... Population Profiles > Black/African American > Cancer Cancer and African Americans African Americans have the highest mortality rate ... 65MB] At a glance – Top Cancer Sites for African Americans (2008-2012) Cancer Incidence Rates per 100, ...
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Govindarajan, Rangaswamy; Posey, James; Chao, Calvin Y.; Lu, Ruixiao; Jadhav, Trafina; Javed, Ahmed Y.; Javed, Awais; Mahmoud, Fade A.; Osarogiagbon, Raymond U.; Manne, Upender
Background African American (AA) colon cancer patients have a worse prognosis than Caucasian (CA) colon cancer patients, however, reasons for this disparity are not well understood. To determine if tumor biology might contribute to differential prognosis, we measured recurrence risk and gene expression using the Oncotype DX® Colon Cancer Assay (12-gene assay) and compared the Recurrence Score results and gene expression profiles between AA patients and CA patients with stage II colon cancer. ...
Holt, Cheryl L; Oster, Robert A; Clay, Kimberly S; Urmie, Julie; Fouad, Mona
The literature suggests that religiosity helps cope with illness. The present study examined the role of religiosity in functioning among African Americans and Whites with a cancer diagnosis. Patients were recruited from an existing study and mailed a religiosity survey. Participants (N = 269; 36% African American, 56% women) completed the mail survey, and interview data from the larger cohort was utilized in the analysis. Multivariate analyses indicated that in the overall sample religious behaviors were marginally and positively associated with mental health and negatively with depressive symptoms. Among women, religious behaviors were positively associated with mental health and negatively with depressive symptoms. Religiosity was not a predictor of study outcomes for men. Among African Americans, religious behaviors were positively associated with mental health and vitality. Among Whites, religious behaviors were negatively associated with depressive symptoms. These findings suggest a mixed role of religious involvement in cancer outcomes. The current findings may have applied potential in the areas of emotional functioning and depression. PMID:21966724
Full Text Available Aberrant DNA methylation is critical for development and progression of breast cancer. We investigated the association of CpG island methylation in candidate genes and clinicopathological features in 65 African-American (AA and European-American (EA breast cancer patients. Quantitative methylation analysis was carried out on bisulfite modified genomic DNA and sequencing (pyrosequencing for promoter CpG islands of p16, ESR1, RASSF1A, RARβ2, CDH13, HIN1, SFRP1 genes and the LINE1 repetitive element using matched paired non-cancerous and breast tumor specimen (32 AA and 33 EA women. Five of the genes, all known tumor suppressor genes (RASSF1A, RARβ2, CDH13, HIN1 and SFRP1, were found to be frequently hypermethylated in breast tumor tissues but not in the adjacent non-cancerous tissues. Significant differences in the CDH13 methylation status were observed by comparing DNA methylation between AA and EA patients, with more obvious CDH13 methylation differences between the two patient groups in the ER- disease and among young patients (age<50. In addition, we observed associations between CDH13, SFRP1, and RASSF1A methylation and breast cancer subtypes and between SFRP1 methylation and patient's age. Furthermore, tumors that received neoadjuvant therapy tended to have reduced RASSF1A methylation when compared with chemotherapy naïve tumors. Finally, Kaplan Meier survival analysis showed a significant association between methylation at 3 loci (RASSF1A, RARβ2 and CDH13 and reduced overall disease survival. In conclusion, the DNA methylation status of breast tumors was found to be significantly associated with clinicopathological features and race/ethnicity of the patients.
San-Hua Qing; Kai-Yun Rao; Hui-Yong Jiang; Steven D.Wexner
AIM: To compare the racial differences of anatomical distribution of colorectal cancer (CRC) and determine the association of age, gender and time with anatomical distribution between patients from America (white) and China (oriental).METHODS: Data was collected from 690 consecutive patients in Cleveland Clinic Florida, U.S.A. and 870consecutive patients in Nan Fang Hospital affiliated to the First Military Medical University, China over the past 11years from 1990 to 2000. All patients had colorectal adenocarcinoma diagnosed by histology and underwent surgery.RESULTS: The anatomical subsite distribution of tumor,age and gender were significantly different between white and oriental patients. Lesions in the proximal colon (P＜0.001) were found in 36.3 % of white vs 26.0 % of oriental patients and cancers located in the distal colon and rectum in 63.7 % of white and 74 % of oriental patients (P＜0.001). There was a trend towards the redistribution from distal colon and rectum to proximal colon in white males over time, especially in older patients (＞80 years).No significant change of anatomical distribution occurred in white women and Oriental patients. The mean age at diagnosis was 69.0 years in white patients and 48.3 years in Oriental patients (P＜0.001).CONCLUSION: This is the first study comparing the anatomical distribution of colorectal cancers in whites and Chinese patients. White Americans have a higher risk of proximal CRC and this risk increased with time. The proportion of white males with CRC also increased with time.Chinese patients were more likely to have distal CRC and developed the disease at a significantly earlier age than white patients. These findings have enhanced our understanding of the disease process of colorectal cancer in these two races.
Moussawi, Ahmad H.; Yassine, May; Dey, Subhojit; Soliman, Amr S.
Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among men in the United States with striking differences in incidence and mortality among ethnic groups. Michigan has one of the largest concentrations of Arab Americans (AAs) in the U.S. and little is known about this ethnic minority with respect to prostate cancer. This study investigated differences in clinical profile, quality of care, and recurrence among prostate cancer survivors comparing AAs and Caucasian Americans (CAs). Participants in this ...
Moy, Beverly; Polite, Blase N; Halpern, Michael T; Stranne, Steven K; Winer, Eric P; Wollins, Dana S; Newman, Lisa A
Patients in specific vulnerable population groups suffer disproportionately from cancer. The elimination of cancer disparities is critically important for lessening the burden of cancer. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act provides both opportunities and challenges for addressing cancer care disparities and access to care. The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) advocates for policies that ensure access to cancer care for the underserved. Such policies include insurance reform and the reduction of economic barriers to quality health care. Building on ASCO's prior statement on disparities in cancer care (2009), this article summarizes elements of the health care law that are relevant to cancer disparities and provides recommendations for addressing major provisions in the law. It outlines specific strategies to address insurance reform, access to care, quality of care, prevention and wellness, research on health care disparities, and diversity in the health care workforce. ASCO is committed to leading efforts toward the improvement of cancer care among the most vulnerable patients. PMID:21810680
Johnson, J; Blanchard, J; Harvey, C
This paper presents the concept of the town hall meeting and discusses how it can be used as a forum for those who have been touched by cancer. It can be a platform for people to express their views about cancer, not only in the community but also nationally. Empowerment is the hallmark of a town hall meeting. Those who are in leadership positions in health care and elected officials and community leaders are given the opportunity to hear the opinions of people who represent a broad-based constituency of individuals affected by cancer. The idea of holding a town hall meeting was first introduced in the cancer community by the National Coalition for Cancer Survivorship NCCS) as a means of identifying issues, exchanging information and considering creative solutions to problems. The first town hall meeting was held in 1994 in conjunction with the NCCS annual assembly. Since then, utilizing the guidelines set forth by the NCCS, 30 or more town hall meetings have been held across the United States. Cancer survivors have, by and large, been responsible for garnering the necessary support for conducting a town hall in their local area. Organizations such as the American Cancer Society, the Leukemia Society of America, hospitals, clinics, pharmaceutical and healthcare companies and also noncancer groups, such as the YMCA, churches, and radio/T.V. stations, join with the cancer survivors in organizing the meeting, planning related displays, and advertising the event. In 1998, seven town hall meetings were sponsored jointly by OnCare and NCCS in advance and support of the upcoming THE MARCH- Coming Together To Conquer Cancer, a national rally held in Washington, D.C. in September 1998. Attendees at the meetings included not only cancer survivors and their families, but also healthcare professionals, local and state legislators, community leaders and the media. Results of the 1998 town hall meetings are discussed and compared with the topics identified during the meetings
Materials/Methods: This program consists of a a culturally-tailored patient navigation program that facilitated access to innovative clinical trials in conjunction with a comprehensive educational program encouraging screening and early detection, b, surveys to evaluate barriers to access c clinical trials focusing on reducing treatment length to facilitate enhanced participation using brachytherapy and intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT for breast and prostate cancer, as AIs live a median of 140 miles from the cancer center, and d a molecular study (ATM - Ataxia telangectasia mutation to address whether there is a specific profile that increases toxicity risks. Results: We describe the design and implementation of this program, summary of previously published results, and ongoing research to influence stage at presentation. Some of the critical outcomes include the successful implementation of a community based research program, development of trust within tribal communities, identification of barriers, analysis of nearly 400 navigated cancer patients, clinical trial accrual rate of 10%, and total enrollment of nearly 2,500 AIs on WF research studies. Conclusions: This NCI funded pilot program has achieved some initial measures of success. A research infrastructure has been created in a community setting to address new research questions and interventions. Efforts underway to promote cancer education and screening are presented, as well as applications of the lessons learned to other health disparity populations.
... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Risk in American Women On This Page What ... risk of developing the disease. Personal history of breast cancer : Women who have had breast cancer are more ...
Purpose: The new 7th edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer TNM staging system is based on pathologic data from esophageal cancers treated by surgery alone. There is no information available on evaluation of the new staging system with regard to prognosis of patients treated with chemoradiotherapy (CRT). The objective of this study was to evaluate the prognostic impact of the new staging system on esophageal cancer patients treated with CRT. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review was performed on 301 consecutive esophageal squamous cell carcinoma patients treated with CRT. Comparisons were made of the prognostic impacts of the 6th and 7th staging systems and the prognostic impacts of stage and prognostic groups, which were newly defined in the 7th edition. Results: There were significant differences between Stages I and III (p < 0.01) according to both editions. However, the 7th edition poorly distinguishes the prognoses of Stages III and IV (p = 0.36 by multivariate analysis) in comparison to the 6th edition (p = 0.08 by multivariate analysis), although these differences were not significant. For all patients, T, M, and gender were independent prognostic factors by multivariate analysis (p < 0.05). For the Stage I and II prognostic groups, survival curves showed a stepwise decrease with increase in stage, except for Stage IIA. However, there were no significant differences seen between each prognostic stage. Conclusions: Our study indicates there are several problems with the 7th TNM staging system regarding prognostic factors in patients undergoing CRT.
Williams, Renee; White, Pascale; Nieto, Jose; Vieira, Dorice; Francois, Fritz; Hamilton, Frank
This review is an update to the American College of Gastroenterology (ACG) Committee on Minority Affairs and Cultural Diversity's paper on colorectal cancer (CRC) in African Americans published in 2005. Over the past 10 years, the incidence and mortality rates of CRC in the United States has steadily declined. However, reductions have been strikingly much slower among African Americans who continue to have the highest rate of mortality and lowest survival when compared with all other racial groups. The reasons for the health disparities are multifactorial and encompass physician and patient barriers. Patient factors that contribute to disparities include poor knowledge of benefits of CRC screening, limited access to health care, insurance status along with fear and anxiety. Physician factors include lack of knowledge of screening guidelines along with disparate recommendations for screening. Earlier screening has been recommended as an effective strategy to decrease observed disparities; currently the ACG and American Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopists recommend CRC screening in African Americans to begin at age 45. Despite the decline in CRC deaths in all racial and ethnic groups, there still exists a significant burden of CRC in African Americans, thus other strategies including educational outreach for health care providers and patients and the utilization of patient navigation systems emphasizing the importance of screening are necessary. These strategies have been piloted in both local communities and Statewide resulting in notable significant decreases in observed disparities. PMID:27467183
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Runowicz, Carolyn D; Leach, Corinne R; Henry, N Lynn; Henry, Karen S; Mackey, Heather T; Cowens-Alvarado, Rebecca L; Cannady, Rachel S; Pratt-Chapman, Mandi L; Edge, Stephen B; Jacobs, Linda A; Hurria, Arti; Marks, Lawrence B; LaMonte, Samuel J; Warner, Ellen; Lyman, Gary H; Ganz, Patricia A
The purpose of the American Cancer Society/American Society of Clinical Oncology Breast Cancer Survivorship Care Guideline is to provide recommendations to assist primary care and other clinicians in the care of female adult survivors of breast cancer. A systematic review of the literature was conducted using PubMed through April 2015. A multidisciplinary expert workgroup with expertise in primary care, gynecology, surgical oncology, medical oncology, radiation oncology, and nursing was formed and tasked with drafting the Breast Cancer Survivorship Care Guideline. A total of 1,073 articles met inclusion criteria; and, after full text review, 237 were included as the evidence base. Patients should undergo regular surveillance for breast cancer recurrence, including evaluation with a cancer-related history and physical examination, and should be screened for new primary breast cancer. Data do not support performing routine laboratory tests or imaging tests in asymptomatic patients to evaluate for breast cancer recurrence. Primary care clinicians should counsel patients about the importance of maintaining a healthy lifestyle, monitor for post-treatment symptoms that can adversely affect quality of life, and monitor for adherence to endocrine therapy. Recommendations provided in this guideline are based on current evidence in the literature and expert consensus opinion. Most of the evidence is not sufficient to warrant a strong evidence-based recommendation. Recommendations on surveillance for breast cancer recurrence, screening for second primary cancers, assessment and management of physical and psychosocial long-term and late effects of breast cancer and its treatment, health promotion, and care coordination/practice implications are made.This guideline was developed through a collaboration between the American Cancer Society and the American Society of Clinical Oncology and has been published jointly by invitation and consent in both CA: A Cancer Journal for
Building a Latin American cancer patient advocacy movement: Latin American cancer NGO regional overview Desarrollando un movimiento de apoyo para pacientes de cáncer en America Latina: resumen regional - ONGs de cáncer
Full Text Available The objective of the this paper is to assess and identify the key strengths and weaknesses for cancer control NGOs in Latin America, with the goal to make recommendations about how to improve thev impact of the patient advocacy movement as it pertains to cancer. The methods included literature review, expert interviews and site visits to Latin American cancer hospitals and NGOs. The overall findings conclude that NGOs currently do not take a leadership role in cancer control in Latin America. The lack of a survivorship movement, faulty patient information services and failure of the governments to include NGOs in policy creation are identified as areas for further project work and collaboration. The stigma of cancer still remains and a burgeoning patient movement can be created to help destigmatize and debunk the myths that surround cancer.El objetivo de este artículo es el de identificar y evaluar las fortalezas y debilidades clave de las ONG dedicadas al control del cáncer en Latinoamérica, con el fin de generar recomendaciones sobre el modo de mejorar el impacto del movimiento de apoyo para pacientes de cáncer. Los métodos incluyeron una revisión de la literatura, entrevistas a expertos y visitas a hospiptales y ONG dedicados al cáncer en Latinoamérica. Los hallazgos principales permiten concluir que en este momento las ONG no tienen un rol de liderazgo para el control del cáncer en Latinoamérica. La ausencia de un movimiento de sobrevivientes, servicios de información deficientes a los pacientes y el fracaso del gobierno para incluir a las ONG en la creación de políticas se identifican como áreas de trabajo y colaboración en proyectos a futuro. El estigma del cáncer aún subsiste y es factible crear un movimiento que florezca y ayude a desvanecerlo al exponer los mitos que rodean este padecimiento.
Serup-Hansen, Eva; Linnemann, Dorte; Skovrider-Ruminski, Wojciech;
-specific survival (DSS) in patients diagnosed with American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stages I to III carcinoma of the anal canal. PATIENTS AND METHODS: HPV genotyping polymerase chain reaction (high-risk subtypes 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58) and immunohistochemical expression of p16 were analyzed by....... In univariable survival analysis, HPV positivity was significantly correlated with improved OS (74% v 52%; P=.036) and DSS (84% v 52%; P=.002), and p16 positivity was significantly correlated with improved OS (76% v 30%; P<.001) and DSS (85% v 30%; P<.001). In multivariable COX analysis that included...
Cohen, Ezra E W; LaMonte, Samuel J; Erb, Nicole L; Beckman, Kerry L; Sadeghi, Nader; Hutcheson, Katherine A; Stubblefield, Michael D; Abbott, Dennis M; Fisher, Penelope S; Stein, Kevin D; Lyman, Gary H; Pratt-Chapman, Mandi L
Answer questions and earn CME/CNE The American Cancer Society Head and Neck Cancer Survivorship Care Guideline was developed to assist primary care clinicians and other health practitioners with the care of head and neck cancer survivors, including monitoring for recurrence, screening for second primary cancers, assessment and management of long-term and late effects, health promotion, and care coordination. A systematic review of the literature was conducted using PubMed through April 2015, and a multidisciplinary expert workgroup with expertise in primary care, dentistry, surgical oncology, medical oncology, radiation oncology, clinical psychology, speech-language pathology, physical medicine and rehabilitation, the patient perspective, and nursing was assembled. While the guideline is based on a systematic review of the current literature, most evidence is not sufficient to warrant a strong recommendation. Therefore, recommendations should be viewed as consensus-based management strategies for assisting patients with physical and psychosocial effects of head and neck cancer and its treatment. CA Cancer J Clin 2016;66:203-239. © 2016 American Cancer Society. PMID:27002678
Full Text Available ... Americans have one of the highest incidences of prostate cancer in the world, and in this country the ... is -- an epidemic. Winston Dyer: My introduction to prostate cancer started with the death of my 46-year- ...
Full Text Available ... Americans have one of the highest incidences of prostate cancer in the world, and in this country ... is -- an epidemic. Winston Dyer: My introduction to prostate cancer started with the death of my 46- ...
James, Aimee S.; Daley, Christine M.; Greiner, K. Allen
Objectives: To explore knowledge and attitudes about colorectal cancer (CRC) screening among African American patients age 45 and older at a community health center serving low-income and uninsured patients. Methods: We conducted 7 focus groups and 17 additional semistructured interviews. Sessions were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed…
Full Text Available ... the African-American that we treat this as what it is -- an epidemic. Winston Dyer: My introduction ... being ignorant to prostate cancer -- and not knowing what it was -- that was my first, first, first- ...
The first plenary of the EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study: Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans explores the many factors that lead to inequalities in cancer care outcomes for African Americans.
... fullstory_159214.html Useless Treatments Common in Young, Terminal Cancer Patients 3 in 4 get aggressive therapies with ... quarters of young or middle-aged Americans with terminal cancer receive aggressive treatment during the last month of ...
Dodd, Virginia J.; Watson, Jennifer M.; Choi, Youjin; Tomar, Scott L.; Logan, Henrietta L.
Objectives: To explore factors underlying African Americans' perceptions of oral cancer and the oral cancer exam. Study findings were used to guide development of oral cancer messages designed to increase oral cancer exams among African Americans. Methods: Focus groups were conducted to understand African Americans' attitudes and expectations…
Full Text Available It is not enough to consider treatment and care depression in the oncology that is the most common psychiatric illness in cancer patient affects of cancer treatment and the patient`s quality of life negatively, which is determined through researches in the field. With development of psycho-oncology it has been demonstrated to establish an important link between the cancer patient`s treatment as well as psycho-social support for the patient and psychiatric treatment and care for the if it is needed. With this connection between them it has been proposed to use of bio-psycho-social-model in cancer patient to improve their care. To achieve this goal, it is expected from medical personnel to realize patients psychosocial need und if he/she has a psychiatric disorders or syndromes. For the medical personnel that work in oncology services, it is inevitable to organize in order to raise the awareness of depression in the cancer patients. In the present study, it is focused on raising the awareness of depression in cancer patient for the medical personnel. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(2.000: 186-198
Full Text Available Curtis Pettaway, M.D.: We know that black Americans have one of the highest incidences of prostate cancer in the world, and in this country ... have even suggested that our testosterone runs higher. We really don't know. But I would strongly ...
Full Text Available Curtis Pettaway, M.D.: We know that black Americans have one of the highest incidences of prostate cancer in the world, and in ... not go to the doctor's. Curtis Pettaway, M.D.: Those are the individuals where the message really ...
Tariq, Khurram; Latif, Naeem; Zaiden, Robert; Jasani, Nick; Rana, Fauzia
Breast cancer is a commonly diagnosed malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer-related death among American women today. Despite the lower incidence of breast cancer among African American women, they are more likely to die from the disease each year than their white counterparts. We present a retrospective cohort study of the tumor registry data from electronic medical records of patients diagnosed with breast cancer at the University of Florida Health, Jacksonville from 2000 to 2005. A total of 907 patients were diagnosed with breast cancer; 445 patients with invasive breast cancer had complete medical records and were selected for this review. Much like previously published research, we found that African American patients presented with a more advanced stage and aggressive subtype of breast cancer than white patients, and were less likely to have health insurance. However, we have yet to determine if universal health care insurance can lead to improved health care access, better breast cancer awareness, and an enhanced attitude toward breast cancer screenings. Such factors would ultimately lead to an earlier diagnosis and better outcomes in both African American and white patients. We plan to investigate this critical issue in a follow-up study (BRCA-2; Breast Cancer and Racial Disparity Between Caucasian and African American Women, Part 2), which will begin a few years after the complete implementation of the universal health care law enacted by President Obama in 2010. The higher frequency of aggressive tumor subtypes in African American women warrants more attention. We suggest further research to determine whether decreasing the initial age for screening or increasing the frequency of mammograms in African American women would improve breast cancer outcomes. This study underscores the importance of identifying and preventing obstacles in routine breast cancer screening, as well as increasing breast cancer awareness. PMID:24518421
Martin, Michelle Y.; Evans, Mary B; KRATT, POLLY; Pollack, Lori A.; Smith, Judith Lee; Oster, Robert; Dignan, Mark; Prayor-Patterson, Heather; Watson, Christopher; HOUSTON, PETER; ANDREWS, SHIQUINA; LIWO, AMANDIY; TSENG, TUNG SUNG; HULLETT, SANDRAL; OLIVER, JOANN
The American Cancer Society is a leader in the development of cancer survivorship resources. One resource of the American Cancer Society is the I Can Cope program, an educational program for cancer survivors and their families. Evaluations of this program indicate that cancer patients highly rate its objectives. Yet, there are gaps in the understanding of the full impact of the program on diverse cancer survivors. In this study, the authors used a randomized trial to evaluate the program. Par...
Connors, Shahnjayla K.; Goodman, Melody S.; Noel, Lailea; Chavakula, Neeraja N.; Butler, Dwayne; Kenkel, Sandi; Oliver, Cheryl; McCullough, Isaac; Gehlert, Sarah
Similar to disparities seen at the national and state levels, African American women in St. Louis, Missouri have higher breast cancer mortality rates than their Caucasian counterparts. We examined breast cancer treatment (regimens and timing) in a sample of African American breast cancer patients diagnosed between 2000 and 2008 while residing in a North St. Louis cluster (eight zip codes) of late stage at diagnosis. Data were obtained from medical record extractions of women participating in ...
Son, Yu Ri; Choi, Kyoung Hyo; Kim, Tae Gyun
Objective To identify risk factors for dysphagia in tongue cancer patients. Dysphagia is a common complication of surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy in tongue cancer patients. Previous studies have attempted to identify risk factors for dysphagia in patients with head and neck cancer, but no studies have focused specifically on tongue cancer patients. Methods This study was conducted on 133 patients who were diagnosed with tongue cancer and who underwent a videofluoroscopy swallowing stu...
Ko, Celine M
Cancer is the number one cause of death among Asian Americans, and Filipino Americans are the second largest Asian American group in number. Filipino American women have relatively low rates of breast and colorectal cancer screening compared to their White counterparts; however, they experience higher numbers of late-stage diagnoses and mortality rates. Thus, early detection of cancer and maintenance of healthy prevention behaviors are very important. Little is known about this community's pr...
Ashing-Giwa, Kimlin Tam; PADILLA, GERALDINE; TEJERO, JUDITH; KRAEMER, JANET; Wright, Karen; Coscarelli, Anne; Clayton, Sheila; WILLIAMS, IMANI; HILLS, DAWN
Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer in American women across most ethnic groups. Although the psychosocial impact of breast cancer is being studied, there is little information on women from diverse ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds.
Pandey M; Thomas B
With the developments in cancer treatment, more and more patients are surviving their disease. However, very little emphasis is being placed to rehabilitate these cancer survivors. Ignorance, social structure, stigma attached in seeking psychological help, and poor communication skills of oncology staff all contribute to poor rehabilitative efforts. The priority of governmental agencies and health efforts to fight rampant communicable diseases, malnutrition, maternal health, and the frequent ...
O'Donnell, Joseph F
Insomnia affects up to 50% of patients with cancer, but has received little attention from the oncology community compared with other symptoms such as pain and fatigue. Insomnia and subsequent sleep disturbances can lead to fatigue, mood disturbances, and contribute to immunosuppression, which can have a profound impact on quality of life and perhaps affect the course of disease. Insomnia in cancer patients must be distinguished from cancer-related fatigue. Although they are 2 distinct conditions, insomnia and fatigue are interrelated. Insomnia often leads to daytime fatigue that interferes with normal functioning. Conversely, daytime fatigue can lead to behaviors such as napping, which result in insomnia. The primary goal of insomnia treatment should first be to relieve any underlying disorder (eg, cancer pain, depression, anxiety) that may be causing the sleep disturbance. Because insomnia in this patient population may be due to a variety of causes, treatment must be multimodal and include both pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic therapies. A plan that combines attention to sleep hygiene and cognitive-behavioral therapy with prescription of hypnotic medications can help relieve the symptoms of insomnia in cancer patients and improve their quality of life. PMID:15675652
Lathan, Christopher S.; Waldman, Laura Tesler; Browning, Emily; Gagne, Joshua; Emmons, Karen
This qualitative study suggests that African American smokers are aware of the relationship between smoking and lung cancer and are interested in smoking-cessation treatment. These data also indicate that lung cancer disparities are unlikely to be associated with differential willingness to receive care but that African Americans may perceive financial and insurance barriers to lung cancer treatment.
Haynes-Maslow, Lindsey; Godley, Paul; DiMartino, Lisa; White, Brandolyn; Odom, Janice; Richmond, Alan; Carpenter, William
Cancer clinical trials are important for resolving cancer health disparities for several reasons; however, clinical trial participation among African Americans is significantly lower than Caucasians. This study engaged focus groups of 82 female African American cancer survivors or cancer caregivers, including those in better resourced, more urban areas and less resourced, more rural areas. Informed by an integrated conceptual model, the focus groups examined perceptions of cancer clinical tri...
Gerardo Colón-Otero; Sherry King; Vandelyn Smith; Carolyn Bieber; Julia Crook; Solberg, Lawrence A.; Robert Shannon; Perez, Edith A.
A prospective analysis of women with terminal breast cancer admitted to CHNE from November 2006-August 2007 evaluated anecdotal observations that African American (AA) women are likelier than Caucasian women to evidence loco-regional recurrences (LRR). Women with terminal breast cancer who were admitted to CHNE, a not-for-profit hospice serving over 90% of Northeast Florida hospice patients, were eligible for participation. 134 terminal breast cancer patients were assessed by hospice nurses f...
Hall, P.; Holm, L E; Lundell, G.; Bjelkengren, G.; Larsson, L. G.; Lindberg, S.; Tennvall, J.; Wicklund, H.; Boice, J. D.
Cancer risks were studied in 834 thyroid cancer patients given 131I (4,551 MBq, average) and in 1,121 patients treated by other means in Sweden between 1950 and 1975. Record-linkage with the Swedish Cancer Register identified 99 new cancers more than 2 years after 131I therapy [standardised incidence ratio (SIR) = 1.43; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.17-1.75] vs 122 (SIR = 1.19; 95% CI 0.88-1.42) in patients not receiving 131I. In females treated with 131I overall SIR was 1.45 (95% CI 1.14-1....
Dintinjana, Renata Dobrila; Redžović, Arnela; Čubranić, Aleksandar; Dintinjana, Marin; Vanis, Nenad
Cachexia is defi ned as an unintended loss of stable weight exceeding 10%. Patients with advanced cachexia express anorexia, early satiety, severe weight loss, weakness, anemia, and edema. Anorexia represents the result of a failure of the usual appetite signals whereas cachexia is the debilitating state of involuntary weight loss. This syndrome, referred to as the »cancer anorexia-cachexia syndrome« (CACS) and usually consists of a combination of anorexia, tissue wasting, malnutr...
Anastasios Dimou; Kostas N Syrigos; Muhammad Wasif Saif
There are differences between African-American and white patients with colorectal cancer, concerning their characteristics before and after diagnosis. Whites are more likely to adhere to screening guidelines. This is also the case among people with positive family history. Colorectal cancer is more frequent in Blacks. Studies have shown that that since 1985, colon cancer rates have dipped 20% to 25% for Whites, while rates have gone up for African-American men and stayed the same for African-American women. Overall, African-Americans are 38% to 43% more likely to die from colon cancer than are Whites. Furthermore, it seems that there is an African-American predominance in right-sited tumors. African Americans tend to be diagnosed at a later stage, to suffer from better differentiated tumors, and to have worse prognosis when compared with Whites. Moreover, less black patients receive adjuvant chemotherapy for resectable colorectal cancer or radiation therapy for rectal cancer. Caucasians seem to respond better to standard chemotherapy regimens than African- Americans. Concerning toxicity, it appears that patients of African-American descent are more likely to develop 5-FU toxicity than Whites, possibly because of their different dihydropyridine dehydrogenase status. Last but not least, screening surveillance seems to be higher among white than among black long-term colorectal cancer survivors. Socioeconomic and educational status account for most of these differences whereas little evidence exists for a genetic contribution in racial disparity. Understanding the nature of racial differences in colorectal cancer allows tailoring of screening and treatment interventions.
Mehmet Fuat Eren
Full Text Available Venous thromboembolism (VTE is a major complication of cancer and represents an important cause of morbidity and mortality. The incidence of VTE is 0.6-7.8% in patients with cancer more than double the incidence of VTE in patients without cancer. The risk of VTE which includes deep venous thrombosis (DVT and pulmonary embolism (PE is increased two to seven fold in patients with cancer. VTE risk is especially high among certain groups such as hospitalized patients with cancer and those receiving active antineoplastic therapy. Also cancer patients, who undergoing major surgery, are increased risk of VTE. Trauma, long-haul travel, increased age, obesity, previous VTE and genetic component are also predisposing factors for VTE. Patients with cancer who develop VTE should be managed multidisciplinary treatment guidelines. The primary goal of thromboprophylaxis in patients with cancer is to prevent VTE. The large majority of cancer patients should be treated with therapeutic doses of unfractioned heparin (UFH or low molecular weight heparin (LMWH. Prophylaxis should include cancer patients who underwent major surgery for cancer and patients with a history of VTE.
Brittain, Kelly; Taylor, Jacquelyn Y.; Loveland-Cherry, Carol; Northouse, Laurel; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third leading cause of cancer death among African Americans. Less than 50% of African Americans have had CRC screening. This study examined the relationships between family support and influence, cultural identity, CRC beliefs, and a screening informed decision among 129 urban African Americans. Family support (p < .01) significantly predicted CRC beliefs and CRC beliefs significantly predicted informed decision (p < .01). Based on study results, practitioners s...
Partridge, Ann H.; Elmore, Joann G.; Saslow, Debbie; McCaskill-Stevens, Worta; Schnitt, Stuart J.
In September 2010, the American Cancer Society and National Cancer Institute convened a conference to review current issues in DCIS risk communication and decision-making and to identify directions for future research. Specific topics included patient and healthcare provider knowledge and attitudes about DCIS and its treatment, how to explain DCIS to patients given the heterogeneity of the disease, consideration of nomenclature changes, and the utility of decision tools/aids. This report desc...
for future research include standardization of training and larger randomized trials of PN intervention.Implications for cancer survivors: The transition from breast cancer patient to survivor is a period when there can be a loss of safety net concurrent with persistent support needs. AA cancer survivors can benefit from culturally tailored support and services after treatment for breast cancer. With further testing, this PN intervention may aid in decreasing general symptom distress and increase readiness for recovery post-treatment.Keywords: peer support, African American, breast cancer, survivor
Full Text Available Abstract Breast cancer tumours among African Americans are usually more aggressive than those found in Caucasian populations. African-American patients with breast cancer also have higher mortality rates than Caucasian women. A better understanding of the disease aetiology of these breast cancers can help to improve and develop new methods for cancer prevention, diagnosis and treatment. The main goal of this project was to identify genes that help differentiate between oestrogen receptor-positive and -negative samples among a small group of African-American patients with breast cancer. Breast cancer microarrays from one of the largest genomic consortiums were analysed using 13 African-American and 201 Caucasian samples with oestrogen receptor status. We used a shrinkage-based classification method to identify genes that were informative in discriminating between oestrogen receptor-positive and -negative samples. Subset analysis and permutation were performed to obtain a set of genes unique to the African-American population. We identified a set of 156 probe sets, which gave a misclassification rate of 0.16 in distinguishing between oestrogen receptor-positive and -negative patients. The biological relevance of our findings was explored through literature-mining techniques and pathway mapping. An independent dataset was used to validate our findings and we found that the top ten genes mapped onto this dataset gave a misclassification rate of 0.15. The described method allows us best to utilise the information available from small sample size microarray data in the context of ethnic minorities.
Pruthi, Amanda; Nielsen, Matthew E.; Raynor, Mathew C.; Woods, Michael E.; Wallen, Eric M.; Smith, Angela B.
Objectives To determine readability levels of reputable cancer and urologic websites addressing bladder, prostate, kidney and testicular cancers. Methods Online patient education materials (PEMs) for bladder, prostate, kidney and testicular malignancies were evaluated from the American Cancer Society, American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO), National Cancer Institute (NCI), Urology Care Foundation (AUA-UCF), Bladder Cancer Advocacy Network (BCAN), Prostate Cancer Foundation (PCF), Kidney Cancer Association (KCA), and Testicular Cancer Resource Center (TCRC). Grade level was determined using several readability indices, and analyses were performed based on cancer type, website, and content area (general, causes, risk factors and prevention, diagnosis and staging, treatment, and post-treatment). Results Estimated grade level of online PEMs ranged from 9.2 to 14.2 with an overall mean of 11.7. Websites for kidney cancer had the least difficult readability (11.3) and prostate cancer had the most difficult readability (12.1). Among specific websites, the most difficult readability levels were noted for the AUA-UCF website for bladder and prostate cancer and the KCA and TCRC for kidney and testes cancer. Readability levels within content areas varied based on disease and website. Conclusion Online PEMs in urologic oncology are written at a level above the average American reader. Simplification of these resources are necessary to improve patient understanding of urologic malignancy. PMID:25623686
Coughlin, Steven S.; Matthews-Juarez, Patricia; Juarez, Paul D.; Melton, Courtnee E; King, Mario
Race and socioeconomic status are well known to influence lung cancer incidence and mortality patterns in the U.S. Lung cancer incidence and mortality rates are higher among blacks than whites. In this article we review opportunities to address disparities in lung cancer incidence, mortality, and survivorship among African Americans. First, we summarize recent advances in the early detection and treatment of lung cancer. Then we consider black-white disparities in lung cancer treatment includ...
Davey, Maureen P; Bilkins, Brianna; Diamond, Guy; Willis, Alliric I; Mitchell, Edith P; Davey, Adam; Young, Faith M
This study assessed adult patient's psychosocial support needs and treatment barriers in an urban diverse cancer center. A needs assessment was conducted with a convenience sample of adult oncology patients (n = 113; 71.7 % African American). Most patients were parenting school-age children and worried about them (96 %); 86.7 % would attend a family support program. Among patients who were married or partnered (68 %), 63.7 % were concerned about communication, coping, and emotional support; 53.9 % would attend a couple support program. Patients identified similar treatment barriers: transportation, babysitting for younger children, convenience of time/place, and refreshments. Findings suggest that behavioral health care providers should be available to screen cancer patients and improve access to appropriate psychosocial oncology support programs. PMID:26048632
Wu, Anna H; Yu, Mimi C; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Hankin, Jean; Pike, Malcolm C
There is substantial in vitro and in vivo evidence implicating tea polyphenols as chemopreventive agents against various cancers. However, epidemiologic data obtained from mainly Western populations are not supportive of a protective role of tea, mainly black tea, in the etiology of breast cancer. Much less is known about the relationship between green tea and breast cancer risk. During 1995-1998, we conducted a population-based, case-control study of breast cancer among Chinese, Japanese and Filipino women in Los Angeles County and successfully interviewed 501 breast cancer patients and 594 control subjects. Detailed information on menstrual and reproductive factors; dietary habits, including intake of black and green tea; and other lifestyle factors was collected. Risk of breast cancer was not related to black tea consumption. In contrast, green tea drinkers showed a significantly reduced risk of breast cancer, and this was maintained after adjusting for age, specific Asian ethnicity, birthplace, age at menarche, parity, menopausal status, use of menopausal hormones, body size and intake of total calories and black tea. Compared to women who did not drink green tea regularly (i.e., less than once a month), there was a significant trend of decreasing risk with increasing amount of green tea intake, adjusted odds ratios being 1.00, 0.71 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.51-0.99) and 0.53 (95% CI 0.35-0.78), respectively, in association with no, 0-85.7 and >85.7 ml of green tea per day. The significant inverse association between risk of breast cancer and green tea intake remained after further adjustment for other potential confounders, including smoking; alcohol, coffee and black tea intake; family history of breast cancer; physical activity; and intake of soy and dark green vegetables. While both green tea and soy intake had significant, independent protective effects on breast cancer risk, the benefit of green tea was primarily observed among subjects who were low
Fancher, Tonya L; Ton, Hendry; Meyer, Oanh; Ho, Thuan; Paterniti, Debora A.
Background Asian patients preferentially seek mental health care from their primary care providers but are unlikely to receive it. Primary care providers need culturally-informed strategies for addressing stigmatizing illnesses. Methods 11 Vietnamese American community members participated in semi-structured interviews. Interviews were audio-taped and transcribed. The grounded theory approach was used for qualitative coding and thematic analysis. Results Vietnamese community members describe ...
Haynes-Maslow, Lindsey; Allicock, Marlyn; Johnson, La-Shell
Improved cancer screening and treatment advances have led to higher cancer survival rates in the United States. However, racial disparities in breast cancer survival persist for African American women who experience lower survival rates than white women. These disparities suggest that unmet needs related to survivorship still exist. This study focuses on the challenges that both African American cancer survivors and caregivers face across the cancer continuum. Five African American focus groups examined cancer survivor and caregiver support needs. Focus groups were recorded, transcribed, and uploaded into Atlas.ti. Thematic content analysis was applied to the text during the coding process. Themes were identified and emphasized based on the research team's integrated and unified final codes. Forty-one African Americans participated in five focus groups: 22 cancer survivors and 19 caregivers. Participants discussed five themes: (1) a culture that discourages the discussion of cancer; (2) lack of support services for African American cancer survivors; (3) lack of support services for cancer caregivers; (4) need for culturally appropriate cancer resources, including resources targeted at African American women; and (5) aspects that were helpful to cancer survivors and caregivers, including connecting with other survivors and caregivers, and having strong social support networks. We gained new insight into the unmet support needs for survivors and caregivers, especially when coping with the cancer experience continuum. While some cancer and caregiver support services exist, our study reveals a great need for services that incorporate the cultural differences that exist across races. PMID:25869580
AFRICAN AMERICAN MEN AND PROSTATE CANCER: BE YOUR OWN ADVOCATE AND UNDERSTAND SCREENING By the National Cancer ... American men. For reasons that are still unknown, African American men are more likely to get prostate ...
Beltran, Raiza; Simms, Tina; Lee, Hee Yun; Kwon, Melissa
Previous studies show that certain minority and ethnic communities experience low human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination rates despite a higher cervical cancer burden. HPV is known to be responsible for almost all cervical cancer cases. Hmong Americans, a growing Asian American population, appear to be at increased risk. The cervical cancer incidence rate among Hmong American women is three times higher than other Asian/Pacific Islanders and more than four times higher than Non-Hispanic Whites. Despite such alarming statistics, there is limited research focusing on HPV literacy and its associated factors in the Hmong American community. This study's objectives are to investigate: (1) the level of HPV knowledge among Hmong Americans; (2) HPV vaccination initiation and completion rates of Hmong Americans; and (3) factors associated with HPV literacy in the Hmong American community. Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Services Use was used as the study's theoretical framework. A self-administered paper and online health survey was completed by192 Hmong Americans living in a major metropolitan area in Minnesota. Results revealed a mean score of 4.76 (SD 1.67) for the 7-item questionnaire measuring HPV knowledge. The HPV vaccination initiation rate was 46.3 % (n = 56), with 32.7 % completing the recommended three doses. Multiple regression analysis found that participants' level of education, number of doctor visits, and cervical cancer screening literacy were significantly associated with HPV knowledge. This study's results indicate the important role of health providers in educating Hmong Americans patients about HPV and cervical cancer prevention to decrease the cervical cancer burden in this high-risk population. PMID:26696118
Wolf, Andrew M D; Wender, Richard C; Etzioni, Ruth B; Thompson, Ian M; D'Amico, Anthony V; Volk, Robert J; Brooks, Durado D; Dash, Chiranjeev; Guessous, Idris; Andrews, Kimberly; DeSantis, Carol; Smith, Robert A
In 2009, the American Cancer Society (ACS) Prostate Cancer Advisory Committee began the process of a complete update of recommendations for early prostate cancer detection. A series of systematic evidence reviews was conducted focusing on evidence related to the early detection of prostate cancer, test performance, harms of therapy for localized prostate cancer, and shared and informed decision making in prostate cancer screening. The results of the systematic reviews were evaluated by the ACS Prostate Cancer Advisory Committee, and deliberations about the evidence occurred at committee meetings and during conference calls. On the basis of the evidence and a consensus process, the Prostate Cancer Advisory Committee developed the guideline, and a writing committee drafted a guideline document that was circulated to the entire committee for review and revision. The document was then circulated to peer reviewers for feedback, and finally to the ACS Mission Outcomes Committee and the ACS Board of Directors for approval. The ACS recommends that asymptomatic men who have at least a 10-year life expectancy have an opportunity to make an informed decision with their health care provider about screening for prostate cancer after they receive information about the uncertainties, risks, and potential benefits associated with prostate cancer screening. Prostate cancer screening should not occur without an informed decision-making process. Men at average risk should receive this information beginning at age 50 years. Men in higher risk groups should receive this information before age 50 years. Men should either receive this information directly from their health care providers or be referred to reliable and culturally appropriate sources. Patient decision aids are helpful in preparing men to make a decision whether to be tested. PMID:20200110
Ryujin Lisa; Sadler Georgia; Ko Celine M; Dong Adam
Abstract Background Filipino Americans are the fastest growing Asian minority group in the United States. There is limited knowledge about their breast cancer knowledge, screening practices and attitudes. Methods As part of the evaluation of the Asian Grocery Store-Based Cancer Education Program, 248 Filipino American women completed baseline and follow-up surveys, while an additional 58 took part in focus groups. Results Compliance with annual clinical breast exam guidelines among women 40 t...
Fang, Carolyn Y.; Ma, Grace X.; Tan, Yin
Significant disparities in cervical cancer incidence and mortality exist among ethnic minority women, and in particular, among Asian American women. These disparities have been attributed primarily to differences in screening rates across ethnic/racial groups. Asian American women have one of the lowest rates of screening compared to other ethnic/racial groups. Yet Asian Americans, who comprise one of the fastest growing populations in the United States, have received the least attention in c...
Psychodynamic psychotherapy is effective as an approach to understanding the psychological conflicts and the psychiatric symptoms of cancer patients as well as to planning useful psychological interventions. The author recommends that the psychotherapist who treats cancer patients be familiar with the following: 1) the natural course and treatment of the illness, 2) a flexible approach in accord with the medical status of the patient, 3) a common sense approach to defenses, 4) a concern with ...
S P Sawant
Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: Pulmonary embolism (PE is rare in the Indian population and is under-reported in patients with malignancy. We studied the clinical profile and outcome of patients with PE and cancer in the Indian population. Materials and Methods: Data of cancer patients with PE, admitted in a tertiary cancer centre, was analyzed. The prevalence of PE was calculated as the number of patients with PE per 10,000 hospital admissions. The demographic data, details of cancer, co-morbidities, details of PE, and treatment given for PE and their outcomes were recorded and analyzed. Results: There were 56,425 hospital admissions in the study period. The prevalence of PE was 6.4 per 10,000 hospital admissions .Thirty-six cancer patients were diagnosed to have PE. In females, gynecological malignancies (36.84% and in males gastrointestinal, head and neck cancers, and hematological malignancies were the most common sites (17.7% each. PE was associated with DVT in 41.7%. Dyspnea was the most common presenting symptom. Five patients (13.88% were asymptomatic and were incidentally detected to have PE . The most common echocardiographic finding was right ventricular dysfunction (55.55%. Mortality among the treated patients was 22% (7 / 31 and in untreated patients it was 80% (4 / 5. The factors that had an impact on a three-month survival were, the presence of massive PE (P = 0.019 and the presence of RV dysfunction at presentation (P = 0.005. Conclusion: The prevalence of PE and mortality due to PE is high in cancer patients. Risk stratification for venous thromboembolism (VTE should be done in all cancer patients and thromboprophylaxis should be optimally used.
Daniela de Araújo Lamino
Full Text Available Cross-sectional study, carried out at the outpatient clinic of an oncology hospital. Data were collected from 88 caregivers of cancer patients using the Caregiver General Comfort Questionnaire (GCQ to assess the caregivers’ comfort. The caregivers’ GCQ score mean was 203.9; better comfort scores was associated with age, care time and current occupation; positive aspects of comfort were related to the fact that caregivers felt loved, to patients’ physical and environmental comfort and to caregivers’ spirituality. 203.9; better comfort scores were associated with age of the caregiver and current occupation; positive aspects of comfort were related to the fact that caregivers felt loved, to patients’ physical and environmental comfort and to caregivers’ spirituality. Caregivers, who didn’t have a paid job or leisure’s activities showed a worse GCQ. The GCQ scale can help to identify factors that interfere in caregivers’ comfort, as well as needs that can be modified through health professionals’ interventions.
Hampton, James W.
Examines differences among American Indian tribes and Alaska Natives with regard to incidence and mortality rates for various types of cancer, particularly lung, cervix, breast, biliary, gastric, colorectal, prostate, and primary hepatic cancer. Discusses the influence of genetic and environmental factors, smoking, and inadequate medical…
Mahal, Brandon A
Objectives: We evaluated whether African Americans (AA) with intermediate to high-risk prostate cancer receive similar treatment as white patients and whether any observed disparities are persistent with time, across age groups, or by insurance status. Methods: We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database to identify 128,189 men with localized intermediate to high-risk prostate cancer (PSA >= 10 or Gleason >= 7 or T stage >= T2b) diagnosed from 2004 – 20...
Although weight loss is a frequent, though not invariable, component of the cancer syndrome, the associated malnutrition is a poor prognostic sign among both children and adults. This article describes the possible mechanisms of cancer cachexia; reviews the present state of nutritional support in cancer patients; identifies nutritional problems and workable approaches during the pre- and post-treatment periods; discusses the unconventional nutritional practices commonly encountered and lists ...
Coleman, R; Body, J J; Aapro, M;
There are three distinct areas of cancer management that make bone health in cancer patients of increasing clinical importance. First, bone metastases are common in many solid tumours, notably those arising from the breast, prostate and lung, as well as multiple myeloma, and may cause major...... morbidity including fractures, severe pain, nerve compression and hypercalcaemia. Through optimum multidisciplinary management of patients with bone metastases, including the use of bone-targeted treatments such as potent bisphosphonates or denosumab, it has been possible to transform the course of advanced...... cancer for many patients resulting in a major reduction in skeletal complications, reduced bone pain and improved quality of life. Secondly, many of the treatments we use to treat cancer patients have effects on reproductive hormones, which are critical for the maintenance of normal bone remodelling...
... site. Top of Page Preventing fungal infections in cancer patients Fungi are difficult to avoid because they are a natural part of the environment. Fungi live outdoors in soil, on plants, trees, and other vegetation. They are also on ...
... saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Prostate Cancer Prevention and Early Detection + - Text Size Download Printable Version [ ... coverage for prostate cancer screening Additional resources for prostate cancer prevention and early detection References: Prostate cancer prevention and ...
Burney, Basil O.; Garcia, Jose M.
Prevalence of hypogonadism in men with cancer has been reported between 40% and 90%, which is significantly higher than in the general population. Hypogonadism is likely to affect the quality of life in these patients by contributing to non-specific symptoms, including decreased energy, anorexia, sarcopenia, weight loss, depression, insomnia, fatigue, weakness, and sexual dysfunction. Pathogenesis of hypogonadism in cancer patients is thought to be multi-factorial. Inflammation may play an im...
Bailey, Howard H; Chuang, Linus T; duPont, Nefertiti C; Eng, Cathy; Foxhall, Lewis E; Merrill, Janette K; Wollins, Dana S; Blanke, Charles D
American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO), the leading medical professional oncology society, is committed to lessening the burden of cancer and as such will promote underused interventions that have the potential to save millions of lives through cancer prevention. As the main providers of cancer care worldwide, our patients, their families, and our communities look to us for guidance regarding all things cancer related, including cancer prevention. Through this statement and accompanying recommendations, ASCO hopes to increase awareness of the tremendous global impact of human papillomavirus (HPV) -caused cancers, refocus the discussion of HPV vaccination on its likely ability to prevent millions of cancer deaths, and increase HPV vaccination uptake via greater involvement of oncology professionals in ensuring accurate public discourse about HPV vaccination and calling for the implementation of concrete strategies to address barriers to vaccine access and acceptance. PMID:27069078
Christensen, Jesper Frank; Jones, L W; Andersen, J L;
dysfunction is evident across all stages of the cancer trajectory. The causes of cancer-related muscle dysfunction are complex, but may involve a wide range of tumor-, therapy- and/or lifestyle-related factors, depending on the clinical setting of the individual patient. The main importance of muscle...... dysfunction in cancer patients lies in the correlation to vital clinical end points such as cancer-specific and all-cause mortality, therapy complications and quality of life (QoL). Such associations strongly emphasize the need for effective therapeutic countermeasures to be developed and implemented in...... powered to evaluate clinical outcomes associated with improvements in muscle function, or be promoted in advanced stage settings, aiming to reverse cancer-related muscle dysfunction, and thus potentially improve time-to-progression, treatment toxicity and survival....
Full Text Available ... have one of the highest incidences of prostate cancer in the world, and in this country the ... an epidemic. Winston Dyer: My introduction to prostate cancer started with the death of my 46-year- ...
Full Text Available ... fold higher and has remained so over many years. Rev. Thomas L. Walker: The researchers don't ... cancer started with the death of my 46-year-old brother from cancer, then my dad four ...
Ross, Lone; Petersen, Morten Aagaard; Johnsen, Anna Thit;
PURPOSE: The aims of this study were to assess how communication with health care staff is perceived by Danish cancer patients and to characterise those patients who report problems in communication. METHODS: In a cross-sectional survey, a nationally representative sample of 2,202 cancer patients...... consultations, and whether doctors criticised other doctors. RESULTS: A total of 1,490 cancer patients responded to the questionnaire. Of these, 24 % reported one or more problems with the areas of communication measured. The problem most frequently reported (by 12 %) was not having sufficient time for...... who had been in contact with a hospital department during the past year was invited to respond to a questionnaire. Communication with doctors and nurses was assessed separately as were their abilities as listeners, doctors' use of an understandable language, timing of the information, duration of...
McDonald, Jasmine A; Weathers, Benita; Barg, Frances K.; Troxel, Andrea B; Shea, Judy A; Bowen, Deborah; Guerra, Carmen E.; Halbert, Chanita Hughes
Aims: Scientific agencies rely on individuals to donate their DNA to support research on chronic conditions that disproportionately affect African Americans; however, donation is variable in this population. The purpose of this study was to identify sociodemographic characteristics, health care variables, and cultural values having significant independent associations with intentions to donate blood or saliva samples for cancer genetics research among African American adults. Method: Cross-se...
Full Text Available ... runs higher. We really don't know. But I would strongly suggest to the African-American that ... then my dad four months later. And then I was told by doctors that I should be ...
Full Text Available ... Walker: The researchers don't know exactly why. It is suggested that maybe our diet, maybe our ... African-American that we treat this as what it is -- an epidemic. Winston Dyer: My introduction to ...
Karcher, Rachel; Fitzpatrick, Dawn C; Leonard, Dawn J; Weber, Scott
Although African American women in the United States have a lower incidence of breast cancer compared with white women, those younger than 40 years actually have a higher incidence rate; additionally, African American women are more likely to die from breast cancer at every age compared with white women. Racial disparities in breast cancer mortality rates are especially significant in Maryland, which ranks fifth in the nation for breast cancer mortality, and in Baltimore City, which has the second highest annual death rate for African American women in Maryland. To address this disparity in care, Med-IQ, an accredited provider of CME, collaborated with Sisters Network Baltimore Metropolitan, Affiliate Chapter of Sisters Network® Inc., the only national African American breast cancer survivorship organization, to sponsor their community-based educational outreach initiative. The collaborative mission was to engage at-risk African American women, their families, local organizations, healthcare professionals, and clinics, with the goals of increasing awareness, addressing fears that affect timely care and diagnosis, and encouraging women to obtain regular mammograms. Intervention strategies included (1) a "Survivor Stories" video, (2) patient outreach consisting of neighborhood walks and an educational luncheon, and (3) a community outreach utilizing direct mailings to local businesses, community groups, and healthcare professionals. Trusted and well-known community resources were presented as mediums to promote the initiative, yielding achievement of broader and more effective outcomes. As a result of this patient-friendly initiative, two (2) of the women who sought screening were diagnosed with breast cancer and underwent treatment. PMID:24446167
Shin, Takeshi; Miyata, Akane; Arai, Gaku; Okada, Hiroshi
Testicular cancer(TC)is the most common and curable cancer affecting men of reproductive age. Successful treatment approaches have resulted in longer life expectancy in TC survivors. The most frequently used treatment for TC is a combination of inguinal orchiectomy, and either radiotherapy or cisplatin-based chemotherapy. In many TC patients, sperm quality is already abnormal and there may even be a lack of viable spermatozoa at the time of diagnosis. Therefore, the effect of cancer treatment on fertility is a potentially significant issue. Fertility preservation in these men has become essential and needs to be discussed prior to the start of cancer treatment. The only currently established fertility preservation method is the cryopreservation of sperm before therapy. For most patients seeking cryopreservation, the semen sample is collected via masturbation. If the patient is unable to ejaculate for any reason, other techniques such as vibratory stimulation and electroejaculation can be performed. In azoospermic or severely oligozoospermic patients, testicular sperm extraction at the time of the inguinal orchiectomy is a useful technique for obtaining spermatozoa before cytotoxic therapy. We herein present an overview of the current topics on fertility in TC patients, including the effects of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. We also describe the strategy for fertility preservation in these patients. PMID:25812494
There is a known association between chemotherapy and radiotherapy for treatment of cancer patients and development or worsening of hypertension. The aim of this article is to review this association. A literature search was conducted for articles reporting this association on the databases PubMed, SciELO and LILACS between 1993 and 2013. There was a high coprevalence of hypertension and cancer, since both diseases share the same risk factors, such as sedentary lifestyle, obesity, smoking, unhealthy diet and alcohol abuse. The use of chemotherapy and adjuvant drugs effective in the treatment of cancer increased the survival rate of these patients and, consequently, increased the incidence of hypertension. We described the association between the use of angiogenesis inhibitors (bevacizumab, sorafenib and sunitinib), corticosteroids, erythropoietin and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs with the development of hypertension. We also described the relationship between hypertension and carotid baroreceptor injury secondary to cervical radiotherapy. Morbidity and mortality increased in patients with cancer and hypertension without proper antihypertensive treatment. We concluded that there is need for early diagnosis, effective monitoring and treatment strategies for hypertension in cancer patients in order to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality
Souza, Vinicius Barbosa de; Silva, Eduardo Nani; Ribeiro, Mario Luiz; Martins, Wolney de Andrade, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Curso de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Cardiovasculares da Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, RJ (Brazil)
There is a known association between chemotherapy and radiotherapy for treatment of cancer patients and development or worsening of hypertension. The aim of this article is to review this association. A literature search was conducted for articles reporting this association on the databases PubMed, SciELO and LILACS between 1993 and 2013. There was a high coprevalence of hypertension and cancer, since both diseases share the same risk factors, such as sedentary lifestyle, obesity, smoking, unhealthy diet and alcohol abuse. The use of chemotherapy and adjuvant drugs effective in the treatment of cancer increased the survival rate of these patients and, consequently, increased the incidence of hypertension. We described the association between the use of angiogenesis inhibitors (bevacizumab, sorafenib and sunitinib), corticosteroids, erythropoietin and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs with the development of hypertension. We also described the relationship between hypertension and carotid baroreceptor injury secondary to cervical radiotherapy. Morbidity and mortality increased in patients with cancer and hypertension without proper antihypertensive treatment. We concluded that there is need for early diagnosis, effective monitoring and treatment strategies for hypertension in cancer patients in order to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.
White-Means, Shelley; Rice, Muriel; Dapremont, Jill; Davis, Barbara; Martin, Judy
Among the country’s 25 largest cities, the breast cancer mortality disparity is highest in Memphis, Tennessee, where African American women are twice as likely to die from breast cancer as White women. This qualitative study of African-American breast cancer survivors explores experiences during and post treatment that contributed to their beating the high odds of mortality. Using a semi-structured interview guide, a focus group session was held in 2012 with 10 breast cancer survivors. Thematic analysis and a deductive a priori template of codes were used to analyze the data. Five main themes were identified: family history, breast/body awareness and preparedness to manage a breast cancer event, diagnosis experience and reaction to the diagnosis, family reactions, and impact on life. Prayer and family support were central to coping, and survivors voiced a cultural acceptance of racial disparities in health outcomes. They reported lack of provider sensitivity regarding pain, financial difficulties, negative responses from family/friends, and resiliency strategies for coping with physical and mental limitations. Our research suggested that a patient-centered approach of demystifying breast cancer (both in patient-provider communication and in community settings) would impact how women cope with breast cancer and respond to information about its diagnosis. PMID:26703655
White-Means, Shelley; Rice, Muriel; Dapremont, Jill; Davis, Barbara; Martin, Judy
Among the country's 25 largest cities, the breast cancer mortality disparity is highest in Memphis, Tennessee, where African American women are twice as likely to die from breast cancer as White women. This qualitative study of African-American breast cancer survivors explores experiences during and post treatment that contributed to their beating the high odds of mortality. Using a semi-structured interview guide, a focus group session was held in 2012 with 10 breast cancer survivors. Thematic analysis and a deductive a priori template of codes were used to analyze the data. Five main themes were identified: family history, breast/body awareness and preparedness to manage a breast cancer event, diagnosis experience and reaction to the diagnosis, family reactions, and impact on life. Prayer and family support were central to coping, and survivors voiced a cultural acceptance of racial disparities in health outcomes. They reported lack of provider sensitivity regarding pain, financial difficulties, negative responses from family/friends, and resiliency strategies for coping with physical and mental limitations. Our research suggested that a patient-centered approach of demystifying breast cancer (both in patient-provider communication and in community settings) would impact how women cope with breast cancer and respond to information about its diagnosis. PMID:26703655
Full Text Available Among the country’s 25 largest cities, the breast cancer mortality disparity is highest in Memphis, Tennessee, where African American women are twice as likely to die from breast cancer as White women. This qualitative study of African-American breast cancer survivors explores experiences during and post treatment that contributed to their beating the high odds of mortality. Using a semi-structured interview guide, a focus group session was held in 2012 with 10 breast cancer survivors. Thematic analysis and a deductive a priori template of codes were used to analyze the data. Five main themes were identified: family history, breast/body awareness and preparedness to manage a breast cancer event, diagnosis experience and reaction to the diagnosis, family reactions, and impact on life. Prayer and family support were central to coping, and survivors voiced a cultural acceptance of racial disparities in health outcomes. They reported lack of provider sensitivity regarding pain, financial difficulties, negative responses from family/friends, and resiliency strategies for coping with physical and mental limitations. Our research suggested that a patient-centered approach of demystifying breast cancer (both in patient-provider communication and in community settings would impact how women cope with breast cancer and respond to information about its diagnosis.
Lordick, Florian; Hacker, Ulrich
Cancer patients are regularly affected by malnutrition which often leads to a worsened quality of life and activity in daily living, more side effects and complications during anticancer treatment and shorter survival times. The early diagnosis and treatment of malnutrition are therefore relevant components of oncological treatment. The assessment of the nutritional status and determination of the body-mass-index should be done in every patient with cancer. The clinical examination delivers important findings and indications for malnutrition. Bioimpedance analysis can deliver additional objective information. The treatment of malnutrion should start early and follows a step-wise escalation reaching from nutritional counseling to enteral nutritional support to parenteral nutrition. PMID:26886037
Grace X. Ma
Full Text Available Objective. Vietnamese American women are at the greatest risk for cervical cancer but have the lowest cervical cancer screening rates. This study was to determine whether demographic and acculturation, healthcare access, and knowledge and beliefs are associated with a prior history of cervical cancer screening among Vietnamese women. Methods. Vietnamese women (n=1450 from 30 Vietnamese community-based organizations located in Pennsylvania and New Jersey participated in the study and completed baseline assessments. Logistic regression analyses were performed. Results. Overall levels of knowledge about cervical cancer screening and human papillomavirus (HPV are low. Factors in knowledge, attitude, and beliefs domains were significantly associated with Pap test behavior. In multivariate analyses, physician recommendation for screening and having health insurance were positively associated with prior screening. Conclusion. Understanding the factors that are associated with cervical cancer screening will inform the development of culturally appropriate intervention strategies that would potentially lead to increasing cervical cancer screening rates among Vietnamese women.
Burney, Basil O; Garcia, Jose M
Prevalence of hypogonadism in men with cancer has been reported between 40% and 90%, which is significantly higher than in the general population. Hypogonadism is likely to affect the quality of life in these patients by contributing to non-specific symptoms, including decreased energy, anorexia, sarcopenia, weight loss, depression, insomnia, fatigue, weakness, and sexual dysfunction. Pathogenesis of hypogonadism in cancer patients is thought to be multi-factorial. Inflammation may play an important role, but leptin, opioids, ghrelin, and high-dose chemotherapy through different mechanisms have all been implicated as the cause. Hypogonadism is also associated with poor survival in cancer patients. Data looking into the treatment of hypogonadal male cancer patients with testosterone are limited. However, improvements in body weight, muscle strength, lean body mass, and quality of life have been shown in hypogonadal men with other chronic diseases on testosterone replacement therapy. Prospective and interventional trials are needed to test the efficacy and safety of testosterone treatment in improving quality of life of these patients. PMID:22528986
Lee, Sunmin; Chen, Lu; Ma, Grace X.; Fang, Carolyn Y.; Oh, Youngsuk; Scully, Lynn
Breast cancer incidence and the number of breast cancer survivors have been rapidly increasing among Chinese and Korean women in the United States. However, few data are available regarding quality of life in Asian American breast cancer survivors. This qualitative study aims to describe Asian American women’s perceptions of quality of life and their breast cancer experiences. In-depth interviews with four Chinese and five Korean American breast cancer survivors and three oncologists were con...
Kargiotis, Odysseas; Markoula, Sofia; Kyritsis, Athanasios P.
Abstract Purpose Epileptic seizures in patients with malignancies usually occur as a consequence of brain metastases from systemic cancer or the presence of a primary brain tumor. Other less-frequent causes include metabolic disorders such as electrolyte abnormalities, hypoglycemia, hypoxia and liver failure, paraneoplastic encephalitis, leptomeningeal carcinomatosis, side effects of certain chemotherapeutic agents, central nervous system infections, and ...
te Poele, EM; Kamps, WA; Tamminga, RYJ; Leew, JA; Postma, A; de Bont, ESJM
Chemotherapy-induced neutropenia is a major dose-limiting side effect of intensive chemotherapy in cancer patients. Recently, pegfilgrastim (a product with a long half-life, resulting in once-per-cycle dosage) was introduced to prevent neutropenia in adults. The authors report 32 episodes of pegfilg
... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158689.html Lung Cancer Surgery Worthwhile for Older Patients Study found those ... 2016 THURSDAY, May 5, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Older lung cancer patients are surviving longer when they have lung ...
... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158689.html Lung Cancer Surgery Worthwhile for Older Patients Study found ... 2016 THURSDAY, May 5, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Older lung cancer patients are surviving longer when they have ...
Diagnostic radiology in cancer patients suffering from limb edemas serves two main purposes: to detect or to rule out lymph node metastases, recurrent cancer, or secondary malignancies, and to differentiate venous edema from lymphedema. The authors suggest an algorithmic pathway where the non-invasive imaging modalities, real-time ultrasonography and computed tomography are recommended as the initial diagnostic step. Both techniques are equally well suited to detect enlarged lymph nodes with high accuracy. In addition, computed tomography allows to a certain degree to separate venous from lymphedema. Phlebography is rarely needed in these patients. Lymphography should only be considered in patients undergoing microsurgical reconstructive operations of the lymphatics (e.g. lymphovenous anastomoses) because this invasive study carries the risk of deteriorating the edematous limb. (orig.)
Peters, P.E.; Groth, W.
Diagnostic radiology in cancer patients suffering from limb edemas serves two main purposes: to detect or to rule out lymph node metastases, recurrent cancer, or secondary malignancies, and to differentiate venous edema from lymphedema. The authors suggest an algorithmic pathway where the non-invasive imaging modalities, real-time ultrasonography and computed tomography are recommended as the initial diagnostic step. Both techniques are equally well suited to detect enlarged lymph nodes with high accuracy. In addition, computed tomography allows to a certain degree to separate venous from lymphedema. Phlebography is rarely needed in these patients. Lymphography should only be considered in patients undergoing microsurgical reconstructive operations of the lymphatics (e.g. lymphovenous anastomoses) because this invasive study carries the risk of deteriorating the edematous limb.
Comparison of the American Joint Committee on Cancer N1 versus N2a nodal categories for predicting survival and recurrence in patients with oral cancer: Time to acknowledge an arbitrary distinction and modify the system
Ebrahimi, Ardalan; Gil, Ziv; Amit, Moran; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Liao, Chun-Ta; Chatturvedi, Pankaj; Agarwal, Jaiprakash; Kowalski, Luiz; Kreppel, Matthias; Cernea, Claudio; Brandao, Jose; Bachar, Gideon; Villaret, Andrea Bolzoni; Fliss, Dan; Fridman, Eran; Robbins, K. Thomas; Shah, Jatin; Patel, Snehal; Clark, Jonathan
Background We hypothesized that pathological N1 (pN1) and N2a (pN2a) nodal disease portend a similar prognosis in patients with oral cancer. Methods An international multicenter study of 739 oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) patients with pN1 or pN2a stage disease was conducted. Multivariable analyses were performed using Cox proportional hazard models to compare locoregional failure, disease-specific survival (DSS), and overall survival (OS). Institutional heterogeneity was assessed using 2-stage random effects meta-analysis techniques. Results Univariate analysis revealed no difference in locoregional failure (p = .184), DSS (p = .761), or OS (p = .475). Similar results were obtained in adjusted multivariable models and no evidence of institutional heterogeneity was demonstrated. Conclusion The prognosis of pN2a and pN1 disease is similar in oral SCC suggesting these categories could be combined in future revisions of the nodal staging system to enhance prognostic accuracy. However, these results may reflect more aggressive treatment of N2a disease; hence, we caution against using these data to deintensify treatment. PMID:25227311
... and data sets for researchers Research by Cancer Type Find research about a specific cancer type Progress Annual Report ... Laws Careers Visitor Information Search Search Home Cancer Types Prostate Cancer Research Prostate Cancer Patient Prostate Cancer Treatment Prostate Cancer ...
Schubart, Jane R; Farnan, Michelle A; Kass, Rena B
Prior research has used focus group methodology to investigate cultural factors impacting the breast cancer experience of women of various ethnicities including African-Americans; however, this work has not specifically addressed treatment decision-making. This study identifies key issues faced by African-American women diagnosed with breast cancer regarding treatment decisions. We used an interpretive-descriptive study design based on qualitative data from three focus groups (n = 14) representing a population of African-American women in central Pennsylvania. Participants were asked to think back to when they were diagnosed with breast cancer and their visit with the breast surgeon. Questions were asked about the actual visit, treatment choices offered, sources of information, and whether the women felt prepared for the surgery and subsequent treatments. The prompts triggered memories and encouraged open discussion. The most important themes identified were fear across the breast cancer disease trajectory, a preference for visual information for understanding the diagnosis and surgical treatment, and support systems relying on family and friends, rather than the formal health-care system. Our results have implications for practice strategies and development of educational interventions that will help breast cancer patients better understand their diagnosis and treatment options, encourage their participation in treatment decision-making, and provide psychosocial support for those at high risk for emotional distress. PMID:25200948
Garroutte, Eva Marie; Kunovich, Robert M; Jacobsen, Clemma; Goldberg, Jack
Work in the field of culturally competent medical care draws on studies showing that minority Americans often report lower satisfaction with care than White Americans and recommends that providers should adapt care to patients' cultural needs. However, empirical evidence in support of cultural competence models is limited by reliance upon measurements of racial rather than ethnic identity and also by a near-total neglect of American Indians. This project explored the relationship between ethnic identity and satisfaction using survey data collected from 115 chronically ill American Indian patients >or=50 years at a Cherokee Nation clinic. Satisfaction scores were high overall and comparable to those found in the general population. Nevertheless, analysis using hierarchical linear modeling showed that patients' self-rated American Indian ethnic identity was significantly associated with satisfaction. Specifically, patients who rated themselves high on the measure of American Indian ethnic identity reported reduced scores on satisfaction with health care providers' social skill and attentiveness, as compared to those who rated themselves lower. Significant associations remained after controlling for patients' sex, age, education, marital status, self-reported health, wait time, and number of previous visits. There were no significant associations between patients' American Indian ethnic identity and satisfaction with provider's technical skill and shared decision-making. Likewise, there were no significant associations between satisfaction and a separate measure of White American ethnic identity, although a suggestive trend was observed for satisfaction with provider's social skill. Our findings demonstrate the importance of including measures of ethnic identity in studies of medical satisfaction in racial minority populations. They support the importance of adapting care to patient's cultural needs, and they highlight the particular significance of interpersonal
Yoo, Grace J.; Nhung Le, Mai; Vong, Stephen; Lagman, Regina; Lam, Amy G.
Compared to other racial/ethnic groups, Korean, Filipino, and Vietnamese American women experience high incidence rates of cervical cancer but low rates of cervical cancer screenings. This study examines the behaviors and attitudes towards screening in young Korean, Filipino, and Vietnamese American women (n=304) in the San Francisco Bay Area. Results indicated Vietnamese American (OR=2.51) and Filipino American (OR=2.31) women had greater odds of ever having a Pap test than Korean American w...
Pretreatment levels of peripheral neutrophils and leukocytes as independent predictors of overall survival in patients with American Joint Committee on Cancer Stage IV Melanoma: results of the EORTC 18951 Biochemotherapy Trial
Schmidt, Henrik; Suciu, Stefan; Punt, Cornelis J A;
. PATIENTS AND METHODS: For this retrospective prognostic study, the data from the European Organisation for the Research and Treatment of Cancer 18951 study were used. Patients were randomly assigned between treatment with dacarbazine, cisplatin, and interferon alfa with or without interleukin-2. Counts...
Paxton, Raheem J.; Wendell C Taylor; Shine Chang; Courneya, Kerry S.; Jones, Lovell A.
INTRODUCTION: African American breast cancer survivors experience poor cancer outcomes that may, in part, be remedied by healthy lifestyle choices. Few studies have evaluated the health and lifestyle behaviors of this population. The purpose of this study was to characterize the health and lifestyle habits of African American breast cancer survivors and evaluate the socio-demographic and medical correlates of these behaviors. METHODS: A total of 470 African American breast cancer survivors (m...
Walker, B.; Figgs, L.W.; Zahm, S H
This report highlights selected evidence of different cancer patterns among African Americans and whites and considers potential risk factors associated with these cancers. During the years 1987 to 1991, African Americans experienced higher incidence and mortality rates than whites for multiple myeloma and for cancers of the oropharynx, colorectum, lung and bronchus, cervix, and prostate. African Americans had lower incidence and mortality for cancer of the urinary bladder. The incidence of b...
Ionizing radiation used in treating the head and neck area produces oral side effects such as mucositis, salivary changes, trismus and radiation caries. Sequelae of cancer chemotherapy often include oral stomatitis, myelosuppression and immunosuppression. Infections of dental origin in compromised patients are potentially lethal. Specific programs to eliminate dental pathology before radiation and chemotherapy, and to maintain oral hygiene during and after therapy, will minimize these complications
Full Text Available Abstract Background Filipino Americans are the fastest growing Asian minority group in the United States. There is limited knowledge about their breast cancer knowledge, screening practices and attitudes. Methods As part of the evaluation of the Asian Grocery Store-Based Cancer Education Program, 248 Filipino American women completed baseline and follow-up surveys, while an additional 58 took part in focus groups. Results Compliance with annual clinical breast exam guidelines among women 40 to 49 years old was 43%, and annual mammography use among women 50 and over was 56%. The Asian Grocery Store-Based Cancer Education Program and complementary focus group study identified multiple barriers that hindered women from attending education programs, with time as the most frequently reported barrier. Conclusion The Asian Grocery Store-Based Cancer Education Program was reported to be a culturally acceptable and effective way of disseminating breast cancer information and one that addressed the women's most frequently reported barrier, lack of time.
Martin, Michelle Y; Evans, Mary B; Kratt, Polly; Pollack, Lori A; Smith, Judith Lee; Oster, Robert; Dignan, Mark; Prayor-Patterson, Heather; Watson, Christopher; Houston, Peter; Andrews, Shiquina; Liwo, Amandiy; Tseng, Tung Sung; Hullett, Sandral; Oliver, Joann; Pisu, Maria
The American Cancer Society is a leader in the development of cancer survivorship resources. One resource of the American Cancer Society is the I Can Cope program, an educational program for cancer survivors and their families. Evaluations of this program indicate that cancer patients highly rate its objectives. Yet, there are gaps in the understanding of the full impact of the program on diverse cancer survivors. In this study, the authors used a randomized trial to evaluate the program. Participants included 140 low-income survivors (79% Black; 38% breast cancer) from community hospitals who were randomized to 4 sessions of I Can Cope (learning about cancer; understanding cancer treatments; relieving cancer pain; and keeping well in mind and body) or 4 sessions of a wellness intervention (humor, meditation, relaxation, and music therapy). The authors' primary outcome was "met information needs." After controlling for covariates, their analysis indicated that I Can Cope was no more effective than the wellness intervention in addressing survivor information needs relative to the learning objectives. Participants provided high overall ratings for both interventions. Self-efficacy for obtaining advice about cancer, age, education, and income were associated with information needs. Educational programs tailored to levels of self-efficacy and patient demographics may be needed. PMID:24433231
... help survivors with cancer screening and encourage good habits, such as quitting smoking, eating a healthy diet and exercising. In addition, they can make referrals to mental health experts if a patient is psychologically distressed. "They ...
Halbert, Chanita Hughes; Melvin, Cathy; Briggs, Vanessa; Delmoor, Ernestine; Rice, LaShanta J; Lynch, Cheryl; Jefferson, Melanie; Johnson, Jerry C
Social determinants are important to cancer screening among African Americans. To evaluate the association between social determinants (e.g., psychological characteristics, perceived social environment, cultural beliefs such as present temporal orientation) and colorectal cancer (CRC) screening among African Americans. African American adults (n = 262) ages 50-75 completed a telephone interview. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors having significant independent associations with CRC screening. Only 57% of respondents reported having CRC screening. The likelihood of screening increased with greater neighborhood satisfaction (OR = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.01, 1.90, p = 0.04), older age (OR = 1.75, 95% CI = 1.24, 2.48, p = 0.002), greater self-efficacy (OR = 2.73, 95% CI = 1.40, 5.35, p = 0.003), and health care provider communication (OR = 10.78, 95% CI = 4.85, 29.94, p = 0.0001). Community resources are important precursors to CRC screening and outcomes among African Americans. In addition to addressing psychological factors and patient-provider communication, efforts to ensure the availability of quality health care facilities that provide CRC screening in the neighborhoods where African Americans live are needed. PMID:26184107
Im, Eun-Ok; Lee, Yaelim; Ji, Xiaopeng; Zhang, Jingwen; Kim, Sangmi; Chee, Eunice; Chee, Wonshik; Tsai, Hsiu-Min; Nishigaki, Masakazu; Yeo, Seon Ae; Shapira, Marilyn M; Mao, Jun James
The purpose of this article is to identify practical issues in Internet recruitment of racial/ethnic minorities by analyzing an Internet intervention study conducted with Asian American breast cancer survivors, and to propose directions for recruitment of racial/ethnic minorities for future Internet research. Six practical issues were identified: (a) a relatively fewer number of Internet communities/groups; (b) hindrances in establishing authenticity; PMID:27490884
Braun, Kathryn L; Kagawa-Singer, Marjorie; Holden, Alan E. C.; Burhansstipanov, Linda; Tran, Jacqueline H.; Seals, Brenda F.; Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Tsark, JoAnn U.; Harjo, Lisa; Foo, Mary Anne; Ramirez, Amelie G.
Cancer patient navigation (PN) programs have been shown to increase access to and utilization of cancer care for poor and underserved individuals. Despite mounting evidence of its value, cancer patient navigation is not universally understood or provided. We describe five PN programs and the range of tasks their navigators provide across the cancer care continuum (education and outreach, screening, diagnosis and staging, treatment, survivorship, and end-of-life). Tasks are organized by their ...
Eyigor, Sibel; Akdeniz, Sedef
Exercise and rehabilitation approaches in palliative care programs for cancer patients affect patients’ symptoms, physical functioning, muscle strength, emotional wellbeing, psychological symptoms, functional capacities, quality of life, mortality and morbidity positively. Based on scientific data, palliative cancer patients should be recommended to participate in exercise programs. There is no standard approach to recipe an exercise regimen for a palliative cancer survivor. Studies for demon...
Fedewa, Stacey A; Sauer, Ann Goding; Siegel, Rebecca L; Smith, Robert A; Torre, Lindsey A; Jemal, Ahmedin
Asian Americans (AA) are less likely to be screened for colorectal cancer compared with non-Hispanic Whites (NHW), with a widening disparity for some AA subgroups in the early 2000s. Whether these patterns have continued in more recent years is unknown. We examined temporal trends in colorectal cancer screening among AA overall compared with NHWs and by AA subgroup (Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Filipino, South Asian, Vietnamese) using data from the 2003, 2005, 2007, and 2009 California Health Interview Surveys. Unadjusted (PR) and adjusted (aPR) prevalence ratios for colorectal cancer screening, accounting for sociodemographic, health care, and acculturation factors, were calculated for respondents ages 50 to 75 years (NHW n = 60,125; AA n = 6,630). Between 2003 and 2009, colorectal cancer screening prevalence increased from 43.3% to 64.6% in AA (P ≤ 0.001) and from 58.1% to 71.4% in NHW (P ≤ 0.001). Unadjusted colorectal cancer screening was significantly lower among AA compared with NHW in 2003 [PR = 0.74; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.68-0.82], 2005 (PR = 0.78; 95% CI, 0.72-0.84), 2007 (PR = 0.91; 95% CI, 0.85-0.96), and 2009 (PR = 0.90; 95% CI, 0.84-0.97), though disparities narrowed over time. After adjustment, there were no significant differences in colorectal cancer screening between the two groups, except in 2003. In subgroup analyses, between 2003 and 2009, colorectal cancer screening significantly increased by 22% in Japanese, 56% in Chinese, 47% in Filipino, and 94% in Koreans. In our study of California residents, colorectal cancer screening disparities between AA and NHW narrowed, but were not eliminated and screening prevalence among AA remains below nationwide goals, including the Healthy People 2020 goal of increasing colorectal cancer screening prevalence to 70.5%. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(6); 995-1000. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27197273
Cvetković, Jovana; Nenadović, Milutin
Breast cancer is the third most common illness in the world and the most frequent malignant disease with women. Cytotoxic therapy is connected to significant psychiatric adverse effects, and the appearance of depressive symptoms is the most common. The main goal is determining the degree of depression with breast cancer patients in the oncology ward of the University Clinical Hospital in Niš and its connection to their marital status, age, level of education, economic status and the number of therapy cycles. This research is a prospective study. The statistical data analysis included measures of descriptive and analytical statistics. The presence of depressive symptoms of different intensity was showed in 76.00% of the interviewees in group I, and the second included 77.4%. The frequency distributions show that 27.084% interviewees from the first group showed signs of depressive symptoms, while the second included 25%. The intensity of these symptoms categorizes them into the group of moderate to significantly expressed depressive states, so they require therapeutic treatment. Depression is significantly more often recorded with cancer patients receiving cytotoxic therapy; mild depression is the most common, followed by moderate and severe depression. PMID:27138829
S B Bansal, Sanjay Dixit, Geeta Shivram
Full Text Available Background: Mental health is the balanced development of the individual’s personality and the emotional attitude which will enable him or her to live harmoniously with his or her Fellow citizens. Mental health is not exclusively a matter of relation between persons It is also a matter of relation of individuals towards the community in which they live, towards the society of which the community is a part, and towards the social institutions which for a large part guide their life, determine their way of living, working, leisure, and the way they spends and earns the money, the way they sees happiness, stability and security. Objective: To asses and quantify the prevalence of psychological morbidity in cancer patients of government cancer hospital MGM Medical College Indore, M.P. Material and Methods: 100 cancer patients were chosen randomly all of them were interviewed through a questionnaire survey in ward and OPD of cancer hospital in November and December 2009. Data on demographics, and duration of diagnosis were collected. Results: Gender wise prevalence of psychological morbidity Grade II &III; were 94% in males and 86% in females. Chi square test was not significant. According to age the Grade II & III psychological morbidity were 41(46% in 15-45 years age group and 49 (54% in 46-75 years age group which is significantly higher than previous age group .Chi square test (x2 = 7.54 p value < 0.05 Grade II & III psychological morbidity were 52% in 0-6 months duration while it was 38% in more than 6 months duration Chi square test (x2= 8.04, P value < 0.05 statistically significant Conclusion: the prevalence of psychological morbidity was slightly higher in males and older age group, and also high psychological morbidity was seen in recently diagnosed cancer patients. A good counseling, stress relaxation and life style modification program is required to make such patients live their life in a positive and better way.
Ivan Bustillo; Heidi Larson; Muhammad Wasif Saif
Dear Sir: Pancreatic cancer is currently the fourth leading cause of cancer related death in the United States, with an overall survival rate at five years of diagnosis of less than 5%. It affects more men than women, with slight preponderance for African Americans and 77% of patients are diagnosed after the age of 60 years . The majority of patients with advanced pancreatic cancer report a poor quality of life, with special compromise in the areas of emotional and social functioning, p...
Robson, Mark E; Bradbury, Angela R; Arun, Banu; Domchek, Susan M; Ford, James M; Hampel, Heather L; Lipkin, Stephen M; Syngal, Sapna; Wollins, Dana S; Lindor, Noralane M
The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) has long affirmed that the recognition and management of individuals with an inherited susceptibility to cancer are core elements of oncology care. ASCO released its first statement on genetic testing in 1996 and updated that statement in 2003 and 2010 in response to developments in the field. In 2014, the Cancer Prevention and Ethics Committees of ASCO commissioned another update to reflect the impact of advances in this area on oncology practice. In particular, there was an interest in addressing the opportunities and challenges arising from the application of massively parallel sequencing-also known as next-generation sequencing-to cancer susceptibility testing. This technology introduces a new level of complexity into the practice of cancer risk assessment and management, requiring renewed effort on the part of ASCO to ensure that those providing care to patients with cancer receive the necessary education to use this new technology in the most effective, beneficial manner. The purpose of this statement is to explore the challenges of new and emerging technologies in cancer genetics and provide recommendations to ensure their optimal deployment in oncology practice. Specifically, the statement makes recommendations in the following areas: germline implications of somatic mutation profiling, multigene panel testing for cancer susceptibility, quality assurance in genetic testing, education of oncology professionals, and access to cancer genetic services. PMID:26324357
Lim, Jung-Won; Paek, Min-So
This paper describes Asian-American recruitment experiences using data from the cancer survivorship study involving Chinese- and Korean-American breast cancer survivors specifically. The article discusses challenges to the successful recruitment of Asian-American populations for cancer survivorship research and provides recommendations for future recruitment efforts. The study investigated the role of family communication in coping and quality of life for survivors from Chinese- and Korean-American groups diagnosed with breast cancer. Participants were primarily recruited through cancer registries and community outreach. A total of 157 breast cancer survivors (86 Chinese-Americans and 71 Korean-Americans) completed the final survey, yielding a final response rate of 62.8 % of the accessible samples. Chinese-Americans were more likely to agree to participate but less frequently completed the survey, and Korean-Americans were more likely to refuse to participate. Common reasons for refusal were "too busy or too painful to recall," followed by "not interested," "too old," "distrust of the research," or "health issue." Participants were more likely to be young and Korean-American compared to non-participants. Cultural and linguistic barriers, distrust, and lack of awareness about cancer research should be considered to recruit more Asian-American cancer survivors. Community participatory research is required to ensure participation by sufficient numbers of ethnic minorities in cancer survivorship research. PMID:25619194
Gregurek, Rudolf; Braš, Marijana; Đorđević, Veljko; Ratković, Ana-Strahinja; Brajković, Lovorka
Psycho-oncology is a broad approac to cancer therapy with treats the emotional, social, and spiritual distress which often accompanies cancer patients. The development of psycho-oncology began in the second part of the 20th century reflecting the increased interest in the study of cancer patients' psychological reactions to their illness at all stages of its course, and the analysis of the emotional, spiritual, social, and behavioral factors which influence the risk of developing cancer and l...
Baldwin, Laura-Mae; Cai, Yong; Larson, Eric H.; Dobie, Sharon A.; Wright, George E.; Goodman, David C.; Matthews, Barbara; Hart, L. Gary
Context: Cancer care requires specialty surgical and medical resources that are less likely to be found in rural areas. Purpose: To examine the travel patterns and distances of rural and urban colorectal cancer (CRC) patients to 3 types of specialty cancer care services--surgery, medical oncology consultation, and radiation oncology consultation.…
Williams, Phoebe D; Lantican, Leticia S; Bader, Julia O; Lerma, Daniela
Monitoring the occurrence and severity of symptoms among Mexican American adults undergoing cancer treatments, along with their self-care to alleviate symptoms, are understudied; the current study aimed to fill this gap in the literature. A total of 67 Mexican Americans receiving outpatient oncology treatments in the southwestern United States participated. Instruments included a patient-report checklist, the Therapy-Related Symptom Checklist (TRSC), the Symptom Alleviation: Self-Care Methods tool, and a demographic and health information form. At least 40% of participants reported the occurrence of 12 symptoms: hair loss, feeling sluggish, nausea, taste change, loss of appetite, depression, difficulty sleeping, weight loss, difficulty concentrating, constipation, skin changes, and numb fingers and toes. More than a third also reported pain, vomiting, decreased interest in sexual activity, cough, and sore throat. The helpful self-care strategies reported included diet and nutrition changes; lifestyle changes; and mind, body control, and spiritual activities. Patient report of symptoms during cancer treatments was facilitated by the use of the TRSC. Patients use symptom alleviation strategies to help relieve symptoms during their cancer treatment. The ability to perform appropriate, effective self-care methods to alleviate the symptoms may influence adherence to the treatment regimen. PMID:25253108
Sheppard, Vanessa B.; Graves, Kristi D.; Christopher, Juleen; Hurtado-de-Mendoza, Alejandra; Talley, Costellia; Williams, Karen Patricia
Genetic counseling and testing for hereditary breast cancer have the potential benefit of early detection and early interventions in African American women. However, African American women have low use of these services compared to White women. We conducted two focus groups with African American women diagnosed with breast cancer (affected group, n=13) and women with at least one first-degree relative with breast/ovarian cancer (unaffected group, n= 8). A content analysis approach was employe...
Nguyen, Tung T.; Somkin, Carol P.; Ma, Yifei; Fung, Lei-Chun; Nguyen, Thoa
Few Asian-American women participate in cancer treatment trials. In a pilot study to assess barriers to participation, we mailed surveys to 132 oncologists and interviewed 19 Asian-American women with cancer from Northern California. Forty-four oncologists responded. They reported as barriers language problems, lack of culturally relevant cancer information, and complex protocols. Most stated that they informed Asian-American women about treatment trials. Only four women interviewed knew abou...
Kathleen F Brookfield
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Patient chances for cure and palliation for a variety of malignancies may be greatly affected by the care provided by a treating hospital. We sought to determine the effect of volume and teaching status on patient outcomes for five gynecologic malignancies: endometrial, cervical, ovarian and vulvar carcinoma and uterine sarcoma. METHODS: The Florida Cancer Data System dataset was queried for all patients undergoing treatment for gynecologic cancers from 1990-2000. RESULTS: Overall, 48,981 patients with gynecologic malignancies were identified. Endometrial tumors were the most common, representing 43.2% of the entire cohort, followed by ovarian cancer (30.9%, cervical cancer (20.8%, vulvar cancer (4.6%, and uterine sarcoma (0.5%. By univariate analysis, although patients treated at high volume centers (HVC were significantly younger, they benefited from an improved short-term (30-day and/or 90-day survival for cervical, ovarian and endometrial cancers. Multivariate analysis (MVA, however, failed to demonstrate significant survival benefit for gynecologic cancer patients treated at teaching facilities (TF or HVC. Significant prognostic factors at presentation by MVA were age over 65 (HR = 2.6, p<0.01, African-American race (HR = 1.36, p<0.01, and advanced stage (regional HR = 2.08, p<0.01; advanced HR = 3.82, p<0.01, respectively. Surgery and use of chemotherapy were each significantly associated with improved survival. CONCLUSION: No difference in patient survival was observed for any gynecologic malignancy based upon treating hospital teaching or volume status. Although instances of improved outcomes may occur, overall further regionalization would not appear to significantly improve patient survival.
Joana Pedro Lopes; Paula Manuela de Castro Cardoso Pereira; Ana Filipa dos Reis Baltazar Vicente; Alexandra Bernardo; María Fernanda de Mesquita
The present study intended to evaluate the nutritional status of Portuguese colorectal patients and associated it with surgery type as well as quality of life outcomes. Malnutrition can affect up to 85% of cancer patients and specifically 30-60% in colorectal cancer and can significantly influence health outcomes. A sample of 50 colorectal cancer patients was evaluated in what refers to several anthropometric measures, food intake, clinical history, complications rate before and after surgery...
Full Text Available A prospective analysis of women with terminal breast cancer admitted to CHNE from November 2006-August 2007 evaluated anecdotal observations that African American (AA women are likelier than Caucasian women to evidence loco-regional recurrences (LRR. Women with terminal breast cancer who were admitted to CHNE, a not-for-profit hospice serving over 90% of Northeast Florida hospice patients, were eligible for participation. 134 terminal breast cancer patients were assessed by hospice nurses for LRR presence via chest wall examination. 80% of them (107 were Caucasian, 17% (23 were AA and 3% (4 were of other ethnicities. Evidence of LRR were noted in 13% of the women (17/134. The pro- portion of patients with LRR was higher in AA women than Caucasian women (26% vs. 10%, 6/23 vs. 11/107, respectively, although this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.08. The majority of Caucasian women with LRR consented to a medical record review, but a minority of AA women consented (8/11 vs. 2/6, respectively, p = 0.16.Conclusion: Evaluating disparities in breast cancer care outcomes is possible by reviewing data from patients served by hospice programs that aid a majority of patients within a community. This pilot data suggests that AA women with breast cancer have a higher incidence of loco-regional failure as a component of their terminal breast cancer disease than Caucasian women. A smaller proportion of AA patients and families agreed to participate in a medical record review study than Caucasians. Larger studies are necessary to confirm these findings, to elucidate factors contributing to disparities and to develop potential solutions.
Bryant, Ayesha S.; Cerfolio, Robert J.
This article covers the risk factors, diagnostic tools, staging methods/modalities and treatment for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Also presented is the new 7th edition American Joint Cancer Committee (AJCC) TNM classification for staging of NSCLC and a recommended treatment algorithm.
Rančić Milan; Ristić Lidija; Stanković Ivana
Introduction. This study was aimed at analyzing the site, kind and type of infection which develop in patients having lung cancer at hospital treatment. Material and methods. Clinical data of the patients hospitalized for lung cancer were analyzed at the Clinic for Lung Diseases and Tuberculosis in Knez Selo in the period from January 2002 till December 2007. A great number of patients (1296-75.9%) had non-small cell lung cancer. In 1708 patients with lung cancer, 773 febrile episodes were re...
Tumor staging according to the American Joint Committee on Cancer/Union for International Cancer Control tumor, node, metastasis (TNM) system is currently regarded as the standard for staging of patients with colorectal cancer. This system provides the strongest prognostic information for patients with early stage disease and those with advanced disease. For patients with intermediate levels of disease, it is less able to predict disease outcome. Therefore, additional prognostic markers are needed to improve the management of affected patients. Ideal markers are readily assessable on hematoxylin and eosin-stained tumor slides, and in this way are easily applicable worldwide. This review summarizes the histological features of colorectal cancer that can be used for prognostic stratification. Specifically, we refer to the different histological variants of colorectal cancer that have been identified, each of these variants carrying distinct prognostic significance. Established markers of adverse outcomes are lymphatic and venous invasion, as well as perineural invasion, but underreporting still occurs in the routine setting. Tumor budding and tumor necrosis are recent advances that may help to identify patients at high risk for recurrence. The prognostic significance of the antitumor inflammatory response has been known for quite a long time, but a lack of standardization prevented its application in routine pathology. However, scales to assess intra- and peritumoral inflammation have recently emerged, and can be expected to strengthen the prognostic significance of the pathology report
Purpose: To compare the outcome of irradiated clinically localized prostate cancer in African-American and white patients. Methods and Materials: This was a retrospective review of 1,201 men, 116 African-American and 1,085 white, with T1-T3, N0/NX, M0 prostate cancer receiving external radiation between 1987 and 1996. Pretreatment characteristics, treatment parameters, and outcome (relapse or rising prostate-specific antigen [PSA] levels, local recurrence, metastatic relapse, and survival) were compared between the groups using univariate and multivariate statistical methods. Results: There were no significant differences between African-American and white patients in T-stage, Gleason score, prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) level, and testosterone level. African-Americans had a significantly lower incidence of abnormal digital rectal findings and a proportionally higher incidence of obstructive urinary symptoms at presentation and tended to be somewhat younger. A major difference between the two groups was in the significantly higher PSA levels among African-Americans (median, 14 ng/ml) than among white patients (median, 9.5 ng/ml). This translated into a higher incidence of unfavorable disease according to our criteria (39% vs. 25%) among African-Americans and, thus, to the more frequent use of adjuvant androgen ablation and to somewhat higher radiation doses in these patients. With a median follow-up of 42 months the overall 6-year freedom from relapse for African-Americans was 63% compared to 61% for whites (p = 0.634). We found no significant differences in biochemical relapse rates between any subgroups of African-Americans and whites. Specifically, even patients who did not have androgen ablation, when stratified by PSA levels, had similar outcomes regardless of race. Likewise, local recurrence and metastasis rates were not significantly different between the two groups. Conclusions: Although African-American patients tend to have higher pretreatment PSA
Shelley White-Means; Muriel Rice; Jill Dapremont; Barbara Davis; Judy Martin
Among the country’s 25 largest cities, the breast cancer mortality disparity is highest in Memphis, Tennessee, where African American women are twice as likely to die from breast cancer as White women. This qualitative study of African-American breast cancer survivors explores experiences during and post treatment that contributed to their beating the high odds of mortality. Using a semi-structured interview guide, a focus group session was held in 2012 with 10 breast cancer survivors. Themat...
Background. The aim of this review is to present common psychosocial problems in cancer patients and their possible coping strategies. Cancer patients are occupied with many psychosocial problems, which are only partially related to their health state and medical treatments. They are faced with a high social pressure, based on prejudices and stereotypes of this illness. The review presents the process of confrontation with the cancer diagnosis and of managing the psychological consequences of cancer. The effects of specific coping styles, psychosocial interventions and a social support on initiation, progression and recurrence of cancer are also described. Conclusions. Although some recent meta-analysis could not provide scientific evidence for the association between coping strategies and the cancer initiation, the progression or the recurrence (neither have studies rejected the thesis of association), the therapeutic window for the psychosocial intervention is still wide and shows an important effect on the quality of lives of many cancer patients. (author)
Beikmoradi, Ali; NAJAFI, Fatemeh; Roshanaei, Ghodratallah; Pour Esmaeil, Zahra; Khatibian, Mahnaz; Ahmadi, Alireza
Background: Anxiety has negative effects on mental and physical performance, quality of life, duration of hospitalization, and even on the treatment of patients with cancer. Objectives: Today acupressure is widely used to treat anxiety. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate the effects of acupressure on anxiety in patients with cancer. Patients and Methods: A double-blind randomized clinical trial was conducted on 85 patients hospitalized with 3 groups including acupressure group (n = ...
Cross, Sarah E.; Jin, Yu-Sheng; Rao, Jianyu; Gimzewski, James K.
Change in cell stiffness is a new characteristic of cancer cells that affects the way they spread. Despite several studies on architectural changes in cultured cell lines, no ex vivo mechanical analyses of cancer cells obtained from patients have been reported. Using atomic force microscopy, we report the stiffness of live metastatic cancer cells taken from the body (pleural) fluids of patients with suspected lung, breast and pancreas cancer. Within the same sample, we find that the cell stiffness of metastatic cancer cells is more than 70% softer, with a standard deviation over five times narrower, than the benign cells that line the body cavity. Different cancer types were found to display a common stiffness. Our work shows that mechanical analysis can distinguish cancerous cells from normal ones even when they show similar shapes. These results show that nanomechanical analysis correlates well with immunohistochemical testing currently used for detecting cancer.
Egeberg, A; Thyssen, J P; Gislason, G H;
BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that is commonly treated with ultraviolet phototherapy and systemic immunosuppressant drugs, which may confer a risk of skin cancer. Previous studies on the risk of skin cancer in patients with psoriasis have shown conflicting results....... OBJECTIVES: We investigated the risk of new-onset melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), respectively, in a large cohort of patients with psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. METHODS: Data on all Danish individuals aged ≥18 years between 1 January 1997 and 31 December 2012 were linked at individual...... risk of skin cancer is only modestly increased in patients with psoriasis, clinicians should remain vigilant....
This Special Listing of Current Cancer Research Projects is a publication of the International Cancer Research Data Bank (ICRDB) Program of the National Cancer Institute. Each Listing contains descriptions of ongoing projects in one selected cancer research area. The research areas include: Infectious disease in cancer patients; Immunological aspects of supportive care of cancer patients; Nutritional evaluation and support of cancer patients; Pain management of cancer patients
Τogas Κ.; Alexias G.
Background: Lung cancer is a very common type of cancer. The psychological reactions of these patients haven't been studied yet. Aim: The examination of the mental health of lung cancer patients. Methods: A bibliographical review of relevant articles was conducted at the electronic data bases of Pubmed, Pcych Info and Scholar Google by key-words. The quest included researches and reviews which have been published in Greek and English language between 1990- 2013. Results: Lung canc...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous population-based studies showed differences in international and within country colorectal cancer survival estimates, but few investigated the role of prognostic factors. Using a "high resolution approach", we aimed to determine the effect of ethnicity and health care by comparing Filipino-Americans with Philippine residents, who have the same ethnicity, and with Caucasians living in the US, who have the same health care system. Methods Using databases from the Manila and Rizal Cancer Registries and the United States Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results, age-adjusted five-year absolute and relative survival estimates were computed and compared between Filipino-American colorectal cancer patients, cancer patients from the Philippines and Caucasian patients. Cox proportional hazards modelling was used to determine factors affecting survival differences. Results Much lower 5-year relative survival estimates were obtained for Philippine residents (37% as compared to those in Filipino-Americans (60.3% and Caucasians (62.4%. Differences in age, stage and receipt of surgery explained a large proportion of the survival differences between Philippine residents and Filipino-Americans. However, strong excess risk of death for Philippine residents remained after controlling for these and other variables (relative risk, RR, 2.03, 95% confidence interval, 95% CI, 1.83-2.25. Conclusions Strong survival disadvantages of Philippine residents compared to Filipino-American patients were disclosed, which most likely reflect differences in access to and utilization of health care. Health education and advocacy, for both patients and health practitioners, should likewise be given priority.
Oh, KM; Jun, J; Zhao, X.; Kreps, GL; Lee, EE
Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC 2015. Despite the high risk of cancer to the population, Korean Americans are known to have lower knowledge about cancer related information and a lower level of adherence to cancer prevention guidelines. This indicates the necessity of cancer interventions targeting the Korean American population. To reach this population effectively, it is imperative to understand Korean Americans cancer information seeking behaviors. This study (a) identified cancer ...
Dreyer, Lene; Mellemkjaer, Lene; Kendall, Sally;
OBJECTIVE: To analyze whether fibromyalgia (FM) and FM-like symptoms are related to an increased incidence of cancer. METHODS: We identified 1361 patients referred on suspicion of FM in the period 1984-99 from hospital records. Following the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria, patients...
O'Toole, D. M.; Golden, A. M.
The Karnofsky performance scale is the most widely used method of quantifying cancer patients' ability to function. It has also been used to measure patients' function before and after treatment. Because identifying problems with function is the cornerstone of rehabilitating patients with cancer, we developed a table that relates the functional independence measure with the Karnofsky scale. This approach encourages oncologists to consider inpatient or outpatient rehabilitation services for a ...
Suhami, Norhasmilia; Muhamad, Mazanah Bt; Krauss, Steven Eric
Islamic healing is frequently referred to as the treatment of choice by many Muslim cancer patients in Malaysia. Despite its widespread use, there is limited information relating to patients' healing preferences. With rising cancer rates in the country, this issue has become a concern to public health policy makers. The purpose of this study was to understand why cancer patients seek Islamic healing. This qualitative study utilized in-depth interviews with 18 cancer patients. The findings indicate three main reasons: (1) recommendations from family, friends and doctors; (2) belief in Islamic healing and (3) the perceived ineffectiveness and dissatisfaction with conventional treatments. Islamic healing will likely continue to be popular complementary cancer treatment in Malaysia as it is grounded in strong cultural and religious beliefs. PMID:26391242
The goal of this review is to discuss the psychiatric aspects of pain in cancer patients from a biopsychosocial approach. Pain in cancer patients is considered as a complex reaction causing severe suffering and involves many psychological aspects. It has many dimensions such as personality, affect, cognition and social relations. The pain experience may also be influenced by some psychological factors such as anxiety, depression and the meaning of pain. Therefore, a successful management of cancer pain requires a multidisciplinary approach. Since cancer pain is generally treated medically, the psychological impact of pain is often underestimated. However, cancer pain is usually related to high levels of psychological distress. Culture, as an important factor affecting cancer pain, will also be discussed during this review. It is crucial to understand cultural diversity in the treatment of cancer patients with pain. Research shows that a minority patients of various ethnicities have less control of their pain because of the miscommunication problem within the medical setting. By paying attention to patients' cultural diversities, problems such as miscommunication causing inadequate control of pain can be eliminated. In order to manage pain in cancer patients, cognitive-behavioral interventions may be integrated with pharmacotherapy. The main goal of these strategies is to provide a sense of control and better coping skills to deal with cancer. Patients' maladaptive thoughts or behaviors may cause physical and emotional stress. Main behavioral strategies include biofeedback, relaxation training, and hypnosis. Cognitive strategies include guided imagery, distraction, thought monitoring and problem solving. By discussing all of these aspects of cancer pain, the multidimensional characteristic of pain and the relation between cancer pain and psychiatric factors will be clarified. PMID:20590361
Full Text Available Aims: To determine the level of oral cancer awareness and knowledge among patients referred to the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology in Central Anatolia. Settings and Design: The study was conducted with 1,125 patients who applied to the school of dentistry for routine dental examinations. The authors collect information with a 20-item written questionnaire from the participants about oral cancer risk factors, epidemiology, etiology, and signs and symptoms. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive statistics of demographic variables and other data were reported as means and percentages. Statistical analysis was performed by means of SPSS +11.0 statistical package. Results: Overall, only 48.9% of all patients showed awareness of oral cancer, with awareness especially poor among lower socioeconomic groups. Awareness of oral cancer risk factors and signs and symptoms did not vary significantly between men and women (P > 0.5; however, older participants (aged 40-64 years were more familiar with oral cancer signs than younger participants. More than half of all participants (56.8% were unaware of the common clinical presentations of oral cancer. Conclusions: The results of this survey showed knowledge regarding oral cancer to be quite low. Thus, educational programs are needed to increase public awareness about oral cancer, and dentists should request patients undergo examinations for oral cancer to ensure early detection.
Kobayashi, Lindsay C; Smith, Samuel G
Information seeking is an important behavior for cancer prevention and control, but inequalities in the communication of information about the disease persist. Conceptual models have suggested that low health literacy is a barrier to information seeking, and that fatalistic beliefs about cancer may be a mediator of this relationship. Cancer fatalism can be described as deterministic thoughts about the external causes of the disease, the inability to prevent it, and the inevitability of death at diagnosis. This study aimed to examine the associations between these constructs and sociodemographic factors, and test a mediation model using the American population-representative Health Information and National Trends Survey (HINTS 4), Cycle 3 (n = 2,657). Approximately one third (34%) of the population failed to answer 2/4 health literacy items correctly (limited health literacy). Many participants agreed with the fatalistic beliefs that it seems like everything causes cancer (66%), that one cannot do much to lower his or her chances of getting cancer (29%), and that thinking about cancer makes one automatically think about death (58%). More than half of the population had "ever" sought information about cancer (53%). In analyses adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics and family cancer history, people with limited health literacy were less likely to have ever sought cancer information (odds ratio [OR] = 0.63; 0.42-0.95) and more frequently endorsed the belief that "there's not much you can do . . ." (OR = 1.61; 1.05-2.47). This fatalistic belief partially explained the relationship between health literacy and information seeking in the mediation model (14% mediation). Interventions are needed to address low health literacy and cancer fatalism to increase public interest in cancer-related information. PMID:26377524
Full Text Available Background: A supportive needs assessment is an essential component of any care program. There is no research evidence regarding the supportive care needs of cancer patients in Iran or other Middle Eastern countries. Aims: The aim of this study was to determine the supportive care needs of Iranian cancer patients. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study was conducted in a referral medical center in the northwest of Iran. A total of 274 cancer patients completed the Supportive Care Needs Survey (SCNS-59. Descriptive statistics were used for data analysis. Results: In 18 items of the SCNS, more than 50% of the participants reported that their needs were unmet. Most frequently, unmet needs were related to the health system, information, physical, and daily living domains, and most met needs were related to sexuality, patient care, and support domains. Conclusions: Iranian cancer patients experience many unmet needs and there is an urgent need for establishing additional supportive care services in Iran.
Nahleh, Zeina; Otoukesh, Salman; Dwivedi, Alok Kumar; Mallawaarachchi, Indika; Sanchez, Luis; Saldivar, J. Salvador; Cataneda, Kayla; Heydarian, Rosalinda
Hispanics in El Paso, TX, a large American-Mexican border city constitute 85% of the population. Limited cancer research has been conducted in this population. We sought to study the prevalence of BRCA mutations among Hispanic patients of Mexican origin, identify reported Mexican founder or recurrent mutations, and study the breast cancer characteristics in mutation carriers. Methods: Hispanic women of Mexican descent with a personal history of breast cancer, who presented consecutively for g...
Full Text Available Abstract Cancer patients experience several stressors and emotional upheavals. Fear of death, interruption of life plans, changes in body image and self-esteem, changes in social role and lifestyle are all important issues to be faced. Moreover, Depressive Disorders may impact the course of the disease and compliance. The cost and prevalence, the impairment caused, and the diagnostic and therapeutic uncertainty surrounding depressive symptoms among cancer patients make these conditions a priority for research. In this article we discuss recent data, focusing on detection of Depressive Disorders, biological correlates, treatments and unmet needs of depressed cancer patients.
Rao, Uma; Poland, Russell E.; Lin, Keh-Ming
The study compared depressive and associated psychopathological symptoms in 17 African-American, 19 Asian-American, 22 Mexican-American and 41 Non-Hispanic White patients with unipolar major depressive disorder. Overall, severity of depression was comparable among the groups both on clinician-rated and subject-rated measures. However, ethnic-minority groups were more likely to experience diurnal variation of mood, with worsening in the evening. Furthermore, Asian-Americans and Mexican-America...
Stolley, Melinda R.; Sharp, Lisa K.; Oh, April; Schiffer, Linda
Introduction Breast cancer survival rates are lower for African American women than for white women. Obesity, high-fat diets, and lack of regular physical activity increase risk for breast cancer recurrence, comorbid conditions, and premature death. Eighty-two percent of African American women are overweight or obese, partly because of unhealthy eating and exercise patterns. Although successful weight loss and lifestyle interventions for breast cancer survivors are documented, none has consid...
Shenoy, Divya; Packianathan, Satyaseelan; Chen, Allen M.; Vijayakumar, Srinivasan
Background In 2012, the United States Preventative Services Task Force issued new guidelines recommending that male U.S. residents, irrespective of race, no longer be screened for prostate cancer. In African American men, the incidence of prostate cancer is almost 60 % higher and the mortality rate is two to three times greater than in Caucasians. The purpose of this study is to reduce African American men's prostate cancer burden by demonstrating they need separate screening guidelines. Meth...
Vetta L. Sanders Thompson
Full Text Available Background. Data suggest that colorectal cancer could be cut by approximately 60% if all people aged 50 years or older received regular screening. Studies have identified socio-cultural attitudes that might inform cancer education and screening promotion campaigns. This article applies item response theory (IRT to a set of survey items selected to assess sociocultural attitudes in order to determine how current measures may affect what we know about how these attitudes affect colorectal cancer screening (CRCS.Design and Methods. A survey of colorectal cancer screening, screening attitudes and cultural beliefs was administered to 1021 African Americans – 683 women and 338 men, ages 50 to 75. Eligibility crite ria for participation included being born in the United States, self-identified African American male or female, age 50 to 75 years. The IRT analysis was performed on 655 individuals with complete data for the 43 observed variables. Results. Twenty-nine items comprise the Multi-construct African American Cultural Survey (MAACS that addresses seven cultural con- structs: mistrust/distrust, privacy, ethnic identity, collectivism, empowerment, and male gender roles. The items provide adequate information about the attitudes of the population across most levels of the constructs assessed. Among the sociocultural variables considered, empowerment (OR=1.078; 95% CI: 1.008, 1.151 had the strongest association with CRCS adherence and privacy showed promise. Conclusions. The MAACS provides a fixed length questionnaire to assess African American CRCS attitudes, two new constructs that might assist in CRCS promotion, and a suggested focus for identification of additional constructs of interest.
Full Text Available Nora I Schneider, Cord LangnerInstitute of Pathology, Medical University of Graz, Graz, AustriaAbstract: Tumor staging according to the American Joint Committee on Cancer/Union for International Cancer Control tumor, node, metastasis (TNM system is currently regarded as the standard for staging of patients with colorectal cancer. This system provides the strongest prognostic information for patients with early stage disease and those with advanced disease. For patients with intermediate levels of disease, it is less able to predict disease outcome. Therefore, additional prognostic markers are needed to improve the management of affected patients. Ideal markers are readily assessable on hematoxylin and eosin-stained tumor slides, and in this way are easily applicable worldwide. This review summarizes the histological features of colorectal cancer that can be used for prognostic stratification. Specifically, we refer to the different histological variants of colorectal cancer that have been identified, each of these variants carrying distinct prognostic significance. Established markers of adverse outcomes are lymphatic and venous invasion, as well as perineural invasion, but underreporting still occurs in the routine setting. Tumor budding and tumor necrosis are recent advances that may help to identify patients at high risk for recurrence. The prognostic significance of the antitumor inflammatory response has been known for quite a long time, but a lack of standardization prevented its application in routine pathology. However, scales to assess intra- and peritumoral inflammation have recently emerged, and can be expected to strengthen the prognostic significance of the pathology report.Keywords: colorectal cancer, lymphatic invasion, blood-vessel invasion, perineural invasion, tumor budding, tumor necrosis
Brown, Sylvia R.; Joshweseoma, Lori; Saboda, Kathylynn; Sanderson, Priscilla; Ami, Delores; Harris, Robin
American Indian women have lower cancer survival rates compared to non-Hispanic White women. Increased cancer screening fostered by culturally sensitive education and community programs may help decrease this disparity. This study assesses the effectiveness of Hopi Cancer Support Services (HCSS) in maintaining high rates of breast and cervical cancer screening among Hopi women and evaluates the impact of participation in HCSS programs on colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. A population-based s...
Pain, Neuropathic; Epilepsy; Renal Pelvis Cancer; Pancreatic Cancer; Breast Cancer; Nervous System Cancer; Chronic Pancreatitis; Stomach Cancer; Renal Cell Carcinoma; Diabetes; Bladder Cancer; Bone and Joint Cancer; Penis Cancer; Anal Cancer; Cancer; Renal Cancer
Full Text Available Evaluation of cancer genomes in global context is of great interest in light of changing ethnic distribution of the world population. We focused our study on men of African ancestry because of their disproportionately higher rate of prostate cancer (CaP incidence and mortality. We present a systematic whole genome analyses, revealing alterations that differentiate African American (AA and Caucasian American (CA CaP genomes. We discovered a recurrent deletion on chromosome 3q13.31 centering on the LSAMP locus that was prevalent in tumors from AA men (cumulative analyses of 435 patients: whole genome sequence, 14; FISH evaluations, 101; and SNP array, 320 patients. Notably, carriers of this deletion experienced more rapid disease progression. In contrast, PTEN and ERG common driver alterations in CaP were significantly lower in AA prostate tumors compared to prostate tumors from CA. Moreover, the frequency of inter-chromosomal rearrangements was significantly higher in AA than CA tumors. These findings reveal differentially distributed somatic mutations in CaP across ancestral groups, which have implications for precision medicine strategies.
Varkey, Prashanth; Tang, Wen-Ruay; Tan, Ngian Chye
Anorexia and cachexia frequently complicate the late stages of malignancy and can be a prominent feature of early disease. The resulting weight loss significantly affects the morbidity and mortality of the cancer patient. A fundamental understanding of nutrition and the pathophysiology of cancer cachexia will aid in diligent treatment decisions to achieve optimal results. The pathophysiology of cancer cachexia is discussed, together with methods of nutritional assessment, nutritional requirem...
Body, J J; Lossignol, D; Ronson, A
The scope of supportive care and cancer rehabilitation is very wide and heterogeneous. In this review we focus on nutritional aspects, sexual and gonadal function, psychological rehabilitation, treatment of cancer pain, and rehabilitation of patients with bone metastases. The anorexia-cachexia syndrome is a particularly frequent manifestation of cancer that profoundly affects body image and significantly impairs quality of life of cancer patients. However, enteral feeding through nasogastric tubes, gastrostomies, or jejunostomies is an efficient method for providing long-term enteral nutrition at home and for contributing to complete rehabilitation after cancer therapy. Recent effort has focused on nutritional pharmacology and on the optimalization of the use of appetite-stimulating drugs, such as progestational agents. The psychological components of cancer, anticancer therapy, and quality of life have now been widely recognized and studied. Effective pharmacological and psychotherapeutic interventions help patients and their family to better adjust to the chronic stress of cancer, but more specific determinants of psychological morbidity should be developed. In particular, the safe and efficient use of the most recent classes of antidepressants and anxiolytics should be urgently studied. More than 90% of cancer patients present one or more pain syndromes during their illness. The adequate use of drugs is the cornerstone of treatment. The development on new molecules and new routes of administration opens interesting perspectives for cancer pain control. Bone metastases are the source of considerable morbidity. Intravenous bisphosphonates have been successfully used for the treatment of the symptoms of metastatic bone disease, especially bone pain. Moreover, monthly pamidronate infusions in addition to chemotherapy reduce the mean skeletal morbidity rate by more than one third and contribute to the rehabilitation of cancer patients with bone metastases from breast
Chen, Shi; Zhao, Bai-wei; Li, Yuan-Fang; Feng, Xing-Yu; Sun, Xiao-wei; Li, Wei; Zhou, Zhi-Wei; Zhan, You-Qing; Qian, Chao-Nan; Chen, Ying-Bo
Aim To investigate whether the recommendation to remove 15 lymph nodes that is used in the staging system is necessary to assess gastric cancer progression and to evaluate whether our metastatic lymph node ratio dividing method, adapted from the AJCC’s (American Joint Committee on Cancer) 7th TNM staging system, is helpful for the patients with fewer than 15 harvested lymph nodes. Methods We performed a retrospective study of 1101 patients with histologically diagnosed gastric cancer who unde...
Froes Brandao, Denise; Strasser-Weippl, Kathrin; Goss, Paul E
Hyperprolactinemia, defined as a sustained elevation of prolactin (PRL) levels greater than 530 mIU/L in women and greater than 424 mIU/L in men, has been implicated for a long time in breast cancer etiology and prognosis. Elevated PRL values (approximately 2-3 times higher than the reference values) are a common adverse effect of antipsychotic medications, especially with first-generation drugs, and most antipsychotics carry a standard warning regarding PRL elevations on their US product labels. These associations foster undertreatment of serious psychiatric illnesses in both otherwise healthy patients and cancer patients. This review assesses both the preclinical and clinical evidence that has led to the hypothesis of PRL's role in breast cancer risk or breast cancer progression. It is concluded that taken together, the published data are unconvincing and insufficient to deprive cancer patients in general and breast cancer patients specifically of potentially effective antipsychotic or antidepressant medications for serious psychiatric indications. We thus call on revised medication guidelines to avoid the existing undertreatment of serious psychiatric illnesses among cancer patients based on an unproven contraindication to psychiatric medications. Cancer 2016;122:184-188. © 2015 American Cancer Society. PMID:26457577
Full Text Available Background: Malnutrition is widely prevalent in the pediatric population in India. There is paucity of data on the prevalence of malnutrition in pediatric cancer patients and the impact of cancer treatment on nutritional status of Indian children. Aims: The study was conducted to look at the prevalence of malnutrition and assess the impact of treatment on nutritional status of pediatric cancer patients. Settings And Design: This was a retrospective study. Materials And Methods: Data on the weight of pediatric cancer patients <16 years of age treated at Cancer Institute, Chennai, from January 2013 to May 2014 were analyzed at systematic time points in therapy. Patients' weight were plotted on the Centre for Disease Control (CDC growth charts. Patients were defined to be undernourished if their weight for age was ≤3rd centile in CDC growth charts and obese if their weight for age was ≥97th centile on CDC growth charts. RESULTS: A total of 295 patient case records were analyzed. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia was the most common malignancy. At diagnosis, under-nutrition was seen in 44% patients, this increased to 46% midway during treatment (end of induction in acute leukemia and completion of 50% of planned treatment in solid tumors and decreased to 27% at the end of treatment (beginning of maintenance in acute leukemia and completion of planned treatment in solid tumors (P = 0.0005. There was no significant difference in nutritional status between patients with hematological malignancies and solid tumors (P = 0.8. Conclusion: Under-nutrition is present in close to half of the pediatric cancer patients presenting to our institute. Active nutritional intervention and education were able to significantly reduce the prevalence of under-nutrition in patients at the end of treatment.
Jevne, Ronna F.; Nekolaichuk, Cheryl L.; Williamson, F. Helen A.
Describes a model for counseling cancer patients that integrates the unique features of the cancer experience within a basic counseling framework. It combines a nine-step problem-solving approach with a biopsychosocial perspective, placing greater emphasis on the person than the problem. Utilizes innovative questioning techniques and strategies.…
Jun Ho Lee; Jae-Gahb Park; Jae-Moon Bae; Ja Seong Bae; Keun Won Ryu; Jong Seok Lee; Sook Ryun Park; Chan Gyoo Kim; Myoung Cheorl Kook; Il Ju Choi; Young Woo Kim
AIM: To identify patients with a high-risk of having a synchronous cancer among gastric cancer patients.METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the prospective gastric cancer database at the National Cancer Center,Korea from December 2000 to December 2004. The clinicopathological characteristics of patients with synchronous cancers and those of patients without synchronous cancers were compared. Multivariate analysis was performed to identify the risk factors for the presence of a synchronous cancer in gastric cancer patients.RESULTS: 111 of 3291 gastric cancer patients (3.4%)registered in the database had a synchronous cancer.Among these 111 patients, 109 had a single synchronous cancer and 2 patients had two synchronous cancers. The most common form of synchronous cancer was colorectal cancer (42 patients, 37.2%) followed by lung cancer (21 patients, 18.6%). Multivariate analyses revealed that elderly patients with differentiated early gastric cancer have a higher probability of a synchronous cancer.CONCLUSION: Synchronous cancers in gastric cancer patients are not infrequent. The physicians should try to find synchronous cancers in gastric cancer patients,especially in the elderly with a differentiated early gastric cancer.
Transperineal permanent prostate brachytherapy is a safe and efficacious treatment option for patients with organ-confined prostate cancer. Careful adherence to established brachytherapy standards has been shown to improve the likelihood of procedural success and reduce the incidence of treatment-related morbidity. A collaborative effort of the American College of Radiology (ACR) and American Society for Therapeutic Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) has produced a practice guideline for permanent prostate brachytherapy. The guideline defines the qualifications and responsibilities of all the involved personnel, including the radiation oncologist, physicist and dosimetrist. Factors with respect to patient selection and appropriate use of supplemental treatment modalities such as external beam radiation and androgen suppression therapy are discussed. Logistics with respect to the brachtherapy implant procedure, the importance of dosimetric parameters, and attention to radiation safety procedures and documentation are presented. Adherence to these practice guidelines can be part of ensuring quality and safety in a successful prostate brachytherapy program.
DeSantis, Carol E; Siegel, Rebecca L; Sauer, Ann Goding; Miller, Kimberly D; Fedewa, Stacey A; Alcaraz, Kassandra I; Jemal, Ahmedin
In this article, the American Cancer Society provides the estimated number of new cancer cases and deaths for blacks in the United States and the most recent data on cancer incidence, mortality, survival, screening, and risk factors for cancer. Incidence data are from the National Cancer Institute, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries, and mortality data are from the National Center for Health Statistics. Approximately 189,910 new cases of cancer and 69,410 cancer deaths will occur among blacks in 2016. Although blacks continue to have higher cancer death rates than whites, the disparity has narrowed for all cancers combined in men and women and for lung and prostate cancers in men. In contrast, the racial gap in death rates has widened for breast cancer in women and remained level for colorectal cancer in men. The reduction in overall cancer death rates since the early 1990s translates to the avoidance of more than 300,000 deaths among blacks. In men, incidence rates from 2003 to 2012 decreased for all cancers combined (by 2.0% per year) as well as for the top 3 cancer sites (prostate, lung, and colorectal). In women, overall rates during the corresponding time period remained unchanged, reflecting increasing trends in breast cancer combined with decreasing trends in lung and colorectal cancer rates. Five-year relative survival is lower for blacks than whites for most cancers at each stage of diagnosis. The extent to which these disparities reflect unequal access to health care versus other factors remains an active area of research. Progress in reducing cancer death rates could be accelerated by ensuring equitable access to prevention, early detection, and high-quality treatment. CA Cancer J Clin 2016;66:290-308. © 2016 American Cancer Society. PMID:26910411
Full Text Available Cognitive behavioral therapy is one of the structured but flexible psychosocial interventions that could be applied to patients with cancer. In many studies the positive effects of cognitive behavioral therapy in reducing psychological morbidity and improving the quality of life of cancer patients have been shown. In this article, the contents and techniques of adapted cognitive behavioral therapy for patients with cancer and its effectiveness in commonly seen psychiatric disorders have been reviewed. The aim of this article is to contribute positively to physicians and nurses in Turkey for early detection of psychological distress and referral to the therapist that would clearly increase the quality of life of cancer patients. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(3.000: 257-270
... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159903.html Cancer Patients, Doctors Often Disagree About Prognosis Those with advanced disease are likely to be more optimistic than their doctor, study shows To use the sharing features on ...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Second cancers have been reported to occur in 10-20% of patients with neuroendocrine tumors (NETs. However, most published studies used data from a single institution or focused only on specific sites of NETs. In addition, most of these studies included second cancers diagnosed concurrently with NETs, making it difficult to assess the temporality and determine the exact incidence of second cancers. In this nationwide population-based study, we used data recorded by the Taiwan Cancer Registry (TCR to analyze the incidence and distribution of second cancers after the diagnosis of NETs. METHODS: NET cases diagnosed from January 1, 1996 to December 31, 2006 were identified from the TCR. The data on the occurrence of second cancers were ascertained up to December 31, 2008. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs of second cancers were calculated based on the cancer incidence rates of the general population. Cox-proportional hazards regression analysis was performed to estimate the hazard ratio (HR and 95% confidence interval (CI for the risk of second cancers associated with sex, age, and primary NET sites. RESULTS: A total of 1,350 newly diagnosed NET cases were identified according to the selection criteria. Among the 1,350 NET patients, 49 (3.63% developed a second cancer >3 months after the diagnosis of NET. The risk of second cancer following NETs was increased compared to the general population (SIR = 1.48, 95% CI: 1.09-1.96, especially among those diagnosed at age 70 or older (HR = 5.08, 95% CI = 1.69-15.22. There appeared to be no preference of second cancer type according to the primary sites of NETs. CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed that the risk of second cancer following NETs is increased, especially among those diagnosed at age 70 or older. Close monitoring for the occurrence of second cancers after the diagnosis of NETs is warranted.
Dr. Moon Chen, Professor of the Department of Internal Medicine and Associate Director of Cancer Control at the University of California-Davis Comprehensive Cancer Center, speaks about Hepatitis B and Liver Cancer as a more prevalent problem in the Asian American community.
Background Hyaluronan(HA)is most likely associated with tumor invasion and metastasis.Studies have shown that HA levels are often increased in serum of patients with various malignant tumors.The purpose of this study was to determine the levels of serum hyaluronan in patients with oral cancer and evaluate the value of serum HA in adjuvant diagnosis,staging and monitoring treatment response in these patients.Methods Eighty-four hospitalized patients with oral cancer,65 patients with benign tumors in the oral and maxillofacial region and 67 healthy individuals were included in this investigation.Venous blood was collected from these patients and the healthy individuals before therapy.One week after therapy,venous blood was collected once again in 43 patients with oral cancer.Serum samples were obtained and serum HA levels examined.Results The serum HA concentration was significantly higher in oral cancer patients than in patients with benign tumors and in healthy controls(P＜0.05).The serum HA level in patients with stages Ⅲ and Ⅳ disease was higher than in patients with stages Ⅰ and Ⅱ disease,but there was no significant difference in the HA level between stages Ⅰ and Ⅱ nor between stages Ⅲ and Ⅳ(P＞0.05).After a complete treatment the HA levels in patients with oral cancer became lower than before treatment,but the difference was not significant(P＞0.05).Conclusions The results of this study suggest that the determination of HA levels may provide additional information in diagnosis of oral cancer,but its usefulness as an adjunct in clinical staging and in monitoring treatment response was limited.
Stacey Martindale; Awinder Singh; Hua Wang; Ashley Steinberg; Amer Homsi; Haidi Zhang; Alan Go; Peter Pappas
Breast cancer survival has significantly improved over the past two decades. However, the diagnosis of breast cancer is lower and the mortality rate remains higher, in African American women (AA) compared to Caucasian-American women. The purpose of this investigation is to analyze postoperative events that may affect breast cancer survival. This is a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data from The Brooklyn Hospital Center cancer registry from 1997 to 2010. Of the 1538 patients...
Handberg, C; Lomborg, K; Nielsen, C V; Oliffe, J L; Midtgaard, J
The aim was to describe male cancer survivors' barriers towards participation in cancer rehabilitation as a means to guiding future targeted men's cancer rehabilitation. Symbolic Interactionism along with the interpretive descriptive methodology guided the study of 35 male cancer survivors representing seven cancer types. Data were generated through a 5-month fieldwork study comprising participant observations, semi-structured individual interviews and informal conversations. The analyses revealed two overarching findings shedding light on male cancer survivors' barriers to rehabilitation: 'Fear of losing control' and 'Striving for normality'. While 'Fear of losing control' signified what the men believed rehabilitation would invoke: 'Reduced manliness', 'Sympathy and dependency' and 'Confrontation with death', 'Striving for normality' was based on what the men believed rehabilitation would hinder: 'Autonomy and purpose', 'Solidarity and fellowship' and 'Forget and move on'. This study of male cancer survivors' and cancer rehabilitation documents how masculine ideals may constitute barriers for participation in rehabilitation and provides insights about why men are underrepresented in rehabilitation. The findings can guide practice to develop research-based rehabilitation approaches focused on preserving control and normality. Further empirical evidence is needed to: (1) explore the conduct of health professionals' towards male cancer patients and (2) address gender inequalities in cancer rehabilitation. PMID:26223855
Chung-Hoon Kim; Gyun-Ho Jeon
With improved survival rates among cancer patients, fertility preservation is now being recognized as an issue of great importance. There are currently several methods of fertility preservation available in female cancer patients and the options and techniques via assisted reproduction and cryopreservation are increasing, but some are still experimental and continues to be evaluated. The established means of preserving fertility include embryo cryopreservation, gonadal shielding during radiat...
Objective To examine self-reported symptoms by the patients receiving cancer therapy, and find out the symptoms that should be coped with and managed during the treatment. Methods A pilot study was conducted on self-reported symptoms on 185 patients receiving chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy for different cancers. The Therapy-Related Symptoms Checklist (TRSC) was used. Results Severe symptoms on the TRSC subscales: loss of appetite, feeling sluggish, weight loss, nausea and hair loss, were reported by the p...
Fabienne Camilo da Silveira Pirajá; Rafael Bandeira Lages; Uylma Assunção Costa; João Batista Mendes Teles; Viriato Campelo
Objective: To analyze the survival after five years among patients treated of prostate cancer at Hospital São Marcos. Methods: A descriptive population-based epidemiological study performed in Teresina-PI, evaluating a hospital cohort consisting of 71 patients of Hospital São Marcos, enrolled in Hospital Cancer Registry (HCR) from 2000 to 2001, under ICD10 - C61. The variables considered in the evaluation of survival were: age group, tumor staging and skin color. The Kaplan-Meier method ...
Jay, Nicolas; Napoli, Amedeo; Kohler, François
In France, cancer care is evolving to the design of regional networks, so as to coordinate expertise, services and resources allocation. Existing information systems along with data-mining tools can provide better knowledge on the distribution of patient flows. We used one year data of the French Diagnosis Related Groups (DRGs) based system to perform our analysis. Formal Concept Analysis has been used to build Iceberg Lattices of cancer patient flows in the French region of Lorraine. This un...
Melda Misirlioglu; Rana Nalcaci; Selmi Yilmaz Yardimci; Mehmet Zahit Adisen
Aims: To determine the level of oral cancer awareness and knowledge among patients referred to the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology in Central Anatolia. Settings and Design: The study was conducted with 1,125 patients who applied to the school of dentistry for routine dental examinations. The authors collect information with a 20-item written questionnaire from the participants about oral cancer risk factors, epidemiology, etiology, and signs and symptoms. Statistical Analysis: ...
Muñoz, Elkin; González, Naira; Muñoz, Luis; Aguilar, Jesús; Velasco, Juan A García
Breast cancer is the most prevalent malignancy among women under 50. Improvements in diagnosis and treatment have yielded an important decrease in mortality in the last 20 years. In many cases, chemotherapy and radiotherapy develop side effects on the reproductive function. Therefore, before the anti-cancer treatment impairs fertility, clinicians should offer some techniques for fertility preservation for women planning motherhood in the future. In order to obtain more available oocytes for IVF, the ovary must be stimulated. New protocols which prevent exposure to increased estrogen during gonadotropin stimulation, measurements to avoid the delay in starting anti-cancer treatment or the outcome of ovarian stimulation have been addressed in this review. There is no evidence of association between ovarian stimulation and breast cancer. It seems that there are more relevant other confluent factors than ovarian stimulation. Factors that can modify the risk of breast cancer include: parity, age at full-term birth, age of menarche, and family history. There is an association between breast cancer and exogenous estrogen. Therefore, specific protocols to stimulate patients with breast cancer include anti-estrogen agents such as letrozole. By using letrozole plus recombinant follicular stimulating hormone, patients develop a multifollicular growth with only a mild increase in estradiol serum levels. Controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) takes around 10 days, and we discuss new strategies to start COS as soon as possible. Protocols starting during the luteal phase or after inducing the menses currently prevent a delay in starting ovarian stimulation. Patients with breast cancer have a poorer response to COS compared with patients without cancer who are stimulated with conventional protocols of gonadotropins. Although many centres offer fertility preservation and many patients undergo ovarian stimulation, there are not enough studies to evaluate the recurrence, breast cancer
Gillessen, S; Omlin, A; Attard, G;
The first St Gallen Advanced Prostate Cancer Consensus Conference (APCCC) Expert Panel identified and reviewed the available evidence for the ten most important areas of controversy in advanced prostate cancer (APC) management. The successful registration of several drugs for castration......-resistant prostate cancer and the recent studies of chemo-hormonal therapy in men with castration-naïve prostate cancer have led to considerable uncertainty as to the best treatment choices, sequence of treatment options and appropriate patient selection. Management recommendations based on expert opinion, and not...
Sly, Jamilia R.; Edwards, Tiffany; Shelton, Rachel C.; Jandorf, Lina
African Americans have a higher rate of colorectal cancer (CRC) mortality than other racial/ethnic groups. This disparity is alarming given that CRC is largely preventable through the use of endoscopy (screening colonoscopy or sigmoidoscopy), yet rates of CRC screening among African Americans is suboptimal. Only 48.9% of African Americans are…
Full Text Available Introduction: Being a cancer patient is a unique and singular. The cancer disease associated with pain and suffering is a challenging process for the sufferer, for whom have around or for those caring for the sick. Pain, considered the 5 th vital sign, is often identified as the main complaint of our patients suffering from cancer. We dare to say that to explore the essence of the care provided by nurses and primary health care to cancer patients with prolonged pain at the time found in his home and family, we would be helping to build a know -how by itself, with positive externalities for patients, families, professionals and nursing itself. Methods: Ask "What does Care for Nurses and primary health care for cancer patients with prolonged pain in time for your family?" we may lead the cornerstone of our problems, by studying quantitative nature using a questionnaire and a significance level of care. Results: the average age is 59.27 years, mostly women, 51% are married and in 29.8% of studies has only completed the first cycle of education. The majority of cancer patients who participated in this study share a room with a relative. In regard to aspects of their pain, cancer patients referred to 47.1% of cases, that their pain started weeks ago and 38.5% even refers to the pain persists for months. The pain felt by these patients is not the severe type, in 68.3% of cases, and has an average intensity of 5, although we have 25% of these patients with pain greater than a 6.75. The Meaning of Caring scale applied to the group of nurses who provide care at primary health reveals an alpha of 0.8857 and 0.9025 standardized alpha. The Meaning of Caring scale applied to the group of cancer patients with prolonged pain at the time they are at home shows an alpha of 0.6672and 0.7374 standardized alpha. The Meaning of Caring scale applied to the group of cancer family patients with prolonged pain shows an alpha of 0.6712 and an alpha standardized 0
Svendsen, E; Karwinski, B
The series studied comprised 6197 patients who had died of or who had cancer at death and represents all patients with cancer from 21,530 necropsies performed at this department from 1960-84. Pulmonary embolism was significantly more common among cancer patients than in those with non-neoplastic diseases. Among those palliatively treated, patients with ovarian cancer, cancer of the extrahepatic bile duct system, and cancer of the stomach had the highest prevalence of pulmonary embolism (34.6%...
The total number of malignant neoplasms included on this study 7,787 cases(10.4%) among 74,928 cases for 2 years. On sex, females with 57.6% were much more than males with 42.4%. The highest proportion of cancer 50-59 age group. The most frequent primary site among males was found to be stomach with 36.2%, followed by liver(12.3%), lung(12.2%), esophagus(15.5%) and larynx(4.9%). In females, the first order was uterine cervix with 47.3%, followed most common type of morphology of malignant neoplasms was adenocarcinoma(39.0%) in males an squamous cell carcinoma(56.2%) in females. Among the cancer patients initially diagnosed in this hospital, the proportion of malignant neoplasms by the extent of disease was 4.6% for patient with carcinoma-in-situ, 76.3% for patients with localized involvement, 11.6% for patients with regional involvement and 7.5% for patients with distant involvement. Among,the cancer patients initially treatment in this hospital, the proportion of malignant neoplasms by the method of treatment was 19.0% for surgery, 27.7 for radiotherapy and 24.2% for chemotherapy. Among the cancer patients confirmed by medical records, 11.2% was traced more than 5 years. (Author)
Kim, Chung-Hoon; Jeon, Gyun-Ho
With improved survival rates among cancer patients, fertility preservation is now being recognized as an issue of great importance. There are currently several methods of fertility preservation available in female cancer patients and the options and techniques via assisted reproduction and cryopreservation are increasing, but some are still experimental and continues to be evaluated. The established means of preserving fertility include embryo cryopreservation, gonadal shielding during radiation therapy, ovarian transposition, conservative gynecologic surgery such as radical trachelectomy, donor embryos/oocytes, gestational surrogacy, and adoption. The experimental methods include oocyte cryopreservation, ovarian cryopreservation and transplantation, in vitro maturation, and ovarian suppression. With advances in methods for the preservation of fertility, providing information about risk of infertility and possible options of fertility preservation to all young patients with cancer, and discussing future fertility with them should be also considered as one of the important parts of consultation at the time of cancer diagnosis. PMID:22462006
Melinda B. Chu; Slutsky, Jordan B.; Dhandha, Maulik M.; Beal, Brandon T.; Armbrecht, Eric S.; Walker, Ronald J.; Varvares, Mark A.; Fosko, Scott W.
Recent guidelines from the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) and National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) have been proposed for the assessment of “high-risk” cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (cSCCs). Though different in perspective, both guidelines share the common goals of trying to identify “high-risk” cSCCs and improving patient outcomes. Thus, in theory, both definitions should identify a similar proportion of “high-risk” tumors. We sought to evaluate the AJCC and NCCN d...
Harris, Holly R; Bergkvist, Leif; Wolk, Alicja
The World Cancer Research Fund/American Association for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) has published eight nutrition-related recommendations for the prevention of cancer. However, few prospective studies have examined these recommendations by breast cancer hormone receptor subtype and only one case-control study has included the dietary supplements recommendation in their evaluation. We investigated whether adherence to the WCRF/AICR cancer prevention recommendations was associated with breast cancer incidence, overall and by hormone receptor subtype, in the Swedish Mammography Cohort. Among 31,514 primarily postmenopausal women diet and lifestyle factors were assessed with a self-administered food frequency questionnaire. A score was constructed based on adherence to the recommendations for body fatness, physical activity, energy density, plant foods, animal foods, alcoholic drinks and dietary supplements (score range 0-7). Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). During 15 years of follow-up 1,388 cases of breast cancer were identified. Women who met six to seven recommendations had a 51% decreased risk of breast cancer compared to women meeting only zero to two recommendations (95% CI = 0.35-0.70). The association between each additional recommendation met and breast cancer risk was strongest for the ER-positive/PR-positive subtype (HR = 0.86; 95% CI = 0.79-0.94), while for the ER-negative/PR-negative subtype the individual recommendations regarding plant and animal foods were most strongly associated with reduced risk. Our findings support that adherence to the WCRF/AICR recommendations reduces breast cancer risk in a population of primarily postmenopausal women. Promoting these recommendations to the public could help reduce breast cancer incidence. PMID:26804371
The purpose of this work is to establish and maintain a database for patients from the United States who have received BNCT in Japan for malignant gliomas of the brain. This database will serve as a resource for the DOE to aid in decisions relating to BNCT research in the United States, as well as assisting the design and implementation of clinical trials of BNCT for brain cancer patients in this country. The database will also serve as an information resource for patients with brain tumors and their families who are considering this form of therapy
Laramore, G.E.; Griffin, B.R.; Spence, A.
The purpose of this work is to establish and maintain a database for patients from the United States who have received BNCT in Japan for malignant gliomas of the brain. This database will serve as a resource for the DOE to aid in decisions relating to BNCT research in the United States, as well as assisting the design and implementation of clinical trials of BNCT for brain cancer patients in this country. The database will also serve as an information resource for patients with brain tumors and their families who are considering this form of therapy.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recurrent mutations in the Speckle-Type POZ Protein (SPOP gene occur in up to 15% of prostate cancers. However, the frequency and features of cancers with these mutations across different populations is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To investigate SPOP mutations across diverse cohorts and validate a series of assays employing high-resolution melting (HRM analysis and Sanger sequencing for mutational analysis of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded material. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: 720 prostate cancer samples from six international cohorts spanning Caucasian, African American, and Asian patients, including both prostate-specific antigen-screened and unscreened populations, were screened for their SPOP mutation status. Status of SPOP was correlated to molecular features (ERG rearrangement, PTEN deletion, and CHD1 deletion as well as clinical and pathologic features. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Overall frequency of SPOP mutations was 8.1% (4.6% to 14.4%, SPOP mutation was inversely associated with ERG rearrangement (P < .01, and SPOP mutant (SPOPmut cancers had higher rates of CHD1 deletions (P < .01. There were no significant differences in biochemical recurrence in SPOPmut cancers. Limitations of this study include missing mutational data due to sample quality and lack of power to identify a difference in clinical outcomes. CONCLUSION: SPOP is mutated in 4.6% to 14.4% of patients with prostate cancer across different ethnic and demographic backgrounds. There was no significant association between SPOP mutations with ethnicity, clinical, or pathologic parameters. Mutual exclusivity of SPOP mutation with ERG rearrangement as well as a high association with CHD1 deletion reinforces SPOP mutation as defining a distinct molecular subclass of prostate cancer.
Participation by women in screening programs for cervical cancer is far from optimal, and many lives are lost because of this. Cervical cancer is common, and is easily detected and treated. It has a good prognosis for cure if detected early in its course. Effective screening has been shown to have a major role in decreasing the morbidity and mortality associated with cervical cancer. Therefore, there is a need for increased public health education and availability of screening programs for women. It is particularly important that public health efforts reach women in the lower socioeconomic groups who are less apt to exhibit health promotive behaviors. Women of Latin American heritage are at particularly high risk because of cultural barriers to the discussion of sexual practices. Until public health interventions are more successful, cervical cancer will continue to pose a major threat to women who are either too embarrassed or too misinformed to understand that prevention is an integral part of women's health care. Nurses view patients in a holistic way. It is this philosophy of care that offers women who are diagnosed with cervical cancer a means to adapt successfully to the psychologic and physiologic stresses associated with the diagnosis. Nurses need to recognize this strength and to offer holistic approaches to women in crisis. No two patients deal with a diagnosis of cancer in the same manner. A major challenge to nurses across a hospital community continuum is to provide comprehensive psychologic and physiologic assessment of a women's response to a diagnosis of cervical cancer and to provide effective and holistic intervention when necessary. PMID:1448360
Full Text Available Introduction. This study was aimed at analyzing the site, kind and type of infection which develop in patients having lung cancer at hospital treatment. Material and methods. Clinical data of the patients hospitalized for lung cancer were analyzed at the Clinic for Lung Diseases and Tuberculosis in Knez Selo in the period from January 2002 till December 2007. A great number of patients (1296-75.9% had non-small cell lung cancer. In 1708 patients with lung cancer, 773 febrile episodes were recorded, i.e. 687 states of infections. Results. Most of the infections were recorded in the tracheobronchial tree (60.9%. The infection was confirmed microbiologically in 38% of infectious states. Predominant Gram positive pathogens were Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus, but among Gram negative pathogens there were Escherichia coli and Haemophilus influenzae. Discussion. A significantly better therapy response to antibiotics was found in the group of patients where microbiological agents were isolated (p<0.05. The predominant site of infection in the patients with lung cancer is the tracheobronchial tree without a significant difference between frequency of Gram positive and Gram negative pathogens.
Victoria M Villaflor; Marco E Allaix; Bruce Minsky; Fernando A Herbella; Marco G Patti
Patients with esophageal cancer have a poor prognosis because they often have no symptoms until their disease is advanced.There are no screening recommendations for patients unless they have Barrett's esophagitis or a significant family history of this disease.Often,esophageal cancer is not diagnosed until patients present with dysphagia,odynophagia,anemia or weight loss.When symptoms occur,the stage is often stage Ⅲ or greater.Treatment of patients with very early stage disease is fairly straight forward using only local treatment with surgical resection or endoscopic mucosal resection.The treatment of patients who have locally advanced esophageal cancer is more complex and controversial.Despite multiple trials,treatment recommendations are still unclear due to conflicting data.Sadly,much of our data is difficult to interpret due to many of the trials done have included very heterogeneous groups of patients both histologically as well as anatomically.Additionally,studies have been underpowered or stopped early due to poor accrual.In the United States,concurrent chemoradiotherapy prior to surgical resection has been accepted by many as standard of care in the locally advanced patient.Patients who have metastatic disease are treated palliatively.The aim of this article is to describe the multidisciplinary approach used by an established team at a single high volume center for esophageal cancer,and to review the literature which guides our treatment recommendations.
Jensen, Line Flytkjær; Hvidberg, Line; Pedersen, Anette Fischer;
Størstedelen af kolorektal cancere opdages gennem patienters symptomatiske henvendelse i almen praksis. Man ved dog ikke meget om, hvordan patienter selv oplever deres symptomer. Formålet med studiet var, at undersøge om symptom attributioner er associeret med hvilket symptom man oplevede før læg...
Vissers, Kris C P; Besse, Kees; Wagemans, Michel; Zuurmond, Wouter; Giezeman, Maurice J M M; Lataster, Arno; Mekhail, Nagy; Burton, Allen W; van Kleef, Maarten; Huygen, Frank
Pain in patients with cancer can be refractory to pharmacological treatment or intolerable side effects of pharmacological treatment may seriously disturb patients' quality of life. Specific interventional pain management techniques can be an effective alternative for those patients. The appropriate application of these interventional techniques provides better pain control, allows the reduction of analgesics and hence improves quality of life. Until recently, the majority of these techniques are considered to be a fourth consecutive step following the World Health Organization's pain treatment ladder. However, in cancer patients, earlier application of interventional pain management techniques can be recommended even before considering the use of strong opioids. Epidural and intrathecal medication administration allow the reduction of the daily oral or transdermal opioid dose, while maintaining or even improving the pain relief and reducing the side effects. Cervical cordotomy may be considered for patients suffering with unilateral pain at the level below the dermatome C5. This technique should only be applied in patients with a life expectancy of less than 1 year. Plexus coeliacus block or nervus splanchnicus block are recommended for the management of upper abdominal pain due to cancer. Pelvic pain due to cancer can be managed with plexus hypogastricus block and the saddle or lower end block may be a last resort for patients suffering with perineal pain. Back pain due to vertebral compression fractures with or without pathological tumor invasion may be managed with percutaneous vertebroplasty or kyphoplasty. All these interventional techniques should be a part of multidisciplinary patient program. PMID:21679293
Brock, G.; Gurekas, V; Deom, P.
The coping mechanisms used by patients diagnosed with cancer play a role in their well-being and, therefore, influence their quality of life and possibly even their survival. We review the characteristics of one of these mechanisms, denial, and suggest an approach to dealing with denying patients.
CONCLUSION: This study shows that patients who are less depressed have higher levels of resilience and that psychological resilience may independently contribute to lower levels of depression among breast cancer patients. The level of psychological resilience may be a protective factor for depression and psychological distress.
Jin, Hongbin; Pinheiro, Paulo S; Xu, Jianbo; Amei, Amei
Cancer incidence disparities exist among specific Asian American populations. However, the existing reports exclude data from large metropoles like Chicago, Houston and New York. Moreover, incidence rates by subgroup have been underestimated due to the exclusion of Asians with unknown subgroup. Cancer incidence data for 2009 to 2011 for eight states accounting for 68% of the Asian American population were analyzed. Race for cases with unknown subgroup was imputed using stratified proportion models by sex, age, cancer site and geographic regions. Age-standardized incidence rates were calculated for 17 cancer sites for the six largest Asian subgroups. Our analysis comprised 90,709 Asian and 1,327,727 non-Hispanic white cancer cases. Asian Americans had significantly lower overall cancer incidence rates than non-Hispanic whites (336.5 per 100,000 and 541.9 for men, 299.6 and 449.3 for women, respectively). Among specific Asian subgroups, Filipino men (377.4) and Japanese women (342.7) had the highest overall incidence rates while South Asian men (297.7) and Korean women (275.9) had the lowest. In comparison to non-Hispanic whites and other Asian subgroups, significantly higher risks were observed for colorectal cancer among Japanese, stomach cancer among Koreans, nasopharyngeal cancer among Chinese, thyroid cancer among Filipinos, and liver cancer among Vietnamese. South Asians had remarkably low lung cancer risk. Overall, Asian Americans have a lower cancer risk than non-Hispanic whites, except for nasopharyngeal, liver and stomach cancers. The unique portrayal of cancer incidence patterns among specific Asian subgroups in this study provides a new baseline for future cancer surveillance research and health policy. PMID:26661680
Becker, T M; Wheeler, C. M.; Key, C R; Samet, J M
High rates of cervical cancer were reported in New Mexico in the early 1970s, with especially high rates for minority women. We examined data collected from 1970 to 1987 for invasive cervical cancer and cervical carcinoma in situ for New Mexico's Hispanic, American Indian, and non-Hispanic white women to determine whether changes had occurred in cervical cancer rates since earlier reports. To further characterize the epidemiology of cervical cancer in New Mexico, we reviewed state vital stati...
Langford, Aisha T.; Griffith, Derek M.; Beasley, Derrick D.; Braxton, Effat Id-Deen
Background Despite disproportionate rates of cancer morbidity and mortality among African American men, few community-based efforts have been developed and sustained to educate African American men about cancer. The University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center implemented a series of breakfasts to improve cancer awareness, screening, and education among African American men. This article describes the rationale for and history of the community intervention. Community Context The 21 brea...
Full Text Available A growing body of evidence suggests that breast cancer recurrence risk is linked to lifestyle behaviors. This study examined correlations between breast cancer recurrence, risk reduction beliefs, and related behaviors among African American breast cancer survivors (AA BCSs. Study participants included 191 AA BCSs, mean age = 56.3 years, who completed a lifestyle assessment tool. Most respondents believed that being overweight (52.7%, lack of physical activity (48.7%, and a high fat diet (63.2% are associated with breast cancer recurrence. Over 65% considered themselves overweight; one third (33.5% agreed that losing weight could prevent recurrence, 33.0% disagreed, while the remaining 33.5% did not know; and nearly half (47.9% believed that recurrence could be prevented by increasing physical activity. Almost 90% survivors with BMI < 25 Kg/M2 reported no recurrence compared to 75.7% with BMI ≥ 25 Kg/M2 (p = 0.06; nearly all of the women (99.2% answered “yes” to seeking professional help to lose weight, 79.7% of which were recurrence-free (p = 0.05. These results provide information about AA BCSs’ beliefs and behaviors protective against breast cancer recurrence. Additional research is warranted to determine the effectiveness of educational interventions for AA BCSs that promote consumption of a healthy diet and engaging in regular physical activity.
Scharl, Anton; Salterberg, Annette; Untch, Michael; Liedtke, Cornelia; Stickeler, Elmar; Papathemelis, Thomas
Patients not older than 40 years are referred to as young patients. These women benefit from chemo-, endocrine and anti-HER2 therapy to a similar degree as older women. Surgery and radiation therapy also follow the same recommendations. This manuscript deals with the following topics that need special consideration in young women: endocrine therapy and ovarian suppression; fertility protection and family planning; and genetic counselling. There is an on-going debate on whether tamoxifen is sufficient as an endocrine treatment in young patients with endocrine-responsive tumours or whether suppression of ovarian function in combination with tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitor should be preferred. Recent data suggest a benefit from ovarian suppression plus exemestane in women of 35 years or younger with high-risk breast cancer. However, increased side effects bear the risk of lesser compliance, which eventually results in higher mortality. Child bearing is nowadays frequently postponed to the 4th decade of life, thereby increasing the number of women who have not yet finished their reproductive desires when diagnosed with breast cancer. These patients are in urgent need of counselling for fertility protection. Breast cancer diagnosis at young age is an indication for a possible mutation in breast cancer susceptibility genes. This has an impact on the cancer risk of the whole family, especially the offspring. Drugs that are specifically targeted to cancer cells with genetic alterations that impair DNA repair are already entering the arsenal of oncologists. PMID:27031253
Full Text Available As a result of advances in treatment, almost 80% of children and adolescents who receive a diagnosis of cancer become long-term survivors. The increased survival rate of children and adolescents with cancer has resulted in a major interest in the long-term effects of cancer treatment on the possibility for future fertility. Currently established methods for the preservation of fertility are available only for pubertal males and females. Pubertal male cancer patients should be encouraged to freeze numerous sperm samples even when sperm count and motility are poor. In these cases, intracytoplasmic sperm injection is a powerful technique compared with intrauterine insemination since thawed sperm samples with poor parameters can produce relatively high fertilization rates resulting in normal pregnancies and deliveries. Married pubertal women should be proposed ovulation induction, follicular aspiration, and fertilization with husband sperm. Single women could benefit from vitrification of oocytes. This requires a delay of about 3 weeks in the commencement of chemotherapy to enable follicular growth. Fertility preservation for prepubertal patients is more of a problem. Young girls could be offered cryopreservation of gametes in the gonadal tissue. Cryopreservation of testicular tissue was suggested for fertility preservation for young boys, but this method is totally experimental and not currently offered. Discussing future fertility is part of the consultation of young female and male patients facing potentially gonadotoxic cancer therapy. It is the role of reproductive specialists to create various options in their laboratory to preserve fertility potential of cancer patients.
Winkels, Renate M; van Lee, Linde; Beijer, Sandra; Bours, Martijn J; van Duijnhoven, Fränzel J B; Geelen, Anouk; Hoedjes, Meeke; Mols, F.; de Vries, Jeanne; Weijenberg, Matty P; Kampman, Ellen
We examined adherence to the eight The World Cancer Research Foundation/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) recommendations on diet, physical activity, and body weight among colorectal cancer survivors, and whether adherence was associated with intention to eat healthy and with the ne
Nguyen, Tung T.; Somkin, Carol P.; Ma, Yifei
To the authors’ knowledge, little is known regarding the participation of Asian Americans in cancer prevention research. In 2002, the authors mailed surveys to primary care physicians in Northern California to assess their knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and barriers concerning the participation of Asian-American women in breast cancer chemoprevention research. The response rate was 52.3% (n = 306 physicians). For physician barriers, most respondents selected lack of study knowledge (73%) an...
Batai, Ken; Murphy, Adam B.; Nonn, Larisa; Kittles, Rick A.
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common cancer among men in the U.S. African American (AA) men have a higher incidence and mortality rate compared to European American (EA) men, but the cause of PCa disparities is still unclear. Epidemiologic studies have shown that vitamin D deficiency is associated with advanced stage and higher tumor grade and mortality, while its association with overall PCa risk is inconsistent. Vitamin D deficiency is also more common in AAs than EAs, and the differenc...
Moorman, Patricia G.; Palmieri, Rachel T.; Akushevich, Lucy; Berchuck, Andrew; Schildkraut, Joellen M.
Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecologic malignancy in both African-American and white women. Although prevalences of many ovarian cancer risk factors differ markedly between African Americans and whites, there has been little research on how the relative contributions of risk factors may vary between racial/ethnic groups. Using data from a North Carolina case-control study (1999–2008), the authors conducted unconditional logistic regression analyses to calculate odds ratios and 95% conf...
Treviño, Rose A.; Vallejo, Liliana; Hughes, Daniel C; Gonzalez, Velda; Tirado-Gomez, Maribel; Basen-Engquist, Karen
Qualitative data was collected from Mexican-American (MA) and Puerto Rican (PR) breast cancer survivors to gain their perspectives on the relevant issues surrounding breast cancer survivorship and exercise. Six focus groups, a total of 31 participants were convened (three in Puerto Rico and three in Texas). Responses were analyzed and compared between the Mexican-American and Puerto Rican groups. Follow-up sessions were conducted at the sites to review the initial results and to validate a cu...
Skeels, Meredith M.; Unruh, Kenton T.; POWELL, Christopher; Pratt, Wanda
Social support is a critical, yet underutilized resource when undergoing cancer care. Underutilization occurs in two conditions: (a) when patients fail to seek out information, material assistance, and emotional support from family and friends or (b) when family and friends fail to meet the individualized needs and preferences of patients. Social networks are most effective when kept up to date on the patient’s status, yet updating everyone takes effort that patients cannot always put in. To ...
Huijbers, E J M; Baars, J W; Schutte, P F E; Schellens, J H M; Beijnen, J H
A breast cancer patient experienced an accidental propofol extravasation in the dorsum of her hand during a Port-A-Cath replacement. She had heavy pain which was treated with analgesics. The patient's hand was cooled and kept in an upright position. Three days later the patient received her last AC (adriamycin/cyclophosphamide) course without complications. Propofol extravasation did not result in tissue necrosis in this case. AC chemotherapy could be administered safely 3 days after propofol extravasation. PMID:18753182
J. R. Gardanova; I. I. Abdullin; D. N. Chernov; Chernov, A. V.; Y. I. Kekteeva
Diagnostics of psycho-emotional disorders of patients with malignant diseases of the prostate is not doubt, because timely correction contributes to the shortening of rehabilitation period and restoration of the quality of life of patients after treatment. Detection and diagnosis of prostate cancer for many patients is stressful and causes changes in the affective sphere, and manifests itself in increased levels of anxiety and depression in men. To cope with stress is possible due to the used...
Weight loss and other nutritional problems are common in cancer patients. The problems are of importance for response to treatment and survival and the well-being of the patients. Nutritional support can be carried out in different ways. The efforts considered in this thesis are; assessment of nutritional status to find the patients who are at risk to become or already are malnourished, assessment of dietary intake, dietary advice, information and support to the families, information and educ...
Weaver, H.; Jackson, K.
Objective: This project collected data on cancer risk factors among urban Native American youth in the northeast to inform development of a prevention initiative. Design: Face to face interviews were conducted. Setting: Interviews were conducted in homes, at a social service agency, and in a private space at a Native American cultural event in…
Anusheel Munshi; Jai Prakash Agarwal; Kailash Chander Pandey
With improving average life expectancy of individuals in most countries, there has been increase in the incidence of cardiovascular diseases and cancers. Radiation oncologists therefore are likely to encounter an increasing number of cancer patients with in situ cardiac pacemaker devices needing radiation treatments. Pacemaker technology has advanced rapidly in recent years. As a result, the potential interactions of these devices with radiation therapy have changed since American Association...
Although palliative care has been developed and implemented as care for cancer pain, it is holistic care for suffering that includes physical, psychosocial and spiritual pain of life-threatening illness. It turned out that non-cancer patients in the end-stage are also suffering from various pain that should be treated as cancer patients. Trajectories of illness in non-cancer patients are with more gradual decline than those of cancer patients with steady progression and it is often difficult to make decision about end-of-life. The purpose of advance care planning was originally to help describe legal documents. This process is proved to contribute to improving QOL of patients and their families to discuss preference, hope, economic problems, spiritual question as well as medical treatment In Japan guideline of decision making process in end-of-life stage has been established. A program of communication training in end-of-life discussion has been made. Under current situation some comments on the role of anesthesiologists are also mentioned. PMID:27097506
Kjær, Andreas; Loft, Annika; Law, Ian;
Combined PET/MRI systems are now commercially available and are expected to change the medical imaging field by providing combined anato-metabolic image information. We believe this will be of particular relevance in imaging of cancer patients. At the Department of Clinical Physiology, Nuclear...... described include brain tumors, pediatric oncology as well as lung, abdominal and pelvic cancer. In general the cases show that PET/MRI performs well in all these types of cancer when compared to PET/CT. However, future large-scale clinical studies are needed to establish when to use PET/MRI. We envision...... that PET/MRI in oncology will prove to become a valuable addition to PET/CT in diagnosing, tailoring and monitoring cancer therapy in selected patient populations....
Choi, Soo Yong; Kim, Kee Hwa; Kang Sung Mok [Korea Cancer Center Hospital of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
The total number of malignant neoplasms included in this study 53,566 cases(14.1%) among 379,582 patients from 1984 to 1993. On sex, females with 51.3% were much more than males with 48.7%. The highest proportion of cancer patients by age was 35.0% in males and 28.4% in females, respectively for 50-59 age group. The most frequent primary site among males was found to be stomach with 33.2%, followed by liver(15.1%), lung(14.9%), esophagus(5.3%) and larynx(3.3%). In females, the first order was uterine cervix with 37.8%, followed by stomach(16.5%), breast(14.8%), thyroid gland(4.3%) and lung (3.8%). The proportion of malignant neoplasms diagnosed by histology made up 67.0%, whereas 20.2% was diagnosed by clinical investigation(X-ray, CT, MRI etc). Among the cancer patients initially diagnosed in this hospital, the proportion of malignant neoplasms by the extent of disease was 3.7% for patient with carcinoma-in-situ, 58.7% for patients with localized involvement, 18.4% for patients with regional involvement and 11.1% for patients with distant involvement. Among the cancer patients initially treatment in this hospital, the proportion of malignant neoplasms by the method of treatment was 27.5% for surgery, 22.5% for radiotherapy and 30.1% for chemotherapy. The proportion of cancer patients traced to death was only to 3.6%, 1,944 cases. Among them, 72.5% survived for less than 1 year. 17 figs, 7 tabs, 28 refs. (Author).
The total number of malignant neoplasms included in this study 53,566 cases(14.1%) among 379,582 patients from 1984 to 1993. On sex, females with 51.3% were much more than males with 48.7%. The highest proportion of cancer patients by age was 35.0% in males and 28.4% in females, respectively for 50-59 age group. The most frequent primary site among males was found to be stomach with 33.2%, followed by liver(15.1%), lung(14.9%), esophagus(5.3%) and larynx(3.3%). In females, the first order was uterine cervix with 37.8%, followed by stomach(16.5%), breast(14.8%), thyroid gland(4.3%) and lung (3.8%). The proportion of malignant neoplasms diagnosed by histology made up 67.0%, whereas 20.2% was diagnosed by clinical investigation(X-ray, CT, MRI etc). Among the cancer patients initially diagnosed in this hospital, the proportion of malignant neoplasms by the extent of disease was 3.7% for patient with carcinoma-in-situ, 58.7% for patients with localized involvement, 18.4% for patients with regional involvement and 11.1% for patients with distant involvement. Among the cancer patients initially treatment in this hospital, the proportion of malignant neoplasms by the method of treatment was 27.5% for surgery, 22.5% for radiotherapy and 30.1% for chemotherapy. The proportion of cancer patients traced to death was only to 3.6%, 1,944 cases. Among them, 72.5% survived for less than 1 year. 17 figs, 7 tabs, 28 refs. (Author)
Mazanah Muhamad; Sharan Merriam; Norhasmilia Suhami
Traditional healing is a common practice in low and middle income countries such as Malaysia. Eighty percent of Malaysians consult traditional healers or “bomoh” at some time in their life for health-related issues. The purpose of our study was to explore why breast cancer patients visit traditional healers. This is a qualitative study utilizing in-depth interviews with 11 cancer survivors who sought both traditional and Western medicine. The findings revealed the following reasons for which ...
Sadler, Georgia Robins; Beerman, Paula R.; Lee, Kathy; Hung, Jenny; Nguyen, Helene; Cho, Janet; Huang, Wennie
Asian American women's historically low breast cancer mortality rate has remained constant as rates decreased for all other races. From 2000 to 2004, a randomized controlled trial explored the Asian grocery store-based breast cancer education program's impact on Chinese, Filipino, Korean, and Vietnamese women (n=1,540). Women aged 40 and older and non-adherent for annual screening mammograms were more likely to schedule a mammogram after receiving the breast cancer education program than wome...
Lee, Jongwon; Carvallo, Mauricio
Although cervical cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers among Vietnamese American women (VAW) and Korean American women (KAW), both groups consistently report much lower rates of cervical cancer screening compared with other Asian ethnic subgroups and non-Hispanic Whites. This study aimed to explore multilevel factors that may underlie low screening rates among VAW and KAW living in a city where their ethnic communities are relatively small. The socioecological model was used as a conceptual framework. Thirty participants were conveniently recruited from ethnic beauty salons run by VA and KA cosmetologists in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The participants' average age was 44.6 years (SD = .50; range = 21-60). Most participants were married (80 %) and employed (73.3 %), and had health insurance (83.3 %). A qualitative interview was conducted in Vietnamese or Korean and transcribed verbatim. A thematic content analysis was used to identify major codes, categories, and patterns across the transcripts. The study identified several factors at the individual (e.g., pregnancy, poverty, personality), interpersonal (e.g., family responsibility, mother as influential referent), and community (e.g., lack of availability, community size) levels. The study sheds light on four major areas that must be taken into consideration in the development of culturally appropriate, community-based interventions aimed to reduce disparities in cervical cancer screening among ethnic minority women in the United States: (1) ethnic community size and geographic location; (2) cross-cultural similarities and dissimilarities; (3) targeting of not only unmarried young women, but also close referents; and (4) utilization of trusted resources within social networks. PMID:24863746
Pedersen, Anette Fischer; Hansen, Rikke P; Vedsted, Peter
Blødning fra endetarmen ses normalt som et alarmsymptom på kolorektalkræft. Alligevel vælger mange patienter at lade være med at opsøge lægen. Denne artikel ser nærmere på sammenhængen mellem et alarmsymptom (rektal blødning), forsinkelser i patientforløbet og tanker om kræft. Resultaterne viser,...
Torres, Essie; Dixon, Crystal; Richman, Alice R
The purpose of this study is to gain an in-depth understanding of African American breast cancer survivors' experiences, barriers and facilitators in accessing breast cancer treatment, and challenges in adherence to follow-up care. We conducted seven focus groups with 32 African American women with breast cancer in three rural counties in eastern North Carolina during August-November 2013. Surveys were also utilized to gather basic demographic and breast health history information. Thematic analysis was performed using the immersion crystallization approach. Several common areas of life affected by breast cancer included faith and support networks, psychosocial well-being, and quality of care issues. Faith in God was an important coping mechanism essential to all women in the study and a critical facilitator in survivorship. Support networks consisted of family, church-family, friends, and co-workers. The concept of fear included the discovery of breast cancer and fear of death, negative side effects of treatment, and social stigma of having breast cancer. Factors that influenced provider-patient relationship were age of provider, perceived lack of empathy, and providers leaving during treatment. Participants also expressed their lack of knowledge regarding a number of the side effects they were experiencing during and after their treatment. Results of this study contribute to the assessment of potential coping mechanisms used by African American breast cancer survivors (i.e., spirituality, positive attitudes, and support networks) that can potentially be effective and have a positive impact on the adjustment of life for survivors. PMID:25877467
Choi, Younak; Kim, Tae-Yong; OH, DO-YOUN; Lee, Kyung-Hun; Han, Sae-Won; Im, Seock-Ah; Kim, Tae-You; Bang, Yung-Jue
Purpose A causal relationship between diabetes mellitus (DM) and pancreatic cancer is well established. However, in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer (APC) who receive palliative chemotherapy, the impact of DM on the prognosis of APC is unclear. Materials and Methods We retrospectively enrolled APC patients who received palliative chemotherapy between 2003 and 2010. The patients were stratified according to the status of DM, in accordance with 2010 DM criteria (American Heart Associati...
This paper reviews the results of a breast cancer screening program sponsored by organizations at workplace or community locations. A comprehensive mobile breast cancer screening program, including education, breast physical examination, and mammography, was provided to 89 local organizations at $50.00 per examination over an 18-month period. The examination was patient initiated, following the ACS screening guidelines. Estimates of eligible women were provided by each organization. A total of 5,030 women at 89 organizations were screened for breast cancer. Approximately 25,727 women were eligible
Allen, R R
Cancer presents itself in numerous ways, adding to the complexity of any pain syndrome with which it is associated. Neuropathic pain, unlike many other pain syndromes, is difficult to treat even in the absence of cancer. The combination results in a heterogeneous group of patients with a complex set of symptoms. This makes the assessment of pain, classification of syndromes, and clinical study a challenge. If the disease is nonprogressive, general principles of care are essentially the same as in those without cancer. In patients with progressive disease and more refractory painful conditions, spinal anesthetic and neurosurgical therapies must often be considered. Under such circumstances, caregivers are forced to carefully balance uncertain benefits and risks, often without the luxury of time. More careful observation and controlled trials in these patients help facilitate this challenging process. PMID:9767067
The total number of malignant neoplasms included in this study 15,737 cases(11.8%) among 133,251 cases for 3 years. On sex, females with 52.9% were much more than males with 47.1%. The highest proportion of cancer patients by age was 33.7% in males and 28.5% in females, respectivelty for 50-59 age group. The most frequent primary site among males was found to be stomach with 35.5%, followed by liver(14.7%), lung(13.0%), esophagus(5.4%) and colon (3.2%). In females, the first order was uterine cervix with 40.6%, followed by stomach(17.2%), breast(14.4), rectum(3.7%) and lung(3.4%). The most common type of morphology of malignant neoplasms was adenocarcinoma(47.4%) in males an squamous cell carcinoma(58.0%) in females. Among the cancer patients initially diagnosed in this hospital, the proportion of malignant neoplasms by the exent of disease was 2.5% for patient with carcinoma-in-situ, 54.1% for patients with localized involvement, 13.3% for patients with regional involvement and 8.5% for patients with distant involvement. Among the cancer patients initially treatment in this hospital, the proportion of malignant neoplasms by the method of treatment was 23.6% for surgery, 25.3% for radiotherapy and 30.3% for chemotherapy. Among the cancer patients confirmed by medical records, 7.7% was traced more than 5 years. (Author)
Maura Gabriela FELEA
Full Text Available Negative emotions (distress are recognized as part of the psychological profile of patients diagnosed with advanced stage cancer. However, most patients are not accustomed to verbalize feelings towards their physician, and generally towards family and medical care personnel. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the expression of emotions by patients in advanced stages of cancer, respectively the means by which they get to express emotions. To this respect, we identified the most common types of emotions expressed, or metaphors used by patients to describe their emotions and topics that trigger emotions. Words and phrases most commonly used are in relation to: fear, anxiety, depression, guilt, negligence, concern. They are uttered in order to depict the network created between disclosed emotions and topics on health status, symptoms, adverse effects and therapeutic choice, patient privacy, and social and family issues.
J. R. Gardanova
Full Text Available Diagnostics of psycho-emotional disorders of patients with malignant diseases of the prostate is not doubt, because timely correction contributes to the shortening of rehabilitation period and restoration of the quality of life of patients after treatment. Detection and diagnosis of prostate cancer for many patients is stressful and causes changes in the affective sphere, and manifests itself in increased levels of anxiety and depression in men. To cope with stress is possible due to the used coping strategies.Purpose. Studying the coping mechanisms in prostate cancer patients.Materials and methods. 56 men treated in FGBU "LRTS" Russian Ministry of Health. The average age was 65.7 ± 6.1 years. The average duration of the disease prostate cancer is 3 ± 2 months. All men were subjected to the standard algorithm for the evaluation of hormonal status, the PSA, taking a history, inspection and physical examination, magnetic resonance imaging and scintigraphy of bones of a skeleton. All the patients underwent laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. Psychological testing with the use of the method of "Coping test" the scale of reactive and personal anxiety for the differentiated evaluation of anxiety. Results. The most common for prostate cancer revealed constructive coping strategies are "planning solve", "selfcontrol" and "search of social support". According to the scale Spielberg–Hanin a high level of situational anxiety was revealed.Conclusion. According to the results of the research, patients with prostate cancer are likely to use constructive coping strategies, that leads to stabilization of psycho-emotional state of men and promotes more effective adaptation in the terms of stress, that is caused by treatment of prostate cancer.
Full Text Available Rebecca Moffat,1 Uwe Güth2 1Women’s Hospital, Clinic for Gynecologic Endocrinology and Reproductive Medicine, University Hospital Basel, Basel, 2Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Breast Center, SenoSuisse, Cantonal Hospital Winterthur, Winterthur, Switzerland Abstract: Invasive breast cancer (BC is the most frequent cancer of young women. Considering the trend toward postponing childbearing until the later reproductive years, the number of childless women at diagnosis of BC will continue to increase. The American Society of Clinical Oncology and the American Society for Reproductive Medicine have recommended that the impact of cancer treatments on fertility should be addressed with all cancer patients of reproductive age and that options for fertility preservation, such as cryopreservation of embryos and oocytes, ovarian tissue, in vitro maturation of immature oocytes, and ovarian suppression with gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs, should be discussed routinely. To optimally counsel patients on how to best weigh the risks and benefits of fertility preservation, both the health care provider and the patient must know about the options, their risks, and their likelihood of success. The aim of this review is to summarize current knowledge on fertility preservation options for young BC patients, surrogates of ovarian function, psychosocial aspects of infertility after cancer treatment, women’s attitudes towards childbearing after cancer treatment, and health care providers’ attitudes towards fertility preservation. Keywords: breast cancer, fertility preservation, oncofertility, chemotherapy
Wu, A. H.; Ziegler, R. G.; Pike, M. C.; Nomura, A M; West, D. W.; Kolonel, L N; Horn-Ross, P. L.; Rosenthal, J. F.; Hoover, R. N.
We conducted a population-based case-control study of breast cancer among Chinese-, Japanese- and Filipino-American women in Los Angeles County Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA), San Francisco-Oakland MSA and Oahu, Hawaii. One objective of the study was to quantify breast cancer risks in relation to menstrual and reproductive histories in migrant and US-born Asian-Americans and to establish whether the gradient of risk in Asian-Americans can be explained by these factors. Using a common stu...
High energy gamma radiation (8 to 30 MeV) is gaining acceptance for radiation therapy of patients with deep cancers. This radiation is of sufficient energy to induce photonuclear activation of the elements in the human body. Our results of measurements of nitrogen and phosphorus in an anthropomorphic phantom, a cadaver, and a cancer patient with bremsstrahlung radiation from 15 MeV electrons demonstrate the feasibility of a method to monitor these two elements in the human body in vivo by measuring the radioactivity induced in these targets by photonuclear reactions. 14 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs
Fabienne Camilo da Silveira Pirajá; Rafael Bandeira Lages; Uylma Assunção Costa; João Batista Mendes Teles; Viriato Campelo
Objective: To analyze the survival after five years among patients treated of prostate cancer at Hospital São Marcos. Methods: A descriptive population-based epidemiological study performed in Teresina-PI, evaluating a hospital cohort consisting of 71 patients of Hospital São Marcos, enrolled in Hospital Cancer Registry (HCR) from 2000 to 2001, under ICD10 -C61. The variables considered in the evaluation of survival were: age group, tumor staging and skin color. The Kaplan-Meier method was us...
Kent, Erin E; Rowland, Julia H; Northouse, Laurel; Litzelman, Kristin; Chou, Wen-Ying Sylvia; Shelburne, Nonniekaye; Timura, Catherine; O'Mara, Ann; Huss, Karen
Informal/family caregivers are a fundamental source of care for cancer patients in the United States, yet the population of caregivers and their tasks, psychosocial needs, and health outcomes are not well understood. Changes in the nature of cancer care and its delivery, along with the growing population of survivors and their caregivers, warrant increased attention to the roles and demands of caregiving. This article reviews current evidence presented at a 2-day meeting examining the state of the science of informal cancer caregiving that was convened by the National Cancer Institute and the National Institute of Nursing Research. The meeting sought to define who is an informal cancer caregiver, summarize the state of the science in informal cancer caregiving, and describe both the kinds of interventions developed to address caregiving challenges and the various outcomes used to evaluate their impact. This article offers recommendations for moving science forward in 4 areas: 1) improving the estimation of the prevalence and burden of informal cancer caregiving; 2) advancing the development of interventions designed to improve outcomes for cancer patients, caregivers, and patient-caregiver dyads; 3) generating and testing strategies for integrating caregivers into formal health care settings; and 4) promoting the use of technology to support informal cancer caregivers. Cancer 2016;122:1987-95. © 2016 American Cancer Society. PMID:26991807
Sun, Angela; Wong-Kim, Evaon; Stearman, Sarah; Chow, Edward A.
Chinese are the largest Asian group in the U.S., constituting 23.8% of the nation’s total Asian-American population. Cancer is the leading cause of death for female Asian Americans, and breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer among females for all racial/ethic groups in San Francisco, which ranks 4th in the number of Asian Americans and where 152,620 Chinese account for 19.6% of the city’s total population. Previous observations among Chinese immigrant women suggested that a dia...
Schoenfeld, Elinor R; Francis, Linda E
African American men face the highest rates of prostate cancer, yet with no consensus for screening and treatment, making informed health care decisions is difficult. This study aimed to identify approaches to empowering African American men as proactive participants in prostate cancer decision making using an established community-campus partnership employing elements of community-based participatory research methods. Community stakeholders with an interest in, and knowledge about, health care in two local African American communities were recruited and completed key informant interviews (N = 39). Grounded theory coding identified common themes related to prostate cancer knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, and responses to them. Common barriers such as gender roles, fear, and fatalism were identified as barriers to work-up and treatment, and both communities' inadequate and inaccurate prostate cancer information described as the key problem. To build on community strengths, participants said the change must come from inside these communities, not be imposed from the outside. To accomplish this, they suggested reaching men through women, connecting men to doctors they can trust, making men's cancer education part of broader health education initiatives designed as fun and inexpensive family entertainment events, and having churches bring community members in to speak on their experiences with cancer. This study demonstrated the success of community engagement to identify not only barriers but also local strengths and facilitators to prostate cancer care in two suburban/rural African American communities. Building collaboratively on community strengths may improve prostate cancer care specifically and health care in general. PMID:25595017
The purpose of this study was to explore women's memories and feelings concerning their breasts and breast cancer screening experiences in relation to their current breast cancer screening behaviors. Twelve African American women shared stories that were generated in written narratives and individual interviews. Two core themes emerged from the…
Johnson, Sharon R.; Finifrock, DeAnna; Marshall, Catherine A.; Jaakola, Julia; Setterquist, Janette; Burross, Heidi L.; Hodge, Felicia Schanche
American Indian cancer survivors are an underserved and understudied group. In this pilot study we attempted to address, through participatory action research, missing information about those factors that serve to either facilitate employment or hinder it for adult cancer survivors. One task of the study was to develop and/or modify…
Full Text Available Dear Sir: Pancreatic cancer is currently the fourth leading cause of cancer related death in the United States, with an overall survival rate at five years of diagnosis of less than 5%. It affects more men than women, with slight preponderance for African Americans and 77% of patients are diagnosed after the age of 60 years . The majority of patients with advanced pancreatic cancer report a poor quality of life, with special compromise in the areas of emotional and social functioning, presumably due to anxiety and depression . Among the physical symptoms reported to affect quality of life, fatigue and pain were ranked the highest. However, we are yet to understand how other less commonly recognized symptoms such as diarrhea and weight loss affect the functioning and comfort level of these patients. Small intestine bacterial overgrowth is a frequent, yet unrecognized, cause of diarrhea in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer.
Kostev, Karel; Waehlert, Lilia; Jockwig, Achim; Jockwig, Barbara; Hadji, Peyman
In recent years there have been major advances in the treatment of breast cancer. However, taking the prescribed medication for a sufficient period of time is crucial to the success of any therapy. Thus far, no database-based studies have been published in German-speaking countries empirically examining the influence of the physician on the compliance of patients. The aim of this study is to investigate, quantify, and critically discuss the effect treating physicians have on the compliance of their breast cancer patients. Patients with a confirmed breast cancer diagnosis who started therapy (tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitors) between January 2001 and December 2011 were selected from the representative IMS Disease Analyzer database and analyzed with regard to their compliance. Practices were grouped into two categories concerning the compliance of all treated patients. A regression model showed that a breast cancer patient who is treated in a practice with a trend toward poor compliance has a nearly 60% higher risk for treatment discontinuation than would be the case in a practice with good compliance. It shows how important it is to motivate physicians to strive toward good compliance rates. PMID:24454275
Frascà, Giovanni M; Sandrini, Silvio; Cosmai, Laura; Porta, Camillo; Asch, William; Santoni, Matteo; Salviani, Chiara; D'Errico, Antonia; Malvi, Deborah; Balestra, Emilio; Gallieni, Maurizio
Renal cancer occurs more frequently in renal transplanted patients than in the general population, affecting native kidneys in 90% of cases and the graft in 10 %. In addition to general risk factors, malignancy susceptibility may be influenced by immunosuppressive therapy, the use of calcineurin inhibitors (CNI) as compared with mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors, and the length of dialysis treatment. Acquired cystic kidney disease may increase the risk for renal cancer after transplantation, while autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease does not seem to predispose to cancer development. Annual ultrasound evaluation seems appropriate in patients with congenital or acquired cystic disease or even a single cyst in native kidneys, and every 2 years in patients older than 60 years if they were on dialysis for more than 5 years before transplantation. Immunosuppression should be lowered in patients who develop renal cancer, by reduction or withdrawal of CNI. Although more evidence is still needed, it seems reasonable to shift patients from CNI to everolimus or sirolimus if not already treated with one of these drugs, with due caution in subjects with chronic allograft nephropathy. PMID:26202137
Anandavadivelan, Poorna; Lagergren, Pernilla
Oesophageal cancer is a debilitating disease with a poor prognosis, and weight loss owing to malnutrition prevails in the majority of patients. Cachexia, a multifactorial syndrome characterized by the loss of fat and skeletal muscle mass and systemic inflammation arising from complex host-tumour interactions is a major contributor to malnutrition, which is a determinant of tolerance to treatment and survival. In patients with oesophageal cancer, cachexia is further compounded by eating difficulties owing to the stage and location of the tumour, and the effects of neoadjuvant therapy. Treatment with curative intent involves exceptionally extensive and invasive surgery, and the subsequent anatomical changes often lead to eating difficulties and severe postoperative malnutrition. Thus, screening for cachexia by means of percentage weight loss and BMI during the cancer trajectory and survivorship periods is imperative. Additionally, markers of inflammation (such as C-reactive protein), dysphagia and appetite loss should be assessed at diagnosis. Routine assessments of body composition are also necessary in patients with oesophageal cancer to enable assessment of skeletal muscle loss, which might be masked by sarcopenic obesity in these patients. A need exists for clinical trials examining the effectiveness of therapeutic and physical-activity-based interventions in mitigating muscle loss and counteracting cachexia in these patients. PMID:26573424
Purpose: To review the impact of anemia/tumor hypoxemia on the quality of life and survival in cancer patients, and to assess the problems associated with the correction of this difficulty. Methods: MEDLINE searches were performed to find relevant literature regarding anemia and/or tumor hypoxia in cancer patients. Articles were evaluated in order to assess the epidemiology, adverse patient effects, anemia correction guidelines, and mechanisms of hypoxia-induced cancer cell growth and/or therapeutic resistance. Past and current clinical studies of radiosensitization via tumor oxygenation/hypoxic cell sensitization were reviewed. All clinical studies using multi-variate analysis were analyzed to show whether or not anemia and/or tumor hypoxemia affected tumor control and patient survival. Articles dealing with the correction of anemia via transfusion and/or erythropoietin were reviewed in order to show the impact of the rectification on the quality of life and survival of cancer patients. Results: Approximately 40-64% of patients presenting for cancer therapy are anemic. The rate of anemia rises with the use of chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and hormonal therapy for prostate cancer. Anemia is associated with reductions both in quality of life and survival. Tumor hypoxemia has been hypothesized to lead to tumor growth and resistance to therapy because it leads to angiogenesis, genetic mutations, resistance to apoptosis, and a resistance to free radicals from chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Nineteen clinical studies of anemia and eight clinical studies of tumor hypoxemia were found that used multi-variate analysis to determine the effect of these conditions on the local control and/or survival of cancer patients. Despite differing definitions of anemia and hypoxemia, all studies have shown a correlation between low hemoglobin levels and/or higher amounts of tumor hypoxia with poorer prognosis. Radiosensitization through improvements in tumor oxygenation/hypoxic cell
Gralow, Julie; Ozols, Robert F; Bajorin, Dean F; Cheson, Bruce D; Sandler, Howard M; Winer, Eric P; Bonner, James; Demetri, George D; Curran, Walter; Ganz, Patricia A; Kramer, Barnett S; Kris, Mark G; Markman, Maurie; Mayer, Robert J; Raghavan, Derek; Ramsey, Scott; Reaman, Gregory H; Sawaya, Raymond; Schuchter, Lynn M; Sweetenham, John W; Vahdat, Linda T; Davidson, Nancy E; Schilsky, Richard L; Lichter, Allen S
A MESSAGE FROM ASCO'S PRESIDENT: For the third year, the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) is publishing Clinical Cancer Advances: Major Research Advances in Cancer Treatment, Prevention, and Screening, an annual review of the most significant cancer research presented or published over the past year. ASCO publishes this report to demonstrate the important progress being made on the front lines of clinical cancer research today. The report is intended to give all those with an interest in cancer care-the general public, cancer patients and organizations, policymakers, oncologists, and other medical professionals-an accessible summary of the year's most important cancer research advances. These pages report on the use of magnetic resonance imaging for breast cancer screening, the association between hormone replacement therapy and breast cancer incidence, the link between human papillomavirus and head and neck cancers, and the use of radiation therapy to prevent lung cancer from spreading. They also report on effective new targeted therapies for cancers that have been historically difficult to treat, such as liver cancer and kidney cancer, among many others. A total of 24 advances are featured in this year's report. These advances and many more over the past several years show that the nation's long-term investment in cancer research is paying off. But there are disturbing signs that progress could slow. We are now in the midst of the longest sustained period of flat government funding for cancer research in history. The budgets for the National Institutes of Health and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) have been unchanged for four years. When adjusted for inflation, cancer research funding has actually declined 12% since 2004. These budget constraints limit the NCI's ability to fund promising cancer research. In the past several years the number of grants that the NCI has been able to fund has significantly decreased; this year, in response to just the
... 158167.html Chemo May Prolong Lives of Some Brain Cancer Patients: Study Those with slow-growing gliomas lived ... States, nearly 23,000 adults were diagnosed with brain cancer in 2015, according to the U.S. National Cancer ...
Koh, Eun; Choi, Ga-Young; Cho, Ji Young
The study evaluates the effectiveness of an ongoing, community-based breast cancer prevention program offered by a local social services agency in the Washington, DC, metropolitan area. Korean American women who participated in this breast cancer prevention program were compared with those who did not participate in their knowledge, attitude, and screening behaviors. The study found that the intervention group was more knowledgeable on breast cancer and related services and reported more positive attitudes toward breast cancer screening services than the comparison group. The participants in the intervention group were also more likely to plan to receive a mammogram than those in the comparison group. However, significant differences were not observed in the two groups in their intention to receive a clinical breast examination. The study findings suggest that an ongoing, community-based breast cancer prevention program can be an effective method of addressing breast cancer prevention disparities observed among Korean American women. PMID:26946886
As the leading organization representing cancer specialists involved in patient care and clinical research, the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) reaffirms its commitment to integrating cancer risk assessment and management, including molecular analysis of cancer predisposition genes, into the practice of oncology and preventive medicine. The primary goal of this effort is to foster expanded access to, and continued advances in, medical care provided to patients and families affected by hereditary cancer syndromes. The 1996 ASCO Statement on Genetic Testing for Cancer Susceptibility set forth specific recommendations relating to clinical practice, research needs, educational opportunities, requirement for informed consent, indications for genetic testing, regulation of laboratories, and protection from discrimination, as well as access to and reimbursement for cancer genetics services. In updating this Statement, ASCO endorses the following principles: Indications for Genetic Testing: ASCO recommends that genetic testing be offered when 1) the individual has personal or family history features suggestive of a genetic cancer susceptibility condition, 2) the test can be adequately interpreted, and 3) the results will aid in diagnosis or influence the medical or surgical management of the patient or family members at hereditary risk of cancer. ASCO recommends that genetic testing only be done in the setting of pre- and post-test counseling, which should include discussion of possible risks and benefits of cancer early detection and prevention modalities. Special Issues in Testing Children for Cancer Susceptibility: ASCO recommends that the decision to offer testing to potentially affected children should take into account the availability of evidence-based risk-reduction strategies and the probability of developing a malignancy during childhood. Where risk-reduction strategies are available or cancer predominantly develops in childhood, ASCO believes that
Full Text Available Infertility can arise as a consequence of treatment of oncological conditions. The parallel and continued improvement in both the management of oncology and fertility cases in recent times has brought to the forefront the potential for fertility preservation in patients being treated for cancer. Many survivors will maintain their reproductive potential after the successful completion of treatment for cancer. However total body irradiation, radiation to the gonads, and certain high dose chemotherapy regimens can place women at risk for acute ovarian failure or premature menopause and men at risk for temporary or permanent azoospermia. Providing information about risk of infertility and possible interventions to maintain reproductive potential are critical for the adolescent and young adult population at the time of diagnosis. There are established means of preserving fertility before cancer treatment; specifically, sperm cryopreservation for men and in vitro fertilization and embryo cryopreservation for women. Several innovative techniques are being actively investigated, including oocyte and ovarian follicle cryopreservation, ovarian tissue transplantation, and in vitro follicle maturation, which may expand the number of fertility preservation choices for young cancer patients. Fertility preservation may also require some modification of cancer therapy; thus, patients' wishes regarding future fertility and available fertility preservation alternatives should be discussed before initiation of therapy.
Full Text Available Purpose: Several studies have shown that HIV patients are at higher risk of lung cancer. Our aim is to analyse the prevalence and features of lung cancer in HIV-infected patients. Methods: The clinical charts of 4,721 HIV-infected patients seen in three hospitals of southeast Spain (study period 1992–2012 were reviewed, and all patients with a lung cancer were analysed. Results: There were 61 lung cancers, giving a prevalence of 1.2%. There was a predominance of men (82.0%, and smokers (96.6%; mean pack-years 35.2, with a median age of 48.0 (41.7–52.9 years, and their distribution according to risk group for HIV was: intravenous drug use 58.3%, homosexual 20.0%, and heterosexual 16.7%. Thirty-four (56.7% patients were Aids cases, and 29 (47.5% had prior pulmonar events: tuberculosis 16, bacterial pneumonia 9, and P. jiroveci pneumonia 4. The median nadir CD4 count was 149/mm3 (42–232, the median CD4 count at the time of diagnosis of the lung cancer was 237/mm3 (85–397, and 66.1%<350/mm3. 66.7% were on ART, and 70% of them had undetectable HIV viral load. The most common histological types of lung cancer were adenocarcinoma and epidermoid, with 24 (40.0% and 23 (38.3% cases, respectively. There were 49 (80.3% cases with advanced stages (III and IV at diagnosis. The distribution of treatments was: only palliative 23 (39.7%, chemotherapy 14 (24.1%, surgery and chemotherapy 8 (13.8%, radiotherapy 7 (12.1%, surgery 4 (6.9%, and other combined treatments 2 (3.4%. Forty-six (76.7% patients died, with a median survival time of 3 months. The Kaplan-Meier survival rate at 6 months was 42.7% (at 12 months 28.5%. Conclusions: The prevalence of lung cancer in this cohort of HIV-patients is high. People affected are mainly men, smokers, with transmission of HIV by intravenous drug use, and around half of them with prior opportunistic pulmonary events. Most patients had low nadir CD4 count, and were immunosuppressed at the time of diagnosis
Liu, J.; Chadder, J.; Fung, S.; Lockwood, G.; Rahal, R.; Halligan, M.; Mowat, D.; Bryant, H.
Evidence shows that continued smoking by cancer patients leads to adverse treatment outcomes and affects survival. Smoking diminishes treatment effectiveness, exacerbates side effects, and increases the risk of developing additional complications. Patients who continue to smoke also have a higher risk of developing a second primary cancer or experiencing a cancer recurrence, both of which ultimately contribute to poorer quality of life and poorer survival. Here, we present a snapshot of smoking behaviours of current cancer patients compared with the non-cancer patient population in Canada. Minimal differences in smoking behaviours were noted between current cancer patients and the rest of the population. Based on 2011–2014 data from the Canadian Community Health Survey, 1 in 5 current cancer patients (20.1%) reported daily or occasional smoking. That estimate is comparable to findings in the surveyed non-cancer patient population, of whom 19.3% reported smoking daily or occasionally. Slightly more male cancer patients than female cancer patients identified as current smokers. A similar distribution was observed in the non-cancer patient population. There is an urgent need across Canada to better support cancer patients in quitting smoking. As a result, the quality of patient care will improve, as will cancer treatment and survival outcomes, and quality of life for these patients.
Ahaghotu, Chiledum; Tyler, Robert; Sartor, Oliver
In the United States, the incidence and mortality rates of many cancers, especially prostate cancer, are disproportionately high among African American men compared with Caucasian men. Recently, mortality rates for prostate cancer have declined more rapidly in African American versus Caucasian men, but prostate cancer is still the most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer deaths in African American men in the United States. Compared with Caucasian men, prostate cancer occurs at younger ages, has a higher stage at diagnosis, and is more likely to progress after definitive treatments in African American men. Reasons for racial discrepancies in cancer are multifactorial and potentially include socioeconomic, cultural, nutritional, and biologic elements. In addition to improving access to novel therapies, clinical trial participation is essential to adequately establish the risks and benefits of treatments in African American populations. Considering the disproportionately high mortality rates noted in these groups, our understanding of the natural history and responses to therapies is limited. This review will explore African American underrepresentation in clinical trials with a focus on prostate cancer, and potentially effective strategies to engage African American communities in prostate cancer research. Solutions targeting physicians, investigators, the community, and health care systems are identified. Improvement of African American participation in prostate cancer clinical trials will benefit all stakeholders. PMID:26786562
Brown, Linda Morris; Gridley, Gloria; Wu, Anna H.; Falk, Roni T; Hauptmann, Michael; Kolonel, Laurence N; West, Dee W.; Nomura, Abraham M. Y.; Pike, Malcolm C.; Hoover, Robert N.; Ziegler, Regina G
Studies have shown that breast cancer incidence rates among Asian migrants to the United States approach U.S. incidence rates over several generations, implicating potentially modifiable exposures such as moderate alcohol use that has been linked to excess breast cancer risk in other populations. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of alcohol intake, primarily low levels, on breast cancer risk in Asian-American women and explore whether smoking and alcohol contributed to the ...
Coughlin, Steven S.
African American women in the U.S. have a higher mortality rate from breast cancer than white women. Black-white differences in survival persist even after accounting for disease stage and tumor characteristics suggesting that the higher rates of breast cancer mortality are due to social factors. Several factors may account for racial differences in breast cancer mortality including socioeconomic factors, access to screening mammography and timely treatment, and biological factors. Efforts to...
Razzaghi, Hilda; Troester, Melissa A.; Gierach, Gretchen L.; Olshan, Andrew F.; Yankaskas, Bonnie C.; Millikan, Robert C.
Mammographic density is a strong risk factor for breast cancer, but limited data are available in African American (AA) women. We examined the association between mammographic density and breast cancer risk in AA and white women. Cases (n = 491) and controls (n = 528) were from the Carolina Breast Cancer Study (CBCS) who also had mammograms recorded in the Carolina Mammography Registry (CMR). Mammographic density was reported to CMR using Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) cat...
Yancy Haile F; Mason Jacquline A; Peters Sharla; Thompson Charles E; Littleton George K; Jett Marti; Day Agnes A
Abstract African American (AA) women have a lower overall incidence of breast cancer than do Caucasian (CAU) women, but a higher overall mortality. Little is known as to why the incidence of breast cancer is lower yet mortality is higher in AA women. Many studies speculate that this is only a socio-economical problem. This investigation suggests the possibility that molecular mechanisms contribute to the increased mortality of AA women with breast cancer. This study investigates the expressio...
Full Text Available Drugs are assumed to make drug users better, but sometimes they can harm with their side effects. For the same drug, some patients show expected therapeutic effect while the others exhibit life-threatening drug side effects. In this inter individual variability, the etiology is multifactorial. Diet, environment, physiological influences, gender, age, and health status are possible factors. But variation in the genetic differences between individuals will have a major impact on drug activity. Variable drug response could be in part to genetically determined characteristics of target genes or drug metabolizing enzymes. Pharmacogenetics looks for these genetic factors which are linked to drug effects. With our increasing know ledges in the pharmacogenomic area we can say that ‘‘one size fits all’’ view is not correct. In cancer treatment, each individual’s unique genetic origin of cancers because of pharmacogenomics in predicting responses to treatment is used. Traditional cancer treatment has targeted dividing cells in the body. But cancer cells are not the only dividing cells in the body, for these reason cancer therapies are liable to have many side-effects. Especially for many cancer types, approved multiple drug strategies are used. The more drug response rate from using combination therapy means as the more expense and adverse reactions. Pharmacogenetic tests whose primer advantage for patients are approved and suggested to clinicians by significant organizations such as American Society of Clinical Oncology National Comprehensive Cancer Network and United States Food and Drug Administration. Health expenditures increased as a result of technological development in the field of health, as well as, increasingly constrained budgets allocated to health has started a period. Deciding the policies of this limited resource for public health managers to use evidence-based and public interest obligation arises. For the activity that led to
Merluzzi, Thomas V; Philip, Errol J; Zhang, Zhiyong; Sullivan, Courtney
In racial disparities research, perceived discrimination is a proposed risk factor for unfavorable health outcomes. In a proposed "threshold-constraint" theory, discrimination intensity may exceed a threshold and require coping strategies, but social constraint limits coping options for African Americans, who may react to perceived racial discrimination with disengagement, because active strategies are not viable under this social constraint. Caucasian Americans may experience less discrimination and lower social constraint, and may use more active coping strategies. There were 213 African Americans and 121 Caucasian Americans with cancer who participated by completing measures of mistreatment, coping, and quality of life. African Americans reported more mistreatment than Caucasian Americans (p ethnicity (p Discrimination may exceed threshold more often for African Americans than for Caucasians and social constraint may exert greater limits for African Americans. Results suggest that perceived discrimination affects quality of life for African Americans with cancer because their coping options to counter mistreatment, which is racially based, are limited. This process may also affect treatment, recovery, and survivorship. PMID:25090144
Full Text Available The hair loss in 8 cancer patients aged between 18 and 60 years on chemotherapy was studied. All had diffuce moderate alopecio within 1 month of starting treatment. Of the 8, 3 had only telogen hairs and 3 had high dystrophic hair count. Both anagen and telogen effluvium are implicated.
Paaschburg, B.; Pedersen, A.; Tuxen, M.K.;
The latest investigations have been searched in order to present new guidelines for the treatment of elderly patients with primary breast cancer. It is concluded that breast-conserving surgery should be offered as well as the sentinel node technique. Axillary lymph node dissection is not necessary...
Dahl, Sune; Bendixen, Morten; Fristrup, Claus Wilki; Mortensen, Michael Bau
Cancer of the papilla of Vater is a relatively rare disease. It is difficult to separate from other periampullary tumours at the time of diagnosis. Recent studies have shown that patients with cancer of the papilla tend survive longer than patients with pancreatic cancer and cancers of biliary and...
Jill Suzanne Barnholtz-Sloan
Full Text Available In this study, we assessed association of GWAS hits by race with adjustment for potential population stratification (PS in two large, diverse study populations; the Carolina Breast Cancer Study (CBCS (N total = 3693 individuals and the University of Pennsylvania Study of Clinical Outcomes, Risk and Ethnicity (SCORE (N total = 1135 individuals. In both study populations, 136 ancestry information markers and GWAS hits (CBCS: FGFR2, 8q24; SCORE: JAZF1, MSMB, 8q24 were genotyped. Principal component analysis was used to assess ancestral differences by race. Multivariable unconditional logistic regression was used to assess differences in cancer risk with and without adjustment for the first ancestral principal component (PC1 and for an interaction effect between PC1 and the GWAS hit (SNP of interest. PC1 explained 53.7% of the variance for CBCS and 49.5% of the variance for SCORE. European Americans and African Americans were similar in their ancestral structure between CBCS and SCORE and cases and controls were well matched by ancestry. In the CBCS European Americans, 9/11 SNPs were significant after PC1 adjustment, but after adjustment for the PC1 by SNP interaction effect, only one SNP remained significant (rs1219648 in FGFR2; for CBCS African Americans , 6/11 SNPs were significant after PC1 adjustment and after adjustment for the PC1 by SNP interaction effect, all 6 SNPs remained significant and an additional SNP now became significant. In the SCORE European Americans, 0/9 SNPs were significant after PC1 adjustment and no changes were seen after additional adjustment for the PC1 by SNP interaction effect; for SCORE African Americans , 2/9 SNPs were significant after PC1 adjustment and after adjustment for the PC1 by SNP interaction effect, only one SNP remained significant (rs16901979 at 8q24. We show that genetic associations by race are modified by interaction between individual SNPs and population stratification.
... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158339.html Only Half of Rectal Cancer Patients Get Recommended Treatment: ... therapy for rectal cancer in the United States, only slightly more than half of patients receive it, ...
... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158365.html Many Breast Cancer Patients May Not Need Chemo: Study Genetic test ... 2016 MONDAY, April 18, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Many breast cancer patients receive chemotherapy they don't need, according ...
Nguyen, Tung T; McPhee, Stephen J; Bui-Tong, Ngoc; Luong, Thien-Nhien; Ha-Iaconis, Tuyet; Nguyen, Thoa; Wong, Ching; Lai, Ky Q; Lam, Hy
Using community-based participatory research methods, a community-research coalition in Santa Clara County, California (SCC) conducted a quasi-experimental, controlled trial to increase Pap test receipt and to build community capacity among Vietnamese-American women. From 1999 to 2004, the Coalition planned and implemented an Action Plan with six components: multimedia campaign, lay health worker outreach, Vietnamese Pap clinic with patient navigation, registry and reminder system, continuing medical education for Vietnamese physicians, and restoring a Breast and Cervical Cancer Control Program site. Components were evaluated individually. Community-wide, cross-sectional telephone surveys of Vietnamese women in SCC (intervention community) and Harris County, Texas (comparison community) measured overall project impact. Receipt and currency of Pap tests increased significantly in the intervention compared with the comparison community. Community involvement, system changes, community and research capacity building, dissemination of results, and program sustainability were also demonstrated. Community-based participatory research is feasible and effective in Vietnamese-American communities. PMID:16809874
In the recent years, a lot of attention has been devoted to oncological rehabilitation, because progress in diagnostics and methods of treatment of cancer leads to increased survival time of cancer patients. The goals of oncological rehabilitation are improvement of quality of life and support to return these patients to family and social environment with the minimal possible consequences of the disease. The paper presents the goals and contents of the early rehabilitation programs at the Ins...
Kim, Kwangsoo; Lee, Ji-Hun
Background and Purpose Stroke is common among cancer patients. However, risk factors and biomarkers of stroke in cancer patients are not well established. This study aimed to investigate risk factors and biomarkers as well as etiology of ischemic stroke in cancer patients. Methods A retrospective review was conducted in cancer patients with ischemic stroke who were admitted to a general hospital in Busan, Korea, between January 2003 and December 2012. The risk factors and biomarkers for strok...
Pfeiffer, Per; Qvortrup, Camilla; Tabernero, Josep
Recent modalities and strategies have increased the complexity of treatment choice in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC), and therefore all cases should be assessed at a multidisciplinary conference. Adjuvant chemotherapy for 6 months increases the chance of cure by absolutely 5 % in stage II...... and 10–15 % in stage III. Targeted therapy is not recommended in the adjuvant setting. Treatment options in patients with non- resectable CRC are based on the extent of disease (resectable/potential resectable/non-resectable) and symptoms. Surgery fi rst or chemotherapy fi rst in patients with...
Kendzor, Darla E; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila M; Mazas, Carlos A; Li, Yisheng; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Reitzel, Lorraine R; Costello, Tracy J; Businelle, Michael S; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S; Cinciripini, Paul M; Wetter, David W
The purpose of the present study was to describe the prevalence, patterns, and predictors of cooccurring modifiable cancer risk factors among African-Americans seeking smoking cessation treatment and to evaluate previously hypothesized models of the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and health behavior. Overweight/obesity, at-risk alcohol consumption, and insufficient physical activity were measured in 399 African-American smokers. Analyses indicated that 92.8% of participants had at least one cancer risk factor in addition to smoking. Univariate ordinal logistic regression analyses revealed that female gender, unemployment, lower positive affect, and greater negative affect were associated with having a greater number of cancer risk factors. Multivariate analyses yielded similar findings. A structural equation modeling approach indicated that stress/negative affect may function as one pathway linking SES and modifiable cancer risk factors among African-American smokers and that gender has a direct effect on modifiable cancer risk factors. Thus, risk patterns identified within each gender group may guide the development of multiple risk factor interventions for African-American smokers. Stress and negative affect may be an important treatment target within behavioral interventions for African-American smokers of low SES. PMID:18842995
Brunelli, Cinzia; Bennett, Michael I; Kaasa, Stein;
and on the relevance of patient-reported outcome (PRO) descriptors for the screening of NP in this population. An international group of 42 experts was invited to participate in a consensus process through a modified 2-round Internet-based Delphi survey. Relevant topics investigated were...... good agreement was found on the statement "the pathophysiology of NP due to cancer can be different from non-cancer NP" (MED=9, IQR=2). Satisfactory consensus was reached for the first 3 NeuPSIG criteria (pain distribution, history, and sensory findings; MEDs⩾8, IQRs⩽3), but not for the fourth one...
Joana Pedro Lopes
Full Text Available The present study intended to evaluate the nutritional status of Portuguese colorectal patients and associated it with surgery type as well as quality of life outcomes. Malnutrition can affect up to 85% of cancer patients and specifically 30-60% in colorectal cancer and can significantly influence health outcomes. A sample of 50 colorectal cancer patients was evaluated in what refers to several anthropometric measures, food intake, clinical history, complications rate before and after surgery procedure. The sample was divided between convention and fast-track procedures. Most of the individuals were overweight or obese but had lost weight on the past six months. Despite mild, there were signs of malnutrition in this sample with high losses of fat free mass, weight and also fat mass during the hospitalization period. These results reinforce the importance of malnutrition assessment in colorectal patients as well as consider weight loss on the past months and body composition in order to complement nutritional status evaluation.
Fung, Chunkit; Dale, William; Mohile, Supriya Gupta
Treatment for prostate cancer (PCa) has evolved significantly over the last decade. PCa is the most prevalent non-skin cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death in men, and it has an increased incidence and prevalence in older men. As a result, physicians and patients are faced with the challenge of identifying optimal treatment strategies for localized, biochemical recurrent, and advanced PCa in the older population. When older patients are appropriately selected, treatment for PCa results in survival benefits and toxicity profiles similar to those experienced in younger patients. However, underlying health status and age-related changes can have an impact on tolerance of hormonal therapy and chemotherapy in men with advanced disease. Therefore, the heterogeneity of the elderly population necessitates a multidimensional assessment to maximize the benefit of medical and/or surgical options. Providing clinicians with the requisite health status data on which to base treatment decisions would help ensure that older patients with PCa receive optimal therapy if it will benefit them and/or active surveillance or best supportive care if it will not. We provide a review of the existing evidence to date on the management of PCa in the older population. PMID:25071137
Kjær, Andreas; Loft, Annika; Law, Ian;
described include brain tumors, pediatric oncology as well as lung, abdominal and pelvic cancer. In general the cases show that PET/MRI performs well in all these types of cancer when compared to PET/CT. However, future large-scale clinical studies are needed to establish when to use PET/MRI. We envision......Combined PET/MRI systems are now commercially available and are expected to change the medical imaging field by providing combined anato-metabolic image information. We believe this will be of particular relevance in imaging of cancer patients. At the Department of Clinical Physiology, Nuclear...... Medicine & PET at Rigshospitalet in Copenhagen we installed an integrated PET/MRI in December 2011. Here, we describe our first clinical PET/MR cases and discuss some of the areas within oncology where we envision promising future application of integrated PET/MR imaging in clinical routine. Cases...
The contributions of the interventional radiologist in the diagnosis and management of the cancer patient include angiography and intraarterial CT-angiography, intraarterial infusion therapy, embolization, chemoembolization, biopsy and drainage procedures, central venous catheter reposition and retrieval, and stent dilation of stenotic tubular structures in the following organ systems: (1) Kidney. Arterial embolization, therapeutic delay, enphrectomy, and medroxyprogesterone yield a response rate of 28% in patients with renal cell carcinoma and pulmonary parenchymal metastases. (2) Liver. The carcinoid syndrome secondary to hepatic metastases can be controlled by embolization in 87% of patients. Islet cell carcinoma of the pancreas with hepatic metastases is successfully managed in 75% of patients. Chemoembolization (Ivalon and cisplatin) has been effective in 60% of patients with hepatic metastases from ocular melanoma. (3) Bone. A 73% 3-year survival rate is now possible with the inraarterial infusion of cisplatin, while Adriamycin is given intravenously in patients with osteosarcoma. Limb salvage is now possible in 80% of cases. Cancers of the vulva, vagina, urethra, and penis have been successfully treated with intraarterial infusion of chemotherapy followed by radiation therapy. (5) An expansile metallic stent is available to alleviate obstructions of the vena cava, the aorta and its major branches, the tracheobronchial tree, and the common duct. These techniques are demonstrated and results discussed
Im, Eun-Ok; Rendell, Marjorie O.; Chang, Sun Ju; Chee, Eunice
The purpose of this study is to compare the pathways through which multiple contextual factors influence the quality of life in Asian American and White women living with cancer. This is a secondary analysis of the data from 95 Asian American women and 113 White women. The data were analyzed using hierarchical multiple regression analyses and structural equation modeling. Multiple factors explained higher percent of total variances of the quality of life scores in Whites compared with that in...
Stiel, Laura; Adkins‐Jackson, Paris B.; Clark, Phyllis; Mitchell, Eudora; Montgomery, Susanne
Abstract The incidence rate of breast cancer for African American women has recently converged with that of non‐Hispanic White women in the United States, although African Americans have a higher mortality rate due to this disease. Although most research exploring health disparities associated with this phenomenon has focused on differences between women based on biology and behavior, both the academic and lay communities have begun to explore the potential role of environmental exposure to e...
Philbin, Morgan M.; Erby, Lori A. H.; Lee, Sunmin; Juon, Hee-Soon
Prevalence of hepatitis B among Asian Americans is higher than for any other ethnic group in the United States. Since more than 50% of liver cancer is hepatitis B related, the burden of morbidity and mortality is extremely high among Asian Americans, highlighting the need for culturally appropriate interventions. We conducted focus groups (n = 8) with a total of 58 Korean, Vietnamese, and Chinese immigrants in Maryland to explore knowledge, awareness and perceived barriers toward hepatitis B ...
Kendzor, Darla E.; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila M.; Mazas, Carlos A.; Li, Yisheng; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Reitzel, Lorraine R.; Costello, Tracy J.; Businelle, Michael S.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.; Cinciripini, Paul M.; Wetter, David W.
The purpose of the present study was to describe the prevalence, patterns, and predictors of co-occurring modifiable cancer risk factors among African Americans seeking smoking cessation treatment, and to evaluate previously hypothesized models of the relationship between socioeconomic status and health behavior. Overweight/obesity, at-risk alcohol consumption, and insufficient physical activity were measured in 399 African American smokers. Analyses indicated that 92.8% of participants had a...
Seok, Jeong-Ho; Choi, Won-Jung; Lee, Yong Sang; Park, Cheong Soo; Oh, Young-Ja; Kim, Jong-Sun; Chang, Hang-Seok
Purpose Previous studies have reported that over a third of cancer patients experience significant psychological distress with diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Mental adjustment to cancer as well as other biologic and demographic factors may be associated with their distress. We investigated the relationship between mental adjustment and distress in patients with thyroid cancer prior to thyroidectomy. Materials and Methods One hundred and fifty-two thyroid cancer patients were included in t...
Williams, David R; Mohammed, Selina A; Shields, Alexandra E
Black women have a higher incidence of breast cancer before the age of 40 years, more severe disease at all ages, and an elevated mortality risk in comparison with white women. There is limited understanding of the contribution of social factors to these patterns. Elucidating the role of the social determinants of health in breast cancer disparities requires greater attention to how risk factors for breast cancer unfold over the lifecourse and to the complex ways in which socioeconomic status and racism shape exposure to psychosocial, physical, chemical, and other individual and community-level assaults that increase the risk of breast cancer. Research that takes seriously the social context in which black women live is also needed to maximize the opportunities to prevent breast cancer in this underserved group. Cancer 2016;122:2138-49. © 2016 American Cancer Society. PMID:26930024
Quyen D. Chu
Full Text Available Introduction. Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC is biologically aggressive and is associated with a worse prognosis. To understand the impact of race/ethnicity on outcome for patients with TNBC, confounding factors such as socioeconomic status (SES need to be controlled. We examined the impact of race/ethnicity on a cohort of patients of low SES who have TNBC. Methods. 786 patients with Stage 0–III breast cancer were evaluated. Of these, 202 patients had TNBC (26%. Primary endpoints were cancer recurrence and death. ZIP code-based income tract and institutional financial data were used to assess SES. Data were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, log-rank tests, Cox Proportional hazard regression, chi square test, and t-tests. A P value ≤0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results. Of the 468 African-Americans (60% in the database, 138 had TNBC; 64 of 318 Caucasians had TNBC. 80% of patients had an annual income of ≤$20,000. The 5-year overall survival was 77% for African-American women versus 72% for Caucasian women (=0.95. On multivariate analysis, race/ethnicity had an impact on disease-free survival (=0.027 but not on overall survival (=0.98. Conclusion. In a predominantly indigent population, race/ethnicity had no impact on overall survival for patients with triple negative breast cancer.
Saraiva P.P.; Figueiredo N.B.; Padovani C.R.; Brentani M.M.; Nogueira C.R.
Estrogen involvement in breast cancer has been established; however, the association between breast cancer and thyroid diseases is controversial. Estrogen-like effects of thyroid hormone on breast cancer cell growth in culture have been reported. The objective of the present study was to determine the profile of thyroid hormones in breast cancer patients. Serum aliquots from 26 patients with breast cancer ranging in age from 30 to 85 years and age-matched normal controls (N = 22) were analyze...
Eyigor, Sibel; Kanyilmaz, Selcen
Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women, but fortunately has high survival rates. Many studies have been performed to investigate the effects of exercise in patients diagnosed with breast cancer. There is evidence that exercise after the diagnosis of breast cancer improves mortality, morbidity, health related quality of life, fatigue, physical functioning, muscle strength, and emotional wellbeing. Based on scientific data, breast cancer patients should be recommended to parti...
Jai N Patel Department of Cancer Pharmacology, Levine Cancer Institute, Carolinas HealthCare System, Charlotte, NC, USA Abstract: Cancer pharmacogenomics is an evolving landscape and has the potential to significantly impact cancer care and precision medicine. Harnessing and understanding the genetic code of both the patient (germline) and the tumor (somatic) provides the opportunity for personalized dose and therapy selection for cancer patients. While germline DNA is useful in understandin...
Adela Castelló; Miguel Martín; Amparo Ruiz; Casas, Ana M.; Baena-Cañada, Jose M; Virginia Lope; Silvia Antolín; Pedro Sánchez; Manuel Ramos; Antonio Antón; Montserrat Muñoz; Begoña Bermejo; Ana De Juan-Ferré; Carlos Jara; José I Chacón
Background According to the “World Cancer Research Fund” and the “American Institute of Cancer Research” (WCRF/AICR) one in four cancer cases could be prevented through a healthy diet, weight control and physical activity. Objective To explore the association between the WCRF/AICR recommendations and risk of breast cancer. Methods During the period 2006 to 2011 we recruited 973 incident cases of breast cancer and 973 controls from 17 Spanish Regions. We constructed a score based on 9 of the W...
Loh, Kah Poh; Janelsins, Michelle C.; Mohile, Supriya G.; Holmes, Holly M.; Hsu, Tina; Inouye, Sharon K.; Karuturi, Meghan S.; Kimmick, Gretchen G.; Lichtman, Stuart M.; Magnuson, Allison; Whitehead, Mary I.; Wong, Melisa L.; Ahles, Tim A.
Chemotherapy-related cognitive impairment (CRCI) can occur during or after chemotherapy and represents a concern for many patients with cancer. Among older patients with cancer, in whom there is little clinical trial evidence examining side effects like CRCI, many unanswered questions remain regarding risk for and resulting adverse outcomes from CRCI. Given the rising incidence of cancer with age, CRCI is of particular concern for older patients with cancer who receive treatment. Therefore, research related to CRCI in older patients with cancers is a high priority. In this manuscript, we discuss current gaps in research highlighting the lack of clinical studies of CRCI in older adults, the complex mechanisms of CRCI, and the challenges in measuring cognitive impairment in older patients with cancer. Although we focus on CRCI, we also discuss cognitive impairment related to cancer itself and other treatment modalities. We highlight several research priorities to improve the study of CRCI in older patients with cancer. PMID:27197918
In order to test the radiosensitivity of normal skin tissue, the authors cultured cancer patient's skin tissue fibroblast, surviving fraction experiment was employed to provide data for understanding of the different radiosensitivity among the cancer patients, Method: cancer patient's skin tissue fibroblast were cultured in vitro by the way of tar's attachment, cells were irradiated by graded doses of γ-ray , cell dose response experiment was used to test the radiosensitivity of cell. Result: Cancer patient's skin fibroblast could be propagated and passaged by the method of culture in vitro. Radiosensitivity are different among the various cancer patient's skin tissue fibroblasts
Tukaye, Deepali N; Brink, Heidi; Baliga, Ragavendra
Thrombosis and thromboembolic events contribute to significant morbidity in cancer patients. Venous thrombosis embolism (which includes deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism) accounts for a large percentage of thromboembolic events. Appropriate identification of cancer patients at high risk for venous thromboembolism and management of thromboembolic event is crucial in improving the quality of care for cancer patients. However, thromboembolism in cancer patients is a complex problem and the management has to be tailored to each individual. The focus of this review is to understand the complex pathology, physiology and risk factors that drive the process of venous thrombosis and embolism in cancer patients and the current guidelines in management. PMID:26919091
Gibson, Lynette M
The objective of this paper is to report on the recent literature concerning coverage of breast cancer epidemiology, the barriers to breast cancer screening, and the strategies to facilitate screening by African-American women. Based on these findings, the author suggests culturally appropriate techniques to be used to promote breast cancer screening in African-American women. Barriers to breast cancer screening in African-American women include emotional reasons, spiritual/religious reasons, fatalism, logistic concerns, lack of knowledge, and lack of follow-up by health-care professionals. Numerous strategies that have been targeted toward African-American women are reported. These include storytelling, witnessing, and testimonies; providing social support and having social support networks; and conducting multifaceted programs that include culturally specific breast health information. Based on the literature reviewed, the author suggests some examples of creative and culturally appropriate techniques that have been implemented with African-American women and that have resulted in positive feedback. These examples include the use of testimonies, photographs, prose, narratives, poetry, and quotations. PMID:19397053
Traditional healing is a common practice in low and middle income countries such as Malaysia. Eighty percent of Malaysians consult traditional healers or bomoh at some time in their life for health-related issues. The purpose of our study was to explore why breast cancer patients visit traditional healers. This is a qualitative study utilizing in-depth interviews with 11 cancer survivors who sought both traditional and Western medicine. The findings revealed the following reasons for which patients seek traditional healers: (1) recommendation from family and friends, (2) sanction from family, (3) perceived benefit and compatibility, (4) healer credibility, and (5) reservation with Western medicine and system delay. These factors work together and are strongly influenced by the Malaysian cultural context. The issue with the Western health system is common in a developing country with limited health facilities
Full Text Available Traditional healing is a common practice in low and middle income countries such as Malaysia. Eighty percent of Malaysians consult traditional healers or “bomoh” at some time in their life for health-related issues. The purpose of our study was to explore why breast cancer patients visit traditional healers. This is a qualitative study utilizing in-depth interviews with 11 cancer survivors who sought both traditional and Western medicine. The findings revealed the following reasons for which patients seek traditional healers: (1 recommendation from family and friends, (2 sanction from family, (3 perceived benefit and compatibility, (4 healer credibility, and (5 reservation with Western medicine and system delay. These factors work together and are strongly influenced by the Malaysian cultural context. The issue with the Western health system is common in a developing country with limited health facilities.
Radiotherapy to treat cancer was given for the first time exactly one hundred years ago. Today, radiotherapy and surgery are the two main modes of treating cancer. One in two cancer patients receives radiotherapy at some point during the course of treatment for the disease. Radiotherapy is applied most commonly in cases where surgery is not possible. Moreover, these two modes of treatment are often used together to supplement each other. About half of new cancer cases detected today can be ordered. The estimate given by the EU for cancers cured is 45 per cent, which is divided between the various treatment modes as follows: surgery 22 %, radiotherapy 12 %, surgery plus radiotherapy 6 %, and drug therapy 6 %. In addition to curative treatment, radiotherapy plays a crucial role in palliative treatment, i.e. treatment that alleviates symptoms. The sensitivity of malignant tumours to radiotherapy varies over a wide range; the same is true for healthy tissues. Radiotherapy can only be used to cure a tumour that is more sensitive to radiation than the surrounding healthy tissue. The tumour must also be sufficiently small in size and limited to a relatively small area. (orig.)
Smith, Brian Daniel; Silk, Kami
Objective: This pilot study investigates the impact of an online, interactive simulation involving an Arab American Muslim patient on the knowledge, skills, and attitudes of 2nd-year medical students regarding culturally competent healthcare, both in general and specific to Arab American Muslim patients. Method: Participants (N = 199), were…
Objective: To demonstrate the profile that comes to query the patient with cancer Lung in Paraguay, as well as therapeutic limitations found in stadiums advanced. Material and Methods: A retrospective analysis of medical records of patients who consulted was held at the Institute of Cancer in 2008. Inclusion criteria: patients with histologically confirmed attending their first consultation in the period from January 2008 to December 2008. Data Collection: sex, age, origin, occupation, toxic habits, reason was analyzed consultation, ECOG, histology, stage and treatment performed. Results: Of 59 patients studied there is a predominance of males (83%) from mostly in rural areas. The average age is 61 years. Of risk factors (Snuff, environmental exposure) 100% of women do not have such and only 2.3% of men; It is more frequent association of the two factors cited. Dyspne a (44%) is The most common symptom, followed by pain (20.3%), Cough / hemoptysis (17%) and finally headache (6.7%). The histological prevalence is a non-small cell cancer (98.3%) and among the Adenocarcinoma heads the frequency (56.8%), Squamous Cell Carcinoma (24.1%) and carcinoma differentiated ((19.1%), there is only one record of a Oat Cell Carcinoma. The stadium's presentation common is the Est. IV (44%) being the most frequent sites Liver metastases (26.7%) and Brain (23%) come in relatively general condition, mostly with ECOG 2 (30.5%) .. In As for treatment: one patient was performing a partial lobectomy operable; They performed chemotherapy or radiotherapy alone 24.5% and 16.9% respectively, the combination of both 10% and made no treatment, rejected or made exclusive palliative care 46% of the sample. Of 25 patients who received chemotherapy and 92% received 1st line Paclitaxel + Carboplatin and of them only 16% showed greater than 50% response. Only 6 patients performed 2nd line with Gemzitabina + cisplatin; and only one patient performed The 3rd line (Vinorelbine + Gemzitabina) and 4
Background Cancer has been known as a class of dangerous diseases which cause tremendous physical and emotional problems to both patients and their families. In spite of medical advances, cancer is still considered to be equal with death and pain. This study aims to analyze the emotional distress and the causes in breast cancer patients. Methods This study was a quantitative study which tries to analyze the emotional distress in 82 breast cancer patients referred to the Radiotherapy and Oncol...
Dworkind, M.; Shvartzman, P; Adler, P. S.; Franco, E. D.
Members in the Department of Family Medicine of a university teaching hospital were surveyed to find out their involvement in caring for cancer patients. Respondents indicated that many cancer patients were followed, but few cancer support services in the hospital and the community were used. The desire to take on new cancer patients was lacking, yet an interest in continuing medical education existed. Feedback from the department will help guide our Education Committee to develop continuing ...
Chuang-Chi Liaw; Hung Chang; Tsai-Sheng Yang; Ming-Sheng Wen
Background. We study the clinical significance and management of pulmonary venous obstruction in cancer patients. Methods. We conducted a prospective cohort study to characterize the syndrome that we term “pulmonary vein obstruction syndrome” (PVOS) between January 2005 and March 2014. The criteria for inclusion were (1) episodes of shortness of breath; (2) chest X-ray showing abnormal pulmonary hilum shadow with or without presence of pulmonary edema and/or pleural effusion; (3) CT scan demo...
Yao Zhu; Wei-Jie Gu; Ding-Wei Ye; Xu-Dong Yao; Shi-Lin Zhang; Bo Dai; Hai-Liang Zhang; Yi-Jun Shen
Using a population-based cancer registry, Thuret et al. developed 3 nomograms for estimating cancer-specific mortality in men with penile squamous cell carcinoma. In the initial cohort, only 23.0% of the patients were treated with inguinal lymphadenectomy and had pN stage. To generalize the prediction models in clinical practice, we evaluated the performance of the 3 nomograms in a series of penile cancer patients who were treated with definitive surgery. Clinicopathologic information was obtained from 160 M0 penile cancer patients who underwent primary tumor excision and regional lymphadenectomy between 1990 and 2008. The predicted probabilities of cancer-specific mortality were calculated from 3 nomograms that were based on different disease stage definitions and tumor grade. Discrimination, calibration, and clinical usefulness were assessed to compare model performance. The discrimination ability was similar in nomograms using the TNM classification or American Joint Committee on Cancer staging (Harrell’s concordance index = 0.817 and 0.832, respectively), whereas it was inferior for the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results staging (Harrel ’s concordance index = 0.728). Better agreement with the observed cancer-specific mortality was shown for the model consisting of TNM classification and tumor grade, which also achieved favorable clinical net benefit, with a threshold probability in the range of 0 to 42%. The nomogram consisting of TNM classification and tumor grading was shown to have better performance for predicting cancer-specific mortality in penile cancer patients who underwent definitive surgery. Our data support the integration of this model in decision-making and trial design.
Full Text Available Abstract Incidence rates for renal cell cancer, which accounts for 85% of kidney cancers, have been rising more rapidly among blacks than whites, almost entirely accounted for by an excess of localized disease. This excess dates back to the 1970s, despite less access among blacks to imaging procedures in the past. In contrast, mortality rates for this cancer have been virtually identical among blacks and whites since the early 1990s, despite the fact that nephrectomy rates, regardless of stage, are lower among blacks than among whites. These observations suggest that renal cell cancer may be a less aggressive tumor in blacks. We have reviewed the epidemiology of renal cell cancer, with emphasis on factors which may potentially play a role in the observed differences in incidence and mortality patterns of renal cell cancer among blacks and whites. To date, the factors most consistently, albeit modestly, associated with increased renal cell cancer risk in epidemiologic studies among whites - obesity, hypertension, cigarette smoking - likely account for less than half of these cancers, and there is virtually no epidemiologic evidence in the literature pertaining to their association with renal cell cancer among blacks. There is a long overdue need for detailed etiologic cohort and case-control studies of renal cell cancer among blacks, as they now represent the population at highest risk in the United States. In particular, investigation of the influence on renal cell cancer development of hypertension and chronic kidney disease, both of which occur substantially more frequently among blacks, is warranted, as well as investigations into the biology and natural history of this cancer among blacks.
James Kilpatrick, PhD
Full Text Available Introduction African American women exhibit a higher mortality rate from breast cancer than do white women. African American women are more likely to gain weight at diagnosis, which may increase their risk of cancer recurrence and comorbidities. Physical activity has been shown to decrease body mass index and improve quality of life in cancer survivors. This study was designed to evaluate the feasibility and impact of a community-based exercise intervention in African American breast cancer survivors. Methods A theory-based eight-week community intervention using pedometers with scheduling, goal setting, and self-assessment was tested in a convenience sample of African American breast cancer survivors (n = 24. Data were collected at three time points to examine changes in steps walked per day, body mass index, and other anthropometric measures, attitudes, and demographic variables. Results Statistically significant increases in steps walked per day and attitude toward exercise as well as significant decreases in body mass index, body weight, percentage of body fat, and waist, hip, and forearm circumferences, as well as blood pressure, were reported from baseline to immediate post-intervention. Positive changes were retained or improved further at three-month follow-up except for attitude toward exercise. Participant retention rate during eight-week intervention was 92%. Conclusion Increasing walking for exercise, without making other changes, can improve body mass index, anthropometric measures, and attitudes, which are associated with improved quality of life and reduced risk of cancer recurrence. The high participant retention rate, along with significant study outcomes, demonstrate that among this sample of African American breast cancer survivors, participants were motivated to improve their exercise habits.
Zwingmann, Christian; Wirtz, Markus; Müller, Claudia; Körber, Jürgen; Murken, Sebastian
A growing interest has been focusing on the relationship between religious coping and psychosocial adjustment among cancer patients. However, previous research mostly has not differentiated between positive and negative components of religious coping. The current cross-sectional study investigated the role of both positive religious coping, i.e., a confident and constructive turning to religion, and negative religious coping, i.e., religious struggle and doubt, in a sample of 156 German breast cancer patients. Participants were assessed upon admission to an inpatient rehabilitation program. In addition to religious coping, two basic nonreligious coping styles (depressive coping and active problem-focused coping) and psychosocial adjustment (anxiety and depression) were measured. Major research questions concerning the mediating role of nonreligious coping and the relative predictive power of positive and negative religious coping were primarily addressed using structural equation modeling. Results indicated that the relationship between religious coping and psychosocial outcomes was completely mediated by nonreligious coping, whereby only depressive coping and not active problem-focused coping proved to be a mediating variable. Positive and negative religious coping were somewhat positively related to each other; their (indirect) predictive power on psychosocial adjustment was identical though in an opposite direction. All in all, the results correspond to previous Anglo-American research. There are, however, some discrepancies which may be due to the specific religious-cultural background in Germany. PMID:16951991
Invasive fungal infections are important causes of morbidity and mortality in cancer patients with prolonged neutropenia following chemotherapy. Recent trends indicate a change toward infections by Aspergillus species, non-albicans species of Candida, and previously uncommon fungal pathogens. These have decreased susceptibility to current antifungal agents. In the last decade there has been much effort to find solutions for these changing trends. This article reviews current approaches to prevention and treatment of opportunistic fungal infections in postchemotherapy neutropenic patients and discussion future antifungal approaches and supportive methods. (author)
Uchida, Toyoaki; Shoji, Sunao; Nagata, Yoshihiro; Terachi, Toshiro; Illing, Rowland O.; Emberton, Mark
We evaluated 409 patients suffering from localized prostate cancer treated with high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). All patients were followed for at least 12 months after treatment. Biochemical failure was defined according to the criteria recommended by the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology Consensus Panel. None of the patients received hormonal or other anticancer therapy before documentation of a biochemical failure. The biochemical disease-free rates at 5 years in patients with low, intermediate and high risk groups were 93%, 68% and 44%, respectively (pHIFU therapy appears to be a safe and efficacious minimally invasive therapy for patients with localized prostate cancer, especially those with a pretreatment PSA level less than 20 ng/ml or patients with low-risk group.
Kahán, Zsuzsanna; Szántó, István; Molnár, Mária; Rohánszky, Magda; Koncz, Zsuzsa; Mailáth, Mónika; Kapitány, Zsuzsanna; Dudás, Rita
The development of a recommendation was intended for the follow-up of breast cancer patients treated with curative intent in Hungary. Follow-up includes the permanent contact with and health education of the patient, the surveillance and control of the adverse effects of oncological therapies or radiotherapy, the screening of metachron cancers, and the comprehensive (physical, psychological and social) rehabilitation of the patient. The early detection of local/regional tumor relapse is essential with careful follow-up, but there is no need for screening of distant metastases by means of imaging studies or tumor marker tests. If adjuvant endocrine therapy is needed, optimal adherence should be ensured with supportive therapy. In rare cases, special issues such as breast cancer risk/genetic mutation, pregnancy are raised, which should be thoughtfully discussed in view of recent advances in oncology. Follow-up is generally practised by the oncologist, however, in some cases the social worker, the physiotherapist, the psychooncologist, or in special cases, the lymphoedema expert is to be involved. The follow-up approach should be comprehensive and holistic. PMID:27579724
Williams, Heinric; Powell, Isaac J
Prostate cancer is the most common cancer affecting men in the Western world. In the United States, it is the second leading cause of cancer related deaths after lung and bronchus carcinoma. No definitive causes of prostate cancer (PCa) have been identified to date but, increasing age, a positive family history, and sub-Saharan African ancestry are strongly linked to its development. African American men (AAM) have the highest reported incidence rates in the United States and their mortality from the disease is markedly higher than that of European American men (EAM). Conversely, Asian American men and Pacific Islanders (API), American Indian and Alaskan Native (AI/AN) men, and Hispanic men all have lower incidence and mortality rates as compared with EAM. The reasons for these differences are unclear. However, it is clear that AAM have more advanced PCa when diagnosed. Several other reasons have been suggested and these include differences in treatments and health seeking behavior among the ethnic groups, cultural beliefs, environmental/lifestyle factors, dietary and genetic factors. In conclusion, there are multiple factors that impact prostate cancer outcome and that may be responsible for ethnic disparity. These factors are discussed in this chapter. PMID:19107447
Magai, Carol; Consedine, Nathan S.; Adjei, Brenda A.; Hershman, Dawn; Neugut, Alfred
Despite lower incidence, African American women are at increased risk of dying from breast cancer relative to their European American counterparts. Although there are key differences in both screening behavior and tumor characteristics, an additional part of this mortality difference may lie in the fact that African American women receive…
Marrazzoa, Antonio; Taormina, Pietra; David, Massimo; Riili, Ignazio; Casà, Luigi; Catalano, Filippo; Lo Gerfo, Domenico; Noto, Antonio
Life expectancy for patients with breast carcinoma has changed in Europe over the last two decades. In Italy, the overall survival rate is about 77% at 5 years. When considering the situation in Sicily, the EUROCARE 2 study examined survival data from the Ragusa Cancer Registry, showing that the curves are worse than in other regions of Italy. Starting from these considerations we decide to evaluate whether these data from the Ragusa Cancer Registry corresponded to Palermo data. So we analysed data from 575 consecutive patients with breast cancer, treated in our Breast Unit from 1990 to 2003 according to the St. Gallen Recommendations and followed for a median period of 5 years. The prognostic role of age, tumour size, nodal status, TNM, stage, grading and hormonal receptors (OR, PR) were analysed and survival curves at 5 and 10 years were produced using the actuarial survival methods. All causes of death were considered. The median follow-up was 33 months. The Log rank test and univariate cox proportional model were used to demonstrate the association between prognostic factors and outcome. When considering T and N status, the curves showed an inverse correlation between survival and increases in these parameters. Overall survival was 92.9% at 5 years and 81.4% at 10 years for T1, 78.4% at 5 years and 61.4% at 10 years for T2 and 40.8% for T3-T4 at 5 and 10 years. Overall survival for NO was 92.1% and 78.2%, respectively, at 5 and 10 years, but decreased to 72.0% and 59.9% at 5 and 10 years for N1. In N2 patients we found that only about 50% of patients were still alive at 5 and 10 years, while for N3 patients the figures were 57.2% and 40%, respectively. PMID:17663369
Antwan Jones; Paxton, Raheem J.
In view of evidence that African American cancer survivors experience the greatest challenges in maintaining adequate levels of physical activity, this cross-sectional study was designed to determine whether individual and residential environment characteristics are associated with physical activity in this population. A total of 275 breast cancer survivors completed self-report items measuring sociodemographic variables, physical activity, and select barriers to physical activity in Spring o...
Feng, Ye; Stram, Daniel O.; Rhie, Suhn Kyong; Millikan, Robert C.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; John, Esther M; Bernstein, Leslie; Zheng, Wei; Olshan, Andrew F.; Jennifer J Hu; Ziegler, Regina G.; Nyante, Sarah; Bandera, Elisa V.; Sue A Ingles; Michael F. Press
Genome-wide association studies have identified 73 breast cancer risk variants mainly in European populations. Given considerable differences in linkage disequilibrium structure between populations of European and African ancestry, the known risk variants may not be informative for risk in African ancestry populations. In a previous fine-mapping investigation of 19 breast cancer loci, we were able to identify SNPs in four regions that better captured risk associations in African American wome...
Chen, Fang; Chen, Gary K.; Millikan, Robert C.; John, Esther M; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Bernstein, Leslie; Zheng, Wei; Jennifer J Hu; Ziegler, Regina G.; Deming, Sandra L.; Bandera, Elisa V.; Nyante, Sarah; Palmer, Julie R.; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Sue A Ingles
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have revealed 19 common genetic variants that are associated with breast cancer risk. Testing of the index signals found through GWAS and fine-mapping of each locus in diverse populations will be necessary for characterizing the role of these risk regions in contributing to inherited susceptibility. In this large study of breast cancer in African-American women (3016 cases and 2745 controls), we tested the 19 known risk variants identified by GWAS and re...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Ethnic minorities with depression are more likely to seek mental health care through primary care providers (PCPs than mental health specialists. However, both provider and patient-specific challenges exist. PCP-specific challenges include unfamiliarity with depressive symptom profiles in diverse patient populations, limited time to address mental health, and limited referral options for mental health care. Patient-specific challenges include stigma around mental health issues and reluctance to seek mental health treatment. To address these issues, we implemented a multi-component intervention for Asian American and Latino American primary care patients with depression at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH. Methods/Design We propose a randomized controlled trial to evaluate a culturally appropriate intervention to improve the diagnosis and treatment of depression in our target population. Our goals are to facilitate a primary care providers' ability to provide appropriate, culturally informed care of depression, and b patients' knowledge of and resources for receiving treatment for depression. Our two-year long intervention targets Asian American and Latino American adult (18 years of age or older primary care patients at MGH screening positive for symptoms of depression. All eligible patients in the intervention arm of the study who screen positive will be offered a culturally focused psychiatric (CFP consultation. Patients will meet with a study clinician and receive toolkits that include psychoeducational booklets, worksheets and community resources. Within two weeks of the initial consultation, patients will attend a follow-up visit with the CFP clinicians. Primary outcomes will determine the feasibility and cost associated with implementation of the service, and evaluate patient and provider satisfaction with the CFP service. Exploratory aims will describe the study population at screening, recruitment, and enrollment
Hagedoorn, Mariet; Kreicbergs, Ulrika; Appel, Charlotte
Cancer affects not only patients but also their loved ones. Material and methods. This paper presents a selective, narrative review of psychosocial consequences of cancer and its treatment for relatives of patients, including parents and siblings of children with cancer, children of parents with can
Stanton, Annette L.; Morra, Marion E.; Miller, Suzanne M.; Diefenbach, Michael A.; Slevin-Perocchia, Rosemarie; Raich, Peter C.; Fleisher, Linda; Wen, Kuang-Yi; Tran, Zung Vu; Mohamed, Nihal E.; George, Roshini; Bright, Mary Anne; Marcus, Alfred C.
Purpose When faced with a significant recruitment challenge for three nationwide psycho-educational trials targeting prostate and breast cancer patients, the Cancer Information Service Research Consortium initiated outreach efforts to increase accrual. Recruitment is reported by major outreach strategy to inform the use of similar campaigns, either as primary recruitment efforts or to supplement “in-reach” recruitment within oncology settings. Methods During a 33-month period, recruitment was tracked from the National Cancer Institute’s Cancer Information Service (CIS), the American Cancer Society (ACS), Dr. Susan Love Research Foundation’s Love/Avon Army of Women (AOW), Internet advertising, press releases, radio/television interviews, recruitment materials in community venues, and outreach to churches and cancer support organizations. Results Across projects, the majority (89%) of recruited participants (N = 2,134) was obtained from the CIS (n = 901, 19 months of recruitment), AOW (n = 869, 18 months), and ACS (n = 123, 12 months). Other efforts showed minimal gain in recruitment. Conclusions Cancer information programs (e.g., CIS, ACS) and registries of individuals willing to participate in cancer-related research (e.g., AOW) can represent exceptional resources for outreach recruitment of cancer patients, especially when the eligibility criteria are highly restrictive. However, these resources do not yield samples representative of the larger population of adults diagnosed with cancer, and conclusions from such trials must be tempered accordingly. Implications for cancer survivors Inadequate recruitment to randomized controlled trials limits the creation of useful interventions for cancer survivors. By enrolling in cancer registries and taking part in research, cancer survivors can contribute to the development of effective resources for the survivor population. PMID:23595235
Benjamin Kasenda; Annatina Bass; Dieter Koeberle; Bernhard Pestalozzi; Markus Borner; Richard Herrmann; Lorenz Jost; Andreas Lohri; Viviane Hess
Background Cancer registry data suggest that conditional survival prognosis in patients with aggressive malignancies improves over time. We investigated conditional survival in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. Patients and Methods In this retrospective study, we included all patients with advanced pancreatic cancer treated at four Swiss hospitals between 1994 and 2004. Main outcome was 6-month conditional survival, defined as the probability of surviving an additional 6 months condit...
Rocco, Nicola; Rispoli, Corrado; Pagano, Gennaro; Rengo, Giuseppe; Compagna, Rita; Danzi, Michele; Accurso, Antonello; Amato, Bruno
Aims and background Old age is associated with comorbidity and decreased functioning which influences treatment decisions in elderly breast cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors for complications after breast cancer surgery in elderly patients, and to assess mortality in patients with postoperative complications. Methods We retrospectively considered all female patients aged 65 years and older with invasive and in situ breast cancer who were diagnosed and tre...
Yao Wanxia; Lin Miao; Lü Ye; Yang Biao; Yao Cong; Liu Juan; Wang Wenru
Objective To examine self-reported symptoms by the patients receiving cancer therapy, and find out the symptoms that should be coped with and managed during the treatment. Methods A pilot study was conducted on self-reported symptoms on 185 patients receiving chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy for different cancers. The Therapy-Related Symptoms Checklist (TRSC) was used. Results Severe symptoms on the TRSC subscales: loss of appetite,feeling sluggish, weight loss, nausea and hair loss, were reported by the patients. The frequently reported symptoms by those on chemotherapy were nausea, feeling sluggish, weight loss, vomiting, and taste change. The frequently reported symptoms by those on radiotherapy were feeling sluggish, weight loss, loss of appetite, difficult sleeping, and changing taste. The symptoms of loss of appetite, feeling sluggish, weight loss, hair loss, and nausea were both frequently reported by those on radiotherapy and those on chemotherapy. Conclusion Symptom monitoring may be facilitated by TRSC, based on the severity and frequency of reported symptoms, more patients and caregivers could know which symptoms should be preferential interventions.
Objective: Based on T. N. M classification, this study was conducted to evaluate the clinical presentation of carcinoma of breast in central part of rural Sindh. Design: This is a 5-year combined study i.e. 3 years retrospective and 2 years prospective. Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out at People's Medical College Hospital (PMCH) Nawabshah from June 1995 to May, 2000 for a period of five years. Subjects and Methods: Fifty patients having carcinoma breast and admitted to surgical department ware included in study. Results: Eighty four percent of these patients presented in advanced stage of the disease. Well established predisposing factors like early menarche, age at first pregnancy, breast feeding and number of children did not contribute to the risk of developing breast cancer in our patients. Conclusion: Majority of breast cancer patients present in advance stage of the disease, hence can not be benefited from modern methods of treatment. The reasons for this delayed presentation are multi fold and are discussed here. (author)
Raheem J Paxton
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: African American breast cancer survivors experience poor cancer outcomes that may, in part, be remedied by healthy lifestyle choices. Few studies have evaluated the health and lifestyle behaviors of this population. The purpose of this study was to characterize the health and lifestyle habits of African American breast cancer survivors and evaluate the socio-demographic and medical correlates of these behaviors. METHODS: A total of 470 African American breast cancer survivors (mean age = 54 years participated in an online survey. All participants completed measures assessing medical and demographic characteristics, physical activity, and sedentary behavior. Chi-square tests for association, nonparametric tests, and logistic regression models were used to assess associations. All statistical tests were two sided. RESULTS: Almost half (47% of the women met the current guidelines for physical activity, almost half (47% were obese, and many reported having high blood pressure (53% or diabetes (21%. The prevalence of high blood pressure, diabetes, and high cholesterol increased by age (P<0.001, and obese women had a higher prevalence of high blood pressure (63% vs. 44% and diabetes (21% vs. 12% than did non-obese women (all P<0.05. Obese women participated in significantly fewer total minutes of physical activity per week (100 minutes/week than did non-obese women (150 minutes/week; P<0.05. The number of comorbid conditions was associated with increased odds for physical inactivity (odds ratio = 1.40 and obesity (odds ratio = 2.22. CONCLUSION: Many African American breast cancer survivors had chronic conditions that may be exacerbated by poor lifestyle choices. Our results also provide evidence that healthy lifestyle interventions among obese African American breast cancer survivors are urgently needed.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Most of the studies about invasive Candida infections in cancer patients have focused on haematological patients. The aim of this study was to provide information about risk factors for candidaemia in patients with solid tumours. Methods Retrospective cohort study. During a 9-year period (1995–2003 we reviewed all cases of candidaemia that affected cancer patients in Santa Casa Complexo Hospitalar, Brazil. Results During the period of study, 210 patients had the diagnosis of candidaemia in our medical centre, and 83 of these patients had cancer (39.5%. The majority of patients with cancer had solid tumours (77.1%, mostly in the alimentary tract. Most of solid cancers were non-metastatic (71.9%. Major diagnoses in patients with haematological neoplasia were acute leukaemia (n = 13, high grade non-Hodgkin lymphoma (n = 5 and Hodgkin's disease (n = 1. Non-Candida albicans species caused 57.8% of the episodes of candidaemia in patients with cancer, mainly in patients with haematological malignancies (p = 0.034. Neutropenia and treatment with corticosteroids were more frequent in the haematological group, in comparison with patients with solid tumours. Only 22.2% of patients with solid tumours were neutropenic before candidaemia. Nonetheless, the presence of ileus and the use of anaerobicides were independent risk factors for candidaemia in patients with solid cancers. The overall mortality in cancer patients with candidaemia was 49.4%. We then compared 2 groups of adult patients with candidaemia. The first was composed of non-neutropenic patients with solid tumours, and the second group included patients without cancer. We found that central venous catheters and gastrointestinal surgery were independently associated with candidaemia in patients with solid tumour. Conclusion Cancer patients with candidaemia seem to have very different predisposing factors to acquire the infection when stratified according to baseline diseases
Full text: Objective: To perform a retrospective descriptive study on breast cancer in patients treated in our hospital to assess the biological profile and treatment heating in these patients. Material and methods: We collect information from medical records for the period 2006 to 2010 included. Basic statistical analyzes were performed with the sample obtained using the Epi data. Results: From a total of 720 patients, showed that 31% are under 50 and 69% are older than 50 years. The 95 % of the total, surgery was performed. The 94 % is to Infiltrating Ductal Carcinoma. I stages were 17%, 39% Stages II, III Stages Stages IV 29% and 15%. 79% had one or two positive hormone receptors. At 86 % Radiation was performed either in the breast or chest wall treatments regional nodal areas when directed. In the vast majority gave a dose of 50 Gy to the whole breast and nodal areas when corresponded with overprinting in the surgical bed of 16Gy. In cases of treatment of wall thoracic, was given a dose of 50 Gy. The number of relapses in irradiated territories was 5 patients. The average treatment time was 45 heating days for patients who underwent conservative surgery and 38 days for patients who underwent mastectomy. Conclusions: The parameters analyzed in this study are comparable to those work results in other centers. The local recurrence rate in patients treated with surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy is extremely low
Fabienne Camilo da Silveira Pirajá
Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the survival after five years among patients treated of prostate cancer at Hospital São Marcos. Methods: A descriptive population-based epidemiological study performed in Teresina-PI, evaluating a hospital cohort consisting of 71 patients of Hospital São Marcos, enrolled in Hospital Cancer Registry (HCR from 2000 to 2001, under ICD10 - C61. The variables considered in the evaluation of survival were: age group, tumor staging and skin color. The Kaplan-Meier method was used in the calculation of survival functions in five years and the Kruskal-Wallis test in comparison between variables. Results: The specific survival rate for prostate cancer was of 78.5% in five years. The death risk in this study increased with age and advanced stage at diagnosis (aged 80 or above = 60%; and stage IV = 63%. The Kruskal-Wallis test showed no statistically significant variation between groups. Conclusion: The age and advanced stage at diagnosis decreased patients’ survival.
Fabienne Camilo da Silveira Pirajá
Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the survival after five years among patients treated of prostate cancer at Hospital São Marcos. Methods: A descriptive population-based epidemiological study performed in Teresina-PI, evaluating a hospital cohort consisting of 71 patients of Hospital São Marcos, enrolled in Hospital Cancer Registry (HCR from 2000 to 2001, under ICD10 -C61. The variables considered in the evaluation of survival were: age group, tumor staging and skin color. The Kaplan-Meier method was used in the calculation of survival functions in five years and the Kruskal-Wallis test in comparison between variables. Results: The specific survival rate for prostate cancer was of 78.5% in five years. The death risk in this study increased with age and advanced stage at diagnosis (aged 80 or above = 60%; and stage IV = 63%. The Kruskal-Wallis test showed no statistically significant variation between groups. Conclusion: The age and advanced stage at diagnosis decreased patients’ survival.
The effect of chest irradiation on pulmonary function was studied in 16 patients with lung cancer and one with malignant thymoma. Radiation pneumonitis was detected by chest radiography in 15 cases (88%), 35 days (average) after the completion of radiation therapy. In these cases the radiation field included the lungs, and the hilar and mediastinal regions. No radiation pneumonitis occurred in the other two patients, receiving only lung field irradiation. Various pulmonary functions were measured in all patients following radiation therapy. Inspiratory reserve volume, inspiratory capacity and diffusing capacity were significantly reduced 1 month and 3 months after the completion of radiotherapy. Furthermore, reduction of vital capacity was found 3 months after treatment. It may be concluded that pulmonary function tests are not useful in predicting the onset of radiation pneumonitis, as chest radiography revealed inflammatory changes before the reduction of pulmonary function was detected. (author)
Schulman, Sam; Shrum, Jeffrey; Majeed, Ammar
There has been a concern that major bleeding events (MBE) on direct-acting oral anticoagulants (DOACs) will be more difficult to manage than on vitamin K antagonists. Patients with cancer and DOAC-associated bleeding may be even more of a challenge to manage. We therefore reviewed the literature on bleeding in patients with cancer on DOACs. In addition, we performed an analysis of individual patient data from 5 phase III trials on treatment with dabigatran with focus on those with cancer. In 6 randomized trials the risk of MBE in patients with cancer was similar on treatment with DOACs compared to vitamin K antagonists. Bleeding was in the majority of patients managed with supportive therapy alone. In the individual patient data analysis there were no significant differences in use of hemostatic products, transfusion of red cells, effectiveness of management, bleeding-related mortality or 30-day all-cause mortality between patients with cancer treated with dabigatran or with warfarin. Local hemostatic therapy, including resection of the cancer site was more common in patients with gastrointestinal bleeding with cancer than among those without cancer. We conclude that management of bleeding in patients with cancer and on a DOAC does not pose a greater challenge than management of bleeding in patients without cancer. PMID:27067968
Zaidi Adnan A; Ansari Tayyaba Z; Khan Aziz
Abstract Introduction The emotional burden associated with the diagnosis of cancer is sometimes overshadowed by financial burden sustained by patient and the family. This is especially relevant for a developing country as there is limited state support for cancer treatment. We conducted this study to estimate the cost of cancer care for two major types of cancer and to assess the perception of patients and families regarding the burden of the cost for undergoing cancer treatment at a private ...
Byung Hyun Byun
Full Text Available Objective: Resistance of metastatic lymph nodes (LNs to high dose I-131 therapy is associated with high morbidity in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. We evaluated the role of F-18 FDG PET/CT in the prediction of resistance to high dose I-131 therapy in patients with papillary thyroid cancer. Methods: The subjects were 307 patients who underwent total or near total thyroidectomy followed by high dose (5.55-6.66 GBq I-131 therapy. We divided the patients into three subgroups by visual assessment of regional LNs: FDG-avid LNs with a malignant shape on CT (PET/CT-positive group, FDG-avid LNs with a benign shape on CT (PET/CT-intermediate group and no FDG-avid lesion (PET/CT-negative group. We measured the maximum SUV (SUVmax of FDG-avid LNs in each patient. The presence or absence of focal increased uptake of I-131 was evaluated by whole body scan (WBS, and was denoted as WBS-positive group or WBS-negative group, respectively. Resistance to therapy was defined as presence of thyroglobulin (Tg in serum (Tg ≥1.0 ng/ml 3-6 months after I-131 therapy. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine the relationship between resistance to I-131 therapy and various clinico-pathologic variables. Results: PET/CT-positive, intermediate, and negative groups included 20 (6.5%, 44 (14.3% and 243 (79.2% patients, respectively. The mean SUVmax was significantly higher in the PET/CT-positive group than that of the PET/CT-intermediate group (4.6 vs. 2.7, P
O'Keefe, S.J.; Li, J.V.; Lahti, Leo; Ou, J.; Carbonero, F.; Khaled, M.; Postma, J.M.; Kinross, J.; Wahl, E.; Ruder, E.; Vipperla, K.; Naidoo, V.; Mtshali, L.; Tims, S.; Puylaert, P.G.B.; DeLany, J.; Krasinskas, A.; Benefiel, A.C.; Kaseb, H.O.; Newton, K.; Nicholson, J.K.; Vos, De W.M.; Gaskins, H.R.; Zoetendal, E.G.
Rates of colon cancer are much higher in African Americans (65:100,000) than in rural South Africans (<5:100,000). The higher rates are associated with higher animal protein and fat, and lower fibre consumption, higher colonic secondary bile acids, lower colonic short-chain fatty acid quantities and
Stiel, Laura; Adkins-Jackson, Paris B; Clark, Phyllis; Mitchell, Eudora; Montgomery, Susanne
The incidence rate of breast cancer for African American women has recently converged with that of non-Hispanic White women in the United States, although African Americans have a higher mortality rate due to this disease. Although most research exploring health disparities associated with this phenomenon has focused on differences between women based on biology and behavior, both the academic and lay communities have begun to explore the potential role of environmental exposure to estrogen and endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). This study reviews the current state of the science associating one such means of exposure, hair products containing EDCs, with breast cancer risk in African American women. We found a growing body of evidence linking: (1) environmental estrogen and EDC exposures to breast cancer risk, (2) the presence of such chemicals in personal care products, including hair products, and (3) the use of certain hair products with potential breast cancer risk in African Americans. At the same time, there is also increasing concern in the lay community about this risk. These results indicate the need for additional research, and the opportunity to benefit from strategic partnerships in community-collaborative approaches in order to better understand the potential "cost of beauty." PMID:26773423
Higher renter rates and individual barriers both contribute to lower levels of physical activity in African American breast cancer survivors. These data suggest that the potential for constant residential turnover (via rentership and perceived barriers may increase physical inactivity even where facilities may be available.
Christopher, Suzanne; Gidley, Allison L.; Letiecq, Bethany; Smith, Adina; McCormick, Alma Knows His Gun
The Messengers for Health on the Apsaalooke Reservation project uses a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach and lay health advisors (LHAs) to generate knowledge and awareness about cervical cancer prevention among community members in a culturally competent manner. Northern Plains Native Americans, of whom Apsaalooke women are a…
Annang, Lucy; Spencer, S. Melinda; Jackson, Dawnyéa; Rosemond, Tiara N.; Best, Alicia L.; Williams, Leah R.; Carlos, Bethany
Objective: To describe how nominal group technique was used to inform the development of a breast and cervical cancer awareness programme for African-American adult daughters and mothers. Design: A qualitative approach using nominal group technique. Setting: A mid-sized city in the Southern USA. Method: Nominal group technique was used with 30…
Serena, A; Zurkinden, C; Castellani, P; Eicher, M
The fight against cancer comprises not only survival of the disease but also survival with the highest possible quality of life. Thus, supportive care in cancer aims at reducing physical and psycho-emotional symptom burden. Furthermore, supportive care in cancer includes self-management-support for patients and their families/caregivers. Due to high symptom prevalence and poor prognosis, lung cancer patients express more unmet supportive care needs than other patient populations with cancer. Interventions to meet these needs have been developed in the last decade. They involve new models of care that incorporate the role of a lung cancer nurse in comprehensive cancer centers and eHealth-systems to support lung cancer patients and their families/caregivers. PMID:26152086
A four-drug chemotherapy regimen has produced the longest improvement in survival ever seen in a phase III clinical trial of patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer, one of the deadliest types of cancer.
Christiane M Robbins; Stanley Hooker; Kittles, Rick A.; John D. Carpten
The EphB2 gene has been implicated as a tumor suppressor gene somatically altered in both prostate cancer (PC) and colorectal cancer. We have previously shown an association between an EphB2 germline nonsense variant and risk of familial prostate cancer among African American Men (AAM). Here we set out to test the hypothesis that common variation within the EphB2 locus is associated with increased risk of sporadic PC in AAM. We genotyped a set of 341 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) enc...
Twenty-five patients, having either unilateral ovarian tumors of unknown etiology or suspected of having ovarian cancer recurrence were investigated by the method of immunoscintigraphy to rule out primary and/or metastatic tumor sites. Four-hundred micrograms of the tumor-associated monoclonal mouse antibody HMFG-2, raised against human milk fat globulin membranes and labeled with 123I, were used for each patient to display the tumor sites by external scintigraphy. The dose ranged between 0.5 and 2.2 mCi, the specific activity between 1.25 and 5.5 mCi per mg of antibody. Nineteen of the patients underwent operations a few days after immunoscintigraphy. The remaining six patients were investigated by transmission computed tomography (TCT) to establish the presence or absence of tumor of the imaging. In 22 of the 25 cases the scintigraphic results correlated with the situation found at the subsequent operation, or by TCT, respectively, as well as with the histological diagnosis of the tumor type. Overall, there were just two false-negative and one false-positive scan report, the latter due to faulty reading of the scintigrams. Sixteen out of 18 tumor sites in 25 patients could be revealed by immunoscintigraphy, the smallest one being 1.5 cm in diam. In four of the patients immunoscintigraphy was the only noninvasive investigation method that could reveal the malignant tumor sites prior to the operation
Hu, Chunling; Steven N Hart; William R Bamlet; Moore, Raymond M.; Nandakumar, Kannabiran; Bruce W Eckloff; Lee, Yean K.; Petersen, Gloria M.; Robert R McWilliams; Couch, Fergus J.
The prevalence of germline pathogenic mutations in a comprehensive panel of cancer predisposition genes is not well defined for patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). To estimate the frequency of mutations in a panel of 22 cancer predisposition genes, 96 patients unselected for a family history of cancer who were recruited to the Mayo Clinic Pancreatic Cancer patient registry over a 12 month period were screened by next-generation sequencing. Fourteen pathogenic mutations in 1...
Sirohi, B; S Dawood; S. Rastogi; Pandey, A.; Bal, M; N Shetty; Shrikhande, S. V.
Background: The aim of this study was to look at the outcome of patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer treated at a tertiary cancer center in India. Patients And Methods: A total of 101 patients with locally advanced and metastatic pancreatic cancer diagnosed between May 2012 and July 2013 were identified from a prospectively maintained database at the tertiary cancer center. Overall survival (OS) was computed using the Kaplan–Meir product limit method and compared across groups using the...
A DIAGNOSIS OF CANCER INTERRUPTS THE LIFE OF A PATIENT AND HIS OR HER FAMILY. Cancer treatment often entails continued investigation and therapy that typically has side effects and offers the repeated warning to be vigilant. Cancer is often a life-threatening illness. The field of psycho-oncology is well established, and clinical oncologists often have a good awareness of the psychological challenges cancer poses to their patients. Despite the nature of the stressor, it is important to note t...
Javed, Saba; Javed, Syed A; Mays, Rana M; Tyring, Stephen K.
Skin cancer in darker skin is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. We sought to assess the clinical characteristics of cutaneous malignancy amongst Hispanic skin cancer patients and compare them to age-matched non-Hispanic Caucasians. In this retrospective study, 150 Hispanic skin cancer patients were identified from electronic medical records and age-matched to 150 non-Hispanic Caucasian controls with skin cancer. The incidence of actinic keratoses (AKs) in Hispanic skin c...
Lymphedema; Stage IA Cervical Cancer; Stage IA Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IB Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IB Vulvar Cancer; Stage II Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage II Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIB Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIC Vulvar Cancer; Stage IVB Vulvar Cancer
Andersen, Andreas Holst; Vinther, Anders; Poulsen, Lise-Lotte;
Patients with lung cancer are often burdened by dyspnoea, fatigue, decreased physical ability and loss of weight. Earlier studies of physical exercise of patients with COPD have shown promising results. The aim of this study was to investigate, if a well-documented COPD rehabilitation protocol can...... improve physical fitness and quality of life (QoL) in patients with lung cancer....
Ballard, Deborah; Hill, Jill
Patients with cancer are often faced with complex diagnoses that require decision making in a highly stressful environment. The role of the healthcare team is to ensure that patients have the information, tools, and resources needed to make informed decisions. However, low health literacy is a common and undervalued factor in the outcomes of patients, particularly those with cancer. PMID:27206288
Parchment, Yvonne D
Men of the African diaspora are diagnosed with prostate cancer much later than Caucasians and the mortality rate is significantly higher in these groups than among Caucasians. This study investigates health beliefs surrounding prostate health in a sample of African American and Caribbean men and identifies reasons men have for delaying or avoiding prostate screenings. One hundred African American and Caribbean men recruited from three churches, aged 37-89, were surveyed about their health seeking behaviors and knowledge of prostate cancer. Forty-five of these men also attended a seminar on the importance of early detection. Eighty percent of the men revealed they were embarrassed to have digital rectal examinations. Sixty percent feared impotence and incontinence after treatment if diagnosed with cancer. Findings reveal that attention to cultural realities may assist healthcare professionals in planning culturally sensitive educational interventions in the community that may narrow the health disparities gap in this population. PMID:18399361
Full Text Available Grace X Ma,1 Wanzhen Gao,1 Sunmin Lee,2 MinQi Wang,3 Yin Tan,1 Steven E Shive,1,41Department of Public Health, Center for Asian Health, College of Health Professions, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 2Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA; 3Department of Public and Community Health, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, MD, USA; 4East Stroudsburg University, East Stroudsburg, PA, USAObjective: The purpose of this community-based study was to apply a Sociocultural Health Behavior Model to determine the association of factors proposed in the model with breast cancer screening behaviors among Asian American women.Methods: A cross-sectional design included a sample of 682 Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese women aged 40 years and older. The frequency distribution analysis and Chi-square analysis were used for the initial screening of the following variables: sociodemographic, cultural, enabling, environmental, and social support. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted on factors for breast cancer screening using multinomial logistic regression analysis.Results: Correlates to positive breast cancer screening included demographics (ethnicity, cultural factors (living in the United States for 15 years or more, speaking English well, enabling factors (having a regular physician to visit, health insurance covering the screening, and family/social support factors (those who had a family/friend receiving a mammogram.Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that breast cancer screening programs will be more effective if they include the cultural and health beliefs, enabling, and social support factors associated with breast cancer screening. The use of community organizations may play a role in helping to increase breast cancer screening rates among Asian American women.Keywords: breast cancer screening, Vietnamese, Korean, Chinese, breast
Jeffrey D. Chulay
Full Text Available We report our experience with the diagnosis and treatment of 60 patients with American cutaneous leishmaniasis. They were infected in Panama (55, Brazil (4 or Colombia (I. Among 35 patients with a 3 week exposure in Panama, the mean maximum incubation period was 33 days (range 4-81 days. Diagnosis was delayed an average of 93 days after onset of skin lesions, due to the patient's delay in seeking medical attention (31 days, medical personnel's delay in considering the diagnosis (45 days, and the laboratory's delay in confirming the diagnosis (17 days. Forty-four patients (73% developed ulcers typical of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Sixteen additional patients (27% had atypical macular, papular, squamous, verrucous or acneiform skin lesions that were diagnosed only because leishmanial cultures were obtained. Of the 59 patients treated with pentavalent antimonial drugs, only 34 (58% were cured after the first course of treatment. Lesions which were at least 2 cm in diameter, ulcerated, or caused by Leishmania braziliensis were less likely to be cured after a single course of treatment than were lesions smaller than 2 cm, nonulcerated or caused by Leishmania mexicana or Leishmania donovani.Relatamos nossa experiência em 60 pacientes com leishmaniose tegumentar americana diagnosticada e tratada entre 1977 e 1982. Cinqüenta e cinco pacientes foram infectados no Panamá, 4 no Brasil, e 1 na Colômbia. Entre 35 pacientes com uma exposição de 3 semanas no Panamá, a média do período de incubação foi 33 dias (limite sobre 4 e 81 dias. O diagnóstico foi feito, em média, 93 dias depois do início das lesões de pele, devido a demora do paciente em procurar o serviço médico (31 dias, a demora do médico em considerar o diagnóstico (45 dias, e a demora do laboratório em confirmar o diagnóstico (17 dias. Quarenta e quatro pacientes (73% desenvolveram úlceras típicas de leishmaniose cutânea. Porém, 16 pacientes (27% tiveram lesões de pele at
Kruijver, I.P.M.; Kerkstra, A.; Bensing, J.M.; van de Wiel, H.B.M.
In this paper the balance of affective and intrumental communication employed by nurses during the admission interview with recently diagnosed cancer patients was investigated. Rationale: The balance of affective and instrumental communication employed by nurses appears to be important, especially during the admission interview with cancer patients. Methods: For this purpose, admission interviews between 53 ward nurses and simulated cancer patients were videotaped and analysed using the Roter...
In Sweden and elsewhere there is evidence of poorer cancer survival for patients of low socioeconomic status (SES), and in some settings differences in treatment by SES have been shown. The aim of this thesis was to explore factors which influence cancer treatment decisions, such as knowledge reaped from clinical trials, patient-related factors, and physician-related factors. In a register study of colorectal cancer, all stages, patients were stratified for SES-factors. Differences were seen ...
Dominique Farge-Bancel; Henri Bounameaux; Benjamin Brenner; Büller, Harry R.; Ajay Kakkar,; Ingrid Pabinger; Michael Streiff; Philippe Debourdeau
Venous thromboembolism is a frequent and serious complication in patients with cancer. It is an independent prognostic factor of death in cancer patients and the second leading cause of death, but physicians often underestimate its importance, as well as the need for adequate prevention and treatment. Management of venous thromboembolism in patients with cancer requires the coordinated efforts of a wide range of clinicians, highlighting the importance of a multidisciplinary approach. However,...
Full Text Available Metastasis of colon cancer cells increases the risk of colon cancer mortality. We have recently shown that American ginseng prevents colon cancer, and a Hexane extract of American Ginseng (HAG has particularly potent anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties. Dysregulated microRNA (miR expression has been observed in several disease conditions including colon cancer. Using global miR expression profiling, we observed increased miR-29b in colon cancer cells following exposure to HAG. Since miR-29b plays a role in regulating the migration of cancer cells, we hypothesized that HAG induces miR-29b expression to target matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 thereby suppressing the migration of colon cancer cells. Results are consistent with this hypothesis. Our study supports the understanding that targeting MMP-2 by miR-29b is a mechanism by which HAG suppresses the migration of colon cancer cells.
Zhimei Liu; Doan, Quan V.; Jennifer Malin; Robert Leonard
Background: Febrile neutropenia (FN) is a serious adverse event associated with myelotoxic chemotherapy that predisposes patients to life-threatening bacterial infections. Prophylaxis with granulocyte colony-stimulating factors (G-CSFs) from the first cycle of chemotherapy is recommended by the 2006 American Society of Clinical Oncology, 2008 National Comprehensive Cancer Network and 2006 European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer guidelines when the overall risk of FN is appr...
Z. V. Grigoryevskaya
Full Text Available Lung cancer (LC annually afflicts 63–65 thousand people in Russia and 1.04 million worldwide, which amounts to 12.8% of all notified cases of neoplasms. In LC patients, infectious complications are characterized by a severe course; destruction foci, decay cavities, and abscess may form.All give rise to difficulties in making a diagnosis and in choosing a treatment policy. Infections caused by P. aeruginosa, A. baumanii, bacteria of the family Enterobacteriacae, S. aureus, and Enterococcus spp present the greatest problem in inpatients with LC. The early diagnosis of infectiouscomplications and the use of adequate schemes of antibiotic prevention and therapy promote a reduction in mortality from infection in this categoryof patients and expand the possibilities of their specific antitumor treatment.
G. A. Nerodo
Full Text Available A parallel study of some parameters of the endocrine and immune systems was conducted in 120 patients with vulvar cancer prior to treatment.Most patients were found to have impaired immunogenesis: the reduced count and function of T and B lymphocytes, decreased natu- ral killer cells, suppressed macrophageal transformation of monocytes, higher percentage of immunocomplexes, insufficient production of immunoglobulins (IgA, IgM, IgG, which was induced by the elevated level of cortisol in its slower metabolism at the periphery, reduced function of the pituitary-thyroid system, the balance of sex steroids shifted towards testosterone, a predominance of luteiniz- ing hormone over follicle-stimulating hormone, and inhibited growth hormone production.
Full Text Available Objective: In a regional hospital, many patients are newly diagnosed with cancer. Breaking the bad news in these patients and their relatives is a tough task. Many doctors are not experienced in talking to patients about death or death-related diseases. In recent years, there have been great efforts to change the current situation. The aim of this study was to investigate the experience and education of medical personnel in breaking bad news in a secondary hospital. Materials and Methods: 59 doctors from General Hospital of Komotini, Greece were included in the study. All the doctors were in clinical specialties that treated cancer patients. A brief questionnaire was developed based on current guidelines such as Baile/SPIKES framework and the ABCDE mnemonic. Results: Residents are involved in delivering bad news less frequently than specialists. Only 21 doctors (35.59% had specific training on breaking bad news. 20 doctors (33.90% were aware of the available techniques and protocols on breaking bad news. 47 doctors (79.66% had a consistent plan for breaking bad news. 57 (96.61% delivered bad news in a quiet place, 53 (89.83% ensured no interruptions and enough time, 53 (89.83% used simple words and 54 (91.53% checked for understanding and did not rush through the news. 46 doctors (77.97% allowed relatives to determine patient′s knowledge about the disease. Conclusions: There were low rates of specific training in breaking bad news. However, the selected location, the physician′s speech and their plan were according to current guidelines.
Blank, Mikhail; Blank, Olga; Myasnikova, Ekaterina; Denisova, Daria
The goal of the present research is to investigate and analyze possible peculiarities of the psychological state of cancer patients undergoing treatment. Scores characterizing the trait and state anxiety were acquired using the Integrative Anxiety Test from four groups: adults with no appreciable disease, pregnant women, cancer patients examined during the specific antitumor treatment, and cancer patients brought into lasting clinical remission. Statistical analysis of the testing results revealed the bimodal type of the distribution of scores. The only statistically significant exception was the distribution of the state anxiety scores in cancer patients undergoing treatment that was clearly unimodal. PMID:26176239
Tatiana C.S. Bonetti
Full Text Available PURPOSE: Report the characteristics of cryopreserved semen from a cohort of male cancer patients, attitudes towards cryopreservation and outcomes of semen samples based on a 12-year cryopreservation program. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data from 98 male cancer patients whose sperm samples were banked were evaluated. Demographic parameters, semen characteristics, destination of sperm banked samples and questionnaires answered by the patients regarding cryopreservation time were evaluated. RESULTS: The cancer diagnoses were testicle (56.1%, prostate (15.3%, Hodgkin’s lymphomas (9.2%, non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas (7.1%, leukemia (3.1% and other malignancies (9.2%. The patients with testicular cancer presented lower sperm concentration (p < 0.001; however, there were no differences with the percentage of normozoospermic patients among cancer type groups (p = 0.185. A shorter time between cancer diagnosis and sperm banking was observed for testicular and prostate cancer patients (p < 0.001. Most of the patients (89.5% favored sperm banking as a fertility preservation method. CONCLUSIONS: Although less than 20% of banked sperm samples were disposed of, the majority of patients related sperm banking with safe for fertility preservation. Our results show that all male cancer patients of reproductive age facing cancer treatment could be offered sperm banking.
Kasum, Miro; von Wolff, Michael; Franulić, Daniela; Čehić, Ermin; Klepac-Pulanić, Tajana; Orešković, Slavko; Juras, Josip
The purpose of this review is to analyse current options for fertility preservation in young women with breast cancer (BC). Considering an increasing number of BC survivors, owing to improvements in cancer treatment and delaying of childbearing, fertility preservation appears to be an important issue. Current fertility preservation options in BC survivors range from well-established standard techniques to experimental or investigational interventions. Among the standard options, random-start ovarian stimulation protocol represents a new technique, which significantly decreases the total time of the in vitro fertilisation cycle. However, in patients with oestrogen-sensitive tumours, stimulation protocols using aromatase inhibitors are currently preferred over tamoxifen regimens. Cryopreservation of embryos and oocytes are nowadays deemed the most successful techniques for fertility preservation in BC patients. GnRH agonists during chemotherapy represent an experimental method for fertility preservation due to conflicting long-term outcome results regarding its safety and efficacy. Cryopreservation of ovarian tissue, in vitro maturation of immature oocytes and other strategies are considered experimental and should only be offered within the context of a clinical trial. An early pretreatment referral to reproductive endocrinologists and oncologists should be suggested to young BC women at risk of infertility, concerning the risks and benefits of fertility preservation options. PMID:26370157
Christine B. Ambrosone
Full Text Available Breast cancer in African-American (AA women occurs at an earlier age than in European-American (EA women and is more likely to have aggressive features associated with poorer prognosis, such as high-grade and negative estrogen receptor (ER status. The mechanisms underlying these differences are unknown. To address this, we conducted a case-control study to evaluate risk factors for high-grade ER- disease in both AA and EA women. With the onset of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, creative measures were needed to adapt case ascertainment and contact procedures to this new environment of patient privacy. In this paper, we report on our approach to establishing a multicenter study of breast cancer in New York and New Jersey, provide preliminary distributions of demographic and pathologic characteristics among case and control participants by race, and contrast participation rates by approaches to case ascertainment, with discussion of strengths and weaknesses.
To compare the dosimetric differences among fixed field intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), single-arc volumetric-modulated arc therapy (SA-VMAT) and double-arc volumetric-modulated arc therapy (DA-VMAT) plans in rectal cancer. Fifteen patients with rectal cancer previously treated with IMRT in our institution were selected for this study. For each patient, three plans were generated with the planning CT scan: one using a fixed beam IMRT, and two plans using the VMAT technique: SA-VMAT and DA-VMAT. Dose prescription to the PTV was 50 Gy in 2 Gy per fraction. Dose volume histograms (DVH) for the target volume and the organs at risk (small bowel, bladder, femoral heads and healthy tissue) were compared for these different techniques. Monitor units (MU) and delivery treatment time were also reported. DA-VMAT achieved the highest minimum planning target volume (PTV) dose and the lowest maximal dose, resulting in the most homogeneous PTV dose distribution. DA-VMAT also yielded the best CI, although the difference was not statistically significant. Between SA-VMAT and IMRT, the target dose coverage was largely comparable; however, SA-VMAT was able to achieve a better V95 and V107. VMAT showed to be inferior to IMRT in terms of organ at risk sparing, especially for the small bowel. Compared with IMRT, DA-VMAT increased the V15 of small bowel nearly 55 cc. The MU and treatment delivery time were significantly reduced by the use of VMAT techniques. VMAT is a new radiation technique that combines the ability to achieve highly conformal dose distributions with highly efficient treatment delivery. Considering the inferior role of normal tissue sparing, especially for small bowel, VMAT need further investigation in rectal cancer treatment
Collins, Lauren G; Wender, Richard; Altshuler, Marc
The US health care system has become increasingly unsustainable, threatened by poor quality and spiraling costs. Many Americans are not receiving recommended preventive care, including cancer screening tests. Passage of the Affordable Care Act in March 2010 has the potential to reverse this course by increasing access to primary care providers, extending coverage and affordability of health insurance, and instituting proven quality measures. In order for health care reform to succeed, it will require a stronger primary care workforce, a new emphasis on patient-centered care, and payment incentives that reward quality over quantity. Innovations such as patient-centered medical homes, accountable care organizations, and improved quality reporting methods are central features of a redesigned health care delivery system and will ultimately change the face of cancer care in the United States. PMID:21131791
Background and purpose: Elderly patients with head and neck cancer may not be treated aggressively with radiotherapy, due to concerns regarding tolerance of treatment and toxicity. A retrospective study was undertaken of patients aged 80 years and over, treated by definitive radiotherapy for head and neck cancer. Material and methods: 98 patients aged 80-92 received radiotherapy for carcinoma of the head and neck between 1991 and 1995. All patients received beam directed radiotherapy with radical intent using an immobilisation shell. Results: Cancer specific survival was 59% and overall local control was 70% at 5 years. Both were significantly affected by T stage and site of disease. Cancer specific survival was comparable to that of patients aged below 80 years. Seven patients died within 6 months of the treatment. Three patients developed severe late toxicity. Metastatic disease occurred in eight patients. Conclusions: Radiotherapy is a beneficial and well tolerated treatment in elderly patients with carcinoma of the head and neck
郭毅; 生秀杰; 刘阳; 花象锋
Objective: To compare the quality of life (QOL) for gynecologic cancer patients with different cancer sites and to assess the impact of patients' characteristics, disease parameters, and treatments on the subscale and overall QOL. Methods: A prospective study was conducted including 146 gynecologic cancer patients. QOL data were collected using the general Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy (FACT- G) QOL questionnaire. Results: Advanced stage patients showed significantly poor physical well-being, emotional well-being, and functional well-being, as compared with early stage patients. QOL was reported higher in older patients (P=0.03), patients above high school education (P=0.004), and patients with help at home (P=0.009). Conclusion: Patients with later stage, multi- modality therapy, poor education, and little social support have the most significant impairments and need more support.
Deckx, Laura; van Abbema, Doris L.; van den Akker, Marjan; Van Den Broeke, Carine; van Driel, Mieke; Bulens, Paul; Tjan-Heijnen, Vivianne C. G.; Kenis, Cindy; de Jonge, Eric T.; Houben, Bert; Buntinx, Frank
Background Although older cancer survivors commonly report psychosocial problems, the impact of both cancer and ageing on the occurrence of these problems remains largely unknown. The evolution of depression, cognitive functioning, and fatigue was evaluated in a group of older cancer patients in comparison with a group of younger cancer patients and older persons without cancer. Methods Older (≥70 years) and younger cancer patients (50 – 69 years) with breast or colorectal cancer stage I - II...
Clarke-Tasker, Veronica A; Wade, Revia
This study applied the Health Belief Model in determining African American male's knowledge, attitudes and perceptions of prostate cancer and early detection methods. The ultimate value of the information assessed from this population was used to design specific theory-based, culturally relevant interventions which may decrease mortality in this high-risk population. Two focus groups were conducted with African-American men whose ages ranged from 38-80 years. After consenting to audio-taping, participants completed a survey questionnaire and viewed a culturally appropriate video on prostate cancer. Results indicate that, on average, the men believed in the efficacy of prostate cancer early detection methods. Study participants felt physicians did not adequately screen or suggest that they be screened for prostate cancer. Men between 40 and 50 years of age expressed concern about possible changes in their sex life if diagnosed with prostate cancer. Despite having limited knowledge of prostate cancer they considered a digital rectal examination to be embarrassing and uncomfortable. However, they were not opposed to having the procedure done. PMID:12108141
Purpose: To evaluate the utility of an infrared-guided patient setup (iGPS) system to reduce the uncertainties in the setup of lung cancer patients. Methods and Materials: A total of 15 patients were setup for lung irradiation using skin tattoos and lateral leveling marks. Daily electronic portal device images and iGPS marker locations were acquired and retrospectively reviewed. The iGPS-based shifts were compared with the daily electronic portal device image shifts using both the central axis iGPS marker and all five iGPS markers. For shift calculation using the five markers, rotational misalignment was included. The level of agreement between the iGPS and portal imaging to evaluate the setup was evaluated as the frequency of the shift difference in the range of 0-5 mm, 5-10 mm, and >10 mm. Results: Data were obtained for 450 treatment sessions for 15 patients. The difference in the isocenter shifts between the weekly vs. daily images was 0-5 mm in 42%, 5-10 mm in 30%, and >10 mm in 10% of the images. The shifts seen using the iGPS data were 0-5 mm in 81%, 5-10 mm in 14%, and >10 mm in 5%. Using only the central axis iGPS marker, the difference between the iGPS and portal images was 10 mm in 7% in the left-right direction and 73%, 18%, and 9% in the superoinferior direction, respectively. When all five iGPS markers were used, the disagreements between the iGPS and portal image shifts >10 mm were reduced from 7% to 2% in the left-right direction and 9% to 3% in the superoinferior direction. Larger reductions were also seen (e.g., a reduction from 50% to 0% in 1 patient). Conclusion: The daily iGPS-based shifts correlated well with the daily electronic portal device-based shifts. When patient movement has nonlinear rotational components, a combination of surface markers and portal images might be particularly beneficial to improve the setup for lung cancer patients
Full Text Available Background. We study the clinical significance and management of pulmonary venous obstruction in cancer patients. Methods. We conducted a prospective cohort study to characterize the syndrome that we term “pulmonary vein obstruction syndrome” (PVOS between January 2005 and March 2014. The criteria for inclusion were (1 episodes of shortness of breath; (2 chest X-ray showing abnormal pulmonary hilum shadow with or without presence of pulmonary edema and/or pleural effusion; (3 CT scan demonstrating pulmonary vein thrombosis/tumor with or without tumor around the vein. Results. Two hundred and twenty-two patients developed PVOS. Shortness of breath was the main symptom, which was aggravated by chemotherapy in 28 (13%, and medical/surgical procedures in 21 (9% and showed diurnal change in intensity in 32 (14%. Chest X-rays all revealed abnormal pulmonary hilum shadows and presence of pulmonary edema in 194 (87% and pleural effusion in 192 (86%. CT scans all showed pulmonary vein thrombosis/tumor (100% and surrounding the pulmonary veins by tumor lesions in 140 patients (63%. PVOS was treated with low molecular weight heparin in combination with dexamethasone, and 66% of patients got clinical/image improvement. Conclusion. Physicians should be alert to PVOS when shortness of breath occurs and chest X-ray reveals abnormal pulmonary hilum shadows.
Objective: Knowledge, information and communication, within oncology, are a core clinical strength for the out-come of the disease and inadequate communication, can cause distress for the patient and their families. Design: A senior doctor conducted this study by filling in the performa after interviewing the subject of the study. Place and duration of study: This study was done in Oncology Department of Service Hospital, Lahore and was completed in four months. Subjects and Method: One hundred cancer patients were interviewed regarding their knowledge about their disease, its causes, prognosis, and information supplied by the health-care providers. They were also asked about their satisfaction regarding this information, deficiencies and pitfalls in this information, need for more information, which should supply the information from among the hospital team or their relative, attitude of the family and their communication regarding the disease. Results: Study revealed that the knowledge about the disease and its causes was present in 53% and 7% respectively. The patients (59%) wanted more information. Majority perceived that the information was not adequate and needed more information and 68% thought that more information would reduce their anxiety. The attitude of family was found encouraging in 87% of patients and 42% were communicating with other family members regarding their diseases. Conclusion: Knowledge about the disease and its cause should be increasingly supplied by the doctors, as it will reduce the anxiety and have a good effect on health. Communication among the family members needs to be improved. (author)
Torre, Lindsey A; Sauer, Ann M Goding; Chen, Moon S; Kagawa-Singer, Marjorie; Jemal, Ahmedin; Siegel, Rebecca L
Cancer is the leading cause of death among Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders (AANHPIs). In this report, the American Cancer Society presents AANHPI cancer incidence data from the National Cancer Institute, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries and mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics. Among AANHPIs in 2016, there will be an estimated 57,740 new cancer cases and 16,910 cancer deaths. While AANHPIs have 30% to 40% lower incidence and mortality rates than non-Hispanic whites for all cancers combined, risk of stomach and liver cancers is double. The male-to-female incidence rate ratio among AANHPIs declined from 1.43 (95% confidence interval, 1.36-1.49) in 1992 to 1.04 (95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.07) in 2012 because of declining prostate and lung cancer rates in males and increasing breast cancer rates in females. The diversity within the AANHPI population is reflected in the disparate cancer risk by subgroup. For example, the overall incidence rate in Samoan men (526.5 per 100,000) is more than twice that in Asian Indian/Pakistani men (216.8). Variations in cancer rates in AANHPIs are related to differences in behavioral risk factors, use of screening and preventive services, and exposure to cancer-causing infections. Cancer-control strategies include improved use of vaccination and screening; interventions to increase physical activity and reduce excess body weight, tobacco use, and alcohol consumption; and subgroup-level research on burden and risk factors. CA Cancer J Clin 2016;66:182-202. © 2016 American Cancer Society. PMID:26766789
Susan E Steck
Full Text Available African Americans (AAs have lower circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OHD3] concentrations and higher prostate cancer (CaP aggressiveness than other racial/ethnic groups. The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between plasma 25(OHD3, African ancestry and CaP aggressiveness among AAs and European Americans (EAs.Plasma 25(OHD3 was measured using LC-MS/MS (Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry in 537 AA and 663 EA newly-diagnosed CaP patients from the North Carolina-Louisiana Prostate Cancer Project (PCaP classified as having either 'high' or 'low' aggressive disease based on clinical stage, Gleason grade and prostate specific antigen at diagnosis. Mean plasma 25(OHD3 concentrations were compared by proportion of African ancestry. Logistic regression was used to calculate multivariable adjusted odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI for high aggressive CaP by tertile of plasma 25(OHD3.AAs with highest percent African ancestry (>95% had the lowest mean plasma 25(OHD3 concentrations. Overall, plasma 25(OHD3 was associated positively with aggressiveness among AA men, an association that was modified by calcium intake (ORT 3vs.T1: 2.23, 95%CI: 1.26-3.95 among men with low calcium intake, and ORT 3vs.T1: 0.19, 95%CI: 0.05-0.70 among men with high calcium intake. Among EAs, the point estimates of the ORs were <1.0 for the upper tertiles with CIs that included the null.Among AAs, plasma 25(OHD3 was associated positively with CaP aggressiveness among men with low calcium intake and inversely among men with high calcium intake. The clinical significance of circulating concentrations of 25(OHD3 and interactions with calcium intake in the AA population warrants further study.
Zhang, Jing; Fackenthal, James D; Zheng, Yonglan; Huo, Dezheng; Hou, Ningqi; Niu, Qun; Zvosec, Cecilia; Ogundiran, Temidayo O; Hennis, Anselm J; Leske, Maria Cristina; Nemesure, Barbara; Wu, Suh-Yuh; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I
Recurrent mutations constituted nearly three quarters of all BRCA1 mutations and almost half of all BRCA2 mutations identified in the first cohort of the Nigerian Breast Cancer Study. To further characterize breast/ovarian cancer risks associated with BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations in the African diaspora, we genotyped recurrent mutations among Nigerian, African American, and Barbadian breast cancer patients. A replication cohort of 356 Nigerian breast cancer patients was genotyped for 12 recurrent BRCA1/2 mutant alleles (Y101X, 1742insG, 4241delTG, M1775R, 4359insC, C64Y, 1623delTTAAA, Q1090X, and 943ins10 from BRCA1, and 1538delAAGA, 2630del11, and 9045delGAAA from BRCA2) by means of SNaPshot followed by direct sequencing or by direct sequencing alone. In addition, 260 African Americans and 118 Barbadians were genotyped for six of the recurrent BRCA1 mutations by SNaPshot assay. Of all the BRCA1/2 recurrent mutations we identified in the first cohort, six were identified in 11 patients in the replication study. These mutation carriers constitute 3.1 % [95 % Confidence Interval (CI) 1.6-5.5 %] of the replication cohort. By comparison, 6.9 % (95 % CI 4.7-9.7 %) of the discovery cohort carried BRCA1/2 recurrent mutations. For the subset of recurrent mutations we tested in breast cancer cases from Barbados or the United States, only two 943ins10 carriers were identified in African Americans. Nigerian breast cancer patients from Ibadan carry a broad and unique spectrum of BRCA1/2 mutations. Our data suggest that BRCA1/2 mutation testing limited to recurrent mutations is not sufficient to understand the BRCA1/2-associated breast cancer risk in African populations in the diaspora. As the cost of Sanger sequencing is considerably reduced, deploying innovative technologies such as high throughput DNA sequencing of BRCA1/2 and other cancer susceptibility genes will be essential for identifying high-risk individuals and families to reduce the burden of aggressive early onset breast
Suk Jae Kim
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We hypothesized that hidden malignancy could be detected in patients with cryptogenic stroke without active cancer when they showed the distinctive characteristics of cancer-related stroke. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Among 2,562 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke, patients with cryptogenic stroke were analyzed and categorized into two groups according to the presence of active cancer: cryptogenic stroke with active cancer (cancer-related stroke, CA-stroke group and without active cancer (CR-stroke group. Patients with active lung cancer without stroke were also recruited for comparison purposes (CA-control. Clinical factors, lesion patterns on diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI, and laboratory findings were analyzed among groups. A total of 348 patients with cryptogenic stroke were enrolled in this study. Among them, 71 (20.4% patients had active cancer at the time of stroke. The D-dimer levels were significantly higher in patients with CA-stroke than those with CR-stroke or CA-control (both p<0.001. Regarding lesion patterns, patients with CA-stroke mostly had multiple lesions in multiple vascular territories, while more than 80% of patients with CR-stroke had single/multiple lesions in a single vascular territory (P<0.001. D-dimer levels (OR 1.11 per 1 µg/mL increase; 95% CI 1.06-1.15; P<0.001 and DWI lesion patterns (OR 7.13; 95% CI 3.42-14.87; P<0.001 were independently associated with CA-stroke. Workup for hidden malignancy was performed during hospitalization in 10 patients who showed elevated D-dimer levels and multiple infarcts involving multiple vascular territories but had no known cancer, and it revealed hidden malignancies in all the patients. CONCLUSION: Patients with CA-stroke have distinctive D-dimer levels and lesion patterns. These characteristics can serve as clues to occult cancer in patients with cryptogenic stroke.
Børresen, Betina; Clausen, Malene Martini; Hansen, Anders Elias; Engelholm, Svend Aage; Kjær, Andreas; Kristensen, Annemarie Thuri; Zornhagen, Kamilla Westarp
Cancer bearing dogs represent a unique clinical cancer model with a direct potential for accelerating translation into human patients. A research collaboration between the veterinary and human medical facilities at Copenhagen University and Rigshospitalet has taken offset in this. Canine cancer...
Fisher, A.; Beeken, R.J.; Heinrich, M.; Williams, K.; Wardle, J.
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to examine whether fear of cancer recurrence (FCR) was related to two important health behaviours (physical activity and smoking) in a large sample of colorectal cancer patients. METHODS: Ten thousand nine hundred sixty nine patients, diagnosed in 2010-11, and in remission in 2013, completed the 'Living with and Beyond Colorectal Cancer' survey. The survey included purpose-designed questions on fear of recurrence ('I have fear about my cancer coming back'), demogr...
Kaberi Das; Munlima Hazarika; Manigreeva Krishnatreya; Amal Chandra Kataki
Background: Paediatric cancer patients who receive radiation and chemotherapy (CT) suffer from various risks of oral complications and odontogenesis. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted at a regional cancer centre of North East India from 2010 to 2013. The impact of cancer treatment by CT and radiation on orodental health was studied on a total of 100 paediatric cancer patients. Results: The common dental abnormalities were microdontia, hypodontia, root abnormalities, abnorm...
Evaluation of quality of life (QOL) in cancer patients is an important theme. However, we do not have an established method to assess QOL in cancer patients during radiotherapy in Japan. We evaluated both the changes of QOL and the factors affecting QOL in radiotherapy patients. Three hundred fifty-five cancer patients, who filled in a questionnaire at the beginning, middle, and end of radiotherapy between 1998 and 2001, were studied. We used The QOL Questionnaire for Cancer Patients Treated with Anticancer Drugs (QOL-ACD)'' devised by Kurihara et al, the Ministry of Health and Welfare. The QOL Questionnaire had five categories: physical activity, physical condition, mental state, social interaction, and face scale. The total score, sum of the score of five categories, were established synthetically (maximum score is 110). The mean of total QOL scores were 75.8, 77.6, and 78.2 at the beginning, middle, and end of radiotherapy respectively. Patients with symptoms related to cancer had apparent improvement of QOL score. Patients receiving chemotherapy had a decreased QOL score at the end of radiotherapy. The score of physical condition was reduced improvement. It was suggested that radiotherapy could be performed without losing QOL of cancer patients, including older patients. However, patients receiving chemotherapy and those with head and neck cancer may lose their QOL, therefore, we should treat such patients carefully. (author)
NCI scientists have studied cells of patients with an extremely rare genetic disease that is characterized by drastic premature aging and discovered a new protective cellular mechanism against cancer. They found that cells from patients with Hutchinson Gi
... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160304.html Health Insurance Status May Affect Cancer Patients' Survival 2 studies highlight disparities in outcomes for uninsured and Medicaid patients To use the sharing features on this ...
Objective To investigate the health-related quality of life(HRQoL)and its influencing factors in patients with gastric remnant cancer(GRC).Methods A total of 130 patients received gastrectomy more than
Patients with advanced, recurrent, or persistent cervical cancer that was not curable with standard treatment who received the drug bevacizumab (Avastin) lived 3.7 months longer than patients who did not receive the drug, according to an interim analysis
Xu Ming; Xu Yingchun; Jin Yongtang; Xue Saoli
Abstract Background Genetic factors were considered as one of the risk factors for lung cancer or other cancers. The aim of this work was to determine whether a genetic predisposition accounts for such familial aggregation of cancer among relatives of lung cancer probands. Methods A case-control study was conducted in 800 case families identified by lung cancer patients (probands), and in 800 control families identified by the probands'spouses. The data were analysed with logistic regression ...
Modern therapeutic modalities and emphasis on early detection have made oral cancer a treatable, and in many cases, a curable disease. The role of the dentist in cancer patient management is two-fold. Early detection of oral lesions during routine dental examination has been shown to be a significant factor in cancer diagnosis. The dentist's other role comes after cancer treatment, specifically therapeutic radiation. Ionizing radiation can have permanent effects on both hard and soft tissues. Prescription and use of fluoride gel in topical applicators can aid in assuring oral health for post-cancer patients
Hazelwood, Daniela Maria; Koeck, Sabine; Wallner, Martin; Anderson, Kathryn Hoehn; Mayer, Hanna
People are diagnosed with cancer sooner nowadays thanks to increased awareness and improvements in cancer screenings. Patients are able to live longer due to cancer treatment regimens; however, they suffer the consequences of living with cancer and therapy-related symptoms. Symptom management is challenging for both patients and family caregivers. Therefore, family members must be integrated in the patient’s care plan. For this review, a literature search was conducted to determine what types...
Ping Yang; Li-qiu Sun; Qian lu; Dong Pang; Yue Ding
Objective:To investigate the quality of life (QOL) of cancer pain patients in Beijing,and explore the effect of cancer pain control on patients' QOL.Methods:Self-developed demographic questionnaire,numeric rating scale and SF-36 questionnaire were used together among 643 cancer pain patients in 28 Grade 2nd to 3rd general hospitals and 2 Grade 3rd cancer hospitals.Results:The SF-36 eight dimensions scores ranged from 31.75 to 57.22 in these cancer pain patients.The t test and Wilcoxon rank sum test were used to compare the QOL between pain controlled (PC) group and pain uncontrolled (PUC) group,and the results showed that patients in PC group had the higher QOL scores in 6 areas of SF-36 (P＜0.05).Binary logistic regression results found that pain management satisfaction scores (P＜0.001),family average personal monthly income (P=0.029),current receiving chemotherapy (P=0.009) and cancer stage (P＜0.001) were the predictors to cancer pain controlled results.Conclusion:Cancer patients with pain in Beijing had poor QOL.Pain control will improve the QOL of cancer pain patients.
Tatsuta, M.; Iishi, H.; Okuda, S
Gastric emptying was compared in patients with gastric cancers and fundal gastritis to determine its value in identifying patients at high risk of gastric cancer. Gastric emptying was measured by the acetaminophen absorption method, and the extent of fundal gastritis was determined by the endoscopic Congo red test. The results showed that gastric emptying was significantly slower in patients with severe fundal gastritis than in those without. Gastric emptying in patients with differentiated a...
The purpose of the study is to modify a type of counseling called "Individual Meaning Centered Psychotherapy" to meet the needs of Chinese cancer patients. Many cancer patients use counseling or other resources to help cope with the emotional burden of their illnesses. Counseling often helps them cope with cancer by giving them a place to express their feelings. "Meaning-Centered" counseling aims to teach cancer patients how to maintain or even increase a sense of meaning and purpose in their lives, despite cancer. |
Bollinger, Sarah; Kreuter, Matthew W.
In a randomized experiment using moment-to-moment audience analysis methods, we compared women’s emotional responses with a narrative versus informational breast cancer video. Both videos communicated three key messages about breast cancer: (i) understand your breast cancer risk, (ii) talk openly about breast cancer and (iii) get regular mammograms. A community-based convenience sample of African American women (n = 59) used a hand-held audience response device to report the intensity of thei...
Momm, F.; Lutterbach, J. [Dept. of Radiation Therapy, Univ. Clinic Freiburg (Germany); Pflieger, D. [Dept. of Dermatology, Univ. Clinic Freiburg (Germany)
Background: Erythroderma is an inflammation of the skin, which can be triggered by various diseases as psoriasis, allergies, side effects of medication, infections or malignant tumors. Caused by these various etiologic possibilities patients require extensive diagnostic effort. Patient: We report a case of a 71-year-old man presenting with an erythroderma of unknown etiology. Therapy with corticosteroids was not successful. A complete remission was reached by therapy with cyclosporine A, 350 mg/day. Finally, an increased prostate specific antigene (PSA) value was found and a prostate cancer was diagnosed in the patient. Results: After definitive radiotherapy of the carcinoma (total dose 74 Gy, 5 x 2 Gy/week), the cyclosporine A was displaced without recurrence of erythroderma. Conclusion: In this case, we consider the erythroderma to have been a paraneoplastic effect of the prostate carcinoma. In male patients with erythroderma an early PSA test should be performed. (orig.) [German] Hintergrund: Die Erythrodermie ist eine entzuendliche Reaktion der Haut, die durch verschiedene Grunderkrankungen wie Psoriasis, Allergien, Infektionen, Nebenwirkungen von Medikamenten oder paraneoplastisch in Erscheinung treten kann. Wegen dieser vielfachen aetiologischen Moeglichkeiten erfordern Erythrodermiepatienten eine aufwaendige Diagnostik. Patient: Wir berichten ueber einen 71-jaehrigen Patienten mit einer Erythrodermie zunaechst unbekannter Aetiologie. Durch die Gabe von Cyclosporin A in einer Dosis von 350 mg/Tag konnte eine Remission erreicht werden. Schliesslich wurde bei dem Patienten ein erhoehter Wert des prostataspezifischen Antigens (PSA) im Blut gefunden und daraufhin ein Prostatakarzinom diagnostiziert. Ergebnisse: Nach primaerer perkutaner Strahlentherapie des Prostatakarzinoms (Gesamtdosis 74 Gy, 5 x 2 Gy/Woche) konnte das Cyclosporin A abgesetzt werden, ohne dass ein weiterer Schub der Erythrodermie auftrat. Schlussfolgerung: Wir halten die Erythrodermie bei
Adamsen, Lis; Stage, M; Laursen, J;
Lung cancer patients experience loss of physical capacity, dyspnea, pain, reduced energy and psychological distress. The aim of this study was to explore feasibility, health benefits and barriers of exercise in former sedentary patients with advanced stage lung cancer, non-small cell lung cancer...... (NSCLC) (III-IV) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC) (ED), undergoing chemotherapy. The intervention consisted of a hospital-based, supervised, group exercise and relaxation program comprising resistance-, cardiovascular- and relaxation training 4 h weekly, 6 weeks, and a concurrent unsupervised home...... exercise and relaxation intervention showed an adherence rate of 76%, whereas the patients failed to comply with the home-based exercise. The hospital-based intervention initiated at time of diagnosis encouraged former sedentary lung cancer patients to participation and was undertaken safely by cancer...
Jensen, Henry; Tørring, Marie Louise; Fenger-Grøn, Morten;
BACKGROUND: Some European countries have introduced standardised cancer patient pathways (CPPs), including urgent referrals, with the aim of diagnosing cancer at an earlier stage. This is despite a lack of evidence, particularly in patients with symptomatic cancer diagnosed via general practice....... AIM: To compare tumour stages in patients with incident cancer diagnosed via general practice before, during, and after CPP implementation in Denmark in 2008-2009. DESIGN AND SETTING: A comparative cohort study of data from GPs and registries on patients with incident cancer listed with a GP before (n...... = 1420), during (n = 5272), and after (n = 2988) CPP implementation. METHOD: χ(2) test was used to compare stage distributions and logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (OR) of having local cancer after versus before CPP implementation. RESULTS: Distribution of tumour stages did not differ...
Milbauer LC; Wei P; Enenstein J; Nguyen J; Pan W; Hebbel RP
Abstract Background Health disparities and the high prevalence of cardiovascular disease continue to be perplexing worldwide health challenges. This study addresses the possibility that genetic differences affecting the biology of the vascular endothelium could be a factor contributing to the increased burden of cardiovascular disease and cancer among African Americans (AA) compared to Caucasian Americans (CA). Methods From self-identified, healthy, 20 to 29-year-old AA (n = 21) and CA (n = 1...
Purpose/Objective: African-Americans tend to present with a higher stage and grade prostate cancer than whites and hence previous studies have attempted to delineate the importance of race in outcome with radiotherapy. However, these studies have had limitations including insufficient number of African-American patients, lack of a similar quality of care or uniform treatment policy. In addition, race as a prognostic variable has not been analyzed in regards to PSA based outcome criteria. The current study was performed in order to determine the impact of race on survival and biochemical control in patients with prostate cancer treated at a single center using a standardized radiation protocol. Materials and Methods: Between 1988 and 1995, 455 patients with clinically localized adenocarcinoma of the prostate received external beam irradiation for a median dose of 68 Gy using a four field technique. Of the 455 patients, 211 were African-American and 244 were white. Pretreatment PSA were: 0-4 ng/ml (51), 4-10 ng/ml (129), 10-20 ng/ml (117), > 20 ng/ml (136), unknown (22). Clinical stages were: T1 (108), T2 (238), T3 (99), not available (10). There was no significant difference in pretreatment characteristics (stage, grade and PSA) or radiation dose between the African-American and white group of patients. Median follow-up is 37.8 months. Biochemical failure was defined as two or more consecutive PSA values that are greater than the posttreatment nadir. Race, pretreatment PSA, grade, age, stage and dose were assessed with univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis as prognostic factors for overall survival and biochemical disease free survival. Results: The 5 year actuarial overall survival (OS) was 79% and biochemical disease free survival (bNED) was 35% for the entire group of patients. There was no significant difference in 5 year OS (71% vs. 85%) (p=0.3) or bNED (26% vs. 40%) (p=0.26) for African-Americans in comparison to whites. Univariate analysis
Zon, Robin T.; Goss, Elizabeth; Vogel, Victor G.; Chlebowski, Rowan T.; Jatoi, Ismail; Robson, Mark E.; Wollins, Dana S.; Garber, Judy E.; Brown, Powel; Kramer, Barnett S.
Oncologists have a critical opportunity to utilize risk assessment and cancer prevention strategies to interrupt the initiation or progression of cancer in cancer survivors and individuals at high risk of developing cancer. Expanding knowledge about the natural history and prognosis of cancers positions oncologists to advise patients regarding the risk of second malignancies and treatment-related cancers. In addition, as recognized experts in the full spectrum of cancer care, oncologists are ...
Hifzur Rahman Siddique
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lack of reliable predictive biomarkers is a stumbling block in the management of prostate cancer (CaP. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA widely used in clinics has several caveats as a CaP biomarker. African-American CaP patients have poor prognosis than Caucasians, and notably the serum-PSA does not perform well in this group. Further, some men with low serum-PSA remain unnoticed for CaP until they develop disease. Thus, there is a need to identify a reliable diagnostic and predictive biomarker of CaP. Here, we show that BMI1 stem-cell protein is secretory and could be explored for biomarker use in CaP patients. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Semi-quantitative analysis of BMI1 was performed in prostatic tissues of TRAMP (autochthonous transgenic mouse model, human CaP patients, and in cell-based models representing normal and different CaP phenotypes in African-American and Caucasian men, by employing immunohistochemistry, immunoblotting and Slot-blotting. Quantitative analysis of BMI1 and PSA were performed in blood and culture-media of siRNA-transfected and non-transfected cells by employing ELISA. BMI1 protein is (i secreted by CaP cells, (ii increased in the apical region of epithelial cells and stromal region in prostatic tumors, and (iii detected in human blood. BMI1 is detectable in blood of CaP patients in an order of increasing tumor stage, exhibit a positive correlation with serum-PSA and importantly is detectable in patients which exhibit low serum-PSA. The clinical significance of BMI1 as a biomarker could be ascertained from observation that CaP cells secrete this protein in higher levels than cells representative of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: BMI1 could be developed as a dual bio-marker (serum and biopsy for the diagnosis and prognosis of CaP in Caucasian and African-American men. Though compelling these data warrant further investigation in a cohort of African-American patients.
ZHANG He-long; WANG Wen-liang; CUI Da-xiang
@@ Lung cancer is a common malignant tumor, which has ahigh incidence and mortality rate. Therefore, it is necessary to seek a new method for the diagnosis, especially the early diagnosis of lung cancer. The development of molecular biology makes the gene diagnosis of lung cancer possible.PCR-SSCP was applied to detect p53 gene mutation of lung cancer patients' sputum cells and we have achieved good results.
Jager, Nynke G L; Linn, Sabine C.; Schellens, Jan H M; Beijnen, Jos H.
Tamoxifen, an endocrine agent, is widely used in the treatment of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. It has greatly reduced disease recurrence and mortality rates of breast cancer patients, however, not all patients benefit from tamoxifen treatment because in approximately 25% to 30% of the p
Jager, Nynke G. L.; Linn, Sabine C.; Schellens, Jan H. M.; Beijnen, Jos H.
Tamoxifen, an endocrine agent, is widely used in the treatment of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. It has greatly reduced disease recurrence and mortality rates of breast cancer patients, however, not all patients benefit from tamoxifen treatment because in approximately 25% to 30% of the p
Lindahl-Jacobsen, Line; Hansen, Dorte Gilså; Wæhrens, Eva Ejlersen;
BACKGROUND: Many cancer patients report unmet rehabilitation needs. Rehabilitation may include activities of daily living (ADL) tasks, but little is known about how cancer patients perform these tasks and how they prioritize their daily activities. Hence, this study aims to identify and character...
Depression is the most frequent psychiatric comorbidity in cancer patients especially those in terminal stage. Despite the large amount of studies on depression in cancer patients, there are a lot of unanswered questions with respect to diagnosis, prevalence and treatment. Diagnosing depression in c
Dougherty, Kimberly; And Others
Determined the level and change in denial, death anxiety, anxiety, depression, hostility, love, being, and self-esteem over time in terminal cancer patients. Cancer patients had significantly lower death anxiety than the control subjects and a relative increase in the being variable over time. The clinical opinion that denial protects against…
Tsang, Julian S
BACKGROUND: Cancer patients have an increased risk of venous thromboembolic events. Certain chemotherapeutic agents have also been associated with the development of thrombosis. Reported cases of acute arterial ischemic episodes in cancer patients are rare. METHODS: Patients who underwent surgery for acute limb ischemia associated with malignancy in a university teaching hospital over a 10-year period were identified. Patient demographics, cancer type, chemotherapy use, site of thromboembolism, treatment and outcome were recorded. RESULTS: Four hundred nineteen patients underwent surgical intervention for acute arterial ischemia, 16 of these patients (3.8%) had associated cancer. Commonest cancer sites were the urogenital tract (n = 5) and the lungs (n = 5). Eight patients (50%) had been recently diagnosed with cancer, and four (25%) of these cancers were incidental findings after presentation with acute limb ischemia. Four patients (25%) developed acute ischemia during chemotherapy. The superficial femoral artery was the most frequent site of occlusion (50%), followed by the brachial (18%) and popliteal (12%) arteries. All patients underwent thromboembolectomy, but two (12%) patients subsequently required a bypass procedure. Six patients (37%) had limb loss, and in-patient mortality was 12%. Histology revealed that all occlusions were due to thromboembolism, with no tumor cells identified. At follow-up, 44% of patients were found to be alive after 1 year. CONCLUSION: Cancer and chemotherapy can predispose patients to acute arterial ischemia. Unlike other reports that view this finding as a preterminal event most appropriately treated by palliative measures, in this series, early diagnosis and surgical intervention enabled limb salvage and patient survival.
Liu, J; Chadder, J.; S Fung; Lockwood, G.; Rahal, R.; Halligan, M.; Mowat, D.; Bryant, H.
Evidence shows that continued smoking by cancer patients leads to adverse treatment outcomes and affects survival. Smoking diminishes treatment effectiveness, exacerbates side effects, and increases the risk of developing additional complications. Patients who continue to smoke also have a higher risk of developing a second primary cancer or experiencing a cancer recurrence, both of which ultimately contribute to poorer quality of life and poorer survival. Here, we present a snapshot of smoki...
Shahpar, Haghighat; Atieh, Akbari; Maryam, Ansari; Fatemeh, Homaei Shandiz; Massoome, Najafi; Mandana, Ebrahimi; Masud, Yunesian; Hamid Reza, Mirzaei; Mohammad Esmaeil, Akbari
Background. Lymphedema secondary to breast cancer treatment is a common and serious problem for disease survivors. The objective of the current study was to identify the risk factors of secondary lymphedema after breast carcinoma treatment. Materials & Methods. The breast cancer patients who were followed up in three centers in Tehran and Mashhad in 2010 were recruited in the study. The circumference measurement was used for defining lymphedema. Results. Among 410 breast cancer patients, 123 ...
Martínez Hernández, Pedro Luis; Hernanz Macías, Ángel; Gómez-Candela, Carmen; Grande Aragón, Cristina; Feliu Batlle, Jaime; Castro-Carpeño, Javier; MARTÍNEZ MUÑOZ, ISABEL; Zurita Rosa, Laura; Villarino Sanz, Marta; Prados, Concepción; García-Girón, Joaquín Sánchez
Interleukin-15 (IL-15) has important anabolic effects on muscle protein metabolism through a decrease in the ATP-ubiquitin-dependent proteolytic pathway. The role of IL-15 in human cancer cachexia is unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between interleukin-15 (IL-15) in cancer patients with cachexia at diagnosis of malignancy and 8 weeks later. An observational study of 21 cancer patients (with and without cachexia) and 8 healthy subjects was conducted. Body compositi...
Mills, Edward; Ernst, Edzard; Singh, Rana; Ross, Cory; Wilson, Kumanan
Background Many breast cancer patients use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). We aimed to determine what advice health food store employees present to individuals seeking treatment options for breast cancer. Methods Eight data gatherers asked employees of all retail health food stores in a major Canadian city, what they recommended for a patient with breast cancer. The data gatherers inquired about product safety, potential drug interactions, costs and efficacy. They also enquired ...
Preeti Chauhan, Dr. Ritu Yadav*, Vivek Kaushal, Preeti Beniwal
Objective: Breast carcinoma is the most common cancer worldwide. The incidence and mortality rate is increasing in developing countries as compare to developed countries. The aim of this study was to assess complete blood count of the breast cancer patients to determine their prognostic values during the different courses of chemotherapy treatment. Methods: In the present study, two hundred breast cancer patients were selected to study prognostic significance of peripheral blood of ...
Barone, Bethany B.; Yeh, Hsin-Chieh; Snyder, Claire F.; Peairs, Kimberly S.; Stein, Kelly B.; Derr, Rachel L.; Wolff, Antonio C.; Brancati, Frederick L.
OBJECTIVE Diabetes appears to increase risk for some cancers, but the association between preexisting diabetes and postoperative mortality in cancer patients is less clear. Our objective was to systematically review postoperative mortality in cancer patients with and without preexisting diabetes and summarize results using meta-analysis. RSEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We searched the Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE) and Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE) for articl...
SMITH, HAMISH R.
Depression is a common comorbidity in cancer cases, affecting >10% of patients. A cancer diagnosis is life-changing, and is a source of considerable psychological and emotional stress. Non-pathological sadness may be a normal response to a cancer diagnosis, however, stress beyond the coping mechanisms of patients may result in major depressive disorder. The current review, in addition to the obvious psychosocial elements of depression, explores its biological mechanisms, including tissue dama...
Ludwig, Heinz; Evstatiev, Rayko; Kornek, Gabriela; Aapro, Matti; Bauernhofer, Thomas; Buxhofer-Ausch, Veronika; Fridrik, Michael; Geissler, Dietmar; Geissler, Klaus; Gisslinger, Heinz; Koller, Elisabeth; Kopetzky, Gerhard; Lang, Alois; Rumpold, Holger; Steurer, Michael
Summary Iron deficiency and iron deficiency-associated anemia are common complications in cancer patients. Most iron deficient cancer patients present with functional iron deficiency (FID), a status with adequate storage iron, but insufficient iron supply for erythroblasts and other iron dependent tissues. FID is the consequence of the cancer-associated cytokine release, while in absolute iron deficiency iron stores are depleted resulting in similar but often more severe symptoms of insuffici...
Paek, Min-So; Lim, Jung-Won
Guided by the stress process model (SPM), this study investigated the direct and indirect pathways of primary (negative self-image and life stress), secondary stressors (family communication strain) and family coping (external and internal) on mental health outcomes among Chinese- and Korean-American breast cancer survivors (BCS). A total of 156 Chinese- and Korean-American BCS were surveyed. Results showed primary and secondary stressors had a negative effect on better mental health outcomes. External coping was associated with better mental health. Family communication strain mediated the relationship between life stress and mental health outcomes. External coping mediated the relationship between family communication strain and mental health outcomes. Multi-group analysis revealed the stress process did not differ across ethnic groups. Findings suggest the SPM may be applicable to understand the stress process of Chinese- and Korean-American BCS and provide valuable insight into the role of family communication and external coping on mental health outcomes. PMID:26223968
Handberg, Charlotte; Lomborg, Kirsten; Nielsen, Claus Vinther;
The aim was to describe male cancer survivors' barriers towards participation in cancer rehabilitation as a means to guiding future targeted men's cancer rehabilitation. Symbolic Interactionism along with the interpretive descriptive methodology guided the study of 35 male cancer survivors...... representing seven cancer types. Data were generated through a 5-month fieldwork study comprising participant observations, semi-structured individual interviews and informal conversations. The analyses revealed two overarching findings shedding light on male cancer survivors' barriers to rehabilitation: ‘Fear...... hinder: ‘Autonomy and purpose’, ‘Solidarity and fellowship’ and ‘Forget and move on’. This study of male cancer survivors' and cancer rehabilitation documents how masculine ideals may constitute barriers for participation in rehabilitation and provides insights about why men are underrepresented in...
Wendy, L; Radzi, M
Colorectal cancer is emerging as one of the commonest cancers in Malaysia. Data on colorectal cancer from the National Cancer Registry is very limited. Comprehensive information on all aspects of colorectal cancer, including demographic details, pathology and treatment outcome are needed as the management of colorectal cancer has evolved rapidly over the years involving several disciplines including gastroenterology, surgery, radiology, pathology and oncology. This registry will be an important source of information that can help the development of guidelines to improve colorectal cancer care relevant to this country. The database will initially recruit all colorectal cancer cases from eight hospitals. The data will be stored on a customized web-based case report form. The database has begun collecting data from 1 October 2007 and will report on its first year findings at the end of 2008. PMID:19230248
Vinikoor, Lisa C.; Satia, Jessie A.; Schroeder, Jane C.; Millikan, Robert C.; Martin, Christopher F.; Ibrahim, Joseph; Sandler, Robert S.
Disparities in incidence and mortality rates of colon cancer exist between Whites and African Americans. Prior studies examined the association between trans fatty acid consumption and colorectal cancer, but none assessed this possible relationship within a large study population of African Americans and Whites. Using data from a population-based case-control study in North Carolina, we investigated this association with attention to possible racial differences. Cases and matched controls wer...
Parise, Carol; Caggiano, Vincent
Purpose Asian-American women have equal or better breast cancer survival rates than non-Hispanic white women, but many studies use the aggregate term "Asian/Pacific Islander" (API) or consider breast cancer as a single disease. The purpose of this study was to assess the risk of mortality in seven subgroups of Asian-Americans expressing the estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), or human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) tumor marker subtypes and determine whether the ris...
O'Brien, Katie M.; Cole, Stephen R.; Poole, Charles; Bensen, Jeannette T.; Herring, Amy H.; Engel, Lawrence S.; Millikan, Robert C.
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and candidate gene analyses have led to the discovery of several dozen genetic polymorphisms associated with breast cancer susceptibility, many of which are considered well-established risk factors for the disease. Despite attempts to replicate these same variant-disease associations in African Americans, the evaluable populations are often too small to produce precise or consistent results. We estimated the associations between 83 previously identified ...
Geifman, Nophar; Butte, Atul J.
Open clinical trial data offer many opportunities for the scientific community to independently verify published results, evaluate new hypotheses and conduct meta-analyses. These data provide a springboard for scientific advances in precision medicine but the question arises as to how representative clinical trials data are of cancer patients overall. Here we present the integrative analysis of data from several cancer clinical trials and compare these to patient-level data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Comparison of cancer type-specific survival rates reveals that these are overall lower in trial subjects. This effect, at least to some extent, can be explained by the more advanced stages of cancer of trial subjects. This analysis also reveals that for stage IV cancer, colorectal cancer patients have a better chance of survival than breast cancer patients. On the other hand, for all other stages, breast cancer patients have better survival than colorectal cancer patients. Comparison of survival in different stages of disease between the two datasets reveals that subjects with stage IV cancer from the trials dataset have a lower chance of survival than matching stage IV subjects from TCGA. One likely explanation for this observation is that stage IV trial subjects have lower survival rates since their cancer is less likely to respond to treatment. To conclude, we present here a newly available clinical trials dataset which allowed for the integration of patient-level data from many cancer clinical trials. Our comprehensive analysis reveals that cancer-related clinical trials are not representative of general cancer patient populations, mostly due to their focus on the more advanced stages of the disease. These and other limitations of clinical trials data should, perhaps, be taken into consideration in medical research and in the field of precision medicine. PMID:26776196
Nijhuis, CSMO; Daenen, SMGJ; Vellenga, E; van der Graaf, WTA; Gietema, JA; Groen, HJM; Kamps, WA; de Bont, ESJM
Cancer patients treated with chemotherapy are susceptible to bacterial infections. Therefore, all neutropenic cancer patients with fever receive standard therapy consisting of broad-spectrum antibiotics and hospitalization. However, febrile neutropenia in cancer patients is often due to other causes
Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have suggested a cancer risk reduction in statin users although the evidence remains weak for stomach cancer. The purpose of this study was to use an exact-matching case–control design to examine the risk of gastric cancer associated with the use of statins in a cohort of patients with diabetes. Methods Cases were defined as patients with incident gastric cancer identified by International Classification of Diseases 16.0 ~ 16.9 recorded at Samsung Medical Center database during the period of 1999 to 2008, at least 6 months after the entry date of diabetes code. Each gastric cancer case patient was matched with one control patient from the diabetes patient registry in a 1:1 fashion, blinded to patient outcomes. Results A total of 983 cases with gastric cancer and 983 controls without gastric cancer, matched by age and sex, were included in the analysis. The presence of prescription for any statin was inversely associated with gastric cancer risk in the unadjusted conditional logistic regression model (OR: 0.18; 95% CI: 0.14 – 0.24; P Conclusions A strong inverse association was found between the risk of gastric adenocarcinoma and statin use in diabetic patients.
Campos, Diana; Austerlitz, Carlos; Allison, Ron R; Póvoa, Helion; Sibata, Claudio
This article reviews updates and provides some data related to nutritional and orthomolecular supplementation in oncology patients with an emphasis on lung cancer, a commonly diagnosed tumor with significant nutritional disturbances. Cancer and its treatment play a significant role in nutritional imbalance which likely has negative impact on the patient both in terms of quality and quantity of life. Nutritional supplementation may correct these imbalances with significant clinical benefit both physiologically and psychologically. This review will help assist in providing clinically useful data to assess the cancer patient's nutritional status and to guide nutritional intervention to assist these patients' recovery. PMID:20042413
Thomsen, Frederik Birkebæk
BACKGROUND: Active surveillance - an initial observational strategy - offers a tailored management of patients with localised prostate cancer. The aim of the strategy is to appoint patients with potentially lethal prostate cancer to curatively intended treatment, while patients with slowly evolving...... criteria in the management of prostate cancer patients on active surveillance is emphasised....... measurements, repeated biopsies, and regular digital rectal examinations. The programme recommended change of management from active surveillance to curatively intended treatment based on PSA doubling time, deteriorating histopathology in repeated prostatic biopsies, and increased clinical tumour category...
Perioperative transfusion of leukocyte depleted blood products in gastric cancer patients negatively influences oncologic outcome: A retrospective propensity score weighted analysis on 610 curatively resected gastric cancer patients.
Reim, Daniel; Strobl, Andreas N; Buchner, Christian; Schirren, Rebekka; Mueller, Werner; Luppa, Peter; Ankerst, Donna Pauler; Friess, Helmut; Novotny, Alexander
The influence of perioperative transfusion (PT) on outcome following surgery for gastric cancer (GC) remains controversial, with randomized trials lacking and observational series confounded by patient risk factors. This analysis determines the association between reception of leukocyte-depleted blood products and post-operative survival for GC.Data from 610 patients who underwent curative surgery for GC in a German tertiary care clinic from 2001 to 2013 were included. Kaplan-Meier survival curves and Cox proportional hazards regression were applied to determine the association of PT and clinical and patient risk factors for overall and relapse-free survival. Propensity score analysis was performed to adjust for observational biases in reception of PT.Higher Union International Contre le Cancer/American Joint Committee on Cancer (UICC/AJCC)-stages (P female gender (P = 0.03). In the adjusted propensity score weighted analysis, PT remained associated with an increased risk of death (hazard ratio (HR): 1.31, 95% CI: 1.01-1.69, P = 0.04).Because of the association of PT with negative influence on patient survival following resection for GC, risks from application of blood products should be weighed against the potential benefits. PMID:27442682
Hu, Chunling; Hart, Steven N.; Bamlet, William R.; Moore, Raymond M.; Nandakumar, Kannabiran; Eckloff, Bruce W.; Lee, Yean K.; Petersen, Gloria M.; McWilliams, Robert R.; Couch, Fergus J.
The prevalence of germline pathogenic mutations in a comprehensive panel of cancer predisposition genes is not well defined for patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). To estimate the frequency of mutations in a panel of 22 cancer predisposition genes, 96 patients unselected for a family history of cancer who were recruited to the Mayo Clinic Pancreatic Cancer patient registry over a 12 month period were screened by next-generation sequencing. Fourteen pathogenic mutations in 13 patients (13.5%) were identified in eight genes: four in ATM, two in BRCA2, CHEK2, and MSH6, and one in BARD1, BRCA1, FANCM, and NBN. These included nine mutations (9.4%) in established pancreatic cancer genes. Three mutations were found in patients with a first degree relative with PDAC, and 10 mutations were found in patients with first or second-degree relatives with breast, pancreas, colorectal, ovarian, or endometrial cancer. These results suggest that a substantial proportion of patients with PDAC carry germline mutations in predisposition genes associated with other cancers, and that a better understanding of pancreatic cancer risk will depend on evaluation of families with broad constellations of tumors. These findings highlight the need for recommendations governing germline gene-panel testing of pancreatic cancer patients. PMID:26483394
Justin Y Jeon
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To evaluate the impact of diabetes on outcomes in colorectal cancer patients and to examine whether this association varies by the location of tumor (colon vs. rectum. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study includes 4,131 stage I-III colorectal cancer patients, treated between 1995 and 2007 (12.5% diabetic, 53% colon, 47% rectal in South Korea. Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to determine the prognostic influence of DM on survival endpoints. RESULTS: Colorectal cancer patients with DM had significantly worse disease-free survival (DFS [hazard ratio (HR 1.17, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.00-1.37] compared with patients without DM. When considering colon and rectal cancer independently, DM was significantly associated with worse overall survival (OS (HR: 1.46, 95% CI: 1.11-1.92, DFS (HR: 1.45, 95% CI: 1.15-1.84 and recurrence-free survival (RFS (HR: 1.32, 95% CI: 0.98-1.76 in colon cancer patients. No association for OS, DFS or RFS was observed in rectal cancer patients. There was significant interaction of location of tumor (colon vs. rectal cancer with DM on OS (P = 0.009 and DFS (P = 0.007. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that DM negatively impacts survival outcomes of patients with colon cancer but not rectal cancer.
Hu, Chunling; Hart, Steven N; Bamlet, William R; Moore, Raymond M; Nandakumar, Kannabiran; Eckloff, Bruce W; Lee, Yean K; Petersen, Gloria M; McWilliams, Robert R; Couch, Fergus J
The prevalence of germline pathogenic mutations in a comprehensive panel of cancer predisposition genes is not well-defined for patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). To estimate the frequency of mutations in a panel of 22 cancer predisposition genes, 96 patients unselected for a family history of cancer who were recruited to the Mayo Clinic Pancreatic Cancer patient registry over a 12-month period were screened by next-generation sequencing. Fourteen pathogenic mutations in 13 patients (13.5%) were identified in eight genes: four in ATM, two in BRCA2, CHEK2, and MSH6, and one in BARD1, BRCA1, FANCM, and NBN. These included nine mutations (9.4%) in established pancreatic cancer genes. Three mutations were found in patients with a first-degree relative with PDAC, and 10 mutations were found in patients with first- or second-degree relatives with breast, pancreas, colorectal, ovarian, or endometrial cancers. These results suggest that a substantial proportion of patients with PDAC carry germline mutations in predisposition genes associated with other cancers and that a better understanding of pancreatic cancer risk will depend on evaluation of families with broad constellations of tumors. These findings highlight the need for recommendations governing germline gene-panel testing of patients with pancreatic cancer. PMID:26483394
Dreyer, L; Olsen, J H
Some studies have suggested that the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and that of cancer have common features, and in addition to tobacco smoking, oxidative stress, diet, and sex hormones have been considered as common etiological factors. To investigate whether there is an association between...... atherosclerosis and cancer, we evaluated the cancer pattern of patients with atherosclerosis of the aorta and of peripheral and cerebral vessels. A total of 69,485 patients with atherosclerosis were identified through the Danish National Registry of Patients between 1977 and 1989, and the incidence of cancer in...... this group was calculated by linkage to the Danish Cancer Registry for the period 1977-1993. No consistent excesses over the expected figures were seen for cancer at any site unrelated to tobacco smoking in either the total cohort or in subgroups. Specifically, we found no association at the individual...
Olsen, Morten; Garne, Ester; Sværke, Claus;
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess cancer risk in congenital heart defect patients, with and without Down's syndrome, compared with the general population. METHODS: We identified all patients born and diagnosed with congenital heart defects from 1977 to 2008 using the Danish National Registry of...... Patients, covering all Danish hospitals. We compared cancer incidence in the congenital heart defect cohort with that expected in the general population (∼5.5 million) using the Danish Cancer Registry, and computed age- and gender-standardised incidence ratios. RESULTS: We identified 15,905 congenital...... heart defect patients, contributing a total of 151,172 person-years at risk; the maximum length of follow-up was 31 years (median 8 years). In all, 53 patients were diagnosed with cancer, including 30 female and 23 male patients (standardised incidence ratio = 1.63; 95% confidence interval: 1...
In 2008, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) released its World Cancer Report, which indicated that cancer accounts for approximately 12% of all-cause mortality worldwide. IARC estimated that globally 7.6 million people died from cancer and that 12.4 million new cases were diagnosed in 2008. The report went on to project that, due to increases in life expectancy, improvements in clinical diagnostics, and shifting trends in health behaviors (e.g. increases in smoking and sedentary lifestyles), in the absence of significant efforts to improve global cancer control, cancer mortality could increase to 12.9 million and cancer incidence to 20 million by the year 2030. Looking deeper into the data, it becomes clear that cancer-related stigma and myths about cancer are important problems that must be addressed, although different from a country to another. Stigmas about cancer present significant challenges to cancer control: stigma can have a silencing effect, whereby efforts to increase cancer awareness are negatively affected. The social, emotional, and financial devastation that all too often accompanies a diagnosis of cancer is, in large part, due to the cultural myths and taboos surrounding the disease. Combating stigma, myths, taboos, and overcoming silence will play important roles in changing this provisional trajectory. There are several reasons that cancer is stigmatized. Many people in our area perceived cancer to be a fatal disease. Cancer symptoms or body parts affected by the disease can cultivate stigma. Fears about treatment can also fuel stigma. There was evidence of myths associated with cancer, such as the belief that cancer is contagious, or cancer may be seen as a punishment. After reviewing these different examples of cultural myths and taboos met in cancer care, we can report these lessons learned: 1. Around the world, cancer continues to carry a significant amount of stigma, myths, and taboos; however, there are opportunities to
MONDELLO, PATRIZIA; Lacquaniti, Antonio; Mondello, Stefania; Bolignano, Davide; Pitini, Vincenzo; Aloisi, Carmela; Buemi, Michele
Background Cachexia may occur in 40% of cancer patients, representing the major cause of death in more than 20% of them. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of leptin, ghrelin and obestatin as diagnostic and predictive markers of cachexia in oncologic patients. Their impact on patient survival was also evaluated. Methods 140 adults with different cancer diagnoses were recruited. Thirty healthy volunteers served as control. Serum ghrelin, obestatin and leptin were tested at basel...
Iwai, Akio; Ozono, Seiichiro; Tanaka, Yozo; Nagayoshi, Junichi; Hirayama, Akihide; Kumon, Toshihiko; Joko, Masanori; Hirata, Naoya; Yoshikawa, Motoyoshi; Tabata, Shoichi; Uemura, Hirotsugu; Moriya, Akira; Kaneko, Yoshiteru; Okamoto, Shinji; Hirao, Yoshihiko
We compared prostatic specific acid phosphatase (PAP), prostatic specificantigen (PA) and γ-seminoprotein (γ-SM) levels between bone marrow and serum for the purpose of assessing of the usefulness of these tumor markers in early detection ofbone metastasis in cases with prostatic cancer. Thirty-three patients were entered into this study. Of the patients, 20 had prostatic cancer including 11 with bone metastasis, and 13 patients had benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) served as controls. It se...
The overall objective of this thesis was to describe the evolution of Health-Related Quality of Life in Spanish patients with urologic tumours; and to the examine clinical and treatment-related factors associated with changes in Health-Related Quality of Life during the first year of treatment. The EMPARO project is an observational, multicenter, prospective study on patients diagnosed with bladder cancer (n=326) and prostate cancer (n=472). Consecutive patients were enrolled in 7 Spanish hos...
At present, there is limited evidence for the role of enteral nutrition as a primary therapy in cancer patients. Cachexia commonly occurs in patients with advanced cancer. A consensus view from a large number of studies suggests that cachexia cannot be fully reversed by vigorous enteral nutritional support. A review is included of the available data on the effects of enteral nutritional support on the common indices of nutritional state and on the final outcome of patients receiving enteral n...
The ways of medical and social-occupational rehabilitation after a course of radiotherapy in patients with respiratory system cancer have been determined. Medical rehabilitation in patients with lung cancer comprises expedient planning of radiotherapy by means of systematic medicamental treatment. It is shown that it is necessary to place the patients in special rehabilitation departments after radiotherapy of carry out the treatment of pneumonities
Lucélia Terra Jonas; Natália Michelato Silva; Juliana Maria de Paula; Sueli Marques; Luciana Kusumota
Objective: to collect evidence on matters which involve cancer diagnosis disclosure to an elderly patient. Methods: integrative revision made in five important data bases in the area of health with seven selected articles. Results: it was noticeable that there are conflicts between family members and health professionals concerning cancer diagnosis disclosure to an elderly patient and that the preferences of those people on the disclosure of the diagnosis are similar to other patients. Conclu...
Thomas Bejoy C; Devi Nandkumar; Sarita Gangadharan P; Pandey Manoj; Hussain Badridien M; Krishnan Rita
Abstract Background Chemotherapy for cancer is an intense and cyclic treatment associated with number of side-effects. The present study evaluated the effect of chemotherapy on distress, anxiety and depression. Patients and methods A total of 117 patients were evaluated by using distress inventory for cancer (DIC2) and hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS). Majority of the patients were taking chemotherapy for solid tumors (52; 44.4%). Results The mean distress score was 24, 18 (15.38%...
Dotan, Efrat; Browner, Ilene; Hurria, Arti; Denlinger, Crystal
The majority of patients with colon cancer are over the age of 65. Their treatment poses multiple challenges to the oncologist, as these patients may have age-related comorbidities, polypharmacy, and physical or physiologic changes associated with older age. These challenges include limited data on the ability to predict tolerance to anti-cancer therapy and the appropriate use of treatment modalities in the setting of comorbidity and concurrent frailty. The low number of older patients enroll...
Mohammadzadeh, Zeinab; Davoodi, Somayeh; Ghazisaeidi, Marjan
Online social network technologies have become important to health and apply in most health care areas. Particularly in cancer care, because it is a disease which involves many social aspects, online social networks can be very useful. Use of online social networks provides a suitable platform for cancer patients and families to present and share information about their medical conditions, address their educational needs, support decision making, and help to coping with their disease and improve their own outcomes. Like any other new technologies, online social networks, along with many benefits, have some negative effects such as violation of privacy and publication of incorrect information. However, if these effects are managed properly, they can empower patients to manage cancer through changing behavioral patterns and enhancing the quality of cancer patients lives This paper explains some application of online social networks in the cancer patient care process. It also covers advantages and disadvantages of related technologies. PMID:27039815
Tonia, Thomy; Mettler, Annette; Robert, Nadège; Schwarzer, Guido; Seidenfeld, Jerome; Weingart, Olaf; Hyde, Chris; Engert, Andreas; Bohlius, Julia
Anaemia associated with cancer and cancer therapy is an important clinical factor in the treatment of malignant diseases. Therapeutic alternatives are recombinant human erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESAs) and red blood cell transfusions.
Pedersen, Johannes W; Blixt, Ola; Bennett, Eric P;
Cancer-associated autoantibodies hold promise as sensitive biomarkers for early detection of cancer. Aberrant post-translational variants of proteins are likely to induce autoantibodies, and changes in O-linked glycosylation represent one of the most important cancer-associated post...... array displaying a comprehensive library of glycopeptides and glycoproteins derived from a panel of human mucins (MUC1, MUC2, MUC4, MUC5AC, MUC6 and MUC7) known to have altered glycosylation and expression in cancer. Seromic profiling of patients with colorectal cancer identified cancer......-associated autoantibodies to a set of aberrant glycopeptides derived from MUC1 and MUC4. The cumulative sensitivity of the array analysis was 79% with a specificity of 92%. The most prevalent of the identified autoantibody targets were validated as authentic cancer immunogens by showing expression of the epitopes in cancer...
Rademakers Jany; Nijman Jessica; van der Hoek Lucas; Heijmans Monique; Rijken Mieke
Abstract Background The American short form Patient Activation Measure (PAM) is a 13-item instrument which assesses patient (or consumer) self-reported knowledge, skills and confidence for self-management of one’s health or chronic condition. In this study the PAM was translated into a Dutch version; psychometric properties of the Dutch version were established and the instrument was validated in a panel of chronically ill patients. Methods The translation was done according to WHO guidelines...
Jyothi Chakrabarty; M S Vidyasagar; Donald Fernandes; Ganapathi Joisa; Prabha Varghese; Sreemathi Mayya
Context: Incidence of breast cancer is very high among women around the world. Breast cancer patients experience cancer-related fatigue at some points during the treatment for breast cancer. Since cancer-related fatigue is of multifactorial origin, there are no evidence-based treatment strategies for fatigue. This study tested the effectiveness of certain pranayama techniques in reducing cancer-related fatigue among breast cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy. Aims: The objective of t...
Chen, Ju-Yin; Kuo, Shou-Jen; Liaw, Yung-Po; AVITAL, ITZHAK; Stojadinovic, Alexander; Man, Yan-gao; Mannion, Ciaran; Wang, Jianlian; Chou, Ming-Chih; Tsai, Horng-Der; Chen, Shou-Tung; Hsiao, Yi-Hsuan
Background: Our study aimed to assess the endometrial cancer risk after tamoxifen adjuvant treatment for female breast cancer patients in Taiwan. Materials and Methods: A total of 74,280 breast cancer patients between January 1997 and December 2004 were included in the study; 39,411 received tamoxifen treatment and 34,869 did not. Tamoxifen-associated endometrial cancer was defined as endometrial cancer that occurred in patients at least 6-month after the diagnosis of breast cancer, who under...
Han, Hae-Ra; Lee, H.; Kim, M. T.; Kim, K. B.
Despite rapidly increasing incidence rates of breast cancer, recent immigrants such as Korean-American (KA) women report disproportionately lower utilization of screening tests compared with other ethnic groups. Early screening of breast cancer for this population may be greatly facilitated by indigenous lay health workers (LHWs). We conducted an…
Nguyen, M; Bonneterre, J; Hecquet, B; Desoize, B; Demaille, A
Acid and alkaline phosphatase were determined in 107 breast cancer patients to study their potential value in case of bone metastases. The patients were divided into 4 groups: A, patients without metastases (n = 34); B, metastatic patients without bone lesions (n = 37); C, patients with metastases in and outside of bones (n = 24), D, patients with bone-only metastases (n = 12). Tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TR-ACP), and bone alkaline phosphatase (bone-ALP) were significantly higher in patients with metastases than in patients without. However, no difference in TR-ACP was observed between subgroups of metastatic patients. PMID:2064338
Kim, Jiyun; Huh, Bo Yun; Han, Hae-Ra
In this study, the authors investigate the factors associated with misperception of breast cancer risk, including unrealistic optimism and unrealistic pessimism, among Korean-American women (KAW). Baseline data were collected between March 2010 and October 2011 from 421 KAW aged 40-65 years who participated in a community-based randomized intervention trial designed to promote breast and cervical cancer screening. Multivariate multinomial regression was performed to identify correlates of misperception of breast cancer risk among KAW. A total of 210 KAW (49.9%) had breast cancer risk perception consistent with their objective risk, whereas 50.1% of KAW in the study had some form of misperception of risk. Specifically, 167 participants (39.7%) were unrealistically optimistic about their own breast cancer risk; 44 (10.5%) were unrealistically pessimistic. In multivariate multinomial logistic regression analysis, living with a partner and higher education were significantly associated with higher odds of having unrealistic optimism. High social support is associated with a lower likelihood of having a pessimistic risk perception. Higher worry is associated with a higher likelihood of having unrealistic pessimism. Misperception of breast cancer risk among KAW and related factors must be considered when developing behavioral interventions for this population. PMID:26580449
Hansen, Helen M; Xiao, Yuanyuan; Rice, Terri; Bracci, Paige M; Wrensch, Margaret R; Sison, Jennette D; Chang, Jeffery S; Smirnov, Ivan V; Patoka, Joseph; Seldin, Michael F; Quesenberry, Charles P; Kelsey, Karl T; Wiencke, John K
Several genome-wide association studies identified the chr15q25.1 region, which includes three nicotinic cholinergic receptor genes (CHRNA5-B4) and the cell proliferation gene (PSMA4), for its association with lung cancer risk in Caucasians. A haplotype and its tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) encompassing six genes from IREB2 to CHRNB4 were most strongly associated with lung cancer risk (OR = 1.3; P < 10(-20)). In order to narrow the region of association and identify potential causal variations, we performed a fine-mapping study using 77 SNPs in a 194 kb segment of the 15q25.1 region in a sample of 448 African-American lung cancer cases and 611 controls. Four regions, two SNPs and two distinct haplotypes from sliding window analyses, were associated with lung cancer. CHRNA5 rs17486278 G had OR = 1.28, 95% CI 1.07-1.54 and P = 0.008, whereas CHRNB4 rs7178270 G had OR = 0.78, 95% CI 0.66-0.94 and P = 0.008 for lung cancer risk. Lung cancer associations remained significant after pack-year adjustment. Rs7178270 decreased lung cancer risk in women but not in men; gender interaction P = 0.009. For two SNPs (rs7168796 A/G and rs7164594 A/G) upstream of PSMA4, lung cancer risks for people with haplotypes GG and AA were reduced compared with those with AG (OR = 0.56, 95% CI 0.38-0.82; P = 0.003 and OR = 0.73, 95% CI 0.59-0.90, P = 0.004, respectively). A four-SNP haplotype spanning CHRNA5 (rs11637635 C, rs17408276 T, rs16969968 G) and CHRNA3 (rs578776 G) was associated with increased lung cancer risk (P = 0.002). The identified regions contain SNPs predicted to affect gene regulation. There are multiple lung cancer risk loci in the 15q25.1 region in African-Americans. PMID:20587604
San-Jun Cai; Ye Xu; Guo-Xiang Cai; Peng Lian; Zu-Qing Guan; Shan-Jing Mo; Meng-Hong Sun; Qi Cai; Da-Ren Shi
AIM: To study the clinical characteristics of hereditarynonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) in the Chinesepopulation and discuss the identification and managementof the patients with HNPCC.METHODS: A series of 140 patients with colorectal cancers(CRC) and HNPCC associated tumors from 30 families fulfillingthe Amsterdam criteria were analyzed.RESULTS: A total of 118 patients had CRC. Average age atdiagnosis of the first CRC was 45.7 years, 56.8 % and 23.4 %of the first CRC were located proximal to the splenic flexureand in the rectum respectively. Twenty-three (19.5 %) hadsynchronous and metachronous CRC. Twenty-seven patientswere found to have extracolonic tumors. Gastric carcinomawas the most common tumor type in our series (44.4 %).CONCLUSION: The frequency of HNPCC was 2.6 % in ourseries of patients. The main features are an excess of earlyonset with a propensity to involve the proximal colon, andhigh frequency of multiple foci. Management and surveillancefor these patients should be different from sporadic CRC.Contrary to American and European reports, gastric cancerseems more frequent than endometrial cancer in Chinese.It is necessary to formulate a new HNPCC criterion forChinese patients.
Full text: Cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus (CBMN) assay has been extensively used to evaluate the radiation sensitivity of human individuals. Using the CBMN assay, Scott et al (1998, 1999) demonstrated that a fraction of radiosensitive individuals in breast cancer case population was larger than in normal individual population. However, Vral et al were very skeptical about the Scott et al's findings (2002). Under the approval from the ethical committee of NIRS, peripheral blood was obtained from 46 normal healthy females, 131 breast cancer patients, 32 cervical cancer patients and 7 female head and neck cancer patients. Radiosensitivity of T-lymphocytes was assessed by using a CBMN assay. The frequencies of MN per binucleated cell in healthy donors were 0.031(±0.010) and 0.151(±0.066) for cells treated before and after X-ray-irradiation (2Gy), respectively. Spontaneous MN frequencies in cancer patients were significantly higher than healthy donors (p < 0.001). Radiation sensitivities of breast- and head and neck-cancer patients were significantly higher than normal individuals (p < 0.001). Cervical cancer patients were more resistant to irradiation than healthy donors, though the number of cases for statistical analysis was small. (p < 0.001). We are considering that the HPV infection affected the radiosensitivity of cervical cancer cases. Because it is widely believed that one key mechanism which leads to spontaneous micronucleus formation involves an imbalance of chromosomal segregation and a chromosomal instability in patients' lymphocytes might be greater than that in normal individuals' lymphocytes. Recently, Kuschel et al (2002) demonstrated that ratios in two SNPs on XRCC3 were significantly different between cancer patients and healthy females. Then, we can suppose that the radiation-related genes with low penetrance may be involved in tumorigenesis of mammary- and head and neck-cells, and also, in patients' radiation susceptibility
Allin, Kristine H; Bojesen, Stig E; Nordestgaard, Børge G
PURPOSE: We tested the hypothesis that baseline plasma levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) are associated with risk of incident cancer in the general population and early death in patients with cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 10,408 individuals from the Danish general population who had CRP...
Bylund, Carma L.; D'Agostino, Thomas A.; Ostroff, Jamie; Heerdt, Alexandra; Li, Yuelin; Dickler, Maura
Purpose: Previous studies have reported a significant number of patients with breast cancer seek cancer-related information from the Internet. Most studies have asked whether a patient has ever read Internet information since her diagnosis. The purpose of this study was to assess the frequency with which patients with breast cancer come to physician appointments having recently read and intending to discuss cancer-related information from the Internet. Patients and Methods: We asked 558 patients with breast cancer who were waiting to see their physicians about their experiences reading cancer-related information from the Internet and their intent to discuss the information in their current visit. Results: Fifteen percent reported reading cancer-related Internet information in the past month. Patients who had read such information in the past month were younger, had been diagnosed more recently, and were more likely to be attending a new visit. Of those who had read in the past month, 45% reported intending to discuss what they had read with their physician. Nineteen percent of patients reported having ever read breast cancer–related Internet information since their diagnosis. Conclusion: The proportion of patients with breast cancer planning to discuss Internet information during their current physician visit was relatively small. Few characteristics were associated with recent Internet use or intent to discuss. PMID:22548010
Timmermann, Connie; Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth; Birkelund, Regner
This study explores how cancer patients experience the meaning of positive sensory impressions in the hospital environment such as architecture, decoration and the interior. Data were obtained at a general hospital in Denmark by interviewing six cancer patients at two different wards. The analysis...... environment had a significant impact on their mood, generating positive thoughts and feelings. A view to nature also helped them to forget their negative thoughts for a while. The possibility of having a view helped some cancer patients to connect with good memories and personal life stories that enabled them...... to recall some of their feelings of identity. This paper adds knowledge about how cancer patients experience sensory impressions in the hospital environment. An environment that provides homeliness and offers a view to nature seems to help some patients to preserve their identity. Furthermore...
Full Text Available Developments in methods of early diagnostic and treatment of cancer have increased the rate of survival. However, research also indicates that there has been an increase in the costs to health care system caused by both post-treatment of the disease itself and the possible psychosocial problems associated with the therapy. This evaluation stresses the importance of long-term post-treatment monitoring of cancer patients and emphasizes necessity of ensuring continuity of care. Sustainable long-term treatment and care procedures for the cancer survival patients have been developed in accordance with international regulations. The psychosocial services for cancer patients offered in our country are inadequate as these are at an early stage of development. However, establishment of organizations and coordination of various consultancy services for this group of patients can lead to prevention of workforce loss and other costs, as well as raise the quality of life for these patients.
Kodama, Noriko; Komuta, Kiyoshi; Nanba, Hiroaki
Maitake mushroom (Grifola frondosa) MD-fraction containing beta-1,6 glucan with beta-1,3 branched chains has previously exhibited strong anticancer activity by increasing immune-competent cell activity.1,2 In this non-random case series, a combination of MD-fraction and whole maitake powder was investigated to determine its effectiveness for 22- to 57-year-old cancer patients in stages II-IV. Cancer regression or significant symptom improvement was observed in 58.3 percent of liver cancer patients, 68.8 percent of breast cancer patients, and 62.5 percent of lung cancer patients. The trial found a less than 10-20 percent improvement for leukemia, stomach cancer, and brain cancer patients. Furthermore, when maitake was taken in addition to chemotherapy, immune-competent cell activities were enhanced 1.2-1.4 times, compared with chemotherapy alone. Animal studies have supported the use of maitake MD-fraction for cancer. PMID:12126464
Wang, Miao; Jensen, Anders Bonde; Morgen, Soeren Smith;
downgraded from score "5" to "3" in Tokuhashi scoring system and from "slow growth" to "moderate growth" in Tomita scoring system. Spine surgeons should be critical before performing high-risk extensive surgery in patients with ER/HR (-) status, and especially, in those with triple-negative status. LEVEL OF......STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 151 patients with breast cancer spinal metastases. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of breast cancer subtypes on survival duration of patients with breast cancer spinal metastases, and to aid spine surgeons in selecting treatments on...
Li, Yu; Millikan, Robert C.; Bell, Douglas A.; Cui, Lisa; Tse, Chiu-Kit J; Newman, Beth; Conway, Kathleen
Introduction Previous epidemiologic studies suggest that women with variant cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) genotypes who smoke cigarettes are at increased risk for breast cancer. Methods We evaluated the association of breast cancer with CYP1A1 polymorphisms and cigarette smoking in a population-based, case–control study of invasive breast cancer in North Carolina. The study population consisted of 688 cases (271 African Americans and 417 whites) and 702 controls (285 African Americans and 417 w...
Full Text Available Elinor Ytterstad,1 Per C Moe,2 Audhild Hjalmarsen3 1Department of Mathematics and Statistics, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, 2Department of Pulmonary Medicine, University Hospital of North Norway, 3Department of Clinical Medicine, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway Background: Previous studies have relied on international spirometry criteria to diagnose COPD in patients with lung cancer without considering the effect lung cancer might have on spirometric results. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of COPD and emphysema at the time of primary lung cancer diagnosis and to examine factors associated with survival. Materials and methods: Medical records, pulmonary function tests, and computed tomography scans were used to determine the presence of COPD and emphysema in patients diagnosed with primary lung cancer at the University Hospital of North Norway in 2008–2010. Results: Among the 174 lung cancer patients, 69% had COPD or emphysema (39% with COPD, 59% with emphysema; male:female ratio 101:73. Neither COPD nor emphysema were significantly associated with lung cancer mortality, whereas patients with non-small-cell lung cancer other than adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma had a risk of lung cancer mortality that was more than four times higher than that of patients with small-cell lung cancer (hazard ratio [HR] 4.19, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.56–11.25. Females had a lower risk of lung cancer mortality than males (HR 0.63, 95% CI 0.42–0.94, and patients aged ≥75 years had a risk that was twice that of patients aged <75 years (HR 2.48, 95% CI 1.59–3.87. Low partial arterial oxygen pressure (4.0–8.4 kPa increased the risk of lung cancer mortality (HR 2.26, 95% CI 1.29–3.96. So did low partial arterial carbon dioxide pressure (3.0–4.9 kPa among stage IV lung cancer patients (HR 2.23, 95% CI 1.29–3.85. Several patients with respiratory failure had previously been diagnosed
Hoeck, Bente; Ledderer, Loni; Hansen, Helle Ploug
INTRODUCTION: Getting cancer is stressful for most patients and their relatives, and research has shown that psychosocial support is needed. Still, cancer care fails to appropriately address psychosocial problems associated with cancer. Research on this topic is often seen from the perspective of...... either the patient or the relative, even though it is suggested that psychosocial support is beneficial for the patient and the relative as a pair. Furthermore, research on the need for psychosocial support rarely involves patients with gynecological and lung cancer and their relatives, even though they...... included in the review. The studies were divided into two main categories: (1) studies focusing on needs for psychosocial support; and (2) studies focusing on interventions. The needs studies were analyzed, and three themes emerged: the needs of the patient and the significant other across the cancer...
Liu, P.; Li, X; E.A. Mittendorf; Li, J.; Du, X L; He, J.; Ren, Y; Yang, J; Hunt, K. K.; Yi, M.
Background: Ethnic disparities in breast cancer diagnoses and disease-specific survival (DSS) rates in the United States are well known. However, few studies have assessed differences specifically between Asians American(s) and other ethnic groups, particularly among Asian American(s) subgroups, in women aged 18–39 years. Methods: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database was used to identify women aged 18–39 years diagnosed with breast cancer from 1973 to 2009. Incidence rates...
Full Text Available Depression is a common symptom in cancer patients, which is difficult to be detected and consequently to be treated. It deteriorates over the course of cancer treatment, persists long after the end of therapy and influences negatively the quality of life. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence rate and level anxiety and depression in breast cancer patient using HAD scale.The study was conducted on 94 female patients suffering from various stages of breast cancer. Patients included who were in the age group between 18-65yrs, estimated survival time more than six months, ability to speak and patients were excluded if they were affected by known mental disorder and metastasis in brain. Demographic data was collected from each patient’s medical record e.g. cancer type, date of cancer diagnosis, extension of the diseases, sites of metastasis, estimated life time. Levels of anxiety and depression were self rated by HADS (hospital anxiety and depression scaleOut of 94 patients twenty patients (21% were reported as mild depression (mean score 8.93 and 23 (24% patients as mild anxiety (mean score 9.42 likewise five Patients were reported as (positive cases chronic depression (mean score is 12.23 and six patients as chronic anxiety.(mean score is 12.23 The results of this present study clearly demonstrated that prevalence of anxiety and depression rates depended on the patients’ educational level, age, occupation, menopause and diagnosis period. Our study found that the depression and anxiety were common in most of the patients affected with breast cancer is also there was no relation between the anxiety and depression and stages of diseases. We think that this study needs to be extended in the future to involve more patient is may be further be tested to evaluate the same sample again, after psychiatric intervention is carried out.
Chen, RC; Rumble, RB; Loblaw, DA; Finelli, A.; Ehdaie, B; Cooperberg, MR; Morgan, SC; Tyldesley, S; Haluschak, JJ; Tan, W.; Justman, S; Jain, S
To endorse Cancer Care Ontario's guideline on Active Surveillance for the Management of Localized Prostate Cancer. The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) has a policy and set of procedures for endorsing clinical practice guidelines developed by other professional organizations.The Active Surveillance for the Management of Localized Prostate Cancer guideline was reviewed for developmental rigor by methodologists. The ASCO Endorsement Panel then reviewed the content and the recommenda...
As cancer is the leading cause of death worldwide, every nurse will be required to care for patients with the condition at some point in his\\/her career. However, non-specialized oncology nurses are often ill-prepared to nurse patients suffering from cancer. This literature review aims to provide an overview of current trends and developments in cancer care nursing in an attempt to identify the range of previous research pertaining to caring for patients with cancer on non-specialist wards. The review finds that non-specialized cancer nurses report a lack of education and training with regard to cancer care and cancer treatments, which acts as a barrier to providing quality nursing care. Emotional and communication issues with patients and their families can also cause non-specialist nurses significant distress. International research has shown that specialist oncology nurses make a considerable difference to physical and psychosocial patient care. It is therefore paramount that non-speciality nurses\\' educational needs are met to develop clinical competence and to provide supportive holistic care for both patients and their families.
Bauersachs, Rupert M
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is one of the leading causes of death in cancer patients, which are known to have a 5- to 7-fold increased risk for VTE. The anticoagulant treatment of VTE in cancer patients is less effective with a three-fold increased risk of VTE recurrence compared to non-cancer patients, and it is less safe with more than double rates of major bleeding. Compared to vitamin-K antagonists (VKA), long-term secondary prevention with low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) has been shown to reduce the risk of recurrent VTE in cancer-associated thrombosis (CAT), and therefore, current international guidelines recommend the use of LMWH over VKA. With increasing age, cancer prevalence and VTE incidence increase while renal function decreases. Anti-cancer treatment may impair renal function additionally. Therefore, renal insufficiency is a frequent challenge in CAT patients, which is associated with a higher risk of both bleeding and recurrent VTE. Both VKA and LMWH may be associated with less efficacy and higher bleeding risk in renal insufficiency. Unfortunately, there is a lack of prospective data on renal insufficiency and CAT. A recent sub-analysis from a large randomized controlled trial shows that the bleeding risk in patients with severe renal insufficiency in CAT is not elevated with the use of LMWH compared to VKA while efficacy is maintained. In addition, LMWH treatment has several practical advantages over VKA, particularly in patients with CAT while they are receiving anti-cancer treatment. PMID:27067971
Kobayashi, Lindsay C.; Smith, Samuel G.
Information seeking is an important behavior for cancer prevention and control, but inequalities in the communication of information about the disease persist. Conceptual models have suggested that low health literacy is a barrier to information seeking, and that fatalistic beliefs about cancer may be a mediator of this relationship. Cancer…
Breast Cancer; Colorectal Cancer; Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Gallbladder Cancer; Gastric Cancer; Head and Neck Cancer; Liver Cancer; Lung Cancer; Metastatic Cancer; Ovarian Cancer; Pancreatic Cancer; Testicular Germ Cell Tumor
Moy, Beverly; Chabner, Bruce A
Patients in vulnerable population groups suffer disproportionately from cancer. The elimination of cancer disparities is critically important for lessening the burden of cancer. Patient navigator programs have been shown to improve clinical outcomes. Among its provisions relevant to disparities in cancer care, The Patient Protection and Affordability Care Act authorizes continued funding of patient navigator programs. However, given the current economic and political environment, this funding is in jeopardy. This article describes patient navigator programs and summarizes the elements of the health care law that are relevant to these programs. It is vital that the entire oncology community remain committed to leading efforts toward the improvement of cancer care among our most vulnerable patients. PMID:21804070
Truccolo, Ivana; Cipolat Mis, Chiara; Cervo, Silvia; Dal Maso, Luigino; Bongiovanni, Marilena; Bearz, Alessandra; Sartor, Ivana; Baldo, Paolo; Ferrarin, Emanuela; Fratino, Lucia; Mascarin, Maurizio; Roncadin, Mario; Annunziata, Maria Antonietta; Muzzatti, Barbara; De Paoli, Paolo
In Italy, educational programs for cancer patients are currently provided by the national government, scientific societies, and patient advocate organizations. Several gaps limit their effectiveness, including the lack of coordinated efforts, poor involvement of patient feedback in the planning of programs, as well as a lack of resources on innovative cancer-related topics. This process is parallel to a strong shift in the attitude of patients towards health in general and taking charge of their own health conditions in particular. The National Cancer Institute in the USA and the Organization of European Cancer Institutes encourage comprehensive cancer centers in providing educational programs conceived to overcome these gaps. The goal of this paper is to identify and describe the key elements necessary to develop a global patient education program and provide recommendations for strategies with practical examples for implementation in the daily activities of cancer institutes. A multidisciplinary committee was established for patient education, including patient representatives as equal partners, to define, implement, verify, and evaluate the fundamental steps for establishing a comprehensive education program. Six essential topics were identified for the program: appropriate communication of cancer epidemiology, clinical trial information, new therapeutic technologies, support in the use of medicines, psycho-oncological interventions, age-personalized approaches, and training programs for healthcare providers. Integration of these topics along with patient feedback is the key to a successful model for educational programs. An integrated educational program can transform a comprehensive cancer center to an institution that provides research and care for and with patients. PMID:25773134
Best, Conor J; Thosani, Sonali; Ortiz, Marjorie; Levesque, Celia; Varghese, Sigi S; Lavis, Victor R
The life expectancy of people with type 1 diabetes is improving and now approaches that of those without diabetes. As this population ages, a growing number will be diagnosed with and treated for cancer. Cancer treatments can drastically affect insulin requirement and glycemic control through multiple mechanisms including high doses of glucocorticoids and targeted therapies that directly interfere with cellular pathways involved in the action of insulin. Patients with cancer frequently also have alterations in gastrointestinal motility or appetite and require supplemental enteral or parenteral nutrition. Few studies have evaluated these patients directly, but data on patients with and without diabetes suggest that glycemic control may play a larger role in cancer outcomes than is often recognized. Collaboration between the treating oncologist and diabetologist allows people with diabetes to receive the most effective therapies for their cancers without undue risk of hypoglycemia or adverse outcomes due to hyperglycemia. PMID:27319323
Dreyer, L; Olsen, J H
We studied whether common shared environmental or behavioral risk factors, other than tobacco smoking, underlie both atherosclerotic diseases and cancer. We identified a group of 96,891 one-year survivors of acute myocardial infarct through the Danish Hospital Discharge Register between 1977 and...... acute myocardial infarct patients were similar to those of the general population, as were the rates for hormone-related cancers, including endometrial and postmenopausal breast cancers. We found a moderate increase in the risk for tobacco-related cancers, which was strongest for patients with early...... onset of acute myocardial infarct and for female patients. Overall, there do not seem to be major shared environmental or behavioral risk factors for acute myocardial infarct and cancers, except for smoking, and there seems to be no common inherited susceptibility to the development of these diseases....
Lund, M; Diaz, L J; Gørtz, S; Feenstra, B; Duno, Morten; Juncker, I; Eiberg, Hans Rudolf Lytchoff; Vissing, John; Wohlfahrt, J; Melbye, Mads
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Myotonic dystrophies (DM) are autosomal dominantly inherited neuromuscular disorders caused by unstable nucleotide repeat expansions. DM and cancer have been associated, but the pathogenesis behind the association remains unclear. It could relate to derived effects of the DM...... genotype in which case non-DM relatives of DM patients would not be expected to be at increased risk of cancer. To elucidate this, a population-based cohort study investigating risk of cancer in relatives of DM patients was conducted. METHODS: DM was identified using the National Danish Patient Registry...... and results of genetic testing. Information on cancer was obtained from the Danish Cancer Registry. A population-based cohort of 5 757 565 individuals with at least one relative was established using the Danish Family Relations Database based on kinship links in the Danish Civil Registration System...
Cetin, Karynsa; Christiansen, Christian Fynbo; Sværke, Claus;
OBJECTIVES: Since population-based data on prognostic factors affecting survival in patients with breast cancer with bone metastasis (BM) are currently limited, we conducted this nationwide retrospective cohort study to examine the prognostic role of disease stage at breast cancer diagnosis and...... length of BM-free interval (BMFI). SETTING: Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: 2427 women with a breast cancer diagnosis between 1997 and 2011 in the Danish Cancer Registry and a concurrent or subsequent BM diagnosis in the Danish National Registry of Patients. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Survival (crude......), following patients from BM diagnosis until death, emigration or until 31 December 2012, whichever came first. RESULTS: Survival decreased with more advanced stage of disease at the time of breast cancer diagnosis; risk of mortality during the first year following a BM diagnosis was over two times higher for...
Huillard, Olivier; Blanchet, Benoit; Boudou-Rouquette, Pascaline; Thomas-Schoemann, Audrey; Wassermann, Johanna; Goldwasser, François
A recent review showed frequent reductions of sorafenib dose in the treatment of metastatic thyroid cancer because of toxicity consistent with the findings of the phase III DECISION trial and contrasting with the safety of sorafenib in other cancer populations. The unexpected excess of toxicity observed in thyroid cancer patients may be linked to a high prevalence of sarcopenia in this population, resulting in frequent overexposure to sorafenib.
With cancer survival rate climbing up over the past three decades, quality of life for cancer patients has become an issue of major concern. Oral health plays an important part in one’s overall quality of life. However, oral health status can be severely hampered by side effects of cancer therapies including surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Moreover, prevention and treatment of these complications are often overlooked in clinical practice. The ...
Wallace, D.; Walker, K.; Kuryba, A; Finan, P; Scott, N.; Van Der Meulen, J.
Background: Patients whose colorectal cancer is treated after an emergency admission tend to have late-stage cancer and a poor prognosis. We identified risk factors for an emergency admission by linking data from the National Bowel Cancer Audit (NBCA) and the English Hospital Episode Statistics (HES), an administrative database of all admissions to English National Health Service hospitals, which includes data on mode of admission. Methods: We identified all adults included in the NBCA with a...
V. S. Navruzova
Full Text Available The world marked increase in the incidence of cervical cancer in young women, especially from 29 to 45 years old. Analysis showed that in patients with preserved ovarian function, not only the effectiveness of the treatment, but also the quality of life. It is associated with the acceleration, earlier puberty and the onset of sexual activity. In recent years more and more widely used radical surgery with preservation of the ovaries and the abduction of the radiation castration and preservation of reproductive function. In the National Cancer Research Centre of the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Uzbekistan analyzed the results of surgical treatment of 204 patients with cervical cancer younger. Age of patients from 23 to 45 years, that is, in the most hard-working, reproductive period. In our study patients met principally with exophytic – 82 (40.2 % and 68 (33.3 % еndophytic growth cervical tumors. Histological in 197 (96.6 % patients with squamous cervical cancer patients with 7 (3.4%. Adenocarcinoma of cervical cancer. Handard examination of the patient are further adapted to determine the level of sex hormones (estradiol, progesterone, determination of the tumor marter CA-125 levels of calcium and phosphate in the blood. 112 patients from the main group and the combined complex therapy surgical treatment with organ-component (conservation and ovarian transposition. The first group included 112 (55.1 % patients, who as part of combination therapy was performed and complex surgical treatment of ovarian transposition. The second group included 92 (44.9% patients who as part of combination therapy and complex surgery performed without ovarian transposition. Each group was divided into 3 subgroup included patients with stage process T1b–2aN0M0. Which performs the combined radiotherapy. The second subgroups included patients with stage process that runs systemic chemotherapy, surgery, combined radiotherapy. The third group included
Thom, I.; Andritzky, B.; Schuch, G.;
YKL-40 has not been established in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: Pretreatment serum levels of YKL-40 were determined in 189 patients with NSCLC (143 men and 46 women; median age, 62 years;, age range, 41-76 years). Twelve percent of patients had stage IIIB disease, and 88% had stage IV......BACKGROUND: The glycoprotein YKL-40 is synthesized both by cancer cells and by tumor-associated macrophages and plays a functional role in tumor progression. Consequently, high serum YKL-40 levels have been associated with a poor prognosis in patients with several cancer types. However, the role of...... was identified as a new, independent prognostic biomarker in patients with metastatic NSCLC and may help to determine the individual prognosis of these patients. Cancer 2010;116:4114-21. (C) 2010 American Cancer Society...
Truccolo, Ivana; Cipolat Mis, Chiara; Cervo, Silvia; Dal Maso, Luigino; Bongiovanni, Marilena; Bearz, Alessandra; Sartor, Ivana; Baldo, Paolo; Ferrarin, Emanuela; Fratino, Lucia; Mascarin, Maurizio; Roncadin, Mario; Annunziata, Maria Antonietta; Muzzatti, Barbara; De Paoli, Paolo
In Italy, educational programs for cancer patients are currently provided by the national government, scientific societies, and patient advocate organizations. Several gaps limit their effectiveness, including the lack of coordinated efforts, poor involvement of patient feedback in the planning of programs, as well as a lack of resources on innovative cancer-related topics. This process is parallel to a strong shift in the attitude of patients towards health in general and taking charge of th...
Blocker, Deborah E; Romocki, LaHoma Smith; Thomas, Kamilah B; Jones, Belinda L; Jackson, Ethel Jean; Reid, LaVerne; Campbell, Marci K
African-American men have the highest prostate cancer rates worldwide, and innovative efforts are needed to increase cancer prevention and screening behaviors among this population. Formative research was conducted to assess attitudes and behaviors linked to prostate cancer prevention activities that could be used to develop a culturally relevant intervention for an African-American church-based population. Four gender-specific focus groups were conducted with 29 men and women at two African-American churches in central North Carolina. Three primary themes emerged from the focus group discussions: culturally and gender-influenced beliefs and barriers about cancer prevention and screening; barriers related to the healthcare system: and religious influences, including the importance of spiritual beliefs and church support. These discussions revealed the importance of the black family, the positive influence of spouses/partners on promoting cancer screening and healthy behaviors, the roles of faith and church leadership, and beliefs about God's will for good health. These findings also revealed that there are still major barriers and challenges to cancer prevention among African Americans, including continued mistrust of the medical community and negative attitudes toward specific screening tests. Findings provide important insights to consider in implementing successful prostate cancer prevention interventions designed for church-based audiences. PMID:16916126
Todd E. Fox
Full Text Available Although numerous genetic mutations and amplifications have been identified in pancreatic cancer, much of the molecular pathogenesis of the disease remains undefined. While proteomic and transcriptomic analyses have been utilized to probe and characterize pancreatic tumors, lipidomic analyses have not been applied to identify perturbations in pancreatic cancer patient samples. Thus, we utilized a mass spectrometry-based lipidomic approach, focused towards the sphingolipid class of lipids, to quantify changes in human pancreatic cancer tumor and plasma specimens. Subgroup analysis revealed that patients with positive lymph node metastasis have a markedly higher level of ceramide species (C16:0 and C24:1 in their tumor specimens compared to pancreatic cancer patients without nodal disease or to patients with pancreatitis. Also of interest, ceramide metabolites, including phosphorylated (sphingosine- and sphinganine-1-phosphate and glycosylated (cerebroside species were elevated in the plasma, but not the pancreas, of pancreatic cancer patients with nodal disease. Analysis of plasma level of cytokine and growth factors revealed that IL-6, IL-8, CCL11 (eotaxin, EGF and IP10 (interferon inducible protein 10, CXCL10 were elevated in patients with positive lymph nodes metastasis, but that only IP10 and EGF directly correlated with several sphingolipid changes. Taken together, these data indicate that sphingolipid metabolism is altered in human pancreatic cancer and associated with advanced disease. Assessing plasma and/or tissue sphingolipids could potentially risk stratify patients in the clinical setting.
Mao, Y.; Semenciw, R; Morrison, H.; Koch, M; Hill, G; Fair, M; Wigle, D
We calculated 5-year crude and relative survival rates, by age and sex, for patients in Alberta in whom cancer was diagnosed between 1974 and 1978. Cancers with low overall 5-year relative survival rates (less than 35%) included stomach cancer, cancer of the pancreas, lung cancer, brain cancer, multiple myeloma and myeloid leukemia. Cancers with high overall 5-year relative survival rates (more than 70%) included melanoma, breast cancer, cancer of the uterus, cancer of the bladder and Hodgkin...
Sanders Thompson, Vetta L; Lewis, Tanisha; Williams, Sha-Lai
An important step in using culture to increase colorectal cancer screening is the development and use of a reliable and valid measure. Measurement items that work well are defined as those that use clear and simple language, do not result in significant missing data, do not yield unexpected frequencies or patterns of association, and capture an important component of the underlying construct. The authors' work to develop such a measure includes cognitive response testing. This article describes 41 African American participants' reactions to and processing of items that have been used in the public health literature to assess cultural attitudes believed to be relevant to colorectal cancer screening. Participants were asked to verbalize thoughts, feelings, interpretations, and ideas that came to mind while examining or responding to 10 to 11 survey items. The results of cognitive response testing suggest negative reactions to items addressing the fatalism construct, concerns about appearing racist when responding to discrimination and mistrust items, and resistance to phrasing or terminology that conveys negative attitudes or frames of reference. When items were framed in a positive way, participants reported less frustration, confusion, and concern for how they would be perceived by others. The responses of older African Americans in this sample were consistent with research previously completed by Pasick et al.; participants questioned the relevance of items related to cultural constructs to health and cancer preventive behaviors. Recommendations for the assessment and use of cultural constructs and items assessing constructs are provided. PMID:21460257
Cancer Survivor; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer
Conclusion: Adiponectin, which is secreted by adipose tissue, may have a role in the development and progression of cancer via its pro-apoptotic and/or anti-proliferative effects. Adiponectin expression in tumor tissues is likely to have a negative effect on disease - free survival in patients with stage II/III colon cancer; however, no statistically significant effect was demonstrated.
Andersen, Mads Hald; Svane, Inge Marie; Kvistborg, Pia;
patients suffering from unrelated tumor types (ie, pancreatic cancer, breast cancer, acute myeloid leukemia [AML], and chroniclymphocytic leukemia [CLL]). Additionally, we show that these Bcl-2-reactive T cells are indeed peptide-specific, cytotoxic effector cells. Thus, Bcl-2 may serve as an important and...
Full Text Available Vicky TC Chan, Winnie YeoDepartment of Clinical Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, ChinaAbstract: Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV continues to be one of the most distressing side effects of chemotherapy in breast cancer patients, which can result in poor compliance to therapy that may, in turn, affect overall survival. The extent of CINV is dependent on the emetogenic potential of the individual cytotoxic agents or regimens employed as well as certain patient factors. Advances in our understanding in the pathophysiology of CINV and the identification of risk factors have enabled the utilization of appropriate antiemetic regimens to improve the control of CINV. Most of the chemotherapy regimens used in this patient population are considered to be moderately emetogenic; 60%–90% of chemotherapeutic regimens used in breast cancer patients cause nausea and vomiting, amongst which regimens doxorubicin-cyclophosphamide (AC combination is commonly regarded as of relatively higher emetogenicity. Currently, corticosteroids, 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 (5-HT3 receptor antagonists, and neurokinin 1 (NK-1 receptor antagonists are the three classes of antiemetic agents with the highest therapeutic index, which have been supported by data from large-scale randomized clinical trials. Treatment guidelines enable physicians to integrate the latest research data into their clinical practices. This review focuses on the three classes of antiemetic therapy options for CINV in breast cancer patients, as well as their safety and tolerability profiles. Recommendations from major guidelines/consensus including from the Multinational Association for Supportive Care in Cancer/European Society of Medical Oncology (MASCC/ESMO, the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO, and the US National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN, are also discussed. With the correct use of antiemetic regimens, chemotherapy
Strömgren, Annette S; Goldschmidt, Dorthe; Groenvold, Mogens;
-based study using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer quality-of-life instrument EORTC QLQ-C30, the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System (ESAS), and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) in cancer patients who were receiving palliative care. This report describes the......-based study of symptomatology in consecutive cancer patients in palliative care, achieving rather complete data from the participants. The symptomatology in these patients was very pronounced. The questionnaires were able to detect clinically important differences between places of service.......BACKGROUND: Research in palliative care is considered difficult due to the poor health of patients. However, patient-provided data are essential for a thorough description of patient symptomatology and for the evaluation of care. METHODS: The authors examined the feasibility of a questionnaire...
Rehder, Douglas S; Nelson, Randall W; Borges, Chad R
On the basis of the results of activity studies, previous reports have suggested that vitamin D binding protein (DBP) is significantly or even completely deglycosylated in cancer patients, eliminating the molecular precursor of the immunologically important Gc macrophage activating factor (GcMAF), a glycosidase-derived product of DBP. The purpose of this investigation was to directly determine the relative degree of O-linked trisaccharide glycosylation of serum-derived DBP in human breast, colorectal, pancreatic, and prostate cancer patients. Results obtained by electrospray ionization-based mass spectrometric immunoassay showed that there was no significant depletion of DBP trisaccharide glycosylation in the 56 cancer patients examined relative to healthy controls. These results suggest that alternative hypotheses regarding the molecular and/or structural origins of GcMAF must be considered to explain the relative inability of cancer patient serum to activate macrophages. PMID:19642159
Inadequate pain treatment in patients with cancer remains a significant problem and appears to be more frequent among minorities, according to a new study published online April 16, 2012, in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.
... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158881.html HIV Patients Less Likely to Get Treatment for Cancer: ... TUESDAY, May 17, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- While powerful HIV medications are granting longer lives to many people ...
Expert-reviewed information summary about the challenges faced by family caregivers of cancer patients. This summary focuses on typical caregiver roles and concerns, and helpful interventions for caregivers.
Antonoff, Steven R.; Spilka, Bernard
Evaluated the possible significance of nonverbal communication in 49 terminal cancer patients using the Facial Affect Scoring Technique. Results showed fear was highest in early stages of illness. Sadness increased regularly from the early to late phase. (JAC)
This article reviews the changes in management of the axilla in patients with breast cancer in the last decade. It discusses the recent advances, existing controversies and provides evidence-based guidelines for use in clinical practice.
Results from two phase III randomized clinical trials suggest that, at least for some patients with ovarian cancer, adding the antiangiogenesis agent bevacizumab to chemotherapy increases the time to disease progression and may improve survival.
Mazor, Kathleen M.; Gaglio, Bridget; Nekhlyudov, Larissa; Alexander, Gwen L.; Stark, Azadeh; Hornbrook, Mark C.; Walsh, Kathleen; Boggs, Jennifer; Lemay, Celeste A.; Firneno, Cassandra; Biggins, Colleen; Blosky, Mary Ann; Arora, Neeraj K.
Patient reports of their communication experiences during cancer care could increase understanding of the communication process, stimulate improvements, inform interventions, and provide a basis for evaluating changes in communication practices.
Kruijver, I.P.M.; Kerkstra, A.; Bensing, J.M.; Wiel, H.B.M. van der
In this paper the balance of affective and intrumental communication employed by nurses during the admission interview with recently diagnosed cancer patients was investigated. Rationale: The balance of affective and instrumental communication employed by nurses appears to be important, especially
Full Text Available Venous thromboembolism is a frequent and serious complication in patients with cancer. It is an independent prognostic factor of death in cancer patients and the second leading cause of death, but physicians often underestimate its importance, as well as the need for adequate prevention and treatment. Management of venous thromboembolism in patients with cancer requires the coordinated efforts of a wide range of clinicians, highlighting the importance of a multidisciplinary approach. However, a lack of consensus among various national and international clinical practice guidelines has contributed to knowledge and practice gaps among practitioners, and inconsistent approaches to venous thromboembolism. The 2013 international guidelines for thrombosis in cancer have sought to address these gaps by critically re-evaluating the evidence coming from clinical trials and synthesizing a number of guidelines documents. An individualized approach to prophylaxis is recommended for all patients.
... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157730.html Gene Test May Spare Some Breast Cancer Patients From ... researchers report. The test is called the 21-gene recurrence score (Oncotype DX). Among women that the ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background African American women have higher rates of breast cancer mortality than their white counterparts. Studies have suggested that this is partly caused by discovery of cancer at a later stage, highlighting the importance of encouraging early detection of breast cancer in this population. To guide the creation of a breast cancer education intervention and help focus other health educators' and clinicians' health promotion efforts, this study explored whether a cohort of African American women living in San Diego would demonstrate the possession of adequate baseline knowledge about breast cancer screening and adherence to widely recommended screening guidelines. Methods African American women (N = 1,055 from San Diego, California participated in a beauty salon-based survey about breast cancer knowledge, attitudes, and screening practices. Women's ages ranged from 20 to 94 years, with average age of 42.20 (SD = 13.53 years. Thirty-four percent reported completing college and/or some graduate school training, and 52% reported having some college or post high school formal training. Seventy-five percent of the sample reported working outside their home. Participating cosmetologists and their salons were recruited to the study through word-of-mouth referral by highly respected African American community leaders. Results Salon clients reported low rates of adherence to recommended breast cancer screening guidelines. Of the 1,055 participants, 31% reporting performing breast self-exam every month. Of those participants 40 and older, 57% reported having had a clinical breast exam and 43% reported having had a mammogram in the past year. Knowledge of breast cancer was associated with adherence to screening guidelines. While women recognized the serious health threat that breast cancer poses and that early detection of breast cancer is important, only 30% of women reported feeling well informed about the disease. Many participants
Cornejo-Juárez, Patricia; Vilar-Compte, Diana; García-Horton, Alejandro; López-Velázquez, Marco; Ñamendys-Silva, Silvio; Volkow-Fernández, Patricia
Background Cancer patients have a higher risk of severe sepsis in comparison with non-cancer patients, with an increased risk for hospital-acquired infections (HAI), particularly with multidrug resistant bacteria (MDRB). The aim of the study is to describe the frequency and characteristics of HAI and MDRB in critically ill cancer patients. Methods We conducted an 18-month prospective study in patients admitted ≥48 h to an ICU at a cancer referral center in Mexico. Patients with hematological ...
Kwong, Ava; Shin, Vivian Y; Cheuk, Isabella W Y; Chen, Jiawei; Au, Chun H; Ho, Dona N; Chan, Tsun L; Ma, Edmond S K; Akbari, Mohammad R; Narod, Steven A
Recently, RECQL was reported as a new breast cancer susceptibility gene. RECQL belongs to the RECQ DNA helicase family which unwinds double strand DNA and involved in the DNA replication stress response, telomere maintenance and DNA repair. RECQL deficient mice cells are prone to spontaneous chromosomal instability and aneuploidy, suggesting a tumor-suppressive role of RECQL in cancer. In this study, RECQL gene mutation screening was performed on 1110 breast cancer patients who were negative for BRCA1, BRCA2, TP53 and PTEN gene mutations and recruited from March 2007 to June 2015 in the Hong Kong Hereditary and High Risk Breast Cancer Program. Four different RECQL pathogenic mutations were identified in six of the 1110 (0.54 %) tested breast cancer patients. The identified mutations include one frame-shift deletion (c.974_977delAAGA), two splicing site mutations (c.394+1G>A, c.867+1G>T) and one nonsense mutation (c.796C>T, p.Gln266Ter). Two of the mutations (c.867+1G>T and p.Gln266Ter) were seen in more than one patients. This study provides the basis for existing of pathogenic RECQL mutations in Southern Chinese breast cancer patients. The significance of rare variants in RECQL gene in the estimation of breast cancer risk warranted further investigation in larger cohort of patients and in other ethnic groups. PMID:27125668
Prades, Joan; Ferro, Tàrsila; Gil, Francisco; Borràs Andrés, Josep Maria
This study sought to assess the impact of health care professional (HCP) communication on breast cancer patients across the acute care process as perceived by patients. Methodological approach was based on eight focus groups conducted with a sample of patients (n ¼ 37) drawn from 15 Spanish Regions; thematic analysis was undertaken using the National Cancer Institute (NCI) framework of HCP communication as the theoretical basis. Relevant results of this study were the identification of four m...
Lee Su Jin
Full Text Available Abstract Background In the past few years, the number of clinical trials has increased rapidly in East Asia, especially for gastric and hepatobiliary cancer that are prevalent in Asian populations. However, the actual degree of understanding or perceptions of clinical trials by cancer patients in East Asian countries have seldom been studied. Methods Between July 1st and November 30th of 2011, we conducted a prospective study to survey cancer patients regarding their awareness of, and willingness to participate in, a clinical trial. Patients with gastrointestinal/hepatobiliary cancer who visited the Hematology-Oncology outpatient clinic at Samsung Medical Center (SMC were enrolled. A total of 21 questions were asked including four questions which used the Visual analogue scale (VAS score. Results In this survey study, 1,000 patients were asked to participate and 675 patients consented to participate (67.5%. The awareness of clinical trials was substantially higher in patients who had a higher level of education (pp=0.004, and had a higher economic status (p=0.001. However, the willingness to participate in a clinical trial was not affected by the level of education or economic status of patients. The most influential factors for patient willingness to participate were a physician recommendation (n=181, 26.8%, limited treatment options (n=178, 26.4%, and expectations of effectiveness of new anti-cancer drugs (n=142, 21.0%. Patients with previous experience in clinical trials had a greater willingness to participate in clinical trials compared to patients without previous experience (p Conclusions This large patient cohort survey study showed that Korean cancer patients are more aware of clinical trials, but awareness did not translate into willingness to participate.
Purpose/Objective: The reported incidence of superficial esophageal cancer (SEC) has steadily increased in Japan as result of endoscopic examination has been become common. In Japan, treatment of SEC is endoscopical mucosal resection (EMR) for mucosal cancer or esophagectomy with 3 fields lymph nodes resection for submucosal cancer. Radiotherapy is little place for the management of SEC. Because of some reasons, we treated patients with SEC by radiotherapy alternative to surgery. Purpose of this report is to evaluate efficacy of radiotherapy for SEC. Methods and Materials: Between 1989 to 1996, eighteen patients with SEC were treated with radiotherapy at our hospital. Reasons of radiotherapy that was chosen as the primary methods of treatment were refusal of surgery in one patient, poor medical condition in 4 patients and double primary cancer in 13 patients (head and neck: 11, simultaneously: 11). No patients had indication of EMR. Diagnosis was made by endoscopy and radiography. Some patients were examined with endoscopic ultrasound. Two patients (11.1%) had tumor limited to the mucosa and 16 patients (88.9%) had tumor invaded the submucosa. Seven of these tumors (38.9%) were multicentric. All patients had squamous cell carcinoma. There were 17 male patients and one female patient. The age range was 49 years to 87 years with a median of 62 years. Stage of all patients was T1N0M0 according to UICC staging system. Ten patients underwent external radiotherapy (Ex) (50 Gy - 66 Gy) alone and 8 patients did both Ex and intracavitary radiotherapy (IC) (30-60 Gy of Ex with 5-15 Gy of IC). No patients received chemotherapy. Duration of follow-up was 6 months to 96 months with a median of 30 months. Results: The overall survival rate was 55.9% in 3-year and 14% in 5-year, and the cause-specific 5-year survival rate was 100%. Causes of death were malignant tumor other than esophageal cancer in 4 patients, intercurrent disease other than malignant tumor in 3 patients and no
Summary. Objectives. In the general structure of onco‑ logical morbidity, malignant tumors of head and neck rep‑ resent 20%. The aim of this study was to investigate the oral status of patients with malignant tumors in the oro‑ pharyngeal area. Methods: Clinical observations were car‑ ried out at the National Cancer Institute (Kiev) in 2012 to 2013. The study involved 120 patients with head and neck cancer, with ages between 21 and 82 years. Clinical exam‑ ination of t...
@@The ability for DNA repair is an important host factor which influences the individual susceptibility to genotoxic carcinogen exposures. It has been shown in different case-control studies that DNA repair capacity (DRC) can be reduced in lung cancer patients.We have used an alkaline comet assay to measure the cellular DRC in peri-pheral blood lymphocytes of lung cancer patients and tumor-free control
The long-term follow up of cancer patients should be based on the natural history of the disease and its known recurrence rates, patterns, and timing. Information from follow-up trials should be used in the context of diagnostic capabilities and practice setting. The increased involvement of family practitioners in the follow up of cancer patients is desirable, and some recommendations for follow-up procedures are presented.
Nordin, K; Glimelius, B.
The aim of this study was to examine the possibility of predicting anxiety and depression 6 months after a cancer diagnosis on the basis of measures of anxiety, depression, coping and subjective distress associated with the diagnosis and to explore the possibility of identifying individual patients with high levels of delayed anxiety and depression associated with the diagnosis. A consecutive series of 159 patients with gastrointestinal cancer were interviewed in connection with the diagnosis...
Zhu, Lei; Ranchor, A. V.; Lee, van der, R.; Garssen, Bert; Sanderman, Robbert; Schroevers, Maya J
PURPOSE: This study aimed to (1) identify subgroups of cancer patients with distinct subtypes of depression before the start of psychological care, (2) examine whether socio-demographic and medical characteristics distinguished these subtypes, and (3) examine whether people with distinct subtypes reported differential courses of depression during psychological care. METHOD: This naturalistic, longitudinal study included cancer patients who sought psychological care at specialized psycho-oncol...
Bauman, Kristy; Arenberg, Douglas
Lung cancer diagnosis and treatment has evolved to require the input and expertise of multiple diverse medical and surgical specialties. The approach to lung cancer patients requires the adherence to a few principles that include thorough use of staging modalities to assure the proper treatment for each patient, and an understanding of the limitations and advantages of each of these modalities. Evidence is continuing to emerge that supports the notion that diagnostic workup and treatment of l...