To facilitate further cross-cultural comparison, we compared our findings with past research conducted in the United States and Iceland. EFA supported the construct validity of the APS-POQ-R as a measure of "pain experience" but indicated that items measuring "pain management" may vary cross-culturally. Findings highlighted the need for further validation of the APS-POQ-R internationally. This study revealed the APS-POQ-R as a valid measure of postoperative pain experience for Danish and Australian patients. Measures of patients' perception of pain management were not robust to group differences in treatment expectations and demonstrated cross-cultural instability. Results highlighted the difficulties in establishing stable cross-cultural, cross-population subscales for the APS-POQ-R. Copyright © 2015

  19. Shaping policy: the Canadian Cancer Society and the Hormone Receptor Testing Inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, M; Newbury, J; Housser, E M

    2011-08-01

    In 2007, the Government of Newfoundland and Labrador established the Commission of Inquiry on Hormone Receptor Testing to examine problems with estrogen and progesterone hormone receptor tests conducted in the province between 1997 and 2005. Using the Inquiry as a case study, we examine the knowledge transfer activities used by the Canadian Cancer Society - Newfoundland and Labrador Division (CCS-NL) to shape policy and improve cancer control in the province. CCS-NL established a panel to advise its legal counsel and asked academic researchers to prepare papers to submit to the Commission. CCS-NL also interviewed patients to better inform its legal arguments, used its province-wide networks to raise awareness of the Inquiry, and provided a toll-free number that people could call. It also provided basic information, resources, and contact information for people who were affected by the flawed hormone receptor tests. The effectiveness of CCS-NL's activities is reflected by the inclusion of its key messages in the Commission's recommendations, and the investment in cancer care following the Inquiry. The success of the CCS-NL knowledge transfer efforts stemmed from its reputation as an advocate for cancer patients and its long-standing relationship with researchers, especially at the local level. The case illustrates real-world application of knowledge transfer practices in the development of public policy, and describes how community-based non-government organizations can identify and draw attention to important issues that otherwise might not have been addressed.

  20. Staging of uterine cervical cancer with MRI: guidelines of the European Society of Urogenital Radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balleyguier, Corinne [Radiology Department, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Sala, E. [Radiology Department, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Cunha, T. da [Radiology Department, Instituto Portugues de Oncologia de Lisboa Francisco Gentil, Lisbon (Portugal); Bergman, A. [Department of Radiology, Uppsala University Hospital (Sweden); Brkljacic, B. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital ' ' Dubrava' ' , Zagreb (Croatia); Danza, F. [Dipartimento di Bioimmaginie Scienze Radiologiche, Universita Cattolica del S. Cuore, Rome (Italy); Forstner, R. [Zentralroentgeninstitut, Landeskliniken Salzburg, Salzburg (Austria); Hamm, B. [Department of Radiology, Charite Humboldt Universitaet, Berlin (Germany); Kubik-Huch, R. [Institut Radiologie, Kantonsspital Baden, Baden (Switzerland); Lopez, C.; Manfredi, R. [Department of Radiology, ' ' A. Gemelli' ' University Hospital, Rome (Italy); McHugo, J. [Department of Radiology, Birmingham Women' s Hospital, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Oleaga, L. [Radiology Department, Hospital Clinic, Barcelona (Spain); Togashi, K. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto University, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Kinkel, K. [Institut de Radiologie, Clinique des Grangettes, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2011-05-15

    To design clear guidelines for the staging and follow-up of patients with uterine cervical cancer, and to provide the radiologist with a framework for use in multidisciplinary conferences. Methods: Guidelines for uterine cervical cancer staging and follow-up were defined by the female imaging subcommittee of the ESUR (European Society of Urogenital Radiology) based on the expert consensus of imaging protocols of 11 leading institutions and a critical review of the literature. The results indicated that high field Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) should include at least two T2-weighted sequences in sagittal, axial oblique or coronal oblique orientation (short and long axis of the uterine cervix) of the pelvic content. Axial T1-weighted sequence is useful to detect suspicious pelvic and abdominal lymph nodes, and images from symphysis to the left renal vein are required. The intravenous administration of Gadolinium-chelates is optional but is often required for small lesions (<2 cm) and for follow-up after treatment. Diffusion-weighted sequences are optional but are recommended to help evaluate lymph nodes and to detect a residual lesion after chemoradiotherapy. Expert consensus and literature review lead to an optimized MRI protocol to stage uterine cervical cancer. MRI is the imaging modality of choice for preoperative staging and follow-up in patients with uterine cervical cancer. (orig.)

  1. Breast and cervical cancer screening disparity among Asian American women: does race/ethnicity matter [corrected]?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee Yun; Ju, Eunsu; Vang, Pa Der; Lundquist, Melissa

    2010-10-01

    Ethnic minorities are frequently considered as one homogeneous group in research, and this trend is particularly true for Asian Americans. This article seeks to uncover the intragroup differences in cancer screening behavior among subgroups of Asian American women by disaggregating them into six subgroups. The subgroups were compared with non-Latina white women to examine differences in breast and cancer screening rates and relevant factors associated with receiving these screenings. Three-year merged data from the 2001, 2003, and 2005 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) were used to investigate the subgroup differences. Samples for the current study were restricted to non-Latina white and Asian American women whose age was ≥ 18 years (n = 58,000) for cervical cancer screening and ≥ 40 years (n = 43,518) for breast cancer screening at the time of the interview. Results showed marked differences in cancer screening rates among Asian American subgroups and between cancer types. Cervical cancer screening rates were noticeably higher than breast cancer screening rates in all groups. The Korean group consistently showed the lowest rates of both cancer screenings. Japanese ranked the highest (79.5%) in breast cancer screening but the second lowest (79.7%) in cervical cancer screening. Enabling factors, such as having private health insurance and a usual source of care, were found to be the strongest predictors of receiving both breast and cervical cancer screening. Screenings for both types of cancer increased if a woman was married or was born in the United States. The findings of this study illustrate the heterogeneity that exists among Asian American subgroups in their cancer screening behaviors. Further development of culturally relevant and ethnic-specific cancer prevention strategies and policies that address the subgroup differences within the larger racial/ethnic population are needed. Public health outreach and cancer education should be prioritized to

  2. Predictors, Quality Markers, and Economics of Volunteering Internationally: Results from a Comprehensive Survey of American Society of Plastic Surgeons Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Joyce K; Schoenbrunner, Anna R; Kelley, Kristen D; Gosman, Amanda A

    2017-09-01

    Plastic surgeons have a long history of international volunteer work. To date, there have been no outcome-based studies among surgeons who volunteer internationally. The purpose of this study was to describe predictors of volunteering, clinical quality markers, and economics of international volunteering among American plastic surgeons. A cross-sectional validated e-mail survey tool was sent to all board-certified plastic surgeons by the American Society of Plastic Surgeons. The survey response rate was 15 percent (745 total individuals), of which 283 respondents traveled within the past 5 years. Analysis was performed in R. Stepwise multivariate logistic regression was performed to determine the predictors of death/complication. Respondents reported high use of medical records, follow-up care, and host affiliation. Fewer than half of all respondents reported use of international safety surgery guidelines, and the majority of respondents reported volunteering abroad outside of their scope of practice. The majority of children younger than 5 years were not cared for by a pediatric anesthesiologist. The majority of participants reported personally spending more than $1000 on their last trip and performing surgery estimated to be worth on average $28,000 each. International surgical volunteer trips attempt to ease the global burden of surgical disease. The authors' study reports variation in quality of care provided on these trips. Most significantly, the majority of children younger than 5 years were not cared for by a pediatric anesthesiologist, and many plastic surgeons operated outside of their scope of practice.

  3. Report from the Latin American Spondyloarthritis Society for Education and Research in Immunology and Medicine organization 2012 workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista-Molano, Wilson; Toloza, Sergio; Gutiérrez, Marwin; Uribe, Carlos Vinicio Caballero; Pineda, Carlos; Londoño, John; Santos, Pedro; Jaimes, Diego; Diaz, Mario; Chalem, Phillipe; Villota, Orlando; Sierra, Rita; Puche, William; Salas, José; Yara, José; Hamilton, Gordon; Pardo, Carlos; Mercado, Beatriz; Valle-Oñate, Rafael

    2013-09-01

    The first annual meeting of the Latin American Spondyloarthritis Society for Education and Research in Immunology and Medicine (LASSERIM) was held in Bogotá, Colombia, in September 2012 and was attended by key opinion leaders, researchers, and rheumatologists. The meeting included presentations and discussions from renowned speakers during 2 days and a coaching leadership exercise led by an expert in the field followed by an open forum. Two groups defined a priori discussed the establishment of a professional network and organization to be involved in the identification, assessment, and effective resolution of health care issues in Latin America.A broad spectrum of topics were discussed but focused on the following: pharmacoeconomics in general rheumatology, spondyloarthritis and chronic back pain, therapeutic interventions in rheumatoid arthritis, ultrasonography in spondyloarthritis, impact of social media in medicine and global trends in leadership, quality of life, and innovation. A special workshop on coaching in health care and coaching as a tool to implement LASSERIM goals was part of the 2-day conference.LASSERIM will be working in the future on education, research, and innovation in the field of rheumatology and immunology. A special focus will be on spondyloarthritis, by promoting research, open discussions, and by conducting carefully planned research studies to impact on the quality of life of patients and doctors from Latin American countries.

  4. American brachytherapy society recommends no change for prostate permanent implant dose prescriptions using iodine-125 or palladium-103

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivard, M.J.; Butler, W.M.; Merrick, G.S.; Devlin, P.M.; Hayes, J.K.; Hearn, R.A.; Lief, E.P.; Meigooni, A.S.; Williamson, J.F.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose - In 2004, the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) issued a report outlining recommended 125 I and 103 Pd datasets for consistency in calculating brachytherapy dose distributions. In 2005, to aid evaluating the clinical impact of implementing these datasets, the AAPM assessed the historical dependence of how prescribed doses differed from administered doses for 125 I and 103 Pd for permanent implantation of the prostate. Consequently, the American Brachytherapy Society (ABS) considered the nature of these changes towards issuing recommended dose prescriptions for 125 I and 103 Pd interstitial brachytherapy implants for mono-therapy and standard boosts. Methods and materials - An investigation was performed of the 2005 AAPM analysis to determine changes in administered dose while affixing prescribed dose using 2004 AAPM 125 I and 103 Pd brachytherapy dosimetry datasets for prostate implants. For 125 I and 103 Pd, administered dose would change by +1.4% and +4.2%, respectively. The biological and societal impact of changing prescribed dose was considered. Results - Based on the need for clinical constancy and in recognition of overall uncertainties, the ABS recommends immediate implementation of the 2004 AAPM consensus brachytherapy dosimetry datasets and no changes to 125 I and 103 Pd dose prescriptions at this time. Conclusions - Radiation oncologists should continue to prescribe mono-therapy doses of 145 Gy and 125 Gy for 125 I and 105 Pd, respectively, and standard boost doses of 100-110 Gy and 90-100 Gy for 125 I and 103 Pd, respectively. (authors)

  5. The utility of cancer-related cultural constructs to understand colorectal cancer screening among African Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vetta L. Sanders Thompson

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Data suggest that colorectal cancer could be cut by approximately 60% if all people aged 50 years or older received regular screening. Studies have identified socio-cultural attitudes that might inform cancer education and screening promotion campaigns. This article applies item response theory (IRT to a set of survey items selected to assess sociocultural attitudes in order to determine how current measures may affect what we know about how these attitudes affect colorectal cancer screening (CRCS.Design and Methods. A survey of colorectal cancer screening, screening attitudes and cultural beliefs was administered to 1021 African Americans – 683 women and 338 men, ages 50 to 75. Eligibility crite ria for participation included being born in the United States, self-identified African American male or female, age 50 to 75 years. The IRT analysis was performed on 655 individuals with complete data for the 43 observed variables. Results. Twenty-nine items comprise the Multi-construct African American Cultural Survey (MAACS that addresses seven cultural con- structs: mistrust/distrust, privacy, ethnic identity, collectivism, empowerment, and male gender roles. The items provide adequate information about the attitudes of the population across most levels of the constructs assessed. Among the sociocultural variables considered, empowerment (OR=1.078; 95% CI: 1.008, 1.151 had the strongest association with CRCS adherence and privacy showed promise. Conclusions. The MAACS provides a fixed length questionnaire to assess African American CRCS attitudes, two new constructs that might assist in CRCS promotion, and a suggested focus for identification of additional constructs of interest.

  6. The American Society of Shoulder and Elbow Therapists' consensus statement on rehabilitation following arthroscopic rotator cuff repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thigpen, Charles A; Shaffer, Michael A; Gaunt, Bryce W; Leggin, Brian G; Williams, Gerald R; Wilcox, Reg B

    2016-04-01

    This is a consensus statement on rehabilitation developed by the American Society of Shoulder and Elbow Therapists. The purpose of this statement is to aid clinical decision making during the rehabilitation of patients after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. The overarching philosophy of rehabilitation is centered on the principle of the gradual application of controlled stresses to the healing rotator cuff repair with consideration of rotator cuff tear size, tissue quality, and patient variables. This statement describes a rehabilitation framework that includes a 2-week period of strict immobilization and a staged introduction of protected, passive range of motion during weeks 2-6 postoperatively, followed by restoration of active range of motion, and then progressive strengthening beginning at postoperative week 12. When appropriate, rehabilitation continues with a functional progression for return to athletic or demanding work activities. This document represents the first consensus rehabilitation statement developed by a multidisciplinary society of international rehabilitation professionals specifically for the postoperative care of patients after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Colorectal cancer, diabetes and survival : Epidemiological insights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanders, M. M. J.; Vissers, P. A. J.; Haak, H. R.; van de Poll-Franse, L.

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) patients with pre-existing diabetes have significantly lower rates of overall survival compared with patients without diabetes. Against this backdrop, the American Diabetes Association and American Cancer Society in 2010 reviewed the scientific literature concerning diabetes

  8. Barriers of Female Breast, Colorectal, and Cervical Cancer Screening Among American Indians—Where to Intervene?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yan; Gong, Xi; Mousseau, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Female breast, colorectal, and cervical cancer are three common cancers among people in the United States. Both their incidence and mortality rates can be dramatically reduced if effective prevention and intervention programs are developed and implemented, because these cancers are preventable through regular screenings. American Indians in the United States especially in the Northern Plains have a disproportionally high burden of these cancers. As a hard-to-reach population group, less attention has been paid to American Indians regarding cancer screening compared with other population groups. This study examined barriers experienced by American Indians residing in South Dakota regarding three cancer sites: female breast, colorectal, and cervical cancer through a community-based survey. A total of 199 participants were recruited and factors significantly associated with cancer screening included knowledge about cancer screening, geographic access to PCPs, encouragement by doctors, as well as socioeconomic barriers. Meanwhile, integrating geographic access, socioeconomic deprivation, and geographic distribution of American Indians, the study identified geographic areas of low access to cancer screening where hard-to-reach populations resided. Results from the study will provide crucial information for the development of targeted intervention programs to increase the acceptability and uptake of cancer screening among American Indians. PMID:29546202

  9. Barriers of Female Breast, Colorectal, and Cervical Cancer Screening Among American Indians—Where to Intervene?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Lin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Female breast, colorectal, and cervical cancer are three common cancers among people in the United States. Both their incidence and mortality rates can be dramatically reduced if effective prevention and intervention programs are developed and implemented, because these cancers are preventable through regular screenings. American Indians in the United States especially in the Northern Plains have a disproportionally high burden of these cancers. As a hard-to-reach population group, less attention has been paid to American Indians regarding cancer screening compared with other population groups. This study examined barriers experienced by American Indians residing in South Dakota regarding three cancer sites: female breast, colorectal, and cervical cancer through a community-based survey. A total of 199 participants were recruited and factors significantly associated with cancer screening included knowledge about cancer screening, geographic access to PCPs, encouragement by doctors, as well as socioeconomic barriers. Meanwhile, integrating geographic access, socioeconomic deprivation, and geographic distribution of American Indians, the study identified geographic areas of low access to cancer screening where hard-to-reach populations resided. Results from the study will provide crucial information for the development of targeted intervention programs to increase the acceptability and uptake of cancer screening among American Indians.

  10. I'm a Jesus girl: coping stories of Black American women diagnosed with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Godfrey

    2011-12-01

    Breast cancer continues to be the most diagnosed cancer for all women, excluding non-melanoma skin cancer, in the United States. Incidence rates are 1 in 8 for an American woman being diagnosed. Moreover, statistics indicate that every 13 min an American woman dies from complications related to breast cancer. Despite all the gains made in the area of cancer research, Black American women continue to have a 67% higher mortality rate than their White counterparts. There is no preparation for a diagnosis of breast cancer. Upon hearing the words: you have breast cancer, a woman's life is forever altered. The woman's initial reactions of denial and/or anger yield to strategic responses. These responses may strengthen the woman's resiliency both during and following treatments. Research indicates that Black Americans, specifically Black American women, exhibit greater religiosity/spirituality than do other racial/ethnic groups. In addition, the use of religiosity/spirituality by Black Americans increases during a crisis. This qualitative study examines how religiosity/spirituality was utilized as a coping mechanism by a group of Black American women following their diagnoses of breast cancer.

  11. Body Mass Index and Cancer Screening in Older American Indian and Alaska Native Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muus, Kyle J.; Baker-Demaray, Twyla; McDonald, Leander R.; Ludtke, Richard L.; Allery, Alan J.; Bogart, T. Andy; Goldberg, Jack; Ramsey, Scott D.; Buchwald, Dedra S.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Regular screenings are important for reducing cancer morbidity and mortality. There are several barriers to receiving timely cancer screening, including overweight/obesity. No study has examined the relationship between overweight/obesity and cancer screening among American Indian/Alaska Natives (AI/ANs). Purpose: To describe the…

  12. Differential splicing of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in African and Caucasian American populations: contributing factor in prostate cancer disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    populations: contributing factor in prostate cancer disparities? PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Norman H Lee, PhD CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: George Washington...splicing of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in African and Caucasian American populations: contributing factor in prostate cancer disparities? 5b...American (AA) versus Caucasian American (CA) prostate cancer (PCa). We focused our efforts on two oncogenes, phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3

  13. American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) Survey of Radiation Biology Educators in U.S. and Canadian Radiation Oncology Residency Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenstein, Barry S.; Held, Kathryn D.; Rockwell, Sara; Williams, Jacqueline P.; Zeman, Elaine M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain, in a survey-based study, detailed information on the faculty currently responsible for teaching radiation biology courses to radiation oncology residents in the United States and Canada. Methods and Materials: In March-December 2007 a survey questionnaire was sent to faculty having primary responsibility for teaching radiation biology to residents in 93 radiation oncology residency programs in the United States and Canada. Results: The responses to this survey document the aging of the faculty who have primary responsibility for teaching radiation biology to radiation oncology residents. The survey found a dramatic decline with time in the percentage of educators whose graduate training was in radiation biology. A significant number of the educators responsible for teaching radiation biology were not fully acquainted with the radiation sciences, either through training or practical application. In addition, many were unfamiliar with some of the organizations setting policies and requirements for resident education. Freely available tools, such as the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) Radiation and Cancer Biology Practice Examination and Study Guides, were widely used by residents and educators. Consolidation of resident courses or use of a national radiation biology review course was viewed as unlikely by most programs. Conclusions: A high priority should be given to the development of comprehensive teaching tools to assist those individuals who have responsibility for teaching radiation biology courses but who do not have an extensive background in critical areas of radiobiology related to radiation oncology. These findings also suggest a need for new graduate programs in radiobiology.

  14. Prevalence of symptom control and palliative care abstracts presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, Elizabeth A.; Palmer, J. Lynn; Bruera, Eduardo

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: Forty percent of all patients referred for radiotherapy are treated with palliative intent. The American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO) has recently emphasized the importance of radiation oncologists being skilled in the field of symptom control and palliative care (SCPC). The purpose of this study was to determine the number of abstracts relating to SCPC presented at the annual ASTRO meetings. Methods and Materials: The number of SCPC abstracts presented at ASTRO meetings between 1993 and 2000 was counted. Abstracts were included if they described populations with advanced or metastatic cancer for whom the goal of treatment was symptom palliation. The treatment sites and symptoms palliated were recorded. Results: Of 3511 abstracts presented at ASTRO between 1993 and 2000, an average of 47 (1.3%, range 0.9-2.2%/y) were related to SCPC. The most common treatment sites were bone, brain, and lung. Pain, bleeding, and neurologic and pulmonary symptoms were the ones most commonly palliated. Thirty-two percent of the SCPC abstracts involved randomized controlled trials, 47% had palliation of symptoms as a secondary treatment outcome, and in 21%, the symptomatic treatment outcome was not specifically stated. Conclusion: SCPC research has been poorly represented at the annual ASTRO meetings. Education and research in this field needs to be actively encouraged, because SCPC is an important component of a radiation oncologist's role in comprehensive patient care

  15. Surgical management of colorectal cancer for the aging population—A survey by the Japanese Society for Cancer of Colon and Rectum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Matsuoka

    2018-03-01

    Conclusion: Japanese Society for Cancer of the Colon and Rectum member institutions often used the same surgical treatment strategies for both elderly and younger patients with the exception of performing intersphincteric resection.

  16. Participation of Asian-American women in cancer treatment research: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tung T; Somkin, Carol P; Ma, Yifei; Fung, Lei-Chun; Nguyen, Thoa

    2005-01-01

    Few Asian-American women participate in cancer treatment trials. In a pilot study to assess barriers to participation, we mailed surveys to 132 oncologists and interviewed 19 Asian-American women with cancer from Northern California. Forty-four oncologists responded. They reported as barriers language problems, lack of culturally relevant cancer information, and complex protocols. Most stated that they informed Asian-American women about treatment trials. Only four women interviewed knew about trials. Other patient-identified barriers were fear of side effects, language problems, competing needs, and fear of experimentation. Family decision making was a barrier for both oncologists and patients. Compared to non-Asian oncologists, more Asian oncologists have referred Asian-American women to industry trials and identified barriers similar to patients' reports. Our findings indicate that Asian-American women need to be informed about cancer treatment trials, linguistic barriers should be addressed, and future research should evaluate cultural barriers such as family decision making.

  17. North American Spine Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Policy Comments Coverage Recommendations About Coverage Recommendations Access eBook Payor Access Practice Management Market Your Practice Career ... Recommendations A valuable resource and a free member benefit. Career Center Search quality jobs from employers within ...

  18. American Pain Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Christopher King Jennifer Lee Kimberly Sibille Shivani Ruparel Steve Davidson Claudia Campbell Jennifer DeBerry Tim Doyle Adam ... Resources Early Career Advisory Group Members Early Career Job Board ECAG Application About Us Who's Who in ...

  19. American Thoracic Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Embargo Policy ATS Podcasts ATS Videos ATS Social Media Industry Resources Value of Collaboration Corporate Members Advertising Opportunities Clinical Trials Convening Conferences Financial Disclosure Global ...

  20. American Society of Anesthesiologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... SEN Summit Calendar of Events Relive ANESTHESIOLOGY 2017 Experience 400 hours of presentations with ANESTHESIOLOGY Annual Meeting OnDemand. Purchase now Research Anesthesiology Journal Anesthesia Patient Safety Foundation ...

  1. American Society of Neuroradiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Committee (RUC) Update: A Salute to Dr. Joshua Hirsch Coming Up: ASNR International Imaging Series: Bangkok Symposium ... Committee (RUC) Update: A Salute to Dr. Joshua Hirsch The RUC is a unique multispecialty committee convened ...

  2. American Society of Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Regenerative Medicine Women's Health Patient Information Live Donor Toolkit Patient Education Packets Become an Organ Donor Other Patient Resources About AST Membership FAQs Member Directory Member Spotlight Career Center Volunteer Opportunities Member-Get-A-Member Who ...

  3. American Society of Nephrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on Twitter .@US_FDA issues safety alert for #gout medication | @renalandurology https://t.co/gxilPolsyH – @ASNKidney on Twitter Medical first: Doctors attempt to gene-edit a living patient's DNA | @CNN https://t. ...

  4. Contemporary American Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nye, David Edwin

    Overview of US including population, regions, politics, economics, social class, welfare system, education, media, religion, and national character......Overview of US including population, regions, politics, economics, social class, welfare system, education, media, religion, and national character...

  5. North American Menopause Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other Meetings Publications Clinical Care Recommendations Chapter 1: Menopause Chapter 2: Midlife Body Changes Chapter 3: Clinical ... Nonprescription Options Chapter 8: Prescription Therapies Professional Publications Menopause Journal Contents Position Statements & Other Reports Menopause Practice ...

  6. American Society of Hematology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... journal with a unique focus on scholarly and educational content Annual Meeting Abstracts 2017 Call for Abstracts 2017 Abstract Review Categories Abstracts Archive View all Education ASH Academy The eLearning platform for hematologists ASH On Demand On-demand viewing ...

  7. Implementing an innovated preservation technology: The American Society of Transplant Surgeons' (ASTS) Standards Committee White Paper on Ex Situ Liver Machine Perfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintini, Cristiano; Martins, Paulo N; Shah, Shimul; Killackey, Mary; Reed, Alan; Guarrera, James; Axelrod, David A

    2018-05-23

    The pervasive shortage of deceased donor liver allografts contributes to significant waitlist mortality despite efforts to increase organ donation. Ex vivo liver perfusion appears to enhance preservation of donor organs, extending viability and potentially evaluating function in organs previously considered too high risk for transplant. These devices pose novel challenges for organ allocation, safety, training, and finances. This white paper describes the American Society of Transplant Surgeons' belief that organ preservation technology is a vital advance, but its use should not change fundamental aspects of organ allocation. Additional data elements need to be collected, made available for organ assessment by transplant professionals to allow determination of organ suitability in the case of reallocation and incorporated into risk adjustment methodology. Finally, further work is needed to determine the optimal strategy for management and oversight of perfused organs prior to transplantation. © 2018 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  8. Differential gene expression between African American and European American colorectal cancer patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Jovov

    Full Text Available The incidence and mortality of colorectal cancer (CRC is higher in African Americans (AAs than other ethnic groups in the U. S., but reasons for the disparities are unknown. We performed gene expression profiling of sporadic CRCs from AAs vs. European Americans (EAs to assess the contribution to CRC disparities. We evaluated the gene expression of 43 AA and 43 EA CRC tumors matched by stage and 40 matching normal colorectal tissues using the Agilent human whole genome 4x44K cDNA arrays. Gene and pathway analyses were performed using Significance Analysis of Microarrays (SAM, Ten-fold cross validation, and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA. SAM revealed that 95 genes were differentially expressed between AA and EA patients at a false discovery rate of ≤5%. Using IPA we determined that most prominent disease and pathway associations of differentially expressed genes were related to inflammation and immune response. Ten-fold cross validation demonstrated that following 10 genes can predict ethnicity with an accuracy of 94%: CRYBB2, PSPH, ADAL, VSIG10L, C17orf81, ANKRD36B, ZNF835, ARHGAP6, TRNT1 and WDR8. Expression of these 10 genes was validated by qRT-PCR in an independent test set of 28 patients (10 AA, 18 EA. Our results are the first to implicate differential gene expression in CRC racial disparities and indicate prominent difference in CRC inflammation between AA and EA patients. Differences in susceptibility to inflammation support the existence of distinct tumor microenvironments in these two patient populations.

  9. Unexpected inverse correlation between Native American ancestry and Asian American variants of HPV16 in admixed Colombian cervical cancer cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopera, Esteban A; Baena, Armando; Florez, Victor; Montiel, Jehidys; Duque, Constanza; Ramirez, Tatiana; Borrero, Mauricio; Cordoba, Carlos M; Rojas, Fredy; Pareja, Rene; Bedoya, Astrid M; Bedoya, Gabriel; Sanchez, Gloria I

    2014-12-01

    European (E) variants of HPV 16 are evenly distributed among world regions, meanwhile Non-European variants such as European-Asian (EAs), Asian American (AA) and African (Af) are mostly confined to Eastern Asia, The Americas and African regions respectively. Several studies have shown that genetic variation of HPV 16 is associated with the risk of cervical cancer, which also seems to be dependent on the population. This relationship between ethnicity and variants have led to the suggestion that there is co-evolution of variants with humankind. Our aim was to evaluate the relationship between the individual ancestry proportion and infection with HPV 16 variants in cervical cancer. We examined the association between ancestry and HPV 16 variants in samples of 82 cervical cancer cases from different regions of Colombia. Individual ancestry proportions (European, African and Native American) were estimated by genotyping 106 ancestry informative markers. Variants were identified by PCR amplification of the E6 gene, followed by reverse line blot hybridization (RLB) with variants specific probes. Overall European (E) and Asian American (AA) variants frequency was 66.5% and 33.5% respectively. Similar distribution was observed in cases with higher proportions of European or African ancestry. A higher Native American ancestry was significantly associated with higher frequency of E variants (median ancestry>23.6%, Age and place of birth adjusted OR: 3.55, 95% CI: 1.26-10.03, p=0.01). Even further, an inverse geographic correlation between Native American ancestry and frequency of infections with AA variants was observed (ρ=-0.825, p=0.008). Regions with higher proportion of Native American ancestry had a lower frequency of AA variants of HPV 16. This study suggests replacement of AA variants by E variants of human papillomavirus 16 in cervical cancer cases with high Native American ancestry. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Health-related quality of life of African-American female breast cancer survivors, survivors of other cancers, and those without cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claridy, Mechelle D; Ansa, Benjamin; Damus, Francesca; Alema-Mensah, Ernest; Smith, Selina A

    2018-04-27

    The purpose of this study was to compare differences in health-related quality of life (HRQOL) between African-American female breast cancer survivors, African-American female survivors of other cancers, and African-American women with no history of cancer. Using data from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), the HRQOL of African-American women aged 35 years or older was compared by cancer status. Physical and mental health items from the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) global health scale were used to assess differences in HRQOL. For summary physical and mental health measures, no significant differences were found between breast cancer survivors and women with no history of cancer; survivors of other cancers reported poorer physical and mental health than did women with no history of cancer. Similar differences were found at the item level. When we examined the two African-American female cancer survivor groups, we found that cancer survivors whose cancer was being treated reported substantially poorer physical health and mental health than did those whose cancer was not being treated. Survivors who had private insurance and were cancer free reported better physical and mental health than did those who did not have private insurance and those who were not cancer free. Breast cancer survivors reported slightly better physical and mental health than did survivors of other cancers. Our findings highlight the need for public health agencies to adopt practices to improve the mental and physical health of African-American female survivors of cancer.

  11. Homer Wheelon, M.D., physiologist, artist, and poet: origins of the tailpieces in journals of the American Physiological Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Lawrence P; Schramm, Diana C; Jackson, F Wilson

    2006-12-01

    Since 1953, illustrations have been inserted as "tailpieces" at the ends of articles in The American Journal of Physiology and The Journal of Applied Physiology. The drawings were made by Homer Wheelon, a member of the American Physiological Society from 1919 until his death in 1960. Forty-five years after his death, Wheelon is unknown, but he contributed 32 publications to the medical literature and trained J. Earl Thomas, an important 20th century gastrointestinal physiologist. Wheelon was born into poverty in 1883 to itinerant Methodist preachers, circumstances that guided his education and career choices. Throughout his life, Wheelon exhibited a fondness and talent for art and photography and an unusual breadth of intellectual interests and knowledge. Wheelon received a bachelor's degree from the University of Washington, then studied at the University of Oregon, Northwestern University, and St. Louis University. Earning his M.D. from St. Louis University and assuming a faculty position there, Wheelon and his graduate student, Thomas, conducted widely recognized gastrointestinal research. Returning to Seattle in 1921, Wheelon became a highly respected physician and hospital administrator, but he also found time to indulge his interest in visual art and poetry. In 1933, inspired by observing a rabbit being used in a pregnancy test, Wheelon began to write and illustrate an epic, 322-page poem, Rabbit No. 202, illustrations from which became the journals' tailpieces. The present study traces Wheelon's personal life and scientific career in an attempt to understand this complex man and the origins of his unusual poem and its drawings.

  12. The American Society for Radiation Oncology's 2015 Core Physics Curriculum for Radiation Oncology Residents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burmeister, Jay, E-mail: burmeist@karmanos.org [Department of Oncology, Karmanos Cancer Center/Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Chen, Zhe [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Chetty, Indrin J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Dieterich, Sonja [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California – Davis, Sacramento, California (United States); Doemer, Anthony [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Dominello, Michael M. [Department of Oncology, Karmanos Cancer Center/Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Howell, Rebecca M. [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); McDermott, Patrick [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beaumont Health, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Nalichowski, Adrian [Karmanos Cancer Center, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Prisciandaro, Joann [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Ritter, Tim [VA Ann Arbor Healthcare and the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Smith, Chadd [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Schreiber, Eric [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Shafman, Timothy [21st Century Oncology, Fort Myers, Florida (United States); Sutlief, Steven [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California – San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Xiao, Ying [Department of Radiation Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Purpose: The American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) Physics Core Curriculum Subcommittee (PCCSC) has updated the recommended physics curriculum for radiation oncology resident education to improve consistency in teaching, intensity, and subject matter. Methods and Materials: The ASTRO PCCSC is composed of physicists and physicians involved in radiation oncology residency education. The PCCSC updated existing sections within the curriculum, created new sections, and attempted to provide additional clinical context to the curricular material through creation of practical clinical experiences. Finally, we reviewed the American Board of Radiology (ABR) blueprint of examination topics for correlation with this curriculum. Results: The new curriculum represents 56 hours of resident physics didactic education, including a 4-hour initial orientation. The committee recommends completion of this curriculum at least twice to assure both timely presentation of material and re-emphasis after clinical experience. In addition, practical clinical physics and treatment planning modules were created as a supplement to the didactic training. Major changes to the curriculum include addition of Fundamental Physics, Stereotactic Radiosurgery/Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy, and Safety and Incidents sections, and elimination of the Radiopharmaceutical Physics and Dosimetry and Hyperthermia sections. Simulation and Treatment Verification and optional Research and Development in Radiation Oncology sections were also added. A feedback loop was established with the ABR to help assure that the physics component of the ABR radiation oncology initial certification examination remains consistent with this curriculum. Conclusions: The ASTRO physics core curriculum for radiation oncology residents has been updated in an effort to identify the most important physics topics for preparing residents for careers in radiation oncology, to reflect changes in technology and practice since

  13. American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) 2012 Workforce Study: The Radiation Oncologists' and Residents' Perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohar, Surjeet, E-mail: spohar@iuhealth.org [Indiana University Health East, Indianapolis, Indiana (United States); Fung, Claire Y. [Commonwealth Newburyport Cancer Center, Newburyport, Massachusetts (United States); Hopkins, Shane [William R. Bliss Cancer Center, Ames, Iowa (United States); Miller, Robert [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Azawi, Samar [VA Veteran Hospital/University of California Irvine, Newport Beach, California (United States); Arnone, Anna; Patton, Caroline [ASTRO, Fairfax, Virginia (United States); Olsen, Christine [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: The American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) conducted the 2012 Radiation Oncology Workforce Survey to obtain an up-to-date picture of the workforce, assess its needs and concerns, and identify quality and safety improvement opportunities. The results pertaining to radiation oncologists (ROs) and residents (RORs) are presented here. Methods: The ASTRO Workforce Subcommittee, in collaboration with allied radiation oncology professional societies, conducted a survey study in early 2012. An online survey questionnaire was sent to all segments of the radiation oncology workforce. Respondents who were actively working were included in the analysis. This manuscript describes the data for ROs and RORs. Results: A total of 3618 ROs and 568 RORs were surveyed. The response rate for both groups was 29%, with 1047 RO and 165 ROR responses. Among ROs, the 2 most common racial groups were white (80%) and Asian (15%), and the male-to-female ratio was 2.85 (74% male). The median age of ROs was 51. ROs averaged 253.4 new patient consults in a year and 22.9 on-treatment patients. More than 86% of ROs reported being satisfied or very satisfied overall with their career. Close to half of ROs reported having burnout feelings. There was a trend toward more frequent burnout feelings with increasing numbers of new patient consults. ROs' top concerns were related to documentation, reimbursement, and patients' health insurance coverage. Ninety-five percent of ROs felt confident when implementing new technology. Fifty-one percent of ROs thought that the supply of ROs was balanced with demand, and 33% perceived an oversupply. Conclusions: This study provides a current snapshot of the 2012 radiation oncology physician workforce. There was a predominance of whites and men. Job satisfaction level was high. However a substantial fraction of ROs reported burnout feelings. Perceptions about supply and demand balance were mixed. ROs top concerns reflect areas of attention

  14. American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society ankle-hindfoot scale: A cross-cultural adaptation and validation study from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vosoughi, Amir Reza; Roustaei, Narges; Mahdaviazad, Hamideh

    2017-02-17

    The use of valid and reliable outcome rating scales is essential for evaluating the result of different treatments and interventions. The purposes of this study were to translate and culturally adapt the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society ankle-hindfoot scale (AOFAS-AHFS) into Persian languages and evaluate its psychometric properties. Forward-backward translation and cultural adaptation method were used to develop Persian version of AOFAS-AHFS. From March to July 2016, one hundred consecutive patients with ankle and hindfoot injuries were included. Internal consistency and reproducibility were evaluated using Cronbach's alpha, Spearman's rank correlation coefficient and Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) respectively. Construct validity reported which compare the outcome rating scale measurements with Short Form-36 (SF-36), also convergent and discriminant validity evaluated using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. Mean age (SD) of the patients was 41.95±13.45years. Cronbach's α coefficient, Spearman's rho and ICC values were 0.71, 0.89 and 0.90 respectively. Total score of AOFAS-AHFS and SF-36 domains has a correlation ranged between 0.17-0.55. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient of 0.4 was exceeded by all items with the exception of stability. The Spearman's rank correlation between each item in functional subscales with its own subscales was higher than the correlation between these items and other subscales. Persian version of AOFAS-AHFS provides additional reliable and valid instrument which can be used to assess broad range of patients with foot and ankle disorders that speaking in Persian. However, it seems that the original version of AOFAS-AHFS needs some revisions. Copyright © 2017 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Beliefs and Behaviors about Breast Cancer Recurrence Risk Reduction among African American Breast Cancer Survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Ansa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence suggests that breast cancer recurrence risk is linked to lifestyle behaviors. This study examined correlations between breast cancer recurrence, risk reduction beliefs, and related behaviors among African American breast cancer survivors (AA BCSs. Study participants included 191 AA BCSs, mean age = 56.3 years, who completed a lifestyle assessment tool. Most respondents believed that being overweight (52.7%, lack of physical activity (48.7%, and a high fat diet (63.2% are associated with breast cancer recurrence. Over 65% considered themselves overweight; one third (33.5% agreed that losing weight could prevent recurrence, 33.0% disagreed, while the remaining 33.5% did not know; and nearly half (47.9% believed that recurrence could be prevented by increasing physical activity. Almost 90% survivors with BMI < 25 Kg/M2 reported no recurrence compared to 75.7% with BMI ≥ 25 Kg/M2 (p = 0.06; nearly all of the women (99.2% answered “yes” to seeking professional help to lose weight, 79.7% of which were recurrence-free (p = 0.05. These results provide information about AA BCSs’ beliefs and behaviors protective against breast cancer recurrence. Additional research is warranted to determine the effectiveness of educational interventions for AA BCSs that promote consumption of a healthy diet and engaging in regular physical activity.

  16. Young Asian Americans' knowledge and perceptions of cervical cancer and the human papillomavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gor, Beverly J; Chilton, Janice A; Camingue, Pamela T; Hajek, Richard A

    2011-02-01

    Cervical cancer is a major health disparity among Asian Americans, with cervical cancer rates of Vietnamese women being significantly higher than for the general US female population and low screening rates reported for Asian American females. Focus groups and interviews were conducted with young Vietnamese, Filipino, and Korean adults (ages 18-29) to collect information on knowledge, perceptions and sources of information regarding cervical cancer, Pap tests and the human papillomavirus. 16 Korean, 18 Vietnamese, and 18 Filipino (50% female) adults participated in the study. Many participants had never heard of HPV, cervical cancer and Pap testing. Cervical cancer screening rates were low for Korean and Vietnamese females and were influenced by moral beliefs and lack of awareness. Culturally relevant education materials that consider specific Asian ethnicity and language are needed to increase awareness of cervical cancer, Pap testing, and HPV among Asian American young adults.

  17. Validation of a prediction model that allows direct comparison of the Oxford Knee Score and American Knee Society clinical rating system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maempel, J F; Clement, N D; Brenkel, I J; Walmsley, P J

    2015-04-01

    This study demonstrates a significant correlation between the American Knee Society (AKS) Clinical Rating System and the Oxford Knee Score (OKS) and provides a validated prediction tool to estimate score conversion. A total of 1022 patients were prospectively clinically assessed five years after TKR and completed AKS assessments and an OKS questionnaire. Multivariate regression analysis demonstrated significant correlations between OKS and the AKS knee and function scores but a stronger correlation (r = 0.68, p Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  18. Current rates of publication for podium and poster presentations at the american society for surgery of the hand annual meetings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abzug, Joshua M; Osterman, Meredith; Rivlin, Michael; Paryavi, Ebrahim; Osterman, A Lee

    2014-09-01

    Research projects are presented at the Annual Meetings of the American Society for Surgery of the Hand (ASSH). It is unknown how many achieve publication in peer-reviewed journals. We sought to determine current rates of publication of podium and poster presentations. All ASSH podium and poster presentations from 2000 to 2005 were reviewed, and an Internet-based search using PubMed and Google was conducted to determine whether the presented studies had been published. Times to publication and journal names were recorded. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics. Fisher's exact test was conducted to compare current trends with previous trends. Of 1127 podium and poster presentations reviewed, 46% were published in peer-reviewed journals. Forty-seven percent of published presentations (242 presentations) were in Journal of Hand Surgery, and 11% (59 presentations) were in Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. Forty-five percent of presentations were published within 2 years and 66% within 3 years. The publication rate for podium presentations was significantly higher than that previously reported for Journal of Hand Surgery, at 54% compared with 44% (P=0.004). Currently, fewer than half of the studies presented at Annual Meetings of the ASSH achieve publication in peer-reviewed journals. Presentations are most likely to be published within 3 years, and almost half are published in Journal of Hand Surgery.

  19. Automatic detection of rhythmic and periodic patterns in critical care EEG based on American Clinical Neurophysiology Society (ACNS) standardized terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürbass, F; Hartmann, M M; Halford, J J; Koren, J; Herta, J; Gruber, A; Baumgartner, C; Kluge, T

    2015-09-01

    Continuous EEG from critical care patients needs to be evaluated time efficiently to maximize the treatment effect. A computational method will be presented that detects rhythmic and periodic patterns according to the critical care EEG terminology (CCET) of the American Clinical Neurophysiology Society (ACNS). The aim is to show that these detected patterns support EEG experts in writing neurophysiological reports. First of all, three case reports exemplify the evaluation procedure using graphically presented detections. Second, 187 hours of EEG from 10 critical care patients were used in a comparative trial study. For each patient the result of a review session using the EEG and the visualized pattern detections was compared to the original neurophysiology report. In three out of five patients with reported seizures, all seizures were reported correctly. In two patients, several subtle clinical seizures with unclear EEG correlation were missed. Lateralized periodic patterns (LPD) were correctly found in 2/2 patients and EEG slowing was correctly found in 7/9 patients. In 8/10 patients, additional EEG features were found including LPDs, EEG slowing, and seizures. The use of automatic pattern detection will assist in review of EEG and increase efficiency. The implementation of bedside surveillance devices using our detection algorithm appears to be feasible and remains to be confirmed in further multicenter studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. American Contact Dermatitis Society Contact Allergy Management Program: An Epidemiologic Tool to Determine Relative Prevalence of Contact Allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheman, Andrew; Severson, David

    2016-01-01

    Data on the prevalence of contact allergy in North America are currently reported by groups of academic contact allergy specialists at select academic centers. Sampling of data from numerous centers across North America, including practices performing more limited patch testing, would provide a broader perspective of contact allergen prevalence in North America. The American Contact Dermatitis Society Contact Allergy Management Program is an ideal tool for collection of epidemiologic data regarding contact allergy prevalence in North America. The aim of the study was to identify the relative prevalence of contact allergy to common contact allergens in North America. Mapping of Contact Allergy Management Program (CAMP) data was performed to allow analysis of how frequently searches were performed for various contact allergens. The number of searches performed for specific allergens provides a measure of the relative prevalence of contact allergy to these allergens. The top 35 allergens for the period from November 18, 2012 to November 18, 2013 are reported. Although these data are useful, specific recommendations for minor alterations to CAMP are discussed, which will allow future CAMP data to be stratified and more powerful. With minor modifications, CAMP can provide a quantum leap in the reporting of contact allergy epidemiologic data in North America.

  1. Interview: the National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke/American Epilepsy Society benchmarks and research priorities for epilepsy research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstein, Daniel H

    2011-10-01

    Daniel H Lowenstein, MD, is the Robert B and Ellinor Aird Professor and Vice-Chairman of Neurology, Director of the Epilepsy Center, and Director of Physician-Scientist Education and Training at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF). He received his BA in Mathematics from the University of Colorado and MD from Harvard Medical School. He completed his neurology residency training at UCSF. Dr Lowenstein is a clinician-scientist who has studied both basic science and clinical aspects of epilepsy. In recent years, he has been an organizer of a large-scale, international effort to study the complex genetics of epilepsy, known as the Epilepsy Phenome/Genome Project. He has been actively involved in advancing the cause of epilepsy at the national and international level. Dr Lowenstein served as President of the American Epilepsy Society from 2003 to 2004 and the National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke (NINDS) Advisory Council from 2000 to 2004, and has overseen the development of the NINDS Epilepsy Research Benchmarks since their inception in 2000.

  2. Electronic Communication in Plastic Surgery: Guiding Principles from the American Society of Plastic Surgeons Health Policy Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberlin, Kyle R; Perdikis, Galen; Damitz, Lynn; Krochmal, Dan J; Kalliainen, Loree K; Bonawitz, Steven C

    2018-02-01

    With the advancement of technology, electronic communication has become an important mode of communication within plastic and reconstructive surgery. This can take the form of e-mail, text messaging, video conferencing, and social media, among others. There are currently no defined American Society of Plastic Surgeons guidelines for appropriate professional use of these technologies. A search was performed on PubMed and the Cochrane database; terms included "telemedicine," "text messaging," "HIPAA," "metadata," "video conferencing," "photo sharing," "social media," "Facebook," "Twitter," and "Instagram." Initial screening of all identified articles was performed; the level of evidence, limitations, and recommendations were evaluated and articles were reviewed. A total of 654 articles were identified in the level I screening process; after more comprehensive review, 41 articles fit inclusion criteria: social networking, 12; telemedicine, 11; text messaging, 10; metadata, four; video conferencing, three; and Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, one. General themes were identified from these articles and guidelines proposed. Electronic communication can provide an efficient method of information exchange for professional purposes within plastic surgery but should be used thoughtfully and with all professional, legal, and ethical considerations.

  3. How Should Social Media Be Used in Transplantation? A Survey of The American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Macey L; Adler, Joel T; Van Pilsum Rasmussen, Sarah E; Thomas, Alvin G; Herron, Patrick D; Waldram, Madeleine M; Ruck, Jessica M; Purnell, Tanjala S; DiBrito, Sandra R; Holscher, Courtenay M; Haugen, Christine E; Alimi, Yewande; Konel, Jonathan M; Eno, Ann K; Garonzik Wang, Jacqueline M; Gordon, Elisa J; Lentine, Krista L; Schaffer, Randolph L; Cameron, Andrew M; Segev, Dorry L

    2018-04-21

    Social media platforms are increasingly used in surgery and have shown promise as effective tools to promote deceased donation and expand living donor transplantation. There is growing need to understand how social media-driven communication is perceived by providers in the field of transplantation. We surveyed 299 members of the American Society of Transplant Surgeons (ASTS) about their use of, attitudes toward, and perceptions of social media and analyzed relationships between responses and participant characteristics. Respondents used social media to communicate with: family and friends (76%), surgeons (59%), transplant professionals (57%), transplant recipients (21%), living donors (16%), and waitlisted candidates (15%). Most respondents (83%) reported using social media for at least one purpose. While most (61%) supported sharing information with transplant recipients via social media, 42% believed it should not be used to facilitate living donor-recipient matching. Younger age (p=0.02) and fewer years of experience in the field of transplantation (p=0.03) were associated with stronger belief that social media can be influential in living organ donation. Respondents at transplant centers with higher reported use of social media had more favorable views about sharing information with transplant recipients (psocial media. Transplant center involvement and support for social media may influence clinician perceptions and practices. Increasing use of social media among transplant professionals may provide an opportunity to deliver high quality information to patients.

  4. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/American Society of Engineering Education (ASEE) Summer Faculty Fellowship Program - 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannerot, Richard B. (Editor); Sickorez, Donn G. (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    The 2000 Johnson Space Center (JSC) National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) Summer Faculty Fellowship Program was conducted by the University of Houston and JSC. The 10-week program was operated under the auspices of the ASEE. The program at JSC, as well as the programs at other NASA Centers, was funded by the Office of University Affairs, NASA Headquarters, Washington, D.C. The objectives of the program, which began in 1965 at JSC and 1964 nationally, are to (1) further the professional knowledge of qualified engineering and science faculty, (2) stimulate an exchange of ideas between participants and NASA, (3) enrich and refresh the research and teaching activities of participants' institutions, and (4) contribute to the research objectives of the NASA Centers. Each faculty fellow spent at least 10 weeks at JSC engaged in a research project commensurate with her/his interests and background, and worked in collabroation with a NASA/JSC colleague. This document is a compilation of the final reports on the research projects done by the faculty fellows during the summer of 2000.

  5. The Third American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine Practice Advisory on Local Anesthetic Systemic Toxicity: Executive Summary 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Joseph M; Barrington, Michael J; Fettiplace, Michael R; Gitman, Marina; Memtsoudis, Stavros G; Mörwald, Eva E; Rubin, Daniel S; Weinberg, Guy

    2018-02-01

    The American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine's Third Practice Advisory on local anesthetic systemic toxicity is an interim update from its 2010 advisory. The advisory focuses on new information regarding the mechanisms of lipid resuscitation, updated frequency estimates, the preventative role of ultrasound guidance, changes to case presentation patterns, and limited information related to local infiltration anesthesia and liposomal bupivacaine. In addition to emerging information, the advisory updates recommendations pertaining to prevention, recognition, and treatment of local anesthetic systemic toxicity. WHAT'S NEW IN THIS UPDATE?: This interim update summarizes recent scientific findings that have enhanced our understanding of the mechanisms that lead to lipid emulsion reversal of LAST, including rapid partitioning, direct inotropy, and post-conditioning. Since the previous practice advisory, epidemiological data have emerged that suggest a lower frequency of LAST as reported by single institutions and some registries, nevertheless a considerable number of events still occur within the general community. Contemporary case reports suggest a trend toward delayed presentation, which may mirror the increased use of ultrasound guidance (fewer intravascular injections), local infiltration techniques (slower systemic uptake), and continuous local anesthetic infusions. Small patient size and sarcopenia are additional factors that increase potential risk for LAST. An increasing number of reported events occur outside of the traditional hospital setting and involve non-anesthesiologists.

  6. Active smoking and survival following breast cancer among African American and non-African American women in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parada, Humberto; Sun, Xuezheng; Tse, Chiu-Kit; Olshan, Andrew F; Troester, Melissa A; Conway, Kathleen

    2017-09-01

    To examine racial differences in smoking rates at the time of breast cancer diagnosis and subsequent survival among African American and non-African American women in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study (Phases I/II), a large population-based North Carolina study. We interviewed 788 African American and 1,020 Caucasian/non-African American women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer from 1993 to 2000, to assess smoking history. After a median follow-up of 13.56 years, we identified 717 deaths using the National Death Index; 427 were breast cancer-related. We used Cox regression to examine associations between self-reported measures of smoking and breast cancer-specific survival within 5 years and up to 18 years after diagnosis conditional on 5-year survival. We examined race and estrogen receptor status as potential modifiers. Current (vs never) smoking was not associated with 5-year survival; however, risk of 13 year conditional breast cancer-specific mortality was elevated among women who were current smokers at diagnosis (HR 1.54, 95% CI 1.06-2.25), compared to never smokers. Although smoking rates were similar among African American (22.0%) and non-African American (22.1%) women, risk of breast cancer-specific mortality was elevated among African American (HR 1.69, 95% CI 1.00-2.85), but only weakly elevated among non-African American (HR 1.22, 95% CI 0.70-2.14) current (vs. never) smokers (P Interaction  = 0.30). Risk of breast cancer-specific mortality was also elevated among current (vs never) smokers diagnosed with ER - (HR 2.58, 95% CI 1.35-4.93), but not ER + (HR 1.11, 95% CI 0.69-1.78) tumors (P Interaction  = 0.17). Smoking may negatively impact long-term survival following breast cancer. Racial differences in long-term survival, as related to smoking, may be driven by ER status, rather than by differences in smoking patterns.

  7. Knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of Arab-American women regarding inherited cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellon, Suzanne; Gauthier, Jacqueline; Cichon, Michelle; Hammad, Adnan; Simon, Michael S

    2013-04-01

    The increasing incidence of breast cancer in the Arab world, coupled with a relatively early age of onset, raises concern for the presence of hereditary risk factors in this population. However, due to potential structural and cultural barriers, Arab Americans make up the smallest percentage of individuals tested for Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer Syndrome in the United States. The objectives of this qualitative pilot focus group of 13 Arab-American women were to explore attitudes, knowledge and beliefs regarding hereditary breast cancer in the Arab-American community in metropolitan Detroit, identify barriers that would prevent women from seeking hereditary cancer screening/testing and determine who women would talk to about inherited cancer. Results indicated that cultural beliefs and personal experiences with cancer influenced the women's perspectives on hereditary cancer risk. A high level of secrecy about cancer within Arab-American families was present, which may prevent accurate risk assessment and referral for genetic services. Other identified barriers that may influence hereditary risk assessment included stigma, fears and misconceptions of cancer. While these barriers were present, participants also expressed a strong need for education and tailored cancer risk information for their community.

  8. Comparison of Performance Characteristics of American College of Radiology TI-RADS, Korean Society of Thyroid Radiology TIRADS, and American Thyroid Association Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, William D; Teefey, Sharlene A; Reading, Carl C; Langer, Jill E; Beland, Michael D; Szabunio, Margaret M; Desser, Terry S

    2018-05-01

    The American College of Radiology (ACR) Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (TI-RADS) provides guidelines to practitioners who interpret sonographic examinations of thyroid nodules. The purpose of this study is to compare the ACR TI-RADS system with two other well-established guidelines. The ACR TI-RADS, the Korean Society of Thyroid Radiology (KSThR) Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (TIRADS), and the American Thyroid Association guidelines were compared using 3422 thyroid nodules for which pathologic findings were available. The composition, echogenicity, margins, echogenic foci, and size of the nodules were assessed to determine whether a recommendation would be made for fine-needle aspiration or follow-up sonography when each system was used. The biopsy yield of malignant findings, the yield of follow-up, and the percentage of malignant and benign nodules that would be biopsied were determined for all nodules and for nodules 1 cm or larger. The percentage of nodules that could not be classified was 0%, 3.9%, and 13.9% for the ACR TI-RADS, KSThR TIRADS, and ATA guidelines, respectively. The biopsy yield of malignancy was 14.2%, 10.2%, and 10.0% for nodules assessed by the ACR TI-RADS, KSThR TIRADS, and ATA guidelines, respectively. The percentage of malignant nodules that were biopsied was 68.2%, 78.7%, and 75.9% for the ACR TI-RADS, the KSThR TIRADS, and the ATA guidelines, respectively, whereas the percentage of malignant nodules that would be either biopsied or followed was 89.2% for the ACR TI-RADS. The percentage of benign nodules that would be biopsied was 47.1%, 79.7%, and 78.1% for the ACR TI-RADS, the KSThR TIRADS, and the ATA guidelines, respectively. The percentage of benign nodules that would be either biopsied or followed was 65.2% for the ACR TI-RADS. The ACR TI-RADS performs well when compared with other well-established guidelines.

  9. Staging of endometrial cancer with MRI: Guidelines of the European Society of Urogenital Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinkel, K. [Geneva University Hospital and Institut de Radiologie, Clinique des Grangettes, Chene-Bougeries/Geneva (Switzerland); Clinique des Grangettes, Institut de radiologie, Chene-Bougerie/Geneva (Switzerland); Forstner, R. [LandesklinikenSalzburg, Zentralroentgeninstitut, Salzburg (Austria); Danza, F.M. [Universita Cattolica del S. Cuore, Dipartimento di Bioimmagini e scienze radiologiche, Rome (Italy); Oleaga, L. [Hospital Clinic, Radiology Department, Barcelona (Spain); Cunha, T.M. [Instituto Portugues de Oncologia de Lisboa Francisco Gentil, Department of Radiology, Lisboa Codex (Portugal); Bergman, A. [Uppsala University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Uppsala (Sweden); Barentsz, J.O. [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Balleyguier, C. [Institut de Cancerologie Gustave Roussy, Department of Radiology, Villejuif Cedex (France); Brkljacic, B. [University Hospital ' ' Dubrava' ' , Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zagreb (Croatia); University of Zagreb, Medical School, Zagreb (Croatia); Spencer, J.A. [St James' s Institute of Oncology, Department of Clinical Radiology, Leeds (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-15

    The purpose of this study was to define guidelines for endometrial cancer staging with MRI. The technique included critical review and expert consensus of MRI protocols by the female imaging subcommittee of the European Society of Urogenital Radiology, from ten European institutions, and published literature between 1999 and 2008. The results indicated that high field MRI should include at least two T2-weighted sequences in sagittal, axial oblique or coronal oblique orientation (short and long axis of the uterine body) of the pelvic content. High-resolution post-contrast images acquired at 2 min {+-} 30 s after intravenous contrast injection are suggested to be optimal for the diagnosis of myometrial invasion. If cervical invasion is suspected, additional slice orientation perpendicular to the axis of the endocervical channel is recommended. Due to the limited sensitivity of MRI to detect lymph node metastasis without lymph node-specific contrast agents, retroperitoneal lymph node screening with pre-contrast sequences up to the level of the kidneys is optional. The likelihood of lymph node invasion and the need for staging lymphadenectomy are also indicated by high-grade histology at endometrial tissue sampling and by deep myometrial or cervical invasion detected by MRI. In conclusion, expert consensus and literature review lead to an optimized MRI protocol to stage endometrial cancer. (orig.)

  10. Staging of endometrial cancer with MRI: Guidelines of the European Society of Urogenital Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinkel, K.; Forstner, R.; Danza, F.M.; Oleaga, L.; Cunha, T.M.; Bergman, A.; Barentsz, J.O.; Balleyguier, C.; Brkljacic, B.; Spencer, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to define guidelines for endometrial cancer staging with MRI. The technique included critical review and expert consensus of MRI protocols by the female imaging subcommittee of the European Society of Urogenital Radiology, from ten European institutions, and published literature between 1999 and 2008. The results indicated that high field MRI should include at least two T2-weighted sequences in sagittal, axial oblique or coronal oblique orientation (short and long axis of the uterine body) of the pelvic content. High-resolution post-contrast images acquired at 2 min ± 30 s after intravenous contrast injection are suggested to be optimal for the diagnosis of myometrial invasion. If cervical invasion is suspected, additional slice orientation perpendicular to the axis of the endocervical channel is recommended. Due to the limited sensitivity of MRI to detect lymph node metastasis without lymph node-specific contrast agents, retroperitoneal lymph node screening with pre-contrast sequences up to the level of the kidneys is optional. The likelihood of lymph node invasion and the need for staging lymphadenectomy are also indicated by high-grade histology at endometrial tissue sampling and by deep myometrial or cervical invasion detected by MRI. In conclusion, expert consensus and literature review lead to an optimized MRI protocol to stage endometrial cancer. (orig.)

  11. Socioecological perspectives on cervical cancer and cervical cancer screening among Asian American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jongwon; Carvallo, Mauricio

    2014-10-01

    Although cervical cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers among Vietnamese American women (VAW) and Korean American women (KAW), both groups consistently report much lower rates of cervical cancer screening compared with other Asian ethnic subgroups and non-Hispanic Whites. This study aimed to explore multilevel factors that may underlie low screening rates among VAW and KAW living in a city where their ethnic communities are relatively small. The socioecological model was used as a conceptual framework. Thirty participants were conveniently recruited from ethnic beauty salons run by VA and KA cosmetologists in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The participants' average age was 44.6 years (SD = .50; range = 21-60). Most participants were married (80 %) and employed (73.3 %), and had health insurance (83.3 %). A qualitative interview was conducted in Vietnamese or Korean and transcribed verbatim. A thematic content analysis was used to identify major codes, categories, and patterns across the transcripts. The study identified several factors at the individual (e.g., pregnancy, poverty, personality), interpersonal (e.g., family responsibility, mother as influential referent), and community (e.g., lack of availability, community size) levels. The study sheds light on four major areas that must be taken into consideration in the development of culturally appropriate, community-based interventions aimed to reduce disparities in cervical cancer screening among ethnic minority women in the United States: (1) ethnic community size and geographic location; (2) cross-cultural similarities and dissimilarities; (3) targeting of not only unmarried young women, but also close referents; and (4) utilization of trusted resources within social networks.

  12. European Society of Gynaecologic Oncology Quality Indicators for Advanced Ovarian Cancer Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querleu, Denis; Planchamp, François; Chiva, Luis; Fotopoulou, Christina; Barton, Desmond; Cibula, David; Aletti, Giovanni; Carinelli, Silvestro; Creutzberg, Carien; Davidson, Ben; Harter, Philip; Lundvall, Lene; Marth, Christian; Morice, Philippe; Rafii, Arash; Ray-Coquard, Isabelle; Rockall, Andrea; Sessa, Cristiana; van der Zee, Ate; Vergote, Ignace; du Bois, Andreas

    2016-09-01

    The surgical management of advanced ovarian cancer involves complex surgery. Implementation of a quality management program has a major impact on survival. The goal of this work was to develop a list of quality indicators (QIs) for advanced ovarian cancer surgery that can be used to audit and improve the clinical practice. This task has been carried out under the auspices of the European Society of Gynaecologic Oncology (ESGO). Quality indicators were based on scientific evidence and/or expert consensus. A 4-step evaluation process included a systematic literature search for the identification of potential QIs and the documentation of scientific evidence, physical meetings of an ad hoc multidisciplinarity International Development Group, an internal validation of the targets and scoring system, and an external review process involving physicians and patients. Ten structural, process, or outcome indicators were selected. Quality indicators 1 to 3 are related to achievement of complete cytoreduction, caseload in the center, training, and experience of the surgeon. Quality indicators 4 to 6 are related to the overall management, including active participation to clinical research, decision-making process within a structured multidisciplinary team, and preoperative workup. Quality indicator 7 addresses the high value of adequate perioperative management. Quality indicators 8 to 10 highlight the need of recording pertinent information relevant to improvement of quality. An ESGO-approved template for the operative report has been designed. Quality indicators were described using a structured format specifying what the indicator is measuring, measurability specifications, and targets. Each QI was associated with a score, and an assessment form was built. The ESGO quality criteria can be used for self-assessment, for institutional or governmental quality assurance programs, and for the certification of centers. Quality indicators and corresponding targets give

  13. Lumbee Native American ancestry and the incidence of aggressive histologic subtypes of endometrial cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea Zhang

    2015-08-01

    Conclusion: In this retrospective cohort analysis, Lumbee Native American ancestry was not a significant independent predictor of rates of high-risk histological subtypes of endometrial cancer or poor survival outcomes.

  14. Impact of Culture on Breast Cancer Screening in Chinese American Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Judy H

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop and use culturally appropriate and stage-tailored Chinese language breast cancer brochures to promote older Chinese American women's intentions to obtain mammography...

  15. Impact of Culture on Breast Cancer Screening in Chinese American Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Judy H

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop and use culturally appropriate and stage-tailored Chinese language breast cancer brochures to promote older Chinese-American women's intentions to obtain mammography...

  16. Impact of Culture on Breast Cancer Screening in Chinese American Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Judy

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop and use culturally appropriate and stage-tailored Chinese language breast cancer brochures to promote older Chinese-American women's intentions to obtain mammography...

  17. Impact of Culture on Breast Cancer Screening in Chinese American Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huei-Yu Wang, Judy

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop and use culturally appropriate and stage-tailored Chinese language breast cancer brochures to promote older Chinese-American women's intentions to obtain mammography...

  18. Prostate Cancer Screening Efficacy in African-Americans Using Case-Control Methodology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Godley, Paul

    1999-01-01

    ...-control study of PSA screening for prostate cancer in African Americans. The lack of symptoms documented in the patient's medical record was to be used as evidence that PSA was intended as a screening examination...

  19. Development of Prostate Cancer Survey Measures for African American Urban Men

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Klassen, Ann

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the Minority Population Focussed Training Program was to prepare the trainee to conduct research in the area of excess burden of prostate cancer among African American men, with excess...

  20. Partnerships in Health Promotion for Black Americans. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the National Society of Allied Health (Virginia Beach, VA, March 29-30, 1985).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Harry E., III, Comp.

    This conference report of the National Society of Allied Health focusses on the theme of health promotion for black Americans, with emphasis on creating cooperative partnerships to address the various social and environmental conditions adversely affecting minority group health status. The keynote speaker provided an historical perspective on…

  1. An Experimental Copyright Moratorium: Study of a Proposed Solution to the Copyright Photocopying Problem. Final Report to the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilprin, Laurence B.

    The Committee to Investigate Copyright Problems (CICP), a non-profit organization dedicated to resolving the conflict known as the "copyright photocopying problem" was joined by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), a large national publisher of technical and scientific standards, in a plan to simulate a long-proposed…

  2. The Role of the Small Private College in Creating a Moral, Spiritual Climate in American Society. CASC Newsletter Supplements, 1976-77.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, Mark

    The capacity of American institutions to preserve and convey basic values to new generations has substantially diminished, suggests this former U.S. Senator from Oregon. His opinion is that the small private college can help create a moral and spiritual climate in society. The range of topics discussed includes: college preservation of values;…

  3. Characteristics and predictors of oral cancer knowledge in a predominantly African American community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjei Boakye, Eric; Hussaini, Adnan S.; Sujijantarat, Nanthiya; Ganesh, Rajan N.; Snider, Matthew; Thompson, Devin; Varvares, Mark A.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To characterize smoking and alcohol use, and to describe predictors of oral cancer knowledge among a predominantly African-American population. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted between September, 2013 among drag racers and fans in East St. Louis. Oral cancer knowledge was derived from combining questionnaire items to form knowledge score. Covariates examined included age, sex, race, marital status, education status, income level, insurance status, tobacco and alcohol use. Adjusted linear regression analysis measured predictors of oral cancer knowledge. Results Three hundred and four participants completed questionnaire; 72.7% were African Americans. Smoking rate was 26.7%, alcohol use was 58.3%, and mean knowledge score was 4.60 ± 2.52 out of 17. In final adjusted regression model, oral cancer knowledge was associated with race and education status. Compared with Caucasians, African Americans were 29% less likely to have high oral cancer knowledge (β = -0.71; 95% CI: -1.35, -0.07); and participants with a high school diploma or less were 124% less likely to have high oral cancer knowledge compared with college graduates (β = -1.24; 95% CI: -2.44, -0.41). Conclusions There was lower oral cancer knowledge among African Americans and those with low education. The prevalence of smoking was also very high. Understanding predictors of oral cancer knowledge is important in future design of educational interventions specifically targeted towards high-risk group for oral cancer. PMID:28545057

  4. Acculturation and Cancer Screening among Asian Americans: Role of Health Insurance and Having a Regular Physician

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sunmin; Chen, Lu; Jung, Mary Y.; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Juon, Hee-Soon

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is the leading cause of death among Asian Americans, but screening rates are significantly lower in Asians than in non-Hispanic Whites. This study examined associations between acculturation and three types of cancer screening (colorectal, cervical, and breast), focusing on the role of health insurance and having a regular physician. A cross-sectional study of 851 Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese Americans was conducted in Maryland. Acculturation was measured using an abridged version o...

  5. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs of Arab-American Women Regarding Inherited Cancer Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Mellon, Suzanne; Gauthier, Jacqueline; Cichon, Michelle; Hammad, Adnan; Simon, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    The increasing incidence of breast cancer in the Arab world, coupled with a relatively early age of onset, raises concern for the presence of hereditary risk factors in this population. However, due to potential structural and cultural barriers, Arab Americans make up the smallest percentage of individuals tested for Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer Syndrome in the United States. The objectives of this qualitative pilot focus group of 13 Arab-American women were to explore attitudes, know...

  6. Effect of Tribal Language Use on Colorectal Cancer Screening among American Indians

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzales, Angela A.; Garroutte, Eva; Ton, Thanh G.N.; Goldberg, Jack; Buchwald, Dedra

    2012-01-01

    American Indians have one of the lowest colorectal cancer (CRC) screening rates for any racial/ethnic group in the U.S., yet reasons for their low screening participation are poorly understood. Limited English language use may create barriers to cancer screening in Hispanic and other ethnic minority immigrant populations; the extent to which this hypothesis is generalizable to American Indians is unknown. We examine whether tribal (indigenous) language use is associated with knowledge and use...

  7. Dietary Patterns and Colon Cancer Risk in Whites and African Americans in the North Carolina Colon Cancer Study

    OpenAIRE

    Satia, Jessie A.; Tseng, Marilyn; Galanko, Joseph A.; Martin, Christopher; Sandler, Robert S.

    2009-01-01

    We examined associations of dietary patterns with colon cancer risk in African Americans and Whites from a case-control study in North Carolina. Incident colon cancer cases, 40 to 80 yr (n = 636), and matched controls (n = 1,042) were interviewed in person to elicit information on potential colon cancer risk factors. A validated food frequency questionnaire adapted to include regional foods captured diet over the year prior to diagnosis (cases) or interview date (controls). Three meaningful i...

  8. Look local: the value of cancer surveillance and reporting by American Indian clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, Paul D; Strickland, Rick; Stephenson, Laura; Pierce-Hudson, Kimmine; Matloub, Jacqueline; Waukau, Jerry; Adams, Alexandra; Kaur, Judith; Remington, Patrick L

    2013-11-27

    Cancer incidence and mortality rates for American Indians in the Northern Plains region of the United States are among the highest in the nation. Reliable cancer surveillance data are essential to help reduce this burden; however, racial data in state cancer registries are often misclassified, and cases are often underreported. We used a community-based participatory research approach to conduct a retrospective ascertainment of cancer cases in clinic medical records over a 9-year period (1995-2003) and compared the results with the state cancer registry to evaluate missing or racially misclassified cases. Six tribal and/or urban Indian clinics participated in the study. The project team consisted of participating clinics, a state cancer registry, a comprehensive cancer center, an American Indian/Alaska Native Leadership Initiative on Cancer, and a set of diverse organizational partners. Clinic personnel were trained by project staff to accurately identify cancer cases in clinic records. These records were then matched with the state cancer registry to assess misclassification and underreporting. Forty American Indian cases were identified that were either missing or misclassified in the state registry. Adding these cases to the registry increased the number of American Indian cases by 21.3% during the study period (P = .05). Our results indicate that direct reporting of cancer cases by tribal and urban Indian health clinics to a state cancer registry improved the quality of the data available for cancer surveillance. Higher-quality data can advance the efforts of cancer prevention and control stakeholders to address disparities in Native communities.

  9. Vietnamese American women’s beliefs and perceptions on cervical cancer, cervical cancer screening, and cancer prevention vaccines: A community-based participatory study

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    Connie Kim Yen Nguyen-Truong

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer remains commonly diagnosed in Vietnamese American women. Despite efforts to increase cervical cancer screening among Vietnamese American women, participation rates are persistently lower than the national goal. The objective of this study is to explore beliefs of Vietnamese American women about cervical cancer, cervical cancer screening, and cancer prevention vaccines. A qualitative descriptive investigation captured group perceptions about meaning and beliefs of cervical cancer, screening, and cancer prevention vaccines, and participants’ stories using a community-based participatory research approach. Forty Vietnamese American women were recruited from the Portland, Oregon metropolitan area into four focus groups. Using a process of directed content analysis, focus group transcripts were coded for themes. We found that cervical cancer continues to be a difficult topic to discuss, and Vietnamese American women may not bring the topic up themselves to their health care providers. Some women experienced intense emotions of fear or shame of having their cervix examined. Women delayed seeking cervical cancer screening and needed to have early warning signs, which guided them as to when to seek health care. Women focused on cleanliness through vaginal and/or perineal washing as primary prevention for cervical cancer. There were limited awareness and knowledge about cancer prevention vaccines, specifically the human papillomavirus. Some women relied heavily on their informal social networks of family, friends, or community for health knowledge. Fear and misunderstanding dominated the beliefs of Vietnamese American women about cervical cancer screening and prevention. These findings underscored the importance of having culturally-specific findings, which will inform a multicomponent intervention to promote cervical cancer screening and cancer prevention vaccine uptake within this population.

  10. A community intervention: AMBER: Arab American breast cancer education and referral program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayash, Claudia; Axelrod, Deborah; Nejmeh-Khoury, Sana; Aziz, Arwa; Yusr, Afrah; Gany, Francesca M

    2011-12-01

    Although the number of Arab Americans is growing in the United States, there is very little data available on this population's cancer incidence and screening practices. Moreover, there are few interventions addressing their unique needs. This study aims to determine effective strategies for increasing breast cancer screening in at-risk underserved Arab American women. AMBER utilizes a community based participatory approach to conduct formative research and program interventions, including culturally appropriate Arabic language breast cancer education, screening coordination, and cultural competency training for healthcare professionals in New York City. In 2 years, 597 women were educated, 189 underserved women were identified as being in need of assistance, 68 were screened, one new case of breast cancer was detected, and four active cases in need of follow-up reconnected with care. The AMBER model is an important intervention for breast cancer screening and care in the underserved Arab American community.

  11. Cancer incidence among Arab Americans in California, Detroit, and New Jersey SEER registries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmans, Rachel; Soliman, Amr S; Ruterbusch, Julie; Meza, Rafael; Hirko, Kelly; Graff, John; Schwartz, Kendra

    2014-06-01

    We calculated cancer incidence for Arab Americans in California; Detroit, Michigan; and New Jersey, and compared rates with non-Hispanic, non-Arab Whites (NHNAWs); Blacks; and Hispanics. We conducted a study using population-based data. We linked new cancers diagnosed in 2000 from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program (SEER) to an Arab surname database. We used standard SEER definitions and methodology for calculating rates. Population estimates were extracted from the 2000 US Census. We calculated incidence and rate ratios. Arab American men and women had similar incidence rates across the 3 geographic regions, and the rates were comparable to NHNAWs. However, the thyroid cancer rate was elevated among Arab American women compared with NHNAWs, Hispanics, and Blacks. For all sites combined, for prostate and lung cancer, Arab American men had a lower incidence than Blacks and higher incidence than Hispanics in all 3 geographic regions. Arab American male bladder cancer incidence was higher than that in Hispanics and Blacks in these regions. Our results suggested that further research would benefit from the federal recognition of Arab Americans as a specified ethnicity to estimate and address the cancer burden in this growing segment of the population.

  12. Lay health educators and print materials for the promotion of colorectal cancer screening among Korean Americans: A randomized comparative effectiveness study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Angela M; Nguyen, Tung T; Stewart, Susan; Sung, Min J; Gildengorin, Ginny; Tsoh, Janice Y; Tong, Elisa K; Lo, Penny; Cuaresma, Charlene; Sy, Angela; Lam, Hy; Wong, Ching; Jeong, Matthew; Chen, Moon S; Kagawa-Singer, Marjorie

    2017-07-15

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer among Korean American men and women. Although CRC screening is effective in reducing the burden of this disease, studies have shown that Korean Americans have low screening rates. The authors conducted a 2-arm cluster randomized controlled trial comparing a brochure (print) with a brochure and lay health educator (LHE) outreach (print + LHE) in increasing CRC screening rates among Korean American individuals. Self-administered written surveys at baseline and at 6 months assessed knowledge of CRC and its screening, ever screening, and being up to date with screening. A total of 28 LHEs recruited 348 participants aged 50 to 75 years from their social networks. Significant percentages of participants reported not having health insurance (29.3%) or a usual source of care (35.6%). At 6 months postintervention, the print + LHE participants had a greater increase in knowledge compared with those in the print arm (P = .0013). In multivariable analyses, both groups had significant increases in ever screening (print plus LHE: odds ratio [OR], 1.60 [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.26-2.03] and print: OR, 1.42 [95% CI, 1.10-1.82]) and being up to date with screening (print plus LHE: OR, 1.63 [95% CI, 1.23-2.16] and print: OR, 1.40 [95% CI, 1.04-1.89]). However, these increases did not differ significantly between the study arms. Having insurance and having seen a provider within the past year were found to be positively associated with screening. Compared with a brochure, LHE outreach yielded greater increases in knowledge but resulted in similar increases in CRC screening in a Korean American population with barriers to health care access. More work is needed to appropriately address logistical and system barriers in this community. Cancer 2017;123:2705-15. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  13. The American Meteorological Society and Second Nature: Working Together to Increase Climate Literacy at Minority Serving Institutions Nationwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brey, J. A.; Geer, I. W.; Mills, E. W.; Kauffman, C.; Nugnes, K. A.; Naik, A.

    2013-12-01

    To raise climate literacy, the American Meteorological Society (AMS) developed AMS Climate Studies, an innovative, undergraduate-level climate science course. With a focus on real-world climate data, the course is a primer for responsible, scientifically-literate participation in the discussion of climate change. Designed to be adaptable to traditional, hybrid, or online instructional settings, AMS Climate Studies has already been adopted by more than 80 institutions since fall 2010. Course materials include a hardcover textbook, an investigations manual, and an online lab component, Current Climate Studies, which is created weekly throughout the semester utilizing resources from the IPCC, the US Global Change Research Program, NASA, and NOAA. AMS Climate Studies is mutually beneficial because AMS enhances coursework with real-world data while NASA, NOAA, and other government agencies reach a much larger audience with the results of their work. With support from NSF and NASA and in partnership with Second Nature, AMS offers the AMS Climate Studies Diversity Project with the goal of training 100 minority-serving institution (MSI) faculty members to implement the climate course on their campus. The Diversity Project consists of an expenses-paid weeklong workshop for MSI faculty members and a follow-up workshop at the next year's AMS Annual Meeting. The initial workshop covers fundamental understandings within AMS Climate Studies and implementation procedures. Highlights of this workshop are presentations from NOAA, NASA, and other government and university climate scientists as well as field trips to science laboratories. In the year following workshop attendance, faculty work within their MSI to implement AMS Climate Studies. Participants are then invited to a second workshop at the AMS Annual Meeting to report back the results of their work. Currently in its second year, the Project has trained 50 MSI faculty members with subsequent workshops to be held throughout

  14. Current Rates of Publication for Podium and Poster Presentations at the American Society for Surgery of the Hand Annual Meetings

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    Joshua M. Abzug

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background:  Research projects are presented at the Annual Meetings of the American Society for Surgery of the Hand (ASSH. It is unknown how many achieve publication in peer-reviewed journals. We sought to determine current rates of publication of podium and poster presentations.   Methods:  All ASSH podium and poster presentations from 2000 to 2005 were reviewed, and an Internet-based search using PubMed and Google was conducted to determine whether the presented studies had been published. Times to publication and journal names were recorded. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics. Fisher’s exact test was conducted to compare current trends with previous trends. Results:  Of 1127 podium and poster presentations reviewed, 46% were published in peer-reviewed journals. Forty-seven percent of published presentations (242 presentations were in Journal of Hand Surgery , and 11% (59 entations were in Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery . Forty-five percent of presentations were published within 2 years and 66% within 3 years. The publication rate for podium presentations was significantly higher than that previously reported for Journal of Hand Surgery, at 54% compared with 44% (P=0.004.  Conclusions:  Currently, fewer than half of the studies presented at Annual Meetings of the ASSH achieve publication in peer-eviewed journals. Presentations are most likely to be published within 3 years, and almost half are published in Journal of Hand Surgery .

  15. Attitudes on and usage of balloon catheter technology in rhinology: A survey of the American Rhinologic Society.

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    Halderman, Ashleigh A; Stokken, Janalee; Momin, Suhael R; Smith, Timothy L; Sindwani, Raj

    2015-01-01

    Use of balloon catheter dilation in the management of paranasal sinus diseases, including chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) and recurrent acute rhinosinusitis, remains controversial. In an effort to gain some clarity about its evolving role, we surveyed members of the American Rhinologic Society (ARS). Online survey. ARS Members were sent an invitation by e-mail to participate in an online, anonymous 23-item survey. A total of 231 participants completed the survey, for an overall response rate of 25%. Balloon catheter technology (BCT) played no role in the practices of one-third of all the respondents. Of those who did use BCT, more than 50% performed only 1-4 cases per month on average. This did not differ significantly with practice type (p = 0.2988). The overall use of BCT differed between types of practices with those in private practice reporting greater use of the technology for maxillary and sphenoid sinuses (p = 0.0003 and p = 0.0073, respectively). Participants in private practice appeared significantly more impressed with the results of BCT when compared with those in academia (p = 0.0005) and also thought that patients were more satisfied (p = 0.0002). Opinions toward the strength of available evidence also differed significantly between the two groups (p = 0.0007). Thirty-two respondents had experienced a complication with BCT, although the majority of these did not require any intervention. ARS members surveyed used BCT infrequently in their practices. Attitudes on the role of this technology in CRS management differed between academic and private practitioners, but, despite this, the volume of reported BCT use was the same. Surgeons are more accepting of the technology now compared with 5 years ago, and many of them believe that their use of BCT will increase in the future.

  16. Estrogen and progestogen use in postmenopausal women: July 2008 position statement of The North American Menopause Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Objective To update for both clinicians and the lay public the evidence-based position statement published by The North American Menopause Society (NAMS) in March 2007 regarding its recommendations for menopausal hormone therapy (HT) for postmenopausal women, with consideration for the therapeutic benefit-risk ratio at various times through menopause and beyond. Design An Advisory Panel of clinicians and researchers expert in the field of women’s health was enlisted to review the March 2007 NAMS position statement, evaluate new evidence through an evidence-based analysis, and reach consensus on recommendations. The Panel’s recommendations were reviewed and approved by the NAMS Board of Trustees as an official NAMS position statement. The document was provided to other interested organizations to seek their endorsement. Results Current evidence supports a consensus regarding the role of HT in postmenopausal women, when potential therapeutic benefits and risks around the time of menopause are considered. This paper lists all these areas along with explanatory comments. Conclusions that vary from the 2007 position statement are highlighted. Addenda include a discussion of risk concepts, a new component not included in the 2007 paper, and a recommended list of areas for future HT research. A suggested reading list of key references is also provided. Conclusions Recent data support the initiation of HT around the time of menopause to treat menopause-related symptoms; to treat or reduce the risk of certain disorders, such as osteoporosis or fractures in select postmenopausal women; or both. The benefit-risk ratio for menopausal HT is favorable close to menopause but decreases with aging and with time since menopause in previously untreated women. PMID:18580541

  17. Correlation between Manchester Grading Scale and American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society Score in Patients with Hallux Valgus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliou, Kalliopi; Paraskevas, George; Kanavaros, Panagiotis; Barbouti, Alexandra; Vrettakos, Aristidis; Gekas, Christos; Kitsoulis, Panagiotis

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the correlation between the Manchester Grading Scale and the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) score in patients with a hallux valgus deformity. Subjects and Methods The study sample included 181 feet of 122 patients with hallux valgus and 424 feet of 212 individuals without hallux valgus deformity as the control group. The severity of hallux valgus, utilizing a relative nonmetric scale, the Manchester Grading Scale, and the metric AOFAS score, was determined for all individuals in the hallux valgus and control groups. SPSS version 18 (Chicago, Ill., USA) was used for data analysis. Results According to the Manchester Grading Scale, the 424 feet of the normal group were classified as ‘no deformity−. In the hallux valgus group, 85 feet were classified as ‘mild deformity−, 67 as ‘moderate deformity' and 29 as ‘severe deformity−. The AOFAS total score in the control group was 99.14. In the hallux valgus group, patients with mild or moderate deformity had total scores of 86.20 and 68.19, respectively. For those with severe hallux valgus, the total score was 44.69 and the differences were statistically significant (p = 0.000). Using the Pearson correlation, strong negative correlations were found between the AOFAS score and the hallux valgus angle (HVA; r = −0.899, p = 0.000). Strong negative correlations were demonstrated between the AOFAS score and the first intermetatarsal angle (IMA) as well (r = −0.748, p = 0.000). Conclusions The AOFAS score was negatively associated with the Manchester Grading Scale, HVA and first IMA. As the severity of hallux valgus increased, the AOFAS score seemed to decrease. PMID:26335050

  18. Value of American Thoracic Society guidelines in predicting infection or colonization with multidrug-resistant organisms in critically ill patients.

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    Jianfeng Xie

    Full Text Available The incidence rate of infection by multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs can affect the accuracy of etiological diagnosis when using American Thoracic Society (ATS guidelines. We determined the accuracy of the ATS guidelines in predicting infection or colonization by MDROs over 18 months at a single ICU in eastern China.This prospective observational study examined consecutive patients who were admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU in Nanjing, China. MDROs were defined as bacteria that were resistant to at least three antimicrobial classes, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii. Screening for MDROs was performed at ICU admission and discharge. Risk factors for infection or colonization with MDROs were recorded, and the accuracy of the ATS guidelines in predicting infection or colonization with MDROs was documented.There were 610 patients, 225 (37% of whom were colonized or infected with MDROs at ICU admission, and this increased to 311 (51% at discharge. At admission, the sensitivity (70.0%, specificity (31.6%, positive predictive value (38.2%, and negative predictive value (63.5%, all based on ATS guidelines for infection or colonization with MDROs were low. The negative predictive value was greater in patients from departments with MDRO infection rates of 31-40% than in patients from departments with MDRO infection rates of 30% or less and from departments with MDRO infection rates more than 40%.ATS criteria were not reliable in predicting infection or colonization with MDROs in our ICU. The negative predictive value was greater in patients from departments with intermediate rates of MDRO infection than in patients from departments with low or high rates of MDRO infection.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01667991.

  19. The European Respiratory Society and European Society of Thoracic Surgeons clinical guidelines for evaluating fitness for radical treatment (surgery and chemoradiotherapy) in patients with lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunelli, Alessandro; Charloux, Anne; Bolliger, Chris T; Rocco, Gaetano; Sculier, Jean-Paul; Varela, Gonzalo; Licker, Marc; Ferguson, Mark K; Faivre-Finn, Corinne; Huber, Rudolf Maria; Clini, Enrico M; Win, Thida; De Ruysscher, Dirk; Goldman, Lee

    2009-07-01

    The European Respiratory Society (ERS) and the European Society of Thoracic Surgeons (ESTS) established a joint task force with the purpose to develop clinical evidence-based guidelines on evaluation of fitness for radical therapy in patients with lung cancer. The following topics were discussed, and are summarized in the final report along with graded recommendations: Cardiologic evaluation before lung resection; lung function tests and exercise tests (limitations of ppoFEV1; DLCO: systematic or selective?; split function studies; exercise tests: systematic; low-tech exercise tests; cardiopulmonary (high tech) exercise tests); future trends in preoperative work-up; physiotherapy/rehabilitation and smoking cessation; scoring systems; advanced care management (ICU/HDU); quality of life in patients submitted to radical treatment; combined cancer surgery and lung volume reduction surgery; compromised parenchymal sparing resections and minimally invasive techniques: the balance between oncological radicality and functional reserve; neoadjuvant chemotherapy and complications; definitive chemo and radiotherapy: functional selection criteria and definition of risk; should surgical criteria be re-calibrated for radiotherapy?; the patient at prohibitive surgical risk: alternatives to surgery; who should treat thoracic patients and where these patients should be treated?

  20. Gene by Environment Investigation of Incident Lung Cancer Risk in African-Americans

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    Sean P. David

    2016-02-01

    Interpretation: These results suggest that chromosome 15q25.1 variants are robustly associated with CPD and lung cancer in African-Americans and that the allelic dose effect of these polymorphisms on lung cancer risk is most pronounced in lighter smokers.