Weiss, Bahr; Nguyen, Tam; Trung, Lam; Ngo, Victoria; Lau, Anna
Tobacco smoking is one of the most significant modifiable behavioral health risk factors worldwide. Although smoking rates in some high-income countries (HIC) have declined, rates in many low-and-middle-income countries (LMIC) remain high. Adolescence is a key developmental risk period for smoking initiation. Research indicates that a major adolescent risk factor for tobacco smoking is antisocial deviance, which includes such behaviors as aggression, risk-taking, and rule-breaking. The linkages between antisocial deviance and smoking suggest that these behaviors and their underlying attitudes can be important targets for smoking prevention programs, but for public health efficiency it is important to target the components of antisocial deviance most closely linked smoking. However, although 80% of smokers live in LMIC, most relevant research has been conducted in HIC and its applicability to LMIC is unclear, given cultural differences between many HIC and LMIC. The purpose of the present study was to assess cross-cultural variations in relations among components of antisocial deviance and self-reported tobacco smoking among 2,724 10th and 11th grade Vietnamese, Vietnamese-American, and European-American students. Within the combined sample the relation between self-reported smoking and overall antisocial deviance was β = 0.33. However, the component of antisocial deviance most strongly related to smoking varied across groups, with Risk-taking most strongly related to smoking for Vietnamese-American (β = 0.37) and Vietnamese (β = 0.36) adolescents, and Rule-breaking Behavior most strongly related to smoking for European-American (β = 0.51) adolescents. These and other findings suggest the possible importance of culturally-tailored foci for smoking prevention programs emphasizing different aspects of antisocial deviance.
Osilla, Karen Chan; Lonczak, Heather S; Mail, Patricia D; Larimer, Mary E; Marlatt, G Alan
American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) adolescents use tobacco at earlier ages and in larger quantities compared to non-AIAN peers. Regular tobacco use was examined against five protective factors (peer networks supportive of not using drugs, college aspirations, team sports, playing music, and volunteerism). Participants consisted of 112 adolescents between the ages of 13 and 19 who participated in a study testing the efficacy of a life-skills program aimed at reducing substance-related consequences. Findings indicated that, with the exception of prosocial peer networks and volunteerism, each of the above factors was significantly associated with a reduced probability of being a regular tobacco user. Gender differences were notable. These results hold important treatment implications regarding the reduction and prevention of tobacco use among AIAN youth.
D'Silva, Joanne; O'Gara, Erin; Villaluz, Nicole T
Describe the extent to which tobacco industry marketing tactics incorporated American Indian culture and traditional tobacco. A keyword search of industry documents was conducted using document archives from the Truth Tobacco Documents Library. Tobacco industry documents (n=76) were analysed for themes. Tobacco industry marketing tactics have incorporated American Indian culture and traditional tobacco since at least the 1930s, with these tactics prominently highlighted during the 1990s with Natural American Spirit cigarettes. Documents revealed the use of American Indian imagery such as traditional headdresses and other cultural symbols in product branding and the portrayal of harmful stereotypes of Native people in advertising. The historical and cultural significance of traditional tobacco was used to validate commercially available tobacco. The tobacco industry has misappropriated culture and traditional tobacco by misrepresenting American Indian traditions, values and beliefs to market and sell their products for profit. Findings underscore the need for ongoing monitoring of tobacco industry marketing tactics directed at exploiting Native culture and counter-marketing tactics that raise awareness about the distinction between commercial and traditional tobacco use. Such efforts should be embedded within a culturally sensitive framework to reduce the burden of commercial tobacco use. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
DeBon, M; Klesges, R C
To evaluate components of the teenage smoking prevention programmes of the American Lung Association (ALA) and the Tobacco Institute (TI). Group administration of written questionnaires in school. The components of the ALA's and TI's programmes were presented to students in seven strategy vignettes, covering the following topics: peer pressure/enhanced communication; parents as role models; health consequences of smoking; cost of smoking; smoking as an illegal act; tips for quitting smoking; and responsible decision making. 172 seventh-grade students (mean age = 12.3 years) from six parochial schools in Memphis, Tennessee, United States. Student ratings of the perceived effectiveness of the ALA and TI approaches (in helping to stop teens from smoking) within each strategy vignette, and students' choice between these two approaches as to which was the better smoking prevention technique. Although there were some moderating effects of gender and race, participants overall strongly favoured the ALA programme over that of the TI. Of the seven programme components, the ALA's approach was rated more effective on six (peer pressure, parents as role models, the health consequences of smoking, the cost of smoking, tips for quitting smoking, responsible decision making) and the TI's was rated more effective on one (not smoking because it is illegal). The ALA's programme was perceived to be much more effective than the TI's programme by those whom these programmes are ultimately intended to influence-young people. Future research in this area should pursue longitudinal designs to determine if programme endorsement is predictive of smoking status.
Transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) considered Turkey an important, potential investment market because of its high consumption rates and domestic commitment to tobacco. This paper outlines how British American Tobacco (BAT) attempted to establish a joint venture with the government monopoly TEKEL, while waiting for privatisation and a private tender. Analysis of tobacco industry documents from the Guildford Depository and online tobacco document sources. BAT failed to establish a market share in Turkey until 2000 despite repeated attempts to form a joint venture with Turkey's tobacco monopoly, TEKEL, once the market liberalised in the mid 1980s. BAT's failure in the Turkish market was due to a misguided investment strategy focused solely on acquiring TEKEL and is contrasted with Philip Morris success in Turkey despite both TTCs working within Turkey's unstable and corrupt investing climate.
Santana, Yolanda; González, Beatriz; Pinilla, Jaime; Calvo, Jose Ramon; Barber, Patricia
In adolescents aged 12-14, we measured attitudes to tobacco advertising. Our purpose is to understand the relation of these attitudes to tobacco use and identify the groups most influenced by the advertising. Survey of adolescents on Gran Canaria Island, Spain, about aspects of family, school, peers, tobacco consumption, and tobacco advertising. The subjects of the double-stratified cluster sample were 1910 students at the same grade level in 33 schools; 86.6% were 13 or 14 years old, and 51.2% were boys. We generated measures for attitudes to tobacco advertising from replies to seven questions with ordinal scales by an analysis of categorical principal components. To relate attitude to tobacco advertising and the profiles of these adolescents, we used multiple regression and logistic regression models. Attitudes to tobacco advertising are related to some home and school factors, but most significantly to tobacco and alcohol consumption, to amount of time at home without adults, and to peer influence. It is possible to draw up profiles of the students most vulnerable to tobacco advertising, and to cluster them in two groups, the "vitalists" and the "credulous." The effect of cigarette ads is different between these groups. This study can help to orientate smoking prevention.
West, Joshua H; Hall, P Cougar; Page, Randy M; Trinidad, Dennis R; Lindsay, Gordon B
Advertising plays a major role in smoking behavior and forming brand preferences. Additionally, the most advertised tobacco brands have also been the most preferred. Maintaining brand loyalty in Latin America remains a priority for the tobacco industry. The purpose of this study was to explore tobacco brand preference trends from 2003 to 2006, and explore marketing and advertising factors that might be associated with these trends. Data for this study came from Mexican adolescents residing in cities that participated in the Global Youth Tobacco Survey in both 2003 and 2006 and reported smoking either Marlboro or Camel cigarettes in the past 30 days. Respondents reported the brand name of their preferred cigarette during the past 30 days. Multivariate regression analysis was used to determine differences by brand preference and exposure to tobacco marketing and advertising, which was assessed using six items. In 2003, most adolescents preferred Marlboro. By 2006, older boys preferred Camel cigarettes to Marlboro, while girls' preference for Camel was similar to their preference for Marlboro. Adolescents that preferred Camel cigarettes in 2003 also reported greater exposure to tobacco marketing and advertising. Findings indicate that there are ongoing shifts in youth brand preference in Mexico, and that these shifts might be related to marketing and advertising practices. There is an ongoing need for monitoring marketing and advertising practices in an effort to protect adolescents from tobacco company exploits.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between behavioral problems and tobacco smoking among adolescent students in Chile. METHODS: Data were drawn from a study that included questionnaire surveys of 46 907 school-attending adolescents in all 13 of the administrative regions of Chile. Assessments were based on an adapted, Spanish-language version of the Drug Use Screening Inventory. The conditional form of the logistic regression model was used for analysis, with matching of students on individual schools, and with further statistical adjustments for sex, age, and selected risk factors. RESULTS: The prevalence of tobacco smoking among the adolescents was very high across all of Chile, with a level between 56% and 65% in each of the 13 regions. The estimated odds of tobacco use in youths at the highest level of behavioral problems was about twice that for youths at the lowest levels, both before and after controlling for sex, age, lack of participation in recreational activities, level of irritability, and levels of problems with school, family attention, and mental health. CONCLUSIONS: These findings help to complement and complete the evidence of prior studies on tobacco smoking among adolescents with behavior problems, including recent research on Central American youths. Although the magnitude of observed associations in Chile was not as great as that for the associations found in Central America, both the strength of these associations and their statistical significance were observed throughout Chile. This is the first study in Chile on potentially causal relationships such as these.
Roberts, Megan E; Colby, Suzanne M; Lu, Bo; Ferketich, Amy K
Compared to the majority of non-Hispanic white ("white") cigarette smokers, many African American smokers demonstrate a later age of initiation. The goal of the present study was to examine African American late-onset smoking (ie, regular smoking beginning at age 18 or later) and determine whether late-onset (vs. early-onset) smoking is protective in terms of quit rates and health outcomes. We used data from the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS) because the wide age range of participants (20-75 at baseline) allowed the examination of smoking cessation and mortality incidence across the lifespan. Consistent with previous research, results indicated a later average age of smoking onset among African Americans, compared to whites. Disentangling effects of race from age-of-onset, we found that the cessation rate among late-onset African American smokers was 33%, whereas rates for early-onset African American smokers and early- and late-onset white smokers ranged from 52% to 57%. Finally, results showed that among white, low-socioeconomic status (SES) smokers, the hazard rate for mortality was greater among early- versus late-onset smokers; in contrast, among African American smokers (both low- and high-SES) hazard rates for mortality did not significantly differ among early- versus late-onset smokers. Although late (vs. early) smoking onset may be protective for whites, the present results suggest that late-onset may not be similarly protective for African Americans. Tobacco programs and regulatory policies focused on prevention should expand their perspective to include later ages of initiation, in order to avoid widening tobacco-related health disparities. This study indicates that late-onset smoking is not only the norm among African American adult smokers, but that late- versus early-onset smoking (ie, delaying onset) does not appear to afford any benefits for African Americans in terms of cessation or mortality. These results
Ohm, Julie Juhye
The formation of ego identity in Asian American late adolescents attending Virginia Tech was examined within the frameworks of Erikson's psychosocial theory and Berry, Trimble, and Olmedo's model of acculturation. Ego identity was measured using the Achieved sub-scale of the Revised Version of the Extended Objective Measure of Ego Identity Status, an instrument based on the theoretical constructs of Erikson. Ethnic identity was measured using the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure and America...
Mathur, Neha; Gupta, Vinay K; Nazar, Gaurang P; Reddy, K Srinath; Sargent, James D
Background Smoking in Hollywood movies is a known risk factor for teen smoking in the USA and Europe, but little is known about the association between exposure to tobacco use in Bollywood movies and teen tobacco use in India. Methods A cross-sectional sample of 3956 adolescents (eighth and ninth grades, ages 12–16 years) from 12 randomly selected New Delhi schools was surveyed in 2009, assessing tobacco use status, receptivity to tobacco promotions (based on owning or being willing to wear tobacco-branded merchandise) and exposure to tobacco use in movies. Quartiles of exposure to tobacco use in popular Bollywood movies released from 2006 to 2008 (n=59) were determined by content coding them for tobacco use and querying the adolescents whether they had seen each one. Logistic regression was used to control for covariates including age, gender, parent education, school performance, sensation-seeking propensity, family and peer tobacco use, and authoritative parenting. Results Altogether, the 59 movies contained 412 tobacco use occurrences. The prevalence of ever tobacco use among adolescents was 5.3%. Compared with low-exposure adolescents (quartile 1), the adjusted odds of ever tobacco use among high-exposure adolescents (quartile 4) was 2.3 (95% CI 1.3 to 3.9). Being receptive to tobacco promotions was also associated with higher adjusted odds of ever tobacco use, 2.0 (95% CI 1.4 to 3.0). Conclusion Watching tobacco use in Bollywood movies and receptivity to tobacco promotional activities were both independently associated with ever tobacco use among adolescents in India, with ORs being similar to the studies of adolescents elsewhere. PMID:21730099
Aroian, Karen J.
Although there is ample evidence of discrimination toward Muslim Americans in general, there is limited information specific to Muslim American adolescents. The few existing studies specific to this age group suggest that Muslim American adolescents encounter much discrimination from teachers, school administrators, and classmates. This…
To assess the likelihood that young adolescents perceive that parents have legitimate authority regarding cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption; to test whether perceived parental authority predicts adolescents' use of tobacco and alcohol, and to test the association between parenting style and the legitimacy of parental authority regarding tobacco and alcohol. Survey data were obtained in 1997 from 1220 sixth and eighth grade adolescents enrolled in a central North Carolina school district. The sample comprised 72.3% of 1687 eligible students and 92.3% of 1321 students with parental consent; 83.8% of the sample was European-American and 16.2% African-American. Students completed self-report questionnaires administered in classrooms. Logistic regression models were used to test the study hypotheses. Adolescents were significantly more likely to legitimize parental authority regarding tobacco and alcohol than parental authority regarding conventional or contemporary issues. Failure to legitimize parental authority was associated with significantly greater odds of current smoking (OR = 4.06; p parental authority regarding tobacco and alcohol varied significantly by parenting style. The results discredit the myth that adolescents uniformly disregard parental values and rules regarding tobacco and alcohol. The results also showed that general parenting style covaried strongly with adolescents' perceptions of parental authority regarding substance use. Additional research is warranted to test for causal relations between general parenting style, adolescents' perceptions of parental authority regarding substance use, and adolescents' risk of substance use.
Neuman, M; Bitton, A; Glantz, S
Objective: The Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, third edition (DSM-III), published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) in 1980, included the first official definitions by the APA of tobacco dependence and tobacco withdrawal. Tobacco industry efforts to influence the DSM-III were investigated.
Smokeless tobacco use is a significant part of the overall world tobacco problem. When the habit is introduced early in life, it increases the chance for permanent addiction and primes adolescents for use of harder drugs, exposing them to higher risk of oral cancer and other adverse effects of tobacco. This baseline study ...
Epps, R P; Manley, M W; Glynn, T J
Tobacco use is a major public health problem that has its onset during childhood and adolescence. To prevent the onset, physicians can reach children and their parents in their offices beginning in the prenatal period and continuing through adulthood. For pediatricians and other physicians who care for children, NCI recommends five office-based activities that begin with the letter A. The 5 As include anticipatory guidance, ask, advise, assist, and arrange follow-up visits. Elimination of tobacco use requires a comprehensive strategy that includes health professional interventions, policy changes, advertising restrictions, comprehensive school-based programs, community activities, and advocacy approaches. Physicians and health professionals have major roles to play in each of these interventions.
exposure. Pediatricians, their staff and colleagues, and the American Academy of Pediatrics have key responsibilities in tobacco control to promote the health of children, adolescents, and young adults.
Murphey, David; Barry, Megan; Vaughn, Brigitte; Terzian, Mary
Cigarette smoking has steadily declined among adolescents during the last fifteen years, although use of some tobacco products, like cigars, has seen recent increases. However, large numbers of teens continue to use tobacco products. This "Adolescent Health Highlight" presents key research findings; describes prevalence and trends; illustrates…
Veeranki, Sreenivas P; Alzyoud, Sukaina; Dierking, Leah; Kheriallah, Khalid; Mzayek, Fawaz; Pbert, Lori; Ward, Kenneth D
Previous studies have demonstrated the influence of parental (both mother and father) cigarette smoking on adolescents' cigarette smoking. Little is known, however, about how parental tobacco use is related to waterpipe and dual waterpipe/cigarette use, which is increasing dramatically in the Arab countries. Study data (n = 34 788, N = 6 109 572) were obtained from nationally representative Global Youth Tobacco Surveys in 17 Arab countries. Study outcome was adolescents' tobacco use categorized into none, cigarette smoking only, waterpipe smoking (WPS) only, and dual use. Primary exposure included parental tobacco use categorized into 10 groups-maternal (mother) cigarette smoking only, maternal WPS only, maternal dual use, paternal (father) cigarette smoking only, paternal WPS only, paternal dual use, parental (both mother and father) cigarette smoking only, parental WPS only, parental dual use, and none. Weighted multinomial regression models were conducted to assess the relationships. Adolescents reported smoking WPS only (5.7%), cigarettes only (2.9%), and dual use (3.5%). Compared to adolescent with no exposure to parental tobacco use, adolescent exposure to parental dual use was associated with significant increase in WPS only (OR = 6.08, 95% CI = 2.38-15.51) and dual use (OR = 3.86, 95% CI = 1.43-10.43). Effect modification of the relationship by adolescents' sex was observed. This is the first study to examine adolescent cigarette, waterpipe, and dual use with parental tobacco use. Study findings may help development of cessation interventions targeting parental tobacco use to prevent the rising waterpipe and dual use strain of the global tobacco epidemic. (1) Influence of parents' cigarette smoking on adolescents' smoking has been demonstrated in earlier studies, however, little is known about how tobacco use behaviors of mother and father influences an adolescent's cigarette, waterpipe and dual cigarette/waterpipe use. (2) Associations of parental (both
Maxwell, Annette E; Garcia, Gabriel M; Berman, Barbara A
Although lung cancer is the top cancer killer among Filipino American men, data on tobacco-related knowledge and attitudes, cessation efforts, and preferences for smoking cessation programs among this population are lacking. We interviewed a community sample of 318 Filipino American men (110 current, 108 former, and 100 never-smokers, all immigrants) aged 40-75 years in Los Angeles County in English and Tagalog, to gain a better understanding of their tobacco use as a first step toward developing a culturally tailored smoking cessation program. In our sample, smokers had lower levels of education and income compared with nonsmokers and were less acculturated based on language use and English fluency. Smokers were more likely than nonsmokers to agree that smoking can alleviate stress, depression, and boredom, and that it is part of social interactions, growing up, being a man, and looking mature. These beliefs were summarized in a Smoking Beliefs Scale (Cronbach's alpha = .84), which predicted current smoking in a multivariate analysis, together with perceived risk of getting smoking-related diseases and peer norms. The most preferred smoking cessation intervention formats were educational small group sessions with other Filipino men (32%), followed by one-on-one consultations by a health professional (26%), video (20%), pamphlet (17%), and toll-free telephone number (6%). More than half of the current smokers requested these smoking cessation activities in Tagalog (34%) or a combination of Tagalog and English (24%). Based on these findings, we make specific recommendations for a smoking cessation program for Filipino men.
Tunstall, Helena; Shortt, Niamh K; Niedzwiedz, Claire L; Richardson, Elizabeth A; Mitchell, Richard J; Pearce, Jamie R
Despite long-term falls in global adult smoking prevalence and over 50 years of tobacco control policies, adolescent smoking persists. Research suggests greater densities of tobacco retail outlets in residential neighbourhoods are associated with higher adolescent smoking rates. Policies to reduce retail outlets have therefore been identified by public health researchers as a potential 'new frontier' in tobacco control. Better understanding of the pathways linking density of tobacco retailers and smoking behaviour could support these policies. In this study we use path analysis to assess how outlet density in the home environment is related to adolescent tobacco knowledge, beliefs, retail purchases and price in Scotland. We assessed 22,049 13 and 15 year old respondents to the nationally representative cross-sectional 2010 Scottish School Adolescent Lifestyle and Substance Use Survey. Outlet density was based on Scottish Tobacco Retailers Register, 2012, data. A spatially-weighted Kernel Density Estimation measure of outlet density within 400 m of respondents' home postcode was grouped into tertiles. The analysis considered whether outlet density was associated with the number of cigarette brands adolescents could name, positive beliefs about smoking, whether smokers purchased cigarettes from shops themselves or through adult proxies and perceived cost of cigarettes. Models were stratified by adolescent smoking status. The path analyses indicated that outlet density was not associated with most outcomes, but small, significant direct effects on knowledge of cigarette brands among those who had never smoked were observed. With each increase in outlet density tertile the mean number of brands adolescents could name rose by 0.07 (mean = 1.60; SD = 1.18; range = 4). This suggests greater outlet densities may have affected adolescents' knowledge of cigarette brands but did not encourage positive attitudes to smoking, purchases from shops or lower cigarette
Soneji, Samir; Sargent, James; Tanski, Susanne
To assess the extent to which multiple tobacco product use among adolescents and young adults falls outside current Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulatory authority. We conducted a web-based survey of 1596 16-26-year-olds to assess use of 11 types of tobacco products. We ascertained current (past 30 days) tobacco product use among 927 respondents who ever used tobacco. Combustible tobacco products included cigarettes, cigars (little filtered, cigarillos, premium) and hookah; non-combustible tobacco products included chew, dip, dissolvables, e-cigarettes, snuff and snus. We then fitted an ordinal logistic regression model to assess demographic and behavioural associations with higher levels of current tobacco product use (single, dual and multiple product use). Among 448 current tobacco users, 54% were single product users, 25% dual users and 21% multiple users. The largest single use category was cigarettes (49%), followed by hookah (23%), little filtered cigars (17%) and e-cigarettes (5%). Most dual and multiple product users smoked cigarettes, along with little filtered cigars, hookah and e-cigarettes. Forty-six per cent of current single, 84% of dual and 85% of multiple tobacco product users consumed a tobacco product outside FDA regulatory authority. In multivariable analysis, the adjusted risk of multiple tobacco use was higher for males, first use of a non-combustible tobacco product, high sensation seeking respondents and declined for each additional year of age that tobacco initiation was delayed. Nearly half of current adolescent and young adult tobacco users in this study engaged in dual and multiple tobacco product use; the majority of them used products that fall outside current FDA regulatory authority. This study supports FDA deeming of these products and their incorporation into the national media campaign to address youth tobacco use. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a
Doku, D; Koivusilta, L; Raisamo, S; Rimpelä, A
With a long history of tobacco cultivation, adolescents in Ghana are at relatively high risk of the emerging tobacco epidemic in developing countries. This study explored exposure to tobacco promoting/restraining factors and their associations with smoking and tawa (traditional smokeless tobacco) use among 13-18-year-old Ghanaians. School-based representative data were collected in 2008 (n = 1165). Prevalence rates of tobacco use, smoking and tawa use were 9.1% (11.5% boys and 6.4% girls), 6.6% (8.0% boys and 4.7% girls) and 5.7% (7.3% boys and 3.9% girls), respectively. Four percent of the respondents attended schools without a smoking ban, 66% had been taught about the harmful effects of smoking in the current school year, and 53% had been exposed to tobacco advertising. Fifty-three percent of adolescents who had tried to purchase tobacco products were not refused because of their age. Multivariate analyses found that attendance at a school where smoking was allowed, not having been taught about the harmful effects of smoking, exposure to tobacco advertising and parental smoking were positively associated with tobacco use, and knowledge that smoking is harmful to health and difficult to quit were negatively associated with tobacco use. Both smoking and tawa use were relatively low among Ghanaian adolescents. Exposure to tobacco advertising was high. There is no tobacco legislation in Ghana, but societal norms or cultural values seem to restrict smoking in schools and access to tobacco products. Copyright © 2012 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Neuman, M D; Bitton, A; Glantz, S A
The Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, third edition (DSM-III), published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) in 1980, included the first official definitions by the APA of tobacco dependence and tobacco withdrawal. Tobacco industry efforts to influence the DSM-III were investigated. Searches of previously secret tobacco industry documents, primarily the University of California San Francisco Legacy Tobacco Documents Library and British American Tobacco collections. Additional information was collected through discussions with editors of DSM-III, and library and general internet searches. The tobacco companies regarded the inclusion of tobacco dependence as a diagnosis in DSM-III as an adverse event. It worked to influence the content of the DSM-III and its impact following publication. These efforts included public statements and private lobbying of DSM-III editors and high ranking APA officers by prominent US psychiatrists with undisclosed ties to the tobacco industry. Following publication of DSM-III, tobacco companies contracted with two US professors of psychiatry to organise a conference and publish a monograph detailing controversies surrounding DSM-III. The tobacco industry and its allies lobbied to narrow the definition of tobacco dependence in serial revisions of DSM-III. Following publication of DSM-III, the industry took steps to try to mitigate its impact. These actions mirror industry tactics to influence medical research and policy in various contexts worldwide. Such tactics slow the spread of a professional and public understanding of smoking and health that otherwise would reduce smoking, smoking induced disease, and tobacco company profits.
Objective: To estimate the prevalence of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) inside or outside the home among school-going adolescents in Kampala, Uganda. Methods: Data from the Kampala Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) of 2002 was used. We estimated frequencies and proportions of self reported exposure to ...
Adamczyk-Robinette, Stacey L.; Fletcher, Anne C.; Wright, Kristie
Studied the link between authoritative parenting style and early adolescent tobacco use through the self-reports of 156 eighth graders and independent reports on tobacco use from their friends. Results show that high levels of authoritative parenting are associated with lower levels of tobacco use among target adolescents. (SLD)
Verdonk-Kleinjan, Wendy M I; Knibbe, Ronald A; Bieleman, Bert; de Groot, Henk N; de Vries, Hein
The study aimed to assess the effect of the introduction on 1 January 2003 of a legal tobacco sales ban in The Netherlands on tobacco purchases by smoking and non-smoking adolescents aged <16 years. Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted among adolescents aged 13 through 15 years, one at end 1999 (n = 4751) and the other at end 2003 (n = 13 298). The percentage of adolescents buying tobacco decreased significantly from 26.3% in 1999 to 10.8% in 2003 (P < 0.001). Further analysis showed that, after the ban, the proportion of smokers among buyers almost tripled [Odds Ratio (OR) = 2.9], while the likelihood of non-smokers buying tobacco decreased strongly (OR = 0.17). A difference in the pattern of purchasing tobacco also emerged after the ban. In 2003, the proportion of smokers buying at least weekly in commercial outlets was larger than in 1999. For non-smokers there was no difference between 1999 and 2003 in the proportion buying weekly. The variety of commercial outlets in which purchases were made increased among both smoking and non-smoking purchasers of tobacco. Implementation of the 2003 tobacco sales ban has had the (intended) effect of lowering tobacco purchases among adolescents. This was mainly due to the decrease in the likelihood of buying tobacco among those who regard themselves as a non-smoker. The decrease in buying tobacco is associated with a decrease in prevalence of smoking. The sales ban has probably contributed to a stronger decrease in prevalence of smoking.
Karen S. Calabro
Full Text Available Context: The American Academy of Pediatrics and professional guidelines recommend intervening with adolescents about avoiding tobacco use in the health-care setting. Barriers in the clinical setting limit consistent provision of this critical service. Objectives: This pilot study compared 2 approaches for referring adolescents to an evidence-based tobacco prevention and cessation program in the outpatient setting. Secondary aims assessed tobacco use, knowledge, and program evaluation. Design, Setting, and Participants: The study setting was a medical and dental clinic. Participants aged 13 to 18 received tobacco advice and instructions to work through “A Smoking Prevention Interactive Experience.” The program addresses health concerns of adolescents about tobacco use and is founded on behavioral change theories. The link to access it is featured on the website of the National Cancer Institute’s Research-Tested Interventions. Participants (N = 197 were randomized to 1 of 2 approaches (ie, a program link via e-mail or referral by a printed card. Results: The program was accessed by 57% (112 of 197 of participants. Both referral approaches were equally effective. Non-Hispanics were twice as likely to access the program as Hispanics (adjusted odds ratio = 2.1, 95% confidence interval = 1.2-3.8, P < .05. Over 95% of participants identified themselves as nonusers of tobacco and evaluated the program as beneficial in increasing knowledge and motivation to remain tobacco-free. Conclusion: Linking adolescent patients to an evidence-based tobacco prevention/cessation program at a community health clinic was highly promising and feasible. We present conclusions for future research.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to analyze the effect of self-esteem, assertiveness, self-efficacy and resiliency on alcohol and tobacco consumption in adolescents.METHOD: a descriptive and correlational study was undertaken with 575 adolescents in 2010. The Self-Esteem Scale, the Situational Confidence Scale, the Assertiveness Questionnaire and the Resiliency Scale were used.RESULTS: the adjustment of the logistic regression model, considering age, sex, self-esteem, assertiveness, self-efficacy and resiliency, demonstrates significance in the consumption of alcohol and tobacco. Age, resiliency and assertiveness predict alcohol consumption in the lifetime and assertiveness predicts alcohol consumption in the last year. Similarly, age and sex predict tobacco consumption in the lifetime and age in the last year.CONCLUSION: this study can offer important information to plan nursing interventions involving adolescent alcohol and tobacco users.
Alvarez-Aguirre, Alicia; Alonso-Castillo, María Magdalena; Zanetti, Ana Carolina Guidorizzi
to analyze the effect of self-esteem, assertiveness, self-efficacy and resiliency on alcohol and tobacco consumption in adolescents. a descriptive and correlational study was undertaken with 575 adolescents in 2010. The Self-Esteem Scale, the Situational Confidence Scale, the Assertiveness Questionnaire and the Resiliency Scale were used. the adjustment of the logistic regression model, considering age, sex, self-esteem, assertiveness, self-efficacy and resiliency, demonstrates significance in the consumption of alcohol and tobacco. Age, resiliency and assertiveness predict alcohol consumption in the lifetime and assertiveness predicts alcohol consumption in the last year. Similarly, age and sex predict tobacco consumption in the lifetime and age in the last year. this study can offer important information to plan nursing interventions involving adolescent alcohol and tobacco users.
Alvarez-Aguirre, Alicia; Alonso-Castillo, María Magdalena; Zanetti, Ana Carolina Guidorizzi
OBJECTIVES: to analyze the effect of self-esteem, assertiveness, self-efficacy and resiliency on alcohol and tobacco consumption in adolescents. METHOD: a descriptive and correlational study was undertaken with 575 adolescents in 2010. The Self-Esteem Scale, the Situational Confidence Scale, the Assertiveness Questionnaire and the Resiliency Scale were used. RESULTS: the adjustment of the logistic regression model, considering age, sex, self-esteem, assertiveness, self-efficacy and resiliency, demonstrates significance in the consumption of alcohol and tobacco. Age, resiliency and assertiveness predict alcohol consumption in the lifetime and assertiveness predicts alcohol consumption in the last year. Similarly, age and sex predict tobacco consumption in the lifetime and age in the last year. CONCLUSION: this study can offer important information to plan nursing interventions involving adolescent alcohol and tobacco users. PMID:25591103
Full Text Available Background: Adolescence is a very delicate and vulnerable age when children are exposed to the harmful and damaging culture of the society. Tobacco habits are increasingly becoming an annoying menace to the Indian society since the past few years. The teenage group is fast catching up the tobacco habits because of its easy availability in the local Indian markets. Thus, this study was envisaged to analyze the factors responsible for this adverse habit and to obtain an overview of the trends in tobacco habits in young children of North India. Methods: Eight hundred and sixteen schoolchildren in the age group of 14–19 years of different schools of Meerut city were instructed to fill the prepared questionnaires. Results were formulated and statistical analysis was done. Results: Chi-square analysis revealed significant difference between tobacco users and nonusers. Smokeless habit was more prevalent among adolescent boys. Peer pressure was the most cited reason for initiating the tobacco habit while parental influence helped the most in abstaining from this adverse addiction. Conclusion: Despite the existence of anti-tobacco regulations in India, tobacco dependence in adolescents raises an alarm for the Indian community and stringent steps are required to remove this menace.
Suris, J.C.; Berchtold, A.; Bélanger, R.; Akre, C.
The main objective of this longitudinal research is to answer the following question: What is the relationship between tobacco and cannabis use trajectories from adolescence to young adulthood? And more specifically we are interested in: A. If the use of one of the substances (tobacco or cannabis) decreases overtime, does the use of the other one increase to compensate? Are other substances (such as alcohol, for example) also used to compensate in these cases? B. Does the probability...
Bello, Mariel S; Pang, Raina D; Cropsey, Karen L; Zvolensky, Michael J; Reitzel, Lorraine R; Huh, Jimi; Leventhal, Adam M
Persistent tobacco use among racial and ethnic minority populations in the United States is a critical public health concern. Yet, potential sources of racial/ethnic disparities in tobacco use remain unclear. The present study examined racial/ethnic differences in tobacco withdrawal-a clinically-relevant underpinning of tobacco use that has received sparse attention in the disparities literature-utilizing a controlled laboratory design. Daily smokers (non-Hispanic African American [n = 178], non-Hispanic white [n = 118], and Hispanic [n = 28]) attended two counterbalanced sessions (non-abstinent vs. 16-hour abstinent). At both sessions, self-report measures of urge, nicotine withdrawal, and affect were administered and performance on an objective behavioral task that assessed motivation to reinstate smoking was recorded. Abstinence-induced changes (abstinent scores vs. non-abstinent scores) were analyzed as a function of race/ethnicity. Non-Hispanic African American smokers reported greater abstinence-induced declines in several positive affect states in comparison to other racial/ethnic groups. Relative to Hispanic smokers, non-Hispanic African American and non-Hispanic white smokers displayed larger abstinence-provoked increases in urges to smoke. No racial/ethnic differences were detected for a composite measure of nicotine withdrawal symptomatology, negative affect states, and motivation to reinstate smoking behavior. These results suggest qualitative differences in the expression of some components of tobacco withdrawal across three racial/ethnic groups. This research helps shed light on bio-behavioral sources of tobacco-related health disparities, informs the application of smoking cessation interventions across racial/ethnic groups, and may ultimately aid the overall effort towards reducing the public health burden of tobacco addiction in minority populations. The current study provides some initial evidence that there may be qualitative differences in the
Agaku, Israel T.; Ayo-Yusuf, Olalekan A.
Introduction: This study assessed the influence of exposure to pro-tobacco advertisements on experimentation with emerging tobacco products among U.S. adolescents aged =9 years, in Grades 6 to 12. Method: Data were obtained from the 2011 National Youth Tobacco Survey. Multivariate logistic regression was used to measure the association between…
Freeman, Becky; Chapman, Simon
Background The World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) bans all forms of tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship. The comprehensiveness of this ban has yet to be tested by online social networking media such as Facebook. In this paper, the activities of employees of the transnational tobacco company, British American Tobacco, (BAT) on Facebook and the type of content associated with two globally popular BAT brands (Dunhill and Lucky Strike) are mapp...
Pesko, Michael F; Robarts, Adam M T
Adults and adolescents who reside in rural areas of the United States are traditionally more likely to be tobacco users. This urban-rural disparity remains largely unexplained and, more recently, it is unclear what impact the emergence of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) has had on adolescent tobacco use in urban and rural areas. Our objective is to evaluate the influence of sociodemographics and tobacco control policy environments on adolescent tobacco use in urban versus rural areas, as well as to identify the effect of e-cigarettes on traditional patterns of urban-rural tobacco use. This study analyzes repeated cross-sectional data from the National Youth Tobacco Survey for the years 2011-2014. We estimate the associations between rural residence, cigarette taxes, tobacco advertisement exposure, and ease of access to tobacco with six tobacco use outcomes: current (past 30-day) use of cigarettes, e-cigarettes, cigars, smokeless tobacco, multiple tobacco products, and any tobacco. E-cigarette use among urban youths aged 11-17 years in the United States increased from .82% in 2011 to 8.62% in 2014 (p e-cigarettes. Our predictors account for approximately 40% of the difference in urban-rural cigarette use. Sociodemographics, cigarette taxes, and tobacco advertisement exposure are significant predictors of adolescent tobacco use in the United States but do not entirely explain urban-rural disparities. In addition, e-cigarettes appear to be rapidly changing traditional patterns of tobacco use, particularly in urban areas. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sabit Abazinab Ababulgu
Full Text Available Tobacco use is responsible for 6 million deaths globally per year, of which 600,000 deaths are due to secondhand smoke (SHS mainly among women and children. This study aims to determine the prevalence of SHS exposure among school-going adolescents and highlights the essential determinants in developing successful strategies to prevent adverse health effects in Ethiopia. The analysis is based on a school based cross sectional study where 1673 students with 98.2% of response rate from grade 9-12, aged 13-19 were included. Data was collected by a self-administered questionnaire that is adapted from the global youth tobacco survey questionnaire. Proportions and 95% confidence intervals were obtained as estimates of prevalence. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were made using logistic regression on SPSS version 20.0 software in order to predict factors associated with SHS exposure. About 17% of adolescents were exposed to tobacco smoke in their home, whereas more than half (60.8% of adolescents were exposed to tobacco smoke in public places. In multivariate analysis, sex, parent smoking, peer smoking, and absence of discussion in the classroom about dangers of smoking were seen significantly associated with SHS exposure. The prevalence of SHS exposure among adolescents in Ethiopia is highest. Moreover, exposure to SHS in public places is much higher than at home.
Schreuders, Michael; Nuyts, Paulien A. W.; van den Putte, Bas; Kunst, Anton E.
Background: Secondary schools increasingly implement school tobacco policies (STPs) to decrease adolescents' smoking. Recent studies suggested that STPs' impact depends on their implementation. We examined adolescents' cognitive and behavioural responses to STPs that impact adolescents' smoking and
Schreuders, M.; Nuyts, P.A.W.; van den Putte, B.; Kunst, A.E.
Background Secondary schools increasingly implement school tobacco policies (STPs) to decrease adolescents' smoking. Recent studies suggested that STPs' impact depends on their implementation. We examined adolescents' cognitive and behavioural responses to STPs that impact adolescents' smoking and
Abstract The objective of the study was to evaluate the link between tattoos and/or piercings and young people's tobacco consumption. A total of 2587 students (1168 females and 1419 males) were asked about tattoos, piercings, and tobacco consumption. Young men and young girls who had tattoos and/or wore piercings were more likely to report smoking behavior, earlier smoking behavior, and higher cigarette consumption per day. It was also found that both with men and women, the combined effects of piercings and tattoos were associated with an increase in smoking behavior. Piercings and/or tattoos as well as combined piercings and tattoos appeared as markers of tobacco consumption. Such marks could serve as signs for educators, parents, and physicians.
Brown, Abraham; Moodie, Crawford
Using cross-sectional data from three waves of the Youth Tobacco Policy Study, which examines the impact of the UK's Tobacco Advertising and Promotion Act (TAPA) on adolescent smoking behaviour, we examined normative pathways between tobacco marketing awareness and smoking intentions. The sample comprised 1121 adolescents in Wave 2 (pre-ban), 1123…
Hawkins, Summer Sherburne; Bach, Nicoline; Baum, Christopher F.
Background While increasing cigarette taxes has been a major policy driver to decrease smoking, taxes on other tobacco products have received less attention. Our aims were to evaluate the impact of chewing tobacco/cigar taxes, cigarette taxes, and smoke-free legislation on adolescent male and female use of smokeless tobacco and cigars. Methods We analyzed data on 499,381 adolescents age 14-18 years from 36 US states in the Youth Risk Behavior Surveys (1999-2013) linked to state-level tobacco ...
Kabir, M A; Goh, Kim-Leng; Khan, M M H
Adolescent tobacco use (ATU) is on the rise worldwide and the problem is particularly severe in developing countries. Based on nationally representative data, this study aims to investigate the association between ATU and its possible correlates for Bangladesh, where the prevalence rate of ATU is high. The data set is extracted from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey for Bangladesh conducted in 2007. The survey collected information from a total of 3113 students from 52 schools, with a response rate of 100% at the school level, while a response rate of 88.9% was achieved from the students. Students covered in the survey were in grades 7, 8, 9, and 10, with age ranging from 11 to 17 years. The prevalence rate of ATU at the time of the survey was 8.4%, while 35.6% of the students had used at least a type of tobacco products before. Logistic regressions were used to obtain the odds ratios (ORs) in favor of ATU for each of the possible determinants and the confidence intervals (CIs) of these ratios. Use of tobacco among friends (OR = 3.46; CI = 2.37-5.05), the experience of seeing others smoking at home (OR = 2.10; CI = 1.36-3.22) or other places (OR = 1.6; CI = 1.02-2.57), receiving pocket money (OR = 7.6; CI = 4.59-13.28), receiving free tobacco from vendors (OR = 2.3; CI = 1.44-3.78), and exposure to advertisements and promotions of tobacco products (OR = 1.83; CI = 1.23-2.79) were associated with a higher likelihood of ATU. Increased awareness of health hazards of tobacco use through education in schools helped mitigate the problem of ATU. The findings of this study have ramifications for tobacco control prevention strategies in Bangladesh. © 2013 APJPH.
Otañez, M G; Muggli, M E; Hurt, R D; Glantz, S A
To examine British American Tobacco and other tobacco industry support of the Eliminating Child Labour in Tobacco Growing Foundation. Analyses of internal tobacco industry documents and ethnographic data. British American Tobacco co-founded the Eliminating Child Labour in Tobacco Growing Foundation (ECLT) in October 2000 and launched its pilot project in Malawi. ECLT's initial projects were budgeted at US2.3 million dollars over four years. Labour unions and leaf dealers, through ECLT funds, have undertook modest efforts such as building schools, planting trees, and constructing shallow wells to address the use of child labour in tobacco farming. In stark contrast, the tobacco companies receive nearly US40 million dollars over four years in economic benefit through the use of unpaid child labour in Malawi during the same time. BAT's efforts to combat child labour in Malawi through ECLT was developed to support the company's "corporate social responsibility agenda" rather than accepting responsibility for taking meaningful steps to eradicate child labour in the Malawi tobacco sector. In Malawi, transnational tobacco companies are using child labour projects to enhance corporate reputations and distract public attention from how they profit from low wages and cheap tobacco.
Thrasher, James F.; Niederdeppe, Jeffrey D.; Jackson, Christine; Farrelly, Matthew C.
Media campaigns to prevent adolescent tobacco use in the United States increasingly focus on the deceitful practices of the tobacco industry; however, little is known about how adolescents at elevated smoking risk respond to this strategy. This study used data from a nationally representative survey of 10,035 adolescents, ages 12-17 years, in…
Gwon, Seok Hyun; DeGuzman, Pamela B.; Kulbok, Pamela A.; Jeong, Suyong
Adolescent smoking prevention is an important issue in health care. This literature review describes the theoretical concept of ecological model for adolescent smoking and tobacco retailers and summarizes previous studies on the association between the density and proximity of tobacco retailers and adolescent smoking. We reviewed nine studies on…
Ditchburn, K. Marie; Sellman, J. Douglas
Three main aims of this study were to ascertain the prevalence rate of smoking among adolescent psychiatric outpatients; estimate smokers' degree of nicotine dependence; and investigate the relationship between smoking and common mental health disorders. Face-to-face interviews were conducted on 93 patients ages 13-18 presenting to an adolescent…
Sreenivas P. Veeranki
Approximately 19% (30.7% males; 10.2% females of adolescents currently smoke cigarettes, and 7% (8.5% males and 5.8% females currently use non-cigarette tobacco products. Regardless of sex, peer smoking behavior was significantly associated with increased tobacco use among adolescents. In addition, exposures to tobacco industry promotions, secondhand smoke (SHS and anti-smoking media messages were associated with tobacco use. The strong gender gap in the use of non-cigarette tobacco products, and the role of peer smoking and industry promotions in adolescent females’ tobacco use should be of major advocacy and policy concern. A comprehensive tobacco control program integrating parental and peer education, creating social norms, and ban on promotions is necessary to reduce adolescents’ tobacco use.
Yuwen, W; Chen, A C C
Asian Americans are one of the fastest-growing minority groups in the USA, and Chinese constitute the largest group. Evidence suggests that Asian American adolescents experience higher levels of depressive symptoms than their same-gender white counterparts. Quantitative findings suggest associations between parenting factors and Chinese American adolescents' mental health. A qualitative understanding regarding Chinese American adolescents' perceived parenting styles and its relationship with adolescents' psychosocial health is warranted. To gain an in-depth understanding of Chinese American adolescents' perceived parenting styles and how parenting styles might influence adolescents' psychosocial health. In this qualitative study, we recruited 15 Chinese American adolescents aged 12-17 years in a southwest metropolitan area. We conducted two focus group interviews. Participants also filled out a brief questionnaire that included their socio-demographic information, immigration history and level of acculturation. Participants reported perceiving that parents had high expectations about academic performance and moral values. They also perceived stricter family rules regarding choices of friends compared with their non-Asian peers. Parents tended to be more protective of girls than of boys. Both Chinese American boys and girls reported poor or ineffective communication with their parents, which contributed to increased conflict between parents and adolescents and emotional distress of the adolescents. The findings provide evidence for nurses to develop linguistically and culturally tailored resources (e.g. parent support groups, programs aimed to improving parent-child communication) or connect these families with existing resources to enhance parenting skills and consequently reduce emotional distress of their adolescent children. © 2012 The Authors. International Nursing Review © 2012 International Council of Nurses.
Courtois, Robert; Caudrelier, Nathalie; Legay, Emilie; Lalande, Gabrielle; Halimi, Aline; Jonas, Carol
To study the influence of parenting styles and of parental smoking and nicotine dependence on their adolescent children's tobacco use. This study, conducted in 2005, included 542 students from a French high school and 312 of their parents. The student sample had a mean age of 17 and 66% girls (n=360). Tobacco consumption and dependence were assessed for parents and students by the Fagerström test for nicotine dependence (FTND) and for the students only by the Hooked on Nicotine Checklist (HONC). Students were also asked about use of other psychoactive substances and completed the Authoritative Parenting Index (API). Parenting styles were classified as authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, or neglectful. Although 70% of the girls and 72% of the boys had tried smoking, only 12.5% were daily smokers. The mean FTND score was 1.3 (n = 156 respondents), and the mean HONC score 3.9 (n = 160). Fathers smoked more than mothers and had a higher mean FTND score: 2.8 (n = 35) versus 1.7 (n = 32) for mothers. Tobacco use by each parent was correlated with that of the other (r=0.49, pmaternal tobacco dependence, but less significantly. An authoritative parenting style tended to be associated with their children's less frequent tobacco consumption and less severe dependence, whereas neglectful and indulgent styles were associated with more frequent consumption and greater dependence; the age at which boys began smoking daily was linked to a maternal neglectful style, and a paternal authoritarian style was associated with paternal tobacco dependence in boys and maternal dependence in girls. We also found this type of correlation for other psychoactive substances, in particular, for inebriation and cannabis use, which decreased in families with an authoritative parenting style. This style appears protective.
Kennedy, Sara M; Patel, Roshni P; Cheh, Paul; Hsia, Jason; Rolle, Italia V
African American youth use marijuana at similar rates and tobacco at lower rates compared with white youth; however, in adulthood, tobacco use is similar. Tobacco and marijuana use are closely associated; differing initiation patterns may contribute to observed racial differences in tobacco prevalence by age. Therefore, it is important to assess tobacco and marijuana initiation patterns by race. Data were obtained from 56,555 adults aged 18-25 who completed the 2005-2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. The analysis was restricted to those who reported ever use of marijuana and combustible tobacco (cigarettes and/or cigars). Three mutually exclusive categories of initiation patterns were evaluated: use of marijuana before tobacco; marijuana and tobacco at the same age; and tobacco before marijuana. Multivariable regression models were used to assess changes over time and compare these outcomes by race while controlling for sociodemographics, risk perceptions, and current substance use. In 2005, 26.6% of African American and 14.3% of white young adults used marijuana before tobacco, compared with 41.5% of African American and 24.0% of white young adults in 2012 (P young adults had greater odds of using marijuana before tobacco (AOR = 1.79; 95% CI: 1.67, 1.91) compared with whites. African American young adults were more likely than whites to use marijuana before tobacco and both groups were increasingly likely to use marijuana before tobacco over time. A greater understanding of how marijuana initiation interacts with tobacco initiation could inform more effective tobacco and marijuana use prevention efforts. Among ever users of combustible tobacco and marijuana, greater proportions of African American young adults used marijuana before tobacco or at the same age than their white counterparts. Moreover, both African Americans and whites were more likely to use marijuana before tobacco in 2012 compared with 2005. Tobacco control policy may benefit from a
Muggli, M; Pollay, R; Lew, R; Joseph, A
Objective: The study objective was to review internal tobacco industry documents written between 1985 and 1995 regarding the Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) population in the USA. These documents detail opportunities and barriers to promotion of tobacco products, as viewed by the tobacco industry and its market research firms. Data sources/methods: Researchers reviewed tobacco industry documents from the document depository in Minneapolis, Minnesota and the tobacco industry's website, The Tobacco Archive, in a systematic fashion. A combined technique was employed using title keywords, dates, and names to search the 4(b) index. Findings: A review of internal tobacco company documents reveal that during the late 1980s, the industry and its market research firms recognised the importance of the AAPI community as a potential business market. Documents describe the population growth in this community, the high prevalence of smoking in countries of origin, high purchasing power of AAPI immigrants, cultural predisposition to smoking, opportunities afforded by the high proportion of retail businesses under AAPI ownership, barriers to developing the AAPI market, comprehensive campaigns, and political and lobbying efforts. Comprehensive campaigns were designed to integrate promotion efforts in AAPI consumer, retail, and business communities. Conclusions: The documents show that the tobacco industry developed specific promotion strategies to target the AAPI population. Tobacco control initiatives in the AAPI group have been slower to develop than in other targeted ethnic groups, and may benefit by increased awareness of industry methods to promote tobacco use. PMID:12198269
Meyer, Michael G.; Toborg, Mary A.; Denham, Sharon A.; Mande, Mary J.
Context: Appalachia has high rates of tobacco use and related health problems, and despite significant impediments to alcohol use, alcohol abuse is common. Adolescents are exposed to sophisticated tobacco and alcohol advertising. Prevention messages, therefore, should reflect research concerning culturally influenced attitudes toward tobacco and…
Viner, Russell M; Hargreaves, Dougal S; Motta, Janaina Vieira Dos Santos; Horta, Bernardo; Mokdad, Ali H; Patton, George
Adolescence is a time of initiation of behaviors leading to noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). We use tobacco to illustrate a novel method for assessing the contribution of adolescence to later burden. Data on initiation of regular smoking during adolescence (10-19 years) and current adult smoking were obtained from the 1958 British Birth Cohort, the U.S. National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), the Pelotas 1982 Birth Cohort, and the Victorian Adolescent Health Cohort Study. We estimated an "adolescent attributable fraction" (AAF) by calculating the proportion of persisting adult daily smoking initiated 155 countries using contemporary surveillance data. In the 1958 British Birth Cohort, 81.6% of daily smokers at age 50 years initiated adolescent initiation. The adjusted AAF was 69.1. Proportions of smokers initiating Adolescent Health Cohort Study; and 70.9%, 5.8%, and 56.9% in Pelotas males and 89.9%, 6.4%, and 75.9% in females. Initiation adolescent smoking initiation to adult smoking burden is high, suggesting a need to formulate and implement effective actions to reduce smoking initiation in adolescents. Similar trends in other NCD risks suggest that adolescents will be central to future efforts to control NCDs. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
West, Joshua H.; Blumberg, Elaine J.; Kelley, Norma J.; Hill, Linda; Sipan, Carol L.; Schmitz, Katherine E.; Kolody, Bohdan; Chambers, Christina D.; Friedman, Lawrence S.; Hovell, Melbourne F.
Parents can impact adolescent substance use, but it is unclear which substances are most affected. This study compared associations between parenting behaviors and alcohol and tobacco use to see if parenting was equally related to both behaviors. Alcohol and tobacco use data were collected from 252 Latino adolescents living along the San…
White, James; Halliwell, Emma
This longitudinal study tested the direction of associations between family meals and alcohol and tobacco consumption during early adolescence. We examined family meal frequency, family connectedness, alcohol (binge drinking, drunkenness), and tobacco consumption (past year, daily frequency) in 671 adolescents (51% women; mean age, Wave 1 = 14.05…
Bosson, Marlene; Maggiori, Christian; Gygax, Pascal Mark; Gay, Christelle
The present study constitutes an investigation of tobacco consumption, related attitudes and individual differences in smoking or non-smoking behaviors in a sample of adolescents of different ages in the French-speaking part of Switzerland. We investigated three school-age groups (7th-grade, 9th-grade, and the second-year of high school) for…
Stanton, Caitlin R; Chu, Alexandria; Collin, Jeff; Glantz, Stanton A
Tobacco companies target young adults through marketing strategies that use bars and nightclubs to promote smoking. As restrictions increasingly limit promotions, music marketing has become an important vehicle for tobacco companies to shape brand image, generate brand recognition and promote tobacco. Analysis of previously secret tobacco industry documents from British American Tobacco, available at http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu. In 1995, British American Tobacco (BAT) initiated a partnership with London's Ministry of Sound (MOS) nightclub to promote Lucky Strike cigarettes to establish relevance and credibility among young adults in the UK. In 1997, BAT extended their MOS partnership to China and Taiwan to promote State Express 555. BAT sought to transfer values associated with the MOS lifestyle brand to its cigarettes. The BAT/MOS partnership illustrates the broad appeal of international brands across different regions of the world. Transnational tobacco companies like BAT are not only striving to stay contemporary with young adults through culturally relevant activities such as those provided by MOS but they are also looking to export their strategies to regions across the world. Partnerships like this BAT/MOS one skirt marketing restrictions recommended by the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. The global scope and success of the MOS program emphasizes the challenge for national regulations to restrict such promotions.
Stanton, Caitlin R.; Chu, Alexandria; Collin, Jeff
Background: Tobacco companies target young adults through marketing strategies that use bars and nightclubs to promote smoking. As restrictions increasingly limit promotions, music marketing has become an important vehicle for tobacco companies to shape brand image, generate brand recognition and promote tobacco. Methods: Analysis of previously secret tobacco industry documents from British American Tobacco, available at http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu. Results: In 1995, British American Tobacco (BAT) initiated a partnership with London’s Ministry of Sound (MOS) nightclub to promote Lucky Strike cigarettes to establish relevance and credibility among young adults in the UK. In 1997, BAT extended their MOS partnership to China and Taiwan to promote State Express 555. BAT sought to transfer values associated with the MOS lifestyle brand to its cigarettes. The BAT/MOS partnership illustrates the broad appeal of international brands across different regions of the world. Conclusion: Transnational tobacco companies like BAT are not only striving to stay contemporary with young adults through culturally relevant activities such as those provided by MOS but they are also looking to export their strategies to regions across the world. Partnerships like this BAT/MOS one skirt marketing restrictions recommended by the World Health Organization’s Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. The global scope and success of the MOS program emphasizes the challenge for national regulations to restrict such promotions. PMID:20159772
Agaku, Israel T; Ayo-Yusuf, Olalekan A
This study assessed the influence of exposure to pro-tobacco advertisements on experimentation with emerging tobacco products among U.S. adolescents aged ≥9 years, in Grades 6 to 12. Data were obtained from the 2011 National Youth Tobacco Survey. Multivariate logistic regression was used to measure the association between experimentation with snus and e-cigarettes and exposure to pro-tobacco advertisements from three sources: over the Internet, in newspapers/magazines, and at retail stores. After controlling for sociodemographic characteristics and current use of other tobacco products, the odds of experimenting with snus were 1.36 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.88-3.16), 2.03 (95% CI = 1.30-3.17), and 3.24 (95% CI = 2.07-5.07), among students exposed to one, two, or all three types of pro-tobacco advertisements, respectively, compared with those exposed to none. Similar results were obtained for e-cigarettes. Stronger restrictions on tobacco advertisements, in concert with increased tobacco taxes and warning about the dangers of tobacco, use may help reduce youth tobacco use. © 2013 Society for Public Health Education.
Pollard, Michael S; Tucker, Joan S; Green, Harold D; Kennedy, David; Go, Myong-Hyun
This article examines how friendship networks in adolescence are linked to tobacco use trajectories through a combination of analytic techniques that traditionally are located in separate literatures: social network analysis and developmental trajectory analysis. Using six years of longitudinal data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we identify a set of six unique developmental trajectories of smoking (never smokers, steady lows, delayed increasers, early increasers, decreasers, and steady highs). Individuals' locations in their friendship networks were then linked to their trajectory group membership. Adolescents with a greater number of smoking friends were more likely to belong to the higher use trajectories. Beyond this exposure to smoking peers, individuals who at baseline were either members of a smoking group or liaisons to a smoking group were more likely than members of a nonsmoking group to belong to the higher use trajectories. Liaisons to a smoking group were particularly likely to belong to the delayed increaser trajectory group. Trajectory group membership for adolescents who belonged to a nonsmoking group did not significantly differ from those who were isolates or liaisons to a nonsmoking group. The study suggests features of an individual's social network have long-lasting associations with smoking behaviors. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Waduarachchige Don Aruna Shantha De Silva
Full Text Available Background: Sri Lanka became a signatory to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in September 2003 and ratified in November 2003. Aiming to reduce tobacco burden in Sri Lanka, National Authority on Tobacco and Alcohol Act [NATA] No. 27 was authorized in 2006. The objective of this study was to assess the behavioral changes related to tobacco use among adolescents and young adults following the exposure to tobacco control measures implemented by NATA. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted from October 2011 to November 2011 among adolescent (13-19 years and young adult (20-39 years males in Anuradhapura divisional secretary area in Sri Lanka. A self-administered questionnaire and focus group discussions were used for data collection. Confounding factors were controlled by stratification and randomization. Results: A total of 456 male respondents including 168 (37% adolescents and 288 (63% young adults participated in the study. Among the ever smokers 66 (14 % had already quitted smoking while 151 (33% were current smokers. The majority of the respondents (95.4% of quitters and 88.0% of current smokers were acquainted with the dangers of smoking through the mass media. Among the current smokers and quitters, the knowledge on health risks of smoking and exposure to secondhand smoke was quite satisfactory. The current smokers as well as the quitters were well aware of the tobacco control measures. Smokers as well as the non-smokers and quitters supported these measures. Conclusion: Tobacco control measures implemented by NATA had a favorable influence on reducing tobacco burden among adolescents and young adults in Sri Lanka
Lempert, Lauren K; Glantz, Stanton A
American Indians/Alaska Natives have the highest commercial tobacco use in the United States, resulting in higher tobacco-caused deaths and diseases than the general population. Some American Indians/Alaska Natives use commercial tobacco for ceremonial as well as recreational uses. Because federally-recognized Tribal lands are sovereign, they are not subject to state cigarette taxes and smokefree laws. This study analyzes tobacco industry promotional efforts specifically targeting American Indians/Alaska Natives and exploiting Tribal lands to understand appropriate policy responses in light of American Indians'/Alaska Natives' unique sovereign status and culture. We analyzed previously secret tobacco industry documents available at the Truth Tobacco Documents Library (https://industrydocuments.library.ucsf.edu/tobacco/). Tobacco companies used promotional strategies targeting American Indians/Alaska Natives and exploiting Tribal lands that leveraged the federally-recognized Tribes' unique sovereign status exempting them from state cigarette taxes and smokefree laws, and exploited some Tribes' existing traditional uses of ceremonial tobacco and poverty. Tactics included price reductions, coupons, giveaways, gaming promotions, charitable contributions and sponsorships. Additionally, tobacco companies built alliances with Tribal leaders to help improve their corporate image, advance ineffective "youth smoking prevention" programs, and defeat tobacco control policies. The industry's promotional tactics likely contribute to disparities in smoking prevalence and smoking-related diseases among American Indians//Alaska Natives. Proven policy interventions to address these disparities including tobacco price increases, cigarette taxes, comprehensive smokefree laws, and industry denormalization campaigns to reduce smoking prevalence and smoking-related disease could be considered by Tribal communities. The sovereign status of federally-recognized Tribes does not prevent them
Sangowawa Adesola O
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Out-of-school adolescents are often neglected when planning for tobacco prevention programmes whereas they are more vulnerable. Few studies exist in Nigeria about their pattern of tobacco use to serve as the basis for effective policy formulation. Method A sub sample of 215 out of school adolescents was analyzed from a descriptive cross sectional study on psychoactive substance use amongst youths in two communities in a Local Government Area in Nigeria which used a multi-stage sampling technique. Results Males were 53% and females 47%. Only 20.5% had ever used tobacco while 11.6% were current users. Males accounted for 60% of current users compared to 40% amongst females. Of current users, 84% believed that tobacco is not harmful to health. In addition, the two important sources of introduction to tobacco use were friends 72% and relatives 20%. Use of tobacco amongst significant others were: friends 27%, fathers 8.0%, relatives 4.2% and mothers 0.5%. The most common sources of supply were motor parks 52% and friends 16%. Conclusion The study showed that peer influence is an important source of introduction to tobacco use while selling of tobacco to adolescents in youth aggregation areas is common. We advocate for a theory based approach to designing an appropriate health education intervention targeted at assisting adolescents in appreciating the harmful nature of tobacco use in this locality. A point-of-sale restriction to prevent adolescent access to tobacco in youth aggregation areas within the context of a comprehensive tobacco control policy is also suggested. However, more research would be needed for an in-depth understanding of the tobacco use vulnerability of this group of adolescents.
Albdour, Maha; Krouse, Helene J
Bullying among African American adolescents. This article reviews the current literature on bullying and victimization among African American adolescents. It highlights bullying and violence disparity among African American adolescents, associated risk and protective factors, and effects of bullying on adolescent health. Twenty-three English language peer-reviewed articles from CINAHL, Pubmed, and Psyc-INFO databases. African American adolescents have higher rates of bullying and victimization compared to other adolescent populations. This review found strong associations among bullying involvement, substance abuse, and family factors. Bullying also had a significant impact on adolescent health, particularly psychological symptoms and school performance. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Audrain-McGovern, Janet; Rodriguez, Daniel; Rodgers, Kelli; Cuevas, Jocelyn; Sass, Joseph
The objective of this investigation was to examine how variation in adolescent physical activity is related to smoking and alternative tobacco use. Adolescents (N = 1,384) completed a self-report survey every 6 months from ages 14- to 18-years old in a prospective study of health behaviors. The 8 waves of data were analyzed using General Growth Mixture Modeling (GGMM) RESULTS: GGMM identified five physical activity trajectories including stable higher (SHPA), decreased (DPA), stable regular (SRPA), curvilinear (CPA), and stable low (SLPA). Across 4 years, the likelihood of smoking was greater among adolescents in the DPA, SLPA and SRPA trajectories compared to adolescents belonging to the SHPA trajectory. Alternative tobacco use was greatest among adolescents in the DPA and SRPA trajectories. Adolescents with decreasing physical activity and even adolescents averaging an hour of physical activity a day (SRPA) are important groups to target for tobacco use prevention and intervention efforts.
White, James; Halliwell, Emma
Despite evidence that frequent family meals are associated with low levels of substance use during adolescence, prior studies have not examined the role of how adolescents perceive mealtimes. We examined family meal frequency, family connectedness, perceived priority, atmosphere and structure of mealtimes as predictors of alcohol and tobacco consumption, using data from 550 adolescents (50% boys; age range 11-16). Frequent family meals were significantly associated with a lower likelihood of alcohol and tobacco use. However, this association was explained by adolescents' perception of the atmosphere at mealtimes. These findings suggest adolescents' perception of the mealtime environment contributes to family meals' protective effect.
Freeman, Becky; Chapman, Simon
The World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) bans all forms of tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship. The comprehensiveness of this ban has yet to be tested by online social networking media such as Facebook. In this paper, the activities of employees of the transnational tobacco company, British American Tobacco, (BAT) on Facebook and the type of content associated with two globally popular BAT brands (Dunhill and Lucky Strike) are mapped. BAT employees on Facebook were identified and then the term 'British American Tobacco' was searched for in the Facebook search engine and results recorded, including titles, descriptions, names and the number of Facebook participants involved for each search result. To further detail any potential promotional activities, a search for two of BAT's global brands, 'Dunhill' and 'Lucky Strike', was conducted. Each of the 3 search terms generated more than 500 items across a variety of Facebook subsections. Some BAT employees are energetically promoting BAT and BAT brands on Facebook through joining and administrating groups, joining pages as fans and posting photographs of BAT events, products and promotional items. BAT employees undertaking these actions are from countries that have ratified the WHO FCTC, which requires signatories to ban all forms of tobacco advertising, including online and crossborder exposure from countries that are not enforcing advertising restrictions. The results of the present research could be used to test the comprehensiveness of the advertising ban by requesting that governments mandate the removal of this promotional material from Facebook.
Soneji, Samir; Ambrose, Bridget K; Lee, Won; Sargent, James; Tanski, Susanne
We assess exposure to direct-to-consumer tobacco marketing and its association with ever having tried smoking, smoking within past 30 days (current), and smoking ≥100 cigarettes in lifetime (established) among adolescents and young adults. We surveyed a U.S. telephone sample of 3,342 15- to 23-year-olds and 2,541 respondents subsequently completed a web-based survey. Among respondents completing both the telephone and web-based surveys (N = 2,541 [75%]), we assessed their exposure to direct-to-consumer tobacco marketing (receiving direct mail from tobacco companies and seeing tobacco company websites) and their associations with ever having tried smoking, current smoking, and established smoking. Overall, 12% of 15- to 17-year-olds and 26% of 18- to 23-year-olds were exposed to direct-to-consumer tobacco marketing. Racial/ethnic minority nonsmoking respondents were more likely to see tobacco websites than nonsmoking whites. Respondents exposed to either form of direct-to-consumer tobacco marketing were more likely to currently smoke (adjusted odds ratio 2.2, 95% confidence interval 1.3-3.8), while those exposed to both forms of marketing experienced even higher odds of currently smoking (adjusted odds ratio 2.7, 95% confidence interval 1.1-6.6). We observed similar relationships for ever having tried smoking and established smoking. Direct-to-consumer tobacco marketing reaches adolescent and young adult nonsmokers and is associated with smoking behavior. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.
McDaniel, Patricia A; Malone, Ruth E
To examine how the US tobacco industry markets cigarettes as "natural" and American smokers' views of the "naturalness" (or unnaturalness) of cigarettes. Internal tobacco industry documents, the Pollay 20th Century Tobacco Ad Collection, and newspaper sources were reviewed, themes and strategies were categorised, and the findings were summarised. Cigarette advertisements have used the term "natural" since at least 1910, but it was not until the 1950s that "natural" referred to a core element of brand identity, used to describe specific product attributes (filter, menthol, tobacco leaf). The term "additive-free", introduced in the 1980s, is now commonly used to define natural cigarettes. Tobacco company market research, available from 1970 to 1998, consistently revealed that within focus group sessions, smokers initially had difficulty interpreting the term "natural" in relation to cigarettes; however, after discussion of cigarette ingredients, smokers viewed "natural" cigarettes as healthier. Tobacco companies regarded the implied health benefits of natural cigarettes as their key selling point, but hesitated to market them because doing so might raise doubts about the composition of their highly profitable "regular" brands. Although our findings support the idea advanced by some tobacco control advocates that informing smokers of conventional cigarettes' chemical ingredients could promote cessation, they also suggest that such a measure could increase the ubiquity and popularity of "natural" cigarettes. A more effective approach may be to "denaturalise" smoking.
Case, Kathleen R; Cooper, Maria; Creamer, MeLisa; Mantey, Dale; Kelder, Steven
Being a victim of bullying is associated with greater risk of youth substance use; however, research specifically examining whether tobacco use behaviors differ among adolescents who were bullied at school only, electronically only, or both at school and electronically is limited. We examined the associations between being a victim of bullying (at school only, electronically only, or both at school and electronically) and use of tobacco products using data from the 2013 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Girls who were bullied both at school and electronically reported the highest odds of all tobacco use behaviors (ever use of cigarettes, current use of cigarettes, and current use of any tobacco product) as compared with girls who were not bullied after adjusting for covariates. Conversely, for boys, only the association between being bullied electronically only and ever use of cigarettes remained significant after adjusting for covariates. Results from this study indicate that electronic bullying may differentially influence the odds of tobacco use in high school students as compared with bullying that occurs at school only. Confirmation of these findings could inform interventions to reduce both bullying and tobacco use in high school. © 2016, American School Health Association.
Linetzky, Bruno; Mejia, Raul; Ferrante, Daniel; De Maio, Fernando G; Diez Roux, Ana V
The relationship between poverty and tobacco consumption among adolescents has not been extensively studied, and what evidence exists has come almost entirely from developed countries. Moreover, the impact of contextual factors--such as school-level poverty--remains unclear. We obtained information about smoking behavior from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey in Argentina in 2007. School-level characteristics were derived by matching schools to census areas from the 2001 Census. Additional school-level information was obtained from the Ministry of Education. Random intercept models were used to evaluate the associations of school-level variables (poverty in the census area of the school, school receipt of social assistance, and public or private status) with current smoking, intention to quit, secondhand smoke exposure outside the home, support for smoke-free laws, purchase of single cigarettes among smokers, and susceptibility to smoking in 5 years among nonsmokers. After controlling for age and sex, students attending schools receiving social assistance were more likely to smoke (odds ratio [OR] 1.35, 95% CI 1.02-1.80) and to purchase loose cigarettes (OR 1.66, 95% CI 1.08-2.54), whereas school poverty was significantly associated with secondhand smoke exposure (OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.04-1.58). This study shows that an association exists between unfavorable contextual school characteristics and tobacco consumption and related measures among youth in Argentina. Efforts to prevent smoking may need to address the school-level factors that place youth at higher risk.
Guinn, Bobby; Jorgensen, Layne; Semper, Tom; Vincent, Vern
Investigated the contribution of body size, self-esteem, age, mainstream acculturation, and athletic status to concern or preoccupation about weight among female Mexican American adolescents. Students had low acculturation, high body fatness, and moderate self-esteem. There was little difference between athletes and non-athletes. Greater body size…
Kumar, Varun; Talwar, Richa; Roy, Neelam; Raut, Deepak; Singh, Saudan
Background. Tobacco use is one of the major preventable causes of premature death and disease in the world. Many psychosocial factors were found to influence tobacco use. Therefore the present study was designed to determine the role of psychosocial factors associated with tobacco use among school going adolescents in Delhi, India. Methods. Cross-sectional study was conducted from February 2013 to September 2013 in four government schools in South district of Delhi, India. The questionnaire contains questions adapted from GYTS (Global Youth Tobacco Survey) to find the prevalence and pattern of tobacco use among adolescents. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 21. Results. The prevalence of ever and current tobacco use was found in 16.4% and 13.1%. Current smoking and current tobacco chewing were found in 10.2% and 9.4% students, respectively. The risk of current tobacco use was found to be higher among males (P value = 0.000) and in those who got higher pocket money (P value = 0.000). Psychosocial factors like lower general self-efficacy and maladjustments with peers, teachers, and schools were also found to be significant predictors of current tobacco use. Conclusion. The study has revealed higher prevalence of ever and current tobacco use among adolescent students in Delhi, India.
Full Text Available Background. Tobacco use is one of the major preventable causes of premature death and disease in the world. Many psychosocial factors were found to influence tobacco use. Therefore the present study was designed to determine the role of psychosocial factors associated with tobacco use among school going adolescents in Delhi, India. Methods. Cross-sectional study was conducted from February 2013 to September 2013 in four government schools in South district of Delhi, India. The questionnaire contains questions adapted from GYTS (Global Youth Tobacco Survey to find the prevalence and pattern of tobacco use among adolescents. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 21. Results. The prevalence of ever and current tobacco use was found in 16.4% and 13.1%. Current smoking and current tobacco chewing were found in 10.2% and 9.4% students, respectively. The risk of current tobacco use was found to be higher among males (P value = 0.000 and in those who got higher pocket money (P value = 0.000. Psychosocial factors like lower general self-efficacy and maladjustments with peers, teachers, and schools were also found to be significant predictors of current tobacco use. Conclusion. The study has revealed higher prevalence of ever and current tobacco use among adolescent students in Delhi, India.
Pierce, John P; Distefan, Janet M; Jackson, Christine; White, Martha M; Gilpin, Elizabeth A
The tobacco industry contends that parenting practices, not marketing practices, are critical to youth smoking. Our objective was to examine whether tobacco-industry marketing practices undermine the protective effect of recommended authoritative parenting against adolescent smoking. Receptivity to tobacco advertising and promotions was assessed in 1996 from a representative sample of California adolescent never-smokers aged 12 to 14 years. A follow-up survey of 1641 of these adolescents was conducted in 1999 that included measures of the key components of authoritative parenting: parental responsiveness, monitoring, and limit setting. Smoking initiation in adolescents. Adolescents in families with more-authoritative parents were half as likely to smoke by follow-up as adolescents in families with less-authoritative parents (20% vs 41%, p parents, adolescents who were highly receptive to tobacco-industry advertising and promotions were significantly more likely to smoke (odds ratio=3.52, 95% confidence interval =1.10-11.23), compared to those who were minimally receptive. This effect was not significant in adolescents in families with less-authoritative parents. The overall attributable risk (adjusted for exposure to peer smokers) of smoking from tobacco-industry advertising and promotions was 25%. However, an estimated 40% of adolescent smoking in families with more-authoritative parents was attributable to tobacco-industry advertising and promotions; this was five times the attributable risk seen in families with less-authoritative parents (8%). The promotion of smoking by the tobacco industry appears to undermine the capability of authoritative parenting to prevent adolescents from starting to smoke.
Full Text Available Background: Adolescent tobacco use in India has increased substantially within the past few decades. Schools can serve as an important avenue for prevention education, but little is known about the current practices of Indian schools in relation to tobacco use prevention education. Methods: To assess the extent and influence tobacco use prevention education in Indian schools,we analyzed the Global Youth Tobacco Survey data for India, which was a population-based study of a national random sample of 10112 students from 180 private and public schools.Variables such as student demographic profile, tobacco use behavior, perceptions about tobacco use, and exposure to school-based tobacco use prevention education were considered for analyses. Results: Prevalence of any form of tobacco use (14% and current smoking (8% was found to differ by gender. A quarter of the students believed that boys who smoke are more attractive or have more friends compared to non-smokers, and almost half of the students reported that smoking and health were never discussed as a part of a lesson in school. The association between school-based prevention education and tobacco use behavior was assessed (after adjustment forage, gender, and parental smoking. Students who were educated in school about tobacco use and its effects were significantly more likely to have negative attitude toward tobacco use and less likely to report use of tobacco. Conclusion: School-based tobacco use prevention education has beneficial influence on adolescents in India. Given the early age of initiation of tobacco use, school curricula in India should emphasize on tobacco use prevention education.
The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) supports the elimination of tobacco products. Toward that goal, ASCO urges the adoption of national policy that strengthens regulation of the sale, promotion, and distribution of such products. To reduce cancer mortality, our regulatory policies must recognize that the nicotine within tobacco is an addictive substance, the use of which leads to 30% of all cancer deaths and a total of 419,000 deaths each year. Tobacco-related advertising and promotion should be banned. At a minimum, national policies should: ban billboards; limit advertising to black and white text only; prohibit the sale or giveaway of products that contain tobacco brand names or logos; prohibit brand name sponsorship of sporting or entertainment events; and require stronger and more prominent warning labels on all tobacco products. Despite existing state laws prohibiting sale of tobacco products to minors, children are able to buy such products easily. National regulation of the sale and distribution of tobacco products is necessary to eliminate children's access to tobacco. Where sales are permitted, they should be limited to face-to-face purchases by individuals 18 and older. Vending machines and other means of distributing tobacco without a face-to-face purchase should be outlawed. To the extent tobacco sales are allowed to continue, the federal government should mandate that the tobacco industry contribute substantial funds for a national public education campaign to prevent young people from smoking and other tobacco use. ASCO has long advocated a substantial increase (in the range of $2) in the federal excise tax on cigarettes and other tobacco products- a measure known to decrease consumption, particularly among children. Revenue from a tax on tobacco products should be used to support retraining for tobacco farmers, biomedical research, health care delivery, and antitobacco education. United State trade policies should discourage the export
Soneji, Samir; Ambrose, Bridget K.; Lee, Won; Sargent, James; Tanski, Susanne
Objective We assess exposure to direct-to-consumer tobacco marketing and its association with ever having tried smoking, smoking within past 30 days (‘current’), and smoking ≥100 cigarettes in lifetime (‘established’) among adolescents and young adults. Methods We surveyed a U.S. telephone sample of 3,342 15–23 year olds and 2,541 respondents subsequently completed a web-based survey. Among respondents completing both the telephone and web-based surveys (N=2,541 [75%]), we assessed their exposure to direct-to-consumer tobacco marketing (receiving direct mail from tobacco companies and seeing tobacco company websites) and their associations with ever having tried smoking, current smoking, and established smoking. Results Overall, 12% of 15–17 year olds and 26% of 18–23 year olds were exposed to direct-to-consumer tobacco marketing. Racial/ethnic minority non-smoking respondents were more likely to see tobacco websites than non-smoking Whites. Respondents exposed to either form of direct-to-consumer tobacco marketing were more likely to currently smoke (adjusted odds ratio[AOR]: 2.2; 95% CI 1.3–3.8), while those exposed to both forms of marketing experienced even higher odds of currently smoking (AOR: 2.7; 95% CI 1.1–6.6). We observed similar relationships for ever having tried smoking and established smoking. Conclusions Direct-to-consumer tobacco marketing reaches adolescent and young adult non-smokers and is associated with smoking behavior. PMID:24661738
Gonzalez, Mariaelena; Green, Lawrence W; Glantz, Stanton A
To analyse the models Philip Morris (PM) and British American Tobacco (BAT) used internally to understand tobacco control non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and their relationship to the global tobacco control policy-making process that resulted in the Framework Convention for Tobacco Control (FCTC). Analysis of internal tobacco industry documents in the Legacy Tobacco Document Library. PM contracted with Mongoven, Biscoe, and Duchin, Inc. (MBD, a consulting firm specialising in NGO surveillance) as advisors. MBD argued that because NGOs are increasingly linked to epistemic communities, NGOs could insert themselves into the global policy-making process and influence the discourse surrounding the treaty-making process. MBD advised PM to insert itself into the policy-making process, mimicking NGO behaviour. BAT's Consumer and Regulatory Affairs (CORA) department argued that global regulation emerged from the perception (by NGOs and governments) that the industry could not regulate itself, leading to BAT advocating social alignment and self-regulation to minimise the impact of the FCTC. Most efforts to block or redirect the FCTC failed. PM and BAT articulated a global policy-making environment in which NGOs are key, non-state stakeholders, and as a result, internationalised some of their previous national-level strategies. After both companies failed to prevent the FCTC, their strategies began to align. Multinational corporations have continued to successfully employ some of the strategies outlined in this paper at the local and national level while being formally excluded from ongoing FCTC negotiations at the global level.
Cruz, Tess Boley; McConnell, Rob; Low, Brittany Wagman; Unger, Jennifer B; Pentz, Mary Ann; Urman, Robert; Berhane, Kiros; Chou, Chih Ping; Liu, Fei; Barrington-Trimis, Jessica
Tobacco marketing has expanded from cigarettes to other tobacco products through many promotional channels. Marketing exposure is associated with use of that tobacco product. However, it's unclear if marketing for one product leads to subsequent use of other tobacco products. This prospective cohort study assessed self-reported marketing exposure for six tobacco products across five marketing channels in 11th/12th grade students in 2014. Approximately 16 months later a follow-up survey was conducted online (N=1553) to assess initiation of cigarettes, e-cigarettes and hookah. Adolescent never smokers with frequent exposure to cigarette marketing on the Internet and in stores are more than two times as likely to begin smoking as young adults (Internet OR 2.98 [95% CI, 1.56-5.66); Stores OR, 2.83 [95% CI, 1.23-6.50]). Never users of e-cigarettes were significantly more likely to initiate use, if exposed to Internet, store and outdoor e-cigarette marketing. Never users of hookah were more likely to use hookah after seeing it marketed in stores. Youth exposed to marketing of e-cigarettes, hookah, cigars, smokeless and pipe tobacco in stores were two to three times more likely to begin smoking cigarettes even though the marketed products were not cigarettes. Adolescent exposure to marketing of tobacco products is associated with initiation of those products as young adults. Exposure to marketing for non-cigarette tobacco products is associated with subsequent cigarette smoking, even when the promoted products are not cigarettes. Future research and interventions should consider the influence of marketing from multiple tobacco products on adolescent tobacco use. Adolescents grow up in a rich media environment with exposure to tobacco marketing in both their homes (e.g., through the Internet and television) and their communities (e.g., stores and billboards). This prospective study provides evidence that adolescents exposed to tobacco marketing for multiple tobacco
Mukherjee, Anindya; Sinha, Abhik; Taraphdar, Pranita; Basu, Gandhari; Chakrabarty, Debadatta
Adolescents are vulnerable targets of tobacco industry with all consequences of usage. Studies reveal that tobacco abuse is rising in this age group in India. A cross sectional survey was carried out in two coeducational high schools of Anandanagar village of Singur block, Hooghly district, West Bengal among 276 students of VIII-IX standard to study the knowledge and abuse of tobacco and to find out influencing socio-demographic factors. Knowledge score was higher in females, students from nuclear families, and those with literate parents. Low prevalence of tobacco intake was obtained among the students, with 9.8% reported having ever used smokeless tobacco and 4.3% ever smoked. Tobacco intake was higher among those with a history of parental tobacco intake. Continued information education and communication (IEC) activities should be conducted by the school authorities, with involvement of nongovernment organizations (NGOs) and parents for primary prevention.
van der Eijk, Yvette; Glantz, Stanton A
Using the Truth Tobacco Industry Documents Library and Congressional records, we examined the tobacco industry's involvement with the 1990 Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). During legislative drafting of the ADA (1989-1990), the Tobacco Institute, the tobacco industry's lobbying and public relations arm at the time, worked with industry lawyers and civil rights groups to include smoking in the ADA's definition of "disability." Focus was on smoking as a perceived rather than actual disability so that tobacco companies could maintain that smoking is not addictive. Language that would have explicitly excluded smoking from ADA coverage was weakened or omitted. Tobacco Institute lawyers did not think the argument that smokers are "disabled" would convince the courts, so in the two years after the ADA was signed into law, the Tobacco Institute paid a lawyer to conduct media tours, seminars, and write articles to convince employers that hiring only non-smokers would violate the ADA. The ultimate goal of these activities was to deter employers from promoting a healthy, tobacco-free workforce and, more broadly, to promote the social acceptability of smoking. Employers and policy makers need to be aware that tobacco use is not protected by the ADA and should not be misled by tobacco industry efforts to insinuate otherwise.
Full Text Available Tobacco use is inextricably linked to a number of health risks both in the general and HIV-infected populations. There is, however, a dearth of research on effective tobacco control programs among people living with HIV, and especially among adolescents, young adults and pregnant women, groups with heightened or increased vulnerability secondary to tobacco use. Adolescents and young adults constitute a growing population of persons living with HIV infection. Early and continued tobacco use in this population living with a disease characterized by premature onset multimorbidity and chronic inflammation is of concern. Additionally, there is an increased acuity for tobacco control among HIV-infected pregnant women to reduce pregnancy morbidity and improve fetal outcome. This review will provide an important summary of current knowledge of tobacco use among HIV-infected adolescents, young adults and pregnant women. The effects of tobacco use in these specific populations will be presented and the current state of tobacco control within these populations, assessed.
Soneji, Samir; Yang, JaeWon; Moran, Meghan Bridgid; Tan, Andy S L; Sargent, James; Knutzen, Kristin E; Choi, Kelvin
To assess changes in engagement with online tobacco and electronic cigarette marketing ('online tobacco marketing') among adolescents in the US between 2013 and 2015. We assessed the prevalence of 6 forms of engagement with online tobacco marketing, both overall and by brand, among adolescents sampled in Wave 1 (2013-2014; N=13,651) and Wave 2 (2014-2015; N=12,172) of the nationally representative Population Assessment for Tobacco and Health Study. Engagement was analyzed by tobacco use status: non-susceptible never tobacco users; susceptible never tobacco users; ever tobacco users, but not within the past year; and past-year tobacco users. Among all adolescents, the estimated prevalence of engagement with at least one form of online tobacco marketing increased from 8.7% in 2013-2014 to 20.9% in 2014-2015. The estimated prevalence of engagement also increased over time across all tobacco use statuses (e.g., from 10.5% to 26.6% among susceptible adolescents). Brand-specific engagement increased over time for cigarette, cigar, and e-cigarette brands. Engagement with online tobacco marketing, both for tobacco and e-cigarettes, increased almost two-fold over time. This increase emphasizes the dynamic nature of online tobacco marketing and its ability to reach youth. The Food and Drug Administration, in cooperation with social networking sites, should consider new approaches to regulate this novel form of marketing.
Full Text Available Background: Seventy per cent of premature deaths among adults are due to behavioral patterns that emerge in adolescence, including smoking. Objective: The objective was to study the prevalence of tobacco use among adolescent students in South Delhi and its epidemiological correlates. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. Setting: Three schools and two colleges of South Delhi were chosen. There were 550 adolescent students aged 14-19. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis was done using proportions, the chi-square test, and multivariate logistic regression. Results: A total of 88 (16.0% students reported having ever tried cigarette or bidi smoking. The prevalence of current smoking was 7.1%. Exactly 10% (55 of the students reported having ever used smokeless forms of tobacco. The prevalence of tobacco use overall was found to be 20.9%, and was significantly higher (P=0.016 among the males than the females. Tobacco use was found to be significantly associated with having seen a brother/sister smoke (OR 5.15, best friend smoke (OR 2.92, and belonging to a nuclear family (OR 1.96. Conclusions: Tobacco use is still an important risk behavior among adolescent students. This study found a strong association of tobacco use by the adolescents with their having seen various role models ever smoking.
Oswal, Kunal C
To differentiate between the different types of tobacco users and analyze the association between types of tobacco users and factors like pocket money and peer and parental influence across most of the state in India using the data obtained from Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) between 2000 and 2004. The GYTS data encompassed a representative 2-stage probability sample of students aged 13 to 15 years across 24 states and 2 union territories in India. These students were interviewed using an anonymous, self-administered questionnaire. A very strong association between users and pocket money was found in most of the states, with northeastern states having a very strong association-Sikkim, odds ratio (OR) = 8.43 (confidence interval [CI] = 6.08-11.69), and Manipur, OR = 5.58 (CI = 3.60-8.65)-after adjusting for close friend being smoker, close friend being smokeless tobacco user, parental influence, age, and gender. This study found a strong association between tobacco use by adolescents and having pocket money and close friends being tobacco users. © 2012 APJPH.
Martinasek, Mary P.; Gibson-Young, Linda; Forrest, Jamie
Background: Hookah tobacco smoking has increased in prevalence among Florida adolescents and is often viewed as a safer alternative to cigarette smoking by young adults. Asthmatic adolescents are at increased risk of the negative health effects of hookah smoking. The purpose of this study is to examine if hookah use and harm perception vary by…
Georgiades, Katholiki; Boyle, Michael H.
Background: This study examines the longitudinal associations between adolescent tobacco and cannabis use and young adult functioning. Methods: Data for analysis come from the Ontario Child Health Study (OCHS), a prospective study of child health, psychiatric disorder and adolescent substance use in a general population sample that began in 1983,…
Meyer, Michael G; Toborg, Mary A; Denham, Sharon A; Mande, Mary J
Appalachia has high rates of tobacco use and related health problems, and despite significant impediments to alcohol use, alcohol abuse is common. Adolescents are exposed to sophisticated tobacco and alcohol advertising. Prevention messages, therefore, should reflect research concerning culturally influenced attitudes toward tobacco and alcohol use. With 4 grants from the National Institutes of Health, 34 focus groups occurred between 1999 and 2003 in 17 rural Appalachian jurisdictions in 7 states. These jurisdictions ranged between 4 and 8 on the Rural-Urban Continuum Codes of the Economic Research Service of the US Department of Agriculture. Of the focus groups, 25 sought the perspectives of women in Appalachia, and 9, opinions of adolescents. The family represented the key context where residents of Appalachia learn about tobacco and alcohol use. Experimentation with tobacco and alcohol frequently commenced by early adolescence and initially occurred in the context of the family home. Reasons to abstain from tobacco and alcohol included a variety of reasons related to family circumstances. Adults generally displayed a greater degree of tolerance for adolescent alcohol use than tobacco use. Tobacco growing represents an economic mainstay in many communities, a fact that contributes to the acceptance of its use, and many coal miners use smokeless tobacco since they cannot light up in the mines. The production and distribution of homemade alcohol was not a significant issue in alcohol use in the mountains even though it appeared not to have entirely disappeared. Though cultural factors support tobacco and alcohol use in Appalachia, risk awareness is common. Messages tailored to cultural themes may decrease prevalence.
LeGresley, Eric M; Muggli, Monique E; Hurt, Richard D
Though the cigarette companies have long publicly denied paying for product placement in films, the documentary evidence from the 1950s-1980s overwhelmingly suggests otherwise. Approximately 800,000 pages of previously secret internal corporate British American Tobacco Company documents were reviewed at the Minnesota Tobacco Document Depository from March 2003 through May 2005. Documents were also searched online at the various tobacco document collections between February 2004 and November 2004. A small collection of internal corporate documents from British American Tobacco show that in the late 1990s the company evaluated investing in a movie destined for Eastern Europe. By being an investor, BAT could influence the alteration of the movie script to promote BAT's brands, thus providing marketing opportunities without a clear violation of movie product placement restrictions. Future protocols to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control should seek to curtail more than just payment for tobacco product placement. More restrictive provisions will be needed to hinder creative strategies by the tobacco industry to continue tobacco promotion and trademark diversification through movies.
Evans, N; Farkas, A; Gilpin, E; Berry, C; Pierce, J P
Today the uptake of smoking is primarily an adolescent pursuit. Awareness of tobacco advertising and promotion is high, and evidence suggests that it plays a role in adolescent smoking uptake. We evaluated the influence of tobacco advertising and promotion and exposure to smokers on never-smoking adolescents' susceptibility to smoking. We used data on 3536 adolescent never smokers (those who had never even puffed on a cigarette) from the 1993 California Tobacco Survey. That survey questioned adolescents about smoking history and inclinations. For this analysis, we defined as susceptible to smoking those never smokers who said on the survey that they could not rule out independently deciding to try a cigarette soon or smoking one offered by a friend. Also for this analysis, we devised two indices: 1) a 5-point index of an individual's receptivity to tobacco advertising as determined by the number of positive responses to five survey items (recognition of advertising messages, having a favorite advertisement, naming a brand he/she might buy, owning a tobacco-related promotional item, and willingness to use a tobacco-related promotional item) and 2) an index classifying an individual's reported exposure to family and peer smoking into one of four levels. Using logistic regression, we assessed the independent importance of our indices in predicting susceptibility to smoking after adjustment for sociodemographic variables, including age, sex, and race/ethnicity, and for perceived school performance. Tests of statistical significance were two-sided. Receptivity to tobacco advertising and exposure to smokers were independently associated with susceptibility to smoking, but the relationship appeared stronger for receptivity to advertising. Adolescents exposed to family members and peers (n = 489) who smoked were 1.89 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.30-2.74) times as likely to be susceptible, whereas adolescents who scored 4 or more on the Index of Receptivity to Tobacco
This article discusses how Adlerian counseling can be used as a form of school counseling for African American adolescents. Moreover, school counseling for African American adolescents is discussed within the context of African American culture. Due to the strength-based nature of Adlerian approach, it can capitalize on African American…
Depression is one of the most common psychological disorders experienced by adolescents. Research has shown depression rates are higher in Asian-American adolescents when compared to their European-American counterparts. This paper will investigate possible programs for preventing and responding to Asian-American youths' depression through a…
McPherson, Mary Elizabeth
This study examines the relationship of role parenting behaviors and adolescent depression in adolescent outcomes. Parenting behaviors considered were authoritative parenting, parental monitoring, and parental care. Adolescent outcomes considered were depression, alcohol use, tobacco use, and grades. A path model was employed to examine these variables together. A sample of (n=3,174) of 9th -12th grade high school students from seven contiguous counties in rural Virginia were examined on ...
Camenga, D R; Fiellin, L E; Pendergrass, T; Miller, Erica; Pentz, M A; Hieftje, K
Flavored tobacco products have been shown to appeal to youth, however tobacco control strategies have traditionally not focused on these products. To inform the adaptation of an existing videogame to focus on the prevention of flavored tobacco product use, this study explored adolescents' perceptions, beliefs, and social norms surrounding these products, including flavored e-cigarettes. We conducted and analyzed transcripts from seven focus groups with 11-17-year-old adolescents (n = 33) from after-school programs in CT and CA in 2016. Participants discussed flavored tobacco product beliefs and experiences, and how these compared to traditional cigarettes. Thematic analysis of transcripts revealed that participants could name flavors in tobacco products, even though few discussed first-hand experience with the products. Most groups perceived that flavored tobacco product and flavored e-cigarette use facilitated peer approval and acceptance. All groups discussed how youth could easily access flavored tobacco products, including e-cigarettes. Flavoring was a salient aspect of e-cigarette advertisements; however the groups did not recall exposure to other types of flavored tobacco product counter-marketing. These data can help inform the development of tobacco control strategies, novel interventions (such as videogames), and future FDA efforts to prevent adolescent tobacco product use through education and risk communication. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
... Second-hand smoke is the smoke that fills restaurants, offices or other enclosed spaces when people burn ... as smuggling, illicit manufacturing and counterfeiting. The tobacco industry and others often argue that high tobacco product ...
Luk, Tzu Tsun; Wang, Man Ping; Leung, Lok Tung; Chen, Jianjiu; Wu, Yongda; Lam, Tai Hing; Ho, Sai Yin
The role of family relationship in adolescent use of emerging tobacco products, which have become increasingly popular, is unknown. We examined the associations of perceived family relationship quality with current use of poly-tobacco products including cigarettes, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), waterpipe and smokeless tobacco in adolescents. Data from a representative sample of 42,250 US grade 7-12 equivalent students (mean ± SD age 14.6 ± 1.9 years; 51.3% boys) from 75 randomly selected secondary schools in Hong Kong (2012-13) were analysed. Logistic regressions yielded adjusted odds ratios (AORs) for current (past 30-day) use of cigarettes, e-cigarettes, waterpipe, smokeless tobacco and poly-tobacco (≥2 products) in relation to perceived family relationship quality, adjusted for age, sex, perceived family affluence, parental education, family structure, parental and sibling smoking and secondhand smoke exposure at home. Subgroup analyses were conducted to compare the associations in early (aged ≤14 years) versus late (>14) adolescents. The odds of current use increased with worse perceived family relationship quality with AORs (95% confidence interval) of up to 2.92 (2.32-3.68) for cigarettes, 7.28 (4.71-11.2) for e-cigarettes, 5.04 (3.44-7.40) for waterpipe, 8.09 (4.87-13.4) for smokeless tobacco and 5.25 (3.45-8.01) for poly-tobacco products use (all P for trend relationships were found between negatively perceived family relationship quality and current poly- and individual tobacco product use by Hong Kong Chinese secondary students. The associations were stronger for alternative tobacco products and in early adolescents. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Background The World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) bans all forms of tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship. The comprehensiveness of this ban has yet to be tested by online social networking media such as Facebook. In this paper, the activities of employees of the transnational tobacco company, British American Tobacco, (BAT) on Facebook and the type of content associated with two globally popular BAT brands (Dunhill and Lucky Strike) are mapped. Methods BAT employees on Facebook were identified and then the term ‘British American Tobacco’ was searched for in the Facebook search engine and results recorded, including titles, descriptions, names and the number of Facebook participants involved for each search result. To further detail any potential promotional activities, a search for two of BAT's global brands, ‘Dunhill’ and ‘Lucky Strike’, was conducted. Results Each of the 3 search terms generated more than 500 items across a variety of Facebook subsections. Discussion Some BAT employees are energetically promoting BAT and BAT brands on Facebook through joining and administrating groups, joining pages as fans and posting photographs of BAT events, products and promotional items. BAT employees undertaking these actions are from countries that have ratified the WHO FCTC, which requires signatories to ban all forms of tobacco advertising, including online and crossborder exposure from countries that are not enforcing advertising restrictions. The results of the present research could be used to test the comprehensiveness of the advertising ban by requesting that governments mandate the removal of this promotional material from Facebook. PMID:20395406
Christophi, Costas A; Pampaka, Despina; Paisi, Martha; Ioannou, Solonas; DiFranza, Joseph R
The purpose of this study is to assess tobacco dependence among Cypriot adolescents and examine its association to cigarette consumption and attitudes towards smoking. The current study used cross-sectional data from the 2011 Cyprus Global Youth Tobacco Survey which adopted multistage cluster sampling methods to select adolescents registered in middle and high schools in Cyprus. Tobacco use, physical dependence on tobacco, and attitudes towards tobacco use were measured in 187 adolescents aged 13-18years old who reported that they had smoked at least once in the preceding 30days. Physical dependence was assessed using the Levels of Physical Dependence scale. Physical dependence was present in 86% of the adolescent smokers. The mean latency to needing among smokers in the highest dependence group was 101h. Significant associations were observed between physical dependence and the perceived difficulty in quitting (OR=13.1, 95% CI: 4.0, 43.0) as well as the expectation to continue smoking for the next five years (OR=3.3, 95% CI: 1.3, 8.4). Significant associations were also observed between physical dependence and the number of smoking days per month, daily smoking, daily cigarette consumption, lifetime cigarette consumption, and perceived difficulty in abstaining from smoking for one week. Physical dependence provides a symptom-based approach to assess dependence and it is a strong predictor of adolescents' perceptions of their ability to quit or to refrain from smoking for a week. Physical dependence on tobacco was highly prevalent among adolescent smokers in Cyprus and it was associated with greater perceived difficulty in quitting. Interventions targeting adolescent smoking must account for the high prevalence of physical dependence. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Brownson, R C; DiLorenzo, T M; Van Tuinen, M; Finger, W W
Although cigarette and smokeless tobacco use are recognized as major problems among school-age youth, few nationwide or statewide data exist on the prevalence and patterns of use. To determine the patterns of tobacco use among children and adolescents in Missouri, self-report information was obtained from a representative sample of 5,431 students in grades 5, 8, and 12. Both cigarette smoking and smokeless tobacco use were more common among males than females for each grade level except the 12th, where 30% of females and 28% of males had smoked during the previous week. Smoking prevalence was considerably lower among blacks than whites. Smokeless tobacco use was rare among both blacks and females. Smokeless tobacco use was more common than cigarette smoking in rural areas, where 17% of 8th-grade males and 31% of 12th-grade males had used smokeless tobacco during the previous week. The mean age at first use of cigarettes was slightly lower in the rural than the urban area, whereas the mean age of initial smokeless tobacco use was more than a year earlier in the rural area. Data regarding the perceived difficulty of quitting smoking and quit rates suggested that adolescent females have more difficulty quitting smoking than males. Male smokeless tobacco users appeared to be more addicted than male cigarette smokers. Smokeless tobacco brand preference indicated that users may switch to progressively stronger types of smokeless tobacco as they get older and a nicotine tolerance is developed. The current study emphasizes the urgent need for carefully targeted tobacco prevention and cessation efforts among school-age youth.
Chen, Min-Li; Chou, Li-Na; Zheng, Ya-Cheng
Cigarette smoking not only damages the health of adolescents, but also contributes to air pollution. The Tobacco Hazards Prevention Act in Taiwan stipulates that cigarettes should not be sold to persons younger than 18 years. Therefore, schools should actively educate students and raise awareness of the Tobacco Hazards Prevention Act to reduce the level of damage to the health of adolescents and maintain good air quality. This study had two main goals: (1) to evaluate the stipulation that no person shall provide tobacco products to persons under the age of 18 and the effects of counseling strategies on store managers confirming customer ages before tobacco sale in southern Taiwan; and (2) to evaluate the situation of tobacco hazard prevention education conducted by school in southern Taiwan. A cross-sectional design was adopted for this study. Study I: The investigation involved an analysis of 234 retailers including convenience stores (n = 70), grocery stores (n = 83), and betel nut stalls (n = 81). The results indicated that among the 234 retailers, 171 (73.1%) of them routinely failed to confirm the buyers' ages before allowing them to purchase tobacco. The number of retailers who exhibited failure to confirm customer ages before selling tobacco products had decreased from 171 (73.1%) to 59 (25.2%) and that of those who confirmed customer ages before selling tobacco products had increased from 63 (26.9%) to 175 (74.8%) after counseling strategies had been provided, thereby revealing statistical significance (χ² = 11.26, p selling tobacco products to minors. Schools should pay close attention to tobacco hazard prevention education for junior high school students to ensure that such students are adequately educated about tobacco hazard prevention.
Gilmore, Anna; Collin, Jeff; Townsend, Joy
Objectives. The International Monetary Fund encourages privatization of state-owned tobacco industries. Privatization tends to lower cigarette prices, which encourages consumption. This could be countered with effective tax policies. We explored how investment by British American Tobacco (BAT) influenced tax policy in Uzbekistan during privatization there. Methods. We obtained internal documents from BAT and analyzed them using a hermeneutic process to create a chronology of events. Results. BAT thoroughly redesigned the tobacco taxation system in Uzbekistan. It secured (1) a reduction of approximately 50% in the excise tax on cigarettes, (2) an excise system to benefit its brands and disadvantage those of its competitors (particularly Philip Morris), and (3) a tax stamp system from which it hoped to be exempted, because this would likely facilitate its established practice of cigarette smuggling and further its competitive advantage.. Conclusions. Privatization can endanger effective tobacco excise policies. The International Monetary Fund should review its approach to privatization and differentiate the privatization of an industry whose product kills from privatization of other industries. PMID:17138915
Kreslake, Jennifer M; Wayne, Geoffrey Ferris; Alpert, Hillel R; Koh, Howard K; Connolly, Gregory N
We examined whether tobacco manufacturers manipulate the menthol content of cigarettes in an effort to target adolescents and young adults. We analyzed data from tobacco industry documents describing menthol product development, results of laboratory testing of US menthol brands, market research reports, and the 2006 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. The tobacco industry attracted new smokers by promoting cigarettes with lower menthol content, which were popular with adolescents and young adults, and provided cigarettes with higher menthol content to long-term smokers. Menthol cigarette sales remained stable from 2000 to 2005 in the United States, despite a 22% decline in overall packs sold. Tobacco companies manipulate the sensory characteristics of cigarettes, including menthol content, thereby facilitating smoking initiation and nicotine dependence. Menthol brands that have used this strategy have been the most successful in attracting youth and young adult smokers and have grown in popularity.
The study analyzed the operation and performance of Tobacco Out grower Scheme in Oyo State, Nigeria. The data for the analysis came from a random sample survey of the area of study. The treatment effect model was adopted in analyzing the data. Evidence from the probit analysis indicates that membership of the ...
Pesko, Michael F; Hughes, Jenna M; Faisal, Fatima S
In the United States, many states have established minimum legal purchase ages for electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) to ban adolescent purchases, but these policies may also affect other related substance use. We explore whether ENDS are substitutes or complements for cigarettes, cigars, smokeless tobacco, and marijuana among adolescents by using variation in state-level implementation of ENDS age purchasing restrictions. We linked data on ENDS age purchasing restrictions to state- and year-specific rates of adolescent tobacco and marijuana use in 2007-2013 from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System. This data provides a nationally representative sample of adolescents who attend public and private schools. We performed a fixed effect regression analysis exploring the influence of ENDS age purchasing restrictions on outcomes of tobacco use and marijuana use, controlling for state and year fixed characteristics, age-race cohorts, cigarette excise taxes, and cigarette indoor use restrictions. For cigarette use, we separate our results into cigarette use frequency. We found causal evidence that ENDS age purchasing restrictions increased adolescent regular cigarette use by 0.8 percentage points. ENDS age purchasing restrictions were not associated with cigar use, smokeless tobacco use, or marijuana use. We document a concerning trend of cigarette smoking among adolescents increasing when ENDS become more difficult to purchase. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Coomber, Kerri; Toumbourou, John W.; Miller, Peter; Staiger, Petra K.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Catalano, Richard F.
Purpose: There are inconsistent research findings regarding the impact of rurality on adolescent alcohol, tobacco, and illicit substance use. Therefore, the current study reports on the effect of rurality on alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug use among adolescents in 2 state representative samples in 2 countries, Washington State (WA) in the…
Cranwell, Jo; Murray, Rachael; Lewis, Sarah; Leonardi-Bee, Jo; Dockrell, Martin; Britton, John
To quantify tobacco and alcohol content, including branding, in popular contemporary YouTube music videos; and measure adolescent exposure to such content. Ten-second interval content analysis of alcohol, tobacco or electronic cigarette imagery in all UK Top 40 YouTube music videos during a 12-week period in 2013/14; on-line national survey of adolescent viewing of the 32 most popular high-content videos. Great Britain. A total of 2068 adolescents aged 11-18 years who completed an on-line survey. Occurrence of alcohol, tobacco and electronic cigarette use, implied use, paraphernalia or branding in music videos and proportions and estimated numbers of adolescents who had watched sampled videos. Alcohol imagery appeared in 45% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 33-51%] of all videos, tobacco in 22% (95% CI = 13-27%) and electronic cigarettes in 2% (95% CI = 0-4%). Alcohol branding appeared in 7% (95% CI = 2-11%) of videos, tobacco branding in 4% (95% CI = 0-7%) and electronic cigarettes in 1% (95% CI = 0-3%). The most frequently observed alcohol, tobacco and electronic cigarette brands were, respectively, Absolut Tune, Marlboro and E-Lites. At least one of the 32 most popular music videos containing alcohol or tobacco content had been seen by 81% (95% CI = 79%, 83%) of adolescents surveyed, and of these 87% (95% CI = 85%, 89%) had re-watched at least one video. The average number of videos seen was 7.1 (95% CI = 6.8, 7.4). Girls were more likely to watch and also re-watch the videos than boys, P branding. © 2014 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study of Addiction.
Full Text Available AimThe present study aims to determine the psychosocial factors associated with ‘intention to use tobacco’, because it is influenced by social norms and beliefs about smoking.MethodA cross-sectional survey on a random sample of 665 individuals, aged 15-20 years, was conducted using a pretested questionnaire. Three logistic regression models were constructed to identify determinants of ‘intention to use tobacco’, with the total sample, with respondents under 18 years old, and with respondents 18 years old and above.ResultsOdds of intention to use tobacco were higher when friends used tobacco products, and perceived no negative effects on health. Parental use of tobacco increased the odds of intention to use tobacco, and a similar effect was observed when a celebrity was followed as a role model. Approval of occasional use of tobacco increased the odds of intention to use tobacco. Communication with parents about harmful effects of tobacco reduced the odds of intention to smoke among respondents younger than 18 years old.ConclusionSocial factors and perception of risk significantly influenced the intention to use tobacco. Study results are useful in designing interventions for prevention of tobacco use among adolescents.
Pförtner, Timo-Kolja; Hublet, Anne; Schnohr, Christina Warrer
INTRODUCTION: There are concerns that tobacco control policies may be less effective in reducing smoking among disadvantaged socioeconomic groups and thus may contribute to inequalities in adolescent smoking. This study examines how the association between tobacco control policies and smoking of 15...... regression analyses were conducted to assess the association of weekly smoking with components of the Tobacco Control Scale (TCS), and to assess whether this association varied according to family affluence (FAS). Analyses were carried out per gender and adjusted for national wealth and general smoking rate...
Meschke, Laurie L.; Peter, Christina R.
Parents play an important role in the promotion of adolescent sexual health, but little is known about parents' attitudes and beliefs in immigrant families. We examine Hmong American parents' attitudes about adolescent sexual health using survey data from 202 parents of adolescents with attention to parental gender differences. Breaking from…
Kingsly Awang Ollong
Full Text Available Since the mid-1980s, tobacco companies have intensified market expansion strategies in several African countries. They have used music to target youths and children. They organised fashion shows to entice women into smoking. They offered kids free cigarettes on the streets and for a very long time undermined efforts by governments to put in place effective tobacco legislation. They actively participated in the smuggling of tobacco products into the continent. Worse still, tobacco companies persuaded some African governments to promote tobacco cultivation as a major source of foreign earnings. And in recent years, the tobacco industry has resorted to using Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR to massage its image and cover its tracks. British American Tobacco (BAT, which is the focus of this paper, had a virtual monopoly in parts of Africa, both in terms of tobacco manufacturing and sales of cigarettes. In eleven African countries BAT had more than a 90% share of the cigarette market. This paper examines some of the health, social and economic impacts of BAT’s activities in Africa from 1985 to 2010 using Cameroon as a case study. The paper concludes that though the full effects of rising tobacco consumption (namely a steep rise in smoking-induced illness and premature death was at the dawn of the 21st century, Africa was already in the grip of a major tobacco epidemic. There is no doubt therefore that, BAT’s heavy footprint on the African continent wreaked havoc on the economy, health and welfare of the people, thus partially contributing to the non-realisation of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs that were designed to help the world’s poorest people.
Wang, Cixin; Atwal, Kavita
The current study examined a multidimensional, developmental, and transactional model for depressive symptoms among Asian American adolescents using longitudinal data from 1,664 Asian American adolescents in the Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Study (CILS). Specifically, the relationships among school climate, acculturation, perceived…
Full Text Available Pilar Horner1, Andy Grogan-Kaylor2, Jorge Delva2, Cristina B Bares3, Fernando Andrade4, Marcela Castillo51School of Social Work, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA; 2School of Social Work, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; 3School of Social Work, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA; 4School of Education, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; 5Instituto de Nutrición y Tecnología de los Alimentos (INTA, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, ChileAbstract: Research on adolescent use of substances has long sought to understand the family factors that may be associated with use of different substances such as alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana. However, scant attention has been focused on these questions in Latin American contexts, despite growing concerns about substance use among Latin American youth. Using data from a sample of 866 Chilean youth, we examined the relationship of family and neighborhood factors with youth substance abuse. We found that in a Latin American context, access to substances is an important predictor of use, but that neighborhood effects differ for marijuana use as opposed to cigarettes or alcohol. Age of youth, family and peer relationships, and gender all play significant roles in substance use. The study findings provide additional evidence that the use of substances is complex, whereby individual, family, and community influences must be considered jointly to prevent or reduce substance use among adolescents.Keywords: substance use, adolescence, international, peers
Patel, Preeti; Okechukwu, Cassandra A; Collin, Jeff; Hughes, Belinda
This article aims to provide a review of music sponsorship to market cigarettes in sub-Saharan Africa. Using analysis of previously secret corporate documents from British American Tobacco (BAT) and focusing on two separate case studies of sponsorship in Africa, Nigeria and South Africa, the paper illustrates how tobacco companies have sought to undermine health legislation from 1990 to 2001. Both case studies suggest that music is an important marketing tool in Africa because it can effectively target young consumers; has a universal appeal; transcends barriers to communication imposed by limited literacy and language barriers; has a long-term appeal and can be successful in undermining tobacco control measures. The case studies highlight the limitations of national regulatory efforts and reinforce the significance of the implementation of the WHO's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in Africa, a critical region for the convention's success.
Lovato, Chris; Watts, Allison; Stead, Lindsay F
The tobacco industry denies that their marketing is targeted at young nonsmokers, but it seems more probable that tobacco advertising and promotion influences the attitudes of nonsmoking adolescents, and makes them more likely to try smoking. To assess the effects of tobacco advertising and promotion on nonsmoking adolescents' future smoking behaviour. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Group specialized register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, Sociological Abstracts, PsycLIT, ERIC, WorldCat, Dissertation Abstracts, ABI Inform and Current Contents to August 2011. We selected longitudinal studies that assessed individuals' smoking behaviour and exposure to advertising, receptivity or attitudes to tobacco advertising, or brand awareness at baseline, and assessed smoking behaviour at follow ups. Participants were adolescents aged 18 or younger who were not regular smokers at baseline. Studies were prescreened for relevance by one reviewer. Two reviewers independently assessed relevant studies for inclusion. Data were extracted by one reviewer and checked by a second. Nineteen longitudinal studies that followed up a total of over 29,000 baseline nonsmokers met inclusion criteria. The studies measured exposure or receptivity to advertising and promotion in a variety of ways, including having a favourite advertisement or an index of receptivity based on awareness of advertising and ownership of a promotional item. One study measured the number of tobacco advertisements in magazines read by participants. All studies assessed smoking behaviour change in participants who reported not smoking at baseline. In 18 of the 19 studies the nonsmoking adolescents who were more aware of tobacco advertising or receptive to it, were more likely to have experimented with cigarettes or become smokers at follow up. There was variation in the strength of association, and the degree to which potential confounders were controlled for
Muula Adamson S
Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco use is a leading cause of global morbidity and mortality. Much of the epidemiologic research on tobacco focuses on smoking, especially cigarette smoking, but little attention on smokeless tobacco (SLT. Methods Using data from the Republic of Congo Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS of 2006, we estimated the prevalence of SLT use among in-school adolescents. We also assessed the association between SLT use and cigarette smoking as well as the traditional factors which are associated with cigarette smoking among adolescents (e.g. age, sex, parental or peer smoking. Unadjusted odds ratios (OR and adjusted odds ratios (AOR together with their 95% confidence intervals (CI were used to measure magnitudes of associations. Results Of the 3,034 respondents, 18.0% (18.0% males and 18.1% females reported having used smokeless tobacco (chewing tobacco, sniff or dip in the last 30 days. In multivariate analysis, no significant associations were observed between age and sex on one hand and current smokeless tobacco use on the other. Cigarette smokers were more than six times likely to report current use of smokeless tobacco (AOR = 6.65; 95% CI [4.84, 9.14]. Having parents or friends smokers was positively associated with using smokeless tobacco (AOR = 1.98; 95% CI [1.51, 2.59] for parents who smoked cigarettes, AOR = 1.82; 95% CI [1.41, 2.69] for some friends who smoked cigarettes, and AOR = 2.02; 95% CI [1.49, 2.47] for most or all friends who smoked cigarettes. Respondents who reported have seen tobacco advertisement on TV, billboards and in newspapers/magazines were 1.95 times more likely to report current use of smokeless tobacco (AOR = 1.95; 95% CI [1.34, 3.08]. Perception that smoking was harmful to health was negatively associated with current use of smokeless tobacco (AOR = 0.60; 95% CI [0.46, 0.78]. Conclusions Prevention programs aimed to reduce teen [cigarette] smoking must also be designed to reduce other forms of
Full Text Available Cigarette smoking not only damages the health of adolescents, but also contributes to air pollution. The Tobacco Hazards Prevention Act in Taiwan stipulates that cigarettes should not be sold to persons younger than 18 years. Therefore, schools should actively educate students and raise awareness of the Tobacco Hazards Prevention Act to reduce the level of damage to the health of adolescents and maintain good air quality. This study had two main goals: (1 to evaluate the stipulation that no person shall provide tobacco products to persons under the age of 18 and the effects of counseling strategies on store managers confirming customer ages before tobacco sale in southern Taiwan; and (2 to evaluate the situation of tobacco hazard prevention education conducted by school in southern Taiwan. A cross-sectional design was adopted for this study. Study I: The investigation involved an analysis of 234 retailers including convenience stores (n = 70, grocery stores (n = 83, and betel nut stalls (n = 81. The results indicated that among the 234 retailers, 171 (73.1% of them routinely failed to confirm the buyers’ ages before allowing them to purchase tobacco. The number of retailers who exhibited failure to confirm customer ages before selling tobacco products had decreased from 171 (73.1% to 59 (25.2% and that of those who confirmed customer ages before selling tobacco products had increased from 63 (26.9% to 175 (74.8% after counseling strategies had been provided, thereby revealing statistical significance (χ2 = 11.26, p < 0.001. Study II: A total of 476 (89.1% participants had received tobacco hazards prevention education and 58 (10.9% had not. Among the various residential areas, the highest percentage of participants that did not received tobacco hazards prevention education located in the plane regions (8.4%. The government organizations should continue to adopt counseling strategies to reduce the rate of disobedience of the Tobacco Hazards
Rudatsikira, Emmanuel; Muula, Adamson S; Siziya, Seter
Tobacco use is a leading cause of global morbidity and mortality. Much of the epidemiologic research on tobacco focuses on smoking, especially cigarette smoking, but little attention on smokeless tobacco (SLT). Using data from the Republic of Congo Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) of 2006, we estimated the prevalence of SLT use among in-school adolescents. We also assessed the association between SLT use and cigarette smoking as well as the traditional factors which are associated with cigarette smoking among adolescents (e.g. age, sex, parental or peer smoking). Unadjusted odds ratios (OR) and adjusted odds ratios (AOR) together with their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to measure magnitudes of associations. Of the 3,034 respondents, 18.0% (18.0% males and 18.1% females) reported having used smokeless tobacco (chewing tobacco, sniff or dip) in the last 30 days. In multivariate analysis, no significant associations were observed between age and sex on one hand and current smokeless tobacco use on the other. Cigarette smokers were more than six times likely to report current use of smokeless tobacco (AOR = 6.65; 95% CI [4.84, 9.14]). Having parents or friends smokers was positively associated with using smokeless tobacco (AOR = 1.98; 95% CI [1.51, 2.59] for parents who smoked cigarettes, AOR = 1.82; 95% CI [1.41, 2.69] for some friends who smoked cigarettes, and AOR = 2.02; 95% CI [1.49, 2.47] for most or all friends who smoked cigarettes). Respondents who reported have seen tobacco advertisement on TV, billboards and in newspapers/magazines were 1.95 times more likely to report current use of smokeless tobacco (AOR = 1.95; 95% CI [1.34, 3.08]). Perception that smoking was harmful to health was negatively associated with current use of smokeless tobacco (AOR = 0.60; 95% CI [0.46, 0.78]). Prevention programs aimed to reduce teen [cigarette] smoking must also be designed to reduce other forms of tobacco use. The teenagers environment at home, at school and
Zhong, Fei; Yano, Eiji
China entered the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 2001 after years of negotiations. As a WTO member, China had to reduce tariffs on imported cigarettes and remove non-tariff barriers to allow foreign cigarettes to be more competitive in the Chinese market. Among foreign tobacco companies, British American Tobacco (BAT) was the most active lobbyist during China's WTO negotiations. To review and analyse BAT's tactics and activities relating to China's entry into the WTO. Internal tobacco industry documents were reviewed and are featured here. Industry documents were searched mainly on the website of BAT's Guildford Depository and other documents' websites. 528 documents were evaluated and 142 were determined to be relevant to China's entry into the WTO. BAT was extremely active during the progress of China's entry into the WTO. The company focused its lobbying efforts on two main players in the negotiations: the European Union (EU) and the US. Because of the negative moral and health issues related to tobacco, BAT did not seek public support from officials associated with the WTO negotiations. Instead, BAT lobbyists suggested that officials protect the interests of BAT by presenting the company's needs as similar to those of all European companies. During the negotiation process, BAT officials repeatedly spoke favourably of China's accession into the WTO, with the aim of presenting BAT as a facilitator in this process and of gaining preferential treatment from their Chinese competitor. BAT's activities clearly suggest that tobacco companies place their own interests above public health interests. Today, China struggles with issues of tobacco control that are aggravated by the aggressive practices of transnational tobacco companies, tobacco-tariff reductions and the huge number of smokers. For the tobacco-control movement to progress in China, health advocates must understand how foreign tobacco companies have undermined anti-tobacco activities by taking advantage
Shadel, William G; Martino, Steven C; Setodji, Claude M; Scharf, Deborah M; Kusuke, Daniela; Sicker, Angela; Gong, Min
This experiment tested whether changing the location or visibility of the tobacco power wall in a life sized replica of a convenience store had any effect on adolescents' susceptibility to future cigarette smoking. The study was conducted in the RAND StoreLab (RSL), a life sized replica of a convenience store that was developed to experimentally evaluate how changing aspects of tobacco advertising displays in retail point-of-sale environments influences tobacco use risk and behaviour. A randomised, between-subjects experimental design with three conditions that varied the location or visibility of the tobacco power wall within the RSL was used. The conditions were: cashier (the tobacco power wall was located in its typical position behind the cash register counter); sidewall (the tobacco power wall was located on a sidewall away from the cash register); or hidden (the tobacco power wall was located behind the cashier but was hidden behind an opaque wall). The sample included 241 adolescents. Hiding the tobacco power wall significantly reduced adolescents' susceptibility to future cigarette smoking compared to leaving it exposed (ie, the cashier condition; p=0.02). Locating the tobacco power wall on a sidewall away from the cashier had no effect on future cigarette smoking susceptibility compared to the cashier condition (p=0.80). Hiding the tobacco power wall at retail point-of-sale locations is a strong regulatory option for reducing the impact of the retail environment on cigarette smoking risk in adolescents. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Abebe, Dawit S; Hafstad, Gertrud S; Brunborg, Geir Scott; Kumar, Bernadette Nirmal; Lien, Lars
The aim of the study was to assess prevalence and factors associated with binge drinking, cannabis use and tobacco use among ethnic Norwegians and ethnic minority adolescents in Oslo. We used data from a school-based cross-sectional survey of adolescents in junior- and senior high schools in Oslo, Norway. The participants were 10,934 adolescents aged 14-17 years, and just over half were females. The sample was comprised of 73.2 % ethnic Norwegian adolescents, 9.8 % 1st generation immigrants, and 17 % 2nd generation adolescents from Europe, the US, the Middle East, Asia and Africa. Logistic regression models were applied for the data analyses. Age, gender, religion, parental education, parent-adolescent relationships, depressive symptoms and loneliness were covariates in the regression models. Ethnic Norwegian adolescents reported the highest prevalence of binge drinking (16.1 %), whereas the lowest prevalence was found among 2nd generation adolescents from Asia (2.9 %). Likewise, the past-year prevalence for cannabis use ranged from 10.6 % among 2nd generation Europeans and those from the US to 3.7 % among 2nd generation Asians. For daily tobacco use, the prevalence ranged from 12.9 % among 2nd generation Europeans and the US to 5.1 % among 2nd generation Asians. Ethnicity, age, gender, religion, parental education, and parent-adolescent relationships and mental health status were significantly associated with binge drinking, cannabis and tobacco use. These factors partly explained the observed differences between ethnic Norwegians and ethnic minority adolescents in the current study. There are significant differences in substance use behaviors between ethnic Norwegian and immigrant youth. Factors like age, gender, religion, parental education and relationships and mental health status might influence the relationship between ethnicity and substance abuse. The findings have implications for planning selective- as well as universal prevention interventions.
Macy, Jonathan T; Chassin, Laurie; Presson, Clark C
Several cross-sectional studies have examined factors associated with support for tobacco control policies. The current study utilized a longitudinal design to test smoking status and attitude toward smoking measured in adolescence as prospective predictors of support for tobacco control policies measured in adulthood. Participants (N = 4,834) were from a longitudinal study of a Midwestern community-based sample. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses tested adolescent smoking status and attitude toward smoking as prospective predictors (after controlling for sociodemographic factors, adult smoking status, and adult attitude toward smoking) of support for regulation of smoking in public places, discussion of the dangers of smoking in public schools, prohibiting smoking in bars, eliminating smoking on television and in movies, prohibiting smoking in restaurants, and increasing taxes on cigarettes. Participants who smoked during adolescence demonstrated more support for discussion of the dangers of smoking in public schools and less support for increasing taxes on cigarettes but only among those who smoked as adults. Those with more positive attitudes toward smoking during adolescence demonstrated less support as adults for prohibiting smoking in bars and eliminating smoking on television and in movies. Moreover, a significant interaction indicated that those with more positive attitudes toward smoking as adolescents demonstrated less support as adults for prohibiting smoking in restaurants, but only if they became parents as adults. This study's findings suggest that interventions designed to deter adolescent smoking may have future benefits in increasing support for tobacco control policies.
2Department of Community Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia ... Tobacco use is one of the major preventable causes of death in the world. ... were stratified by gender. Percents and .... The success of the.
Arora, Monika; Mathur, Manu Raj; Singh, Neha
The objective of this paper is to provide a comprehensive evidence based model aimed at addressing multi-level risk factors influencing tobacco use among children and adolescents with multi-level policy and programmatic approaches in India. Evidences around effectiveness of policy and program interventions from developed and developing countries were reviewed using Pubmed, Scopus, Google Scholar and Ovid databases. This evidence was then categorized under three broad approaches: Policy level approaches (increased taxation on tobacco products, smoke-free laws in public places and work places, effective health warnings, prohibiting tobacco advertising, promotions and sponsorships, and restricting access to minors); Community level approaches (school health programs, mass media campaigns, community based interventions, promoting tobacco free norms) and Individual level approaches (promoting cessation in various settings). This review of literature around determinants and interventions was organized into developing the IMPACT framework. The paper further presents a comparative analysis of tobacco control interventions in India vis a vis the proposed approaches. Mixed results were found for prevention and control efforts targeting youth. However, this article suggests a number of intervention strategies that have shown to be effective. Implementing these interventions in a coordinated way will provide potential synergies across interventions. Pediatricians have prominent role in advocating and implementing the IMPACT framework in countries aiming to prevent and control tobacco use among adolescents and children.
Tondowski, Cláudia S; Bedendo, André; Zuquetto, Carla; Locatelli, Danilo P; Opaleye, Emérita S; Noto, Ana R
The objective was to evaluate the relationship between tobacco use (previous month and frequent use), parenting styles and parental smoking behavior in a sample of high school students. Participants were recruited from public and private high schools from 27 Brazilian state capitals (N = 17,246). The overall prevalence of tobacco use in life was 25.2%; 15.3% in the previous year; 8.6% in the previous month; and 3.2% for frequent use. Tobacco use by the parents was reported by 28.6% of the students. Regarding parenting styles, 39.2% were classified as negligent, 33.3% authoritative, 15.6% as indulgent and 11.9% authoritarian. Compared to adolescents with authoritative parents, those with negligent or indulgent parents were more prone to report tobacco use during the last month or frequent use. This study showed an association between parenting styles and tobacco use by high school students. Authoritative parents were associated with protection from frequent and previous month tobacco use among adolescents.
Morrell, Holly E. R.; Lapsley, Daniel K.; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L.
Identifying factors that influence adolescents' decisions to start smoking is necessary to improve interventions for reducing tobacco use. The current longitudinal study was designed to determine the direction of influence between feelings of invulnerability to harm and cigarette smoking, and to test whether the perceived risks and benefits of…
Huisman, C.; van de Werfhorst, H.G.; Monshouwer, K.
This article empirically examines the effect of social background, education, and school organization on adolescent tobacco use in the Netherlands. We test theories of norm enforcing and horizon expanding social networks and distinction by examining the relationship between daily smoking behavior
Webster, Lauren; Chaiton, Michael; Kirst, Maritt
Background: This study explores the patterns of use and co-use of tobacco and cannabis among Ontario adolescents over 3 decades and if characteristics of co-users and single substance users have changed. Methods: Co-use trends for 1981-2011 were analyzed using the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey,…
Huizink, A.C.; Levälahti, E.; Korhonen, T.; Dick, D.M.; Pulkkinen, L.; Rose, R.J.; Kaprio, J.
Objective: Among Finnish adolescent twins, we compared (a) a model that describes a direct impact of liability to tobacco use on cannabis and other illicit drug use with (b) a model that included a shared underlying liability for these substances. Furthermore, the extent to which genetic and
Nunez-Smith, Marcella; Wolf, Elizabeth; Huang, Helen Mikiko; Chen, Peggy G.; Lee, Lana; Emanuel, Ezekiel J.; Gross, Cary P.
The authors systematically reviewed 42 quantitative studies on the relationship between media exposure and tobacco, illicit drug, and alcohol use among children and adolescents. Overall, 83% of studies reported that media was associated with increased risk of smoking initiation, use of illicit drugs, and alcohol consumption. Of 30 studies…
Dunn, Michael S.; Kitts, Cathy; Lewis, Sandy; Goodrow, Bruce; Scherzer, Gary D.
Background: Alcohol, tobacco, marijuana use, and sexual behaviors are consistently reported by high school students in the United States and can contribute to reduced quality of life. Empirical research finds that many assets may act as a protective factor for adolescent risk behaviors. As such, the purpose of this study was to examine the…
Peterson, Emily Bylund; Thomsen, Steven; Lindsay, Gordon; John, Kevin
The objective of this study was determine if the inclusion of Canadian-style graphic images would improve the degree to which adolescents attend to, and subsequently are able to recall, novel warning messages in tobacco magazine advertising. Specifically, our goal was to determine if the inclusion of graphic images would 1) increase visual…
Leão, Teresa; Kunst, Anton E.; Perelman, Julian
Consistent evidence shows the importance of preventing smoking at young ages, when health behaviours are formed, with long-term consequences on health and survival. Although tobacco control policies and programmes targeting adolescents are widely promoted, the cost-effectiveness of such
Full Text Available As the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC calls for public health awareness on tobacco use, mass media campaigns should be appropriately designed so as to maximize their effectiveness. In this methodological pilot study, 95 Greek adolescents (mean age 15 ± 1.8 years, were shown seven different anti tobacco ads, and asked to rate the ad theme, message and emotional context on a 1−7 Likert scale. Health related ads were rated the highest, and as identified through the logistic regression analysis, adolescents who perceived an ad to be emotional or to have a clear message that was relevant to them, were more likely to rate the ad as more effective. The strong agreement between the above findings and the existing literature indicates the applicability of this pilot study’s methodological approach.
Vardavas, Constantine I; Symvoulakis, Emmanouil K; Connolly, Gregory N; Patelarou, Evridiki; Lionis, Christos
As the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) calls for public health awareness on tobacco use, mass media campaigns should be appropriately designed so as to maximize their effectiveness. In this methodological pilot study, 95 Greek adolescents (mean age 15 +/- 1.8 years), were shown seven different anti tobacco ads, and asked to rate the ad theme, message and emotional context on a 1-7 Likert scale. Health related ads were rated the highest, and as identified through the logistic regression analysis, adolescents who perceived an ad to be emotional or to have a clear message that was relevant to them, were more likely to rate the ad as more effective. The strong agreement between the above findings and the existing literature indicates the applicability of this pilot study's methodological approach.
Dabul, Amy J.; And Others
Posits a distinction between cultures motivated by individualistic value systems (idiocentric) and collectivistic value systems (allocentric). Study reveals that Mexican American adolescents describe themselves in more allocentric terms, while Anglo American adolescents choose idiocentric terms. Suggests a correlation between idiocentric values…
Jackson-Newsom, Julia; Buchanan, Christy M.; McDonald, Richard M.
Traditional conceptualizations of parenting style assume certain associations between parenting practices/philosophies and parental warmth. This study examines whether those links are similar for European American and African American adolescents. Two hundred and ninety-eight early adolescents and their mothers reported on discipline and control…
... 1 in 3 countries, representing 39% of the world's population, monitors tobacco use by repeating nationally representative youth ... 1.4 billion people, or 20% of the world's population, are protected by comprehensive national smoke-free laws. ...
Friedman, Katherine L; Roberts, Megan E; Keller-Hamilton, Brittney; Yates, Katherine A; Paskett, Electra D; Berman, Micah L; Slater, Michael D; Lu, Bo; Ferketich, Amy K
Previous studies have examined what adolescents find appealing in tobacco and alcohol advertisements and how different themes in advertisements are used to manipulate consumer behaviors. Yet, we know little about the relationship between the themes portrayed in advertisements and youth attitudes towards those themes. This study compared attitudes towards advertisements for different consumer products in a sample of urban and rural adolescent boys in order to examine how key marketing themes impact adolescent attitudes towards those advertisements. Participants were 11- to 16-year-old boys (N = 1220) residing in either urban or rural Ohio Appalachian counties. Each participant viewed five print advertisements (one each for cigarettes, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), smokeless tobacco (SLT), non-alcoholic beverages, and alcohol), presented in a random order, for eight seconds each. All advertisements had appeared in magazines that adolescent males commonly read. Attitudes towards each of the five advertisements were assessed. The advertisements were then coded for the presence of various themes, including social acceptance and masculinity. Analyses were conducted to determine associations between advertisement type and the attitude measure, and between the presence of a theme and the attitude measure. Overall, participants preferred non-tobacco advertisements to tobacco advertisements, rural participants had less positive attitudes and participants who had peers who used tobacco had more positive attitudes. Social acceptance and entertainment themes increased the appeal of SLT advertisements, and sex appeal increased the appeal of e-cigarette advertisements. Conclusions/Importance: Findings suggest that advertisements that promote the social nature of use in SLT advertisements may be of particular concern for their influence on adolescent boys.
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The cognitive determinants of social behaviors play an important role in adolescents' decision-making for starting smoking. The present study was therefore conducted to determine the predictors of tobacco smoking in male adolescents in Hamadan, Iran, based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB. Materials and Methods: The present descriptive-analytical study was conducted on 810 male high school students in Hamadan selected through the multistage sampling method. Data were collected using a self-report questionnaire with a section on participants' demographic information and another section based on the TPB constructs. Data were then analyzed in SPSS-18 and AMOS-18 using the Pearson correlation test and the indices of model fit. Results: Overall, 17.2% of the male adolescents reported to have smoked cigarettes in the past. Perceived behavioral control, subjective norms and attitude were the best predictors of behavioral intention for tobacco smoking, in the order of importance (P<0.001. Perceived behavioral control (&beta=-0.59 P<0.001 was a better predictor of the studied behavior than behavioral intention (&beta=0.11 P<0.001. In the structural equation model, TPB constructs accounted for 32% of behavioral intention variances and 50% of behavior variances. Conclusion: The results demonstrated the poor role of behavioral intention in reporting smoking behaviors in male adolescents. Other psychological factors that affect adolescents' decision-making regarding tobacco smoking should also be scrutinized.
Galanti, Maria Rosaria; Rosendahl, Ingvar; Wickholm, Seppo
Whether the use of smokeless tobacco can facilitate the transition to cigarette smoking and/or to prolonged tobacco use in adolescence is unclear. We analyzed data from a cohort of 2,938 Swedish adolescents, with six follow-up assessments of tobacco use between the ages of 11 and 18 years. The majority of tobacco users (70%) started by smoking cigarettes, 11% took up snus before smoking, and 19% used both tobacco types close in time. Ever users of tobacco at baseline had a higher risk of being current smokers and/or smokeless tobacco users at the end of follow-up compared with never users, with the highest excess relative risk for "mixed users." Adolescents who initiated tobacco use with cigarettes had a non-significantly increased probability to end up as current smokers compared with snus starters (adjusted OR=1.42; 95% CI 0.98-2.10) The OR of smoking for "mixed starters" was 2.54 (95% CI 1.68-3.91). The risk of becoming current user of any tobacco was also significantly enhanced for "mixed starters." Marked sex differences were observed in these associations, as initiation with cigarettes rather than with snus predicted current smoking or tobacco use only among females. Progression of tobacco use in adolescence is not predicted by onset with snus or cigarettes, but rather by initiation with both tobacco types close in time and/or at young age. The proportion of adolescent smoking prevalence attributable to a potential induction effect of snus is likely small.
Mays, Darren; Gilman, Stephen E; Rende, Richard; Luta, George; Tercyak, Kenneth P; Niaura, Raymond S
Adolescents with conduct problems are more likely to smoke, and tobacco advertising exposure may exacerbate this risk. Males' excess risk for conduct problems and females' susceptibility to advertising suggest gender-specific pathways to smoking. We investigated the associations between gender, conduct problems, and lifetime smoking and adolescents' exposure to tobacco advertising, and we examined prospective relationships with smoking behaviors. Adolescents completed baseline (2001-2004; n = 541) and 5-year follow-up (2007-2009; n =320) interviews for a family study of smoking risk. Baseline interviews assessed conduct problems and tobacco advertising exposure; smoking behavior was assessed at both timepoints. Generalized linear models analyzed gender differences in the relationship between conduct problems, advertising exposure, and smoking behavior at baseline and longitudinally. At baseline, among males, conduct problems were associated with greater advertising exposure independent of demographics and lifetime smoking. Among females at baseline, conduct problems were associated with greater advertising exposure only among never-smokers after adjusting for demographics. In longitudinal analyses, baseline advertising exposure predicted subsequent smoking initiation (i.e., smoking their first cigarette between baseline and follow-up) for females but not for males. Baseline conduct problems predicted current (i.e., daily or weekly) smoking at follow-up for all adolescents in adjusted models. The findings of this study reinforce that conduct problems are a strong predictor of subsequent current smoking for all adolescents and reveal important differences between adolescent males and females in the relationship between conduct problems, tobacco advertising behavior, and smoking behavior. The findings suggest gender-specific preventive interventions targeting advertising exposure may be warranted.
Plamondon, Geneviève; Guindon, G Emmanuel; Paraje, Guillermo
To assesses the statistical association between exposure to tobacco marketing and tobacco consumption among adolescents in South America, by using data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey. Using data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS), the exposure to tobacco marketing at the school level was studied from advertising in TV, radio, massive public events and street advertisement. Tobacco behaviour was considered. The total pooled sample used was 134 073 youths from Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Peru, Brazil, Uruguay, Suriname, Colombia, Guyana, Ecuador, Paraguay and Venezuela. The exposure to tobacco marketing is positively and significantly associated to the probability of youths experimenting with tobacco (at least once in their lifetime). For regular smokers, exposure to tobacco marketing is positively and significantly associated to smoking intensity. These results call for the implementation of strong restrictions on tobacco advertisement of various types in South American countries.
Full Text Available Objective. To assesses the statistical association between exposure to tobacco marketing and tobacco consumption among adolescents in South America, by using data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey. Materials and methods. Using data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS, the exposure to tobacco marketing at the school level was studied from advertising in TV, radio, massive public events and street advertisement. Tobacco behaviour was considered. The total pooled sample used was 134 073 youths from Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Peru, Brazil, Uruguay, Suriname, Colombia, Guyana, Ecuador, Paraguay and Venezuela. Results. The exposure to tobacco marketing is positively and significantly associated to the probability of youths experimenting with tobacco (at least once in their lifetime. For regular smokers, exposure to tobacco marketing is positively and significantly associated to smoking intensity. Conclusions. These results call for the implementation of strong restrictions on tobacco advertisement of various types in South American countries.
Julià Cano, Albert; Escapa Solanas, Sandra; Marí-Klose, Marga; Marí-Klose, Pau
There are multiple factors that can affect the risk of tobacco use in adolescence. By analyzing these factors together we can disentangle the specific relevance of each of them in shaping teenagers' individual behavior. The goal of this research study is to deepen our understanding of the relationship between tobacco use in adolescence and socio-demographic and socio-emotional variables. We worked with a representative sample of 2,289 Catalan teenagers (aged 15-18) who responded to a questionnaire drawn up by the Families and Children Panel. Regression models were developed to assess the statistical associations of different mood states (sadness, nervousness and loneliness), peer-group characteristics and parenting styles, with tobacco use. The results indicate that addictive behavior is more likely when teenagers show negative mood states, controlling for socio-demographic variables and other risk factors. Among these additional factors, authoritative parenting styles reduce the risk of tobacco use, compared to authoritarian, permissive and neglectful parenting. Extensive tobacco use within the peer group is the risk factor most strongly associated with teenagers' individual behavior.
Brown, Abraham; Moodie, Crawford
Using cross-sectional data from three waves of the Youth Tobacco Policy Study, which examines the impact of the UK's Tobacco Advertising and Promotion Act (TAPA) on adolescent smoking behaviour, we examined normative pathways between tobacco marketing awareness and smoking intentions. The sample comprised 1121 adolescents in Wave 2 (pre-ban), 1123 in Wave 3 (mid-ban) and 1159 in Wave 4 (post-ban). Structural equation modelling was used to assess the direct effect of tobacco advertising and promotion on intentions at each wave, and also the indirect effect, mediated through normative influences. Pre-ban, higher levels of awareness of advertising and promotion were independently associated with higher levels of perceived sibling approval which, in turn, was positively related to intentions. Independent paths from perceived prevalence and benefits fully mediated the effects of advertising and promotion awareness on intentions mid- and post-ban. Advertising awareness indirectly affected intentions via the interaction between perceived prevalence and benefits pre-ban, whereas the indirect effect on intentions of advertising and promotion awareness was mediated by the interaction of perceived prevalence and benefits mid-ban. Our findings indicate that policy measures such as the TAPA can significantly reduce adolescents' smoking intentions by signifying smoking to be less normative and socially unacceptable.
Results: In adolescents with unplanned pregnancies, the prevalence of active smoking was 21.2% and of alcohol consumption, 41.5%. The percentage of smoking at home was 57.4% and alcohol consumption, 77.5%. Approximately, 80.3% of adolescents with unplanned pregnancies had friends who smoked and 90.6% ...
MacKinnon-Lewis, Carol; Lindsey, Eric W; Frabutt, James M; Chambers, Jessica Campbell
The present study examined mothers' use of corporal punishment and adolescents' aggression as predictors of mother-youth conflict during early adolescence. Particular attention was given to the potential mediating role that adolescents' hostile attributions of intent (HAI) regarding mothers' behavior might play in connections between corporal punishment, youth aggression, and mother-adolescent conflict for European American (EA) and African American (AA) youth. Data were collected from 268 12- to 14-year-olds (154 European American; 114 African American; 133 girls; 135 boys) and their mothers over a period of 2 years. Questionnaires completed by both mothers and adolescents were used to assess maternal corporal punishment and adolescent aggression, and interviews concerning hypothetical situations were used to assess adolescent HAI in year one. In both year one and year two mother-adolescent conflict was observed in a laboratory interaction session. Data revealed that adolescent HAI mediated the link between maternal corporal punishment and mother-adolescent conflict for EA, but not AA youth. Adolescents' HAI mediated the link between adolescent aggression and mother-adolescent conflict for both EA and AA families. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Guinn, Bobby; Vincent, Vern
Examined the relationship of perceived stress, self-esteem, acculturation, and gender to the coping response of Mexican American adolescents. Data from self-report surveys indicated that adolescents had relatively high perceived stress levels, low acculturation, and a moderate self-esteem, with no significant gender differences. Self-esteem was…
Lyon, Maureen E.; Benoit, Marilyn; O'Donnell, Regina M.; Getson, Pamela R.; Silber, Tomas; Walsh, Thomas
Evaluates risk factors in African American adolescent suicide attempters (n=51) and nonsuicidal (n=124) adolescents. Results show that threat of separation from a parental figure, insomnia, neglect, substance abuse, suicidal ideation, and failing grades were the strongest predictors of suicide attempt. Unexpected findings include high levels of…
Al-Lawati, Jawad A; Muula, Adamson S; Hilmi, Sahar A; Rudatsikira, Emmanuel
Objective: To assess the prevalence and determinants of waterpipe use among school-going adolescents in Oman. Methods: A cross-sectional, school-based study was conducted in 2003 involving 9 regions of Oman, as part of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey. Participants were requested to complete an anonymous questionnaire containing demographic characteristics, current and previous use of waterpipe tobacco, attitudes towards cigarette smoking, parents’ and friends’ cigarette smoking habits. Proportions were used to calculate prevalence rates and logistic regression analysis to obtain odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Results: 1,962 students participated of whom 1,005 (51.2%) were males. Eighty-eight percent were between 13 and 16 years of age. Five hundred and twenty-two (26.6%) reported ever smoking waterpipe tobacco while 189 (9.6%) were current users. Among males, 155 (15.5%) were current users while among females only 24 (2.6%) smoked currently. Study participants were more likely to use waterpipe if they had a parent or friend who smoked cigarettes. Adolescents were, however, less likely to use waterpipe tobacco if they believed that cigarette smoking was harmful to health. Students who were receiving 500 Baisas (US$ 1.3) or more per day pocket money were more likely to use waterpipe tobacco compared to those receiving less (OR 3.3, 95% CI 2.3 to 4.6). In multivariate analysis, the OR for males being a smoker of waterpipe tobacco compared to females was 4.46 (95% CI, 2.38 to 8.35); while the OR for most or all friends smoking cigarettes compared to non-smoking was OR 5.65 (95% CI 2.87 to 11.13). Study participants who perceived smoking as harmful to health were less likely to use waterpipe tobacco compared to those who did not believe smoking was harmful (OR 0.31, 95% CI 0.29 to 0.92) and those receiving 500 Baisas or more (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.5 to 3.2). Conclusion: Waterpipe smoking among Omani adolescents is an emerging public health concern
Al-Lawati, Jawad A; Muula, Adamson S; Hilmi, Sahar A; Rudatsikira, Emmanuel
To assess the prevalence and determinants of waterpipe use among school-going adolescents in Oman. A cross-sectional, school-based study was conducted in 2003 involving 9 regions of Oman, as part of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey. Participants were requested to complete an anonymous questionnaire containing demographic characteristics, current and previous use of waterpipe tobacco, attitudes towards cigarette smoking, parents' and friends' cigarette smoking habits. Proportions were used to calculate prevalence rates and logistic regression analysis to obtain odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). 1,962 students participated of whom 1,005 (51.2%) were males. Eighty-eight percent were between 13 and 16 years of age. Five hundred and twenty-two (26.6%) reported ever smoking waterpipe tobacco while 189 (9.6%) were current users. Among males, 155 (15.5%) were current users while among females only 24 (2.6%) smoked currently. Study participants were more likely to use waterpipe if they had a parent or friend who smoked cigarettes. Adolescents were, however, less likely to use waterpipe tobacco if they believed that cigarette smoking was harmful to health. Students who were receiving 500 Baisas (US$ 1.3) or more per day pocket money were more likely to use waterpipe tobacco compared to those receiving less (OR 3.3, 95% CI 2.3 to 4.6). In multivariate analysis, the OR for males being a smoker of waterpipe tobacco compared to females was 4.46 (95% CI, 2.38 to 8.35); while the OR for most or all friends smoking cigarettes compared to non-smoking was OR 5.65 (95% CI 2.87 to 11.13). Study participants who perceived smoking as harmful to health were less likely to use waterpipe tobacco compared to those who did not believe smoking was harmful (OR 0.31, 95% CI 0.29 to 0.92) and those receiving 500 Baisas or more (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.5 to 3.2). Waterpipe smoking among Omani adolescents is an emerging public health concern. Efforts to prevent adolescent smoking should be
Fitzpatrick, Stephanie L.; Lai, Betty S.; Brancati, Frederick L.; Golden, Sherita H.; Hill-Briggs, Felicia
OBJECTIVE Although African American adolescents have the highest prevalence of obesity, they have the lowest prevalence of metabolic syndrome across all definitions used in previous research. To address this paradox, we sought to develop a model of the metabolic syndrome specific to African American adolescents. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2003–2010) of 822 nonpregnant, nondiabetic, African American adolescents (45% girls; aged 12 to 17 years) who underwent physical examinations and fasted at least 8 h were analyzed. We conducted a confirmatory factor analysis to model metabolic syndrome and then used latent profile analysis to identify metabolic syndrome risk groups among African American adolescents. We compared the risk groups on probability of prediabetes. RESULTS The best-fitting metabolic syndrome model consisted of waist circumference, fasting insulin, HDL, and systolic blood pressure. We identified three metabolic syndrome risk groups: low, moderate, and high risk (19% boys; 16% girls). Thirty-five percent of both boys and girls in the high-risk groups had prediabetes, a significantly higher prevalence compared with boys and girls in the low-risk groups. Among adolescents with BMI higher than the 85th percentile, 48 and 36% of boys and girls, respectively, were in the high-risk group. CONCLUSIONS Our findings provide a plausible model of the metabolic syndrome specific to African American adolescents. Based on this model, approximately 19 and 16% of African American boys and girls, respectively, are at high risk for having the metabolic syndrome. PMID:23093663
Smith, Katherine Clegg; Bone, Lee; Clay, Eric A; Owings, Kerry; Thames, Sean; Stillman, Frances
Young adults are generally overlooked in tobacco control initiatives, even though they are critical to sustained success. African American young adults who are not in higher education or working are particularly vulnerable to harmful tobacco use, given high smoking rates and limited access to cessation services. Guided by community-based participatory research (CBPR) principles, we sought to identify program and community-level strategies to reduce tobacco use among African American young adults in Baltimore. We describe the challenges and opportunities for integrating effective tobacco control into community-based education and job training programs for unemployed young adults. As part of a longstanding community-research partnership in Baltimore, we conducted fourteen semistructured key informant interviews with leaders from city government and education and job training programs for young adults. The research design, data collection, analysis, and dissemination all included dialogue between and active contribution by both research and community partners. Interview data were structured into opportunities (mindset for change and desire for bonds with a trusted adult), challenges (culture of fatalism, tobacco as a stress reliever, and culture of tobacco use among young adults), and possible tobacco control solutions (tobacco education designed with and for program staff and participants and integration of tobacco issues into holistic program goals and policies). The emergent themes enhance our understanding of how tobacco is situated in the lives of unemployed young adults and the potential for building sustainable, community-based public health solutions.
Voorhees, Carolyn C; Ye, Cong; Carter-Pokras, Olivia; MacPherson, Laura; Kanamori, Mariano; Zhang, Guangyu; Chen, Lu; Fiedler, Robert
Identify demographic, social, and environmental factors associated with smoking initiation in a large, racially and ethnically diverse sample of underage youth participating in the 2006 Maryland Youth Tobacco Survey. Cross-sectional, multistage, probability sample survey. Schools (308 middle and high schools) in Maryland. Subjects were 12- to 17-year-old adolescents participating in a school-based survey. New smokers and nonsmokers were included in the analysis (n = 57,072). Social and media influence, secondhand smoke exposure, tobacco product use, and demographic information including age, race/ethnicity, and geographic region. Chi-square and multiple logistic regression analyses controlling for clustering. Hispanic and Hawaiian/Pacific Islander youth were most likely and Asian and Black youth were least likely to be new smokers. Smoking initiation was positively associated with higher age, living with a current smoker, secondhand smoke exposure, exposure to advertisements for tobacco products, having more friends that smoke, tobacco products offered by friends, risk perceptions, and use of other tobacco products such as smokeless tobacco and cigars. Multivariate logistic regression results suggested that composite measures of peer influence, advertising exposure, and secondhand smoke exposure were independently associated with smoking initiation. Media, peer influence, and secondhand smoke exposure were the most important factors influencing smoking initiation and were common to all racial/ethnic groups in this study. Interventions combining targeted public awareness, education, and media campaigns directed at parents/guardians should be investigated.
Introduction: Adolescents with conduct problems are more likely to smoke, and tobacco advertising exposure may exacerbate this risk. Males’ excess risk for conduct problems and females’ susceptibility to advertising suggest gender-specific pathways to smoking. We investigated the associations between gender, conduct problems, and lifetime smoking and adolescents’ exposure to tobacco advertising, and we examined prospective relationships with smoking behaviors. Methods: Adolescents completed baseline (2001–2004; n = 541) and 5-year follow-up (2007–2009; n =320) interviews for a family study of smoking risk. Baseline interviews assessed conduct problems and tobacco advertising exposure; smoking behavior was assessed at both timepoints. Generalized linear models analyzed gender differences in the relationship between conduct problems, advertising exposure, and smoking behavior at baseline and longitudinally. Results: At baseline, among males, conduct problems were associated with greater advertising exposure independent of demographics and lifetime smoking. Among females at baseline, conduct problems were associated with greater advertising exposure only among never-smokers after adjusting for demographics. In longitudinal analyses, baseline advertising exposure predicted subsequent smoking initiation (i.e., smoking their first cigarette between baseline and follow-up) for females but not for males. Baseline conduct problems predicted current (i.e., daily or weekly) smoking at follow-up for all adolescents in adjusted models. Conclusions: The findings of this study reinforce that conduct problems are a strong predictor of subsequent current smoking for all adolescents and reveal important differences between adolescent males and females in the relationship between conduct problems, tobacco advertising behavior, and smoking behavior. The findings suggest gender-specific preventive interventions targeting advertising exposure may be warranted. PMID:24590388
Paek, Hye-Jin; Hove, Thomas; Oh, Hyun Jung
Background: In efforts to curb and prevent youth smoking, school tobacco policies have become an important and effective strategy. This study explores the degrees and types of tobacco-free school policy (TFSP) enforcement that are associated with adolescent smoking. Methods: A multilevel analysis was performed using 983 students who are nested in…
Pförtner, Timo-Kolja; Hublet, Anne; Schnohr, Christina Warrer; Rathmann, Katharina; Moor, Irene; de Looze, Margaretha; Baška, Tibor; Molcho, Michal; Kannas, Lasse; Kunst, Anton E.; Richter, Matthias
There are concerns that tobacco control policies may be less effective in reducing smoking among disadvantaged socioeconomic groups and thus may contribute to inequalities in adolescent smoking. This study examines how the association between tobacco control policies and smoking of 15-year-old boys
Arbona, Consuelo; Power, Thomas G.
Examines the relation of mother and father attachment to self-esteem and self-reported involvement in antisocial behaviors among African American, European American, and Mexican American high school students. Findings indicated that adolescents from the 3 ethnic/racial groups did not differ greatly in their reported attachment. (Contains 70…
Pierce, John P; Sargent, James D; White, Martha M; Borek, Nicolette; Portnoy, David B; Green, Victoria R; Kaufman, Annette R; Stanton, Cassandra A; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Strong, David R; Pearson, Jennifer L; Coleman, Blair N; Leas, Eric; Noble, Madison L; Trinidad, Dennis R; Moran, Meghan B; Carusi, Charles; Hyland, Andrew; Messer, Karen
Non-cigarette tobacco marketing is less regulated and may promote cigarette smoking among adolescents. We quantified receptivity to advertising for multiple tobacco products and hypothesized associations with susceptibility to cigarette smoking. Wave 1 of the nationally representative PATH (Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health) study interviewed 10 751 adolescents who had never used tobacco. A stratified random selection of 5 advertisements for each of cigarettes, e-cigarettes, smokeless products, and cigars were shown from 959 recent tobacco advertisements. Aided recall was classified as low receptivity, and image-liking or favorite ad as higher receptivity. The main dependent variable was susceptibility to cigarette smoking. Among US youth, 41% of 12 to 13 year olds and half of older adolescents were receptive to at least 1 tobacco advertisement. Across each age group, receptivity to advertising was highest for e-cigarettes (28%-33%) followed by cigarettes (22%-25%), smokeless tobacco (15%-21%), and cigars (8%-13%). E-cigarette ads shown on television had the highest recall. Among cigarette-susceptible adolescents, receptivity to e-cigarette advertising (39.7%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 37.9%-41.6%) was higher than for cigarette advertising (31.7%; 95% CI: 29.9%-33.6%). Receptivity to advertising for each tobacco product was associated with increased susceptibility to cigarette smoking, with no significant difference across products (similar odds for both cigarette and e-cigarette advertising; adjusted odds ratio = 1.22; 95% CI: 1.09-1.37). A large proportion of US adolescent never tobacco users are receptive to tobacco advertising, with television advertising for e-cigarettes having the highest recall. Receptivity to advertising for each non-cigarette tobacco product was associated with susceptibility to smoke cigarettes. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Our findings suggest missed opportunities for youth tobacco use prevention and cessation efforts in the clinical setting. Further research is needed to better facilitate an open dialogue on tobacco use between physicians and their adolescent patients.
Thomas K. Welty
Full Text Available Tobacco use among American Indians has a long and complicated history ranging from its utilization in spiritual ceremonies to its importance as an economic factor for survival. Despite this cultural tradition and long history, there are few studies of the health effects of tobacco in this population. The Strong Heart Study is a prospective observational study of cardiovascular disease (CVD in 13 American Indian tribes in Arizona, Oklahoma, and North and South Dakota with 4,549 participants. Baseline examinations were followed by two examinations at regular intervals and 16 years of morbidity and mortality follow-up. Hazard ratios (HRs for non-fatal CVD for current smokers vs. non-smokers after adjusting for other risk factors were significant in women (HR = 1.94, 95% CI 1.54 to 2.45 and men (HR = 1.59, 95% CI 1.16 to 2.18. Hazard ratios for fatal CVD for current smokers vs. non-smokers after adjusting for other risk factors were significant in women (HR = 1.64, 95% CI 1.04 to 2.58, but not in men. Individuals who smoked and who were diagnosed with diabetes mellitus, hypertension or renal insufficiency were more likely to quit smoking than those without these conditions. On average, American Indians smoke fewer cigarettes per day than other racial/ethnic groups; nevertheless, the ill effects of habitual tobacco use are evident in this population.
Mohan, Sailesh; Sankara Sarma, P; Thankappan, K R
Tobacco use is increasing among adolescents. We conducted this study to find prevalence and correlates of tobacco use among adolescent boys in Trivandrum city, Kerala. Using a two-stage cluster sampling technique, 1323 boys (12-19 years) were selected from 14 schools. Information on tobacco use, academic performance, pocket money, and other variables was collected using a questionnaire. Multivariate analyses were done to find associations between current use of tobacco and other variables. Prevalence of current tobacco use was 11.3% (95% CI 9.6-13.0). Current tobacco use was 2.9 times higher among older boys compared to younger boys (OR 2.9, CI 1.6-5.3), 2 times higher among boys whose fathers used tobacco (OR 2.0, CI 1.3-3.1), 2.9 times higher among boys whose friends used tobacco (OR 2.9, CI 1.6-5.1) compared to their counterparts, 3 times higher among boys securing poor (80% marks) grade (OR 3.0, CI 1.4-6.6), and 4 times higher among those who received pocket money compared to those who did not (OR 4.0, CI 2.2-7.4). Health programs to quit tobacco are suggested in schools with special emphasis on poor performers, those receiving pocket money, and those whose fathers and friends use tobacco.
Hublet, Anne; Schmid, Holger; Clays, Els
AIMS: To investigate the associations between well-known, cost-effective tobacco control policies at country level and smoking prevalence among 15-year-old adolescents. DESIGN: Multi-level modelling based on the 2005-06 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Study, a cross-national study...... at individual level, and with country-level variables from the Tobacco Control Scale and published country-level databases. SETTING: Twenty-nine European countries. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 25 599 boys and 26 509 girls. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Self-reported regular smoking defined as at least weekly smoking...... vending machines) = -0.372, P = 0.06]. CONCLUSIONS: For boys, some of the currently recommended tobacco control policies may help to reduce smoking prevalence. However, the model is less suitable for girls, indicating gender differences in the potential efficacy of smoking policies. Future research should...
Perez, Donna A; Grunseit, Anne C; Rissel, Chris; Kite, James; Cotter, Trish; Dunlop, Sally; Bauman, Adrian
Exposure to tobacco advertising and promotion increases the likelihood of smoking amongst young people. While there is a universal ban on traditional or ‘above-the-line’ advertising in Australia, the types and extent of exposure of young people to ‘below-the-line’ tobacco advertising and promotion is largely unknown. In this study we aim to identify levels of exposure of New South Wales (NSW) adolescents and young adults to tobacco promotion at the point-of-sale (PoS), on the internet, in entertainment media and at venues such as events or festivals and pubs, clubs, nightclubs, or bars; and to identify those most at risk of exposure. A telephone survey of 1000 NSW adolescents and young adults aged 12 to 24 years was conducted. Self-reported exposure to tobacco promotions or advertising in the last month were measured in four areas: (1) promotions or advertising at (a) events or festivals and (b) pubs, clubs, nightclubs or bars, (2) on the internet, (3) people smoking cigarettes in (a) movies, (b) TV shows, (c) video games and (d) on the internet, and (4) displays of cigarette packs for sale at (a) large supermarkets, (b) grocery stores or small supermarkets, (c) convenience stores, and (d) service or petrol stations. Smoking status and susceptibility to smoking was also assessed. A substantial proportion of the young people surveyed reported seeing tobacco promotion sometimes or often in the last month over most of the channels studied.The highest levels of exposure were at the PoS (approx. two-thirds) and to people smoking cigarettes in movies(77%). Lower levels of exposure to tobacco promotions and imagery were reported on the internet (20%); at events or festivals (22.5%); in pubs, clubs, nightclubs or bars (31%); and in video games (23%). However, the odds of exposure through video games increased by 8% for every additional hour spent on the internet per day. This study shows that adolescents and young adults in NSW are exposed to tobacco advertising or
Turner, Sherri L.; Conkel, Julia L.; Reich, Allison N.; Trotter, Michelle J.; Siewart, Jason J.
This article discusses Native American urban adolescents' construal of social skills, and relationships between these skills and proactivity behaviors as identified in the Integrative Contextual Model of Career Development (Lapan, 2004). Recommendations that build upon the social skills strengths of Native American young people are included.…
Moore-Thomas, Cheryl; Day-Vines, Norma L.
Religion and spirituality are deeply rooted in traditional African American culture. Data suggest that African American adolescents maintain higher baseline rates of religious activities and beliefs than their peers (Bachman, Johnston, & O'Malley, 2005; Smith, Faris, Denton, & Regnerus, 2003). Recognizing these data, this article examines…
Chiu, Eddie Yu-Wai; Woo, Kent
This preliminary study examined the characteristics and risk factors of problem gambling among Chinese American adolescents. A total of 192 Chinese American students (aged 13-19) from 9th to 12th grades were recruited from three high schools in San Francisco, California. Students were administered the South Oaks Gambling Screen Revised for…
Ying, Yu-Wen; Han, Meekyung
Informed by acculturation, ecological, and social capital theories, the study examined the contribution of parental acculturation, parental involvement, and intergenerational relationship to well-being in Southeast Asian American adolescents. Using data from the Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Study, 491 Southeast Asian American adolescents…
Sheikh Mohammed Shariful Islam
Full Text Available Background: Tobacco use is one of the major avoidable and recognized causes of noncommunicable diseases globally. Tobacco use among adolescents is considered as priority health risk behaviors that contribute to leading causes of morbidity and mortality among youth and adults and are often established at young age, extend into adulthood and are preventable. Aims: This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of tobacco use and its contributing factors among adolescents in Bangladesh. Settings and Design: We used data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey Bangladesh 2007, which were a school-based survey of 2135 students aged 13-15 years in grades 7-10. Materials and Methods: A two-stage cluster sample design was used to produce representative data for Bangladesh. At the first stage, schools were selected with probability proportional to enrollment size. At the second stage, classes were randomly selected and all students in selected classes were eligible to participate. Statistical Analysis Used: We used SUDAAN for statistical analysis of correlated data, it computes standard errors of the estimates and produces 95% confidence intervals. We used t-tests to determine the differences between subpopulations. All analyses conducted in this study were gender stratified. Results: The overall prevalence of ever cigarette smokers in Bangladeshi students was about 9%, which was more than 3 times higher in boys compared to girls (15.8% vs. 4.8%. Almost four in ten students start smoking before the age of 10. In addition, another 6% students reported to use other tobacco products. About 70.7% students reported that they desired to stop smoking, and 85.0% tried to stop smoking during the past year but failed. About 42.2% students were exposed to smoke from other people in public places. Among current smokers, 97.8% reported that they were not refused cigarette purchase because of their age. Conclusions: Implementation and enforcement of tobacco control act are
Shearin, Sherin A
As the achievement gap between African American and while students persists, an examination of factors outside the school setting are essential. Acknowledging the dynamics of family environment as perceived by African American adolescent males is apposite to understanding the relationship between family environment and academic achievement. Utilizing an ecological perspective, this study describes the characteristics of family process variables and analyzes the adolescents' perception of parent-adolescent interaction and its influence on their psychological well-being. Results indicate that a substantial proportion of the 179 adolescent males who perceived parent-adolescent interaction as positive and were identified as having a stable psychological well-being, were more likely to have average to above-average grade point averages, high Stanford Nine scores and high achievement group membership, than those adolescent males who did not perceive parent-adolescent interaction as positive.
Agrawal, Arpana; Silberg, Judy L.; Lynskey, Michael T.; Maes, Hermine H.; Eaves, Lindon J.
Using twins assessed during adolescence (Virginia Twin Study of Adolescent Behavioral Development: 8–17 years) and followed up in early adulthood (Young Adult Follow-Up, 18–27 years), we tested 13 genetically informative models of co-occurrence, adapted for the inclusion of covariates. Models were fit, in Mx, to data at both assessments allowing for a comparison of the mechanisms that underlie the lifetime co-occurrence of cannabis and tobacco use in adolescence and early adulthood. Both cannabis and tobacco use were influenced by additive genetic (38–81%) and non-shared environmental factors with the possible role of non-shared environment in the adolescent assessment only. Causation models, where liability to use cannabis exerted a causal influence on the liability to use tobacco fit the adolescent data best, while the reverse causation model (tobacco causes cannabis) fit the early adult data best. Both causation models (cannabis to tobacco and tobacco to cannabis) and the correlated liabilities model fit data from the adolescent and young adult assessments well. Genetic correlations (0.59–0.74) were moderate. Therefore, the relationship between cannabis and tobacco use is fairly similar during adolescence and early adulthood with reciprocal influences across the two psychoactive substances. However, our study could not exclude the possibility that ‘gateways’ and ‘reverse gateways’, particularly within a genetic context, exist, such that predisposition to using one substance (cannabis or tobacco) modifies predisposition to using the other. Given the high addictive potential of nicotine and the ubiquitous nature of cannabis use, this is a public health concern worthy of considerable attention. PMID:20047801
Parisod, Heidi; Pakarinen, Anni; Axelin, Anna; Danielsson-Ojala, Riitta; Smed, Jouni; Salanterä, Sanna
The purpose of this study was to explore the design of a health game that aims to both support tobacco-related health literacy and a tobacco-free life in early adolescence and to meet adolescents' expectations. Data were collected from adolescents using an open-ended questionnaire (n = 83) and focus groups (n = 39) to obtain their view of a health game used for tobacco-related health education. The data were analyzed using thematic analysis. A group of experts combined the adolescents' views with theoretical information on health literacy and designed and produced the first version of the game. Adolescents (session 1, n = 16; session 3, n = 10; and session 4, n = 44) and health promotion professionals (session 2, n = 3) participated in testing the game. Feedback from testing sessions 3 and 4 was analyzed using descriptive statistics. Adolescents pointed out that the health game needs to approach the topic of tobacco delicately and focus on the adolescents' perspective and on the positive sides of a tobacco-free life rather than only on the negative consequences of tobacco. The adolescents expected the game to be of high quality, stimulating, and intellectually challenging and to offer possibilities for individualization. Elements from the adolescents' view and theoretical modelling were embedded into the design of a game called Fume. Feedback on the game was promising, but some points were highlighted for further development. Investing especially in high-quality design features, such as graphics and versatile content, using humoristic or otherwise stimulating elements, and maintaining sufficiently challenging gameplay would promote the acceptability of theory-based health games among adolescents.
Williams, John Kino Yamaguchi; Else, 'Iwalani R. N.; Goebert, Deborah A.; Nishimura, Stephanie T.; Hishinuma, Earl S.; Andrade, Naleen N.
Few studies have examined the effect of ethnicity and cultural identity on substance use among Asian and Pacific Islander adolescents. A cross-sequential study conducted in Hawai'i with 144 Japanese American and part-Japanese American adolescents assessed a model integrating Japanese ethnicity, cultural identity, substance use, major life events, and social support. Japanese American adolescents scored higher on the Japanese Culture Scale and on the Peers’ Social Support than the part-Japanese American adolescents. Significant associations for substance use and impairment included culturally intensified events and Japanese cultural identity- behavior subset. Models had good overall fits and suggested that conflict surrounding cultural identity may contribute to substance use. PMID:23480213
Barraclough, Simon; Morrow, Martha
In the wake of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, corporate social responsibility (CSR) is among the few remaining mechanisms for tobacco corporations publicly to promote their interests. Health advocates may be unaware of the scale, nature and implications of tobacco industry CSR. This investigation aimed to construct a typology of tobacco industry CSR through a case study of the evolution and impact of CSR activities of a particular tobacco corporation in one country - British American Tobacco, Malaysia (BATM), the Malaysian market leader. Methods included searching, compiling and critically appraising publicly available materials from British American Tobacco, BATM, published literature and other sources. The study examined BATM's CSR strategy, the issues which it raises, consequences for tobacco control and potential responses by health advocates. The investigation found that BATM's CSR activities included assistance to tobacco growers, charitable donations, scholarships, involvement in anti-smuggling measures, 'youth smoking prevention' programs and annual Social Reports. BATM has stated that its model is predominantly motivated by social and stakeholder obligations. Its CSR activities have, however, had the additional benefits of contributing to a favourable image, deflecting criticism and establishing a modus vivendi with regulators that assists BATM's continued operations and profitability. It is imperative that health advocates highlight the potential conflicts inherent in such arrangements and develop strategies to address the concerns raised.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to further the understanding of how parenting and the relationship between the parent and the youth influence adolescent alcohol use in Mexican American families, with particular attention to acculturation. Results indicated that parental warmth is a strong factor in predicting adolescent alcohol use among Mexican adolescents. The parent-youth relationship played an important role in lowering alcohol use for Mexican American youth. Acculturation has an impact on the level of warmth, control, and the parent-youth relationship for Mexican American families. Findings indicate that there are unique family mechanisms for Mexican American families that should be considered when developing prevention and treatment options.
Soneji, Samir; Yang, JaeWon; Knutzen, Kristin E; Moran, Meghan Bridgid; Tan, Andy S L; Sargent, James; Choi, Kelvin
Nearly 2.9 million US adolescents engaged with online tobacco marketing in 2013 to 2014. We assess whether engagement is a risk factor for tobacco use initiation, increased frequency of use, progression to poly-product use, and cessation. We analyzed data from 11 996 adolescents sampled in the nationally representative, longitudinal Population Assessment for Tobacco and Health study. At baseline (2013-2014), we ascertained respondents' engagement with online tobacco marketing. At follow-up (2014-2015), we determined if respondents had initiated tobacco use, increased frequency of use, progressed to poly-product use, or quit. Accounting for known risk factors, we fit a multivariable logistic regression model among never-users who engaged at baseline to predict initiation at follow-up. We fit similar models to predict increased frequency of use, progression to poly-product use, and cessation. Compared with adolescents who did not engage, those who engaged reported higher incidences of initiation (19.5% vs 11.9%), increased frequency of use (10.3% vs 4.4%), and progression to poly-product use (5.8% vs 2.4%), and lower incidence of cessation at follow-up (16.1% vs 21.5%). Accounting for other risk factors, engagement was positively associated with initiation (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.26; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01-1.57), increased frequency of use (aOR = 1.58; 95% CI: 1.24-2.00), progression to poly-product use (aOR = 1.70; 95% CI: 1.20-2.43), and negatively associated with cessation (aOR = 0.71; 95% CI: 0.50-1.00). Engagement with online tobacco marketing represents a risk factor for adolescent tobacco use. FDA marketing regulation and cooperation of social-networking sites could limit engagement. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Robinson, Cendrine D; Muench, Christine; Brede, Emily; Endrighi, Romano; Szeto, Edwin H; Sells, Joanna R; Lammers, John P; Okuyemi, Kolawole S; Izmirlian, Grant; Waters, Andrew J
Many African Americans live in communities with a disproportionately high density of tobacco advertisements compared to Whites. Some research indicates that point-of-sale advertising is associated with impulse purchases of cigarettes and smoking. Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) can be used to examine associations between tobacco advertisement exposure and smoking variables in the natural environment. Non-treatment seeking African American smokers were given a mobile device for 2weeks (N=56). They were prompted four times per day and responded to questions about recent exposure to tobacco advertisements. Participants were also asked to indicate the number of cigarettes smoked, and if they made any purchase, or an impulse purchase, since the last assessment. Linear mixed models (LMMs) analyzed between- and within-subject associations between exposure and outcomes. Participants reported seeing at least one advertisement on 33% of assessments. Of those assessments, they reported seeing menthol advertisements on 87% of assessments. Between-subject analyses revealed that participants who on average saw more advertisements were generally more likely to report purchasing cigarettes and to purchase cigarettes on impulse. Within-subject analyses revealed that when an individual participant reported seeing more advertisements than usual they were more likely to have reported purchasing cigarettes, making an impulse purchase and smoking more cigarettes during the same period, but not the subsequent time period. Many African American smokers are frequently exposed to pro-tobacco marketing. Advertisement exposure is cross-sectionally associated with impulse purchases and smoking. Future research should assess prospective associations in more detail. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyse the relation between risk and protective factor and substance use in adolescence, including tobacco use, drunkenness and consumption of illicit drugs. The sample included 3494 students, mean age 15 years old, in the 8th and 10th grades from the public school system, of primary and secondary schools in Portugal. Data collection was held within the HBSC (Health Behavior in School-aged Children survey from 2010. For the purpose of this specific study, the questionnaire includes questions about risk and protective behaviors and substance use, namely tobacco, drunkenness and illicit drug consumption. Results confirmed that adolescents with higher levels of protective factors seem to consume fewer substances and adolescents who present higher levels of risk factors are more likely to consume all the substances in the study. There were statistically significant differences for the majority of risk and protective behaviours regarding tobacco, drunkenness and illicit drugs. Although risk factors have a higher impact on substance use, the existence of protective factors seems to fade such impact.
Gilpin, E A; Pierce, J P; Rosbrook, B
The tobacco industry increased the portion of its marketing budget for sales promotion to $2.5 billion in 1993. Although it claims not to target those under age 18 years, it is important to determine the extent to which adolescents are affected as participation may lead to smoking initiation. California population surveys, conducted in 1993 among youth ages 12-17 years (N = 5,531) and in 1994 among both youth (N = 1,735) and adults (N = 4,170), asked questions regarding possession and willingness to use promotional items. In 1994, young adults (18-24 years) were the most likely to possess a promotional item (27.5 +/- 4.1, +/- 95% confidence limit). However, willingness to use an item was highest among those ages 15-17 years (35.4 +/- 3.4%) and was also high among those ages 12-14 years (24.4 +/- 2.7%). Among youth, ownership or willingness to use promotional items was more likely for boys, whites, those reporting below average school performance, and those smoking or susceptible to smoking. Youth ownership of promotional items increased from 1993 to 1994, as did the frequency of their obtaining items from coupons. Promotional marketing undertaken by the tobacco industry was effective in capturing the interest of adolescents, although actual acquisition was highest among young adults. The rapidly increasing interest in tobacco promotional items from 1993 to 1994 may soon translate into increased adolescent smoking rates.
McDaniel, Patricia A; Malone, Ruth E
This paper explores a partnership between British American Tobacco (BAT) and the environmental organisation Earthwatch Europe (EE) and considers its implications for countries implementing Article 5.3 of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. We reviewed approximately 100 internal BAT documents, interviewed EE's former executive director and examined media accounts and BAT and EE websites. We analysed materials by reviewing them iteratively, identifying themes, constructing a timeline of events and assembling a case study. BAT sought a partnership with EE to gain a global ally that could provide entrée into the larger non-governmental organisation (NGO) community. EE debated the ethics of working with BAT, resolving them in BAT's favour and taking a narrow view of its own overall organisational mission. To protect its reputation, EE delayed public disclosure of the partnership. Instead, EE promoted it to policy-makers and other NGOs, extending BAT's reputation and reach into influential circles. The potential for normalising the tobacco industry presence within government through NGO partnerships and the benefits that accrued to BAT even when the partnership was not being publicised show why governments seeking to protect effective tobacco control policies from industry influence need to consider ways to identify and discourage 'hidden' NGO partnerships.
Nakkash, R; Lee, K
Objectives: To understand the strategy of British American Tobacco (BAT) and other transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) to gain access to the Lebanese market, which has remained relatively closed under monopoly ownership and political instability. Methods: Analysis of internal industry documents, local language secondary sources and industry publications. Results: TTCs have relied on legal and illegal channels to supply the Lebanese market since at least the 1970s. Available documents suggest smuggling has been an important component of BAT’s market entry strategy, transported in substantial quantities via middlemen for sale in Lebanon and neighbouring countries. TTCs took advantage of weak and unstable governance, resulting in uncertainty over the Regie’s legal status, and continued to supply the contraband trade despite appeals by the government to cease undermining its revenues. Since the end of the civil war in the early 1990s, continued uncertainty about the tobacco monopoly amid political instability has encouraged TTCs to seek a legal presence in the country, while continuing to achieve substantial sales through contraband. Conclusion: Evidence of the complicity of TTCs in cigarette smuggling extends to Lebanon and the Middle East where this trade has especially benefited from weak governance and chronic political instability. The regional nature of TTC strategy supports strong international cooperation under the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control to tackle the problem. PMID:18818226
Nakkash, R; Lee, K
To understand the strategy of British American Tobacco (BAT) and other transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) to gain access to the Lebanese market, which has remained relatively closed under monopoly ownership and political instability. Analysis of internal industry documents, local language secondary sources and industry publications. TTCs have relied on legal and illegal channels to supply the Lebanese market since at least the 1970s. Available documents suggest smuggling has been an important component of BAT's market entry strategy, transported in substantial quantities via middlemen for sale in Lebanon and neighbouring countries. TTCs took advantage of weak and unstable governance, resulting in uncertainty over the Regie's legal status, and continued to supply the contraband trade despite appeals by the government to cease undermining its revenues. Since the end of the civil war in the early 1990s, continued uncertainty about the tobacco monopoly amid political instability has encouraged TTCs to seek a legal presence in the country, while continuing to achieve substantial sales through contraband. Evidence of the complicity of TTCs in cigarette smuggling extends to Lebanon and the Middle East where this trade has especially benefited from weak governance and chronic political instability. The regional nature of TTC strategy supports strong international cooperation under the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control to tackle the problem.
Lee, Kelley; Collin, Jeff
Background Cigarette smuggling is a major public health issue, stimulating increased tobacco consumption and undermining tobacco control measures. China is the ultimate prize among tobacco's emerging markets, and is also believed to have the world's largest cigarette smuggling problem. Previous work has demonstrated the complicity of British American Tobacco (BAT) in this illicit trade within Asia and the former Soviet Union. Methods and Findings This paper analyses internal documents of BAT available on site from the Guildford Depository and online from the BAT Document Archive. Documents dating from the early 1900s to 2003 were searched and indexed on a specially designed project database to enable the construction of an historical narrative. Document analysis incorporated several validation techniques within a hermeneutic process. This paper describes the huge scale of this illicit trade in China, amounting to billions of (United States) dollars in sales, and the key supply routes by which it has been conducted. It examines BAT's efforts to optimise earnings by restructuring operations, and controlling the supply chain and pricing of smuggled cigarettes. Conclusions Our research shows that smuggling has been strategically critical to BAT's ongoing efforts to penetrate the Chinese market, and to its overall goal to become the leading company within an increasingly global industry. These findings support the need for concerted efforts to strengthen global collaboration to combat cigarette smuggling. PMID:16834455
Lee, Kelley; Collin, Jeff
Cigarette smuggling is a major public health issue, stimulating increased tobacco consumption and undermining tobacco control measures. China is the ultimate prize among tobacco's emerging markets, and is also believed to have the world's largest cigarette smuggling problem. Previous work has demonstrated the complicity of British American Tobacco (BAT) in this illicit trade within Asia and the former Soviet Union. This paper analyses internal documents of BAT available on site from the Guildford Depository and online from the BAT Document Archive. Documents dating from the early 1900s to 2003 were searched and indexed on a specially designed project database to enable the construction of an historical narrative. Document analysis incorporated several validation techniques within a hermeneutic process. This paper describes the huge scale of this illicit trade in China, amounting to billions of (United States) dollars in sales, and the key supply routes by which it has been conducted. It examines BAT's efforts to optimise earnings by restructuring operations, and controlling the supply chain and pricing of smuggled cigarettes. Our research shows that smuggling has been strategically critical to BAT's ongoing efforts to penetrate the Chinese market, and to its overall goal to become the leading company within an increasingly global industry. These findings support the need for concerted efforts to strengthen global collaboration to combat cigarette smuggling.
Full Text Available Cigarette smuggling is a major public health issue, stimulating increased tobacco consumption and undermining tobacco control measures. China is the ultimate prize among tobacco's emerging markets, and is also believed to have the world's largest cigarette smuggling problem. Previous work has demonstrated the complicity of British American Tobacco (BAT in this illicit trade within Asia and the former Soviet Union.This paper analyses internal documents of BAT available on site from the Guildford Depository and online from the BAT Document Archive. Documents dating from the early 1900s to 2003 were searched and indexed on a specially designed project database to enable the construction of an historical narrative. Document analysis incorporated several validation techniques within a hermeneutic process. This paper describes the huge scale of this illicit trade in China, amounting to billions of (United States dollars in sales, and the key supply routes by which it has been conducted. It examines BAT's efforts to optimise earnings by restructuring operations, and controlling the supply chain and pricing of smuggled cigarettes.Our research shows that smuggling has been strategically critical to BAT's ongoing efforts to penetrate the Chinese market, and to its overall goal to become the leading company within an increasingly global industry. These findings support the need for concerted efforts to strengthen global collaboration to combat cigarette smuggling.
Pförtner, Timo-Kolja; Hublet, Anne; Schnohr, Christina Warrer; Rathmann, Katharina; Moor, Irene; de Looze, Margaretha; Baška, Tibor; Molcho, Michal; Kannas, Lasse; Kunst, Anton E; Richter, Matthias
There are concerns that tobacco control policies may be less effective in reducing smoking among disadvantaged socioeconomic groups and thus may contribute to inequalities in adolescent smoking. This study examines how the association between tobacco control policies and smoking of 15-year-old boys and girls among 29 European countries varies according to socioeconomic group. Data were used from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study conducted in 2005/2006 comprising 50,338 adolescents aged 15 years from 29 European countries. Multilevel logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the association of weekly smoking with components of the Tobacco Control Scale (TCS), and to assess whether this association varied according to family affluence (FAS). Analyses were carried out per gender and adjusted for national wealth and general smoking rate. For boys, tobacco price was negatively associated with weekly smoking rates. This association did not significantly differ between low and high FAS. Levels of tobacco-dependence treatment were significantly associated with weekly smoking. This association varied between low and high FAS, with higher treatment levels associated with higher probability of smoking only for low FAS boys. For girls, no tobacco policy was significantly associated with weekly smoking, irrespective of the FAS. Results indicated that most tobacco control policies are not clearly related to adolescent weekly smoking across European countries. Only tobacco price seemed to be adequate decreasing smoking prevalence among boys, irrespective of their socioeconomic status.
Rudatsikira, Emmanuel; Muula, Adamson S; Siziya, Seter
Tobacco use is a leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality. In the developed nations where the burden from infectious diseases is lower, the burden of disease from tobacco use is especially magnified. Understanding the factors that may be associated with adolescent cigarette smoking may aid in the design of prevention programs. A secondary analysis of the 2004 United States National Youth Tobacco Survey was carried out to estimate the association between current cigarette smoking and selected smoking-related variables. Study participants were recruited from middle and high schools in the United States. Logistic regression analysis using SUDAAN software was conducted to estimate the association between smoking and the following explanatory variables: age, sex, race-ethnicity, peer smoking, living in the same household as a smoker, amount of pocket money at the disposal of the adolescents, and perception that smoking is not harmful to health. Of the 27727 respondents whose data were analysed, 15.9% males and 15.3% females reported being current cigarette smokers. In multivariate analysis, compared to Whites, respondents from almost all ethnic groups were less likely to report current cigarette smoking: Blacks (OR = 0.52; 95% CI [0.44, 0.60]), Asians (OR = 0.45; 95% CI [0.35, 0.58]), Hispanic (OR = 0.81; 95% CI [0.71, 0.92]), and Hawaii/Pacific Islanders (OR = 0.69; 95% CI [0.52, 0.93]). American Indians were equally likely to be current smokers as whites, OR = 0.98 [95% CI; 0.79, 1.22]. Participants who reported living with a smoker were more than twice as likely to smoke as those who did not live with a cigarette smoker (OR = 2.73; 95% CI [2.21, 3.04]). Having friends who smoked was positively associated with smoking (OR = 2.27; 95% CI [1.91, 2.71] for one friend who smoked, and OR = 2.71; 95% CI [2.21, 3.33] for two or more friends who smoked). Subjects who perceived that it was safe to smoke for one or two years were more likely to smoke than those who
Muula Adamson S
Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco use is a leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality. In the developed nations where the burden from infectious diseases is lower, the burden of disease from tobacco use is especially magnified. Understanding the factors that may be associated with adolescent cigarette smoking may aid in the design of prevention programs. Methods A secondary analysis of the 2004 United States National Youth Tobacco Survey was carried out to estimate the association between current cigarette smoking and selected smoking-related variables. Study participants were recruited from middle and high schools in the United States. Logistic regression analysis using SUDAAN software was conducted to estimate the association between smoking and the following explanatory variables: age, sex, race-ethnicity, peer smoking, living in the same household as a smoker, amount of pocket money at the disposal of the adolescents, and perception that smoking is not harmful to health. Results Of the 27727 respondents whose data were analysed, 15.9% males and 15.3% females reported being current cigarette smokers. In multivariate analysis, compared to Whites, respondents from almost all ethnic groups were less likely to report current cigarette smoking: Blacks (OR = 0.52; 95% CI [0.44, 0.60], Asians (OR = 0.45; 95% CI [0.35, 0.58], Hispanic (OR = 0.81; 95% CI [0.71, 0.92], and Hawaii/Pacific Islanders (OR = 0.69; 95% CI [0.52, 0.93]. American Indians were equally likely to be current smokers as whites, OR = 0.98 [95% CI; 0.79, 1.22]. Participants who reported living with a smoker were more than twice as likely to smoke as those who did not live with a cigarette smoker (OR = 2.73; 95% CI [2.21, 3.04]. Having friends who smoked was positively associated with smoking (OR = 2.27; 95% CI [1.91, 2.71] for one friend who smoked, and OR = 2.71; 95% CI [2.21, 3.33] for two or more friends who smoked. Subjects who perceived that it was safe to smoke for one or
Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Ledford, E Cannon; Andersen, Lori; Johnson, Carolyn C
Comprehensive tobacco advertising/promotion bans are effective against adolescent smoking but many developing countries have implemented only partial bans. This study examines the association between advertising/promotions exposure and adolescent cigarette smoking risk in North Africa, and possible mediation of this association by parent and peer smoking. Adolescent data (n=12 329) from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey were analyzed (Libya, 2007; Egypt, 2005; Morocco, 2006; Tunisia 2007; and Sudan, 2005). Current smoking (any cigarette use in the past 30 days) and never-smokers' initiation susceptibility (composite of openness to accepting a cigarette from a friend and intention to start smoking in the next year) outcomes were examined. Advertising/promotion exposures included media and in-person contacts. Weighted univariate, bivariate and multivariable analyses were conducted. Current smoking prevalence ranged from 5.6% (Egypt) to 15.3% (Tunisia) among boys, and 1.1% (Libya and Egypt) to 2.0% (Morocco and Sudan) among girls. Initiation susceptibility ranged from 14.1% (Sudan) to 25.0% (Tunisia) among boys, and from 13.3% (Sudan) to 15.0% (Libya) among girls. Ninety-eight percent of adolescents reported exposure to at least one type of advertising/promotion. In multivariable analyses adjusting for demographics, each type of advertising/promotion was significantly and positively associated with boys' current smoking status; most advertising/promotion exposure types were also positively associated with initiation susceptibility among boys and girls. Peer smoking only partially mediated these associations. Tobacco advertising/promotion exposure was highly prevalent and associated with adolescents' smoking risk in these countries. The comprehensiveness and enforcement of advertising/promotion bans needs to be enhanced.
Jacobs, Wura; Goodson, Patricia; Barry, Adam E.; McLeroy, Kenneth R.
Background: Despite previous research indicating an adolescents' alcohol, tobacco, and other drug (ATOD) use is dependent upon their sex and the sex composition of their social network, few social network studies consider sex differences and network sex composition as a determinant of adolescents' ATOD use behavior. Methods: This systematic…
Jacobsen, Leslie K; Slotkin, Theodore A; Mencl, W Einar; Frost, Stephen J; Pugh, Kenneth R
Prenatal exposure to active maternal tobacco smoking elevates risk of cognitive and auditory processing deficits, and of smoking in offspring. Recent preclinical work has demonstrated a sex-specific pattern of reduction in cortical cholinergic markers following prenatal, adolescent, or combined prenatal and adolescent exposure to nicotine, the primary psychoactive component of tobacco smoke. Given the importance of cortical cholinergic neurotransmission to attentional function, we examined auditory and visual selective and divided attention in 181 male and female adolescent smokers and nonsmokers with and without prenatal exposure to maternal smoking. Groups did not differ in age, educational attainment, symptoms of inattention, or years of parent education. A subset of 63 subjects also underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing an auditory and visual selective and divided attention task. Among females, exposure to tobacco smoke during prenatal or adolescent development was associated with reductions in auditory and visual attention performance accuracy that were greatest in female smokers with prenatal exposure (combined exposure). Among males, combined exposure was associated with marked deficits in auditory attention, suggesting greater vulnerability of neurocircuitry supporting auditory attention to insult stemming from developmental exposure to tobacco smoke in males. Activation of brain regions that support auditory attention was greater in adolescents with prenatal or adolescent exposure to tobacco smoke relative to adolescents with neither prenatal nor adolescent exposure to tobacco smoke. These findings extend earlier preclinical work and suggest that, in humans, prenatal and adolescent exposure to nicotine exerts gender-specific deleterious effects on auditory and visual attention, with concomitant alterations in the efficiency of neurocircuitry supporting auditory attention.
Weglicki, Linda S; Templin, Thomas; Hammad, Adnan; Jamil, Hikmet; Abou-Mediene, Sharifa; Farroukh, Mona; Rice, Virginia Hill
To determine tobacco use rates (cigarette, water pipe smoking [WPS] or narghile) in Arab American compared to non-Arab youth. A convenience sample of 2,782 14- to 18-year-old high school students from a midwest community completed a 21-item tobacco use history survey. Seventy-one percent of the participants were ArA. Grades 9 through 12 were equally represented. Results included 'ever tried cigarettes [narghile]' (20%, 39%); 'smoked cigarettes [narghile] in the past 30 days' (7%, 22%); and 'regular smoking [narghile]' (3%, 15%) for ArA and non-Arab youths, respectively. Each was significantly related to grade and ethnicity. WPS for ArA and non-Arab youths was (38%, 21%); (17%, 11%); and (7%, 5%) for 'ever used,' 'used in the past 30 days,' and 'regular use,' respectively. Grade, ethnicity, and sex were significantly related to WPS. Cigarette smoking rates for non-Arab youth were lower than current national youth smoking rates but significantly higher than ArA youth. Rates for ArA youth were much lower than current national reported data. Rates of WPS for US youth, regardless of race or ethnicity, are not known. Findings from this study indicate that both ArA and non-Arab youth are experimenting and using WPS regularly. These results underscore the importance of assessing novel forms of tobacco use, particularly WPS, a growing phenomenon among US youth.
Spigner, Clarence; Shigaki, Alison; Tu, Shin-Ping
Little information exists regarding the perceptions that ethnic-specific groups of Asian American men have about tobacco cigarette smoking. Thirty Asian American men of immigrant status living in Seattle, Washington, were stratified by ethnicity (Chinese and Vietnamese), language (Mandarin, Cantonese, Vietnamese) and age to comprise six focus groups (two Mandarin speaking men aged 20-40 years and 10 aged 41-65+ years; three Cantonese men aged 20-40 years and another six aged 41-65+ years; four Vietnamese men aged 20-40 years and another five aged 41-65+ years). All group interviews were audio-taped and six separate hard-copy transcripts were produced, independently theme-coded by three investigators to ensure inter-rater reliability, and analyzed with QRS NUD*IST ethnographic software. Bandura (1969, 1986) categorized emergent contextual themes within the constructs of "predisposing, enabling, and reinforcing" behavioral determinants from Social Learning Theory. Smoking to be sociable emerged as the most salient theme. Awareness of tobacco-related diseases other than lung cancer was less evident, as was a self-perceived lack of will-power to quit. Concerns about side-stream smoking affecting family members, along with smoking to alleviate stress, were key findings. Further tobacco-related research is needed that incorporates considerations for cultural dynamics.
Won Kim Cook
Full Text Available Asian American children and adolescents are an under-investigated subpopulation in obesity research. This study aimed to identify specific profiles of Asian subgroups at high risk of adolescent overweight with special attention to Asian ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES, and their interaction. Multiple logistic regression models were fitted using a sample of 1533 Asian American adolescents ages 12–17 from the 2007–2012 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS. In addition to Asian ethnicity and socioeconomic status (assessed by family income and parental education level, age, gender, nativity, and two lifestyle variables, fast food consumption and physical activity, were also controlled for in these models. Key predictors of overweight in Asian American adolescents included certain Asian ethnicities (Southeast Asian, Filipino, and mixed ethnicities, low family income (<300% of the Federal Poverty Level, and being male. Multiplicative interaction terms between low family income and two ethnicities, Southeast Asian and Vietnamese that had the lowest SES among Asian ethnic groups, were significantly associated with greatly elevated odds of being overweight (ORs = 12.90 and 6.67, respectively. These findings suggest that high risk of overweight in Asian American adolescents associated with low family incomes may be further elevated for those in low-income ethnic groups. Future research might investigate ethnic-group SES as a meaningful indicator of community-level socioeconomic disparities that influence the health of Asian Americans.
Full Text Available Background Tobacco smoking among adolescents has been a concern for researchers and health organizations in recent years. However, predisposing factors to smoking initiation among Iranian adolescents are not well recognized. Objectives This study aimed to determine the prevalence of tobacco smoking and to investigate the role of psychologic, behavioral, and demographic risk factors in adolescents' smoking status. Patients and Methods This cross-sectional study was performed on 810 male adolescents recruited through cluster random sampling method in Hamadan in 2014. The participants received a self-administered questionnaire that contained questions about tobacco smoking behavior and demographic, behavioral, and psychologic variables. Data were analyzed by SPSS16 through independent-samples t test, Chi square, and logistic regression. Results A total of 139 persons (17.1% were tobacco smoker and the mean (SD age at smoking initiation was 13.7 (2.2 years. Sense of need, decreasing stress, having a smoker friend, and inability to reject smoking suggestion were common reasons associated with tobacco smoking (P < 0.05. In addition, statistically significant differences between tobacco smokers and nonsmokers were found in the age, grade, mother's job, and education (P < 0.05. In comparison to non-smokers, tobacco smokers evaluated a typical smoker as less immature, more popular, more attractive, more self-confident, more independent, and less selfish person (P < 0.05. Conclusions The results showed that the effect of several psychosocial, behavioral, and demographic risk factors on adolescents' smoking status. Thus, design and implementation of interventions based on the results of the present study may be effective in preventing tobacco smoking among adolescents.
Collin, J; Legresley, E; MacKenzie, R; Lawrence, S; Lee, K
To examine the complicity of British American Tobacco (BAT) in cigarette smuggling in Asia, and to assess the centrality of illicit trade to regional corporate strategy. Analysis of previously confidential documents from BAT's Guildford depository. An iterative strategy combined searches based on geography, organisational structure, and key personnel, while corporate euphemisms for contraband were identified by triangulation. BAT documents demonstrate the strategic importance of smuggling across global, regional, national, and local levels. Particularly important in Asia, contraband enabled access to closed markets, created pressure for market opening, and was highly profitable. Documents demonstrate BAT's detailed oversight of illicit trade, seeking to reconcile the conflicting demands of control and deniability. BAT documents demonstrate that smuggling has been driven by corporate objectives, indicate national measures by which the problem can be addressed, and highlight the importance of a coordinated global response via WHO's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.
Jacobsen, Leslie K; Picciotto, Marina R; Heath, Christopher J; Frost, Stephen J; Tsou, Kristen A; Dwan, Rita A; Jackowski, Marcel P; Constable, Robert T; Mencl, W Einar
Prenatal exposure to maternal smoking has been linked to cognitive and auditory processing deficits in offspring. Preclinical studies have demonstrated that exposure to nicotine disrupts neurodevelopment during gestation and adolescence, possibly by disrupting the trophic effects of acetylcholine. Given recent clinical and preclinical work suggesting that neurocircuits that support auditory processing may be particularly vulnerable to developmental disruption by nicotine, we examined white matter microstructure in 67 adolescent smokers and nonsmokers with and without prenatal exposure to maternal smoking. The groups did not differ in age, educational attainment, IQ, years of parent education, or symptoms of inattention. Diffusion tensor anisotropy and anatomical magnetic resonance images were acquired, and auditory attention was assessed, in all subjects. Both prenatal exposure and adolescent exposure to tobacco smoke was associated with increased fractional anisotropy (FA) in anterior cortical white matter. Adolescent smoking was also associated with increased FA of regions of the internal capsule that contain auditory thalamocortical and corticofugal fibers. FA of the posterior limb of the left internal capsule was positively correlated with reaction time during performance of an auditory attention task in smokers but not in nonsmokers. Development of anterior cortical and internal capsule fibers may be particularly vulnerable to disruption in cholinergic signaling induced by nicotine in tobacco smoke. Nicotine-induced disruption of the development of auditory corticofugal fibers may interfere with the ability of these fibers to modulate ascending auditory signals, leading to greater noise and reduced efficiency of neurocircuitry that supports auditory processing.
White, Victoria M; Warne, Charles D; Spittal, Matthew J; Durkin, Sarah; Purcell, Kate; Wakefield, Melanie A
To assess the impact of tobacco control policies relating to youth access, clean indoor air and tobacco advertising at point-of-sale and outdoors, in addition to cigarette price and per capita tobacco control spending, on adolescent smoking prevalence. Repeated cross-sectional surveys. Logistic regression analyses examined association between policies and smoking prevalence. Australia, 1990-2005. A nationally representative sample of secondary students (aged 12-17 years) participating in a triennial survey (sample size per survey range: 20 560 to 27 480). Students' report of past-month smoking. In each jurisdiction, extent of implementation of the three policies for the year of the survey was determined. For each survey year, national per capita tobacco control spending was determined and jurisdiction-specific 12-month change in cigarette price obtained. Extent of implementation of the three policy areas varied between states and over the survey years. Multivariate analyses that adjusted for demographic factors, year and all tobacco control variables showed that 12-month cigarette price increases [odds ratio (OR): 0.98, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.97-0.99], greater per capita tobacco control spending (OR: 0.99, 95% CI: 0.98-0.99) and stronger implementation of clean indoor air policies (OR: 0.93, 95% CI: 0.92-0.94) were associated with reduced smoking prevalence. Adult-directed, population-based tobacco control policies such as clean indoor air laws and increased prices of cigarettes, implemented as part of a well-funded comprehensive tobacco control programme are associated with lower adolescent smoking. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Liautaud, Madalyn M; Leventhal, Adam M; Pang, Raina D
African-American (AA) smokers are at disproportionate risk of tobacco dependence, utilizing smoking to regulate stress, and poor cessation outcomes. Positive emotional traits may function as coping factors that buffer the extent to which dependence increases vulnerability to adverse responses to acute tobacco abstinence (i.e., tobacco withdrawal). This laboratory study examined subjective happiness (SH; dispositional orientation towards frequent and intense positive affect [PA] and life satisfaction) as a moderator of the relation between tobacco dependence and subjective and behavioral abstinence effects among AA smokers. AA smokers (N=420, 39.0% female) completed self-report measures of tobacco dependence and SH followed by two counterbalanced experimental sessions (non-abstinent vs. 16-hr abstinent) involving self-report measures of composite withdrawal, urge to smoke, and mood, and a behavioral smoking task in which participants could: (a) earn money to delay smoking reinstatement, and (b) subsequently purchase cigarettes to smoke. Tobacco dependence was positively associated with increased abstinence effects in composite withdrawal, urge to smoke, PA, and latency to smoking reinstatement (pssmokers. The current study contributes to a growing body of literature examining the potentially advantageous role of positive emotional traits to smokers. We do so by identifying a relatively understudied psychological construct within tobacco research-subjective happiness-that may suppress the extent to which more severe tobacco dependence increases risk for subjective withdrawal-related distress during acute smoking abstinence in African American smokers. In doing so, the study provides a primer for future targeting of subjective happiness and other positive emotional traits as means to understand and treat acute tobacco abstinence effects among dependent African American smokers. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for
Fuligni, Andrew J.; Tseng, Vivian; Lam, May
Examined attitudes toward family obligations in American tenth and twelfth graders from Filipino, Chinese, Mexican, Central and South American, and European backgrounds. Found that even within a society emphasizing adolescent autonomy and independence, youths from families with collectivistic traditions retain their parents' familial values and…
Using a nationally representative, longitudinal sample of Asian American late adolescents/young adults (ages 18-26), this article investigates the link between peer effects, school climate, on the one hand, and substance use, which includes tobacco, alcohol, and other illicit mood altering substance. The sample (N = 1585) is drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Waves I and III). The study is set to empirically test premises of generational, social capital and stage-environment fit theories. The exploratory variables include individual-level (immigrant generation status, ethnic origin, co-ethnic and co-generational peers - peers from the same immigrant generation) as well as school-level measures (average school socio-economic status and school climate). Multilevel modeling (logistic and negative binomial regression) was used to estimate substance use. Results indicate that preference for co-generational friends is inversely associated with frequency of cannabis and other illicit drug use and preference for co-ethnic peers is inversely associated with other illicit drug use. We also find that school climate is a strong and negative predictor of frequency of cannabis and other illicit drug use as well as of heavy episodic drinking. In terms of policy, these findings suggest that Asian American students should benefit from co-ethnic and co-generational peer networks in schools and, above all, from improving school climate. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pradhan, Pranil Man Singh; Niraula, Surya Raj; Ghimire, Anup; Singh, Suman Bahadur; Pokharel, Paras Kumar
The tobacco use among the youth, in both smoking and smokeless forms, is quite high in the South East Asian region. Tobacco use is a major proven risk factor and contributes substantially to the rising epidemic of non-communicable diseases. To estimate the prevalence of tobacco use and determine associated factors among adolescent students of Dharan municipality. Cross-sectional study. Secondary and higher secondary schools of Dharan municipality in Sunsari district of Nepal. Students in middle (14-15 years) and late adolescence (16-19 years) from grades 9, 10, 11 and 12 were included. Ever tobacco use which was defined as one who had not used any form of tobacco in the past 1 month but had tried in the past. Self-administered questionnaire adapted from Global Youth Tobacco Survey was used to assess tobacco use among the representative sample of 1312 adolescent students selected by stratified random sampling from July 2011 to July 2012. Out of 1454 students, 1312 students completed the questionnaires with a response rate of 90.23%. Prevalence of ever use of any tobacco product was 19.7% (95% CI 17.7 to 21.6). More than half of the tobacco users (51.9%) consumed tobacco in public places whereas almost a third (75.6%) of the consumers purchased tobacco from shops. Multivariate analysis showed that tobacco use was associated with late adolescence (OR: 1.64; 95% CI 1.17 to 2.28), male gender (OR: 12.20; 95% CI 7.78 to 19.14), type of school (OR=1.72; 95% CI 1.01 to 2.94), Janajati ethnicity (OR: 2.05; 95% CI 1.39 to 3.01) and receiving pocket money ≥Nepalese rupees 500/month (OR: 1.45; 95% CI 1.04 to 2.03). Tobacco-focused interventions are required for school/college going students to promote cessation among users and prevent initiation, focussing on late adolescence, male gender, government schools, Janajati ethnicity and higher amount of pocket money.
Padilla-Walker, Laura M.; Bean, Roy A.
The purpose of the current study was to examine adolescents' perceptions of negative and positive peer influence (i.e., indirect peer association and direct peer pressure) as they related to adolescent behavior. Regression analyses were conducted using a sample of African American, European American, and Hispanic adolescents (N=1659, M age=16.06,…
Savvides, Elena Charis G; Christophi, Costas A; Paisi, Martha; Pampaka, Despina; Kinnunen, Taru; Connolly, Gregory N
To identify factors associated with adolescent smokers' desire to quit based on the 2006 Cyprus Global Youth Tobacco Survey. A cluster sample design was used to select a representative sample of students from all registered middle and high schools in Cyprus with >40 students in academic year 2005-2006. Multivariable logistic regression was used taking into account the weight associated with each of the respondents. Out of the total sample with available information (N=12,629), 1591 students were current smokers (weighted frequency=14%) and were included in the analysis, with 734 (46.1%) of them reporting that they want to quit smoking. In both males and females, strong predictors of intention to quit smoking include past quit attempts and physical activity. Intention to quit is also associated with the belief that smoking is harmful to them and inversely associated with having peers who smoke, in boys, and the belief that smoking is harmful to others and perceiving smokers as less attractive, and inversely associated with pocket money, in girls. The present study has identified factors that appear to influence youth's intention to quit tobacco, which is of major importance in developing successful tobacco cessation programs targeting adolescents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Andrade Palos, Patricia; Pérez de la Barrera, Citlalli; Alfaro Martínez, Lilia Bertha; Sánchez Oviedo, Martha Elba; López Montes de Oca, Alicia
Drug consumption constitutes a public health problem in Mexico. In the international literature and from the health promotion perspective, the Life Skills Approach proposed by the World Health Organization identifies the ability to resist pressure as a key component in the prevention of legal and illegal drug use among adolescents. An instrument for measuring this ability was developed and validated in order to confirm whether, as the empirical evidence suggests, it differs between users and non-users of alcohol and tobacco. The sample was made up of 5651 adolescents, 2637 (47.9%) of whom were male and 2864 (52.1%) female. These participants were selected at random from among public high school pupils in Mexico City, and average age was 16.7 years. The instrument used was that validated in the first phase of the study. To measure patterns of use, we used a scale based on indicators derived from the National Addiction Survey (2002). Factor analysis yielded three factors: peer pressure acceptance, partner pressure acceptance and peer/partner pressure resistance. Non-users of alcohol and tobacco scored higher in the ability to resist pressure than those who had used alcohol and tobacco in the last month. Based on these results, the aim is to develop an addiction prevention program for public high school pupils in Mexico City.
Díaz Geada, Ainara; Busto Miramontes, Alicia; Caamaño Isorna, Francisco
Social inequalities have been associated with morbidity and mortality. Gender, ethnic group and inequalities were studied in an adolescent population to analyze alcohol, tobacco and cannabis consumption. We carried out a cross-sectional study of pupils from high schools in Burela (northern Spain) (n=238). We used the "Factors de Risc en Estudiants de Secundária" questionnaire designed by Agència de Salut Pública de Barcelona. nationality and weekly pocket money. Dependent variables: expectations and consumption of alcohol, tobacco and marihuana. Logistic regression was used. Participation in the study reached 91%. The proportion of pupils that have tried alcohol on occasion increases with age (27.3%, 47.7%, 75.9%), as with tobacco (1.8%, 7.6%, 17.0%), and cannabis (0%, 3.1%, 7.0%). Higher levels of spending money constitute a risk factor for tasting alcohol (OR=3.01), for high-risk consumption (OR=3.35), for getting drunk (OR=6.45) and for trying marijuana (OR=15.30). Sex and nationality were not shown to be associated with the use of any of these three drugs. The results of our study show that consumption of alcohol, tobacco and cannabis increases with age and with increased spending money. The data do not support the argument that foreign pupils are a risk group for alcohol consumption, so they should not be stigmatized.
Sussman, S; Parker, V C; Lopes, C; Crippens, D L; Elder, P; Scholl, D
Two studies are described which provide evaluations for two brief videotapes developed as supplemental materials in the prevention of tobacco use among African-American adolescents. One videotape (the "soap opera") provides a more general audience-oriented presentation of prevention material and it was filmed primarily at a shopping mall, whereas the other videotape (the "rap") provides a "hip-hop generation" presentation, and it was filmed primarily at an outdoor hangout. The first study compared the two videotapes against each other. The second study compared the two videotapes combined in the same presentation, controlling for order of presentation, against a discussion group control. The results of the two studies indicated few differences in receptivity to the two videotapes among primarily African-American and Latino young adolescents. The rap videotape was rated as more accurate in its depiction of the African-American lifestyle, although both videotapes were equally liked. When shown together, the videotapes were not found to be superior in decreasing behavioral intention to smoke compared to a discussion group control. No change in trial of smoking was observed within or across conditions measured over a pre-post summer interval. These data suggest that "culturally sensitive" videotapes have no more of a short-term effect on youth than do other types of brief interventions which involve minority implementers.
Shrake, Eunai Kim
Focusing on Korean Americans, this study examined the overall pattern of adolescents' perceptions of their parents and its effects on adolescent problem behaviors. Analyses of survey data from 218 Korean American adolescents indicated that these adolescents perceived their parents as "authoritarian yet warm," and that this parenting…
Wilson, Dawn K.; Schneider, Elizabeth M.; Alia, Kassandra A.
Objective This study examined parenting variables (communication, monitoring) as moderators of a family-based intervention for reducing sedentary behavior (SB) in African American adolescents. As a secondary aim, a similar model was tested using adolescent weight status as the outcome. Methods African American adolescents (n = 73; 12.45 ± 1.45 years; 60% girls; 63% overweight/obese) and caregivers were randomized to a 6-week interactive, parent-based intervention or general health condition. Parent–adolescent communication and monitoring of health behaviors were self-reported by parents. Adolescent SB was self-reported by youth. Results There was a significant intervention by communication interaction, such that intervention families with more positive communication showed lower adolescent SB than those with less positive communication or those in the comparison condition. No effects were found for monitoring on SB or for the model with weight status as the outcome. Conclusions Parent–adolescent communication may be an effective component to integrate into health promotion programs for African American adolescents. PMID:23685450
St George, Sara M; Wilson, Dawn K; Schneider, Elizabeth M; Alia, Kassandra A
This study examined parenting variables (communication, monitoring) as moderators of a family-based intervention for reducing sedentary behavior (SB) in African American adolescents. As a secondary aim, a similar model was tested using adolescent weight status as the outcome. African American adolescents (n = 73; 12.45 ± 1.45 years; 60% girls; 63% overweight/obese) and caregivers were randomized to a 6-week interactive, parent-based intervention or general health condition. Parent-adolescent communication and monitoring of health behaviors were self-reported by parents. Adolescent SB was self-reported by youth. There was a significant intervention by communication interaction, such that intervention families with more positive communication showed lower adolescent SB than those with less positive communication or those in the comparison condition. No effects were found for monitoring on SB or for the model with weight status as the outcome. Parent-adolescent communication may be an effective component to integrate into health promotion programs for African American adolescents.
Schreuders, Michael; Lagerweij, Naomi A.; van den Putte, Bas; Kunst, Anton E.
In the Netherlands, the adoption of new tobacco control measures is needed to further reduce rates of adolescent smoking. Adolescents' support for future measures could increase the likelihood of adoption as this provides political leverage for tobacco control advocates. There is, however, scant
Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Lambert, Sharon F.; Chen, Yi-Fu; Ialongo, Nicholas S.
This study examined the longitudinal association between contextual stress and health risk behaviors and the role of protective factors in a community epidemiologically-defined sample of urban African American adolescents (N = 500; 46.4% female). Structural equation modeling was used to create a latent variable measuring contextual stress…
Palapattu, Anuradha G.; Kingery, Julie Newman; Ginsburg, Golda S.
The present study evaluated gender role theory as an explanation for the observed gender differences in anxiety symptoms among adolescents. Specifically, the relation between gender, gender role orientation (i.e., masculinity and femininity), self-esteem, and anxiety symptoms was examined in a community sample of 114 African Americans aged 14 to…
Williams, James Herbert; Van Dorn, Richard A.; Bright, Charlotte Lyn; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Nebbitt, Von E.
Child welfare and criminology research have increasingly sought to better understand factors that increase the likelihood that abused and neglected children will become involved in the juvenile justice system. However, few studies have addressed this relationship among African American male adolescents. The current study examines the relationship…
Cho, Sangmi; Bae, Sung-Woo
This study attempted to identify emotional problems and examine the related demographic and psychosocial factors of 340 Korean American adolescents in a major metropolitan area. Results revealed that lower GPA, longer length of residence in the United States, subjects' poor self-esteem, greater severity of conflict with parents, and poor…
Eitle, Tamela McNulty; Eitle, David; Johnson-Jennings, Michelle
Despite the well-established finding that American Indian adolescents are at a greater risk of illicit substance use and abuse than the general population, few generalist explanations of deviance have been extended to American Indian substance use. Using a popular generalist explanation of deviance, General Strain Theory, we explore the predictive utility of this model with a subsample of American Indian adolescents from waves one and two of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add-Health). Overall, we find mixed support for the utility of General Strain Theory to account for American Indian adolescent substance use. While exposure to recent life events, a common measure of stress exposure, was found to be a robust indicator of substance use, we found mixed support for the thesis that negative affect plays a key role in mediating the link between strain and substance use. However, we did find evidence that personal and social resources serve to condition the link between stress exposure and substance use, with parental control, self-restraint, religiosity, and exposure to substance using peers each serving to moderate the association between strain and substance use, albeit in more complex ways than expected.
Shin, Jin Y.; D'Antonio, Emily; Son, Haein; Kim, Seong-A.; Park, Yeddi
The bullying experiences of Korean-American adolescents (N = 295) were explored in relation to discrimination and mental health outcomes. Bullying experiences were assessed by the "Bully Survey" (Swearer, 2005), discrimination by the "Perceived Ethnic and Racial Discrimination Scale" (Way, 1997) and depression by the "Center for Epidemiological…
Leventhal, Adam M; Strong, David R; Kirkpatrick, Matthew G; Unger, Jennifer B; Sussman, Steve; Riggs, Nathaniel R; Stone, Matthew D; Khoddam, Rubin; Samet, Jonathan M; Audrain-McGovern, Janet
Exposure to nicotine in electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) is becoming increasingly common among adolescents who report never having smoked combustible tobacco. To evaluate whether e-cigarette use among 14-year-old adolescents who have never tried combustible tobacco is associated with risk of initiating use of 3 combustible tobacco products (ie, cigarettes, cigars, and hookah). Longitudinal repeated assessment of a school-based cohort at baseline (fall 2013, 9th grade, mean age = 14.1 years) and at a 6-month follow-up (spring 2014, 9th grade) and a 12-month follow-up (fall 2014, 10th grade). Ten public high schools in Los Angeles, California, were recruited through convenience sampling. Participants were students who reported never using combustible tobacco at baseline and completed follow-up assessments at 6 or 12 months (N = 2530). At each time point, students completed self-report surveys during in-classroom data collections. Student self-report of whether he or she ever used e-cigarettes (yes or no) at baseline. Six- and 12-month follow-up reports on use of any of the following tobacco products within the prior 6 months: (1) any combustible tobacco product (yes or no); (2) combustible cigarettes (yes or no), (3) cigars (yes or no); (4) hookah (yes or no); and (5) number of combustible tobacco products (range: 0-3). Past 6-month use of any combustible tobacco product was more frequent in baseline e-cigarette ever users (n = 222) than never users (n = 2308) at the 6-month follow-up (30.7% vs 8.1%, respectively; difference between groups in prevalence rates, 22.7% [95% CI, 16.4%-28.9%]) and at the 12-month follow-up (25.2% vs 9.3%, respectively; difference between groups, 15.9% [95% CI, 10.0%-21.8%]). Baseline e-cigarette use was associated with greater likelihood of use of any combustible tobacco product averaged across the 2 follow-up periods in the unadjusted analyses (odds ratio [OR], 4.27 [95% CI, 3.19-5.71]) and in the analyses adjusted
Murphy, N T; Price, C J
Selected antecedents of smoking initiation among 1,513 eighth grade students in an urban tobacco producing county of North Carolina were studied using the Tobacco Cigarette Smoking Questionnaire and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Fifteen percent of students reported currently smoking, and 17.2% indicated an intention to smoke upon graduation from high school. Self-esteem and parental smoking behavior related significantly to adolescents' smoking behavior and future intention to smoke. Significantly more females intended to smoke and had lower self-esteem than males. Family involvement in the tobacco industry related significantly to adolescents' intention to smoke but not their smoking behavior. Overall, low self-esteem and parental smoking models may be important to developing the smoking habit among young adolescents. Prevention of smoking initiation should involve promotion of children's self-esteem and avoidance of parental smoking modeling prior to the eighth grade.
Zander Neves, Camila; Devicari Bueno, Claudine; Pires Felden, Giovana; Costa Irigaray, Mariane; Rivadeneira, María Fernanda; Oenning, Nágila Soares Xavier; Goulart, Bárbara N G
To study the association between aspects of mental health and the family context with tobacco experimentation and consumption among Brazilian schoolchildren. A cross-sectional study using data from the National Survey of Schoolchildren's Health in Brazil conducted on 109,104 schoolchildren from the ninth year of elementary school, day scholars in public and private schools in all Brazilian state capitals and the Federal District. Descriptive analysis of variables, bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed with logistic regression estimates, adjusted for socioeconomic variables, obtaining the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95%CI). Among the participants, 52.2% were female. Twenty point nine percent of the students reported having experimented with cigarettes at least once. Adolescents who experienced more often feelings of loneliness (OR: 2.07; 95%CI: 1.98-2.16), difficulty sleeping (OR: 2.37; 95%CI: 2.52-2.48) and lower social interaction (OR: 1.27; 95%CI: 1.26-1.32), were more likely to smoke, regardless of socioeconomic status. The schoolchildren of parents or caregivers (OR: 2.39; 95%CI: 2.29-2.49) who did not know what their children did in their free time (OR: 1.52; 95%CI: 1.46-1.59) were associated with more frequent cigarette smoking. An association was seen between aspects of mental health and the family context with the experimentation and consumption of tobacco in adolescents enrolled in the study in Brazil. These associations are independent of school type, sex and skin colour. It is important that programmes for the prevention of tobacco use in adolescence emphasise these findings. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Spanopoulos, Dionysis; Britton, John; McNeill, Ann; Ratschen, Elena; Szatkowski, Lisa
In England, point-of-sale (PoS) displays in larger shops were prohibited in April 2012, with an exemption for smaller retailers until 2015. The aim of this study was to examine the association between tobacco displays and brand communication at the PoS and adolescent smoking behaviour, and to assess the potential benefits likely to accrue from this legislation. Self-completion questionnaire survey in students aged 11-15 years in March 2011. The odds of ever-smoking doubled for those visiting shops almost daily relative to less than once a week (OR 2.23, 95% CI 1.40 to 3.55), and susceptibility increased by around 60% (OR 1.62, 95% CI 1.25 to 2.10). Noticing tobacco on display every time during store visits increased the odds of susceptibility more than threefold compared with never noticing tobacco (OR 3.15, 95% CI 1.52 to 6.54). For each additional tobacco brand recognised at the PoS, the adjusted odds of being an ever-smoker increased by 5% (OR 1.05, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.06) and of susceptibility by 4% (OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.05). The association between frequency of visiting stores and susceptibility was predominantly due to exposure in small shops. Exposure to and awareness of PoS displays and brands in displays were associated with smoking susceptibility. The association between PoS display exposure and smoking susceptibility was predominantly due to exposure in small shops. These findings suggest that a one-off, comprehensive tobacco display ban is the recommended approach for countries considering a display ban.
Full Text Available Research demonstrates that cognitive biases toward drug-related stimuli are correlated with substance use. This study aimed to investigate differences in cognitive biases (including approach bias, attentional bias and memory associations between smoking and non-smoking adolescents in the US and the Netherlands. Within the group of smokers, we examined the relative predictive value of the cognitive biases and impulsivity related constructs (i.e.,including inhibition skills, working memory and risk taking on daily smoking and nicotine dependence.Method: A total of 125 American and Dutch adolescent smokers (n = 67 and non-smokers (n = 58 between 13-18 years old participated. Participants completed the smoking Approach-Avoidance Task (S-AAT, the classical and emotional Stroop task, brief Implicit Associations Task (bIAT, Balloon Analogue Risk Taking (BART, the Self-Ordering Pointing Task (SOPT and a questionnaire assessing level of nicotine dependence and smoking behavior. Results: The analytical sample consisted of 56 Dutch adolescents (27 smokers and 29 non-smokers and 37 American adolescents (19 smokers and 18 non-smokers. No differences in cognitive biases between smokers and non-smokers were found. Generally, Dutch adolescents demonstrated an avoidance bias towards both smoking and neutral stimuli whereas the American adolescents did not demonstrate a bias. Within the group of smokers, regression analyses showed that stronger attentional bias and weaker inhibition skills predicted greater nicotine dependence while weak working memory predicted more daily cigarette use. Conclusion: Attentional bias, inhibition skills and working memory might be important factors explaining smoking in adolescence. Cultural differences in approach-avoidance bias should be considered in future research.
Fernández-Artamendi, Sergio; Secades-Villa, Roberto; Fernández Hermida, Jose Ramon; García-Fernández, Gloria; García-Rodríguez, Olaya
The sample is made up of 1,190 adolescents (52.8% boys; mean age = 16.81) from 37 random schools in the urban and rural areas of Asturias (northern Spain). The survey was conducted in 2008, assessing the use and patterns of use of alcohol and other drugs, age at onset of use, and psychosocial consequences. Items from the ESPAD and FRIDA questionnaires were employed. Univariate analyses and binary logistic regression analyses were carried out to determine the different predictive value for boys and girls of early-onset alcohol and tobacco use. The study's limitations and implications are noted.
Schreuders, Michael; Nuyts, Paulien A W; van den Putte, Bas; Kunst, Anton E
Secondary schools increasingly implement school tobacco policies (STPs) to decrease adolescents' smoking. Recent studies suggested that STPs' impact depends on their implementation. We examined adolescents' cognitive and behavioural responses to STPs that impact adolescents' smoking and how these responses depend on elements of STPs' implementation. To examine STPs and adolescent smoking, we performed a realist review, which is an explanatory approach that synthesizes existing evidence into a program theory that links elements of STPs' implementation to outcomes by specifying its underlying generative mechanisms. The search was performed in MEDLINE/PubMed, PsycINFO, and Embase between January 1991 and 2016. Thirty-seven English language articles were identified for inclusion, reporting quantitative and/or qualitative primary evidence on STPs at secondary schools, adolescent smoking behaviour, and mechanisms. From these articles, evidence was extracted about mechanisms that decrease smoking and associated countervailing-mechanisms that reduce, nullify, or revert this positive impact. The program theory showed that STPs may trigger four mechanisms and seven associated countervailing-mechanisms. Adolescents' smoking decreases if STPs make them feel they can get sanctioned, feel less pressure to conform to smokers, internalise anti-smoking beliefs, and find it easier to stick to the decision not to smoke. This positive impact may reduce, nullify, or revert if the implementation of STPs cause adolescents to find alternative places to smoke, develop new social meanings of smoking, want to belong in smoker groups, internalise beliefs that smoking is not bad or that it asserts personal autonomy, or alienate from schools and schools' messages. The program theory, moreover, provided insights on how elements of STPs' implementation trigger mechanisms and avoid the countervailing-mechanisms. STPs' impact can be influenced by adequate implementation and embedding them in
Wills, Thomas A; Knight, Rebecca; Williams, Rebecca J; Pagano, Ian; Sargent, James D
To describe electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use and cigarette use among adolescents and determine whether established risk factors for smoking discriminate user categories. School-based survey of 1941 high school students (mean age 14.6 years) in Hawaii; data collected in 2013. The survey assessed e-cigarette use and cigarette use, alcohol and marijuana use, and psychosocial risk and protective variables (eg, parental support, academic involvement, smoking expectancies, peer smoking, sensation seeking). Analysis of variance and multinomial regression examined variation in risk and protective variables across the following categories of ever-use: e-cigarette only, cigarette only, dual use (use of both products), and nonuser (never used either product). Prevalence for the categories was 17% (e-cigarettes only), 12% (dual use), 3% (cigarettes only), and 68% (nonusers). Dual users and cigarette-only users were highest on risk status (elevated on risk factors and lower on protective factors) compared with other groups. E-cigarette only users were higher on risk status than nonusers but lower than dual users. E-cigarette only users and dual users more often perceived e-cigarettes as healthier than cigarettes compared with nonusers. This study reports a US adolescent sample with one of the largest prevalence rates of e-cigarette only use in the existing literature. Dual use also had a substantial prevalence. The fact that e-cigarette only users were intermediate in risk status between nonusers and dual users raises the possibility that e-cigarettes are recruiting medium-risk adolescents, who otherwise would be less susceptible to tobacco product use. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Hair, Elizabeth C; Romberg, Alexa R; Niaura, Raymond; Abrams, David B; Bennett, Morgane A; Xiao, Haijun; Rath, Jessica M; Pitzer, Lindsay; Vallone, Donna
Among youth, the frequency and prevalence of using more than one tobacco (small cigar, cigarette, and hookah) or nicotine-containing product (e-cigarettes-ENDS) are changing. These shifts pose challenges for regulation, intervention, and prevention campaigns because of scant longitudinal data on the stability of use patterns in this changing product landscape. A nationally representative longitudinal survey of 15- to 21-year olds (n = 15,275) was used to describe transitions between never use, noncurrent use, and past 30-day use of combustible tobacco, e-cigarettes (ENDS), and dual use of both kinds of products. A multistate model was fit to observations collected every 6 months across 2.5 years to estimate the probability of transitions between states (TPs), the average time in state (sojourn time), and the effect of age on transitions. Current state strongly predicted future state over time intervals of 1 year or less, but only weakly predicted future state at longer intervals: TP to noncurrent use was higher for ENDS-only than combustible-only users over a 6-month interval but was similar for both groups over a 2-year interval. Sojourn time was significantly longer for combustible-only (0.52 years) and dual use (0.55 years) than ENDS-only use (0.27 years); older youth were more likely than younger youth to stay combustible tobacco users or noncurrent users. The dynamics of transitions between combustible tobacco products and ENDS in a population of youth and young adults suggest that policy and prevention efforts must consider the frequent changes and instability over a 1-year or less time period in use patterns among young people. The study addresses an urgent need in public health for timely information on how youth and young adults use tobacco and nicotine products. We found that youth, particularly adolescents, moved frequently between using ENDS and combustible tobacco products either alone or together. Importantly, the utility of current-use states for
Wills, Thomas A; Gibbons, Frederick X; Sargent, James D; Gerrard, Meg; Lee, Hye-Ryeon; Dal Cin, Sonya
To investigate whether self-control moderates the effect of media influences on tobacco and alcohol use among youth and if so how this effect occurs. In Study 1, a regional sample of 10-year olds (N = 290) was interviewed in households; attention to tobacco/alcohol advertising was assessed. In Study 2, a national sample of youth ages 10-14 years (N = 6,522) was surveyed by telephone; exposure to tobacco/alcohol use in movies was assessed. Good self-control was measured in both studies. Willingness to use substances and affiliation with peer substance users (Study 1); involvement in smoking or drinking (Study 2). In Study 1, the effect of tobacco/alcohol advertising on predisposition for substance use was lower among persons scoring higher on good self-control. In Study 2, the effect of movie smoking/alcohol exposure on adolescent tobacco/alcohol use was lower, concurrently and prospectively, among persons scoring higher on good self-control. Moderation occurred primarily through reducing the effect of movie exposure on positive smoking/alcohol expectancies and the effect of expectancies on adolescent use; some evidence for moderation of social processes was also noted. Covariates in the analyses included demographics, sensation seeking, and IQ. Good self-control reduces the effect of adverse media influences on adolescent tobacco and alcohol use. Findings on the processes underlying this effect may be useful for media literacy and primary prevention programs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).
America's leading health organizations agree. Smoking on screen is the No.1 recruiter of new adolescent smokers in the United States - 390,000 kids a year, of whom 120,000 will die from tobacco-caused diseases. That's more Americans than die from drunk driving, criminal violence, illicit drugs, and HIV/AIDS combined. Why does Hollywood still promote smoking? Is it corrupt? Or stupid?
America's leading health organizations agree. Smoking on screen is the No.1 recruiter of new adolescent smokers in the United States - 390,000 kids a year, of whom 120,000 will die from tobacco-caused diseases. That's more Americans than die from drunk driving, criminal violence, illicit drugs, and HIV/AIDS combined. Why does Hollywood still promote smoking? Is it corrupt? Or stupid?
Leão, Teresa; Kunst, Anton E; Perelman, Julian
Consistent evidence shows the importance of preventing smoking at young ages, when health behaviours are formed, with long-term consequences on health and survival. Although tobacco control policies and programmes targeting adolescents are widely promoted, the cost-effectiveness of such interventions has not been systematically documented. We performed a systematic review on the cost-effectiveness of policies and programmes preventing tobacco consumption targeting adolescents. We systematically reviewed literature on the (i) cost and effectiveness of (ii) prevention policies targeting (iii) smoking by (iv) adolescents. PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane, CEA-TUFTS, Health Economic Evaluations, Wiley Online Library, Centre for Reviews and Dissemination Database, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence and Google Scholar databases were used, and Google search engine was used for other grey literature review. We obtained 793 full-text papers and 19 grey literature documents, from which 16 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Of these, only one was published in the last 5 years, and 15 were performed in high-income countries. Eight analyzed the cost-effectiveness of school-based programmes, five focused on media campaigns and three on legal bans. Policies and programmes were found to be cost-effective in all studies, and both effective and cost-saving in about half of the studies. Evidence is scarce and relatively obsolete, and rarely focused on the evaluation of legal bans. Moreover, no comparisons have been made between different interventions or across different contexts and implementation levels. However, all studies conclude that smoking prevention policies and programmes amongst adolescents are greatly worth their costs. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association.
Cunningham, Michael; Swanson, Dena Phillips
The purpose of this article was to examine factors within the school context that facilitates educational resilience among African American high school students. The authors expected academic self-esteem to be positively associated with future expectations (academic and general). They expected perceptions of school-based social support to have…
Hublet, Anne; Schmid, Holger; Clays, Els; Godeau, Emmanuelle; Gabhainn, Saoirse Nic; Joossens, Luk; Maes, Lea
To investigate the associations between well-known, cost-effective tobacco control policies at country level and smoking prevalence among 15-year-old adolescents. Multi-level modelling based on the 2005-06 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Study, a cross-national study at individual level, and with country-level variables from the Tobacco Control Scale and published country-level databases. Twenty-nine European countries. A total of 25 599 boys and 26 509 girls. Self-reported regular smoking defined as at least weekly smoking, including daily smoking (dichotomous). Interaction effects between gender and smoking policies were identified, therefore boys and girls were analysed separately. Large cross-national differences in smoking prevalence were documented. Intraclass correlations (ICC) of 0.038 (boys) and 0.035 (girls) were found. In the final multi-level model for boys, besides the significance of the individual variables such as family affluence, country-level affluence and the legality of vending machines were related significantly to regular smoking [b(country affluence) = -0.010; b(partial restriction vending machines) = -0.366, P vending machines had a borderline significance in the final model [b(total ban vending machines) = -0.372, P = 0.06]. For boys, some of the currently recommended tobacco control policies may help to reduce smoking prevalence. However, the model is less suitable for girls, indicating gender differences in the potential efficacy of smoking policies. Future research should address this issue.
Nădăşan, Valentin; Foley, Kristie L; Pénzes, Melinda; Paulik, Edit; Mihăicuţă, Ştefan; Ábrám, Zoltán; Bálint, Jozsef; Urbán, Robert
To assess socio-demographic and smoking-related correlates of e-cigarette and alternative tobacco products (ATPs) use in a multi-ethnic group of adolescents in Tîrgu Mures, Romania. The cross-sectional study included 1835 high school students from Tirgu Mures, Romania. Socio-demographic variables and data about smoking and e-cigarettes and ATP use were collected using an online questionnaire. Chi-square tests or one-way ANOVA were applied to compare never smokers, non-current smokers, and current smokers. Multiple logistic regression was conducted to determine the correlates of e-cigarettes and ATP use. The most frequently tried non-cigarette nicotine and tobacco products were e-cigarette (38.5 %), cigar (31.4 %) and waterpipe (21.1 %). Ever trying and current use of cigarettes were the most important correlates of e-cigarette and ATPs use. Sex, ethnicity, sensation seeking and perceived peer smoking were correlates of several ATPs use. The results of this study may inform the development of tailored tobacco control programs.
MacKenzie, Ross; Collin, Jeff; Sriwongcharoen, Kobkul
To examine how British American Tobacco (BAT) used sports sponsorship to circumvent restrictions on tobacco promotion in Thailand, both a key emerging market and a world leader in tobacco control. Analysis of previously confidential BAT company documents. Since its inception in 1987, BAT's sports sponsorship programme in Thailand has been politically sensitive and legally ambiguous. Given Thailand's ban on imported cigarettes, early events provided promotional support to smuggled brands. BAT's funding of local badminton, snooker, football and cricket tournaments generated substantial media coverage for its brands. After the General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs decision that obliged Thailand to open its cigarette market to imports, Thailand's 1992 tobacco control legislation established one of the world's most restrictive marketing environments. BAT's sponsorship strategy shifted to rallying and motorbike racing, using broadcasts of regional competitions to undermine national regulations. BAT sought to dominate individual sports and to shape media coverage to maximise brand awareness. An adversarial approach was adopted, testing the limits of legality and requiring active enforcement to secure compliance with legislation. The documents show the opportunities offered by sports sponsorship to tobacco companies amid increasing advertising restrictions. Before the 1992 tobacco control legislation, sponsored events in Thailand promoted international brands by combining global and local imagery. The subsequent strategy of "regionalisation as defensibility" reflected the capacity of international sport to transcend domestic restrictions. These transnational effects may be effectively dealt with via the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, but will require the negotiation of a specific protocol.
Hamm, J V
Variability in adolescent-friend similarity is documented in a diverse sample of African American, Asian American, and European American adolescents. Similarity was greatest for substance use, modest for academic orientations, and low for ethnic identity. Compared with Asian American and European American adolescents, African American adolescents chose friends who were less similar with respect to academic orientation or substance use but more similar with respect to ethnic identity. For all three ethnic groups, personal endorsement of the dimension in question and selection of cross-ethnic-group friends heightened similarity. Similarity was a relative rather than an absolute selection criterion: Adolescents did not choose friends with identical orientations. These findings call for a comprehensive theory of friendship selection sensitive to diversity in adolescents' experiences. Implications for peer influence and self-development are discussed.
PATEL, PREETI; OKECHUKWU, CASSANDRA A; COLLIN, JEFF; HUGHES, BELINDA
This article aims to provide a review of music sponsorship to market cigarettes in sub-Saharan Africa. Using analysis of previously secret corporate documents from British American Tobacco (BAT) and focusing on two separate case studies of sponsorship in Africa, Nigeria and South Africa, the paper illustrates how tobacco companies have sought to undermine health legislation from 1990 to 2001. Both case studies suggest that music is an important marketing tool in Africa because it can effectively target young consumers; has a universal appeal; transcends barriers to communication imposed by limited literacy and language barriers; has a long-term appeal and can be successful in undermining tobacco control measures. The case studies highlight the limitations of national regulatory efforts and reinforce the significance of the implementation of the WHO’s Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in Africa, a critical region for the convention’s success. PMID:25737602
Ariza, Carles; García-Continente, Xavier; Villalbí, Joan Ramon; Sánchez-Martínez, Francesca; Pérez, Anna; Nebot, Manel
Smoking is a preventable cause of early death and the habit starts in adolescence. The aim of this study was to describe tobacco consumption in secondary school students in 2008 and trends in the last 20 years in Barcelona. We analyzed the trend in tobacco consumption by comparing data from 8 surveys carried out between 1987 and 2008 in the 8th (2nd year of Compulsory Secondary Education), 10th (4th year of Compulsory Secondary Education) and 12th (2nd year of Compulsory Secondary Education) years of secondary school. The FRESC questionnaire was used. Data on regular and daily consumption and associated factors in 2008 were gathered and compared with those corresponding to the previous studies. Percentages of annual change were calculated with Joinpoint regression and data were stratified by sex and year of education. In 2008, 6.1% of boys and 4.5% of girls in the 8th year, 15.8% and 20.4% of those in the 10th year, respectively, and 26.1% and 33.1% of those in the 12th year, respectively, were regular smokers. A strong association was noted between regular smoking and cannabis consumption in three school years, as well as with having friends who were smokers and poor school performance. At 15-16 years old, the average annual decrease from 1996 to 2008 was 6.8% in girls and 6.1% in boys. Adolescent smoking has been decreasing in the last few years in Barcelona. There is a strong association between tobacco use and cannabis consumption. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Bradley, Robert H
Context helps determine what individuals experience in the settings they inhabit. Context also helps determine the likelihood that those experiences will promote adaptive development. Theory suggests likely interplay between various aspects of home context and development of ideas about self that influence patterns of development for children. This study addressed relations between two aspects of home life (companionship and investment, modeling and encouragement) and three types of self-efficacy beliefs (enlisting social resources, independent learning, self-regulatory behavior) considered important for long-term adaptive functioning. The study focused on three groups of minority adolescents (Native American, African American, Latino). Relations were examined using regression models that also included four aspects of household risk that often hinder the development of self-efficacy. Although findings varied somewhat across the three groups, significant relations emerged between the two domains of home life examined and self-efficacy beliefs in all three groups, even controlling for overall household risk. Companionship and investment appeared particularly relevant for African American adolescents, while modeling and encouragement appeared particularly relevant for Native American adolescents. Both were relevant for Latino adolescents. © 2018 Family Process Institute.
Maziak, Wasim; Rzehak, Peter; Keil, Ulrich; Weiland, Stephan K
Understanding patterns and trends of smoking among youths is of major importance for the assessment of the burden of smoking in the society and efforts to decrease it. The aims were to determine the prevalence and trends of smoking among adolescents in Muenster, Germany, and to assess its relation to youths' awareness of tobacco advertisement. Information on smoking habits was collected during two school-based surveys (1994/1995 and 1999/2000) of 12- to 15-year-old adolescents (3934 students in 1994/5 and 4028 students in 1999/2000) in Muenster, Germany. In addition, in 1994/1995 information about youths' awareness and appreciation of tobacco advertisement was collected. During the 5-year period, the prevalence of current smoking increased from 21.3 to 28.3%, and daily smoking increased from 10.0 to 14.2%. Among girls, daily smoking increased by 62% during this period. Almost all participants (94%) in 1994/1995 knew a tobacco brand, and appreciation of tobacco advertisement was strongly associated with the frequency of smoking. Smoking is increasing among adolescents in Germany especially among girls. These data are a cause of concern and call for efforts to reverse these trends, which should include a ban on tobacco advertisement in Germany.
Hall, Amanda K; Mercado, Rebeccah; Anderson-Lewis, Charkarra; Darville, Gabrielle; Bernhardt, Jay M
Games for health, including digital videogames and gaming-based approaches, are increasingly being used in health promotion research and practice. Recently published research has shown that videogames have significant potential to promote healthy behaviors among youth and adolescents. Yet, there is a lack of available evidence-based resources to guide practitioners on the integration of games into tobacco prevention and smoking cessation interventions. To address this gap, expert researchers and game developers were interviewed to further define games for health, explore the current research, and provide recommendations for developing, evaluating, and promoting effective anti-tobacco games. Nationally recognized experts on game development, games for health, tobacco, and health behavior were asked to participate. A qualitative analysis of 25 in-depth individual interviews using a constant comparative approach for emerging themes was conducted. Main themes that emerged from the data analysis included the following: (1) the current state of games for health research to facilitate health behavior change, (2) strategies for how to develop and evaluate games for quality and impact, and (3) recommendations for how to effectively design tobacco prevention and smoking cessation educational videogames that engage youth and adolescents. The synthesized findings identified through these expert interviews offer stakeholders strategies for how to incorporate games for health within their current and future work. Specific recommendations are presented for developers and researchers to consider when developing and evaluating videogames for tobacco prevention and smoking cessation targeted at youth and adolescents.
Audrain-McGovern, Janet; Rodriguez, Daniel; Patel, Vaishali; Faith, Myles S; Rodgers, Kelli; Cuevas, Jocelyn
To determine whether novelty seeking and depressive symptoms had mediated or indirect effects on adolescent smoking progression through tobacco advertising receptivity. More than 1000 adolescents were monitored from 9th grade to 12th grade and completed annual surveys that measured demographic characteristics, smoking behavior, tobacco advertising receptivity, novelty-seeking personality, depressive symptoms, family and peer smoking, alcohol use, and marijuana use. Latent growth modeling indicated that novelty seeking had a significant indirect effect on smoking progression through baseline tobacco advertising receptivity. For each 1-SD increase in novelty seeking, the odds of being more receptive to tobacco advertising increased by 12% (ie, being in a specific category or higher), which in turn resulted in an 11% increase in the odds of smoking progression from 9th grade to 12th grade. The indirect effect from depressive symptoms to smoking progression did not reach significance. These findings may inform future research on other factors that influence tobacco advertising receptivity, as well as programs aimed at preventing adolescent smoking initiation and progression.
Siziya, Seter; Muula, Adamson S; Rudatsikira, Emmanuel
Smoking is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally. There is therefore need to identify relevant factors associated with smoking among adolescents in order to better tailor public health interventions aimed at preventing smoking. We used data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) conducted in 2003 in Punjab, India, on 2014 adolescents of whom 58.9% were males. We conducted a weighted logistic regression analysis, adjusting for age and sex, to determine associations between predictor variables and current tobacco smoking status. A total of 2014 adolescents participated in the survey in 2003, and of these 58.9% were males. Male respondents tended to be older than females (21.2% of males, and 13.1% of females were of age 16 years or above). The percent of males and females in the other age groups were: 23.0% and 28.6% for pocket money; adolescents who had parents who smoked, chewed or applied tobacco; adolescents who said that boys or girls who smoke or chew tobacco have more friends; adolescents who said that smoking or chewing tobacco makes boys look less attractive; adolescents who said that there is no difference in weight between smokers and non-smokers; adolescents who said that smoking makes one gain weight; and adolescents who had most or all of their closest friends who smoked. The factors that were negatively associated with smoking were: adolescents who said that boys or girls who smoke or chew tobacco have less number of friends; adolescents who said that girls who smoke or chew tobacco are less attractive; and adolescents who had some of their closest friends who smoked. The observed associations between current smoking on one hand and peer smoking, and perception that boys who smoke are less attractive on the other, deserve further studies. The factors reported in the current study should be considered in the design of public health interventions aimed to reduce adolescent cigarette smoking.
Odani, Satomi; Armour, Brian S; Graffunder, Corinne M; Garrett, Bridgette E; Agaku, Israel T
An overarching goal of Healthy People 2020 is to achieve health equity, eliminate disparities, and improve health among all groups.* Although significant progress has been made in reducing overall commercial tobacco product use, † disparities persist, with American Indians or Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) having one of the highest prevalences of cigarette smoking among all racial/ethnic groups (1,2). Variations in cigarette smoking among AI/ANs have been documented by sex and geographic location (3), but not by other sociodemographic characteristics. Furthermore, few data exist on use of tobacco products other than cigarettes among AI/ANs (4). CDC analyzed self-reported current (past 30-day) use of five tobacco product types among AI/AN adults from the 2010-2015 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH); results were compared with six other racial/ethnic groups (Hispanic; non-Hispanic white [white]; non-Hispanic black [black]; non-Hispanic Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander [NHOPI]; non-Hispanic Asian [Asian]; and non-Hispanic multirace [multirace]). Prevalence of current tobacco product use was significantly higher among AI/ANs than among non-AI/ANs combined for any tobacco product, cigarettes, roll-your-own tobacco, pipes, and smokeless tobacco. Among AI/ANs, prevalence of current use of any tobacco product was higher among males, persons aged 18-25 years, those with less than a high school diploma, those with annual family income product use and eliminate disparities in tobacco product use among AI/ANs (1).
Iskander, F.Y.; Bauer, T.L.; Klein, D.E.
The concentrations of 28 toxic and other elements in cigarette tobacco of twelve brands commercially manufactured in the USA were determined using instrumental neutron-activation analysis. The elements determined were Al, As, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sr, Th, Ti, V and Zn. The concentrations of the determined elements in the American cigarettes were compared with the elemental concentrations reported for Iranian, Pakistani and Japanese brands. It was concluded that the concentrations of As, Br, Ca, Eu, K and Zn in the samples under investigation are lower than those reported for the analysis of University of Kentucky reference cigarettes, whereas the concentrations of Mn and Na are higher. The contents of Al, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, La, Sb, Sc, and Se are similar to those in the reference cigarettes. (author)
Sweeting, Helen N; Bhaskar, Abita; Hunt, Kate
There is concern about the negative impact of modern consumer culture on young people's mental health, but very few studies have investigated associations with substance use. In those which have, positive associations have been attributed to attempts to satisfy the unmet needs of more materialistic individuals. This study examines associations between different dimensions of consumerism and tobacco and alcohol use among Scottish early adolescents. Cross-sectional study. 2937 (92% of those eligible) secondary school pupils (ages 12-14) completed questionnaires in examination conditions. Analyses were restricted to those with complete data on all relevant variables (N=2736 smoking; N=2737 drinking). Dependent variables comprised ever smoking and current drinking. Measures of consumerism comprised number of 'premium' (range 0-7) and 'standard' (range 0-5) material possessions and three Consumer Involvement subscales, 'dissatisfaction', 'consumer orientation' and 'brand awareness' (each range 3-12). Analyses also included school-year group and family affluence. Ever smoking and current drinking were both more prevalent among adolescents with more 'premium' and 'standard' material possessions, greater consumer 'dissatisfaction' and 'brand awareness' (mutually adjusted analyses including school-year group and family affluence). The strongest relationships occurred for 'brand awareness': for each unit increase in 'brand awareness' the ORs (95% CI) of ever smoking were 1.17 (1.08 to 1.26) and 1.23 (1.14 to 1.33) in males and females, respectively; and those for drinking were 1.15 (1.08 to 1.23) and 1.21 (1.13 to 1.30). 'Brand awareness' had an equal or stronger relationship with both smoking and drinking than did family affluence. These results suggest aassociations between consumerism and both smoking and drinking might arise because adolescent identities incorporate both consumerism and substance use, or be the result of promotion (indirectly in the case of tobacco
Gonçalves, Helen; Soares, Ana Luiza Gonçalves; Santos, Ana Paula Gomes Dos; Ribeiro, Camila Garcez; Bierhals, Isabel Oliveira; Vieira, Luna Strieder; Hellwig, Natália Limões; Wehrmeister, Fernando C; Menezes, Ana M B
The objective of this study was to investigate the association between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and the use of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drugs among adolescents from a Brazilian cohort. The occurrence of five ACEs, the use of alcohol and tobacco and trying illicit drugs were investigated in the 1993 Pelotas birth cohort at the age of 15 (n = 4,230). A score was created for the ACEs and their association with the use of substances was evaluated. Around 25% of adolescents consumed alcohol, 6% smoked and 2.1% reported having used drugs at least once in their lives. The ACEs were associated with the use of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drugs. A dose-response relation between the number of ACEs and the substance use was found, particularly with regard to illicit drugs. The occurrence of ACEs was positively associated with the use of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drugs among adolescents and the risk may be different for men and women. These results point to the fact that strategies for preventing the use of substances should include interventions both among adolescents and within the family environment.
Pfinder, Manuela; Liebig, Stefan; Feldmann, Reinhold
The study aimed to investigate (a) the association between low to moderate prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) and the use of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drugs in adolescence and (b) whether the associations are modified by gender and ethnicity. The subjects of the study were 5922 children and adolescents, aged from 11 to 17 years, enrolled in the cross-sectional German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (the KiGGS study). Information on PAE is based on parental self-report questionnaires. Use of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drugs was assessed through self-report questionnaires for adolescents. Low to moderate PAE was associated with an increased risk of drinking alcohol (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.73, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.34, 2.18) and also of illicit drug use (adjusted OR 1.62, 95% CI 1.23, 2.14). The associations between PAE and the use of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drugs differed according to gender and ethnicity. Gender-stratified analyses resulted in adverse effects of PAE on drinking alcohol, smoking and illicit drug use in females; however, in German males, the associations disappeared. Stronger associations between PAE and the outcome measures were found in non-Germans. Our findings indicate that low to moderate levels of maternal alcohol intake during pregnancy are a risk factor for use of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drugs by the offspring, with stronger associations in females and non-Germans.
Ennett, Susan T.; Bauman, Karl E.; Foshee, Vangie A.; Pemberton, Michael; Hicks, Katherine A.
Adolescent-parent pairs (N=537) were interviewed concerning their communication about tobacco and alcohol use. Parent communication reports identified three domains: rules and discipline; consequences and circumstances; and media influences. Results show that parent-child communication was not related to initiation of smoking or drinking. However,…
Toyokawa, Teru; McLoyd, Vonnie C.
This study examined African American mothers' work socialization messages in relation to adolescents' work-related values. Moderation effects of mother-adolescent relation quality on the linkage between maternal socialization messages and adolescents' outcomes were also examined. Participants were 245 single African American mothers and their…
Shortt, N K; Tisch, C; Pearce, J; Richardson, E A; Mitchell, R
Neighbourhood retailing of tobacco products has been implicated in affecting smoking prevalence rates. Long-term smoking usually begins in adolescence and tobacco control strategies have often focused on regulating 'child spaces', such as areas in proximity to schools. This cross-sectional study examines the association between adolescent smoking behaviour and tobacco retail outlet density around home and school environments in Scotland. Data detailing the geographic location of every outlet registered to sell tobacco products in Scotland were acquired from the Scottish Tobacco Retailers Register and used to create a retail outlet density measure for every postcode. This measure was joined to individual responses of the Scottish Schools Adolescent Lifestyle and Substance Use Survey (n=20 446). Using logistic regression models, we explored the association between the density of retailers, around both home and school address, and smoking behaviours. Those living in the areas of highest density of retailers around the home environment had 53% higher odds of reporting having ever smoked (95% CI 1.27 to 1.85, pretail density had lower odds of having ever smoked (OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.50 to 0.86 pretail outlets in residential neighbourhoods is associated with increased odds of both ever smoked and current smoking among adolescents in Scotland. Policymakers may be advised to focus on reducing the overall density of tobacco outlets, rather than concentrating on 'child spaces'. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Collier, Kate L.; Horn, Stacey S.; Bos, Henny M. W.; Sandfort, Theo G. M.
Attitudes toward lesbians and gays vary across national populations, and previous research has found relatively more accepting attitudes in the Netherlands as compared to the U.S. In this study, we compared beliefs about and attitudes toward lesbians and gays in samples of Dutch and American heterosexual adolescents, utilizing survey data from 1,080 American adolescents (mean age = 15.86 years) attending two schools and from 1,391 Dutch adolescents (mean age = 16.27 years) attending eight schools. Findings indicated the Dutch participants were more tolerant of lesbians and gays, after adjusting for the gender, age, and racial/ethnic minority status of the participants. However, between-country differences were attenuated by accounting for the beliefs about lesbians and gays that participants used to justify their attitudes. American participants were more likely to justify their attitudes using beliefs related to social norms and religious opposition, while the Dutch participants were more likely to justify their attitudes using beliefs related to individual rights and the biological/genetic basis of homosexuality. The results suggest that the relative importance of particular beliefs about lesbians and gays to attitudes at the group level may be context-dependent but also that certain beliefs are salient to attitudes across national contexts. PMID:24512056
Jones, Deborah J.; Olson, Ardis L.; Forehand, Rex; Gaffney, Cecelia A.; Zens, Michael S.; Bau, J. J.
Four years of longitudinal data from 2,153 families with a 5th- or 6th-grade preadolescent participating in a family-focused pediatric primary-care-based prevention program were used to examine whether prevention effects were moderated by positive parenting and/or adolescent gender. Alcohol and tobacco use, internalizing problems, and…
McCool, Judith; Wong-Cornall, Cecilia; Freeman, Becky
In 2012, British American Tobacco New Zealand (BATNZ) launched a mass media campaign branded "Agree/ Disagree" as a response to the New Zealand government's plans to introduce plain packaging. We examined young adult's views about the campaign to assist tobacco control policymakers in planning future interventions. Interviews with young adults living in the Auckland area were conducted. Interviews covered existing knowledge about plain packaging of tobacco, knowledge about the tobacco industry, and perceptions of specific advertisements included in the campaign. Interview data were analyzed to determine the dominant views about the campaign. Perspectives from 12 interviews reflect the dominant discourse in New Zealand on the benefits of serving economic progress and international trade. Pervasive views about the campaigns reflected perceptions of the risk to the New Zealand image, trade, and economy. Similarly, participants expressed concern about the potential for plain packaging to creep toward other products, such as alcohol. Perceptions of the tobacco industry were mixed but reflect a tolerant view of the ethics of business if viewed to be beneficial to the economy. Participants were broadly accepting of the campaign messages. We identified a tendency toward quasi-libertarian leanings when discussing economics and trade, commercial versus personal responsibility, and the value of freedom (commercial and social). These perspectives were often held simultaneously with conflicting socially responsive values and references to the hegemonic position of "big business." This study affirms the importance of closely monitoring public opinion about tobacco control and of broadening denormalization strategies to reflect the critical role the tobacco industry plays in prolonging the tobacco epidemic. To date there is little evidence on the perceptions young adults hold toward to the tobacco industry and their arguments regarding the introduction of plain packaged
Scragg, Robert; Glover, Marewa; Paynter, Janine; Wong, Grace; McCool, Judith
Compare the effect of parental and best friend smoking across the stages of adolescent smoking, from being a never smoker susceptible to smoking, to being a daily smoker National cross-sectional annual survey (2002-2006 combined) of 157,637 Year 10 students aged 14 and 15 years who answered an anonymous self-administered questionnaire. The effects of smoking by parents and best friend varied with stage of adolescent tobacco smoking. Attributable risk calculations showed that parental and best friend smoking explained only 6.3% of susceptibility to smoking among never smokers, and 21.7% of non-smoking students who had ever experimented with cigarettes. The attributable risk for parental and best friend smoking progressively increased with smoking frequency, up to 78.7% for daily smoking. The effect of best friend smoking was stronger than parental smoking, although there was a synergistic effect of both variables on the risk of daily smoking. Smoking by best friend and parents are strongly associated with current smoking by adolescents, but unrelated to susceptibility to smoke among those who are non-smokers.
Holden, Chris; Lee, Kelley; Gilmore, Anna; Fooks, Gary; Wander, Nathaniel
Tobacco market liberalization can have a profound impact on health. This article analyzes internal documents of British American Tobacco (BAT), released as a result of litigation in the United States, in order to examine the company's attempts to influence negotiations over China's accession to the World Trade Organization. The documents demonstrate that BAT attempted to influence these negotiations through a range of mechanisms, including personal access of BAT employees and lobbyists to policymakers; employment of former civil servants from key U.K. government departments; use of organized business groups such as the Multinational Chairmen's Group and the European Round Table; and participation and leadership in forums organized by Chatham House. These processes contributed to significant concessions on the liberalization of the tobacco market in China, although the failure to break the Chinese state monopoly over the manufacture and distribution of cigarettes has ensured that foreign tobacco companies' share of the Chinese market has remained small. World Trade Organization accession has nevertheless led to a profound restructuring of the Chinese tobacco industry in anticipation of foreign competition, which may result in more market-based and internationally oriented Chinese tobacco firms.
Gutman, Leslie Morrison; Peck, Stephen C; Malanchuk, Oksana; Sameroff, Arnold J; Eccles, Jacquelynne S
In this monograph, we investigate the developmental trajectories of a predominantly middle-class, community-based sample of European American and African American adolescents growing up in urban, suburban, and rural areas in Maryland, United States. Within risk-protection and positive youth development frameworks, we selected developmental measures based on the normative tasks of adolescence and the most widely studied indicators in the three major contexts of development: families, peer groups, and schools. Using hierarchical linear growth models, we estimated adolescents' growth trajectories from ages 12 to 20 with variation accounted for by socioeconomic status (SES), gender, race/ethnicity, and the gender by race/ethnicity interaction. In general, the results indicate that: (a) periods of greatest risk and positive development depended on the time frame and outcome being examined and (b) on average, these adolescents demonstrated much stronger evidence of positive than problematic development, even at their most vulnerable times. Absolute levels of their engagement in healthy behaviors, supportive relationships with parents and friends, and positive self-perceptions and psychological well-being were much higher than their reported angry and depressive feelings, engagement in risky behaviors, and negative relationships with parents and peers. We did not find evidence to support the idea that adolescence is a time of heightened risk. Rather, on average, these adolescents experienced relatively stable and developmentally healthy trajectories for a wide range of characteristics, behaviors, and relationships, with slight increases or decreases at different points in development that varied according to domain. Developmental trajectories differed minimally by SES but in some expected ways by gender and race/ethnicity, although these latter differences were not very marked. Overall, most of the young people navigated through their adolescence and arrived at young
Sher-Censor, Efrat; Parke, Ross D.; Coltrane, Scott
Mexican-American adolescents are at an elevated risk for adjustment difficulties. In an effort to identify parenting practices that can affect the adjustment of Mexican-American youth, the current study examined parents' promotion of psychological autonomy and parents' psychological control as perceived by Mexican-American early adolescents, and…
Ying, Yu-Wen; Han, Meekyung; Wong, Sandra L.
The study assessed variation in cultural orientation among Asian American adolescents by age and ethnic density in the community. A total of 128 students at a public high school in Oakland, California, participated in the study. Of these early and middle adolescents, 86 were Chinese American and 42 were Southeast Asian American. They completed the…
Bakken, Jeremy P.; Brown, B. Bradford
Drawing upon the expectancy violation-realignment theory of autonomy development, this qualitative study examined African American and Hmong adolescent autonomy-seeking behaviors and parent-child communication about activities and relationships with peers. Twenty-two African American and 11 Hmong adolescents in grades 6-12 and 14 African American…
Manrique-Abril, Fred G; Ospina, Juan M; Garcia-Ubaque, Juan C
Characterising tobacco and alcohol consumption, the linked psychosocial risk factors and protection factors in a sample of secondary / technical students in Tunja during 2009. A prevalence study was carried out, assessing consumption prevalence and determinants in a sample of 1,515 schoolchildren aged 13 to 18 who were studying in grades 8 to 11. Mean age was 15.2 years (SD=1.42), 50.2% were female; life prevalence: 73.5 % alcohol and 50.6 % cigarette consumption, 51.7 % drunkenness. Main consumption determinants were having a dysfunctional family, peer pressure and influence from partners, academic difficulties and conflicts with parents or guardians. Mean age at onset: transitional period between 12 and 13 years. Complete freedom of access to alcoholic beverages and cigarettes was reported. It was found that alcohol and tobacco consumption frequency was quite high in this age group. Related factors were also determinant as they are subject to educational intervention and should be considered as a priority, particularly those related to the family environment and peer group, given the enormous influence exerted by friends and members of recreational or sports team groups on adolescents at this age.
Kim, Su Yeong; Wang, Yijie; Orozco-Lapray, Diana; Shen, Yishan; Murtuza, Mohammed
“Tiger parenting,” as described by Chua (2011), has put parenting in Asian American families in the spotlight. The current study identified parenting profiles in Chinese American families and explored their effects on adolescent adjustment. In a three-wave longitudinal design spanning eight years, from early adolescence to emerging adulthood, adolescents (54% female), fathers and mothers from 444 Chinese American families reported on eight parenting dimensions (e.g., warmth and shaming) and s...
Pang, Raina D; Bello, Mariel S; Liautaud, Madalyn M; Weinberger, Andrea H; Leventhal, Adam M
Prior studies have found heightened negative affect following tobacco abstinence in women compared to men. However, experimental work addressing whether these findings generalize across racial groups is scarce. The current study investigated whether race (Non-Hispanic White vs. Non-Hispanic African American) moderated gender differences in abstinence-induced negative affect and smoking behavior. Data were collected from 2010 to 2017 from two separate laboratory studies investigating experimentally manipulated tobacco abstinence. Following a baseline session, adult daily smokers (10 cigarettes per day; women: n=297, 83.8% Non-Hispanic African American; men: n=492, 86.2% Non-Hispanic African American) attended two counterbalanced lab sessions (16 hours abstinent vs. non-abstinent) and completed self-report measures of negative affect followed by a laboratory analogue smoking reinstatement task. We found a gender race interaction for several negative affect states and composite negative affect (ßs=-.12 to -.16, psNon-Hispanic White women compared to Non-Hispanic White men exhibited greater abstinence-induced increases in anger, anxiety, and composite negative affect (ßs=-.20 to -.29, psNon-Hispanic African American smokers (ßs=.00 to -.04, ps>.05). These findings suggest that negative affect during acute tobacco abstinence may be a clinically important and intervenable factor that can inform cessation interventions specifically for Non-Hispanic White women smokers. Further empirical exploration of mechanisms underlying interactions of gender and race in tobacco addiction may benefit smoking cessation efforts in Non-Hispanic African American women smokers. The current study contributes to a scant body of research examining the intersectional influence of race and gender on abstinence-induced negative affect-a central, motivationally prepotent feature of tobacco withdrawal. Using a laboratory-based design to experimentally manipulate abstinence, we provide evidence
Yip, Sarah W; Balodis, Iris M; Carroll, Kathleen M; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Potenza, Marc N
Adolescence is a crucial time for initiation of tobacco-smoking. Developing more effective treatment interventions for tobacco-smoking in youth is therefore critical to reduce smoking rates in both adolescent and adult populations. Elucidation of the neural mechanisms of successful behavioral change (abstinence) will allow for improvement of therapies based on known brain mechanisms. Twenty-one adolescent tobacco-smokers (14-19 years) participated in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during performance of a cognitive control (Stroop) task prior to randomization to smoking cessation treatment (trial of combined nicotine replacement therapy/placebo and contingency management for attendance/abstinence; NCT01145001). Fourteen adolescents also participated in fMRI scanning following completion of the six-week trial. fMRI data were analyzed using random-effects models in SPM12. Paired t-tests were used to identify group-level changes (main effect of treatment exposure) in neural functional responses. Regression models were used to identify individual-level changes associated with treatment-outcomes (percent days abstinent, maximum days of consecutive abstinence). Main effects of Stroop task performance (contrast of incongruent versus congruent trials) were seen across a priori ROIs at both pre- and post-treatment (pFWEoptimal treatment responses in this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Thomas, Roger E; Baker, Philip R A; Thomas, Bennett C
Tobacco is the main preventable cause of death and disease worldwide. Adolescent smoking is increasing in many countries with poorer countries following the earlier experiences of affluent countries. Preventing adolescents from starting smoking is crucial to decreasing tobacco-related illness. To assess effectiveness of family-based interventions alone and combined with school-based interventions to prevent children and adolescents from initiating tobacco use. Fourteen bibliographic databases and the Internet, journals hand-searched, and experts consulted. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with children or adolescents and families, interventions to prevent starting tobacco use, and follow-up ≥6 months. Abstracts/titles independently assessed and data independently entered by 2 authors. Risk of bias was assessed with the Cochrane Risk-of-Bias tool. Twenty-seven RCTs were included. Nine trials of never-smokers compared with a control provided data for meta-analysis. Family intervention trials had significantly fewer students who started smoking. Meta-analysis of 2 RCTs of combined family and school interventions compared with school only, showed additional significant benefit. The common feature of effective high-intensity interventions was encouraging authoritative parenting. Only 14 RCTs provided data for meta-analysis (approximately a third of participants). Of the 13 RCTs that did not provide data for meta-analysis 8 compared a family intervention with no intervention and 1 reported significant effects, and 5 compared a family combined with school intervention with a school intervention only and none reported additional significant effects. There is moderate-quality evidence that family-based interventions prevent children and adolescents from starting to smoke. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sittner, Kelley J; Hautala, Dane
Aggressive delinquency is a salient social problem for many North American Indigenous (American Indian, Canadian First Nations) communities, and can have deleterious consequences later in life. Yet there is a paucity of research on Indigenous delinquency. Group-based trajectory modeling is used to prospectively examine trajectories of aggressive delinquency over the course of adolescence using data from 646 Indigenous adolescents from a single culture, spanning the ages of 10-19. Five aggression trajectory groups were identified, characterized by different levels and ages of onset and desistence: non-offenders (22.1%), moderate desistors (19.9%), adolescent-limited offenders (22.2%), high desistors (16.7%), and chronic offenders (19.2%). Using the social development model of antisocial behavior, we selected relevant risk and protective factors predicted to discriminate among those most and least likely to engage in more aggressive behavior. Higher levels of risk (i.e., parent rejection, delinquent peers, substance use, and early dating) in early adolescence were associated with being in the two groups with the highest levels of aggressive delinquency. Positive school adjustment, the only significant protective factor, was associated with being in the lowest aggression trajectory groups. The results provide important information that could be used in developing prevention and intervention programs, particularly regarding vulnerable ages as well as malleable risk factors. Identifying those youth most at risk of engaging in higher levels of aggression may be key to preventing delinquency and reducing the over-representation of Indigenous youth in the justice system. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Although studies have identified an increased likelihood of marijuana and tobacco co-use among African Americans as compared to other racial groups, few studies have specifically examined the prevalence and substance use characteristics of co-users among African Americans in a national survey. The current secondary analysis examined the prevalence rates and substance use characteristics (e.g., marijuana dependence) of 2024 African American past month marijuana and tobacco users and co-users participating in the 2013 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Findings revealed that 18.5%, 53.8% and 27.7% of African Americans smoked marijuana only, tobacco only and marijuana and tobacco in the past 30days, respectively. Relative to participants who smoked marijuana only, African Americans who smoked marijuana and tobacco were more likely to be marijuana dependent in the past year and report more days of marijuana use in the past month. Further, relative to participants who smoked tobacco only, African Americans who smoked marijuana and tobacco were less likely to be dependent on nicotine, reported fewer days of cigarette use in the past month, and began smoking cigarettes, cigars and marijuana at a younger age, but were more likely to be marijuana dependent in the past year and reported more days of cigar use in the past month. Marijuana and tobacco co-use is a significant public health problem, especially among African Americans. Additional research on effective prevention and treatment interventions for African Americans who smoke marijuana and tobacco is warranted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kim, Su Yeong; Wang, Yijie; Shen, Yishan; Hou, Yang
Asian American adolescents are often depicted as academically successful but psychologically distressed, a pattern known as the achievement/adjustment paradox. In a sample of 444 Chinese American adolescents (54 % females), we identified three distinct patterns of adjustment in early adolescence, middle adolescence, and emerging adulthood: the well-adjusted group, which was the largest, exhibited high achievement and low psychological distress; the poorly-adjusted group exhibited poor achievement and moderate distress; and the paradox group exhibited relatively high achievement and high distress. More than half of the adolescents remained in the same profile over time. Adolescents with supportive parents were more likely to stay well-adjusted, and those with "tiger" parents were more likely to stay in the paradox group over time. The present study focused on the critical role of parenting in early adolescence, highlighting variations in Chinese American adolescents' adjustment in multiple domains over time.
Sweeting, Helen N; Bhaskar, Abita; Hunt, Kate
Background There is concern about the negative impact of modern consumer culture on young people's mental health, but very few studies have investigated associations with substance use. In those which have, positive associations have been attributed to attempts to satisfy the unmet needs of more materialistic individuals. Objectives This study examines associations between different dimensions of consumerism and tobacco and alcohol use among Scottish early adolescents. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting and participants 2937 (92% of those eligible) secondary school pupils (ages 12–14) completed questionnaires in examination conditions. Analyses were restricted to those with complete data on all relevant variables (N=2736 smoking; N=2737 drinking). Measures Dependent variables comprised ever smoking and current drinking. Measures of consumerism comprised number of ‘premium’ (range 0–7) and ‘standard’ (range 0–5) material possessions and three Consumer Involvement subscales, ‘dissatisfaction’, ‘consumer orientation’ and ‘brand awareness’ (each range 3–12). Analyses also included school-year group and family affluence. Results Ever smoking and current drinking were both more prevalent among adolescents with more ‘premium’ and ‘standard’ material possessions, greater consumer ‘dissatisfaction’ and ‘brand awareness’ (mutually adjusted analyses including school-year group and family affluence). The strongest relationships occurred for ‘brand awareness’: for each unit increase in ‘brand awareness’ the ORs (95% CI) of ever smoking were 1.17 (1.08 to 1.26) and 1.23 (1.14 to 1.33) in males and females, respectively; and those for drinking were 1.15 (1.08 to 1.23) and 1.21 (1.13 to 1.30). ‘Brand awareness’ had an equal or stronger relationship with both smoking and drinking than did family affluence. Conclusions These results suggest aassociations between consumerism and both smoking and drinking might arise because
Xi, Bo; Liang, Yajun; Liu, Yunxia; Yan, Yinkun; Zhao, Min; Ma, Chuanwei; Bovet, Pascal
Tobacco use is an important risk factor for non-communicable diseases worldwide. However, the global extent and prevalence of tobacco use in adolescents is poorly described. Using previously collected survey data, we aimed to assess tobacco use and second-hand smoke exposure in young adolescents aged 12-15 years in 68 low-income and middle-income countries. We used data from the Global School-based Student Health Survey (2006-13) and the China Global Tobacco Youth Survey (2013), which are school-based surveys of young adolescents aged 12-15 years that assess health behaviours using a standardised, anonymous, self-reported questionnaire. We calculated the prevalence of current tobacco use and exposure to second-hand smoke in young adolescents from 68 low-income and middle-income countries that collected these data in the surveys. We used a multilevel model to estimate the association between parental tobacco use, second-hand smoke, and adolescent tobacco use, adjusting for sex, age, school, school class, country's purchasing power parity, smoking initiation age, national prevalence of tobacco use among adults, year the WHO FCTC was ratified for each country, proxy of socioeconomic status, and survey year. The mean prevalence of current tobacco use was 13·6%, ranging from 2·8% in Tajikistan to 44·7% in Samoa. In most countries, the prevalence of tobacco use was higher for boys than girls, and higher for adolescents aged 14-15 years than for those aged 12-13 years. The overall prevalence of second-hand smoke exposure was 55·9%, ranging from 16·4% in Tajikistan to 85·4% in Indonesia. Parental tobacco use (as reported by the young adolescents), especially maternal use, was associated with tobacco use in young adolescents (odds ratio 2·06, 95% CI 1·93-2·19, for maternal and 1·29, 1·23-1·35 for paternal use). Second-hand smoke exposure was also a risk factor for young adolescents' tobacco use (2·56, 2·43-2·69). However, the prevalence of tobacco use was not
Differences in tobacco smoking prevalence and frequency between adolescent Palestine refugee and non-refugee populations in Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, and the West Bank: cross-sectional analysis of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey.
Jawad, Mohammed; Khader, Ali; Millett, Christopher
Evidence is conflicting as to the whether tobacco smoking prevalence is higher in refugee than non-refugee populations. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence and frequency of tobacco smoking in Palestine refugee and non-refugee adolescent populations in the Middle East. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) conducted in Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, and the West Bank among adolescent Palestine refugees and non-refugees. Age- and sex-adjusted regression models assessed the association between refugee status and current (past-30 day) tobacco use prevalence and frequency. Prevalence estimates for current tobacco smoking were similar between Palestine refugee and non-refugee groups in Jordan (26.7 % vs. 24.0 %), Lebanon (39.4 % vs. 38.5 %), and the West Bank (39.5 % vs. 38.4 %). In Syria, Palestine refugees had nearly twice the odds of current tobacco smoking compared to non-refugees (23.2 % vs. 36.6 %, AOR 1.96, 95 % CI 1.46-2.62). Palestine refugees consumed more cigarettes per month than non-refugees in Lebanon (β 0.57, 95 % CI 0.17-0.97) and Palestine refugees consumed more waterpipe tobacco per month than non-refugees in Syria (β 0.40, 95 % CI 0.19-0.61) and the West Bank (β 0.42, 95 % CI 0.21-0.64). Current tobacco smoking prevalence is in excess of 20 % in both adolescent Palestine refugee and non-refugee populations in Middle Eastern countries, however Palestine refugees may smoke tobacco more frequently than non-refugees. Comparison of simple prevalence estimates may therefore mask important differences in tobacco use patterns within population groups.
Gay, Christopher; Clements-Nolle, Kristen; Packham, John; Ackerman, Gerald; Lensch, Taylor; Yang, Wei
Rural youth have higher rates of alcohol and tobacco use compared to their urban counterparts. However, the economic dependence of rural communities may differentially influence risk behaviors. While research has shown that adults working in mining have elevated rates of alcohol and tobacco use, the influence of living in a mining community on early adolescent substance use is unknown. Using data from a representative sample of 4,535 middle school students in a state with heavy reliance on mining, we conducted weighted logistic regression to investigate whether community-level mining economic dependence influences rural-urban differences in adolescent alcohol and tobacco use. All models adjusted for sociodemographics, military family involvement, parental monitoring, and length of residence. Over one quarter of the sampled students lived in rural counties and approximately half of these counties met the USDA mining economic typology. After stratifying rural counties by mining and nonmining economic dependence, students in rural mining counties had significantly higher odds of all measures of alcohol use (AORs ranged from 1.83 to 3.99) and tobacco use (AORs ranged from 1.61 to 5.05) compared to students in urban counties. Only use of smokeless tobacco was higher among students in rural nonmining counties. Our findings demonstrate rural-urban disparities in adolescent substance use that are particularly pronounced among youth living in counties with economic dependence on mining. Future research on this subject should include a wider range of community-level factors that may have specific relevance in rural settings to inform the development of population-level interventions. © 2018 National Rural Health Association.
Moon, Sung Seek; Rao, Uma
In this article, we present the effects of three hypothesized protective factors: social activities, school-related activities, and anti-substance use media messages on adolescent tobacco and alcohol use. Data were drawn from the "Monitoring the Future" (MTF) research project, which was conducted by the Institute for Social Research at the University of Michigan. The sample included 2,551 twelfth-grade students. The results of the structural equation model showed that exposure to media anti-drug messages had an indirect negative effect on tobacco and alcohol use through school-related activity and social activity. The results suggest that comprehensive ecological interventions encompassing media, family, and school can increase on the preventive effects of adolescent's substance use.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of alcohol/tobacco consumption among adolescents (N = 370 aged 14 to 19 years in three groups: 205 adolescents with normal weight, 82 adolescents from the community with overweight or obesity, and 83 adolescents with overweight or obesity and in outpatient treatment for weight control. We also examined the roles of age, gender, weight, treatment condition, and psychosocial variables (psychopathological symptoms, social support, and emotional skills in the presence of those risk behaviors. Our major findings were that the clinical group of overweight adolescents had fewer risk behaviors, than the overweight community group and the normal weight controls, particularly for risk behaviors related to alcohol use. The increase of age and lower satisfaction with family predicted tobacco consumption. The increase of age, not being integrated in a treatment for weight control and higher satisfaction with intimate relationships predicted alcohol consumption. Weight status was not a predictor of alcohol and cigarette use. This study discusses the theoretical and practical implications of these findings.
Inglés, Cándido J; Torregrosa, María S; Rodríguez-Marín, Jesús; García del Castillo, José A; Gázquez, José J; García-Fernández, José M; Delgado, Beatriz
The aim of the present study was to analyze: (a) the relationship between alcohol and tobacco use and academic performance, and (b) the predictive role of psycho-educational factors and alcohol and tobacco abuse on academic performance in a sample of 352 Spanish adolescents from grades 8 to 10 of Compulsory Secondary Education. The Self-Description Questionnaire-II, the Sydney Attribution Scale, and the Achievement Goal Tendencies Questionnaire were administered in order to analyze cognitive-motivational variables. Alcohol and tobacco abuse, sex, and grade retention were also measured using self-reported questions. Academic performance was measured by school records. Frequency analyses and logistic regression analyses were used. Frequency analyses revealed that students who abuse of tobacco and alcohol show a higher rate of poor academic performance. Logistic regression analyses showed that health behaviours, and educational and cognitive-motivational variables exert a different effect on academic performance depending on the academic area analyzed. These results point out that not only academic, but also health variables should be address to improve academic performance in adolescence.
Moon, Sung Seek; Rao, Uma
In this article, we present the effects of three hypothesized protective factors: social activities, school-related activities, and anti-substance use media messages on adolescent tobacco and alcohol use. Data were drawn from the “Monitoring the Future” (MTF) research project, which was conducted by the Institute for Social Research at the University of Michigan. The sample included 2,551 twelfth-grade students. The results of the structural equation model showed that exposure to media anti-d...
Skinner, Olivenne D; McHale, Susan M
Parent-adolescent conflict is frequent in families and has implications for youth adjustment and family relationships. Drawing on a family systems perspective, we examined mothers', fathers', and two adolescent-aged siblings' (50.5 % females) reports of parent-adolescent conflict in 187 African American families. Using latent profile analysis in the context of an ethnic homogeneous design, we identified three family types based on levels of and differences between parent and youth conflict reports: low conflict, father high conflict, and younger sibling high conflict. Compared to low conflict families, youth in younger sibling high conflict families reported more depressive symptoms and risky behaviors. The results for parents' acceptance revealed that, in comparison to low conflict families, older siblings in father high conflict families reported lower acceptance from mothers, and mothers in these families reported lower acceptance of their children; further, older siblings in younger sibling high conflict families reported less acceptance from fathers, and fathers in these families reported less acceptance of their children. Results underscore the significance of levels of and both differences between and direction of differences in parents' and youth's reports of their "shared" experiences, as well as the importance of examining the larger family contexts of dyadic parent-relationships.
Gonzalez, Mariaelena; Green, Lawrence W; Glantz, Stanton A
Objective To analyse the models Philip Morris (PM) and British American Tobacco (BAT) used internally to understand tobacco control non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and their relationship to the global tobacco control policy-making process that resulted in the Framework Convention for Tobacco Control (FCTC). Methods Analysis of internal tobacco industry documents in the Legacy Tobacco Document Library. Results PM contracted with Mongoven, Biscoe, and Duchin, Inc. (MBD, a consulting firm specialising in NGO surveillance) as advisors. MBD argued that because NGOs are increasingly linked to epistemic communities, NGOs could insert themselves into the global policy-making process and influence the discourse surrounding the treaty-making process. MBD advised PM to insert itself into the policy-making process, mimicking NGO behaviour. BAT’s Consumer and Regulatory Affairs (CORA) department argued that global regulation emerged from the perception (by NGOs and governments) that the industry could not regulate itself, leading to BAT advocating social alignment and self-regulation to minimise the impact of the FCTC. Most efforts to block or redirect the FCTC failed. Conclusions PM and BAT articulated a global policy-making environment in which NGOs are key, non-state stakeholders, and as a result, internationalised some of their previous national-level strategies. After both companies failed to prevent the FCTC, their strategies began to align. Multinational corporations have continued to successfully employ some of the strategies outlined in this paper at the local and national level while being formally excluded from ongoing FCTC negotiations at the global level. PMID:21636611
Rounds-Bryant, Jennifer L.; Staab, Jennifer
Compared background, pre-treatment characteristics, and post-treatment outcomes of African American, Hispanic, and white adolescent substance abusers participating in the Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Studies for Adolescents (DATOS-A). Found that patients were similar with respect to basic pre-treatment demographics. Compared to white adolescents,…
Ozer, Emily J.; Flores, Elena; Tschann, Jeanne M.; Pasch, Lauri A.
This study of 151 Mexican American adolescents ages 12 to 15 examined the relationship between parenting and adolescents' self-reported level of depressive symptoms and substance use 6 months and 1 year later. Adolescents and their parents were recruited from a large health-maintenance organization and interviewed at three time points. Lower…
Earls, Melissa K.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of Social Skills Group Play Therapy on remedying the social skills deficits of adolescent African-American males. Additionally, the study investigated whether age and grade level impacted the outcome of the intervention. The participants were adolescent African-American males ages 10 to…
Nebbitt, Von E.; Lambert, Sharon F.
This study examines individual, social, and contextual correlates of anxiety sensitivity among African American adolescents living in public housing. The study also reports prevalence of anxiety sensitivity among this population of youth. Participants included 238 African American adolescents (mean age = 15.6) living in three public housing…
Frank, Gila; Plunkett, Scott W.; Otten, Mark P.
We examined whether Iranian American adolescents' perceptions of parental support, parental knowledge, and parental psychological control relate to general self-efficacy directly, and indirectly through positive esteem and self-deprecation. To investigate this, self-report surveys were collected from 158 Iranian American adolescents attending…
Gaylord-Harden, Noni K.; Cunningham, Jamila A.; Holmbeck, Grayson N.; Grant, Kathryn E.
Objective: The purpose of the current study was to demonstrate the replicable nature of statistical suppressor effects in coping research through 2 examples with African American adolescents from low-income communities. Method: Participants in the 1st example included 497 African American adolescents (mean age = 12.61 years, SD = 0.99; 57% female)…
Sumo, Jen'nea; Dancy, Barbara; Julion, Wrenetha; Wilbur, JoEllen
African American grandmothers are known to be a major source of support for their children who are parenting adolescents, but little is known about why they provide support. The purpose of this study was to describe the kinds of support provided by African American maternal and paternal grandmothers to their parenting adolescents and the reasons…
Vela, Javier C.; Lenz, A. Stephen; Sparrow, Gregory Scott; Gonzalez, Stacey Lee
Positive psychology is a useful framework to understand Mexican American adolescents' academic experiences. We used a quantitative, predictive design to explore how presence of meaning in life, search for meaning in life, subjective happiness, hope, and family importance influenced 131 Mexican American adolescents' college-going beliefs. We used…
Weichold, Karina; Tomasik, Martin J.; Silbereisen, Rainer K.; Spaeth, Michael
In this study, the effectiveness of a life skills program to impede tobacco use in early adolescence was scrutinized. The focus was on the mediating role of yielding to peer pressure. The universal school-based life skills program IPSY (Information + Psychosocial Competence = Protection) against adolescent substance use was implemented over 3…
Bartlett, Robin; Buck, Raymond; Shattell, Mona M
African-Americans and Hispanics are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS in the United States. HIV infection is often acquired during adolescence, a time when risky sexual behaviors are at their peak. This study explored relationships among selected risk factors, protective factors, and risky sexual behaviors among African-American, Hispanic, and White adolescents, from a sample of adolescents from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. African-Americans and Hispanics were more likely to have sexual intercourse without the use of birth control than were Whites. African-Americans were more likely to have sexual behavior with multiple sexual partners than either Hispanics or Whites were, and African-Americans had higher self-esteem than did Hispanics and Whites. In order to develop culturally sensitive, effective interventions to prevent HIV/AIDS in adolescents, racial differences in risk and protective factors must be examined.
Schneider, Sven; Diehl, Katharina
The popularity of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) among adolescents is growing worldwide. A more accurate model than the much discussed but inadequate Gateway Hypothesis is needed to explain some adolescents' initial preference for e-cigarettes over tobacco cigarettes, as well as any transition from e-cigarettes to tobacco smoking. Our aim was to summarize the diffuse fear that adolescents will be indirectly encouraged to begin smoking tobacco via the use of e-cigarettes and to systematize the disparate causal hypotheses used thus far in relevant literature. We summarized the vague and fragmented hypotheses formulated thus far in literature on both trajectories from abstinence to e-cigarette use and from there to tobacco smoking into a set of empirically testable hypotheses and organized them into a comprehensive model. Our results indicate that the perceived health risks, specific product characteristics (such as taste, price and inconspicuous use), and higher levels of acceptance among peers and others potentially make e-cigarettes initially more attractive to adolescents than tobacco cigarettes. Later, increasing familiarity with nicotine could lead to the reevaluation of both electronic and tobacco cigarettes and subsequently to a potential transition to tobacco smoking. The suggested "catalyst model" takes variations in the nicotine content of e-cigarettes as well as the dual use of different substances into account. Our model provides causal hypotheses for the initiation of e-cigarette use and for the potential transition to tobacco smoking which, after being tested in empirical studies, could lead to the formulation of concrete recommendations for healthcare intervention and prevention measures. We developed a model that provides causal hypotheses for the initiation of e-cigarette use and for the potential transition to tobacco smoking. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Monique E Muggli
Full Text Available Each year, 540 million Chinese are exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS, resulting in more than 100,000 deaths. Smoke-free policies have been demonstrated to decrease overall cigarette consumption, encourage smokers to quit, and protect the health of nonsmokers. However, restrictions on smoking in China remain limited and ineffective. Internal tobacco industry documents show that transnational tobacco companies (TTCs have pursued a multifaceted strategy for undermining the adoption of restrictions on smoking in many countries.To understand company activities in China related to SHS, we analyzed British American Tobacco's (BAT's internal corporate documents produced in response to litigation against the major cigarette manufacturers to understand company activities in China related to SHS. BAT has carried out an extensive strategy to undermine the health policy agenda on SHS in China by attempting to divert public attention from SHS issues towards liver disease prevention, pushing the so-called "resocialisation of smoking" accommodation principles, and providing "training" for industry, public officials, and the media based on BAT's corporate agenda that SHS is an insignificant contributor to the larger issue of air pollution.The public health community in China should be aware of the tactics previously used by TTCs, including efforts by the tobacco industry to co-opt prominent Chinese benevolent organizations, when seeking to enact stronger restrictions on smoking in public places.
Muggli, Monique E; Lee, Kelley; Gan, Quan; Ebbert, Jon O; Hurt, Richard D
Each year, 540 million Chinese are exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS), resulting in more than 100,000 deaths. Smoke-free policies have been demonstrated to decrease overall cigarette consumption, encourage smokers to quit, and protect the health of nonsmokers. However, restrictions on smoking in China remain limited and ineffective. Internal tobacco industry documents show that transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) have pursued a multifaceted strategy for undermining the adoption of restrictions on smoking in many countries. To understand company activities in China related to SHS, we analyzed British American Tobacco's (BAT's) internal corporate documents produced in response to litigation against the major cigarette manufacturers to understand company activities in China related to SHS. BAT has carried out an extensive strategy to undermine the health policy agenda on SHS in China by attempting to divert public attention from SHS issues towards liver disease prevention, pushing the so-called "resocialisation of smoking" accommodation principles, and providing "training" for industry, public officials, and the media based on BAT's corporate agenda that SHS is an insignificant contributor to the larger issue of air pollution. The public health community in China should be aware of the tactics previously used by TTCs, including efforts by the tobacco industry to co-opt prominent Chinese benevolent organizations, when seeking to enact stronger restrictions on smoking in public places.
Wium-Andersen, Ida Kim; Wium-Andersen, Marie Kim; Becker, Ulrik
Early onset of tobacco and cannabis use predicts later substance abuse and risk behaviour and has large health consequences.......Early onset of tobacco and cannabis use predicts later substance abuse and risk behaviour and has large health consequences....
Nosa, Vili; Gentles, Dudley; Glover, Marewa; Scragg, Robert; McCool, Judith; Bullen, Chris
Pacific New Zealanders have a high prevalence of smoking, with many first smoking in their pre-adolescent years. To identify risk factors for tobacco smoking among Pacific pre-adolescent intermediate school children. A cross-sectional survey of 2208 Pacific students aged between 10 and 13 years from four South Auckland intermediate schools who were asked about their smoking behaviour between the years 2007 and 2009. The prevalence of Pacific ever-smokers (for 2007) in Year 7 was 15.0% (95% Confidence Interval [CI] 12.0%-18.3%) and Year 8, 23.0% (95% CI 19.5%-26.7%). Multivariate modelling showed the risk factors for ever-smoking were Cook Island ethnic group (OR 1.72; 95% CI 1.26-2.36, ref=Samoan), boys (OR 1.47; 95% CI 1.14-1.89), age (OR 1.65; 95% CI 1.36-2.00), exposure to smoking in a car within the previous seven days (OR 2.24; 95% CI 1.67-3.01), anyone smoking at home within the previous seven days (OR 1.52; 95% CI 1.12-2.04) and receiving more than $NZ20 per week as pocket money/allowance (OR=1.91, 95% CI 1.23-2.96). Parents control and therefore can modify identified risk factors for Pacific children's smoking initiation: exposure to smoking at home or in the car and the amount of weekly pocket money the child receives. Primary health care professionals should advise Pacific parents to make their homes and cars smokefree and to monitor their children's spending. This study also suggests a particular need for specific Cook Island smokefree promotion and cessation resources.
Kramp, Joseph M
I argue that the changing economic conditions in the contemporary world have caused a shift in religious and cultural values among American youth. This shift in cultural and religious values and practices is interpreted in this essay as an experience of symbolic loss, or a loss of socially shared historic ideals and symbols (Homans in Childhood and selfhood: essays on tradition, religion, and modernity in the psychology of Erik H. Erikson. Bucknell University Press, Lewisburg, pp 189-228, 2008). I argue that the symbolic loss among American youth can most clearly be seen in the contemporary horror film genre in America. I assess the popularity of this genre, its value structure and the psychosocial consequences of the symbolic losses experienced by American youth as witnessed in this film genre. I suggest two ways in which adolescents and adults can work to re-create cultural and religious meanings that both foster courage and serenity in the face of the profound despair that accompanies the rage and paranoia in the contemporary horror film genre.
Williams, James Herbert; Van Dorn, Richard A; Bright, Charlotte Lyn; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Nebbitt, Von E
Child welfare and criminology research have increasingly sought to better understand factors that increase the likelihood that abused and neglected children will become involved in the juvenile justice system. However, few studies have addressed this relationship among African American male adolescents. The current study examines the relationship between child maltreatment (i.e., neglect, physical abuse, sexual abuse, and other/mixed abuse) and the likelihood of a delinquency petition using a sample of African American males ( N = 2,335) born before 1990. Multivariable logistic regression models compared those with a delinquency-based juvenile justice petition to those without. Results indicate that African American males with a history of neglect, physical abuse, or other/mixed abuse were more likely to be involved in the juvenile justice system than those without any child maltreatment. Additionally, multiple maltreatment reports, a prior history of mental health treatment, victimization, and having a parent who did not complete high school also increased the likelihood of a delinquency petition. Implications for intervention and prevention are discussed.
Knight, George P; Basilio, Camille D; Cham, Heining; Gonzales, Nancy A; Liu, Yu; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J
Mexican Americans are one of the largest and fastest growing ethnic groups in the United States, yet we have limited knowledge regarding changes (i.e., developmental trajectories) in cultural orientation based upon their exposure to the Mexican American and mainstream cultures. We examined the parallel trajectories of Mexican American and mainstream cultural values in a sample of 749 Mexican American adolescents (49 % female) across assessments during the fifth grade (approximately 11 years of age), the seventh grade (approximately 13 years of age) and the tenth grade (approximately 16 years of age). We expected that these values would change over this developmental period and this longitudinal approach is more appropriate than the often used median split classification to identify distinct types of acculturation. We found four distinct acculturation trajectory groups: two trajectory groups that were increasing slightly with age in the endorsement of mainstream cultural values, one of which was relatively stable in Mexican American cultural values while the other was declining in their endorsement of these values; and two trajectory groups that were declining substantially with age in their endorsement of mainstream cultural values, one of which was also declining in Mexican American cultural values and the other which was stable in these values. These four trajectory groups differed in expected ways on a number of theoretically related cultural variables, but were not highly consistent with the median split classifications. The findings highlight the need to utilize longitudinal data to examine the developmental changes of Mexican American individual's adaptation to the ethnic and mainstream culture in order to understand more fully the processes of acculturation and enculturation.
Smith, Angie J.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) resulting from parental incarceration upon children and adolescents in an African-American community. Methodology: Much of the literature on posttraumatic stress disorder focuses on children and adolescents that have been exposed to a one-time event (e.g. school…
Omizo, Michael M.; Kim, Bryan S. K.; Abel, Nicholas R.
The authors examined the extent to which Asian American adolescents who were living in Hawaii adhered to Asian and European American cultural values in relation to mental health variables including collective self-esteem (membership, private, public, importance to identity), cognitive flexibility, general self-efficacy, and attitudes toward…
Braun, S; Mejia, R; Ling, P M; Pérez-Stable, E J
Background/aim Argentina has one of the highest cigarette smoking rates among both men and women in the Americas and no legislated restrictions on tobacco industry advertising. The tobacco industry has traditionally expanded markets by targeting adolescents and young adults. The objective of this study was to determine whether and how the tobacco industry promotes cigarettes to adolescents in Argentina. Methods We conducted a systematic search of tobacco industry documents available through the internet dated between 1995 and 2004 using standard search terms to identify marketing strategies in Argentina. A selected review of the four leading newspapers and nine magazines with reported high readership among adolescents was completed. The selected print media were searched for tobacco images and these were classified as advertisements if associated with a commercial product or as a story if not. Results The tobacco industry used market segmentation as a strategy to target Argentinean consumers. British American Tobacco (BAT) undertook a young adult psychographic study and classified them as “progressives”, “Jurassics” or “conservatives” and “crudos” or “spoiled brats”. BAT marketed Lucky Strike to the “progressives” using Hollywood movies as a vehicle. The tobacco industry also targeted their national brands to the conservatives and linked these brands with “nationalistic values” in advertising campaigns. Philip Morris promoted Marlboro by sponsoring activities directed at young people and they launched the 10 cigarettes packet as a starter vehicle. Conclusions The tobacco industry used psychographic segmentation of the population and developed advertising strategies focused on youth. Tobacco control researchers and advocates must be able to address these strategies in counter-marketing interventions. PMID:18299308
Barrientos-Gutiérrez, Tonatiuh; Barrientos-Gutiérrez, Inti; Reynales-Shigematsu, Luz Myriam; Thrasher, James F; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo
Exposure to tobacco advertisement is associated with smoking initiation among the youth, its elimination is a key objective to effectively curb the tobacco epidemic. Historically, the tobacco industry has pioneered the use of new communication technologies to keep and expand their market. Nowadays, Internet and video games have transcended the entertainment sphere, becoming significant media for massive communication and providing new opportunities for advertisement. The present essay reviews the existing literature on tobacco presence in the Internet and video games to define research and policy tasks required to develop effective means for tobacco advertisement regulation and control.
Rigotti, N A
To start smoking, young people need a supply of tobacco products. Reducing youth access to tobacco is a new approach to preventing tobacco use that has been a focus of federal, state, and local tobacco control efforts over the past decade. All 50 states ban tobacco sales to minors, but compliance is poor because laws are not enforced. Consequently, young people have little trouble obtaining tobacco products. Commercial sources of tobacco (stores and vending machines) are important for underage smokers, who often purchase their own cigarettes. Underage youths also obtain tobacco from noncommercial sources such as friends, relatives, older adolescents, and adults. Educating retailers about tobacco sales laws has not produced long-term improvement in their compliance. Active enforcement of tobacco sales laws changes retailer behavior, but whether this reduces young people's access to tobacco or their tobacco use is not clear. The effectiveness of new local, state, and federal actions that aim to reduce youth access to tobacco remains to be determined. Can enforcing tobacco sales laws reduce young people's access to tobacco? If so, will this prevent or delay the onset of their tobacco use? How will youths' sources of tobacco change as commercial sources are restricted? What are the social (noncommercial) sources of tobacco for minors and how can youths' access to tobacco from these sources be reduced? What is the impact of the new federal policies aimed at reducing youth access to tobacco? Do new state and local laws that ban youth possession or use of tobacco have a net positive or negative impact on youth attitudes, access to tobacco, or tobacco use? What is the relative effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of efforts to reduce the supply of tobacco compared to those that aim to reduce demand for tobacco? Will either work alone or are both necessary to achieve reductions in youth smoking?
Schneider, S; Meyer, C; Yamamoto, S; Solle, D
Starting from 1 January 2007, electronic locking devices based on proof-of-age (via electronic cash cards or a European driving licence) were installed in approximately 500,000 vending machines across Germany to restrict the purchase of cigarettes to those over the age of 16. To examine changes in the number of tobacco vending machines before and after the introduction of these new measures. The total number of commercial tobacco sources in 2 selected districts (70,000 inhabitants) in Cologne were recorded and mapped. This major German city was the ideal setting for this study as investigators were able to use existing sociogeographical data from the area. A complete inventory was compiled in autumn 2005 and 2007. A total of 780 students aged 12 to 15 were also interviewed in the study areas. The main outcome measures were quantities and locations of commercial tobacco sources. Between 2005 and 2007 the total number of tobacco sources decreased from 315 to 277 within the study area. Although the most obvious reduction was detected in the number of outdoor vending machines (-48%), the number of indoor vending machines also decreased by 8%. Adolescents changed from vending machines to other sources for cigarettes, particularly kiosks or friends (+31% points usage rate, pvending machines decreased, this has not had a significant impact on cigarette acquisition by underage smokers as they were able to circumvent this new security measure in several different ways.
Bello, Mariel S; Pang, Raina D; Chasson, Gregory S; Ray, Lara A; Leventhal, Adam M
The association between obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptomatology and smoking is poorly understood, particularly in African Americans-a group subject to smoking- and OC-related health disparities. In a non-clinical sample of 253 African American smokers, we tested the negative reinforcement model of OC-smoking comorbidity, purporting that smokers with higher OC symptoms experience greater negative affect (NA) and urge to smoke for NA suppression upon acute tobacco abstinence. Following a baseline visit involving OC assessment, participants completed two counterbalanced experimental visits (non-abstinent vs. 16-h tobacco abstinence) involving affect, smoking urge, and nicotine withdrawal assessment. OC symptom severity predicted larger abstinence-provoked increases in overall NA, anger, anxiety, depression, fatigue, urge to smoke to suppress NA, and composite nicotine withdrawal symptom index. African American smokers with elevated OC symptoms appear to be vulnerable to negative reinforcement-mediated smoking motivation and may benefit from cessation treatments that diminish NA or the urge to quell NA via smoking. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Point-of-sale (POS advertising at retail stores is one of the key marketing avenues used by the tobacco industry. The United States Surgeon General urges actions to eliminate POS tobacco advertisements because of their influence on youth smoking. Many youth empowerment programs are implemented to address tobacco industry marketing influences, including POS tobacco advertisements. While youth are asked to take on such collective action, little is known regarding their perceptions and understanding of tobacco industry marketing influences and related advocacy activities. This mixed methods study examined Oklahoma’s tobacco control youth empowerment program members’ perceptions of tobacco industry marketing influences. Four focus groups were held with active program members from rural and urban areas. Overall, the focus group participants viewed the program as purposeful, as an avenue to help others, and as a way to make a difference. Specifically, the older participants (median age = 18 years identified tobacco industry marketing influences such as POS, movies, and magazine advertisements and reported participating in activities that counter POS tobacco advertisements at retail stores. Likewise younger participants (median age = 16 years, identified similar tobacco industry marketing influences, but also included tobacco use by friends and family as tobacco industry marketing influences. Moreover, the younger participants did not report engaging in activities that addressed POS tobacco advertisements. The study results suggest that the empowerment program should tailor its programming, training, materials, and activities with input from youth of various ages. Thoughtfully developed messages and specific activities can truly empower youth and maximize their contribution as change agents who address POS or other initiatives at the retail environments to prevent chronic diseases.
Douglas, Malinda; Chan, Andie; Sampilo, Marilyn
Point-of-sale (POS) advertising at retail stores is one of the key marketing avenues used by the tobacco industry. The United States Surgeon General urges actions to eliminate POS tobacco advertisements because of their influence on youth smoking. Many youth empowerment programs are implemented to address tobacco industry marketing influences, including POS tobacco advertisements. While youth are asked to take on such collective action, little is known regarding their perceptions and understanding of tobacco industry marketing influences and related advocacy activities. This mixed methods study examined Oklahoma's tobacco control youth empowerment program members' perceptions of tobacco industry marketing influences. Four focus groups were held with active program members from rural and urban areas. Overall, the focus group participants viewed the program as purposeful, as an avenue to help others, and as a way to make a difference. Specifically, the older participants (median age = 18 years) identified tobacco industry marketing influences such as POS, movies, and magazine advertisements and reported participating in activities that counter POS tobacco advertisements at retail stores. Likewise younger participants (median age = 16 years), identified similar tobacco industry marketing influences, but also included tobacco use by friends and family as tobacco industry marketing influences. Moreover, the younger participants did not report engaging in activities that addressed POS tobacco advertisements. The study results suggest that the empowerment program should tailor its programming, training, materials, and activities with input from youth of various ages. Thoughtfully developed messages and specific activities can truly empower youth and maximize their contribution as change agents who address POS or other initiatives at the retail environments to prevent chronic diseases.
Kim, Su Yeong; Wang, Yijie; Chen, Qi; Shen, Yishan; Hou, Yang
Acculturation plays a critical role in the adjustment of Asian Americans, as a large proportion of them are immigrants in the US. However, little is known about how acculturation influences Asian American adolescents' academic trajectories over time. Using a longitudinal sample of 444 Chinese American families (54% female children), the current study explored the effect of mothers', fathers', and adolescents' individual acculturation profiles and parent-child acculturation dissonance on adolescents' academic trajectories from 8th to 12th grade. Academic performance was measured by grade point average (GPA), and by standardized test scores in English language arts (ELA) and Math every year. Latent growth modeling analyses showed that adolescents with a Chinese-oriented father showed faster decline in GPA, and Chinese-oriented adolescents had lower initial ELA scores. Adolescents whose parents had American-oriented acculturation profiles tended to have lower initial Math scores. These results suggest that Chinese and American profiles may be disadvantageous for certain aspects of academic performance, and bicultural adolescents and/or adolescents with bicultural parents are best positioned to achieve across multiple domains. In terms of the role of parent-child acculturation dissonance on academic trajectories, the current study highlighted the importance of distinguishing among different types of dissonance. Adolescents who were more Chinese-oriented than their parents tended to have the lowest initial ELA scores, and adolescents experiencing more normative acculturation dissonance (i.e., who were more American-oriented than their parents) had the highest initial ELA scores. No effects of parent-child acculturation dissonance were observed for GPAs or standardized Math scores. Altogether, the current findings add nuances to the current understanding of acculturation and adolescent adjustment.
Muula, A S; Siziya, S; Rudatsikira, E
The majority of adults who smoke cigarettes initiated the habit when they were adolescents or young adults. While rates of smoking and associated factors are known among 13-15 year olds in Malawi, correlates of cigarette smoking among adolescents in a national representative sample in Malawi have not been studied. We, therefore, carried out this study to estimate the prevalence of current smoking and determine its correlates in a nationally representative sample of in-school adolescents in Malawi. An analysis of the Malawi Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) 2005 was conducted. Using logistic regression analysis, we estimated the association between current cigarette smoking and potential explanatory variables. Overall, 2.5% of adolescents (3.2% among males, and 1.8% among females) were current cigarette smokers. Smoking among parents was 9.6% with no significant difference between males and females (10.3% versus 10.1%). Stronger associations with smoking were observed for friends smoking status (AOR=3.07, 95%CI 2.99, 3.16), receiving pocket money (AOR=3.06, 95%CI 2.98, 3.14), and perception that smoking increases body weight (AOR=2.98, 95%CI 2.81, 3.16). Students who thought that cigarette smoking is harmful to health were 56% (AOR=0.44, 95%CI 0.43, 0.45) less likely to smoke than students who thought otherwise. Despite being the world's second leading grower of tobacco, the prevalence of cigarette smoking among adolescent is lower than has been reported elsewhere.
Huang, Jui-Yen; Wang, Kuan-Yuan; Ringel-Kulka, Tamar
Life satisfaction correlates with adolescent risk taking behavior and their outcomes in adulthood. Despite the fast rise in numbers of Asian adolescents in the U.S., the predictors of their life satisfaction are not well understood. This study examined the relationship between several demographic and contextual factors and global life satisfaction among this population. Data were derived from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), a nationally representative probability sample of US adolescents. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression was conducted to evaluate hypothesized predictors of global life satisfaction of Asian American adolescents. All analyses were conducted using STATA version 11. After exclusion of cases with missing values, 1021 Asian American adolescents were studied. Self- rated health, self-esteem, perceived neighborhood quality, parental support and peer support were significantly and positively related to better global life satisfaction. However, after controlling for other factors, only self-esteem (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 4.76; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.86-8.33) and perceived peer support (aOR: 2.76; 95% CI: 1.33-5.76) significantly predicted higher life satisfaction. Peer support and adolescents' self-concept are strongly correlated with Asian American adolescents' subjective well-being. To promote the wellness of this population, culturally sensitive strategies in developing peer relationship and healthy self-concept may be effective. More studies are needed for subgroup comparison of various ethnicities among Asian American adolescents.
Katherine E Smith
Full Text Available Impact assessment (IA of all major European Union (EU policies is now mandatory. The form of IA used has been criticised for favouring corporate interests by overemphasising economic impacts and failing to adequately assess health impacts. Our study sought to assess how, why, and in what ways corporations, and particularly the tobacco industry, influenced the EU's approach to IA.In order to identify whether industry played a role in promoting this system of IA within the EU, we analysed internal documents from British American Tobacco (BAT that were disclosed following a series of litigation cases in the United States. We combined this analysis with one of related literature and interviews with key informants. Our analysis demonstrates that from 1995 onwards BAT actively worked with other corporate actors to successfully promote a business-oriented form of IA that favoured large corporations. It appears that BAT favoured this form of IA because it could advance the company's European interests by establishing ground rules for policymaking that would: (i provide an economic framework for evaluating all policy decisions, implicitly prioritising costs to businesses; (ii secure early corporate involvement in policy discussions; (iii bestow the corporate sector with a long-term advantage over other actors by increasing policymakers' dependence on information they supplied; and (iv provide businesses with a persuasive means of challenging potential and existing legislation. The data reveal that an ensuing lobbying campaign, largely driven by BAT, helped secure binding changes to the EU Treaty via the Treaty of Amsterdam that required EU policymakers to minimise legislative burdens on businesses. Efforts subsequently focused on ensuring that these Treaty changes were translated into the application of a business orientated form of IA (cost-benefit analysis [CBA] within EU policymaking procedures. Both the tobacco and chemical industries have since
Mira A Patel
Full Text Available To describe the association between active, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS exposure and the prevalence of eustachian tube dysfunction (ETD in the U.S. pediatric population.Cross-sectional.U.S. representative demographic and audiometric data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES;2005-2010.The study consisted of 2,977 children aged 12-19 years. ETD was defined as middle ear pressure <100mm H20. ETS was defined as non-active smoking in individuals with serum cotinine over the limit of detection (≥0.015 ng/mL and <10 ng/mL(N = 1559.The prevalence of ETD was 6.1%. After multivariate adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, education level, ethnicity, or having a cold, sinus problem or earache during the last 24 hours, compared to unexposed children, the odds ratios (95% confidence interval of ETD for those exposed to ETS ages 12-15 in the first, second and third tertile of cotinine concentrations were, respectively, 1.38 (0.53-3.60, 0.99 (0.53-3.60 and 2.67 (1.12-6.34. Similarly, the odds ratios (95% confidence interval of ETD for those exposed to ETS ages 16-19 in the first, second and third tertile of cotinine concentrations were, respectively, 1.28 (0.48-3.41, 0.99 (0.40-2.48 and 2.86 (1.19-6.88.These data suggest that children and adolescents exposed to high concentrations of ETS may have an increased prevalence of ETD.
Cardiovascular Consequences of Childhood Secondhand Tobacco Smoke Exposure: Prevailing Evidence, Burden, and Racial and Socioeconomic Disparities: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.
Raghuveer, Geetha; White, David A; Hayman, Laura L; Woo, Jessica G; Villafane, Juan; Celermajer, David; Ward, Kenneth D; de Ferranti, Sarah D; Zachariah, Justin
Although public health programs have led to a substantial decrease in the prevalence of tobacco smoking, the adverse health effects of tobacco smoke exposure are by no means a thing of the past. In the United States, 4 of 10 school-aged children and 1 of 3 adolescents are involuntarily exposed to secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS), with children of minority ethnic backgrounds and those living in low-socioeconomic-status households being disproportionately affected (68% and 43%, respectively). Children are particularly vulnerable, with little control over home and social environment, and lack the understanding, agency, and ability to avoid SHS exposure on their own volition; they also have physiological or behavioral characteristics that render them especially susceptible to effects of SHS. Side-stream smoke (the smoke emanating from the burning end of the cigarette), a major component of SHS, contains a higher concentration of some toxins than mainstream smoke (inhaled by the smoker directly), making SHS potentially as dangerous as or even more dangerous than direct smoking. Compelling animal and human evidence shows that SHS exposure during childhood is detrimental to arterial function and structure, resulting in premature atherosclerosis and its cardiovascular consequences. Childhood SHS exposure is also related to impaired cardiac autonomic function and changes in heart rate variability. In addition, childhood SHS exposure is associated with clustering of cardiometabolic risk factors such as obesity, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance. Individualized interventions to reduce childhood exposure to SHS are shown to be at least modestly effective, as are broader-based policy initiatives such as community smoking bans and increased taxation. The purpose of this statement is to summarize the available evidence on the cardiovascular health consequences of childhood SHS exposure; this will support ongoing efforts to further reduce and eliminate SHS exposure in this
Ferguson, Gail M; Bornstein, Marc H
Remote acculturation is a modern form of non-immigrant acculturation identified among early adolescents in Jamaica as "Americanization". This study aimed to replicate the original remote acculturation findings in a new cohort of early adolescents in Jamaica ( n = 222; M = 12.08 years) and to extend our understanding of remote acculturation by investigating potential vehicles of indirect and intermittent intercultural contact. Cluster analyses replicated prior findings: Relative to Traditional Jamaican adolescents (62%), Americanized Jamaican adolescents (38%) reported stronger European American cultural orientation, lower Jamaican orientation, lower family obligations, and greater conflict with parents. More U.S. media (girls) and less local media and local sports (all) were the primary vehicles of intercultural contact predicting higher odds of Americanization. U.S. food, U.S. tourism, and transnational communication were also linked to U.S. orientation. Findings have implications for acculturation research and for practice and policy targeting Caribbean youth and families.
Lewis, Paul C.; Harrell, Joanne S.; Deng, Shibing; Bradley, Chyrise
Examined age, gender, ethnicity, self-esteem, physical activity, parental smoking, and socioeconomic status as predictors of smokeless tobacco use among middle-school students. Student surveys indicated that males, Hispanics, and older students were more likely to be current smokeless-tobacco users. Other influential factors were low self-esteem…
Sabzmakan, Leila; Ghasemi, Mahmood; Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Kamalikhah, Tahereh; Chaleshgar Kordasiabi, Mosharafeh
Tobacco use is a significant predisposing factor to many diseases. Protection motivation theory is a well-suited theory, since fear can motivate individuals to change their unhealthy behaviors. This study was conducted to examine the associations between the constructs of this theory with intention and tobacco use behavior. The present cross-sectional study was conducted in Noshahr, Iran. The participants were 440 high school boys selected using a stratified random sampling in 2016. A questionnaire about tobacco use based on protection motivation theory was developed and its validity and reliability were assessed. The questionnaire included the demographic information, the constructs of theory, and tobacco use behavior. Structural equation modeling was used to test the associations between the constructs with intention and tobacco use. The variables of perceived vulnerability (β = 0/137, P theory provides a useful framework for investigating factors of tobacco use among male students. Future tobacco prevention interventions should focus on increasing the vulnerability and fear, decreasing intrinsic reward, and improving self-efficacy to reduce tobacco use.
Nichols, Tanya M.; Kotchick, Beth A.; Barry, Carolyn McNamara; Haskins, Deborah G.
The current study examined the association between multiple systems of influence (adolescent, family, and community) and the educational aspirations of African American adolescents. Guided by ecological and integrative models of child development, in the current study the authors examined the association between the educational aspirations of 130…
Predictors of parental home and school involvement for high school adolescents were examined within two groups of urban African American parents from various socioeconomic levels. Home involvement was defined as parent-adolescent communication about school and learning, while school involvement was defined in terms of parent attendance and…
Li, Jin; Holloway, Susan D.; Bempechat, Janine; Loh, Elaine
Little research has examined how low-income Asian American children are supported to achieve well in school. The authors used the notion of social capital to study higher versus lower achieving Chinese adolescents from low-income backgrounds. They found that families of higher-achieving adolescents built and used more effectively three kinds of…
Kiang, Lisa; Peterson, Jamie Lee; Thompson, Taylor L.
Growing diversity and evidence that diverse friendships enhance psychosocial success highlight the importance of understanding adolescents' ethnic peer preferences. Using social identity and social contact frameworks, the ethnic preferences of 169 Asian American adolescents (60% female) were examined in relation to ethnic identity, perceived…
Barlow, Allison; Mullany, Britta C.; Neault, Nicole; Davis, Yvonne; Billy, Trudy; Hastings, Ranelda; Coho-Mescal, Valerie; Lake, Kristin; Powers, Julia; Clouse, Emily; Reid, Raymond; Walkup, John T.
American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) adolescents have high rates of pregnancy, as well as alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, and, increasingly, methamphetamine (meth) use. The progression of adolescent drug use to meth use could have devastating impacts on AI communities, particularly when youth are simultaneously at risk for teen childbearing. In…
Hunt, Tenah K. A.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Assari, Shervin
This study examined the association between perceived family economic stress, quality of father-son relationships, and depressive symptoms among African American adolescent fathers. Data were collected during pregnancy from 65 African American adolescents who were first-time fathers, ages 14-19. Results from multiple regression analyses indicated that higher paternal relationship satisfaction was associated with fewer depressive symptoms among adolescent fathers. Additionally, depressive symptoms were higher among adolescent fathers who reported experiencing higher levels of conflict with their fathers. Further, paternal conflict moderated the effect of perceived family economic stress on depressive symptoms. That is, among adolescent fathers experiencing low levels of conflict with their fathers, high perceived family economic stress was associated with more depressive symptoms. Study findings suggest that the risk for depressive symptoms is highest among adolescent fathers experiencing low family economic stress and highly conflictual relations with their fathers. These results highlight the complexities of paternal relationships and perceived economic stressors on depressive symptoms during pregnancy for African American adolescent fathers. The importance of expanding research on influential familial relationships and economic stressors on adolescent African American fathers is discussed. PMID:26617454
Starr, Lisa R.; Donenberg, Geri R.; Emerson, Erin
The current study examines longitudinal associations between light and heavy sexual experiences and psychiatric symptoms in African American adolescent girls receiving mental health care. Research supports bidirectional associations between adolescent romantic and sexual behaviors and depression and other mental health problems, but this finding…
Adelabu, Detris Honora
This study examines the relationship of academic achievement to future time perspective (FTP), hope, and ethnic identity among low-income, rural and urban African American adolescents ( N = 661). Findings indicate that adolescents who are oriented toward the future, determined to reach their goals (hope), and interested in and have a strong sense…
Mandara, Jelani; Rogers, Sheba Y.; Zinbarg, Richard E.
The relationship between family structure and marijuana use throughout adolescence was assessed among 1,069 African Americans from the NLSY. A model was also tested suggesting that the effects of family structure on marijuana use would be mediated by poverty, neighborhood quality, and adolescents' self-control. As most prior studies have found,…
Varga, Colleen M.; Gee, Christina B.
The study of adolescent childbearing is a major public policy concern in the United States, and father involvement is particularly important. The current study examined 94 African American and Latino adolescent mothers and their children's fathers (47 co-parents) to determine whether co-parenting was a better predictor of father involvement than…
Chung, Grace H.; Flook, Lisa; Fuligni, Andrew J.
The authors employed a daily diary method to assess daily frequencies of interparental and parent-adolescent conflict over a 2-week period and their implications for emotional distress across the high school years in a longitudinal sample of 415 adolescents from Latin American, Asian, and European backgrounds. Although family conflict remained…
Luis Zavala Arciniega
Full Text Available Background The tobacco industry has targeted low and middle-income countries and vulnerable groups such as women and young people. In Mexico we observe a slow decrease in tobacco consumption among adults, while in adolescents the trend in tobacco use shows an increase. Previous research in Mexico do not measure determinants at neighborhood level. The aim of the study is evaluate whether the contextual and individual factors are associated with tobacco use among Mexican adolescents. Methods Data from this study came from NAS 2011 and National Census 2010. Descriptive statistics were estimated after adjusting for sampling weights. The study had two levels: individual (adolescents between 12-17 years and contextual (neighborhoods. Multilevel logistic regression stratified by sex was conducted. Results The final sample includes 2785 adolescents from 364 neighborhoods. Prevalence of 30 days smoking in women adolescents was 3.8% and in male adolescents was 10.3%. Female adolescents exposed to second hand smoke at home were more likely to be a current smoker (OR 2.87 CI: 1.37,6.04 and in those who have an employment (OR 4.35 CI: 1.03,18.3. School attendance was inversely associated with tobacco use (OR 0.38 CI: 0.16,0.89. In Male adolescents the likelihood of being a current smoker increase according to age (OR 4.35 CI: 1.51,12.4 for 15-17 vs 12-14 and in those exposed to second hand smoke at home (OR 5.03 CI 2.38,10.6, while school attendance decrease the likelihood of being a current smoker (OR 0.14 CI: 0.05,0.39. Conclusions This study suggest that school attendance is a protective factor for smoking. Second hand smoke at home is an important factor of tobacco use. Have an employment increase the likelihood of being a current smoker only in female adolescents. Implement a successful tobacco control policy in Mexico needs to take into account educational, economics, social and gender determinants.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies examining the social correlates of tobacco use among adolescents fail to recognise theories of health behaviour and health promotion in their analysis. Using the Socio-Ecologiocal Model (SEM we assessed the demographic and social factors associated with current cigarette smoking among adolescents in Thailand. Method A secondary analysis of cross-sectional data from the Thai Global Youth Tobacco Survey (Thai GYTS 2005 was analysed to obtain prevalence of selected attributes and assess factors associated with current cigarette smoking. Current cigarette smoking was defined as having smoked a cigarette, even a single puff, in the last 30 days. Logistic regression was conducted to estimate the level of association between the explanatory variables and current smoking. Results Of the 18,368 respondents, 22.0% males and 5.2% females reported being current smokers (p Conclusion Current cigarette smoking was associated with male gender, smoking parents or closest peers. Perception that smoking was harmful to health was associated with less likelihood of being a current smoker.
Nichols, Michelle; Newman, Susan; Nemeth, Lynne S; Magwood, Gayenell
African American adolescent females have the highest prevalence rates of obesity among those age 18 and under. The long-term health effects and associated comorbidities of obesity within this cohort threaten the health and well-being of a major section of the U.S. population. There is a need to understand the influence of parental support in reducing obesity related health disparities. Using a social ecological framework to explore parental influence on adolescent obesity interventions allows for greater insight into the complex and dynamic influences affecting the lives of African American adolescent females who are obese. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mohanan, Padma; Swain, Subhashisa; Sanah, Noore; Sharma, Vikram; Ghosh, Deboporna
Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of alcohol consumption, tobacco use and risky sexual behaviour among adolescents, and to evaluate the socioeconomic factors potentially influencing these behaviours. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from January to April 2011 among 376 adolescents (15–19 years old) studying in different schools and colleges in Udupi, India. The Youth Risk Behavior Survey questionnaire and guidelines were followed for data collecti...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Translational Medicine focuses on “bench to bedside”, converting experimental results into clinical use. The “bedside to bench” transition remains challenging, requiring clinicians to define true clinical need for laboratory study. In this study, we show how observational data (an eleven-year data survey program on adolescent smoking behaviours, can identify knowledge gaps and research questions leading directly to clinical implementation and improved health care. We studied gender-specific trends (2000–2010 in Italian students to evaluate the specific impact of various anti-smoking programs, including evaluation of perceptions of access to cigarettes and health risk. Methods The study used, ESPAD-Italia® (European School Survey Project on Alcohol and other Drugs, is a nationally representative sample of high-school students. The permutation test for joinpoint regression was used to calculate the annual percent change in smoking. Changes in smoking habits by age, perceived availability and risk over a 11-year period were tested using a gender-specific logistic model and a multinomial model. Results Gender-stratified analysis showed 1 decrease of lifetime prevalence, then stabilization (both genders; 2 decrease in last month and occasional use (both genders; 3 reduction of moderate use (females; 4 no significant change in moderate use (males and in heavy use (both genders. Perceived availability positively associates with prevalence, while perceived risk negatively associates, but interact with different effects depending on smoking patterns. In addition, government implementation of public policies concerning access to tobacco products in this age group during this period presented a unique background to examine their specific impact on behaviours. Conclusion Large observational databases are a rich resource in support of translational research. From these observations, key clinically relevant issues can be
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between media influence and ethnic identity among low-income African American and White adolescent girls. According to the U.S. Census (2008), 98% of Americans have a television in their home. Prior research suggests that low-income African American adolescents are exposed to more media…
MacKenzie, Ross; Lee, Kelley; LeGresley, Eric
The opening of the Thai tobacco market, following action brought by the US Trade Representative under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, is seen as a key case study of the tensions between trade and health policy. Interpretations of the dispute cast it, either as an example of how trade agreements undermine national policy-making, or how governments can adopt effective public health protections compliant with international trade rules. As a UK-based company, British American Tobacco has been regarded as peripheral to this dispute. This paper argues that its close monitoring of the illegal trade during this period, the role of smuggling in the company's global business strategy, and its management of the relative supply and pricing of legal and illegal products after market opening provide a fuller understanding of the interests and roles of transnational tobacco companies and the government in this dispute. The findings have important policy implications, notably the role of effective governance in countries facing pressure to open their tobacco sectors, need to better understand corporate-level activities within an increasingly globalised tobacco industry, and need to address the intertwined legal and illegal trade in implementing the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control Protocol to Eliminate Illicit Trade in Tobacco Products.
McDaniel, Patricia A; Malone, Ruth E
Objective To examine how the US tobacco industry markets cigarettes as “natural” and American smokers' views of the “naturalness” (or unnaturalness) of cigarettes. Methods Internal tobacco industry documents, the Pollay 20th Century Tobacco Ad Collection, and newspaper sources were reviewed, themes and strategies were categorised, and the findings were summarised. Results Cigarette advertisements have used the term “natural” since at least 1910, but it was not until the 1950s that “natural” referred to a core element of brand identity, used to describe specific product attributes (filter, menthol, tobacco leaf). The term “additive‐free”, introduced in the 1980s, is now commonly used to define natural cigarettes. Tobacco company market research, available from 1970 to 1998, consistently revealed that within focus group sessions, smokers initially had difficulty interpreting the term “natural” in relation to cigarettes; however, after discussion of cigarette ingredients, smokers viewed “natural” cigarettes as healthier. Tobacco companies regarded the implied health benefits of natural cigarettes as their key selling point, but hesitated to market them because doing so might raise doubts about the composition of their highly profitable “regular” brands. Conclusion Although our findings support the idea advanced by some tobacco control advocates that informing smokers of conventional cigarettes' chemical ingredients could promote cessation, they also suggest that such a measure could increase the ubiquity and popularity of “natural” cigarettes. A more effective approach may be to “denaturalise” smoking. PMID:18048597
MacKenzie, Ross; Collin, Jeff
British American Tobacco Cambodia (BATC) has dominated the country's tobacco market since its launch in 1996. Aggressive marketing in a weak regulatory environment and strategies to influence tobacco control policy have contributed to an emerging tobacco-related public health crisis. Analysis of internal tobacco industry documents, issues of BATC's in-house newsletter, civil society reports and media demonstrate that BATC officials have successfully sought to align the company with Cambodia's increasingly controversial political and business leadership that is centred around the Cambodian People's Party with the aim of gaining access to policy-makers and influencing the policy process. Connections to the political elite have resulted in official recognition of the company's ostensible contribution to Cambodia's economic and social development and, more significantly, provided BATC with opportunities to petition policy-makers and to dilute tobacco control regulation. Corporate promotion of its contribution to Cambodia's economic and social development is at odds with its determined efforts to thwart public health regulation and Cambodia's compliance with the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.
Sovinová, H; Csémy, L
The Czech Republic Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) is a school-based survey of students in grades 7-9, conducted in 2002. A two-stage cluster sample design was used to produce representative data for all of the Czech Republic. On a large sample of students (N=4,149) from 7-9th grade it reveals that smoking among children has been continually growing. According to the results of this study, over 34% of the respondents smoke. Results of the study help us to understand social and attitudinal factors that affect adolescent smoking habits. Social factors include particularly the convenient availability of cigarettes and the lack of the legal regulation of the retail of cigarettes: over one half of all smokers under 15 years of age regularly purchase cigarettes in regular retail outlets; 72% of them reported never having been restricted in their purchases because of their age. Advertising and media coverage appears to be another important factor that affects smoking in this age group. Over 80% of children under 15 years of age reported that they have been exposed to the tobacco advertising. The study also allows an interesting analysis of the exposure to the environmental tobacco smoke. Compared to non-smokers, this exposure has been significantly higher in the case of smokers--both in their homes and at other locations (58% vs. 25%, and 90% vs. 57% respectively). The analysis of the data also revealed a strong misconception about the health risks related to passive smoking among smokers. The study provides three key findings for health promotion: (1) it is necessary to exert a continuous pressure on the political representation to strictly enforce the regulations of tobacco distribution and availability to minors; (2) school health education as well as community oriented prevention programs need to explicitly communicate non-smoking as a standard; and (3) it is important to increase the attractiveness and availability of smoking cessation programs.
Vargas, Danyel A.; Roosa, Mark W.; Knight, George P.; O'Donnell, Megan
Despite the rapidly growing Mexican American population, no studies to date have attempted to explain the underlying relations between family instability and Mexican American children's development. Using a diverse sample of 740 Mexican American adolescents (49% female; 5th grade M age = 10.4; 7th grade M age = 12.8) and their mothers, we prospectively examined the relations between family instability and adolescent academic outcomes and mental health in the 7th grade. The model fit the data well and results indicated that family instability between 5th and 7th grade was related to increased 7th grade mother-adolescent conflict and in turn, mother-adolescent conflict was related to decreased school attachment and to increased externalizing and internalizing symptoms in the 7th grade. Results also indicated that 7th grade mother-adolescent conflict mediated the relations between family instability and 7th grade academic outcomes and mental health. Further, we explored adolescent familism values as a moderator and found that adolescent familism values served as a protective factor in the relation between mother-adolescent conflict and grades. Implications for future research and intervention strategies are discussed. PMID:23750521
Chung, Paul J; Travis, Raphael; Kilpatrick, Shelley D; Elliott, Marc N; Lui, Camillia; Khandwala, Shefali B; Dancel, Theresa M; Vollandt, Lori; Schuster, Mark A
To examine whether acculturation is associated with parent-adolescent communication about sex in Filipino-American families. Filipino-Americans, the United States' second-largest Asian and Pacific Islander (API) group, have more adolescent pregnancy and HIV infection than other APIs. High-quality parent-adolescent communication about sex has been associated with healthy sexual development, and acculturation has been associated with various increased health risks. Whether acculturation affects parent-adolescent communication is unknown. We surveyed 120 pairs of Filipino-American parents and adolescents at a single large high school. We asked adolescents about their frequency of parent-adolescent communication about sex and measured adolescent acculturation in two ways: disagreement with traditional Asian values and preferential use of English. In bivariate and multivariate regressions, we examined whether adolescent acculturation was associated with adolescent reports of parent-adolescent communication. Few adolescents (22%) reported regularly discussing sex with parents. Although most adolescents (72%) agreed with traditional Asian values, most (63%) preferred using English. In bivariate regressions, less parent-adolescent communication about sex was associated with less adolescent agreement with traditional Asian values (p = .002) and more adolescent English use (p = .009). In multivariate regressions, these associations were largely explained by adolescent perceptions of parent knowledge about their whereabouts and activities. Acculturation may influence Filipino-American parent-adolescent communication about sex and, consequently, Filipino-American adolescent sexual health. Health care and public health providers may need to tailor adolescent sexual health programs based on acculturation or other immigration-related factors.
Larson, R W; Richards, M H; Sims, B; Dworkin, J
The time budgets of a population of youth provide important information about their daily experience and socialization. This study reports data on the time budgets of a sample of 253 urban African American poor to working- and middle-class 5th-8th graders in Chicago. These youth were found to spend less time in school than other postindustrial adolescent populations, but spent no less time doing homework than White suburban U.S. young adolescents. They spent large quantities of time at home and with their families--at rates comparable to rates for young adolescents in a society with collectivist values like India. Unlike with other populations, early adolescence was not associated with major age changes in time allocations. Amount of time in schoolwork did not differ by grade, and amount of time with family did not show the decline with age that has been found for European American suburban adolescents.
Taylor, R D; Roberts, D
This study tested a conceptual model developed to explain the link between kinship support and the psychological well-being of economically disadvantaged African-American adolescents. The relation of kinship support with maternal and adolescent well-being and mothers' child-rearing practices was assessed in 51 African-American families whose incomes placed them at or below the poverty threshold. Findings revealed that kinship social support to mothers/female guardians was positively associated with adolescent psychological well-being, maternal well-being, and more adequate maternal parenting practices (acceptance, firm control and monitoring of behavior, autonomy granting). Maternal well-being and more adequate maternal parenting practices were positively related to adolescent well-being. Evidence of the mediational role of maternal well-being and parenting practices was revealed. When the effects of maternal well-being and maternal parenting practices were controlled, significant relations between kinship support and adolescent well-being were no longer apparent.
Sánchez, Bernadette; Reyes, Olga; Singh, Joshua
This exploratory study was an in-depth examination of Mexican American adolescents' relationships with nonparental adults. Qualitative interviews with 10 Mexican American adolescents revealed 23 nonparental adults who served a mentoring function in their lives. Six of these nonparental adults were also interviewed. Data analyses were conducted using a grounded theory approach so that the relationships were described in participants' words and experiences. The nonparental adults identified by adolescents included siblings, extended family members, older peers, and institutional figures. The support provided took many different forms, from emotional to informational/experiential support, to modeling behavior, for example. Further, adolescents were supported in eight different areas of their lives. Participants also discussed the perceived benefits of these relationships for adolescents. Future research directions and implications for youth programming are discussed. (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved
Harris, Allyssa L
Many African-American teenaged girls are reading urban literature. This genre of literature is known for its gritty portrayal of urban life and has themes of violence, promiscuity, substance abuse and misogyny. Although research has demonstrated that the portrayal of sex and violence in the media are influential on adolescent sexual behavior, to date there has been little research on the influence of "urban lit" on adolescent sexual risk behaviors. This qualitative study explores the influence of urban literature on the sexual risk behaviors among a group of African-American adolescent girls. Findings from this study suggest that African-American adolescent girls may be influenced by the sexual themes depicted in this genre of literature. Additional research is needed to gain a greater understanding of this phenomon.
Jung, Adrian Woo; Stang, Kristin; Ferko, Doreen; Han, Shin-Il
Korean American adolescents may find themselves caught between traditional Korean culture and demands for Americanization. Subsequently this population of students and parents may have very distinct needs in our schools as they are a growing population of students. This commentary discusses important considerations for teachers and administrators…
Weiss, JieWu; Garbanati, James A.
The primary objective of this study was to examine the combination of acculturation, family functioning, and parental smoking as predictors of smoking attitudes and behaviors among Asian-American adolescents. The participants were 106 Asian-American high school students whose ages ranged from 15 to 19 (51 male and 55 female, mean age = 16.30…
Teen dating violence is more prevalent among African Americans than any other racial group in the United States leading to serious health consequences for victims. However, limited data exists on how African American adolescents' attitudes and perceptions regarding dating violence are formed, and whether they are influenced by family members. The…
Wadsworth, Pamela; Records, Kathie
To review the research findings for mental and physical health outcomes and health behaviors of African American women and adolescents after sexual assault. Searches of the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, and PubMed from January 2001 through May 2012 using the terms Blacks, African Americans, sexual abuse, sexual offenses, and rape. Criteria for inclusion included (a) results of primary research conducted in the United States and published in English, (b) African American females age 13 and older, (c) sexual assault or sexual abuse reported as distinct from other types of abuse, and (d) health status as an outcome variable. Twenty-one publications met inclusion criteria. Articles were reviewed for the mental and physical health and health behavior outcomes associated with sexual assault of African American women and adolescents. Sexual assault was associated with increased risk of poor mental and physical health outcomes in the general population of women and adolescents. There was an increased risk of unhealthy behaviors (e.g., drinking, drug use, risky sexual behaviors) for all women and adolescents, with the highest risk reported for African American women and adolescents. Help seeking from family and friends demonstrated conflicting results. Cumulative effects of repeated assaults appear to worsen health outcomes. Sexual assault has significant effects on the physical and mental health and health behaviors of women and adolescents in the general population. Less evidence is available for differences among African American women and adolescents. More research is needed to understand the influence of race on women's and adolescents' responses to assault. © 2013 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.
Kaestle, Christine E; Chen, Yvonnes; Estabrooks, Paul A; Zoellner, Jamie; Bigby, Brandon
The purpose of this pilot study was to assess the impact of media literacy for tobacco prevention for youth delivered through a community site. A randomized pretest-posttest evaluation design with matched-contact treatment and control conditions. The pilot study was delivered through the YMCA in a lower-income suburban and rural area of Southwest Virginia, a region long tied, both economically and culturally, to the tobacco industry. Children ages 8 to 14 (76% white, 58% female) participated in the study (n = 38). The intervention was an antismoking media literacy program (five 1-hour lessons) compared with a matched-contact creative writing control program. General media literacy, three domains of tobacco-specific media literacy ("authors and audiences," "messages and meanings," and "representation and reality"), tobacco attitudes, and future expectations were assessed. Multiple regression modeling assessed the impact of the intervention, controlling for pretest measures, age, and sex. General media literacy and tobacco-specific "authors and audiences" media literacy improved significantly for treatment compared with control (p literacy measures and for tobacco attitudes were not significant. Future expectations of smoking increased significantly for treatment participants ages 10 and younger (p literacy are accompanied by an increase in future expectations to smoke for younger children.
Bean, Roy A.; Bush, Kevin R.; McKenry, Patrick C.; Wilson, Stephan M.
Relationships between adolescent functioning and parent support, behavioral control, and psychological control were examined among European American and African American adolescents. A number of correlations were significant, including maternal support and academic achievement and self-esteem, and paternal psychological control and self-esteem.…
García-Moya, Irene; Ortiz Barón, María José; Moreno, Carmen
Although previous research has examined emotional and psychosocial factors associated with substance use, there is a paucity of studies examining both at the same time, and insufficient attention has been paid to how these factors may interact. The aim of this study was to simultaneously examine the contributions from emotional (emotional control and depression) and psychosocial (peers' conventional behavior, peers' substance use and parent-child relationships) factors to drunkenness and the use of tobacco and cannabis in adolescence. Sample consisted of 1,752 adolescents aged 15 to 16 years who had participated in the 2014 edition of the WHO Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey in Spain. Data were collected by means of anonymous online questionnaires, and hierarchical multiple regression models (with sex and age as controls and including interactions among the examined predictors) were used for statistical analysis. Emotional and psychosocial factors showed significant interactive effects on substance use. Emotional control, which tended to buffer the effects of potential risk factors, and peers' substance use were consistent predictors of substance use. In contrast, the role of other factors depended on the substance under study, with depression and peers' conventional behavior being part of interactive terms for tobacco use and cannabis use only, and the quality of parent-child relationships being absent from the final model on cannabis use. Conclusions/Importance: Exploring interactions and potential substance-specific effects is fundamental to reach a better understanding of how emotional and psychosocial factors work in concert relative to substance use in adolescence.
Fang, Lin; Schinke, Steven P
Underage drinking among Asian American adolescent girls is not well understood. Based on family interaction theory, the study examined the interrelationships among acculturation variables, family relationships, girls' depressed mood, peer alcohol use, and girls' alcohol use in a sample of 130 Asian American mother-daughter dyads. The mediating role of family relationships, girls' depressed mood, and peer alcohol use on girls' drinking was also assessed. The study advances knowledge related to alcohol use among early Asian American adolescent girls, highlights the effect of immigrant generation status and family relationships, and has implications for culturally specific underage drinking prevention programs.
Smith, Katherine Elizabeth; Fooks, Gary; Gilmore, Anna B; Collin, Jeff; Weishaar, Heide
Over the past fifteen years, an interconnected set of regulatory reforms, known as Better Regulation, has been adopted across Europe, marking a significant shift in the way that European Union policies are developed. There has been little exploration of the origins of these reforms, which include mandatory ex ante impact assessment. Drawing on documentary and interview data, this article discusses how and why large corporations, notably British American Tobacco (BAT), worked to influence and promote these reforms. Our analysis highlights (1) how policy entrepreneurs with sufficient resources (such as large corporations) can shape the membership and direction of advocacy coalitions; (2) the extent to which "think tanks" may be prepared to lobby on behalf of commercial clients; and (3) why regulated industries (including tobacco) may favor the use of "evidence tools," such as impact assessments, in policy making. We argue that a key aspect of BAT's ability to shape regulatory reform involved the deliberate construction of a vaguely defined idea that could be strategically adapted to appeal to diverse constituencies. We discuss the theoretical implications of this finding for the Advocacy Coalition Framework, as well as the practical implications of the findings for efforts to promote transparency and public health in the European Union. Copyright © 2015 by Duke University Press.
Fitzpatrick, S B; Fujii, C; Shragg, G P; Rice, L; Morgan, M; Felice, M E
Few studies have addressed the specific health care needs of Mexican-American adolescents. This 2-year study assessed the routine health care needs and incidence of chronic illness among 279 Mexican-American, 233 white, and 333 black indigent adolescents enrolled in a vocational training program. Mexican-Americans were more likely to have a positive purified protein derivative tuberculin test and acne/eczema requiring treatment. Blacks were more likely to have incomplete immunizations and thyroid disorders, while whites were more likely to have musculoskeletal conditions and require family planning services and psychiatric intervention for mental health disorders. Although no difference in incidence of chronic illness was noted, our data suggests that routine health care needs may differ among indigent Mexican-American, white, and black adolescents.
Chen, RuiJun; Flores, Glenn; Shetgiri, Rashmi
Adolescent fighting affects 25% of youth, with the highest rates among African-Americans and Latinos but little is known about parental views on youth fighting. The purpose of this study was to examine African-American and Latino parents��� perspectives on adolescent fighting and methods to prevent fighting. We conducted four focus groups with parents of African-American and Latino urban adolescents. Focus groups were stratified by race/ethnicity and fighting status. Groups were audiotaped, t...
Updegraff, Kimberly A; McHale, Susan M; Zeiders, Katharine H; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Perez-Brena, Norma J; Wheeler, Lorey A; Rodríguez De Jesús, Sue A
Gender development has long term implications for education and career endeavors and family formation behaviors, but we know very little about the role of sociocultural factors in developmental and individual differences. In this study, we investigated one domain of gender development, gender role attitudes, in Mexican-American adolescents (N = 246; 51 % female), using four phases of longitudinal data across 8 years. Data were collected when adolescents averaged 12.51 years (SD = 0.58), 14.64 years (SD = 0.59), 17.72 years (SD = 0.57), and 19.60 years of age (SD = 0.66). Mothers' and fathers' gender role attitudes also were assessed in Phases 1, 3, and 4. Findings revealed that gender attitude development varied as a function of the interaction between adolescents' nativity and gender. Among Mexico-born adolescents, females exhibited significant declines in traditional attitudes from early to late adolescence, but males' attitudes were stable over time. U.S.-born females and males, in contrast, did not differ in their gender attitude trajectories. Examining the links between mothers', fathers', and adolescents' gender role attitudes revealed within-person associations between mothers' and adolescents' gender role attitudes: on occasions when mothers reported more traditional attitudes relative to their own cross-time average, adolescents also reported more traditional attitudes than usual. In addition, fathers' more traditional gender role attitudes were associated with daughters', but not sons', more traditional gender role attitudes at the between-person level. The discussion focuses on the interpretation of Mexican-American adolescents' gender role attitude development from a cultural ecological perspective.
Chido-Amajuoyi, Onyema G; Mantey, Dale S; Clendennen, Stephanie L; Pérez, Adriana
This study investigates the association between exposure to tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship (TAPS) and cigarette use behaviours among adolescents in five Nigerian regions. This is imperative given a 2015 WHO report on the global tobacco epidemic, revealing Nigeria has not met any of the MPOWER TAPS ban indicators instituted since 2008. Secondary data analysis of the 2008 Global Youth Tobacco Survey for Nigeria. Participants were 1399 adolescents, representative of 5 Nigerian regions. Weighted multivariable logistic regression models were used to assess the relationship between TAPS exposure and (1) past 30-day (current) cigarette use, (2) ever cigarette use and (3) susceptibility to use cigarettes among never cigarette users. Sensitivity analysis via complete case analysis and multiple imputation were conducted. Ninety-five per cent of Nigerian adolescents reported exposure to TAPS. Among adolescents who had never smoked, 15% were susceptible to use cigarettes. Cumulative TAPS exposure was significantly associated with both an increased odds of current cigarette use (AOR: 1.73; 95% CI 1.09 to2.99) and ever cigarette use (AOR: 1.29; 95% CI 1.15 to1.45); as well as increased susceptibility to cigarette smoking (AOR: 1.18; 95% CI 1.03 to 1.34), among non-smokers. Given study results, the emergence of new tobacco products and novel platforms for TAPS globally, implementation of existing policies and enhancement of efforts to attain comprehensive bans on all forms of direct and indirect TAPS in line with article 13 of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control are needed to reduce TAPS exposure and curtail tobacco use in Nigeria.
Hoffman, Robert P.
African-Americans have more hypertension, stroke, and type 2 diabetes than do Caucasians. Endothelial dysfunction and insulin resistance are precursors for each. Since these diseases have origins in pediatrics and are associated with obesity, this study was designed to determine if obesity has different effects on endothelial function, insulin sensitivity, and secretion in African-American and Caucasian adolescents. Thirty-three Caucasian and 25 African-Americans (10–18 years old) were subdiv...
Seffrin, John R
Cancer incidence is on the rise in many regions of the world, including the Middle East, where incidence rates for both men and women are increasing. Like many regions of the world, increased tobacco use, combined with other factors, is driving cancer incidence in the Middle East. Tobacco, the only consumer product proven to kill more than half of its regular users, will be responsible for 4.9 million deaths worldwide this year alone. That burden is fairly evenly shared by industrialized and developing nations today but, if current trends continue, the cancer burden in the developing world will more than triple in the next 25 years, resulting in a global total of 10 million deaths worldwide each year. Seven million of these deaths will occur in the developing world, in nations least prepared to deal with the financial, social, and political consequences of this global public health tragedy. In the Arab world, lung cancer is already occurring with increasing frequency, particularly among men.
Russell, Cristel Antonia; Russell, Dale W
Television (TV) is a key socialization agent, especially amongst youth. According to cultivation theory, youth heavily exposed to TV content, where positive images of smoking and drinking abound, should hold more positive beliefs concerning drinking and smoking outcomes. This research investigates the role of the sensation-seeking personality trait in moderating this TV cultivation effect. A French national research company contacted its panel members with children aged 13-17. Parents completed a short survey and were asked for consent for their child to participate in a study. The children were then contacted, informed, and asked for assent. Assenters completed a survey that included measures of TV exposure, personality traits, drinking and smoking behaviors, and beliefs about the outcomes associated with drinking and smoking (expectancies). Parental drinking, smoking, and strictness were included as controls. Survey data from 1040 adolescents (54.2% males) and their parents reveal that the relationship between cumulative TV exposure and drinking and smoking behavior, mediated through expectancies, is strongest amongst high sensation seeking adolescents. The moderated mediation analysis shows that sensation seeking trait moderates the relationship between TV exposure and the beliefs adolescents hold about the consequences of alcohol and tobacco use, which themselves are related to greater likelihood to engage in substance use. Key personality traits and TV exposure levels must be accounted for to identify youth at risk of using substances at a time when many lifelong maladaptive behaviors and beliefs form. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Whiteman, Shawn D; Solmeyer, Anna R; McHale, Susan M
Sibling relationships have been described as love-hate relationships by virtue of their emotional intensity, but we know little about how sibling positivity and negativity operate together to affect youth adjustment. Accordingly, this study charted the course of sibling positivity and negativity from age 10 to 18 in African American sibling dyads and tested whether changes in relationship qualities were linked to changes in adolescents' internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Participants were consecutively-born siblings [at Time 1, older siblings averaged 14.03 (SD = 1.80) years of age, 48 % female; younger siblings averaged 10.39 (SD = 1.07) years of age, 52 % female] and two parents from 189 African American families. Data were collected via annual home interviews for 3 years. A series of multi-level models revealed that sibling positivity and sibling negativity declined across adolescence, with no significant differences by sibling dyad gender constellation. Controlling for age-related changes as well as time-varying parent-adolescent relationship qualities, changes in sibling negativity, but not positivity, were positively related to changes in adolescents' depressive symptoms and risky behaviors. Like parent-adolescent relationships, sibling relationships displayed some distancing across adolescence. Nevertheless, sibling negativity remained a uniquely important relational experience for African American adolescents' adjustment.
Choi, Won S; Nazir, Niaman; Pacheco, Christina M; Filippi, Melissa K; Pacheco, Joseph; White Bull, Julia; Nance, Christi; Faseru, Babalola; Greiner, K Allen; Daley, Christine Makosky
American Indians (AIs) have the highest cigarette smoking rates of any racial/ethnic group in the United States. Although the overall smoking prevalence in the United States for nonminority populations has decreased over the past several decades, the same pattern is not observed among AIs. The purpose of this observational study was to collect cigarette smoking and related information from American Indian tribal college students to inform tailored interventions. We conducted a repeated cross-sectional survey of American Indian tribal college students, Tribal College Tobacco and Behavior Survey (TCTABS), with a focus on recruiting all incoming freshman at three participating tribal colleges in the Midwest and Northern Plains regions. A total of 1256 students participated in the baseline surveys between April 2011 and October 2014. The overall smoking prevalence of this sample was 34.7%, with differences by region (Northern Plains-44.0% and Midwest-28%). The majority, 87.5% of current smokers reported smoking 10 or less cigarettes per day, 41% reported smoking menthol cigarettes, 52% smoked Marlboro brand, and the mean age of their first cigarette was 14 years. The majority, 62% had made at least one quit attempt in the past year. The overwhelming majority of respondents, regardless of their smoking status, thought that the current smoking prevalence on campus was greater than 41% and approximately one-third believed that it was as high as 61%. Very few studies of smoking have been conducted in this population and results from our study confirm the need for effective interventions. AIs have the highest cigarette smoking rates compared to other racial/ethnic groups in the United States. Furthermore, limited studies have examined the epidemiology of cigarette smoking among tribal college students. This study addresses health disparities related to smoking among college students by examining the demographic, cultural, and environmental characteristics of smoking and
Nieri, Tanya; Grindal, Matthew; Adams, Michele A.; Cookston, Jeffrey T.; Fabricius, William V.; Parke, Ross D.; Saenz, Delia S.
Using a sample of 193 Mexican American adolescents (M age at Wave 1 = 14) and three waves of data over two years, this study longitudinally examined the effects of parent-youth acculturation differences, relative to no differences, on parent-adolescent relationship quality and youth problem behavior. We examined parent-youth differences in overall acculturation, Mexican acculturation, and American acculturation. We differentiated between cases in which the adolescent was more acculturated than the parent and cases in which the parent was more acculturated than the adolescent. Adolescents were more commonly similar to their parents than different. Where differences existed, adolescents were not uniformly more American than their parents, no type of difference was associated with parent-adolescent relationship quality, and no type of difference in overall acculturation was associated with youth problem behavior. One type of difference by dimension (adolescent had less Mexican acculturation than mother) was associated with less risk of problem behavior. PMID:27695153
Hodge, Felicia S; Geishirt Cantrell, Betty A; Struthers, Roxanne; Casken, John
A study conducted by the University of Minnesota found that cigarettes can be purchased on American Indian-owned Internet sites for about one fifth of the price at grocery stores, making this a more convenient, lower-priced, and appealing method of purchasing cigarettes. Researchers and educators are challenged to address this new marketing ploy and to discover ways to curb rising smoking rates in American Indian communities.
Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of alcohol consumption, tobacco use and risky sexual behaviour among adolescents, and to evaluate the socioeconomic factors potentially influencing these behaviours. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from January to April 2011 among 376 adolescents (15–19 years old studying in different schools and colleges in Udupi, India. The Youth Risk Behavior Survey questionnaire and guidelines were followed for data collection. Participants’ alcohol consumption, smoking habits and sexual behaviour patterns were explored. Univariate analysis followed by multivariate logistic regression was done. Results: The prevalence of alcohol consumption, tobacco use and sexual activity was found to occur in 5.7%, 7.2% and 5.5% of participants, respectively. The mean age of the participants’ first sexual activity, consumption of alcohol and tobacco use was reported to be approximately 16.8 years. Multivariate analysis showed that males were more likely to have used alcohol and tobacco. Other factors, such as religion and tobacco use among family members, were found to be influential. Conclusion: The potential coexistence of multiple risk behaviours in a student demands an integrated approach. Emphasis should be placed on health education in schools and an increased awareness among parents in order to prevent adolescents’ behaviours from becoming a risk to their health.
Gonzálvez, María T; Morales, Alexandra; Orgilés, Mireia; Sussman, Steve; Espada, José P
Although some school-based tobacco cessation and prevention programs have been proven to be effective, there remains a lack of understanding of how these programs succeed. This longitudinal study aimed to test smoking intention as a mediator of Project EX's intervention efficacy to reduce tobacco use. Using a computerized random number generator, six high schools located in the Mediterranean coast were randomly selected to participate in the program condition (Spanish version of Project EX) or the waiting-list control group with baseline, immediate-posttest, and 12-month follow-up assessments. At baseline, 685 adolescents aged 14-20 years (mean age: 14.87; SD = 0.92; 47.4% were females) were evaluated using self-administered tests of tobacco, and smoking intention. A biomarker of smoke inhalation, a measurement of exhaled carbon monoxide (ECM), was used. Mediation analyses were conducted using the PROCESS v2.12 macro for Windows. Project EX had a significant effect on smoking intention. Indirect effects indicated that Project EX reduced the ECM level, and number of cigarettes used. This is the first Spanish study that explored intention as a mediator of the long-term efficacy of Project EX to reduce tobacco use in adolescents. Results suggested that interventions that reduce consumption intention at short-term are more likely to be successful in decreasing tobacco use in the long-term. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Choi, Kelvin; Forster, Jean
We assessed the characteristics of adolescents and young adults who received tobacco direct mail materials and the association of receiving these materials with subsequent smoking behaviors. Adolescents from the upper Midwest region of the United States were sampled through clustered random sampling in 2000 and surveyed every 6 months. Participants (n = 3546) were asked at baseline (October 2006-March 2007) whether they had received direct mail materials from tobacco companies during the previous 6 months. Smoking behaviors were assessed 6 months later (April-September 2007). We assessed associations between demographics and receiving tobacco direct mail materials at baseline and the association of receiving these materials with smoking behaviors at follow-up, stratified by baseline smoking status. Overall, 5.2% of nonsmokers and 23.9% of current smokers in our sample received tobacco direct mail materials during the past 6 months (2.6% and 17.1% among nonsmokers and smokers smoked more cigarettes during the previous 30 days at follow-up (p smoked during the past 30 days at follow up (p marketing. Exposure to this market strategy is associated with faster escalation of cigarette consumption among nonsmokers and lower likelihood of smoking reduction among smokers in this adolescent and young adult sample.
Knight, George P; Carlo, Gustavo; Streit, Cara; White, Rebecca M B
Data from a sample of 462 Mexican-American adolescents (M = 10.4 years, SD = .55; 48.1% girls), mothers, and fathers were used to test an ethnic socialization model of ethnic identity and self-efficacy that also considered mainstream parenting styles (e.g., authoritative parenting). Findings supported the ethnic socialization model: parents' endorsement of Mexican-American values were associated with ethnic socialization at fifth grade and seventh grade; maternal ethnic socialization at fifth grade and paternal ethnic socialization at seventh grade were associated with adolescents' ethnic identity exploration at 10th grade and, in turn, self-efficacy at 12th grade. The findings support ethnic socialization conceptions of how self-views of ethnicity develop from childhood across adolescence in Mexican-American children. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Eitle, David; Eitle, Tamela McNulty
Relatively few studies have examined the correlates of adolescent drug selling in America, with most of these studies focusing on urban settings. The present study examines the risk and protective factors associated with drug selling among American Indian and white adolescents residing in a rural Northwestern state in the United States. Using survey data collected in 2010-2012, we conduct logistic regression analyses exploring the correlates of drug selling (n=568). Generally, we found support for prior explanations of drug selling, but identified some important race-specific differences. Specifically, we found that stress exposure was a risk factor for American Indians, but not whites. Conversely, academic achievement served as a protective factor for white adolescents but not American Indians. Our findings suggest that the race gap in rural drug selling can be explained by considering differences in social bonds, stress exposure, and exposure to substance using family and friends. PMID:26120365
Morrison, Shannon; Knight, Candace; Crew-Gooden, Annette
The purpose of this study was to explore African-American adolescent girls' perceptions of physical activity participation, examine how physical activity is defined and identify the most preferred forms of physical activity. Qualitative focus group interviews of a convenience sample (N = 30; Mean age = 14.3 years) were used to identifyfactors that influence African-American girls' physical activity participation as well as to explore how physical activity is defined within this population. Four themes emerged: (a) benefits and motivation to engage in physical activity, (b) behaviors consistent with perceived physical activity, (c) most enjoyable physical activity/activities, and (d) barriers to physical activity. Physical activities that promoted normative adolescent development (i.e., autonomy) were perceived as most beneficial, desirable, and most likely to be sustained. Implications of these findings highlight the importance of the incorporation of socialization and peer engagement in physical activity programs designed for African-American adolescent girls.
Gonzales, N.A.; Dumka, L.E.; Millsap, R.E.; Gottschall, A.; McClain, D.B.; Wong, J.J.; Germán, M.; Mauricio, A.M.; Wheeler, L.; Carpentier, F.D.; Kim, S.Y.
Objective This randomized trial of a family-focused preventive intervention for Mexican American (MA) adolescents evaluated intervention effects on adolescent substance use, internalizing and externalizing symptoms, and school discipline and grade records in 8th grade, one year after completion of the intervention. The study also examined hypothesized mediators and moderators of intervention effects. Method Stratified by language of program delivery (English vs. Spanish), the trial included a sample of 516 MA adolescents (50.8% female; M =12.3 years, SD=.54) and at least one caregiver that were randomized to receive a low dosage control group workshop or the 9-week group intervention that included parenting, adolescent coping, and conjoint family sessions. Results Positive program effects were found on all five outcomes at one-year posttest, but varied depending on whether adolescents, parents, or teachers reported on the outcome. Intervention effects were mediated by posttest changes in effective parenting, adolescent coping efficacy, adolescent school engagement, and family cohesion. The majority of direct and mediated effects were moderated by language, with a larger number of significant effects for families that participated in Spanish. Intervention effects also were moderated by baseline levels of mediators and outcomes, with the majority showing stronger effects for families with poorer functioning at baseline. Conclusion Findings support the efficacy of the intervention to decrease multiple problem outcomes for MA adolescents, but also demonstrate differential effects for parents and adolescents receiving the intervention in Spanish vs. English, and depending on their baseline levels of functioning. PMID:22103956
Wiesner, Margit; Arbona, Consuelo; Capaldi, Deborah M; Kim, Hyoun K; Kaplan, Charles D
Second-generation Latin-American adolescents tend to show higher levels of various health-risking behaviors and emotional problems than first-generation Latin-American adolescents. This cross-sectional study of 40 mother-adolescent dyads examined the association of mother-youth acculturation gaps to youth adjustment problems. Intergenerational acculturation gaps were assessed as a bidimensional self-report component and a novel observational measurement component. The Latin-American adolescents were predominantly second-generation of Mexican descent (M age = 13.42 years, SD = 0.55). Most of the mothers were born in Mexico (M age = 39.18 years, SD = 5.17). Data were collected from mothers, adolescents, and coders, using questionnaires, structured interviews, and videotaped mother-youth interaction tasks. Findings revealed generally weak support for the acculturation gap-distress hypothesis. In addition, stronger relative adherence to their heritage culture by the adolescents was significantly (p acculturation processes. Mother-youth acculturation gaps in orientation to the heritage culture were the most salient dimension, changing the focus on the original formulation of the acculturation gap-distress hypothesis.
Choi, Heeseung; Kim, Minju; Park, Chang Gi; Dancy, Barbara L
This cross-sectional correlational study examined the association between Korean American adolescents' and their parents' reports of parent-child relationships. A total of 61 Korean American families completed a questionnaire assessing parental knowledge, parental/filial self-efficacy, parent-child communication, and parent-child conflicts. T tests, Pearson's correlations, a scatter diagram, and bivariate regression were used to analyze the data. Both Korean American adolescents and their parents reported that fathers were less knowledgeable about their child's school life and less likely to communicate with their children than were mothers. Fathers reported a significantly lower level of parental self-efficacy than mothers, and adolescents also reported a significantly higher level of filial self-efficacy in mother-child relationships than in father-child relationships. Positive correlations between parents' and adolescents' reports of parent-child relationships were observed. These findings indicated a need for parent education programs or counseling services for Korean American parents of adolescents, particularly fathers with inadequate parental skills and limited communication with their children. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.
Soto, Claradina; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Schwartz, Seth J; Unger, Jennifer B
American Indian (AI) adolescents have the highest prevalence of commercial tobacco use of any ethnic group in the United States. This study examines ethnic identity (EI), participation in cultural activities, and stressful life events (SLEs) as correlates of smoking and examines historical trauma (HT) as a mediator of these associations. California AI youth (N = 969, ages 13-19, recruited from 49 tribal youth organizations and cultural activities in urban and reservation areas in California) completed a tobacco survey. Structural equation modeling was used to test a model examining HT as a potential mediator of the associations of EI, participation in cultural activities, and SLEs with cigarette smoking. Model fit was adequate. EI, participation in cultural activities, and SLEs predicted HT. HT mediated the associations of participation in cultural activities and SLEs with past-month smoking. Stronger EI predicted greater past-month smoking and this effect was mediated by greater HT. The direct effects from HT to both smoking outcomes were positive and the direct effect from EI to past-month smoking was negative. HT is a risk factor for cigarette smoking both directly and in mediating the links of EI, cultural activities, and SLEs. More efforts are needed to help AI youth to process these thoughts and empower themselves to contribute to their own lives and those of their families and communities without resorting to unhealthy addictive behaviors such as commercial tobacco use. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Choe, Daniel Ewon; Zimmerman, Marc A
This is the first longitudinal study of urban African American adolescents that has examined bidirectional effects between their family conflict and violent behavior across all of high school. Structured interviews were administered to 681 students each year in high school at ages 15, 16 17, and 18 years. We used structural equation modeling to test a transactional model and found bidirectional effects between family conflict and violent behavior across the middle years of high school, while accounting for sex and socioeconomic status. Findings suggest a reciprocal process involving interpersonal conflict in African American families and adolescent engagement in youth violence.
Zhao, Jessie; Lau, May; Vermette, David; Liang, David; Flores, Glenn
Asian American adolescents have been reported to have the lowest amount of communication with health care providers regarding sexual health topics (sexual activity, contraception, sexually transmitted infections, and pregnancy prevention). This study identified Asian American adolescents' attitudes/beliefs regarding how health care providers can…
Clark, Eddie, Jr.
African American adolescent males are significantly more likely than their Caucasian peers to receive a diagnosis of Conduct Disorder. In contrast, their Caucasian peers are more often diagnosed with Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder. Discrepancies in the way diagnosis is made cause more African American adolescent males to be classified …
Kim, Su Yeong; Wang, Yijie; Orozco-Lapray, Diana; Shen, Yishan; Murtuza, Mohammed
“Tiger parenting,” as described by Chua (2011), has put parenting in Asian American families in the spotlight. The current study identified parenting profiles in Chinese American families and explored their effects on adolescent adjustment. In a three-wave longitudinal design spanning eight years, from early adolescence to emerging adulthood, adolescents (54% female), fathers and mothers from 444 Chinese American families reported on eight parenting dimensions (e.g., warmth and shaming) and six developmental outcomes (e.g., GPA and academic pressure). Latent profile analyses on the eight parenting dimensions demonstrated four parenting profiles: supportive, tiger, easygoing, and harsh parenting. Over time, the percentage of parents classified as tiger parents decreased among mothers but increased among fathers. Path analyses showed that the supportive parenting profile, which was the most common, was associated with the best developmental outcomes, followed by easygoing parenting, tiger parenting, and harsh parenting. Compared with the supportive parenting profile, a tiger parenting profile was associated with lower GPA and educational attainment, as well as less of a sense of family obligation; it was also associated with more academic pressure, more depressive symptoms and a greater sense of alienation. The current study suggests that, contrary to the common perception, tiger parenting is not the most typical parenting profile in Chinese American families, nor does it lead to optimal adjustment among Chinese American adolescents. PMID:23646228
Roberts, Shani R; Lewis, Rhonda K; Carmack, Chakema
Over the past few decades researchers have begun to examine the importance of understanding positive youth development and the many contexts in which youth find themselves. The social contexts in which adolescent development occurs are varied and complex, particularly the development among African American youth. African American youth are faced with a number of challenges including living in single-parent homes, high teen pregnancy rates, and poor neighborhoods, yet many of these youth continue to thrive. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between family structure (single-parenting) and adolescent outcomes such as educational aspirations and sexual activity among African American adolescent youth aged 12-17. Approximately 462 African American youth were surveyed. A number of positive results emerged; for instance, there was a negative correlation between family structure and educational aspirations. The number of parents in the home did not interfere with youth wanting to complete high school and go on to college (r = - .218, r² = .04, p educational aspirations increased, the number of sexual partners decreased (r = - .141, meaning that the more adolescents reported a desire to complete high school, they were less likely to report having sexual intercourse. These positive results should be promoted among African American youth so that those faced with these challenges will note that others have overcome and accomplished their goals. In this population educational aspirations were important. Limitations and future research are discussed.
'A major lobbying effort to change and unify the excise structure in six Central American countries': How British American Tobacco influenced tax and tariff rates in the Central American Common Market.
Holden, Chris; Lee, Kelley
Transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) may respond to processes of regional trade integration both by acting politically to influence policy and by reorganising their own operations. The Central American Common Market (CACM) was reinvigorated in the 1990s, reflecting processes of regional trade liberalisation in Latin America and globally. This study aimed to ascertain how British American Tobacco (BAT), which dominated the markets of the CACM, sought to influence policy towards it by member country governments and how the CACM process impacted upon BAT's operations. The study analysed internal tobacco industry documents released as a result of litigation in the US and available from the online Legacy Tobacco Documents Library at http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/. Documents were retrieved by searching the BAT collection using key terms in an iterative process. Analysis was based on an interpretive approach involving a process of attempting to understand the meanings of individual documents and relating these to other documents in the set, identifying the central themes of documents and clusters of documents, contextualising the documentary data, and choosing representative material in order to present findings. Utilising its multinational character, BAT was able to act in a coordinated way across the member countries of the CACM to influence tariffs and taxes to its advantage. Documents demonstrate a high degree of access to governments and officials. The company conducted a coordinated, and largely successful, attempt to keep external tariff rates for cigarettes high and to reduce external tariffs for key inputs, whilst also influencing the harmonisation of excise taxes between countries. Protected by these high external tariffs, it reorganised its own operations to take advantage of regional economies of scale. In direct contradiction to arguments presented to CACM governments that affording the tobacco industry protection via high cigarette tariffs would safeguard
'A major lobbying effort to change and unify the excise structure in six Central American countries': How British American Tobacco influenced tax and tariff rates in the Central American Common Market
Full Text Available Abstract Background Transnational tobacco companies (TTCs may respond to processes of regional trade integration both by acting politically to influence policy and by reorganising their own operations. The Central American Common Market (CACM was reinvigorated in the 1990s, reflecting processes of regional trade liberalisation in Latin America and globally. This study aimed to ascertain how British American Tobacco (BAT, which dominated the markets of the CACM, sought to influence policy towards it by member country governments and how the CACM process impacted upon BAT's operations. Methods The study analysed internal tobacco industry documents released as a result of litigation in the US and available from the online Legacy Tobacco Documents Library at http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/. Documents were retrieved by searching the BAT collection using key terms in an iterative process. Analysis was based on an interpretive approach involving a process of attempting to understand the meanings of individual documents and relating these to other documents in the set, identifying the central themes of documents and clusters of documents, contextualising the documentary data, and choosing representative material in order to present findings. Results Utilising its multinational character, BAT was able to act in a coordinated way across the member countries of the CACM to influence tariffs and taxes to its advantage. Documents demonstrate a high degree of access to governments and officials. The company conducted a coordinated, and largely successful, attempt to keep external tariff rates for cigarettes high and to reduce external tariffs for key inputs, whilst also influencing the harmonisation of excise taxes between countries. Protected by these high external tariffs, it reorganised its own operations to take advantage of regional economies of scale. In direct contradiction to arguments presented to CACM governments that affording the tobacco industry
Smith, Erin Irene
Although beliefs about origins and evolutionary knowledge have been considered independent, research has suggested that both are influenced by cognitive constraints of psychological essentialism and teleology. Most research supporting these claims has been conducted with children from Western cultures; little is known about the psychological processes underpinning beliefs and knowledge about the natural world outside Western contexts or during adolescence. Claims about the universality of beliefs, knowledge, and the possible relationship between should be made after examining samples that differ in theoretically relevant ways from a typical Western sample, such as a Chinese sample in which religious explanations are rare or an adolescent sample in which brain development promotes the coordination of conflicting information. To examine how belief and knowledge are related in Western- and non-Western samples, as well as the factors that predict both independently, 238 Chinese (M = 15.85 years old, SD = .85 years; 36.6% male) and 277 American adolescents (M = 15.80 years, SD = 1.34 years; 51.6% male) were recruited from their high schools to participate. Adolescents completed a survey measuring beliefs about the origin of living and non-living exemplars, evolutionary knowledge, and variables that were likely to influence belief and knowledge such as science preference, epistemology, psychological essentialism, teleological reasoning, and religious beliefs. American adolescents were more creationist than Chinese adolescents. Chinese adolescents displayed more sophisticated evolutionary knowledge than American adolescents although overall performance was low. Finally, there was no relationship between belief and knowledge for American adolescents yet there was a small, positive relationship for Chinese adolescents such that adolescents who believed in creation also tended to demonstrate more evolutionary knowledge. Additional analyses employed mediation techniques to
Richardson, Bridget L; Macon, Tamarie A; Mustafaa, Faheemah N; Bogan, Erin D; Cole-Lewis, Yasmin; Chavous, Tabbye M
Research links racial identity to important developmental outcomes among African American adolescents, but less is known about the contextual experiences that shape youths' racial identity. In a sample of 491 African American adolescents (48% female), associations of youth-reported experiences of racial discrimination and parental messages about preparation for racial bias with adolescents' later racial identity were examined. Cluster analysis resulted in four profiles of adolescents varying in reported frequency of racial discrimination from teachers and peers at school and frequency of parental racial discrimination coping messages during adolescents' 8th grade year. Boys were disproportionately over-represented in the cluster of youth experiencing more frequent discrimination but receiving fewer parental discrimination coping messages, relative to the overall sample. Also examined were clusters of adolescents' 11th grade racial identity attitudes about the importance of race (centrality), personal group affect (private regard), and perceptions of societal beliefs about African Americans (public regard). Girls and boys did not differ in their representation in racial identity clusters, but 8th grade discrimination/parent messages clusters were associated with 11th grade racial identity cluster membership, and these associations varied across gender groups. Boys experiencing more frequent discrimination but fewer parental coping messages were over-represented in the racial identity cluster characterized by low centrality, low private regard, and average public regard. The findings suggest that adolescents who experience racial discrimination but receive fewer parental supports for negotiating and coping with discrimination may be at heightened risk for internalizing stigmatizing experiences. Also, the findings suggest the need to consider the context of gender in adolescents' racial discrimination and parental racial socialization.
Whitesell, Nancy Rumbaugh; Mitchell, Christina M.; Spicer, Paul
Latent growth curve modeling was used to estimate developmental trajectories of self-esteem and cultural identity among American Indian high school students and to explore the relationships of these trajectories to personal resources, problem behaviors, and academic performance at the end of high school. The sample included 1,611 participants from the Voices of Indian Teens project, a three-year longitudinal study of adolescents from three diverse American Indian cultural groups in the wester...
McLoyd, V C; Jayaratne, T E; Ceballo, R; Borquez, J
Using interview data from a sample of 241 single African American mothers and their seventh- and eighth-grade children, this study tests a model of how 2 economic stressors, maternal unemployment and work interruption, influence adolescent socioemotional functioning. In general, these economic stressors affected adolescent socioemotional functioning indirectly, rather than directly, through their impact on mothers' psychological functioning and, in turn, parenting behavior and mother-child relations. Current unemployment, but not past work interruption, had a direct effect on depressive symptomatology in mothers. As expected, depressive symptomatology in mothers predicted more frequent maternal punishment of adolescents, and this relation was fully mediated by mothers' negative perceptions of the maternal role. More frequent maternal punishment was associated with increased cognitive distress and depressive symptoms in adolescents, and consistent with predictions, these relations were partially mediated by adolescents' perceptions of the quality of relations with their mothers. Increased availability of instrumental support, as perceived by mothers, predicted fewer depressive symptoms in mothers, less punishment of adolescents, and less negativity about the maternal role. Both economic stressors were associated with higher levels of perceived financial strain in mothers, which in turn predicted adolescents' perceptions of economic hardship. Adolescents who perceived their families as experiencing more severe economic hardship reported higher anxiety, more cognitive distress, and lower self-esteem.
Binder, Philippe; Heintz, Anne-Laure; Servant, Coralie; Roux, Marie-Thérèse; Robin, Stéphane; Gicquel, Ludovic; Ingrand, Pierre
Adolescents at risk for suicide often see their general practitioner solely for somatic or administrative reasons. A simple screening test given during a conversation would be of substantial help to send a signal and tackle the problem. We propose to update a screening test previously validated in France - the TSTS-Cafard - because of significant changes in the lives of adolescents with the growth of the cyber world since 2000. The design and setting was a cross-sectional study involving 912 15-year-old adolescents in 90 French schools. They completed a questionnaire that included the TSTS-Cafard and risk factors extracted from the Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children survey. To improve the test, we selected questions drawn from the recent literature. Answers were analysed according to 'suicidality' = at least one suicide attempt in life or suicidal ideation often over the past 12 months. Suicidality rates were 9.6% for boys and 23.1% for girls. Although the TSTS-Cafard test was generally effective, one question was no longer discriminating. A new test, entitled 'BITS', included only four questions on bullying, insomnia, tobacco and stress, with three levels of response and scores ranging from 0 to 8. Improvement was achieved without loss of performance. Using a cut-off score of 3, we achieved 78% accuracy (area under the curve), 75% sensitivity and 70% specificity. The BITS test could allow the question of suicide risk to be addressed during a routine check-up in primary care but the results need to be validated with 13 to 18-year olds. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Middle school students are known to eat at times other than regular meals, preferring to snack between classes or after school. These eating episodes often include high calorie foods with little nutritional value. Assisting adolescents to alter these patterns may be beneficial for weight management....
Larsen, Helle; Kong, Grace; Becker, Daniela; Cousijn, Janna; Boendermaker, Wouter; Cavallo, Dana; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Wiers, Reinout
INTRODUCTION: Research demonstrates that cognitive biases toward drug-related stimuli are correlated with substance use. This study aimed to investigate differences in cognitive biases (i.e., approach bias, attentional bias, and memory associations) between smoking and non-smoking adolescents in the
Larsen, H.; Kong, G.; Becker, D.; Cousijn, J.; Boendermaker, W.; Cavallo, D.; Krishnan-Sarin, S.; Wiers, R.
INTRODUCTION: Research demonstrates that cognitive biases toward drug-related stimuli are correlated with substance use. This study aimed to investigate differences in cognitive biases (i.e., approach bias, attentional bias, and memory associations) between smoking and non-smoking adolescents in the
Nguyen, Anh B.; Clark, Trenette T.; Belgrave, Faye Z.
The current study proposed that empathy may indirectly play a protective role for adolescents in drug use behaviors and that this relationship will be mediated by self-regulatory strategies found in drug refusal efficacy. We predict that empathy will be linked to prosocial behavior and aggression, though we do not believe that they will mediate…
Cech, Erin A
Understanding cultural beliefs about social and economic inequality is vital to discerning the roadblocks and pathways to addressing that inequality. The foundation of concern for inequality is laid during adolescence, yet scholars understand little about the factors that influence whether and how adolescents come to express such concern. Arguing that structural and cultural contexts are just as consequential as whether adolescents themselves are members of disadvantaged groups, I draw on four theoretical perspectives to identify factors that influence adolescents' concern for addressing inequality: the underdog thesis, intergroup contact theory, the education enlightens thesis, and ideological buttressing. Using representative restricted-use Educational Longitudinal Survey data, I find that 12th-graders' beliefs are indeed influenced by more than their own demography: the diversity of their social milieu, the content of education in and out of the classroom, and ideological buttressing via political region and entertainment all influence whether they express concern for addressing inequality. These findings suggest extensions and amendments to the four theoretical perspectives and underscore the importance of studying structural and cultural factors that shape beliefs about inequality. The results also point to several interventions that may increase students' concern for inequality: involvement in civic-oriented extracurricular activities, more education in academic subjects that consider inequality, nurturing of cross-race friendships, and increased leisure reading. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Liu, Ji-Hong; Chu, Yong H; Frongillo, Edward A; Probst, Janice C
Mexican American children are disproportionately affected by obesity. Data on how the acculturation process influences diet and body weight among adolescents are limited. We used the data from the 1999-2004 NHANES, restricting to 2286 Mexican American children between 12 and 19 y old. Acculturation was measured by generation status and language preference. Diet was assessed using 24-h diet recall. Multiple linear, Tobit, logistic, and quantile regression models were used. We found, after adjusting for socio-demographic factors, health, dietary intake, physical activity, and sedentary behaviors compared to the first generation, second and third generations had greater odds of overweight and obesity. Adolescents in the second generation had higher BMI Z-scores than adolescents in the first and third generations. Both second and third generation adolescents consumed less fruit, whole fruit, vegetables, grains, and meats but more sweetened beverages, whole grains, saturated fat, sodium, oil, and energy from discretionary foods. Higher language acculturation was associated with poorer diet and greater body weight. Our findings suggest that Mexican American adolescents face challenges in terms of poorer diet and excessive weight gain associated with their immigration experience.
Kim, Kyoungho; Rohner, Ronald P.
Explored the relationship between parenting style and academic achievement of Korean American adolescents, investigating the influence of perceived parental warmth and control and improvement in schooling. Survey data indicated that authoritative paternal parenting related to optimal academic achievement. Differences in maternal parenting styles…
The research presented uses intersectionality theory as a lens to study the racial identity construction of four African American young adolescent girls. The findings suggest that race was largely situated in a Black-White discourse for the girls in the study. When limited information was provided in home, school, and community settings, the…
Harris, Allyssa L; Sutherland, Melissa A; Hutchinson, M Katherine
This study examined the influence of parental marital status, parent-child sexual communication, parent-child closeness on the HIV-related knowledge, safer-sex intentions, and behaviors of late adolescent urban African American males. The study employed a cross-sectional design with retrospective recall of salient parental influences and behaviors. Data were collected via paper-and-pencil questionnaire from 134 late adolescent African American males, 18 to 22 years of age, recruited from urban communities in and around Boston, Massachusetts. Data were analyzed using bivariate correlations, paired t tests, and regression modeling. Young men reported greater amounts of sexual communication with mothers than fathers (p fathers (p permissive sexual attitudes (p father-son communication and develop strategies to help parents communicate effectively with sons. Evidence has shown that African American adolescent males are more likely to engage in high-risk sexual behaviors. Understanding the sexual risk communication between African American adolescent males and their parents is important to developing strategies in reducing sexual risk behavior. © 2013 Sigma Theta Tau International.
The purpose of this research was to develop and evaluate a measure of social support for fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption among economically disadvantaged African American adolescents. Focus groups (N = 30) and pilot testing procedures (N = 17) were used to develop and pretest questionnaire item...
Zeiders, Katharine H.; Roosa, Mark W.; Knight, George P.; Gonzales, Nancy A.
Although Mexican American adolescents experience multiple risk factors in their daily lives, most research examines the influences of risk factors on adjustment independently, ignoring the additive and interactive effects of multiple risk factors. Guided by a person-centered perspective and utilizing latent profile analysis, this study identified…
This article describes a short-term treatment insight-oriented model for American Indian adolescents, called Dream Catcher Meditation. It is aimed at helping clients' express unconscious conflicts and to facilitate differentiation and healthy mutuality. Though its duration can vary, twelve sessions are outlined here. Session descriptions include goals and sample questions. Also included are anecdotal material and reflections about cultural relevancy.
Metzger, Isha; Cooper, Shauna M.; Zarrett, Nicole; Flory, Kate
The current review conducted a systematic assessment of culturally sensitive risk prevention programs for African American adolescents. Prevention programs meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria were evaluated across several domains: (1) theoretical orientation and foundation; (2) methodological rigor; (3) level of cultural integration; (4)…
Hall, Diane M.; Cassidy, Elaine F.; Stevenson, Howard C.
African American adolescents (132 males and 128 females; age M=14.8 years, SD=0.92) enrolled in an urban community social skills development program participated in a study assessing the relationship among perceptions of family and community social support, fear of calamitous events, depression, and anger expression. Expressing fear of calamitous…
Hammack, Phillip L.; Robinson, W. LaVome; Crawford, Isiaah; Li, Susan T.
We examined the role of family stress as a mediator of the relationship between poverty and depressed mood among 1,704 low-income, inner-city African-American adolescents. Nearly half of participants (47%) reported clinically significant levels of depressive symptoms. Being female, reporting higher levels of family stress, and scoring higher on a…
Benner, Aprile D.; Kim, Su Yeong
In this brief report, we investigated whether the Family Stress Model could be replicated with a sample of Chinese American families. Path analyses with 444 adolescents and their parents provided support for the model's generalizability. Specifically, mothers' and fathers' reports of economic status (i.e., income, financial, and job instability)…
Thayer, Shawna M.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Delgado, Melissa Y.
This study was designed to describe the conflict resolution practices used in Mexican American adolescents' friendships, to explore the role of cultural orientations and values and gender-typed personality qualities in conflict resolution use, and to assess the connections between conflict resolution and friendship quality. Participants were 246…
Constantine, Madonna G.; Alleyne, Vanessa L.; Wallace, Barbara C.; Franklin-Jackson, Deidre C.
The primary purpose of this study was to test a path model exploring the relationships among Africentric cultural values, self-esteem, perceived social support satisfaction, and life satisfaction in a sample of 147 African American adolescent girls. This investigation also examined the possible mediating effects of self-esteem and perceived social…
Roosa, Mark W.; Burrell, Ginger L.; Nair, Rajni L.; Coxe, Stefany; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Knight, George P.
This study examined a stress process model in which stressful life events and association with delinquent peers mediated the relationship of neighborhood disadvantage to Mexican American early adolescents' mental health. The authors also proposed that child gender, child generation, and neighborhood informal social control would moderate the…
Li, Xiaoming; And Others
Examined relationships between drug trafficking (selling and delivering), cigarette and alcohol use, and illicit drug use among African-American adolescents. Found that drug trafficking is equally likely to occur with or without cigarette and alcohol use or illicit drug involvement, suggesting that intervention should extend to drug trafficking in…
Joiner, Greg W.; Kashubeck, Susan
Investigated the relationship among acculturation, body image, self-esteem, and eating disorder symptomatology in 120 Mexican-American adolescent women. Findings indicate that acculturation levels were not related to anorexic or bulimic symptomatology, self-esteem, body dissatisfaction or thinness of ideal and attractive figures. Also, lower…
Mason, Sally; Berger, Barbara; Ferrans, Carol Estwing; Sultzman, Vickey; Fendrich, Michael
Objectives: African American urban adolescents are one of the fastest growing groups of children affected by their mother's HIV status. These children experience HIV stigma by association with their HIV-positive mothers. Stigma may contribute to adverse outcomes for these teens. Methods: The authors describe a multistage process of scale…
Juang, Linda P.; Cookston, Jeffrey T.
This study focused on the perceptions of discrimination for Chinese American adolescents: how perceptions changed over time, how generational status and acculturation were related to these changes, and whether earlier discrimination experiences were related to subsequent depressive symptomatology. The sample included 309 Chinese American…
Somers, Cheryl L.; Surmann, Amy T.
The purpose of this study was to explore the comparative contribution that (a) multiple sources of education about sexual topics (peers, media, school and other adults), and (b) the timing of this sex education, make on American adolescent sexual attitudes and behavior. Participants were 672 ethnically and economically diverse male and female,…
Papas, Mia A.; Hurley, Kristen M.; Quigg, Anna M.; Oberlander, Sarah E.; Black, Maureen M.
Objective: To examine the relationship between maternal and toddler dietary variety. Design: Longitudinal; maternal and toddler dietary data were collected at 13 months; anthropometry was collected at 13 and 24 months. Setting: Data were collected in homes. Participants: 109 primiparous, low-income, African American adolescent mothers and…
Adelabu, Detris Honora
This study examined the relationship of academic achievement to time perspective (future, present) and school membership (belonging, acceptance, rejection) among 232 low-income, urban African American adolescents. Findings indicated positive, significant relationships among academic achievement, future time perspective, school belonging, and…
Green, Kerry M.; Ensminger, Margaret E.
The authors examined the effects of heavy adolescent marijuana use on employment, marriage, and family formation and tested both dropping out of high school and adult marijuana use as potential mediators of these associations among a community sample of African Americans followed longitudinally from age 6 to age 32-33. They used propensity …
Lewin, Amy; Mitchell, Stephanie J.; Hodgkinson, Stacy; Burrell, Lori; Beers, Lee S. A.; Duggan, Anne K.
This study examined the relationship between a teen mother's perceptions of nurturance from her mother and father and her mental health and parenting attitudes. One-hundred and thirty-eight urban, primarily African American adolescent mothers were interviewed. Multivariate results indicate that teen mothers who felt nurtured by their mothers had…
Soli, Anna R.; McHale, Susan M.; Feinberg, Mark E.
This study investigated associations between sibling relationships and adjustment among 179 African American adolescent siblings (controlling for family factors) and tested moderating effects of familism values and birth order. Two-level random intercept models revealed that familism values moderated sibling relationship-adjustment linkages,…
Turnage, Barbara F.
This study of 105 senior high school Southern African American adolescent females examined the relationship between global self-esteem, appearance evaluation (body image), and ethnic identity. As predicted, the relationship between global self-esteem, appearance evaluation (r = 0.46, p less than 0.001), and ethnic identity (r = 40, p less than…
Rosario-Sim, Maria G; O'Connell, Kathleen; Lavin, Joanne
To explore the metamotivational states experienced during first smoking experiences of Asian American adolescents. This survey research investigated the differences among the smokers, resisters, and smoking naives of a convenience sample of 328 Asian Americans, aged 16-19 in New York City (NYC). The study used a demographic questionnaire, Temptation Episode Surveys (First Smoking Occasion, First Resisted Smoking Opportunity, and Opinions on First Smoking Occasion), the Telic/Paratelic State Instrument, and the Rebellious State Scale. Statistical analyses revealed that Asian American adolescents smoked the first time when in paratelic, arousal-seeking states, and when the physical and social environments are permissive to smoking, initiation opportunities such as presence of peers and friends smoking and in places where adults are not present. The first smoking experiences of Asian American adolescents parallel that of smoking cessation when individuals lapse in a highly tempting situation and when the environment is permissive to smoking. This study is the first to use reversal theory pairs as a framework for smoking initiation. Smoking prevention and intervention programs should consider the importance of the physical, social environment, and the psychological states of adolescents when they smoke the first time. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Washington, Ahmad Rashad
This qualitative study was conducted with a sample of five (5) middle school African American adolescent men from two different schools in the same school district to explore their perceptions of and experiences with their professional school counselors. Phenomenological qualitative methodology was used to complete this study. To gather research…
Tabbah, Rhonda; Miranda, Antoinette Halsell; Wheaton, Joe E.
The purpose of this study was to investigate three domains (Scholastic Competence, Social Acceptance, and Global Self-Worth) of self-concept in Arab American adolescents in relation to their school experiences, including discrimination, self-perceived teacher social support, and self-perceived classmate social support. Half of the sample either…
Ball, Joanna; Armistead, Lisa; Austin, Barbara-jeanne
Study provides a description of religiosity in a sample of African-American female teens and examines religion as a resource for these adolescents by focusing on the association between religiosity and sexual activity, self-esteem, and general psychological functioning. Results reveal that greater overall religiosity was associated with greater…
Cornelius, Judith B.; Dmochowski, Jacek; Boyer, Cherrie; St Lawrence, Janet; Lightfoot, Marguerita; Moore, Michael
We examined the feasibility and acceptability of an HIV prevention intervention for African American adolescents delivered via mobile cell phones and looked at intervention-related changes in beliefs and sexual behaviors. We used a longitudinal one-group comparison design with data collected at three points. Forty adolescents, 13–18 years old, participated in the Becoming a Responsible Teen intervention followed by the delivery of daily multimedia messages for 3 months. The mobile-cell-phone enhanced intervention was feasible and acceptable to the participants. Greater HIV knowledge, improved attitudes toward condoms, and increased perceived HIV risk scores were observed with older adolescents (16–18 years old). Behavior trends showed a decrease in the number of times participants reported engaging in unprotected sexual intercourse over the previous 2 months. Mobile-cell-phone multimedia-text-messaging boosters tested in this study provided preliminary evidence of efficacy of the enhanced HIV prevention intervention for African American youth. PMID:23122907
Huffman, Lauren E; Wilson, Dawn K; Van Horn, M Lee; Pate, Russell R
Positive parenting practices and environmental supports have been linked to physical activity (PA) levels in youth, yet factors associated with positive parenting styles have been understudied in African American adolescents. This study expands on previous literature by examining associations between motivation, parenting factors associated with Self-Determination Theory's psychological needs (competence, autonomy, and relatedness) including authoritative parenting, autonomy support and emotional and tangible support, and adolescent moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and light PA (LPA). Participants were African American adolescents (N = 148; Mage = 13.6 years; MBMI% = 96.6) and their care-givers (Mage = 43.4 years; MBMI = 37.4) enrolled in the Families Improving Together for Weight Loss trial. Parenting factors were measured using self-report surveys, and PA minutes were measured using 7-day accelerometry estimates. Regression analyses indicated that overall models for MVPA (F(11,134) = 4.35; R2 = 0.26) and LPA (F(11,134) = 5.84, R2 = 0.32) were significant. Adolescent motivation for PA (B = 0.58, SE = 0.16) was positively associated with MVPA minutes. Authoritative parenting (B = 15.71, SE = 4.38) and tangible support (B = 8.53, SE = 4.02) were positively associated with adolescent LPA minutes. Unexpectedly, emotional support was negatively associated with both MVPA (B = -0.47, SE = 0.17) and LPA (B = -11.22, SE = 4.79), with follow-up analyses showing this relationship stronger in males. Findings highlight the importance of adolescent motivation for PA onMVPA and positive parenting styles and tangible supports on adolescent LPA in overweight African American youth. Recommendations for integrating these factors within the context of intervention studies are discussed.
Goncy, Elizabeth A; Mrug, Sylvie
This study examined the location and time of adolescent use of cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana. Age, gender, and racial differences in location and time of use were studied for each substance. Using cross-sectional data collected through the schoolwide Pride Survey, 20,055 students between the ages of 10 and 19 years (53.6% female, 55.1% Black, 44.9% White) in one metropolitan area reported on their frequency of cigarette, alcohol, and marijuana use, as well as the location and time of use of each substance. Chi-square tests compared the rates, locations, and times for each substance across boys and girls; Black and White students; and early, middle, and late adolescents. Older adolescents reported higher rates of substance use at friends' homes, at school, and in cars and lower rates of alcohol use at home compared with younger youth. Males were more likely to report alcohol and marijuana use at school and on weeknights and alcohol use in cars, whereas females were more likely to report alcohol and marijuana use on the weekends. No gender differences emerged for times and locations of cigarette use. Compared with Black youth, White adolescents were more likely to use all substances at friends' homes and on weekends; to smoke cigarettes at school, in the car, and on weeknights; and to use alcohol at home. Black adolescents were more likely to report using alcohol at home, at school, in cars, during and after school, and on weeknights and were more likely to report using marijuana at school. The location and time of adolescent substance use vary substantially by age, gender, and race. These differences may help tailor substance use prevention and intervention programs to specific subgroups of youth to improve program effectiveness.
Fasula, Amy M; Miller, Kim S; Wiener, Jeffrey
This study explored the sexual double standard (SDS) (in which males are afforded more freedom and power than females in heterosexual interactions) in African American mothers' sexual messages to sons and daughters. We used a convenience sample of 129 African American adolescents, aged 14 to 17 years, and their mothers who reported SDS attitudes. Qualitative analyses revealed gender differences based on an SDS in mothers' sexual risk reduction socialization. Mothers typically took a proactive approach with sons and a neutral or prohibitive approach with daughters. Findings provide directions for socially relevant programs for African American parents, schools, and communities.
Chen, RuiJun; Flores, Glenn; Shetgiri, Rashmi
Adolescent fighting affects 25% of youth, with the highest rates among African-Americans and Latinos but little is known about parental views on youth fighting. The purpose of this study was to examine African-American and Latino parents’ perspectives on adolescent fighting and methods to prevent fighting. We conducted four focus groups with parents of African-American and Latino urban adolescents. Focus groups were stratified by race/ethnicity and fighting status. Groups were audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed by three independent coders using thematic content analysis. Seventy-six percent of the 17 participants were female. Latino parents condoned fighting only as a last resort, and taught children about consequences of fighting, emotional regulation, and non-violent conflict-resolution strategies. African-American parents endorsed teaching non-violent strategies, but expressed some doubts about their effectiveness. African-American parents also suggested corporal punishment, but acknowledged that this may not be an optimal long-term strategy. Positive role modeling and involvement by teachers and other adults were cited as having important roles in fighting prevention. Suggested interventions included teaching adolescents non-violent conflict-resolution skills, anger management, and alternatives to fighting. Parents recommended that violence prevention programs incorporate the experiences of former fighters and be tailored to community needs. Study findings suggest that youth violence-prevention programs may benefit from addressing parental attitudes towards fighting and parent-child communication about fighting, teaching adolescents non-violent conflict-resolution skills, and tailoring programs by race/ethnicity. Promoting positive modeling and involvement by teachers and other adults also may be beneficial. PMID:27186064
Chen, RuiJun; Flores, Glenn; Shetgiri, Rashmi
Adolescent fighting affects 25% of youth, with the highest rates among African-Americans and Latinos but little is known about parental views on youth fighting. The purpose of this study was to examine African-American and Latino parents' perspectives on adolescent fighting and methods to prevent fighting. We conducted four focus groups with parents of African-American and Latino urban adolescents. Focus groups were stratified by race/ethnicity and fighting status. Groups were audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed by three independent coders using thematic content analysis. Seventy-six percent of the 17 participants were female. Latino parents condoned fighting only as a last resort, and taught children about consequences of fighting, emotional regulation, and non-violent conflict-resolution strategies. African-American parents endorsed teaching non-violent strategies, but expressed some doubts about their effectiveness. African-American parents also suggested corporal punishment, but acknowledged that this may not be an optimal long-term strategy. Positive role modeling and involvement by teachers and other adults were cited as having important roles in fighting prevention. Suggested interventions included teaching adolescents non-violent conflict-resolution skills, anger management, and alternatives to fighting. Parents recommended that violence prevention programs incorporate the experiences of former fighters and be tailored to community needs. Study findings suggest that youth violence-prevention programs may benefit from addressing parental attitudes towards fighting and parent-child communication about fighting, teaching adolescents non-violent conflict-resolution skills, and tailoring programs by race/ethnicity. Promoting positive modeling and involvement by teachers and other adults also may be beneficial.
Dulin-Keita, Akilah; Kaur Thind, Herpreet; Affuso, Olivia; Baskin, Monica L
According to recent research studies, the built and socioeconomic contexts of neighborhoods are associated with African American adolescents' participation in physical activity and obesity status. However, few research efforts have been devoted to understand how African American adolescents' perceptions of their neighborhood environments may affect physical activity behaviors and obesity status. The objective of the current study was to use a perceived neighborhood disorder conceptual framework to examine whether physical activity mediated the relationship between perceived neighborhood disorder and obesity status among African American adolescents. The data were obtained from a cross-sectional study that examined social and cultural barriers and facilitators of physical activity among African American adolescents. The study included a sample of 101 African American adolescents age 12 to 16 years and their parents who were recruited from the Birmingham, Alabama metropolitan area. The primary outcome measure was obesity status which was classified using the International Obesity Task Force cut off points. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was assessed via accelerometry. Perceived neighborhood disorder was assessed using the Perceived Neighborhood Disorder Scale. Mediation models were used to examine whether the relationship between neighborhood disorder and obesity status was mediated by physical activity. Perceived neighborhood disorder was significantly and positively related to obesity status and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was inversely associated with obesity status. However, there was no evidence to support a significant mediating effect of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity on the relationship between neighborhood disorder and obesity status. Future studies should longitudinally assess perceived neighborhood disorder characteristics and childhood adiposity to examine the timing, extent, and the mechanisms by which perceived neighborhood
Shepherd, Lindsay M; Sly, Kaye F; Girard, Jeffrey M
The purpose of this study was to identify predictors of sexual behavior and condom use in African American adolescents, as well as to evaluate the effectiveness of comprehensive sexuality and abstinence-only education to reduce adolescent sexual behavior and increase condom use. Participants included 450 adolescents aged 12-14 years in the southern United States. Regression analyses showed favorable attitudes toward sexual behavior and social norms significantly predicted recent sexual behavior, and favorable attitudes toward condoms significantly predicted condom usage. Self-efficacy was not found to be predictive of adolescents' sexual behavior or condom use. There were no significant differences in recent sexual behavior based on type of sexuality education. Adolescents who received abstinence-only education had reduced favorable attitudes toward condom use, and were more likely to have unprotected sex than the comparison group. Findings suggest that adolescents who receive abstinence-only education are at greater risk of engaging in unprotected sex. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Guedes, Dartagnan Pinto; Villagra Astudillo, Hermán Ariel; Moya Morales, José María; del Campo Vecino, Juan; Pires Júnior, Raymundo
The objective of the present study was to find out if there are differences in terms of sex, age, or country of origin for the components of health-related quality of life (HRQL) in samples of adolescents from three cities-in Argentina, Brazil, and Chile, respectively-using data collected through an internationally recognized and validated survey questionnaire, KIDSCREEN-52. The KIDSCREEN-52 questionnaire was administered to 1 357 adolescents between 12 and 17 years of age (48.6% of them male) in selected samples in the three countries. Univariate analysis of variation (ANCOVA) was used. Not only sex and age differences, but also differences for each component of HRQL, were found between the three country groups. The data showed significant differences between the three countries for each of the specific components of HRQL. Males scored significantly higher than females in the following components: Physical Well-being (P Bullying) increased significantly with age (P < 0.001). The evidence suggests that interventions in disease prevention and health promotion should be developed for specific target groups, using appropriate actions depending on the sex and age of the adolescents.
Full Text Available African-American adolescents experience disproportionate rates of negative consequences of substance use despite using substances at average or below-average rates. Due to underrepresentation of African-American adolescents in etiological literature, risk and protective processes associated with their substance use require further study. This study examines the role of parental support in adolescents’ conduct problems (CPs, depressive symptoms (DSs, and alcohol and marijuana use in a national sample and a high-risk sample of African-American adolescents. In both samples, parental support was inversely related to adolescent CPs, DSs, and alcohol and marijuana use. CPs, but not DSs, partially mediated the relation of parental support to substance use. Results were consistent across the national and high-risk samples, suggesting that the protective effect of parental support applies to African-American adolescents from a range of demographic backgrounds.
Strasburger, Victor C
The causes of adolescent substance use are multifactorial, but the media can play a key role. Tobacco and alcohol represent the 2 most significant drug threats to adolescents. More than $25 billion per year is spent on advertising for tobacco, alcohol, and prescription drugs, and such advertising has been shown to be effective. Digital media are increasingly being used to advertise drugs. In addition, exposure to PG-13- and R-rated movies at an early age may be a major factor in the onset of adolescent tobacco and alcohol use. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends a ban on all tobacco advertising in all media, limitations on alcohol advertising, avoiding exposure of young children to substance-related (tobacco, alcohol, prescription drugs, illegal drugs) content on television and in PG-13- and R-rated movies, incorporating the topic of advertising and media into all substance abuse-prevention programs, and implementing media education programs in the classroom.
Crone, M.R.; Reijneveld, S.A.
Smoking is a highly addictive behaviour, often initiated during adolescence. It is suggested that smoking is associated with behavioural and emotional problems. This study aims to assess the impact of psychosocial problems on smoking initiation and vice versa. Method: We obtained data on
Mohammed, Mutaz; Eggers, Sander Matthijs; Alotaiby, Fahad Falah; de Vries, Nanne; de Vries, Hein
The aim of this cross-sectional school-based study was to assess smoking prevalence, indicators for the smoking epidemic and determinants of smoking among Saudi adolescents. The study included 695 male adolescents from 11 to 16 years of age who filled out self-report questionnaires based on the European Smoking Framework Approach questionnaire, which uses the I-Change model to assess attitude, social influence and the self-efficacy of the participants. Smokers were 275 (39.6%) adolescents. Smokers tended to receive more daily pocket money, live in more affluent families and show lower academic performance. Non-smokers were inclined to believe that smoking may help people to feel relaxed and confident, encountered less social influences to smoke than smokers, but reported low self-efficacy not to smoke when with smoker friends and when offered a cigarette. Smokers reported the lowest self-efficacy not to smoke in all situations assessed. The results suggest the smoking epidemic among male Saudi adolescents may still be in the early stages, providing ample opportunity for preventive actions aimed at halting the further progress of this epidemic. Secondly, smoking prevention programs in Saudi Arabia need to reinforce non-smoking attitudes, address how to resist pressure to smoke, and how to develop high self-efficacy towards non-smoking in various situations. © The Author(s) 2014.
Jeong, Yoo Mi; McCreary, Linda L; Hughes, Tonda L
Lack of depression literacy is associated with low help-seeking behaviors for mental health care in adolescents. As parents generally determine adolescents' health care, ensuring parents can recognize depressive symptoms is crucial. The current study explored depression literacy among Korean American parents of adolescents ages 12 to 19 using a qualitative descriptive design. Semantic content analysis was performed using data from three focus group interviews conducted in 2015 with Korean American parents (10 mothers, four fathers) of adolescents. Participants lacked knowledge about the biological causes and medicinal treatment of depression. Most believed that depression cannot be fully treated, relapses occur easily, and medication is taken indefinitely. Gender influenced perceptions of symptoms. Parents often overlooked children's depressive symptoms until schools alerted them. Nursing interventions should educate parents about the biological causes of depression, strategies for addressing adolescents' symptoms, community-based professional resources, and success stories about depression treatment. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 56(1), 48-56.]. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.
Kang, Hannah Soo; Chang, Kyle Edward; Chen, Chuansheng; Greenberger, Ellen
Past research has shown that locus of control plays an important role in a wide range of behaviors, such as academic achievement and positive social behaviors. However, little is known about whether locus of control plays the same role in minority adolescents' peer relationships. The current study examined ethnic differences in the associations between locus of control and peer relationships in early adolescence using samples from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS-K: 5,612 Caucasian, 1,562 Hispanic, 507 Asian, and 908 African-American adolescents) and the National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS: 8,484 Caucasian, 1,604 Hispanic, and 860 Asian, and 1,228 African American adolescents). Gender was approximately evenly split in both samples. The results from the two datasets were highly consistent. Significant interactions between ethnicity and locus of control indicated that having a more internal locus of control was particularly important for Caucasian students' peer relationships (ECLS-K) and social status (NELS), but less so for Asian, Hispanic, and African American students. Our findings suggest that the role of locus of control in peer relationship is contingent upon culture.
Bruce, Marino A; Beech, Bettina M; Norris, Keith C; Griffith, Derek M; Sims, Mario; Thorpe, Roland J
This study examined the degree to which sex, weight status, and the presence of hypertension and obesity in parents/grandparents were associated with systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure (BP) among African American youth in a pilot offspring study examining obesity-related cardiovascular disease (CVD) risks among adolescents. Fully adjusted linear regression models of the total sample produced results indicating that obesity was associated with BP (SBP: β = 7.08, P obesity were associated with SBP (overweight: β = 6.77, P obese: β = 11.65, P obesity was correlated with DBP (β = 9.86, P obesity was associated with DBP (β = 6.98, P obesity was significantly associated with SBP among adolescent females but not males. The relationship between weight status, familial hypertension and obesity status, and BP among adolescents vary by sex. This study underscores the need for additional research investigating the relationship between individual sex, weight status, BP and familial BP, and obesity status on risk among African American adolescents. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2017. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com
Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the United States, and most tobacco product use begins during adolescence. In this podcast, Dr. Andrea Gentzke discusses ways to keep young people from using tobacco products.
Full Text Available Objectives: The main objective of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of an interactive smoking cessation program when first implemented in a naïve population of Romanian adolescents. The secondary objective was to assess youngsters’ attitudes and beliefs towards tobacco dependence, their compliance to smoking cessation interventions and success rate of a standard smoking cessation pilot program.Materials and methods: A total of 231 subjects 14-19 years old participated in the Adolescent Smoking Cessation (ASC pilot program in Romania in 2005. Subjects were evaluated based on the ASC questionnaire, a validated set of questions about smoking and cessation profile, whether current smoker or not. Smoking status was validated by carbon monoxide determination in exhaled air. Participants were delivered 6 interactive ASC sessions about smoking hazards and methods to quit smoking. A final evaluation was done to assess overall program’s impact and to reward quitters and reducers by prizes.Results: Study population was made of 52.4% every day smokers, 10.4% at least once/week but not every day smokers, 6% less than once/week smokers, 23.4% never smokers and 7.8% ex-smokers. Cessation rate was 12.3% in every day smokers and 16.6 % in at least once a week but not every day smokers. Also, 4.1% every day smokers and 30 % at least once/week not every day smokers reduced number of cigarettes smoked/day. The program registered a high attendance rate/sessions as 85.2 % of subjects were present in all sessions. Also, significant changes occurred in participant’s beliefs about smoking and cessation.Conclusions: Pilot ASC was an efficient program with 12.3% of daily smokers to quit smoking and its positive impact on personal smoking and cessation beliefs in 90 % of participants. J Clin Exp Invest 2010; 1(3: 150-155
Tatum, Alfred; Gue, Valerie
Historically speaking, reading and writing among African Americans were collaborative acts involving a wide range of texts that held social, economic, political, or spiritual significance. One of the constants of literacy collaboratives was being regularly and purposefully engaged with print within a meaningful social context. During the summer of…
Parisod, Heidi; Pakarinen, Anni; Axelin, Anna; Löyttyniemi, Eliisa; Smed, Jouni; Salanterä, Sanna
New interventions supporting health literacy and a tobacco-free lifestyle in adolescence are needed to narrow the widening gap in existing health inequalities. Health games offer potential and could be utilized for example in school healthcare, but more research is needed to increase the understanding of the effects of game elements in health interventions. The aim of this feasibility study is to determine the short-term effectiveness of the tobacco-related mobile health game Fume and a non-gamified website in comparison with a no-intervention control group, regarding tobacco-related health literacy among 10-13-year-old early adolescents. In addition, we compare the demand for and acceptability of Fume to that of the website. In total, 151 early adolescents participated in this single-blinded, three-armed cluster randomized trial. The participants from three municipalities in southwest Finland were randomly allocated between a group with access to the health game Fume (n = 61), a group with access to the website (n = 47), and a group with no intervention (n = 43). The intervention groups first participated in a 20-min training session with Fume/the website, and then had two weeks to use Fume/the website based on their own interest. Short-term effectiveness was measured by primary (anti-smoking self-efficacy) and secondary (smoking outcome expectations, attitudes towards tobacco use, tobacco-use motives, motivation to decline tobacco use in the future, and knowledge about tobacco) outcomes derived from the theory-based determinants of tobacco-related health literacy and evaluated with self-assessment questionnaires at baseline and post-intervention (after a two-week follow-up). For evaluating the demand, the actual use of Fume/the website was tracked during the two-week period. Regarding acceptability, the raised interest towards Fume/the website and opinions about the interventions were evaluated post-intervention. Differences were tested with the Mc
Differences in Quit Attempts and Cigarette Smoking Abstinence Between Whites and African Americans in the United States: Literature Review and Results From the International Tobacco Control US Survey.
Kulak, Jessica A; Cornelius, Monica E; Fong, Geoffrey T; Giovino, Gary A
While cigarette smoking prevalence is declining among US adults, quit rates may differ between white and African American smokers. Here, we summarize the literature on smoking cessation behaviors in whites and African Americans across four study designs and report the findings of new analyses of International Tobacco Control (ITC) US Survey cohort data. We reviewed 32 publications containing 39 relevant analyses that compared quit attempts and abstinence between US whites and African Americans. Two additional longitudinal analyses were conducted on 821 white and 76 African American cigarette smokers from Waves 7 and 8 of the ITC US Survey (mean follow-up = 19 months). Of 17 total analyses of quit attempts, nine (including the ITC US Survey) observed that African American smokers were more likely than whites to attempt to quit during a given year; seven found no differences. Whites were more likely than African Americans to be abstinent in five of six retrospective cohort analyses and in two of five considered community- and population-based cohort studies. Four of these 11 analyses, including one from the ITC US Survey, found no differences. Of 11 population- or community-based analyses, all seven that found significant differences indicated that whites were more likely to quit than African Americans. These findings, combined with the similar results from population-based birth cohort analyses, support the conclusion that white smokers are more likely to quit than African American smokers. Efforts to encourage and support quitting among all tobacco users remain a priority. This article provides a review of the literature on smoking cessation among African American and white smokers, and adds new analyses that compare quit attempts and abstinence between US African Americans and whites. Results demonstrate a clear distinction between the findings of cross-sectional and retrospective cohort studies with those of cohort studies. Reasons for these differences merit
Scal, Peter; Ireland, Marjorie; Borowsky, Iris Wagman
Cigarette smoking remains a substantial threat to the current and future health of America's youth. The purpose of this study was to identify the risk and protective factors for cigarette smoking among US adolescents. Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health was used, comparing the responses of all non-smokers at Time 1 for their ability to predict the likelihood of smoking at Time 2, one year later. Data was stratified into four gender by grade group cohorts. Cross-cutting risk factors for smoking among all four cohorts were: using alcohol, marijuana, and other illicit drugs; violence involvement; having had sex; having friends who smoke and learning problems. Having a higher grade point average and family connectedness were protective across all cohorts. Other gender and grade group specific risk and protective factors were identified. The estimated probability of initiating smoking decreased by 19.2% to 54.1% both in situations of high and low risk as the number of protective factors present increased. Of the factors that predict or protect against smoking some are influential across all gender and grade group cohorts studied, while others are specific to gender and developmental stage. Prevention efforts that target both the reduction of risk factors and enhancement of protective factors at the individual, family, peer group and community are likely to reduce the likelihood of smoking initiation.
Carlo, Gustavo; Knight, George P.; McGinley, Meredith; Hayes, Rachel
This study examined the relationships between parental inductions, sympathy, prosocial moral reasoning, and prosocial behaviors. A total of 207 early adolescents who self-identified as Mexican American (girls, n = 105; mean age = 10.91 years) and 108 who identified as European American (girls, n = 54; mean age = 11.07 years) completed measures of…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally. There is therefore need to identify relevant factors associated with smoking among adolescents in order to better tailor public health interventions aimed at preventing smoking. Methods We used data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS conducted in 2003 in Punjab, India, on 2014 adolescents of whom 58.9% were males. We conducted a weighted logistic regression analysis, adjusting for age and sex, to determine associations between predictor variables and current tobacco smoking status. Results A total of 2014 adolescents participated in the survey in 2003, and of these 58.9% were males. Male respondents tended to be older than females (21.2% of males, and 13.1% of females were of age 16 years or above. The percent of males and females in the other age groups were: 23.0% and 28.6% for Conclusion The observed associations between current smoking on one hand and peer smoking, and perception that boys who smoke are less attractive on the other, deserve further studies. The factors reported in the current study should be considered in the design of public health interventions aimed to reduce adolescent cigarette smoking.
Klaczynski, Paul A; Felmban, Wejdan S
Few studies have examined age or cultural differences in the stereotypes adolescents have of persons with obesity. The present research explored the hypotheses that American adolescents have more negative obesity stereotypes than Chinese adolescents and that the effects of culture are mediated by weight attributions and thin idealization. Participants (N = 335; 181 female; M age = 14.83 years, SD = 1.57 years) completed measures of thin idealization and causal attributions and made generalizations from and attributions of stereotypical personality characteristics to obese figures. Not only did stereotypes differ between countries, but generalizations of negative characteristics from obese figures increased with age. In addition, American adolescents more firmly endorsed the 'thin ideal' and were more likely to attribute obesity to internal causes that Chinese adolescents. As anticipated, between-country differences in stereotyping were mediated by thin idealization and causal attributions. Findings are discussed in terms of the 'doctrine of the mean', social identity theory, and dual-process theories. Statement of Contribution The development of obesity stereotypes has been the subject of a number of recent studies. Although scarce, research on adolescents' obesity stereotypes indicates that the strength of these stereotypes increases with age and that these increases are mediated by thin idealization and causal attributions. The current research adds to this growing literature that differences between Chinese adolescents' and American adolescents' obesity stereotypes - in terms of the assignment of stereotypical traits to people with obesity and the generalization of negative traits from an individual person with obesity to people with obesity as a group - are mediated by thin idealization and attributions about obesity's causes. The research also indicates that (1) age differences in obesity stereotyping vary as a function of the method used to measure
Auf, Rehab; Trepka, Mary Jo; Selim, Moaz; Ben Taleb, Ziyad; De La Rosa, Mario; Cano, Miguel Ángel
E-cigarette advertising has been shown to be associated with use of e-cigarettes, but its association with tobacco use has not been studied. Therefore, we examined the association between e-cigarettes advertisement and tobacco use. Data from nationally representative 22,007 middle and high school students (grades 6-12) were used to conduct the analysis. Logistic regression models estimated the adjusted odds ratios (AOR) of ever and current use of cigarette, hookah, cigar, and polytobacco use. Odds ratios were weighted and adjusted for study design, non-response rates, school level, gender, race/ethnicity, e-cigarette use, and smoking at home. E-cigarette marketing exposure was significantly associated with ever use of cigarettes (AOR: 1.3, 95% CI: 1.1-1.5), hookah (AOR: 1.4, 95% CI: 1.2-1.7), cigars (AOR: 1.5, 95% CI: 1.4-1.6), and polytobacco (AOR: 1.7, 95% CI: 1.5-1.8). Likewise, E-cigarette marketing exposure was significantly associated with current use of cigarettes (AOR: 1.3, 95% CI: 1.1-1.6), hookah (AOR: 1.3, 95% CI: 1.03-1.7), cigars (AOR: 1.3, 95% CI: 1.1-1.6), and polytobacco use (AOR: 1.8, 95% CI: 1.5-2.1). The results suggest that e-cigarette advertisement is associated with use of cigarettes, hookah, cigars, and polytobacco products. These results add to the evidence about the risks of e-cigarette marketing and highlight the need for stricter regulation of e-cigarette advertisements. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Henry, Jessica S; Lambert, Sharon F; Smith Bynum, Mia
Urban African American youth's disproportionate exposure to community violence and increased risk for its adverse consequences have heightened interest in identifying protective factors that mitigate the effects of community violence exposure for these youth. Thus, the present study examined whether maternal racial socialization messages protect African American adolescents against the adverse effects of community violence exposure. Participants were a community sample of African American adolescents (N = 106; mean age = 15.41 years) and their female guardians. For community-violence-exposed youth, maternal racial socialization messages protected against aggressive behaviors and depressive symptoms, such that maternal messages about cultural pride attenuated the association between community violence exposure and parent-reported aggressive behaviors, and cultural appreciation of legacy messages attenuated the association between community violence exposure and adolescent-reported depressive symptoms. Findings highlight the need to integrate race-relevant factors into preventive interventions targeting African American youth at risk for or exposed to community violence, and suggest that family interventions promoting parents' efficacy to implement racial socialization practices are useful for youth exposed to violence. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Tate, Nutrena H; Dillaway, Heather E; Yarandi, Hossein N; Jones, Lenette M; Wilson, Feleta L
African American adolescents experience higher rates of obesity and have an increased risk of obesity-related diseases than do White American adolescents. Despite culturally sensitive obesity preventive interventions, obesity rates are increasing within the African American adolescent population. Current obesity interventions do not usually address the heterogeneity (e.g., socioeconomic status [SES], gender, and residential status differences) within the African American adolescent community that can affect the efficacy of these interventions. To examine the gender, SES, and residential status differences related to obesity and weight behaviors in African American adolescents. A descriptive correlational study was conducted with 15- to 17-year-old African American adolescents (n = 145) from community clinics, youth organizations, churches, and social networks in metropolitan and inner-city Detroit. Data were collected through use of survey methods and analyzed with use of descriptive statistics, independent sample t tests, and multiple regression equations. Female adolescents consumed foods higher in fat and calories (t = -2.36, p = .019) and had more body fat (t = -9.37, p = .000) than did males. Adolescents of lower SES consumed food higher in fat and calories (t = -2.23, p = .027) and had higher body mass (t = -2.57, p = .011) than did adolescents of higher SES. Inner-city African American adolescents had higher levels of physical activity (t = -2.39, p = .018) and higher body mass (t = 2.24, p = .027) than did suburban African American adolescent counterparts. Gender, SES, and residential status were statistically significant predictors of eating behaviors, physical activity, body mass index, and body fat. The initial findings from the study will assist in better understanding the obesity epidemic that affects African American adolescents in disparate proportions. Further examination of the study variables is essential to serve as a basis for
de Moraes, A C F; Musso, C; Graffigna, M N; Soutelo, J; Migliano, M; Carvalho, H B; Berg, G
High blood pressure (HBP) and obesity is a well-established major risk factor for stroke and coronary heart disease. However, the literatures are scarce about these informations in adolescents from low-and-middle income countries. This school-based survey was carried out among students from Maringá (Brazil) and Buenos Aires (Argentina) selected random sampling. We studied 991 Brazilian adolescents (54.5% girls) in the age range of 14-18 years. In Argentina, we studied 933 adolescents (45.9% female) in the age range of 11-17 years. The outcomes of this study are general obesity, abdominal obesity and HBP. The associated factors analysed were gender, age and health behaviours. The prevalence of obesity was 5.8% in Brazil and 2.8% in Argentina, the prevalence of abdominal obesity was 32.7% in Brazil and 11.1% in Argentina, the prevalence of HBP was 14.9% in Brazil and 13.5% in Argentina. The multilevel analysis showed that older adolescents (>14 years old) have a little likelihood of being overweight, whereas male adolescents are more likely to be obese and have HBP. The abdominal obesity in both indicators were not associated with the independent variables. The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors is high in Latin American adolescents independent of each country, and was associated with male gender.
Hymowitz, Norman; Schwab, Joseph; Haddock, Christopher keith; Pyle, Sara; Moore, Glenisha; Meshberg, Sarah
Pediatricians have an important and unique role to play in the anti-tobacco arena. They may prevent relapse to smoking in women who stopped smoking during pregnancy, encourage parents to protect infants and young children from environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), prevent the onset of smoking in children and adolescents, and help patients and parents who smoke or use other forms of tobacco to quit. Unfortunately, few pediatricians intervene on tobacco use or ETS, and few pediatric residency training programs prepare residents to address tobacco. The Pediatric Residency Training on Tobacco Project is a 4-year randomized prospective study of the effectiveness of training pediatric residents to intervene on tobacco in patients and parents. In this paper, we present findings from the Baseline Parent/Guardian Tobacco Survey. Fifteen pediatric residency training programs participated in the Pediatric Residency Training on Tobacco Project, and they were assigned randomly to special and standard training conditions. The Baseline Parent/Guardian Tobacco Survey was administered to 1770 participants, a minimum of 100 from each site. The Parent/Guardian Survey was designed to describe the population under study. It addressed demographic information, family tobacco use, rules concerning smoking in the home and elsewhere, smoking behavior and beliefs, and parent/guardian reports of resident intervention on tobacco. Data analyses described the population served by Continuity Clinics associated with the pediatric residency training programs and determined the degree to which residents addressed tobacco in parents/guardians. The parents/guardians were primarily low-income African American and Hispanic females. Approximately 20% reported that they smoked cigarettes, and about 60% prohibited smoking in their home. Seventy percent of the parents reported that the resident asked about cigarette smoking, and about half indicated that the resident talked with them about ETS. However, only
Killen, M; Kelly, M; Richardson, C; Crystal, D; Ruck, M
No research, to date, has investigated the role of ethnic school composition (and intergroup contact) on European-American youth's use of stereotypes to explain interracial discomfort in the context of peer exclusion. In this study European-American 4 th , 7 th and 10 th grade students ( N = 414), attending low and high ethnically diverse public schools (with low and high self-reports of cross-race/ethnic friendships, respectively) evaluated three contexts of interracial exclusion (at lunch time, at a school dance, and at a sleepover). In addition to age and context effects, participants enrolled in high diversity schools were less likely to use stereotypes to explain racial discomfort, more likely to view racial exclusion as wrong, and more likely to estimate that racial exclusion occurs, than were participants enrolled in low diversity schools. These findings have implications for the role of social experience on racial attitudes and judgments about exclusion.
Ganjaei, Kimia G; Lawton, Kira; Gaur, Sunanda
We present here the case of a healthy 16-year-old American girl who returned from an organized trip to Israel with cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania major; the infection was treated successfully with paromomycin-gentamicin ointment. She was initially misdiagnosed with staphylococcal and pseudomonal cellulitis. Although cutaneous leishmaniasis is seen only rarely in the United States, it should be considered when diagnosing new skin lesions after travel to affected countries.
White, Victoria M; Durkin, Sarah J; Coomber, Kerri; Wakefield, Melanie A
To examine how the intensity and duration of tobacco control advertising relate to adolescent smoking prevalence. Australian students (aged 12-17 years) participating in a national survey conducted triennially between 1993 and 2008 (sample size range 12 314-16 611). The outcome measure was students' smoking in the previous 4 weeks collected through anonymous, self-completed surveys. For each student, monthly targeted rating points (TRPs, a measure of television advertising exposure) for tobacco control advertising was calculated for the 3 and 12 months prior to surveying. For each time period, cumulative TRPs exposure and exposure to three intensity levels (≥100 TRPs/month; ≥400 TRPs/month; ≥800 TRPs/month) over increasing durations (eg, 1 month, 2 months, etc) were calculated. Logistic regression examined associations between TRPs and adolescent smoking after controlling for demographic and policy variables. Past 3-month cumulative TRPs were found to have an inverse relationship with smoking prevalence. Low TRPs exposure in the past 12 months was positively associated with adolescent smoking prevalence. However, smoking prevalence reduced with cumulative exposure levels above 5800 cumulative TRPs. Additionally, exposure to ≥400 TRPs/month and ≥800 TRPs/month were associated with reduced likelihood of smoking, although the duration needed for this effect differed for the two intensity levels. When intensity was ≥400 TRPs/month, the odds of smoking only reduced with continuous exposure. When intensity was ≥800 TRPs/month, exposure at levels less than monthly was associated with reductions in smoking prevalence. Both antismoking advertising intensity and duration are important for ensuring reductions in adolescent smoking prevalence. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Zawahir, Shukry; Omar, Maizurah; Awang, Rahmat; Yong, Hua-Hie; Borland, Ron; Sirirassamee, Buppha; Fong, Geoffrey T; Hammond, David
Finding ways to discourage adolescents from taking up smoking is important because those who begin smoking at an earlier age are more likely to become addicted and have greater difficulty in quitting. This article examined whether anti smoking messages and education could help to reduce smoking susceptibility among adolescents in two Southeast Asian countries and to explore the possible moderating effect of country and gender. Data came from Wave 1 of the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia Project (ITC-SEA) survey conducted in Malaysia (n = 1,008) and Thailand (n = 1,000) where adolescents were asked about receiving antismoking advice from nurses or doctors, being taught at schools about the danger of smoking, noticing antismoking messages, knowledge of health effects of smoking, beliefs about the health risks of smoking, smoking susceptibility, and demographic information. Data were analyzed using chi-square tests and logistic regression models. Overall, significantly more Thai adolescents reported receiving advice from their nurses or doctors about the danger of smoking (p < .001), but no country difference was observed for reported antismoking education in schools and exposure to antismoking messages. Multivariate analyses revealed that only provision of antismoking education at schools was significantly associated with reduced susceptibility to smoking among female Malaysian adolescents (OR = 0.26). Higher knowledge of smoking harm and higher perceived health risk of smoking were associated with reduced smoking susceptibility among Thai female (OR = 0.52) and Malaysian male adolescents (OR = 0.63), respectively. Educating adolescents about the dangers of smoking in schools appears to be the most effective means of reducing adolescents' smoking susceptibility in both countries, although different prevention strategies may be necessary to ensure effectiveness for male and female adolescents.
Russell, Cristel Antonia; Russell, Dale Wesley; Boland, Wendy Attaya; Grube, Joel W
Cultivation research has shown that heavy television viewing is linked to audiences' generalized, and often skewed, views of reality. This research investigates whether television viewing is related to adolescents' views about the consequences of drinking and whether psychological trait reactance moderates this cultivation effect. Results from a survey of 445 American teenagers show that cumulative exposure to television is linked to reduced beliefs about alcohol's negative consequences and greater intentions to drink. These effects were greater for adolescents low on trait reactance. This research adds to the general psychological research on trait reactance as a moderator of media influences and makes a substantive contribution towards furthering our understanding of the media and public health concerns that surround risky adolescent behaviors.
Brookins, C C
Developmental task resolution and self-concept of adolescents were examined for a sample of 110 African-American youth. The Erikson Psychosocial Stage Inventory was used to measure Erikson's stages of psychological development and the Bronstein-Cruz Child/Adolescent Self-concept and Adjustment Scale was used to measure multiple components of the self-concept. Scores for Self-concept and Resolution of Identity stages were highly correlated although scores on Resolution of Identity, commonly seen as the primary psychosocial task of adolescence, were not related to scores on either Emotional Well-being or Family Relations. The results are discussed in terms of improving understanding of relationships between processes in development, identity, and other salient psychosocial variables.
Chung, Paul J; Borneo, Hena; Kilpatrick, Shelley D; Lopez, Donna M; Travis, Raphael; Lui, Camillia; Khandwala, Shefali; Schuster, Mark A
Pregnancy rates among Filipino American adolescents exceed those of other Asian and Pacific Islander adolescents. Strong parent-adolescent communication may promote healthy sexual development and protect against adolescent sexual risk behaviors. We explored communication barriers between Filipino American parents and adolescents. Using community-based participatory research (CBPR), we collaborated with Filipino American community leaders, parents, and adolescents to design a focus-group study. Trained bilingual moderators conducted focus groups with 85 Filipino Americans (41 parents and grandparents and 44 adolescents aged 14-18 years) from various neighborhoods in Los Angeles. Sessions were recorded, transcribed, coded, and analyzed for themes. Focus-group participants appeared to divide sex information into 3 categories, which we termed facts, feelings, and values. Adolescents emphasized facts and feelings. Parents and grandparents emphasized facts and values. In general, facts were obtained through school, feelings through friends, and values through parents. The focus groups identified large barriers to value transmission, stemming from adolescent acculturation to the United States. Parents and grandparents felt that values were transmitted best through traditional Filipino respect for parents who often eschewed open discussion. Adolescents believed that open discussion was necessary for value transmission to occur. The result was bilateral withdrawal from family communication about sex. Our focus groups found that parent-child communication about sex, especially regarding values, was limited. Potential causes included conflicts between Filipino and US beliefs regarding respect for parents and open discussion. Our results raise important questions about the effect of acculturation on sex education for Filipino American adolescents and demonstrate potential advantages of CBPR.
Cornelius, Judith B.; St Lawrence, Janet S.
PURPOSE This study assessed African American adolescents’ receptivity to an HIV-prevention curriculum enhanced by text messaging. DESIGN AND METHODS Two focus groups were conducted with 14 African American adolescents regarding how an HIV-prevention curriculum could be enhanced for text messaging delivery. RESULTS The adolescents were receptive to the idea of text messaging HIV-prevention information but wanted to receive a maximum of three messages per day during the hours of 4:00–6:00 p.m. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS By taking the findings of this study, nurses, other healthcare providers, and community-based organizations can adapt evidence-based interventions for text messaging delivery to individuals at high risk for HIV infection. PMID:19356206
Jeffrey J. Martin
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to predict low, moderate, hard and very hard physical activity (PA and walking/biking/jogging based PA. One-hundred and fifty-nine severe to morbid obese African-American adolescents participated. We predicted 8% of the variance in hard PA largely due to family support and 10% of the variance in very hard PA due to other support (e.g. counselor and having home PA equipment. We also predicted 10% of the variance in walking/biking/jogging due to the walkability of the neighborhood. Our findings support the value of social support and environmental supports in helping obese African American adolescents increase PA.
Park, Bu Kyung; Nahm, Eun-Shim; Rogers, Valerie E; Choi, Mona; Friedmann, Erika; Wilson, Marisa; Koru, Gunes
Adolescent obesity is one of the most serious global public health challenges. Social networking sites are currently popular among adolescents. Therefore, the obesity prevention program for Korean American adolescents was developed on the most popular social networking site, Facebook. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usability of a culturally tailored Facebook-based obesity prevention program for Korean American adolescents (Healthy Teens). An explorative descriptive design of usability testing was used. Usability testing employing one-on-one observation, the think-aloud method, audio taping, screen activity capture, and surveys was performed. Twenty participants were recruited from two Korean language schools (mean age, 15.40 ± 1.50 years). Recruitment and user testing was performed between February and April 2014. Content analysis, using the inductive coding approach, was performed by three coders to analyze transcriptions. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze quantitative data including demographic characteristics, perceived usability, eHealth literacy, and health behaviors. Testing revealed several usability issues in content, appearance, and navigation. Participants' comments regarding content were positive. Although the Facebook platform provided limited flexibility with respect to building the site, participants described the program's appearance as appropriate. Most participants did not experience difficulty in navigating the program. Our preliminary findings indicated that participants perceived the Healthy Teens program as usable and useful. This program could be used as a robust platform for the delivery of health education to adolescents. Further research is required to assess the effects of Facebook-based programs on adolescent obesity prevention. Copyright © 2016 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Smith, Patrick J; Hollins, Anthony M; Sawyer, Jeffrey R; Spence, David D; Outlaw, Shane; Kelly, Derek M
As a collision sport, football carries a significant risk of injury, as indicated by the large number of pediatric football-related injuries seen in emergency departments. There is little information in the medical literature focusing on the age-related injury patterns of this sport. Our purpose was to evaluate the types of football-related injuries that occur in children and adolescents and assess which patient characteristics, if any, affect injury pattern. Retrospective chart review was performed of football-related injuries treated at a level 1 pediatric referral hospital emergency department and surrounding urgent care clinics between January 2010 and January 2014. Patients with e-codes for tackle football selected from the electronic medical record were divided into 4 age groups: younger than 8 years old, 8 to 11, 12 to 14, and 15 to 18 years. Data collected included diagnosis codes, procedure codes, and hospital admission status. Review identified 1494 patients with 1664 football-related injuries, including 596 appendicular skeleton fractures, 310 sprains, 335 contusions, 170 closed head injuries, 62 dislocations, 9 spinal cord injuries, and 14 solid organ injuries. There were 646 (43.2%) athletes with upper extremity injuries and 487 (32.6%) with injuries to the lower extremity. Hospital admissions were required in 109 (7.3%) patients. Fracture was the most common injury in all four patient age groups, but occurred at a lower rate in the 15 to 18 years old age group. The rate of soft tissue injury was higher in the 15 to 18 years old age group. The rate of closed head injury, which included concussions, was highest in the younger than 8 years old age group. Age does influence the rates of certain football-related injuries in children and adolescents. Fractures decrease with increasing age, while the rate of soft tissue trauma increases with increasing age. Younger patients (younger than 8 y old) trended toward higher rates of closed head injury compared
The challenges of identity formation are particularly difficult for minority youth because of the clash of traditional culture and the host culture. This study examined the effects of parenting style, acculturation, and parent and adolescent ethnic identity on the self-esteem and school performance of East Indian and European American adolescents.…
Spitalnick, Joshua S.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Wingood, Gina M.; Crosby, Richard A.; Milhausen, Robin R.; Sales, Jessica M.; McCarty, Frances; Rose, Eve; Younge, Sinead N.
The relationship between sexual sensation seeking and sexual risk taking has been investigated among adult populations. There are limited data, however, regarding this relationship for adolescents. Since African-American adolescent females continue to be disproportionately diagnosed with STDs, including HIV, we examined this association among a…
Zhu, Haidong; Wang, Xiaoling; Gutin, Bernard; Davis, Catherine L.; Keeton, Daniel; Thomas, Jeffrey; Stallmann-Jorgensen, Inger; Mooken, Grace; Bundy, Vanessa; Snieder, Harold; van der Harst, Pim; Dong, Yanbin
Objective To examine the relationships of race, sex, adiposity, adipokines, and physical activity to telomere length in adolescents. Study design Leukocyte telomere length (T/S ratio) was assessed cross-sectionally in 667 adolescents (aged 14-18 years; 48% African-Americans; 51% girls) using a
Manongdo, Jennifer A.; Garcia, Jorge I. Ramirez
The relation between adolescent-reported parenting behaviors and mother-reported youth externalizing and internalizing behaviors was examined among 91 Mexican American mother-adolescent (ages 13-17) dyads recruited from an immigrant enclave in a large midwestern metropolitan area. Two major dimensions of mothers' parenting emerged: supportive…
Bowman, Marvella A.; Prelow, Hazel M.; Weaver, Scott R.
The aim of the present study was to examine a model positing that association with deviant peers mediates the relation between adolescent perceived parenting behaviors (maternal monitoring and involvement), the interaction of these parenting behaviors, and delinquency in a sample of 135 urban African American adolescents (13-19 years of age).…
Liu, Lisa L.; Lau, Anna S.; Chen, Angela Chia-Chen; Dinh, Khanh T.; Kim, Su Yeong
Associations among neighborhood disadvantage, maternal acculturation, parenting and conduct problems were investigated in a sample of 444 Chinese American adolescents. Adolescents (54% female, 46% male) ranged from 12 to 15 years of age (mean age = 13.0 years). Multilevel modeling was employed to test the hypothesis that the association between…
Wiegand, Ryan E.; Hill, Elizabeth G.; Magruder, Kathryn M.; Slate, Elizabeth H.; Salinas, Carlos F.; London, Steven D.
Objective The aim of this study is to explore behavioral factors associated with toothache among African American adolescents living in rural South Carolina. Methods Using a self-administered questionnaire, data were collected on toothache experience in the past 12 months, oral hygiene behavior, dental care utilization, and cariogenic snack and non-diet soft drink consumption in a convenience sample of 156 African American adolescents aged 10-18 years old living in rural South Carolina. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to assess the associations between reported toothache experience and socio-demographic variables, oral health behavior, and snack consumption. Results Thirty-four percent of adolescents reported having toothache in the past 12 months. In univariable modeling, age, dental visit in the last two years, quantity and frequency of cariogenic snack consumption, and quantity of non-diet soft drink consumption were each significantly associated with experiencing toothache in the past 12 months (all p-values cariogenic snacks, and number of cans of non-diet soft drink consumed during the weekend significantly increased the odds of experiencing toothache in the past 12 months (all p-values ≤ 0.01). Conclusion Findings indicate age, frequent consumption of cariogenic snacks and number of cans of non-diet soft drinks are related to toothache in this group. Public policy implications related to selling cariogenic snacks and soft drink that targeting children and adolescents especially those from low income families are discussed. PMID:22085328
Bachanas, Pamela J; Morris, Mary K; Lewis-Gess, Jennifer K; Sarett-Cuasay, Eileen J; Sirl, Kimberly; Ries, Julie K; Sawyer, Mary K
To describe empirically the risky sexual behavior of an at-risk sample of adolescent girls, to assess psychosocial correlates of risky behavior, and to examine the utility of applying a risk and protective model to predicting teens' risky sexual behavior. Participants included 158 African American girls, ages 12 to 19, who were receiving medical care in an adolescent primary care clinic. Teens completed measures of depression, conduct problems, substance use, peer norms, social support, HIV knowledge, sexual self-efficacy, and sexual behavior. Teens in this sample reported high rates of risky sexual behaviors, including early sexual debuts and frequent unprotected sexual encounters with multiple partners. African American girls who reported high rates of substance use and who reported that their peers engaged in risky behaviors also reported engaging in high rates of risky sexual behaviors. Little support was obtained for protective factors (HIV knowledge, social support, sexual self-efficacy) moderating the relations between risk factors and adolescents' risky sexual behavior in this sample. Teens presenting in primary care settings in urban environments seem to be at high risk for HIV, STDs, and substance abuse, and risk reduction strategies should be introduced during the preteen years. An interdisciplinary model of care in primary care settings serving adolescents is clearly indicated, and prevention-oriented interventions aimed at reducing risky behaviors and preventing the development of more significant health, mental health, or substance abuse disorders are needed.
Kiang, Lisa; Fuligni, Andrew J.
Establishing a sense of life meaning is a primary facet of well-being, yet is understudied in adolescent development. Using data from 579 adolescents (53% female) from Latin American, Asian, and European backgrounds, demographic differences in meaning in life, links with psychological and academic adjustment, and the role of meaning in explaining associations between ethnic identity and adjustment were examined. Although no generational or gender differences were found, Asian Americans report...
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Smith-Bynum, Mia A; Lambert, Sharon F; English, Devin; Ialongo, Nicholas S
Many African American adolescents experience racial discrimination, with adverse consequences; however, stability and change in these experiences over time have not been examined. We examined longitudinal patterns of perceived racial discrimination assessed in Grades 7-10 and how these discrimination trajectories related to patterns of change in depressive and anxious symptoms and aggressive behaviors assessed over the same 4-year period. Growth mixture modeling performed on a community epidemiologically defined sample of urban African American adolescents (n = 504) revealed three trajectories of discrimination: increasing, decreasing, and stable low. As predicted, African American boys were more frequent targets for racial discrimination as they aged, and they were more likely to be in the increasing group. The results of parallel process growth mixture modeling revealed that youth in the increasing racial discrimination group were four times more likely to be in an increasing depression trajectory than were youth in the low stable discrimination trajectory. Though youth in the increasing racial discrimination group were nearly twice as likely to be in the high aggression trajectory, results were not statistically significant. These results indicate an association between variation in the growth of perceived racial discrimination and youth behavior and psychological well-being over the adolescent years.
Whiteley, Laura B; Brown, Larry K; Swenson, Rebecca R; Romer, Daniel; DiClemente, Ralph J P; Salazar, Laura E; Vanable, Peter A; Carey, Michael P; Valois, Robert F
Cell phones and online media are used frequently but we know little about their use among African American adolescents. This study examines the frequency of such use and its relationship to psychosocial variables and STI/HIV risk behavior. 1,518 African American, aged 13-18 years, from 2 Northeast US cities (Providence, RI; Syracuse, NY) and 2 Southeast US cities (Columbia, SC; Macon, GA), were assessed from 2008-2009. Participants were assessed on frequency of cell phone and Internet use, psychological constructs (ie, depression, life satisfaction, impulsivity) and HIV/STI risk behaviors (ie, history of intercourse, sexual sensation seeking attitudes, peer sexual risks norms) with reliable scales and measures using an audio computer-assisted self-interview. Over 90% of African American adolescents used cell phones every day or most days and 60% used social networking sites every day or most days (96% used Myspace). Greater frequency of cell phone use was associated with sexual sensation seeking (P = .000), riskier peer sexual norms (P = .000), and impulsivity (P = .016). Greater frequency of Internet use was associated with a history of oral/vaginal/anal sex (OR = 1.03, CI = 1.0-1.05) and sexual sensation seeking (P = .000). These findings suggest that riskier youth are online and using cell phones frequently. The Internet and cell phones may be useful platforms for targeted health promotion and prevention efforts with AA adolescents.
Burke, J.D.; Loeber, R.; Lahey, B.B.
Several studies have found a relationship between attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and substance use, primarily in the context of co-occuring conduct disorder (CD). However, very few have examined the associations between the individual dimensions of ADHD (hyperactivity-impulsivity and inattention) and substance use, even though these dimensions reflect distinct symptom groupings, both by clinical definition (DSM-IV, American Psychiatric Association, 1994) and through empirical...
Ferjan Ramirez, Naja; Leonard, Matthew K; Davenport, Tristan S; Torres, Christina; Halgren, Eric; Mayberry, Rachel I
One key question in neurolinguistics is the extent to which the neural processing system for language requires linguistic experience during early life to develop fully. We conducted a longitudinal anatomically constrained magnetoencephalography (aMEG) analysis of lexico-semantic processing in 2 deaf adolescents who had no sustained language input until 14 years of age, when they became fully immersed in American Sign Language. After 2 to 3 years of language, the adolescents' neural responses to signed words were highly atypical, localizing mainly to right dorsal frontoparietal regions and often responding more strongly to semantically primed words (Ferjan Ramirez N, Leonard MK, Torres C, Hatrak M, Halgren E, Mayberry RI. 2014. Neural language processing in adolescent first-language learners. Cereb Cortex. 24 (10): 2772-2783). Here, we show that after an additional 15 months of language experience, the adolescents' neural responses remained atypical in terms of polarity. While their responses to less familiar signed words still showed atypical localization patterns, the localization of responses to highly familiar signed words became more concentrated in the left perisylvian language network. Our findings suggest that the timing of language experience affects the organization of neural language processing; however, even in adolescence, language representation in the human brain continues to evolve with experience. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Caldwell, Roslyn M; Beutler, Larry E; An Ross, Sylvia; Clayton Silver, N
The present study examined relationships between parental monitoring (mother and father), self-esteem, and delinquency among 95 adjudicated Mexican American male adolescents who were on probationary status with the juvenile justice system. Consistent with previous literature pertaining to familial processes and delinquency among the general adolescent population, findings from the current study revealed that parental monitoring was negatively associated with delinquency. In addition, self-esteem was shown to be positively correlated with delinquency. These results highlight the generalizability of previous research related to familial, emotional, and behavioral processes among Mexican American male adolescents.
Schulte, Erica M; Jacques-Tiura, Angela J; Gearhardt, Ashley N; Naar, Sylvie
Food addiction, measured by the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS), has been associated with obesity, eating-related problems (e.g., bingeing), and problematic consumption of highly processed foods. Studies on this topic have primarily examined adult samples with an overrepresentation of White individuals, and little is known about addictive-like eating in adolescents, particularly African American adolescents who exhibit high rates of obesity and eating pathology. The current study examined the prevalence of food addiction and its convergent validity with percent overweight, eating-related problems, and self-reported dietary intake in a sample of 181 African American adolescents with obesity. Approximately 10% of participants met for food addiction, measured by the YFAS for children (YFAS-C). YFAS-C scores were most strongly associated with objective binge episodes (OBE), though significant relationships were also observed with objective overeating episodes (OOE), percent overweight relative to age- and sex-adjusted body mass index (BMI), and, more modestly, subjective binge episodes (SBE). YFAS-C scores were also related to greater consumption of all nutrient characteristics of interest (calories, fat, saturated fat, trans fat, carbohydrates, sugar, added sugar), though most strongly with trans fat, a type of fat found most frequently in highly processed foods. These findings suggest that the combination of exhibiting a loss of control while consuming an objectively large amount of food seems to be most implicated in food addiction for African American adolescents with obesity. The present work also provides evidence that individuals with food addiction may consume elevated quantities of highly processed foods, relative to those without addictive-like eating. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
consumption among adolescents. Methods: This study was based on qualitative methodology using six 50-minute discussion groups with 6-8 adolescents per group during the 2008/09 school year. Purposive sampling was performed of 12-18 year-old adolescents attending a middle-class urban school (Jaén, Spain. The sample was stratified by educational level as the homogeneity criterion and gender and tobacco consumption as the heterogeneity criterion. Content analysis consisted of coding, triangulation of categories and obtaining and verifying the results. Results: There were 44 adolescents (54% male. The participants reported that smoking relaxed and improved self-image, providing security (boys and improving relations with the opposite sex, as well as weight control (girls. The family encouraged smoking by providing a model to imitate, although many adolescents hid their smoking from their families. Friends constituted a pressure group to start or continue smoking. Starting secondary school marked the beginning of experimental use. Society tended to accept consumption and buying tobacco was easy for minors. University students were a role model and were free to smoke. The adolescents looked to their parents and educators/health workers to provide a model of abstinence and reported that they were well informed but only remembered powerful messages. Participants unanimously indicated that tobacco causes addiction, but in proportion to the duration of consumption, and were concerned only with the immediate symptoms caused by smoking. Teenage smokers associated multiple drug use with leisure time. Conclusions: This study provides useful data on motivation that could be used to improve smoking prevention interventions among adolescents. The most important factors seem to be peer influence, parental attitudes, easy access to tobacco and symptoms of dependence.
Taylor, Ronald D
Association of demanding kin relations and family routine with adolescents' psychological distress and school achievement was assessed among 200 low-income, African American mothers and adolescents. Demanding kin relations were significantly associated with adolescents' psychological distress. Family routine was significantly related to adolescents' school achievement. Demanding kin relations were negatively associated with school achievement for adolescents from families low in routine, but unrelated to achievement for adolescents in families high in routine. Additional research is needed on poor families and their social networks. © 2015 The Author. Journal of Research on Adolescence © 2015 Society for Research on Adolescence.
Granberg, Ellen M.; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Simons, Ronald L.
Social psychologists have amassed a large body of work demonstrating that overweight African American adolescent girls have generally positive self-images, particularly when compared with overweight females from other racial and ethnic groups. Some scholars have proposed that elements of African American social experience may contribute to the…
Clark, Trenette T.; Nguyen, Anh B.; Belgrave, Faye Z.
The purpose of this study was to examine individual, family, peer, and community risk and protective factors associated with past-30-days alcohol and marijuana use among African-American adolescents living in rural and urban communities. This study used data collected from 907 tenth- and twelfth-grade African-American students who completed the…
Munro-Kramer, Michelle L; Fava, Nicole M; Saftner, Melissa A; Darling-Fisher, Cynthia S; Tate, Nutrena H; Stoddard, Sarah A; Martyn, Kristy K
Research on Arab-Americans as a distinct ethnic group is limited, especially when considering the health of Arab-American youth. This study describes health risk (substance use, violence); health promotive behaviors (hope, spirituality); and sexual activity (oral, vaginal, anal sex) of Arab-American adolescents and emerging adults (aged 15-23) within their life context, as well as the association between these behaviors. A secondary analysis of data on a subset of Arab-American participants obtained from a randomized-control trial was utilized to conduct mixed methods analyses. Qualitative analyses completed on the open-ended questions used the constant comparative method for a subsample (n = 24) of participants. Descriptive quantitative analyses of survey data utilized bivariate analyses and stepwise logistic regression to explore the relation between risk behaviors and sexual activity among the full sample (n = 57). Qualitative analyses revealed two groups of participants: (a) multiple risk behaviors and negative life-events, and (b) minimal risk behaviors and positive life-events. Quantitative analyses indicated older youth, smokers, and those with higher hope pathways were more likely to report vaginal sex. The unique cultural and social contexts of Arab-American youth provide a framework for recommendations for the prevention of risk behaviors. ©2016 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.
Pope, Michell; Corona, Rosalie; Belgrave, Faye Z
Using semi-structured interviews, we explored African American maternal caregivers' and their adolescent girls' (N=25 dyads) perceptions about the adolescent's body using Grounded Theory. Caregivers and adolescent girls (Mage=13.42) were asked what the adolescent girls liked most/least about their bodies and how peers and media may affect adolescent girls' perceptions. While some adolescent girls reported overall body satisfaction, others described features they would like to change. Belief in God, body acceptance, and appreciation for average/moderate features helped the adolescent girls maintain their positive body image. The body-related messages that adolescent girls received from caregivers and peers included compliments, pressure to lose weight, teasing, and advice. Adolescent girls also reported being either influenced by or skeptical of the images presented in the media. Programs that promote caregiver-adolescent communication about body perceptions and that build on the adolescent girls' media skepticism may prove useful for their health-related attitudes and behaviors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mrug, Sylvie; Mrug, Michal; Morris, Anjana Madan; Reynolds, Nina; Patel, Anita; Hill, Danielle C; Feig, Daniel I
Hyperuricemia predicts the incidence of hypertension in adults and its treatment has blood pressure (BP)-lowering effects in adolescents. To date, no studies have examined the predictive usage of hyperuricemia or urinary uric acid excretion on BP changes in adolescents. Mechanistic models suggest that uric acid impairs both endothelial function and vascular compliance, which would potentially exacerbate a myriad of hypertensive mechanisms, yet little is known about interaction of uric acid and other hypertension risk factors. The primary study was aimed at the effects of stress on BP in adolescents. A community sample of 84 low-income, urban adolescents (50% male, 95% African American, mean age = 13.36 ± 1 years) was recruited from public schools. Youth completed a 12-hour (overnight) urine collection at home and their BP was measured during rest and in response to acute psychosocial stress. Seventy-six of the adolescents participated in a follow-up visit at 1.5 years when their resting BP was reassessed. In this substudy, we assessed the relationship of renal urate excretion and BP reactivity. After adjusting for resting BP levels at baseline and other covariates, higher levels of uric acid excretion predicted greater BP reactivity to acute psychosocial stress and higher resting BP at 18 months. Urinary excretion of uric acid can serve as an alternative, noninvasive measure of serum uric acid levels that are predictive of BP changes. As hyperuricemia-associated hypertension is treatable, urban adolescents may benefit from routine screening for hyperuricemia or high uric acid excretion. Copyright © 2017 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pearson, Jennifer L; Johnson, Amanda; Villanti, Andrea; Glasser, Allison M; Collins, Lauren; Cohn, Amy; Rose, Shyanika W; Niaura, Raymond; Stanton, Cassandra A
This study estimated differences in cigarette harm perceptions among smokers of the Natural American Spirit (NAS) brand-marketed as 'natural', 'organic' and 'additive-free'-compared to other smokers, and examined correlates of NAS use. Data were drawn from wave 1 of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) study, a nationally representative study of US adults (2013-2014). Weighted analyses using a subset of current adult smokers (n=10 565) estimated the prevalence of NAS use (vs all other brands) and examined associations between NAS use and sociodemographics, tobacco/substance use, tobacco harm perceptions, quit intentions, quit attempts and mental/behavioural health. Overall, 2.3% of adult smokers (920 000 people in the USA) reported NAS as their usual brand. Nearly 64% of NAS smokers inaccurately believed that their brand is less harmful than other brands compared to 8.3% of smokers of other brands, after controlling for potential confounders (aOR 22.82). Younger age (18-34 vs 35+; aOR 1.54), frequent thinking about tobacco harms (aOR 1.84), past 30-day alcohol use (aOR 1.57), past 30-day marijuana use (aOR 1.87) and sexual orientation (lesbian, gay, bisexual, 'other' or 'questioning' vs heterosexual; aOR 2.07) were also associated with increased odds of smoking NAS. The majority of NAS smokers inaccurately believes that their cigarettes are less harmful than other brands. Given the brand's rapid growth and its more common use in vulnerable groups (eg, young adults, lesbian, gay, bisexual, 'other' or 'questioning' adults), corrective messaging and enforcement action are necessary to correct harm misperceptions of NAS cigarettes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Yang, Fang; Cheng, Wendy J Y; Ho, Moon-Ho R; Pooh, Karen
Despite the growing body of research in adolescent cigarette smoking, there is a lack of research on Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) adolescents. This study examined the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of the past 30-day cigarette smoking in Asian American (AA) and Pacific Islander (PI) adolescents by utilizing a multi-systemic theory-the problem behavior theory. Using the 2006-07 High School Questionnaire of California Healthy Kids Survey, variables such as cigarette smoking, individual characteristics and external influences were assessed. Chi-square tests and generalized estimating equations were used in the analyses. PIs had higher past 30-day cigarette smoking rates than AAs. In the whole AAPI population, significant correlates of cigarette smoking included: positive and negative attitudes toward cigarettes, perceived harm of cigarettes, perceived prevalence of peer cigarette smoking, friend disapproval of cigarette use, previous drug use, truancy, and academic performance. Interaction results showed that truancy increased the odds of cigarette use for AAs only. The study found differential prevalence and correlate of cigarette smoking in addition to common psychosocial correlates in AAs and PIs. It sheds light on the importance of studying AAs and PIs separately and further exploring other potential variables that contribute to the prevalence discrepancy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Martin, Don; Martin, Magy; Gibson, Suzanne Semivan; Wilkins, Jonathan
African American adolescents disproportionately perform poorly compared to peers in both behavioral and academic aspects of their educational experience. In this study, African American male students participated in an after-school program involving tutoring, group counseling, and various enrichment activities. All students were assessed regarding their behavioral changes using attendance, discipline referrals, suspensions, and expulsions reports. The Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test (KBIT) and the Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement (KTEA) were used to assess the adolescents' improvement in their skills in reading and mathematics. After the end of the two-year program, initial results showed that the adolescents had increased their daily attendance, decreased discipline referrals, and had no suspensions or expulsions. These results also indicated that although the students entered the program at different skill levels, they were assessed to have the ability to function at their appropriate grade level. Their average improvement in basic skills was at least two grade levels. Implications drawn from the findings include: (a) there is a need to emphasize appropriate assessment prior to beginning a skill improvement program; (b) a need to emphasize the use of individualized learning plans and tutors; and (c) a need to further investigate the role of assessment and intervention in after-school programming in order to close the achievement gap.
Perez-Brena, Norma J; Wheeler, Lorey A; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Schaefer, David R
This study examined the role of sibling and friend characteristics in Mexican-American youth's gender-typed characteristics (i.e., attitudes, interests, and leisure activities) in early versus middle adolescence using a sibling design. Mexican-American 7th graders (M = 12.51 years; SD = .58) and their older siblings (M = 15.48 years; SD = 1.57) from 246 families participated in home interviews and a series of seven nightly phone calls. Results revealed that younger/early adolescent siblings reported more traditional gender role attitudes than their older/middle adolescent siblings and older brothers were more traditional in their attitudes than older sisters. When comparing siblings' gender-typed interests and leisure activities, boys reported more masculine orientations than girls and girls reported more feminine orientations than boys. Older brothers' gender-typed characteristics were associated with the amount of time spent with and gender characteristics of their friendship group, but for younger brothers, sibling characteristics were associated with their gender-typed characteristics. In contrast, both sibling and friendship characteristics were significantly associated with older and younger sisters' gender-typed characteristics. The discussion addressed the different correlates of older and younger sisters' and brothers' gender-typed characteristics.
Repetto, Paula B; Caldwell, Cleopatra H; Zimmerman, Marc A
To examine the trajectories of depressive symptoms among African-American youth and the psychosocial factors associated with these trajectories. The sample included 579 African-American adolescents who were at risk of dropping out of school, interviewed annually starting from ninth grade for 4 years. The measures included depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, self-esteem, stress, and active coping; all self-reported. We used cluster analysis to develop longitudinal trajectories of depression in our sample. Four different trajectories of depressive symptoms were found that represented the changes in depressive symptoms among the participants. These trajectories are: consistently high (15.9%), consistently low (21.1%), decreasing (41.8%), and increasing (21.2%) depressive symptoms. The results from the comparisons of the trajectories indicated that adolescents who presented consistently high levels of depressive symptoms were more likely to be female, reported more anxiety symptoms, lower self-esteem, higher stress, and lower grade point average (GPA) compared with adolescent members of the other trajectories. Depressive symptoms may be manifested in different ways according to the patterns of change. Different correlates are associated with these trajectories of depressive symptoms and provide insights about the antecedents and consequences of the patterns of change in depressive symptoms.
Stigler, Melissa Harrell; Perry, Cheryl L.; Smolenski, Derek; Arora, Monika; Reddy, K. Srinath
This article presents the results of a mediation analysis of Project MYTRI (Mobilizing Youth for Tobacco Related Initiatives in India), a randomized, controlled trial of a multiple-component, school-based tobacco prevention program for sixth- to ninth-graders (n = 14,085) in Delhi and Chennai, India. A mediation analysis identifies "how"…
Jenni A. Shearston
These data demonstrate the magnitude of adolescent hookah use, particularly among adolescents who use electronic or traditional cigarettes. Most strikingly, rates of female adolescent use have increased much more rapidly than has male use, and adolescent females are for the first time more likely to smoke hookahs than adolescent males in the US nationwide. These findings urgently call for better understanding of the changing correlates of hookah use, including polytobacco use.
Powell-Young, Yolanda M; Spruill, Ida J
The purpose of this investigation was to examine the reliability and factor structure of the Harter Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents (SPPA) with African-Americans. While the SPPA has demonstrated strong psychometric properties with European-Americans, limited information exists with African-Americans. Three hundred and ten (N = 310) female adolescents, from 14 through 18 years of age, completed the SPPA. Estimations of internal consistency reliability with Cronbach's alpha (alpha), item suitability with Pearson (gamma) correlations, and evaluation of factor structure fit utilizing principle axis extraction with oblimin (oblique) rotation were conducted. When compared with Harter's normative data, psychometric properties of the SPPA varied significantly with the current sample. Findings suggested cautious interpretation of data generated with demographically similar cohorts. Further study is warranted to ascertain the factor structure that is most relevant for use with African-American adolescents.
Williams, Lela Rankin; Rueda, Heidi Adams
Stress and vulnerability for dating violence may be heightened among acculturating Mexican American (MA) adolescents, and MA adolescent parents, because of differing cultural values and norms within romantic relationships. We hypothesized, in a sample of MA heterosexual couples (N = 30, 15-17 years), that: 1) within-couple level acculturation discrepancies, and pregnancy/parenting, would predict physical violence perpetration, and 2) that this association would have an indirect effect through couple-level negativity during an observed dyadic video-taped discussion of conflict. Using a path model we found that pregnant/parenting adolescents (B = .37, SE = .16, p = .002), and couples with greater acculturation mismatch resulted in greater couple negativity (B = .16, SE = .06, p = .01), which was associated with self-reported physical violence perpetration (B = .41, SE = .22, p = .02; indirect effect, B = .15, SE = .07, p = .03). Within-couple acculturation discrepancies and pregnancy/parenting may be a pathway to dating violence through poor communication skills around conflict for MA youth. Support services that strengthen communication skills, particularly for pregnant/parenting couples, are recommended. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kiang, Lisa; Andrews, Kandace; Stein, Gabriela L; Supple, Andrew J; Gonzalez, Laura M
Socioeconomic stress has long been found to place youth at risk, with low family income conferring disadvantages in adolescents' school achievement and success. This study investigates the role of socioeconomic stress on academic adjustment, and pinpoints family obligation as a possible buffer of negative associations. We examined direct and interactive effects at two time points in the same sample of Asian American adolescents-early high school (N = 180 9th-10th graders; 60 % female) and 2 years later in late high school (N = 156 11th-12th graders; 87% of original sample). Results suggest that socioeconomic stress is indeed associated with poor academic adjustment, measured broadly through self-reported GPA, importance of academic success, and educational aspirations and expectations. Family obligation was positively related to adjustment, and also was found to buffer the negative effects of socioeconomic stress, but only during adolescents' later high school years. Adolescents reporting more family obligation experienced less of the negative effects of financial stress on academic outcomes than those reporting lower obligation. Cultural and developmental implications are discussed in light of these direct and moderating effects.
Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Kuntsche, Sandra; Knibbe, Ronald; Simons-Morton, Bruce; Farhat, Tilda; Hublet, Anne; Bendtsen, Pernille; Godeau, Emmanuelle; Demetrovics, Zsolt
To investigate time-trend changes in the frequency of drunkenness among European and North American adolescents. Cross-sectional surveys in the 1997/1998 and 2005/2006 Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children Study (HBSC). High schools in 23 countries. A sample of 77 586 adolescents aged 15 years was analyzed by means of hierarchical linear modeling. The frequency of drunkenness. We observed a significant increase of about 40% in the mean frequency of drunkenness in all 7 participating Eastern European countries. This increase was evident among both genders, but most consistently among girls. Meanwhile, it declined in 13 of 16 Western countries, about 25% on average. Declines in Western countries were particularly notable among boys and in North America, Scandinavia, the United Kingdom, and Ireland. Despite this gender convergence, with few exceptions (Greenland, Norway, United Kingdom) boys continued to have a higher frequency of drunkenness in 2005/2006 than girls. The confirmed cultural convergence implies that adoption and implementation of evidence-based measures to mitigate the frequency of adolescent drunkenness such as tax increases and restricting alcohol access and advertisement should get the same priority in Eastern European countries as in Western countries. Policy measures that might facilitate decreases in drunkenness such as server training and the promotion of alcohol-free leisure-time activities should be reinforced in Western countries. The gender convergence implies that prevention policy should be less exclusively focused on male adolescents.
Hess, Christine Reiner; Papas, Mia A; Black, Maureen M
To use Nath et al.'s (1991) conceptual model of adolescent parenting to examine the relationship between resiliency factors measured shortly after delivery and maternal parenting behavior at 6 months. We recruited 181 first-time, adolescent African American mothers at delivery. Data on resiliency factors (maturity, self-esteem, and mother-grandmother relationships) were collected when infants were 1-4 weeks of age. Data on parental nurturance and parenting satisfaction were examined through observations and self-report at 6 months. Multiple regression analyses were used to examine the longitudinal impact of resiliency factors on parental nurturance and parenting satisfaction. Maternal maturity, positive self-esteem, and positive adolescent mother-grandmother relationships (characterized by autonomy and mutuality) were associated with better parenting outcomes. Maternal parenting satisfaction was lowest when infants were temperamentally difficult and mothers and grandmothers had a confrontational relationship. Longitudinal associations between mother-grandmother relationships at delivery and parental behavior and satisfaction 6 months later may suggest an intergenerational transmission of parenting style. Recommendations are provided for intervention programs to enhance mother-grandmother relationships in contexts where adolescents are required to live with a guardian to receive government assistance.
Full Text Available Objectives: African-American women are affected by disproportionately high rates of violence and sexually transmitted infections (STI/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. It is imperative to address the intersection of these two urgent public health issues, particularly as these affect African-American adolescent girls. This study assessed the prevalence of rape victimization (RV among a sample of African-American adolescent females and examined the extent to which participants with a history of RV engage in STI/HIV associated risk behaviors over a 12-month time period.Methods: Three hundred sixty-seven African-American adolescent females ages 15-21, seeking sexual health services at three local teenager-oriented community health agencies in an urban area of the Southeastern United States, participated in this study. Participants were asked to complete an audio computer-assisted self-interview (ACASI at baseline, six- and 12-month follow-up. We assessed sociodemographics, history of RV and sexual practices. At baseline, participants indicating they had experienced forced sex were classified as having a history of RV.Results: Twenty-five percent of participants reported a history of RV at baseline. At six- and 12-months, victims of RV had significantly lower proportions of condom-protected sex (p=.008, higher frequency of sex while intoxicated (p=.005, more inconsistent condom use (p=.008, less condom use at last sex (p=.017, and more sex partners (p=.0001 than non-RV victims. Over the 12-month follow-up period, of those who did not report RV at baseline, 9.5% reported that they too had experienced RV at some point during the 12-month time frame.Conclusion: African-American adolescent females who experience RV are engaging in more risky sexual behaviors over time than non-RV girls, thereby placing themselves at higher risk for contracting STIs. In light of the results from this unique longitudinal study, we discuss considerations for
Ehlers, Cindy L; Wills, Derek; Gilder, David A
Binge drinking during adolescence is common, and adolescents and young adults with alcohol problems may also have sleep difficulties. However, few studies have documented the effects of a history of adolescent binge drinking on sleep in young adulthood in high-risk minority populations. To quantify sleep disturbance, as indexed by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), in a sample of young adult Mexican American and American Indian men and women (18-30 years, n = 800) with and without a history of alcohol binge drinking during adolescence, controlling for age, gender, and race. Gender was found to affect PSQI responses with females reporting waking up at night, having more bad dreams, and later habitual bedtimes than males, and males reporting more problems with breathing and snoring. Increasing age was associated with snoring or coughing, less hours spent in bed, and later evening bedtimes. Race also influenced the PSQI with American Indians reporting longer sleep latencies and sleep durations, more hours spent in bed, and more trouble with coughing and snoring than Mexican Americans, and Mexican Americans reporting later bedtimes. A history of adolescent regular binge drinking was associated with longer sleep latencies, more problems with breathing, bad dreams, and an overall higher PSQI total score, when controlling for age, race, and gender. This report suggests, like what has been found in young adults in general population samples, that binge drinking during adolescence is associated with deleterious consequences on sleep quality in young adulthood in these high-risk and understudied ethnic groups.