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Sample records for american atlantic coast

  1. Virginia Atlantic Coast Recreational Use

    Data.gov (United States)

    Virginia Department of Environmental Quality — As a member of the Mid-Atlantic Regional Council on the Ocean (MARCO), Virginia, through its Coastal Zone Management (CZM) Program, collected information on how the...

  2. VA Atlantic Coast Recreational Use

    Data.gov (United States)

    Virginia Department of Environmental Quality — As a member of the Mid-Atlantic Regional Council on the Ocean (MARCO), Virginia, through its Coastal Zone Management (CZM) Program, collected information on how the...

  3. Evolutionary diversity among Atlantic coast mangroves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Richard S.; Rafii, Zara A.; Fromard, François; Blasco, François

    1998-06-01

    Current knowledge of intraspecific variation of mangrove species is limited in terms of rangewide distributions and is mostly restricted to morphological analyses, which have indicated a high degree of homogeneity. However, our analyses of the aliphatic hydrocarbon and triterpenoid fraction of foliar waxes (by gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy) of mangrove species ( Rhizophora mangle, Avicennia germinans and Laguncularia racemosa) from Gabon in West Africa and French Guiana in South America show significant genetic differentiation between eastern and western Atlantic provenances. The greater diversity in lipid composition, and the tendency for longer carbon chain lengths in all taxa from Africa, may suggest that American mangroves exhibit derived characteristics. A consequence of this hypothesis would be that Atlantic mangroves are unlikely to have dispersed from the Tethys via the Pacific, as has been proposed by some authors. More widespread sampling within the Atlantic and east Pacific region is needed to support and confirm these results.

  4. 78 FR 36753 - North Atlantic Coast Comprehensive Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-19

    ... Department of the Army; Corps of Engineers North Atlantic Coast Comprehensive Study AGENCY: Department of the Army, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, DoD. ACTION: Notice of Study Initiation. SUMMARY: The Congressional.... The goals of the North Atlantic Coast Comprehensive Study authorized under the Disaster...

  5. Economic Assessment of the Atlantic Coast Horseshoe Crab Fishery

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In this report, Industrial Economics, Incorporated (lEc) provides an assessment of the economic value of the Atlantic Coast horseshoe crab fishery. We accomplish...

  6. Vulnerability map to erosion of the Uruguayan atlantic coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Atlantic Ocean washes about 233 km of coastline in Uruguay from Punta del Este to Barra del Chuy, covering the entire coast of Rocha Department and part of the Department of Maldonado. In this coastal area can be seen a set of landforms that indicate the action of erosion processes that are acting from the highest Quaternary. Mainly highlights the extensive sectors gully nestled on the coastal plain adjoining the strip of beaches , platforms and secondarily the coastal cliffs of more or less active measuring height between these landforms. Approximately 32% of the Atlantic coast (about 74 km) is subjected to the erosive action, especially during times of storms by wind and storm waves . It should also be mentioned that have been estimated at about 86 km2 occupied by mobile dunes area, of which the majority shows evidence of the deflationary action (blow out). With this contribution is to illustrate the distribution of the areas of the Atlantic coast have these landforms of erosion

  7. Magellanic penguin mortality in 2008 along the SW Atlantic coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Borboroglu, Pablo; Boersma, P Dee; Ruoppolo, Valeria; Pinho-da-Silva-Filho, Rodolfo; Corrado-Adornes, Andréa; Conte-Sena, Daniella; Velozo, Raquel; Myiaji-Kolesnikovas, Cristiane; Dutra, Gustavo; Maracini, Pryscilla; Carvalho-do-Nascimento, Cláudia; Ramos-Júnior, Valdir; Barbosa, Lupércio; Serra, Sheila

    2010-10-01

    Magellanic penguins migrate from Patagonia reaching northern Argentina, Uruguay, and southern Brazil on their winter migration, in parallel with the seasonal pulse of anchovy spawning. In 2008, Magellanic penguins went further north than usual. Many died and a few swam nearly to the Equator. Twelve groups surveyed 5000 km of coastline encountering 3371 penguins along the coast. Most penguins arrived in northern Brazil (68.4%) without petroleum (2933, 87%). Almost all penguins without petroleum were juveniles (2915, 99%) and 55% were alive when found. Penguins were dehydrated, anemic, hypothermic, and emaciated. Of the penguins with petroleum, 13% arrived in the southern half of Brazil, showing that petroleum pollution remains a problem along the SW Atlantic coast. The mortality occurred in the winter of 2008 when sea surface temperature were unusually cold perhaps reducing the prey for penguins. PMID:20674946

  8. Hurricane Jeanne Aerial Photography: High-Resolution Imagery of the Atlantic Coast of Florida After Landfall

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The imagery posted on this site is of the Atlantic coast of Florida after Hurricane Jeanne made landfall. The regions photographed range along a 100-mile stretch...

  9. U.S. Atlantic East Coast bathymetry contours (EGLORIA_CNT)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The bathymetric contours, which comprise this GIS data layer, contains contours for the U.S. Atlantic East Coast. The dataset was created for use with the USGS...

  10. Numerical evaluation of the wave energy resource along the Atlantic European coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes Soares, C.; Bento, A. Rute; Gonçalves, Marta; Silva, Dina; Martinho, Paulo

    2014-10-01

    In the present paper a hindcast system is applied to the analysis of the Atlantic European coast as a whole with specific nestings for sites of interest in each country. The areas included in this study were: Ireland west coast, UK South Western coast, France west coast, northern Spain and Canary Islands and Portugal's continental coast. Two contemporary spectral models were used: WaveWatch III for wave generation, covering almost the entire North Atlantic basin, which outputs are then used as boundary conditions for SWAN which simulates wave transformation in coastal areas. Wind fields were taken from the ERA Interim data base. Results are validated against buoy data. These validations allowed a reformulation, when needed, of the model's configurations in order to better tune its outcomes to the real data. Using the energy transport vectors given by SWAN, the wave power is afterwards calculated and an energy resource assessment is done for a period of several years.

  11. 77 FR 15006 - Special Local Regulations; Third Annual Space Coast Super Boat Grand Prix, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    ..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public... Super Boat Grand Prix, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of... of the Atlantic Ocean east of Cocoa Beach, Florida during the Third Annual Space Coast Super...

  12. Hotspot of accelerated sea-level rise on the Atlantic coast of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallenger,, Asbury H., Jr.; Doran, Kara S.; Howd, Peter A.

    2012-01-01

    Climate warming does not force sea-level rise (SLR) at the same rate everywhere. Rather, there are spatial variations of SLR superimposed on a global average rise. These variations are forced by dynamic processes, arising from circulation and variations in temperature and/or salinity, and by static equilibrium processes, arising from mass redistributions changing gravity and the Earth's rotation and shape. These sea-level variations form unique spatial patterns, yet there are very few observations verifying predicted patterns or fingerprints. Here, we present evidence of recently accelerated SLR in a unique 1,000-km-long hotspot on the highly populated North American Atlantic coast north of Cape Hatteras and show that it is consistent with a modelled fingerprint of dynamic SLR. Between 1950–1979 and 1980–2009, SLR rate increases in this northeast hotspot were ~ 3–4 times higher than the global average. Modelled dynamic plus steric SLR by 2100 at New York City ranges with Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change scenario from 36 to 51 cm (ref. 3); lower emission scenarios project 24–36 cm (ref. 7). Extrapolations from data herein range from 20 to 29 cm. SLR superimposed on storm surge, wave run-up and set-up will increase the vulnerability of coastal cities to flooding, and beaches and wetlands to deterioration.

  13. Nearshore marine benthic invertebrates moving north along the U.S. Atlantic coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numerous species have shifted their ranges north in response to global warming. We examined 21 years (1990-2010) of marine benthic invertebrate data from the National Coastal Assessment’s monitoring of nearshore waters along the US Atlantic coast. Data came from three bioge...

  14. Market impact on cassava's development potential in the Atlantic Coast region of Colombia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, W.G.

    1986-01-01

    The impact of markets on agricultural development was analyzed by means of a case study on cassava in the Atlantic Coast region of Colombia. In the development process, the demand for agricultural products changes considerably. Traditional food products, such as roots and tubers, face a decreasing d

  15. Boulder Deposits on the Southern Spanish Atlantic Coast: Possible Evidence for the 1755 AD Lisbon Tsunami?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Kelletat

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Field evidence of visible tsunami impacts in Europe is scarce. This research focused on an analysis of large littoral debris and accompanying geomorphic features and their rela- tionship to a tsunami event at Cabo de Trafalgar, located on the southern Spanish Atlantic coast. Relative dating of weathering features as well as minor bioconstructive forms in the littoral zone suggest the Lisbon tsunami of 1755 AD as the event responsible for the large deposits described. This tsunami had run up heights of more than 19 m and was generated at the Gorringe Bank, located 500 km west off the Cape. Tsunami deposits at Cabo de Tra- falgar are the first boulder deposits identified on the southern Spanish Atlantic coast and are located approximately 250 km southeast of the Algarve coast (Portugal, where other geo- morphic evidence for the Lisbon tsunami has been reported.

  16. Food habits of Atlantic sturgeon off the central New Jersey coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J.H.; Dropkin, D.S.; Warkentine, B.E.; Rachlin, J.W.; Andrews, W.D.

    1997-01-01

    Limited information exists on the marine diet of the Atlantic sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus. We examined the food habits of 275 Atlantic sturgeon (total length, 106-203 cm) caught in the commercial fishery off the coast of New Jersey. Stomachs were provided by fishermen. Significantly more stomachs were empty in the spring than in the fall. Sand and organic debris were a major component in the stomachs (26.3-75.4% by weight). Polycheates were the primary pre group consumed, although the isopod Politolana conchorum was the most important individual prey eaten. Mollusks and fish contributed little to the diet. Some prey taxa (i.e., polychaetes, isopods, amphipods) exhibited seasonal variation in importance in the diet of Atlantic sturgeon. Identification of the offshore diet of Atlantic sturgeon is an important step in developing a better understanding of the life history requirements and marine ecology of this species.

  17. The American South in the Atlantic World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    "A refreshing and intriguing interdisciplinary examination of the ways in which the history and cultures of the American South have been largely shaped by forces beyond the geographical boundaries of the United States." --Allison Graham, author of Framing the South "This is an impressive collection...... decisively shaped the history and culture of the American South from colonial times to the modern era. The essays in this interdisciplinary volume examine a wide range of topics, including race, migration, religion, law, slavery, emancipation, literature, memoir, popular culture, and ethnography. At a time...

  18. A White Atlantic? The Idea of American Art in Nineteenth-Century Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Barringer

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This article begins with the contention that 'American art' is a powerful retrospective construction, rooted in the institutional practices of art history and museology. Through a focus on the experiences of expatriate American artists (John Singleton Copley and Benjamin West in London at the start of the nineteenth century, and the genre or landscape painting in transatlantic art (including the work of the British artist Thomas Cole, this essay exposes the complex and dynamic cultural interrelationship that existed between the United States and Europe in the period. It extends Paul Gilroy's and Joseph Roach's recent concept of the 'Black Atlantic', in which they argue that a single cultural zone brought together London and New Orleans, Kingston, Jamaica and the ports of the Ivory coast, to analyse the cultural and performative exchanges that were also taking place between America and Europe (particularly Great Britain, and that have hitherto been neglected in dominant art history narratives.

  19. Tsunami Warning Services for the U.S. and Canadian Atlantic Coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, P. M.; Knight, W.

    2008-12-01

    In January 2005, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) developed a tsunami warning program for the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts. Within a year, this program extended further to the Atlantic coast of Canada and the Caribbean Sea. Warning services are provided to U.S. and Canadian coasts (including Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands) by the NOAA/West Coast and Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC) while the NOAA/Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) provides services for non-U.S. entities in the Caribbean Basin. The Puerto Rico Seismic Network (PRSN) is also an active partner in the Caribbean Basin warning system. While the nature of the tsunami threat in the Atlantic Basin is different than in the Pacific, the warning system philosophy is similar. That is, initial messages are based strictly on seismic data so that information is provided to those at greatest risk as fast as possible while supplementary messages are refined with sea level observations and forecasts when possible. The Tsunami Warning Centers (TWCs) acquire regional seismic data through many agencies, such as the United States Geological Survey, Earthquakes Canada, regional seismic networks, and the PRSN. Seismic data quantity and quality are generally sufficient throughout most of the Atlantic area-of-responsibility to issue initial information within five minutes of origin time. Sea level data are mainly provided by the NOAA/National Ocean Service. Coastal tide gage coverage is generally denser along the Atlantic coast than in the Pacific. Seven deep ocean pressure sensors (DARTs), operated by the National Weather Service (NWS) National Data Buoy Center, are located in the Atlantic Basin (5 in the Atlantic Ocean, 1 in the Caribbean, and 1 in the Gulf of Mexico). The DARTs provide TWCs with the means to verify tsunami generation in the Atlantic and provide critical data with which to calibrate forecast models. Tsunami warning response criteria in the Atlantic Basin

  20. Summary of existing information pertinent to environmental contaminants and oil spills on breeding Atlantic Coast piping plovers

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Information regarding environmental contaminants and oil spills on breeding Atlantic Coast piping plovers (Charadrius melodus) was solicited from state and federal...

  1. NORTH ATLANTIC OSCILLATION AND RAINFALL VARIABILITY ON THE SOUTHERN COAST OF THE MEDITERRANEAN

    OpenAIRE

    BENOIT, L; NOUACEUR ZEINEDDINE; TURKI IMEN; JEMAI HIBA; Habib, A; Ellouz, M.

    2014-01-01

    Regions of the south-western Mediterranean basin were the focus of many studies since they have experienced a series of climate changes. The contribution of the North Atlantic Oscillation in precipitations is required to be analyzed with the aim to understand the possible hydrological changes. In this way, an analysis of precipitations along the coast of central Maghreb (Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia) was carried. The present analysis was performed using (1) The graphical method of information...

  2. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in harbor seals (Phoca vitulina concolor) from the northwestern Atlantic coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, S.D.; Brenner, D.; Bourakovsky, A. [Marine Environmental Research Inst. (MERI), Blue Hill, ME (United States); Mahaffey, C.A. [Coll. of the Atlantic, Bar Harbor, ME (United States); Perkins, C.R. [Environmental Research Inst., Storrs, CT (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Since the 1970s, very little research has been conducted on levels and potential effects of POPs in harbor seals inhabiting the northwestern Atlantic coast. During 1979-1980, an outbreak of type A influenza virus occurred among these seals, spreading northward from Cape Cod into the Gulf of Maine and ultimately resulting in the deaths of more than 500 animals. A decade later, during the winter of 1991-1992, a morbillivirus epizootic of unknown magnitude was reported among harbor seals found stranded from southern Maine to Long Island, New York. A possible role of environmental chemicals (e.g., PCBs) in these outbreaks was not investigated, although data from the 1970s indicated that their PCBs and DDT burdens were approaching the 100 ppm range. The estimated threshold value for adverse effects in harbor seals including effects on immune function is {proportional_to}17{mu}g PCB/g lw in blubber. At present, there are an estimated 99,340 harbor seals (Phoca vitulina concolor) inhabiting New England waters from the Gulf of Maine along the Atlantic coast to New Jersey. Isolated from the deeper waters of the northeast Atlantic Ocean by Georges and Brown Banks and Nantucket Shoals, the northern portion of their range is a semi-enclosed sea with a principally estuarine circulation pattern receiving significant riverine, urban, agricultural, and industrial pollutant inputs from population centers in the Northeast as well as via long-range atmospheric transport. The harbor seal population has steadily increased since the early 1980s, although in recent years, pup production has sharply declined in southern and mid-coast Maine for reasons that are poorly understood. Here we report results of the first comprehensive analysis of organohalogen compounds in harbor seals along the northwestern Atlantic coast.

  3. 78 FR 25574 - Special Local Regulations; Third Annual Space Coast Super Boat Grand Prix, Atlantic Ocean; Cocoa...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-02

    ...) 366-9826. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal... Super Boat Grand Prix, Atlantic Ocean; Cocoa Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final... Ocean east of Cocoa Beach, Florida during the Space Coast Super Boat Grand Prix, a series of...

  4. Origin of Atlantic Sturgeon collected off the Delaware coast during spring months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirgin, Isaac; Breece, Matthew W.; Fox, Dewayne A.; Maceda, Lorraine; Wark, Kevin W.; King, Timothy L.

    2015-01-01

    Atlantic Sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus was federally listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act as five distinct population segments (DPS). Currently, at least 18 estuaries coastwide host spawning populations and the viability of these vary, requiring differing levels of protection. Subadults emigrate from their natal estuaries to marine waters where they are vulnerable to bycatch; one of the major threats to the rebuilding of populations. As a result, identifying the population origin of Atlantic Sturgeon in coastal waters is critical to development of management plans intended to minimize interactions of the most imperiled populations with damaging fisheries. We used mitochondrial DNA control region sequencing and microsatellite DNA analyses to determine the origin of 261 Atlantic Sturgeon collected off the Delaware coast during the spring months. Using individual-based assignment (IBA) testing and mixed stock analysis, we found that specimens originated from all nine of our reference populations and the five DPSs used in the listing determination. Using IBA, we found that the Hudson River population was the largest contributor (38.3%) to our coastal collection. The James (19.9%) and Delaware (13.8%) river populations, at one time thought to be extirpated or nearly so, were the next largest contributors. The three populations combined in the South Atlantic DPS contributed 21% of specimens; the Altamaha River, the largest population in the South Atlantic DPS, only contributed a single specimen to the collection. While the origin of specimens collected on the Delaware coast was most likely within rivers of the New York Bight DPS (52.1%), specimens that originated elsewhere were also well represented. Genetic analyses provide a robust tool to identify the population origin of individual sturgeon outside of their natal estuaries and to determine the quantitative contributions of individual populations to coastal aggregations that are vulnerable to

  5. Extreme wave activity during 2013/2014 winter and morphological impacts along the Atlantic coast of Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masselink, Gerd; Castelle, Bruno; Scott, Tim; Dodet, Guillaume; Suanez, Serge; Jackson, Derek; Floc'h, France

    2016-03-01

    Studies of coastal vulnerability due to climate change tend to focus on the consequences of sea level rise, rather than the complex coastal responses resulting from changes to the extreme wave climate. Here we investigate the 2013/2014 winter wave conditions that severely impacted the Atlantic coast of Europe and demonstrate that this winter was the most energetic along most of the Atlantic coast of Europe since at least 1948. Along exposed open-coast sites, extensive beach and dune erosion occurred due to offshore sediment transport. More sheltered sites experienced less erosion and one of the sites even experienced accretion due to beach rotation induced by alongshore sediment transport. Storm wave conditions such as were encountered during the 2013/2014 winter have the potential to dramatically change the equilibrium state (beach gradient, coastal alignment, and nearshore bar position) of beaches along the Atlantic coast of Europe.

  6. Monitoring of heavy metals in wild mussels ( Mytilus galloprovincialis) from the Spanish North-Atlantic coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besada, Victoria; Manuel Andrade, José; Schultze, Fernando; José González, Juan

    2011-04-01

    Concentrations of five heavy metals (Hg, Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn) were determined in tissues of wild mussels ( Mytilus galloprovincialis) collected at 41 stations located on the Spanish Atlantic and Northern coasts to assess the levels and spatial distribution of metals in the environment. This study, performed in 2005, constituted a contribution to the last international OSPAR pollution monitoring survey. A pool of mussel soft tissue was prepared using 50 or more individuals, representing the size range present at the sampling points. Quantification was carried out after a nitric acid digestion by atomic absorption spectrometry, AAS (Cd and Pb by electrothermal AAS; Cu and Zn by flame AAS; and total mercury by the cold vapour technique). The quality of the chemical analyses was assessed by interlaboratory exercises carried out on a regular basis. In general, the levels of the metals were higher for the Northern region than for the Atlantic one (except for a sampling site close to Vigo, one of the main Galician industrial areas). Some Galician sampling points (Atlantic coast, NW of Spain) located far from human inputs showed high Cd concentrations, which were attributed to the annual upwelling processes in this region. The levels of Cu increased from Northwest to East, whereas Zn concentrations were very homogeneous throughout the two studied geographical regions. These results were confirmed using multivariate studies (PCA and cluster analysis), as well as international 'background assessment concentrations' criteria.

  7. 77 FR 32420 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; American Lobster Fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 697 RIN 0648-BA56 Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; American Lobster Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... section 803(b) of the Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act (Atlantic Coastal Act) 16...

  8. NORTH ATLANTIC OSCILLATION AND RAINFALL VARIABILITY ON THE SOUTHERN COAST OF THE MEDITERRANEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BENOIT L.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Regions of the south-western Mediterranean basin were the focus of many studies since they have experienced a series of climate changes. The contribution of the North Atlantic Oscillation in precipitations is required to be analyzed with the aim to understand the possible hydrological changes. In this way, an analysis of precipitations along the coast of central Maghreb (Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia was carried. The present analysis was performed using (1 The graphical method of information processing and (2 wavelet transform technique. Results can be summarized as the following. Results show a high drought observed in all studied regions since the med-eighties and a return of the wet period since year 2003. Moreover, we demonstrate significant links of precipitations with the North Atlantic Oscillation

  9. Sea-level in the U.S. mid-Atlantic coast during the Common Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Timothy; García-Artola, Ane; Engelhart, Simon; Kemp, Andrew; Cahill, Niamh; Nikitina, Daria; Corbett, Reide; Brain, Matthew; Vane, Christopher; Walker, Jennifer; Pilarczyk, Jessica; Clear, Jennifer; Horton, Benjamin

    2016-04-01

    Understanding of Common Era sea-level change is fragmentary compared to understanding of temperature variability, for which several global syntheses have been generated. This limitation prevents accurate assessment of the Common Era relationship between temperature and global mean sea level (GMSL), including the sea-level response to climate phases such as the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) and the Little Ice Age (LIA). Previous records of relative sea-level (RSL) change along the U.S. Atlantic coast during the Common Era have revealed spatial and temporal variability that reflects differences in the static-equilibrium effects of land ice changes and/or to ocean dynamic effects. Here we present two new RSL records spanning the Common Era from saltmarsh sites in the Delaware Bay and Chesapeake Bay. Motivation for this work stems from discrepancies in the timing and magnitude of sea-level changes for the mid-Atlantic coast. This region also experiences some of the highest rates of 20th century RSL change (up to ~5 mm/yr) along the U.S. Atlantic Coast. At Delaware Bay and Chesapeake Bay, extensive stratigraphic surveys revealed thick sequences of salt-marsh peat ideally suited to proxy-based RSL reconstructions utilizing foraminifera. Estimates of paleo marsh elevation were provided through contemporary training sets incorporating modern analogues from the full range of intertidal environments and subtracted from surveyed altitudes to provide RSL trends. Temporal constraints on sea-level changes were incorporated into a Bayesian framework using a composite chronology composed of AMS radiocarbon dating, short-lived radionuclides, regional pollution histories and pollen chronohorizons documenting land clearance events. The reconstructions showed a similar pre-instrumental RSL rise of ~1.1 - 1.6 mm/yr in Delaware Bay and Chesapeake Bay, respectively. The rate of RSL rise in both regions during the past ~130 years coincides with the increased rate observed in instrumental

  10. Food selection among Atlantic Coast seaducks in relation to historic food habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, M.C.; Osenton, P.C.; Wells-Berlin, A. M.; Kidwell, D.M.

    2005-01-01

    Food selection among Atlantic Coast seaducks during 1999-2005 was determined from hunter-killed ducks and compared to data from historic food habits file (1885-1985) for major migrational and wintering areas in the Atlantic Flyway. Food selection was determined by analyses of the gullet (esophagus and proventriculus) and gizzard of 860 ducks and summarized by aggregate percent for each species. When sample size was adequate comparisons were made among age and sex groupings and also among local sites in major habitat areas. Common eiders in Maine and the Canadian Maritimes fed predominantly (53%) on the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis). Scoters in Massachusetts, Maine, and the Canadian Maritimes fed predominantly on the blue mussel (46%), Atlantic jackknife clam (Ensis directus; 19%), and Atlantic surf clam (Spisula solidissima; 15%), whereas scoters in the Chesapeake Bay fed predominantly on hooked mussel (Ischadium recurvum; 42%), the stout razor clam (Tagelus plebeius; 22%), and dwarf surf clam (Mulinia lateralis; 15%). The amethyst gem clam (Gemma gemma) was the predominant food (45%) of long-tailed ducks in Chesapeake Bay. Buffleheads and common goldeneyes fed on a mixed diet of mollusks and soft bodied invertebrates (amphipods, isopods and polychaetes). No major differences were noticed between the sexes in regard to food selection in any of the wintering areas. Comparisons to historic food habits in all areas failed to detect major differences. However, several invertebrate species recorded in historic samples were not found in current samples and two invasive species (Atlantic Rangia, Rangia cuneata and green crab, Carcinas maenas) were recorded in modem samples, but not in historic samples. Benthic sampling in areas where seaducks were collected showed a close correlation between consumption and availability. Each seaduck species appears to fill a unique niche in regard to feeding ecology, although there is much overlap of prey species selected. Understanding

  11. Hunting and use of terrestrial fauna used by Caiçaras from the Atlantic Forest coast (Brazil)

    OpenAIRE

    Alves Rômulo RN; Hanazaki Natalia; Begossi Alpina

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The Brazilian Atlantic Forest is considered one of the hotspots for conservation, comprising remnants of rain forest along the eastern Brazilian coast. Its native inhabitants in the Southeastern coast include the Caiçaras (descendants from Amerindians and European colonizers), with a deep knowledge on the natural resources used for their livelihood. Methods We studied the use of the terrestrial fauna in three Caiçara communities, through open-ended interviews with 116 nati...

  12. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the East Coast Mesozoic basins of the Piedmont, Blue Ridge Thrust Belt, Atlantic Coastal Plain, and New England Provinces, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milici, Robert C.; Coleman, James L.; Rowan, Elisabeth L.; Cook, Troy A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Kirschbaum, Mark A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    During the early opening of the Atlantic Ocean in the Mesozoic Era, numerous extensional basins formed along the eastern margin of the North American continent from Florida northward to New England and parts of adjacent Canada. The basins extend generally from the offshore Atlantic continental margin westward beneath the Atlantic Coastal Plain to the Appalachian Mountains. Using a geology-based assessment method, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean undiscovered natural gas resource of 3,860 billion cubic feet and a mean undiscovered natural gas liquids resource of 135 million barrels in continuous accumulations within five of the East Coast Mesozoic basins: the Deep River, Dan River-Danville, and Richmond basins, which are within the Piedmont Province of North Carolina and Virginia; the Taylorsville basin, which is almost entirely within the Atlantic Coastal Plain Province of Virginia and Maryland; and the southern part of the Newark basin (herein referred to as the South Newark basin), which is within the Blue Ridge Thrust Belt Province of New Jersey. The provinces, which contain these extensional basins, extend across parts of Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, Virginia, Maryland, Delaware, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York, Connecticut, and Massachusetts.

  13. First occurrence of Beroe forskalii (Ctenophora) in South American Atlantic coastal waters, with notes on the use of macrociliary patterns for beroid identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Otto M P; Migotto, Alvaro E

    2014-01-01

    Beroe forskalii Milne Edwards, 1841 is an oceanic ctenophore with a global distribution. The present study provides the first record of Beroe forskalii for the South American Atlantic coast, including a redescription of the species and a discussion on the utility of macrociliary patterns for the correct identification of at least some beroid species, exemplified by a comparison of the macrociliary patterns of Beroe forskalii and Beroe ovata (Chamisso & Eysenhardt, 1821). PMID:24871741

  14. The Lagos coast: Investigation of the long-term morphological impact of the Eko Atlantic City project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bentum, K.M.; Hoyng, C.W.; van Ledden, M.; Luijendijk, A.P.; Stive, M.J.F.

    2012-01-01

    The Lagos coast has been suffering high rates of erosion since the construction of three harbour moles, i.e. the West Mole, East Mole and the Training Mole, at the tidal inlet connecting the Lagos Lagoon to the South Atlantic Ocean. To provide for a permanent erosion mitigation measure and to create

  15. OXIDATIVE STRESS BIOMARKERS IN MUSSELS SAMPLED FROM FOUR SITES ALONG THE MOROCCAN ATLANTIC COAST (BIG CASABLANCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAILA EL JOURMI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Catalase (CAT activity and malondialdehyde (MDA level in whole bodies of the mussel perna perna, collected from four stations along the Moroccan Atlantic coast (Big Casablanca area, were monitored to evaluate stress effects on mussels collected from the selected sites. The oxidative stress biomarkers showed statistically significant differences at the polluted sites when compared to the control ones. In general, our data indicated that CAT activity and MDA concentration are a higher and significant (p < 0.05 in mussels collected at polluted site when compared to specimen sampled from control ones. In conclusion, the oxidative stress biomarkers response obtained for October 2010 and 2011, clearly demonstrate the potential presence of different contaminants in Site 4 and Site 3 reflecting the intensity of pollution in these areas.

  16. NOAA/West coast and Alaska Tsunami warning center Atlantic Ocean response criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, P.; Refidaff, C.; Caropolo, M.; Huerfano-Moreno, V.; Knight, W.; Sammler, W.; Sandrik, A.

    2009-01-01

    West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC) response criteria for earthquakesoccurring in the Atlantic and Caribbean basins are presented. Initial warning center decisions are based on an earthquake's location, magnitude, depth, distance from coastal locations, and precomputed threat estimates based on tsunami models computed from similar events. The new criteria will help limit the geographical extent of warnings and advisories to threatened regions, and complement the new operational tsunami product suite. Criteria are set for tsunamis generated by earthquakes, which are by far the main cause of tsunami generation (either directly through sea floor displacement or indirectly by triggering of sub-sea landslides).The new criteria require development of a threat data base which sets warning or advisory zones based on location, magnitude, and pre-computed tsunami models. The models determine coastal tsunami amplitudes based on likely tsunami source parameters for a given event. Based on the computed amplitude, warning and advisory zones are pre-set.

  17. Seasonal sea level extremes in the Mediterranean Sea and at the Atlantic European coasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Tsimplis

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Hourly sea level data from tide gauges and a barotropic model are used to explore the spatial and temporal variability of sea level extremes in the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic coasts of the Iberian peninsula on seasonal time scales. Significant spatial variability is identified in the observations in all seasons. The Atlantic stations show larger extreme values than the Mediterranean Sea primarily due to the tidal signal. When the tidal signal is removed most stations have maximum values of less than 90 cm occurring in winter or autumn. The maxima in spring and summer are less than 60 cm in most stations. The wind and atmospheric forcing contributes about 50 cm in the winter and between 20–40 cm in the other seasons. In the western Mediterranean the observed extreme values are less than 50 cm, except near the Strait of Gibraltar. Direct atmospheric forcing contributes significantly to sea level extremes. Maximum sea level values due to atmospheric forcing reach in some stations 45 cm during the winter. During the summer the contribution of the direct atmospheric forcing is between 10–20 cm. The Adriatic Sea shows a resonant behaviour with maximum extreme observed sea level values around 200 cm found at the northern part. Trends in the 99.9% percentiles are present in several areas, however most of them are removed when the 50% percentile is subtracted indicating that changes in the extremes are in line with mean sea level change. The North Atlantic Oscillation and the Mediterranean Oscillation Index are well correlated with the changes in the 99.9% winter values in the Atlantic, western Mediterranean and the Adriatic stations. The correlation of the NAO and the MOI indices in the Atlantic and western Mediterranean is significant in the autumn too. The correlations between the NAO and MOI index and the changes in the sea level extremes become insignificant when the 50% percentile is removed indicating again that changes in extremes

  18. 78 FR 35217 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; American Lobster Fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 697 RIN 0648-AT31 Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; American Lobster Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... measures in the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) under the authority of section 803(b) of the Atlantic...

  19. Invasion of the Indo-Pacific blenny Omobranchus punctatus (Perciformes: Blenniidae on the Atlantic Coast of Central and South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Lasso-Alcalá

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined 308 specimens of the Indo-Pacific blenniid Omobranchus punctatus deposited in four museum collections, and analyzed data on their collection locations to assess its invasion on the Atlantic coast of Central and South America. This species occurs in shoreline estuarine and marine habitats in the Indo-West Pacific. Previous sampling and recent records in the Tropical West Atlantic from 1930 to 2004 produced 20 records for: Panamá, Colombia, Venezuela, Trinidad and Brazil. In this work, we provide data on 17 new records for the Gulfs of Venezuela and Paria in Venezuela, as well as four records for Maranhão and Pará states in NE Brazil. The temporal pattern of collections (1930 - 2009 and the proximity of most localities to ports and zones of ship traffic indicate that O. punctatus was initially introduced to the Atlantic by ships travelling from India to Trinidad. Within Brazil the introduction is linked to shipping connected to petroleum platforms. In Maranhão and Pará the introduction may have occurred as a result of fish sheltering in fouling on hulls of ships moving between ports around the mouth of the Amazon River. Alternatively, the spread of this species along of the American coast may reflect the expansion of the range of O. puntactus through larval dispersal in northward flowing currents. We recommend monitoring of this introduced species, and studies of its ecology in West Atlantic areas.Nós examinamos 308 espécimes do blenídeo Omobranchus punctatus, de origem Indo-Pacífica, depositados em coleções de quatro museus. Os dados de distribuição foram analisados com o objetivo de avaliar a invasão das águas costeiras do Oceano Atlântico nas Américas do Sul e Central. Em sua área de distribuição original, O. punctatus ocorre em ambientes marinhos e estuarinos. Amostragens datadas de 1930 e de 2004 produziram 20 registros da espécie no Atlântico Oeste tropical, incluindo amostras do Panamá, Col

  20. The use of DNA barcoding to monitor the marine mammal biodiversity along the French Atlantic coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Alfonsi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last ten years, 14 species of cetaceans and five species of pinnipeds stranded along the Atlantic coast of Brittany in the North West of France. All species included, an average of 150 animals strand each year in this area. Based on reports from the stranding network operating along this coast, the most common stranding events comprise six cetacean species (Delphinus delphis, Tursiops truncatus, Stenella coeruleoalba, Globicephala melas, Grampus griseus, Phocoena phocoena and one pinniped species (Halichoerus grypus. Rare stranding events include deep-diving or exotic species, such as arctic seals. In this study, our aim was to determine the potential contribution of DNA barcoding to the monitoring of marine mammal biodiversity as performed by the stranding network.We sequenced more than 500 bp of the 5’ end of the mitochondrial cox1 gene of 89 animals of 15 different species (12 cetaceans, and three pinnipeds. Except for members of the Delphininae, all species were unambiguously discriminated on the basis of their cox1 sequences. We then applied DNA barcoding to identify some “undetermined” samples. With again the exception of the Delphininae, this was successful using the BOLD identification engine. For samples of the Delphininae, we sequenced a portion of the mitochondrial control region (MCR, and using a non-metric multidimentional scaling plot and posterior probability calculations we were able to determine putatively each species. We then showed, in the case of the harbour porpoise, that cox1 polymorphisms, although being lower than MCR ones, could also be used to assess intraspecific variability. All these results show that the use of DNA barcoding in conjunction with a stranding network could clearly increase the accuracy of the monitoring of marine mammal biodiversity.

  1. Evidence of former Holocene sea level in the Marennes-Oléron Bay (French Atlantic coast)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, Jonathan; Chaumillon, Éric; Poirier, Clément; Sauriau, Pierre-Guy; Weber, Olivier

    2008-05-01

    Both sedimentological and mollusc death assemblage analyses from a 14C-dated core, coupled with seismic stratigraphical analysis within the Marennes-Oléron Bay (French Atlantic coast), provide a detailed record of environmental changes during the end of the Holocene rapid sea-level rise. Lithofacies and mollusc fauna changes evidence the transition from a former intertidal bare mudflat to a subtidal environment. The newly shown former sea-level record, computed from radiocarbon-dated Scrobicularia plana shell, matches previously published local sea-level curves. This drowned mudflat belongs to an incised valley-fill that provides new insights into valley-fill successions along the French Atlantic coast.

  2. Forecast effects of accelerating sea-level rise on the habitat of Atlantic Coast piping plovers and identify responsive conservation strategies

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This collaborative project will provide biologists and managers along the Atlantic coast with tools to predict effects of accelerating sea-level rise on the...

  3. Table and accompanying photographs for biogeomorphic classification of shorebird nesting sites on the U.S. Atlantic coast from May to August, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Atlantic coast piping plover (Charadrius melodus) nest sites are typically found on low-lying beach and dune systems, which respond rapidly to coastal processes...

  4. Marine parasites as biological tags in South American Atlantic waters, current status and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantatore, D M P; Timi, J T

    2015-01-01

    Many marine fisheries in South American Atlantic coasts (SAAC) are threatened by overfishing and under serious risk of collapsing. The SAAC comprises a diversity of environments, possesses a complex oceanography and harbours a vast biodiversity that provide an enormous potential for using parasites as biological tags for fish stock delineation, a prerequisite for the implementation of control and management plans. Here, their use in the SAAC is reviewed. Main evidence is derived from northern Argentine waters, where fish parasite assemblages are dominated by larval helminth species that share a low specificity, long persistence and trophic transmission, parasitizing almost indiscriminately all available fish species. The advantages and constraints of such a combination of characteristics are analysed and recommendations are given for future research. Shifting the focus from fish/parasite populations to communities allows expanding the concept of biological tags from local to regional scales, providing essential information to delineate ecosystem boundaries for host communities. This new concept arose as a powerful tool to help the implementation of ecosystem-based approaches to fisheries management, the new paradigm for fisheries science. Holistic approaches, including parasites as biological tags for stock delineation will render valuable information to help insure fisheries and marine ecosystems against further depletion and collapse.

  5. Spatial and long-term changes in the functional and structural phytoplankton communities along the French Atlantic coast

    OpenAIRE

    David, Valerie; Ryckaert, Mireille; Karpytchev, Mikhail; Bacher, Cedric; Arnaudeau, Vanessa; Vidal, Nadia; Maurer, Daniele; Niquil, Nathalie

    2012-01-01

    Spatial and interannual variations of phytoplankton diversity were characterized along the French Atlantic Coast in relation to physical factors and large-scale climatic indices using phytoplankton surveys conducted from 1993 to 2010 in four geographical areas. This study relates phytoplankton diversity to oyster recruitment success by comparing a 'specific' versus a 'functional' diversity approach. Functional diversity was represented by functional groups of different phytoplanktonic functio...

  6. Bimonthly assessment of PAH content in wild mussels from the Spanish Atlantic Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Campillo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available During 2013-14 wild mussels were bimonthly sampled in five stations along the Spanish Atlantic coast in order to assess any temporal variation in the concentration of parent PAHs. The sampling stations selected (Oia, Raxó, Mera, Avilés and Pedreña included both polluted and unpolluted sites and tried to reflect the different situations in the area (coastal and more estuarine waters. The samples were shipped to the lab and three homogenates from each site were prepared and frozen until analysis. 13 parent PAHs were quantified using HPLC with fluorescence detection. In general, the highest concentrations were found in the January-March sampling, during the pre-spawning period. PAHs contents were related to mussel biochemical composition, mainly carbohydrates and lipids, and to mussel reproductive stage. In general the 4-ring PAHs is the most abundant group of PAHs. The input of the HMW PAHs (4-5 rings to the total PAH burden generally increases in the winter months probably due to both different sources in that season (building heatings and the remobilization of sediments.

  7. Tidal salt marshes of the southeast Atlantic Coast: A community profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiegert, R.G.; Freeman, B.J.

    1990-09-01

    This report is part of a series of community profiles on the ecology of wetland and marine communities. This particular profile considers tidal marshes of the southeastern Atlantic coast, from North Carolina south to northern Florida. Alone among the earth's ecosystems, coastal communities are subjected to a bidirectional flooding sometimes occurring twice each day; this flooding affects successional development, species composition, stability, and productivity. In the tidally influenced salt marsh, salinity ranges from less than 1 ppt to that of seawater. Dominant plant species include cordgrasses (Spartina alterniflora and S. cynosuroides), black needlerush (Juncus romerianus), and salt marsh bulrush (Scirpus robustus). Both terrestrail and aquatic animals occur in salt marshes and include herons, egrets ospreys (Pandion haliaetus), bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), alligators (Alligator Mississippiensis), manatees (Trichecus manatus), oysters, mussels, and fiddler crabs. Currently, the only significant direct commercial use of the tidal salt marshes is by crabbers seeking the blue crab Callinectes sapidus, but the marshes are quite important recreationally, aesthetically, and educationally. 151 refs., 45 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. Seaweed biogeography of the mid-Atlantic coast of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searles, R. B.

    1984-06-01

    The northern boundary of the warm temperate region of the mid-Atlantic coast of the United States is set at Cape Hatteras; the southern boundary lies at Cape Canaveral. There is some spillover of cool temperate species south of Cape Hatteras into North Carolina and spillover of warm temperate species south of Cape Canaveral toward Palm Beach. Elements of the warm temperate flora also extend into the northern Gulf of Mexico, but precise limits to the flora cannot be drawn there. Thirty-one species are endemic to the warm temperate flora. The inshore waters of North Carolina include approximately equal numbers of species with northern and southern centres of distribution; the species of the offshore waters have predominantly southern affinities, but also include most of the endemic species. Seasonal changes in the shallow water flora of North Carolina reflect eurythermal cool temperate and tropical elements in winter and summer respectively and a year-round warm temperate element. These groupings have been verified by experimental studies in which light and temperature were varied. The deep water flora is a summer flora dominated by perennial species. The inshore, eurythermal cool temperate and tropical species have a variety of cryptic stages by which they persist throughout the year.

  9. Distribution species abundance and nesting site use of Atlantic coast colonies of herons and their allies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, T.W.; Osborn, R.G.; Stout, W.F.

    1980-01-01

    In 1975 and 1976, 8 teams of investigators located 262 colonies of nesting herons and their allies along the Atlantic coast from Florida to Maine [USA]. Fourteen species [Ajaia ajaja, Plegadis falcinellus, Nycticorax nycticorax, Ardea herodias, Eudocimus albus, Egretta thula, Hydranassa tricolor, Bubulcus ibis, Casmerodius albus, Butorides striatus, Florida caerulea, Dichromanassa rufescens, Nyctanassa violacea and Mycteria americana] were found in Florida, numbers decreasing to 7 in Maine. Colonies censused in the extreme south and north of the study area were lower in number of species and number of adults than those in the intermediate area. More than 90% of the colony sites surveyed in 1975 were active in 1976. The total number of nesting adults per colony, number of species per colony and number of nesting adults of each species per colony in 1976 were significantly correlated with their respective values for 1975. Abandoned and new colonies may be satellites of nearby reused colonies; they had fewer individuals and species than reused colonies and were closer to reused colonies than reused colonies were to each other. [This study was part of an attempt to examine colonially nesting herons as biological indicators of environmental quality.

  10. Ingestion of microplastics by demersal fish from the Spanish Atlantic and Mediterranean coasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellas, Juan; Martínez-Armental, José; Martínez-Cámara, Ariana; Besada, Victoria; Martínez-Gómez, Concepción

    2016-08-15

    Microplastic pollution has received increased attention over the last few years. This study documents microplastic ingestion in three commercially relevant demersal fish species from the Spanish Atlantic and Mediterranean coasts, the lesser spotted dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula, the European hake Merluccius merluccius and the red mullet Mullus barbatus. Overall 212 fish were examined, 72 dogfish, 12 hakes and 128 red mullets. The percentage of fish with microplastics was 17.5% (15.3% dogfish, 18.8% red mullets and 16.7% hakes), averaging 1.56±0.5 items per fish, and the size of the microplastics ranged from 0.38 to 3.1mm. These fish species are used currently as biomonitors for marine pollution monitoring within the Spanish Marine Pollution Monitoring Programme (SMP), and may be as well suitable candidates for monitoring spatial and temporal trends of ingested litter. The data presented here represent a baseline for the implementation of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive descriptor 10 in Spain. PMID:27289284

  11. Visual record of intertidal disturbance caused by drift ice in the spring on the Atlantic coast of Nova Scotia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, Willy; Willers, Maike T; Scrosati, Ricardo A

    2014-01-01

    In the early spring of 2014, an unusually large amount of sea ice drifted from the Gulf of St. Lawrence, where it had been produced, towards the open Atlantic Ocean through the Cabot Strait, between Nova Scotia and Newfoundland, Canada. In early April, significant amounts of drift ice reached the Atlantic coast of mainland Nova Scotia. The ice floes persisted in those coastal waters for up to 16 days, depending on the location. During that time, the ice fragments caused extensive physical disturbance in rocky intertidal communities, removing high quantities of seaweeds and invertebrates. For example, at a location where the ice stayed for 9 days, the loss of macroalgal and invertebrate biomass was almost total. At a location where the ice stayed for 4 days, losses were lower, albeit still high overall. Such a magnitude of disturbance is not common on this coast, as sea ice had not reached the surveyed locations in the previous 4-5 years. We suggest that the frequency of ice scour events may help to predict intertidal community structure. This notion could be tested through multiannual surveys of ice conditions and biological communities along the Atlantic coast of Nova Scotia.

  12. Visual record of intertidal disturbance caused by drift ice in the spring on the Atlantic coast of Nova Scotia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, Willy; Willers, Maike T.; Scrosati, Ricardo A.

    2014-01-01

    In the early spring of 2014, an unusually large amount of sea ice drifted from the Gulf of St. Lawrence, where it had been produced, towards the open Atlantic Ocean through the Cabot Strait, between Nova Scotia and Newfoundland, Canada. In early April, significant amounts of drift ice reached the Atlantic coast of mainland Nova Scotia. The ice floes persisted in those coastal waters for up to 16 days, depending on the location. During that time, the ice fragments caused extensive physical disturbance in rocky intertidal communities, removing high quantities of seaweeds and invertebrates. For example, at a location where the ice stayed for 9 days, the loss of macroalgal and invertebrate biomass was almost total. At a location where the ice stayed for 4 days, losses were lower, albeit still high overall. Such a magnitude of disturbance is not common on this coast, as sea ice had not reached the surveyed locations in the previous 4–5 years. We suggest that the frequency of ice scour events may help to predict intertidal community structure. This notion could be tested through multiannual surveys of ice conditions and biological communities along the Atlantic coast of Nova Scotia. PMID:25132962

  13. Inclusion of South American samples reveals new population structuring of the blacktip shark (Carcharhinus limbatus) in the western Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodré, Davidson; Rodrigues-Filho, Luis F S; Souza, Rosália F C; Rêgo, Péricles S; Schneider, Horacio; Sampaio, Iracilda; Vallinoto, Marcelo

    2012-12-01

    Carcharhinus limbatus has a cosmopolitan distribution and marked genetic structuring, mainly because of its philopatric behavior. However, analysis of this structuring has not previously included South American populations. In the present study, we analyzed a sample of adult individuals collected on the northern coast of Brazil and compared the sequences of the mitochondrial control region with those of populations already genotyped. Relatively high haplotype diversity (12 haplotypes, genetic diversity of 0.796) was observed, similar to that in other populations but with a much larger number of private alleles. In contrast to populations studied previously, which were represented by neonates, the pronounced allelic variability found in the South American individuals may have resulted from migrations from other populations in the region that have yet to be genotyped. This population was also genetically distinct from the other Atlantic populations (F(st) > 0.8), probably because of female philopatry, and apparently separated from the northwestern Atlantic group 1.39 million years ago. These findings indicate that the C. limbatus population from northern Brazil is genetically distinct from all other populations and should be considered as a different management unit for the protection of stocks. PMID:23271935

  14. Inclusion of South American samples reveals new population structuring of the blacktip shark (Carcharhinus limbatus in the western Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davidson Sodré

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Carcharhinus limbatus has a cosmopolitan distribution and marked genetic structuring, mainly because of its philopatric behavior. However, analysis of this structuring has not previously included South American populations. In the present study, we analyzed a sample of adult individuals collected on the northern coast of Brazil and compared the sequences of the mitochondrial control region with those of populations already genotyped. Relatively high haplotype diversity (12 haplotypes, genetic diversity of 0.796 was observed, similar to that in other populations but with a much larger number of private alleles. In contrast to populations studied previously, which were represented by neonates, the pronounced allelic variability found in the South American individuals may have resulted from migrations from other populations in the region that have yet to be genotyped. This population was also genetically distinct from the other Atlantic populations (Fst > 0.8, probably because of female philopatry, and apparently separated from the northwestern Atlantic group 1.39 million years ago. These findings indicate that the C. limbatus population from northern Brazil is genetically distinct from all other populations and should be considered as a different management unit for the protection of stocks.

  15. Relationships between nesting populations of wading birds and habitat features along the Atlantic Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, R.M.; Spendelow, J.A.; Geissler, P.H.; Williams, B.K.; Whitman, William R.; Meredith, William H.

    1987-01-01

    Using previously published atlas data for 122 mixed-species wading bird colonies on islands along the Atlantic coast (Maine to Florida, 1976-77), we examined relationships between population sizes of 11 species of egrets, herons, ibises, and wood storks (Mycteria americana) and nine habitat variables. On nautical charts, we measured four island characteristics (area, length, width, shape), three isolation factors (distances to nearest island, mainland, and a water barrier),, and two variables related to potential feeding habitat within 5 km of the center of the colony (wetland area and land-water interface, i.e., the linear distance between the marsh/upland and all water bodies within the same 5-km radius). One univariable and five multivariable .procedures were used to determine which habitat features were best related to population size .(all species combined). Multicollinearity problems among the variables limited interpretation for most procedures. Both univariable and the multivariable procedures indicated that land-water interface was the most important of the nine variables, but for all models, less than 10% of the total variance was explained (rz is less than 0.10). The size of the colony was not related to the amount of wetland area (within 5-km).per se. Colony data showed better 'structure' when examined on the basis of geographic and disturbance gradients. Population sizes of colonies near man-altered habitats were compared with those surrounded by relatively natural habitats in three geographic zones: north, middle, and south. Significant differences were found in colony size among the three zones (south largest) and between disturbance types. Surprisingly, in all three zones, colonies near man-altered areas were larger on average than those near more natural habitats in this region. A possible reason for this difference is suggested.

  16. Exploitable Lipids and Fatty Acids in the Invasive Oyster Crassostrea gigas on the French Atlantic Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flore Dagorn

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Economic exploitation is one means to offset the cost of controlling invasive species, such as the introduced Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas Thunberg on the French Atlantic coast. Total lipid and phospholipid (PL fatty acids (FAs and sterols were examined in an invasive population of C. gigas in Bourgneuf Bay, France, over four successive seasons, with a view to identify possible sources of exploitable substances. The total lipid level (% dry weight varied from 7.1% (winter to 8.6% (spring. Of this, PLs accounted for 28.1% (spring to 50.4% (winter. Phosphatidylcholine was the dominant PL throughout the year (up to 74% of total PLs in winter. Plasmalogens were identified throughout the year as a series of eleven dimethylacetals (DMAs with chain lengths between C16 and C20 (up to 14.5% of PL FAs + DMAs in winter. Thirty-seven FAs were identified in the PL FAs. Eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3 EPA/7.53% to 14.5% and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3 DHA/5.51% to 9.5% were the dominant polyunsaturated FAs in all seasons. Two non-methylene-interrupted dienoic (NMID FAs were identified in all seasons: 7,13-docosadienoic and 7,15-docosadienoic acids, the latter being present at relatively high levels (up to 9.6% in winter. Twenty free sterols were identified, including cholesterol at 29.9% of the sterol mixture and about 33% of phytosterols. C. gigas tissues thus contained exploitable lipids for health benefits or as a potential source of high-quality commercial lecithin.

  17. Starting a DNA barcode reference library for shallow water polychaetes from the southern European Atlantic coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Jorge; Teixeira, Marcos A L; Borges, Luisa M S; Ferreira, Maria S G; Hollatz, Claudia; Gomes, Pedro T; Sousa, Ronaldo; Ravara, Ascensão; Costa, Maria H; Costa, Filipe O

    2016-01-01

    Annelid polychaetes have been seldom the focus of dedicated DNA barcoding studies, despite their ecological relevance and often dominance, particularly in soft-bottom estuarine and coastal marine ecosystems. Here, we report the first assessment of the performance of DNA barcodes in the discrimination of shallow water polychaete species from the southern European Atlantic coast, focusing on specimens collected in estuaries and coastal ecosystems of Portugal. We analysed cytochrome oxidase I DNA barcodes (COI-5P) from 164 specimens, which were assigned to 51 morphospecies. To our data set from Portugal, we added available published sequences selected from the same species, genus or family, to inspect for taxonomic congruence among studies and collection location. The final data set comprised 290 specimens and 79 morphospecies, which generated 99 Barcode Index Numbers (BINs) within Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD). Among these, 22 BINs were singletons, 47 other BINs were concordant, confirming the initial identification based on morphological characters, and 30 were discordant, most of which consisted on multiple BINs found for the same morphospecies. Some of the most prominent cases in the latter category include Hediste diversicolor (O.F. Müller, 1776) (7), Eulalia viridis (Linnaeus, 1767) (2) and Owenia fusiformis (delle Chiaje, 1844) (5), all of them reported from Portugal and frequently used in ecological studies as environmental quality indicators. Our results for these species showed discordance between molecular lineages and morphospecies, or added additional relatively divergent lineages. The potential inaccuracies in environmental assessments, where underpinning polychaete species diversity is poorly resolved or clarified, demand additional and extensive investigation of the DNA barcode diversity in this group, in parallel with alpha taxonomy efforts. PMID:26129849

  18. ATLANTIC - Coastal Vulnerability to Sea-Level Rise: A Preliminary Database for the U.S. Atlantic Coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The goal of this project is to provide a preliminary overview, at a National scale, the relative susceptibility of the Nation's coast to sea-level rise through the...

  19. National Assessment of Shoreline Change; historical shoreline change along the New England and Mid-Atlantic coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapke, Cheryl J.; Himmelstoss, Emily A.; Kratzmann, Meredith G.; List, Jeffrey H.; Thieler, E. Robert

    2011-01-01

    Beach erosion is a chronic problem along many open-ocean shores of the United States. As coastal populations continue to grow and community infrastructures are threatened by erosion, there is increased demand for accurate information regarding past and present trends and rates of shoreline movement. There is also a need for a comprehensive analysis of shoreline movement that is consistent from one coastal region to another. To meet these national needs, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting an analysis of historical shoreline changes along open-ocean sandy shores of the conterminous United States and parts of Hawaii, Alaska, and the Great Lakes. One purpose of this work is to develop standard, repeatable methods for mapping and analyzing shoreline movement so that periodic, systematic, internally consistent updates regarding coastal erosion and land loss can be made nationally. In the case of this study, the shoreline is the interpreted boundary between the ocean water surface and the sandy beach. This report on the New England and Mid-Atlantic coasts is the fifth in a series of reports on historical shoreline change. Previous investigations include analyses and descriptive reports of the Gulf of Mexico, the Southeast Atlantic, and, for California, the sandy shoreline and the coastal cliffs. The rates of change presented in this report represent conditions up to the date of the most recent shoreline data and therefore are not intended for predicting future shoreline positions or rates of change. Because of the geomorphology of the New England and Mid-Atlantic (rocky coastlines, large embayments and beaches) as well as data gaps in some areas, this report presents beach erosion rates for 78 percent of the 1,360 kilometers of the New England and Mid-Atlantic coasts. The New England and Mid-Atlantic shores were subdivided into a total of 10 analysis regions for the purpose of reporting regional trends in shoreline change rates. The average rate of long

  20. Developing an Event-Tree Probabilistic Tsunami Inundation Model for NE Atlantic Coasts: Application to a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omira, R.; Matias, L.; Baptista, M. A.

    2016-08-01

    This study constitutes a preliminary assessment of probabilistic tsunami inundation in the NE Atlantic region. We developed an event-tree approach to calculate the likelihood of tsunami flood occurrence and exceedance of a specific near-shore wave height for a given exposure time. Only tsunamis of tectonic origin are considered here, taking into account local, regional, and far-field sources. The approach used here consists of an event-tree method that gathers probability models for seismic sources, tsunami numerical modeling, and statistical methods. It also includes a treatment of aleatoric uncertainties related to source location and tidal stage. Epistemic uncertainties are not addressed in this study. The methodology is applied to the coastal test-site of Sines located in the NE Atlantic coast of Portugal. We derive probabilistic high-resolution maximum wave amplitudes and flood distributions for the study test-site considering 100- and 500-year exposure times. We find that the probability that maximum wave amplitude exceeds 1 m somewhere along the Sines coasts reaches about 60 % for an exposure time of 100 years and is up to 97 % for an exposure time of 500 years. The probability of inundation occurrence (flow depth >0 m) varies between 10 % and 57 %, and from 20 % up to 95 % for 100- and 500-year exposure times, respectively. No validation has been performed here with historical tsunamis. This paper illustrates a methodology through a case study, which is not an operational assessment.

  1. Assessment of tsunami hazard for the American Pacific coast from southern Mexico to northern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brizuela, B.; Armigliato, A.; Tinti, S.

    2013-06-01

    Central America has been struck by at least 49 tsunamis between 1539 and 1996. As many as 37 of these events occurred at the Pacific Coast, and 31 were generated by earthquakes. Some of the events have been destructive, but despite this, tsunamis are an underrated hazard in Central America: people are not aware that they are at risk and even recent tsunami events have been forgotten. Recent studies, following the destructive tsunami occurred in Nicaragua in 1992, have revealed that Central America is a moderately tsunamigenic zone that is mainly affected by tsunamis triggered by earthquakes, especially at the Pacific coast where the Middle American Trench runs parallel to the coast. In this study, a statistical first and then a deterministic analysis for the Pacific coast of Central America has been carried out. The statistical approach aims to estimate the Gutenberg-Richter coefficients of the main seismic tsunamigenic regions of the area in order to assess the annual rate of occurrence of tsunamigenic earthquakes and their corresponding return period. A deterministic approach is then used to compute the tsunami run-up distribution along the coast corresponding to a given annual rate of occurrence of tsunamigenic earthquakes.

  2. National Assessment of Hurricane-Induced Coastal Erosion Hazards: Mid-Atlantic Coast (version 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data sets contain information on the probabilities of hurricane-induced erosion (collision, inundation and overwash) for each 1-km section of the Mid-Atlantic...

  3. National Assessment of Hurricane-Induced Coastal Erosion Hazards: Mid-Atlantic Coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data sets contain information on the probabilities of hurricane-induced erosion (collision, inundation and overwash) for each 1-km section of the Mid-Atlantic...

  4. 78 FR 43959 - In the Matter of American Technologies Group, Inc., Bonanza Oil & Gas, Inc., and Gulf Coast Oil...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-22

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of American Technologies Group, Inc., Bonanza Oil & Gas, Inc., and Gulf Coast Oil... information concerning the securities of Bonanza Oil & Gas, Inc. because it has not filed any periodic reports... a lack of current and accurate information concerning the securities of Gulf Coast Oil & Gas,...

  5. Population structure of the Atlantic sand fiddler crab Uca pugilator along the eastern coast of US revealed by molecular data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David A.WEESE; Denson K.MCLAIN; Ann E.PRATT; Quentin Q.FANG

    2009-01-01

    The Atlantic sand fiddler crab Uca pugilator is an extremely abundant crab found along the eastern coast of the United States. Fiddler crabs have a life cycle with an obligatory planktonic larval phase of 30-90 days, which might be expected to lead to widespread larval dispersal and consequent genetic homogeneity over considerable distances. However, a large amount of morphological and behavioral variation is found between northern and southern populations along the eastern coast. This study was undertaken to determine the population genetic structure of U.pugilator and to determine whether these differences may have a genetic basis. The population structure of the fiddler crab was analyzed using 472 individuals collected from 12 sites along the eastern coast. PCR-based single stand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) was used to investigate between-site variation in the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene of these individuals. Analysis of genetic variation indicated frequent gene flow between nearby localities, but much reduced levels between populations separated by larger geographic distances. Thus, despite the potential for high dispersal by planktonic larvae, population differentiation and isolation by distance is evident between northern and southern populations of U.pugilator. A high amount of genetic differentiation (FST=0.3468) was found between northern and southern regions suggesting that the morphological and behavioral differences between these two regions have a genetic basis and may represent subspecies [Current Zoology 55(2):150-157,2009].

  6. Coastal Carbon Synthesis for the Continental Shelf of the North American Pacific Coast (NAPC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siedlecki, S. A.; Alin, S. R.

    2015-12-01

    The West Coast represents the longest coastline in North America, stretching from Panama all the way northward to the Aleutians. Key advances in the carbon cycling of this margin have been made since the North American Continental Margins report (Hales et al., 2008), notably the convergence of models and observations on air-sea fluxes; more sophisticated coastal carbon cycle models; and increased observational coverage in space and time, allowing for more data synthesis and model-data comparison. The coast was divided up into sub-regions based on differences in oceanographic drivers of coastal carbon cycling. Those sub-regions include the Gulf of Alaska, the Central American Isthmus, and the California Current System (CCS), which is further subdivided into northern, central, and southern sectors. The carbon budget for the Pacific Coast of North America identifies the best-known fluxes as the air-sea exchange of CO2 and terrestrial inputs. The least constrained fluxes include respiration, cross-shelf exchange, and carbon metabolism in estuaries. Spatial trends were typically consistent among models and observations, but the magnitude of the fluxes varied widely. While more modeling and observational studies exist than are presented here, relevant fluxes for the carbon budget were often unreported. In the long-term, investments in research and monitoring will be needed to better constrain the fluxes of many of the highly variable regions described in this study. In addition to the budget, this synthesis identifies gaps and priorities for future research.

  7. Assessment of tsunami hazards for the Central American Pacific coast from southern Mexico to northern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brizuela, B.; Armigliato, A.; Tinti, S.

    2014-07-01

    Central America (CA), from Guatemala to Panama, has been struck by at least 52 tsunamis between 1539 and 2013, and in the extended region from Mexico to northern Peru (denoted as ECA, Extended Central America in this paper) the number of recorded tsunamis in the same time span is more than 100, most of which were triggered by earthquakes located in the Middle American Trench that runs parallel to the Pacific coast. The most severe event in the catalogue is the tsunami that occurred on 2 September 1992 off Nicaragua, with run-up measured in the range of 5-10 m in several places along the Nicaraguan coast. The aim of this paper is to assess the tsunami hazard on the Pacific coast of this extended region, and to this purpose a hybrid probabilistic-deterministic analysis is performed, that is adequate for tsunamis generated by earthquakes. More specifically, the probabilistic approach is used to compute the Gutenberg-Richter coefficients of the main seismic tsunamigenic zones of the area and to estimate the annual rate of occurrence of tsunamigenic earthquakes and their corresponding return period. The output of the probabilistic part of the method is taken as input by the deterministic part, which is applied to calculate the tsunami run-up distribution along the coast.

  8. European mussel cultivation along the Atlantic coast: production status, problems and perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smaal, A.C.

    2002-01-01

    Mussel culture in Europe produces about 50 f the annual world-wide harvest of mussels. The main yields of atlantic mussels are from Spain, The Netherlands and Denmark, while the Mediterranean production predominantly comes from Italy. Production in these traditional areas have been stabilised since

  9. Cytotoxicity and Inhibition of Lymphocyte Proliferation of Fasciculatin, a Linear Furanosesterterpene Isolated from Ircinia variabilis Collected from the Atlantic Coast of Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Herz

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Fasciculatin, a furanosesterterpene isolated from the marine sponge Ircinia variabilis from the Atlantic Coast of Morocco, has been evaluated for its influence on a mitogen-induced proliferation of human lymphocytes and growth of human tumor cell lines.

  10. COPLANAR PCB AND METAL RESIDUES IN DOLPHINS FROM THE U.S. ATLANTIC COAST INCLUDING THE BOTTLENOSE DOLPHIN OBTAINED DURING THE 1987/88 MASS MORTALITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) collected during the 1987/88 mass mortality event along the Atlantic coast of the United States have been analyzed for coplanar PCBs #77, 105, 126 and 169 in blubber, and for the metals Hg, Pb, Cd, Mn, and Cr, and the non-metallic element ...

  11. Distribution, species abundance, and nesting-site use of Atlantic coast colonies of herons and their allies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, T.W.; Osborn, R.G.; Stout, W.F.

    1980-01-01

    In 1975 and 1976, eight teams of investigators located 262 colonies of nesting herons and their allies along the Atlantic coast from Florida to Maine. Fourteen species were found in Florida, numbers decreasing to seven in Maine. Colonies censused in the extreme south and north of the study area were lower in number of species and number of adults than those in the intermediate area. More than 90% of the colony sites surveyed in 1975 were active in 1976. The total number of nesting adults per colony, number of species per colony, and number of nestinga dults of each speciesp er colonyi n 1976 were significantlyc orrelatedw ith their respective values for 1975. Abandoned and new colonies appeared to be satellites of nearby reused colonies; they had fewer individuals and species than reused colonies and were closer to reused colonies than reused colonies were to each other.

  12. Assessment of tsunami hazards for the Central American Pacific coast from southern Mexico to northern Peru

    OpenAIRE

    B. Brizuela; Armigliato, A.; S. Tinti

    2014-01-01

    Central America (CA), from Guatemala to Panama, has been struck by at least 52 tsunamis between 1539 and 2013, and in the extended region from Mexico to northern Peru (denoted as ECA, Extended Central America in this paper) the number of recorded tsunamis in the same time span is more than 100, most of which were triggered by earthquakes located in the Middle American Trench that runs parallel to the Pacific coast. The most severe event in the catalogue is the tsunami that o...

  13. History and economic consequences of species invasions on Atlantic coast: "good" & "bad" examples

    OpenAIRE

    Goulletquer, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Species invasion is considered as a main factor impacting the marine biodiversity (CBD, 2008). A comprehensive review of species invasion along the French Atlantic coastline is carried out to assess the present status and side effects resulting from those invasions. Vectors of introduction concerning voluntarily and involuntarily, legal & illegal case studies are reviewed to provide baseline information relating invasion success and potential control. Historical case studies regarding shellfi...

  14. 76 FR 76927 - Port Access Route Study: The Atlantic Coast From Maine to Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-09

    ... they be located? (6) What are the pros and cons to the Coast Guard designating coastwise fairways or...'' column. If you do not have access to the internet, you may view the docket online by visiting the Docket... records notice regarding our public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73...

  15. Hunting and use of terrestrial fauna used by Caiçaras from the Atlantic Forest coast (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alves Rômulo RN

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Brazilian Atlantic Forest is considered one of the hotspots for conservation, comprising remnants of rain forest along the eastern Brazilian coast. Its native inhabitants in the Southeastern coast include the Caiçaras (descendants from Amerindians and European colonizers, with a deep knowledge on the natural resources used for their livelihood. Methods We studied the use of the terrestrial fauna in three Caiçara communities, through open-ended interviews with 116 native residents. Data were checked through systematic observations and collection of zoological material. Results The dependence on the terrestrial fauna by Caiçaras is especially for food and medicine. The main species used are Didelphis spp., Dasyprocta azarae, Dasypus novemcinctus, and small birds (several species of Turdidae. Contrasting with a high dependency on terrestrial fauna resources by native Amazonians, the Caiçaras do not show a constant dependency on these resources. Nevertheless, the occasional hunting of native animals represents a complimentary source of animal protein. Conclusion Indigenous or local knowledge on native resources is important in order to promote local development in a sustainable way, and can help to conserve biodiversity, particularly if the resource is sporadically used and not commercially exploited.

  16. Further evidence for the invasion and establishment of Pterois volitans (Teleostei: Scorpaenidae) along the Atlantic Coast of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meister, H.S.; Wyanski, D.M.; Loefer, J.K.; Ross, S.W.; Quattrini, A.M.; Sulak, K.J.

    2005-01-01

    We document the continued population expansion of red lionfish, Pterois volitans, the first documented successful introduction of an invasive marine fish species from the western Pacific to Atlantic coastal waters of the United States. Red lionfish are indigenous to the Indo-Pacific and have apparently established one or more breeding populations on reefs off the southeastern United States. Fifty-nine specimens, most presumably adult red lionfish, were documented or collected on live-bottom reefs off North Carolina, South Carolina, and Florida, and on a manmade structure off Georgia. Observation/collection depths and bottom water temperatures for these fish ranged from 40-99 m and 13.8-24.4??C, respectively. Eleven juvenile lionfish, believed to be expatriated from southeastern waters, were collected in estuaries along the coast of Long Island, NY, at depths of 0-5 m and water temperatures ranging from 13.8-16.5??C. Twelve of the total 70 specimens collected or observed were positively identified as red lionfish. Based on histological assessment of gonad tissue, two reproductively-active males and one immature female were collected. The life history of red lionfish, especially their reproductive biology and food habits, should be investigated along the east coast of the US to determine the potential impacts of this species on ecosystems they have invaded.

  17. Gloria mosaic of the deep sea floor off the Atlantic coast of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlee, John S.; Dillon, William P.; Popenoe, Peter; Robb, James M.; O'Leary, Dennis W.

    1992-01-01

    This mosaic is a GLORIA (Geological LOng Range Inclined Asdic) view of the deep sea floor off the East Coast of the United States. It covers a surveyed region (fig. 1) of 195,000 square miles, an area nearly as large as Texas. The survey is part of a program to map the entire Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of the United States and its island territories (also including Puerto Rico and the Northern Mariana Islands) carried out by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the British Institute of Oceanographic Sciences (IOS). A detailed atlas of the East Coast data has been published (EEZ-SCAN 87 Scientific Staff, 1991), and, along with this report, provides an overall view of the morphology and texture of the sea floor in the EEZ beyond the Continental Shelf.

  18. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF THE EXTRACTS OF RHODOPHYCEAE FROM THE ATLANTIC AND THE MEDITERRANEAN COASTS OF MOROCCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhimou Bouhlal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Hundred eight of organic extracts from eighteen red marine algae of Atlantic-Mediterranean have been tested for the production of antibacterial compounds. These extracts were obtained for two methods, maceration and using soxhlet. This study shows that most of the algal extracts were significantly active. The highest rates of biologically activity were found in five species, Pterosiphonia complanata, Sphaerococcus coronopifolius, Plocamium cartilagineum, Asparagopsis armata and Boergeseniella thuyoides. Among the methanolic and chloroforme-methanolic extracts showed the greatest biologically active.

  19. Advanced Regional and Decadal Predictions of Coastal Inundation for the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf Coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, B. P.; Donnelly, J. P.; Corbett, D. R.; Kemp, A.; Lindeman, K.; Mann, M. E.; Peltier, W. R.; Rahmstorf, S.

    2012-12-01

    Future inundation of the US Atlantic and Gulf coasts will depend upon both sea-level rise and the intensity and frequency of tropical cyclones, each of which will be affected by climate change. In this proposal, we will employ new interdisciplinary approaches to bring about a step change in the reliability of predictions of such inundation. The rate of sea-level rise along the US Atlantic and Gulf coasts has increased throughout the 20th century. Whilst there is widespread agreement that it continue to accelerate during the 21st century, great uncertainty surrounds its magnitude and geographic distribution. Key uncertainties include the role of continental ice sheets, mountain glaciers and ocean density changes. Insufficient understanding of these complex physical processes precludes accurate prediction of sea-level rise. New approaches using semi-empirical models that relate instrumental records of climate and sea-level rise have projected up to 2 m of sea-level rise by AD 2100. But the time span of instrumental sea-level records is insufficient to adequately constrain the climate:sea-level relationship. Here, we produce new high resolution proxy data of sea-level and temperature to provide crucial additional constraints to such semi-empirical models. Our dataset will span the alternation between the "Medieval Climate Anomaly" and "Little Ice Age". Before the models can provide appropriate data for coastal management and planning, they must be complemented with regional estimates of sea-level rise. Therefore, the proxy sea-level data has been collected from six study areas (Massachusetts, New Jersey, North Carolina, Georgia and Atlantic and Gulf coasts of Florida) to accommodate the required extent of regional variability. In the case of inundation arising from tropical cyclones, the historical and observational records are insufficient for predicting their nature and recurrence, because they are such extreme and rare events. Moreover, in the future, the resultant

  20. Analysis of the most important river plumes on the Atlantic and Mediterranean Iberian coast by means of satellite imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Fernandez Novoa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Rivers discharges cause the formation of buoyant plumes in the adjacent coastal area at their mouths, which are characterized by low-salinity water and controlled by outflow inertia, rotation (Coriolis effects, buoyancy, wind, and tide forcing. The turbid plumes influence the adjacent coastal area, since they control the patterns of nutrients, sediments and/or pollutants of fluvial origin on the coastal ocean and can promote strong physical and chemical changes on seawater. These changes affect the biological characteristics of the area, such as primary production, species composition, abundance and distribution of existing microorganism, which demonstrates its high ecological importance. The characterization of the most important river plumes along the Atlantic Iberian coast and the influence of the main forcing drivers (river discharge, wind and tide on them, was carried out through the analysis of plume mean-state images calculated using water leaving radiance data (nLw555 obtained from the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer sensor onboard the Aqua satellite during 2003-2013. Satellite data are downloaded from Ocean Color web site (http://oceancolor.gsfc.nasa.gov. Daily high-resolution L1 files from MODIS-Aqua were processed through SeaDAS software. Composite images, interpolated to a regular pixel grid with an approximate resolution of 500m, were built for different synoptic conditions of river discharge, wind regimes and tide, in order to obtain a representative average plume image of each situation and river for the posterior analysis. Results showed that the river discharge is the main forcing factor in the river plume extension. Wind effect is noticeable under high river discharge and tide is important for the estuarine outflow regimes although with some remarkable similarities and differences between the Atlantic rivers due to their intrinsic characteristics.

  1. Sea-water/groundwater interactions along a small catchment of the European Atlantic coast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Einsiedl, Florian

    2012-01-01

    , located in SW Ireland has facilitated the characterization of groundwater recharge conditions in the western part of Ireland and suggests that groundwater is mostly replenished by the isotopically light winter precipitation. The dissolved SO42- in the karstic groundwater that was collected during baseflow......The geochemistry and isotopic composition of a karstic coastal aquifer in western Ireland has shed light on the effect of sea-water/groundwater interactions on the water quality of Ireland’s Atlantic coastal zone. The use of stable isotope data from the IAEA precipitation station in Valentia...... conditions with δ34S values between 4.6‰ and 18‰ may be composed of S stemming from three principal sources: SO42- derived from precipitation which is composed of both sea-spray S (δ34S: 20‰) and an isotopically light anthropogenic source (δ34S: 1–5‰), SO42-stemming from animal slurries (δ34S: ∼5...

  2. Evaluating Tsunami Impact on the Gulf of Cadiz Coast (Northeast Atlantic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omira, R.; Baptista, M. A.; Miranda, J. M.

    2011-06-01

    The Gulf of Cadiz coasts are exposed to tsunamis. Emergency planning tools are now taking into account this fact, especially because a series of historical occurrences were strikingly significant, having left strong evidence behind, in the mareographic records, the geological evidence or simply the memory of the populations. The study area is a strip along the Algarve coast, south Portugal, an area known to have been heavily impacted by the 1 November 1755 event. In this study we use two different tsunami scenarios generated by the rupture of two thrust faults identified in the area, corresponding to 8.1-8.3 magnitude earthquakes. Tsunami propagation and inundation computation is performed using a non-linear shallow water code with bottom friction. Numerical modeling results are presented in terms of flow depth and current velocity with maximum values of 7 m and 8 m/s for inundation depth and flow speed, respectively. These results constitute a valuable tool for local authorities, emergency and decision planners to define the priority zones where tsunami mitigation measures must be implemented and to develop tsunami-resilient communities.

  3. Temperature, salinity, nutrients, freons, oxygen, currents (ADCP), underway and other measurements collected in the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic as part of the Gulf of Mexico and East Coast Carbon Cruise (GOMECC) 2007 (NODC Accession 0066603)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — GOMECC Gulf of Mexico and East Coast Carbon Cruise(RB 07-05). North American Carbon Program (NACP) Gulf of Mexico and East Coast Carbon (GOMECC) Cruise on board the...

  4. Decadal-scale sea level rise acceleration along the Florida Atlantic coast and its relations to sea level variability along the Florida Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wdowinski, S.; Thompson, P. R.; Mitchum, G. T.; Park, J.

    2015-12-01

    The US Atlantic coast is one of the most vulnerable areas to sea level rise (SLR) due to its low elevation, large population concentrations, and economic importance. Further vulnerability arises from accelerating rates of SLR, which began in the early 2000's and caused a significant increase in flooding frequency in several coastal communities. Several studies have suggested that the accelerating SLR rates are due to the slowing down of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation, in particular, a weakening of the Gulf Stream (GS). However, there are no direct observations that link the GS conditions and high sea levels along the coast. In this study we use satellite altimetry, tide gauge, and Florida Current (FC) cable data to explore possible relations between the recent SLR rate increase along the Florida Atlantic coast and various dynamical processes in the GS/FC system. Preliminary calculations indicate a good agreement between coastal sea level and nearshore altimetry series (R = 0.76-0.8) suggesting that SSH gradients from altimetry may be useful for assessing the dynamics associated with the coastal sea level change. Here we focus on spatio-temporal SSH changes along the two satellite passes located closest to the Florida Atlantic coast. Our results indicate an intriguing transition in SSH behavior around 2004-5. Prior to 2004, anomalous low coastal SSH events (strong FC) occurred every 3-5 years in correlation with warm ENSO events. After 2004, the strong relationship between ENSO and the gradient across the FC vanishes, while the mean sea level across the current increases. The observed SSH anomaly transition around 2004-5 correlates well with the initiation of accelerated rates of coastal SLR, suggesting that the decadal scale SLR acceleration has occurred during weak FC conditions. However, the forcing of this transition and the role of mean sea level variability, which is of comparable magnitude to variability in the gradient, remain unexplained.

  5. Chromosomal differences between European and North American Atlantic salmon discovered by linkage mapping and supported by fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenna-Hansen Silje

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Geographical isolation has generated a distinct difference between Atlantic salmon of European and North American Atlantic origin. The European Atlantic salmon generally has 29 pairs of chromosomes and 74 chromosome arms whereas it has been reported that the North American Atlantic salmon has 27 chromosome pairs and an NF of 72. In order to predict the major chromosomal rearrangements causing these differences, we constructed a dense linkage map for Atlantic salmon of North American origin and compared it with the well-developed map for European Atlantic salmon. Results The presented male and female genetic maps for the North American subspecies of Atlantic salmon, contains 3,662 SNPs located on 27 linkage groups. The total lengths of the female and male linkage maps were 2,153 cM and 968 cM respectively, with males characteristically showing recombination only at the telomeres. We compared these maps with recently published SNP maps from European Atlantic salmon, and predicted three chromosomal reorganization events that we then tested using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH analysis. The proposed rearrangements, which define the differences in the karyotypes of the North American Atlantic salmon relative to the European Atlantic salmon, include the translocation of the p arm of ssa01 to ssa23 and polymorphic fusions: ssa26 with ssa28, and ssa08 with ssa29. Conclusions This study identified major chromosomal differences between European and North American Atlantic salmon. However, while gross structural differences were significant, the order of genetic markers at the fine-resolution scale was remarkably conserved. This is a good indication that information from the International Cooperation to Sequence the Atlantic salmon Genome, which is sequencing a European Atlantic salmon, can be transferred to Atlantic salmon from North America.

  6. Responses of salt marsh ecosystems to mosquito control management practices along the Atlantic Coast (U.S.A.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    James-Pirri, Mary-Jane; Erwin, R. Michael; Prosser, Diann J.; Taylor, Janith D.

    2012-01-01

    Open marsh water management (OMWM) of salt marshes modifies grid-ditched marshes by creating permanent ponds and radial ditches in the high marsh that reduce mosquito production and enhance fish predation on mosquitoes. It is preferable to using pesticides to control salt marsh mosquito production and is commonly presented as a restoration or habitat enhancement tool for grid-ditched salt marshes. Monitoring of nekton, vegetation, groundwater level, soil salinity, and bird communities before and after OMWM at 11 (six treatment and five reference sites) Atlantic Coast (U.S.A.) salt marshes revealed high variability within and among differing OMWM techniques (ditch-plugging, reengineering of sill ditches, and the creation of ponds and radial ditches). At three marshes, the dominant nekton shifted from fish (primarily Fundulidae species) to shrimp (Palaemonidae species) after manipulations and shrimp density increased at other treatment sites. Vegetation changed at only two sites, one with construction equipment impacts (not desired) and one with a decrease in woody vegetation along existing ditches (desired). One marsh had lower groundwater level and soil salinity, and bird use, although variable, was often unrelated to OMWM manipulations. The potential effects of OMWM manipulations on non-target salt marsh resources need to be carefully considered by resource planners when managing marshes for mosquito control.

  7. Zooplankton structure and dynamics in two estuaries from the Atlantic coast in relation to multi-stressors exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, L. R.; Guilhermino, L.; Morgado, F.

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the response of pelagic zooplankton to different levels of abiotic multi-stressors in the North Atlantic coast, taking advantage of the comparison of the communities of two adjacent estuaries with different levels of historical pollution (estuaries of Minho and Lima Rivers). The zooplankton community structure, composition and temporal variation were comparatively investigated for 15 months, using different net meshes. Several abiotic factors were measured in situ and water samples were simultaneously collected for determination of nutrients and chlorophyll a. The overall results revealed a diverse community represented by species that have been found in subtropical and temperate zones. Although the highest diversity was observed in the Lima estuary, supported by higher contributions of marine taxa, the total zooplankton biomass was found to be significantly higher in the Minho estuary. The salinity gradient differences between estuaries, associated to significant differences in water nutrients levels, were found to be the main forcing factors affecting micro and mesozooplankton. Considering the importance of the impacts resulting from abiotic variation on the basis of aquatic food webs, the present investigation represented a case-study, based in two contrasting estuaries, one strongly influenced by freshwater discharges (Minho estuary) and the other with higher salinity levels (Lima estuary), contributing to a better understanding of the effects of multi-stressors on pelagic zooplankton communities, providing useful information for studies related with climate change impacts, biogeography, conservation and providing data contributing to the improvement of pelagic fisheries management models.

  8. Rebuilding natural coastlines after sediment mining: the example of the Brittany coasts (English Channel and Atlantic Ocean).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regnauld, Herve

    2016-04-01

    Rebuilding natural coastlines after sediment mining: the example of the Brittany coasts (English Channel and Atlantic Ocean). H.Regnauld (1) , J.N. Proust (2) and H.Mahmoud (1) (1) University of Rennes 2, (2) CNRS-University of Rennes 1, France A large part of the coasts of Brittany (western France) have been very heavily impacted by sand mining for the building of military equipments and of a large tidal power station. In some places more then 90 % of the sediment has been extracted during the late 40ies up to the 60ies. The mined site were all sink sites, were sediment had been accumulating for centuries. After the sand and or gravel extraction was stopped the coastal sites were largely used for tourism and most of the eroded dune fields were turned into car parks. Storms produced large floods inland as most of the gravel or sand barrier didn't exist any more. Some local outcrops of inherited Holocene periglacial material with archaeological remains were eroded, some disappeared. During the 80ies a complete shift in planning policies took place and these sites were progressively changed into nature preserves. The aim was to make them behave in a "natural" way again. The "natural" behaviour was intended in a very precise way: barriers should be able to withstand storms again and to protect inland fields from floods. In order to allow for dune re building wooden fences were erected and marram grass was artificially planted. As, from a sedimentological point of view, these sites were sink sites, accumulation was rather rapid (up to 0.25m a year behind wooden fences) and new barrier began to build. The only problem is that they did not always build-up exactly in the same place or with the same material. Some parts of the coasts were left "unprotected" by these new barriers, ancient exposed sites became protected. Today the system as a whole may be considered as having been able to reach some level of equilibrium with the average wave conditions. It has been able to

  9. Sea-Level Rise Implications for Coastal Protection from Southern Mediterranean to the U.S.A. Atlantic Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Nabil; Williams, Jeffress

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents an assessment of global sea level rise and the need to incorporate projections of rise into management plans for coastal adaptation. It also discusses the performance of a shoreline revetment; M. Ali Seawall, placed to protect the land against flooding and overtopping at coastal site, within Abu Qir Bay, East of Alexandria, Egypt along the Nile Delta coast. The assessment is conducted to examine the adequacy of the seawall under the current and progressive effects of climate change demonstrated by the anticipated sea level rise during this century. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2007) predicts that the Mediterranean will rise 30 cm to 1 meter this century. Coastal zone management of the bay coastline is of utmost significance to the protection of the low agricultural land and the industrial complex located in the rear side of the seawall. Moreover this joint research work highlights the similarity of the nature of current and anticipated coastal zone problems, at several locations around the world, and required adaptation and protection measures. For example many barrier islands in the world such as that in the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts of the U.S., lowland and deltas such as in Italy and the Nile Delta, and many islands are also experiencing significant levels of erosion and flooding that are exacerbated by sea level rise. Global Climatic Changes: At a global scale, an example of the effects of accelerated climate changes was demonstrated. In recent years, the impacts of natural disasters are more and more severe on coastal lowland areas. With the threats of climate change, sea level rise storm surge, progressive storm and hurricane activities and potential subsidence, the reduction of natural disasters in coastal lowland areas receives increased attention. Yet many of their inhabitants are becoming increasingly vulnerable to flooding, and conversions of land to open ocean. These global changes were recently

  10. The impact of North Atlantic sea surface temperature errors on the simulation of North Atlantic European region climate

    OpenAIRE

    Keeley, Sarah; Sutton, Rowan; Shaffrey, Len

    2012-01-01

    Current state-of-the-art climate models fail to capture accurately the path of the Gulf Stream and North Atlantic Current. This leads to a warm bias near the North American coast, where the modelled Gulf Stream separates from the coast further north, and a cold anomaly to the east of the Grand Banks of Newfoundland, where the North Atlantic Current remains too zonal in this region. Using an atmosphere-only model forced with the sea surface temperature (SST) biases in the North Atlantic, we...

  11. Ethnic self-regulation and democratic instability on Nicaragua’s Atlantic Coast: The case of Ratisuna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Henriksen

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This article examines some of the negative impacts of ethnic self-regulation on the processes of democratization in Nicaragua. Based on a case study of a small Miskitu community on the Atlantic Coast the article argues that self-regulatory practices do not automatically forge the integration of civil society. On the contrary, these practices lead to an exclusionary development process that reinforces existing divisions and deepens ongoing conflicts. This argument is based on a distinction between three different, yet interrelated, expressions of neo-liberal change on the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua: First, in the absence of state institutions the political influence of the ethnic minorities lies not in the ability to mobilize against the state, but in the fact that they fill the vacuum created by a state in retreat. Community members thus execute political authority and create social and political space. Second, the execution of political authority may contribute to the formation of community and the creation of space and social rights. But in this process other vulnerable groups are excluded, marginalized and denied access to basic rights. Thirdly, self-help practices lead to an exaggerated fragmentation of society into secluded and autonomous spatial and social units based on inward-looking principles.Resumen: Auto-regulación étnica e inestabilidad democrática en la costa atlántica de Nicaragua: El caso de RatisumaEn este artículo se estudian algunos de los efectos negativos de la auto-regulación étnica sobre los procesos de democratización en Nicaragua. Basándome en un caso de estudio de una pequeña comunidad miskito en la costa atlántica, en el artículo sostengo que las prácticas autoregulatorias no forjan automáticamente la integración de la sociedad civil. Al contrario, estas prácticas conducen a un proceso de desarrollo excluyente que refuerza las divisiones existentes y acentúa los conflictos en curso. Esta interpretaci

  12. Meteorological Influences on Trace Gas Transport along the North Atlantic Coast during ICARTT 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon R. Davis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of coastal meteorological mechanisms facilitating the transit pollution plumes emitted from sources in the Northeastern U.S. was based on observations from the International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation (ICARTT 2004 field campaign. Particular attention was given to the relation of these plumes to coastal transport patterns in lower tropospheric layers throughout the Gulf of Maine (GOM, and their contribution to large-scale pollution outflow from the North American continent. Using measurements obtained during a series of flights of the National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration (NOAA WP-3D and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA DC-8, a unique quasi-Lagrangian case study was conducted for a freshly emitted plume emanating from the New York City source region in late July 2004. The development of this plume stemmed from the accumulation of boundary layer pollutants within a coastal residual layer, where weak synoptic conditions allowed for its advection into the marine troposphere and transport by a mean southwesterly flow. Upon entering the GOM, analysis showed that the plume layer vertical structure evolved into an internal boundary layer form, with signatures of steep vertical gradients in temperature, moisture and wind speed often resulting in periodic turbulence. This structure remained well-defined during the plume study, allowing for the detachment of the plume layer from the surface and minimal plume-sea surface exchange. In contrast, shear driven turbulence within the plume layer facilitated lateral mixing with other low-level plumes during its transit. This turbulence was periodic and further contributed to the high spatial variability in trace gas mixing ratios. Further influences of the turbulent mixing were observed in the impact of the plume inland as observed by the Atmospheric Investigation, Regional Modeling, Analysis and Prediction (AIRMAP air quality

  13. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from the Atlantic Companion in the Inner Sea - West Coast Scotland, Irish Sea and St. George's Channel and North Atlantic Ocean from 2006-06-11 to 2007-11-05 (NODC Accession 0115226)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115226 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from Atlantic Companion in the Inner Sea - West Coast...

  14. Extreme total solar irradiance due to cloud enhancement at sea level of the NE Atlantic coast of Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piacentini, Ruben D. [Instituto de Fisica Rosario (CONICET-Universidad Nacional de Rosario), 27 de Febrero 210bis, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Ingenieria y Agrimensura, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Pellegrini 250, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Salum, Graciela M. [Instituto de Fisica Rosario (CONICET-Universidad Nacional de Rosario), 27 de Febrero 210bis, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Facultad Regional Concepcion del Uruguay, Universidad Tecnologica Nacional, Concepcion del Uruguay (Argentina); Fraidenraich, Naum; Tiba, Chigueru [Grupo de Pesquisas em Fontes Alternativas de Energia, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Av. Prof. Luiz Freire, 1000 - 50.740-540, Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2011-01-15

    Extraterrestrial total solar irradiance, usually called Solar Constant, is attenuated by the atmosphere in different proportions, depending mainly on solar zenith angle and altitude of the measurement point. In this work, it is presented very high and extreme horizontal plane measurements of global solar irradiance that in some days overpassed the Solar Constant corrected by the actual Sun-Earth distance (CSC). They were obtained at sea level of the intertropical Atlantic coast, in the city of Recife, Brazil, in the period February 2008-January 2009. Extreme total solar irradiance values larger than CSC were measured during 3.4% of the days of the total registered period. This percentage increases to 7.4% for global solar irradiance within 95.1-100% of the CSC and to 15.3% within 90.1-95% of the CSC. The largest extreme total solar irradiance value, 1477 {+-} 30 W/m{sup 2}, was registered the 28th of March 2008 at 11:34 local time (UT - 3h). It overpassed by 7.9% the CSC value for this day (1369.4 W/m{sup 2}) and by 42.3% the estimated value of the clear sky Iqbal C radiation model (1037.7 W/m{sup 2}). The observation of extreme values should be taken into account in the study of solar radiation effects related to materials exposed to the outside, UV index and biological effects, among others. Also, the detailed knowledge of this interesting effect may contribute significantly to clarify physical aspects about the interaction of global solar radiation with the ecosystem and climate change. (author)

  15. Differences in impacts of Hurricane Sandy on freshwater swamps on the Delmarva Peninsula, Mid−Atlantic Coast, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Beth A.

    2016-01-01

    Hurricane wind and surge may have different influences on the subsequent composition of forests. During Hurricane Sandy, while damaging winds were highest near landfall in New Jersey, inundation occurred along the entire eastern seaboard from Georgia to Maine. In this study, a comparison of damage from salinity intrusion vs. wind/surge was recorded in swamps of the Delmarva Peninsula along the Pocomoke (MD) and Nanticoke (DE) Rivers, south of the most intense wind damage. Hickory Point Cypress Swamp (Hickory) was closest to the Chesapeake Bay and may have been subjected to a salinity surge as evidenced by elevated salinity levels at a gage upstream of this swamp (storm salinity = 13.1 ppt at Nassawango Creek, Snow Hill, Maryland). After Hurricane Sandy, 8% of the standing trees died at Hickory including Acer rubrum, Amelanchier laevis, Ilex spp., and Taxodium distichum. In Plot 2 of Hickory, 25% of the standing trees were dead, and soil salinity levels were the highest recorded in the study. The most important variables related to structural tree damage were soil salinity and proximity to the Atlantic coast as based on Stepwise Regression and NMDS procedures. Wind damage was mostly restricted to broken branches although tipped−up trees were found at Hickory, Whiton and Porter (species: Liquidamabar styraciflua, Pinus taeda, Populus deltoides, Quercus pagoda and Ilex spp.). These trees fell mostly in an east or east−southeast direction (88o−107o) in keeping with the wind direction of Hurricane Sandy on the Delmarva Peninsula. Coastal restoration and management can be informed by the specific differences in hurricane damage to vegetation by salt versus wind.

  16. Atlantic Offshore Seabird Dataset Catalog, Atlantic Coast and Outer Continental Shelf, from 1938-01-01 to 2013-12-31 (NODC Accession 0115356)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Several bureaus within the Department of Interior compiled available information from seabird observation datasets from the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf into a...

  17. Comparison of Cenozoic Faulting at the Savannah River Site to Fault Characteristics of the Atlantic Coast Fault Province: Implications for Fault Capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cumbest, R.J.

    2000-11-14

    This study compares the faulting observed on the Savannah River Site and vicinity with the faults of the Atlantic Coastal Fault Province and concludes that both sets of faults exhibit the same general characteristics and are closely associated. Based on the strength of this association it is concluded that the faults observed on the Savannah River Site and vicinity are in fact part of the Atlantic Coastal Fault Province. Inclusion in this group means that the historical precedent established by decades of previous studies on the seismic hazard potential for the Atlantic Coastal Fault Province is relevant to faulting at the Savannah River Site. That is, since these faults are genetically related the conclusion of ''not capable'' reached in past evaluations applies.In addition, this study establishes a set of criteria by which individual faults may be evaluated in order to assess their inclusion in the Atlantic Coast Fault Province and the related association of the ''not capable'' conclusion.

  18. Records and Descriptions of Epitoniidae (Orthogastropoda: Epitonioidea from the Deep Sea off Northeastern Brazil and a Checklist of Epitonium and Opalia from the Atlantic Coast of South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio F. B. Lima

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of six genera and 10 species of marine gastropods belonging to the family Epitoniidae were collected from dredges of the continental slope off Brazil during the development of the REVIZEE (Live Resources of the Economic Exclusive Zone Program. These species, referable to the genera Alora, Amaea, Cycloscala, Epitonium, Gregorioiscala, and Opalia, are reported from bathyal depths off northeastern Brazil. Alora sp., Gregorioiscala pimentai n. sp., and Opalia revizee n. sp. are species heretofore unknown to science. A list of the species of Epitonium and Opalia from the Atlantic coast of South America is presented based primarily on data from the literature. In addition, an overview of the biodiversity and distribution of the genera studied is presented for the Atlantic Ocean.

  19. Rural electrification, climate change, and local economies: Facilitating communication in development policy and practice on Nicaragua's Atlantic Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casillas, Christian E.

    I explore the role of information and communication in the world of institution-led development. Through a series of case studies from the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua, I present several projects and their implications for uncovering information that may lead to greater local benefit from externally-planned development projects. In order to construct policies and implement projects, development institutions collect, analyze, and simplify information, collapsing messy physical and social realities into narrow sets of metrics. In addition, local stakeholders often aren't privy to the analysis and assumptions of the "expert" planners. An evolved set of methods for dialogue and planning, which focus on sharing available information, can help facilitate outcomes that are more beneficial for targeted groups. Carbon abatement cost curves provide a clear example where the relations of complex social, economic, and environmental systems are reduced to a narrow set of metrics, specifically the cost of carbon mitigation and the total tons reduced. When the carbon abatement cost curve is applied to the community level, it reveals information and allows for conclusions obscured by aggregated national level studies. I show that there are opportunities for augmenting the limited metrics of these cost curves to include those that relate to welfare, beginning to highlight how costs and savings are distributed among stakeholders. In particular, the benefits to the most marginalized groups are heavily dependent on planners taking a pro-poor approach. However, planners typically remain blind to the priorities, capabilities, and values of the target stakeholders. There is a dearth of methods that effectively open up the development expert's black box of project designs, allowing their proposed solutions to be transparent to the target beneficiaries. I address this challenge through the presentation of a participatory modeling process that was utilized with groups of artisanal fishers

  20. Genetic diversity in two introduced biofouling amphipods (Amphipods valida and Jassa marmorata) along the Pacific North American coast: investigation into molecular identification and cryptic diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    We investigated patterns of genetic diversity among invasive populations of A. valida and J. marmorata from the Pacific North American coast to assess the accuracy of morphological identification and determine whether or not cryptic diversity and multiple introductions contribute...

  1. Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. are broadly susceptible to isolates representing the North American genogroups of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurath, Gael; Winton, James R.; Dale, Ole Bendik; Purcell, Maureen K.; Falk, Knut; Busch, Robert D.

    2016-01-01

    Beginning in 1992, three epidemic waves of infectious hematopoietic necrosis, often with high mortality, occurred in farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. on the west coast of North America. We compared the virulence of eleven strains of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), representing the U, M and L genogroups, in experimental challenges of juvenile Atlantic salmon in freshwater. All strains caused mortality and there was wide variation within genogroups: cumulative mortality for five U-group strains ranged from 20 to 100%, four M-group strains ranged 30-63% and two L-group strains varied from 41 to 81%. Thus, unlike Pacific salmonids, there was no apparent correlation of virulence in a particular host species with virus genogroup. The mortality patterns indicated two different phenotypes in terms of kinetics of disease progression and final per cent mortality, with nine strains having moderate virulence and two strains (from the U and L genogroups) having high virulence. These phenotypes were investigated by histopathology and immunohistochemistry to describe the variation in the course of IHNV disease in Atlantic salmon. The results from this study demonstrate that IHNV may become a major threat to farmed Atlantic salmon in other regions of the world where the virus has been, or may be, introduced.

  2. Thermal stress resistance of the brown alga Fucus serratus along the North-Atlantic coast : Acclimatization potential to climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jueterbock, Alexander; Kollias, Spyros; Smolina, Irina; Fernandes, Jorge M. O.; Coyer, James A.; Olsen, Jeanine L.; Hoarau, Galice

    2014-01-01

    Seaweed-dominated communities are predicted to disappear south of 45 degrees latitude on North-Atlantic rocky shores by 2200 because of climate change. The extent of predicted habitat loss, however, could be mitigated if the seaweeds' physiology is sufficiently plastic to rapidly acclimatize to the

  3. Tropospheric profiles of nitrogen oxides, ozone, and other related trace species measured over the Atlantic near the west coast of Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohrer, F.; Bruening, D.; Grobler, E.S.; Koppmann, R.; Kraus, A.B.; Schrimpf, W.; Weber, M.; Ehhalt, D.H. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Atmosphaerische Chemie

    1997-12-31

    In June and December 1994, the concentrations of the nitrogen oxides NO, NO{sub 2} and NO{sub y} were measured together with ozone, photolysis frequency of NO{sub 2}, methane, CO, CO{sub 2}, PAN, and light hydrocarbons near the west coast of Europe above the Atlantic Ocean. Two vertical profiles for each season were obtained in the altitude range 1.5 to 12 km at four locations: near Prestwick (56 deg N, 9 deg W), Brest (49 deg N, 6 deg W), Faro (37 deg N, 12 deg W) and Tenerife (30 deg N, 18 deg W). The measured vertical profiles of NO are compared to the results of a low resolution 3-D chemical tracer model. (author)

  4. Effect of outplanting time on commercial cultivation of kelp Laminaria saccharina at the southern limit in the Atlantic coast, N.W. Spain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    César PETEIRO; (ó)scar FREIRE

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study is to examine the influence of the outplanting time on the cultivation of the kelp Laminaria saccharina in the northwestern Spain, close to its southern limit of distribution in the North Atlantic coast. We compared two L. saccharina cultures outplanted in February and December. We found that the starting time of outplanting affects to the yield and the substantiality value, as well as the growth rate. The yield, the substantiality value and the growth rates of L. saccharina sporophytes obtained for the trial outplanted in December were significantly higher than those in February. These results can be mainly explained by the effect of temperature on the growth of L. saccharina sporophytes during cultivation. On the other hand, our results show that even in the southern limit of distribution of L. saccharina, the cultivation of this species was very profitable in high yield and quality.

  5. Composition et variations spatio-temporelles du régime alimentaire de Trachurus trachurus (Carangidae) de la côte atlantique marocaine = Composition and spatiotemporal variations in the diet of Atlantic horse mackerel Trachurus trachurus from the Atlantic coast of Southern Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Wahbi, F.; Le Loc'H, François; Berreho, A.; Benazzouz, A.; Ben Mhmed, A.; Errhif, A.

    2015-01-01

    A study of the diet of the Atlantic horse mackerel Trachurus trachurus (Linnaeus, 1758) was carried out on the Atlantic coast of Southern Morocco, located from Cap Boujdour to Cap Blanc (26 degrees 30'N-21 degrees N latitude). This area is characterized by a permanent upwelling and is among the highly productive ecosystems of the worldwide ocean. The diet of T. trachurus was studied through qualitative and quantitative analysis of stomach contents. Samples were collected during the warm (June...

  6. Concentrations and distributions of metals in tissues of stranded green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) from the southern Atlantic coast of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Cinthia Carneiro; Varela, Antonio Sergio; Barcarolli, Indianara Fernanda; Bianchini, Adalto

    2014-01-01

    Silver (Ag), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) concentrations were analyzed in tissues of juvenile green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) found stranded along the southern Atlantic coast in Brazil. Green sea turtles were collected (n=29), measured (curved carapace length: CCL) and had their muscle, liver, and kidney dissected for metal concentration measurements. Sex was identified in 18 individuals (10 females and 8 males) through gonad histology. No gender differences in CCL and tissue metal concentrations were observed. In the muscle, there was a negative correlation between CCL and Cd and Cu concentrations. Metal concentrations were lower in the muscle than in the liver and kidney. Zn concentration in the muscle was the highest of all metals analyzed (16.6 mg/kg). The kidney showed the highest concentrations of Pb, Cd and Zn (5.4, 28.3 and 54.3 mg/kg, respectively), while the liver had the highest values of Ag and Cu (0.8 and 100.9 mg/kg, respectively). Tissue Ag, Zn and Cd concentrations were similar to those found in green sea turtles from other regions while Cu and Pb values were elevated, likely due to the metal-rich water and sediment reported in the collection area. In the liver and kidney, concentrations of non-essential (Ag, Cd and Pb) and essential (Cu or Zn) metals were positively correlated, likely due to an induced metallothionein synthesis to protect tissue against the toxic effect of metals. This is the first study to report and correlate the concentrations of essential and non-essential metals in tissues of green sea turtles in the Brazilian southern Atlantic coast, an important feeding and developing area for this turtle species.

  7. The use of plants during the Mesolithic and the Neolithic in the Atlantic coast of the Iberian peninsula

    OpenAIRE

    López López-Dóriga, Inés

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: In this thesis, plant exploitation activities in Atlantic Iberia during the Early and Middle Holocene have been approached through the study of non-woody plant macroremain assemblages at Mesolithic and Neolithic archaeological sites in the Cantabrian region and Portugal. Little direct information was previously available; this thesis therefore contributes to the enrichment of current knowledge about the Cantabrian region and offers completely unprecedented data for Portugal, critica...

  8. 76 FR 26931 - Safety Zone; Second Annual Space Coast Super Boat Grand Prix, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa Beach, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    ... International Productions, Inc., is hosting the Second Annual Space Coast Super Boat Grand Prix, a series of...) advance notification will be made to the local maritime community via Local Notice to Mariners and... Constitutionally Protected Property Rights. Civil Justice Reform This rule meets applicable standards in sections...

  9. Geothermal. Possibilities of use of the geothermal energy in the Colombian Atlantic Coast and general aspects on this energy type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With base in the compilation and prosecution of the geologic information and available geophysics in the Departments of Cordoba, Sucre, Bolivar, Atlantic and Magdalena and of the analysis of the results obtained for samples of thermal waters, the possible existence of attractive reas; geothermically was evaluated by the light of the main constituent elements of a geothermal field: Source of heat. Reservoir. Waterproof covering. Recharge area. The absence of recent volcanic manifestations as much in surface as to shallow depths, the nonexistence of a source of heat of economic interest is suggested. The presence of thermal manifestations in 3 towns of the Atlantic Costa shows results of the chemical analyses characterized by the drop silica concentration (92 ppm) and high concentration of bicarbonates (504 ppm) that which identifies to waters of low temperature, what reinforces the nonexistence of a source of significant heat. With the current information it is but attractiveness to focus the investigations in the Atlantic Costa toward the use in other such energy ways as the lot, eolic, biomass, Ph; that toward the use of endogenous fluids. It is included information related with the exploration and exploitation of a geothermal field and with the economic evaluation for geothermal plants of several capacities. Additionally specific examples of four countries in the world that you/they generate electricity with base in geothermal vapor

  10. Assessment of tsunami hazard for the American Pacific coast from southern Mexico to northern Peru

    OpenAIRE

    B. Brizuela; Armigliato, A.; S. Tinti

    2013-01-01

    Central America has been struck by at least 49 tsunamis between 1539 and 1996. As many as 37 of these events occurred at the Pacific Coast, and 31 were generated by earthquakes. Some of the events have been destructive, but despite this, tsunamis are an underrated hazard in Central America: people are not aware that they are at risk and even recent tsunami events have been forgotten. Recent studies, following the destructive tsunami occurred in Nicaragua in 1992, have reveal...

  11. Provenance study of Pliocene–Pleistocene sands based on ancient detrital zircons (Alvalade basin, SW Iberian Atlantic Coast)

    OpenAIRE

    Albardeiro, Luis; Pereira, M. Francisco; Gama, Cristina; Chichorro, Martim; Hofmann, Mandy; Linnemann, Ulf

    2014-01-01

    Pliocene–Pleistocene sand of the Alvalade basinwas taken fromthe sea-cliffs of SWIberia coast for a provenance study using radiometric dating. The U–Pb ages obtained revealed a wide interval ranging from Cretaceous to Archean, with predominance of Paleozoic, Neoproterozoic and Cretaceous zircon ages. Cretaceous ages interpreted to indicate a Sines Massif provenance are dominant in sands close to Cape Sines but are absent in sand sampled 12 km north. Carboniferous ages younger than...

  12. Ectoparasites from the South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens from Peruvian coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A. Gomez-Puerta

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Two species of ectoparasites were collected from a South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens found stranded on the beaches of Chorrillos in Lima, Peru. The ectoparasites were identified as Antarctophthirus microchir (Phthiraptera and Orthohalarachne attenuata (Acari. Some morphological characteristics are described in this report. The finding of these ectoparasites is the first records in Peru.

  13. First measurements of the scope for growth (SFG) in mussels from a large scale survey in the North-Atlantic Spanish coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albentosa, Marina; Viñas, Lucía; Besada, Victoria; Franco, Angeles; González-Quijano, Amelia

    2012-10-01

    SFG and physiological rates were measured in wild mussels from the Spanish Marine Pollution monitoring program (SMP) in order to determine seawater quality. It consists of 41 stations, covering almost 2500 km of coast, making the SMP the widest-ranging monitoring network in the Iberian Peninsula's Atlantic region. Results of the 2007 and 2008 surveys when 39 sites were sampled: (20 in 2007 and 19 in 2008, being 8 sites sampled both years) were presented. Chemical analyses were carried out to determine the relationships between physiological rates and the accumulation of toxic compounds. Data presented are the first to become available on the use of SFG as a biomarker of the marine environment on a large spatial scale (>1000 km) along Spain's Atlantic seaboard. SFG values enable significant differences to be established between the areas sampled and between the two years surveyed. The integration of biological and chemical data suggests that certain organochlorine compounds, namely chlordanes and DDTs, may have a negative effect on SFG, although such an effect is of a lesser magnitude than that associated with certain biological parameters such as condition index and mussel age. These variables act as confounding factors when attempting to determine the effect of chemical compounds present in the marine environment on mussel SFG. Further research is therefore needed on the relation between these confounding factors and SFG in order to apply the relevant corrective strategies to enable this index to be used in monitoring programs. The effect of these confounding factors is more clearly revealed in studies that cover a wide-ranging spatial and time scale, such as those carried out within the SMP. These results do not invalidate the use of biological data in monitoring programs, but rather point to the need to analyze all the factors affecting each biological process. PMID:22885349

  14. Data file, Continental Margin Program, Atlantic Coast of the United States: vol. 2 sample collection and analytical data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, John C.

    1971-01-01

    The purpose of the data file presented below is twofold: the first purpose is to make available in printed form the basic data relating to the samples collected as part of the joint U.S. Geological Survey - Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution program of study of the Atlantic continental margin of the United States; the second purpose is to maintain these data in a form that is easily retrievable by modern computer methods. With the data in such form, repeate manual transcription for statistical or similar mathematical treatment becomes unnecessary. Manual plotting of information or derivatives from the information may also be eliminated. Not only is handling of data by the computer considerably faster than manual techniques, but a fruitful source of errors, transcription mistakes, is eliminated.

  15. Monogenoidea (Polyonchoinea: Dactylogyridae) parasitizing the gills of marine catfish (Siluriformes: Ariidae) inhabiting the Atlantic Amazon Coast of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Marcus V; Soares, Geusivam B; Watanabe, Alana

    2016-06-23

    A parasitological survey of monogenoids infesting the gills of marine catfish (Ariidae) captured from the Atlantic coastal region of the Amazon Basin was carried out during the 2011-2013 period. The gills of 448 specimens involving twelve ariid species (29 Amphiarius rugispinis (Valenciennes), 52 Aspistor quadriscutis (Valenciennes), 74 Bagre bagre (Linnaeus), 16 Cathorops arenatus (Valenciennes), 13 Cathorops agassizii (Eigenmann & Eigenmann), 17 Cathorops spixii (Agassiz), 3 Cathorops sp., 13 Notarius grandicassis (Valenciennes), 14 Sciades couma (Valenciennes), 64 Sciades herzbergii (Bloch), 48 Sciades parkeri (Traill), 13 Sciades passany (Valenciennes), 92 Sciades proops (Valenciennes) were sampled. No monogenoids were found in Cathorops agassizi, Cathorops arenatus, Cathorops spixii, Cathorops sp. and Sciades parkeri, but the gills of the other sampled species were parasitized by at least one species of monogenoid. We identified four new species of Chauhanellus and one new species of Hamatopeduncularia: Chauhanellus hamatopeduncularoideum n. sp. from Amphiarius rugispinis and Sciades couma; Chauhanellus hypenocleithrum n. sp. from Sciades proops; Chauhanellus susamlimae n. sp. from Sciades herzbergii and Sciades passany; Chauhanellus velum n. sp. from Sciades couma, Sciades herzbergii and Sciades passany; and Hamatopeduncularia cangatae n. sp. from Aspistor quadriscutis and Notarius grandicassis. Four previously described species were reported for the first time parasitizing ariids from Atlantic Amazon: Chauhanellus neotropicalis Domingues & Fehlauer, 2006 from Amphiarius rugispinis, Aspistor quadriscutis, Notarius grandicassis and Sciades passany; Chauhanellus boegeri Domingues & Fehlauer, 2006 from Sciades couma and Sciades herzbergii; Hamatopeduncularia bagre Hargis, 1955 from Bagre bagre; and Neomurraytrematoides proops Zambrano & Añez 1993 from Sciades passany. The monotypic Neomurraytrematoides Zambrano & Añez 1993 was placed in synonymy with

  16. Concentrations and distributions of metals in tissues of stranded green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) from the southern Atlantic coast of Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    da Silva, Cinthia Carneiro [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Fisiológicas – Fisiologia Animal Comparada, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Av. Itália km 8, 96203-900, Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Varela, Antonio Sergio; Barcarolli, Indianara Fernanda [Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Av. Itália km 8, 96203-900, Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Bianchini, Adalto, E-mail: adaltobianchini@furg.br [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Fisiológicas – Fisiologia Animal Comparada, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Av. Itália km 8, 96203-900, Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Av. Itália km 8, 96203-900, Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil)

    2014-01-01

    Silver (Ag), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) concentrations were analyzed in tissues of juvenile green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) found stranded along the southern Atlantic coast in Brazil. Green sea turtles were collected (n = 29), measured (curved carapace length: CCL) and had their muscle, liver, and kidney dissected for metal concentration measurements. Sex was identified in 18 individuals (10 females and 8 males) through gonad histology. No gender differences in CCL and tissue metal concentrations were observed. In the muscle, there was a negative correlation between CCL and Cd and Cu concentrations. Metal concentrations were lower in the muscle than in the liver and kidney. Zn concentration in the muscle was the highest of all metals analyzed (16.6 mg/kg). The kidney showed the highest concentrations of Pb, Cd and Zn (5.4, 28.3 and 54.3 mg/kg, respectively), while the liver had the highest values of Ag and Cu (0.8 and 100.9 mg/kg, respectively). Tissue Ag, Zn and Cd concentrations were similar to those found in green sea turtles from other regions while Cu and Pb values were elevated, likely due to the metal-rich water and sediment reported in the collection area. In the liver and kidney, concentrations of non-essential (Ag, Cd and Pb) and essential (Cu or Zn) metals were positively correlated, likely due to an induced metallothionein synthesis to protect tissue against the toxic effect of metals. This is the first study to report and correlate the concentrations of essential and non-essential metals in tissues of green sea turtles in the Brazilian southern Atlantic coast, an important feeding and developing area for this turtle species. - Highlights: •Juvenile female and male green sea turtles have similar concentrations of metals. •Kidney accumulated more Cd, Pb and Zn while liver accumulated more Ag and Cu. •Cu and Pb concentrations are elevated in liver of sea turtles from southern Brazil. •Concentrations of Cd and Cu in

  17. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the DARVIN in the Inner Sea - West Coast Scotland and North Atlantic Ocean from 1991-06-14 to 1991-07-02 (NODC Accession 0113525)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0113525 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from DARVIN in the Inner Sea - West Coast Scotland and North Atlantic...

  18. Structure and functional characteristics of the meiofauna community in highly unstable intertidal mudbanks in Suriname and French Guiana (North Atlantic coast of South America)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christine, Dupuy; Hien, Nguyen Thanh; David, Mizrahi; Jérôme, Jourde; Martine, Bréret; Hélène, Agogué; Laureen, Beaugeard; Pierrick, Bocher

    2015-11-01

    The North Atlantic coast of South America is influenced by the Amazon River. This coast is considered the muddiest in the world due to the enormous suspended sediment input from the Amazon River. The mobility of the sediment imposes a geomorphological dynamic with a rapid change of shoreline and fast alternation of facies types of the sediment. This study first describes the spatial and functional structure of meiofauna communities of highly unstable intertidal flats along coasts of French Guiana and Suriname in relation to environmental variables. Six sampling sites, composed mainly of muddy sediment, were located 700 km (Kourou) to 1200 km (Nickerie) from the mouth of the Amazon River. The granulometry, chlorophyll a biomass, prokaryote abundance, percentage of organic matter, meiofauna abundance and feeding guilds of nematodes in sediment stations were independent of the distance of the Amazon River mouth and likely were more influenced by the local dynamism of migration of mudbanks. Meiofauna was not more abundant when the sediment was dominated by the finest sediment particles and also when chlorophyll a and prokaryotes, potential prey of meiofauna, were greater. However, as a percentage, small nematodes (biomass of 0.07±0.001 μg ind-1), which are mainly epigrowth-feeders, were more abundant in very fluid mud. Local granulometry and organic matter content appeared to be driving factors of the size structure and functional characteristics of nematodes. Despite the high instability of mudflats, chlorophyll a biomass and meiofauna abundance always tended to be higher toward other world areas. No foraminifera among the six stations of the study were found. Very fluid mud with physical instability of sediment caused a large perturbation to the settlement of meiofauna; the least amounts of chlorophyll a biomass and prokaryotic and meiofauna abundances were found there. Thus, the probable mobility of sediment may select for smaller meiobenthic organisms, mainly

  19. Over-the-horizon propagation measurements at six radar-frequency bands at the Atlantic Ocean Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boekema, R. B.

    1993-07-01

    In the autumn of 1989, the propagation subgroup of NATO AC/243 has conducted a propagation experiment near Lorient France, at the Atlantic Ocean. The purpose of this experiment was to gain an insight into the influence of the evaporation duct above the sea on the propagation of radar signals of different frequencies in an over-the-horizon situation and into the applicability of model predictions. The geometry of the experiment has been chosen to represent a typical ship defence situation. The measurements have shown that for the present case the nearly always present evaporation duct results in a signal enhancement with the strongest effects at the 10.5 and 16 GHz frequencies. An extended study of the quality of the model predictions, possible by the unique set of measurement results, shows some interesting matters. If the process of prediction is divided into two parts, the calculation of the duct height from the meteorological data and the path loss calculation from this duct height, the conclusion is made that the first part is responsible for the largest inaccuracies. The used duct height calculation method showed systematic deviations for different meteorological conditions. The inaccuracy of the duct height calculation makes useful path loss predictions at the millimeter-wave frequencies (35 and 94 GHz) impossible for this over-the-horizon situation. The predictions at the lower frequencies are much better, but not always satisfactory. The deviation analyses in this report can be useful to improve propagation models.

  20. Radar and optical mapping of surge persistence and marsh dieback along the New Jersey Mid-Atlantic coast after Hurricane Sandy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangoonwala, Amina; Enwright, Nicholas M.; Ramsey III, Elijah W.; Spruce, Joseph P.

    2016-01-01

    This study combined a radar-based time series of Hurricane Sandy surge and estimated persistence with optical sensor-based marsh condition change to assess potential causal linkages of surge persistence and marsh condition change along the New Jersey Atlantic Ocean coast. Results based on processed TerraSAR-X and COSMO-SkyMed synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images indicated that surge flooding persisted for 12 h past landfall in marshes from Great Bay to Great Egg Harbor Bay and up to 59 h after landfall in many back-barrier lagoon marshes. Marsh condition change (i.e. loss of green marsh vegetation) was assessed from optical satellite images (Satellite Pour l’Observation de la Terre and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) collected before and after Hurricane Sandy. High change in condition often showed spatial correspondence, with high surge persistence in marsh surrounding the lagoon portion of Great Bay, while in contrast, low change and high persistence spatial correspondence dominated the interior marshes of the Great Bay and Great Egg Harbor Bay estuaries. Salinity measurements suggest that these areas were influenced by freshwater discharges after landfall possibly mitigating damage. Back-barrier marshes outside these regions exhibited mixed correspondences. In some cases, topographic features supporting longer surge persistence suggested that non-correspondence between radar and optical data-based results may be due to differential resilience; however, in many cases, reference information was lacking to determine a reason for non-correspondence.

  1. Multiregional periodic matrix for modeling the population dynamics of sardine (Sardina pilchardus) along the moroccan atlantic coast: management elements for fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serghini, Mansour; Boutayeb, Abdesslam; Auger, Pierre; Charouki, Najib; Ramzi, Azeddine; Ettahiri, Omar; Tchuente, Maurice

    2009-12-01

    In this paper, we present a deterministic time discrete mathematical model based on multiregional periodic matrices to describe the dynamics of Sardina pilchardus in the Central Atlantic area of the Moroccan coast. This model deals with two stages (immature and mature) and three spatial zones where sardines are supposed to migrate from one zone to another. The population dynamics is described by an autonomous recurrence equation N(t + 1) = A.N(t), where A is a positive matrix whose entries are estimated using data collected during biannual acoustic surveys carried out from 2001 to 2003 onboard the Norwegian research vessel "Dr Fridtjof Nansen". The dominant eigenvalue lambda of A that gives the long-term growth rate of fish population is smaller than one. This agrees with the stock decrease observed in the data collected. We show that lambda is highly sensitive to the recruitment rate and much less sensitive to the reproduction rate. These results can clearly be used to define an efficient scenario in order to fight for instance against a stock decrease. PMID:19842047

  2. Visual record of intertidal disturbance caused by drift ice in the spring on the Atlantic coast of Nova Scotia [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/3fb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willy Petzold

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the early spring of 2014, an unusually large amount of sea ice drifted from the Gulf of St. Lawrence, where it had been produced, towards the open Atlantic Ocean through the Cabot Strait, between Nova Scotia and Newfoundland, Canada. In early April, significant amounts of drift ice reached the Atlantic coast of mainland Nova Scotia. The ice floes persisted in those coastal waters for up to 16 days, depending on the location. During that time, the ice fragments caused extensive physical disturbance in rocky intertidal communities, removing high quantities of seaweeds and invertebrates. For example, at a location where the ice stayed for 9 days, the loss of macroalgal and invertebrate biomass was almost total. At a location where the ice stayed for 4 days, losses were lower, albeit still high overall. Such a magnitude of disturbance is not common on this coast, as sea ice had not reached the surveyed locations in the previous 4–5 years. We suggest that the frequency of ice scour events may help to predict intertidal community structure. This notion could be tested through multiannual surveys of ice conditions and biological communities along the Atlantic coast of Nova Scotia.

  3. Digenean parasites of the marine gastropodsLittorina littorea andGibbula umbilicalis in the Northern Portuguese Atlantic coast, with a review of digeneans infecting the two gastropod genera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Graa Costa; Snia Soares; Fernando Carvalho; Joo Bela

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the digenean parasites of the prosobranch gastropods,Littorina littorea(L. littorea) andGibbula umbilicalis (G. umbilicalis) from rocky shores of the Northern Atlantic coast of Portugal. Methods: A total of 413L. littorea and 2 603G. umbilicalis were collected from rocky shores, at Aveiro estuary, Aguda Beach, and Foz Beach at Porto (Northern Atlantic coast of Portugal) from January to July 2014 and February 2014 to January 2015, respectively. Gonads and digestive glands of the gastropods were examined under light microscopy for the presence of digeneans. Infected gonads ofL. littorea were prepared for histological observation, whereas digeneans found in G. umbilicalis were studied and identified with the aid of light and scanning electron microscopy. Results: Two species of digeneans were found infecting the digestive gland and gonads of G. umbilicalis, namely,Cainocreadium labracis andLecithochirium furcolabiatum with a combined prevalence of 3%. Histological observations of gonads ofL. littorearevealed the infection with digeneans, with considerable replacement of gonadal tissues. These digeneans were not identified to species level. The prevalence of digeneans in this snail host was 0.7%. Conclusions: The present study addsG. umbilicalis as another first intermediate host for Cainocreadium labracis and extends its geographical range to the Portuguese Atlantic coast. Cercariae ofLecithochirium furcolabiatum were previously reported fromG. umbilicalis. A literature review of digeneans occurring in the gastropod generaGibbulaandLittorina is given.

  4. Population genomics reveals seahorses (Hippocampus erectus of the western mid-Atlantic coast to be residents rather than vagrants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J T Boehm

    Full Text Available Understanding population structure and areas of demographic persistence and transients is critical for effective species management. However, direct observational evidence to address the geographic scale and delineation of ephemeral or persistent populations for many marine fishes is limited. The Lined seahorse (Hippocampus erectus can be commonly found in three western Atlantic zoogeographic provinces, though inhabitants of the temperate northern Virginia Province are often considered tropical vagrants that only arrive during warm seasons from the southern provinces and perish as temperatures decline. Although genetics can locate regions of historical population persistence and isolation, previous evidence of Virginia Province persistence is only provisional due to limited genetic sampling (i.e., mitochondrial DNA and five nuclear loci. To test alternative hypotheses of historical persistence versus the ephemerality of a northern Virginia Province population we used a RADseq generated dataset consisting of 11,708 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP sampled from individuals collected from the eastern Gulf of Mexico to Long Island, NY. Concordant results from genomic analyses all infer three genetically divergent subpopulations, and strongly support Virginia Province inhabitants as a genetically diverged and a historically persistent ancestral gene pool. These results suggest that individuals that emerge in coastal areas during the warm season can be considered "local" and supports offshore migration during the colder months. This research demonstrates how a large number of genes sampled across a geographical range can capture the diversity of coalescent histories (across loci while inferring population history. Moreover, these results clearly demonstrate the utility of population genomic data to infer peripheral subpopulation persistence in difficult-to-observe species.

  5. Population Genomics Reveals Seahorses (Hippocampus erectus) of the Western Mid-Atlantic Coast to Be Residents Rather than Vagrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, J. T.; Waldman, John; Robinson, John D.; Hickerson, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding population structure and areas of demographic persistence and transients is critical for effective species management. However, direct observational evidence to address the geographic scale and delineation of ephemeral or persistent populations for many marine fishes is limited. The Lined seahorse (Hippocampus erectus) can be commonly found in three western Atlantic zoogeographic provinces, though inhabitants of the temperate northern Virginia Province are often considered tropical vagrants that only arrive during warm seasons from the southern provinces and perish as temperatures decline. Although genetics can locate regions of historical population persistence and isolation, previous evidence of Virginia Province persistence is only provisional due to limited genetic sampling (i.e., mitochondrial DNA and five nuclear loci). To test alternative hypotheses of historical persistence versus the ephemerality of a northern Virginia Province population we used a RADseq generated dataset consisting of 11,708 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) sampled from individuals collected from the eastern Gulf of Mexico to Long Island, NY. Concordant results from genomic analyses all infer three genetically divergent subpopulations, and strongly support Virginia Province inhabitants as a genetically diverged and a historically persistent ancestral gene pool. These results suggest that individuals that emerge in coastal areas during the warm season can be considered “local” and supports offshore migration during the colder months. This research demonstrates how a large number of genes sampled across a geographical range can capture the diversity of coalescent histories (across loci) while inferring population history. Moreover, these results clearly demonstrate the utility of population genomic data to infer peripheral subpopulation persistence in difficult-to-observe species. PMID:25629166

  6. Regional monitoring programs in the United States: Synthesis of four case studies from Pacific, Atlantic, and Gulf Coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tango, Peter J.; Schiff, K.; Trowbridge, P.R.; Sherwood, E.T.; Batiuk, R.A.

    2016-01-01

    Water quality monitoring is a cornerstone of environmental protection and ambient monitoring provides managers with the critical data they need to take informed action. Unlike site-specific monitoring that is at the heart of regulatory permit compliance, regional monitoring can provide an integrated, holistic view of the environment, allowing managers to obtain a more complete picture of natural variability and cumulative impacts, and more effectively prioritize management actions. By reviewing four long-standing regional monitoring programs that cover portions of all three coasts in the United States – Chesapeake Bay, Tampa Bay, Southern California Bight, and San Francisco Bay – important insights can be gleaned about the benefits that regional monitoring provides to managers. These insights include the underlying reasons that make regional monitoring programs successful, the challenges to maintain relevance and viability in the face of ever-changing technology, competing demands and shifting management priorities. The lessons learned can help other managers achieve similar successes as they seek to establish and reinvigorate their own monitoring programs.

  7. Depletion of trophy large-sized sharks populations of the Argentinean coast, south-western Atlantic: insights from fishers' knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejo Irigoyen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Globally, sharks are impacted by a wide range of human activities, resulting in many populations being depleted. Trophy large-sized sharks of the Argentinean coast, the sand-tiger Carcharias taurus , the copper Carcharhinus brachyurus and the sevengill shark Notorynchus cepedianus are under intense sport and artisanal fishing since the 50's decade. However, the current and historical information for the assessment of its populations status is scarce. The aim of this work was to analyze the status of conservation of these species through the gathering of expert fishermen knowledge (FK on semi-structured interviews. Abundance variation perception between the beginning and the end of fishermen careers revealed a critical status for the species study (means variation between -77 and -90 %. Furthermore, a best day's catch analysis reinforce this result in the case of the sand tiger shark. The school shark Galeorhinus galeus was included on this work with the objective of contrast FK with formal information available of catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE time series. Both sources of information, despite are not comparable, shows declines ~ - 80%. The critical conservation situation of study species needs urgent management action, particularly for the san tiger shark which could became regionally extinct before the reaction of stakeholders occurs.

  8. Survival and behavioral effects of exposure to a hydrokinetic turbine on juvenile Atlantic salmon and adult American shad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Santos, Theodore R.; Haro, Alex

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a series of experiments designed to measure the effect of exposure to a full-scale, vertical axis hydrokinetic turbine on downstream migrating juvenile Atlantic salmon (N=75) and upstream migrating adult American shad (N=208). Controlled studies were performed in a large-scale, open-channel flume, and all individuals approached the turbine under volitional control. No injuries were observed, and there was no measurable increase in mortality associated with turbine passage. Exposure to the turbine elicited behavioral responses from both species, however, with salmon passing primarily over the downrunning blades. Shad movement was impeded by the device, as indicated by fewer attempts of shorter duration and reduced distance of ascent up the flume. More work should be performed in both laboratory and field conditions to determine to what extent these effects are likely to influence free-swimming fish.

  9. The distribution of 4-nonylphenol in marine organisms of North American Pacific Coast estuaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Jennifer; Johnson, Sarah E; Xia, Kang; West, Amy; Tomanek, Lars

    2012-04-01

    One of the chemical breakdown products of nonylphenol ethoxylates, 4-nonylphenol (4-NP), accumulates in organisms and is of concern as an environmental pollutant due to its endocrine disrupting effects. We measured 4-NP levels in the seawater, sediment, and twelve organisms within the California estuary, Morro Bay, and examined biomagnification of 4-NP using stable isotope abundances (δ(15)N and δ(13)C) to quantify trophic position. 4-NP concentrations in organisms from Morro Bay included 25000±8600 ng g(-1) lw in liver of California sea lion, 14000±5600 ng g(-1) lw in liver of harbor porpoise, 138000±55000 ng g(-1) lw in liver of sea otters, 15700±3600 ng g(-1) lw in liver of seabirds, 36100±6100 ng g(-1) lw in arrow goby fish, 62800±28400 ng g(-1) lw in oysters, and 12700±1300 ng g(-1) lw in mussels. 4-NP levels generally showed a pattern of trophic dilution among organisms in Morro Bay, with exceptions of biomagnification observed between three trophic links: mussel to sea otter (BMF 10.9), oyster to sea otter (BMF 2.2), and arrow goby to staghorn sculpin (BMF 2.7). Our examination of other west coast estuaries of USA and Canada revealed that mean 4-NP concentrations in gobies and mussels from Morro Bay were significantly higher than those from a more urbanized estuary, San Francisco Bay (goby: 11100±3800 ng g(-1) lw) and from a remote estuary, Bamfield Inlet, Canada (goby: 9000±900 ng g(-1) lw, mussel: 6100±700 ng g(-1) lw). Relative to other estuaries worldwide, 4-NP levels in seawater (0.42±0.16 μg L(-1)) and sediment (53±14 ng g(-1) dw) of Morro Bay are low, but gobies and oysters have higher 4-NP levels than comparable fauna. PMID:22257992

  10. A White Atlantic? The Idea of American Art in Nineteenth-Century Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Tim Barringer

    2009-01-01

    This article begins with the contention that 'American art' is a powerful retrospective construction, rooted in the institutional practices of art history and museology. Through a focus on the experiences of expatriate American artists (John Singleton Copley and Benjamin West) in London at the start of the nineteenth century, and the genre or landscape painting in transatlantic art (including the work of the British artist Thomas Cole), this essay exposes the complex and dynamic cultural inte...

  11. A new Holocene relative sea-level curve for western Brittany (France): Insights on isostatic dynamics along the Atlantic coasts of north-western Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goslin, Jérôme; Van Vliet Lanoë, Brigitte; Spada, Giorgio; Bradley, Sarah; Tarasov, Lev; Neill, Simon; Suanez, Serge

    2015-12-01

    This study presents new Relative Sea Level (RSL) data that were obtained in the Finistère region (Western tip of Brittany, France) and the implications those data have for the understanding of the isostatic dynamics across north-western Europe, and more specifically along the Atlantic and Channel coasts. New stratigraphic sequences were obtained and analyzed to derive 24 new Sea-level Index Points, in which 6 are basal. These new data considerably increase the knowledge we have of the RSL evolution along the coasts of Western Brittany since the last 8 kyr B.P. From this new dataset, RSL was estimated to rise continuously over the last 8 kyr with a major inflection at ca. 6 kyr cal. BP. Our results show large vertical discrepancies between the RSL records of Brittany and South-Western UK, with the latter plotting several meters below the new data. From this comparison we suggest that the two regions underwent a very different pattern and/or amplitude of subsidence during the last 8 kyr which has implications for the spatial and temporal pattern of the peripheral bulge of the European ice sheets. We compared our data against predictions from Glacio-Isostatic Adjustment models (GIA models). There are large misfits between RSL observations and the predictions of the global (ICE-5G (VM2a) - Peltier, 2004, GLAC1-b - Tarasov and Peltier, 2002; Tarasov et al., 2012, Briggs et al., 2014) and regional UK models ("BIIS" - Bradley et al., 2009; Bradley et al., 2011; "Kuchar"- Kuchar et al., 2012), which can't be resolved through significant changes to the deglaciation history and size of the British-Irish Ice sheet. Paleo-tidal modelling corrections indicate regional changes in the tidal ranges played a negligible role in the data-model misfits. Hence, we propose that the misfits are due to some combination of: (i) unaccounted mass-loss of far-field ice-sheets (Antarctic ice-Sheet or Laurentide Ice-Sheet), (ii) unresolved differences in the deglaciation history and size of

  12. Sensitivity of a third generation wave model to wind and boundary condition sources and model physics: A case study from the South Atlantic Ocean off Brazil coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siadatmousavi, S. Mostafa; Jose, Felix; Miot da Silva, Graziela

    2016-05-01

    Three different packages describing the white capping dissipation process, and the corresponding energy input from wind to wave were used to study the surface wave dynamics in South Atlantic Ocean, close to the Brazilian coast. A host of statistical parameters were computed to evaluate the performance of wave model in terms of simulated bulk wave parameters. Wave measurements from a buoy deployed off Santa Catarina Island, Southern Brazil and data along the tracks of Synthetic Aperture Radars were compared with simulated bulk wave parameters; especially significant wave height, for skill assessment of different packages. It has been shown that using a single parameter representing the performance of source and sink terms in the wave model, or relying on data from only one period of simulations for model validation and skill assessment would be misleading. The model sensitivity to input parameters such as time step and grid size were addressed using multiple datasets. The wind data used for the simulation were obtained from two different sources, and provided the opportunity to evaluate the importance of input data quality. The wind speed extracted from remote sensing satellites was compared to wind datasets used for wave modeling. The simulation results showed that the wind quality and its spatial resolution is highly correlated to the quality of model output. Two different sources of wave information along the open boundaries of the model domain were used for skill assessment of a high resolution wave model for the study area. It has been shown, based on the sensitivity analysis, that the effect of using different boundary conditions would decrease as the distance from the open boundary increases; however, the difference were still noticeable at the buoy location which was located 200-300 km away from the model boundaries; but restricted to the narrow band of the low frequency wave spectrum.

  13. Comparative analysis of post-breakup basin evolution along the South-American and South-African margins, southern Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strozyk, F.; Back, S.; Kukla, P. A.

    2012-04-01

    Recently, considerable attempts have been made to compare the sedimentary basin evolution and the associated tectonic framework on both sides of the South-Atlantic. However, yet there are still unresolved questions concerning the tectono-sedimentary styles of margin basin evolution that markedly differ from north to south. Amongst the most striking observations is that multiple phases of uplift and subsidence are recorded after the break-up of the southern South Atlantic margin segment on both sides of the Florianopolis-Walvis Ridge volcanic complex, features that are regarded as atypical when compared to published examples of other post-breakup margin successions. Adding to the heterogeneity of the system, the northernmost segment of the South Atlantic rift and salt basins is also characterized by a pronounced asymmetry, with the Brazilian margin now comprising narrower and deeper rift basins with less salt than the Congo-Gabon conjugate margin. This project deals with a large-scale comparison of this very different post-breakup tectono-stratigraphic development of the southern and northern South American and African continental margins that both record thick post-rift sedimentary successions. To gain detail of the basin margin evolution, we focus on a regional comparison between the post-breakup records archived in the large offshore southern Brazil basins (Pelotas, Santos, Campos) and the post-breakup continental margin successions of offshore Namibia (e.g. Orange Basin) and southern Angola (e.g. Kwanza Basin). A tectonic-stratigraphic comparison of representative geological transects provides a comprehensive basin-to-basin documentation of key factors influencing margin development which include the subsidence development through time, the sediment (in-)flux and storage patterns and the respective type of basin fill (e.g. salt vs. non-salt systems; carbonate-rich vs. clastics-dominated systems). Data from the salt-prone areas offshore South America and southern

  14. Rain rate statistics and fade distributions at 20 and 30 GHz derived from a network of rain gauges in the Mid-Atlantic coast over a five year period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhirsh, Julius; Krichevsky, Vladimir; Gebo, Norman E.

    1992-01-01

    A network of ten tipping bucket rain gauges located within a grid 70 km north-south and 47 km east-west in the Mid-Atlantic coast of the United States was used to analyze rain rate and modeled slant path attenuation distributions at 20 and 30 GHz. It was shown that, for realistic fade margins at 20 GHz and above, the variable integration times results are adequate to estimate slant path attenuations using models which require 1 min averages. Crane's Global Model was used to derive fade distributions at 20 and 30 GHz.

  15. Variability of aerosol, gaseous pollutants and meteorological characteristics associated with continental, urban and marine air masses at the SW Atlantic coast of Iberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-M. Diesch

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of the ambient aerosol were performed at the Southern coast of Spain, within the framework of the DOMINO (Diel Oxidant Mechanisms In relation to Nitrogen Oxides project. The field campaign took place from 20 November until 9 December 2008 at the atmospheric research station "El Arenosillo" (37°5'47.76" N, 6°44'6.94" W. As the monitoring station is located at the interface between a natural park, industrial cities (Huelva, Seville and the Atlantic Ocean a variety of physical and chemical parameters of aerosols and gas phase could be characterized in dependency on the origin of air masses. Backwards trajectories were examined and compared with local meteorology to classify characteristic air mass types for several source regions. Aerosol number and mass as well as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and black carbon concentrations were measured in PM1 and size distributions were registered covering a size range from 7 nm up to 32 μm. The chemical composition of the non-refractory submicron aerosol was measured by means of an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (Aerodyne HR-ToF-AMS. Gas phase analyzers monitored various trace gases (O3, SO2, NO, NO2, CO2 and a weather station provided meteorological parameters.

    Lowest average submicron particle mass and number concentrations were found in air masses arriving from the Atlantic Ocean with values around 2 μg m−3 and 1000 cm−3. These mass concentrations were about two to four times lower than the values recorded in air masses of continental and urban origins. For some species PM1-fractions in marine air were significantly larger than in air masses originating from Huelva, a closely located city with extensive industrial activities. The largest fraction of sulfate (54% was detected in marine air masses and was to a high degree not neutralized. In addition small concentrations of

  16. Variability of aerosol, gaseous pollutants and meteorological characteristics associated with changes in air mass origin at the SW Atlantic coast of Iberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-M. Diesch

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of the ambient aerosol were performed at the Southern coast of Spain, within the framework of the DOMINO (Diel Oxidant Mechanisms In relation to Nitrogen Oxides project. The field campaign took place from 20 November until 9 December 2008 at the atmospheric research station "El Arenosillo" (37°5'47.76" N, 6°44'6.94" W. As the monitoring station is located at the interface between a natural park, industrial cities (Huelva, Seville and the Atlantic Ocean, a variety of physical and chemical parameters of aerosols and gas phase could be characterized in dependency on the origin of air masses. Backwards trajectories were examined and compared with local meteorology to classify characteristic air mass types for several source regions. Aerosol number and mass as well as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and black carbon concentrations were measured in PM1 and size distributions were registered covering a size range from 7 nm up to 32 μm. The chemical composition of the non-refractory submicron aerosol (NR-PM1 was measured by means of an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (Aerodyne HR-ToF-AMS. Gas phase analyzers monitored various trace gases (O3, SO2, NO, NO2, CO2 and a weather station provided meteorological parameters.

    Lowest average submicron particle mass and number concentrations were found in air masses arriving from the Atlantic Ocean with values around 2 μg m−3 and 1000 cm−3. These mass concentrations were about two to four times lower than the values recorded in air masses of continental and urban origins. For some species PM1-fractions in marine air were significantly larger than in air masses originating from Huelva, a closely located city with extensive industrial activities. The largest fraction of sulfate (54% was detected in marine air masses and was to a high degree not neutralized. In addition, small concentrations of

  17. Population Structure of Lutjanus purpureus (Lutjanidae - Perciformes on the Brazilian coast: further existence evidence of a single species of red snapper in the western Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazielle Gomes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study focus on the mitochondrial control region to investigate phylogeographic patterns and population structure in Lutjanus purpureus, and to evaluate the genetic similarity between L. purpureus and L. campechanus. For the initial analysis, 810 base pairs sequence from control region were obtained from 239 specimens of L. purpureus collected from four localities off the Brazilian coast. The results revealed the presence of a single panmictic population characterized by high values of genetic diversity. The 299 base pairs hypervariable portion were used for the combined analysis of L. purpureus and L. campechanus, being 275 haplotypes identified in the 414 specimens. Phylogenetic tree and haplotype network did not indicate phylogeographic substructuring between the two species, but rather an intense intermingling of individuals. Considering their marked morphological similarity, the molecular data presented here indicate that only one species of red snapper exists in the western Atlantic.Para o presente estudo utilizou-se a região controle mitocondrial para investigar os padrões filogeográficos e a estrutura populacional de Lutjanus purpureus e para avaliar a similaridade genética entre L. purpureus e L. campechanus. Para a análise inicial foram obtidas sequências de 810 pares de bases (pb da região controle para 239 espécimes de L. purpureus de quatro localidades da costa brasileira. Os resultados mostraram a presença de uma população panmítica caracterizada por altos valores de diversidade genética. Utilizou-se um segmento de 299 pb da porção hipervariável para comparar L. purpureus e L. campechanus. Dos 414 indivíduos analisados foram identificados 275 haplótipos. A árvore filogenética e a rede de haplótipos não mostraram subestruturação filogeográfica entre as duas espécies, com intensa mistura de indivíduos. Considerando a grande similaridade morfológica, os dados moleculares apresentados, aqui

  18. A manual for the identification of marine birds and mammals of the North American West Coast: Preliminary draft

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Dichotomous keys for birds and mammals that might be found in Alaska or along the pacific coast. Includes, birds, whales, porpoise, and pinnipeds.

  19. EC_250M_AEA_NAD27.TIF - U.S. Atlantic East Coast EEZ GLORIA sidescan-sonar composite mosaic (ACEA, 250 m, Clarke1866)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — From February to May 1987 the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted five cruises to cover the U.S. Atlantic Continental Margin Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ)...

  20. EC_Q01.TIF - U.S. Atlantic East Coast EEZ GLORIA sidescan-sonar data mosaic (1 of 23) (ACEA, 50 m, Clarke1866)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — From February to May 1987 the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted five cruises to cover the U.S. Atlantic Continental Margin Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ)...

  1. EC_Q02.TIF - U.S. Atlantic East Coast EEZ GLORIA sidescan-sonar data mosaic (2 of 23) (ACEA, 50 m, Clarke1866)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — From February to May 1987 the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted five cruises to cover the U.S. Atlantic Continental Margin Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ)...

  2. EC_Q03.TIF - U.S. Atlantic East Coast EEZ GLORIA sidescan-sonar data mosaic (3 of 23) (ACEA, 50 m, Clarke1866)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — From February to May 1987 the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted five cruises to cover the U.S. Atlantic Continental Margin Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ)...

  3. EC_Q13.TIF - U.S. Atlantic East Coast EEZ GLORIA sidescan-sonar data mosaic (13 of 23) (ACEA, 50 m, Clarke1866)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — From February to May 1987 the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted five cruises to cover the U.S. Atlantic Continental Margin Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ)...

  4. EC_Q20.TIF - U.S. Atlantic East Coast EEZ GLORIA sidescan-sonar data mosaic (20 of 23) (ACEA, 50 m, Clarke1866)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — From February to May 1987 the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted five cruises to cover the U.S. Atlantic Continental Margin Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ)...

  5. EC_Q04.TIF - U.S. Atlantic East Coast EEZ GLORIA sidescan-sonar data mosaic (4 of 23) (ACEA, 50 m, Clarke1866)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — From February to May 1987 the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted five cruises to cover the U.S. Atlantic Continental Margin Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ)...

  6. EC_Q05.TIF - U.S. Atlantic East Coast EEZ GLORIA sidescan-sonar data mosaic (5 of 23) (ACEA, 50 m, Clarke1866)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — From February to May 1987 the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted five cruises to cover the U.S. Atlantic Continental Margin Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ)...

  7. NOAA TIFF Image - 3m Multibeam Bathymetry, Miami, South Atlantic Bight - Deep Coral Priority Areas - Lost Coast Explorer - (2010), UTM 17N NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a unified GeoTiff with 3x3 meter cell size representing the bathymetry of the continental shelf off of Jacksonville, FL in the South Atlantic...

  8. EC_Q08.TIF - U.S. Atlantic East Coast EEZ GLORIA sidescan-sonar data mosaic (8 of 23) (ACEA, 50 m, Clarke1866)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — From February to May 1987 the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted five cruises to cover the U.S. Atlantic Continental Margin Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ)...

  9. EC_Q06.TIF - U.S. Atlantic East Coast EEZ GLORIA sidescan-sonar data mosaic (6 of 23) (ACEA, 50 m, Clarke1866)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — From February to May 1987 the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted five cruises to cover the U.S. Atlantic Continental Margin Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ)...

  10. EC_Q09.TIF - U.S. Atlantic East Coast EEZ GLORIA sidescan-sonar data mosaic (9 of 23) (ACEA, 50 m, Clarke1866)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — From February to May 1987 the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted five cruises to cover the U.S. Atlantic Continental Margin Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ)...

  11. EC_Q07.TIF - U.S. Atlantic East Coast EEZ GLORIA sidescan-sonar data mosaic (7 of 23) (ACEA, 50 m, Clarke1866)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — From February to May 1987 the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted five cruises to cover the U.S. Atlantic Continental Margin Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ)...

  12. EC_Q12.TIF - U.S. Atlantic East Coast EEZ GLORIA sidescan-sonar data mosaic (12 of 23) (ACEA, 50 m, Clarke1866)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — From February to May 1987 the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted five cruises to cover the U.S. Atlantic Continental Margin Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ)...

  13. EC_Q14.TIF - U.S. Atlantic East Coast EEZ GLORIA sidescan-sonar data mosaic (14 of 23) (ACEA, 50 m, Clarke1866)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — From February to May 1987 the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted five cruises to cover the U.S. Atlantic Continental Margin Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ)...

  14. EC_Q11.TIF - U.S. Atlantic East Coast EEZ GLORIA sidescan-sonar data mosaic (11 of 23) (ACEA, 50 m, Clarke1866)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — From February to May 1987 the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted five cruises to cover the U.S. Atlantic Continental Margin Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ)...

  15. EC_Q17.TIF - U.S. Atlantic East Coast EEZ GLORIA sidescan-sonar data mosaic (17 of 23) (ACEA, 50 m, Clarke1866)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — From February to May 1987 the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted five cruises to cover the U.S. Atlantic Continental Margin Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ)...

  16. EC_Q19.TIF - U.S. Atlantic East Coast EEZ GLORIA sidescan-sonar data mosaic (19 of 23) (ACEA, 50 m, Clarke1866)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — From February to May 1987 the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted five cruises to cover the U.S. Atlantic Continental Margin Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ)...

  17. EC_Q22.TIF - U.S. Atlantic East Coast EEZ GLORIA sidescan-sonar data mosaic (22 of 23) (ACEA, 50 m, Clarke1866)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — From February to May 1987 the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted five cruises to cover the U.S. Atlantic Continental Margin Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ)...

  18. EC_Q23.TIF - U.S. Atlantic East Coast EEZ GLORIA sidescan-sonar data mosaic (23 of 23) (ACEA, 50 m, Clarke1866)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — From February to May 1987 the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted five cruises to cover the U.S. Atlantic Continental Margin Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ)...

  19. EC_Q16.TIF - U.S. Atlantic East Coast EEZ GLORIA sidescan-sonar data mosaic (16 of 23) (ACEA, 50 m, Clarke1866)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — From February to May 1987 the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted five cruises to cover the U.S. Atlantic Continental Margin Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ)...

  20. EC_Q21.TIF - U.S. Atlantic East Coast EEZ GLORIA sidescan-sonar data mosaic (21 of 23) (ACEA, 50 m, Clarke1866)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — From February to May 1987 the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted five cruises to cover the U.S. Atlantic Continental Margin Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ)...

  1. EC_Q10.TIF - U.S. Atlantic East Coast EEZ GLORIA sidescan-sonar data mosaic (10 of 23) (ACEA, 50 m, Clarke1866)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — From February to May 1987 the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted five cruises to cover the U.S. Atlantic Continental Margin Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ)...

  2. EC_Q15.TIF - U.S. Atlantic East Coast EEZ GLORIA sidescan-sonar data mosaic (15 of 23) (ACEA, 50 m, Clarke1866)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — From February to May 1987 the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted five cruises to cover the U.S. Atlantic Continental Margin Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ)...

  3. EC_Q18.TIF - U.S. Atlantic East Coast EEZ GLORIA sidescan-sonar data mosaic (18 of 23) (ACEA, 50 m, Clarke1866)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — From February to May 1987 the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted five cruises to cover the U.S. Atlantic Continental Margin Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ)...

  4. North Atlantic and orbital controls on North American Monsoon rainfall for the past 25,000 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachniet, M. S.; Bernal-Uruchurtu, J. P.; Asmerom, Y.; Polyak, V.; Vazquez-Selem, L.

    2011-12-01

    The paleoclimate controls on Mexican rainfall remain poorly understood, making it difficult to test hypotheses of late Quaternary climate changes in the North American Monsoon region. A high-resolution and chronologically robust integrative paleoclimate history for central and southwestern Mexico is required to evaluate the climate context associated with the late glacial peopling of Mesoamerica, the Holocene domestication of maize, and climate's influence on several advanced pre-Colombian civilizations. Herein, we combine new and previously published precipitation- and temperature-sensitive proxy records to delineate the paleoclimatic history of the "Mesoamerican Monsoon" region since ca. 25,000 yr BP, from stalagmite, glacial, and lacustrine paleoclimatic data. Our results demonstrate a wet last glacial maximum (23 to 18 ka) in southwestern Mexico at 17.4 degrees N, a region that today is outside the influence of nortes or the westerlies. Wet conditions may be attributed to a moderately strong summer monsoon due to near-modern summer insolation values and a cooler eastern tropical Pacific Ocean akin to a modern La Niña-like state. We also document Heinrich stadial 1 and Younger Dryas monsoon weakening coincident with reduced North Atlantic thermohaline circulation, which implicates reduced onshore moisture flux due to a weaker and more southerly position of the Intertropical Convergence Zone. Mesoamerican rainfall was greatest during the early Holocene, and decreased non-linearly to the present in concert with decreasing local summer insolation. Following a relative mid-Holocene wet period, the last 4.5 ka are characterized by increasingly dry conditions, likely related to decreasing summer insolation and a greater El Niño frequency.

  5. Optimizing surveillance for South American origin influenza A viruses along the United States Gulf Coast through genomic characterization of isolates from blue-winged teal (Anas discors)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, Andy M.; Walther, Patrick; Link, Paul Karl; Poulson, Rebecca L.; Wilcox, Benjamin R.; Newsome, George M.; Spackman, Erica; Brown, J.; Stallknecht, David E.

    2016-01-01

    Relative to research focused on intercontinental viral exchange between Eurasia and North America, less attention has been directed towards understanding the redistribution of influenza A viruses (IAVs) by wild birds between North America and South America. In this study, we genomically characterized 45 viruses isolated from blue-winged teal (Anas discors) along the Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast during March of 2012 and 2013, coincident with northward migration of this species from Neotropical wintering areas to breeding grounds in the United States and Canada. No evidence of South American lineage genes were detected in IAVs isolated from blue-winged teal supporting restricted viral gene flow between the United States and southern South America. However, it is plausible that blue-winged teal redistribute IAVs between North American breeding grounds and wintering areas throughout the Neotropics, including northern South America, and that viral gene flow is limited by geographical barriers further south (e.g. the Amazon Basin). Surveillance for the introduction of IAVs from Central America and northern South America into the United States may be further optimized through genomic characterization of viruses resulting from coordinated, concurrent sampling efforts targeting blue-winged teal and sympatric species throughout the Neotropics and along the United States Gulf Coast.

  6. Sand fly vectors (Diptera, Psychodidae) of American visceral leishmaniasis areas in the Atlantic Forest, State of Espírito Santo, southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Israel de Souza; Ferreira, Adelson Luiz; Valim, Valéria; Carvalho, Felipe dos Santos; da Silva, Giovana Marques; Falcão, Alda Lima; Dietze, Reynaldo; Falqueto, Aloísio

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the sand fly fauna of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) endemic areas within the Central Atlantic Forest Biodiversity Corridor, State of Espírito Santo, southeastern Brazil. The sand fly captures were performed between January, 1989 and December, 2003 in localities where autochthonous cases of AVL were recorded, as well as in their boundary areas. Sand flies were collected from surrounding houses and domestic animal shelters using two to five CDC automatic light traps, and manual captures were also performed using mouth aspirators in one illuminated Shannon trap during the first four hours of the night. We used cladistic analysis to determine the geographic relationships among the collected sand fly species as well as the index species for the occurrence of other sand flies. A total of 62,469 sand flies belonging to 17 species and eight genera was collected in 164 localities from nine municipalities with AVL records. The richness (S=17) and diversity (H=0.971) of sand flies were lower than in conservation areas and similar to modified environments in the Atlantic Forest of Espírito Santo. Lutzomyia longipalpis was identified in 79 localities. The cladistic analysis identified Evandromyia lenti as the index species for Lutzomyia longipalpis. The latter seems to be the main vector of AVL in the Central Atlantic Forest Biodiversity Corridor due to its high abundance and distribution matching the disease occurrence. Therefore, Evandromyia lenti may be used as an index species for the occurrence of Lutzomyia longipalpis.

  7. A new species of Homalocerus Schoenherr from the Atlantic coast of the State of São Paulo, Brazil (Coleoptera, Belidae, Belinae, with notes on color pattern and on the sclerites of the internal sac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio A. Vanin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Homalocerus Schoenherr from the Atlantic coast of the State of São Paulo, Brazil (Coleoptera, Belidae, Belinae, with notes on color pattern and on the sclerites of the internal sac. Homalocerus bimaculatus sp. nov. (type locality: Brazil, São Paulo is described and illustrated, and comments on the sclerites of the internal sac of aedeagus and on color pattern are provided. The new species is compared to other similar species of the genus, being distinguished by having three clusters of carmine pubescence on pronotum and two lateral whitish oval spots located slightly before the middle of each elytron. Six species of Homalocerus, including the new one, are known from the State of São Paulo. The previously published identification key for species of Homalocerus is updated to include H. bimaculatus.

  8. Ecological genetics in the North Atlantic: environmental gradients and adaptation at specific loci

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, P. S.; Serrão, Ester; Pearson, G A; Riginos, C; Rawson, P D; Hilbish, T. J.; Brawley, S. H.; Trussell, G. C.; Carrington, E; Wethey, D. S.; Grahame, J W; Bonhomme, F.; Rand, D. M.

    2008-01-01

    The North Atlantic intertidal community provides a rich set of organismal and environmental material for the study of ecological genetics. Clearly defined environmental gradients exist at multiple spatial scales: there are broad latitudinal trends in temperature, meso-scale changes in salinity along estuaries, and smaller scale gradients in desiccation and temperature spanning the intertidal range. The geology and geography of the American and European coasts provide natural replication of th...

  9. Composition of mixed flocks of understory forest birds in areas of the Atlantic coast and lowlands of Santa Catarina state, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Antonio Guimarães Azevedo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available An accompaniment of forest mixed flocks was carried in two localities of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil, one on a forest hillside of the Atlantic on the Island of Santa Catarina (June to September, 2000 and another in a quaternary plain forest of the Volta Velha Reserve, Itapoá (June to November, 2000. Sixty-four species of birds were registered from the 79 identified flocks, 33 of which showed a frequency of occurrence above 10%. The flocks had an average number of six species. The nuclear species responsible for the aggregation and compacting of the flocks, for the two localities was Basileuterus culicivorus. The mixed flocks presented little difference in their composition in the two areas. This is probably due to the history of the colonization and the distinct forest formations of the two areas involved.

  10. Comparing hurricane and extratropical storm surge for the Mid-Atlantic and Northeast Coast of the United States for 1979-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, J. F.; Rieder, H. E.; Kushnir, Y.

    2016-09-01

    This letter examines the magnitude, spatial footprint, and paths of hurricanes and extratropical cyclones (ETCs) that caused strong surge along the east coast of the US between 1979 and 2013. Lagrangian cyclone track information, for hurricanes and ETCs, is used to associate surge events with individual storms. First, hurricane influence is examined using ranked surged events per site. The fraction of hurricanes among storms associated with surge decreases from 20%-60% for the top 10 events to 10%-30% for the top 50 events, and a clear latitudinal gradient of hurricane influence emerges for larger sets of events. Secondly, surges on larger spatial domains are examined by focusing on storms that cause exceedance of the probabilistic 1-year surge return level at multiple stations. Results show that if the strongest events in terms of surge amplitude and spatial extent are considered, then hurricanes are most likely to create the hazards. However, when slightly less strong events that still impact multiple areas during the storm life cycle are considered, the relative importance of hurricanes shrinks as that of ETCs grows. Furthermore we find distinct paths for ETCs causing multi-site surge at individual segments of the US east coast.

  11. Growth and reproductive dynamics of the South American red shrimp, Pleoticus muelleri (Crustacea: Solenoceridae), from the southeastern coast of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilho, A. L.; Wolf, M. R.; Simões, S. M.; Bochini, G. L.; Fransozo, V.; Costa, R. C.

    2012-12-01

    The increase in the fishing fleet in southeastern Brazil and the decrease in the landings of profitable shrimp species have contributed to the incorporation of additional species into those fisheries, such as Pleoticus muelleri. The goal of the present study is to investigate the growth and reproductive dynamics of P. muelleri in the Southeastern coast of Brazil over a period of two years. Monthly collections were conducted in Ubatuba (UB) and Caraguatatuba (CA) using a commercial shrimp fishing boat equipped with “double-rig” nets. Each region was divided into 7 sampling stations up to 35 m deep. Population parameters from size frequency distributions (carapace length = CL), growth, longevity, sex ratio, and abundance of individuals in each life period (demographic class), from both sampling areas were analyzed and compared. The relationship between abiotic factors and abundance of each demographic class was assessed using a Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCorrA). A total of 19,816 individuals were collected, of which 5341 were measured, with an estimated longevity of 2.02 (UB) and 2.15 (CA) years for females and 1.80 (UB) and 1.96 (CA) years for males. There was a statistically significant bias in sex ratio toward females (Chi-square test, p < 0.05) in both regions. The CCorrA resulted in a canonical correlation coefficient of 0.32 (p < 0.00001). Both temperature and grain size composition of the sediment showed high correlation mainly with the presence of reproductive females, followed spermatophore-bearing males and recruits. In general, these demographic classes were most common in conditions of low temperature and fine sediments. These findings, as well as other studies carried out in colder regions with the same species, are consistent with the classical paradigm of lower longevity at lower latitudes. However, our results also suggest that this species maintained abiotic preference as populations located in cold temperate regions, mainly with

  12. Seasonal response of air-water CO2 exchange along the land-ocean aquatic continuum of the North East American coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Laruelle

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This regional study quantifies the CO2 exchange at the air–water interface along the land-ocean aquatic continuum (LOAC of the North East American coast, from streams to the shelf break. Our analysis explicitly accounts for spatial and seasonal variability in the CO2 fluxes. The yearly integrated budget reveals the gradual change in the intensity of the CO2 exchange at the air–water interface, from a strong source towards the atmosphere in streams and rivers (3.0 ± 0.5 Tg C yr−1 and estuaries (0.8 ± 0.5 Tg C yr−1 to a net sink in continental shelf waters (−1.7 ± 0.3 Tg C yr−1. Significant differences in flux intensity and their seasonal response to climate variations is observed between the North and South sections of the study area, both in rivers and coastal waters. Ice cover, snow melt and estuarine surface area are identified as important control factors of the observed spatio-temporal variability in CO2 exchange along the LOAC.

  13. Archaeological remains accounting for the presence and exploitation of the North Atlantic right whale Eubalaena glacialis on the Portuguese Coast (Peniche, West Iberia), 16th to 17th Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, António; Venâncio, Rui; Brito, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    The former occurrence of the North Atlantic right whale Eubalaena glacialis on the Portuguese coast may be inferred from the historical range of that species in Europe and in NW Africa. It is generally accepted that it was the main prey of coastal whaling in the Middle Ages and in the pre-modern period, but this assumption still needs firming up based on biological and archaeological evidence. We describe the skeletal remains of right whales excavated at Peniche in 2001-2002, in association with archaeological artefacts. The whale bones were covered by sandy sediments on the old seashore and they have been tentatively dated around the 16th to 17th centuries. This study contributes material evidence to the former occurrence of E. glacialis in Portugal (West Iberia). Some whale bones show unequivocal man-made scars. These are associated to wounds from instruments with a sharp-cutting blade. This evidence for past human interaction may suggest that whaling for that species was active at Peniche around the early 17th century. PMID:24505251

  14. Anti-proliferative activity and chemical characterization by comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry of phlorotannins from the brown macroalga Sargassum muticum collected on North-Atlantic coasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, Lidia; Sánchez-Camargo, Andrea P; García-Cañas, Virginia; Tanniou, Anaëlle; Stiger-Pouvreau, Valérie; Russo, Mariateresa; Rastrelli, Luca; Cifuentes, Alejandro; Herrero, Miguel; Ibáñez, Elena

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, the phlorotannin composition of different Sargassum muticum samples collected at different locations along the North Atlantic coasts as well as the bioactivities related to these components were investigated. After pressurized liquid extraction, the samples collected at the extreme locations of a latitudinal gradient from Portugal and Norway, were found to be the richest on total phenols and, particularly, on phlorotannins, containing up to 148.97 and 5.12mg phloroglucinol equivalents g(-1), respectively. The extracts obtained from these locations were further purified and chemically characterized using a modified HILIC×RP-DAD-MS/MS method. The application of this methodology allowed the tentative identification of a great variability of phlorotannins with different degrees of polymerization (from 3 to 11) and structures, determined for the first time in S. muticum. The most-abundant phlorotannins on these samples were fuhalols, hydroxyfuhalols and phlorethols, showing also particularities and important differences depending on the geographical location. Afterwards, the antiproliferative activity of these extracts against HT-29 adenocarcinoma colon cancer cells was studied. Results revealed that the richest S. muticum samples in terms of total phlorotannins, i.e., those from Norway, presented the highest activity, showing a good cytotoxic potential at concentrations in the medium micromolar range. PMID:26210109

  15. Archaeological remains accounting for the presence and exploitation of the North Atlantic right whale Eubalaena glacialis on the Portuguese Coast (Peniche, West Iberia, 16th to 17th Century.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António Teixeira

    Full Text Available The former occurrence of the North Atlantic right whale Eubalaena glacialis on the Portuguese coast may be inferred from the historical range of that species in Europe and in NW Africa. It is generally accepted that it was the main prey of coastal whaling in the Middle Ages and in the pre-modern period, but this assumption still needs firming up based on biological and archaeological evidence. We describe the skeletal remains of right whales excavated at Peniche in 2001-2002, in association with archaeological artefacts. The whale bones were covered by sandy sediments on the old seashore and they have been tentatively dated around the 16th to 17th centuries. This study contributes material evidence to the former occurrence of E. glacialis in Portugal (West Iberia. Some whale bones show unequivocal man-made scars. These are associated to wounds from instruments with a sharp-cutting blade. This evidence for past human interaction may suggest that whaling for that species was active at Peniche around the early 17th century.

  16. Parasites of Urophycis brasiliensis (Gadiformes: Phycidae) as indicators of marine ecoregions in coastal areas of the South American Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Aldenice N; Pantoja, Camila; Luque, José L; Timi, Juan T

    2014-11-01

    The potential value of parasites as ecosystem markers was tested by analyzing the metazoan assemblages of Urophycis brasiliensis caught in four locations distributed in three ecoregions of the Warm Temperate Southwestern Atlantic. A total of 5,001 metazoan parasites belonging to 33 species were found. The identified parasites varied across locations in terms of presence, prevalence, and abundance, and their multivariate analyses resulted in clear similarity patterns. No differences were observed between two locations of the same ecoregion, whereas an evident separation of samples was observed across ecoregions in support of the existing hypotheses regarding the ecoregional division of the southwestern Atlantic. We proposed that parasite assemblages, which are composed of several metazoan phyla, are potentially useful as ecosystem indicators. This suggestion is derived from the combined evidence of the evolutionary history and biogeography of multiple lineages, which is expected to be more efficient in capturing recurrent patterns in overall biodiversity than individual lineages. Furthermore, as many parasites have complex life cycles, their distribution patterns are dependent not only on environmental conditions but also on the distribution and population density of all hosts involved in their life cycles, adding further sources of distributional variability that act synergistically to define robust geographical patterns. The selection of long-lived parasites and their comparative analysis provided evidence supporting the existence of three different stocks in the four sampled areas. The best parasite tags were those with low specificity in fish hosts, constituting promising biological tags for the stock discrimination of other fish species in the region.

  17. Edmund Burke, the Atlantic American war and the ‘poor Jews at St. Eustatius’. Empire and the law of nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Abbattista

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay is devoted to a relatively minor episode in Edmund Burke’s parliamentary career and political speculation involving the rights of war and international law in the final years of the American War of Independence. The starting point for Burke’s consideration of these questions was the affair of St. Eustatius, that is to say Britain’s conquest in 1781 of the Dutch West-Indian island early in the “fourth Anglo-Dutch War” of 1780-1784. The harsh treatment of the Dutch colony’s cosmopolitan community by the commanding officers of the British Navy and Army provoked a series of reactions in Britain and the colonies. The essay starts by outlining the identity of St. Eustatius with its economic, demographic and social features, its peculiar role in the eighteenth-century West Indies and its emblematic meaning in the historical literature of the Enlightenment as a symbol of the virtues of commerce and of economic liberty. It goes on to analyse the facts of the military conquest in 1781 and the ensuing occupation realized by Admiral George Rodney and Major-General John Vaughan, particularly as this affected the “poor Jews at St. Eustatius” (as Burke himself qualified them in his second speech on 4 December 1781, with the subsequent reactions of the Dutch and especially the British Atlantic world. We then examine Edmund Burke’s reasons for taking up this affair, including the political and ideological motives and the sources of arguments he used in the two parliamentary speeches he made on the topic during 1781, relating this to Burke’s ideas on international relations and imperial government during the 1770s and 1780s. We end by pointing to cultural links between Burke’s positions and a wider political, commercial and civic culture emerging in the British Atlantic world which reflected some of the most typical European Enlightenment values and ideological commitments.

  18. Global Warming Attenuates the Tropical Atlantic-Pacific Teleconnection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Fan; Wu, Lixin; Gan, Bolan; Cai, Wenju

    2016-01-01

    Changes in global sea surface temperature (SST) since the end of last century display a pattern of widespread warming intercepted by cooling in the eastern equatorial Pacific and western coasts of the American continent. Studies have suggested that the cooling in the eastern equatorial Pacific may be partly induced by warming in the North Atlantic. However, it remains unknown how stable this inter-tropical teleconnection will be under global warming. Here we show that the inter-tropical teleconnection from the tropical Atlantic to Pacific weakens substantially as the CO2 concentration increases. This reduced impact is related to the El Niño-like warming of the tropical Pacific mean state, which leads to limited seasonal migration of the Pacific inter-tropical convergence zone (ITCZ) and weakened ocean heat transport. A fast decay of the tropical Atlantic SST anomalies in a warmer climate also contributes to the weakened teleconnection. Our study suggests that as greenhouse warming continues, the trend in the tropical Pacific as well as the development of ENSO will be less frequently interrupted by the Atlantic because of this attenuation. The weakened teleconnection is also supported by CMIP5 models, although only a few of these models can capture this inter-tropical teleconnection. PMID:26838053

  19. Global Warming Attenuates the Tropical Atlantic-Pacific Teleconnection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Fan; Wu, Lixin; Gan, Bolan; Cai, Wenju

    2016-02-03

    Changes in global sea surface temperature (SST) since the end of last century display a pattern of widespread warming intercepted by cooling in the eastern equatorial Pacific and western coasts of the American continent. Studies have suggested that the cooling in the eastern equatorial Pacific may be partly induced by warming in the North Atlantic. However, it remains unknown how stable this inter-tropical teleconnection will be under global warming. Here we show that the inter-tropical teleconnection from the tropical Atlantic to Pacific weakens substantially as the CO2 concentration increases. This reduced impact is related to the El Niño-like warming of the tropical Pacific mean state, which leads to limited seasonal migration of the Pacific inter-tropical convergence zone (ITCZ) and weakened ocean heat transport. A fast decay of the tropical Atlantic SST anomalies in a warmer climate also contributes to the weakened teleconnection. Our study suggests that as greenhouse warming continues, the trend in the tropical Pacific as well as the development of ENSO will be less frequently interrupted by the Atlantic because of this attenuation. The weakened teleconnection is also supported by CMIP5 models, although only a few of these models can capture this inter-tropical teleconnection.

  20. Atlantic City memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Franklin H

    2008-04-01

    Fifty years ago, the Atlantic City meetings, held the first week in May of every year, were attended by all the elite of American academic medicine and all who wanted to join that group. Part of the magic of those meetings was that professors and neophytes took each other seriously and talked to each other. PMID:18382726

  1. Occurrence of Magellanic penguins along the Northeast Brazilian coast during 2008 Austral winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Renato Ramos; Pereira, Janini; Tanajura, Clemente A S; Lentini, Carlos A D; Cirano, Mauro; Boersma, P Dee; Rodrigues, Regina R

    2012-01-01

    During the austral winter of 2008, thousands of penguins traveled to low latitudes along the South Atlantic coast of South America. The atmospheric and oceanic conditions from April to July 2008 may account for the penguins' unusual geographic distribution. During that period, South Atlantic coastal waters were cooler; the wind anomalies had northward and onshore components; the ocean's coastal region presented northward currents that favored the penguins to travel toward lower latitudes. This anomalous climate regime resulted from extreme meteorological frontal systems that occurred mainly during June 2008. Three consecutive extreme midlatitude cyclones produced strong wind shear that resulted in the northward oceanic flow along the South American eastern shoreline favoring the penguins to be spotted in northern tropical waters. PMID:22649308

  2. Occurrence of Magellanic Penguins along the Northeast Brazilian Coast during 2008 Austral Winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Ramos da Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available During the austral winter of 2008, thousands of penguins traveled to low latitudes along the South Atlantic coast of South America. The atmospheric and oceanic conditions from April to July 2008 may account for the penguins' unusual geographic distribution. During that period, South Atlantic coastal waters were cooler; the wind anomalies had northward and onshore components; the ocean's coastal region presented northward currents that favored the penguins to travel toward lower latitudes. This anomalous climate regime resulted from extreme meteorological frontal systems that occurred mainly during June 2008. Three consecutive extreme midlatitude cyclones produced strong wind shear that resulted in the northward oceanic flow along the South American eastern shoreline favoring the penguins to be spotted in northern tropical waters.

  3. More than Just Hurricanes: The Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation and Extreme Precipitation over the US and Mexico from August to October

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, S.

    2007-12-01

    The tail of the distribution of daily precipitation for August-September-October was examined over the United States and Mexico in relation to the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). As expected from previous studies linking the AMO to hurricane activity, Florida and the coastal Southeast U.S. showed an increase in precipitation intensity when the Atlantic was in a warm phase (AMO+). Also during AMO+ Northwest Mexico was dry and exhibited a reduction of extreme events and the Mid-Atlantic Appalachian Mountains showed evidence of an increase in heavy precipitation compared to when the Atlantic was cool. It is proposed that the aforementioned decadal variations in extreme rainfall are forced by changes in the large-scale surface winds and air temperature in conjunction with the AMO. Namely, an anomalous cyclonic circulation is observed off the Southeast coast, leading to a reduction of moisture flux into the decaying North American monsoon, and an increase in moisture flux into the Mid-Atlantic. Further, the Mid-Atlantic shows a relatively strong increase in the mid-tropospheric lapse rate. Thus, the unique combination of low-level humidity, potential instability, and elevated topography are consistent with an enhanced risk of intense rainfall during AMO+. 007-0295-0

  4. The Atlantic multidecadal oscillation and extreme daily precipitation over the US and Mexico during the hurricane season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Scott

    2008-03-01

    The tail of the distribution of daily precipitation for August-September-October was examined over the United States and Mexico in relation to the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). As expected from previous studies linking the AMO to hurricane activity, Florida and the coastal Southeast US showed an increase in precipitation intensity when the Atlantic was in a warm phase (AMO+). Also during AMO+ Northwest Mexico was dry and exhibited a reduction of extreme events and the Mid-Atlantic Appalachian Mountains showed evidence of an increase in heavy precipitation compared to when the Atlantic was cool. It is proposed that the aforementioned decadal variations in extreme rainfall are forced by changes in the large-scale surface winds and air temperature in conjunction with the AMO. Namely, an anomalous cyclonic circulation is observed off the Southeast coast, leading to a reduction of moisture flux into the decaying North American monsoon, and an increase in moisture flux into the Mid-Atlantic. Further, the Mid-Atlantic shows a relatively strong increase in the mid-tropospheric lapse rate. Thus, the unique combination of low-level humidity, potential instability, and elevated topography are consistent with an enhanced risk of intense rainfall during AMO+.

  5. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Gulf of Mexico American Oyster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cake, Edwin W.

    1983-01-01

    The American or eastern oyster (Crassostrea virrinica [Gmelin]), a bivalve in the family Ostreidae, is an important commercia and recreational species along the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts of North America and other areas (U.S. Pacific coast and Hawaii) where it has been introduced (Galtsoff 1964). It evolved over the last 25 million years (Miocene and Pliocene epochs) from an ancestral, Atlantic-Pacific species that also gave rise to the Central American oyster of the Pacific coast, Crassostrea corteziensis (Hertlein) (Stenzel 1971). It evolved to fill a eurytopic niche in coastal estuaries where it forms massive reefs in nearshore bays, sounds, lagoons, and river mouths. Its existence depends on suitable substratum (cultch and firm bottom sediments) and acceptable sal-inity conditions. The location and distribution of oyster reefs in a salt marsh-estuari ne ecosystem are not acci denta 1; rather, they result from the interacti on of many bi 01 ogi ca 1, chemica1, geo1ogi ca1, and phys i ca 1 processes (Butler 1954a; Marshall 1954; Bahr and Lanier 1981).

  6. Depósitos cuaternarios de la costa atlántica fueguina, entre los cabos Peñas y Ewan Quaternary deposits of the Fuegian Atlantic coast between Peñas and Ewan capes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.G. Bujalesky

    2006-03-01

    storm berm and 7 (Shaiwaal Formation, 12 m a.p.s.b.. The older and higher levels would be older than the isotope stage 18O 11 (Viamonte Formation, 38 m a.p.s.b. and Najmishk Formation, 53 m a.p.s.b.. These are the southernmost Pleistocene raised beaches of the world. During the Holocene, approximately 5000 yr B.P., beach ridge plains composed of gravel begun to plug the inner estuaries of the Ensenada de la Colonia and Río Fuego palaeoembayments. These beach ridge plains have shown a regressive behaviour during the Holocene. They do not revealed erosion, sediment recycling at the seaward flank (cannibalism, and a significant landward retreat like the northernmost littoral environments of the Atlantic coast of Tierra del Fuego.

  7. 76 FR 54703 - Safety Zone; Myrtle Beach Triathlon, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-02

    ... Triathlon, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC in the Federal Register (76 FR 124). We received... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Myrtle Beach Triathlon, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY:...

  8. 78 FR 35596 - Special Local Regulation; Long Beach Regatta, Powerboat Race, Atlantic Ocean, Long Beach, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-13

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Long Beach Regatta, Powerboat Race, Atlantic Ocean, Long Beach, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of Proposed Rulemaking... Atlantic Ocean off Long Beach, NY during the Long Beach Regatta Powerboat Race scheduled for August...

  9. Production of market-size North American strain Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in a land-based recirculation aquaculture system using freshwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is interest in culturing Atlantic salmon Salmo salar to market-size in land-based, closed containment systems that use recirculation aquaculture systems (RAS), as this technology often enables facilities to locate near major markets, obtain permits, exclude obligate pathogens, and/or reduce en...

  10. Ivory Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-07-01

    Since the Ivory Coast's independence (1960), the population has increased from 3.7 million to 9.7 million, representing a growth rate of up to 4.2%. The country's 5th 5-Year Plan (1981-85) has 4 priorities: 1) agricultural modernization, 2) traditional industry and crafts modernization, 3) human resources enhancement, and 4) continued economic growth. Population objectives include 1) increasing peasant aid, 2) making education more development oriented, 3) making health care more accessible, and 4) finding solutions to employment and unemployment problems. The government wants to increase population size because it needs labor for economic development. Programs 1) develop areas with high out-migration, 2) reduce maternal and child mortality, and 3) support family planning only to benefit family well being. Although the Ivory Coast's population will reach 15 million by the year 2000, and population density has tripled since 1950, the country is still thinly populated. The current population policy strives to 1) reduce infant mortality, 2) maintain fertility, and 3) diminish immigration and emigration. Life expectancy is 47 years, infant mortality is 122/1000, and most rural people have no health services. The government considers the total fertility rate of 6.7 satisfactory. Abortion for contraceptive purposes and sterilization are illegal; access to contraception is limited. The Ivory Coast, because of rapid economic growth, attracts immigrants from neighboring countries; at present 1/3 of the population is foreign-born. The government is trying to integrate natives more fully into the labor force. There is little emigration, but internal migration involves almost half of the population. The government attempts to 1) slow down and redirect rural to urban migration to small and medium sized towns and 2) slow rural to rural migration from the savannah to the forest zone.

  11. Evidence of remote forcing in the Equatorial Atlantic ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Servain, J.; Picaut, Joël; Merle, Jacques

    1982-01-01

    An analysis of sea-surface temperature (STT) and surface winds in selected areas of the Tropical Atlantic indicates that the nonseasonal variability of SST in the Eastern Equatorial Atlantic (Gulf of Guinea) is highly correlated with the nonseasonal variability of the zonal wind stress in the Western Equatorial Atlantic. A negative (positive) anomaly of the zonal wind stress near the North Brazilian coast is followed by a positive (negative) SST anomaly in the Gulf of Guinea about one month l...

  12. 78 FR 51131 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... United States; Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; American Lobster Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Advance notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: Based on Atlantic States Marine...

  13. The History, Present Condition, and Future of the Molluscan Fisheries of North and Central America and Europe: Volume 2, Pacific Coast and Supplemental Topics

    OpenAIRE

    MacKenzie, Jr., Clyde L.; Burrell, Jr. , Victor G.; Rosenfield, Aaron; Hobart, Willis L.

    1997-01-01

    Over 100 molluscan species are landed in Mexico. About 30% are harvested on the Pacific coast and 70% on the Atlantic coast. Clams, scallops, and squid predominate on the Pacific coast (abalone, limpets, and mussels are landed there exclusively). Conchs and oysters predominate on the Atlantic coast. In 1988, some 95,000 metric tons (t) of mollusks were landed, with a value of $33 million. Mollusks were used extensively in prehispanic Mexico as food, tools, and jewelry. Their use as food an...

  14. 76 FR 31235 - Safety Zone; Ocean City Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Ocean City, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-31

    ... Ocean City, Maryland. (b) Definition: For purposes of enforcement of this section, Captain of the Port... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Ocean City Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Ocean City, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary Final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard...

  15. 76 FR 68314 - Special Local Regulations; Key West World Championship, Atlantic Ocean; Key West, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-04

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Key West World Championship, Atlantic Ocean; Key West, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast... Key West, Florida during the Key West World Championship, a series of high-speed boat races. The...

  16. 75 FR 18778 - Safety Zone; Ocean City Air Show 2010, Atlantic Ocean, Ocean City, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    ... public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Ocean City Air Show 2010, Atlantic Ocean, Ocean City, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast...

  17. An Exploratory Study on Initial STEM Classes and African American Freshman Males Who Are STEM Majors at a Large Mid-Atlantic State University: Factors Affecting Self-Efficacy Beliefs and Persistence in the STEM Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, William Jason

    The purpose of this study was to test how well social cognitive career theory (SCCT) explains the effects of an introductory freshman year science course on the career perspectives of African American males at a large, public mid-Atlantic state university. Embracing SCCT as the foundation of this project, the dissertation intended to gather data from these young men to develop insight into how and in what ways their self-efficacy throughout the semester was influenced by their first science course, and changing their outlook on Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) careers while in school and after graduation. To a small number of freshman African American male students who have declared themselves STEM majors, I utilized a qualitative study investigating this phenomenon. The major findings detailed themes that affected these young men including concerns about mathmatics preparation, isolation, balance, microagression, and help-seeking. Results indicate that there was an impact on the confidence, achievement, and goal setting for these young men due to these factors and that social cognitive career theory was an appropriate framework from which to test these questions.

  18. Biogeographic patterns of the marine bivalve Cerastoderma edule along the European coasts

    OpenAIRE

    Krakau, Manuela

    2008-01-01

    The cockle Cerastoderma edule is a common bivalve that inhabits the marine soft-bottom intertidal along European shores. This invertebrate plays a key role in coastal food webs of the Northeast Atlantic coasts due of its high abundances. I studied cockles from 19 sites along the distribution range with the aim to describe the variation of geographic population structures on different analytical levels. Cockles from the Barents Sea to the African Atlantic coast were analysed with respect to th...

  19. Inferring Evolution of Habitat Usage and Body Size in Endangered, Seasonal Cynopoeciline Killifishes from the South American Atlantic Forest through an Integrative Approach (Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson J E M Costa

    Full Text Available Cynopoecilines comprise a diversified clade of small killifishes occurring in the Atlantic Forest, one of the most endangered biodiversity hotspots in the world. They are found in temporary pools of savannah-like and dense forest habitats, and most of them are highly threatened with extinction if not already extinct. The greatest gap in our knowledge of cynopoecilines stems from the absence of an integrative approach incorporating molecular phylogenetic data of species still found in their habitats with phylogenetic data taken from the rare and possibly extinct species without accessible molecular information. An integrative analysis combining 115 morphological characters with a multigene dataset of 2,108 bp comprising three nuclear loci (GLYT1, ENC1, Rho, provided a robust phylogeny of cynopoeciline killifishes, which was herein used to attain an accurate phylogenetic placement of nearly extinct species. The analysis indicates that the most recent common ancestor of the Cynopoecilini lived in open vegetation habitats of the Atlantic Forest of eastern Brazil and was a miniature species, reaching between 25 and 28 mm of standard length. The rare cases of cynopoecilines specialized in inhabiting pools within dense forests are interpreted as derived from four independent evolutionary events. Shifts in habitat usage and biogeographic patterns are tentatively associated to Cenozoic paleogeographic events, but the evolutionary history of cynopoecilines may be partially lost by a combination of poor past sampling and recent habitat decline. A sharp evolutionary shift directed to increased body size in a clade encompassing the genera Campellolebias and Cynopoecilus may be related to a parallel acquisition of an internally-fertilizing reproductive strategy, unique among aplocheiloid killifishes. This study reinforces the importance of adding morphological information to molecular databases as a tool to understand the biological complexity of organisms

  20. The ethnoecology of Caiçara metapopulations (Atlantic Forest, Brazil): ecological concepts and questions

    OpenAIRE

    Begossi Alpina

    2006-01-01

    Abstract The Atlantic Forest is represented on the coast of Brazil by approximately 7,5% of remnants, much of these concentrated on the country's SE coast. Within these southeastern remnants, we still find the coastal Caiçaras who descend from Native Indians and Portuguese Colonizers. The maintenance of such populations, and their existence in spite of the deforestation that occurred on the Atlantic Forest coast, deserves especial attention and analysis. In this study, I address, in particula...

  1. Native American Loyalists and Patriots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsh, Russel Lawrence

    1977-01-01

    Many American Indians experienced the American Revolution differently; Western tribes fearful of American expansionism tended to become loyalists, while east coast tribes already submerged in English society generally saw the rebellion as an opportunity to prove themselves deserving of full political equality via loyalty to their patriot…

  2. SST and North American Tropical Cyclone Landfall: A Statistical Modeling Study

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, Timothy

    2008-01-01

    We employ a statistical model of North Atlantic tropical cyclone (TC) tracks to investigate the relationship between sea-surface temperature (SST) and North American TC landfall rates. The track model is conditioned on summer SST in the tropical North Atlantic being in either the 19 hottest or the 19 coldest years in the period 1950-2005. For each conditioning many synthetic TCs are generated and landfall rates computed. Compared to direct analysis of historical landfall, the track model reduces the sampling error by projecting information from the entire basin onto the coast. There are 46% more TCs in hot years than cold in the model, which is highly significant compared to random sampling and corroborates well documented trends in North Atlantic TC number in recent decades. In the absence of other effects, this difference results in a significant increase in model landfall rates in hot years, uniform along the coast. Hot-cold differences in the geographic distribution of genesis and in TC propagation do not...

  3. The genus Sertularella Gray, 1848 (Cnidaria: Hydroida) along the coasts of Galicia (Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramil, F.; Parapar, J.; Vervoort, W.

    1992-01-01

    Species of the genus Sertularella from the coasts of Galicia (Atlantic coast of Spain) have been studied and 5 species, S. gayi (Lamouroux, 1821), S. polyzonias (Linnaeus, 1758), S. ellisii (Deshayes & MilneEdwards, 1836), S. fusiformis (Hincks, 1861), and S. mediterranea Hartlaub, 1901, are recogni

  4. Atlantic and indian oceans pollution in africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubakar, Babagana

    Africa is the second largest and most populated continent after Asia. Geographically it is located between the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. Most of the Africa's most populated and industrialized cities are located along the coast of the continent facing the Atlantic and Indian Oceans, example of such cities include Casablanca, Dakar, Accra, Lagos, Luanda and Cape town all facing the Atlantic Ocean and cities like East London, Durban, Maputo, Dar-es-salaam and Mogadishu are all facing the Indian Ocean. As a result of the geographical locations of African Coastal Cities plus increase in their population, industries, sea port operations, petroleum exploration activities, trafficking of toxic wastes and improper waste management culture lead to the incessant increase in the pollution of the two oceans. NATURE OF POLLUTION OF THE ATLANTIC OCEAN i. The petroleum exploration activities going on along the coast of "Gulf of Guinea" region and Angola continuously causes oil spillages in the process of drilling, bunkering and discharging of petroleum products in the Atlantic Ocean. ii. The incessant degreasing of the Sea Ports "Quay Aprons" along the Coastal cities of Lagos, Luanda, Cape Town etc are continuously polluting the Atlantic Ocean with chemicals. iii. Local wastes generated from the houses located in the coastal cities are always finding their ways into the Atlantic Ocean. NATURE OF POLLUTION OF THE INDIAN OCEAN i. Unlike the Atlantic ocean where petroleum is the major pollutant, the Indian Ocean is polluted by Toxic / Radioactive waste suspected to have been coming from the developed nations as reported by the United Nations Environmental Programme after the Tsunami disaster in December 2004 especially along the coast of Somalia. ii. The degreasing of the Quay Aprons at Port Elizabeth, Maputo, Dar-es-Salaam and Mongolism Sea Ports are also another major source polluting the Indian Ocean. PROBLEMS GENERATED AS A RESULT OF THE OCEANS POLLUTION i. Recent report

  5. Boodlea composita (Harv. F.Brand (Chlorophyta no litoral nordeste do Brasil Boodlea composita (Harv. F.Brand (Chlorophyta in the northeastern coast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aigara Miranda Alves

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo relata a primeira ocorrência de Boodlea composita (Harv. F.Brand (Chlorophyta para o litoral nordeste do Brasil e o segundo registro para o litoral brasileiro. O material foi coletado ao longo do litoral da Bahia (08º20'07"-18º20'07''S e 30º20'37"-46º36'59"W. A distribuição de B. composita foi ampliada no litoral do Brasil, uma vez que esta era conhecida apenas para a região sudeste, especificamente para Cabo Frio, Rio de Janeiro. No Atlântico Americano, B. composita apresenta limite norte de distribuição nas Bermudas e limite sul, no Rio de Janeiro.This study reports the first occurrence of Boodlea composita (Harv. F.Brand (Chlorophyta to the northeastern coast of Brazil and the second record for the Brazilian coast. The material was collected along the coast of Bahia (08º20'07"-18º20'07''S and 30º20'37"-46º36'59"W. The distribution of B. composita was expanded along the coast of Brazil, since this was known only to the Southeast, specifically to Cabo Frio, Rio de Janeiro. In American Atlantic, B. composita presents northern limit of distribution in Bermuda and southern limit at Rio de Janeiro.

  6. NOAA TIFF Image - 3m Bathymetry Slope, Florida Deep Coral Areas - Lost Coast Explorer - (2010), UTM 17N NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a unified GeoTiff with 3x3 meter cell size representing the slope (in degrees) of several deep coral priority areas off the Atlantic Coast of...

  7. NOAA TIFF Image - 3m Bathymetry, Florida Deep Coral Areas (Jacksonville) - Lost Coast Explorer - (2010), UTM 17N NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a unified GeoTiff with 3x3 meter cell size representing bathymetry of several deep coral priority areas off the Atlantic Coast of Florida,...

  8. 77 FR 50019 - Safety Zone; Cocoa Beach Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa Beach, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ...) 366-9826. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Cocoa Beach Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa... establishing a temporary safety zone on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean located east of Cocoa Beach,...

  9. 78 FR 56151 - Safety Zone, North Atlantic Ocean; Virginia Beach, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone, North Atlantic Ocean; Virginia Beach, VA... zone on the navigable waters of the North Atlantic Ocean in Virginia Beach, VA to support the Virginia... Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking...

  10. 46 CFR 7.25 - Montauk Point, NY to Atlantic Beach, NY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Montauk Point, NY to Atlantic Beach, NY. 7.25 Section 7... LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.25 Montauk Point, NY to Atlantic Beach, NY. (a) A line drawn from Shinnecock... Light 348° true to the southernmost extremity of the spit of land at the western end of Oak Beach. (d)...

  11. 77 FR 25892 - Security Zones; North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Summit, Chicago, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    ... proposed rule (77 FR 13232) that would establish four separate security zones in the Chicago Harbor and Chicago River during the NATO Summit. This statement is incorrect. The Coast Guard received one comment... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zones; North Atlantic Treaty Organization...

  12. 75 FR 34929 - Safety Zones: Neptune Deep Water Port, Atlantic Ocean, Boston, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ..., Boston, MA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. ] SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is... Deep Water Port, Atlantic Ocean, Boston, MA; Final Rule (USCG-2009-0589), to protect vessels from the..., Boston, MA. (a) Location. The following areas are safety zones: All navigable waters of the United...

  13. 77 FR 27120 - Safety Zone; Virginia Beach Oceanfront Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Virginia Beach, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-09

    ..., Virginia Beach, VA in the Federal Register (76 FR 13519). We received one comment on the proposed rule. No... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Virginia Beach Oceanfront Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Virginia Beach, VA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY:...

  14. 76 FR 37700 - Safety Zone; Myrtle Beach Triathlon, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Myrtle Beach Triathlon, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking... Waterway in Myrtle Beach, South Carolina during the Myrtle Beach Triathlon. The Myrtle Beach...

  15. 77 FR 13519 - Safety Zone; Virginia Beach Oceanfront Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Virginia Beach, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Virginia Beach Oceanfront Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Virginia Beach, VA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY... Virginia Beach, VA. This action is necessary to provide for the safety of life on navigable waters...

  16. 77 FR 14321 - Safety Zone; Myrtle Beach Triathlon, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Myrtle Beach Triathlon, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking... Waterway in Myrtle Beach, South Carolina during the Myrtle Beach Triathlon. The Myrtle Beach...

  17. 77 FR 75853 - Safety Zone; Bone Island Triathlon, Atlantic Ocean; Key West, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A... West, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean in Key West, Florida, during the...

  18. 2005 Atlantic Hurricanes Poster

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2005 Atlantic Hurricanes poster features high quality satellite images of 15 hurricanes which formed in the Atlantic Basin (includes Gulf of Mexico and...

  19. South Atlantic Shrimp System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The SEFSC, in cooperation with the South Atlantic states, collects South Atlantic shrimp data from dealers and fishermen. These data are collected to provide catch,...

  20. Species Profiles: Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Mid-Atlantic): Bay anchovy

    OpenAIRE

    Morton, Timothy

    1989-01-01

    The bay anchovy occurs along the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts, from Cape Cod, Massachusetts, to Yucatan, Mexico (Hildebrand 1963), except for the Florida Keys where it is apparently absent (Daly 1970). (PDF contains 22 pages)

  1. Detecção de atividade lectínica e atividade hemolítica em extratos de esponjas (Porifera nativas da costa atlântica do Brasil Detection of lectinic activity and hemolytic activity in extracts of native sponges (Porifera of atlantic coast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.R. Dresch

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Extratos aquosos de vinte espécies de esponjas da costa Atlântica brasileira foram testados para verificação da presença de atividade lectínica e atividade hemolítica. Hemaglutinação para eritrócitos humanos e de distintos animais foi evidenciada em 12 dos 20 extratos testados. Os extratos das espécies Axinella corrugata, Chondrilla nucula, Chondrosia collectrix, Cinachyrella alloclada e Guitarra sp1. foram os que apresentaram maior atividade hemaglutinante. Dos doze extratos com atividade hemaglutinante dez tiveram a atividade inibida por um ou mais açúcares e/ou glicoproteínas. A lectina do extrato de Chondrilla nucula foi resistente à desnaturação térmica quando aquecida a 100 ºC por 60 minutos. Atividade hemolítica foi encontrada apenas nos extratos de Petromica citrina e Acervochalina sp. As espécies que apresentaram maior potencial para futuros estudos de suas lectinas foram Axinella corrugata, Chondrilla nucula e Chondrosia collectrix, em vista da maior atividade hemaglutinante apresentada por seus extratos, aliada à maior atividade específica.Aqueous extracts of twenty species of sea sponges of the Brazilian Atlantic coast were tested with the aim of searching the presence of lectinic and hemolytic activity. Hemagglutinating activity for human erythrocytes and for distinct animals were found in 12 of the 20 tested extracts. The extracts of Axinella corrugata, Chondrilla nucula, Chondrosia collectrix, Cinachyrella alloclada and Guitarra sp1. were the ones that presented highest hemagglutinating activity. Ten of the 12 hemagglutinating extracts had the activity inhibited by one or more sugars or glycoproteins. The lectin from Chondrilla nucula was resistant to thermal denaturation when heated up to 100 ºC for 60 minutes. Hemolytic activity was only found in the extracts from Petromica citrina and Acervochalina sp. The species of sea sponges that showed major potential for futures studies of their lectins were

  2. Occurrence of Magellanic Penguins along the Northeast Brazilian Coast during 2008 Austral Winter

    OpenAIRE

    Renato Ramos da Silva; Janini Pereira; Clemente A. S. Tanajura; Carlos A. D. Lentini; Mauro Cirano; P. Dee Boersma; Rodrigues, Regina R.

    2012-01-01

    During the austral winter of 2008, thousands of penguins traveled to low latitudes along the South Atlantic coast of South America. The atmospheric and oceanic conditions from April to July 2008 may account for the penguins' unusual geographic distribution. During that period, South Atlantic coastal waters were cooler; the wind anomalies had northward and onshore components; the ocean's coastal region presented northward currents that favored the penguins to travel toward lower latitudes. Thi...

  3. First Record of Invasive Lionfish (Pterois volitans) for the Brazilian Coast

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Carlos E. L.; Luiz, Osmar J.; Floeter, Sergio R.; Marcos B Lucena; Moysés C Barbosa; Rocha, Claudia R.; Luiz A Rocha

    2015-01-01

    The invasion of the northwestern Atlantic by the Indo-Pacific lionfish has developed extraordinarily fast, and is expected to cause one of the most negative ecological impacts among all marine invasions. In less than 30 years, lionfish have dramatically expanded their distribution range to an area encompassing the eastern coast of the USA, Bermuda, the entire Caribbean region and the Gulf of Mexico. The rapidity of the lionfish spread has raised concerns in other parts of the Atlantic that ma...

  4. 78 FR 61844 - North Atlantic Coast Comprehensive Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-04

    ... to: (410-962-4698), ATTN: Mr. David Robbins. Mail: Send information by mail to: Mr. David Robbins, U... contact: Mr. David Robbins, Project Manager, at David.W.Robbins@usace.army.mil , or by telephone at...

  5. Determinants of biodiversity in subtropical shallow lakes (Atlantic coast, Uruguay)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruk, C.; Rodriguez-Gallego, L.; Meerhoff, M.; Quintans, F.; Lacerot, G.; Mazzeo, N.; Scasso, F.; Paggi, J.C.; Peeters, E.; Marten, S.

    2009-01-01

    P> Shallow lakes and ponds contribute disproportionally to species richness relative to other aquatic ecosystems. In-lake conditions (e.g. presence of submerged plants) seem to play a key role in determining diversity, as has been demonstrated for temperate lakes. When water quality deteriorates

  6. 75 FR 20802 - Safety Zone; New York Air Show at Jones Beach State Park, Atlantic Ocean off of Jones Beach...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ..., Atlantic Ocean off of Jones Beach, Wantagh, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed... an air show which consist of aircraft performing aerobatic maneuvers over the Atlantic Ocean off of..., which will then become highlighted in blue. In the ``Document Type'' drop down menu select...

  7. US west coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aerial surveys are conducted along the US west coast to determine distribution and abundance of endangered leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea), loggerhead...

  8. Temperature and salinity profile data collected by NOAA's Navigation Response Team 5 during operations along the northeast US coast, May 2005 - March 2006 (NODC Accession 0002673)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using CTD casts in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean and the Northeast US coast from the NAVIGATION RESPONSE TEAM 5 from 03 May...

  9. NOAA TIFF Image - 3m Bathymetric Rugosity, Florida Deep Coral Areas (Jacksonville) - Lost Coast Explorer - (2011), UTM 17N NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a unified GeoTiff with 3x3 meter cell size representing the rugosity of several deep coral priority areas off the Atlantic Coast of Florida,...

  10. Temperature and salinity profile data collected by NOAA's Navigation Response Team 5 during operations along the northeast US coast, March 2005 - March 2006 (NODC Accession 0002674)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using CTD casts in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean and the Northeast US Coast from the NAVIGATION RESPONSE TEAM 5 from 03 March...

  11. Closing the North American Carbon Budget: Continental Margin Fluxes Matter!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najjar, R.; Benway, H. M.; Siedlecki, S. A.; Boyer, E. W.; Cai, W. J.; Coble, P. G.; Cross, J. N.; Friedrichs, M. A.; Goni, M. A.; Griffith, P. C.; Herrmann, M.; Lohrenz, S. E.; Mathis, J. T.; McKinley, G. A.; Pilskaln, C. H.; Smith, R. A.; Alin, S. R.

    2015-12-01

    Despite their relatively small surface area, continental margins are regions of intense carbon and nutrient processing, export and exchange, and thus have a significant impact on global biogeochemical cycles. In response to recommendations for regional synthesis and carbon budget estimation for North America put forth in the North American Continental Margins workshop report (Hales et al., 2008), the Ocean Carbon and Biogeochemistry (OCB) Program and North American Carbon Program (NACP) began coordinating a series of collaborative, interdisciplinary Coastal CARbon Synthesis (CCARS) research activities in five coastal regions of North America (Atlantic Coast, Pacific Coast, Gulf of Mexico, Arctic, Laurentian Great Lakes) to improve quantitative assessments of the North American carbon budget. CCARS workshops and collaborative research activities have resulted in the development of regional coastal carbon budgets based on recent literature- and model-based estimates of major carbon fluxes with estimated uncertainties. Numerous peer-reviewed papers and presentations by involved researchers have highlighted these findings and provided more in-depth analyses of processes underlying key carbon fluxes in continental margin systems. As a culminating outcome of these synthesis efforts, a comprehensive science plan highlights key knowledge gaps identified during this synthesis and provides explicit guidance on future research and observing priorities in continental margin systems to help inform future agency investments in continental margins research. This presentation will provide an overview of regional and flux-based (terrestrial inputs, biological transformations, sedimentary processes, atmospheric exchanges, lateral carbon transport) synthesis findings and key recommendations in the science plan, as well as a set of overarching priorities and recommendations on observations and modeling approaches for continental margin systems.

  12. 78 FR 33969 - Special Local Regulations; Daytona Beach Grand Prix of the Sea, Atlantic Ocean; Daytona Beach, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Daytona Beach Grand Prix of the Sea, Atlantic Ocean; Daytona Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule... east of Daytona Beach, Florida, during the Daytona Beach Grand Prix of the Sea, a series of...

  13. Lagrangian analysis of low level anthropogenic plume processing across the North Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Real

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The photochemical evolution of an anthropogenic plume from the New-York/Boston region during its transport at low altitudes over the North Atlantic to the European west coast has been studied using a Lagrangian framework. This plume, originally strongly polluted, was sampled by research aircraft just off the North American east coast on 3 successive days, and 3 days downwind off the west coast of Ireland where another aircraft re-sampled a weakly polluted plume. Changes in trace gas concentrations during transport were reproduced using a photochemical trajectory model including deposition and mixing effects.

    Chemical and wet deposition processing dominated the evolution of all pollutants in the plume. The mean net O3 production was evaluated to be -5 ppbv/day leading to low values of O3 by the time the plume reached Europe. Wet deposition of nitric acid was responsible for an 80% reduction in this O3 production. If the plume had not encountered precipitation, it would have reached the Europe with O3 levels up to 80-90 ppbv, and CO levels between 120 and 140 ppbv. Photochemical destruction also played a more important role than mixing in the evolution of plume CO due to high levels of both O3 and water vapour showing that CO cannot always be used as a tracer for polluted air masses, especially for plumes transported at low altitudes. The results also show that, in this case, an important increase in the O3/CO slope can be attributed to chemical destruction of CO and not to photochemical O3 production as is often assumed.

  14. Fenotipo atípico de Vibrio ordalii, bacteria altamente patogénica aislada desde salmón del Atlántico cultivado en las costas marinas del sur de Chile Atypical phenotype of Vibrio ordalii, a highly pathogenic bacteria isolated from Atlantic salmon reared on the marine coast of southern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Bohle

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante invierno y primavera de 2003, salmones del Atlántico cultivados en las costas marinas del sur de Chile fueron afectados por brotes de una enfermedad. El análisis patológico reveló la presencia de lesiones en piel, úlceras hemorrágicas, mientras que los signos internos incluyeron pericarditis, peritonitis y focos necróticos múltiples en el hígado. En todos los casos, los cultivos bacterianos puros fueron aislados de las lesiones externas y órganos internos. La bacteriología convencional mostró como sospechoso a Vibrio sp como causante de la enfermedad. La identificación final de la bacteria fue llevada a cabo por análisis filogenético por la comparación de la secuencia casi total del gen que codifica el RNAr 16s. Este análisis reveló que las bacterias sospechosas pertenecen al grupo de los V. ordalii. Fenotípicamente, estas bacterias mostraron diferencias morfológicas, fisiológicas, bioquímicas, enzimáticas y antigénicas a los V. ordalii de referencia. Por esta razón, las cepas de campo podrían ser consideradas como un biotipo o fenotipo atípico de V. ordalii, aunque para ello es necesario más estudios comparativos entre los genomas completos de estas bacterias.During the winter and spring of 2003, Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar reared a sea farms along the marine coast of southern Chile, were affected by outbreaks of disease. The pathological analysis of the affected fish were characterized by the presence of skin lesions, haemorrhaging ulcers and mortality, while the internal signs included pericarditis, peritonitis, multiple necrotic foci in the liver and signs of systemic septicaemia. In all cases, pure cultures of bacteria were isolated from the lesions and internal organs. The isolated bacteria were characterized by means of conventional bacteriological identification assays, and a Vibrio sp. was suspected to be the agent of the disease. The final identification of the bacterial isolates was made after

  15. A historical estimate of apparent survival of American oystercatcher (Haematopus palliatus) in Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nol, Erica; Murphy, Sean P.; Cadman, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Using mark-recapture models, apparent survival was estimated from older banding and re-sighting data (1978–1983) of American Oystercatchers (Haematopus palliatus) nesting on beaches and in salt marshes of coastal Virginia, USA. Oystercatchers nesting in salt marshes exhibited higher apparent survival (0.94 ±0.03) than birds nesting on beaches (0.81 ±0.06), a difference due to variation in mortality, permanent emigration, or both. Nesting on exposed barrier beaches may subject adults and young to higher risk of predation. These early estimates of adult survival for a species that is heavily monitored along the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts can be used to (1) develop demographic models to determine population stability, (2) compare with estimates of adult survival from populations that have reached carrying capacity, and (3) compare with estimates of survival from other oystercatcher populations and species.

  16. Kinematics of the South Atlantic rift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Heine

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The South Atlantic rift basin evolved as branch of a large Jurassic-Cretaceous intraplate rift zone between the African and South American plates during the final breakup of western Gondwana. While the relative motions between South America and Africa for post-breakup times are well resolved, many issues pertaining to the fit reconstruction and particular the relation between kinematics and lithosphere dynamics during pre-breakup remain unclear in currently published plate models. We have compiled and assimilated data from these intraplated rifts and constructed a revised plate kinematic model for the pre-breakup evolution of the South Atlantic. Based on structural restoration of the conjugate South Atlantic margins and intracontinental rift basins in Africa and South America, we achieve a tight fit reconstruction which eliminates the need for previously inferred large intracontinental shear zones, in particular in Patagonian South America. By quantitatively accounting for crustal deformation in the Central and West African rift zone, we have been able to indirectly construct the kinematic history of the pre-breakup evolution of the conjugate West African-Brazilian margins. Our model suggests a causal link between changes in extension direction and velocity during continental extension and the generation of marginal structures such as the enigmatic Pre-salt sag basin and the São Paulo High. We model an initial E–W directed extension between South America and Africa (fixed in present-day position at very low extensional velocities until Upper Hauterivian times (≈126 Ma when rift activity along in the equatorial Atlantic domain started to increase significantly. During this initial ≈17 Myr-long stretching episode the Pre-salt basin width on the conjugate Brazilian and West African margins is generated. An intermediate stage between 126.57 Ma and Base Aptian is characterised by strain localisation, rapid lithospheric weakening in the

  17. North Atlantic Temperature Anomaly

    OpenAIRE

    Vukcevic, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    The author postulates the existence of a high correlation between North Atlantic Temperature Anomaly and the variations of magnetic field over the Hudson Bay region. Post-glacial uplift and convection in the underlying mantle uplift (as reflected in changes of the area's magnetic intensity) are making significant contribution to the Atlantic basin climate change.

  18. US Geological Survey BLM/OCS Baltimore Canyon (Mid-Atlantic) Sediment Analyses (Samples collected 1 July 1975 to 30 June 1976)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains analytical data from samples acquired from the Baltimore Canyon (Mid-Atlantic) area of the Outer Continental Shelf, U.S. East Coast, by the...

  19. Long-term Bat Monitoring on Islands, Offshore Structures, and Coastal Sites in the Gulf of Maine, mid-Atlantic, and Great Lakes—Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Trevor [Stantec Consulting Services Inc., Topsham, ME (United States); Pelletier, Steve [Stantec Consulting Services Inc., Topsham, ME (United States); Giovanni, Matt [Stantec Consulting Services Inc., Topsham, ME (United States)

    2016-01-15

    This report summarizes results of a long-term regional acoustic survey of bat activity at remote islands, offshore structures, and coastal sites in the Gulf of Maine, Great Lakes, and mid-Atlantic coast.

  20. Oceanographic station data from bottle casts from the GALLATIN in the North Atlantic Ocean from on 16 March 1977 (NODC Accession 7700501)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic station data were collected from the GALLITIN in the North Atlantic Ocean. Data were collected by the United States Coast Guard (USCG) on 16 March...

  1. Manado: A Developing Coast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tenthof van Noorden, C.; Vermeij, D.; Van Zuijlen, J.; Zeelenberg, W.

    2013-01-01

    Manado, the capital city of North Sulawesi in Indonesia, is rapidly developing. The last years Manado has been extending into the sea, which changed the hydraulics and morphology of Manado Bay. This had negative effects on the currents, inducing erosion along the coast. Also Manado has problems with

  2. Intercultural-Bilingual Education for an Interethnic-Plurilingual Society? The Case of Nicaragua's Caribbean Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeland, Jane

    2003-01-01

    Latin American models of "intercultural-bilingual" education may be inappropriate for multilingual, interethnic regions such as Nicaragua's Caribbean Coast, where five indigenous and Afro-Caribbean minorities interact in overlapping territories. Examination of one such program and of Coast people's complex linguistic and cultural practices…

  3. USGS "iCoast - Did the Coast Change?" Project: Crowd-Tagging Aerial Photographs to Improve Coastal Change Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S. B.; Poore, B. S.; Plant, N. G.; Stockdon, H. F.; Morgan, K.; Snell, R.

    2014-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been acquiring oblique aerial photographs of the coast before and after major storms since 1995 and has amassed a database of over 140,000 photographs of the Gulf, Atlantic, and Pacific coasts. USGS coastal scientists use these photographs to document and characterize coastal change caused by storms. The images can also be used to evaluate the accuracy of predictive models of coastal erosion. However, the USGS does not have the personnel to manually analyze all of the photographs taken after a storm. Also, computers cannot yet automatically identify damages and geomorphic changes to the coast from the oblique aerial photographs. There is a high public interest in accessing the limited number of pre- and post-storm photographic pairs the USGS is currently able to share. Recent federal policies that encourage open data and open innovation initiatives have resulted in many federal agencies developing new ways of using citizen science and crowdsourcing techniques to share data and collaborate with the public to accomplish large tasks. The USGS launched a crowdsourcing application in June 2014 called "iCoast - Did the Coast Change?" (http://coastal.er.usgs.gov/icoast) to allow citizens to help USGS scientists identify changes to the coast by comparing USGS aerial photographs taken before and after storms, and then selecting pre-defined tags like "dune scarp" and "sand on road." The tags are accompanied by text definitions and pictorial examples of these coastal morphology terms and serve to informally and passively educate users about coastal hazards. The iCoast application facilitates greater citizen awareness of coastal change and is an educational resource for teachers and students interested in learning about coastal vulnerability. We expect that the citizen observations from iCoast will assist with probabilistic model development to produce more accurate predictions of coastal vulnerability.

  4. Abstracts of the Atlantic Geoscience Society's 2007 colloquium and annual general meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Atlantic Geoscience Society (AGS) hosts annual meetings, workshops and field trips to promote a better understanding of the geology of Atlantic Canada. This colloquium highlighted current research in the Atlantic provinces with special sessions devoted to patterns and geohazards in the North Atlantic; late and post-glacial climate change events in eastern Canada; salt matters; tectonic, thermal and resource aspects of Paleozoic to Mesozoic evaporite basins; mineral resources research by students of the Society of Economic Geologists; dendrochronology; a physical volcanology workshop; and, a North American soil geochemical landscape project orientation session. One of the 74 papers presented at this colloquium has been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database

  5. Abstracts of the Atlantic Geoscience Society's 2007 colloquium and annual general meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, S.; Parkhill, M.; Wilson, R.; Desrosiers, M.; Lentz, D.; Pitre, C.; Pronk, T.; Spooner, I.; Toole, R.; Wallace, P. (comps.)

    2007-07-01

    The Atlantic Geoscience Society (AGS) hosts annual meetings, workshops and field trips to promote a better understanding of the geology of Atlantic Canada. This colloquium highlighted current research in the Atlantic provinces with special sessions devoted to patterns and geohazards in the North Atlantic; late and post-glacial climate change events in eastern Canada; salt matters; tectonic, thermal and resource aspects of Paleozoic to Mesozoic evaporite basins; mineral resources research by students of the Society of Economic Geologists; dendrochronology; a physical volcanology workshop; and, a North American soil geochemical landscape project orientation session. One of the 74 papers presented at this colloquium has been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database.

  6. Ozone in the Atlantic Ocean marine boundary layer

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick Boylan; Detlev Helmig; Samuel Oltmans

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In situ atmospheric ozone measurements aboard the R/V Ronald H. Brown during the 2008 Gas-Ex and AMMA research cruises were compared with data from four island and coastal Global Atmospheric Watch stations in the Atlantic Ocean to examine ozone transport in the marine boundary layer (MBL). Ozone measurements made at Tudor Hill, Bermuda, were subjected to continental outflow from the east coast of the United States, which resulted in elevated ozone levels above 50 ppbv. Ozone measurem...

  7. SUBGLACIAL VOLCANO IN ATLANTIC

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamura, Shigehisa

    2010-01-01

    This is a note to satellite monitoring of the subglacial volcano in the Atlantic. The satellite data are obtained by EUMETSAT and NASA An eruption of a subglacial volcano in Iceland had issued volcanic ash, and the winds transferred the ash to the European Union in April 2010. This volcano is one of the volcanoes in the Atlantic. There are volcanoes in the north and south Atlantic. Some of them are in Azores Islands, in Canary Islands and Cape Verde Islands. Iceland is located on the zone of ...

  8. Between-Habitat Variation of Benthic Cover, Reef Fish Assemblage and Feeding Pressure on the Benthos at the Only Atoll in South Atlantic: Rocas Atoll, NE Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Longo, G. O.; Morais, R. A.; C D L Martins; Mendes, T. C.; Aued, A. W.; Cândido, D. V.; Oliveira, J. C.; L T Nunes; Fontoura, L.; M N Sissini; Teschima, M. M.; M. B. Silva; Ramlov, F.; Gouvea, L. P.; Ferreira, C. E. L.

    2015-01-01

    The Southwestern Atlantic harbors unique and relatively understudied reef systems, including the only atoll in South Atlantic: Rocas atoll. Located 230 km off the NE Brazilian coast, Rocas is formed by coralline red algae and vermetid mollusks, and is potentially one of the most "pristine" areas in Southwestern Atlantic. We provide the first comprehensive and integrative description of the fish and benthic communities inhabiting different shallow reef habitats of Rocas. We studied two contras...

  9. Manado: A Developing Coast

    OpenAIRE

    Tenthof van Noorden, C.; Vermeij, D.; Van Zuijlen, J.; Zeelenberg, W.

    2013-01-01

    Manado, the capital city of North Sulawesi in Indonesia, is rapidly developing. The last years Manado has been extending into the sea, which changed the hydraulics and morphology of Manado Bay. This had negative effects on the currents, inducing erosion along the coast. Also Manado has problems with the presence of garbage in the rivers and river flooding. Now the municipality is planning to build a new reclamation, which might even increase these problems. Based on the requests of our client...

  10. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the North American Coastline-South as part of the Florida Atlantic Coastal Transport Study (FACTS) project 07 March 1984 - 01 September 1985 (NODC Accession 8600136)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the North American Coastline-South from March 7, 1984 to September 1, 1985. Data were...

  11. Atlantic Salmon Telemetry Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Annual telemetry data are collected as part of specific projects (assessments within watersheds) or as opportunistic efforts to characterize Atlantic salmon smolt...

  12. 33 CFR 117.141 - American River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false American River. 117.141 Section 117.141 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.141 American River. The draw of...

  13. Woman Swims Atlantic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾庆文

    2009-01-01

    Jennifer Figge pressed her toes into the Caribbean sand, excited and exhausted as she touched land this week for the first time in almost a month. Reaching a beach in Trinidad, she became the first woman on record to s,Mm across the Atlantic Ocean-a dream she'd had since the early 1960s, when a stormy trans-Atlantic flight got her thinking she could wear a life vest and swim the rest of the way if needed.

  14. Current meter and bathythermograph data from moored current meter and xbt casts in the North American Coastline-South as part of the Outer Continental Shelf - South Atlantic (OCS-South Atlantic) project from 1982-02-16 to 1985-07-01 (NCEI Accession 8600124)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction and bathythermograph (xbt) data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the North American Coastline-South from...

  15. Black Americans Facing Racial Obstacles (1890-1980)

    OpenAIRE

    Belhadji, Chakib

    2015-01-01

    During a long period in history, the black Americans were not considered as American citizens, they suffered from bad treatments under slavery, the different kinds of racism and discrimination. In spite of these problems, they could challenge them and prove themselves over the society as American citizens. The first problem that faced the black Americans was slavery since their arrival to America from Africa across the Atlantic in slave ships in which many died. They were fo...

  16. Do North Atlantic eels show parallel patterns of spatially varying selection?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Malene G.; Pujolar, Jose Martin; Ferchaud, Anne-Laure;

    2014-01-01

    Background: The two North Atlantic eel species, the European and the American eel, represent an ideal system in which to study parallel selection patterns due to their sister species status and the presence of ongoing gene flow. A panel of 80 coding-gene SNPs previously analyzed in American eel w...

  17. A pelagic outbreak of avian cholera in North American gulls: Scavenging as a primary mechanism for transmission?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wille, Michelle; McBurney, Scott; Robertson, Gregory J.; Wilhelm, Sabine; Blehert, David; Soos, Catherine; Dunphy, Ron; Whitney, Hugh

    2016-01-01

    Avian cholera, caused by the bacterium Pasteurella multocida, is an endemic disease globally, often causing annual epizootics in North American wild bird populations with thousands of mortalities. From December 2006 to March 2007, an avian cholera outbreak caused mortality in marine birds off the coast of Atlantic Canada, largely centered 300–400 km off the coast of the island of Newfoundland. Scavenging gulls (Larus spp.) were the primary species detected; however, mortality was also identified in Black-legged Kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) and one Common Raven (Corvus corax), a nonmarine species. The most common gross necropsy findings in the birds with confirmed avian cholera were acute fibrinous and necrotizing lesions affecting the spleen, air sacs, and pericardium, and nonspecific hepatomegaly and splenomegaly. The etiologic agent, P. multocida serotype 1, was recovered from 77 of 136 carcasses examined, and confirmed or probable avian cholera was diagnosed in 85 cases. Mortality observed in scavenging gull species was disproportionately high relative to their abundance, particularly when compared to nonscavenging species. The presence of feather shafts in the ventricular lumen of the majority of larid carcasses diagnosed with avian cholera suggests scavenging of birds that died from avian cholera as a major mode of transmission. This documentation of an outbreak of avian cholera in a North American pelagic environment affecting primarily scavenging gulls indicates that offshore marine environments may be a component of avian cholera dynamics.

  18. Evolution of upwelling fronts off the coast of Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    We have analyzed the spatial and temporal variability of chlorophyll in the Atlantic Ocean off the Portugal coast using satellite imagery from 1979 to 1986 in conjunction with wind data. The spatial patterns in the imagery show the typical inshore-offshore and east-west gradients, while the temporal patterns show seasonal high winter values and low summer values. In the satellite imagery for the period 1979-1986, stable mesoscale and large scale patterns recurred despite interannual differences in absolute satellite-derived pigment concentrations.

  19. 46 CFR 91.60-45 - American Bureau of Shipping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false American Bureau of Shipping. 91.60-45 Section 91.60-45 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS....60-45 American Bureau of Shipping. (a) The American Bureau of Shipping, with its home office at...

  20. 46 CFR 189.60-45 - American Bureau of Shipping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false American Bureau of Shipping. 189.60-45 Section 189.60-45 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS INSPECTION...-45 American Bureau of Shipping. (a) The American Bureau of Shipping, with its home office at...

  1. 77 FR 22221 - Security Zones; North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Summit, Chicago, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ...) Summit, Chicago, Illinois in the Federal Register (77 FR 13232). Although the G8 Summit is now planned to... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zones; North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO... NATO Summit and associated events, which will be held in Chicago from May 16, 2012, through May...

  2. Bivalve aquaculture transfers in Atlantic Europe. Part A: Transfer activities and legal framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muehlbauer, F.; Fraser, D.; Brenner, M.;

    2014-01-01

    Intentional transfers of numerous bivalve species have had a long tradition and are commonly conducted along the European Atlantic coast. However numerous studies have concluded that intentional transfer of species for aquaculture purposes is one of the most principal vectors for the introduction...

  3. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in north-eastern Atlantic Harbor seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum were determined in serum samples from 47 grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) and 56 harbor seals (Phoca vitulina vitulina) from the Atlantic coasts of United Kingdom and France. Antibodies to T. gondii assayed by the modified agglutination test (MAT) ...

  4. Hogfish Lachnolaimus maximus (Labridae) confirmed in the south-western Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, C L S; Santander-Neto, J; Costa, T L A

    2016-09-01

    Based on material deposited in collections, photographic records and other reports from fishermen and divers, the occurrence of the hogfish Lachnolaimus maximus (Labridae) is confirmed in the south-western Atlantic Ocean, near the Brazilian coast as far south as southern Brazil. The recognized range of this species should therefore be extended c. 3000 km further south.

  5. 77 FR 35903 - Safety Zone, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; Emerald Isle, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-15

    ... Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). 4. Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. But you may... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway;...

  6. 77 FR 44463 - Safety Zone, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; Emerald Isle, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    ... INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed... published in 77 FR 35903. We received no comments on the proposed rule. No public meeting was requested, and... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway;...

  7. 33 CFR 117.821 - Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Albermarle Sound to Sunset Beach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Albermarle Sound to Sunset Beach. 117.821 Section 117.821 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 117.821 Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Albermarle Sound to Sunset Beach. (a) The drawbridges across... this paragraph: (1) Onslow Beach Swing Bridge, mile 240.7, at Cap Lejeune, NC, between 7 a.m. and 7...

  8. 33 CFR 80.160 - Montauk Point, NY to Atlantic Beach, NY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Beach, NY. 80.160 Section 80.160 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... to Atlantic Beach, NY. (a) A line drawn from the Shinnecock Inlet East Breakwater Light to Shinnecock... southernmost extremity of the spit of land at the western end of Oak Beach. (d) A line drawn from Jones...

  9. 77 FR 40513 - Safety Zone; Major Motion Picture Filming, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; Southport, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-10

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Major Motion Picture Filming, Atlantic... associated with the stunts that will be performed on the river during the filming of this motion picture.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM...

  10. Potential tropical Atlantic impacts on Pacific decadal climate trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikamoto, Y.; Mochizuki, T.; Timmermann, A.; Kimoto, M.; Watanabe, M.

    2016-07-01

    The tropical Pacific cooling from the early 1990s to 2013 has contributed to the slowdown of globally averaged sea surface temperatures (SSTs). The origin of this regional cooling trend still remains elusive. Here we demonstrate that the remote impact of Atlantic SST anomalies, as well as local atmosphere-ocean interactions, contributed to the eastern Pacific cooling during this period. By assimilating observed three-dimensional Atlantic temperature and salinity anomalies into a coupled general circulation model, we are able to qualitatively reproduce the observed Pacific decadal trends of SST and sea level pressure (SLP), albeit with reduced amplitude. Although a major part of the Pacific SLP trend can be explained by equatorial Pacific SST forcing only, the origin of this low-frequency variability can be traced back further to the remote impacts of equatorial Atlantic and South Atlantic SST trends. Atlantic SST impacts on the atmospheric circulation can also be detected for the Northeastern Pacific, thus providing a linkage between Atlantic climate and Western North American drought conditions.

  11. North Atlantic Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinari, R.; Bryan, K.; Schott, F.

    The intensity of the North Atlantic winddriven and thermohaline circulation and the close proximity of many oceanographic installations make the North Atlantic a particularly favored region of the world ocean from the standpoint of research in ocean circulation. Recent increases in available data and advances in numerical modeling techniques served as the impetus to convene a joint workshop of modelers and observers working on the North Atlantic with the Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR) Working Group (WG) 68 (“North Atlantic Circulation”). Goals of the workshop were to provide an update on data sets and models and to discuss the poleward heat flux problem and possible monitoring strategies. The joint Workshop/SCOR WG-68 meeting was convened by F. Schott (chairman of the working group; Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, Miami, Fla.), K. Bryan (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/ Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (NOAA/GFDL)), and R. Molinari (NOAA/Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (NOAA/AOML)).

  12. Atlantic menhaden adult tagging study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Atlantic menhaden are a schooling forage fish species, which are subject to a large commercial purse seine fishery. Atlantic menhaden are harvested for reduction...

  13. American Religion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田甜

    2008-01-01

    It is said that American religion,as a great part of American culture,plays an important role in American culture. It is hoped that some ideas can be obtained from this research paper,which focuses on analyzing the great impact is produced to American culture by American religion. Finally, this essay gives two useful standpoints to English learners:Understunding American religion will help understand the American history, culture and American people,and help you to communic.ate with them better. Understanding American religion will help you understand English better.

  14. Assessing the Impact of Bycatch on Dolphin Populations: The Case of the Common Dolphin in the Eastern North Atlantic

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Mannocci; Willy Dabin; Emmanuelle Augeraud-Véron; Jean-François Dupuy; Christophe Barbraud; Vincent Ridoux

    2012-01-01

    Fisheries interactions have been implicated in the decline of many marine vertebrates worldwide. In the eastern North Atlantic, at least 1000 common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) are bycaught each year, particularly in pelagic pair-trawls. We have assessed the resulting impact of bycatch on this population using a demographic modeling approach. We relied on a sample of females stranded along the French Atlantic and western Channel coasts. Strandings represent an extensive source of demographic...

  15. Indian Ocean coasts, coastal ecology

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ingole, B.S.

    stream_size 9 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Encycl_Coast_Sci_2005_546.pdf.txt stream_source_info Encycl_Coast_Sci_2005_546.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  16. Probabilistic tsunami hazard in the North East Atlantic due to seismic sources, implications for NEAMTWS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omira, R.; Baptista, M.; Matias, L. M.; Miranda, J. M.; Carrilho, F.

    2013-12-01

    Recently, several studies on tsunami hazard assessment for the North East Atlantic coasts have been published. These studies use deterministic approach based upon the most credible earthquake scenario and/or the worst case scenario to derive tsunami coastal hazard in terms of wave elevation and inundation maps. In this work, we present the first thorough study on probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment due to earthquake sources for the North East Atlantic area. We consider three main seismogenic areas: the Gulf of Cadiz, the Gloria Fault and the Caribbean arc. For each seismogenic zone we derive the annual recurrence rate for each magnitude range, starting from Mw7.5 to Mw9.0, using the Bayesian method that incorporates seismic information from historical catalog and instrumental periods. A numerical code, solving the linear shallow water equations is employed to simulate the tsunami propagation and compute near shore wave heights along the entire NE Atlantic coast and at the forecast points of the NEAMTWS. To establish, for multiple sources, the joint probability that wave height exceeds a particular value for a given time period, we consider that the sources are independent (like in the Poison distribution). This process allows calculating the time-independent probability that wave height, simulated by numerical code, will be exceeded due to the occurrence of a tsunami source with a known average rate, derived from sources' recurrence assessment, during a period of time. The results are presented in terms of the probability of exceedance of a given tsunami amplitude for 100, 500 and 1000 years, and hazard curves for selected forecast points of the NEAMTWS countries. The level of hazard varies along the coast being maximum along the northern segment of the Morocco Atlantic coast, the southern Portuguese coast and the Spanish coast of the Gulf of Cadiz. The results show that the probability of a tsunami wave exceeding 1 m in the next 500 years reaches 100% in some

  17. North-American Microtektites are More Oxidised than Tektites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuli, G.; Cicconi, M. R.; Eeckhout, S. G.; Koeberl, C.; Glass, B. P.; Pratesi, G.; Paris, E.

    2012-09-01

    North American (NA) microtektites display Fe3+/Fetot ratios from 0 to 0.75, much higher than microtektites from Ivory Coast and Australasian strewn fields. FTIR determined water content compare well with NA tektites, suggesting lack of alteration.

  18. Mid-Atlantic Wind - Overcoming the Challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel F. Ancona III; Kathryn E. George; Lynn Sparling; Bruce C. Buckheit; Daniel LoBue; and Richard P. Bowers

    2012-06-29

    This study, supported by the US Department of Energy, Wind Powering America Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources and Chesapeake Bay Foundation, analyzed barriers to wind energy development in the Mid-Atlantic region along with options for overcoming or mitigating them. The Mid-Atlantic States including Delaware, Maryland, North Carolina and Virginia, have excellent wind energy potential and growing demand for electricity, but only two utility-scale projects have been installed to date. Reasons for this apathetic development of wind resources were analyzed and quantified for four markets. Specific applications are: 1) Appalachian mountain ridgeline sites, 2) on coastal plains and peninsulas, 3) at shallow water sites in Delaware and Chesapeake Bays, Albemarle and Pamlico Sounds, and 4) at deeper water sites off the Atlantic coast. Each market has distinctly different opportunities and barriers. The primary barriers to wind development described in this report can be grouped into four categories; state policy and regulatory issues, wind resource technical uncertainty, economic viability, and public interest in environmental issues. The properties of these typologies are not mutually independent and do interact. The report concluded that there are no insurmountable barriers to land-based wind energy projects and they could be economically viable today. Likewise potential sites in sheltered shallow waters in regional bay and sounds have been largely overlooked but could be viable currently. Offshore ocean-based applications face higher costs and technical and wind resource uncertainties. The ongoing research and development program, revision of state incentive policies, additional wind measurement efforts, transmission system expansion, environmental baseline studies and outreach to private developers and stakeholders are needed to reduce barriers to wind energy development.

  19. Mid-Atlantic Wind - Overcoming the Challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel F. Ancona III; Kathryn E. George; Richard P. Bowers; Dr. Lynn Sparling; Bruce Buckheit; Daniel LoBue

    2012-05-31

    This study, supported by the US Department of Energy, Wind Powering America Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources and Chesapeake Bay Foundation, analyzed barriers to wind energy development in the Mid-Atlantic region along with options for overcoming or mitigating them. The Mid-Atlantic States including Delaware, Maryland, North Carolina and Virginia, have excellent wind energy potential and growing demand for electricity, but only two utility-scale projects have been installed to date. Reasons for this apathetic development of wind resources were analyzed and quantified for four markets. Specific applications are: 1) Appalachian mountain ridgeline sites, 2) on coastal plains and peninsulas, 3) at shallow water sites in Delaware and Chesapeake Bays, Albemarle and Pamlico Sounds, and 4) at deeper water sites off the Atlantic coast. Each market has distinctly different opportunities and barriers. The primary barriers to wind development described in this report can be grouped into four categories; state policy and regulatory issues, wind resource technical uncertainty, economic viability, and public interest in environmental issues. The properties of these typologies are not mutually independent and do interact. The report concluded that there are no insurmountable barriers to land-based wind energy projects and they could be economically viable today. Likewise potential sites in sheltered shallow waters in regional bay and sounds have been largely overlooked but could be viable currently. Offshore ocean-based applications face higher costs and technical and wind resource uncertainties. The ongoing research and development program, revision of state incentive policies, additional wind measurement efforts, transmission system expansion, environmental baseline studies and outreach to private developers and stakeholders are needed to reduce barriers to wind energy development.

  20. 75 FR 44938 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Atlantic Coastal Shark Fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-30

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XX28 Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Atlantic Coastal Shark Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act (Atlantic Coastal Act), based on the...

  1. Alien shrimps in evidence: new records of the genus Athanas Leach, 1814 on the coast of São Paulo, southern Brazil (Caridea: Alpheidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Alexandre O.; Simões, Sabrina M.; Costa, Rogério C.; Mantelatto, Fernando L.

    2012-12-01

    The occurrence of two alien alpheid shrimps of the genus Athanas Leach, 1814 [in Leach 1813-1814], the Indo-West Pacific A. dimorphus Ortmann, 1894 and the Eastern Atlantic A. nitescens (Leach, 1813 [in Leach 1813-1814]), on the coast of the state of São Paulo, Brazil, is reported. The presence of A. dimorphus extends the range of this species in the western Atlantic farther to the south in Brazil, whereas A. nitescens is reported for the first time in the western Atlantic, representing the second alien alpheid species on this side of the Atlantic and the twenty-first decapod crustacean introduced in Brazil. We provide morphological accounts of the material examined and illustrate the most important diagnostic characters of both species. An overview of the possible mechanisms of their introduction on the coast of São Paulo is also provided.

  2. Lagrangian analysis of low altitude anthropogenic plume processing across the North Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Real

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The photochemical evolution of an anthropogenic plume from the New-York/Boston region during its transport at low altitudes over the North Atlantic to the European west coast has been studied using a Lagrangian framework. This plume, originally strongly polluted, was sampled by research aircraft just off the North American east coast on 3 successive days, and then 3 days downwind off the west coast of Ireland where another aircraft re-sampled a weakly polluted plume. Changes in trace gas concentrations during transport are reproduced using a photochemical trajectory model including deposition and mixing effects. Chemical and wet deposition processing dominated the evolution of all pollutants in the plume. The mean net photochemical O3 production is estimated to be −5 ppbv/day leading to low O3 by the time the plume reached Europe. Model runs with no wet deposition of HNO3 predicted much lower average net destruction of −1 ppbv/day O3, arising from increased levels of NOx via photolysis of HNO3. This indicates that wet deposition of HNO3 is indirectly responsible for 80% of the net destruction of ozone during plume transport. If the plume had not encountered precipitation, it would have reached Europe with O3 concentrations of up to 80 to 90 ppbv and CO between 120 and 140 ppbv. Photochemical destruction also played a more important role than mixing in the evolution of plume CO due to high levels of O3 and water vapour showing that CO cannot always be used as a tracer for polluted air masses, especially in plumes transported at low altitudes. The results also show that, in this case, an increase in O3/CO slopes can be attributed to photochemical destruction of CO and not to photochemical O3 production as is often assumed.

  3. Characterization and classification of two soils derived from basic rocks in Pernambuco State Coast, Northeast Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira Lindomário Barros de; Ferreira Maria da Graça de Vasconcelos Xavier; Marques Flávio Adriano

    2004-01-01

    Geomorphic surfaces that present soils derived from basic rocks under warm and humid climate are unique scenarios for studying tropical soils. This paper aimed to characterize and classify two pedons derived from basalt at the Atlantic Forest Zone, Pernambuco State, Northeastern coast of Brazil. Two representative pedons (P1 and P2) were selected on a hillslope at the Cabo de Santo Agostinho municipality. Field macromorphological descriptions were carried out and soil horizon were sampled for...

  4. Cetacean records along São Paulo state coast, Southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos César de Oliveira Santos; Salvatore Siciliano; André Fabiano de Castro Vicente; Fernando Siqueira Alvarenga; Émerson Zampirolli; Shirley Pacheco de Souza; Andréa Maranho

    2010-01-01

    The São Paulo state (SP) coast (23º18'S, 44º42'W; 25º14'S, 48º01'W) is of approximately 600 km in length, bordering the Western Atlantic Ocean, in southeastern Brazil. Cetacean sightings and strandings have long been observed throughout this area. Scattered data from scientific publications, skeletal remains in museums, photographs and articles from newspaper files, universities and aquaria have been organised and updated since 1993. Field investigations on strandings and sightings have also ...

  5. Ichthyofaunal diversity and ecology of intertidal rock pools of Goa, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tsering, L.; Pawar, H.B.; Sreepada, R.A.; Sanaye, S.V.; Suryavanshi, U.; Tanu

    structure, Colombia (Castellanos-Galindo, 2005), microhabitat segregation of intertidal fishes, Portugal (Faria & Almada, 2000), and vertical distribution of intertidal fishes from Atlantic coast of France (Gibson,1972) etc. All these studies contribute... fishes on a tropical eastern pacific rocky shore, Colombia. Journal of Fish Biology 67, 392-408. CHARGULAF, C.A., TOWNSEND, K.A. AND TIBETTS, I.R. (2011). Community structure of soft sediment pool fishes in Moreton Bay, Australia. Journal of Fish...

  6. Coastal vulnerability assessment for Chennai, east coast of India using geospatial techniques

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    ArunKumar, A.; Kunte, P.D.

    , and mean wave height for assessment of coastal vulnerability of the U.S. Atlantic coast. Pendleton, et al. (2005) assessed the coastal vulnerability of Golden Gate National Recreation area to sea level rise by calculating a coastal vulnerability index... to coastal erosion hazards. Dwarakish et al. (2009) calculated CVI for Udupi coastal zone of Karnataka from shore-line change rate, sea-level change rate, coastal slope, mean tidal range, coastal geomorphology. Srinivasa Kumar et al. (2010) assessed the CVI...

  7. From the African Coast, the invention of two territories: Equatorial Guinea and Ivory Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adjoa Nathalie Chiyé Kessé

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available From the African coast starts Latin American history and part of Europe’s. This article includes a comprehensive analysis on the cultural influence of Africa especially Equatorial Guinea and Côte d’Ivoire in Latin America. From the first European incursions into African coast (xvi century and throughout the colonial era, the paper highlights interethnic relations that occurred following the meeting and coexistence between cultures of both continents, an analysis that is essential to study the survival of traditions, beliefs and African customs that survive today in many regions of Latin America. Considering the importance now given to the recovery of identity traits of the past for studies of multi-ethnicity and re-construction of identities, this article can be used by researchers at Afro-descendance, notable in Latin America, whose research is related to African identity traits in their respective nations. Equatorial Guinea was a Spanish colony along with the Protectorate of Morocco and Western Sahara. The duration of this colony ran from 1885 to 1968. In 1926, it became the Spanish Guinea, and in 1968 it acquired its independance from Spain while retaining the Spanish cultural architecture. Furthermore, the French presence in this first stage of the conquest in Côte d’Ivoire, is provided by the army. The colonial authorities in Paris were not yet sufficiently organized to move their representatives to what was then known as the Poor or Bad People Coast or Coast of teeth. It was the military from Senegal, as base of the French colonial army who assumed the conquest and organization of the Ivorian territory for immediate exploitation of economic resources. It is this improvised framework without legal planning, which led to the idea of the invention of Africa supported by Valentin Mudimbe (1988 and Achille Mbembe (2000.

  8. Nutrient regimes control phytoplankton ecophysiology in the South Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Browning

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Fast Repetition Rate fluorometry (FRRf measurements of phytoplankton photophysiology from an across-basin South Atlantic cruise (as part of the GEOTRACES programme characterized two dominant ecophysiological regimes which were interpreted on the basis of nutrient limitation. South of the South Subtropical Convergence (SSTC in the northern sub-Antarctic sector of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC in the Eastern Atlantic Basin, waters are characterized by elevated chlorophyll concentrations, a dominance by larger phytoplankton cells, and low apparent photochemical efficiency (Fv / Fm. Shipboard 24 h iron (Fe addition incubation experiments confirmed that Fe stress was primarily responsible for the low Fv / Fm, with Fe addition to these waters, either within the artificial bottle additions or naturally occurring downstream enrichment from Gough Island, significantly increasing Fv / Fm values. Satellite images suggest a broader region of enhanced chlorophyll concentrations around the SSTC in the Western Atlantic relative to the Eastern Atlantic: hypothesized to be a result of higher iron supply from the South American continent. To the north of the SSTC at the southern boundary of the South Atlantic Gyre, phytoplankton are characterized by high values of Fv / Fm which, coupled with the low macronutrient concentrations and increased presence of picocyanobacteria, are interpreted as conditions of Fe replete, balanced macronutrient-limited growth. Spatial correlation was found between Fv / Fm and Fe:nitrate ratios, supporting the suggestion that the relative supply ratios of these two nutrients can control patterns of limitation and consequently the ecophysiology of phytoplankton in subtropical gyre and ACC regimes.

  9. The Atlantic Alliance and Geopolitics: New Realities and New Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Lie, Kai Olaf

    2009-01-01

    This paper is based on the hypothesis that the new geopolitical environment for the Atlantic Alliance is mainly influenced by the following five elements: The renaissance of Germany as the central player on the European theater after the collapse of the Soviet Union; the shift of American geopolitical focus from Europe to the Middle East and central Asia; the increasing geopolitical influence of petroleum energy resources; the increasing power of china; and the differing perceptions of politi...

  10. West Coast Regional Office Permits

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Fisheries implemented a license limitation program for the trawl and fixed gear sectors of Pacific Coast commercial groundfish fishery on January 1, 1993. The...

  11. Moisture transport from the Atlantic to the Pacific basin and its response to North Atlantic cooling and global warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, Ingo [University of Hawaii at Manoa, International Pacific Research Center, Honolulu, HI (United States); Xie, Shang-Ping [University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Meteorology, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    2010-08-15

    Atmospheric moisture transport from the Atlantic to the Pacific basin plays an important role in regulating North Atlantic salinity and thus the strength of the thermohaline circulation. Potential changes in the strength of this moisture transport are investigated for two different climate-change scenarios: North Atlantic cooling representative of Heinrich events, and increased greenhouse gas (GHG) forcing. The effect of North Atlantic cooling is studied using a coupled regional model with comparatively high resolution that successfully simulates Central American gap winds and other important aspects of the region. Cooler North Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST) in this model leads to a regional decrease of atmospheric moisture but also to an increase in wind speed across Central America via an anomalous pressure gradient. The latter effect dominates, resulting in a 0.13 Sv (1 Sv = 10{sup 6} m{sup 3} s{sup -1}) increase in overall moisture transport to the Pacific basin. In fresh water forcing simulations with four different general circulation models, the wind speed effect is also present but not strong enough to completely offset the effect of moisture decrease except in one model. The influence of GHG forcing is studied using simulations from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change archive. In these simulations atmospheric moisture increases globally, resulting in an increase of moisture transport by 0.25 Sv from the Atlantic to Pacific. Thus, in both scenarios, moisture transport changes act to stabilize the thermohaline circulation. The notion that the Andes effectively block moisture transport from the Atlantic to the Pacific basin is not supported by the simulations and atmospheric reanalyses examined here. This indicates that such a blocking effect does not exist or else that higher resolution is needed to adequately represent the steep orography of the Andes. (orig.)

  12. Mid-Atlantic Regional Wind Energy Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtney Lane

    2011-12-20

    As the Department of Energy stated in its 20% Wind Energy by 2030 report, there will need to be enhanced outreach efforts on a national, state, regional, and local level to communicate wind development opportunities, benefits and challenges to a diverse set of stakeholders. To help address this need, PennFuture was awarded funding to create the Mid-Atlantic Regional Wind Energy Institute to provide general education and outreach on wind energy development across Maryland, Virginia, Delaware, Pennsylvania and West Virginia. Over the course of the two-year grant period, PennFuture used its expertise on wind energy policy and development in Pennsylvania and expanded it to other states in the Mid-Atlantic region. PennFuture accomplished this through reaching out and establishing connections with policy makers, local environmental groups, health and economic development organizations, and educational institutions and wind energy developers throughout the Mid-Atlantic region. PennFuture conducted two regional wind educational forums that brought together wind industry representatives and public interest organizations from across the region to discuss and address wind development in the Mid-Atlantic region. PennFuture developed the agenda and speakers in collaboration with experts on the ground in each state to help determine the critical issue to wind energy in each location. The sessions focused on topics ranging from the basics of wind development; model ordinance and tax issues; anti-wind arguments and counter points; wildlife issues and coalition building. In addition to in-person events, PennFuture held three webinars on (1) Generating Jobs with Wind Energy; (2) Reviving American Manufacturing with Wind Power; and (3) Wind and Transmission. PennFuture also created a web page for the institute (http://www.midatlanticwind.org) that contains an online database of fact sheets, research reports, sample advocacy letters, top anti-wind claims and information on how to

  13. Host specificity and phylogenetic relationships among Atlantic Ovulidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda)

    OpenAIRE

    Reijnen, B.T.; Hoeksema, B.W.; Gittenberger, E.

    2010-01-01

    Ovulid gastropods and their octocoral hosts were collected along the leeward coast of Curaçao, Netherlands Antilles. New molecular data of Caribbean and a single Atlantic species were combined with comparable data of Indo-Pacific Ovulidae and a single East-Pacific species from GenBank. Based on two DNA markers, viz. CO-I and 16S, the phylogenetic relationships among all ovulid species of which these data are available are reconstructed. The provisional results suggest a dichotomy between the ...

  14. Honduras: Caribbean Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harborne, A R; Afzal, D C; Andrews, M J

    2001-12-01

    The coast of Honduras, Central America, represents the southern end of the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System, although its marine resources are less extensive and studied than nearby Belize and Mexico. However, the coastal zone contains mainland reef formations, mangroves, wetlands, seagrass beds and extensive fringing reefs around its offshore islands, and has a key role in the economy of the country. Like most tropical areas, this complex of benthic habitats experiences limited annual variation in climatic and oceanographic conditions but seasonal and occasional conditions, particularly coral bleaching and hurricanes, are important influences. The effects of stochastic factors on the country's coral reefs were clearly demonstrated during 1998 when Honduras experienced a major hurricane and bleaching event. Any natural or anthropogenic impacts on reef health will inevitably affect other countries in Latin America, and vice versa, since the marine resources are linked via currents and the functioning of the system transcends political boundaries. Much further work on, for example, movement of larvae and transfer of pollutants is required to delineate the full extent of these links. Anthropogenic impacts, largely driven by the increasing population and proportion of people living in coastal areas, are numerous and include key factors such as agricultural run-off, over-fishing, urban and industrial pollution (particularly sewage) and infrastructure development. Many of these threats act synergistically and, for example, poor watershed management via shifting cultivation, increases sedimentation and pesticide run-off onto coral reefs, which increases stress to corals already affected by decreasing water quality and coral bleaching. Threats from agriculture and fishing are particularly significant because of the size of both industries. The desire to generate urgently required revenue within Honduras has also led to increased tourism which provides an overarching stress

  15. Honduras: Caribbean Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harborne, A R; Afzal, D C; Andrews, M J

    2001-12-01

    The coast of Honduras, Central America, represents the southern end of the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System, although its marine resources are less extensive and studied than nearby Belize and Mexico. However, the coastal zone contains mainland reef formations, mangroves, wetlands, seagrass beds and extensive fringing reefs around its offshore islands, and has a key role in the economy of the country. Like most tropical areas, this complex of benthic habitats experiences limited annual variation in climatic and oceanographic conditions but seasonal and occasional conditions, particularly coral bleaching and hurricanes, are important influences. The effects of stochastic factors on the country's coral reefs were clearly demonstrated during 1998 when Honduras experienced a major hurricane and bleaching event. Any natural or anthropogenic impacts on reef health will inevitably affect other countries in Latin America, and vice versa, since the marine resources are linked via currents and the functioning of the system transcends political boundaries. Much further work on, for example, movement of larvae and transfer of pollutants is required to delineate the full extent of these links. Anthropogenic impacts, largely driven by the increasing population and proportion of people living in coastal areas, are numerous and include key factors such as agricultural run-off, over-fishing, urban and industrial pollution (particularly sewage) and infrastructure development. Many of these threats act synergistically and, for example, poor watershed management via shifting cultivation, increases sedimentation and pesticide run-off onto coral reefs, which increases stress to corals already affected by decreasing water quality and coral bleaching. Threats from agriculture and fishing are particularly significant because of the size of both industries. The desire to generate urgently required revenue within Honduras has also led to increased tourism which provides an overarching stress

  16. Honduras: Caribbean Coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harborne, Alastair R.; Afzal, Daniel C.; Andrews, Mark J. [Coral Cay Conservation, London (United Kingdom)

    2001-07-01

    The coast of Honduras, Central America, represents the southern end of the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System, although its marine resources are less extensive and studied than nearby Belize and Mexico. However, the coastal zone contains mainland reef formations, mangroves, wetlands, seagrass beds and extensive fringing reefs around its offshore islands, and has a key role in the economy of the country. Like most tropical areas, this complex of benthic habitats experiences limited annual variation in climatic and oceanographic conditions but seasonal and occasional conditions, particularly coral bleaching and hurricanes, are important influences. The effects of stochastic factors on the country's coral reefs were clearly demonstrated during 1998 when Honduras experienced a major hurricane and bleaching event. Any natural or anthropogenic impacts on reef health will inevitably affect other countries in Latin America, and vice versa, since the marine resources are linked via currents and the functioning of the system transcends political boundaries. Much further work on, for example, movement of larvae and transfer of pollutants is required to delineate the full extent of these links. Anthropogenic impacts, largely driven by the increasing population and proportion of people living in coastal areas, are numerous and include key factors such as agricultural run-off, over-fishing, urban and industrial pollution (particularly sewage) and infrastructure development. Many of these threats act synergistically and, for example, poor watershed management via shifting cultivation, increases sedimentation and pesticide run-off onto coral reefs, which increases stress to corals already affected by decreasing water quality and coral bleaching. Threats from agriculture and fishing are particularly significant because of the size of both industries. The desire to generate urgently required revenue within Honduras has also led to increased tourism which provides an over

  17. Two Distinct Roles of Atlantic SSTs in ENSO Variability: North Tropical Atlantic SST and Atlantic Nino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Yoo-Geun; Kug, Jong-Seong; Park, Jong-Yeon

    2013-01-01

    Two distinct roles of the Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs), namely, the North Tropical Atlantic (NTA) SST and the Atlantic Nino, on the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) variability are investigated using the observational data from 1980 to 2010 and coupled model experiments. It appears that the NTA SST and the Atlantic Nino can be used as two independent predictors for predicting the development of ENSO events in the following season. Furthermore, they are likely to be linked to different types of El Nino events. Specifically, the NTA SST cooling during February, March, and April contributes to the central Pacific warming at the subsequent winter season, while the negative Atlantic Nino event during June, July, and August contributes to enhancing the eastern Pacific warming. The coupled model experiments support these results. With the aid of a lagged inverse relationship, the statistical forecast using two Atlantic indices can successfully predict various ENSO indices.

  18. Bivalve aquaculture transfers in Atlantic Europe. Part B: Environmental impacts of transfer activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brenner, M.; Fraser, D.; Van Nieuwenhove, K.;

    2014-01-01

    the impacts of transfer activities of cultured bivalve shellfish along the European Atlantic coast; identifies hitch hiker species, fouling organisms or infectious agents which can be translocated with a target species. Further, the study highlights the need for thorough, standard risk reduction measures...... designed to minimise the impact on ecosystems worldwide. In a companion paper details of actual transfer activities in Atlantic Europe are presented and all levels of legislation dealing with transfer activities on a global, regional and national scale are carefully reviewed....

  19. Demography of coastal Atlantic cod in relation to the establishment of a marine protected area

    OpenAIRE

    Nordahl, Jan-Harald

    2012-01-01

    Use a mark-recapture approach to study the demography of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in a small (1 km2) marine protected area (MPA) on the Norwegian Skagerrak coast. A total of 9713 Atlantic cod where tagged during 2005-2010. Inside the MPA, only hook and line fishing is allowed. Data are partly live capture-recaptures from the research fishing activity, and partly dead recoveries from commercial and recreational fishers. A high-reward system was applied to quantify the tag reporting rate fro...

  20. 76 FR 47441 - Safety Zone; Apache Pier Labor Day Weekend Fireworks Display, Atlantic Ocean, Myrtle Beach, SC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-05

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Apache Pier Labor Day Weekend Fireworks... vicinity of Apache Pier in Myrtle Beach, South Carolina during a Labor Day weekend fireworks display on... from Apache Pier, which is located on the Atlantic Ocean. The fireworks display is scheduled...

  1. American woodcock migratory connectivity as indicated by hydrogen isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullins, Daniel S.; Conway, Warren C.; Haukos, David A.; Hobson, Keith A.; Wassenaar, Leonard I; Comer, Christopher E.; Hung, I-Kuai

    2016-01-01

    To identify factors contributing to the long-term decline of American woodcock, a holistic understanding of range-wide population connectivity throughout the annual cycle is needed. We used band recovery data and isotopic composition of primary (P1) and secondary (S13) feathers to estimate population sources and connectivity among natal, early fall, and winter ranges of hunter-harvested juvenile American woodcock. We used P1 feathers from known-origin pre-fledged woodcock (n = 43) to create a hydrogenδ2Hf isoscape by regressing δ2Hf against expected growing-season precipitation (δ2Hp). Modeled δ2Hp values explained 79% of the variance in P1 δ2Hf values, indicating good model fit for estimating woodcock natal origins. However, a poor relationship (r2 = 0.23) between known-origin, S13 δ2Hf values, and expected δ2Hp values precluded assignment of early fall origins. We applied the δ2Hfisoscape to assign natal origins using P1 feathers from 494 hunter-harvested juvenile woodcock in the United States and Canada during 2010–2011 and 2011–2012 hunting seasons. Overall, 64% of all woodcock origins were assigned to the northernmost (>44°N) portion of both the Central and Eastern Management Regions. In the Eastern Region, assignments were more uniformly distributed along the Atlantic coast, whereas in the Central Region, most woodcock were assigned to origins within and north of the Great Lakes region. We compared our origin assignments to spatial coverage of the annual American woodcock Singing Ground Survey (SGS) and evaluated whether the survey effectively encompasses the entire breeding range. When we removed the inadequately surveyed Softwood shield Bird Conservation Region (BCR) from the northern portion of the SGS area, only 48% of juvenile woodcock originated in areas currently surveyed by the SGS. Of the individuals assigned to the northernmost portions of the breeding range, several were harvested in the southern extent of the

  2. Tectonic provinces of the Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushcharovsky, Yu. M.

    2009-05-01

    The tectonic structure of the floor of the Atlantic Ocean beyond the continental margins is insufficiently studied. This is also true of its tectonic demarcation. The segmentation of the floor into regional-scale tectonic provinces of several orders proposed in this paper is primarily based on structural and historical geological features. It is shown that deep oceanic basins and fault tectonics are of particular importance in this respect. Tectonic provinces of two orders are distinguished by a set of attributes. The first-order provinces are the North, Central, South, and Antarctic domains of the Atlantic Ocean. They are separated by wide demarcation fracture zones into Transatlantic (transverse) second-order tectonic provinces. Ten such provinces are recognized (from the north southward): Greenland-Lofoten, Greenland-Scandinavia, Greenland-Ireland, Newfoundland-European, North American-African, Antilles-African, Angola-Brazil, Cape-Argentine, North Antarctic, and South Antarctic. This subdivision demonstrates significant differentiation in the geodynamic state of the oceanic lithosphere that determines nonuniform ocean formation and the tectonic features of the ocean floor. The latitudinal orientation of the second-order provinces inherits the past tectonic pattern, though newly formed structural units cannot be ruled out. The Earth rotation exerts a crucial effect on the crust and the mantle.

  3. Kinematics of the South Atlantic rift

    CERN Document Server

    Heine, Christian; Müller, R Dietmar

    2013-01-01

    The South Atlantic rift basin evolved as branch of a large Jurassic-Cretaceous intraplate rift zone between the African and South American plates during the final breakup of western Gondwana. By quantitatively accounting for crustal deformation in the Central and West African rift zone, we indirectly construct the kinematic history of the pre-breakup evolution of the conjugate West African-Brazilian margins. Our model suggests a causal link between changes in extension direction and velocity during continental extension and the generation of marginal structures such as the enigmatic Pre-salt sag basin and the S\\~ao Paulo High. We model an initial E-W directed extension between South America and Africa (fixed in present-day position) at very low extensional velocities until Upper Hauterivian times ($\\approx$126 Ma) when rift activity along in the equatorial Atlantic domain started to increase significantly. During this initial $\\approx$17 Myr-long stretching episode the Pre-salt basin width on the conjugate Br...

  4. Atmospheric transmission of North Atlantic Heinrich events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostetler, S.W.; Clark, P.U.; Bartlein, P.J.; Mix, A.C.; Pisias, N.J.

    1999-01-01

    We model the response of the climate system during Heinrich event 2 (H2) by employing an atmospheric general circulation model, using boundary conditions based on the concept of a "canonical" Heinrich event. The canonical event is initialized with a full-height Laurentide ice sheet (LIS) and CLIMAP sea surface temperatures (SSTs), followed by lowering of the LIS, then warming of North Atlantic SSTs. Our modeled temperature and wind fields exhibit spatially variable responses over the Northern Hemisphere at each stage of the H2 event. In some regions the climatic responses are additive, whereas in other regions they cancel or are of opposite sign, suggesting that Heinrich event climatic variations may have left complex signatures in geologic records. We find variations in the tropical water balance and the mass balance of ice sheets, and implications for variations in terrestrial methane production from the contraction of northern permafrost regions and the expansion of tropical wetlands. Copyright 1999 by the American Geophysical Union.

  5. NOAA marine environmental buoy data from the National Data Buoy Center in the Gulf of Alaska, Gulf of Mexico, Bering Sea, North Atlantic Ocean, North Pacific Ocean, Coastal Waters of SE Alaska, Coastal Waters of Western U.S., Great Lakes, North American Coastline-North, and North American Coastline-South from 2002-10-01 to 2002-10-31 (NODC Accession 0000400)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Pressure, temperature, and other data were collected from fixed platforms in the Gulf of Alaska, Gulf of Mexico, Bering Sea, North Atlantic Ocean, North Pacific...

  6. Nearshore currents along the Karnataka coast, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SanilKumar, V.; Dora, G.U.; Philip, C.S.; Pednekar, P.S.; Singh, J.

    Measured current data at 7 locations and tide data at 3 locations during the pre-summer monsoon period along the west coast of India is used in the study. The surface currents during March showed a predominant northward trend and during April...

  7. Climate variability during warm and cold phases of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) 1871-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Michael A.; Halimeda Kilbourne, K.; Nye, Janet A.

    2014-05-01

    An extended reanalysis, a combination of observations and model output, is used to examine the spatial patterns of physical variables associated with the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) from 1871 to 2008. The results are presented as anomalies during positive and negative phases of the AMO. As in previous studies, during positive (negative) AMO phases the sea surface temperature (SST) is anomalously warm (cold) over most of the North Atlantic, with the exception of the east coast of the United States. The atmospheric patterns, associated with the positive phase of the AMO, include anomalous low pressure over the Atlantic between 20°S and 50°N, cyclonic surface winds around the low, reduced wind speeds over the tropical Atlantic and enhanced precipitation in the eastern tropical Atlantic, with roughly opposite conditions during negative AMO phases. There are, however, substantial differences in the SST and the atmospheric anomalies between periods of the same phase, especially in the extratropics. Correlations between the AMO and air temperature anomalies are positive over much of the globe between 40°S and 50°N, with correlations exceeding 0.6 (~ 95% significance level) over the Maritime Continent and northern rim of the Pacific Ocean. Most of the sea level pressure (SLP) anomalies beyond the Atlantic are not statistically significant.

  8. The MIRROR cruise (2011): Deep crustal structure of the Moroccan Atlantic Margin from wide-angle and reflection seismic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingelhoefer, F.; Aslanian, D.; Sahabi, M.; Moulin, M.; Schnurle, P.; Berglar, K.; Biari, Y.; Feld, A.; Graindorge, D.; Corela, C.; Mehdi, K.; Zourarah, B.; Perrot, J.; Alves Ribeiro, J.; Reichert, C. J.

    2011-12-01

    The study of conjugate margins is important to test different hypotheses of rifting and initial opening of an ocean. In this scope, seven wide-angle seismic profiles were acquired on the Moroccan Atlantic margin (at the latitudes between 32° and 33° N) together with coincident deep frequency reflection seismic data during the MIRROR cruise in May and June 2011. The main seismic profile is conjugate to an existing wide-angle seismic profile off Nova Scotia (SMART 2). Further objectives of the cruise were to image ocean-continent transition zone, to detect and eventually quantify exhumed upper mantle material present in this zone and to determine the origin of the high amplitude West African Magnetic Anomaly, which is conjugate to the north American East Coast Magnetic Anomaly and can be linked to the opening of the Atlantic. Two of the newly acquired profiles are located perpendicular and five parallel to the Moroccan margin. The seismic profiles are between 130 and 260 km in length and between 28 and 13 ocean-bottom seismometers were deployed on each one. One profile was extended on land by 15 landstations in order to better image the zone of continental thinning. A 4.5 km digital streamer and a 7200 cu inch tuned airgun array were used for the acquisition of the seismic data. Additionally magnetic, bathymetric and high resolution seismic data were acquired in the study region. Preliminary results from tomographic inversion of the first arrivals from the ocean-bottom seismometer data image the zone of crustal thinning from about 25 km to 6 km in the basin along about 70 kilometers of the profiles which are located perpendicular to the margin. The oceanic crust can be divided into 2 regions, based on the lower crustal velocities. Upper mantle velocities are about 8.0 km/s. The coincident reflection seismic data show the fine basement and sedimentary structures including salt tectonics in the basin. The comparative study of the two conjugate profiles on the

  9. Differential recolonization of Atlantic intertidal habitats after disturbance reveals potential bottom-up community regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, Willy; Scrosati, Ricardo A

    2014-01-01

    In the spring of 2014, abundant sea ice that drifted out of the Gulf of St. Lawrence caused extensive disturbance in rocky intertidal habitats on the northern Atlantic coast of mainland Nova Scotia, Canada. To monitor recovery of intertidal communities, we surveyed two wave-exposed locations in the early summer of 2014. Barnacle recruitment and the abundance of predatory dogwhelks were low at one location (Tor Bay Provincial Park) but more than 20 times higher at the other location (Whitehead). Satellite data indicated that the abundance of coastal phytoplankton (the main food source for barnacle larvae) was consistently higher at Whitehead just before the barnacle recruitment season, when barnacle larvae were in the water column. These observations suggest bottom-up forcing of intertidal communities. The underlying mechanisms and their intensity along the NW Atlantic coast could be investigated through studies done at local and regional scales.

  10. Differential recolonization of Atlantic intertidal habitats after disturbance reveals potential bottom-up community regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, Willy; Scrosati, Ricardo A.

    2014-01-01

    In the spring of 2014, abundant sea ice that drifted out of the Gulf of St. Lawrence caused extensive disturbance in rocky intertidal habitats on the northern Atlantic coast of mainland Nova Scotia, Canada. To monitor recovery of intertidal communities, we surveyed two wave-exposed locations in the early summer of 2014. Barnacle recruitment and the abundance of predatory dogwhelks were low at one location (Tor Bay Provincial Park) but more than 20 times higher at the other location (Whitehead). Satellite data indicated that the abundance of coastal phytoplankton (the main food source for barnacle larvae) was consistently higher at Whitehead just before the barnacle recruitment season, when barnacle larvae were in the water column. These observations suggest bottom-up forcing of intertidal communities. The underlying mechanisms and their intensity along the NW Atlantic coast could be investigated through studies done at local and regional scales. PMID:26213609

  11. Atlantic surfclam connectivity within the Middle Atlantic Bight: Mechanisms underlying variation in larval transport and settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinzhong; Munroe, Daphne; Haidvogel, Dale; Powell, Eric N.

    2016-05-01

    Larval transport and settlement have been shown in various studies to be essential in determining population abundance and connectivity for benthic invertebrates. This transport is influenced by both the physical environment and biological behavior. The Atlantic surfclam, Spisula solidissima, is a commercially important benthic invertebrate fishery species along the U.S northeastern coast. In this study, a physical circulation model is coupled to a surfclam larval model to investigate the dynamics of larval transport and settlement within the Middle Atlantic Bight (MAB) shelf in 2006. The main physical mechanisms causing variability in larval transport and settlement are also examined. Model results show that surfclam larvae released from July to early October experience relatively larger settlement rates, due to higher average temperatures experienced by larvae. Larval along-shore transport exhibits a mean down-coast pattern following the coastal current from the northeast to the southwest, with most high-frequency (period of 2-10 days) variations caused by fluctuations in the along-shore surface wind stress, and with seasonal variations speculated to be driven mainly by changes in the across-shelf density gradient. Larval across-shelf movement is highly correlated with the along-shore surface wind stress mediated by coastal upwelling and downwelling episodes, but the correlation is further dependent on the vertical distribution of the larvae, particularly their position relative to the thermocline. Most surfclam larvae released from the Middle Atlantic shelf stay below the thermocline and experience a net onshore transport during the summer-stratified season when upwelling-favorable wind forcing dominates. A proposed critical value of water temperature at the thermocline successfully regulates the observed patterns of vertical distribution of surfclam larvae and their across-shelf movement off the New Jersey and South Virginia shelves; that is, when the water

  12. Bioinvasion in a Brazilian bay: filling gaps in the knowledge of southwestern Atlantic biota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara L Ignacio

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Biological invasions are a major cause of global species change. Nevertheless, knowledge about the distribution and ecology of introduced species is regionally biased, and many gaps in knowledge exist for most developing countries. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To study the zoobenthos on the hard substratum of the Ilha Grande Bay, a survey was conducted on both natural and artificial substrata at three depths and seven sites. The species recorded were classified as native, cryptogenic or introduced. Multivariate analyses were conducted to assess the prevalence of introduced species in these communities and to compare the distribution of species on natural and artificial substrata of this bay to identify possible discrepancies in habitat use. Of the 61 species, 25 were cryptogenic, 10 were introduced and 26 were native. Similar numbers of introduced species were found on both natural and artificial substrata, though the community composition was significantly different between them. We also compared the species composition of the Ilha Grande Bay survey to other inventories taken around the world. The highest similarities were found between the Ilha Grande Bay inventory and the Atlantic coastal region (Tampa Bay, USA and the Gulf of Mexico, American Samoa and Pearl Harbor (USA inventories. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study presents the first published comprehensive list of hard substratum sessile marine invertebrate species in a Brazilian bay. The high percentage of cryptogenic species reveals gaps in both zoological records and information on introduced species for the Brazilian coast. The introduced species successfully colonized different sites in the Ilha Grande Bay, including both natural and artificial substrata. In addition, we find that artificial structures may not be good surrogates for natural rocky shores and may represent an ecological threat. Comparisons with other inventories suggest a history of broad

  13. Could a 1755-Like Tsunami Reach the French Atlantic Coastline? Constraints from Twentieth Century Observations and Numerical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allgeyer, S.; Daubord, C.; Hébert, H.; Loevenbruck, A.; Schindelé, F.; Madariaga, R.

    2013-09-01

    The tsunami generated by the 1 November, 1755 earthquake off the coast of Portugal affected mainly the coastlines of the Iberian Peninsula and Northwest Morocco, but was also observed in some places along the North Atlantic coasts. To determine whether the event could have effected the French coastline, we conducted a study to search for signs of the tsunami in historical records from all tide gauge stations off the French Atlantic coast during the twentieth century, specifically for the 28 February, 1969 and the 26 May, 1975 tsunamis that were recorded by the Portuguese tide gauge network. Because many recordings are available in La Rochelle (located on the southwest coast of France), we focused our study on this harbor. The analysis of the tide gauge data shows no evidence for tsunamis in La Rochelle, neither in 1969 nor in 1975. To confirm this lack of tsunami signals, we used nonlinear, shallow water equations to compute the tsunami propagation to the French Atlantic coastline for both 1969 and 1975 events. Results obtained from these simulations confirm otherwise unnoticeable wave amplitudes at La Rochelle harbor. In a second step, tsunamis from three different scenarios for the 1755 earthquake were modeled to estimate the impact of such a tsunami on the French Atlantic coast, with a focus on La Rochelle harbor. A comparison of the functions of tide configuration was made in order to analyse the difference in impact. The results show that, while the harbor is poorly impacted, several areas (western part of the island of Ré and northern coast of the island of Oléron) may have experienced a moderate impact from 0.5 to 1 m, especially since the tide was high at the time of arrival, possibly causing local inundations in lowland areas.

  14. The Coast Alarm System Editor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The OECD Halden Reactor Project has for several years worked in the field of alarm handling. COAST was developed based on long experience with several different methods for identification of plant status and detection of plant anomalies. COAST has been delivered to a number of different organisations which generate their own applications. With COAST one can implement many alarm generation or structuring methods. So far, the alarm system is defined using a COAST language, COLA. Now, a first version of an editor to implement alarm systems is available, to support alarm system designers to write and structure their COLA code. It is developed based on general guidelines for user interface design and a thorough discussion of different editor types. The most important functionality needed when designing alarm systems for complex processes was emphasized when choosing the type of editor. A structure-oriented editor is currently implemented, and the report gives a description for how to include graphic features towards a more complete editor in the future. Support and encouragement for reuse of code is obtained by defining classes in a class library browser. Separate applications with their specific object definitions are constructed in an application browser. In this way the alarm classes from the class libraries can easily be used in several applications. The application browser offers the possibility to organize the alarm objects in a structured hierarchy. In big complex alarm systems such a structuring feature is of vital importance to keep the overview of the alarm system and to perform maintenance. (author)

  15. Ivory Coast: Country Status Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruhn, Thea C.

    A survey of the status of language usage in the Ivory Coast begins with an overview of the usage patterns of French, the official language, and the five most commonly used native languages: Jula, Anyi-Baoule, Senoufo, Bete, and Dan. Recent Ivorian efforts at language planning, development, and research are also highlighted. A matrix follows that…

  16. French in the Ivory Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djite, Paulin G.

    1989-01-01

    Overviews the Ivory Coast's sociolinguistic situation. Standard French, restricted to the elite, is threatened by the local lingua franca. The spread and functional allocations of Dyula and Popular French support the point that the pervasive use of a language does not always lead to its adoption as a national language. (CB)

  17. Reactive Halogens in the Marine Boundary Layer (RHaMBLe: the tropical North Atlantic experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Lee

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The NERC UK SOLAS-funded Reactive Halogens in the Marine Boundary Layer (RHaMBLe programme comprised three field experiments. This manuscript presents an overview of the measurements made within the two simultaneous remote experiments conducted in the tropical North Atlantic in May and June 2007. Measurements were made from two mobile and one ground-based platforms. The heavily instrumented cruise D319 on the RRS Discovery from Lisbon, Portugal to São Vicente, Cape Verde and back to Falmouth, UK was used to characterise the spatial distribution of boundary layer components likely to play a role in reactive halogen chemistry. Measurements onboard the ARSF Dornier aircraft were used to allow the observations to be interpreted in the context of their vertical distribution and to confirm the interpretation of atmospheric structure in the vicinity of the Cape Verde islands. Long-term ground-based measurements at the Cape Verde Atmospheric Observatory (CVAO on São Vicente were supplemented by long-term measurements of reactive halogen species and characterisation of additional trace gas and aerosol species during the intensive experimental period.

    This paper presents a summary of the measurements made within the RHaMBLe remote experiments and discusses them in their meteorological and chemical context as determined from these three platforms and from additional meteorological analyses. Air always arrived at the CVAO from the North East with a range of air mass origins (European, Atlantic and North American continental. Trace gases were present at stable and fairly low concentrations with the exception of a slight increase in some anthropogenic components in air of North American origin, though NOx mixing ratios during this period remained below 20 pptv (note the non-IUPAC adoption in this manuscript of pptv and ppbv, equivalent to pmol mol−1 and nmol mol−1 to reflect common practice. Consistency with

  18. Reactive Halogens in the Marine Boundary Layer (RHaMBLe: the tropical North Atlantic experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Lee

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The NERC UK SOLAS-funded Reactive Halogens in the Marine Boundary Layer (RHaMBLe programme comprised three field experiments. This manuscript presents an overview of the measurements made within the two simultaneous remote experiments conducted in the tropical North Atlantic in May and June 2007. Measurements were made from two mobile and one ground-based platforms. The heavily instrumented cruise D319 on the RRS Discovery from Lisbon, Portugal to São Vicente, Cape Verde and back to Falmouth, UK was used to characterise the spatial distribution of boundary layer components likely to play a role in reactive halogen chemistry. Measurements onboard the ARSF Dornier aircraft were used to allow the observations to be interpreted in the context of their vertical distribution and to confirm the interpretation of atmospheric structure in the vicinity of the Cape Verde islands. Long-term ground-based measurements at the Cape Verde Atmospheric Observatory (CVAO on São Vicente were supplemented by long-term measurements of reactive halogen species and characterisation of additional trace gas and aerosol species during the intensive experimental period.

    This paper presents a summary of the measurements made within the RHaMBLe remote experiments and discusses them in their meteorological and chemical context as determined from these three platforms and from additional meteorological analyses. Air always arrived at the CVAO from the North East with a range of air mass origins (European, Atlantic and North American continental. Trace gases were present at stable and fairly low concentrations with the exception of a slight increase in some anthropogenic components in air of North American origin, though NOx mixing ratios during this period remained below 20 pptv. Consistency with these air mass classifications is observed in the time series of soluble gas and aerosol composition measurements, with additional identification of periods of

  19. Io-U dates of a coral formation from the last interglacial age on the Brazilian coast. Use of /sup 229/Th as a tracer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernat, M. (O.R.S.T.O.M., Universite de Nice, 06 - (France)); Martin, L.; Bittencourt, A.; Vilas Boas, G. (Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador (Brazil))

    1983-01-24

    Four coral samples taken in a quarry near the town of Ilheux (Bahia State, Brazil) analysed by an ..cap alpha.. spectrometry method for /sup 230/Th and uranium isotopes (using /sup 229/Th and /sup 232/U as tracers) gave a mean age of 123,500 years. These first datings confirm the general stability of the atlantic coast since that time.

  20. Stelletta hajdui, a new species from the southwestern Atlantic (Porifera, Choristida, Ancorinidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lerner, Cléa; Mothes, Beatriz

    1999-01-01

    A new species of Stelletta from the southwestern Atlantic, Stelletta hajdui sp.n. is described from the slope off Rio Grande do Sul State coast, Brazil (32°24'S, 50°15'W) (Fig.1). The material studied was dredged up at the depth of 200m by the R/V Atlântico Sul, during “Projeto Talude” run by Fundaç

  1. Hyper abundant mesopredators and bird extinction in an Atlantic forest island

    OpenAIRE

    Mauro Galetti; Ricardo S. Bovendorp; Fadini, Rodrigo F.; Carlos O. A. Gussoni; Marcos Rodrigues; Ariane D. Alvarez; Guimarães Jr., Paulo R.; Kaiser Alves

    2009-01-01

    Islands can serve as model systems for understanding how biological invasions affect native species. Here we examine the negative effects of mesopredator mammals on bird richness at Anchieta Island, an 826 ha offshore island in the coast of Brazil. Anchieta Island has the highest density of mammals of the entire Atlantic forest, especially nest predators such as marmosets and coatis, introduced more than 20 years ago. This indiscriminate introduction of mammals may have affected directly the ...

  2. New records of the striped cleaner shrimp Lysmata grabhami (Gordon, 1935) from Brazil, Southwestern Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassuga, A D; Diele, K; Hostim-Silva, M

    2015-11-01

    New records for Lysmata grabhami (Gordon, 1935) in Brazilian waters are presented. Four adult individuals from coastal waters off the city of Vitória, Espírito Santo coast and one adult from Trindade Island were collected during scuba diving in depths between 20-40 meters. These two records represent the southernmost published finding of this species in the Atlantic and the record for Vitória, Espirito Santo is the first from Brazilian coastal waters. PMID:26675910

  3. Extratropical Transitions in Atlantic Canada: Impacts and Adaptive Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Athena; Catto, Norm

    2013-04-01

    Cyclones originating over the tropical Atlantic may undergo the process of extratropical transition as they move northeastward along the coast of North America. Interaction with eastward-moving mid-latitude cyclones or frontal systems can result in the formation of spatially larger, more powerful storms, marked by frontal characteristics, changes (either increases or decreases) in wind speed and track velocity, and less predictable tracks coupled with increased precipitation and potential for storm surge. Of the 330 tropical cyclones formed over the North Atlantic from 1991 to 2011, 134 (40.6%) underwent partial or total extratropical transition. The dynamics and threats of extratropical transitions have not been extensively studied. Consequently, forecasters refer to approaching storms as "hurricanes," although they are frequently extratropical in character by the time they reach New York and New England, and almost always have undergone partial or complete transition before making landfall in Atlantic Canada. In rare instances, extratropical transitions may continue to progress eastwards across the North Atlantic. In a typical summer-autumn, Atlantic Canada is impacted by 5 to 7 storms of tropical origin. Due to variations in track and interaction to form extratropical transitions, the number of summer and early autumn storm events in Atlantic Canada is not linked to the total number of hurricanes in any specific year. Overall tropical cyclone frequency in the North Atlantic cannot be directly correlated with temperature variations, or with the frequency or magnitude of summer and early autumn storms in Atlantic Canada. Extratropical transition "Igor" directly impacted more than 40,000 km2 of eastern Newfoundland on 20-22 September 2010. Current estimates of damage to human property exceed 165 million, and one human life was lost. River flooding resulted from rainfall in excess of 150 mm/24 h in several locations, with peak stream flow locally exceeding 600 m3/s

  4. Seabirds of the Atlantic Frontier, north and west of Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, James B.; Pollock, Claire M.; Mavor, Roddy

    2001-05-01

    The marine environment of the Atlantic Frontier region north and west of Scotland, the focus of recent oil exploration, hosts internationally important concentrations of seabirds. Twenty-three species breed in colonies on the coasts and islands that rise from these waters and a further 25 species use them for feeding at various times of the year. The importance of these populations are set in an international context and their composition and occurrence in the deep waters of the Atlantic Frontier and adjacent continental shelf waters, as revealed by 20 years of at-sea surveys, is described. Deep waters are especially important for procellariiformes whereas shelf waters are important for all species, and overall seabird diversity is greater in shelf waters. The effects of oil pollution on seabirds can be severe, and although the effect of pollution in deep, oceanic waters might be minimal, prevailing currents and winds might result in greater impacts on more westerly, shelf waters. While the perceived threats from oil exploration in the Atlantic Frontier might be small the important seabird assemblage in the region should be considered in future exploitation of hydrocarbons here.

  5. Assessment of tsunami hazard to the U.S. Atlantic margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Brink, Uri; Chaytor, Jason; Geist, Eric L.; Brothers, Daniel S.; Andrews, Brian D.

    2014-01-01

    Tsunami hazard is a very low-probability, but potentially high-risk natural hazard, posing unique challenges to scientists and policy makers trying to mitigate its impacts. These challenges are illustrated in this assessment of tsunami hazard to the U.S. Atlantic margin. Seismic activity along the U.S. Atlantic margin in general is low, and confirmed paleo-tsunami deposits have not yet been found, suggesting a very low rate of hazard. However, the devastating 1929 Grand Banks tsunami along the Atlantic margin of Canada shows that these events continue to occur. Densely populated areas, extensive industrial and port facilities, and the presence of ten nuclear power plants along the coast, make this region highly vulnerable to flooding by tsunamis and therefore even low-probability events need to be evaluated.

  6. Comparação entre uso de água em plantações de Eucalyptus grandis e floresta ombrófila densa (Mata Atlântica na costa leste do Brasil Comparison of water use in Eucalyptus grandis plantations and Atlantic Rainforest in eastern coast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auro Campi de Almeida

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Existe uma controvérsia histórica sobre o uso de água em plantações de eucalipto em vários países onde estas plantações vêm se expandindo. Este trabalho apresenta os resultados de um monitoramento hidrológico intensivo que vem sendo realizado desde 1994 em uma microbacia no município de Aracruz-ES, Brasil. As medições realizadas nos plantios de eucalipto (Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden e em uma floresta nativa (Mata Atlântica e as estimativas a partir de modelos hidrológicos para o cálculo de balanço hídrico demonstram que as plantações de eucalipto se comparam à floresta nativa quanto à evapotranspiração anual e ao uso de água do solo. Considerando o ciclo de crescimento do eucalipto para produção de celulose, o uso de água pela plantação pode ser inferior ao da floresta nativa, principalmente no início do ciclo. A análise da relação entre evapotranspiração e precipitação mostrou que em anos em que a precipitação é próxima à média anual existe um equilíbrio entre a perda e a entrada de água através da precipitação pluviométrica.A historical controversy exists on the use of water by eucalypt plantations worldwide. This study presents the results of an intensive hydrologic monitoring carried out since 1994 in a watershed in Aracruz-ES, Brazil. After over eight years of measuring a eucalyptus forest and its neighboring native species stands (Atlantic Rainforest, the measurements and hydrological models have shown that the eucalypt trees may consume water more economically than the native trees, considering its whole growing cycle of seven years. The evapotranspiration and precipitation ratio showed a water balance when the precipitation is close to the annual average.

  7. 75 FR 22103 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Atlantic Coastal Shark Fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XV13 Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Atlantic Coastal Shark Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS...-compliance; Declaration of a moratorium. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Atlantic Coastal...

  8. Long distance dispersal and connectivity in amphi-Atlantic corals at regional and basin scales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia L D Nunes

    Full Text Available Among Atlantic scleractinian corals, species diversity is highest in the Caribbean, but low diversity and high endemism are observed in various peripheral populations in central and eastern Atlantic islands and along the coasts of Brazil and West Africa. The degree of connectivity between these distantly separated populations is of interest because it provides insight into processes at both evolutionary and ecological time scales, such as speciation, recruitment dynamics and the persistence of coral populations. To assess connectivity in broadly distributed coral species of the Atlantic, DNA sequence data from two nuclear markers were obtained for six coral species spanning their distributional ranges. At basin-wide scales, significant differentiation was generally observed among populations in the Caribbean, Brazil and West Africa. Concordance of patterns in connectivity among co-distributed taxa indicates that extrinsic barriers, such as the Amazon freshwater plume or long stretches of open ocean, restrict dispersal of coral larvae from region to region. Within regions, dispersal ability appears to be influenced by aspects of reproduction and life history. Two broadcasting species, Siderastrea siderea and Montastraea cavernosa, were able to maintain gene flow among populations separated by as much as 1,200 km along the coast of Brazil. In contrast, brooding species, such as Favia gravida and Siderastrea radians, had more restricted gene flow along the Brazilian coast.

  9. Bioecology of tulip trees at the Ajara Black Sea coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Tskhoidze

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Tulip trees (Liriodendron tulipifera L. andLiriodendron chinense(Hemsl. Sarg. grow well along the Batumi coastline, develop, bloom, produce fruit, give natural revival. There they already have blooming and fruiting self-seeds. Chinese tulip poplar sometimes reaches here bigger sizes than in natural habitat. It resists winter temperatures very well. Both species can be jointly used along the Caucasian Black Sea coast as ornamental trees because there are the most favorable conditions for their vegetation. Due the great resistance American tulip trees can grow along the coastline as well as inland of Ajara.

  10. Characterization of Porteresia coarctata beds along the Goa coast, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jagtap, T.G.; Bhosale, S.H.; Charulata, S.

    (Hedges et al., 1997; David et al., 2002; Gale et al., 2000). The open mudflats along the Table 4 Phenological characteristics of P. coarctata (Roxb.) along the Mandovi estuary, Goa Month Station S-I S-II TP NF PS RP TP 1996 January 43.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 48... Biota Along the Central West Coast of India, PhD Thesis. Pune University, Pune, India. Bremner, J.M., 1965. Kjeldahl methods. In: Black, C.A. (Ed.), Methods of Soil Analysis, 12. American Society Agronomy, pp. 1149–1178. David, J., Burke, E., Hamerlynck...

  11. Atlantic Offshore Seabird Dataset Catalog

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Several bureaus within the Department of Interior compiled available information from seabird observation datasets from the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf into a...

  12. Atlantic Flyway Sea Duck Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Atlantic Flyway Sea Duck Survey, conducted from 1991 to 2002 by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, was established to record sea duck numbers using near shore...

  13. Atlantic Flyway Breeding Waterfowl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Atlantic Flyway Technical Section initiated this breeding waterfowl survey in 11 northeast states ranging from New Hampshire to Virginia.

  14. Levels of cadmium, mercury, and lead in Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) stranded on the Brazilian coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Claudia M; Siciliano, Salvatore; Barrocas, Paulo R G; Hacon, Sandra S; Campos, Reinaldo C; do Couto Jacob, Silvana; Ott, Paulo Henrique

    2010-02-01

    Cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), and lead (Pb) were determined in samples of liver and breast muscles of first-year Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus), from two different areas on the Brazilian coast, 35 on the Rio de Janeiro coast and 12 on the Rio Grande do Sul coast. In both areas, Cd concentrations in muscle samples were <0.025 microg/g. However, the Cd and Hg concentrations found in liver and Hg concentrations found in muscle showed a significant difference between the two regions. The geometric mean of the concentrations was higher in the specimens from Rio de Janeiro (Cd--6.8 microg/g; Hg--liver, 1.6 microg/g, and muscle, 0.4 microg/g wet weight) than in those from Rio Grande do Sul (Cd--2.3 microg/g; Hg--liver, 0.9 microg/g, and muscle, 0.1 microg/g wet weight). The site differences could be related to differences in diet influenced by geographic factors. Brazil's southeastern coast is highly urbanized, and its coastal waters are contaminated by the waste of agricultural and industrial activities. There is a lack of information on the levels of heavy metals in S. magellanicus, however, their wide distribution and top position in the trophic chain make the use of stranded specimens an attractive source of information for monitoring heavy metals in the South Atlantic coast. PMID:19582498

  15. Current direction and bathythermograph (xbt) data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico, Northwest Atlantic Ocean, and North American Coastline-South as part the North Carolina Frontal Eddy Dynamics Experiment (FRED) project, 1985-01-23 to 1987-01-31 (NCEI Accession 8900214)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction and bathythermograph (xbt) data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico, Northwest Atlantic...

  16. Current direction, bathythermograph (xbt), CTD, and other data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean (limit-40 W) and North American Coastline-South as part of the North Carolina FRontal Eddy Dynamics Experiment (FRED) project, 1987-05-07 to 1987-11-01 (NCEI Accession 8900181)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, bathythermograph (xbt), CTD, and other data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean...

  17. The Caribbean and the Wild Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Goslinga

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Suriname: a bibliography, 1980-1989. Jo DERKX & IRENE ROLFES. Leiden, the Netherlands: Department of Caribbean Studies, KITLV/Royal Institute of Linguistics and Anthropology, 1990. x + 297 pp. (Paper NLG 25.00 La Caraïbe politique et internationale: bibliographie politologique avec références économiques et socio-culturelles. MICHEL L. MARTIN. Paris: L'Harmattan, 1990. xvii + 287 pp. Suriname. ROSEMARIJN HOEFTE. Oxford and Santa Barbara CA: Clio Press, 1990. xxx + 229 pp. (Cloth US$ 45.00 Although in North American academie circles interest in Suriname (or the Wild Coast, as the area was originally called has always been marginal, the same cannot be said for the Dutch, for whom the former colony continues to hold an enduring fascination. Not only have the Dutch studied the country's historical beginnings assiduously, but Suriname's controversial relationship with the former mother country assures it a definite place in contemporary social and political thought.

  18. Evolution of a reassortant North American gull influenza virus lineage: drift, shift and stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jeffrey S.; TeSlaa, Joshua L.; Nashold, Sean W.; Halpin, Rebecca A.; Stockwell, Timothy; Wentworth, David E.; Dugan, Vivien; Ip, Hon S.

    2013-01-01

    need for continued surveillance in gull and waterfowl populations, both on the Pacific and especially Atlantic coasts of North America, to document virus intercontinental movement and the role of gull species in the evolution and epidemiology of AI.

  19. First Record of Invasive Lionfish (Pterois volitans for the Brazilian Coast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos E L Ferreira

    Full Text Available The invasion of the northwestern Atlantic by the Indo-Pacific lionfish has developed extraordinarily fast, and is expected to cause one of the most negative ecological impacts among all marine invasions. In less than 30 years, lionfish have dramatically expanded their distribution range to an area encompassing the eastern coast of the USA, Bermuda, the entire Caribbean region and the Gulf of Mexico. The rapidity of the lionfish spread has raised concerns in other parts of the Atlantic that may be under the reach of the invasion. Despite the anticipation that lionfish would eventually extend their range throughout most of the eastern coast of South America, it had not been recorded in Brazil until now. Here we report the first lionfish appearance for the Brazilian coast and show that the individual collected by us is genetically linked to the invasive Caribbean population. Since small-range endemics are found in several locations in Brazil and are among the species that are most vulnerable to extinction, we recommend urgent control, management and education measures aimed at minimizing the effects of this impending invasion.

  20. First Record of Invasive Lionfish (Pterois volitans) for the Brazilian Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Carlos E L; Luiz, Osmar J; Floeter, Sergio R; Lucena, Marcos B; Barbosa, Moysés C; Rocha, Claudia R; Rocha, Luiz A

    2015-01-01

    The invasion of the northwestern Atlantic by the Indo-Pacific lionfish has developed extraordinarily fast, and is expected to cause one of the most negative ecological impacts among all marine invasions. In less than 30 years, lionfish have dramatically expanded their distribution range to an area encompassing the eastern coast of the USA, Bermuda, the entire Caribbean region and the Gulf of Mexico. The rapidity of the lionfish spread has raised concerns in other parts of the Atlantic that may be under the reach of the invasion. Despite the anticipation that lionfish would eventually extend their range throughout most of the eastern coast of South America, it had not been recorded in Brazil until now. Here we report the first lionfish appearance for the Brazilian coast and show that the individual collected by us is genetically linked to the invasive Caribbean population. Since small-range endemics are found in several locations in Brazil and are among the species that are most vulnerable to extinction, we recommend urgent control, management and education measures aimed at minimizing the effects of this impending invasion. PMID:25901361

  1. Red Tide off Texas Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Red tides (algae) bloomed late this summer along a 300-mile stretch of Texas' Gulf Coast, killing millions of fish and shellfish as well as making some people sick. State officials are calling this the worst red tide bloom in 14 years. The algae produces a poison that paralyzes fish and prevents them from breathing. There is concern that the deadly algae could impact or even wipe out this year's oyster harvest in Texas, which usually peaks during the Thanksgiving and Christmas holidays. The red tides were first observed off the Texas coast in mid-August and have been growing steadily in size ever since. Red tides tend to bloom and subside rapidly, depending upon changes in wind speed and direction, water temperature, salinity, and rainfall patterns (as the algae doesn't do as well in fresher water). This true-color image of the Texas Gulf Coast was acquired on September 29, 2000, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The red tide can be seen as the dark reddish discoloration in the ocean running southwest to northeast along the coast. In this scene, the bloom appears to be concentrated north and east of Corpus Christi, just off Matagorda Island. The image was made at 500-meter resolution using a combination of MODIS' visible bands 1 (red), 4 (green), and 3 (blue). The city of Houston can be seen clearly as the large, greyish cluster of pixels to the north and west of Galveston Bay, which is about mid-way up the coastline in this image. Also visible in this image are plumes of smoke, perhaps wildfires, both to the north and northeast of Houston. For more information about red tides, refer to the Texas Red Tide Web site. Image courtesy Andrey Savtchenko, MODIS Data Support Team, and the MODIS Ocean Team, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center

  2. Geologic record of Hurricane impacts on the New Jersey coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitina, Daria; Horton, Benjamin; Khan, Nicole; Clear, Jennifer; Shaw, Timothy; Enache, Mihaela; Frizzera, Dorina; Procopio, Nick; Potapova, Marina

    2016-04-01

    Hurricanes along the US Atlantic coast have caused significant damage and loss of human life over the last century. Recent studies suggest that intense-hurricane activity is closely related to changes of sea surface temperatures and therefore the risk of hurricane strikes may increase in the future. A clear understanding of the role of recent warming on tropical cyclone activity is limited by the shortness of the instrumental record. However, the sediment preserved beneath coastal wetlands is an archive of when hurricanes impacted the coast. We present two complimenting approaches that help to extend pre-historic record and assess frequency and intensity of hurricane landfalls along the New Jersey cost; dating overwash deposits and hurricane-induced salt-marsh erosion documented at multiple sites. The stratigraphic investigation of estuarine salt marshes in the southern New Jersey documented seven distinctive erosion events that correlate among different sites. Radiocarbon dates suggest the prehistoric events occurred in AD 558-673, AD 429-966, AD 558-673, Ad 1278-1438, AD 1526-1558 or AD 1630-1643 (Nikitina et al., 2014). Younger sequences correspond with historical land-falling hurricanes in AD 1903 and AD 1821 or AD 1788. Four events correlate well with barrier overwash deposits documented along the New Jersey coast (Donnelley et al., 2001 and 2004). The stratigraphic sequence of salt High resolution sedimentary-based reconstructions of past intense-hurricane landfalls indicate that significant variability in the frequency of intense hurricanes occurred over the last 2000 years.

  3. Isotope analysis reveals foraging area dichotomy for atlantic leatherback turtles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Caut

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea has undergone a dramatic decline over the last 25 years, and this is believed to be primarily the result of mortality associated with fisheries bycatch followed by egg and nesting female harvest. Atlantic leatherback turtles undertake long migrations across ocean basins from subtropical and tropical nesting beaches to productive frontal areas. Migration between two nesting seasons can last 2 or 3 years, a time period termed the remigration interval (RI. Recent satellite transmitter data revealed that Atlantic leatherbacks follow two major dispersion patterns after nesting season, through the North Gulf Stream area or more eastward across the North Equatorial Current. However, information on the whole RI is lacking, precluding the accurate identification of feeding areas where conservation measures may need to be applied. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using stable isotopes as dietary tracers we determined the characteristics of feeding grounds of leatherback females nesting in French Guiana. During migration, 3-year RI females differed from 2-year RI females in their isotope values, implying differences in their choice of feeding habitats (offshore vs. more coastal and foraging latitude (North Atlantic vs. West African coasts, respectively. Egg-yolk and blood isotope values are correlated in nesting females, indicating that egg analysis is a useful tool for assessing isotope values in these turtles, including adults when not available. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results complement previous data on turtle movements during the first year following the nesting season, integrating the diet consumed during the year before nesting. We suggest that the French Guiana leatherback population segregates into two distinct isotopic groupings, and highlight the urgent need to determine the feeding habitats of the turtle in the Atlantic in order to protect this species from incidental take by

  4. Changing waves and storms in the Northeast Atlantic?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carretero, J.C.; Gomez, M.; Lozano, I. [Programa de Clima Maritimo (Puertos del Estado), Madrid (Spain)] [and others; WASA group

    1997-12-31

    The European project WASA has been set up to verifying, or to disprove hypotheses of a worsening storm and wave climate in the Northeast Atlantic and its adjacent seas in the present century. Its main conclusion is that the storm- and wave climate in most of the Northeast Atlantic and in the North Sea has undergone significant variations on time scales of decades; it has indeed roughened in recent decades, but the present intensity of the storm- and wave-climate seems to be comparable with that at the beginning of this century. Part of this variability is found to be related to the North Atlantic oscillation. An analysis of a high-resolution climate change experiment, mimicking global warming due to increased greenhouse gas concentrations, results in a weak increase of storm activity and (extreme) wave heights in the Bay of Biscay and in the North Sea, while storm action and waves slightly decrease along the Norwegian coast and in most of the remaining North Atlantic area. A weak increase in storm surges in the southern and eastern part of the North Sea is expected. These projected anthropogenic changes at the time of CO{sub 2} doubling fall well within the limits of variability observed in the past. A major methodical obstacle for the assessment of changes in the intensity of storm and wave events are inhomogeneities in the observational record, both in terms of local observations and of analyzed pro ducts (such as weather maps), which usually produce an artificial increase of extreme winds. This occurs because older analyses were based on fewer observations and with more limited conceptual and numerical models of the dynamical processes than more recent analyses. 52 refs.

  5. BrO measurements over the Eastern North-Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Martin

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work presented here was to detect BrO in the marine boundary layer over the Eastern North-Atlantic by Multi AXis-Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS of scattered sunlight. With this technique, information about the concentration and the vertical profile of trace gases in the atmosphere can be gained. BrO can be formed in the marine atmosphere by degradation of biogenic organohalogens or by oxidation of bromide in sea salt aerosol. BrO influences the chemistry in marine air in many was, e.g. since it catalytically destroys ozone, changes the NO2/NO-ratio as well as the OH/HO2-ratio and oxidises DMS. However, the abundance and the significance of BrO in the marine atmosphere are not yet fully understood.

    We report on data collected during a ship cruise, which took place along the West African Coast in February 2007, within the framework of the Surface Ocean PRocesses in the ANthropocene project (SOPRAN. Tropospheric BrO could be detected during this cruise at peak mixing ratios of (10.2±3.7 ppt at an assumed layer height of 1 km on 18 February 2007. Furthermore, it was found that the mean BrO concentrations increased when cruising close to the African Coast suggesting that at least part of the BrO might have originated from the African coast.

  6. Training on Eastern Pacific tropical cyclones for Latin American students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farfán, L. M.; Raga, G. B.

    2009-05-01

    Tropical cyclones are one of the most impressive atmospheric phenomena and their development in the Atlantic and Eastern Pacific basins has potential to affect several Latin-American and Caribbean countries, where human resources are limited. As part of an international research project, we are offering short courses based on the current understanding of tropical cyclones in the Eastern Pacific basin. Our main goal is to train students from higher-education institutions from various countries in Latin America. Key aspects are tropical cyclone formation and evolution, with particular emphasis on their development off the west coast of Mexico. Our approach includes lectures on tropical cyclone climatology and formation, dynamic and thermodynamic models, air-sea interaction and oceanic response, ocean waves and coastal impacts as well as variability and climate-related predictions. In particular, we use a best-track dataset issued by the United States National Hurricane Center and satellite observations to analyze convective patterns for the period 1970-2006. Case studies that resulted in landfall over northwestern Mexico are analyzed in more detail; this includes systems that developed during the 2006, 2007 and 2008 seasons. Additionally, we have organized a human-dimensions symposium to discuss socio-economic issues that are associated with the landfall of tropical cyclones. This includes coastal zone impact and flooding, the link between cyclones and water resources, the flow of weather and climate information from scientists to policy- makers, the role of emergency managers and decision makers, impact over health issues and the viewpoint of the insurance industry.

  7. Inverted barometer contributions to recent sea level changes along the northeast coast of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piecuch, Christopher G.; Ponte, Rui M.

    2015-07-01

    Regional sea level (SL) changes reflect dynamic and isostatic ocean effects. Recent works have interpreted accelerated and extreme SL changes along the northeast coast of North America primarily in terms of dynamic changes; however, dedicated study of isostatic changes related to surface atmospheric pressure loading—the inverted barometer (IB) effect—has been lacking. This investigation uses five different atmospheric pressure products to analyze the influence of the IB effect on annual mean SL from tide gauge records. The IB effect explains ˜25% of interannual SL variance and accounts for ˜50% of the magnitude of a recent extreme event of SL rise along Atlantic Canada and New England. Estimated IB effects also amount to ˜10-30% of recent multidecadal SL accelerations over the Mid-Atlantic Bight and Southern New England. These findings reiterate the need for careful estimation and removal of isostatic effects for studies of dynamic SL.

  8. Could a 1755-like tsunami reach the French Atlantic coastline? Constraints from 20th century observations and numerical modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allgeyer, S.; Daubord, C.; Hébert, H.; Loevenbruck, A.; Schindelé, F.; Madariaga, R.

    2012-04-01

    The tsunami generated by the 1st November 1755 (Mw ~8.5) earthquake off Portugal affected mainly the coasts of the Iberian Peninsula and Northwest Morocco, and was observed in some places on the North Atlantic coasts, towards the West Indies, but also towards Ireland and the Great Britain, in Cornwall. However, no evidence of observation were found along French Atlantic coastline so far. In a first step, to determine whether there could be effects due to tsunamis on the French coastline, we conducted a study to search for actual tsunamis signals in all historical tide gauge stations of the French Atlantic coast available during the 20th century, specifically for the 1969 and 1975 tsunamis that were well observed in Portugal. Because many recordings are available from the French Hydrographic Service in La Rochelle (west French Atlantic coastline), we focus our study on this harbor. The analysis of these historical tide gauge data shows no evidence for tsunamis in La Rochelle, neither in 1969 or in 1975. Then, to confirm this lack of tsunami, we simulate the tsunamis from the 1969 and 1975 sources, using non linear shallow water equations and a series of imbricated bathymetric grids focusing to the French coastline, and then towards the harbor of La Rochelle: the modeling results confirm unnoticeable amplitudes. In the following step, tsunamis from three different scenarios for the 1755 earthquake have been similarly modeled to estimate the impact of such a tsunami on the French Atlantic coast, with a focus on La Rochelle harbor. The results show that, while the harbor is well protected (amplitudes computed on a synthetic tide gage in the harbor do not exceed 20 to 30 cm crest-to-trough) several areas may have undergone a more important, yet moderate impact, from 0.5 to 1 m, especially in the western part of the island of Ré and the northern coast of the island of Oléron. This may have caused possible local inundations in lowland areas, all the more since the tide

  9. Atlantic forcing of Amazonian climates in the last ice age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, M. B.; Mosblech, N.; Valencia, B. G.; Hodell, D. A.; Gosling, W. D.; Van Calsteren, P. W.; Thomas, L. E.; Curtis, J. H.

    2011-12-01

    An absence of study sites means that the relative influence of orbitally driven presession cycles and millenial scale variability upon ice-age Amazonian precipitation is unknown. Here we present a continuous isotopic (δO18 and C13) record spanning the period from ~93-8 ka, from the aseasonal forests of Amazonian Ecuador. The variability in δO18 depletion is probably related to the relative strength of evapotranspired moisture (less depleted) and tropical Atlantic moisture carried across the basin by the South American Low Level Jet (more depleted). Times of strengthened South American Low Level Jet probably correspond to increased overall moisture availability and hence elevated precipitation. The occurrence of markedly depleted δO18 signatures during Heinrich events suggests a strong influence of the Atlantic Ocean on this system, and that these northern hemispheric stadials induced wet episodes in western Amazonia. Weakening of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) has been suggested to strengthen the South American Low Level Jet. The isotopic records reveal strong cohesion with previously published records from southern Brazil. A precessional influence amplifies the north Atlantic signal between c. 93 ka and 50 ka. However, after c. 50 ka the precessional signal weakens, perhaps sugesting that at a critical size the Laurentide ice mass exerted a strong influence on Neotropical climates suppressing the weaker forcing associated with precession. Contrary to long-standing expectation, the Last Glacial Maximum (21 ± 2 ka) does not stand out as time of aridity in this record. However, between c. 35 ka and 18 ka there is a drift toward less depleted rainfall. One hypothesis to account for this observation is that the climate was becoming more seasonal as the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) formed further south than its modern location. The resulting weakened influence of the South American Summer Monsoon (SASM) would probably reduce wet

  10. CONCEPTUAL DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE PACIFIC, ATLANTIC AND ARCTIC TSUNAMI WARNING SYSTEMS FOR CANADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.S. Murty

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Canada has coastlines on three of the four oceans on the globe, namely, the Pacific, Atlantic and Arctic oceans. The Pacific and Atlantic oceans are connected to the Arctic Ocean in the north, but still they are three distinct oceans, and need three individual tsunami warning systems. Tsunamis in the Arctic Ocean are not as well documented as in the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. From what is known, tsunamis in the Arctic Ocean are rare and probably are small in amplitude. Because of very low population density, around the Canadian Arctic, at present, there is no priority for a tsunami warning system for Arctic Canada. For the Pacific Ocean, a tsunami warning system is in existence since 1948. In at least one sense, the warning aspects of the tsunami warning system for the Pacific coast of Canada, is relatively simple and straight forward, because it involves only the federal government (PSEPC and the provincial government of British Columbia (PEP. For the Atlantic Ocean, A tsunami warning system is now being established. The warning aspects will be some what more complex for eastern Canada, since it not only involves the federal government, but also five provinces, namely, Newfoundland and Labrador, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island and Quebec. The Alaska tsunami warning center (ATWC in Palmer, Alaska, provides tsunami warnings for both Pacific and Atlantic Canada.

  11. Coastal Vulnerability Index (CVI) Assessment for the National Park of American Samoa (npsa_shore)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A coastal vulnerability index (CVI) was used to map the relative vulnerability of the coast to future sea-level rise within The National Park of American Samoa ....

  12. Evidence for cooler European summers during periods of changing meltwater flux to the North Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiri, Oliver; Tinner, Willy; Lotter, André F

    2004-10-26

    We analyzed fossil chironomids (nonbiting midges) and pollen in two lake-sediment records to reconstruct and quantify Holocene summer-temperature fluctuations in the European Alps. Chironomid and pollen records indicate five centennial-scale cooling episodes during the early- and mid-Holocene. The strongest temperature declines of approximately 1 degrees C are inferred at approximately 10,700-10,500 and 8,200-7,600 calibrated 14C years B.P., whereas other temperature fluctuations are of smaller amplitude. Two forcing mechanisms have been presented recently to explain centennial-scale climate variability in Europe during the early- and mid-Holocene, both involving changes in Atlantic thermohaline circulation. In the first mechanism, changes in meltwater flux from the North American continent to the North Atlantic are responsible for changes in the Atlantic thermohaline circulation, thereby affecting circum-Atlantic climate. In the second mechanism, solar variability is the cause of Holocene climatic fluctuations, possibly triggering changes in Atlantic thermohaline overturning. Within their dating uncertainty, the two major cooling periods in the European Alps are coeval with substantial changes in the routing of North American freshwater runoff to the North Atlantic, whereas quantitatively, our climatic reconstructions show a poor agreement with available records of past solar activity. Thus, our results suggest that, during the early- and mid-Holocene, freshwater-induced Atlantic circulation changes had stronger influence on Alpine summer temperatures than solar variability and that Holocene thermohaline circulation reductions have led to summer-temperature declines of up to 1 degrees C in central Europe. PMID:15492214

  13. Shallow-water Niphatidae (Haplosclerina, Haplosclerida, Demospongiae) from the São Sebastião Channel and its environs (tropical southwestern Atlantic),

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinheiro, U.S.; Berlinck, R.G.S.; Hajdu, E.

    2005-01-01

    Two niphatids are described here: Amphimedon viridis and Pachychalina alcaloidifera sp. nov. Amphimedon viridis is a common and conspicuous species in most of the tropical western Atlantic. Pachychalina alcaloidifera sp. nov. has this far been found only in the coasts of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo

  14. Abundance, size and polymer composition of marine microplastics ≥10μm in the Atlantic Ocean and their modelled vertical distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enders, Kristina; Lenz, Robin; Stedmon, Colin A.;

    2015-01-01

    We studied abundance, size and polymer type of microplastic down to 10 μm along a transect from the European Coast to the North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre (NASG) using an underway intake filtration technique and Raman micro-spectrometry. Concentrations ranged from 13 to 501 items m− 3. Highest...

  15. 78 FR 59878 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Commercial Atlantic Aggregated Large Coastal Shark (LCS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... management groups is closed, even across fishing years. On July 3, 2013 (78 FR 40318), NMFS announced the... Species; Commercial Atlantic Aggregated Large Coastal Shark (LCS), Atlantic Hammerhead Shark, Atlantic Blacknose Shark, and Atlantic Non-Blacknose Small Coastal Shark (SCS) Management Groups AGENCY:...

  16. The exotic isopod Synidotea in the Netherlands and Europe, a Japanse or American invasion (Pancrustacea: Isopoda)?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faasse, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Synidotea is an invasive isopod genus in European waters. The identification of introduced populations has given rise to much controversy. Synidotea recently has been recorded from the Westerschelde estuary on the southern North Sea coast. Other records from the north Atlantic were attributed to S.

  17. Atlantic menhaden processing plant test tagging data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Atlantic menhaden are a schooling forage fish species, which are subject to a large commercial purse seine fishery. Atlantic menhaden are harvested for reduction...

  18. Atlantic NAD 83 OCS Planning Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains BOEM Planning Area outlines in ESRI shapefile format for the BOEM Atlantic Region. The old Atlantic Planning Area outlines were changed as of...

  19. The North Atlantic Oscillation in the Atlantic-European SLP*

    OpenAIRE

    GLOWIENKA-HENSE, RITA

    2011-01-01

    An analysis of the signature of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) in the Atlantic-European sea level pressure (SLP) is presented for observed (German Weather Service) and ECMWF T21 model data. The former time series consists of 1881–1984 January to December fields and the latter of 42 monthly fields from 3 permanent January simulations. The NAO is shown to be one of the dominant eigenmodes of SLP for all calendar months. A very similar NAO anomaly pattern is filtered from the T21 model dat...

  20. Qingdao - Pearl onthe Shandong coast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BRUCE CONNOLLY

    2004-01-01

    <正> Qingdao, its name is synonymous with beer. Tsingtao Beer, one of the country’s finest, has put the city firmly onto the international scene. However, there is so much more to this pearl on the coast of Shandong Province. As China goes forward to the 2008 Olympics the city will become even better known for it has been chosen as the venue for the ocean sailing events.Qingdao occupies a peninsula jutting into the Yellow Sea. It is hilly, with a coastline of rocky headlands connected by fine curving sandy beaches. Its natural

  1. Atlantic Seaduck Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, M.C.; Hanson, Alan; Kerekes, Joseph; Paquet, Julie

    2006-01-01

    Atlantic Seaduck Project is being conducted to learn more about the breeding and moulting areas of seaducks in northern Canada and more about their feeding ecology on wintering areas, especially Chesapeake Bay. Satellite telemetry is being used to track surf scoters wintering in Chesapeake Bay, Maryland and black scoters on migrational staging areas in New Brunswick, Canada to breeding and moulting areas in northern Canada. Various techniques used to capture the scoters included mist netting, night-lighting, and net capture guns. All captured ducks were transported to a veterinary hospital where surgery was conducted following general anaesthesia procedures. A PTT100 transmitter (39 g) manufactured by Microwave, Inc., Columbia, Maryland was implanted into the duck?s abdominal cavity with an external (percutaneous) antenna. Eight of the surf scoters from Chesapeake Bay successfully migrated to possible breeding areas in Canada and all 13 of the black scoters migrated to suspected breeding areas. Ten of the 11 black scoter males migrated to James Bay presumably for moulting. Updated information from the ARGOS Systems aboard the NOAA satellites on scoter movements was made accessible on the Patuxent Website. Habitat cover types of locations using GIS (Geographical Information Systems) and aerial photographs (in conjunction with remote sensing software) are currently being analyzed to build thematic maps with varying cosmetic layer applications. Many factors related to human population increases have been implicated in causing changes in the distribution and abundance of wintering seaducks. Analyses of the gullet (oesophagus and proventriculus) and the gizzard of seaducks are currently being conducted to determine if changes from historical data have occurred. Scoters in the Bay feed predominantly on the hooked mussel and several species of clams. The long-tailed duck appears to select the gem clam in greater amounts than other seaducks, but exhibits a diverse diet of

  2. Preverbal Position in Coast Tsimshian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, John A.

    1974-01-01

    Revised version of a paper presented at the Twenty-Fifth Annual Meeting of the Northwest Anthropological Association, Portland, Oregon, April 1972; research supported by the National Museum of Canada, the Philips Fund of the American Philosophical Society, and the National Endowment for the Humanities. (DD)

  3. Influence of SST from Pacific and Atlantic Ocean and atmospheric circulation in the precipitation regime of basin from Brazilian SIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custodio, M. D.; Ramos, C. G.; Madeira, P.; de Macedo, A. L.

    2013-12-01

    The South American climate presents tropical, subtropical and extratropical features because of its territorial extension, being influenced by a variety of dynamical systems with different spatial and temporal scales which result in different climatic regimes in their subregions. Furthermore, the precipitation regime in South America is influenced by low-frequency phenomena as El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the Atlantic dipole and the Madden Julian Oscilation (MJO), in other words, is directly influenced by variations of the Sea Surface Temperature (SST). Due to the importance of the precipitation for many sectors including the planning of productive activities, such as agriculture, livestock and hydropower energy, many studies about climate variations in Brazil have tried to determine and explain the mechanisms that affect the precipitation regime. However, because of complexity of the climate system, and consequently of their impacts on the global precipitation regime, its interactions are not totally understood and therefore misrepresented in numerical models used to forecast climate. The precipitation pattern over hydrographic basin which form the Brasilian National Interconnected System (Sistema Interligado Nacional-SIN) are not yet known and therefore the climate forecast of these regions still presents considerable failure that need to be corrected due to its economic importance. In this context, the purpose here is to determine the precipitation patterns on the Brazilian SIN, based on SST and circulation observed data. In a second phase a forecast climate model for these regions will be produced. In this first moment 30 years (1983 to 2012) of SST over Pacific and Atlantic Ocean were analyzed, along with wind in 850 and 200 hPa and precipitation observed data. The precipitation patterns were analyzed through statistical analyses for interannual (ENSO) and intraseasonal (MJO) anomalies for these variables over the SIN basin. Subsequently, these

  4. Avian influenza virus antibodies in Pacific Coast Red Knots (Calidris canutus rufa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James A.; DeCicco, Lucas H.; Ruthrauff, Daniel R.; Krauss, Scott; Hall, Jeffrey S.

    2014-01-01

    Prevalence of avian influenza virus (AIV) antibodies in the western Atlantic subspecies of Red Knot (Calidris canutus rufa) is among the highest for any shorebird. To assess whether the frequency of detection of AIV antibodies is high for the species in general or restricted only to C. c. rufa, we sampled the northeastern Pacific Coast subspecies of Red Knot (Calidris canutus roselaari) breeding in northwestern Alaska. Antibodies were detected in 90% of adults and none of the chicks sampled. Viral shedding was not detected in adults or chicks. These results suggest a predisposition of Red Knots to AIV infection. High antibody titers to subtypes H3 and H4 were detected, whereas low to intermediate antibody levels were found for subtypes H10 and H11. These four subtypes have previously been detected in shorebirds at Delaware Bay (at the border of New Jersey and Delaware) and in waterfowl along the Pacific Coast of North America.

  5. Atlantic CFC data in CARINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Steinfeldt

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Water column data of carbon and carbon-relevant parameters have been collected and merged into a new database called CARINA (CARbon IN the Atlantic. In order to provide a consistent data set, all data have been examined for systematic biases and adjusted if necessary (secondary quality control (QC. The CARINA data set is divided into three regions: the Arctic/Nordic Seas, the Atlantic region and the Southern Ocean. Here we present the CFC data for the Atlantic region, including the chlorofluorocarbons CFC-11, CFC-12 and CFC-113 as well as carbon tetrachloride (CCl4. The methods applied for the secondary quality control, a crossover analyses, the investigation of CFC ratios in the ocean and the CFC surface saturation are presented. Based on the results, the CFC data of some cruises are adjusted by a certain factor or given a "poor'' quality flag.

  6. Atlantic versus Indo-Pacific influence on Atlantic-European climate

    OpenAIRE

    Pohlmann, Holger; Latif, Mojib

    2005-01-01

    The influence of the Atlantic and Indo-Pacific oceans on Atlantic-European climate is investigated by analyzing ensemble integrations with the atmospheric general circulation model ECHAM4 forced by anomalous sea surface temperature and sea ice conditions restricted to the Atlantic (AOGA) and Indo-Pacific (I+POGA) oceans. The forcing from both the Indo-Pacific and Atlantic oceans are important for the generation of the sea level pressure (SLP) variability in the Atlantic region in the boreal w...

  7. The Atlantic Return and the Payback of Evangelization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Napolitano

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This article explores Catholic, transnational Latin American migration to Rome as a gendered and ethnicized Atlantic Return, which is figured as a source of ‘new blood’ that fortifies the Catholic Church but which also profoundly unsettles it. I analyze this Atlantic Return as an angle on the affective force of history in critical relation to two main sources: Diego Von Vacano’s reading of the work of Bartolomeo de las Casas, a 16th-century Spanish Dominican friar; and to Nelson Maldonado-Torres’ notion of the ‘coloniality of being’ which he suggests has operated in Atlantic relations as enduring and present forms of racial de-humanization. In his view this latter can be counterbalanced by embracing an economy of the gift understood as gendered. However, I argue that in the light of a contemporary payback of evangelization related to the original ‘gift of faith’ to the Americas, this economy of the gift is less liberatory than Maldonado-Torres imagines, and instead part of a polyfaceted reproduction of a postsecular neoliberal affective, and gendered labour regime.

  8. Primeira ocorrência de Polybius navigator (Herbst) (Decapoda, Brachyura, Portunidae) no Atlântico ocidental First occurrence of Polybius navigator (Herbst) (Decapoda, Brachyura, Portunidae) in Western Atlantic

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo Augusto Schmidt de Melo; Thais Brandini Crivelaro

    2002-01-01

    Among the portunid crabs collected during the Ilha Grande Project (1966-1969), one specimen of Polybius navigator (Herbst, 1794) was found. This species formerly known from the Eastern Atlantic, Mediterranean and Adriatic and Black Seas is redescribed, illustrated and comments on the new status of the genus is done. It is the first record of this species for the Brazilian coast and Western Atlantic.

  9. Primeira ocorrência de Polybius navigator (Herbst (Decapoda, Brachyura, Portunidae no Atlântico ocidental First occurrence of Polybius navigator (Herbst (Decapoda, Brachyura, Portunidae in Western Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Augusto Schmidt de Melo

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Among the portunid crabs collected during the Ilha Grande Project (1966-1969, one specimen of Polybius navigator (Herbst, 1794 was found. This species formerly known from the Eastern Atlantic, Mediterranean and Adriatic and Black Seas is redescribed, illustrated and comments on the new status of the genus is done. It is the first record of this species for the Brazilian coast and Western Atlantic.

  10. The 'Land of the Free'? The United States in the Eyes of Italian American Radicals

    OpenAIRE

    Luconi, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    This essay examines how Italian American socialists and anarchists perceived American institutions and political environment between the late nineteenth century and the mid twenties. It argues that a few radicals initially thought that American republicanism and liberties offered a fitting context for the establishment of a socialist society in the United States. It also points out that, after they moved to the other side of the Atlantic and experienced actual life under capitalism and the la...

  11. Swell prediction for the East Korean coast

    OpenAIRE

    J. H. Yuk; Kim, K. O.; Choi, B. H.; K. T. Jung

    2013-01-01

    Long-period abnormally high swell waves have been generated in the East Sea near Hokkaido, Japan, in winter during the atmospheric depression. These waves, named Yorimawari in Japanese, occasionally attack the coasts of both Korea and Japan. Waves significantly higher than normal years were recorded along the east Korean coast in 2006. In 2008, the swell caused considerable damages in Toyama and the Niigata coastal area of Japan and in Anmok east coast of Korea. This paper attempts to hindcas...

  12. American Dream in Early American Literatuer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈彩娥; 李小玺

    2008-01-01

    American dream has often been closely rehted to American literature.Many say that the American literary history can be seen as the history of American dreams.In most periods in history,writers,whose dreams have been infused in a variety of characters create the American literature.While in Early American literature,American dream had been presented in a dif-ferent way.

  13. U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This layer is a polygonal dataset that represents land and maritime boundaries for each representative United States Coast Guard district, which includes district...

  14. Marine archaeological investigations along the Saurashtra coast, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh; Tripati, S.

    . Foreign travellers have mentioned the names of active ports on the Saurashtra coast since the early historical period. During the medieval period this coast has witnessed hectic maritime activities and international trade and commerce. Marine...

  15. Passage of American shad: paradigms and realities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haro, Alex; Castro-Santos, Theodore

    2012-01-01

    Despite more than 250 years of development, the passage of American shad Alosa sapidissima at dams and other barriers frequently remains problematic. Few improvements in design based on knowledge of the swimming, schooling, and migratory behaviors of American shad have been incorporated into passage structures. Large-scale technical fishways designed for the passage of adult salmonids on the Columbia River have been presumed to have good performance for American shad but have never been rigorously evaluated for this species. Similar but smaller fishway designs on the East Coast frequently have poor performance. Provision of effective downstream passage for both juvenile and postspawning adult American shad has been given little consideration in most passage projects. Ways to attract and guide American shad to both fishway entrances and downstream bypasses remain marginally understood. The historical development of passage structures for American shad has resulted in assumptions and paradigms about American shad behavior and passage that are frequently unsubstantiated by supporting data or appropriate experimentation. We propose that many of these assumptions and paradigms are either unfounded or invalid and that significant improvements to American shad upstream and downstream passage can be made via a sequential program of behavioral experimentation, application of experimental results to the physical and hydraulic design of new structures, and controlled tests of large-scale prototype structures in the laboratory and field.

  16. South Atlantic circulation in a world ocean model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew H. England

    Full Text Available The circulation in the South Atlantic Ocean has been simulated within a global ocean general circulation model. Preliminary analysis of the modelled ocean circulation in the region indicates a rather close agreement of the simulated upper ocean flows with conventional notions of the large-scale geostrophic currents in the region. The modelled South Atlantic Ocean witnesses the return flow and export of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW at its northern boundary, the inflow of a rather barotropic Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC through the Drake Passage, and the inflow of warm saline Agulhas water around the Cape of Good Hope. The Agulhas leakage amounts to 8.7 Sv, within recent estimates of the mass transport shed westward at the Agulhas retroflection. Topographic steering of the ACC dominates the structure of flow in the circumpolar ocean. The Benguela Current is seen to be fed by a mixture of saline Indian Ocean water (originating from the Agulhas Current and fresher Subantarctic surface water (originating in the ACC. The Benguela Current is seen to modify its flow and fate with depth; near the surface it flows north-westwards bifurcating most of its transport northward into the North Atlantic Ocean (for ultimate replacement of North Atlantic surface waters lost to the NADW conveyor. Deeper in the water column, more of the Benguela Current is destined to return with the Brazil Current, though northward flows are still generated where the Benguela Current extension encounters the coast of South America. At intermediate levels, these northward currents trace the flow of Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW equatorward, though even more AAIW is seen to recirculate poleward in the subtropical gyre. In spite of the model's rather coarse resolution, some subtle features of the Brazil-Malvinas Confluence are simulated rather well, including the latitude at which the two currents meet. Conceptual diagrams of the recirculation and interocean

  17. Footprint of roman and modern mining activities in a sediment core from the southwestern Iberian Atlantic shelf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mil-Homens, Mário; Vale, Carlos; Naughton, Filipa; Brito, Pedro; Drago, Teresa; Anes, Bárbara; Raimundo, Joana; Schmidt, Sabine; Caetano, Miguel

    2016-11-15

    A 5-m long sediment core (VC2B), retrieved in the Southwestern Iberian Atlantic shelf, at 96m water depth, was used to assess major changes in climate and human activities during the last 9.7kyrs. Analytical measurements included sedimentological (mean grain size, and the contents of sand, silt and clay), geochemical (major, minor, trace and rare earth elements; REEs) and chronological ((210)Pb and (14)C) parameters. Two episodes of increment of fine-grained particles, occurring at 3050BCE and 1350CE, suggest the retreat of the coast line to the present level and the beginning of a wetter phase associated with the "Little Ice Age". The North American Shale Composite (NASC)-normalized REE-pattern detected in the shelf is similar to that found in the Guadiana estuarine sediments. The possibility of this estuary as a contributor to the sediment load deposited in the adjacent coastal zone was indicated. Trace elements were significantly correlated with Al until 1850CE, pointing that grain-size rules its distribution in sediments. The depth variation of As, Cu and Pb enrichment factors relative to background values shows two periods of intense human activity that can be mainly linked to mining: (i) across the Roman Period, marked by low enrichments; and (ii) starting on the second half of the 19th century until nowadays with significantly increased enrichments, especially of Pb and Cu. In addition to As, Cu and Pb, this period is also marked by high enrichments of Hg and Zn. Despite the decrease/closure of sulphide massive deposits mining exploitation (e.g., São Domingos, Las Herrerias) during the second half of the 20th century, results showed ongoing input of Pb, Cu, As, Hg and Zn to coastal sediments. Thus, the legacy of contamination by these elements, mainly from leaching of slags and tailings, and remobilization/reworking of contaminated estuarine sediments, is still recorded in marine sediments. PMID:27476726

  18. American Culture Reflected in American English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李华芳

    2013-01-01

    Language is a vehicle for culture. It is also a key component of culture. It not only reflects culture but also influences culture. As a variety of British English, American English, especially American words and expressions can reflect American culture from many aspects. This paper studies some typical traits of American culture reflected in words and expressions of American Eng-lish.

  19. Biological processes in the water column of the South Atlantic bight. Progress report, July 12--August 20, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paffenhofer, G.A.; Dunstan, W.M.

    1977-02-01

    Preliminary results are reported from a study of the relationship between intrusions of phytoplankton, zooplankton, and particulate matter in the South Atlantic Bight off the coast of Georgia and Northeast Florida. The relationship between temperature, chlorophyll, and particle volume in bottom water from various locations was determined and the data were correlated with data on water mass movements. Samples were collected from a ship following a specified grid pattern.

  20. Historical invasions of the intertidal zone of Atlantic North America associated with distinctive patterns of trade and emigration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brawley, S.H.; Coyer, J.A.; Blakeslee, A.M.H.; Hoarau, G.G.; Johnson, L.E.; Byers, J.E.; Stam, W.T.; Olsen, J.L.

    2009-01-01

    Early invasions of the North American shore occurred mainly via deposition of ballast rock, which effectively transported pieces of the intertidal zone across the Atlantic. From 1773- 1861, > 880 European ships entered Pictou Harbor, Nova Scotia, as a result of emigration and trade from Europe. The

  1. A century of research on the larval distributions of the Atlantic eels: a re-examination of the data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Michael J.; Bonhommeau, Sylvain; Munk, Peter;

    2015-01-01

    The spawning areas of the Atlantic freshwater eels were discovered about a century ago by the Danish scientist Johannes Schmidt who after years of searching found newly hatched larvae of the European eel, Anguilla anguilla, and the American eel, Anguilla rostrata, in the southern Sargasso Sea. Th...

  2. Monitoring the North Atlantic using ocean colour data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes-Yaco, C.; Caverhill, C.; Maass, H.; Porter, C.; White, GN, III

    2016-04-01

    The Remote Sensing Unit (RSU) at the Bedford Institute of Oceanography (BIO) has been monitoring the North Atlantic using ocean colour products for decades. Optical sensors used include CZCS, POLDER, SeaWiFS, MODIS/Aqua and MERIS. The monitoring area is defined by the Atlantic Zone Monitoring Program (AZMP) but certain products extend into Arctic waters, and all-Canadian waters which include the Pacific coast. RSU provides Level 3 images for various products in several formats and a range of temporal and spatial resolutions. Basic statistics for pre-defined areas of interest are compiled for each product. Climatologies and anomaly maps are also routinely produced, and custom products are delivered by request. RSU is involved in the generation of Level 4 products, such as characterizing the phenology of spring and fall phytoplankton blooms, computing primary production, using ocean colour to aid in EBSA (Ecologically and Biologically Significant Area) definition and developing habitat suitability maps. Upcoming operational products include maps of diatom distribution, biogeochemical province boundaries, and products from sensors such as VIIRS (Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite), OLCI (Ocean Land Colour Instrument), and PACE (Pre-Aerosol, Clouds and ocean Ecosystem) hyperspectral microsatellite mission.

  3. North Atlantic Storm Activity During the Younger Dryas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomey, M.

    2015-12-01

    The risks posed to cities along the Eastern Seaboard by a potential intensification of tropical cyclone activity over the coming decades remain poorly constrained, in part, due to a lack of available storm proxy records that extend beyond the relatively stable climates of the late Holocene. Previous work in the Bahamas shows that coarse-grained, high-energy event layers in carbonate bank margin sediments: (1) closely track recent historic hurricane events and (2) that the sensitivity of this proxy may be less affected by the deglacial changes in sea level that have limited our ability to reconstruct past hurricane activity using overwash records from back-barrier beach settings. Here we present a record of storm triggered turbidite deposition from a suite of well dated (e.g. Lynch-Stieglitz et al., 2011, Paleoceanography) jumbo piston cores taken offbank (300-500 mbsl) the Dry Tortugas, Florida, that spans abrupt transitions in North Atlantic sea surface temperature and thermohaline circulation during the Younger Dryas (12.9 - 11.5 kyr BP). This record, along with General Circulation Model output (TraCE: NCAR-CGD), indicates strong hurricane activity may have occurred along Southeastern US coasts through this interval despite considerably colder North Atlantic SSTs.

  4. How the Coast and Geodetic Survey Contributed to Twentieth Century Oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theberge, A. E.

    2002-05-01

    At the turn of the Twentieth Century, the Coast and Geodetic Survey was one of the major physical science agencies in the United States Federal Government. Nautical charting, with the attendant generation of large ocean-depth data holdings, required expertise in navigation techniques, physical oceanography, and geodetic surveying. This expertise was coupled with the development of systems and methods that led to many serendipitous discoveries by the Coast and Geodetic Survey or by its collaboration with other institutions and individuals. Many of these fundamental discoveries were built upon by the American ocean science community in developing modern earth science theories as well as in improving techniques and methods of ocean exploration. This work continues today through many offices in the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration that are direct descendants of the old Coast and Geodetic Survey.

  5. Turtle riders: remoras on marine turtles in Southwest Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Sazima

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available An overview is presented for a poorly documented relationship between reef vertebrates in Southwest Atlantic: remoras (Echeneidae associated with marine turtles. Two remora species (Echeneis naucrates and Remora remora and four turtle species (Caretta caretta, Chelonia mydas, Eretmochelys imbricata, and Dermochelys coriacea are here recorded in symbiotic associations in the SW Atlantic. Echeneis naucrates was recorded both on the coast and on oceanic islands, whereas R. remora was recorded only at oceanic islands and in the open sea. The remora-turtle association is usually regarded as an instance of phoresis (hitchhiking, albeit feeding by the fish is also involved in this symbiosis type. This association seems to be rare in SW Atlantic.Uma visão geé apresentada sobre uma relação pouco documentada entre vertebrados recifais no Atlântico Sul Ocidental: rêmoras (Echeneidae associadas a tartarugas marinhas. Duas espécies de rêmora ou pegador (Echeneis naucrates e Remora remora e quatro de tartarugas (Caretta caretta, Chelonia mydas, Eretmochelys imbricata e Dermochelys coriacea são aqui registradas em associações simbiônticas para o Atlântico Sul Ocidental. Echeneis naucrates foi registrada tanto na costa como em ilhas oceânicas, ao passo que R. remora foi registrada somente em ilhas oceânicas e região pelágica. A associação entre rêmoras e tartarugas é habitualmente considerada como forese, embora forrageamento, por parte das rêmoras, também esteja envolvido neste tipo de simbiose. Esta associação parece ser rara no Atlântico Sul Ocidental.

  6. Ozone in the Atlantic Ocean marine boundary layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Boylan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In situ atmospheric ozone measurements aboard the R/V Ronald H. Brown during the 2008 Gas-Ex and AMMA research cruises were compared with data from four island and coastal Global Atmospheric Watch stations in the Atlantic Ocean to examine ozone transport in the marine boundary layer (MBL. Ozone measurements made at Tudor Hill, Bermuda, were subjected to continental outflow from the east coast of the United States, which resulted in elevated ozone levels above 50 ppbv. Ozone measurements at Cape Verde, Republic of Cape Verde, approached 40 ppbv in springtime and were influenced by outflow from Northern Africa. At Ragged Point, Barbados, ozone levels were ∼ 21 ppbv; back trajectories showed the source region to be the middle of the Atlantic Ocean. Ozone measurements from Ushuaia, Argentina, indicated influence from the nearby city; however, the comparison of the daily maxima ozone mole fractions measured at Ushuaia and aboard the Gas-Ex cruise revealed that these were representative of background ozone in higher latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere. Diurnal ozone cycles in the shipborne data, frequently reaching 6–7 ppbv, were larger than most previous reports from coastal or island monitoring locations and simulations based on HOx photochemistry alone. However, these data show better agreement with recent ozone modeling that included ozone-halogen chemistry. The transport time between station and ship was estimated from HYSPLIT back trajectories, and the change of ozone mole fractions during transport in the MBL was estimated. Three comparisons showed declining ozone levels; in the subtropical and tropical North Atlantic Ocean the loss of ozone was < 1.5 ppbv day−1. Back trajectories at Ushuaia were too inconsistent to allow for this determination. Comparisons between ship and station measurements showed that ozone behavior and large-scale (∼ 1000 km multi-day transport features were well retained during transport in the MBL.

  7. Population Biology and Life History of the North American Menhadens, Brevoortia spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Ahrenholz, Dean W.

    1991-01-01

    Four recognized species of menhaden, Brevoortia spp., occur in North American marine waters: Atlantic menhaden, B. tyrannus; Gulf menhaden, B. patronus; yellowfin menhaden. B. smithi; and finescale menhaden, B. gunteri. Three of the menhaden species are known to form two hybrid types. Members of the genus range from coastal waters of Veracruz, Mex., to Nova Scotia, Can. Atlantic and Gulf menhaden are extremely abundant within their respective ranges and support extensive purse-seine reduction...

  8. American Houses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张梦华

    2004-01-01

    American houses usually have private kitchens,a living room and sometimes separate areas for eating and watching television,A house usually has its own mailbox,a yard with plants or perhaps a lawn,and a place to store garbage out of sight.

  9. American Occupation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Angry Americans across the country are protesting against inequality, greed and corruption The "Occupy Wall Street" protests have grown from an insignificant lower Manhattan gathering of around 1,500 people to tens of thousands of people across the United States, from Anchorage,

  10. A sedimentary-based history of hurricane strikes on the southern Caribbean coast of Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloskey, Terrence Allen; Liu, Kam-biu

    2012-11-01

    Multi-millennial hurricane landfall records from the western North Atlantic indicate that landfall frequency has varied dramatically over time, punctuated by multi-centennial to millennial scale periods of hyperactivity. We extend the record geographically by presenting a paleostrike record inferred from a four-core transect from a marsh on the Caribbean coast of Nicaragua. Fossil pollen indicates that the site was a highly organic wetland from ~ 5400-4900 cal yr BP, at which time it became a shallow marine lagoon until ~ 2800 cal yr BP when it transitioned back into swamp/marsh, freshening over time, with the present fresh-to-brackish Typha marsh developing over the very recent past. Hurricane Joan, 1988, is recorded as a distinctive light-colored sand-silt-clay layer across the top of the transect, identifiable by abrupt shifts in color from the dark marsh deposits, increased grain size, and two upward-fining sequences, which are interpreted as representing the storm's traction and suspension loads. The six layers identified as hurricane-generated display temporal clustering, featuring a marked increase in landfall frequency ~ 800 cal yr BP. This pattern is anti-phase with the activity pattern previously identified from the northern Caribbean and the Atlantic coast of North America, thereby opposing the view that hyperactivity occurs simultaneously across the entire basin.

  11. Oceanic fronts in the Sargasso Sea control the early life and drift of Atlantic eels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Peter; Hansen, Michael Møller; Maas, Gregory E.;

    2010-01-01

    Anguillid freshwater eels show remarkable life histories. In the Atlantic, the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) and American eel (Anguilla rostrata) undertake extensive migrations to spawn in the oceanic Sargasso Sea, and subsequently the offspring drift to foraging areas in Europe and North...... to the eastward flowing Subtropical Counter Current indicates that these larvae could follow a shorter, eastward route towards the Azores and Europe. The findings emphasize the significance of oceanic physical–biological linkages in the life-cycle completion of Atlantic eels....... America, first as leaf-like leptocephali larvae that later metamorphose into glass eels. Since recruitment of European and American glass eels has declined drastically during past decades, there is a strong demand for further understanding of the early, oceanic phase of their life cycle. Consequently...

  12. BrO measurements over the Eastern North-Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Platt

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work presented here was to detect BrO in the marine boundary layer over the Eastern North-Atlantic by Multi AXis-Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS of scattered sunlight. With this technique, information about the concentration and the vertical profile of trace gases in the atmosphere can be gained. BrO can be formed in the marine atmosphere by degradation of biogenic organohalogens or by oxidation of bromide in sea salt aerosol. BrO influences the chemistry in marine air in many ways, e.g. since it catalytically destroys ozone, changes the NO2/NO-ratio as well as the OH/HO2-ratio and oxidises DMS. However, the abundance and the significance of BrO in the marine atmosphere is not yet fully understood.

    We report on data collected during a ship cruise, which took place along the West African Coast in February 2007, within the framework of the Surface Ocean PRocesses in the ANthropocene project (SOPRAN. Tropospheric BrO could be detected during this cruise at peak mixing ratios of (10.2±3.7 ppt at an assumed layer height of 1 km on 18 February 2007. Furthermore, it was found that the mean BrO concentrations increased when cruising close to the African Coast suggesting that at least part of the BrO might have originated from there.

  13. Morphological variation in the atlantic genus Siderastrea (Anthozoa, Scleractinia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Menezes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Siderastrea is a small genus of scleractinian corals, composed by zooxanthellate massive colonial forms. Besides contributing to the consolidation of the reef structure, represent a group with significant resistance to environmental stress. Until the 70's, its taxonomy was a complicated task, limited by the difficulty in identifying morphotypes. More recently, interspecific boundaries were redefined for 'Atlantic Siderastrea Complex'. However, despite new perspectives, including the occurrence of S. radians and S. siderea for Brazil, morphological patterns are still poorly studied and inconspicuous for several coastal areas. In order to characterize levels of intraspecific and interspecific morphological variation in S. stellata and S. radians, morphometric analysis were carried out in colonies from Bahia State coast. Samples were taken in Todos-os-Santos Bay and North Coast. We applied the Canonical Discriminate Analysis upon six corallite characters to evaluate the different levels of variation. The tests revealed that diameter of corallites, columella depth and number of septa varied among populations. Number of septa was the most important character for the species differentiation. Siderastrea stellata, with three different morphological patterns, was more variable than S. radians.

  14. North East Atlantic Tsunamis Related with Gloria Fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, M.; Miranda, J. M.; Batllo, J.; Macia, R.

    2011-12-01

    Gloria fault is one segment of the Eurasia-Nubia plate boundary. It is a large strike slip fault, located between 24W and 19W, with scarce seismic activity but which was the location of several large events during the XX Century, in particular the 25 November 1941 earthquake, a submarine strike-slip event of magnitude 8.3-8.4 and the 26 May 1975 with magnitude 7.9. Since the installation of the tide-gauge networks in several countries of the North East Atlantic area a significant amount of mareograms were obtained, concerning these events, in a number of coastal stations located along the European coasts. The most impacted areas were the north coast of Portugal where the sea overtopped some beaches, in November 1941, and the harbors of Azores, in 1975, where it was observed the fast withdraw of the sea followed by a strong influx over the highest water mark. We present here a systematic view of the tsunami potential of the Gloria Fault and using results of hydrodynamic simulations we compare model results against observations and tide records and we discuss the corresponding implications in the design of the NEAMTWS decision matrix. To properly constrain the source characteristics of the tsunamigenic earthquakes, relocation and scalar moment calculation of the 1941 earthquake from digitized seismograms have been performed. This work is a funded by project s TAGUSDELTA. Ref. PTDC/MAR/113888/2009 and PTDC/CTE-GIX/110205/2009

  15. Cancer and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Black/African American > Cancer Cancer and African Americans African Americans have the highest mortality rate ... 65MB] At a glance – Top Cancer Sites for African Americans (2008-2012) Cancer Incidence Rates per 100, ...

  16. American Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Info » Voice, Speech, and Language American Sign Language On this page: What is American Sign Language? ... signs "I love you." What is American Sign Language? American Sign Language (ASL) is a complete, complex ...

  17. 46 CFR 31.40-45 - American Bureau of Shipping-T/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false American Bureau of Shipping-T/ALL. 31.40-45 Section 31.40-45 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION... Shipping—T/ALL. (a) The American Bureau of Shipping, with its home office at ABS Plaza, 16855...

  18. Coastal Topography--Northeast Atlantic Coast, Post-Hurricane Sandy, 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Derived products of a portion of the New York, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina coastlines, post-Hurricane Sandy (Sandy was an October 2012...

  19. Migration of the Skylark Alauda arvensis Along the Southern French Atlantic Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Mourguiart

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Mist-nettings of Eurasian skylarks (Alauda arvensis were conducted throughout the day near the coastline in south-western France during the fall migratory period. The main objective of this work was to document some aspects of body condition (mass and fat stores in skylarks. Between 1997 and 2004, a total of 8903 birds were captured in October-November. The median capture dates of fall migrations for females and males were October 24 and October 26, respectively. About 58.4% and 34.0% of birds were females and males respectively, the remaining 7.6% corresponding to unsexed birds. Skylarks arrived to our study site with low fat stores, 42% of the individuals showing no visible fat deposits. Rates of mass changes were found to be positively related to the time of day: individuals captured during the night before 07:00 were 3-4% heavier than individuals captured during daylight between 07:00 and 20:00. On the daytime, the average rate of body mass gain was about 5% for both sexes, suggesting that migratory birds were not only able to gain energy for their regular metabolism, but they were also able to store fat for migration. According to allometric equations to estimate the energetic cost of flight, flight ranges for the majority of birds were estimated to be less than 180 - 240 km for females and lower than 160 - 220 for males. As migratory stopover sites are used for refuelling by many migrant land birds, our data suggest that most of the skylarks might exhibit a « feed-by-day, fly-by night » strategy in our region, highlighting the need for preserving stopover sites, such as those encountered in south-western France, for successful migration. Considering that many migrant birds such as skylarks feed heavily on seeds, changes in agricultural practices might affect survival capabilities of skylarks during their fall migration and in winter.

  20. SC2000 - Vectorized Shoreline of South Carolina Atlantic Coast Derived from 2000 LIDAR Source Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — There are critical needs for a nationwide compilation of reliable shoreline data. To meet these needs, the USGS has produced a comprehensive database of digital...

  1. ATL_EXT: usSEABED EXTracted data for the entire U.S. Atlantic Coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data layer is a point coverage of known sediment samplings, inspections and probings from the usSEABED data collection and integrated using the software system...

  2. Control of sediment deposition rates in two mid-Atlantic Coast tidal freshwater wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darke, A. K.; Megonigal, J. P.

    2003-05-01

    Eustatic sea level rise and rapidly increasing coastal development threaten tidal freshwater wetlands. Sediment deposition is one process that affects their ability to maintain surface elevations relative to adjacent rivers. Sediment dynamics in salt marshes have been studied extensively, but little is known about the factors that control sediment deposition rates in tidal freshwater wetlands. We examined geomorphic, hydrological, and biotic factors that may influence sedimentation in two tidal freshwater wetlands that fell at opposite ends of the riverine-estuarine continuum. Our data demonstrate that sediment dynamics are highly variable among tidal freshwater wetlands, and are influenced by the location of the wetland on the continuum. Sediment deposition was up to 10 times higher during the growing season at the downstream site than the upstream site. Plant density and height were highly correlated with sediment deposition rates at the downstream site ( r≥0.92, p≤0.009) but not at the upstream site. Elevation, flood depth, and flood duration were correlated with deposition rates only when each site/season combination was considered separately. River suspended sediment and surficial floodwater suspended sediment concentrations were significantly higher at the downstream site ( p=0.02 and p=0.04, respectively). These data suggest that vegetation is important in determining sediment deposition rates when river suspended sediment is not limiting, which is not always the case. Longer flood duration increased sediment deposition, but was of secondary importance. Land use and proximity to the turbidity maximum (near the forward extent of the salt water intrusion) appear to be critically important in determining river suspended sediment availability in the tidal freshwater zone of the Mattaponi River, VA.

  3. FL1999 - Vectorized Shoreline of Florida Atlantic Coast Derived from 1999 LIDAR Source Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — There are critical needs for a nationwide compilation of reliable shoreline data. To meet these needs, the USGS has produced a comprehensive database of digital...

  4. NC1997 - Vectorized Shoreline of North Carolina Atlantic Coast Derived from 1997 LIDAR Source Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — There are critical needs for a nationwide compilation of reliable shoreline data. To meet these needs, the USGS has produced a comprehensive database of digital...

  5. GA1999 - Vectorized Shoreline of Georgia Atlantic Coast Derived from 1999 LIDAR Source Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — There are critical needs for a nationwide compilation of reliable shoreline data. To meet these needs, the USGS has produced a comprehensive database of digital...

  6. ATL_FAC: usSEABED facies data for the entire U.S. Atlantic Coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The facies data layer (_FAC.txt) is a point coverage of known sediment samplings, inspections, and probings from the usSEABED data collection and integrated using...

  7. NC_NOURISH - Spatial Extents of Beach Nourishment Along the North Carolina Atlantic Coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Attempts to stabilize the shore can greatly influence rates of shoreline change. Beach nourishment in particular will bias rates of observed shoreline change toward...

  8. Coastal Topography--Northeast Atlantic Coast, Post-Hurricane Sandy, 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Dune features (dune crest and toe elevations) and mean-high-water shoreline data for a portion of the New York, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina...

  9. Coastal Topography--Northeast Atlantic Coast, Post-Hurricane Sandy, 2012: Mean-high-water shoreline

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Mean-high-water (MHW) shoreline for a portion of the New York, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina coastlines were derived from lidar data collected...

  10. Coastal Topography--Northeast Atlantic Coast, Post-Hurricane Sandy, 2012: Lidar-extracted dune features

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Dune crest and toe positions along a portion of the New York, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina coastlines, post-Hurricane Sandy (Sandy was an...

  11. FL_NOURISH - Spatial Extents of Beach Nourishment Along the Florida Atlantic Coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Attempts to stabilize the shore can greatly influence rates of shoreline change. Beach nourishment in particular will bias rates of observed shoreline change toward...

  12. Macroalgal Endophytes from the Atlantic Coast of Canada: A Potential Source of Antibiotic Natural Products?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Flewelling

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available As the need for new and more effective antibiotics increases, untapped sources of biodiversity are being explored in an effort to provide lead structures for drug discovery. Endophytic fungi from marine macroalgae have been identified as a potential source of biologically active natural products, although data to support this is limited. To assess the antibiotic potential of temperate macroalgal endophytes we isolated endophytic fungi from algae collected in the Bay of Fundy, Canada and screened fungal extracts for the presence of antimicrobial compounds. A total of 79 endophytes were isolated from 7 species of red, 4 species of brown, and 3 species of green algae. Twenty of the endophytes were identified to the genus or species level, with the remaining isolates designated codes according to their morphology. Bioactivity screening assays performed on extracts of the fermentation broths and mycelia of the isolates revealed that 43 endophytes exhibited antibacterial activity, with 32 displaying antifungal activity. Endophytic fungi from Bay of Fundy macroalgae therefore represent a significant source of antibiotic natural products and warrant further detailed investigation.

  13. 76 FR 27288 - Port Access Route Study: The Atlantic Coast From Maine to Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ... records notice regarding our public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR...'' column. If you do not have access to the Internet, you may view the docket online by visiting the Docket.... Deep-water route means a route within defined limits, which has been accurately surveyed for...

  14. FL_BASELINE - Offshore Baseline for Florida Atlantic Coast Generated to Calculate Shoreline Change Rates

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Rates of long-term and short-term shoreline change were generated in a GIS with the Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) version 2.0, an ArcView extension...

  15. NC_BASELINE - Offshore Baseline for North Carolina Atlantic Coast Generated to Calculate Shoreline Change Rates

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Rates of long-term and short-term shoreline change were generated in a GIS with the Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) version 2.0, an ArcView extension...

  16. GA_BASELINE - Offshore Baseline for Georgia Atlantic Coast Generated to Calculate Shoreline Change Rates

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Rates of long-term and short-term shoreline change were generated in a GIS with the Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) version 2.0, an ArcView extension...

  17. SC_BASELINE - Offshore Baseline for South Carolina Atlantic Coast Generated to Calculate Shoreline Change Rates

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Rates of long-term and short-term shoreline change were generated in a GIS with the Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) version 2.0, an ArcView extension...

  18. Characterising and modelling groundwater discharge in anagricultural wetland on the French Atlantic coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph. Weng

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Interaction between a wetland and its surrounding aquifer was studied in the Rochefort agricultural marsh (150 km2. Groundwater discharge in the marsh was measured with a network of nested piezometers. Hydrological modelling of the wetland showed that a water volume of 770,000 m3 yr–1 is discharging into the marsh, but that this water flux essentially takes place along the lateral borders of the wetland. However, this natural discharge volume represents only 20% of the artificial freshwater injected each year into the wetland to maintain the water level close to the soil surface. Understanding and quantifying the groundwater component in wetland hydrology is crucial for wetland management and conservation. Keywords: wetland, hydrology, groundwater, modelling, marsh

  19. Natural attenuation and bioremediation of Prestige fuel oil along the Atlantic coast of Galicia (Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Torres Pérez-Hidalgo, Trinidad José de

    2006-01-01

    Heavy fuel oil spilled from the oil tanker Prestige in November 2002 affected hundreds of km of Spanish shoreline. We carried out a two year study at two highly contaminated sites in order to monitor natural attenuation of the residues coating shore rocks and to test the effectiveness of bioremediation with an oleophilic fertilizer (S200). The methodology included an innovative approach for oil load calculation (based on image analysis techniques), the analysis of the fate of hydr...

  20. Two new species of Chaco Tullgren from the Atlantic coast of Uruguay (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Nemesiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Montes de Oca

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe two new species of the nemesiid spider genus Chaco from Rocha Province, Uruguay. These new species are diagnosed based on genital morphology, male tibial apophysis spination, and burrow entrance. We test cospecificity of one species, C. costai, via laboratory mating experiments. The new species are diagnosed and illustrated and habitat characteristics, and capture behavior are described. We conduct a cladistic analysis based on a previously published morphological character matrix that now includes the newly described species.

  1. [Surnames and isonymy in the Garifuna communities of the Atlantic Coast of Honduras].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Paz, Edwin Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: la estimación de la isonimia es una herramienta importante en la determinación de la estructura genética de las comunidades puesto que su magnitud es aproximadamente igual a cuatro veces el coeficiente de endogamia FST. Métodos: se analizaron los apellidos registrados en la base de datos de 26 comunidades del Tribunal Supremo Electoral de Honduras. Se calculó la isonimia aleatoria dentro de cada comunidad y en el total, así como diversos parámetros comunes asociados. Se determinaron las distancias genéticas de Lasker a partir de la isonimia calculada entre pares de comunidades. Resultados: se encontraron valores relativamente altos de isonimia aleatoria en comparación con otras comunidades rurales. Adicionalmente, se observaron distancias genéticas relativamente cortas y se encontró una correlación positiva con las distancias geográficas. Conclusiones: los resultados son congruentes con el aislamiento histórico de las comunidades y reciente tendencia a la homogenización por las altas tasas de migración masculina intercomunitaria. Las características de la población garífuna la hacen propicia para la realización de estudios destinados a la búsqueda de genes de susceptibilidad relacionados con enfermedades de herencia compleja.

  2. National Assessment of Hurricane-Induced Coastal Erosion Hazards: Northeast Atlantic Coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data sets contain information on the probabilities of hurricane-induced erosion (collision, inundation and overwash) for each 1-km section of the Northeast...

  3. Coastal Topography--Northeast Atlantic Coast, Post-Hurricane Sandy, 2012: Digital elevation model (DEM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A DEM was produced for a portion of the New York, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina coastlines, post-Hurricane Sandy (Sandy was an October 2012...

  4. Climate change impact on seaweed meadow distribution in the North Atlantic rocky intertidal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jueterbock, Alexander; Tyberghein, Lennert; Verbruggen, Heroen; Coyer, James A; Olsen, Jeanine L; Hoarau, Galice

    2013-05-01

    The North-Atlantic has warmed faster than all other ocean basins and climate change scenarios predict sea surface temperature isotherms to shift up to 600 km northwards by the end of the 21st century. The pole-ward shift has already begun for many temperate seaweed species that are important intertidal foundation species. We asked the question: Where will climate change have the greatest impact on three foundational, macroalgal species that occur along North-Atlantic shores: Fucus serratus, Fucus vesiculosus, and Ascophyllum nodosum? To predict distributional changes of these key species under three IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) climate change scenarios (A2, A1B, and B1) over the coming two centuries, we generated Ecological Niche Models with the program MAXENT. Model predictions suggest that these three species will shift northwards as an assemblage or "unit" and that phytogeographic changes will be most pronounced in the southern Arctic and the southern temperate provinces. Our models predict that Arctic shores in Canada, Greenland, and Spitsbergen will become suitable for all three species by 2100. Shores south of 45° North will become unsuitable for at least two of the three focal species on both the Northwest- and Northeast-Atlantic coasts by 2200. If these foundational species are unable to adapt to the rising temperatures, they will lose their centers of genetic diversity and their loss will trigger an unpredictable shift in the North-Atlantic intertidal ecosystem. PMID:23762521

  5. The impossible partnership - premises and reasons of the failure of the Atlantic declaration

    OpenAIRE

    Paulina Matera

    2012-01-01

    During the Cold War, the most important attempt to carry the concept of transatlantic unity into effect was proposal of the Atlantic Declaration in 1973. The objective of this article is to present the origins and the breakdown of this plan. As the most serious transatlantic divergences concerned the economy, it can be stated that the idea aimed at regulation of trade and monetary issues according to American interest. The Europeans were reluctant to sign the document, which joined economic m...

  6. Alternate sites for a connecting passage between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans

    OpenAIRE

    Pena, Samuel Jose

    1990-01-01

    CIVINS Approved for public release ; distribution is unlimited This thesis is a geotechnical engineering report which includes a topographical profile at three propitious locations across the American continent for the construction of an interoceanic passage between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. Surficial soils as well as the general topography of the centerline of the alignments were investigated to the extent possible and an attempt was made to investigate underlying strata. Some i...

  7. Hybridising Medicine: Illness, Healing and the Dynamics of Reciprocal Exchange on the Upper Guinea Coast (West Africa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havik, Philip J

    2016-04-01

    The present article seeks to fill a number of lacunae with regard to the study of the circulation and assimilation of different bodies of medical knowledge in an important cultural contact zone, that is the Upper Guinea Coast. Building upon ongoing research on trade and cultural brokerage in the area, it focuses upon shifting attitudes and practices with regard to health and healing as a result of cultural interaction and hybridisation against the background of growing intra-African and Afro-Atlantic interaction from the fifteenth to the late seventeenth century. Largely based upon travel accounts, missionary reports and documents produced by the Portuguese Inquisition, it shows how forms of medical knowledge shifted and circulated between littoral areas and their hinterland, as well as between the coast, the Atlantic and beyond. It shows that the changing patterns of trade, migration and settlement associated with Mandé influence and Afro-Atlantic exchange had a decisive impact on changing notions of illness and therapeutic trajectories. Over the centuries, cross-cultural, reciprocal borrowing contributed to the development of healing kits employed by Africans and non-African outsiders alike, which were used and brokered by local communities in different locations in the region. PMID:26971596

  8. Hybridising Medicine: Illness, Healing and the Dynamics of Reciprocal Exchange on the Upper Guinea Coast (West Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havik, Philip J.

    2016-01-01

    The present article seeks to fill a number of lacunae with regard to the study of the circulation and assimilation of different bodies of medical knowledge in an important cultural contact zone, that is the Upper Guinea Coast. Building upon ongoing research on trade and cultural brokerage in the area, it focuses upon shifting attitudes and practices with regard to health and healing as a result of cultural interaction and hybridisation against the background of growing intra-African and Afro-Atlantic interaction from the fifteenth to the late seventeenth century. Largely based upon travel accounts, missionary reports and documents produced by the Portuguese Inquisition, it shows how forms of medical knowledge shifted and circulated between littoral areas and their hinterland, as well as between the coast, the Atlantic and beyond. It shows that the changing patterns of trade, migration and settlement associated with Mandé influence and Afro-Atlantic exchange had a decisive impact on changing notions of illness and therapeutic trajectories. Over the centuries, cross-cultural, reciprocal borrowing contributed to the development of healing kits employed by Africans and non-African outsiders alike, which were used and brokered by local communities in different locations in the region. PMID:26971596

  9. 75 FR 53667 - Space Coast Regional Innovation Cluster Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ... Economic Development Administration Space Coast Regional Innovation Cluster Competition AGENCY: Economic...: This notice announces the upcoming availability of funding for the Space Coast Regional Innovation.... Additional information can be found at the Space Coast RIC Web site at...

  10. The Effect of Dust Storm on Deep Convection over the Tropical North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, S.; Dessler, A. E.

    2004-12-01

    The effect of the Saharan mineral dust on deep convection over the tropical North Atlantic were investigated by anlayzing Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) level-2 retrievals. Brightness temperature at 11 μ m were used to indicate the occurrence of deep convection and the tropospheric aerosol loading was represented by the aerosol optical thickness (AOT) at 0.55 μ m. Probability distribution functions (PDFs) of the brightness temperature were constructed for a region offshore the African west coast for August-September 2002, when dust was frequently blown off the Saharan desert and transported across the North Atlantic. For conditions of high aerosol loading (AOT > 0.8), the frequency of brightness temperatures less than 230 K was reduced by a factor of 5-6 from the value associated with conditions of low aerosol loading (AOT < 0.5). The atmospheric effect of the aerosols lasts at least one day after the passage of the aerosols.

  11. Environmental radioactivity in the North Atlantic region. The Faroe Islands and Greenland included. 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of fallout radioactivity in the North Atlantic region including the Faroe Islands and Greenland are reported. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 was determined in samples of precipitation, sea water, vegetation, various foodstuffs (including milk in the Faroes) and drinking water. Estimates are given of the mean contents of 90Sr and 137Cs in human diet in the Faroes and Greenland in 1984. Results from samplings of surface sea water and seaweed in the Norwegian and Greenland Seas and along the Norwegian and Greenland west coasts are reported. Beside radiocesium and 90Sr some of these samples have also been anlysed for tritium, polonium, plutonium and americium. Finally technetium-99 data on seaweed samples collected in the North Atlantic region since the beginning of the sixties are presented. (author)

  12. Environmental radioactivity in the North Atlantic region. The Faroe Islands and Greenland included. 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of fallout radioactivity in the North Atlantic region including the Faroe Islands and Greenland are reported. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 was determined in samples of precipitation, sea water vegetation, various foodstuffs (including milk in the Faroes) and drinking water. Estimates are given of the mean contents of 90Sr a 137Cs in human diet in the Faroes and Greenland in 1985. Results from samplings of surface sea water and seaweed in the English Channel, the Fram Strait and along the Norwegian and Greenland coast are reported. Beside radiocesium and 90Sr some of these samples have also been analysed for tritium, plutonium and americium. Finally technetium-99 data on seaweed and sea water samples collected in the North Atlantic region are presented. 14 refs. (author)

  13. Environmental radioactivity in the North Atlantic region. The Faroe Islands and Greenland included. 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of fallout radioactivity in the North Atlantic region including the Faroe Islands and Greenland are reported. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 was determined in samples of precipitation, sea water, vegetation, various foodstuffs (including milk in the Faroes) and drinking water. Estimates are given of the mean contents of 90Sr and 137Cs in human diet in the Faroes and Greenland in 1983. Results from samplings of surface sea water and seaweed in the Norwegian and Greenland Seas and along the Norwegian and Greenland west coasts are reported. Beside radiocesium and 90Sr some of these samples have also been anlysed for tritium,plutonium and americium. Finally technetium-99 data on seaweed samples collected in the North Atlantic region since the beginning of the sixties are presented. (author)

  14. Saharan dust, lightning and tropical cyclones in the eastern tropical Atlantic during NAMMA-06

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Gregory S.; Pratt, Aaron

    2008-06-01

    During the summer of 2006, the downstream component of African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses Campaign (NASA-AMMA (NAMMA)) examined African Easterly Waves (AEWs) emerging from the coast of Africa. Six of these disturbances went on to become named systems in the Tropical Atlantic. Two of the six systems (Tropical storm Debby and Hurricane Helene) developed in the extreme eastern Atlantic and were associated with dust outbreaks, elevated ice contents and frequent lightning. Here we show that in the early tropical cyclo-genesis stages of these systems there were thousands of cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning flashes as measured by a ground-lightning network. TRMM overpasses show high precipitation ice content above the freezing level and high latent heat release. Super-cooled water can be inferred in the lower parts of cloud systems in concert with observed high ice concentrations at high altitudes creating charge separation based on the large numbers of CG flashes.

  15. Bleaching of melanin in the epidermis of South American fur seal and its application on enzyme immunohistochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Silva

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The South American fur seal (Arctocephalus australis is an amphibious marine mammal distributed along the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of South America. The species is well adjusted to different habitats due to the morphology of its fin-like members and due to some adaptations in their integumentary system. Immunohistochemical studies are very important to evaluate the mechanisms of skin adaptation due the differential expression of the antigens present in the tissue depending of the region of the body surface. However, its strongly pigmented (melanin epidermis prevents the visualization of the immuno-histochemical chromogens markers. In this study a melanin bleaching method was developed aimed to allow the visualization of the chromogens without interfering in the antigen-antibody affinity for immunohistochemistry. The analysis of PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen index in the epidermis of A. australis by immunohistochemistry with diaminobenzidine (DAB as chromogen was used to test the method. The bleaching of the melanin allowed to obtain the cell proliferation index in epidermis and to avoid false positive results without affecting the immunohistochemical results.

  16. Water type quantification in the Skagerrak, the Kattegat and off the Jutland west coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trond Kristiansen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available An extensive data series of salinity, nutrients and coloured dissolved organic material (CDOM was collected in the Skagerrak, the northern part of the Kattegat and off the Jutland west coast in April each year during the period 1996–2000, by the Institute of Marine Research in Norway. In this month, after the spring bloom, German Bight Water differs from its surrounding waters by a higher nitrate content and higher nitrate/phosphate and nitrate/silicate ratios. The spreading of this water type into the Skagerrak is of special interest with regard to toxic algal blooms. The quantification of the spatial distributions of the different water types required the development of a new algorithm for the area containing the Norwegian Coastal Current, while an earlier Danish algorithm was applied for the rest of the area. From the upper 50 m a total of 2227 observations of salinity and CDOM content have been used to calculate the mean concentration of water from the German Bight, the North Sea (Atlantic water, the Baltic Sea and Norwegian rivers. The Atlantic Water was the dominant water type, with a mean concentration of 79%, German Bight Water constituted 11%, Baltic Water 8%, and Norwegian River Water 2%. At the surface the mean percentages of these water types were found to be 68%, 15%, 15%, and 3%, respectively. Within the northern part of the Skagerrak, closer to the Norwegian coast, the surface waters were estimated to consist of 74% Atlantic Water, 20% Baltic Water, and 7% Norwegian River Water. The analysis indicates that the content of German Bight Water in this part is less than 5%.

  17. Genetic structure of capelin (Mallotus villosus in the northwest Atlantic Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen L Kenchington

    Full Text Available Capelin (Mallotus villosus is a commercially exploited, key forage-fish species found in the boreal waters of the North Pacific and North Atlantic Oceans. We examined the population structure of capelin throughout their range in the Canadian northwest Atlantic Ocean using genetic-based methods. Capelin collected at ten beach and five demersal spawning locations over the period 2002 through 2008 (N = 3,433 fish were genotyped using six polymorphic microsatellite loci. Temporally distinct samples were identified at three beach spawning locations: Chance Cove, Little Lawn and Straitsview, Newfoundland. Four capelin stocks are assumed for fisheries management in the northwest Atlantic Ocean based on meristics, morphometrics, tag returns, and seasonal distribution patterns. Our results suggested groupings that were somewhat different than the assumed structure, and indicate at least seven genetically defined populations arising from two ancestral populations. The spatial mosaic of capelin from each of the two basal cluster groups explains much of the observed geographic variability amongst neighbouring samples. The genetic-defined populations were resolved at Jost's Dest ≥ 0.01 and were composed of fish collected 1 in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, 2 along the south and east coasts of Newfoundland, 3 along coastal northern Newfoundland and southern Labrador, 4 along coastal northern Labrador, 5 near the Saguenay River, and at two nearshore demersal spawning sites, 6 one at Grebes Nest off Bellevue Beach on the east coast of Newfoundland, and 7 one off the coast of Labrador at Domino Run. Moreover, the offshore demersal spawners on the Scotian Shelf and Southeast Shoal appeared to be related to the inshore demersal spawners at Grebes Nest and in Domino Run and to beach spawners from the Gulf of St. Lawrence.

  18. The Relationships of Racial Identity and Gender Role Conflict to Self-Esteem of Asian American Undergraduate Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Yen Ling; McEwen, Marylu K.

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted using a sample of Asian American male college students (N = 173) from one east coast public, research institution and one west coast public, research institution to explore the relationships of racial identity and gender role conflict with self-esteem. The study employed the People of Color Racial Identity Attitudes Scale,…

  19. Stable Isotopes Indicate Population Structuring in the Southwest Atlantic Population of Right Whales (Eubalaena australis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vighi, Morgana; Borrell, Asunción; Crespo, Enrique A.; Oliveira, Larissa R.; Simões-Lopes, Paulo C.; Flores, Paulo A. C.; García, Néstor A.; Aguilar, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    From the early 17th century to the 1970s southern right whales, Eubalaena australis, were subject to intense exploitation along the Atlantic coast of South America. Catches along this coast recorded by whalers originally formed a continuum from Brazil to Tierra del Fuego. Nevertheless, the recovery of the population has apparently occurred fragmentarily, and with two main areas of concentration, one off southern Brazil (Santa Catarina) and another off central Argentina (Peninsula Valdés). This pattern suggests some level of heterogeneity amongst the population, which is apparently contradicted by records that traced individuals moving throughout the whole geographical extension covered by the species in the Southwest Atlantic. To test the hypothesis of the potential occurrence of discrete subpopulations exploiting specific habitats, we investigated N, C and O isotopic values in 125 bone samples obtained from whaling factories operating in the early 1970s in southern Brazil (n = 72) and from contemporary and more recent strandings occurring in central Argentina (n = 53). Results indicated significant differences between the two sampling areas, being δ13C and δ18O values significantly higher in samples from southern Brazil than in those from central Argentina. This variation was consistent with isotopic baselines from the two areas, indicating the occurrence of some level of structure in the Southwest Atlantic right whale population and equally that whales more likely feed in areas commonly thought to exclusively serve as nursing grounds. Results aim at reconsidering of the units currently used in the management of the southern right whale in the Southwest Atlantic Ocean. In the context of the current die-off affecting the species in Peninsula Valdés, these results also highlight the necessity to better understand movements of individuals and precisely identify their feeding areas. PMID:24598539

  20. Stable isotopes indicate population structuring in the southwest Atlantic population of right whales (Eubalaena australis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgana Vighi

    Full Text Available From the early 17th century to the 1970s southern right whales, Eubalaena australis, were subject to intense exploitation along the Atlantic coast of South America. Catches along this coast recorded by whalers originally formed a continuum from Brazil to Tierra del Fuego. Nevertheless, the recovery of the population has apparently occurred fragmentarily, and with two main areas of concentration, one off southern Brazil (Santa Catarina and another off central Argentina (Peninsula Valdés. This pattern suggests some level of heterogeneity amongst the population, which is apparently contradicted by records that traced individuals moving throughout the whole geographical extension covered by the species in the Southwest Atlantic. To test the hypothesis of the potential occurrence of discrete subpopulations exploiting specific habitats, we investigated N, C and O isotopic values in 125 bone samples obtained from whaling factories operating in the early 1970s in southern Brazil (n=72 and from contemporary and more recent strandings occurring in central Argentina (n=53. Results indicated significant differences between the two sampling areas, being δ13C and δ18O values significantly higher in samples from southern Brazil than in those from central Argentina. This variation was consistent with isotopic baselines from the two areas, indicating the occurrence of some level of structure in the Southwest Atlantic right whale population and equally that whales more likely feed in areas commonly thought to exclusively serve as nursing grounds. Results aim at reconsidering of the units currently used in the management of the southern right whale in the Southwest Atlantic Ocean. In the context of the current die-off affecting the species in Peninsula Valdés, these results also highlight the necessity to better understand movements of individuals and precisely identify their feeding areas.

  1. Muddy Coast Dynamics and Resource Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjerfve, Björn

    Muddy coasts are land-sea transitional environments common along low-energy shorelines around the world. They exist in climatic settings and tidal regimes ranging from microtidal to macro-tidal. Climatic warming and relative sea level rise are likely to have a greater impact on low-lying muddy coasts and deltas than most other coastal environments. This was the working hypothesis of the Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR) Working Group 106, “Relative Sea Level and Muddy Coasts of the World,” which concluded its deliberations in the late 1990s.

  2. CARINA oxygen data in the Atlantic Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Stendardo, I.; Gruber, N.; A. Körtzinger

    2009-01-01

    In the CARINA (Carbon dioxide in the Atlantic Ocean) project, a new dataset with many previously unpublished hydrographic data from the Atlantic, Arctic and Southern Ocean was assembled and subjected to careful quality control (QC) procedures. Here, we present the dissolved oxygen measurements in the Atlantic region of the dataset and describe in detail the secondary QC procedures that aim to ensure that the data are internally consistent. This is achieved by a cross-over analysis, i.e. the c...

  3. Population Genetic Structure of the Bonnethead Shark, Sphyrna tiburo, from the Western North Atlantic Ocean Based on mtDNA Sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escatel-Luna, Elena; Adams, Douglas H; Uribe-Alcocer, Manuel; Islas-Villanueva, Valentina; Díaz-Jaimes, Píndaro

    2015-01-01

    The population genetic structure of 251 bonnethead sharks, Sphyrna tiburo, from estuarine and nearshore ocean waters of the Western North Atlantic Ocean (WNA), was assessed using sequences of the mitochondrial DNA-control region. Highly significant genetic differences were observed among bonnetheads from 3 WNA regions; Atlantic coast of Florida, Gulf coast of Florida, and southwestern Gulf of Mexico (analysis of molecular variance, ΦCT = 0.137; P=0.001). Within the Gulf coast of Florida region, small but significant genetic differences were observed between bonnetheads from neighboring estuaries. These overall patterns were consistent with known latitudinal and inshore-offshore movements that occur seasonally for this species within US waters, and with the residency patterns and high site fidelity to feeding/nursery grounds reported in estuaries along the Atlantic coast of Florida and South Carolina. Historical demography also supported the occurrence of past population expansions occurring during Pleistocene glacial-interglacial cycles that caused drastic reductions in bonnethead population size, as a consequence of the eustatic processes that affected the Florida peninsula. This is the first population genetics study for bonnetheads to report genetic divergence among core abundance areas in US and Mexican waters of the WNA. These results, coupled with recent advances in knowledge regarding regional differences in life-history parameters of this species, are critical for defining management units to guide future management strategies for bonnetheads within US waters and across international boundaries into Mexico. PMID:26058883

  4. Tsunami hazard assessment along the U. S. East Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajalli Bakhsh, T.; Grilli, S. T.; Harris, J. C.; Kirby, J. T.; Shi, F.; Tehranirad, B.

    2012-12-01

    In 2005, the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP) was tasked by Congress to develop tsunami inundation maps for the entire US coastline. This work provides an overview of the modeling work related to the development inundation maps along the US east coast. In this region the paucity of historical tsunami records and lack of paleotsunami observations yields a large uncertainty on the source and magnitude of potential extreme tsunami events, and their related coastal hazard. In the Atlantic Ocean basin significant tsunami hazard may result from far-field earthquakes, such as a repeat of the M8.9 Lisbon 1755 event in the Azores convergence zone, or a hypothetical extreme M9 earthquake in the Puerto Rico Trench (PRT). Additionally, it is believed that a repeat of one of the large historical collapses, identified at the toe of the Cumbre Vieja volcano on La Palma (Canary Islands; i.e., with a maximum volume of 450 km3), could pose a major tsunami hazard to the entire US east coast. Finally, in the near-field, large submarine mass failure (SMF) scars have been mapped by USGS, particularly North of the Carolinas (e.g., Currituck), which are believed to have caused past tsunamis. Large SMFs can be triggered by moderate seismicity (M7 or so), such as can occur on the east coast. In fact, one of the few historical tsunamis that significantly affected this region was caused by the 1929 Grand Bank underwater slide, which was triggered by a M7.2 earthquake. In this work we identify and parameterize all potential tsunami sources affecting the US east coast, and perform simulations of tsunami generation, propagation, and coastal impact in a series of increasingly resolved nested grids. Following this methodology, tsunami inundation maps are currently being developed for a few of the most affected areas. In simulations, we use a robust and well-validated Fully Nonlinear Boussinesq long-wave model (FUNWAVE-TVD), on Cartesian or spherical grids. Coseismic tsunami

  5. 77 FR 69596 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Advisory Panel for Atlantic Highly Migratory Species Southeast...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-20

    ... but not limited to data and models, used in stock assessments for oceanic sharks in the Atlantic Ocean... assessments for oceanic sharks in the Atlantic Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean Sea. While the SEDAR Pool was created specifically for Atlantic oceanic sharks, it may be expanded to include other HMS,...

  6. 76 FR 65700 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Advisory Panel for Atlantic Highly Migratory Species Southeast...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ..., used in stock assessments for oceanic sharks in the Atlantic Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean Sea... sharks in the Atlantic Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean Sea. While the SEDAR Pool was created specifically for Atlantic oceanic sharks, it may be expanded to include other HMS, as needed. The...

  7. 75 FR 57698 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Billfish Management, White Marlin (Kajikia albidus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    ... western Atlantic Ocean, white marlin and blue marlin from the North Atlantic Ocean, and longbill spearfish... published an interim rule (63 FR 14030) that increased the minimum size limits for Atlantic blue marlin and... Consolidated HMS FMP (71 FR 58058), which, among other things, included the annual recreational 250 blue...

  8. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci in Epidendrum puniceoluteum, an endemic orchid from the Atlantic Rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, F; Santos, M O; Palma-Silva, C; Barros, F; Meyer, D; Salatino, A; Souza, A P; Cozzolino, S

    2008-09-01

    Epidendrum puniceoluteum is an endemic orchid of Atlantic Rainforest, restricted to few populations only due to the destruction and fragmentation of its native habitat. Here, we report on the development of 10 microsatellite markers isolated from this orchid species. Genetic variability was characterized in two distant populations from Brazil coast. The number of alleles observed for each locus ranged from two to 12 and with an average of 6.4 alleles per locus. These microsatellites should be valuable tools for studying both fine-scale genetic structure of scattered E. puniceoluteum population and patterns will be useful genetic markers for other closely related taxa. PMID:21585988

  9. Route Choice by the VLCCS from Middle East Gulf to North Atlantic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Risto Laulajainen

    2009-01-01

    <正>Three alternatives for round voyages between the Middle East Gulf and North Atlantic,Cape/Cape,Suez/Cape and Suez/Suez(laden/ballast),are compared from actor perspective.Ship owners benefit from long routes when rates are not rising steeply.Refineries minimize logistics costs by selecting short routes.Traders also should opt for them,provided that their investment horizontal equals the laden leg.In the real world,Northwest Europe selects 10 pet Suez and the US Gulf 10 pet Cape.East Coast Canada is route neutral.Cargos from West Africa tilt this equation in favor of the Cape/Cape alternative.

  10. Two new species of Timea from the Southwest Atlantic (Timeidae, Demospongiae, Porifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Dora M B; Fonseca, Cássio A; Leal, Camille V; Hajdu, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Comprising 56 species, Timea Gray, 1867 belongs to the monotypic family Timeidae Gray, 1867, with both family and genus characterized by the presence of (sub)tylostyles as megascleres, and euasters as microscleres. Two new species are described from the coast of Rio de Janeiro state, Timea berlincki sp. nov. and Timea clandestina sp. nov., the first of which also from São Paulo state (southeastern Brazil). Both are compared to other species based on their morphological and skeletal characters. Records of all species of the genus worldwide are tabulated and discussed, and an identification key for Tropical western Atlantic species of Timea is offered. PMID:26624436

  11. Gulf Coast Basins and Uplifts [gcstructsg

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data provide generalized outlines of major basins and uplifts in the Gulf Coast region modified after Plate 2, Principal structural features, Gulf of Mexico...

  12. Great Lakes CoastWatch Node

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CoastWatch is a nationwide National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) program within which the Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory (GLERL)...

  13. West Coast Rockfish Conservation Areas, 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data delineate Rockfish Conservation Areas (RCA) off the West Coast of the United States for 2015. There are three types of areas closures depicted in this...

  14. Eighteenth annual West Coast theoretical chemistry conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    Abstracts are presented from the eighteenth annual west coast theoretical chemistry conference. Topics include molecular simulations; quasiclassical simulations of reactions; photodissociation reactions; molecular dynamics;interface studies; electronic structure; and semiclassical methods of reactive systems.

  15. Salt Diapirs in the Gulf Coast [gcdiapirg

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Locations and shapes of salt diapirs were modified after the New Orleans Geological Society map, Salt tectonism of the U.S. Gulf Coast Basin (compiled by J.A....

  16. West Coast Observing System (WCOS) Temperature Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The West Coast Observing System (WCOS) project provides access to temperature and currents data collected at four of the five National Marine Sanctuary sites,...

  17. Gulf Coast Vulnerability Assessment and Conservation Framework

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The proposed partnership to support a Gulf Coast Landscape Conservation Liaison will provide much needed coordination across multiple programs and partnerships to...

  18. Education by Television in the Ivory Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerien, Jean

    1981-01-01

    The management, administration, production, and broadcasting of educational television are discussed and evaluated with respect to its use in elementary education, training of teachers, and out-of-school education in the Ivory Coast during the 1970s. (CHC)

  19. Beryllium-10 in Ivory Coast Tektites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serefiddin, F.; Herzog, G. F.; Koeberl, C.

    2005-03-01

    10Be concentrations in Ivory Coast tektites are consistent with formation from near surface terrestrial soils. Concentrations 77% lower than in Australasian tektites reflect differences in source materials, longer decay and environmental factors.

  20. Pacific Coast Groundfish Individual Fishing Quota Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — On January 11, 2011, NOAA Fisheries implemented a new fishery management system for the West Coast Groundfish Trawl Catch Share Program as specified in the...

  1. CoastWatch Regions in HDF Format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The mapped data derived from AVHRR is divided into files for CoastWatch regions of interest. Each file contains multiple data variables stored using the HDF-4...

  2. Distribution of seagrasses along the Indian coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jagtap, T.G.

    Seagrass environments, from the main coast of India, Lakshadweep and Andaman Islands, were surveyed for seagrass and marine algal composition. Extensive seagrass meadows and the maximum number of species (seven genera and 12 species) occurred along...

  3. Headland sediment bypassing and beach rotation in a rocky coast: an example at the western Portuguese coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Mónica; Taborda, Rui; Lira, Cristina; Bizarro, Aurora; Oliveira, Anabela

    2014-05-01

    Headland sediment bypassing plays a major role in definition of coastal sedimentary budget and consequently in coastal management. This process is particularity important at headland-bay beaches on rocky coasts. However, headland-bay beach research is usually focused on the beach rotation since these beaches are generally regarded as closed systems. The sediment bypassing mechanisms have been extensively studied in the context of artificial structures (e.g. groins and jetties) but studies of natural headland sediment bypassing are scarce and usually applied to decadal time scales. This work aims to contribute to the understanding of headland sediment bypassing processes in non-artificial environments, taking as a case study a natural coastal stretch at the Portuguese west coast. The study is supported on the analysis of planform beach changes using Landsat satellite images (with an acquisition frequency of 16 days) complemented with field surveys with DGPS-RTK and ground-based photographic monitoring. The study area can be described as a cliffed rocky coast that accommodates a series of headland-bay beaches with different geometries: some are encased in the dependence of fluvial streams, while others correspond to a narrow and elongated thin sand strip that covers a rocky shore platform. This coast is generally characterized by a weak, but active, sediment supply and high levels of wave energy due to the exposure to the swells generated in the North Atlantic. The long-term stability of the beaches in conjunction with active sediment supply along the study area (from streams and cliff erosion) and a sink at the downdrift end of this coastal stretch (an active dune system) support the existence of headland sediment bypassing. The analysis of planform beach changes show a coherent signal in time but with a range that depends on the orientation of the stretch where each beach is included. In general, beaches displays a clockwise rotation during summer related to the NW

  4. 22 CFR 120.31 - North Atlantic Treaty Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DEFINITIONS § 120.31 North Atlantic Treaty Organization. North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) is..., France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, The Netherlands,...

  5. Sea surface temperature anomalies along the Black Sea Region coast of Turkey (1971-2010 period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yüksel Güçlü

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is finding an answer to a question how the development and change of sea surface temperature (SST anomalies were at the Black Sea Region in Turkey between 1971 and 2010. For that purpose, SST data of Amasra, Inebolu, Sinop, Samsun, Ordu, Giresun and Hopa stations were used. Air temperature is meteorological element having a clearest effect on annual and seasonal SST anomalies. Also in winter North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO and North Sea Hazar Pattern (NCP and in spring North Sea Hazar Pattern (NCP are noticeably influential. In the study area, SST anomalies showed important annual and seasonal variations. It is designated that annual average SST anomaly showed asymmetric diffusion from its values average variation aspect in all stations, form standard variation aspect it showed symmetrical in Hopa and in the others it showed asymmetric diffusion. In 1971-2010 generally SST anomalies showed decrease in Ordu and Hopa, however, it showed an increasing tendency in the other stations. The values of anomaly showed decrease in Black Sea coasts between Sinop and Hopa in spring and summer, they showed an increasing tendency in the whole Black Sea coast zone in winter and autumn. SST and the anomaly values generally showed decrease in Black Sea coasts in 1971-2000, they showed increase between 2001 and 2010. The lowest anomaly values were designated in the period 1981-2000 and the highest anomaly values were generally designated in the period 2001-2010.

  6. Conservation status and spatial patterns of AGRRA vitality indices in Southwestern Atlantic reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Ruy K P; Leão, Zelinda M A N; Oliveira, Marília D M

    2010-05-01

    Coral reefs along the Eastern Brazilian coast extend for a distance of 800 km from 12 degrees to 18 degrees S. They are the largest and the richest reefs of Brazil coasts, and represent the Southernmost coral reefs of the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean. Few reef surveys were performed in the 90's in reef areas of Bahia State, particularly in the Abrolhos reef complex, in the Southernmost side of the state. A monitoring program applying the Atlantic and Gulf Rapid Reef Assessment (AGRRA) protocol was initiated in 2000, in the Abrolhos National Marine Park, after the creation of the South Tropical America (STA) Regional Node of the Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network (GCRMN) by the end of 1999. From that time up to 2005, nine reef surveys were conducted along the coast of the State of Bahia, including 26 reefs, with 95 benthic sites, 280 benthic transects, 2025 quadrats and 3537 stony corals. Eighteen of the 26 investigated reefs were assessed once and eight reefs of Abrolhos were surveyed twice to four times. The MDS ordination, analysis of similarity (ANOSIM, one way and two-way nested layouts) and similarity percentages (SIMPER) tests were applied to investigate the spatial and temporal patterns of reef vitality. Four indicators of the coral vitality: live coral cover, the density of the larger corals (colonics > 20cm per reef site) and of the coral recruits (colonies < 2cm per square meter), and the percentage of macroalgae indicate that the nearshore reefs, which are located less than 5 km from the coast, are in poorer condition than the reefs located more than 5 km off the coast. A higher density of coral colonies, lower macroalgal index, higher relative percent of turf algae and higher density of coral recruits in offshore reefs compared to the nearshore reefs are the conditions that contribute more than 80% to the dissimilarity between them. The offshore reefs are in better vital condition than the nearshore reefs and have a set of vitality indices more closely

  7. Heavy metal and arsenic content in seabirds affected by the Prestige oil spill on the Galician coast (NW Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seabirds are top consumers in marine foodchains which offer opportunities to detect and assess the toxicological effects of different inorganic elements on the marine ecosystem. In order to provide baseline data concerning trace element levels in seabird species from NW Spain, zinc, copper, arsenic, chromium, lead, cadmium and mercury concentrations were analyzed in liver of three different seabird species (common guillemot, Atlantic puffin and razorbill) affected by the Prestige oil spill in September 2002 on the Galician coast. In general, with the exception of mercury, levels of all the analyzed elements were similar or lower in comparison with those reported for the same species in other Atlantic areas, and did not exceed levels indicative of increased environmental exposure

  8. American Houses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严双红

    2008-01-01

    <正>American houses usually have private kitchens,a living room and sometimes separate areas for eating and watching television.A house usually has its own mailbox,a yard with plants or perhaps a lawn,and a place to store garbage.美国住房通常有私人厨房,一间起居室,有时吃饭和看电视的地方是分开的。一所房子通常有自己的邮箱,一个种有植物或者有草坪的院子,还有存放垃圾的地方。

  9. Seasonal Variability of South Atlantic Central Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobrega Passos, E.; de Freitas Assad, L.; Landau, L.

    2013-05-01

    The South Atlantic Ocean (SAO) is constituted by different density water masses. Among these, the South Atlantic Central Water (SACW) is formed on the Brazil-Falkland Confluence region (BFC) and once formed, it becomes part of the Subtropical Gyre. When approaching again the Brazilian coast, this water mass bifurcates next to São Tomé Cape and part of it flows to the North and part to the South. There is another bifurcation that formed the sub-gyre of the SAO and occurs near 30°S. This work aims to analyze the seasonal variability associated to the SACW trajectory on the SAO basin. To achieve this goal, ECCO2 project's time series of prognostic fields were analysed. The parameters evaluated were temperature, salinity and the zonal and meridional velocity components in averaged monthly fields between January 1992 and November 2010. First a climatological year was calculated and was composed by means from all time series for each month. And second, it was estimate seasonally means for the south hemisphere to summer, autumn, winter and springer. For the analysis, the SACW was separated from the rest of the water masses by isolating it for its temperature, salinity and density index. Then the volume transport (VT) was calculated for seven different sections: A (10°S and 36°W-30°W), B (35°S and 55°W-45°W), C (40°W and 37°S-43°S), D (34°S and 7°E-20°E), E (20°E and 34°S-45°S), F (20°W and 27°S-33°S) and G (10°W and 20°S-25°S). The VT integrated on the water column occupied by SACW was calculated from the zonal and meridional velocities. The analysis showed that the VT balance between the sections is consistent with the climatologic analysis, according to scientific references. The analysis of the climatological VT showed that the VT field integrated in SAWC levels is also consistent with scientific reference. On the seasonal analysis, the sections A and F show a stronger VT during autumn. Since section A is formed from part of the flux of section

  10. Prevalence of Anguillicoloides crassus and growth variation in migrant yellow-phase American eels of the upper Potomac River drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Jennifer L; Welsh, Stuart A

    2012-11-01

    Prevalence of the non-native swim bladder nematode Anguillicoloides crassus has recently increased in American eels from estuaries of the North American Atlantic coast, but little is known about parasite prevalence or conditions of previous infection in upstream migrant eels within upper watersheds. This study is the first to confirm presence of A. crassus in the upper Potomac River watershed. We estimated A. crassus prevalence during 3 time periods: September to October 2006 (5/143 eels, 3.5%), August to October 2007 (0/49 eels), and June 2008 (0/50 eels). All eels were sampled from the Millville Dam eel ladder on the lower Shenandoah River, a Potomac River tributary located approximately 285 km upstream of Chesapeake Bay, USA. Of the 5 infected eels, parasite intensity was 1 for each eel, and mean intensity was also 1.0. A swim bladder degenerative index (SDI) was calculated for the 50 eels from the final sampling period, and 38% of those eels (19 of 50) showed signs of previous infection by A. crassus. We also aged 42 of the 50 eels (mean ± SE = 6.7 ± 0.29 yr, range 4 to 11 yr) from the final sampling period. Based on the range of possible SDI scores (0 to 6), severity of previously infected swim bladders was moderate (SDI = 1 or 2). Previously infected eels, however, had a lower length-at-age than that of uninfected eels. Female yellow-phase eels in upper watersheds develop into large highly fecund silver-phase adults; hence, a parasite-induced effect on growth of yellow-phase eels could ultimately reduce reproductive potential. PMID:23135140

  11. Characterization of Atlantic cod spawning habitat and behavior in Icelandic coastal waters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy B Grabowski

    Full Text Available The physical habitat used during spawning may potentially be an important factor affecting reproductive output of broadcast spawning marine fishes, particularly for species with complex, substrate-oriented mating systems and behaviors, such as Atlantic cod Gadus morhua. We characterized the habitat use and behavior of spawning Atlantic cod at two locations off the coast of southwestern Iceland during a 2-d research cruise (15-16 April 2009. We simultaneously operated two different active hydroacoustic gear types, a split beam echosounder and a dual frequency imaging sonar (DIDSON, as well as a remotely operated underwater vehicle (ROV. A total of five fish species were identified through ROV surveys: including cusk Brosme brosme, Atlantic cod, haddock Melanogrammus aeglefinus, lemon sole Microstomus kitt, and Atlantic redfish Sebastes spp. Of the three habitats identified in the acoustic surveys, the transitional habitat between boulder/lava field and sand habitats was characterized by greater fish density and acoustic target strength compared to that of sand or boulder/lava field habitats independently. Atlantic cod were observed behaving in a manner consistent with published descriptions of spawning. Individuals were observed ascending 1-5 m into the water column from the bottom at an average vertical swimming speed of 0.20-0.25 m s(-1 and maintained an average spacing of 1.0-1.4 m between individuals. Our results suggest that cod do not choose spawning locations indiscriminately despite the fact that it is a broadcast spawning fish with planktonic eggs that are released well above the seafloor.

  12. Phylogeographic surveys and apomictic genetic connectivity in the North Atlantic red seaweed Mastocarpus stellatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing-Jing; Hu, Zi-Min; Liu, Ruo-Yu; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Shao-Lun; Duan, De-Lin

    2016-01-01

    The North Atlantic red alga Mastocarpus stellatus is characterized by two life histories (sexual-type and direct-type), which correspond to two geographically isolated breeding groups. These features enable M. stellatus to be an interesting model to investigate how environmental shift and apomictic propagation have influenced its population genetic structure, historical demography and distribution dynamic. To test these ideas, we obtained 456 specimens from 15 locations on both sides of the North Atlantic and sequenced portion of the nuclear internal transcribed spacer (ITS), mitochondrial cox2-3 region (COX) and plastid RuBisCo spacer (RLS). Median-joining networks and ML trees inferred from COX and RLS consistently revealed two gene lineages (mtDNA: CN, CS; cpDNA: RN, RS). The concatenated COX and RLS markers yielded three cytotypes: a northern CN-RN, a southern CS-RS and a mixed cytotype CS-RN, which enabled us to roughly separate samples into D (direct-type life-cycle) and S (sexual-type life-cycle) groups (northern CN-RN and mixed cytotype CS-RN=D; southern CS-RS=S). Pairwise FST analysis of the D group revealed a high level of genetic differentiation both along European coasts and across the Atlantic basin. Bayesian skyline plots (BSPs) and IMa analyses indicated that M. stellatus underwent slight demographic expansion at the late-Pleistocene, with the beginning of divergence between lineages dating to c. 0.189Ma (95%HPD: 0.083-0.385Ma). IMa analyses also revealed asymmetric genetic exchange among European populations and a predominant postglacial trans-Atlantic migration from Norway and Galway Bay to North America. Our study highlights the importance of phylogeographic approaches to discover the imprints of climate change, life histories and gene flow in driving population genetic connectivity and biogeographic distribution of intertidal seaweeds in the North Atlantic. PMID:26528630

  13. New records and descriptions of digeneans from the Magellanic penguin Spheniscus magellanicus (Forster) (Aves: Sphenisciformes) on the coast of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, Martha; Luque, José L; Scholz, Tomáš; Kostadinova, Aneta

    2013-05-01

    Five species of digeneans parasitic in the Magellanic penguin Spheniscus magellanicus (Forster) from off the Brazilian coast of the western Atlantic are reported for the first time from this host and described. These are Mesostephanus odhneri (Travassos, 1924) Lutz, 1935, Posthodiplostomum macrocotyle Dubois, 1937, Stephanoprora uruguayensis Holcman-Spector & Olagüe, 1989, Ascocotyle (Phagicola) longa Ransom, 1920 and Ascocotyle (Phagicola) sp. One other digenean, Cardiocephaloides physalis (Lutz, 1926) Sudarikov, 1959, was also recorded. The taxonomy of the species and available data on their life-cycles are commented upon in relation to the possible origins of digenean infections of the Magellanic penguin. PMID:23595494

  14. New records and descriptions of digeneans from the Magellanic penguin Spheniscus magellanicus (Forster) (Aves: Sphenisciformes) on the coast of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, Martha; Luque, José L; Scholz, Tomáš; Kostadinova, Aneta

    2013-05-01

    Five species of digeneans parasitic in the Magellanic penguin Spheniscus magellanicus (Forster) from off the Brazilian coast of the western Atlantic are reported for the first time from this host and described. These are Mesostephanus odhneri (Travassos, 1924) Lutz, 1935, Posthodiplostomum macrocotyle Dubois, 1937, Stephanoprora uruguayensis Holcman-Spector & Olagüe, 1989, Ascocotyle (Phagicola) longa Ransom, 1920 and Ascocotyle (Phagicola) sp. One other digenean, Cardiocephaloides physalis (Lutz, 1926) Sudarikov, 1959, was also recorded. The taxonomy of the species and available data on their life-cycles are commented upon in relation to the possible origins of digenean infections of the Magellanic penguin.

  15. FutureCoast: "Listen to your futures"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfirman, S. L.; Eklund, K.; Thacher, S.; Orlove, B. S.; Diane Stovall-Soto, G.; Brunacini, J.; Hernandez, T.

    2014-12-01

    Two science-arts approaches are emerging as effective means to convey "futurethinking" to learners: systems gaming and experiential futures. FutureCoast exemplifies the latter: by engaging participants with voicemails supposedly leaking from the cloud of possible futures, the storymaking game frames the complexities of climate science in relatable contexts. Because participants make the voicemails themselves, FutureCoast opens up creative ways for people to think about possibly climate-changed futures and personal ways to talk about them. FutureCoast is a project of the PoLAR Partnership with a target audience of informal adult learners primarily reached via mobile devices and online platforms. Scientists increasingly use scenarios and storylines as ways to explore the implications of environmental change and societal choices. Stories help people make connections across experiences and disciplines and link large-scale events to personal consequences. By making the future seem real today, FutureCoast's framework helps people visualize and plan for future climate changes. The voicemails contributed to FutureCoast are spread through the game's intended timeframe (2020 through 2065). Based on initial content analysis of voicemail text, common themes include ecosystems and landscapes, weather, technology, societal issues, governance and policy. Other issues somewhat less frequently discussed include security, food, industry and business, health, energy, infrastructure, water, economy, and migration. Further voicemail analysis is examining: temporal dimensions (salient time frames, short vs. long term issues, intergenerational, etc.), content (adaptation vs. mitigation, challenges vs. opportunities, etc.), and emotion (hopeful, resigned, etc. and overall emotional context). FutureCoast also engaged audiences through facilitated in-person experiences, geocaching events, and social media (Tumblr, Twitter, Facebook, YouTube). Analysis of the project suggests story

  16. An American hibakusha in Fukushima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nollet, Kenneth E

    2011-01-01

    A magnitude 9.0 earthquake and tsunami originating off the east coast of Japan triggered the explosive release of radioactive isotopes from one of four nuclear power plants in the affected area. This event has been compared with the 1986 nuclear accident at Chernobyl, the 1945 atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and the intervening era of atmospheric nuclear weapons testing. The credibility of any comparison depends on the source, for which reason various specialists were invited to address an audience of media, healthcare, and disaster response professionals on July 18, 2011 in Fukushima City, Fukushima Prefecture. This article is based on a presentation given July 18, and interprets the Fukushima nuclear crisis from the perspective of an American doctor who grew up downwind of an atomic bomb test site, and who now works at Fukushima Medical University. PMID:22353658

  17. Pandemic Vibrio parahaemolyticus O3:K6 on the American Continent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge eVelazquez-Roman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio parahaemolyticus is one of the most important seafood-borne bacterial in recent years and is the leading causal agent of human acute gastroenteritis, primarily following the consumption of raw, undercooked or mishandled marine products. Until 1996, infections caused by V. parahaemolyticus were generally associated with diverse serovars. However, in February 1996, a unique serovar (O3:K6 of V. parahaemolyticus with specific genetic markers (tdh, toxRS/New and/or orf8 appeared abruptly in Kolkata, India. In subsequent years, O3:K6 isolates similar to those isolated in Kolkata have been reported from food borne outbreaks in Southeast Asia, as well as in the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the United States (U.S. More recently, there have been reports in Europe, Africa and Central and South America. Specifically, in the American continent, some countries have reported cases of gastroenteritis due to the pandemic O3:K6 strain and its serovariants; the pandemic strain was first detected in Peru (1996, >100 cases, subsequently spreading to Chile in 1998 (>16,804 human cases, to the U.S. in 1998 (>700 cases, to Brazil in 2001 (>18 cases and to Mexico in 2004 (>1200 cases. The arrival of the pandemic clone on the American continent may have resulted in a significant shift on the epidemic dynamics of V. parahaemolyticus. However, although O3:K6 is the predominant serovar of the recognized clinical strains in some countries in the Americas, a decrease in clinical cases caused by O3:K6 and an increase in cases associated with a new serotype (O3:K59, Chile have been recently reported. The emergence and worldwide dissemination of O3:K6 and other pandemic strains since 1996 have come to represent a threat to public health and should concern health authorities. This review focuses on the presence, distribution and virulence factors of the V. parahaemolyticus O3:K6 pandemic clone and its serovariants in clinical and environmental strains on the American

  18. Atlantic hurricane response to geoengineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John; Grinsted, Aslak; Ji, Duoying; Yu, Xiaoyong; Guo, Xiaoran

    2015-04-01

    Devastating Atlantic hurricanes are relatively rare events. However their intensity and frequency in a warming world may rapidly increase - perhaps by a factor of 5 for a 2°C mean global warming. Geoengineering by sulphate aerosol injection preferentially cools the tropics relative to the polar regions, including the hurricane main development region in the Atlantic, suggesting that geoengineering may be an effective method of controlling hurricanes. We examine this hypothesis using 6 Earth System Model simulations of climate under the GeoMIP G3 and G4 schemes that use aerosols to reduce the radiative forcing under the RCP4.5 scenario. We find that although temperatures are ameliorated by geoengineering, the numbers of storm surge events as big as that caused the 2005 Katrina hurricane are only slightly reduced compared with no geoengineering. As higher levels of sulphate aerosol injection produce diminishing returns in terms of cooling, but cause undesirable effects in various regions, it seems that stratospheric aerosol geoengineering is not an effective method of controlling hurricane damage.

  19. Obesity and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... ss6304.pdf [PDF | 3.38MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  20. Speciation and demographic history of Atlantic eels (Anguilla anguilla and A. rostrata) revealed by mitogenome sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, M.W.; Pujolar, J.M.; Gilbert, M.T.P.;

    2014-01-01

    Processes leading to speciation in oceanic environments without obvious physical barriers remain poorly known. European and American eel (Anguilla anguilla and A. rostrata) spawn in partial sympatry in the Sargasso Sea. Larvae are advected by the Gulf Stream and other currents towards the European......, coinciding with the closure of the Panama Gateway that led to reinforcement of the Gulf Stream. This could have advected larvae towards European/North African coasts, in which case American eel would be expected to be the ancestral species. This scenario could, however, not be unequivocally confirmed...

  1. On The Source Of The 25 November 1941 - Atlantic Tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, M. A.; Lisboa, F. B.; Miranda, J. M. A.

    2015-12-01

    In this study we analyze the tsunami recorded in the North Atlantic following the 25 November 1941 earthquake. The earthquake with a magnitude of 8.3, located on the Gloria Fault, was one of the largest strike slip events recorded. The Gloria fault is a 500 km long scarp in the North Atlantic Ocean between 19W and 24W known to be a segment of the Eurasia-Nubia plate boundary between Iberia and the Azores. Ten tide stations recorded the tsunami. Six in Portugal (mainland, Azores and Madeira Islands), two in Morocco, one in the United Kingdom and one in Spain (Tenerife-Canary Islands). The tsunami waves reached Azores and Madeira Islands less than one hour after the main shock. The tide station of Casablanca (in Morocco) recorded the maximum amplitude of 0.54 m. All amplitudes recorded are lower than 0.5 m but the tsunami reached Portugal mainland in high tide conditions where the sea flooded some streets We analyze the 25 November 1941 tsunami data using the tide-records in the coasts of Portugal, Spain, Morocco and UK to infer its source. The use of wavelet analysis to characterize the frequency content of the tide-records shows predominant periods of 9-13min e 18-22min. A preliminary location of the tsunami source location was obtained Backward Ray Tracing (BRT). The results of the BRT technique are compatible with the epicenter location of the earthquake. We compute empirical Green functions for the earthquake generation area, and use a linear shallow water inversion technique to compute the initial water displacement. The comparison between forward modeling with observations shows a fair agreement with available data. This work received funding from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n° 603839 (Project ASTARTE - Assessment, Strategy and Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe)"

  2. Influences of North Atlantic climate variability on low-flows in the Connecticut River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinschneider, Scott; Brown, Casey

    2011-10-01

    SummaryConnections between summertime, ecologically relevant low-flow indicators and both winter and spring climate phenomena are explored for the Connecticut River Basin, with an emphasis on assessing forecast potential. Low-flow streamflow statistics deemed important for ecological health, including minimum 1-day mean flows, minimum 7-day mean flows, and monthly streamflow averages from June to September, are derived from 61 years of continuous, daily streamflow data at 15 United States Geological Survey streamflow gauging stations across the basin. Relationships between the ecological flow indicators with leading sea-surface temperature and sea-level pressure are investigated using correlation and composite analysis. Results suggest lagged relationships of up to 5 months between summer streamflow and the wintertime North Atlantic Oscillation, springtime east coast pressure trough, and springtime North Atlantic Tripole. These climate states have been linked to shifts between zonal and meridonal airflow as well as sea-surface temperature anomalies off the coast of the eastern US, both of which have implications for the movement of moisture systems over the study region. This study suggests that residual influences on airflow and sea-surface temperature persist into the summer following these earlier climate states, influencing low-flow hydrology in the region. As eco-hydrologic flow targets often conflict with other stakeholder objectives within a watershed, reservoir operators may utilize such lagged teleconnection patterns to predict annual low-flow characteristics in the region and help negotiate tradeoffs between traditional water management objectives and those emphasizing ecological conservation.

  3. Deglacial pulses of deep-ocean silicate into the subtropical North Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meckler, A N; Sigman, D M; Gibson, K A; François, R; Martínez-García, A; Jaccard, S L; Röhl, U; Peterson, L C; Tiedemann, R; Haug, G H

    2013-03-28

    Growing evidence suggests that the low atmospheric CO2 concentration of the ice ages resulted from enhanced storage of CO2 in the ocean interior, largely as a result of changes in the Southern Ocean. Early in the most recent deglaciation, a reduction in North Atlantic overturning circulation seems to have driven CO2 release from the Southern Ocean, but the mechanism connecting the North Atlantic and the Southern Ocean remains unclear. Biogenic opal export in the low-latitude ocean relies on silicate from the underlying thermocline, the concentration of which is affected by the circulation of the ocean interior. Here we report a record of biogenic opal export from a coastal upwelling system off the coast of northwest Africa that shows pronounced opal maxima during each glacial termination over the past 550,000 years. These opal peaks are consistent with a strong deglacial reduction in the formation of silicate-poor glacial North Atlantic intermediate water (GNAIW). The loss of GNAIW allowed mixing with underlying silicate-rich deep water to increase the silicate supply to the surface ocean. An increase in westerly-wind-driven upwelling in the Southern Ocean in response to the North Atlantic change has been proposed to drive the deglacial rise in atmospheric CO2 (refs 3, 4). However, such a circulation change would have accelerated the formation of Antarctic intermediate water and sub-Antarctic mode water, which today have as little silicate as North Atlantic Deep Water and would have thus maintained low silicate concentrations in the Atlantic thermocline. The deglacial opal maxima reported here suggest an alternative mechanism for the deglacial CO2 release. Just as the reduction in GNAIW led to upward silicate transport, it should also have allowed the downward mixing of warm, low-density surface water to reach into the deep ocean. The resulting decrease in the density of the deep Atlantic relative to the Southern Ocean surface promoted Antarctic overturning

  4. Decadal-Scale Tropical North Atlantic Climate Variability Recorded in Slow Growing Cape Verde Corals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, C. S.; Swart, P. K.; Dodge, R. E.; Helmle, K. P.; Thorrold, S.

    2002-12-01

    The decadal to century scale climate variability of the tropical North Atlantic has major implications for both neighboring coastal and inland areas. Changes in patterns of sea surface temperature (SST) and SST anomalies (SSTA) in the tropical North Atlantic are known to affect rainfall in Florida, South America, and sub-Saharan Africa, as well as the number of major hurricanes formed in the Atlantic. Because of the significance of these connections, it is important to further increase our predictive capacity for the recognition of trends and cycles in tropical North Atlantic SST and SSTA. Located at 15° N latitude off the west coast of sub-Saharan Africa, the Cape Verde Islands are an ideal geographic location to search for records of the Tropical North Atlantic Index (TNA). Such patterns are present in proxy indicators of climate (O, C, Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca) recorded in the skeletons of slow growing corals, such as Siderastrea radians, found in Cape Verde (growth rate = 1-2 mm/yr). These corals represent an archive for SST and SSTA records that exceed the instrumental period of the eastern tropical North Atlantic. We cored corals from several different locations within the Cape Verde archipelago and analyzed them for stable isotopes (δ13C and δ18O) and minor elements (Sr, Mg, and Ba). The δ18O signal present in these corals shows a distinct relationship to the TNA over the better part of the last 100 years. In addition, the δ18O record in several of these corals also records the onset of the latest Sahel (11°-18° N in Africa) drought which began in 1970. The Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca records of these corals indicate a slight warming of the waters around Cape Verde during the last 100 years, as well as accurately recording the El Niño events of 1982-83 and 1997-98. The correlations present between the records in these corals and the known instrumental record for the eastern tropical North Atlantic suggests that the fluctuations recorded in the proxy indicators may be

  5. Patagonian and southern South Atlantic view of Holocene climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, M. R.; Schaefer, J. M.; Strelin, J. A.; Denton, G. H.; Anderson, R. F.; Vandergoes, M. J.; Finkel, R. C.; Schwartz, R.; Travis, S. G.; Garcia, J. L.; Martini, M. A.; Nielsen, S. H. H.

    2016-06-01

    We present a comprehensive 10Be chronology for Holocene moraines in the Lago Argentino basin, on the east side of the South Patagonian Icefield. We focus on three different areas, where prior studies show ample glacier moraine records exist because they were formed by outlet glaciers sensitive to climate change. The 10Be dated records are from the Lago Pearson, Herminita Península-Brazo Upsala, and Lago Frías areas, which span a distance of almost 100 km adjacent to the modern Icefield. New 10Be ages show that expanded glaciers and moraine building events occurred at least at 6120 ± 390 (n = 13), 4450 ± 220 (n = 7), 1450 or 1410 ± 110 (n = 18), 360 ± 30 (n = 5), and 240 ± 20 (n = 8) years ago. Furthermore, other less well-dated glacier expansions of the Upsala Glacier occurred between ~1400 and ∼1000 and ∼2300 and ∼2000 years ago. The most extensive glaciers occurred over the interval from ∼6100 to ∼4500 years ago, and their margins over the last ∼600 years were well within and lower than those in the middle Holocene. The 10Be ages agree with 14C-limiting data for the glacier histories in this area. We then link southern South American, adjacent South Atlantic, and other Southern Hemisphere records to elucidate broader regional patterns of climate and their possible causes. In the early Holocene, a far southward position of the westerly winds fostered warmth, small Patagonian glaciers, and reduced sea ice coverage over the South Atlantic. Although we infer a pronounced southward displacement of the westerlies during the early Holocene, these conditions did not occur throughout the southern mid-high latitudes, an important exception being over the southwest Pacific sector. Subsequently, a northward locus and/or expansion of the winds over the Patagonia-South Atlantic sector promoted the largest glaciers between ∼6100 and ∼4500 years ago and greatest sea ice coverage. Over the last few millennia, the South Patagonian Icefield has experienced

  6. The African American Image in American Cinema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, St. Clair

    1990-01-01

    Political conditions have influenced the screen images of U.S. cinema, and the images of African Americans have reflected prevailing social stereotypes. The history of African-American representation in films is traced, and it is noted that the tendency to portray African Americans stereotypically has not changed. (SLD)

  7. Historiography, American Theatre, and the First Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Linda Walsh

    American theatre history should include a study of Native American performances, since these performances are rich with "American" symbolic materials such as imagery, symbols, and heraldic visions of animals and landscapes. Indian cultures understood the importance of performance for both the visionary and the community at large. Even the pow-wow…

  8. ENSO components of the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation and their relation to North Atlantic interannual coastal sea level anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Park

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO are known to influence coastal water levels along the east coast of the United States. By identifying empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs which coherently contribute from the Multivariate ENSO Index (MEI to the AMO index (AMOI, we characterize both the expression of ENSO in the unsmoothed AMOI, and coherent relationships between these indices and interannual sea level anomalies at six stations in the Gulf of Mexico and Western North Atlantic. Within the ENSO band (2–7 yr periods the total contribution of MEI to unsmoothed AMOI variability is 79%. Cross correlation suggests that the MEI leads expression of the ENSO signature in the AMOI by six months, consistent with the mechanism of an atmospheric bridge. Within the ENSO band, essentially all of the coupling between the unsmoothed AMOI and sea level anomalies is the result of ENSO expression in the AMOI. At longer periods we find decadal components of sea level anomalies linked to the AMOI at three southern stations (Key West, Pensacola, Charleston, but not at the northern stations (Baltimore, Boston, Portland, with values of coherence ranging from 20 to 50%. The coherence of MEI to coastal sea level anomalies has a different structure and is generally weaker than that of the ENSO expressed AMOI influence, suggesting distinct physical mechanisms are influencing sea level anomalies due to a direct ENSO teleconnection when compared to teleconnections based on ENSO expression in the AMOI. It is expected that applying this analysis to extremes of sea level anomalies will reveal additional influences.

  9. New karyologycal data and cytotaxonomic considerations on small mammals from Santa Virgínia (Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar, Atlantic Forest, Brazil)

    OpenAIRE

    Camilla Di-Nizo; Carolina Neves; Júlio Fernando Vilela; Silva, Maria José de J.

    2014-01-01

    Atlantic Forest, in the eastern coast of Brazil, is a hotspot of biodiversity of mammals, and Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar (PESM) is the largest continuous area of this biome. Here, we characterized the karyotype composition of the small mammals from Santa Virgínia, a region in the northern part of PESM. Specimens were collected from July 2008 to September 2009. We identified 17 species (13 rodents and 4marsupials) from which 7 exhibited species-specific karyotypes, illustrating the...

  10. Gulf Coast Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillingham, Gavin

    2013-09-30

    The Gulf Coast Clean Energy Application Center was initiated to significantly improve market and regulatory conditions for the implementation of combined heat and power technologies. The GC CEAC was responsible for the development of CHP in Texas, Louisiana and Oklahoma. Through this program we employed a variety of outreach and education techniques, developed and deployed assessment tools and conducted market assessments. These efforts resulted in the growth of the combined heat and power market in the Gulf Coast region with a realization of more efficient energy generation, reduced emissions and a more resilient infrastructure. Specific t research, we did not formally investigate any techniques with any formal research design or methodology.

  11. Project Coast: eugenics in apartheid South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jerome Amir

    2008-03-01

    It is a decade since the exposure of Project Coast, apartheid South Africa's covert chemical and biological warfare program. In that time, attention has been focused on several aspects of the program, particularly the production of narcotics and poisons for use against anti-apartheid activists and the proliferation of both chemical and biological weapons. The eugenic dimension of Project Coast has, by contrast, received scant attention. It is time to revisit the testimony that brought the suggestion of eugenic motives to light, reflect on some of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission's findings and search for lessons that can be taken from this troubled chapter in South Africa's history.

  12. Folk medicine in the northern coast of Colombia: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medina José

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditional remedies are an integral part of Colombian culture. Here we present the results of a three-year study of ethnopharmacology and folk-medicine use among the population of the Atlantic Coast of Colombia, specifically in department of Bolívar. We collected information related to different herbal medicinal uses of the local flora in the treatment of the most common human diseases and health disorders in the area, and determined the relative importance of the species surveyed. Methods Data on the use of medicinal plants were collected using structured interviews and through observations and conversations with local communities. A total of 1225 participants were interviewed. Results Approximately 30 uses were reported for plants in traditional medicine. The plant species with the highest fidelity level (Fl were Crescentia cujete L. (flu, Eucalyptus globulus Labill. (flu and cough, Euphorbia tithymaloides L. (inflammation, Gliricidia_sepium_(Jacq. Kunth (pruritic ailments, Heliotropium indicum L. (intestinal parasites Malachra alceifolia Jacq. (inflammation, Matricaria chamomilla L. (colic Mentha sativa L. (nervousness, Momordica charantia L. (intestinal parasites, Origanum vulgare L. (earache, Plantago major L. (inflammation and Terminalia catappa L. (inflammation. The most frequent ailments reported were skin affections, inflammation of the respiratory tract, and gastro-intestinal disorders. The majority of the remedies were prepared from freshly collected plant material from the wild and from a single species only. The preparation of remedies included boiling infusions, extraction of fresh or dry whole plants, leaves, flowers, roots, fruits, and seeds. The parts of the plants most frequently used were the leaves. In this study were identified 39 plant species, which belong to 26 families. There was a high degree of consensus from informants on the medical indications of the different species. Conclusions This study

  13. Evaluating transport in the WRF model along the California coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Yver

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a step in the development of a top-down method to complement the bottom-up inventories of halocarbon emissions in California using high frequency observations, forward simulations and inverse methods. The Scripps Institution of Oceanography high-frequency atmospheric halocarbon measurement sites are located along the California coast and therefore the evaluation of transport in the chosen Weather Research Forecast (WRF model at these sites is crucial for inverse modeling. The performance of the transport model has been investigated by comparing the wind direction and speed at four locations along the coast using aircraft weather reports. Different planetary boundary layer (PBL schemes, nesting options and two meteorological datasets have been tested. Finally, simulated concentration of an inert tracer has been briefly investigated. All the PBL schemes present similar results that generally agree with observations, except in summer when the model sea breeze is too strong. At the coarse 12 km resolution, using ERA-interim (ECMWF Re-Analysis as initial and boundary conditions leads to improvements compared to using the North American Model (NAM dataset. Adding higher resolution nests also improves the match with the observations. However, no further improvement is observed from increasing the nest resolution from 4 km to 0.8 km. Once optimized, the model is able to reproduce tracer measurements during typical winter California large-scale events (Santa Ana. Furthermore, with the WRF/CHEM chemistry module and the European Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR version 4.1 emissions for HFC-134a, we find that using a simple emission scaling factor is not sufficient to infer emissions, which highlights the need for more complex inversions.

  14. Environmental niche and distribution of six deciduous tree species in the Spanish Atlantic region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roces-Díaz JV

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the influence of environmental factors on the distribution of tree species is essential for developing management actions at regional level. We computed species distribution models for six European tree species to determine their potential niche in the Spanish Atlantic region, where deciduous forests are relatively well preserved. We used data from the national Forest Inventory and topo-climatic and soil variables to construct distribution models by the Generalized Linear Model procedure. The main factors found to determine the presence of the selected species were minimum winter temperature and mineral fertility of soils. Suitable habitats for Quercus petraea and F. sylvatica were mainly high-altitude areas with low minimum temperatures. In contrast, Q. robur and C. sativa were restricted to low altitudes and warmer conditions. Betula pubescens was not influenced by the elevation, probably because it is adapted to Atlantic conditions, and distribution of this species was associated with low fertility soils. Although the submediterranean Q. pyrenaica was positively influenced by the slope, model performance was poor for this species, possibly because of the truncated environmental range of the species in the study area. The findings suggest that temperature rather than moisture is shaping the distribution of deciduous trees at the southern limit of the Atlantic biogeographic region. We also note that the strong elevational difference between the warm coast and the cold mountains may determine the geographical disjunction between Q. robur and Q. petraea in southern Europe.

  15. Variability in north tropical atlantic over the last 20 000 years and holocene gulf stream activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modern oceanographical studies shown that most of the ocean heat content in the North Atlantic Western Boundary Current region is stored in the upper 400 meters. To study past heat content and Gulf Stream activity, we performed coupled analyses of oxygen isotopic and trace elemental composition on several foraminifera species to reconstruct upper water column temperature and salinity. Calcification depths of Globorotalia inflata, Globorotalia truncatulinoides and Pulleniatina obliquiloculata have been constrain by correlating modern hydrographic data to oxygen isotopic measurement of North Atlantic core-top samples. We found that the three deep-dwelling foraminifera species have a preferred habitat at the base of the seasonal thermocline (Cleroux et al, 2007). The same set of North Atlantic core-tops has been used to define relationships between trace elemental compositions and temperature. We established calibrations between Mg/Ca ratio or Sr/Ca ratio and temperature for the three deep-dwelling foraminifera (Cleroux et al, submitted). We apply this strategy on the core MD99-2203 located off Cape Hatteras where the Gulf Stream separate from the United States coast. High-resolution surface reconstructions over the Holocene show low amplitude periodic temperature and salinity changes that could be related to NAO type mechanisms. Large hydrological changes in sub-surface reflect variations of Labrador current and Mode Water influences. Using recent studies on Mode Water formation and Gulf Stream heat advection, we interpret our results in term of ocean heat content and Gulf Stream activity. (author)

  16. Temporal and spatial genetic differentiation in the crab Liocarcinus depurator across the Atlantic-Mediterranean transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, Marta; Palero, Ferran; García-Merchán, Víctor Hugo; Macpherson, Enrique; Robainas-Barcia, Aymée; Mestres, Francesc; Roda, Tania; Abelló, Pere

    2016-01-01

    Spatial genetic studies often require sampling broadly separated areas, difficult to access simultaneously. Although comparing localities surveyed at different time periods might result in spurious genetic differentiation, there is a general believe on the stability of genetic structure through time, particularly if sampled localities are isolated or very distant. By analysing spatial and temporal genetic differentiation of the portunid crab Liocarcinus depurator we assessed the contribution of historical and contemporary processes on population connectivity patterns across three main oceanographic discontinuities along the Atlantic-Mediterranean transition: Gibraltar Strait, Almeria-Oran Front and Ibiza Channel. A partial fragment of the cytochrome oxidase I gene was sequenced in 366 individuals collected from localities at both sides of each discontinuity during three time periods. Although localities showed genetic fluctuations through time, a significant gradient was detected along the coast for all sampling periods. Significant inter-annual differences identified within the Alicante area, north of the Almeria-Oran Front, were associated with shifts in the relative contribution of Atlantic and Mediterranean water masses. The persistence of a clinal pattern in the Atlantic-Mediterranean transition area together with local fluctuations suggests a complex balance of dispersal and selection. PMID:27431989

  17. Seabirds and Atlantic Canada's ship-source oil pollution : impacts, trends, and solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is estimated that 300,000 seabirds die annually in Atlantic Canada as a result of illegal discharges of oil from ships. Chronic oil pollution along the southeast coast of Newfoundland has not been reduced in the last 20 years. The species most affected is the thick-billed murre which over winters on the Grand Banks of Newfoundland and breeds in the Canadian Arctic. Populations of the bird may decline in the next 2 decades if current mortality levels do not decrease. It was argued that fines and enforcement efforts in Atlantic Canada are lax compared to other countries and many ship operators dump their bilges in the coastal areas of Atlantic Canada. The World Wild Life Fund recommends that Canada follow the example of other countries and increase year-round enforcement, impose higher fines, and establish a convenient on-land oil disposal facility. These simple measures could reduce bilge-oil dumping at sea. 78 refs., 4 tabs., 5 figs

  18. The gyre-scale circulation of the North Atlantic and sea level at Brest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. L. Woodworth

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the gyre-scale circulation of the North Atlantic, represented by air pressure near to the centre of the sub-tropical gyre, and sea level measured at the eastern boundary of the ocean has been investigated using records commencing in the middle of the 18th century. These time series are twice as long as those employed in an earlier study of this relationship. Near-continuous values of annual mean sea level and mean high water from Brest, and air pressure fields for the eastern North Atlantic derived from terrestrial instrumental pressure records and ship logbook information, have been used to demonstrate that sea level on the eastern boundary does indeed appear to be related to air pressure at the centre of the gyre (subject to reservations concerning short sub-sections of data near to the ends of the records. These findings confirm the earlier conclusions but over much longer timescales. This relationship can explain at least part of the century timescale accelerations in European sea level records obtained from tide gauge and saltmarsh data. This finding has important implications for interpretation of the observed sea level rise and acceleration on the European Atlantic coast, suggesting that redistribution of water could play an important role instead of (or as well as change in ocean volume.

  19. Sea surface height variability in the North East Atlantic from satellite altimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterlini, Paul; de Vries, Hylke; Katsman, Caroline

    2016-08-01

    Data from 21 years of satellite altimeter measurements are used to identify and understand the major contributing components of sea surface height variability (SSV) on monthly time-scales in the North East Atlantic. A number of SSV drivers is considered, which are categorised into two groups; local (wind and sea surface temperature) and remote (sea level pressure and the North Atlantic oscillation index). A multiple linear regression model is constructed to model the SSV for a specific target area in the North Sea basin. Cross-correlations between candidate regressors potentially lead to ambiguity in the interpretation of the results. We therefore use an objective hierarchical selection method based on variance inflation factors to select the optimal number of regressors for the target area and accept these into the regression model if they can be associated to SSV through a direct underlying physical forcing mechanism. Results show that a region of high SSV exists off the west coast of Denmark and that it can be represented well with a regression model that uses local wind, sea surface temperature and sea level pressure as primary regressors. The regression model developed here helps to understand sea level change in the North East Atlantic. The methodology is generalised and easily applied to other regions.

  20. Where is the ideal location for a US East Coast offshore grid?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dvorak, Michael J.; Stoutenburg, Eric D.; Jacobson, Mark Z.;

    2012-01-01

    This paper identifies the location of an "ideal" offshore wind energy (OWE) grid on the U.S. East Coast that would (1) provide the highest overall and peak-time summer capacity factor, (2) use bottom-mounted turbine foundations (depth 50 m), (3) connect regional transmissions grids from New England...... to the Mid-Atlantic, and (4) have a smoothed power output, reduced hourly ramp rates and hours of zero power. Hourly, high-resolution mesoscale weather model data from 2006-2010 were used to approximate wind farm output. The offshore grid was located in the waters from Long Island, New York to the Georges...... Bank, ≈450 km east. Twelve candidate 500 MW wind farms were located randomly throughout that region. Four wind farms (2000 MW total capacity) were selected for their synergistic meteorological characteristics that reduced offshore grid variability. Sites likely to have sea breezes helped increase...