WorldWideScience

Sample records for america model programs

  1. REBUILD AMERICA PROGRAM SCOPE OF WORK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey Brown; Bruce Exstrum

    2004-12-01

    This report summarizes the activities carried out by Aspen Systems Corporation in support of the Department of Energy's Rebuild America program during the period from October 9, 1999 to October 31, 2004. These activities were in accordance with the Scope of Work contained in a GSA MOBIS schedule task order issued by the National Energy Technology Laboratory. This report includes descriptions of activities and results in the following areas: deployment/delivery model; program and project results; program representative support activities; technical assistance; web site development and operation; business/strategic partners; and training/workshop activities. The report includes conclusions and recommendations. Five source documents are also provided as appendices.

  2. A model-data intercomparison of CO2 exchange across North America: Results from the North American Carbon Program Site Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwalm, C.R.; Williams, C.A.; Schaefer, K.; Anderson, R.; Arain, M.A.; Baker, I.; Black, T.A.; Chen, G.; Ciais, P.; Davis, K. J.; Desai, A. R.; Dietze, M.; Dragoni, D.; Fischer, M.L.; Flanagan, L.B.; Grant, R.F.; Gu, L.; Hollinger, D.; Izaurralde, R.C.; Kucharik, C.; Lafleur, P.M.; Law, B.E.; Li, L.; Li, Z.; Liu, S.; Lokupitiya, E.; Luo, Y.; Ma, S.; Margolis, H.; Matamala, R.; McCaughey, H.; Monson, R. K.; Oechel, W. C.; Peng, C.; Poulter, B.; Price, D.T.; Riciutto, D.M.; Riley, W.J.; Sahoo, A.K.; Sprintsin, M.; Sun, J.; Tian, H.; Tonitto, C.; Verbeeck, H.; Verma, S.B.

    2011-06-01

    Our current understanding of terrestrial carbon processes is represented in various models used to integrate and scale measurements of CO{sub 2} exchange from remote sensing and other spatiotemporal data. Yet assessments are rarely conducted to determine how well models simulate carbon processes across vegetation types and environmental conditions. Using standardized data from the North American Carbon Program we compare observed and simulated monthly CO{sub 2} exchange from 44 eddy covariance flux towers in North America and 22 terrestrial biosphere models. The analysis period spans {approx}220 site-years, 10 biomes, and includes two large-scale drought events, providing a natural experiment to evaluate model skill as a function of drought and seasonality. We evaluate models' ability to simulate the seasonal cycle of CO{sub 2} exchange using multiple model skill metrics and analyze links between model characteristics, site history, and model skill. Overall model performance was poor; the difference between observations and simulations was {approx}10 times observational uncertainty, with forested ecosystems better predicted than nonforested. Model-data agreement was highest in summer and in temperate evergreen forests. In contrast, model performance declined in spring and fall, especially in ecosystems with large deciduous components, and in dry periods during the growing season. Models used across multiple biomes and sites, the mean model ensemble, and a model using assimilated parameter values showed high consistency with observations. Models with the highest skill across all biomes all used prescribed canopy phenology, calculated NEE as the difference between GPP and ecosystem respiration, and did not use a daily time step.

  3. A model-data intercomparison of CO2 exchange across North America: Results from the North American Carbon Program site synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwalm, Christopher R. [Clark University; Williams, Christopher A. [Clark University; Schaefer, Kevin [University of Colorado, Boulder; Anderson, Ryan [University of Montana, Missoula; Arain, A. [McMaster University; Baker, Ian [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Lokupitiya, Erandathie [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Barr, Alan [Atmospheric Science and Technology Directorate, Saskatoo, SK, Canada; Black, T. A. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Gu, Lianhong [ORNL; Riciutto, Dan M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

    2010-12-01

    Our current understanding of terrestrial carbon processes is represented in various models used to integrate and scale measurements of CO2 exchange from remote sensing and other spatiotemporal data. Yet assessments are rarely conducted to determine how well models simulate carbon processes across vegetation types and environmental conditions. Using standardized data from the North American Carbon Program we compare observed and simulated monthly CO2 exchange from 44 eddy covariance flux towers in North America and 22 terrestrial biosphere models. The analysis period spans 220 site-years, 10 biomes, and includes two large-scale drought events, providing a natural experiment to evaluate model skill as a function of drought and seasonality. We evaluate models' ability to simulate the seasonal cycle of CO2 exchange using multiple model skill metrics and analyze links between model characteristics, site history, and model skill. Overall model performance was poor; the difference between observations and simulations was 10 times observational uncertainty, with forested ecosystems better predicted than nonforested. Model-data agreement was highest in summer and in temperate evergreen forests. In contrast, model performance declined in spring and fall, especially in ecosystems with large deciduous components, and in dry periods during the growing season. Models used across multiple biomes and sites, the mean model ensemble, and a model using assimilated parameter values showed high consistency with observations. Models with the highest skill across all biomes all used prescribed canopy phenology, calculated NEE as the difference between GPP and ecosystem respiration, and did not use a daily time step.

  4. Adult Education Faculty and Programs in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisdell, Elizabeth J.; Wright, Robin Redmon; Taylor, Edward W.

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on the findings of a quantitative survey of North American adult education faculty and a textual analysis of websites of adult education graduate programs in North America conducted in the fall of 2013. This study examined background information about adult education faculty and programs; the nature of faculty work interests,…

  5. 75 FR 18095 - America's Marine Highway Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... XI loan guarantee program, and changes to worker compensation policy, among other items. No statutory... Canadian Maritime Provinces and Mexico in the program. Other suggestions addressed worker compensation... Environmental Policy Act compliance, the Endangered Species Act, and the Clean Air Act, which are...

  6. Gravity and geoid model for South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blitzkow, Denizar; Oliveira Cancoro de Matos, Ana Cristina; do Nascimento Guimarães, Gabriel; Pacino, María Cristina; Andrés Lauría, Eduardo; Nunes, Marcelo; Castro Junior, Carlos Alberto Correia e.; Flores, Fredy; Orihuela Guevara, Nuris; Alvarez, Ruber; Napoleon Hernandez, José

    2016-04-01

    In the last 20 years, South America Gravity Studies (SAGS) project has undertaken an ongoing effort in establishing the fundamental gravity network (FGN); terrestrial, river and airborne relative gravity densifications; absolute gravity surveys and geoid (quasi-geoid) model computation for South America. The old FGN is being replaced progressively by new absolute measurements in different countries. In recent years, Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, Paraguay and Venezuela organizations participated with relative gravity surveys. Taking advantage of the large amount of data available, GEOID2015 model was developed for 15°N and 57°S latitude and 30 ° W and 95°W longitude based on EIGEN-6C4 until degree and order 200 as a reference field. The ocean area was completed with mean free air gravity anomalies derived from DTU10 model. The short wavelength component was estimated using FFT. The global gravity field models EIGEN-6C4, DIR_R5 were used for comparison with the new model. The new geoid model has been evaluated against 1,319 GPS/BM, in which 592 are located in Brazil and the reminder in other countries. The preliminary RMS difference between GPS/BM and GEOID2015 throughout South America and in Brazil is 46 cm and 17 cm, respectively. New activities are carrying out with the support of the IGC (Geographic and Cartographic Institute) under the coordination of EPUSP/LTG and CENEGEO (Centro de Estudos de Geodesia). The new project aims to establish new gravity points with the A-10 absolute gravimeter in South America. Recent such surveys occurred in São Paulo state, Argentina and Venezuela.

  7. Cervical cancer screening programs in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo, Raul; Almonte, Maribel; Pereira, Ana; Ferrer, Elena; Gamboa, Oscar A; Jerónimo, José; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo

    2008-08-19

    Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) have a significant burden of cervical cancer. Prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines are an opportunity for primary prevention and new screening methods, such as new HPV DNA testing, are promising alternatives to cytology screening that should be analyzed in the context of regional preventive programs. Cytology-based screening programs have not fulfilled their expectations and coverage does not sufficiently explain the lack of impact on screening in LAC. While improved evaluation of screening programs is necessary to increase the impact of screening on the reduction of incidence and mortality, other programmatic aspects will need to be addressed such as follow-up of positive tests and quality control. The implementation of new technologies might enhance screening performance and reduce mortality in the region. The characteristics, performance and impact of cervical cancer screening programs in LAC are reviewed in this article.

  8. 75 FR 26283 - Proposed Collection, Submission for OMB Review, Museums for America Grant Program Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ... Program Evaluation AGENCY: Institute of Museum and Library Services, The National Foundation on the Arts... for America Grant Program Evaluation. The 60-day Notice for ``Museums for America Grant Program... Grant Program Evaluation. OMB Number: To be determined. Agency Number: 3137. Frequency: One...

  9. Prescription drug monitoring programs in the United States of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Félix, Sausan El Burai; Mack, Karin

    2015-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Since the late 1990s, the number of opioid analgesic overdose deaths has quadrupled in the United States of America (from 4 030 deaths in 1999 to 16 651 in 2010). The objectives of this article are to provide an overview of the problem of prescription drug overdose in the United States and to discuss actions that could help reduce the problem, with particular attention to the characteristics of prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs). These programs consist of state-level databases that monitor controlled substances. The information compiled in the databases is at the disposal of authorized persons (e.g., physicians, pharmacists, and other health-care providers) and may be used only for professional purposes. Suppliers can use such information to prevent interaction with other drugs or therapeutic duplication, or to identify drug-search behavior. Law enforcement agencies can use these programs to identify improper drug prescription or dispensing patterns, or drug diversion. PMID:25563153

  10. Wind Powering America Anemometer Loan Program: A Retrospective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, T.

    2013-05-01

    This white paper details the history, mechanics, status, and impact of the Native American Anemometer Loan Program (ALP) conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Powering America (WPA) initiative. Originally conceived in 2000 and terminated (as a WPA activity) at the end of FY 2011, the ALP has resulted in the installation of anemometers at 90 locations. In addition, the ALP provided support for the installation of anemometers at 38 additional locations under a related ALP administered by the Western Area Power Administration.

  11. A model-data intercomparison of CO2 exchange across North America: Results from the North American Carbon Program Site Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwalm, Christopher R; Williams, Christopher A; Schaefer, Kevin; Anderson, Ryan; Arain, M A; Baker, Ian; Barr, Alan; Black, T Andrew; Chen, Guangsheng; Chen, Jing Ming; Ciais, Philippe; Davis, Kenneth J; Desai, Ankur R; Dietze, Michael; Dragoni, Danilo; Fischer, Marc; Flanagan, Lawrence; Grant, Robert; Gu, Lianghong; Hollinger, D; Izaurralde, Roberto C; Kucharik, Chris; Lafleur, Peter; Law, Beverly E; Li, Longhui; Li, Zhengpeng; Liu, Shuguang; Lokupitiya, Erandathie; Luo, Yiqi; Ma, Siyan; Margolis, Hank; Matamala, R; McCaughey, Harry; Monson, Russell K; Oechel, Walter C; Peng, Changhui; Poulter, Benjamin; Price, David T; Riciutto, Dan M; Riley, William; Sahoo, Alok Kumar; Sprintsin, Michael; Sun, Jianfeng; Tian, Hanqin; Tonitto, Christine; Verbeeck, Hans; Verma, Shashi B

    2010-12-09

    There is a continued need for models to improve consistency and agreement with observations [Friedlingstein et al., 2006], both overall and under more frequent extreme climatic events related to global environmental change such as drought [Trenberth et al., 2007]. Past validation studies of terrestrial biosphere models have focused only on few models and sites, typically in close proximity and primarily in forested biomes [e.g., Amthor et al., 2001; Delpierre et al., 2009; Grant et al., 2005; Hanson et al., 2004; Granier et al., 2007; Ichii et al., 2009; Ito, 2008; Siqueira et al., 2006; Zhou et al., 2008]. Furthermore, assessing model-data agreement relative to drought requires, in addition to high-quality observedCO2 exchange data, a reliable drought metric as well as a natural experiment across sites and drought conditions.

  12. Programming Models in HPC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shipman, Galen M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-13

    These are the slides for a presentation on programming models in HPC, at the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Parallel Computing Summer School. The following topics are covered: Flynn's Taxonomy of computer architectures; single instruction single data; single instruction multiple data; multiple instruction multiple data; address space organization; definition of Trinity (Intel Xeon-Phi is a MIMD architecture); single program multiple data; multiple program multiple data; ExMatEx workflow overview; definition of a programming model, programming languages, runtime systems; programming model and environments; MPI (Message Passing Interface); OpenMP; Kokkos (Performance Portable Thread-Parallel Programming Model); Kokkos abstractions, patterns, policies, and spaces; RAJA, a systematic approach to node-level portability and tuning; overview of the Legion Programming Model; mapping tasks and data to hardware resources; interoperability: supporting task-level models; Legion S3D execution and performance details; workflow, integration of external resources into the programming model.

  13. Modeling EERE deployment programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cort, K. A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hostick, D. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Belzer, D. B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Livingston, O. V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2007-11-01

    The purpose of the project was to identify and characterize the modeling of deployment programs within the EERE Technology Development (TD) programs, address possible improvements to the modeling process, and note gaps in knowledge for future research.

  14. Cooperation or Security - The Emergence of Space Programs in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godefroy, A. B.

    Traditionally, Latin America has been labeled a “Third World” region, yet when one examines its various space programs the handle hardly applies. Both Argentina and Brazil received superpower assistance during the early Cold War period to develop indigenous rocketry and space capabilities that continue to evolve today. More recently, other Latin American countries have also taken advantage of the many capabilities that space power provides. However, cooperation and development in Latin America continue to be influenced by politics and security issues, an inescapable aspect of the region's history. These factors combined have had a considerable impact on the emergence of space programs in Latin America.

  15. SALTRA: a regional program for workers' health and sustainable development in Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesseling, Catharina; Aragón, Aurora; Elgstrand, Kaj; Flores, Reinaldo; Hogstedt, Christer; Partanen, Timo

    2011-01-01

    In 2003, the university-based Program on Work and Health in Central America, SALTRA, was launched to build national and regional capacities in occupational safety and health with the goal of preventing and reducing poverty in Central America. SALTRA has implemented 20 projects including action projects in priority sectors (e.g., construction, sugarcane, hospitals, migrant coffee workers); strengthening of surveillance (occupational health profiles, carcinogenic exposures, fatal injuries and pesticides); a participatory model for training and risk monitoring by workers; building occupational health capacity for professionals, employers, and workers, with collaborating networks between the countries; strengthening of universities in work, environment, and health; studies of serious occupational and environmental situations; communication channels; and continued efforts to raise political awareness. SALTRA has placed issues of workers' health on political, business, and academic agendas throughout the region and has laid the foundations for achieving substantial future improvements in health conditions of all workers in the region. External evaluators envisioned SALTRA as an innovative development model.

  16. Program and Abstracts, Boron Americas IX Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feakes, Debra A.

    2006-08-09

    The Scientific and Technical Information (STI) submitted includes the final report and a collection of abstracts for the Ninth Boron in the Americas Conference which was held May 19-22, 2004, in San Marcos, Texas. The topics covered in the abstracts include: Application in Medicine, Application in Organic Synthesis and Catalysis, Boranes and Carboranes, Materials and Polymers, Metallaboranes and Metallacarboranes, Organoboron Compounds, Synthesis and Catalysis, and Theoretical Studies. Attendees represented researchers from government, industry, and academia.

  17. Modeling EERE Deployment Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cort, K. A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hostick, D. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Belzer, D. B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Livingston, O. V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2007-11-01

    This report compiles information and conclusions gathered as part of the “Modeling EERE Deployment Programs” project. The purpose of the project was to identify and characterize the modeling of deployment programs within the EERE Technology Development (TD) programs, address possible improvements to the modeling process, and note gaps in knowledge in which future research is needed.

  18. Food Stamp and School Lunch Programs Alleviate Food Insecurity in Rural America. Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kristin; Savage, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    The Food Stamp and the National School Lunch Programs play a vital role in helping poor, rural Americans obtain a more nutritious diet and alleviate food insecurity and hunger. This fact sheet looks at the extent to which rural America depends on these programs and describes characteristics of beneficiaries of these federal nutrition assistance…

  19. Los Alamos Programming Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergen, Benjamin Karl [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-07-07

    This is the PDF of a powerpoint presentation from a teleconference on Los Alamos programming models. It starts by listing their assumptions for the programming models and then details a hierarchical programming model at the System Level and Node Level. Then it details how to map this to their internal nomenclature. Finally, a list is given of what they are currently doing in this regard.

  20. 76 FR 21109 - Rural Energy for America Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-14

    ... for feasibility studies for renewable energy systems and a grant program for energy audits and... and renewable energy development assistance grants and with renewable energy feasibility study grants... feasibility studies. This newly expanded program is referred to as REAP, which continues the...

  1. Modeling EERE Deployment Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cort, Katherine A.; Hostick, Donna J.; Belzer, David B.; Livingston, Olga V.

    2007-11-08

    The purpose of this report is to compile information and conclusions gathered as part of three separate tasks undertaken as part of the overall project, “Modeling EERE Deployment Programs,” sponsored by the Planning, Analysis, and Evaluation office within the Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). The purpose of the project was to identify and characterize the modeling of deployment programs within the EERE Technology Development (TD) programs, address improvements to modeling in the near term, and note gaps in knowledge where future research is needed.

  2. Supporting Museums--Serving Communities: An Evaluation of the Museums for America Program. Full Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apley, Alice; Frankel, Susan; Goldman, Elizabeth; Streitburger, Kim

    2011-01-01

    The Institute of Museum and Library Services is the primary source of federal support for the nation's museums. Museums for America (MFA) is the largest IMLS grant program for museums; it supports institutions by investing in high-priority, high-value activities that are clearly linked to the institution's strategic plan and enhance its value to…

  3. 77 FR 2954 - Notice of Stakeholder Meetings on Rural Energy for America Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... Rural Business-Cooperative Service Notice of Stakeholder Meetings on Rural Energy for America Program... Business-Cooperative Service (RBS) will hold meetings for stakeholders focusing on Rural Development's... Development State Directors. Stakeholders must contact the appropriate Rural Development State Office in...

  4. Tampa Bay Estuary Program and Restore Americas Estuaries to Receive Third Place Gulf Guardian Award in the Partnerships Category

    Science.gov (United States)

    ATLANTA - Today the Gulf of Mexico Program announced that Tampa Bay Estuary Program & Restore America's Estuaries will receive a Third Place 2015 Gulf Guardian Award in the Partnerships Category. The award will be given tonight at an awards ceremony at

  5. Methods and challenges for the health impact assessment of vaccination programs in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Marli Christovam Sartori

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe methods and challenges faced in the health impact assessment of vaccination programs, focusing on the pneumococcal conjugate and rotavirus vaccines in Latin America and the Caribbean. METHODS For this narrative review, we searched for the terms "rotavirus", "pneumococcal", "conjugate vaccine", "vaccination", "program", and "impact" in the databases Medline and LILACS. The search was extended to the grey literature in Google Scholar. No limits were defined for publication year. Original articles on the health impact assessment of pneumococcal and rotavirus vaccination programs in Latin America and the Caribbean in English, Spanish or Portuguese were included. RESULTS We identified 207 articles. After removing duplicates and assessing eligibility, we reviewed 33 studies, 25 focusing on rotavirus and eight on pneumococcal vaccination programs. The most frequent studies were ecological, with time series analysis or comparing pre- and post-vaccination periods. The main data sources were: health information systems; population-, sentinel- or laboratory-based surveillance systems; statistics reports; and medical records from one or few health care services. Few studies used primary data. Hospitalization and death were the main outcomes assessed. CONCLUSIONS Over the last years, a significant number of health impact assessments of pneumococcal and rotavirus vaccination programs have been conducted in Latin America and the Caribbean. These studies were carried out few years after the programs were implemented, meet the basic methodological requirements and suggest positive health impact. Future assessments should consider methodological issues and challenges arisen in these first studies conducted in the region.

  6. Introducing Program Evaluation Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca GÂRBOAN

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Programs and project evaluation models can be extremely useful in project planning and management. The aim is to set the right questions as soon as possible in order to see in time and deal with the unwanted program effects, as well as to encourage the positive elements of the project impact. In short, different evaluation models are used in order to minimize losses and maximize the benefits of the interventions upon small or large social groups. This article introduces some of the most recently used evaluation models.

  7. The Applied Meteorology Unit: Nineteen Years Successfully Transitioning Research Into Operations for America's Space Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madura, John T.; Bauman, William H., III; Merceret, Francis J.; Roeder, William P.; Brody, Frank C.; Hagemeyer, Bartlett C.

    2011-01-01

    The Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) provides technology development and transition services to improve operational weather support to America's space program . The AMU was founded in 1991 and operates under a triagency Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the United States Air Force (USAF) and the National Weather Service (NWS) (Ernst and Merceret, 1995). It is colocated with the 45th Weather Squadron (45WS) at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) and funded by the Space Shuttle Program . Its primary customers are the 45WS, the Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) operated for NASA by the NWS at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston, TX, and the NWS forecast office in Melbourne, FL (MLB). The gap between research and operations is well known. All too frequently, the process of transitioning research to operations fails for various reasons. The mission of the AMU is in essence to bridge this gap for America's space program.

  8. Survey of Forest Engineering and Forest Operations Programs in North America

    OpenAIRE

    Dodson, Elisabeth M; Bolding, Chad; Spong, Ben

    2010-01-01

    In 1999 the International Journal of Forest Engineering published a special edition titled “Forest Engineering – Looking Ahead Ten Years.” The lead article was “Graduate programs in forest engineering and forest operations: working towards extinction.” McNeel, Stokes, and Brinker surveyed graduate programs in North America that have named graduate programs in forest engineering and forest operations (FE/FO) with a primary focus on PhD‐level graduates. Concerns were raised over the low numbers...

  9. Regional Climate Modeling over South America: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvina A. Solman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes the progress achieved on regional climate modeling activities over South America since the early efforts at the beginning of the 2000s until now. During the last 10 years, simulations with regional climate models (RCMs have been performed for several purposes over the region. Early efforts were mainly focused on sensitivity studies to both physical mechanisms and technical aspects of RCMs. The last developments were focused mainly on providing high-resolution information on regional climate change. This paper describes the most outstanding contributions from the isolated efforts to the ongoing coordinated RCM activities in the framework of the CORDEX initiative, which represents a major endeavor to produce ensemble climate change projections at regional scales and allows exploring the associated range of uncertainties. The remaining challenges in modeling South American climate features are also discussed.

  10. The 3D Elevation Program and America's infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukas, Vicki; Carswell, Jr., William J.

    2016-11-07

    Infrastructure—the physical framework of transportation, energy, communications, water supply, and other systems—and construction management—the overall planning, coordination, and control of a project from beginning to end—are critical to the Nation’s prosperity. The American Society of Civil Engineers has warned that, despite the importance of the Nation’s infrastructure, it is in fair to poor condition and needs sizable and urgent investments to maintain and modernize it, and to ensure that it is sustainable and resilient. Three-dimensional (3D) light detection and ranging (lidar) elevation data provide valuable productivity, safety, and cost-saving benefits to infrastructure improvement projects and associated construction management. By providing data to users, the 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) of the U.S. Geological Survey reduces users’ costs and risks and allows them to concentrate on their mission objectives. 3DEP includes (1) data acquisition partnerships that leverage funding, (2) contracts with experienced private mapping firms, (3) technical expertise, lidar data standards, and specifications, and (4) most important, public access to high-quality 3D elevation data. The size and breadth of improvements for the Nation’s infrastructure and construction management needs call for an efficient, systematic approach to acquiring foundational 3D elevation data. The 3DEP approach to national data coverage will yield large cost savings over individual project-by-project acquisitions and will ensure that data are accessible for other critical applications.

  11. A regional dynamic vegetation-climate model for Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, R. S.; Cowling, S. A.; Smith, B.

    2009-12-01

    Global vegetation models simulate the distribution of vegetation as a function of climate. Dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs) are also able to simulate the vegetation shifts in response to climate change, which makes them particularly useful for addressing questions about past and future climate scenarios. However, DGVMs have been criticized for using generic plant functional types (PFTs) and running the models at a coarse grid cell resolution. Regional dynamic vegetation models are able to simulate important landscape variation, since they use a finer resolution and specific PFTs for their region. Regional studies have typically focused on boreal or temperate ecosystems in North America and Europe. We will be presenting the results of applying a dynamic regional vegetation-climate model (LPJ-GUESS) for Central America. Initially, the model was run with the described global PFTs. However, several biomes were very poorly represented. Two PFTs were added: a Tropical Needleleaf Evergreen Tree to improve the simulation of the Mixed Pine-Oak biome, and a Desert Shrub to capture the Xeric Shrublands. The overall distribution of biomes was visually similar, however the Kappa statistic indicated a poor agreement with the potential biome map (overall Kappa = 0.301). The Kappa statistic did improve as we aggregated cell sizes and simplified the biomes (overall Kappa = 0.728). Compared to remote sensing data, the model showed a strong correlation with total LAI (r = 0.75). The poor Kappa statistic is likely due to a combination of factors. The way in which biomes are defined by the author can have a large influence on the level of agreement between simulated and potential vegetation. The Kappa statistic is also limited to comparing individual grid cells and thus, cannot detect overall patterns. Examining those areas which are poorly represented will help to identify future work and improve the representation of vegetation in these ecological models. In particular, the

  12. North American Water Program (NAWP): A Vision to Address North America's Freshwater Sustainability Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belvedere, D. R.; Houser, P. R.; Schiffer, R. A.; Entin, J. K.

    2013-12-01

    Dramatically changing climates has had an indelible impact on North America's water crisis; the rapid melting of glaciers has profound implications for the sustainability of Canada's rivers. However, projective increases in water demand from increasing population, industrial energy, and agriculture needs may have four times more impact on the water supply-demand imbalance than climate change. Reliable prediction of hydrologic change and extremes is of critical importance for policy and decision makers to adapt to these future water challenges. However, the models that we use to understand and forecast water availability, flooding, and drought are simply not up to the task of addressing our most pressing societal issues and national security. We need a decisive and coordinative effort to systematically improve water cycle prediction skill, coupled with reliable methodologies to translate those predictions into actionable water supply and quality information to support sustainable water management - this is a primary motivation for the proposed North American Water Program (NAWP). To decisively address these challenges, we recommend that NAWP coalesce an interdisciplinary, international and interagency effort to make significant contributions to continental-to-decision-scale hydroclimate science and solutions. By entraining, integrating and coordinating the vast array of interdisciplinary observationable and prediction resources available, NAWP will significantly advance skill in predicting, assessing, and managing variability and changes in North American water resources, as an integral part of the global climate system. We adopt three challenges to organize NAWP efforts. The first deals with developing a scientific basis and tools for mitigating and adapting to changes in the water supply-demand balance. The second challenge is benchmarking; to use incomplete and uncertain observations to assess water storage and quality dynamics, and to characterize the

  13. Kids on the Move: Afterschool Programs Promoting Healthy Eating and Physical Activity. America After 3PM Special Report. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afterschool Alliance, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Afterschool programs continue to make advances when it comes to providing students with nutritious foods, keeping them physically fit and promoting health. Such programs have great potential to help prevent obesity and instill lifelong healthy habits, serving more than 10 million children and youth across America, with more than 19 million more…

  14. Developments in Ground-Motion Modeling in Eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, G. M.; Boore, D. M.

    2012-12-01

    Recent well-recorded earthquakes in Eastern North America (ENA) have led us to re-evaluate concepts that have been "standard fare" in the development of ground-motion prediction equations (GMPEs) for ENA for decades, including all published GMPEs that are used in current practice (e.g. Atkinson and Boore, 2011, 2006, 1995; Pezeshk et al., 2011; Campbell, 2003; Toro et al., 1997, etc.). Assumptions common to all ENA GMPEs that may not be true include the following. (1) Typical ENA stress drops, in the context of a Brune model representation of the source spectrum, are in the range of 150-300 bars, with the exception of occasional high-stress events like the 1988 Saguenay earthquake. (2) Attenuation of ground motions can be modeled with a frequency-independent geometric spreading function, either bilinear or trilinear in shape (e.g. Street and Turcotte, 1975; Herrmann and Kijko, 1983; Atkinson and Mereu, 1992; Atkinson, 2004; Boatwright and Seekins, 2011), and an associated frequency-dependent anelastic attenuation term related to the regional Quality factor. The use of a bilinear or trilinear form models the transition from geometric spreading of body waves at close distances to slower surface-wave-type spreading at regional distances. We use ground-motion recordings from recent ENA events to re-examine these basic tenets of GMPE development, in light of constraints on the problem provided at low frequencies by seismic moment, and at high frequencies by stresses inferred from Empirical Greens Function (EGF) analysis. We find strong evidence, in both ground-motion data and from the constraints, that geometric attenuation may be frequency dependent. Moreover, EGF stress drops may be very high (>500 bars) - but they do not lead to particularly large high-frequency ground motions, at least at distances for which we have observations. More complex models of ENA source and attenuation processes appear to be required in order to reconcile our growing ground-motion database

  15. Calakmul Model Forest. Reports from the field -- Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulet, M

    1997-01-01

    The Calakmul Model Forest, which is situated in the Calakmul area of Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula, is one of 18 model forests in five countries worldwide that are coordinated by the secretariat at IDRC headquarters in Ottawa. The program promotes the management of natural resources in a sustained manner by a partnership of environmentalists, industry, and local communities. The goals of the program include: 1) ensuring ongoing harvests of food, wood, and other products; 2) enhancing the standard of living of local inhabitants; 3) raising awareness of conservation; and 4) promoting ecotourism. Based upon her initial surveys, Gloria Tavera, environmental educator for the program, found that: 1) more than 50% of the local population was under 15 years of age; 2) ethnic diversity was high; 3) literacy rates were low; and 4) women and children should be targeted. Since written material would be ineffective, other avenues would have to be used, such as the film "The Lion King," which brought people together to discuss environmental issues. Other program achievements include a wildlife station, the Calakmul Botanical Gardens, and a food, arts, and crafts fair and fashion show (1995) that focused on local forest products. The wildlife station houses puma, jaguar, and wild pigs. The Botanical Gardens, which covers six hectares of land, features nature trails and a showcase of local flora (including edible plants and 56 species of native orchids). It is a base for workshops, information sessions, and educational tours to the local Mayan ruins. As a result of the fair, clothes embroidered with traditional designs are being sold to tourists at the ruins, and a cookbook has been published. Tavera is now targeting 2500 primary school children in the area via environmental workshops for their teachers.

  16. Model-Driven Constraint Programming

    CERN Document Server

    Chenouard, Raphael; Soto, Ricardo; 10.1145/1389449.1389479

    2010-01-01

    Constraint programming can definitely be seen as a model-driven paradigm. The users write programs for modeling problems. These programs are mapped to executable models to calculate the solutions. This paper focuses on efficient model management (definition and transformation). From this point of view, we propose to revisit the design of constraint-programming systems. A model-driven architecture is introduced to map solving-independent constraint models to solving-dependent decision models. Several important questions are examined, such as the need for a visual highlevel modeling language, and the quality of metamodeling techniques to implement the transformations. A main result is the s-COMMA platform that efficiently implements the chain from modeling to solving constraint problems

  17. The CRAFT Fortran Programming Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas M. Pase

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Many programming models for massively parallel machines exist, and each has its advantages and disadvantages. In this article we present a programming model that combines features from other programming models that (1 can be efficiently implemented on present and future Cray Research massively parallel processor (MPP systems and (2 are useful in constructing highly parallel programs. The model supports several styles of programming: message-passing, data parallel, global address (shared data, and work-sharing. These styles may be combined within the same program. The model includes features that allow a user to define a program in terms of the behavior of the system as a whole, where the behavior of individual tasks is implicit from this systemic definition. (In general, features marked as shared are designed to support this perspective. It also supports an opposite perspective, where a program may be defined in terms of the behaviors of individual tasks, and a program is implicitly the sum of the behaviors of all tasks. (Features marked as private are designed to support this perspective. Users can exploit any combination of either set of features without ambiguity and thus are free to define a program from whatever perspective is most appropriate to the problem at hand.

  18. Assessment of a Merged Research and Education Program in Pacific Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluth, G. J.; Gierke, J. S.; Gross, E. L.; Kieckhafer, P. B.; Rose, W. I.

    2006-12-01

    The ultimate goal of integrating research with education is to encourage cross-disciplinary, creative, and critical thinking in problem solving and foster the ability to deal with uncertainty in analyzing problems and designing appropriate solutions. The National Science Foundation (NSF) is actively promoting these kinds of programs, in particular in conjunction with international collaboration. With NSF support, we are building a new educational system of applied research and engineering, using two existing programs at Michigan Tech: a Peace Corp/Master's International (PC/MI) program in Natural Hazards which features a 2-year field assignment, and an "Enterprise" program for undergraduates, which gives teams of geoengineering students the opportunity to work for three years in a business-like setting to solve real-world problems. This project involves 2 post-doctoral researchers, 3-5 Ph.D. and Master's, 5-10 PC/MI graduate students, and roughly 20 undergraduate students each year. The assessment of this project involves measurement of participant perceptions and motivations towards working in Pacific Latin America (Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala and Nicaragua), and tracking the changes as the participants complete academic and field aspects of this program. As the participants progress through their projects and Peace Corps assignments, we also get insights into the type of academic preparation best suited for international geoscience collaboration and it is not always a matter of technical knowledge. As a result, we are modifying existing courses in hazard communication, as well as developing a new course focusing on the geology of these regions taught through weekly contributions by an international team of researchers. Other efforts involve multi-university, web-based courses in critical technical topics such as volcano seismology, which because of their complex, cross-disciplinary nature are difficult to sustain from a single institution.

  19. Promoting Social Equity, Diversity, and Inclusion through Accreditation: Comparing National and International Standards for Public Affairs Programs in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubaii, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This purpose of this study is to examine the extent to which accreditation of public affairs programs can be a tool to advance social equity, diversity, and inclusion. The paper is presented in the context of the widespread acceptance of the importance of addressing social inequalities in Latin America and the critical role that public…

  20. [Evolution of air pollution and impact on control programs in 3 megacities in Latin America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacasaña-Navarro, M; Aguilar-Garduño, C; Romieu, I

    1999-01-01

    The present work discusses the problems of atmospheric pollution of three Megacities of Latin America (Mexico City, Sao Paulo and Santiago). The environmental pollution control programs implemented by the Government are revised and the evolution of pollution levels during the period of 1988-1995 at Santiago de Chile and Sao Paulo, but until 1997 at Mexico City, in order to evaluate the impact of these programs. During this period, a decreasing trend is observed in the three cities in the levels of PTS, PM10, SO2, NO2, CO and O3, although most of these contaminants still exceed the air quality standards. It must be emphasized that the largest impact has been on the levels of SO2. We recommend the development of sustainable transport policies; in this context, various strategies were proposed by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) in the European Conference of Ministers of Transport. Additionally, public participation is important when decisions are taken on transport policies.

  1. Thinking about tomorrow. The IAF and youth programs in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzullo, S

    1994-01-01

    While child survival programs are making headway, the young people who have survival childhood in Latin America and the Caribbean are living in poverty, dropping out of school, and generally suffering to the extent that their potential contributions to society are obviated. For more than 2 decades, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) have been using innovative programs to combat these ills. The Inter-American Foundation (IAF), for example, has devoted 5% of its budget to youth-oriented development during the past 25 years. To choose appropriate recipients, the IAF has worked with NGOs to achieve a workable balance between designing quality programs around the developmental needs of a specific age cohort which keep in mind the myriad socioeconomic factors affecting the well-being of these children. One such program, in Santiago, Chile, provides recreational activities which allow low-income children to build their sense of community, instill values, and bolster self-esteem. With these connections in place, other problems, such as domestic violence, can be addressed. Donors must also choose between programs which aid children directly or those which work indirectly through the family and community. The key to making this decision is keeping the developmental needs of the children in mind. Programs must also be flexible and expect a constant turnover of membership, since youth is a time of transition. It is also vital to include youth in program design and implementation. In addition, donors must find ways to stretch limited resources; for example, by developing alternative strategies for youth development that can be expanded (such as providing technical support to community-based alternative schools). It is also important for information about innovative projects to be shared. Increasing international concern about the plight of children has opened the way for NGOs to play a broader role. The UN World Summit on Youth in 1990 and the UN Convention on the Rights of

  2. Dynamic programming models and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Denardo, Eric V

    2003-01-01

    Introduction to sequential decision processes covers use of dynamic programming in studying models of resource allocation, methods for approximating solutions of control problems in continuous time, production control, more. 1982 edition.

  3. Model evaluation and ensemble modelling of surface-level ozone in Europe and North America in the context of AQMEII

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Solazzo, E.; Bianconi, R.; Vautard, R.; Appel, K.W.; Moran, M.D.; Hogrefe, C.; Bessagnet, B.; Brandt, J.; Christensen, J.H.; Chemel, C.; Coll, I.; Denier van der Gon, H.A.C.; Ferreira, J.; Forkel, R.; Francis, X.V.; Grell, G.; Grossi, P.; Hansen, A.B.; Jeričević, A.; Kraljević, L.; Miranda, A.I.; Nopmongcol, U.; Pirovano, G.; Prank, M.; Riccio, A.; Sartelet, K.N.; Schaap, M.; Silver, J.D.; Sokhi, R.S.; Vira, J.; Werhahn, J.; Wolke, R.; Yarwood, G.; Zhang, J.; Rao, S.; Galmarini, S.

    2012-01-01

    More than ten state-of-the-art regional air quality models have been applied as part of the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII). These models were run by twenty independent groups in Europe and North America. Standardised modelling outputs over a full year (2006) from each

  4. New England Wind Forum: A Wind Powering America Project, Newsletter #5 -- January 2010, Wind and Hydropower Technologies Program (WHTP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grace, R. C.; Gifford, J.

    2010-01-01

    Wind Powering America program launched the New England Wind Forum (NEWF) in 2005 to provide a single comprehensive source of up-to-date, Web-based information on a broad array of wind energy issues pertaining to New England. The NEWF newsletter provides New England stakeholders with updates on wind energy development in the region. In addition to regional updates, Issue #5 offers an interview with Angus King, former governor of Maine and co-founder of Independence Wind.

  5. Precipitation over Northern South America and Its Seasonal Variability as Simulated by the CMIP5 Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan P. Sierra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Northern South America is identified as one of the most vulnerable regions to be affected by climate change. Furthermore, recent extreme wet seasons over the region have induced socioeconomic impacts of wide proportions. Hence, the evaluation of rainfall simulations at seasonal and interannual time scales by the CMIP5 models is urgently required. Here, we evaluated the ability of seven CMIP5 models (selected based on literature review to represent the seasonal mean precipitation and its interannual variability over northern South America. Our results suggest that it is easier for models to reproduce rainfall distribution during boreal summer and fall over both oceans and land. This is probably due to the fact that during these seasons, incoming radiation and ocean-atmosphere feedbacks over Atlantic and Pacific oceans locate the ITCZ on the Northern Hemisphere, as suggested by previous studies. Models exhibit the worse simulations during boreal winter and spring, when these processes have opposite effects locating the ITCZ. Our results suggest that the models with a better representation of the oceanic ITCZ and the local low-level jets over northern South America, such as the Choco low-level jet, are able to realistically simulate the main features of seasonal precipitation pattern over northern South America.

  6. Evaluation of precipitation variability over northern South America based on CMIP5 historical model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, S. C.; Sierra, J. P.; Arias, P. A.

    2014-12-01

    Northern South America is identified as one of the most vulnerable regions to be affected by climate change. Furthermore, recent extreme wet seasons over the region have caused diverse socio-economic consequences. Hence, the evaluation of the representation of local climate of rainfall simulations at intra-annual seasonal and inter-annual time scales by the CMIP5 models is urgently required, in order to identify and analyze projections of regional and local climate under a global climate change scenario. Here, we evaluate the ability of seven of the CMIP5 models (selected based on literature review) to represent the seasonal mean precipitation and its inter-annual variability over northern South America. Our results suggest that it is easier for models to reproduce rainfall distribution during boreal summer and fall over both oceans and land, since during these seasons, not only incoming radiation, but also ocean-atmosphere feedbacks over Atlantic and Pacific oceans, locate the ITCZ on the Northern Hemisphere. Conversely, models exhibit the worse simulations of the seasonal mean precipitation during boreal winter and spring, when these processes have opposite effects locating the ITCZ. Our results suggest that the models with a better representation of the oceanic ITCZ and the local low-level jets over northern South America, such as the Choco low-level jet, are able to realistically simulate the main features of seasonal precipitation pattern over northern South America.

  7. Model Checker for Java Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Willem

    2007-01-01

    Java Pathfinder (JPF) is a verification and testing environment for Java that integrates model checking, program analysis, and testing. JPF consists of a custom-made Java Virtual Machine (JVM) that interprets bytecode, combined with a search interface to allow the complete behavior of a Java program to be analyzed, including interleavings of concurrent programs. JPF is implemented in Java, and its architecture is highly modular to support rapid prototyping of new features. JPF is an explicit-state model checker, because it enumerates all visited states and, therefore, suffers from the state-explosion problem inherent in analyzing large programs. It is suited to analyzing programs less than 10kLOC, but has been successfully applied to finding errors in concurrent programs up to 100kLOC. When an error is found, a trace from the initial state to the error is produced to guide the debugging. JPF works at the bytecode level, meaning that all of Java can be model-checked. By default, the software checks for all runtime errors (uncaught exceptions), assertions violations (supports Java s assert), and deadlocks. JPF uses garbage collection and symmetry reductions of the heap during model checking to reduce state-explosion, as well as dynamic partial order reductions to lower the number of interleavings analyzed. JPF is capable of symbolic execution of Java programs, including symbolic execution of complex data such as linked lists and trees. JPF is extensible as it allows for the creation of listeners that can subscribe to events during searches. The creation of dedicated code to be executed in place of regular classes is supported and allows users to easily handle native calls and to improve the efficiency of the analysis.

  8. The NOAA Carbon America Program A Focus on Products for Decision- Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, J. H.; Hofmann, D. J.; Tans, P. P.; Peters, W.; Andrews, A. E.; Sweeny, C.; Montzka, S. A.

    2006-12-01

    If society is to manage or reduce carbon emissions in the future, reliable and accurate information on atmospheric carbon dioxide levels for verification of emission reductions will be needed on local, regional, and global scales. The current global carbon dioxide observing network operated by NOAA/ESRL provides a foundation for monitoring and understanding carbon dioxide. For example, atmospheric measurements in Europe suggest that emissions inventories of methane are substantial underestimates. An expanded U.S. Carbon Cycle Atmospheric Observing System is being implemented. Carbon America will consist of approximately 24 aircraft and 12 tall towers obtaining concentrations of carbon gases and other trace species. This observing system needs to be capable of quantitative attribution of all major contributors to the carbon budget of the continent, both manmade and natural. Successful mitigation strategies need independent and credible assessments of their efficacy. Managing carbon emissions will require the involvement of industry, financial markets, and governments at all levels. Without good information, governments will be slow to act, private investments will likely be less than optimal, and financial markets will not develop as they might need to. The atmospheric data and the methods used to derive sources and sinks will be fully open and available in up-to-date form to scientists, the general public, and policymakers. This presentation will provide an overview of NOAA`s role in the North American Carbon Program, our current accomplishments, our plans for the future network, and the currently expected products, services, and information that derive from these and other associated studies. Today's products, while useful, will be eclipsed by those of tomorrow, which will focus heavily on regional emissions expressed on seasonal or shorter time-scales, and will provide needed information for improved predictions in the future.

  9. The New Weather Radar for America's Space Program in Florida: A Temperature Profile Adaptive Scan Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, L. D.; Petersen, W. A.; Deierling, W.; Roeder, W. P.

    2009-01-01

    A new weather radar is being acquired for use in support of America s space program at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, NASA Kennedy Space Center, and Patrick AFB on the east coast of central Florida. This new radar replaces the modified WSR-74C at Patrick AFB that has been in use since 1984. The new radar is a Radtec TDR 43-250, which has Doppler and dual polarization capability. A new fixed scan strategy was designed to best support the space program. The fixed scan strategy represents a complex compromise between many competing factors and relies on climatological heights of various temperatures that are important for improved lightning forecasting and evaluation of Lightning Launch Commit Criteria (LCC), which are the weather rules to avoid lightning strikes to in-flight rockets. The 0 C to -20 C layer is vital since most generation of electric charge occurs within it and so it is critical in evaluating Lightning LCC and in forecasting lightning. These are two of the most important duties of 45 WS. While the fixed scan strategy that covers most of the climatological variation of the 0 C to -20 C levels with high resolution ensures that these critical temperatures are well covered most of the time, it also means that on any particular day the radar is spending precious time scanning at angles covering less important heights. The goal of this project is to develop a user-friendly, Interactive Data Language (IDL) computer program that will automatically generate optimized radar scan strategies that adapt to user input of the temperature profile and other important parameters. By using only the required scan angles output by the temperature profile adaptive scan strategy program, faster update times for volume scans and/or collection of more samples per gate for better data quality is possible, while maintaining high resolution at the critical temperature levels. The temperature profile adaptive technique will also take into account earth curvature and refraction

  10. Program Analysis as Model Checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Mads Chr.

    and abstract interpretation. Model checking views the program as a finite automaton and tries to prove logical properties over the automaton model, or present a counter-example if not possible — with a focus on precision. Abstract interpretation translates the program semantics into abstract semantics...... problems as the other by a reformulation. This thesis argues that there is even a convergence on the practical level, and that a generalisation of the formalism of timed automata into lattice automata captures key aspects of both methods; indeed model checking timed automata can be formulated in terms...... of an abstract interpretation. For the generalisation to lattice automata to have benefit it is important that efficient tools exist. This thesis presents multi-core tools for efficient and scalable reachability and Büchi emptiness checking of timed/lattice automata. Finally, a number of case studies...

  11. 76 FR 80941 - Request for Connect America Fund Cost Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ... estimating the costs of providing service over a shared network to all households, businesses and community... that service territory. The Commission also intends to use the forward- looking cost model to identify... scope associated with providing services over a shared network, thereby reducing the per-location...

  12. Program for Volcanic Risk Reduction in the Americas: Translation of Science into Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, Margaret; Pierson, Thomas; Wilkinson, Stuart; Westby, Elizabeth; Driedger, Carolyn; Ewert, John

    2016-04-01

    In 2013, the United States Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Agency for International Development/Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance (USAID/OFDA) inaugurated Volcanic Risk Reduction in the Americas, a program that brings together binational delegations of scientists, civil authorities, and emergency response managers to discuss the challenges of integrating volcano science into crisis response and risk reduction practices. During reciprocal visits, delegations tour areas impacted by volcanic unrest and/or eruption, meet with affected communities, and exchange insights and best practices. The 2013 exchange focused on hazards at Mount Rainier (Washington, USA) and Nevado del Ruiz (Caldas/Tolima, Colombia). Both of these volcanoes are highly susceptible to large volcanic mudflows (lahars). The Colombia-USA exchange allowed participants to share insights on lahar warning systems, self-evacuation planning, and effective education programs for at-risk communities. [See Driedger and Ewert (2015) Abstract 76171 presented at 2015 Fall AGU, San Francisco, Calif., Dec 14-18]. The second exchange, in 2015, took place between the USA and Chile, focusing on the Long Valley volcanic region (California, USA) and Chaitén volcano (Lagos, Chile) - both are centers of rhyolite volcanism. The high viscosity of rhyolite magma can cause explosive eruptions with widespread destruction. The rare but catastrophic "super eruptions" of the world have largely been the result of rhyolite volcanism. Chaitén produced the world's first explosive rhyolite eruption in the age of modern volcano monitoring in 2008-2009. Rhyolite eruptions of similar scale and style have occurred frequently in the Long Valley volcanic region, most recently about 600 years ago. The explosivity and relative rarity of rhyolite eruptions create unique challenges to risk reduction efforts. The recent Chaitén eruption was unexpected - little was known of Chaitén's eruptive history, and because of this, monitoring

  13. Modeling the Agroecological Land Suitability for Coffea arabica L. in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Leonel; Rasche, Livia; Schneider, Uwe

    2016-04-01

    Coffee production is an important income source for small farms in Central America, but climate change threatens the production. In order to develop efficient adaptation strategies, an assessment of local conditions and opportunities is essential. Lack or uncertainty of information are common challenges for such assessments. A tool to resolve these challenges is Bayesian network analysis. In this study, we developed ALECA, the first Bayesian network model to evaluate the agroecological land suitability for Coffea arabica L. A new set of suitability functions was created and subsequently used to populate the conditional probability tables of the variables. The variables include temperature, precipitation and dry season length for the climate, slope and aspect for the landform, and soil pH, cation exchange capacity and texture for the soil component. We validated ALECA by comparing a map of current coffee areas, and specific coffee areas with known suitability for coffee production in Central America to the suitability evaluations of the model; and proceeded to explore 1) the capabilities of the model to manage data uncertainty, and 2) the changes to suitability scores under climate change. The results showed that the area suitable for coffee production will decline in Central America under climate change, underlining the need for models like ALECA, which can be used to produce reliable land evaluations at local, national and regional scales under uncertainty.

  14. Restoring our urban communities: A model for an empowered America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This booklet tells the story of how two very different types of organizations - Bethel New Life and Argonne National Laboratory - have forged a partnership to rebuild West Garfield Park. This unique Partnership blends Bethel`s theological and sociological roots with Argonne`s scientific and technological expertise. Together they hope to offer the community fresh, transferable approaches to solving urban socio-economic and environmental problems. The Partnership hopes to address and solve the inner city`s technological problems through community participation and collaborative demonstrations - without losing sight of the community`s social needs. The key themes throughout this booklet - jobs, sustainable community development, energy efficiency, and environment - highlight challenges the partners face. By bringing people and technologies together, this Partnership will give West Garfield Park residents a better life -- and, perhaps, offer other communities a successful model for urban renewal.

  15. Reconciling migration models to the Americas with the variation of North American native mitogenomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achilli, Alessandro; Perego, Ugo A.; Lancioni, Hovirag; Olivieri, Anna; Gandini, Francesca; Hooshiar Kashani, Baharak; Battaglia, Vincenza; Grugni, Viola; Angerhofer, Norman; Rogers, Mary P.; Herrera, Rene J.; Woodward, Scott R.; Labuda, Damian; Smith, David Glenn; Cybulski, Jerome S.; Semino, Ornella; Malhi, Ripan S.; Torroni, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    In this study we evaluated migration models to the Americas by using the information contained in native mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) from North America. Molecular and phylogeographic analyses of B2a mitogenomes, which are absent in Eskimo–Aleut and northern Na-Dene speakers, revealed that this haplogroup arose in North America ∼11–13 ka from one of the founder Paleo-Indian B2 mitogenomes. In contrast, haplogroup A2a, which is typical of Eskimo–Aleuts and Na-Dene, but also present in the easternmost Siberian groups, originated only 4–7 ka in Alaska, led to the first Paleo-Eskimo settlement of northern Canada and Greenland, and contributed to the formation of the Na-Dene gene pool. However, mitogenomes also show that Amerindians from northern North America, without any distinction between Na-Dene and non–Na-Dene, were heavily affected by an additional and distinctive Beringian genetic input. In conclusion, most mtDNA variation (along the double-continent) stems from the first wave from Beringia, which followed the Pacific coastal route. This was accompanied or followed by a second inland migratory event, marked by haplogroups X2a and C4c, which affected all Amerindian groups of Northern North America. Much later, the ancestral A2a carriers spread from Alaska, undertaking both a westward migration to Asia and an eastward expansion into the circumpolar regions of Canada. Thus, the first American founders left the greatest genetic mark but the original maternal makeup of North American Natives was subsequently reshaped by additional streams of gene flow and local population dynamics, making a three-wave view too simplistic. PMID:23940335

  16. Public health programs as surrogates for social action in Suriname, South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peplow, Daniel; Augustine, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the merits of public health activism that advocates for social change in which health is the outcome of interest. We acknowledge that while efforts at the individual level are important, social network models consider the underlying mechanisms that lie outside the public health sector. This paper considers the inequitable health of Indigenous people who bear a disproportionate share of the negative health consequences due to economic development programs that follow an assimilation model. This paper discusses a combination of theoretical constructs to understand and solve the problems at hand. It concludes that while the attention paid to technological and behavioral solutions at the individual level yields important health outcomes, attention should also be paid to structural causes that address social, political and economic barriers to prevent disease, disability and premature death.

  17. Predicting geographic distributions of Phacellodomus species (Aves: Furnariidae in South America based on ecological niche modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Salete Gurgel Costa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Phacellodomus Reichenbach, 1853, comprises nine species of Furnariids that occur in South America in open and generally dry areas. This study estimated the geographic distributions of Phacellodomus species in South America by ecological niche modeling. Applying maximum entropy method, models were produced for eight species based on six climatic variables and 949 occurrence records. Since highest climatic suitability for Phacellodomus species has been estimated in open and dry areas, the Amazon rainforest areas are not very suitable for these species. Annual precipitation and minimum temperature of the coldest month are the variables that most influence the models. Phacellodomus species occurred in 35 ecoregions of South America. Chaco and Uruguayan savannas were the ecoregions with the highest number of species. Despite the overall connection of Phacellodomus species with dry areas, species such as P. ruber, P. rufifrons, P. ferrugineigula and P. erythrophthalmus occurred in wet forests and wetland ecoregions.

  18. Triple Helix and European Union (EU Funding: The case of Latin America, especially Mexico and the Seventh European Framework Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Haberleithner

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The following analysis not only seeks to develop new potential intervention models; it also aims to create a detailed analysis of the existing problems with regards to communication among the active participants of Triple Helix (especially in Mexico. The special situation in Latin America with regards to existing corruption, the unequal distribution of power between the government and the private sector, dependence on other economies and other social issues will be analysed in accordance with the main focus of the investigation. The subsequent linking of potential partners to the development of an initiative for submitting a future Triple Helix/FP7 project represent an important contribution to a longer-term perspective on the preceding investigation. The potential partnerships between Europe and Latin America (in addition to other possible world regions, such as, for example, Pacific Asia will create an initial project draft within the scope of the conference.

  19. Central Wind Forecasting Programs in North America by Regional Transmission Organizations and Electric Utilities: Revised Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, J.; Porter, K.

    2011-03-01

    The report and accompanying table addresses the implementation of central wind power forecasting by electric utilities and regional transmission organizations in North America. The first part of the table focuses on electric utilities and regional transmission organizations that have central wind power forecasting in place; the second part focuses on electric utilities and regional transmission organizations that plan to adopt central wind power forecasting in 2010. This is an update of the December 2009 report, NREL/SR-550-46763.

  20. Climate change in Central America and Mexico: regional climate model validation and climate change projections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karmalkar, Ambarish V. [University of Oxford, School of Geography and the Environment, Oxford (United Kingdom); Bradley, Raymond S. [University of Massachusetts, Department of Geosciences, Amherst, MA (United States); Diaz, Henry F. [NOAA/ESRL/CIRES, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Central America has high biodiversity, it harbors high-value ecosystems and it's important to provide regional climate change information to assist in adaptation and mitigation work in the region. Here we study climate change projections for Central America and Mexico using a regional climate model. The model evaluation shows its success in simulating spatial and temporal variability of temperature and precipitation and also in capturing regional climate features such as the bimodal annual cycle of precipitation and the Caribbean low-level jet. A variety of climate regimes within the model domain are also better identified in the regional model simulation due to improved resolution of topographic features. Although, the model suffers from large precipitation biases, it shows improvements over the coarse-resolution driving model in simulating precipitation amounts. The model shows a dry bias in the wet season and a wet bias in the dry season suggesting that it's unable to capture the full range of precipitation variability. Projected warming under the A2 scenario is higher in the wet season than that in the dry season with the Yucatan Peninsula experiencing highest warming. A large reduction in precipitation in the wet season is projected for the region, whereas parts of Central America that receive a considerable amount of moisture in the form of orographic precipitation show significant decreases in precipitation in the dry season. Projected climatic changes can have detrimental impacts on biodiversity as they are spatially similar, but far greater in magnitude, than those observed during the El Nino events in recent decades that adversely affected species in the region. (orig.)

  1. Climate change in Central America and Mexico: regional climate model validation and climate change projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmalkar, Ambarish V.; Bradley, Raymond S.; Diaz, Henry F.

    2011-08-01

    Central America has high biodiversity, it harbors high-value ecosystems and it's important to provide regional climate change information to assist in adaptation and mitigation work in the region. Here we study climate change projections for Central America and Mexico using a regional climate model. The model evaluation shows its success in simulating spatial and temporal variability of temperature and precipitation and also in capturing regional climate features such as the bimodal annual cycle of precipitation and the Caribbean low-level jet. A variety of climate regimes within the model domain are also better identified in the regional model simulation due to improved resolution of topographic features. Although, the model suffers from large precipitation biases, it shows improvements over the coarse-resolution driving model in simulating precipitation amounts. The model shows a dry bias in the wet season and a wet bias in the dry season suggesting that it's unable to capture the full range of precipitation variability. Projected warming under the A2 scenario is higher in the wet season than that in the dry season with the Yucatan Peninsula experiencing highest warming. A large reduction in precipitation in the wet season is projected for the region, whereas parts of Central America that receive a considerable amount of moisture in the form of orographic precipitation show significant decreases in precipitation in the dry season. Projected climatic changes can have detrimental impacts on biodiversity as they are spatially similar, but far greater in magnitude, than those observed during the El Niño events in recent decades that adversely affected species in the region.

  2. Climate predictability and prediction skill on seasonal time scales over South America from CHFP models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Marisol; Vera, C. S.

    2016-11-01

    This work presents an assessment of the predictability and skill of climate anomalies over South America. The study was made considering a multi-model ensemble of seasonal forecasts for surface air temperature, precipitation and regional circulation, from coupled global circulation models included in the Climate Historical Forecast Project. Predictability was evaluated through the estimation of the signal-to-total variance ratio while prediction skill was assessed computing anomaly correlation coefficients. Both indicators present over the continent higher values at the tropics than at the extratropics for both, surface air temperature and precipitation. Moreover, predictability and prediction skill for temperature are slightly higher in DJF than in JJA while for precipitation they exhibit similar levels in both seasons. The largest values of predictability and skill for both variables and seasons are found over northwestern South America while modest but still significant values for extratropical precipitation at southeastern South America and the extratropical Andes. The predictability levels in ENSO years of both variables are slightly higher, although with the same spatial distribution, than that obtained considering all years. Nevertheless, predictability at the tropics for both variables and seasons diminishes in both warm and cold ENSO years respect to that in all years. The latter can be attributed to changes in signal rather than in the noise. Predictability and prediction skill for low-level winds and upper-level zonal winds over South America was also assessed. Maximum levels of predictability for low-level winds were found were maximum mean values are observed, i.e. the regions associated with the equatorial trade winds, the midlatitudes westerlies and the South American Low-Level Jet. Predictability maxima for upper-level zonal winds locate where the subtropical jet peaks. Seasonal changes in wind predictability are observed that seem to be related to

  3. Construction cost prediction model for conventional and sustainable college buildings in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othman Subhi Alshamrani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The literature lacks in initial cost prediction models for college buildings, especially comparing costs of sustainable and conventional buildings. A multi-regression model was developed for conceptual initial cost estimation of conventional and sustainable college buildings in North America. RS Means was used to estimate the national average of construction costs for 2014, which was subsequently utilized to develop the model. The model could predict the initial cost per square feet with two structure types made of steel and concrete. The other predictor variables were building area, number of floors and floor height. The model was developed in three major stages, such as preliminary diagnostics on data quality, model development and validation. The developed model was successfully tested and validated with real-time data.

  4. Wave equation modelling using Julia programming language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ahreum; Ryu, Donghyun; Ha, Wansoo

    2016-04-01

    Julia is a young high-performance dynamic programming language for scientific computations. It provides an extensive mathematical function library, a clean syntax and its own parallel execution model. We developed 2d wave equation modeling programs using Julia and C programming languages and compared their performance. We used the same modeling algorithm for the two modeling programs. We used Julia version 0.3.9 in this comparison. We declared data type of function arguments and used inbounds macro in the Julia program. Numerical results showed that the C programs compiled with Intel and GNU compilers were faster than Julia program, about 18% and 7%, respectively. Taking the simplicity of dynamic programming language into consideration, Julia can be a novel alternative of existing statically typed programming languages.

  5. Apprenticeship in Latin America: The INACAP Program in Chile. A Case Study. Occasional Paper #6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corvalan-Vasquez, Oscar E.

    The development of apprenticeship programs in several Latin American countries was investigated with a focus on the results of an industrial apprenticeship program in Santiago, Chile. The program studied was the Instituto Nacional de Capacitacion Profesional (INACAP), the national vocational training institute of Chile. The purpose of the study…

  6. A three-stage colonization model for the peopling of the Americas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Kitchen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We evaluate the process by which the Americas were originally colonized and propose a three-stage model that integrates current genetic, archaeological, geological, and paleoecological data. Specifically, we analyze mitochondrial and nuclear genetic data by using complementary coalescent models of demographic history and incorporating non-genetic data to enhance the anthropological relevance of the analysis. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: Bayesian skyline plots, which provide dynamic representations of population size changes over time, indicate that Amerinds went through two stages of growth approximately 40,000 and approximately 15,000 years ago separated by a long period of population stability. Isolation-with-migration coalescent analyses, which utilize data from sister populations to estimate a divergence date and founder population sizes, suggest an Amerind population expansion starting approximately 15,000 years ago. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results support a model for the peopling of the New World in which Amerind ancestors diverged from the Asian gene pool prior to 40,000 years ago and experienced a gradual population expansion as they moved into Beringia. After a long period of little change in population size in greater Beringia, Amerinds rapidly expanded into the Americas approximately 15,000 years ago either through an interior ice-free corridor or along the coast. This rapid colonization of the New World was achieved by a founder group with an effective population size of approximately 1,000-5,400 individuals. Our model presents a detailed scenario for the timing and scale of the initial migration to the Americas, substantially refines the estimate of New World founders, and provides a unified theory for testing with future datasets and analytic methods.

  7. Synthetic models of distributed memory parallel programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poplawski, D.A. (Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (USA). Dept. of Computer Science)

    1990-09-01

    This paper deals with the construction and use of simple synthetic programs that model the behavior of more complex, real parallel programs. Synthetic programs can be used in many ways: to construct an easily ported suite of benchmark programs, to experiment with alternate parallel implementations of a program without actually writing them, and to predict the behavior and performance of an algorithm on a new or hypothetical machine. Synthetic programs are constructed easily from scratch, from existing programs, and can even be constructed using nothing but information obtained from traces of the real program's execution.

  8. Global and Critical Visions of Distance Universities and Programs in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Casas Armengol

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available The future of any region’s higher education infrastructure cannot be a matter of guesswork; instead it must be built upon a solid foundation that is both rationally and soundly constructed. This postulate is especially important for regions such as Latin America experiencing problems associated with underdevelopment. Universities, particularly those specializing the area of science and technology, can and do play a constructive role in the advancement and improvement of modern society. However, the current Latin American educational context, which is less than optimal, can be compared with other similarly developing countries around the world, many of which have produced high quality university and scientific systems. Why is Latin America lagging behind? This is a good question that deserves closer examination. This article discusses reasons for the chronic problems for the deteriorated conditions facing Latin American universities. It also suggests ways in which Latin American distance universities can contribute to a transformation of the entire university system throughout the region.

  9. A Unified Approach to Modeling and Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; Møller-Pedersen, Birger

    2010-01-01

    of this paper is to go back to the future and get inspiration from SIMULA and propose a unied approach. In addition to reintroducing the contributions of SIMULA and the Scandinavian approach to object-oriented programming, we do this by discussing a number of issues in modeling and programming and argue3 why we......SIMULA was a language for modeling and programming and provided a unied approach to modeling and programming in contrast to methodologies based on structured analysis and design. The current development seems to be going in the direction of separation of modeling and programming. The goal...

  10. A post-seismic deformation model after the 2010 earthquakes in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Laura; Drewes, Hermann; Schmidt, Michael

    2015-04-01

    The Maule 2010 earthquake in Chile generated the largest displacements of geodetic observation stations ever observed in terrestrial reference systems. Coordinate changes came up to 4 meters, and deformations were measurable in distances up to more than 1000 km from the epicentre. The station velocities in the regions adjacent to the epicentre changed dramatically after the seism; while they were oriented eastward with approximately 2 cm/year before the event, they are now directed westward with about 1 cm/year. The 2010 Baja California earthquake in Mexico produced displacements in the decimetre level also followed by anomalous velocity changes. The main problem in geodetic applications is that there is no reliable reference system to be used practically in the region. For geophysical applications we have to redefine the tectonic structure in South America. The area south of 35° S … 40° S was considered as a stable part of the South American plate. Now we see that there are large and extended crustal deformations. The paper presents a new multi-year velocity model computed from the Geocentric Reference System of the Americas (SIRGAS) including only the four years after the seismic events (mid-2010 … mid-2014). These velocities are used to derive a continuous deformation model of the entire Latin American region from Mexico to Tierra de Fuego. The model is compared with the same velocity model for SIRGAS (VEMOS2009) before the earthquakes.

  11. Climate change hotspots over South America: from CMIP3 to CMIP5 multi-model datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Roger Rodrigues; Marengo, Jose Antonio

    2014-08-01

    This study identifies possible hotspots of climate change in South America through an examination of the spatial pattern of the Regional Climate Change Index (RCCI) over the region by the end of the twenty-first century. The RCCI is a qualitative index that can synthesize a large number of climate model projections, and it is suitable for identifying those regions where climate change could be more pronounced in a warmer climate. The reliability and uncertainties of the results are evaluated by using numerous state-of-the-art general circulation models (GCMs) and forcing scenarios from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phases 3 and 5. The results show that southern Amazonia and the central-western region and western portion of Minas Gerais state in Brazil are persistent climate change hotspots through different forcing scenarios and GCM datasets. In general, as the scenarios vary from low- to high-level forcing, the area of high values of RCCI increase and the magnitude intensify from central-western and southeast Brazil to northwest South America. In general, the climatic hotspots identified in this study are characterized by an increase of mean surface air temperature, mainly in the austral winter; by an increase of interannual temperature variability, predominantly in the austral summer; and by a change in the mean and interannual variability of precipitation during the austral winter.

  12. Assimilating Multiple Data Types in the Community Land Model (CLM) for Deciduous Forests in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montane, F.; Fox, A. M.; Hoar, T. J.; Arellano, A. F.; Liu, Y.; Moreno, G.; Quaife, T. L.; Richardson, A. D.; Trouet, V.; Alexander, M. R.; Chen, M.; Hollinger, D. Y.; Moore, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    Networks of eddy covariance towers like AmeriFlux provide the infrastructure necessary to study relationships between ecosystem processes and environmental forcing across a range of spatial and temporal scales. Recent syntheses of comparisons between observations from eddy covariance tower sites in North America and output from several Land Surface Models showed that the characterization of phenology was not accurate in most of the models. In order to improve phenological models, a continental-scale phenological observatory, the PhenoCam network, provides high-frequency observations of vegetation phenology, which can be used to derive a greenness index, the green chromatic coordinate (gcc). In this study we run the Community Land Model (CLM4.5) for 10 deciduous forests sites in North America, included in the AmeriFlux and PhenoCam networks, to assimilate multiple data types including one of the key variables in most ecosystem models, fPAR, the radiometric equivalent of Leaf Area Index (LAI). fPAR characterizes vegetation canopy function and energy absorption capacity and therefore it is important for estimating canopy photosynthesis. We use fPAR data from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), with a pixel resolution of 1 km x 1 km and a temporal resolution of 8 days. Data is assimilated in CLM with an Ensemble Kalman Filter, a sequential data assimilation technique, within the Data Assimilation Research Testbed (DART). In our study, we also compare observations available for Harvard Forest (LAI, NEE and gcc) with model output. The CLM output for LAI and NEE is sometimes located out of the observation space delimited by LAI and NEE measurements for Harvard Forest. After assimilating data, we compare observations and mean CLM model output from all the sites for a free run, an assimilation run and an assimilation run with inflation. We investigate the impact of assimilating these observations and the resultant model state updates on ecosystem carbon

  13. Development and Evaluation of a Hematology-Oriented Clinical Research Training Program in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Lillian; Rego, Eduardo; Riva, Eloisa; Elwood, Jessica; Basso, Joe; Clayton, Charles P; Mikhael, Joseph

    2016-03-15

    The objectives of the study were to describe the development of a patient-oriented clinical research training program in a low- or middle-income country (LMIC) setting, to describe perceived benefits of the program and barriers to application, and to make recommendations for future training programs. The program was developed by the American Society of Hematology in collaboration with Latin American stakeholders and clinical researchers. Session types were didactic, small group, and one-on-one faculty/participant dyad formats. Outcomes were assessed by quantitative surveys of trainees and qualitative feedback from both trainees and faculty members. The program is an annual 2-day course specifically for Latin American hematologists. Through course evaluations, all trainees described that the didactic sessions were relevant. All session types were useful for gaining knowledge and skills, particularly one-on-one meetings. The potential for networking was highly valued. Barriers to trainee applications were the concerns that skill level, proposed research program, and knowledge of English were not sufficiently strong to warrant acceptance into the course, and financial costs of attendance. We have described the development and initial evaluation of a clinical research training program in a LMIC setting. We learned several valuable lessons that are applicable to other research training programs.

  14. A Type Graph Model for Java Programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rensink, Arend; Zambon, Eduardo; Lee, D.; Lopes, A.; Poetzsch-Heffter, A.

    2009-01-01

    In this work we present a type graph that models all executable constructs of the Java programming language. Such a model is useful for any graph-based technique that relies on a representation of Java programs as graphs. The model can be regarded as a common representation to which all Java syntax

  15. A Type Graph Model for Java Programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rensink, Arend; Zambon, Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    In this report we present a type graph that models all executable constructs of the Java programming language. Such a model is useful for any graph-based technique that relies on a representation of Java programs as graphs. The model can be regarded as a common representation to which all Java synta

  16. Extreme Poverty Rising, Existing Government Programs Could Do More. New Federalism: National Survey of America's Families, Series B, No. B-45. Assessing the New Federalism: An Urban Institute Program To Assess Changing Social Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zedlewski, Sheila R.; Giannarelli, Linda; Morton, Joyce; Wheaton, Laura

    This brief examines how decreased program participation has affected poverty since welfare reform, reviewing changes in poverty from 1996-1998 and comparing families' current economic status with a scenario that assumes full participation in government support programs. Data come from the 1997 and 1999 National Surveys of America's Families (NSAF)…

  17. Differential program evaluation model in child protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalayants, Marina

    2012-01-01

    Increasingly attention has been focused to the degree to which social programs have effectively and efficiently delivered services. Using the differential program evaluation model by Tripodi, Fellin, and Epstein (1978) and by Bielawski and Epstein (1984), this paper described the application of this model to evaluating a multidisciplinary clinical consultation practice in child protection. This paper discussed the uses of the model by demonstrating them through the four stages of program initiation, contact, implementation, and stabilization. This organizational case study made a contribution to the model by introducing essential and interrelated elements of a "practical evaluation" methodology in evaluating social programs, such as a participatory evaluation approach; learning, empowerment and sustainability; and a flexible individualized approach to evaluation. The study results demonstrated that by applying the program development model, child-protective administrators and practitioners were able to evaluate the existing practices and recognize areas for program improvement.

  18. A Parallel Programming Model With Sequential Semantics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Parallel programming is more difficult than sequential programming in part because of the complexity of reasoning, testing, and debugging in the...context of concurrency. In the thesis, we present and investigate a parallel programming model that provides direct control of parallelism in a notation

  19. Emerging Space Powers The New Space Programs of Asia, the Middle East, and South America

    CERN Document Server

    Harvey, Brian; Pirard, Théo

    2010-01-01

    This work introduces the important emerging space powers of the world. Brian Harvey describes the origins of the Japanese space program, from rocket designs based on WW II German U-boats to tiny solid fuel 'pencil' rockets, which led to the launch of the first Japanese satellite in 1970. The next two chapters relate how Japan expanded its space program, developing small satellites into astronomical observatories and sending missions to the Moon, Mars, comet Halley, and asteroids. Chapter 4 describes how India's Vikram Sarabhai developed a sounding rocket program in the 1960s. The following chapter describes the expansion of the Indian space program. Chapter 6 relates how the Indian space program is looking ahead to the success of the moon probe Chandrayan, due to launch in 2008, and its first manned launching in 2014. Chapters 7, 8, and 9 demonstrate how, in Iran, communications and remote sensing drive space technology. Chapter 10 outlines Brazil's road to space, begun in the mid-1960's with the launch of th...

  20. Infectious disease in cervids of North America: data, models, and management challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Mary Margaret; Ebinger, Michael Ryan; Blanchong, Julie Anne; Cross, Paul Chafee

    2008-01-01

    Over the past two decades there has been a steady increase in the study and management of wildlife diseases. This trend has been driven by the perception of an increase in emerging zoonotic diseases and the recognition that wildlife can be a critical factor for controlling infectious diseases in domestic animals. Cervids are of recent concern because, as a group, they present a number of unique challenges. Their close ecological and phylogenetic relationship to livestock species places them at risk for receiving infections from, and reinfecting livestock. In addition, cervids are an important resource; revenue from hunting and viewing contribute substantially to agency budgets and local economies. A comprehensive coverage of infectious diseases in cervids is well beyond the scope of this chapter. In North America alone there are a number of infectious diseases that can potentially impact cervid populations, but for most of these, management is not feasible or the diseases are only a potential or future concern. We focus this chapter on three diseases that are of major management concern and the center of most disease research for cervids in North America: bovine tuberculosis, chronic wasting disease, and brucellosis. We discuss the available data and recent advances in modeling and management of these diseases.

  1. Applied Integer Programming Modeling and Solution

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Der-San; Dang, Yu

    2011-01-01

    An accessible treatment of the modeling and solution of integer programming problems, featuring modern applications and software In order to fully comprehend the algorithms associated with integer programming, it is important to understand not only how algorithms work, but also why they work. Applied Integer Programming features a unique emphasis on this point, focusing on problem modeling and solution using commercial software. Taking an application-oriented approach, this book addresses the art and science of mathematical modeling related to the mixed integer programming (MIP) framework and

  2. 78 FR 76791 - Availability of Version 4.0 of the Connect America Fund Phase II Cost Model; Adopting Current...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-19

    ... workbook. Buried excavation costs are used. A toggle allows the user to exclude manholes (the current... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 54 Availability of Version 4.0 of the Connect America Fund Phase II Cost Model; Adopting Current Default Inputs in Final Version of Model AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission....

  3. Building America Case Study: Meeting DOE Challenge Home Program Certification, Chicago, Illinois; Denver, Colorado; Devens, Massachusetts (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this project was to evaluate integrated packages of advanced measures in individual test homes to assess their performance with respect to Building America Program goals, specifically compliance with the DOE Challenge Home Program. BSC consulted on the construction of five test houses by three Cold Climate production builders in three separate US cities. BSC worked with the builders to develop a design package tailored to the cost-related impacts for each builder. Therefore, the resulting design packages do vary from builder to builder. BSC provided support through this research project on the design, construction and performance testing of the five test homes. Overall, the builders have concluded that the energy related upgrades (either through the prescriptive or performance path) represent reasonable upgrades. The builders commented that while not every improvement in specification was cost effective (as in a reasonable payback period), many were improvements that could improve the marketability of the homes and serve to attract more energy efficiency discerning prospective homeowners. However, the builders did express reservations on the associated checklists and added certifications. An increase in administrative time was observed with all builders. The checklists and certifications also inherently increase cost due to: 1. Adding services to the scope of work for various trades, such as HERS Rater, HVAC contractor. 2. Increased material costs related to the checklists, especially the EPA Indoor airPLUS and EPA WaterSense Efficient Hot Water Distribution requirement.

  4. College and University Italian Programs in North America: Where Is Italian Phonetics and Phonology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Keith

    1990-01-01

    Argues for the inclusion of courses in phonetics and phonology in college Italian programs, claiming that the myth of Italian as a phonetic language blurs the clear need for such training and that students actually require advanced coursework in phonetics and phonology to improve their articulation and pronunciation. (43 references) (Author/CB)

  5. 13 CFR 120.398 - America's Recovery Capital (ARC) Loan Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... obligations, capital leases for major equipment and vehicles, notes payable to vendors or suppliers, loans in... Program (504), home equity loans used to finance business operations, other loans to small businesses made... periodic payments of principal and interest on Qualifying Small Business Loan(s) and/or meeting...

  6. 78 FR 22043 - Rural Energy for America Program-Grants and Guaranteed Loans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    ... distinction between large and small solar and wind projects in preparing the technical reports. The Agency is... turbine example. A wind turbine would be considered retrofitted if new blades were put on to improve the... clarification and achieve consistency in the administration of the program. Technical reports. Changes...

  7. 78 FR 34978 - Amendment to Notice of Funding Availability for the Rural Energy for America Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ... program levels for feasibility studies increasing from $250,000 to up to $350,000 and for grants of $20... RES feasibility studies. The Agency is also amending, for a second time, the application deadline for...) grants, (2) RES and EEI grant and loan combinations and (3) RES feasibility study grants. The...

  8. Valuing Brazilian Youth: IDRA's Coca Cola Valued Youth Program in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montecel, Maria Robledo

    2008-01-01

    Intercultural Development Research Association (IDRA) is an independent, non-profit organization with a vision for schools that work for all children. It partnered with Coca-Cola in 1984 and began a dropout prevention program just as it was conducting the first comprehensive study of school dropouts in Texas. Its annual studies since then have…

  9. Implementing a screening program for acromegaly in Latin America: necessity versus feasibility

    OpenAIRE

    Danilowicz, Karina; Day, Patricia Fainstein; Marcos P. Manavela; Herrera, Carlos Javier; Deheza, María Laura; Isaac, Gabriel; Juri, Ariel; Katz, Debora; Oscar D. Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Acromegaly is a rare disease with a large burden due its associated comorbidities and the life-long management required. Since the occurrence and severity of associated complications are related to length of exposure to the excess growth hormone seen in acromegaly, early diagnosis is imperative. The delay in diagnosis, however, can be long, and may be the result of a lack of disease awareness and screening programs. Since acromegaly is an uncommon disease, finding ways to increas...

  10. Model Checking JAVA Programs Using Java Pathfinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havelund, Klaus; Pressburger, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes a translator called JAVA PATHFINDER from JAVA to PROMELA, the "programming language" of the SPIN model checker. The purpose is to establish a framework for verification and debugging of JAVA programs based on model checking. This work should be seen in a broader attempt to make formal methods applicable "in the loop" of programming within NASA's areas such as space, aviation, and robotics. Our main goal is to create automated formal methods such that programmers themselves can apply these in their daily work (in the loop) without the need for specialists to manually reformulate a program into a different notation in order to analyze the program. This work is a continuation of an effort to formally verify, using SPIN, a multi-threaded operating system programmed in Lisp for the Deep-Space 1 spacecraft, and of previous work in applying existing model checkers and theorem provers to real applications.

  11. A Model for Slicing JAVA Programs Hierarchically

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bi-Xin Li; Xiao-Cong Fan; Jun Pang; Jian-Jun Zhao

    2004-01-01

    Program slicing can be effectively used to debug, test, analyze, understand and maintain objectoriented software. In this paper, a new slicing model is proposed to slice Java programs based on their inherent hierarchical feature. The main idea of hierarchical slicing is to slice programs in a stepwise way, from package level, to class level, method level, and finally up to statement level. The stepwise slicing algorithm and the related graph reachability algorithms are presented, the architecture of the Java program Analyzing Tool (JATO) based on hierarchical slicing model is provided, the applications and a small case study are also discussed.

  12. Launching Latin America: International and Domestic Factors in National Space Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Walter C. Buchanan, an American-trained engineer and head of the Secretaría de Comunicaciones y Transportes (Communications and Transportation...Espacial 2011–2015 [National Program of Space Activities 2011–2015] (México, D.F.: Secretaría de Comunicaciones y Transportes, 2012), 8–9. 291 Agencia...Activities 2011–2015]. México, D.F.: Secretaría de Comunicaciones y Transportes, February 2012. Alcântara Cyclone Space. “General Infrastructure

  13. Mental Models and Programming Aptitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caspersen, Michael Edelgaard; Bennedsen, Jens; Larsen, Kasper Dalgaard

    2007-01-01

    Predicting the success of students participating in introductory programming courses has been an active research area for more than 25 years. Until recently, no variables or tests have had any significant predictive power. However, Dehnadi and Bornat claim to have found a simple test for programm...

  14. Geometric Modeling Application Interface Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-11-01

    Manual IDEF-Extended ( IDEFIX ) Integrated Information Support System (IISS), ICAM Project 6201, Contract F33615-80-C-5155, December 1985. Interim...Differential Geometry of Curves and Surfaces, M. P. de Carmo, Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1976. IDEFIX Readers Reference, D. Appleton Company, December 1985...Modeling. IDEFI -- IDEF Information Modeling. IDEFIX -- IDEF Extended Information Modeling. IDEF2 -- IDEF Dynamics Modeling. IDSS -- Integrated Decision

  15. Evaluation of glass model precipitation forecasts for North America during SOP-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlas, R.; Firestone, J.

    1984-01-01

    A study has been made of the accuracy of the GLAS fourth order forecast model's precipitation forecasts over North America during the first Special Observing Period (SOP-1) of FGGE and of the impact of the FGGE special observing systems on these forecasts. Fourteen 120 h predictions were generated using the coarse 4 deg latitude by 5 deg longitude version of the GLAS model from both the FGGE and NOSAT assimilation cycles. These forecasts were then verified against a detailed set of precipitation observations. Separate verifications were performed for precipitation accumulations or = .01 in., or = .1 in., and or = 1 in. occuring in 6, 12 and 24 time periods. In addition, three different methods of verification were applied. In the first method, model precipitation forecasts are verified against the greatest precipitation amount observed within a 4 deg latitude by 5 deg longitude gridbox centered on each gridpoint. For the prediction at a gridpoint to be verified only one observation within the gridbox is required. In the second method, a weighted mean of the closest observations to the gridpoint is used, provided that at least two observations on opposite sides of a gridpoint are available. For the third method, the model precipitation forecasts were interpolated to the observation locations.

  16. Geoid modeling in Mexico and the collaboration with Central America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avalos, D.; Gomez, R.

    2012-12-01

    The model of geoidal heights for Mexico, named GGM10, is presented as a geodetic tool to support vertical positioning in the context of regional height system unification. It is a purely gravimetric solution computed by the Stokes-Helmert technique in resolution of 2.5 arc minutes. This product from the Instituto Nacional de Estadistica y Geografia (INEGI) is released together with a series of 10 gravimetric models which add to the improvements in description of the gravity field. In the recent years, the INEGI joined the initiative of the U.S. National Geodetic Survey and the Canada's Geodetic Survey Division to promote the regional height system unification. In an effort to further improve the compatibility among national geoid models in the region, the INEGI has begun to champion a network of specialists that includes national representatives from Central America and the Caribbean. Through the opening of opportunities for training and more direct access to international agreements and discussions, the tropical region is gaining participation. Now a significantly increased number of countries is pushing for a future North and Central American geoid-based vertical datum as support of height system unification.eoidal height in Mexico, mapped from the model GGM10.

  17. Proposal of Enhanced Extreme Programming Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rizwan Jameel Qureshi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Extreme programming is one of the commonly used agile methodologies in software development. It is very responsive to changing requirements even in the late phases of the project. However, quality activities in extreme programming phases are implemented sequentially along with the activities that work on the functional requirements. This reduces the agility to deliver increments continuously and makes an inverse relationship between quality and agility. Due to this relationship, extreme programming does not consume enough time on making extensive documentation and robust design. To overcome these issues, an enhanced extreme programming model is proposed. Enhanced extreme programming introduces parallelism in the activities' execution through putting quality activities into a separate execution line. In this way, the focus on delivering increments quickly is achieved without affecting the quality of the final output. In enhanced extreme programming, the quality concept is extended to include refinement of all phases of classical extreme programming and creating architectural design based on the refined design documents.

  18. 78 FR 17624 - Wireline Competition Bureau Adds New Discussion Topic To Connect America Cost Model Virtual Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... System (ECFS). See Electronic Filing of Documents in Rulemaking Proceedings, 63 FR 24121, May 1, 1998... Return for Connect America Cost Model,'' to seek public input on what cost of money should be utilized in.... Virtual Workshop: In addition to the usual methods for filing electronic comments, the Commission...

  19. Comparing emission inventories and model-ready emission datasets between Europe and North America for the AQMEII project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pouliot, G.; Pierce, T.; Denier van der Gon, H.; Schaap, M.; Moran, M.; Nopmongcol, U.

    2012-01-01

    This paper highlights the similarities and differences in how emission inventories and datasets were developed and processed across North America and Europe for the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII) project and then characterizes the emissions for the two domains. We foc

  20. Integer Programming Models for Computational Biology Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giuseppe Lancia

    2004-01-01

    The recent years have seen an impressive increase in the use of Integer Programming models for the solution of optimization problems originating in Molecular Biology. In this survey, some of the most successful Integer Programming approaches are described, while a broad overview of application areas being is given in modern Computational Molecular Biology.

  1. Recent Weather Technologies Delivered to America's Space Program by the Applied Meteorology Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, WIlliam, H., III; Crawford, Winifred

    2009-01-01

    The Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) is a unique joint venture of NASA, the Air Force and the National Weather Service (NWS) and has been supporting the Space Program for nearly two decades. The AMU acts as a bridge between the meteorological research community and operational forecasters by developing, evaluating and transitioning new technology and techniques to improve weather support to spaceport operations at the Eastern Range (ER) and Kennedy Space Center. Its primary customers are the 45th Weather Squadron at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS), the Spaceflight Meteorology Group at Johnson Space Center and the National Weather Service Office in Melbourne, FL. Its products are used to support NASA's Shuttle and ELV programs as well as Department of Defense and commercial launches from the ER. Shuttle support includes landing sites beyond the ER. The AMU is co-located with the Air Force operational forecasters at CCAFS to facilitate continuous two-way interaction between the AMU and its operational customers. It is operated under a NASA, Air Force, and NWS Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) by a competitively-selected contractor. The contract, which is funded and managed by NASA, provides five full time professionals with degrees in meteorology or related fields, some of whom also have operational experience. NASA provides a Ph.D.- level NASA civil service scientist as Chief of the AMU. The AMU is tasked by its customers through a unique, nationally recognized process. The tasks are limited to development, evaluation and operational transition of technology to improve weather support to spaceport operations and providing expert advice to the customers. The MOU expressly forbids using the AMU resources to conduct operations or do basic research. The presentation will provide a brief overview of the AMU and how it is tasked by its customers to provide high priority products and services. The balance of the presentation will cover a sampling of products

  2. A data-driven model of present-day glacial isostatic adjustment in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Karen; Riva, Riccardo

    2016-04-01

    Geodetic measurements of gravity change and vertical land motion are incorporated into an a priori model of present-day glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) via least-squares inversion. The result is an updated model of present-day GIA wherein the final predicted signal is informed by both observational data with realistic errors, and prior knowledge of GIA inferred from forward models. This method and other similar techniques have been implemented within a limited but growing number of GIA studies (e.g., Hill et al. 2010). The combination method allows calculation of the uncertainties of predicted GIA fields, and thus offers a significant advantage over predictions from purely forward GIA models. Here, we show the results of using the combination approach to predict present-day rates of GIA in North America through the incorporation of both GPS-measured vertical land motion rates and GRACE-measured gravity observations into the prior model. In order to assess the influence of each dataset on the final GIA prediction, the vertical motion and gravimetry datasets are incorporated into the model first independently (i.e., one dataset only), then simultaneously. Because the a priori GIA model and its associated covariance are developed by averaging predictions from a suite of forward models that varies aspects of the Earth rheology and ice sheet history, the final GIA model is not independent of forward model predictions. However, we determine the sensitivity of the final model result to the prior GIA model information by using different representations of the input model covariance. We show that when both datasets are incorporated into the inversion, the final model adequately predicts available observational constraints, minimizes the uncertainty associated with the forward modelled GIA inputs, and includes a realistic estimation of the formal error associated with the GIA process. Along parts of the North American coastline, improved predictions of the long-term (kyr

  3. Tsunami hazard assessment in El Salvador, Central America, from seismic sources through flooding numerical models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Álvarez-Gómez

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available El Salvador is the smallest and most densely populated country in Central America; its coast has approximately a length of 320 km, 29 municipalities and more than 700 000 inhabitants. In El Salvador there have been 15 recorded tsunamis between 1859 and 2012, 3 of them causing damages and hundreds of victims. The hazard assessment is commonly based on propagation numerical models for earthquake-generated tsunamis and can be approached from both Probabilistic and Deterministic Methods. A deterministic approximation has been applied in this study as it provides essential information for coastal planning and management. The objective of the research was twofold, on the one hand the characterization of the threat over the entire coast of El Salvador, and on the other the computation of flooding maps for the three main localities of the Salvadorian coast. For the latter we developed high resolution flooding models. For the former, due to the extension of the coastal area, we computed maximum elevation maps and from the elevation in the near-shore we computed an estimation of the run-up and the flooded area using empirical relations. We have considered local sources located in the Middle America Trench, characterized seismotectonically, and distant sources in the rest of Pacific basin, using historical and recent earthquakes and tsunamis. We used a hybrid finite differences – finite volumes numerical model in this work, based on the Linear and Non-linear Shallow Water Equations, to simulate a total of 24 earthquake generated tsunami scenarios. In the western Salvadorian coast, run-up values higher than 5 m are common, while in the eastern area, approximately from La Libertad to the Gulf of Fonseca, the run-up values are lower. The more exposed areas to flooding are the lowlands in the Lempa River delta and the Barra de Santiago Western Plains. The results of the empirical approximation used for the whole country are similar to the results obtained

  4. Tsunami hazard assessment in El Salvador, Central America, from seismic sources through flooding numerical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Gómez, J. A.; Aniel-Quiroga, Í.; Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, O. Q.; Larreynaga, J.; González, M.; Castro, M.; Gavidia, F.; Aguirre-Ayerbe, I.; González-Riancho, P.; Carreño, E.

    2013-11-01

    El Salvador is the smallest and most densely populated country in Central America; its coast has an approximate length of 320 km, 29 municipalities and more than 700 000 inhabitants. In El Salvador there were 15 recorded tsunamis between 1859 and 2012, 3 of them causing damages and resulting in hundreds of victims. Hazard assessment is commonly based on propagation numerical models for earthquake-generated tsunamis and can be approached through both probabilistic and deterministic methods. A deterministic approximation has been applied in this study as it provides essential information for coastal planning and management. The objective of the research was twofold: on the one hand the characterization of the threat over the entire coast of El Salvador, and on the other the computation of flooding maps for the three main localities of the Salvadorian coast. For the latter we developed high-resolution flooding models. For the former, due to the extension of the coastal area, we computed maximum elevation maps, and from the elevation in the near shore we computed an estimation of the run-up and the flooded area using empirical relations. We have considered local sources located in the Middle America Trench, characterized seismotectonically, and distant sources in the rest of Pacific Basin, using historical and recent earthquakes and tsunamis. We used a hybrid finite differences-finite volumes numerical model in this work, based on the linear and non-linear shallow water equations, to simulate a total of 24 earthquake-generated tsunami scenarios. Our results show that at the western Salvadorian coast, run-up values higher than 5 m are common, while in the eastern area, approximately from La Libertad to the Gulf of Fonseca, the run-up values are lower. The more exposed areas to flooding are the lowlands in the Lempa River delta and the Barra de Santiago Western Plains. The results of the empirical approximation used for the whole country are similar to the results

  5. Opportunities of the new technological model of light vehicle fuels in South America; Oportunidades futuras no novo modelo tecnologico de combustiveis para veiculos leves na America do Sul

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dourado, Jose Diamantino de A. [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica Celso Sukow da Fonseca (CEFET-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Chaves, Hernani Aquini F.; Jones, Cleveland Maximino [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Estratigrafia e Paleontologia (DEPA)

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this work is to show which solutions the South American market is putting forth for the new technological model of the automotive fuel for light duty vehicles. A strong and irreversible trend is underway, which is seeking more environmentally friendly and economically attractive alternatives for the conventional automotive technology, based on the consumption of gasoline and diesel fuel. This trend is evident not only in Latin America, but also in many other countries and regions, and has resulted in a great number of vehicle conversions, so as to operate with vehicular natural gas. Another important way in which this trend has expressed itself is the commercial acceptance and success of the tetra fuel technology vehicles. (author)

  6. Data-Generating Program for ASKA Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi-Dechesh, A.; Cheng, T. K.

    1985-01-01

    Carrier plate assemblies of NASA Space Shuttle thermal protection system provided for easy access to protected vital parts of Shuttle. Each assembly mounted on substructure with fasteners through holes in protective tiles. Automatic System of Kinematic Analysis (ASKA) finite-element program evaluates these assemblies. PLATEFORT computer program developed as data generator for ASKA modeling. PLATEFORT greatly reduces amount of time and data required for building ASKA model of these assemblies.

  7. Modeling South America regional smoke plume: aerosol optical depth variability and shortwave surface forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosário, N. E.; Longo, K. M.; Freitas, S. R.; Yamasoe, M. A.; Fonseca, R. M.

    2012-07-01

    Intra-seasonal variability of smoke aerosol optical depth (AOD) and downwelling solar irradiance at the surface during the 2002 biomass burning season in South America was modeled using the Coupled Chemistry-Aerosol-Tracer Transport model to the Brazilian developments on the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (CCATT-BRAMS). Measurements of AOD from the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) and solar irradiance at the surface from the Solar Radiation Network (SolRad-NET) were used to evaluate model results. In general, the major features associated with AOD evolution over the southern part of the Amazon Basin and cerrado ecosystem are captured by the model. The main discrepancies were found for high aerosol loading events. In the northeastern portion of the Amazon Basin the model systematically underestimated AOD. This is likely due to the cloudy nature of the region, preventing accurate detection of the fire spots used in the emission model. Moreover, measured AOD were very often close to background conditions and emissions other than smoke were not considered in the simulation. Therefore, under the background scenario, one would expect the model to underestimate AOD. The issue of high aerosol loading events in the southern part of the Amazon and cerrado is also discussed in the context of emission shortcomings. The Cuiabá cerrado site was the only one where the highest quality AERONET data were unavailable. Thus, lower quality data were used. Root-mean-square-error (RMSE) between the model and observations decreased from 0.48 to 0.17 when extreme AOD events (AOD550 nm ≥ 1.0) and Cuiabá were excluded from analysis. Downward surface solar irradiance comparisons also followed similar trends when extremes AOD were excluded. This highlights the need to improve the modelling of the regional smoke plume in order to enhance the accuracy of the radiative energy budget. Aerosol optical model based on the mean intensive properties of smoke from the southern part of the

  8. Artificial neural networks and multiple linear regression model using principal components to estimate rainfall over South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares dos Santos, T.; Mendes, D.; Rodrigues Torres, R.

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have been devoted to dynamic and statistical downscaling for analysis of both climate variability and climate change. This paper introduces an application of artificial neural networks (ANNs) and multiple linear regression (MLR) by principal components to estimate rainfall in South America. This method is proposed for downscaling monthly precipitation time series over South America for three regions: the Amazon; northeastern Brazil; and the La Plata Basin, which is one of the regions of the planet that will be most affected by the climate change projected for the end of the 21st century. The downscaling models were developed and validated using CMIP5 model output and observed monthly precipitation. We used general circulation model (GCM) experiments for the 20th century (RCP historical; 1970-1999) and two scenarios (RCP 2.6 and 8.5; 2070-2100). The model test results indicate that the ANNs significantly outperform the MLR downscaling of monthly precipitation variability.

  9. A hierarchical network approach for modeling Rift Valley fever epidemics with applications in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Ling; Cohnstaedt, Lee W; Scott, H Morgan; Scoglio, Caterina

    2013-01-01

    Rift Valley fever is a vector-borne zoonotic disease which causes high morbidity and mortality in livestock. In the event Rift Valley fever virus is introduced to the United States or other non-endemic areas, understanding the potential patterns of spread and the areas at risk based on disease vectors and hosts will be vital for developing mitigation strategies. Presented here is a general network-based mathematical model of Rift Valley fever. Given a lack of empirical data on disease vector species and their vector competence, this discrete time epidemic model uses stochastic parameters following several PERT distributions to model the dynamic interactions between hosts and likely North American mosquito vectors in dispersed geographic areas. Spatial effects and climate factors are also addressed in the model. The model is applied to a large directed asymmetric network of 3,621 nodes based on actual farms to examine a hypothetical introduction to some counties of Texas, an important ranching area in the United States of America. The nodes of the networks represent livestock farms, livestock markets, and feedlots, and the links represent cattle movements and mosquito diffusion between different nodes. Cattle and mosquito (Aedes and Culex) populations are treated with different contact networks to assess virus propagation. Rift Valley fever virus spread is assessed under various initial infection conditions (infected mosquito eggs, adults or cattle). A surprising trend is fewer initial infectious organisms result in a longer delay before a larger and more prolonged outbreak. The delay is likely caused by a lack of herd immunity while the infection expands geographically before becoming an epidemic involving many dispersed farms and animals almost simultaneously. Cattle movement between farms is a large driver of virus expansion, thus quarantines can be efficient mitigation strategy to prevent further geographic spread.

  10. A hierarchical network approach for modeling Rift Valley fever epidemics with applications in North America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Xue

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever is a vector-borne zoonotic disease which causes high morbidity and mortality in livestock. In the event Rift Valley fever virus is introduced to the United States or other non-endemic areas, understanding the potential patterns of spread and the areas at risk based on disease vectors and hosts will be vital for developing mitigation strategies. Presented here is a general network-based mathematical model of Rift Valley fever. Given a lack of empirical data on disease vector species and their vector competence, this discrete time epidemic model uses stochastic parameters following several PERT distributions to model the dynamic interactions between hosts and likely North American mosquito vectors in dispersed geographic areas. Spatial effects and climate factors are also addressed in the model. The model is applied to a large directed asymmetric network of 3,621 nodes based on actual farms to examine a hypothetical introduction to some counties of Texas, an important ranching area in the United States of America. The nodes of the networks represent livestock farms, livestock markets, and feedlots, and the links represent cattle movements and mosquito diffusion between different nodes. Cattle and mosquito (Aedes and Culex populations are treated with different contact networks to assess virus propagation. Rift Valley fever virus spread is assessed under various initial infection conditions (infected mosquito eggs, adults or cattle. A surprising trend is fewer initial infectious organisms result in a longer delay before a larger and more prolonged outbreak. The delay is likely caused by a lack of herd immunity while the infection expands geographically before becoming an epidemic involving many dispersed farms and animals almost simultaneously. Cattle movement between farms is a large driver of virus expansion, thus quarantines can be efficient mitigation strategy to prevent further geographic spread.

  11. Forest carbon uptake in North America's aging temperate deciduous forests: A data-theory-model mismatch?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, C. M.; Curtis, P.; Bond-Lamberty, B. P.; Hardiman, B. S.; Scheuermann, C. M.; Nave, L. E.; Nadelhoffer, K. J.

    2015-12-01

    Century-old temperate deciduous forests in the US upper Midwest and Northeast power much of North America's terrestrial carbon sink, but these forests' carbon uptake capacity is expected to soon decline. But will this really happen? We marshal empirical data and ecological theory to show that declines in carbon uptake are not imminent in regrown temperate deciduous forests during coming decades, despite long-held assumptions and modeling results that predict declining carbon uptake during middle stages of ecosystem development. Age and production data for temperate deciduous forests, synthesized from published literature, do not provide evidence for declining net primary and ecosystem production (NPP and NEP, respectively) within the age-range most regional forests will occupy over the next half-century. Ecological theory suggests a mechanism for sustained carbon uptake in the region's aging forests in which high-frequency, low-severity disturbances maintain NPP and NEP by increasing ecosystem complexity. This theoretical model is supported by observations from the Forest Accelerated Succession Experiment in Michigan, USA, but such mechanisms sustaining production in old forests are not broadly represented in ecosystem models. Ecosystems experiencing low-frequency, high-severity disturbances that simplify ecosystem complexity do exhibit declining production during middle stages of succession, but we suggest that such scenarios have exerted a disproportionate influence on prevailing modeling and ecological assumptions regarding age-related declines in forest production. We conclude that there is wide ecological space for forests to sustain high rates of carbon uptake during middle stages of ecosystem development, and that advancing mechanistic understanding of long-term forest carbon cycle dynamics is essential to modeling the continent's future carbon sink strength.

  12. Model predictions of toxaphene degradation in the atmosphere over North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, R; Jin, J

    2013-12-01

    Technical toxaphene, a broad-spectrum pesticide mixture, degrades in the environment, resulting in potential changes in toxicity. The present study uses a multimedia model that the authors developed to estimate toxaphene degradation in the atmosphere over North America. The predicted degradation has strong spatial and temporal variability determined by processes such as emission and transport of technical toxaphene, as well as the complex interactions among many species (e.g., toxaphene, hydroxyl [OH] radicals, and ozone). More toxaphene is degraded in warmer months due to higher concentrations of technical toxaphene (primarily due to higher technical toxaphene emissions in the southeastern United States and transport to other regions) and OH radicals. In the model, OH radicals are created primarily through the reactions of water vapor with the excited oxygen atom, O(¹D), generated by the photolysis of ozone, which is produced primarily by reactions of volatile organic compounds and nitrogen oxides (NOx) in the presence of sunlight. The higher OH concentrations in warmer months are primarily the result of higher solar radiation and ozone concentrations. The spatial distribution of degradation depends on the distribution of technical toxaphene soil residues as well as atmospheric transport and chemistry; significant chemical degradation occurs in the southeastern United States where soils are most heavily contaminated by past applications of toxaphene.

  13. Development and field-testing of survey methods for a continental marsh bird monitoring program in North America

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Populations of many species of secretive marsh birds are thought to be declining in North America and several species are game birds in many states and provinces....

  14. Levels of spending and resource allocation to HIV programs and services in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Arán-Matero

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An estimated 1.86 million people are living with HIV in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC. The region is comprised of mainly middle-income countries with steady economic growth while simultaneously there are enormous social inequalities and several concentrated AIDS epidemics. This paper describes HIV spending patterns in LAC countries including analysis of the levels and patterns of domestic HIV spending from both public and international sources. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted an extensive analysis of the most recently available data from LAC countries using the National AIDS Spending Assessment tool. The LAC countries spent a total of US$ 1.59 billion on HIV programs and services during the latest reported year. Countries providing detailed information on spending showed that high percentages are allocated to treatment and care (75.1% and prevention (15.0%. Domestic sources accounted for 93.6 percent of overall spending and 79 percent of domestic funds were directed to treatment and care. International funds represented 5.4 percent of total HIV funding in the region, but they supplied the majority of the effort to reach most-at-risk-populations (MARPs. However, prevalence rates among men who have sex with men (MSM still reached over 25 percent in some countries. CONCLUSIONS: Although countries in the region have increasingly sustained their response from domestic sources, still there are future challenges: 1 The growing number of new HIV infections and more people-living-with-HIV (PLWH eligible to receive antiretroviral treatment (ART; 2 Increasing ART coverage along with high prices of antiretroviral drugs; and 3 The funding for prevention activities among MARPs rely almost exclusively on external donors. These threats call for strengthened actions by civil society and governments to protect and advance gains against HIV in LAC.

  15. Econometric Model Evaluation: Implications for Program Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridge, Richard S.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    The problem associated with evaluating an econometric model using values outside those used in the model estimation is illustrated in the evaluations of a residential load management program during each of two successive years. Analysis reveals that attention must be paid to this problem. (Author/TJH)

  16. Programming Models for Heterogeneous Multicore Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-08

    Badia, F.D. Igual, J. Labarta, R. Mayo and E.S. Quintana- Orti . “An extension of the StarSs Programming Model for Platforms with Multiple GPUs...R. Mayo, J.M. Perez, J. Planas, E.S. Quintana- Orti . “A Proposal to Extend the OpenMP Tasking Model for Heterogeneous Architectures ” LNCS Vol. 5568

  17. Interpreting the variability of CO2 columns over North America using a chemistry transport model: application to SCIAMACHY data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Monks

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available We use the GEOS-Chem chemistry transport model to interpret variability of CO2 columns and associated column-averaged volume mixing ratios (CVMRs observed by the SCIAMACHY satellite instrument during the 2003 North American growing season, accounting for the instrument averaging kernel. Model and observed columns, largely determined by surface topography, averaged on a 2°×2.5° grid, are in excellent agreement (model bias=3%, r>0.9, as expected. Model and observed CVMRs, determined by scaling column CO2 by surface pressure data, are on average within 3% but are only weakly correlated, reflecting a large positive model bias (10–15 ppmv at 50–70° N during midsummer at the peak of biospheric uptake. GEOS-Chem generally reproduces the magnitude and seasonal cycle of observed CO2 surface VMRs across North America. During midsummer we find that model CVMRs and surface VMRs converge, reflecting the instrument vertical sensitivity and the strong influence of the land biosphere on lower tropospheric CO2 columns. We use model tagged tracers to show that local fluxes largely determine CVMR variability over North America, with the largest individual CVMR contributions (1.1% from the land biosphere. Fuel sources are relatively constant while biomass burning make a significant contribution only during midsummer. We also show that non-local sources contribute significantly to total CVMRs over North America, with the boreal Asian land biosphere contributing close to 1% in midsummer at high latitudes. We used the monthly-mean Jacobian matrix for North America to illustrate that: 1 North American CVMRs represent a superposition of many weak flux signatures, but differences in flux distributions should permit independent flux estimation; and 2 the atmospheric e-folding lifetimes for many of these flux signatures are 3–4 months, beyond which time they are too well-mixed to interpret.

  18. Changes in Surface Wind Speed over North America from CMIP5 Model Projections and Implications for Wind Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujay Kulkarni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The centennial trends in the surface wind speed over North America are deduced from global climate model simulations in the Climate Model Intercomparison Project—Phase 5 (CMIP5 archive. Using the 21st century simulations under the RCP 8.5 scenario of greenhouse gas emissions, 5–10 percent increases per century in the 10 m wind speed are found over Central and East-Central United States, the Californian Coast, and the South and East Coasts of the USA in winter. In summer, climate models projected decreases in the wind speed ranging from 5 to 10 percent per century over the same coastal regions. These projected changes in the surface wind speed are moderate and imply that the current estimate of wind power potential for North America based on present-day climatology will not be significantly changed by the greenhouse gas forcing in the coming decades.

  19. NCD Prevention and Control in Latin America and the Caribbean: A Regional Approach to Policy and Program Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hospedales, C James; Barcelo, Alberto; Luciani, Silvana; Legetic, Branka; Ordunez, Pedro; Blanco, Adriana

    2012-03-01

    This article describes efforts from the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) that have supported progress in country-driven planning and implementing of actions to address noncommunicable diseases (NCD), as well as mechanisms that PAHO has supported for countries in the Americas to share and build on each other's experiences. The Regional Strategy and Plan of Action for NCD, approved by all member states in 2006, is the major frame for this work. The strategy has 4 lines of action: policy and advocacy; surveillance; health promotion and disease prevention; and integrated management of NCD and risk factors. Cross-cutting strategies include resource mobilization, communication, training, and networks and partnerships. The strategy is operationalized through biannual work plans for which countries link and commit to achieving specific objectives. PAHO then provides technical support toward achieving these plans, and countries report progress annually. The CARMEN (Collaborative Action for Risk Factor Prevention and Effective Management of NCD [Conjunto de Acciones para la Reducción y el Manejo de las Enfermedades No transmisibles]) Network provides a major platform for sharing, and the multisector Pan American Forum for Action on NCD has been launched to extend the network to include business and civil society. PAHO also supported civil society capacity building. Almost all member states have made substantial progress in implementing their national chronic disease programs, in most instances reporting exceeding the indicators of the strategic plan related to chronic diseases. From the Caribbean countries, leadership has been provided to achieve the historic UN High-Level Meeting on NCD in September 2011. The region is on track to meet the mortality reduction target set for 2013, though much remains to be done to further increase awareness of and resources for scaling up NCD prevention and control programs, given the huge health and economic burden, increasing costs

  20. Continental-scale convection-permitting modeling of the current and future climate of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changhai; Ikeda, Kyoko; Rasmussen, Roy; Barlage, Mike; Newman, Andrew J.; Prein, Andreas F.; Chen, Fei; Chen, Liang; Clark, Martyn; Dai, Aiguo; Dudhia, Jimy; Eidhammer, Trude; Gochis, David; Gutmann, Ethan; Kurkute, Sopan; Li, Yanping; Thompson, Gregory; Yates, David

    2016-08-01

    Orographic precipitation and snowpack provide a vital water resource for the western U.S., while convective precipitation accounts for a significant part of annual precipitation in the eastern U.S. As a result, water managers are keenly interested in their fate under climate change. However, previous studies of water cycle changes in the U.S. have been conducted with climate models of relatively coarse resolution, leading to potential misrepresentation of key physical processes. This paper presents results from a high-resolution climate change simulation that permits convection and resolves mesoscale orography at 4-km grid spacing over much of North America using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Two 13-year simulations were performed, consisting of a retrospective simulation (October 2000-September 2013) with initial and boundary conditions from ERA-interim and a future climate sensitivity simulation with modified reanalysis-derived initial and boundary conditions through adding the CMIP5 ensemble-mean high-end emission scenario climate change. The retrospective simulation is evaluated by validating against Snowpack Telemetry (SNOTEL) and an ensemble of gridded observational datasets. It shows overall good performance capturing the annual/seasonal/sub-seasonal precipitation and surface temperature climatology except for a summer dry and warm bias in the central U.S. In particular, the WRF seasonal precipitation agrees with SNOTEL observations within a few percent over the mountain ranges, providing confidence in the model's estimation of western U.S. seasonal snowfall and snowpack. The future climate simulation forced with warmer and moister perturbed boundary conditions enhances annual and winter-spring-fall seasonal precipitation over most of the contiguous United States (CONUS), but suppresses summertime precipitation in the central U.S. The WRF-downscaled climate change simulations provide a high-resolution dataset (i.e., High-Resolution CONUS

  1. Program Partitioning using Dynamic Trust Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Dan; Probst, Christian W.; Jensen, Christian D.;

    2006-01-01

    -based scenarios. Language-based technologies have been suggested to support developers of those applications---the \\$\\backslash\\$emph{Decentralized Label Model} and \\$\\backslash\\$emph{Secure Program Partitioning} allow to annotate programs with security specifications, and to partition the annotated program...... across a set of hosts, obeying both the annotations and the trust relation between the principals. The resulting applications guarantee \\$\\backslash\\$emph{by construction} that safety and confidentiality of both data and computations are ensured. In this work, we develop a generalised version...

  2. Digital terrain model evaluation and computation of the terrain correction and indirect effect in South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denizar Blitzkow

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of this paper are to compare digital terrain models, to show the generated models for South America and to present two applications. Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM produced the most important and updated height information in the world. This paper addresses the attention to comparisons of the following models: SRTM3, DTM2002, GLOBE, GTOPO30, ETOPO2 and ETOPO5, at the common points of the grid. The comparisons are limited by latitudes 60º S and 25 º N and longitudes 100 º W and 25 º W. All these data, after some analysis, have been used to create three models for South America: SAM_1mv1, SAM_1mv2 (both of 1' grid spacing and SAM_30s (30" grid spacing. Besides this effort, the three models as well as STRM were evaluated using Bench Marks (BM in Brazil and Argentina. This paper also shows two important geodesy and geophysics applications using the SAM_1mv1: terrain correction (one of the reductions applied to the gravity acceleration and indirect effect (a consequence of the reduction of the external mass to the geoid. These are important at Andes for a precise geoid computation.Los objetivos principales de este documento son comparar modelos digitales del continente; enseñar los modelos generados para Sudamérica y presentar dos aplicaciones. Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM produjo la información más importante y más actualizada de las altitudes del mundo. Este trabajo centra su atención en las comparaciones de los modelos siguientes: SRTM3, DTM2002, GLOBO, GTOPO30, ETOPO2 y ETOPO5, en los puntos comunes de la rejilla. Las comparaciones son limitadas por las latitudes 60º S y 25 º N y longitudes 100 º W y 25 º W. Todos estos datos, después de los análisis, se han utilizado para crear tres modelos para Sudamérica: SAM_1mv1, SAM_1mv2 (1' de espaciamiento de la rejilla y SAM_30s (30" de espaciamiento de la rejilla. Los tres modelos bien como el STRM fueron evaluados usando puntos de referencia de

  3. Retention models for programmed gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castello, G; Moretti, P; Vezzani, S

    2009-03-06

    The models proposed by many authors for the prediction of retention times and temperatures, peak widths, retention indices and separation numbers in programmed temperature and pressure gas chromatography by starting from preliminary measurements of the retention in isothermal and isobaric conditions are reviewed. Several articles showing the correlation between retention data and thermodynamic parameters and the determination of the optimum programming rate are reported. The columns of different polarity used for the experimental measurement and the main equations, mathematical models and calculation procedures are listed. An empirical approach was used in the early models, followed by the application of thermodynamic considerations, iterative calculation procedures and statistical methods, based on increased computing power now available. Multiple column arrangements, simultaneous temperature and pressure programming, applications of two-dimensional and fast chromatography are summarised.

  4. Model Checking with Probabilistic Tabled Logic Programming

    CERN Document Server

    Gorlin, Andrey; Smolka, Scott A

    2012-01-01

    We present a formulation of the problem of probabilistic model checking as one of query evaluation over probabilistic logic programs. To the best of our knowledge, our formulation is the first of its kind, and it covers a rich class of probabilistic models and probabilistic temporal logics. The inference algorithms of existing probabilistic logic-programming systems are well defined only for queries with a finite number of explanations. This restriction prohibits the encoding of probabilistic model checkers, where explanations correspond to executions of the system being model checked. To overcome this restriction, we propose a more general inference algorithm that uses finite generative structures (similar to automata) to represent families of explanations. The inference algorithm computes the probability of a possibly infinite set of explanations directly from the finite generative structure. We have implemented our inference algorithm in XSB Prolog, and use this implementation to encode probabilistic model...

  5. Stable isotopes of fossil teeth corroborate key general circulation model predictions for the Last Glacial Maximum in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Matthew J.; McKay, Moriah

    2010-11-01

    Oxygen isotope data provide a key test of general circulation models (GCMs) for the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in North America, which have otherwise proved difficult to validate. High δ18O pedogenic carbonates in central Wyoming have been interpreted to indicate increased summer precipitation sourced from the Gulf of Mexico. Here we show that tooth enamel δ18O of large mammals, which is strongly correlated with local water and precipitation δ18O, is lower during the LGM in Wyoming, not higher. Similar data from Texas, California, Florida and Arizona indicate higher δ18O values than in the Holocene, which is also predicted by GCMs. Tooth enamel data closely validate some recent models of atmospheric circulation and precipitation δ18O, including an increase in the proportion of winter precipitation for central North America, and summer precipitation in the southern US, but suggest aridity can bias pedogenic carbonate δ18O values significantly.

  6. Academic program models for undergraduate biomedical engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Shankar M

    2014-01-01

    There is a proliferation of medical devices across the globe for the diagnosis and therapy of diseases. Biomedical engineering (BME) plays a significant role in healthcare and advancing medical technologies thus creating a substantial demand for biomedical engineers at undergraduate and graduate levels. There has been a surge in undergraduate programs due to increasing demands from the biomedical industries to cover many of their segments from bench to bedside. With the requirement of multidisciplinary training within allottable duration, it is indeed a challenge to design a comprehensive standardized undergraduate BME program to suit the needs of educators across the globe. This paper's objective is to describe three major models of undergraduate BME programs and their curricular requirements, with relevant recommendations to be applicable in institutions of higher education located in varied resource settings. Model 1 is based on programs to be offered in large research-intensive universities with multiple focus areas. The focus areas depend on the institution's research expertise and training mission. Model 2 has basic segments similar to those of Model 1, but the focus areas are limited due to resource constraints. In this model, co-op/internship in hospitals or medical companies is included which prepares the graduates for the work place. In Model 3, students are trained to earn an Associate Degree in the initial two years and they are trained for two more years to be BME's or BME Technologists. This model is well suited for the resource-poor countries. All three models must be designed to meet applicable accreditation requirements. The challenges in designing undergraduate BME programs include manpower, facility and funding resource requirements and time constraints. Each academic institution has to carefully analyze its short term and long term requirements. In conclusion, three models for BME programs are described based on large universities, colleges, and

  7. Analysis of tropospheric ozone and carbon monoxide profiles over South America based on MOZAIC/IAGOS database and model simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia A. Yamasoe

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We analysed ozone and carbon monoxide profiles measured by commercial aircrafts from the MOZAIC/IAGOS fleet, during ascending and descending flights over Caracas, in Venezuela, from August 1994 to December 2009, over Rio de Janeiro, from 1994 to 2004 and from July 2012 to June 2013, and over São Paulo, in Brazil, from August 1994 to 2005. For ozone, results showed a clean atmosphere over Caracas presenting the highest seasonal mean in March, April and May. Backward trajectory analyses with FLEXPART, of case studies for which the measured concentrations were high, showed that contributions from local, Central and North America, the Caribbean and Africa either from anthropogenic emissions, biomass burning or lightning were possible. Satellite products as fire counts from MODIS, lightning flash rates from LIS, and CO and O3 from Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer and wind maps at different levels helped corroborate previous findings. Sensitivity studies performed with the chemical transport model GEOS-Chem captured the effect of anthropogenic emissions but underestimated the influence of biomass burning, which could be due to an underestimation of GFEDv2 emission inventory. The model detected the contribution of lightning from Africa in JJA and SON and from South America in DJF, possibly from the northeast of Brazil. Over São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, GEOS-Chem captured the seasonal variability of lightning produced in South America and attributed this source as the most important in this region, except in JJA, when anthropogenic emissions were addressed as the more impacting source of ozone precursors. However, comparison with the measurements indicated that the model overestimated ozone formation, which could be due to the convective parameterisation or the stratospheric influence. The highest ozone concentration was observed during September to November, but the model attributed only a small influence of biomass burning from South

  8. Sex differences in developmental programming models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, Catherine E; Ozanne, Susan E

    2013-01-01

    The theory of developmental programming suggests that diseases such as the metabolic syndrome may be 'programmed' by exposure to adverse stimuli during early development. The developmental programming literature encompasses the study of a wide range of suboptimal intrauterine environments in a variety of species and correlates these with diverse phenotypic outcomes in the offspring. At a molecular level, a large number of variables have been measured and suggested as the basis of the programmed phenotype. The range of both dependent and independent variables studied often makes the developmental programming literature complex to interpret and the drawing of definitive conclusions difficult. A common, though under-explored, theme of many developmental programming models is a sex difference in offspring outcomes. This holds true across a range of interventions, including dietary, hypoxic, and surgical models. The molecular and phenotypic outcomes of adverse in utero conditions are often more prominent in male than female offspring, although there is little consideration given to the basis for this observation in most studies. We review the evidence that maternal energy investment in male and female conceptuses may not be equal and may be environment dependent. It is suggested that male and female development could be viewed as separate processes from the time of conception, with differences in both timing and outcomes.

  9. STEW A Nonlinear Data Modeling Computer Program

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, H

    2000-01-01

    A nonlinear data modeling computer program, STEW, employing the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm, has been developed to model the experimental sup 2 sup 3 sup 9 Pu(n,f) and sup 2 sup 3 sup 5 U(n,f) cross sections. This report presents results of the modeling of the sup 2 sup 3 sup 9 Pu(n,f) and sup 2 sup 3 sup 5 U(n,f) cross-section data. The calculation of the fission transmission coefficient is based on the double-humped-fission-barrier model of Bjornholm and Lynn. Incident neutron energies of up to 5 MeV are considered.

  10. STEW: A Nonlinear Data Modeling Computer Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, H.

    2000-03-04

    A nonlinear data modeling computer program, STEW, employing the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm, has been developed to model the experimental {sup 239}Pu(n,f) and {sup 235}U(n,f) cross sections. This report presents results of the modeling of the {sup 239}Pu(n,f) and {sup 235}U(n,f) cross-section data. The calculation of the fission transmission coefficient is based on the double-humped-fission-barrier model of Bjornholm and Lynn. Incident neutron energies of up to 5 MeV are considered.

  11. Modeling the shrub and juniper encroachment in the western north America grasslands with a Cellular Automata model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caracciolo, D.; Istanbulluoglu, E.; Noto, L. V.

    2013-12-01

    Arid and semiarid grasslands of western North America have experienced dramatic changes over the last 150 years as a result of woody plant encroachment (WPE). WPE is characterized as increase in density, cover and biomass of indigenous tree or shrubby plants in grasslands. In this study we examine the environmental factors that trigger and further the progress of WPE at two semiarid sites using the CATGraSS ecohydrologic plant coexistence model. CATGraSS is a spatially distributed model driven by spatially explicit irradiance and runs on a fine-resolution gridded domain. In CATGraSS each cell can hold a single plant type or can remain empty. Plant competition is modeled by keeping track of mortality and establishment of plants, both calculated probabilistically based on soil moisture stress. For this study CATGraSS is improved with a stochastic fire and a grazing function, and its plant establishment algorithm is modified. Using CATGraSS shrub encroachment is studied in the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge (SNWR), New Mexico, located in the northern Chihuahuan desert. The area shows a dramatic encroachment front of Larrea tridentata (shrub) into native desert grassland. The model is implemented in a small area (7.3 km2) in SNWR. The second study site is a small catchment (11.8 km2) located within the Ochoco National Forest, Crook County, OR, where Juniper encroachment has been observed since the mid 1800s. The outcome of the changes in observed climate, fire frequency, and grazing intensity are investigated through numerical modeling scenarios. While in the Ochoco National Forest basin, the Western Juniper encroaches all the study area and the shrub disappears. In the SNWR basin, the model is able to reproduce the encroachment, simulating an increasing of the shrub from 2% in 1860 to 42% in 2010 (actual shrub percentage) highlighting as more influent factors the reduced fire frequency and the increased grazing intensity.

  12. Changes in Surface Wind Speed over North America from CMIP5 Model Projections and Implications for Wind Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Sujay Kulkarni; Huei-Ping Huang

    2014-01-01

    The centennial trends in the surface wind speed over North America are deduced from global climate model simulations in the Climate Model Intercomparison Project—Phase 5 (CMIP5) archive. Using the 21st century simulations under the RCP 8.5 scenario of greenhouse gas emissions, 5–10 percent increases per century in the 10 m wind speed are found over Central and East-Central United States, the Californian Coast, and the South and East Coasts of the USA in winter. In summer, climate models proje...

  13. Impact of Land Use Change over North America as simulated by the Canadian Regional Climate Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacon, A.; Sushama, L.; Beltrami, H.

    2014-12-01

    This study investigates the biogeophysical impacts of human-induced land cover change, particularly crops, on the regional climate of North America, using the fifth generation Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM5). To this effect, two simulations are performed with CRCM5 with different land cover datasets - one corresponding to the potential vegetation (i.e. without land use change) and the other corresponding to current land use. Most of the land use changes are concentrated over the US mid-west and south-central Canada, where forests and grasses have been replaced by crops. This transformation changes the surface parameters, particularly vegetation fractional area, leaf area index, albedo, roughness length and rooting depth among other variables, in the regions where land cover change takes place in these simulations. Both simulations span the 1988-2012 period and are driven by ERA-Interim at the lateral boundaries. The sea surface temperature and sea ice cover that vary inter-annually are also taken from ERA-Interim. Results suggest that regions where forests/grasses were replaced by crops generally show increases in albedo, particularly during the spring, fall and winter seasons, with the increase in albedo being largest for winter. This higher increase in albedo during winter is due to a snow-mediated positive feedback. The increased albedo values during winter, spring and fall are reflected in the cooler 2 meter temperature obtained in the simulation with land use change, compared to that with potential vegetation. Some cooling is observed in the summer for the simulation with land use change, mostly due to the increased latent heat fluxes. Increases in precipitation are noted for these regions, but are not statistically significant.

  14. A new density model of the upper mantle of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaban, Mikhail K.; Mooney, Walter D.

    2010-05-01

    We investigate the density structure of the North America upper mantle based on the integrative analysis of the gravity field and seismic data. The basis of our study is the removal of the gravitational effect of the crust from the observed field to determine the mantle gravity anomalies. We use a new crustal model, which is based on nearly all existing seismic determinations including the most recent. The resultant mantle gravity anomaly map shows a pronounced negative anomaly (-50 to -400 mgal) beneath western NA and the adjacent oceanic region, and positive anomalies (+50 to +350 mgal) east of the NA Cordillera. This pattern reflects the well-known division of NA into the stable eastern region and the tectonically active western region. In the same way we estimate the residual topography, which represents the part of the surface topography not- (or over-) compensated by the crustal structure. We invert these fields jointly with seismic tomography data to image density distribution within the crust and upper mantle. The inversion technique accounts for the fact that the residual gravity and residual topography are controlled by the same factors but in a different way, e.g. depending on depth. In the final stage we separate the effect of mantle temperature variations, which is estimated from seismic tomography models constrained by geothermal modelling. Some features of the composition density distribution, which are invisible in the seismic tomography data, are for the first time detected in the upper mantle. The strongest positive anomaly is co-incident with the Gulf of Mexico, and indicates possibly a high-density eclogite layer that has caused subsidence in the Gulf. Two linear positive anomalies are also seen: one with a NE-SW trend in the eastern USA roughly coincident with the Appalachians, and a second with a NW-SE trend beneath the states of Texas, New Mexico, and Colorado. These anomalies are interpreted as due either to: (1) the presence of remnants of

  15. Summary of Prioritized Research Opportunities: Building America Program Planning Meeting, Washington, D.C., November 2-4, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-02-01

    This report outlines the results of brainstorming sessions conducted at the Building America Fall 2010 planning meeting, in which research teams and national laboratories identified key research priorities to incorporate into multi-year planning, team research agendas, expert meetings, and technical standing committees.

  16. ZATPAC: a model consortium evaluates teen programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Kathryn; Murphy, Dana; Parsons, Chris

    2009-09-01

    How do we advance the environmental literacy of young people, support the next generation of environmental stewards and increase the diversity of the leadership of zoos and aquariums? We believe it is through ongoing evaluation of zoo and aquarium teen programming and have founded a consortium to pursue those goals. The Zoo and Aquarium Teen Program Assessment Consortium (ZATPAC) is an initiative by six of the nation's leading zoos and aquariums to strengthen institutional evaluation capacity, model a collaborative approach toward assessing the impact of youth programs, and bring additional rigor to evaluation efforts within the field of informal science education. Since its beginning in 2004, ZATPAC has researched, developed, pilot-tested and implemented a pre-post program survey instrument designed to assess teens' knowledge of environmental issues, skills and abilities to take conservation actions, self-efficacy in environmental actions, and engagement in environmentally responsible behaviors. Findings from this survey indicate that teens who join zoo/aquarium programs are already actively engaged in many conservation behaviors. After participating in the programs, teens showed a statistically significant increase in their reported knowledge of conservation and environmental issues and their abilities to research, explain, and find resources to take action on conservation issues of personal concern. Teens also showed statistically significant increases pre-program to post-program for various conservation behaviors, including "I talk with my family and/or friends about things they can do to help the animals or the environment," "I save water...," "I save energy...," "When I am shopping I look for recycled products," and "I help with projects that restore wildlife habitat."

  17. Design of a Regional Program for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Research and Innovation Networks in Latin America and the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Décio Gazzoni; Gabriel Blanco; Isaias Macedo; Arturo Morales-Acevedo; Anibal Borroto

    2010-01-01

    The overall purpose of this study is to help foster the production and use of renewable energy in Latin America and the Caribbean and develop feasible and widely accepted energy efficiency models, by supporting R&D networks aiming to developing and transferring state of the art technology, adapted to the region, on a sustainable basis, considering environmental, economic and social aspects. The document provides an overview of several renewable energy technologies, including present status, p...

  18. PDDP, A Data Parallel Programming Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen H. Warren

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available PDDP, the parallel data distribution preprocessor, is a data parallel programming model for distributed memory parallel computers. PDDP implements high-performance Fortran-compatible data distribution directives and parallelism expressed by the use of Fortran 90 array syntax, the FORALL statement, and the WHERE construct. Distributed data objects belong to a global name space; other data objects are treated as local and replicated on each processor. PDDP allows the user to program in a shared memory style and generates codes that are portable to a variety of parallel machines. For interprocessor communication, PDDP uses the fastest communication primitives on each platform.

  19. A Linguistic Model in Component Oriented Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crăciunean, Daniel Cristian; Crăciunean, Vasile

    2016-12-01

    It is a fact that the component-oriented programming, well organized, can bring a large increase in efficiency in the development of large software systems. This paper proposes a model for building software systems by assembling components that can operate independently of each other. The model is based on a computing environment that runs parallel and distributed applications. This paper introduces concepts as: abstract aggregation scheme and aggregation application. Basically, an aggregation application is an application that is obtained by combining corresponding components. In our model an aggregation application is a word in a language.

  20. Superheroes and Transformers: Rethinking Teach for America's Leadership Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujilo, Tine; Scott, Janelle

    2014-01-01

    Interviews with a broad swath of current and former Teach For America alumni and current corps members reveal a decided preference for school leaders whose personality traits are akin to superhero/ines--charismatic, courageous, demanding--and who have a tendency to try to usher in greater student achievement via primarily managerial agendas,…

  1. 78 FR 12271 - Wireline Competition Bureau Seeks Additional Comment In Connect America Cost Model Virtual Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ... in the virtual workshop by visiting the Connect America Fund Web page, http://www.fcc.gov....regulations.gov . Follow the instructions for submitting comments. Federal Communications Commission's Web... workshop, including whether any modifications to functionalities, capabilities, or data sets, not...

  2. The NIAID Radiation Countermeasures Program business model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafer, Nathaniel; Maidment, Bert W; Hatchett, Richard J

    2010-12-01

    The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) Radiation/Nuclear Medical Countermeasures Development Program has developed an integrated approach to providing the resources and expertise required for the research, discovery, and development of radiation/nuclear medical countermeasures (MCMs). These resources and services lower the opportunity costs and reduce the barriers to entry for companies interested in working in this area and accelerate translational progress by providing goal-oriented stewardship of promising projects. In many ways, the radiation countermeasures program functions as a "virtual pharmaceutical firm," coordinating the early and mid-stage development of a wide array of radiation/nuclear MCMs. This commentary describes the radiation countermeasures program and discusses a novel business model that has facilitated product development partnerships between the federal government and academic investigators and biopharmaceutical companies.

  3. Future changes in drought characteristics over Southern South America projected by a CMIP5 multi-model ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, J. A.; Penalba, O. C.

    2013-05-01

    The impact of climate change on drought main characteristics (frequency, duration and severity) was assessed over Southern South America through the precipitation outputs from a multi-model ensemble of 15 climate models of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). The Standardized Precipitation Index was used as a drought indicator, given its temporal flexibility and simplicity. Changes in drought characteristics were identified by the difference for early (2011-2040) and late (2071-2100) 21st century values with respect to the 1979-2008 baseline. In order to evaluate the multi-model outputs, model biases where identified through a comparison with the drought characteristics from the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre database for the baseline period. Future climate projections under moderate- and high-emission scenarios showed that the occurrence of short-term and long-term droughts will be more frequent in the 21st century, with shorter durations and greater severities over much of the study area. This result is independent on the scenario considered, since no significant differences were observed on drought changes. Taking into account that in most of the region the multi-model ensemble tends to produce less number of droughts, with higher duration and lower severity, the future changes scenario might be even more dramatic. Therefore, Southern South America could experience more frequent water shortages with significant economic losses if proper adaptation measures are not proposed timely.

  4. Energy technology roll-out for climate change mitigation: A multi-model study for Latin America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van der Zwaan, Bob; Kober, Tom; Calderon, Silvia; Clarke, Leon; Daenzer, Katie; Kitous, Alban; Labriet, Maryse; Lucena, André F. P.; Octaviano, Claudia; Di Sbroiavacca, Nicolas

    2016-05-01

    In this paper we investigate opportunities for energy technology deployment under climate change mitigation efforts in Latin America. Through several carbon tax and CO2 abatement scenarios until 2050 we analyze what resources and technologies, notably for electricity generation, could be cost-optimal in the energy sector to significantly reduce CO2 emissions in the region. By way of sensitivity test we perform a cross-model comparison study and inspect whether robust conclusions can be drawn across results from different models as well as different types of models (general versus partial equilibrium). Given the abundance of biomass resources in Latin America, they play a large role in energy supply in all scenarios we inspect. This is especially true for stringent climate policy scenarios, for instance because the use of biomass in power plants in combination with CCS can yield negative CO2 emissions. We find that hydropower, which today contributes about 800 TWh to overall power production in Latin America, could be significantly expanded to meet the climate policies we investigate, typically by about 50%, but potentially by as much as 75%. According to all models, electricity generation increases exponentially with a two- to three-fold expansion between 2010 and 2050.Wefind that in our climate policy scenarios renewable energy overall expands typically at double-digit growth rates annually, but there is substantial spread in model results for specific options such as wind and solar power: the climate policies that we simulate raise wind power in 2050 on average to half the production level that hydropower provides today, while they raise solar power to either a substantially higher or a much lower level than hydropower supplies at present, depending on which model is used. Also for CCS we observe large diversity in model outcomes, which reflects the uncertainties with regard to its future implementation potential as a result of

  5. Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-02-01

    AA NUREG -0711,Rev. 2 Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model 20081009191 I i m To] Bi U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Office of...Material As of November 1999, you may electronically access NUREG -series publications and other NRC records at NRC’s Public Electronic Reading Room at...http://www.nrc.qov/readinq-rm.html. Publicly released records include, to name a few, NUREG -series publications; Federal Register notices; applicant

  6. Building the Rule of Law: U.S. Assistance Programs and Police/Military Relations in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-02-01

    which toppled a military-backed conservative government), Colombia’s decade-long “La Violencia ” in the 1950’s (the police generally supported the...Centro de Estudios Legales y Sociales (CELS) and Human Rights Watch/Americas. La Inseguridad Policial: Violencia de las Fuerzas de Seguridad en la...Militares y La Guerra contra las Drogas”, Nueva Sociedad , No. 130, (March/April 1994) 168-183. Marcella, Gabriel. “Warriors in Peacetime: Future Missions

  7. Models of development and educational styles in the process of emancipation of Latin America: the case of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dermeval SAVIANI

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available On the occasion of the commemoration of the 200 years of Independence of Latin American countries, this paper analyses the models of development and educational styles in the process of the emancipation of Ibero-America, focusing specifically on the Brazilian case. In order to do this, we use two key texts as a reference: Gregorio Weinberg’s Modelos educativos en el desarrollo histórico de América Latina (Models of Education in the Historical Development of Latin America and Germán Rama’s Estilos educacionales (Educational Styles. Both texts elaborate the educational models or styles that took part in the historical development of Latin American societies. Bearing in mind the polarization between tradition and the modernization displayed in the educational models and styles proposed by Weinberg and Rama, this work shows how the process of conservative modernization, which characterized —with different nuances— the general emancipation movement in Ibero-American countries, took place in Brazilian society.

  8. Mid-term evaluation of the NRECA (National Rural Electric Cooperative Association) Central America Rural Electrification Support Program (CARES)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlack, R.D. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Jones, H.G. (Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Inc., TN (USA)); Garcia, A. III (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (USA). Dept. of Agricultural Engineering); Flores, E. (Flores (Edgar), Guatemala City (Guatemala))

    1990-09-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory was requested by the Regional Office for Central America and Panama to conduct a mid-term evaluation of the Cares Project, which is being implemented by the National Rural Electric Cooperative Association. This evaluation was conducted over a three week period by a four person team. Overall, the project has had numerous successes and is highly valued by local counterpart utilities and USAID Missions. Notwithstanding the significant results of the project, changes can be made in certain operating procedures and in the direction of some programmatic activities that can lead to an even more effective project.

  9. Wellness: A Developmental Programming Model for Residence Halls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Mark J.

    1985-01-01

    Demonstrates how a Wellness model can be an effective vehicle for promoting developmental programs in residence halls. The Wellness model is examined in terms of marketing, student development theory, and balanced programming. (BL)

  10. Building America Top Innovations 2012: House Simulation Protocols (the Building America Benchmark)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-01-01

    This Building America Top Innovations profile describes the DOE-sponsored House Simulation Protocols, which have helped ensure consistent and accurate energy-efficiency assessments for tens of thousands of new and retrofit homes supported by the Building America program.

  11. Python Program to Select HII Region Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Clare; Lamarche, Cody; Vishwas, Amit; Stacey, Gordon J.

    2016-01-01

    HII regions are areas of singly ionized Hydrogen formed by the ionizing radiaiton of upper main sequence stars. The infrared fine-structure line emissions, particularly Oxygen, Nitrogen, and Neon, can give important information about HII regions including gas temperature and density, elemental abundances, and the effective temperature of the stars that form them. The processes involved in calculating this information from observational data are complex. Models, such as those provided in Rubin 1984 and those produced by Cloudy (Ferland et al, 2013) enable one to extract physical parameters from observational data. However, the multitude of search parameters can make sifting through models tedious. I digitized Rubin's models and wrote a Python program that is able to take observed line ratios and their uncertainties and find the Rubin or Cloudy model that best matches the observational data. By creating a Python script that is user friendly and able to quickly sort through models with a high level of accuracy, this work increases efficiency and reduces human error in matching HII region models to observational data.

  12. Model-based projections of Zika virus infections in childbearing women in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex Perkins, T; Siraj, Amir S; Ruktanonchai, Corrine W; Kraemer, Moritz U G; Tatem, Andrew J

    2016-07-25

    Zika virus is a mosquito-borne pathogen that is rapidly spreading across the Americas. Due to associations between Zika virus infection and a range of fetal maladies(1,2), the epidemic trajectory of this viral infection poses a significant concern for the nearly 15 million children born in the Americas each year. Ascertaining the portion of this population that is truly at risk is an important priority. One recent estimate(3) suggested that 5.42 million childbearing women live in areas of the Americas that are suitable for Zika occurrence. To improve on that estimate, which did not take into account the protective effects of herd immunity, we developed a new approach that combines classic results from epidemiological theory with seroprevalence data and highly spatially resolved data about drivers of transmission to make location-specific projections of epidemic attack rates. Our results suggest that 1.65 (1.45-2.06) million childbearing women and 93.4 (81.6-117.1) million people in total could become infected before the first wave of the epidemic concludes. Based on current estimates of rates of adverse fetal outcomes among infected women(2,4,5), these results suggest that tens of thousands of pregnancies could be negatively impacted by the first wave of the epidemic. These projections constitute a revised upper limit of populations at risk in the current Zika epidemic, and our approach offers a new way to make rapid assessments of the threat posed by emerging infectious diseases more generally.

  13. A Linear Programming Model to Optimize Various Objective Functions of a Foundation Type State Support Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzke, Orville R.

    The purpose of this study was to formulate a linear programming model to simulate a foundation type support program and to apply this model to a state support program for the public elementary and secondary school districts in the State of Iowa. The model was successful in producing optimal solutions to five objective functions proposed for…

  14. Building America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brad Oberg

    2010-12-31

    IBACOS researched the constructability and viability issues of using high performance windows as one component of a larger approach to building houses that achieve the Building America 70% energy savings target.

  15. A geographical information system-based web model of arbovirus transmission risk in the continental United States of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, Sarah K; Zou, Li; Miller, Scott N

    2012-11-01

    A degree-day (DD) model of West Nile virus capable of forecasting real-time transmission risk in the continental United States of America up to one week in advance using a 50-km grid is available online at https://sites. google.com/site/arbovirusmap/. Daily averages of historical risk based on temperatures for 1994-2003 are available at 10km resolution. Transmission risk maps can be downloaded from 2010 to the present. The model can be adapted to work with any arbovirus for which the temperature-related parameters are known, e.g. Rift Valley fever virus. To more effectively assess virus establishment and transmission, the model incorporates "compound risk" maps and forecasts, which includes livestock density as a parameter.

  16. A geographical information system-based web model of arbovirus transmission risk in the continental United States of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah K. Konrad

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A degree-day (DD model of West Nile virus capable of forecasting real-time transmission risk in the continental United States of America up to one week in advance using a 50-km grid is available online at https://sites. google.com/site/arbovirusmap/. Daily averages of historical risk based on temperatures for 1994-2003 are available at 10- km resolution. Transmission risk maps can be downloaded from 2010 to the present. The model can be adapted to work with any arbovirus for which the temperature-related parameters are known, e.g. Rift Valley fever virus. To more effectively assess virus establishment and transmission, the model incorporates “compound risk” maps and forecasts, which includes livestock density as a parameter.

  17. The impact of ENSO and the NAO on extreme winter precipitation in North America in observations and regional climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whan, Kirien; Zwiers, Francis

    2016-05-01

    The relationship between winter precipitation in North America and indices of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is evaluated using non-stationary generalized extreme value distributions with the indices as covariates. Both covariates have a statistically significant influence on precipitation that is well simulated by two regional climate models (RCMs), CanRCM4 and CRCM5. The observed influence of the NAO on extreme precipitation is largest in eastern North America, with the likelihood of a negative phase extreme rainfall event decreased in the north and increased in the south under the positive phase of the NAO. This pattern is generally well simulated by the RCMs although there are some differences in the extent of influence, particularly south of the Great Lakes. A La Niña-magnitude extreme event is more likely to occur under El Niño conditions in California and the southern United States, and less likely in most of Canada and a region south of the Great Lakes. This broad pattern is also simulated well by the RCMs but they do not capture the increased likelihood in California. In some places the extreme precipitation response in the RCMs to external forcing from a covariate is of the opposite sign, despite use of the same lateral boundary conditions and dynamical core. This demonstrates the importance of model physics for teleconnections to extreme precipitation.

  18. The impact of ENSO and the NAO on extreme winter precipitation in North America in observations and regional climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whan, Kirien; Zwiers, Francis

    2017-03-01

    The relationship between winter precipitation in North America and indices of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is evaluated using non-stationary generalized extreme value distributions with the indices as covariates. Both covariates have a statistically significant influence on precipitation that is well simulated by two regional climate models (RCMs), CanRCM4 and CRCM5. The observed influence of the NAO on extreme precipitation is largest in eastern North America, with the likelihood of a negative phase extreme rainfall event decreased in the north and increased in the south under the positive phase of the NAO. This pattern is generally well simulated by the RCMs although there are some differences in the extent of influence, particularly south of the Great Lakes. A La Niña-magnitude extreme event is more likely to occur under El Niño conditions in California and the southern United States, and less likely in most of Canada and a region south of the Great Lakes. This broad pattern is also simulated well by the RCMs but they do not capture the increased likelihood in California. In some places the extreme precipitation response in the RCMs to external forcing from a covariate is of the opposite sign, despite use of the same lateral boundary conditions and dynamical core. This demonstrates the importance of model physics for teleconnections to extreme precipitation.

  19. Stochastic linear programming models, theory, and computation

    CERN Document Server

    Kall, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This new edition of Stochastic Linear Programming: Models, Theory and Computation has been brought completely up to date, either dealing with or at least referring to new material on models and methods, including DEA with stochastic outputs modeled via constraints on special risk functions (generalizing chance constraints, ICC’s and CVaR constraints), material on Sharpe-ratio, and Asset Liability Management models involving CVaR in a multi-stage setup. To facilitate use as a text, exercises are included throughout the book, and web access is provided to a student version of the authors’ SLP-IOR software. Additionally, the authors have updated the Guide to Available Software, and they have included newer algorithms and modeling systems for SLP. The book is thus suitable as a text for advanced courses in stochastic optimization, and as a reference to the field. From Reviews of the First Edition: "The book presents a comprehensive study of stochastic linear optimization problems and their applications. … T...

  20. Interventions Using Regular Activities to Engage High-Risk School-Age Youth: a Review of After-School Programs in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cid, Alejandro

    2016-09-08

    In this paper, I review an issue that is an urgent challenge in the development field-the effectiveness of after-school programs for preventing school-age youth violence in vulnerable settings in Latin American and the Caribbean. These programs have proliferated in the region and include sports, recreation, music, tutoring, and other focused activities. Given their popularity and because they target known risk factors for violence (such as drop-out from school, poor academic performance, lack of motivation, too much idle time, low quality and quantity of adult supervision, and social isolation), it is critical to examine empirically whether they can be effective prevention strategies. Unfortunately, most rigorous trials of after-school interventions to prevent youth violence have been conducted in developed countries, with far fewer in Latin America. In this review, a broad range of databases was searched systematically. Only six studies in five Latin American and Caribbean countries were identified. Reported results indicate at least some benefits for youth behavior, although not across all youth. Additional concerns regarding how these programs are implemented and whether specific components can be tied to violence prevention are noted. The need for more rigorous evaluation of these programs is noted.

  1. Suggestion Program and Model Installation Program - Duplication of Effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    REPORTNUMBER88-26- TITL SUGESIONPROGAM ND ODE INSALLTIO PRGRAM -DULICTIO OF EFFORT AUTHR(S)MAJR DOALD . TOWBRDGEUSA FACUTY DVISRMAOR SEVE L.HANSN, CSC/824STU...NIP Evaluation Process............................ 13 FIGURE 3--USAF MIP Growth................................... 17 0. p.r vip I -.# EXECUTIVE SUMMARY...the study centers on program processes for submitting and evaluating proposals. The Suggestion Program and MIP processes are similar in that they both

  2. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of unusual nonfermentative gram-negative bacilli isolated from Latin America: report from the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program (1997-2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C Gales

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial susceptibility of 176 unusual non-fermentative gram-negative bacilli (NF-GNB collected from Latin America region through the SENTRY Program between 1997 and 2002 was evaluated by broth microdilution according to the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS recommendations. Nearly 74% of the NF-BGN belonged to the following genera/species: Burkholderia spp. (83, Achromobacter spp. (25, Ralstonia pickettii (16, Alcaligenes spp. (12, and Cryseobacterium spp. (12. Generally, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (MIC50, 16 µg/ml; 18.8% susceptible and meropenem (MIC50, 8 µg/ml; 50% susceptible against Ralstonia pickettii. Since selection of the most appropriate antimicrobial agents for testing and reporting has not been established by the NCCLS for many of NF-GNB species, results from large multicenter studies may help to guide the best empiric therapy.

  3. The Use of Molecular Modeling Programs in Medicinal Chemistry Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrold, Marc W.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes and evaluates the use of a molecular modeling computer program (Alchemy II) in a pharmaceutical education program. Provided are the hardware requirements and basic program features as well as several examples of how this program and its features have been applied in the classroom. (GLR)

  4. Human factors engineering program review model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    The staff of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission is performing nuclear power plant design certification reviews based on a design process plan that describes the human factors engineering (HFE) program elements that are necessary and sufficient to develop an acceptable detailed design specification and an acceptable implemented design. There are two principal reasons for this approach. First, the initial design certification applications submitted for staff review did not include detailed design information. Second, since human performance literature and industry experiences have shown that many significant human factors issues arise early in the design process, review of the design process activities and results is important to the evaluation of an overall design. However, current regulations and guidance documents do not address the criteria for design process review. Therefore, the HFE Program Review Model (HFE PRM) was developed as a basis for performing design certification reviews that include design process evaluations as well as review of the final design. A central tenet of the HFE PRM is that the HFE aspects of the plant should be developed, designed, and evaluated on the basis of a structured top-down system analysis using accepted HFE principles. The HFE PRM consists of ten component elements. Each element in divided into four sections: Background, Objective, Applicant Submittals, and Review Criteria. This report describes the development of the HFE PRM and gives a detailed description of each HFE review element.

  5. Tropospheric NO2 Columns over Northeastern North America:Comparison of CMAQ Model Simulations with GOME Satellite Measurements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    We present comparisons of the NO2 regional Chemical Transport Model (CTM) simulations over Northeastern North America during the time period from May to September, 1998 with hourly surface NO2 observations and the NO2 columns retrieved from the GOME (Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment) satellite instrument. The model calculations were performed using the Mesoscale Meteorological Model 5 (MM5),Sparse Matrix Operator Kernal Emissions (SMOKE), and Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ)modeling systems, using the emission data from the National Emissions Inventory (NEI) databases of 1996 (U.S.) and 1995 (Canada). The major objectives were to assess the performance of the CMAQ model and the accuracy of the emissions inventories as they affected the simulations of this important short-lived atmospheric species. The modeled (NCMAQ) and measured (NGOME) NO2 column amounts, as well as their temporal variations, agreed reasonably well. The absolute differences (NCMAQ-NGOME) across the domain were between ±3.0×1015 molecules cm-2, but they were less than ±1.0 × 1015 molecules cm-2 over the majority (80%) of the domain studied. The overall correlation coefficient between the measurements and the simulations was 0.75. The differences were mainly ascribed to a combination of inaccurate emission data for the CTM and the uncertainties in the GOME retrievals. Of these, the former were the more easily identifiable.

  6. The intraannual variability of land-atmosphere coupling over North America in the Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang Kam Wing, G.; Sushama, L.; Diro, G. T.

    2016-12-01

    This study investigates the intraannual variability of soil moisture-temperature coupling over North America. To this effect, coupled and uncoupled simulations are performed with the fifth-generation Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM5), driven by ERA-Interim. In coupled simulations, land and atmosphere interact freely; in uncoupled simulations, the interannual variability of soil moisture is suppressed by prescribing climatological values for soil liquid and frozen water contents. The study also explores projected changes to coupling by comparing coupled and uncoupled CRCM5 simulations for current (1981-2010) and future (2071-2100) periods, driven by the Canadian Earth System Model. Coupling differs for the northern and southern parts of North America. Over the southern half, it is persistent throughout the year while for the northern half, strongly coupled regions generally follow the freezing line during the cold months. Detailed analysis of the southern Canadian Prairies reveals seasonal differences in the underlying coupling mechanism. During spring and fall, as opposed to summer, the interactive soil moisture phase impacts the snow depth and surface albedo, which further impacts the surface energy budget and thus the surface air temperature; the air temperature then influences the snow depth in a feedback loop. Projected changes to coupling are also season specific: relatively drier soil conditions strengthen coupling during summer, while changes in soil moisture phase, snow depth, and cloud cover impact coupling during colder months. Furthermore, results demonstrate that soil moisture variability amplifies the frequency of temperature extremes over regions of strong coupling in current and future climates.

  7. What factor generates greater uncertainty in predicting carbon flux for North America: climate characterization or model choice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dungan, J.; Wang, W.; Micaelis, A.; Nemani, R.

    2008-12-01

    Numerous efforts have begun to characterize a variety of sources of uncertainty in carbon flux estimates from both forward-modeling and inverse modeling approaches. One source of uncertainty is structural, created by the variety of approaches taken to select and characterize the most important biogeochemical processes. To begin to explore this structural uncertainty, we have used an ensemble of well-known models including CASA (Potter et al. (1993), version 2003.04.29), LPJ (Sitch et al. (2003), version 3.1.1-0.9.02), and BGC (White et al. (2000), version 5.0) with a consistent set of inputs for the period 1982-2006 for North America. Initially, the ensemble was run using input climate data interpolated from maximum, minimum and dew-point temperatures, precipitation, vapor pressure deficit, and incident daily solar radiation at stations from the National Climate Data Center's Global Summary of the Day, incorporating on average about 1900 stations. NCDC's Cooperative Summary of the Day data, available over the United States only, yielded a combined data set of approximately 9000 stations that was then used for the ensemble runs. The combined data set resulted in a significantly wetter surface than with the sparser set, resulting in noticeably larger gross primary production (GPP) estimates by models in the ensemble. Mexico and Canada remain significantly undersampled. Uncertainty due to the choice of a relatively sparse or dense station network was smaller than the structural uncertainty due to model choice.

  8. Integrated hydrometeorological predictions with the fully-coupled WRF-Hydro modeling system in western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gochis, D. J.; Yu, W.

    2013-12-01

    Prediction of heavy rainfall and associated streamflow responses remain as critical hydrometeorological challenges and require improved understanding of the linkages between atmospheric and land surface processes. Streamflow prediction skill is intrinsically liked to quantitative precipitation forecast skill, which emphasizes the need to produce mesoscale predictions of rainfall of high fidelity. However, in many cases land surface parameters can also exert significant control on the runoff response to heavy rainfall and on the formation or localization of heavy rainfall as well. A new generation of integrated atmospheric-hydrologic modeling systems is emerging from different groups around the world to meet the challenge of integrated water cycle predictions. In this talk the community WRF-Hydro modeling system will be presented. After a brief reviewing the architectural features of the WRF-Hydro system short-term forecasting and regional hydroclimate prediction applications of the model from western North America will be presented. In these applications, analyses will present results from observation-validated prediction experiments where atmospheric and terrestrial hydrologic model components are run in both a fully coupled mode and separately without two-way interactions. Emphasis is placed on illustrating an assessment framework using an initial state perturbation methodology to quantify the role of land-atmosphere energy and moisture flux partitioning in controlling precipitation and runoff forecast skill. Issues related to experimental design of fully-coupled model prediction experiments will also be discussed as will issues related to computational performance.

  9. Textbook America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, Walter

    1980-01-01

    Focuses on how political attitudes have been influenced by American history textbooks at various times throughout history. Excerpts from traditional and revisionist textbooks are presented, with emphasis on "America Revised" by Frances FitzGerald. Journal available from Harper's Magazine Co., 2 Park Ave., New York, NY 10016. (DB)

  10. BUILDING MATHEMATICAL MODELS IN DYNAMIC PROGRAMMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIANA RODICA PATER

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In short, we can say that dynamic programming is a method of optimization of systems, using their mathematical representation in phases or sequences or as we say, periods. Such systems are common in economic studies at the implementation of programs on the most advanced techniques, such as for example that involving cosmic navigation. Another concept that is involved in the study of dynamic programs is the economic horizon (number of periods or phases that a dynamic program needs. This concept often leads to the examination of the convergence of certain variables on infinite horizon. In many cases from the real economy by introducing updating, dynamic programs can be made convergent.

  11. The HC-LAC: a Platform for Modeling Hydrology and Climate Change in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreda, F.; Wyatt, A.; Bruhn, M.; Wheaton, W.; Miralles-Wilhelm, F.; Muñoz-Castillo, R.; Rineer, J.

    2013-05-01

    This platform, called the Hydrology and Climate Change in Latin America and The Caribbean, or "HC-LAC", is an integrated quantitative simulation of hydrology and climate change. The HC-LAC is composed of two principal components: the Analytical Hydrography Dataset (AHD) and an enhanced version of the Generalized Watershed Loading Function (GWLF). The AHD is a spatially explicit surface water data layer of Central and South America derived from digital elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and modified by the USGS to provide more accurate flow between cells in the raster data. For the LAC area, AHD consists 230, 000 catchments and stream segments with an average area of 100 km2 and length of 10 km, respectively. The AHD data structure is patterned after the US National Hydrography Dataset Plus (NHDPlus), thus providing a proven structure for flexible data integration and analyses necessary for spatial models like the HC-LAC. The structure of the AHD enables the implementation of water balance modeling and general routing of flows through the stream network thus supporting a range of environmental models. GWLF is applied on each AHD catchment which is characterized by multiple land use and soil type. The response of each land use in a given catchment is modeled separately in generating stream flow as well as recharge to soil storage. The stream flows generated from each catchment are routed through stream networks, providing total flow at any point in the stream network. A pilot implementation of the HC-LAC was established for the Rio Grande basin in North West Argentina (drainage area 6,700 km2). The model was parameterized and calibrated using readily available data. Three stream flow time series were generated using a reference climate case and two climate change projections. The reference case was based on historical records and assumes no climate change. The two climate change projections were generated using the IPCC "A2" high

  12. Work-Based Learning in Rural America: Employer Participation in School-To-Work Programs and Apprenticeships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Gary Paul

    2005-01-01

    Since the 1980s, many states have initiated institutional reforms designed to address perceived deficiencies in traditional schooling. Most of these reforms involve stronger linkages between employers and schools. In this article, I examine the factors influencing employer involvement in school-to-work programs and apprenticeships in rural…

  13. Analysis of the Emission Inventories and Model-Ready Emission Datasets of Europe and North America for Phase 2 of the AQMEII Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper highlights the development of the emission inventories and emission processing for Europe (EU) and North America (NA) in the second phase of the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII) project. The main purpose of the second phase of the AQMEII...

  14. Potential for spread of the white-nose fungus (Pseudogymnoascus destructans) in the Americas: use of Maxent and NicheA to assure strict model transference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Luis E; Lira-Noriega, Andrés; Medina-Vogel, Gonzalo; Townsend Peterson, A

    2014-11-01

    Emerging infectious diseases can present serious threats to wildlife, even to the point of causing extinction. Whitenose fungus (Pseudogymnoascus destructans) is causing an epizootic in bats that is expanding rapidly, both geographically and taxonomically. Little is known of the ecology and distributional potential of this intercontinental pathogen. We address this gap via ecological niche models that characterise coarse resolution niche differences between fungus populations on different continents, identifying areas potentially vulnerable to infection in South America. Here we explore a novel approach to identifying areas of potential distribution across novel geographic regions that avoids perilious extrapolation into novel environments. European and North American fungus populations show differential use of environmental space, but rather than niche differentiation, we find that changes are best attributed to climatic differences between the two continents. Suitable areas for spread of the pathogen were identified across southern South America; however caution should be taken to avoid underestimating the potential for spread of this pathogen in South America.

  15. Programming models for energy-aware systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Haitao

    Energy efficiency is an important goal of modern computing, with direct impact on system operational cost, reliability, usability and environmental sustainability. This dissertation describes the design and implementation of two innovative programming languages for constructing energy-aware systems. First, it introduces ET, a strongly typed programming language to promote and facilitate energy-aware programming, with a novel type system design called Energy Types. Energy Types is built upon a key insight into today's energy-efficient systems and applications: despite the popular perception that energy and power can only be described in joules and watts, real-world energy management is often based on discrete phases and modes, which in turn can be reasoned about by type systems very effectively. A phase characterizes a distinct pattern of program workload, and a mode represents an energy state the program is expected to execute in. Energy Types is designed to reason about energy phases and energy modes, bringing programmers into the optimization of energy management. Second, the dissertation develops Eco, an energy-aware programming language centering around sustainability. A sustainable program built from Eco is able to adaptively adjusts its own behaviors to stay on a given energy budget, avoiding both deficit that would lead to battery drain or CPU overheating, and surplus that could have been used to improve the quality of the program output. Sustainability is viewed as a form of supply and demand matching, and a sustainable program consistently maintains the equilibrium between supply and demand. ET is implemented as a prototyped compiler for smartphone programming on Android, and Eco is implemented as a minimal extension to Java. Programming practices and benchmarking experiments in these two new languages showed that ET can lead to significant energy savings for Android Apps and Eco can efficiently promote battery awareness and temperature awareness in real

  16. Spatial and temporal patterns of CH4 and N2O fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems of North America during 1979–2008: application of a global biogeochemistry model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Lu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Continental-scale estimations of terrestrial methane (CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O fluxes over a long time period are crucial to accurately assess the global balance of greenhouse gases and enhance our understanding and prediction of global climate change and terrestrial ecosystem feedbacks. Using a process-based global biogeochemical model, the Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model (DLEM, we quantified simultaneously CH4 and N2O fluxes in North America's terrestrial ecosystems from 1979 to 2008. During the past 30 years, approximately 14.69 ± 1.64 T g C a−1 (1 T g = 1012 g of CH4, and 1.94 ± 0.1 T g N a−1 of N2O were released from terrestrial ecosystems in North America. At the country level, both the US and Canada acted as CH4 sources to the atmosphere, but Mexico mainly oxidized and consumed CH4 from the atmosphere. Wetlands in North America contributed predominantly to the regional CH4 source, while all other ecosystems acted as sinks for atmospheric CH4, of which forests accounted for 36.8%. Regarding N2O emission in North America, the US, Canada, and Mexico contributed 56.19%, 18.23%, and 25.58%, respectively, to the continental source over the past 30 years. Forests and croplands were the two ecosystems that contributed most to continental N2O emission. The inter-annual variations of CH4 and N2O fluxes in North America were mainly attributed to year-to-year climatic variability. While only annual precipitation was found to have a significant effect on annual CH4 flux, both mean annual temperature and annual precipitation were significantly correlated to annual N2O flux. The regional estimates and spatiotemporal patterns of terrestrial ecosystem CH4 and N2O fluxes in North America generated in this study provide useful information for global change research and policy making.

  17. Crustal density structure in northwestern South America derived from analysis and 3-D modeling of gravity and seismicity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Rojas, J.; Palma, M.

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents a three-dimensional (3-D) interpretation of new gravity and seismicity datasets for northern South America. A 3-D forward density model was constructed on the basis of deep wide-angle seismic refraction sections, Moho depth from receiver functions, and surface geology. Density values were estimated from published borehole data for sediments by using empirical velocity-density functions and considering mineralogical-chemical composition variations under typical pressure-temperature conditions for upper and lower crustal rocks. The modeled 3-D density structure was kept as simple as possible. The continental and oceanic plates were formed by two sedimentary bodies, one crustal body, and one mantle lithosphere body overlying a sub-lithospheric mantle. The Caribbean plate was modeled with an atypical crustal thickness of ~ 18 km (including sediments). The geometry of the Caribbean plate was modeled using a combination of gravity modeling and analyses of the seismicity and focal-mechanism solutions. Intermediate seismicity and the orientation of the T-axes appeared aligned along the predicted position of the slab. As a result, the estimated slab dip angle under Maracaibo and the Mérida Andes was ~ 15° and increases up to ~ 20° after 100 km depth. The model shows two orientations in the slab strike: ~ N150°E ± 5 in western Colombia and southward underneath the Maracaibo block. The modeling results suggest that the northern South American upper and lower crusts are relatively light and the density of the Caribbean crust is typical for an oceanic crust.

  18. Support for Career Development in Youth: Program Models and Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekinda, Megan A.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines four influential programs--Citizen Schools, After School Matters, career academies, and Job Corps--to demonstrate the diversity of approaches to career programming for youth. It compares the specific program models and draws from the evaluation literature to discuss strengths and weaknesses of each. The article highlights…

  19. Energy efficiency in nonprofit agencies: Creating effective program models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A.; Prindle, B.; Scherr, M.I.; White, D.L.

    1990-08-01

    Nonprofit agencies are a critical component of the health and human services system in the US. It has been clearly demonstrated by programs that offer energy efficiency services to nonprofits that, with minimal investment, they can educe their energy consumption by ten to thirty percent. This energy conservation potential motivated the Department of Energy and Oak Ridge National Laboratory to conceive a project to help states develop energy efficiency programs for nonprofits. The purpose of the project was two-fold: (1) to analyze existing programs to determine which design and delivery mechanisms are particularly effective, and (2) to create model programs for states to follow in tailoring their own plans for helping nonprofits with energy efficiency programs. Twelve existing programs were reviewed, and three model programs were devised and put into operation. The model programs provide various forms of financial assistance to nonprofits and serve as a source of information on energy efficiency as well. After examining the results from the model programs (which are still on-going) and from the existing programs, several replicability factors'' were developed for use in the implementation of programs by other states. These factors -- some concrete and practical, others more generalized -- serve as guidelines for states devising program based on their own particular needs and resources.

  20. A Model Program for Dental Assisting Education in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Bureau of Industrial Education.

    Intended to provide assistance for developing new programs and improving existing ones, the guide was constructed by dental assisting instructors and other professional participants in a 196 5 workshop conference. Elements of the model program were derived from a statistical analysis of California junior colleg e programs in dental assisting and…

  1. Application of General Circulation Models to Assess the Potential Impact of Climate Change on Potential Distribution and Relative Abundance of Melanoplus sanguinipes (Fabricius (Orthoptera: Acrididae in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Olfert

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate is the dominant factor determining the distribution and abundance of most insect species. In recent years, the issue of climatic changes caused by human activities and the effects on agriculture has raised concern. General circulation model scenarios were applied to a bioclimatic model of Melanoplus sanguinipes to assess the potential impact of global warming on its distribution and relative abundance. Native to North America and widely distributed, M. sanguinipes is one of the grasshopper species of the continent most responsible for economic damage to grain, oilseed, pulse, and forage crops. Compared to predicted range and distribution under current climate conditions, model results indicated that M. sanguinipes would have increased range and relative abundance under the three general circulation model scenarios in more northern regions of North America. Conversely, model output predicted that the range of this crop pest could contract in regions where climate conditions became limiting.

  2. Evaluating Vocational Programs: A Three Dimensional Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Sharaf N.; Nejad, Mahmoud

    The traditional methods of assessing the academic programs in the liberal arts are inappropriate for evaluating vocational and technical programs. In traditional academic disciplines, assessment of instruction is conducted in two fashions: student evaluation at the end of a course and institutional assessment of its goals and mission. Because of…

  3. Visual Teaching Model for Introducing Programming Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehane, Ronald; Sherman, Steven

    2014-01-01

    This study examines detailed usage of online training videos that were designed to address specific course problems that were encountered in an online computer programming course. The study presents the specifics of a programming course where training videos were used to provide students with a quick start path to learning a new programming…

  4. Mantis: Predicting System Performance through Program Analysis and Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Chun, Byung-Gon; Lee, Sangmin; Maniatis, Petros; Naik, Mayur

    2010-01-01

    We present Mantis, a new framework that automatically predicts program performance with high accuracy. Mantis integrates techniques from programming language and machine learning for performance modeling, and is a radical departure from traditional approaches. Mantis extracts program features, which are information about program execution runs, through program instrumentation. It uses machine learning techniques to select features relevant to performance and creates prediction models as a function of the selected features. Through program analysis, it then generates compact code slices that compute these feature values for prediction. Our evaluation shows that Mantis can achieve more than 93% accuracy with less than 10% training data set, which is a significant improvement over models that are oblivious to program features. The system generates code slices that are cheap to compute feature values.

  5. Increased drought impacts on temperate rainforests from southern South America: results of a process-based, dynamic forest model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Alvaro G; Armesto, Juan J; Díaz, M Francisca; Huth, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Increased droughts due to regional shifts in temperature and rainfall regimes are likely to affect forests in temperate regions in the coming decades. To assess their consequences for forest dynamics, we need predictive tools that couple hydrologic processes, soil moisture dynamics and plant productivity. Here, we developed and tested a dynamic forest model that predicts the hydrologic balance of North Patagonian rainforests on Chiloé Island, in temperate South America (42°S). The model incorporates the dynamic linkages between changing rainfall regimes, soil moisture and individual tree growth. Declining rainfall, as predicted for the study area, should mean up to 50% less summer rain by year 2100. We analysed forest responses to increased drought using the model proposed focusing on changes in evapotranspiration, soil moisture and forest structure (above-ground biomass and basal area). We compared the responses of a young stand (YS, ca. 60 years-old) and an old-growth forest (OG, >500 years-old) in the same area. Based on detailed field measurements of water fluxes, the model provides a reliable account of the hydrologic balance of these evergreen, broad-leaved rainforests. We found higher evapotranspiration in OG than YS under current climate. Increasing drought predicted for this century can reduce evapotranspiration by 15% in the OG compared to current values. Drier climate will alter forest structure, leading to decreases in above ground biomass by 27% of the current value in OG. The model presented here can be used to assess the potential impacts of climate change on forest hydrology and other threats of global change on future forests such as fragmentation, introduction of exotic tree species, and changes in fire regimes. Our study expands the applicability of forest dynamics models in remote and hitherto overlooked regions of the world, such as southern temperate rainforests.

  6. Increased drought impacts on temperate rainforests from southern South America: results of a process-based, dynamic forest model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro G Gutiérrez

    Full Text Available Increased droughts due to regional shifts in temperature and rainfall regimes are likely to affect forests in temperate regions in the coming decades. To assess their consequences for forest dynamics, we need predictive tools that couple hydrologic processes, soil moisture dynamics and plant productivity. Here, we developed and tested a dynamic forest model that predicts the hydrologic balance of North Patagonian rainforests on Chiloé Island, in temperate South America (42°S. The model incorporates the dynamic linkages between changing rainfall regimes, soil moisture and individual tree growth. Declining rainfall, as predicted for the study area, should mean up to 50% less summer rain by year 2100. We analysed forest responses to increased drought using the model proposed focusing on changes in evapotranspiration, soil moisture and forest structure (above-ground biomass and basal area. We compared the responses of a young stand (YS, ca. 60 years-old and an old-growth forest (OG, >500 years-old in the same area. Based on detailed field measurements of water fluxes, the model provides a reliable account of the hydrologic balance of these evergreen, broad-leaved rainforests. We found higher evapotranspiration in OG than YS under current climate. Increasing drought predicted for this century can reduce evapotranspiration by 15% in the OG compared to current values. Drier climate will alter forest structure, leading to decreases in above ground biomass by 27% of the current value in OG. The model presented here can be used to assess the potential impacts of climate change on forest hydrology and other threats of global change on future forests such as fragmentation, introduction of exotic tree species, and changes in fire regimes. Our study expands the applicability of forest dynamics models in remote and hitherto overlooked regions of the world, such as southern temperate rainforests.

  7. Building an advanced climate model: Program plan for the CHAMMP (Computer Hardware, Advanced Mathematics, and Model Physics) Climate Modeling Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-01

    The issue of global warming and related climatic changes from increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere has received prominent attention during the past few years. The Computer Hardware, Advanced Mathematics, and Model Physics (CHAMMP) Climate Modeling Program is designed to contribute directly to this rapid improvement. The goal of the CHAMMP Climate Modeling Program is to develop, verify, and apply a new generation of climate models within a coordinated framework that incorporates the best available scientific and numerical approaches to represent physical, biogeochemical, and ecological processes, that fully utilizes the hardware and software capabilities of new computer architectures, that probes the limits of climate predictability, and finally that can be used to address the challenging problem of understanding the greenhouse climate issue through the ability of the models to simulate time-dependent climatic changes over extended times and with regional resolution.

  8. Deadlock Detection in Basic Models of MPI Synchronization Communication Programs

    CERN Document Server

    Liao, Ming-xue

    2007-01-01

    A model of MPI synchronization communication programs is presented and its three basic simplified models are also defined. A series of theorems and methods for deciding whether deadlocks will occur among the three models are given and proved strictly. These theories and methods for simple models' deadlock detection are the necessary base for real MPI program deadlock detection. The methods are based on a static analysis through programs and with runtime detection in necessary cases and they are able to determine before compiling whether it will be deadlocked for two of the three basic models. For another model, some deadlock cases can be found before compiling and others at runtime. Our theorems can be used to prove the correctness of currently popular MPI program deadlock detection algorithms. Our methods may decrease codes that those algorithms need to change to MPI source or profiling interface and may detects deadlocks ahead of program execution, thus the overheads can be reduced greatly.

  9. Evolutionary Model to Traditional Culture and Program Organization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jing-xiao; JIN Wei-xing; YANG De-qin

    2006-01-01

    To study the relationship between the evolutions of Chinese Traditional Culture (CTC) and program organization, an outline of the CTC is generalized by reviewing literature, and which is also compartmentalized into two aspects according to economic philosophy views: traditional philosophy aspect and value judgment. Based on three dimensions, which are the philosophy aspect (P), program organization model (P), and value judgment from economic philosophy views (V), and this evolution sequence, the CTC's influence on the program organization model in the evolution is discussed; then the cultural spatial evolution model for program organization based on the three dimensions (PPV) is constructed. From analyzing the plane matrix of P-P and empirical investigating on the organizational model of construction enterprises, it is found that the ancient Chinese government organizational model still has prevailing influence on the modern program organizational model in China.

  10. Comparison of mosquito control programs in seven urban sites in Africa, the Middle East, and the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impoinvil, Daniel E.; Ahmad, Sajjad; Troyo, Adriana; Keating, Joseph; Githeko, Andrew K.; Mbogo, Charles M; Kibe, Lydiah; Githure, John I.; Gad, Adel M.; Hassan, Ali N.; Orshan, Laor; Warburg, Alon; Calderón-Arguedas, Olger; Sánchez-Loría, Victoria M.; Velit-Suarez, Rosanna; Chadee, Dave D.; Novak, Robert J.; Beier, John C.

    2007-01-01

    Mosquito control programs at seven urban sites in Kenya, Egypt, Israel, Costa Rica, and Trinidad are described and compared. Site-specific urban and disease characteristics, organizational diagrams, and strengths, weaknesses, obstacles and threats (SWOT) analysis tools are used to provide a descriptive assessment of each mosquito control program, and provide a comparison of the factors affecting mosquito abatement. The information for SWOT analysis is collected from surveys, focus group discussions, and personal communication. SWOT analysis identified various issues affecting the efficiency and sustainability of mosquito control operations. The main outcome of our work was the description and comparison of mosquito control operations within the context of each study site’s biological, social, political, management, and economic conditions. The issues identified in this study ranged from lack of inter-sector collaboration to operational issues of mosquito control efforts. A lack of sustainable funding for mosquito control was a common problem for most sites. Many unique problems were also identified, which included lack of mosquito surveillance, lack of law enforcement, and negative consequences of human behavior. Identifying common virtues and shortcomings of mosquito control operations is useful in identifying “best practices” for mosquito control operations, thus leading to better control of mosquito biting and mosquito-borne disease transmission. PMID:17316882

  11. Zonda downslope winds in the central Andes of South America in a 20-year climate simulation with the Eta model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antico, Pablo L.; Chou, Sin Chan; Mourão, Caroline

    2015-12-01

    The Zonda wind is a local version of the alpine foehn in the central Andes Mountains in South America. It blows on the eastern slopes and produces an extremely warm and dry condition in Argentina. In this study, the occurrence of Zonda wind events during a 20-year simulation from the regional Eta model is analyzed and results are compared to previous studies of Zonda wind events based on weather observations. We define a set of parameters to account for the zonal pressure gradient across the mountain, vertical movement, and air humidity typical of Zonda wind events. These parameters are applied to characterize Zonda wind events in model run and to classify them as surface-level or high-level episodes. The resulting annual distribution of Zonda occurrences based on composite analyses shows a preference for winter and spring with rare occurrences during summer. For the surface-level Zonda wind events, the highest frequency occurs during spring. Whereas surface-level Zonda wind episodes more commonly initiate in the afternoon, high-level Zonda wind events show no preference for a given initiation time. Our results are mostly in agreement with previous observational results.

  12. School-Based Programs Aimed at the Prevention and Treatment of Obesity: Evidence-Based Interventions for Youth in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobelo, Felipe; Garcia de Quevedo, Isabel; Holub, Christina K.; Nagle, Brian J.; Arredondo, Elva M.; Barquera, Simon; Elder, John P.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Rapidly rising childhood obesity rates constitute a public health priority in Latin America which makes it imperative to develop evidence-based strategies. Schools are a promising setting but to date it is unclear how many school-based obesity interventions have been documented in Latin America and what level of evidence can be…

  13. Integer Programming Model for Maximum Clique in Graph

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Xi-bo; YANG You; ZENG Xin-hai

    2005-01-01

    The maximum clique or maximum independent set of graph is a classical problem in graph theory. Combined with Boolean algebra and integer programming, two integer programming models for maximum clique problem,which improve the old results were designed in this paper. Then, the programming model for maximum independent set is a corollary of the main results. These two models can be easily applied to computer algorithm and software, and suitable for graphs of any scale. Finally the models are presented as Lingo algorithms, verified and compared by several examples.

  14. Development programs in the United States of America for the application of cement-based grouts in radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dole, L.R.; Row, T.H.

    1984-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews seven cement-based waste form development programs at six of the US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. These sites have developed a variety of processes that range from producing 25 mm (1 in.) diameter pellets in a glove box to producing 240 m (800 ft.) diameter grout sheets within the bedding planes of a deep shale formation. These successful applications of cement-based waste forms to the many radioactive waste streams from nuclear facilities bear witness to the flexibility and reliability of this class of materials. This paper also discusses the major issues regarding the application of cement-based waste forms to radioactive waste management problems. These issues are (1) leachability, (2) radiation stability, (3) thermal stability, (4) phase complexity of the matrix, and (5) effects of the waste stream composition. A cursory review of current research in each of these areas is given This paper also discusses future trends in cement-based waste form development and applications. 31 references, 11 figures.

  15. An F-Layer Model of the Ionosphere for North America,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    MODEL OF THE IONOSPHERE FOR NORTh AMERIC by 1 C.4jladwin ( Radar and Communications Technology Branch) CRC REPORT NO. 1337Se OTTAWA This work wa spnsred...T’hree-Dimensional Raytracing , Report No. AFCRL-TR-73-0726, Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories, Hanscom AFB, Mass., 1973. 8. Budden, K.G., Radio

  16. Assessment of North America photosynthetic uptake of CO2 through simulations of COS in a Lagrangian particle dispersion model framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H.; Montzka, S. A.; Andrews, A. E.; Sweeney, C.; Jacobson, A. R.; Petron, G.; Trudeau, M.; Miller, B. R.; Karion, A.; Martin, J.; Gerbig, C.; Campbell, J.; Abu-Naser, M.; Berry, J. A.; Baker, I. T.; Nehrkorn, T.; Eluszkiewicz, J.; Tans, P. P.

    2012-12-01

    Improving our understanding of terrestrial gross carbon fluxes, i.e. gross primary production (GPP) and respiration, plays a key role in evaluating feedbacks and thereby improving our ability to predict future climate. Since GPP can only be directly measured on very small scales, estimates of GPP at regional to global scales are derived only from biospheric model simulations. Recent studies suggest that carbonyl sulfide be a useful tracer to provide constraints on GPP, based on the fact that both COS and CO2 are simultaneously taken up by plants. Here we present an assessment of GPP estimates for North America from the Simple Biosphere (SiB) model, the Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach (CASA) model, and the MPI-BGC model through atmospheric transport simulations of COS in a Lagrangian particle dispersion model (LPDM) framework. We evaluate the impacts of boundary condition and soil uptake on the GPP estimates we derive. This study uses measurements of COS and CO2 from the NOAA/ESRL tall tower and aircraft air sampling networks, and LPDM simulations backward in time are used to quantify the contribution from different sources to observed mole fractions. A measurement over the continent contains information about terrestrial fluxes provided the upwind, or background concentration is known. Hence, the background state is an important part of the observed signal to be simulated. Empirical boundary curtains are built based on observations at the NOAA/ESRL marine boundary layer stations and from aircraft vertical profiles. These curtains are utilized as the lateral boundary conditions for COS and CO2 for the North American model domain. To assess the uncertainty of the background values for observations, we compare calculated background values based on the empirical curtains and two different models that identify where on the curtain the air entered the model domain: WRF-STILT and HYSPLIT-NAM12. Furthermore, the non-GPP related COS fluxes due to anthropogenic emissions and

  17. Development and Implementation of a Program Management Maturity Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartwig, Laura; Smith, Matt

    2008-12-15

    In 2006, Honeywell Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T) announced an updatedvision statement for the organization. The vision is “To be the most admired team within the NNSA [National Nuclear Security Administration] for our relentless drive to convert ideas into the highest quality products and services for National Security by applying the right technology, outstanding program management and best commercial practices.” The challenge to provide outstanding program management was taken up by the Program Management division and the Program Integration Office (PIO) of the company. This article describes how Honeywell developed and deployed a program management maturity model to drive toward excellence.

  18. Efficient Global Programming Model for Discriminant Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.ANGULAKSHMI

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Conventional statistical analysis includes the capacity to systematically assign individuals to groups. We suggest alternative assignment procedures, utilizing a set of interrelated goal programming formulations. This paper represents an effort to suggest ways by which the discriminant problem might reasonably be addressed via straightforward linear goal programming formulations. Simple and direct, such formulations may ultimately compete with conventional approaches - free of the classical assumptions and possessing a stronger intuitive appeal. We further demonstrate via simple illustration the potential of these procedures to play a significant part in addressing the discriminant problem, and indicate fundamental ideas that lay the foundation for other more sophisticated approaches.

  19. Organizational analysis of three community support program models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinke, B; Greenley, J R

    1986-06-01

    Little attention has been paid to the organizational and administrative characteristics of effective community support programs for the chronic mentally ill. The authors analyzed three successful support programs in Wisconsin that employ three different models of service delivery: one provides services through caseworkers who carry specialized caseloads, another through local nonprofessionals who work with a centrally located program coordinator, and the third through a team of various mental health workers. Each program has tailored its organizational process to suit the types of clients it sees, the size of its catchment area, and the availability of other professional resources. The interrelated strengths and weaknesses of each model are discussed.

  20. Summer precipitation projections over northwestern South America from CMIP5 models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomino-Lemus, Reiner; Córdoba-Machado, Samir; Gámiz-Fortis, Sonia Raquel; Castro-Díez, Yolanda; Esteban-Parra, María Jesús

    2015-08-01

    In this study, statistical downscaling (SD) models have been built using principal component regression (PCR) for simulating summer precipitation in Colombia during the period 1950-2010, and climate projections have been made for the period 2071-2100 by applying the previous SD models to the SLP outputs of five GCMs. For this, the principal components (PCs) of the SLP reanalysis data from NCEP were used as predictor variables and the observed gridded summer precipitation as predictands. The period 1950-1993 was used for calibration and 1994-2010 for validation. Bootstrap with replacement was applied to provide estimations of the statistical errors. All SD models performed reasonably well at regional scales, and the spatial distribution of the correlation coefficients between the predicted and observed gridded precipitation values shows high significant values (between 0.5 and 0.93) along the Andes range, north and north Pacific of Colombia. The ability of the GCMs to simulate the summer precipitation in Colombia, for the present climate (1971-2000), has been analyzed by calculating the differences between the simulated and observed precipitation values, with the result that the precipitation simulations made for the GCMs show strong biases. However, SD models applied to the SLP output from GCMs demonstrate their ability to faithfully reproduce the rainfall field. Finally, for summer precipitation projections in Colombia for the period 2071-2100, the SD models, recalibrated for the total period 1950-2010, have been applied to the SLP output from GCMs under the RCP2.6, RCP4.5, and RCP8.5 scenarios. The SD estimations show considerable differences with respect to SD present values, generally towards precipitation increases. The SD MIROC5, HAdGEM2-AO, and CESM1(CAM5) present significant changes in all the regions for both the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios. So, for the RCP8.5 these models project changes between 12.85% and 18.32% for the NWC region, 6.73% and 10.02% for

  1. Building America Case Study: Accelerating the Delivery of Home-Performance Upgrades Using a Synergistic Business Model, Minneapolis, Minnesota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-04-01

    Achieving Building America energy savings goals (40 percent by 2030) will require many existing homes to install energy upgrades. Engaging large numbers of homeowners in building science-guided upgrades during a single remodeling event has been difficult for a number of reasons. Performance upgrades in existing homes tend to occur over multiple years and usually result from component failures (furnace failure) and weather damage (ice dams, roofing, siding). This research attempted to: A) Understand the homeowner's motivations regarding investing in building science based performance upgrades. B) Determining a rapidly scalable approach to engage large numbers of homeowners directly through existing customer networks. C) Access a business model that will manage all aspects of the contractor-homeowner-performance professional interface to ensure good upgrade decisions over time. The solution results from a synergistic approach utilizing networks of suppliers merging with networks of homeowner customers. Companies in the $400 to $800 billion home services industry have proven direct marketing and sales proficiencies that have led to the development of vast customer networks. Companies such as pest control, lawn care, and security have nurtured these networks by successfully addressing the ongoing needs of homes. This long-term access to customers and trust established with consistent delivery has also provided opportunities for home service providers to grow by successfully introducing new products and services like attic insulation and air sealing. The most important component for success is a business model that will facilitate and manage the process. The team analyzes a group that developed a working model.

  2. Model checking abstract state machines with answer set programming

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Answer Set Programming (ASP) is a logic programming paradigm that has been shown as a useful tool in various application areas due to its expressive modelling language. These application areas include Bourided Model Checking (BMC). BMC is a verification technique that is recognized for its strong ability of finding errors in computer systems. To apply BMC, a system needs to be modelled in a formal specification language, such as the widely used formalism of Abstract State Machines (ASMs). In ...

  3. RCCM2-BATS model over tropical South America: Applications to tropical deforestation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahmann, A.N.; Dickinson, R.E. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    1997-08-01

    A multiyear simulation of the global climate uses a revised version of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Climate Model Version 2 (CCM2) coupled to the Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (BATS). It is compared with global and rain gauge precipitation climatologies to evaluate precipitation fields and European Centre for Medium-Range Forecasts analyses to evaluate the atmospheric circulation. The near-surface climate is compared with data from Amazonian field campaigns. The model simulation of the South American climate agrees closely with the observational record and is much improved from past simulations with previous versions of the NCAR Community Climate model over this portion of the Tropics. The model is then used to study the local and regional response to tropical deforestation over Amazonia. In addition to the standard deforestation forcing, consisting mainly of increased albedo and decreased roughness length, two additional sensitivity experiments were conducted to assess the individual contributions from these forcings to the deforestation changes. The standard deforestation simulation shows slight increases in annually averaged surface temperature (+1{degrees}C) and reductions in annually averaged precipitation and evaporation (-363 and -149 mm yr{sup -1}, respectively). As expected, increases in surface albedo over Amazonia produce a reduction in net downward solar radiation at the surface and consequently a reduction in net surface radiation and surface latent heat flux. The roughness decrease, on the other hand, reduces the surface latent heat fluxes through decreases in the surface drag coefficient. The regional changes in moisture convergence and precipitation during the Amazonian wet season display a shift in the area of maximum precipitation rather than an overall decrease over the deforested area. 45 refs., 16 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Mapping the Beat: A History and Geography through Music Curriculum at the University of California San Diego, ArtsBridge America Program - United States History from 1776-1865 for 5th Grade

    OpenAIRE

    Scholl, Jennifer Coordinator; Baker, James; Boyer, William; Eidsheim, Nina

    2002-01-01

    In 2002, the University of California San Diego ArtsBridge America program initiated a project, funded by the National Geographic Society Education Foundation, that was designed to address the lack of standards-based geography content and culture-based arts instruction within San Diego elementary schools. Representatives from host ArtsBridge institutions identified the following factors contributing to this deficiency: • a perceived lack of arts and geography competence amongst elementary ...

  5. ALREST High Fidelity Modeling Program Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    Gases and Mixtures of Redlich - Kwong and Peng- Robinson Fluids Assumed pdf Model based on k- ε-g Model in NASA/LaRc Vulcan code Level Set model...Potential Attractiveness Of Liquid Hydrocarbon Engines For Boost Applications • Propensity Of Hydrocarbon Engines For Combustion Instability • Air

  6. Comparative evaluation of the IPCC AR5 CMIP5 versus the AR4 CMIP3 model ensembles for regional precipitation and their extremes over South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolen, J.; Kodra, E. A.; Ganguly, A. R.

    2011-12-01

    The assertion that higher-resolution experiments or more sophisticated process models within the IPCC AR5 CMIP5 suite of global climate model ensembles improves precipitation projections over the IPCC AR4 CMIP3 suite remains a hypothesis that needs to be rigorously tested. The questions are particularly important for local to regional assessments at scales relevant for the management of critical infrastructures and key resources, particularly for the attributes of sever precipitation events, for example, the intensity, frequency and duration of extreme precipitation. Our case study is South America, where precipitation and their extremes play a central role in sustaining natural, built and human systems. To test the hypothesis that CMIP5 improves over CMIP3 in this regard, spatial and temporal measures of prediction skill are constructed and computed by comparing climate model hindcasts with the NCEP-II reanalysis data, considered here as surrogate observations, for the entire globe and for South America. In addition, gridded precipitation observations over South America based on rain gage measurements are considered. The results suggest that the utility of the next-generation of global climate models over the current generation needs to be carefully evaluated on a case-by-case basis before communicating to resource managers and policy makers.

  7. Consideration of an applied model of public health program infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavinghouze, René; Snyder, Kimberly; Rieker, Patricia; Ottoson, Judith

    2013-01-01

    Systemic infrastructure is key to public health achievements. Individual public health program infrastructure feeds into this larger system. Although program infrastructure is rarely defined, it needs to be operationalized for effective implementation and evaluation. The Ecological Model of Infrastructure (EMI) is one approach to defining program infrastructure. The EMI consists of 5 core (Leadership, Partnerships, State Plans, Engaged Data, and Managed Resources) and 2 supporting (Strategic Understanding and Tactical Action) elements that are enveloped in a program's context. We conducted a literature search across public health programs to determine support for the EMI. Four of the core elements were consistently addressed, and the other EMI elements were intermittently addressed. The EMI provides an initial and partial model for understanding program infrastructure, but additional work is needed to identify evidence-based indicators of infrastructure elements that can be used to measure success and link infrastructure to public health outcomes, capacity, and sustainability.

  8. Research on teacher education programs: logic model approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Xiaoxia A; Poon, Rebecca C; Nunes, Nicole L; Stone, Elisa M

    2013-02-01

    Teacher education programs in the United States face increasing pressure to demonstrate their effectiveness through pupils' learning gains in classrooms where program graduates teach. The link between teacher candidates' learning in teacher education programs and pupils' learning in K-12 classrooms implicit in the policy discourse suggests a one-to-one correspondence. However, the logical steps leading from what teacher candidates have learned in their programs to what they are doing in classrooms that may contribute to their pupils' learning are anything but straightforward. In this paper, we argue that the logic model approach from scholarship on evaluation can enhance research on teacher education by making explicit the logical links between program processes and intended outcomes. We demonstrate the usefulness of the logic model approach through our own work on designing a longitudinal study that focuses on examining the process and impact of an undergraduate mathematics and science teacher education program.

  9. [Health system reforms in South America: an opportunity for UNASUR].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes-Temporão, José; Faria, Mariana

    2014-01-01

    Health systems in South America still support segmentation, privatization and fragmentation. Health reforms of the structural adjustment programs in the 1980s and 1990s in South America followed different purposes and strategies ranging from privatization, commodification and state intervention for the implementation of a national public health service with universal access as a right of the citizens. Since the 2000s, many countries have expanded social policies, reduced poverty and social inequalities, and improved access to healthcare. This article proposes to discuss the health systems in South America from historical and political backgrounds, and the progress from the reforms in the last three decades. It also presents the three paradigmatic models of reform and their evolution, as well as the contrasts between universal coverage and universal systems. Finally, it presents current strengths and weaknesses of the twelve South American health systems as well as current opportunities and challenges in health for UNASUR.

  10. Exploration drilling and reservoir model of the Platanares geothermal system, Honduras, Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, F.; Goff, S.J.; Kelkar, S.; Shevenell, L.; Truesdell, A.H.; Musgrave, J.; Rufenacht, H.; Flores, W.

    1991-01-01

    Results of drilling, logging, and testing of three exploration core holes, combined with results of geologic and hydrogeochemical investigations, have been used to present a reservoir model of the Platanares geothermal system, Honduras. Geothermal fluids circulate at depths ??? 1.5 km in a region of active tectonism devoid of Quaternary volcanism. Large, artesian water entries of 160 to 165??C geothermal fluid in two core holes at 625 to 644 m and 460 to 635 m depth have maximum flow rates of roughly 355 and 560 l/min, respectively, which are equivalent to power outputs of about 3.1 and 5.1 MW(thermal). Dilute, alkali-chloride reservoir fluids (TDS ??? 1200 mg/kg) are produced from fractured Miocene andesite and Cretaceous to Eocene redbeds that are hydrothermally altered. Fracture permeabillity in producing horizons is locally greater than 1500 and bulk porosity is ??? 6%. A simple, fracture-dominated, volume-impedance model assuming turbulent flow indicates that the calculated reservoir storage capacity of each flowing hole is approximately 9.7 ?? 106 l/(kg cm-2), Tritium data indicate a mean residence time of 450 yr for water in the reservoir. Multiplying the natural fluid discharge rate by the mean residence time gives an estimated water volume of the Platanares system of ??? 0.78 km3. Downward continuation of a 139??C/km "conductive" gradient at a depth of 400 m in a third core hole implies that the depth to a 225??C source reservoir (predicted from chemical geothermometers) is at least 1.5 km. Uranium-thorium disequilibrium ages on calcite veins at the surface and in the core holes indicate that the present Platanares hydrothermal system has been active for the last 0.25 m.y. ?? 1991.

  11. Paleocene floral diversities and turnover events in eastern North America and their relation to diversity models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederiksen, N.O.

    1994-01-01

    This paper uses angiosperm pollen taxon turnover (first and last appearance) and diversity events as metrics to describe the Paleocene floral history of the eastern Gulf Coast; data are from 64 samples and 67 angiosperm pollen taxa. Angiosperm pollen diversity was very low at the beginning of the Paleocene, rose slowly and then somewhat more rapidly to a maximum for the epoch in the middle of the late Paleoceneas a result of the maximum in rate of first appearances during the late early Paleocene and earliest late Paleocene. Diversity then dropped very rapidly at or near the end of the epoch as the rate of last appearances reached its maximum, resulting in the Terminal Paleocene Extinction Event. The latest Paleocene diversity decline coincided with an increase in mean annual temperature and probably in rainfall, representing the beginning of the climatic maximum for the Tertiary which characterized the early Eocene. The increase in diversity of early Paleocene floras in the eastern Gulf Coast resulted from exploitation of unfilled ecospace originating from (1) low regional diversity following the Terminal Cretaceous Extinction Event, and (2) creation of many new niches during the Paleocene, resulting, according to megafloral evidence, from a change to a new vegetation type (multistratal tropical rainforest) brought about by an increase in rainfall. The slow rate of recovery of earliest Paleocene angiosperm diversity in the eastern Gulf Coast may be explained in part by the diversity-dependence model of Carr and Kitchell (1980). However, additional factors may have contributed to the slow recovery: (1) the adverse terminal Cretaceous climates may have extended into the early Paleocene, (2) the initial Paleocene environment of the eastern Gulf Coast may have contained relatively few niches, (3) some earliest Paleocene angiosperms, particularly trees, may have had inherently poor capabilities for rapid evolution, and (4) there was a lack of significant immigration of

  12. Climate Model Simulation of Present and Future Extreme Events in Latin America and the Caribbean: What Spatial Resolution is Required?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, C. M.; Oglesby, R. J.; Mawalagedara, R.; Mohammad Abadi Kamarei, A.

    2015-12-01

    Latin America and the Caribbean are at risk of extreme climate events, including flooding rains, damaging winds, drought, heat waves, and in high elevation mountainous regions, excessive snowfalls. The causes of these events are numerous - flooding rains and damaging winds are often associated with tropical cyclones, but also can occur, either separately or in tandem, due to smaller, more localized storms. Similarly, heat waves and droughts can be large scale or localized, and frequently occur together (as excessive drying can lead to enhanced heating, while enhanced heating in turn promotes additional drying). Even in the tropics, extreme snow and ice events can have severe consequences due to avalanches, and also impact water resources. Understanding and modeling the climate controls behind these extreme events requires consideration of a range of time and space scales. A common strategy is to use a global climate model (GCM) to simulate the large-scale (~100km) daily atmospheric controls on extreme events. A limited area, high resolution regional climate model (RCM) is then employed to dynamically downscale the results, so as to better incorporate the influence of topography and, secondarily, the nature of the land cover. But what resolution is required to provide the necessary results, i.e., minimize biases due to improper resolution? In conjunction with our partners from participating Latin American and Caribbean nations, we have made an extensive series of simulations, both region-wide and for individual countries, using the WRF regional climate model to downscale output from a variety of GCMs, as well as Reanalyses (as a proxy for observations). The simulations driven by the Reanalyses are used for robust model verification against actual weather station observations. The simulations driven by GCMs are designed to provide projections of future climate, including importantly how the nature and number of extreme events may change through coming decades. Our

  13. Service systems concepts, modeling, and programming

    CERN Document Server

    Cardoso, Jorge; Poels, Geert

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief explores the internal workings of service systems. The authors propose a lightweight semantic model for an effective representation to capture the essence of service systems. Key topics include modeling frameworks, service descriptions and linked data, creating service instances, tool support, and applications in enterprises.Previous books on service system modeling and various streams of scientific developments used an external perspective to describe how systems can be integrated. This brief introduces the concept of white-box service system modeling as an approach to mo

  14. Model-Checking Real-Time Control Programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, T. K.; Kristoffersen, K. J.; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we present a method for automatic verification of real-time control programs running on LEGO(R) RCX(TM) bricks using the verification tool UPPALL. The control programs, consisting of a number of tasks running concurrently, are automatically translated into the mixed automata model...

  15. The Gold Medal Fitness Program: A Model for Teacher Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jan; Konza, Deslea; Hearne, Doug; Okely, Tony

    2008-01-01

    Background: Following the 2000 Sydney Olympics, the NSW Premier, Mr Bob Carr, launched a school-based initiative in NSW government primary schools called the "Gold Medal Fitness Program" to encourage children to be fitter and more active. The Program was introduced into schools through a model of professional development, "Quality…

  16. “棱镜门”事件的竞争情报含义解析%Studies on Competitive Intelligence Meanings of America NSA PRISM Program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈峰

    2014-01-01

    In the whole human intelligence development history, the progress has been continuing that the theories and practices from mili-tary intelligence ( including national security) field can be referred and transformed into civil intelligence including competitive intelligence field. Base on the common essentials of both military intelligence and competitive intelligence, this paper studies and explores the competi-tive intelligence meanings of America NSA PRISM program from eight aspects including essentials, natural instincts, significance, aware-ness, subject, and means of promoting it etc. , The inspiration for China is given in the end.%军事和国家安全领域情报工作的理念和做法被民口情报借鉴移植转化、影响推动民口情报发展一直贯穿人类情报发展的历史。基于军事和国家安全情报、竞争情报的共性要义,从情报本性、情报和认知的重要性、开展情报工作的主体、情报工作的推动等8个方面,研究总结美国“棱镜”国家情报监听项目暨“棱镜门”事件的竞争情报含义,并给出对加强我国竞争情报工作的启示。

  17. Program Models for Mental Health Treatment of Refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaranson, James M.; Bamford, Pauline

    This paper presents the approach used by the Technical Assistance Center (TAC) of the University of Minnesota's Refugee Assistance Program in Mental Health for identifying successful and culturally sensitive mental health service delivery models. It divides these into four categories: the psychiatric model; the community mental health model; the…

  18. Time Aquatic Resources Modeling and Analysis Program (STARMAP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Colorado State University has received funding from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for its Space-Time Aquatic Resources Modeling and Analysis Program...

  19. Modelling of windmill induction generators in dynamic simulation programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akhmatov, Vladislav; Knudsen, Hans

    1999-01-01

    . It is shown that it is possible to include a transient model in dynamic stability programs and thus obtain correct results also in dynamic stability programs. A mechanical model of the shaft system has also been included in the generator model...... with and without a model of the mechanical shaft. The reason for the discrepancies are explained, and it is shown that the phenomenon is due partly to the presence of DC offset currents in the induction machine stator, and partly to the mechanical shaft system of the wind turbine and the generator rotor......For AC networks with large amounts of induction generators-in case of e.g. windmills-the paper demonstrates a significant discrepancy in the simulated voltage recovery after faults in weak networks, when comparing result obtained with dynamic stability programs and transient programs, respectively...

  20. Applying Model Checking to Industrial-Sized PLC Programs

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2079190; Darvas, Daniel; Blanco Vinuela, Enrique; Tournier, Jean-Charles; Bliudze, Simon; Blech, Jan Olaf; Gonzalez Suarez, Victor M

    2015-01-01

    Programmable logic controllers (PLCs) are embedded computers widely used in industrial control systems. Ensuring that a PLC software complies with its specification is a challenging task. Formal verification has become a recommended practice to ensure the correctness of safety-critical software but is still underused in industry due to the complexity of building and managing formal models of real applications. In this paper, we propose a general methodology to perform automated model checking of complex properties expressed in temporal logics (\\eg CTL, LTL) on PLC programs. This methodology is based on an intermediate model (IM), meant to transform PLC programs written in various standard languages (ST, SFC, etc.) to different modeling languages of verification tools. We present the syntax and semantics of the IM and the transformation rules of the ST and SFC languages to the nuXmv model checker passing through the intermediate model. Finally, two real cases studies of \\CERN PLC programs, written mainly in th...

  1. Model for the reduction of denials of expeditions of radioactive material in the region of the America; Modelo para reducir los casos de rechazos de expediciones de material radiactivo en la region de America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallaupoma, Mario, E-mail: mmallaupoma@ipen.gob.pe, E-mail: mmallaupomag@yahoo.es [Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear (IPEN), Lima (Peru); Bruno, Natanael, E-mail: nbruno@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The denials, restraints and delays of shipments of radioactive material likely to have occurred and continue to occur. Reducing them to acceptable levels can be a tangible goal that senders and recipients can anticipate and get. The basis for resolving cases of denials and delays should consider not only the participation of the competent national nuclear authorities but also other government authorities. Carriers, shippers, transport companies and recipients should consider in their queries all the wide range of authorities apparently have no involvement but they really have. This paper describes the experience gained in the country of Brazil and provides the basis of a model that could prove useful to other countries and regions, including America, if we adopt and adapt, to reduce the incidence of denials and delays of shipments of radioactive material, according to its own conditions and characteristics.

  2. Universal definition of loss to follow-up in HIV treatment programs: a statistical analysis of 111 facilities in Africa, Asia, and Latin America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin H Chi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Although patient attrition is recognized as a threat to the long-term success of antiretroviral therapy programs worldwide, there is no universal definition for classifying patients as lost to follow-up (LTFU. We analyzed data from health facilities across Africa, Asia, and Latin America to empirically determine a standard LTFU definition.At a set "status classification" date, patients were categorized as either "active" or "LTFU" according to different intervals from time of last clinic encounter. For each threshold, we looked forward 365 d to assess the performance and accuracy of this initial classification. The best-performing definition for LTFU had the lowest proportion of patients misclassified as active or LTFU. Observational data from 111 health facilities-representing 180,718 patients from 19 countries-were included in this study. In the primary analysis, for which data from all facilities were pooled, an interval of 180 d (95% confidence interval [CI]: 173-181 d since last patient encounter resulted in the fewest misclassifications (7.7%, 95% CI: 7.6%-7.8%. A secondary analysis that gave equal weight to cohorts and to regions generated a similar result (175 d; however, an alternate approach that used inverse weighting for cohorts based on variance and equal weighting for regions produced a slightly lower summary measure (150 d. When examined at the facility level, the best-performing definition varied from 58 to 383 d (mean=150 d, but when a standard definition of 180 d was applied to each facility, only slight increases in misclassification (mean=1.2%, 95% CI: 1.0%-1.5% were observed. Using this definition, the proportion of patients classified as LTFU by facility ranged from 3.1% to 45.1% (mean=19.9%, 95% CI: 19.1%-21.7%.Based on this evaluation, we recommend the adoption of ≥180 d since the last clinic visit as a standard LTFU definition. Such standardization is an important step to understanding the reasons that underlie patient

  3. Photovoltaic subsystem marketing and distribution model: programming manual. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-07-01

    Complete documentation of the marketing and distribution (M and D) computer model is provided. The purpose is to estimate the costs of selling and transporting photovoltaic solar energy products from the manufacturer to the final customer. The model adjusts for the inflation and regional differences in marketing and distribution costs. The model consists of three major components: the marketing submodel, the distribution submodel, and the financial submodel. The computer program is explained including the input requirements, output reports, subprograms and operating environment. The program specifications discuss maintaining the validity of the data and potential improvements. An example for a photovoltaic concentrator collector demonstrates the application of the model.

  4. Spatial and temporal patterns of CH4 and N2O fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems of North America during 1979–2008: application of a global biogeochemistry model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Chen

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Continental-scale estimations of terrestrial methane (CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O fluxes over a long time period are crucial to accurately assess the global balance of greenhouse gases and enhance our understanding and prediction of global climate change and terrestrial ecosystem feedbacks. Using a process-based global biogeochemical model, the Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model (DLEM, we quantified simultaneously CH4 and N2O fluxes in North America's terrestrial ecosystems from 1979 to 2008. During the past 30 years, approximately 14.69±1.64 T g C a−1 (1 T g=1012 g of CH4, and 1.94±0.16 T g N a−1 of N2O were released from terrestrial ecosystems in North America. At the country level, both the United States and Canada acted as CH4 sources to the atmosphere, but Mexico mainly oxidized and consumed CH4 from the atmosphere. Wetlands in North America contributed predominantly to the regional CH4 source, while all other ecosystems acted as sinks for atmospheric CH4, of which forests accounted for 36.8%. Regarding N2O emission in North America, the United States, Canada, and Mexico contributed 56.19%, 18.23%, and 25.58%, respectively, to the continental source over the past 30 years. Forests and croplands were the two ecosystems that contributed most to continental N2O emission. The inter-annual variations of CH4 and N2O fluxes in North America were mainly attributed to year-to-year climatic variability. While only annual precipitation was found to have a significant effect on annual CH4 flux, both mean annual temperature and annual precipitation were significantly correlated to annual N2O flux. The regional estimates and spatiotemporal patterns of terrestrial ecosystem CH4 and N2O fluxes in North America generated in this study provide useful information for global change research and policy making.

  5. Language Documentation in the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchetto, Bruna; Rice, Keren

    2014-01-01

    In the last decades, the documentation of endangered languages has advanced greatly in the Americas. In this paper we survey the role that international funding programs have played in advancing documentation in this part of the world, with a particular focus on the growth of documentation in Brazil, and we examine some of the major opportunities…

  6. DNA computation model to solve 0-1 programming problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fengyue; Yin, Zhixiang; Liu, Bo; Xu, Jin

    2004-01-01

    0-1 programming problem is an important problem in opsearch with very widespread applications. In this paper, a new DNA computation model utilizing solution-based and surface-based methods is presented to solve the 0-1 programming problem. This model contains the major benefits of both solution-based and surface-based methods; including vast parallelism, extraordinary information density and ease of operation. The result, verified by biological experimentation, revealed the potential of DNA computation in solving complex programming problem.

  7. From Safety Critical Java Programs to Timed Process Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Bent; Luckow, Kasper Søe; Thomsen, Lone Leth

    2015-01-01

    The idea of analysing real programs by process algebraic methods probably goes back to the Occam language using the CSP process algebra [43]. In [16,24] Degano et al. followed in that tradition by analysing Mobile Agent Programs written in the Higher Order Functional, Concurrent and Distributed......, programming language Facile [47], by equipping Facile with a process algebraic semantics based on true concurrency. This semantics facilitated analysis of programs revealing subtle bugs that would otherwise be very hard to find. Inspired by the idea of translating real programs into process algebraic...... frameworks, we have in recent years pursued an agenda of translating hard-real-time embedded safety critical programs written in the Safety Critical Java Profile [33] into networks of timed automata [4] and subjecting those to automated analysis using the UPPAAL model checker [10]. Several tools have been...

  8. CoMD Implementation Suite in Emerging Programming Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-09-23

    CoMD-Em is a software implementation suite of the CoMD [4] proxy app using different emerging programming models. It is intended to analyze the features and capabilities of novel programming models that could help ensure code and performance portability and scalability across heterogeneous platforms while improving programmer productivity. Another goal is to provide the authors and venders with some meaningful feedback regarding the capabilities and limitations of their models. The actual application is a classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulation using either the Lennard-Jones method (LJ) or the embedded atom method (EAM) for primary particle interaction. The code can be extended to support alternate interaction models. The code is expected ro run on a wide class of heterogeneous hardware configurations like shard/distributed/hybrid memory, GPU's and any other platform supported by the underlying programming model.

  9. Geometric model of robotic arc welding for automatic programming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Geometric information is important for automatic programming of arc welding robot. Complete geometric models of robotic arc welding are established in this paper. In the geometric model of weld seam, an equation with seam length as its parameter is introduced to represent any weld seam. The method to determine discrete programming points on a weld seam is presented. In the geometric model of weld workpiece, three class primitives and CSG tree are used to describe weld workpiece. Detailed data structure is presented. In pose transformation of torch, world frame, torch frame and active frame are defined, and transformation between frames is presented. Based on these geometric models, an automatic programming software package for robotic arc welding, RAWCAD, is developed. Experiments show that the geometric models are practical and reliable.

  10. A program of research in environmental modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    A theoretical framework for the interpretation of satellite measurements of stratospheric temperature and trace gases is provided. This problem is quite complicated since the distributions of trace gases are dependent on dynamics and photochemistry. Therefore, the problem was attacked with models employing varying degrees of photochemical and dynamical complexity. The relationship between dynamics and trace gas transport and wave transience, dissipation and critical levels and the net (permanent) transport of trace gases, the role of photochemistry in trace gas transport, photochemistry and dynamics and altering the mean-zonal distribution of stratospheric ozone, and approximations to simplify the interpretation of observations and General Circulation Models are discussed.

  11. Sudden infant death syndrome prevention: a model program for NICUs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, Sherri L; Lipke, Bethann; LeMura, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Health care providers' opinions can influence how parents place their infant to sleep. Neonatal nurses can improve how they teach and model safe infant sleep practices to parents. To increase neonatal nurses' knowledge, a sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) prevention program was implemented. Program components included a computerized teaching tool, a crib card, sleep sacks, and discharge instructions. Initial program evaluation showed that 98 percent of infants slept supine and 93 percent slept in sleep sacks in open cribs. However, nurses continued to swaddle some infants with blankets to improve thermoregulation. To increase nursing compliance in modeling safe infant sleep practices, Halo SleepSack Swaddles were provided for nurses to use in place of a blanket to regulate infant temperature. Recent data show that 100 percent of infants in open cribs are now sleeping supine wearing a Halo Swaddle or a traditional Halo SleepSack. This model program can easily be replicated to enhance neonatal nurses' knowledge about SIDS prevention.

  12. A new model for programming software in body sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de A Barbosa, Talles M G; Sene, Iwens G; da Rocha, Adson F; de O Nascimento, Francisco A A; Carvalho, Joao L A; Carvalho, Hervaldo S

    2007-01-01

    A Body Sensor Network (BSN) must be designed to work autonomously. On the other hand, BSNs need mechanisms that allow changes in their behavior in order to become a clinically useful tool. The purpose of this paper is to present a new programming model that will be useful for programming BSN sensor nodes. This model is based on an intelligent intermediate-level compiler. The main purpose of the proposed compiler is to increase the efficiency in system use, and to increase the lifetime of the application, considering its requirements, hardware possibilities and specialist knowledge. With this model, it is possible to maintain the autonomous operation capability of the BSN and still offer tools that allow users with little grasp on programming techniques to program these systems.

  13. Constraints of GRACE on the Ice Model and Mantle Rheology in Glacial Isostatic Adjustment Modeling in North-America

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wal, W.; Wu, P.; Sideris, M.; Wang, H.

    2009-05-01

    GRACE satellite data offer homogeneous coverage of the area covered by the former Laurentide ice sheet. The secular gravity rate estimated from the GRACE data can therefore be used to constrain the ice loading history in Laurentide and, to a lesser extent, the mantle rheology in a GIA model. The objective of this presentation is to find a best fitting global ice model and use it to study how the ice model can be modified to fit a composite rheology, in which creep rates from a linear and non-linear rheology are added. This is useful because all the ice models constructed from GIA assume that mantle rheology is linear, but creep experiments on rocks show that nonlinear rheology may be the dominant mechanism in some parts of the mantle. We use CSR release 4 solutions from August 2002 to October 2008 with continental water storage effects removed by the GLDAS model and filtering with a destriping and Gaussian filter. The GIA model is a radially symmetric incompressible Maxwell Earth, with varying upper and lower mantle viscosity. Gravity rate misfit values are computed for with a range of viscosity values with the ICE-3G, ICE-4G and ICE-5G models. The best fit is shown for models with ICE-3G and ICE-4G, and the ICE-4G model is selected for computations with a so-called composite rheology. For the composite rheology, the Coupled Laplace Finite-Element Method is used to compute the GIA response of a spherical self-gravitating incompressible Maxwell Earth. The pre-stress exponent (A) derived from a uni- axial stress experiment is varied between 3.3 x 10-34/10-35/10-36 Pa-3s-1, the Newtonian viscosity η is varied between 1 and 3 x 1021 Pa-s, and the stress exponent is taken to be 3. Composite rheology in general results in geoid rates that are too small compared to GRACE observations. Therefore, simple modifications of the ICE-4G history are investigated by scaling ice heights or delaying glaciation. It is found that a delay in glaciation is a better way to adjust ice

  14. Influence of boundary conditions to multi-model simulations of ozone and PM2.5 levels over Europe and North America in frame of AQMEII3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Ulas; Hansen, Kaj M.; Geels, Camilla; Christensen, Jesper H.; Brandt, Jørgen; Hogrefe, Christian; Galmarini, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    AQMEII (Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative) promotes research on regional air quality model evaluation across the European and North American atmospheric modelling communities, providing the ideal platform for advancing the evaluation of air quality models at the regional scale. In frame of the AQMEII3 model evaluation exercise, thirteen regional chemistry and transport models have simulated the air pollutant levels over Europe and/or North America for the year 2010, along with various sensitivity simulations of reductions in anthropogenic emissions and boundary conditions. All participating groups have performed sensitivity simulation with 20% reductions in global (GLO) anthropogenic emissions. In addition, various groups simulated sensitivity scenarios of 20% reductions in anthropogenic emissions in different HTAP-defined regions such as North America (NAM), Europe (EUR) and East Asia (EAS). The boundary conditions for the base case and the perturbation scenarios were derived from the MOZART-IFS global chemical model. The present study will evaluate the impact of these emission perturbations on regional surface ozone and PM2.5 levels as well as over individual surface measurement stations over both continents and vertical profiles over the radiosonde stations from the World Ozone and Ultraviolet Radiation Data Centre (WOUDC) and the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) stations for ozone and for PM2.5, respectively.

  15. Climate change and risk of leishmaniasis in north america: predictions from ecological niche models of vector and reservoir species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila González

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Climate change is increasingly being implicated in species' range shifts throughout the world, including those of important vector and reservoir species for infectious diseases. In North America (México, United States, and Canada, leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease that is autochthonous in México and Texas and has begun to expand its range northward. Further expansion to the north may be facilitated by climate change as more habitat becomes suitable for vector and reservoir species for leishmaniasis. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The analysis began with the construction of ecological niche models using a maximum entropy algorithm for the distribution of two sand fly vector species (Lutzomyia anthophora and L. diabolica, three confirmed rodent reservoir species (Neotoma albigula, N. floridana, and N. micropus, and one potential rodent reservoir species (N. mexicana for leishmaniasis in northern México and the United States. As input, these models used species' occurrence records with topographic and climatic parameters as explanatory variables. Models were tested for their ability to predict correctly both a specified fraction of occurrence points set aside for this purpose and occurrence points from an independently derived data set. These models were refined to obtain predicted species' geographical distributions under increasingly strict assumptions about the ability of a species to disperse to suitable habitat and to persist in it, as modulated by its ecological suitability. Models successful at predictions were fitted to the extreme A2 and relatively conservative B2 projected climate scenarios for 2020, 2050, and 2080 using publicly available interpolated climate data from the Third Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Assessment Report. Further analyses included estimation of the projected human population that could potentially be exposed to leishmaniasis in 2020, 2050, and 2080 under the A2 and B2 scenarios. All confirmed

  16. Currency Arbitrage Detection Using a Binary Integer Programming Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soon, Wanmei; Ye, Heng-Qing

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we examine the use of a new binary integer programming (BIP) model to detect arbitrage opportunities in currency exchanges. This model showcases an excellent application of mathematics to the real world. The concepts involved are easily accessible to undergraduate students with basic knowledge in Operations Research. Through this…

  17. A Novel Nonlinear Programming Model for Distribution Protection Optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zambon, Eduardo; Bossois, Débora Z.; Garcia, Berilhes B.; Azeredo, Elias F.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a novel nonlinear binary programming model designed to improve the reliability indices of a distribution network. This model identifies the type and location of protection devices that should be installed in a distribution feeder and is a generalization of the classical optimizat

  18. Diet models with linear goal programming: impact of achievement functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerdessen, J.C.; Vries, de J.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Diet models based on goal programming (GP) are valuable tools in designing diets that comply with nutritional, palatability and cost constraints. Results derived from GP models are usually very sensitive to the type of achievement function that is chosen. This paper aims to pr

  19. Details of Programming a Model of Children's Counting in ACTP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Mary S.; Greeno, James G.

    Presented is an introduction to the operation and mechanics of the ACTP production system, a version of Anderson's (1976) ACT system. ACTP is already in use modeling geometry theorem proving and counting of a set of objects, and has been identified as a potentially useful programing framework for developing models of the cognitive processes used…

  20. Human Behavior Model Based Control Program for ACC Mobile Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu Pozna

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Present work is a part of the ACC autonomous car project. This paper will focuson the control program architecture. To design this architecture we will start from thehuman driver behavior model. Using this model we have constructed a three level controlprogram. Preliminary results are presented.

  1. A Primary Prevention Program: Teaching Models I and II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlan, Nancy T; Tschiderer, Patricia A.

    Two teaching models of a service delivery program designed to prevent speech-language problems in lower socioeconomic children were compared. Specific goals included increasing mothers' awareness of the sensory input to which infants are responsive and increasing mothers' abilities to read infant nonverbal signals. In Model 1, two speech-language…

  2. Use of a business excellence model to improve conservation programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Simon; Groombridge, Jim

    2010-12-01

    The current shortfall in effectiveness within conservation biology is illustrated by increasing interest in "evidence-based conservation," whose proponents have identified the need to benchmark conservation initiatives against actions that lead to proven positive effects. The effectiveness of conservation policies, approaches, and evaluation is under increasing scrutiny, and in these areas models of excellence used in business could prove valuable. Typically, conservation programs require years of effort and involve rigorous long-term implementation processes. Successful balance of long-term efforts alongside the achievement of short-term goals is often compromised by management or budgetary constraints, a situation also common in commercial businesses. "Business excellence" is an approach many companies have used over the past 20 years to ensure continued success. Various business excellence evaluations have been promoted that include concepts that could be adapted and applied in conservation programs. We describe a conservation excellence model that shows how scientific processes and results can be aligned with financial and organizational measures of success. We applied the model to two well-documented species conservation programs. In the first, the Po'ouli program, several aspects of improvement were identified, such as more authority for decision making in the field and better integration of habitat management and population recovery processes. The second example, the black-footed ferret program, could have benefited from leadership effort to reduce bureaucracy and to encourage use of best-practice species recovery approaches. The conservation excellence model enables greater clarity in goal setting, more-effective identification of job roles within programs, better links between technical approaches and measures of biological success, and more-effective use of resources. The model could improve evaluation of a conservation program's effectiveness and may be

  3. Modeling the complete Otto cycle: Preliminary version. [computer programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeleznik, F. J.; Mcbride, B. J.

    1977-01-01

    A description is given of the equations and the computer program being developed to model the complete Otto cycle. The program incorporates such important features as: (1) heat transfer, (2) finite combustion rates, (3) complete chemical kinetics in the burned gas, (4) exhaust gas recirculation, and (5) manifold vacuum or supercharging. Changes in thermodynamic, kinetic and transport data as well as model parameters can be made without reprogramming. Preliminary calculations indicate that: (1) chemistry and heat transfer significantly affect composition and performance, (2) there seems to be a strong interaction among model parameters, and (3) a number of cycles must be calculated in order to obtain steady-state conditions.

  4. Latin America`s emerging non-proliferation consensus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redick, J.R.

    1994-03-01

    Latin America`s incorporation into the international nuclear non-proliferation regime is well advanced. The 1967 Tlatelolco Treaty, which established a regional nuclear-weapon-free zone (NWFZ), is nearing completion. A signal event occurred January 18, when Argentina and Chile deposited instruments of ratification to the treaty, leaving Brazil and Cuba the only major countries in Latin America that are not yet contracting parties. And after more than two decades of concern about the nuclear programs and policies in Argentina and Brazil, there is room for great optimism that Brazil may now be moving quickly on important non-proliferation issues. Even Cuba, the {open_quotes}bad boy of the neighborhood{close_quotes} in the eyes of many, which held aloof from the Tlatelolco process for three decades, has stated its willingness to join the zone in the future.

  5. Can Household Benefit from Stochastic Programming Models?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kourosh Marjani; Madsen, Claus A.; Poulsen, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    The Danish mortgage market is large and sophisticated. However, most Danish mortgage banks advise private home-owners based on simple, if sensible, rules of thumb. In recent years a number of papers (from Nielsen and Poulsen in J Econ Dyn Control 28:1267–1289, 2004 over Rasmussen and Zenios in J...... slightly outperform a passive benchmark on average and are less risky than pure adjustable rate loans, we find considerable gains from using the model-based strategies. Using a strategy that minimizes conditional-value-at-risk lowers average effective yearly interest rate over a 10-year horizon by 0...

  6. Potential for spread of the white-nose fungus (Pseudogymnoascus destructans in the Americas: use of Maxent and NicheA to assure strict model transference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis E. Escobar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Emerging infectious diseases can present serious threats to wildlife, even to the point of causing extinction. White- nose fungus (Pseudogymnoascus destructans is causing an epizootic in bats that is expanding rapidly, both geographically and taxonomically. Little is known of the ecology and distributional potential of this intercontinental pathogen. We address this gap via ecological niche models that characterise coarse resolution niche differences between fungus populations on dif- ferent continents, identifying areas potentially vulnerable to infection in South America. Here we explore a novel approach to identifying areas of potential distribution across novel geographic regions that avoids perilious extrapolation into novel environments. European and North American fungus populations show differential use of environmental space, but rather than niche differentiation, we find that changes are best attributed to climatic differences between the two continents. Suitable areas for spread of the pathogen were identified across southern South America; however caution should be taken to avoid underestimating the potential for spread of this pathogen in South America.

  7. Using Virtual ATE Model to Migrate Test Programs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓明; 杨乔林

    1995-01-01

    Bacause of high development costs of IC (Integrated Circuit)test programs,recycling existing test programs from one kind of ATE (Automatic Test Equipment) to another or generating directly from CAD simulation modules to ATE is more and more valuable.In this paper,a new approach to migrating test programs is presented.A virtual ATE model based on object-oriented paradigm is developed;it runs Test C++ (an intermediate test control language) programs and TeIF(Test Inftermediate Format-an intermediate pattern),migrates test programs among three kinds of ATE (Ando DIC8032,Schlumberger S15 and GenRad 1732) and generates test patterns from two kinds of CAD 9Daisy and Panda) automatically.

  8. Center for Programming Models for Scalable Parallel Computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Mellor-Crummey

    2008-02-29

    Rice University's achievements as part of the Center for Programming Models for Scalable Parallel Computing include: (1) design and implemention of cafc, the first multi-platform CAF compiler for distributed and shared-memory machines, (2) performance studies of the efficiency of programs written using the CAF and UPC programming models, (3) a novel technique to analyze explicitly-parallel SPMD programs that facilitates optimization, (4) design, implementation, and evaluation of new language features for CAF, including communication topologies, multi-version variables, and distributed multithreading to simplify development of high-performance codes in CAF, and (5) a synchronization strength reduction transformation for automatically replacing barrier-based synchronization with more efficient point-to-point synchronization. The prototype Co-array Fortran compiler cafc developed in this project is available as open source software from http://www.hipersoft.rice.edu/caf.

  9. [Cancer screening in Hungary: World Bank supported model programs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodó, M; Döbrössy, L; Liszka, G; Ottó, S; Péter, Z

    1997-07-13

    Since 1995, a model cancer screening program has been in operation in Hungary, the overall purpose of which is to promote the establishment of effective and efficient screening programs by means of adapting the internationally agreed principles of organized screening to the needs and opportunities in Hungary. The establishment and operation of a national population-based cancer registration system is an other aim of the Program. The model program--financed partly from a loan from the World Bank, partly from local funds provided by the Government of Hungary--is to develop standard procedure for cervical, breast and colorectal screening and to end up with tested recommendations for introduction of organized screening of proved effectiveness, integrated into the health care system, on country-wide service bases in Hungary.

  10. Report of the 2014 Programming Models and Environments Summit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heroux, Michael [US Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Lethin, Richard [US Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-09-19

    Programming models and environments play the essential roles in high performance computing of enabling the conception, design, implementation and execution of science and engineering application codes. Programmer productivity is strongly influenced by the effectiveness of our programming models and environments, as is software sustainability since our codes have lifespans measured in decades, so the advent of new computing architectures, increased concurrency, concerns for resilience, and the increasing demands for high-fidelity, multi-physics, multi-scale and data-intensive computations mean that we have new challenges to address as part of our fundamental R&D requirements. Fortunately, we also have new tools and environments that make design, prototyping and delivery of new programming models easier than ever. The combination of new and challenging requirements and new, powerful toolsets enables significant synergies for the next generation of programming models and environments R&D. This report presents the topics discussed and results from the 2014 DOE Office of Science Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) Programming Models & Environments Summit, and subsequent discussions among the summit participants and contributors to topics in this report.

  11. Research on the Business English training model within MBA program

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia Yankovskaya; Olga Neklyudova

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents a brief summary of the research on the Business English training model within MBA program students. This study is devoted to the problem of developing a professional foreign language communicative competency of MBA program participants. A particular feature of additional MBA qualification is its international status which presupposes that its graduates (mid-level and top managers) should realize their professional tasks in a foreign language. The analysis of literary ...

  12. Deterministic Consistency: A Programming Model for Shared Memory Parallelism

    OpenAIRE

    Aviram, Amittai; Ford, Bryan

    2009-01-01

    The difficulty of developing reliable parallel software is generating interest in deterministic environments, where a given program and input can yield only one possible result. Languages or type systems can enforce determinism in new code, and runtime systems can impose synthetic schedules on legacy parallel code. To parallelize existing serial code, however, we would like a programming model that is naturally deterministic without language restrictions or artificial scheduling. We propose "...

  13. From Mice to Men: research models of developmental programming

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Developmental programming can be defined as a response to a specific challenge to the mammalian organism during a critical developmental time window that alters the trajectory of development with persistent effects on offspring phenotype and predisposition to future illness. We focus on the need for studies in relevant, well-characterized animal models in the context of recent research discoveries on the challenges, mechanisms and outcomes of developmental programming. We discuss commonalitie...

  14. Hyperspectral Remote Sensing and Ecological Modeling Research and Education at Mid America Remote Sensing Center (MARC): Field and Laboratory Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Haluk

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to establish a new hyperspectral remote sensing laboratory at the Mid-America Remote sensing Center (MARC), dedicated to in situ and laboratory measurements of environmental samples and to the manipulation, analysis, and storage of remotely sensed data for environmental monitoring and research in ecological modeling using hyperspectral remote sensing at MARC, one of three research facilities of the Center of Reservoir Research at Murray State University (MSU), a Kentucky Commonwealth Center of Excellence. The equipment purchased, a FieldSpec FR portable spectroradiometer and peripherals, and ENVI hyperspectral data processing software, allowed MARC to provide hands-on experience, education, and training for the students of the Department of Geosciences in quantitative remote sensing using hyperspectral data, Geographic Information System (GIS), digital image processing (DIP), computer, geological and geophysical mapping; to provide field support to the researchers and students collecting in situ and laboratory measurements of environmental data; to create a spectral library of the cover types and to establish a World Wide Web server to provide the spectral library to other academic, state and Federal institutions. Much of the research will soon be published in scientific journals. A World Wide Web page has been created at the web site of MARC. Results of this project are grouped in two categories, education and research accomplishments. The Principal Investigator (PI) modified remote sensing and DIP courses to introduce students to ii situ field spectra and laboratory remote sensing studies for environmental monitoring in the region by using the new equipment in the courses. The PI collected in situ measurements using the spectroradiometer for the ER-2 mission to Puerto Rico project for the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) Airborne Simulator (MAS). Currently MARC is mapping water quality in Kentucky Lake and

  15. An Adaptive Neural Network Model for Nonlinear Programming Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang-sun Zhang; Xin-jian Zhuo; Zhu-jun Jing

    2002-01-01

    In this paper a canonical neural network with adaptively changing synaptic weights and activation function parameters is presented to solve general nonlinear programming problems. The basic part of the model is a sub-network used to find a solution of quadratic programming problems with simple upper and lower bounds. By sequentially activating the sub-network under the control of an external computer or a special analog or digital processor that adjusts the weights and parameters, one then solves general nonlinear programming problems. Convergence proof and numerical results are given.

  16. Supplement of: The Influence of Volcanic Eruptions on the Climate of Tropical South America During the Last Millennium in an Isotope-Enabled General Circulation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colose, Christopher; LeGrande, Allegra N.; Vuille, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    Currently, little is known on how volcanic eruptions impact large-scale climate phenomena such as South American paleo-intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) position and summer monsoon behavior. In this paper, an analysis of observations and model simulations is employed to assess the influence of large volcanic eruptions on the climate of tropical South America. This problem is first considered for historically recent volcanic episodes for which more observations are available but where fewer events exist and the confounding effects of El NioSouthern Oscillation (ENSO) lead to inconclusive interpretation of the impact of volcanic eruptions at the continental scale. Therefore, we also examine a greater number of reconstructed volcanic events for the period 850CE to present that are incorporated into the NASA GISS ModelE2-R simulation of the last millennium.An advantage of this model is its ability to explicitly track water isotopologues throughout the hydrologic cycle and simulating the isotopic imprint following a large eruption. This effectively removes a degree of uncertainty associated with error-prone conversion of isotopic signals into climate variables, and allows for a direct comparison between GISS simulations and paleoclimate proxy records.Our analysis reveals that both precipitation and oxygen isotope variability respond with a distinct seasonal and spatial structure across tropical South America following an eruption. During austral winter, the heavy oxygen isotope in precipitation is enriched, likely due to reduced moisture convergence in the ITCZ domain and reduced rainfall over northern South America. During austral summer, however, more negative values of the precipitation isotopic composition are simulated over Amazonia, despite reductions in rainfall, suggesting that the isotopic response is not a simple function of the amount effect. During the South American monsoon season, the amplitude of the temperature response to volcanic forcing is larger

  17. The influence of volcanic eruptions on the climate of tropical South America during the last millennium in an isotope-enabled general circulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colose, Christopher M.; LeGrande, Allegra N.; Vuille, Mathias

    2016-04-01

    Currently, little is known on how volcanic eruptions impact large-scale climate phenomena such as South American paleo-Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) position and summer monsoon behavior. In this paper, an analysis of observations and model simulations is employed to assess the influence of large volcanic eruptions on the climate of tropical South America. This problem is first considered for historically recent volcanic episodes for which more observations are available but where fewer events exist and the confounding effects of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) lead to inconclusive interpretation of the impact of volcanic eruptions at the continental scale. Therefore, we also examine a greater number of reconstructed volcanic events for the period 850 CE to present that are incorporated into the NASA GISS ModelE2-R simulation of the last millennium. An advantage of this model is its ability to explicitly track water isotopologues throughout the hydrologic cycle and simulating the isotopic imprint following a large eruption. This effectively removes a degree of uncertainty associated with error-prone conversion of isotopic signals into climate variables, and allows for a direct comparison between GISS simulations and paleoclimate proxy records. Our analysis reveals that both precipitation and oxygen isotope variability respond with a distinct seasonal and spatial structure across tropical South America following an eruption. During austral winter, the heavy oxygen isotope in precipitation is enriched, likely due to reduced moisture convergence in the ITCZ domain and reduced rainfall over northern South America. During austral summer, however, more negative values of the precipitation isotopic composition are simulated over Amazonia, despite reductions in rainfall, suggesting that the isotopic response is not a simple function of the "amount effect". During the South American monsoon season, the amplitude of the temperature response to volcanic forcing is

  18. Programming biological models in Python using PySB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Carlos F; Muhlich, Jeremy L; Bachman, John A; Sorger, Peter K

    2013-01-01

    Mathematical equations are fundamental to modeling biological networks, but as networks get large and revisions frequent, it becomes difficult to manage equations directly or to combine previously developed models. Multiple simultaneous efforts to create graphical standards, rule-based languages, and integrated software workbenches aim to simplify biological modeling but none fully meets the need for transparent, extensible, and reusable models. In this paper we describe PySB, an approach in which models are not only created using programs, they are programs. PySB draws on programmatic modeling concepts from little b and ProMot, the rule-based languages BioNetGen and Kappa and the growing library of Python numerical tools. Central to PySB is a library of macros encoding familiar biochemical actions such as binding, catalysis, and polymerization, making it possible to use a high-level, action-oriented vocabulary to construct detailed models. As Python programs, PySB models leverage tools and practices from the open-source software community, substantially advancing our ability to distribute and manage the work of testing biochemical hypotheses. We illustrate these ideas using new and previously published models of apoptosis.

  19. Donkeys and Superteachers: Structural Adjustment and Popular Education in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischman, Gustavo

    1998-01-01

    Explores the challenges and possibilities of popular education by examining the educational field after the application of structural adjustment programs in Latin America. Presents a critique of Gramsci's model of the organic intellectual as understood by many within popular education. Offers the specific example of a popular-education workshop in…

  20. SISP : Simplified Interface for Stochastic Programming Establishing a hard link between mathematical programming modeling languages and SMPS codes

    CERN Document Server

    Condevaux Lanloy, Christian; King, A J

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this article is to propose a general approach to link a stochastic programming enabler to a mathematical programming modeling language. Modelers often choose to formulate their problems in well- tested, general purpose modeling languages such as GAMS and AMPL, but these modeling languages do not currently implement a natural syntax for stochastic programming. Specialized stochastic programming tools are available to efficiently generate and solve large-scale stochastic programs, but they lack many of the convenient features of the modeling languages. The lack of a well developed link between these tools and modeling languages prevents many modelers from accessing a powerful and convenient technique to take into account uncertainties. As an attempt to fill this gap, we will present SISP (Simplified Interface for Stochastic Programming), an interface between Algebraic Modeling Languages and specialized Stochastic Programming solvers, also known as SP solvers. 12 Refs.

  1. Prioritizing Efforts to Improve Foreign Public Opinion of America: Applying a Business Model to Discover and Create Customer Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/1493128.stm. Last accessed 13 November 2007. Kotler , P . & Keller, K. (2006). Marketing management. 12...December 2001)......37 Table 6. Foreign Favorability Ratings of the U.S. (From: Pew Research Center, 2002, p . 54)...............38 Table 7. Foreign...Views on U.S. Unilateralism and GWOT (From: Pew Research Center, 2002, p . 58)........39 Table 8. Attribute Map (After: McGrath and MacMillan, 2005

  2. Understanding science teacher enhancement programs: Essential components and a model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Samuel Albert

    Researchers and practioners alike recognize that "the national goal that every child in the United States has access to high-quality school education in science and mathematics cannot be realized without the availability of effective professional development of teachers" (Hewson, 1997, p. 16). Further, there is a plethora of reports calling for the improvement of professional development efforts (Guskey & Huberman, 1995; Kyle, 1995; Loucks-Horsley, Hewson, Love, & Stiles, 1997). In this study I analyze a successful 3-year teacher enhancement program, one form of professional development, to: (1) identify essential components of an effective teacher enhancement program; and (2) create a model to identify and articulate the critical issues in designing, implementing, and evaluating teacher enhancement programs. Five primary sources of information were converted into data: (1) exit questionnaires, (2) exit surveys, (3) exit interview transcripts, (4) focus group transcripts, and (5) other artifacts. Additionally, a focus group was used to conduct member checks. Data were analyzed in an iterative process which led to the development of the list of essential components. The Components are categorized by three organizers: Structure (e.g., science research experience, a mediator throughout the program), Context (e.g., intensity, collaboration), and Participant Interpretation (e.g., perceived to be "safe" to examine personal beliefs and practices, actively engaged). The model is based on: (1) a 4-year study of a successful teacher enhancement program; (2) an analysis of professional development efforts reported in the literature; and (3) reflective discussions with implementors, evaluators, and participants of professional development programs. The model consists of three perspectives, cognitive, symbolic interaction, and organizational, representing different viewpoints from which to consider issues relevant to the success of a teacher enhancement program. These

  3. Physical properties of the benchmark models program supercritical wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dansberry, Bryan E.; Durham, Michael H.; Bennett, Robert M.; Turnock, David L.; Silva, Walter A.; Rivera, Jose A., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The goal of the Benchmark Models Program is to provide data useful in the development and evaluation of aeroelastic computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes. To that end, a series of three similar wing models are being flutter tested in the Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel. These models are designed to simultaneously acquire model response data and unsteady surface pressure data during wing flutter conditions. The supercritical wing is the second model of this series. It is a rigid semispan model with a rectangular planform and a NASA SC(2)-0414 supercritical airfoil shape. The supercritical wing model was flutter tested on a flexible mount, called the Pitch and Plunge Apparatus, that provides a well-defined, two-degree-of-freedom dynamic system. The supercritical wing model and associated flutter test apparatus is described and experimentally determined wind-off structural dynamic characteristics of the combined rigid model and flexible mount system are included.

  4. A model technology transfer program for independent operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoeling, L.G.

    1996-08-01

    In August 1992, the Energy Research Center (ERC) at the University of Kansas was awarded a contract by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to develop a technology transfer regional model. This report describes the development and testing of the Kansas Technology Transfer Model (KTTM) which is to be utilized as a regional model for the development of other technology transfer programs for independent operators throughout oil-producing regions in the US. It describes the linkage of the regional model with a proposed national technology transfer plan, an evaluation technique for improving and assessing the model, and the methodology which makes it adaptable on a regional basis. The report also describes management concepts helpful in managing a technology transfer program.

  5. Transforming PLC Programs into Formal Models for Verification Purposes

    CERN Document Server

    Darvas, D; Blanco, E

    2013-01-01

    Most of CERN’s industrial installations rely on PLC-based (Programmable Logic Controller) control systems developed using the UNICOS framework. This framework contains common, reusable program modules and their correctness is a high priority. Testing is already applied to find errors, but this method has limitations. In this work an approach is proposed to transform automatically PLC programs into formal models, with the goal of applying formal verification to ensure their correctness. We target model checking which is a precise, mathematical-based method to check formalized requirements automatically against the system.

  6. Model-based automated testing of critical PLC programs.

    CERN Document Server

    Fernández Adiego, B; Tournier, J-C; González Suárez, V M; Bliudze, S

    2014-01-01

    Testing of critical PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) programs remains a challenging task for control system engineers as it can rarely be automated. This paper proposes a model based approach which uses the BIP (Behavior, Interactions and Priorities) framework to perform automated testing of PLC programs developed with the UNICOS (UNified Industrial COntrol System) framework. This paper defines the translation procedure and rules from UNICOS to BIP which can be fully automated in order to hide the complexity of the underlying model from the control engineers. The approach is illustrated and validated through the study of a water treatment process.

  7. Building enterprise reuse program--A model-based approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅宏; 杨芙清

    2002-01-01

    Reuse is viewed as a realistically effective approach to solving software crisis. For an organization that wants to build a reuse program, technical and non-technical issues must be considered in parallel. In this paper, a model-based approach to building systematic reuse program is presented. Component-based reuse is currently a dominant approach to software reuse. In this approach, building the right reusable component model is the first important step. In order to achieve systematic reuse, a set of component models should be built from different perspectives. Each of these models will give a specific view of the components so as to satisfy different needs of different persons involved in the enterprise reuse program. There already exist some component models for reuse from technical perspectives. But less attention is paid to the reusable components from a non-technical view, especially from the view of process and management. In our approach, a reusable component model--FLP model for reusable component--is introduced. This model describes components from three dimensions (Form, Level, and Presentation) and views components and their relationships from the perspective of process and management. It determines the sphere of reusable components, the time points of reusing components in the development process, and the needed means to present components in terms of the abstraction level, logic granularity and presentation media. Being the basis on which the management and technical decisions are made, our model will be used as the kernel model to initialize and normalize a systematic enterprise reuse program.

  8. Regional climate simulations over South America: sensitivity to model physics and to the treatment of lateral boundary conditions using the MM5 model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solman, Silvina A. [CONICET-UBA, Centro de Investigaciones del Mar y la Atmosfera (CIMA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Universidad de Buenos Aires, Departamento de Ciencias de la Atmosfera y los Oceanos. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Pessacg, Natalia L. [CONICET-UBA, Centro de Investigaciones del Mar y la Atmosfera (CIMA), Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2012-01-15

    In this study the capability of the MM5 model in simulating the main mode of intraseasonal variability during the warm season over South America is evaluated through a series of sensitivity experiments. Several 3-month simulations nested into ERA40 reanalysis were carried out using different cumulus schemes and planetary boundary layer schemes in an attempt to define the optimal combination of physical parameterizations for simulating alternating wet and dry conditions over La Plata Basin (LPB) and the South Atlantic Convergence Zone regions, respectively. The results were compared with different observational datasets and model evaluation was performed taking into account the spatial distribution of monthly precipitation and daily statistics of precipitation over the target regions. Though every experiment was able to capture the contrasting behavior of the precipitation during the simulated period, precipitation was largely underestimated particularly over the LPB region, mainly due to a misrepresentation in the moisture flux convergence. Experiments using grid nudging of the winds above the planetary boundary layer showed a better performance compared with those in which no constrains were imposed to the regional circulation within the model domain. Overall, no single experiment was found to perform the best over the entire domain and during the two contrasting months. The experiment that outperforms depends on the area of interest, being the simulation using the Grell (Kain-Fritsch) cumulus scheme in combination with the MRF planetary boundary layer scheme more adequate for subtropical (tropical) latitudes. The ensemble of the sensitivity experiments showed a better performance compared with any individual experiment. (orig.)

  9. GeoCorps America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, M.

    2011-12-01

    GeoCorps America, a program of the Geological Society of America's (GSA) Education and Outreach Department, provides short-term geoscience jobs in America's most amazing public lands. These jobs are hosted on federal lands managed by GeoCorps' three partner agencies: the National Park Service (NPS), the U.S. Forest Service (USFS), and the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). Agency staff submit to GSA position descriptions that help meet their geoscience needs. GSA advertises the positions online, recruits applicants from its 24,000+ members, and coordinates the placement of the candidates selected by agency staff. The typical GeoCorps position lasts for three months, pays a stipend of $2,750, and provides either free housing or a housing allowance. Some GeoCorps positions are classified as "Guest Scientist" positions, which generally last longer, involve larger payments, and require a higher level of expertise. Most GeoCorps positions occur during the spring/summer, but an increasing number of positions are being offered during the fall/winter. GeoCorps positions are open to geoscientists of all levels, from undergraduates through retired professionals. GeoCorps projects involve field and laboratory-based geoscience research, but some projects focus on developing educational programs and materials for staff, volunteers, and the public. The subject areas covered by GeoCorps projects include geology, hydrology, paleontology, mapping/GIS, soils, geo-hazards, cave/karst science, and more. GeoCorps positions have taken place at over 125 different locations nationwide, including Grand Canyon National Park, Sierra National Forest, and Craters of the Moon National Monument. In 2011, GeoCorps began offering GeoCorps Diversity Internships and GeoCorps American Indian Internships. The introduction of these programs doubled the level of diversity among GeoCorps participants. This increase in diversity is helping GSA and its partner agencies in meeting its mutual goal of

  10. EVALUASI PROGRAM KONSELING DI SMP KOTA MALANG: DISCREPANCY MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Nanda Eka Saputra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk  mengetahui kesenjangan antara performansi program konseling di SMP Kota Malang dengan standar yang telah ditentukan. Penelitian ini menggunakan standar dari Guidelines for Performance Based Professional School Counselor Evaluation. Standar tersebut berbunyi “konselor sekolah professional melaksanakan konseling pada siswa secara individual dan kelompok yang teridentifikasi kebutuhan dan masalahnya dan memerlukan bantuan”. Penelitian ini adalah penelitian evaluasi. Evaluasi yang dilakukan dalam penelitian ini menggunakan discrepancy model. Pendekatan yang digunakan adalah pendekatan sistem yang difokuskan pada perencanaan, pelaksanaan, dan evaluasi program konseling. Berdasarkan analisis hasil evaluasi, program konseling di SMP Kota Malang masih jauh dari standar. Hasil penelitian ini merekomendasikan kepada konselor untuk memperbaiki kualitas pelaksanaan program konseling, sehingga memberikan pengaruh positif bagi siswa.

  11. COMPLEX PROGRAMS FOR MODELING HIGHWAY: PARK, PROFILE AND COMPOSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Iu. Smirnov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main part of developing computer-aided design of roads are simulation systems to see the road in action. Modeling of the functioning of the road in such a simulation system - this test road design in the computer. This article describes three modules: PARK, PROFILE, COMPOSITION and comprising a set of process simulation programs functioning road. A significant increase in the accuracy of simulation results provides software parks established normative reference database of technical and economic parameters of vehicles belonging to the stream. Completeness framework allows continuous adjustment and constant up-dating of the parameters types of cars in different scales calculation excludes construction and operating costs in justifying economic calculations optimality design solutions and increases the reliability of evaluating the effectiveness of capital investments in the construction and reconstruction of roads. Optimization of the design solutions in general, as a single continuous sequence of combinations of elements contributes to road profile program that analyzes the geometric elements of the plan, longitudinal section, compressing the geometry information of the way for the subsequent modeling of the functioning of the road. Program PROFILE (and built on its basis BASIS program, PROFILE is a nexus between the projecting programs and programs that simulate traffic. Transport and road performance computer modeled for a particular stream of automobile. Technical and economic parameters of vehicles belonging to the flow (up to 20, which is sufficient for practical and research tasks and their percentage in the flow of the program selects COMPOSITION regulatory reference framework articulated earlier PARK module and writes them to a working file for their subsequent use module RIDE.

  12. Partial Hospitalization Programs: A Current Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitelaw, Carolyn A.; Perez, Edgardo L.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the historical background, standards, the issue of day treatment versus day care, functional issues, specialization, efficacy and cost effectiveness, utilization issues, and alternative models of care of partial hospitalization programs in North America. Emphasizes issues of relevance when planning alternative programs to inpatient…

  13. A comprehensive operational semantics of the SCOOP programming model

    CERN Document Server

    Morandi, Benjamin; Meyer, Bertrand

    2011-01-01

    Operational semantics has established itself as a flexible but rigorous means to describe the meaning of programming languages. Oftentimes, it is felt necessary to keep a semantics small, for example to facilitate its use for model checking by avoiding state space explosion. However, omitting many details in a semantics typically makes results valid for a limited core language only, leaving a wide gap towards any real implementation. In this paper we present a full-fledged semantics of the concurrent object-oriented programming language SCOOP (Simple Concurrent Object-Oriented Programming). The semantics has been found detailed enough to guide an implementation of the SCOOP compiler and runtime system, and to detect and correct a variety of errors and ambiguities in the original informal specification and prototype implementation. In our formal specification, we use abstract data types with preconditions and axioms to describe the state, and introduce a number of special run-time operations to model the runti...

  14. Model forest program: Year in review, 1992-1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    As part of the Green Plan, introduced by the Federal Government in late 1990, a network of model forests was developed to demonstrate the concept of sustainable forest management in practical terms on a working scale. This annual report describes the competitive site selection process, the forests involved in the project, program milestones, the operation of model forests, and highlights of the project. Financial data is included.

  15. The Diversity Challenge: A Collection of Model Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellander, Gustavo A., Ed.; Prochaska, Fred, Ed.

    Model programs designed to promote diversity within the West Valley-Mission Community College District (WVMCCD) in California are discussed and described in this report. First, an introductory chapter, "The Importance of Cultural Issues to Higher Education," by Gustavo A. Mellander and Fred Prochaska, reviews the diversity recommendations of the…

  16. Application of Logic Models in a Large Scientific Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, Christine M.; Head, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    It is the purpose of this article to discuss the development and application of a logic model in the context of a large scientific research program within the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO). CSIRO is Australia's national science agency and is a publicly funded part of Australia's innovation system. It conducts…

  17. The Arctic Climate Modeling Program: Professional Development for Rural Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, Kathryn Berry

    2010-01-01

    The Arctic Climate Modeling Program (ACMP) offered yearlong science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) professional development to teachers in rural Alaska. Teacher training focused on introducing youth to workforce technologies used in Arctic research. Due to challenges in making professional development accessible to rural teachers, ACMP…

  18. Duals for classical inventory models via generalized geometric programming

    OpenAIRE

    Carlton H. Scott; Thomas R. Jefferson; Soheila Jorjani

    2004-01-01

    Inventory problems generally have a structure that can be exploited for computational purposes. Here, we look at the duals of two seemingly unrelated inventory models that suggest an interesting duality between discrete time optimal control and optimization over an ordered sequence of variables. Concepts from conjugate duality and generalized geometric programming are used to establish the duality.

  19. Program Demand Cost Model for Alaskan Schools. Eighth Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Michael; Mearig, Tim; Coffee, Nathan

    The State of Alaska Department of Education has created a handbook for establishing budgets for the following three types of construction projects: new schools or additions; renovations; and combined new work and renovations. The handbook supports a demand cost model computer program that includes detailed renovation cost data, itemized by…

  20. A Context-Adaptive Model for Program Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Brian K.

    1990-01-01

    Presents an adaptable, context-sensitive model for ESL/EFL program evaluation, consisting of seven steps that guide an evaluator through consideration of relevant issues, information, and design elements. Examples from an evaluation of the Reading for Science and Technology Project at the University of Guadalajara, Mexico are given. (31…

  1. DISTRIBUTED APPROACH to WEB PAGE CATEGORIZATION USING MAPREDUCE PROGRAMMING MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Malarvizhi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The web is a large repository of information and to facilitate the search and retrieval of pages from it,categorization of web documents is essential. An effective means to handle the complexity of information retrieval from the internet is through automatic classification of web pages. Although lots of automatic classification algorithms and systems have been presented, most of the existing approaches are computationally challenging. In order to overcome this challenge, we have proposed a parallel algorithm, known as MapReduce programming model to automatically categorize the web pages. This approach incorporates three concepts. They are web crawler, MapReduce programming model and the proposed web page categorization approach. Initially, we have utilized web crawler to mine the World Wide Web and the crawled web pages are then directly given as input to the MapReduce programming model. Here the MapReduce programming model adapted to our proposed web page categorization approach finds the appropriate category of the web page according to its content. The experimental results show that our proposed parallel web page categorization approach achieves satisfactory results in finding the right category for any given web page.

  2. Universal Instructional Design as a Model for Educational Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higbee, Jeanne L.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes Universal Instructional Design as an inclusive pedagogical model for use in educational programs, whether provided by traditional educational institutions, community-based initiatives, or workplace literacy projects. For the benefit of public relations specialists and classroom educators alike, the article begins with a…

  3. A Model for Using Triadic Supervision in Counselor Preparation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Gerard; Hein, Serge F.; Getz, Hildy

    2009-01-01

    The Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs (2001) has approved the use of triadic supervision as an alternative to individual supervision in clinical instruction. However, literature describing this mode of supervision is very limited. A model for triadic supervision is described, including presession planning,…

  4. Model representations of aerosol layers transported from North America over the Atlantic Ocean during the Two-Column Aerosol Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fast, Jerome D. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Berg, Larry K. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Zhang, Kai [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Easter, Richard C. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Ferrare, Richard A. [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton Virginia USA; Hair, Johnathan W. [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton Virginia USA; Hostetler, Chris A. [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton Virginia USA; Liu, Ying [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Ortega, Ivan [Department of Chemistry, Colorado University, Boulder Colorado USA; Sedlacek, Arthur [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton New York USA; Shilling, John E. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Shrivastava, Manish [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Springston, Stephen R. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton New York USA; Tomlinson, Jason M. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Volkamer, Rainer [Department of Chemistry, Colorado University, Boulder Colorado USA; Wilson, Jacqueline [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Zaveri, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Zelenyuk, Alla [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA

    2016-08-22

    The ability of the Weather Research and Forecasting model with chemistry (WRF-Chem) version 3.7 and the Community Atmosphere Model version 5.3 (CAM5) in simulating profiles of aerosol properties is quantified using extensive in situ and remote sensing measurements from the Two Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) conducted during July of 2012. TCAP was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program and was designed to obtain observations within two atmospheric columns; one fixed over Cape Cod, Massachusetts and the other several hundred kilometers over the ocean. The performance is quantified using most of the available aircraft and surface measurements during July, and two days are examined in more detail to identify the processes responsible for the observed aerosol layers. The higher resolution WRF-Chem model produced more aerosol mass in the free troposphere than the coarser resolution CAM5 model so that the fraction of aerosol optical thickness above the residual layer from WRF-Chem was more consistent with lidar measurements. We found that the free troposphere layers are likely due to mean vertical motions associated with synoptic-scale convergence that lifts aerosols from the boundary layer. The vertical displacement and the time period associated with upward transport in the troposphere depend on the strength of the synoptic system and whether relatively high boundary layer aerosol concentrations are present where convergence occurs. While a parameterization of subgrid scale convective clouds applied in WRF-Chem modulated the concentrations of aerosols aloft, it did not significantly change the overall altitude and depth of the layers.

  5. Advanced parallel programming models research and development opportunities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Zhaofang.; Brightwell, Ronald Brian

    2004-07-01

    There is currently a large research and development effort within the high-performance computing community on advanced parallel programming models. This research can potentially have an impact on parallel applications, system software, and computing architectures in the next several years. Given Sandia's expertise and unique perspective in these areas, particularly on very large-scale systems, there are many areas in which Sandia can contribute to this effort. This technical report provides a survey of past and present parallel programming model research projects and provides a detailed description of the Partitioned Global Address Space (PGAS) programming model. The PGAS model may offer several improvements over the traditional distributed memory message passing model, which is the dominant model currently being used at Sandia. This technical report discusses these potential benefits and outlines specific areas where Sandia's expertise could contribute to current research activities. In particular, we describe several projects in the areas of high-performance networking, operating systems and parallel runtime systems, compilers, application development, and performance evaluation.

  6. Solving linear integer programming problems by a novel neural model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalieri, S

    1999-02-01

    The paper deals with integer linear programming problems. As is well known, these are extremely complex problems, even when the number of integer variables is quite low. Literature provides examples of various methods to solve such problems, some of which are of a heuristic nature. This paper proposes an alternative strategy based on the Hopfield neural network. The advantage of the strategy essentially lies in the fact that hardware implementation of the neural model allows for the time required to obtain a solution so as not depend on the size of the problem to be solved. The paper presents a particular class of integer linear programming problems, including well-known problems such as the Travelling Salesman Problem and the Set Covering Problem. After a brief description of this class of problems, it is demonstrated that the original Hopfield model is incapable of supplying valid solutions. This is attributed to the presence of constant bias currents in the dynamic of the neural model. A demonstration of this is given and then a novel neural model is presented which continues to be based on the same architecture as the Hopfield model, but introduces modifications thanks to which the integer linear programming problems presented can be solved. Some numerical examples and concluding remarks highlight the solving capacity of the novel neural model.

  7. Supporting universal prevention programs: a two-phased coaching model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Kimberly D; Darney, Dana; Domitrovich, Celene; Keperling, Jennifer Pitchford; Ialongo, Nicholas S

    2013-06-01

    Schools are adopting evidence-based programs designed to enhance students' emotional and behavioral competencies at increasing rates (Hemmeter et al. in Early Child Res Q 26:96-109, 2011). At the same time, teachers express the need for increased support surrounding implementation of these evidence-based programs (Carter and Van Norman in Early Child Educ 38:279-288, 2010). Ongoing professional development in the form of coaching may enhance teacher skills and implementation (Noell et al. in School Psychol Rev 34:87-106, 2005; Stormont et al. 2012). There exists a need for a coaching model that can be applied to a variety of teacher skill levels and one that guides coach decision-making about how best to support teachers. This article provides a detailed account of a two-phased coaching model with empirical support developed and tested with coaches and teachers in urban schools (Becker et al. 2013). In the initial universal coaching phase, all teachers receive the same coaching elements regardless of their skill level. Then, in the tailored coaching phase, coaching varies according to the strengths and needs of each teacher. Specifically, more intensive coaching strategies are used only with teachers who need additional coaching supports, whereas other teachers receive just enough support to consolidate and maintain their strong implementation. Examples of how coaches used the two-phased coaching model when working with teachers who were implementing two universal prevention programs (i.e., the PATHS curriculum and PAX Good Behavior Game [PAX GBG]) provide illustrations of the application of this model. The potential reach of this coaching model extends to other school-based programs as well as other settings in which coaches partner with interventionists to implement evidence-based programs.

  8. Little People of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... information. World Dwarf Games 2017 Welcome to Little People of America Little People of America (LPA) is a nonprofit organization that provides support and information to people of short stature and their families. LPA is ...

  9. Mapping recent chikungunya activity in the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    To better understand chikungunya activity in the America we mapped recent chikungunya activity in the Americas. This activity is needed to better understand that the relationships between climatic factors and disease outbreak patters are critical to the design and constructing of predictive models....

  10. Propeller aircraft interior noise model: User's manual for computer program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilby, E. G.; Pope, L. D.

    1985-01-01

    A computer program entitled PAIN (Propeller Aircraft Interior Noise) has been developed to permit calculation of the sound levels in the cabin of a propeller-driven airplane. The fuselage is modeled as a cylinder with a structurally integral floor, the cabin sidewall and floor being stiffened by ring frames, stringers and floor beams of arbitrary configurations. The cabin interior is covered with acoustic treatment and trim. The propeller noise consists of a series of tones at harmonics of the blade passage frequency. Input data required by the program include the mechanical and acoustical properties of the fuselage structure and sidewall trim. Also, the precise propeller noise signature must be defined on a grid that lies in the fuselage skin. The propeller data are generated with a propeller noise prediction program such as the NASA Langley ANOPP program. The program PAIN permits the calculation of the space-average interior sound levels for the first ten harmonics of a propeller rotating alongside the fuselage. User instructions for PAIN are given in the report. Development of the analytical model is presented in NASA CR 3813.

  11. Future change of climate in South America in the late twenty-first century: intercomparison of scenarios from three regional climate models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marengo, Jose A.; Valverde, Maria C.; Torres, Roger R.; Santos, Daniel C. [Centro de Ciencia do Sistema Terrestre, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, CCST/INPE, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ambrizzi, Tercio; Rocha, Rosmeri P. da [University of Sao Paulo, IAG-DCA/USP, Department of Atmospheric Sciences, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Alves, Lincoln M. [Centro de Previsao de Tempo e Estudos Climaticos, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, CPTEC/INPE, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Cuadra, Santiago V. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa, Vicosa, MG (Brazil); Ferraz, Simone E.T. [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil)

    2010-11-15

    Regional climate change projections for the last half of the twenty-first century have been produced for South America, as part of the CREAS (Cenarios REgionalizados de Clima Futuro da America do Sul) regional project. Three regional climate models RCMs (Eta CCS, RegCM3 and HadRM3P) were nested within the HadAM3P global model. The simulations cover a 30-year period representing present climate (1961-1990) and projections for the IPCC A2 high emission scenario for 2071-2100. The focus was on the changes in the mean circulation and surface variables, in particular, surface air temperature and precipitation. There is a consistent pattern of changes in circulation, rainfall and temperatures as depicted by the three models. The HadRM3P shows intensification and a more southward position of the subtropical Pacific high, while a pattern of intensification/weakening during summer/winter is projected by the Eta CCS/RegCM3. There is a tendency for a weakening of the subtropical westerly jet from the Eta CCS and HadRM3P, consistent with other studies. There are indications that regions such of Northeast Brazil and central-eastern and southern Amazonia may experience rainfall deficiency in the future, while the Northwest coast of Peru-Ecuador and northern Argentina may experience rainfall excesses in a warmer future, and these changes may vary with the seasons. The three models show warming in the A2 scenario stronger in the tropical region, especially in the 5 N-15 S band, both in summer and especially in winter, reaching up to 6-8 C warmer than in the present. In southern South America, the warming in summer varies between 2 and 4 C and in winter between 3 and 5 C in the same region from the 3 models. These changes are consistent with changes in low level circulation from the models, and they are comparable with changes in rainfall and temperature extremes reported elsewhere. In summary, some aspects of projected future climate change are quite robust across this set of

  12. Future change of climate in South America in the late twenty-first century: intercomparison of scenarios from three regional climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marengo, Jose A.; Ambrizzi, Tercio; Da Rocha, Rosmeri P.; Alves, Lincoln M.; Cuadra, Santiago V.; Valverde, Maria C.; Torres, Roger R.; Santos, Daniel C.; Ferraz, Simone E. T.

    2010-11-01

    Regional climate change projections for the last half of the twenty-first century have been produced for South America, as part of the CREAS (Cenarios REgionalizados de Clima Futuro da America do Sul) regional project. Three regional climate models RCMs (Eta CCS, RegCM3 and HadRM3P) were nested within the HadAM3P global model. The simulations cover a 30-year period representing present climate (1961-1990) and projections for the IPCC A2 high emission scenario for 2071-2100. The focus was on the changes in the mean circulation and surface variables, in particular, surface air temperature and precipitation. There is a consistent pattern of changes in circulation, rainfall and temperatures as depicted by the three models. The HadRM3P shows intensification and a more southward position of the subtropical Pacific high, while a pattern of intensification/weakening during summer/winter is projected by the Eta CCS/RegCM3. There is a tendency for a weakening of the subtropical westerly jet from the Eta CCS and HadRM3P, consistent with other studies. There are indications that regions such of Northeast Brazil and central-eastern and southern Amazonia may experience rainfall deficiency in the future, while the Northwest coast of Peru-Ecuador and northern Argentina may experience rainfall excesses in a warmer future, and these changes may vary with the seasons. The three models show warming in the A2 scenario stronger in the tropical region, especially in the 5°N-15°S band, both in summer and especially in winter, reaching up to 6-8°C warmer than in the present. In southern South America, the warming in summer varies between 2 and 4°C and in winter between 3 and 5°C in the same region from the 3 models. These changes are consistent with changes in low level circulation from the models, and they are comparable with changes in rainfall and temperature extremes reported elsewhere. In summary, some aspects of projected future climate change are quite robust across this set of

  13. Decision-Support Tools that Harmonize People and Nature: Using InVEST Water Models in Innovative Policies in China and Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghile, Y.; Daily, G. C.

    2011-12-01

    In promising a return (of services) on investments in natural capital, the scientific community needs to deliver knowledge and tools to quantify and forecast this return. To help address this challenge, the Natural Capital Project has developed a suite of models for Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs (InVEST). InVEST helps decision makers visualize the impacts of potential policies - identifying tradeoffs and compatibilities between environmental, economic, and social benefits - by modeling and mapping the delivery, distribution, and economic value of ecosystem services under alternative scenarios. We will describe InVEST water models - for sediment retention, water quality provision, and hydropower production - and their application in major land-use policies in China and Latin America. To meet increasing demand for this family of tools and related approaches, the science of ecosystem service provision must be advanced rapidly.

  14. Gstat: a program for geostatistical modelling, prediction and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pebesma, Edzer J.; Wesseling, Cees G.

    1998-01-01

    Gstat is a computer program for variogram modelling, and geostatistical prediction and simulation. It provides a generic implementation of the multivariable linear model with trends modelled as a linear function of coordinate polynomials or of user-defined base functions, and independent or dependent, geostatistically modelled, residuals. Simulation in gstat comprises conditional or unconditional (multi-) Gaussian sequential simulation of point values or block averages, or (multi-) indicator sequential simulation. Besides many of the popular options found in other geostatistical software packages, gstat offers the unique combination of (i) an interactive user interface for modelling variograms and generalized covariances (residual variograms), that uses the device-independent plotting program gnuplot for graphical display, (ii) support for several ascii and binary data and map file formats for input and output, (iii) a concise, intuitive and flexible command language, (iv) user customization of program defaults, (v) no built-in limits, and (vi) free, portable ANSI-C source code. This paper describes the class of problems gstat can solve, and addresses aspects of efficiency and implementation, managing geostatistical projects, and relevant technical details.

  15. Hybrid programming model for implicit PDE simulations on multicore architectures

    KAUST Repository

    Kaushik, Dinesh K.

    2011-01-01

    The complexity of programming modern multicore processor based clusters is rapidly rising, with GPUs adding further demand for fine-grained parallelism. This paper analyzes the performance of the hybrid (MPI+OpenMP) programming model in the context of an implicit unstructured mesh CFD code. At the implementation level, the effects of cache locality, update management, work division, and synchronization frequency are studied. The hybrid model presents interesting algorithmic opportunities as well: the convergence of linear system solver is quicker than the pure MPI case since the parallel preconditioner stays stronger when hybrid model is used. This implies significant savings in the cost of communication and synchronization (explicit and implicit). Even though OpenMP based parallelism is easier to implement (with in a subdomain assigned to one MPI process for simplicity), getting good performance needs attention to data partitioning issues similar to those in the message-passing case. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  16. Building America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brad Oberg

    2010-12-31

    Builders generally use a 'spec and purchase' business management system (BMS) when implementing energy efficiency. A BMS is the overall operational and organizational systems and strategies that a builder uses to set up and run its company. This type of BMS treats building performance as a simple technology swap (e.g. a tank water heater to a tankless water heater) and typically compartmentalizes energy efficiency within one or two groups in the organization (e.g. purchasing and construction). While certain tools, such as details, checklists, and scopes of work, can assist builders in managing the quality of the construction of higher performance homes, they do nothing to address the underlying operational strategies and issues related to change management that builders face when they make high performance homes a core part of their mission. To achieve the systems integration necessary for attaining 40% + levels of energy efficiency, while capturing the cost tradeoffs, builders must use a 'systems approach' BMS, rather than a 'spec and purchase' BMS. The following attributes are inherent in a systems approach BMS; they are also generally seen in quality management systems (QMS), such as the National Housing Quality Certification program: Cultural and corporate alignment, Clear intent for quality and performance, Increased collaboration across internal and external teams, Better communication practices and systems, Disciplined approach to quality control, Measurement and verification of performance, Continuous feedback and improvement, and Whole house integrated design and specification.

  17. PDDP: A data parallel programming model. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, K.H.

    1995-06-01

    PDDP, the Parallel Data Distribution Preprocessor, is a data parallel programming model for distributed memory parallel computers. PDDP impelments High Performance Fortran compatible data distribution directives and parallelism expressed by the use of Fortran 90 array syntax, the FORALL statement, and the (WRERE?) construct. Distribued data objects belong to a global name space; other data objects are treated as local and replicated on each processor. PDDP allows the user to program in a shared-memory style and generates codes that are portable to a variety of parallel machines. For interprocessor communication, PDDP uses the fastest communication primitives on each platform.

  18. Development of SPAWM: selection program for available watershed models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yongdeok; Roesner, Larry A

    2014-01-01

    A selection program for available watershed models (also known as SPAWM) was developed. Thirty-three commonly used watershed models were analyzed in depth and classified in accordance to their attributes. These attributes consist of: (1) land use; (2) event or continuous; (3) time steps; (4) water quality; (5) distributed or lumped; (6) subsurface; (7) overland sediment; and (8) best management practices. Each of these attributes was further classified into sub-attributes. Based on user selected sub-attributes, the most appropriate watershed model is selected from the library of watershed models. SPAWM is implemented using Excel Visual Basic and is designed for use by novices as well as by experts on watershed modeling. It ensures that the necessary sub-attributes required by the user are captured and made available in the selected watershed model.

  19. SMART - a computer program for modelling stellar atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Aret, Anna; Poolamäe, Raivo; Sapar, Lili

    2013-01-01

    Program SMART (Spectra and Model Atmospheres by Radiative Transfer) has been composed for modelling atmospheres and spectra of hot stars (O, B and A spectral classes) and studying different physical processes in them (Sapar & Poolam\\"ae 2003, Sapar et al. 2007). Line-blanketed models are computed assuming plane-parallel, static and horizontally homogeneous atmosphere in radiative, hydrostatic and local thermodynamic equilibrium. Main advantages of SMART are its shortness, simplicity, user friendliness and flexibility for study of different physical processes. SMART successfully runs on PC both under Windows and Linux.

  20. Immune modelling and programming of a mobile robot demo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Tao; CAI Zi-xing; HE Han-gen

    2006-01-01

    An artificial immune system was modelled with self/non-self selection to overcome abnormity in a mobile robot demo. The immune modelling includes the innate immune modelling and the adaptive immune modelling. The self/non-self selection includes detection and recognition, and the self/non-self detection is based on the normal model of the demo. After the detection, the non-self recognition is based on learning unknown non-self for the adaptive immunization. The learning was designed on the neural network or on the learning mechanism from examples. The last step is elimination of all the non-self and failover of the demo. The immunization of the mobile robot demo is programmed with Java to test effectiveness of the approach. Some worms infected the mobile robot demo, and caused the abnormity. The results of the immunization simulations show that the immune program can detect 100% worms,recognize all known Worms and most unknown worms, and eliminate the worms. Moreover, the damaged files of the mobile robot demo can all be repaired through the normal model and immunization. Therefore, the immune modelling of the mobile robot demo is effective and programmable in some anti-worms and abnormity detection applications.

  1. PTI TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE TO REBUILD AMERICA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2002-04-01

    Public Technology Inc. (PTI) engaged in a cooperative agreement, DE-FC26-01NT41107, with the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Rebuild America Program to provide energy efficiency and energy conservation technical assistance to local governments across the United States. The first year of the cooperative agreement dated from April 2, 2001 to April 1, 2002, at a funding level of $375,000. This technical report covers the period of October 2001--March 2002. PTI appreciates the support that it has received from Rebuild America and plans to continue, with DOE and Rebuild America support, to serve in a strategic capacity, lending the technical experience of its staff and that of the Energy Task Force on approaches to increasing program efficiencies, furthering program development, and coordinating information sharing to help ensure that energy programs are responsive to the needs of local governments.

  2. Petascale computation performance of lightweight multiscale cardiac models using hybrid programming models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Bernard J; Fitch, Blake G; Pitman, Michael C; Rice, John J; Reumann, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Future multiscale and multiphysics models must use the power of high performance computing (HPC) systems to enable research into human disease, translational medical science, and treatment. Previously we showed that computationally efficient multiscale models will require the use of sophisticated hybrid programming models, mixing distributed message passing processes (e.g. the message passing interface (MPI)) with multithreading (e.g. OpenMP, POSIX pthreads). The objective of this work is to compare the performance of such hybrid programming models when applied to the simulation of a lightweight multiscale cardiac model. Our results show that the hybrid models do not perform favourably when compared to an implementation using only MPI which is in contrast to our results using complex physiological models. Thus, with regards to lightweight multiscale cardiac models, the user may not need to increase programming complexity by using a hybrid programming approach. However, considering that model complexity will increase as well as the HPC system size in both node count and number of cores per node, it is still foreseeable that we will achieve faster than real time multiscale cardiac simulations on these systems using hybrid programming models.

  3. Wind Powering America Initiative (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Powering America initiative engages in technology market acceptance, barrier reduction, and technology deployment support activities. This fact sheet outlines ways in which the Wind Powering America team works to reduce barriers to appropriate wind energy deployment, primarily by focusing on six program areas: workforce development, communications and outreach, stakeholder analysis and resource assessment, wind technology technical support, wind power for Native Americans, and federal sector support and collaboration.

  4. 2013 Building America Research Planning Meeting Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzger, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hunt, S. [Confluence Communications, Missoula, MT (united States)

    2014-02-01

    The Building America Research Planning Meeting was held October 28-30, 2013, in Washington, DC. This meeting provides one opportunity each year for the research teams, national laboratories and Department of Energy (DOE) managers to meet in person to share the most pertinent information and collaboration updates. This report documents the presentations, highlights key program updates, and outlines next steps for the program.

  5. Original article Rehabilitation model program for seriously ill patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne Kegye

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Patients receiving cancer treatment start lifestyle changes mostly at the end of the treatment during the rehabilitation period. Most often, the first step is a dietary change and physical exercises built into the daily routine. Patients who do this in groups led by qualified therapists and based on professional counseling can build more effective and more permanent changes into their life. To develop a complex rehabilitation program which, in the short term, aims to familiarize patients with a lifestyle which harmonizes the physical, mental, spiritual and social spheres of life and, in the long term, to build it into their everyday life in order to ameliorate the physical and mental state and reduce the psychological symptoms and the isolation of patients. The physical component focuses on diet and exercise. The psycho-social-spiritual support focuses on discovering inner sources of strength, developing active coping mechanisms and helping to achieve more open communication. Participants and procedure In February and March 2011, 8 patients treated for malignant tumors participated in the model program. The components of the model program were psychotherapy, physiotherapy, cancer consultation, nutrition counseling, creative activities and walking. Results During the period of the model program the isolation of the patients decreased and their social support and ability of coping with the illness ameliorated. They reported an ease in anxiety and depression in their everyday activities. According to feedback, their communication with each other, with the staff and with their relatives became more open. Altogether this had advantageous effects on the functioning of the ward and the mood of the staff. Conclusions The rehabilitation program confirmed that beside individual psycho-social support, beneficial and economic psycho-social support can be provided for the patients in group form along with the most effective assignment of the

  6. Characterization and modeling of fast programming bits in flash EEPROM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkansah, F.; Hatalis, M.; Olasupo, K.

    2000-11-01

    The effects of flash EEPROM floating gate (FG) morphology on the generation and density of fast programming bits in a 2Mbit flash EEPROM array has been characterized. These fast programming bits exhibit identical subthreshold characteristics similar to that of a normal bit after UV erase, thus establishing that the initial charge stored on the FG of both fast and normal bit is the same. Experimental results clearly indicates that the fast programming phenomena result from an interaction of the programming process with the FG polysilicon microstructure. An in-depth experimentation previously reported, reveals that the FG poly deposition and doping processes are crucial for controlling the desired Fowler-Nordheim tunneling. A correlation is established between the fast bit density observed in the memory arrays, the FG polysilicon grain size and tunneling field enhancement factor μ( Rc). A compact model of the fast programming bit memory threshold voltage as a function of the effective FG polysilicon grain area factor Geff, and tunneling field enhancement factor μ( Rc) has been developed for the first time.

  7. From Mice to Men: research models of developmental programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabadán-Diehl, C; Nathanielsz, P

    2013-02-01

    Developmental programming can be defined as a response to a specific challenge to the mammalian organism during a critical developmental time window that alters the trajectory of development with persistent effects on offspring phenotype and predisposition to future illness. We focus on the need for studies in relevant, well-characterized animal models in the context of recent research discoveries on the challenges, mechanisms and outcomes of developmental programming. We discuss commonalities and differences in general principles of developmental programming as they apply to several species, including humans. The consequences of these differences are discussed. Obesity, metabolic disorders and cardiovascular diseases are associated with the highest percentage of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although many of the causes are associated with lifestyle, high-energy diets and lack of physical activity, recent evidence has linked developmental programming to the epidemic of metabolic diseases. A better understanding of comparative systems physiology of mother, fetus and neonate using information provided by rapid advances in molecular biology has the potential to improve the lifetime health of future generations by providing better women's health, diagnostic tools and preventative and therapeutic interventions in individuals exposed during their development to programming influences.

  8. THE SEPARATION OF URANIUM ISOTOPES BY GASEOUS DIFFUSION: A LINEAR PROGRAMMING MODEL,

    Science.gov (United States)

    URANIUM, ISOTOPE SEPARATION), (*GASEOUS DIFFUSION SEPARATION, LINEAR PROGRAMMING ), (* LINEAR PROGRAMMING , GASEOUS DIFFUSION SEPARATION), MATHEMATICAL MODELS, GAS FLOW, NUCLEAR REACTORS, OPERATIONS RESEARCH

  9. The Pan American Health Organization's role and perspectives on the mapping and modeling of the neglected tropical diseases in Latin America and the Caribbean: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ault, Steven K; Nicholls, Ruben Santiago; Saboya, Martha IdaIí

    2012-09-01

    The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), which functions as the regional office for the Americas of the World Health Organization, is committed to provide technical cooperation to countries to update the epidemiological information available for mapping and modelling of the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), a set of diseases mainly caused by parasites affecting people living in low socioeconomic and favourable environmental conditions. This communication discusses PAHO's role and perspectives in the use of mapping and modelling of these diseases with a view to promote its use in the development and implementation of integrated, inter-programmatic and inter-sectoral plans for the prevention, control or elimination of the NTDs and other infectious diseases related to poverty.

  10. The Pan American Health Organization’s role and perspectives on the mapping and modeling of the neglected tropical diseases in Latin America and the Caribbean: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven K. Ault

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO, which functions as the regional office for the Americas of the World Health Organization, is committed to provide technical cooperation to countries to update the epidemiological information available for mapping and modelling of the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs, a set of diseases mainly caused by parasites affecting people living in low socioeconomic and favourable environmental conditions. This communication discusses PAHO’s role and perspectives in the use of mapping and modelling of these diseases with a view to promote its use in the development and implementation of integrated, inter-programmatic and inter-sectoral plans for the prevention, control or elimination of the NTDs and other infectious diseases related to poverty.

  11. Subseasonal teleconnections South America - South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Alice; Reason, Chris

    2016-04-01

    There is marked subseasonal variability over South America and southern Africa. Based on previous work showing that a teleconnection exists between the South American monsoon system and interannual summer rainfall variability over southern Africa, this study shows teleconnections between subseasonal variability over these landmasses. Observed daily gauge precipitation data for 1970-1999 are gridded to 1° resolution for South America and 2.5° for South Africa. At each grid point, anomalies of daily precipitation are calculated and submitted to a bandpass Lanczos filter to isolate subseasonal oscillations in the 20-90 day band. For each season, the filtered precipitation anomalies for the South African grid boxes are correlated with filtered precipitation anomalies in the grid boxes over South America. Lags from 0 up to 12 days are applied to the South African data, in order to investigate convection anomalies over South America that could produce atmospheric perturbations associated with South African precipitation anomalies. The significance of correlation between the filtered data takes autocorrelation into account and uses effective sample sizes. The results shown represent the best correlations for different climatic regimes such as the winter-rainfall dominated southwestern Cape, the all season rainfall South Coast and the summer-rainfall dominated Limpopo region. NCEP re-analyses are used to composite subseasonal anomalies in OLR, 200 hPa streamfunction, and vertically integrated moisture flux associated with precipitation anomaly above one standard deviation in the filtered series (positive phases) of the South African selected regions. The possible origin of the atmospheric circulation anomalies associated with those positive phases is determined using influence functions (IFs) of a vorticity equation model with a divergence source. The model is linearized about a realistic basic state and includes the divergence of the basic state and the advection of

  12. Comparison of Building Energy Modeling Programs: Building Loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Dandan [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China); Hong, Tianzhen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Yan, Da [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China); Wang, Chuang [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China)

    2012-06-01

    This technical report presented the methodologies, processes, and results of comparing three Building Energy Modeling Programs (BEMPs) for load calculations: EnergyPlus, DeST and DOE-2.1E. This joint effort, between Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, USA and Tsinghua University, China, was part of research projects under the US-China Clean Energy Research Center on Building Energy Efficiency (CERC-BEE). Energy Foundation, an industrial partner of CERC-BEE, was the co-sponsor of this study work. It is widely known that large discrepancies in simulation results can exist between different BEMPs. The result is a lack of confidence in building simulation amongst many users and stakeholders. In the fields of building energy code development and energy labeling programs where building simulation plays a key role, there are also confusing and misleading claims that some BEMPs are better than others. In order to address these problems, it is essential to identify and understand differences between widely-used BEMPs, and the impact of these differences on load simulation results, by detailed comparisons of these BEMPs from source code to results. The primary goal of this work was to research methods and processes that would allow a thorough scientific comparison of the BEMPs. The secondary goal was to provide a list of strengths and weaknesses for each BEMP, based on in-depth understandings of their modeling capabilities, mathematical algorithms, advantages and limitations. This is to guide the use of BEMPs in the design and retrofit of buildings, especially to support China’s building energy standard development and energy labeling program. The research findings could also serve as a good reference to improve the modeling capabilities and applications of the three BEMPs. The methodologies, processes, and analyses employed in the comparison work could also be used to compare other programs. The load calculation method of each program was analyzed and compared to

  13. Summary of multi-core hardware and programming model investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Suzanne Marie; Pedretti, Kevin Thomas Tauke; Levenhagen, Michael J.

    2008-05-01

    This report summarizes our investigations into multi-core processors and programming models for parallel scientific applications. The motivation for this study was to better understand the landscape of multi-core hardware, future trends, and the implications on system software for capability supercomputers. The results of this study are being used as input into the design of a new open-source light-weight kernel operating system being targeted at future capability supercomputers made up of multi-core processors. A goal of this effort is to create an agile system that is able to adapt to and efficiently support whatever multi-core hardware and programming models gain acceptance by the community.

  14. EVALUASI PROGRAM PEMBELAJARAN IPA SMP MENGGUNAKAN MODEL COUNTENANCE STAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astin Lukum

    2015-06-01

    THE EVALUATION OF SCIENCE TEACHING ON JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL USING STAKE’S COUNTENANCE MODEL Abstract The purpose of the study was to describe the science learning program on junior high school in Bone Bolanga district based on the Regulation of Minister of Education and Culture of the Republic of Indonesia, Number 65 of 2013 about Processing Standard of Primary and Secondary Education. This study used Stake’s Countanance evaluation model. The data were collected using observation, interview and documentation techniques. The conclusion was: (1 the planning of science learning was categorized fair (68%, it was found that lesson plan was not in accordance with the learning processing standard. (2 The implementation of science learning was categorized fair (57%, that unconformitted with learning processing implementation standard. (3 Student learning outcomes have not met the completeness of minimum criteria (KKM that categorized enough (65% and (4 There were the contingency of planing learning proces and outcome. Keywords: Program Evaluation, Stake's Countenance, Science Learning

  15. Final Report: Center for Programming Models for Scalable Parallel Computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellor-Crummey, John [William Marsh Rice University

    2011-09-13

    As part of the Center for Programming Models for Scalable Parallel Computing, Rice University collaborated with project partners in the design, development and deployment of language, compiler, and runtime support for parallel programming models to support application development for the “leadership-class” computer systems at DOE national laboratories. Work over the course of this project has focused on the design, implementation, and evaluation of a second-generation version of Coarray Fortran. Research and development efforts of the project have focused on the CAF 2.0 language, compiler, runtime system, and supporting infrastructure. This has involved working with the teams that provide infrastructure for CAF that we rely on, implementing new language and runtime features, producing an open source compiler that enabled us to evaluate our ideas, and evaluating our design and implementation through the use of benchmarks. The report details the research, development, findings, and conclusions from this work.

  16. On the Feasibility of a Unified Modelling and Programming Paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, Jan

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the feasibility of a unified modelling and programming paradigm is discussed from the perspective of large scale system development and verification in collaborative development environments. We motivate the necessity to utilise multiple formalisms for development and verification......, in particular for complex cyber-physical systems or systems of systems. Though modelling, programming, and verification will certainly become more closely integrated in the future, we do not expect a single formalism to become universally applicable and accepted by the development and verification communities....... It is illustrated by means of a case study from the railway domain, how this can be achieved, using concepts from the theory of institutions. This also enables the utilisation of verification tools in different formalisms, despite the fact that these tools are usually developed for one specific formal method....

  17. A Hybrid Program Projects Selection Model for Nonprofit TV Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuei-Lun Chang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study develops a hybrid multiple criteria decision making (MCDM model to select program projects for nonprofit TV stations on the basis of managers’ perceptions. By the concept of balanced scorecard (BSC and corporate social responsibility (CSR, we collect criteria for selecting the best program project. Fuzzy Delphi method, which can lead to better criteria selection, is used to modify criteria. Next, considering the interdependence among the selection criteria, analytic network process (ANP is then used to obtain the weights of them. To avoid calculation and additional pairwise comparisons of ANP, technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS is used to rank the alternatives. A case study is presented to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed model.

  18. Using Runtime Analysis to Guide Model Checking of Java Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havelund, Klaus; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes how two runtime analysis algorithms, an existing data race detection algorithm and a new deadlock detection algorithm, have been implemented to analyze Java programs. Runtime analysis is based on the idea of executing the program once. and observing the generated run to extract various kinds of information. This information can then be used to predict whether other different runs may violate some properties of interest, in addition of course to demonstrate whether the generated run itself violates such properties. These runtime analyses can be performed stand-alone to generate a set of warnings. It is furthermore demonstrated how these warnings can be used to guide a model checker, thereby reducing the search space. The described techniques have been implemented in the b e grown Java model checker called PathFinder.

  19. Toward a Culturally Responsive Model of Mental Health Literacy: Facilitating Help-Seeking Among East Asian Immigrants to North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Sumin; Ryder, Andrew G; Kirmayer, Laurence J

    2016-09-01

    Studies have consistently found that East Asian immigrants in North America are less likely to use mental health services even when they experience levels of distress comparable to Euro-Americans. Although cultural factors that may prevent East Asian immigrants from seeking mental health care have been identified, few studies have explored ways to foster appropriate help-seeking and use of mental health services. Recent work on mental health literacy provides a potential framework for strategies to increase appropriate help-seeking and use of services. This paper reviews the literature on help-seeking for mental health problems among East Asian immigrants living in Western countries to critically assess the relevance of the mental health literacy approach as a framework for interventions to improve appropriate use of services. Modifications needed to develop a culturally responsive framework for mental health literacy are identified.

  20. Unifying Model-Based and Reactive Programming within a Model-Based Executive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Brian C.; Gupta, Vineet; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Real-time, model-based, deduction has recently emerged as a vital component in AI's tool box for developing highly autonomous reactive systems. Yet one of the current hurdles towards developing model-based reactive systems is the number of methods simultaneously employed, and their corresponding melange of programming and modeling languages. This paper offers an important step towards unification. We introduce RMPL, a rich modeling language that combines probabilistic, constraint-based modeling with reactive programming constructs, while offering a simple semantics in terms of hidden state Markov processes. We introduce probabilistic, hierarchical constraint automata (PHCA), which allow Markov processes to be expressed in a compact representation that preserves the modularity of RMPL programs. Finally, a model-based executive, called Reactive Burton is described that exploits this compact encoding to perform efficIent simulation, belief state update and control sequence generation.

  1. A fuzzy goal programming model for biodiesel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutero, D. S.; Pangue, EMU; Tubay, J. M.; Lubag, S. P.

    2016-02-01

    A fuzzy goal programming (FGP) model for biodiesel production in the Philippines was formulated with Coconut (Cocos nucifera) and Jatropha (Jatropha curcas) as sources of biodiesel. Objectives were maximization of feedstock production and overall revenue and, minimization of energy used in production and working capital for farming subject to biodiesel and non-biodiesel requirements, and availability of land, labor, water and machine time. All these objectives and constraints were assumed to be fuzzy. Model was tested for different sets of weights. Results for all sets of weights showed the same optimal allocation. Coconut alone can satisfy the biodiesel requirement of 2% per volume.

  2. Modeling dietary influences on offspring metabolic programming in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookheart, Rita T; Duncan, Jennifer G

    2016-09-01

    The influence of nutrition on offspring metabolism has become a hot topic in recent years owing to the growing prevalence of maternal and childhood obesity. Studies in mammals have identified several factors correlating with parental and early offspring dietary influences on progeny health; however, the molecular mechanisms that underlie these factors remain undiscovered. Mammalian metabolic tissues and pathways are heavily conserved in Drosophila melanogaster, making the fly an invaluable genetic model organism for studying metabolism. In this review, we discuss the metabolic similarities between mammals and Drosophila and present evidence supporting its use as an emerging model of metabolic programming.

  3. Tecnomatix Plant Simulation modeling and programming by means of examples

    CERN Document Server

    Bangsow, Steffen

    2015-01-01

    This book systematically introduces the development of simulation models as well as the implementation and evaluation of simulation experiments with Tecnomatix Plant Simulation. It deals with all users of Plant Simulation, who have more complex tasks to handle. It also looks for an easy entry into the program. Particular attention has been paid to introduce the simulation flow language SimTalk and its use in various areas of the simulation. The author demonstrates with over 200 examples how to combine the blocks for simulation models and how to deal with SimTalk for complex control and analys

  4. Modelling dynamic programming problems by generalized d-graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Kátai, Zoltán

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we introduce the concept of generalized d-graph (admitting cycles) as special dependency-graphs for modelling dynamic programming (DP) problems. We describe the d-graph versions of three famous single-source shortest algorithms (The algorithm based on the topological order of the vertices, Dijkstra algorithm and Bellman-Ford algorithm), which can be viewed as general DP strategies in the case of three different class of optimization problems. The new modelling method also makes possible to classify DP problems and the corresponding DP strategies in term of graph theory.

  5. Scaling up of breastfeeding promotion programs in low- and middle-income countries: the "breastfeeding gear" model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Curry, Leslie; Minhas, Dilpreet; Taylor, Lauren; Bradley, Elizabeth

    2012-11-01

    Breastfeeding (BF) promotion is one of the most cost-effective interventions to advance mother-child health. Evidence-based frameworks and models to promote the effective scale up and sustainability of BF programs are still lacking. A systematic review of peer-reviewed and gray literature reports was conducted to identify key barriers and facilitators for scale up of BF programs in low- and middle-income countries. The review identified BF programs located in 28 countries in Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean, and Asia. Study designs included case studies, qualitative studies, and observational quantitative studies. Only 1 randomized, controlled trial was identified. A total of 22 enabling factors and 15 barriers were mapped into a scale-up framework termed "AIDED" that was used to build the parsimonious breastfeeding gear model (BFGM). Analogous to a well-oiled engine, the BFGM indicates the need for several key "gears" to be working in synchrony and coordination. Evidence-based advocacy is needed to generate the necessary political will to enact legislation and policies to protect, promote, and support BF at the hospital and community levels. This political-policy axis in turn drives the resources needed to support workforce development, program delivery, and promotion. Research and evaluation are needed to sustain the decentralized program coordination "gear" required for goal setting and system feedback. The BFGM helps explain the different levels of performance in national BF outcomes in Mexico and Brazil. Empirical research is recommended to further test the usefulness of the AIDED framework and BFGM for global scaling up of BF programs.

  6. Challenges faced in Latin America for the implementation of an ideal health-care model for rheumatoid arthritis patients: are we ready?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Jaillier, Juan Carlos; Posada Arango, Ana María; Martínez Pérez, David Antonio

    2015-03-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, inflammatory, progressive disease characterized by inflammation of the synovial tissue. It results in the severe functional deterioration of the joints involved and the incapacity to work. Our main aim is to determine the characteristics of the current health-care models used in treating rheumatoid arthritis patients in Latin America. We want to analyze the details, using them as the foundation to create an ideal health-care model that is focused on the patient. We have revised documents, including guides to clinical practice, monitoring models and health-care models according to the current policies and resources available in various Latin American countries. Based on this information, the qualities and deficiencies of the current models will be analyzed, in order to use this as a basis on which to construct a proposed health-care model that covers the specific needs of rheumatoid arthritis patients, considering the resources of each population. Despite the collapse seen in many health systems throughout history, we can learn from them and should develop a new model starting from the path pursued, capitalizing on our experiences, teachings, and errors committed. However, in most cases, the obstacles to the success of the systems do not lie in the fundamental structure or the "spirit of the legislator" but rather in the day-to-day development within the community and the special interest of each agent in a system.

  7. Building America Systems Integration Research Annual Report: FY 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gestwick, M.

    2013-05-01

    This document is the Building America FY2012 Annual Report, which includes an overview of the Building America Program activities and the work completed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the Building America industry consortia (the Building America teams). The annual report summarizes major technical accomplishments and progress towards U.S. Department of Energy Building Technologies Program's multi-year goal of developing the systems innovations that enable risk-free, cost effective, reliable and durable efficiency solutions that reduce energy use by 30%-50% in both new and existing homes.

  8. Building America Systems Integration Research Annual Report. FY 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gestwick, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-05-01

    This Building America FY2012 Annual Report includes an overview of the Building America Program activities and the work completed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the Building America industry consortia (the Building America teams). The annual report summarizes major technical accomplishments and progress towards U.S. Department of Energy Building Technologies Program's multi-year goal of developing the systems innovations that enable risk-free, cost effective, reliable and durable efficiency solutions that reduce energy use by 30%-50% in both new and existing homes.

  9. Modelling parallel programs and multiprocessor architectures with AXE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jerry C.; Fineman, Charles E.

    1991-01-01

    AXE, An Experimental Environment for Parallel Systems, was designed to model and simulate for parallel systems at the process level. It provides an integrated environment for specifying computation models, multiprocessor architectures, data collection, and performance visualization. AXE is being used at NASA-Ames for developing resource management strategies, parallel problem formulation, multiprocessor architectures, and operating system issues related to the High Performance Computing and Communications Program. AXE's simple, structured user-interface enables the user to model parallel programs and machines precisely and efficiently. Its quick turn-around time keeps the user interested and productive. AXE models multicomputers. The user may easily modify various architectural parameters including the number of sites, connection topologies, and overhead for operating system activities. Parallel computations in AXE are represented as collections of autonomous computing objects known as players. Their use and behavior is described. Performance data of the multiprocessor model can be observed on a color screen. These include CPU and message routing bottlenecks, and the dynamic status of the software.

  10. A Game-Theoretic Model for Distributed Programming by Contract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Anders Starcke; Hvitved, Tom; Filinski, Andrzej

    2009-01-01

    We present an extension of the programming-by-contract (PBC) paradigm to a concurrent and distributed environment.  Classical PBC is characterized by absolute conformance of code to its specification, assigning blame in case of failures, and a hierarchical, cooperative decomposition model – none...... of which extend naturally to a distributed environment with multiple administrative peers. We therefore propose a more nuanced contract model based on quantifiable performance of implementations; assuming responsibility for success; and a fundamentally adversarial model of system integration, where each...... component provider is optimizing its behavior locally, with respect to potentially conflicting demands.  This model gives rise to a game-theoretic formulation of contract-governed process interactions that supports compositional reasoning about contract conformance....

  11. Aerosol measurement program strategy for global aerosol backscatter model development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowdle, David A.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose was to propose a balanced program of aerosol backscatter research leading to the development of a global model of aerosol backscatter. Such a model is needed for feasibility studies and systems simulation studies for NASA's prospective satellite-based Doppler lidar wind measurement system. Systems of this kind measure the Doppler shift in the backscatter return from small atmospheric aerosol wind tracers (of order 1 micrometer diameter). The accuracy of the derived local wind estimates and the degree of global wind coverage for such a system are limited by the local availability and by the global scale distribution of natural aerosol particles. The discussions here refer primarily to backscatter model requirements at CO2 wavelengths, which have been selected for most of the Doppler lidar systems studies to date. Model requirements for other potential wavelengths would be similar.

  12. Le Bonheur Childrens Hospital CHAMPS Program in Memphis, Tennessee Recognized with the 2015 National Environmental Leadership Award by EPA Memphis Program Recognized as National Model for Asthma Care During Asthma Awareness Month

    Science.gov (United States)

    05/05/15 - ATLANTA - One in ten kids in America suffers from asthma, and communities of color and low-income families are disproportionately impacted. During Asthma Awareness Month, EPA recognizes Le Bonheur Children's Hospital CHAMPS Program in Memp

  13. A Centroid Model of Species Distribution to Analyize Multi-directional Climate Change Finger Print in Avian Distribution in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Q.; Sauer, J.; Dubayah, R.

    2015-12-01

    Species distribution shift (or referred to as "fingerprint of climate change") as a primary mechanism to adapt climate change has been of great interest to ecologists and conservation practitioners. Recent meta-analyses have concluded that a wide range of animal and plant species are already shifting their distribution. However majority of the literature has focused on analyzing recent poleward and elevationally upward shift of species distribution. However if measured only in poleward shifts, the fingerprint of climate change will be underestimated significantly. In this study, we demonstrate a centroid model for range-wide analysis of distribution shifts using the North American Breeding Bird Survey. The centroid model is based on a hierarchical Bayesian framework which models population change within physiographic strata while accounting for several factors affecting species detectability. We used the centroid approach to examine large number of species permanent resident species in North America and evaluated the dreiction and magnitude of their shifting distribution. To examine the inferential ability of mean temperature and precipitation, we test a hypothesis based on climate velocity theory that species would be more likely to shift their distribution or would shift with greater magnitude in in regions with high climate change velocity. For species with significant shifts of distribution, we establish a precipitation model and a temperature model to explain their change of abundance at the strata level. Two models which are composed of mean and extreme climate indices respectively are also established to test the influences of changes in gradual and extreme climate trends.

  14. Model - Model Pembelajaran pada Program Studi Pendidikan Guru Madrasah Ibtidaiyah (PGMI STAIN Samarinda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syeh Hawib Hamzah

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The model of learning is a vital thing in education. A good appropriate model of learning could reach the goal of learning efficently and effectively. The lecturers of education and teacher training program of STAIN Samarinda implement a various teaching and learning models when they perform their teaching, such as: model of contectual teaching, social interaction, informational proces, personal-based learning, behaviorism, cooperative learning, and problem-based learning.

  15. Evaluation of Medical Education virtual Program: P3 model

    Science.gov (United States)

    REZAEE, RITA; SHOKRPOUR, NASRIN; BOROUMAND, MARYAM

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: In e-learning, people get involved in a process and create the content (product) and make it available for virtual learners. The present study was carried out in order to evaluate the first virtual master program in medical education at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences according to P3 Model. Methods: This is an evaluation research study with post single group design used to determine how effective this program was. All students 60 who participated more than one year in this virtual program and 21 experts including teachers and directors participated in this evaluation project. Based on the P3 e-learning model, an evaluation tool with 5-point Likert rating scale was designed and applied to collect the descriptive data. Results: Students reported storyboard and course design as the most desirable element of learning environment (2.30±0.76), but they declared technical support as the less desirable part (1.17±1.23). Conclusion: Presence of such framework in this regard and using it within the format of appropriate tools for evaluation of e-learning in universities and higher education institutes, which present e-learning curricula in the country, may contribute to implementation of the present and future e-learning curricula efficiently and guarantee its implementation in an appropriate way. PMID:27795971

  16. Evaluation of medical education virtual program: P3 model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RITA REZAEE

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In e-learning, people get involved in a process and create the content (product and make it available for virtual learners. The present study was carried out in order to evaluate the first virtual master program in medical education at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences according to P3 Model. Methods: This is an evaluation research study with post single group design used to determine how effective this program was. All students 60 who participated more than one year in this virtual program and 21 experts including teachers and directors participated in this evaluation project. Based on the P3 e-learning model, an evaluation tool with 5-point Likert rating scale was designed and applied to collect the descriptive data. Results: Students reported storyboard and course design as the most desirable element of learning environment (2.30±0.76, but they declared technical support as the less desirable part (1.17±1.23. Conclusion: Presence of such framework in this regard and using it within the format of appropriate tools for evaluation of e-learning in universities and higher education institutes, which present e-learning curricula in the country, may contribute to implementation of the present and future e-learning curricula efficiently and guarantee its implementation in an appropriate way.

  17. Program package for constructing analytical models of industrial robots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vukobratovich, M.; Kirchanskiy, N.

    Complex multidimensional nonlinear dynamic systems are controlled with the use of control computers differing in their complexity, from large ones at the level of the modeling of the dynamics of the system and synthesis of the control algorithm to microcomputers directly controlling the system. One of the main decisive problems in controlling an industrial robot is the generation of a dynamic on-line model. For this purpose, a separate microcomputer or several computers operating in the multiprocessor mode are used. The existing methods of robot dynamics simulation which are based on the equations of Newton-Euler, Lagrange and others require a large number of numerical operations and they cannot be realized in real time: the time spent on the construction of a model is several times greater than that acceptable for the computer. This is explained by the following factors: complexity of the mathematical model, the use of a high-level language for programming, the desire to construct an algorithm of a general kind, which leads to high redundancy of numerical operations; the use of recursion relations, which excludes the possibility of performing parallel operations during the realization in a computer. Special characteristics of the construction of a program system which is to a considerable degree free of the above drawbacks is considered below. Instead of directly constructing a model in the numerical form on the basis of one of the approaches of classical mechanics, the concept of constructing a model in symbols is proposed here. It is possible to show that in this way it is possible to obtain a compact mathematical model which requires fewer numerical operations (multiplication, addition) for its realization by two orders in comparison with the methods used earlier. 9 references, 2 tables.

  18. The Evolution of Cartography Graduate Programs and the Development of New Graduate Programs in Cartography: An Assessment of Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinke, Theodore R.

    This paper traces the historical development of cartography graduate programs, establishes an evolutionary model, and evaluates the model to determine if it has some utility today for the development of programs capable of producing highly skilled cartographers. Cartography is defined to include traditional cartography, computer cartography,…

  19. C++, objected-oriented programming, and astronomical data models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, A.

    1992-01-01

    Contemporary astronomy is characterized by increasingly complex instruments and observational techniques, higher data collection rates, and large data archives, placing severe stress on software analysis systems. The object-oriented paradigm represents a significant new approach to software design and implementation that holds great promise for dealing with this increased complexity. The basic concepts of this approach will be characterized in contrast to more traditional procedure-oriented approaches. The fundamental features of objected-oriented programming will be discussed from a C++ programming language perspective, using examples familiar to astronomers. This discussion will focus on objects, classes and their relevance to the data type system; the principle of information hiding; and the use of inheritance to implement generalization/specialization relationships. Drawing on the object-oriented approach, features of a new database model to support astronomical data analysis will be presented.

  20. Recovery Act. Development of a Model Energy Conservation Training Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2012-07-05

    The overall objective of this project was to develop an updated model Energy Conservation training program for stationary engineers. This revision to the IUOE National Training Fund’s existing Energy Conservation training curriculum is designed to enable stationary engineers to incorporate essential energy management into routine building operation and maintenance tasks. The curriculum uses a blended learning approach that includes classroom, hands-on, computer simulation and web-based training in addition to a portfolio requirement for a workplace-based learning application. The Energy Conservation training program goal is development of a workforce that can maintain new and existing commercial buildings at optimum energy performance levels. The grant start date was July 6, 2010 and the project continued through September 30, 2012, including a three month non-funded extension.

  1. A stochastic dynamic programming model for stream water quality management

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P P Mujumdar; Pavan Saxena

    2004-10-01

    This paper deals with development of a seasonal fraction-removal policy model for waste load allocation in streams addressing uncertainties due to randomness and fuzziness. A stochastic dynamic programming (SDP) model is developed to arrive at the steady-state seasonal fraction-removal policy. A fuzzy decision model (FDM) developed by us in an earlier study is used to compute the system performance measure required in the SDP model. The state of the system in a season is defined by streamflows at the headwaters during the season and the initial DO deficit at some pre-specified checkpoints. The random variation of streamflows is included in the SDP model through seasonal transitional probabilities. The decision vector consists of seasonal fraction-removal levels for the effluent dischargers. Uncertainty due to imprecision (fuzziness) associated with water quality goals is addressed using the concept of fuzzy decision. Responses of pollution control agencies to the resulting end-of-season DO deficit vector and that of dischargers to the fraction-removal levels are treated as fuzzy, and modelled with appropriate membership functions. Application of the model is illustrated with a case study of the Tungabhadra river in India.

  2. Probabilistic Constraint Programming for Parameters Optimisation of Generative Models

    CERN Document Server

    Zanin, Massimiliano; Sousa, Pedro A C; Cruz, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Complex networks theory has commonly been used for modelling and understanding the interactions taking place between the elements composing complex systems. More recently, the use of generative models has gained momentum, as they allow identifying which forces and mechanisms are responsible for the appearance of given structural properties. In spite of this interest, several problems remain open, one of the most important being the design of robust mechanisms for finding the optimal parameters of a generative model, given a set of real networks. In this contribution, we address this problem by means of Probabilistic Constraint Programming. By using as an example the reconstruction of networks representing brain dynamics, we show how this approach is superior to other solutions, in that it allows a better characterisation of the parameters space, while requiring a significantly lower computational cost.

  3. A Timing Evaluator for C Programs Generated by the Model System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    the C programming language in its automatic generation of C programs from the input MODEL language specification Theretore. though the MTE is primarily...program (the MODEL compiler), it is known beforehand that not all of the features of the C programming language will be used and the MTE has been

  4. New kinematic models for Pacific-North America Motion from 3 Ma to Present, II: Evidence for a “Baja California Shear Zone”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Timothy; Farina, Fred; DeMets, Charles; Suarez-Vidal, Francisco; Fletcher, John; Marquez-Azua, Bertha; Miller, Meghan; Sanchez, Osvaldo; Umhoefer, Paul

    2000-12-01

    We use new models for present-day Pacific-North America motion to evaluate the tectonics of offshore regions west of the Californias. Vandenburg in coastal Alta California moves at the Pacific plate velocity within uncertainties (˜1 mm/yr) after correcting for strain accumulation on the San Andreas and San Gregorio-Hosgri faults with a model that includes a viscoelastic lower crust. Modeled and measured velocities at coastal sites in Baja California south of the Agua Blanca fault, a region that most previous models consider Pacific plate, differ by 3-8 mm/yr, with coastal sites moving slower that the Pacific plate. We interpret these discrepancies in terms of strain accumulation on known on-shore faults, combined with right lateral slip at a rate of 3-4 mm/yr on additional faults offshore peninsular Baja California in the Pacific. Offshore seismicity, offset Quaternary features along the west coast of Baja California, and a discrepancy between the magnetically determined spreading rate in the Gulf Rise and the total plate rate from a geological model provide independent evidence for a “Baja California shear zone.”

  5. Using Remotely-Sensed Land Cover and Distribution Modeling to Estimate Tree Species Migration in the Pacific Northwest Region of North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas C. Coops

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding future tree species migration is challenging due to the unprecedented rate of climate change combined with the presence of human barriers that may limit or impede species movement. Projected changes in climatic conditions outpace migration rates, and more realistic rates of range expansion are needed to make sound environmental policies. In this paper, we develop a modeling approach that takes into account both the geographic changes in the area suitable for the growth and reproduction of tree species, as well as limits imposed geographically on their potential migration using remotely-sensed land cover information. To do so, we combined a physiologically-based decision tree model with a remotely-sensed-derived diffusion-dispersal model to identify the most likely direction of future migration for 15 native tree species in the Pacific Northwest Region of North America, as well as the degree that landscape fragmentation might limit movement. Although projected changes in climate through to 2080 are likely to create favorable environments for range expansion of the 15 tree species by 65% on average, by limiting the potential movement by previously published migration rates and landscape fragmentation, range expansion will likely be 50%–90% of the potential. The hybrid modeling approach using distribution modeling and remotely-sensed data fills a gap between naïve and more complex approaches to take into account major impediments on the potential migration of native tree species.

  6. Evaluation of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ model v5.0 against size-resolved measurements of inorganic particle composition across sites in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. G. Nolte

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluates particle size-composition distributions simulated by the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ model using Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI measurements at 18 sites across North America. Size-resolved measurements of particulate SO42−, NO3−, NH4+, Na+, Cl−, Mg2+, Ca2+ and K+ are compared to CMAQ model output for discrete sampling periods between 2002 and 2005. The observation sites were predominantly in remote areas (e.g. National Parks in the United States and Canada, and measurements were typically made for a period of roughly one month. For SO42− and NH4+, model performance was consistent across the US and Canadian sites, with the model slightly overestimating the peak particle diameter and underestimating the peak particle concentration compared to the observations. Na+ and Mg2+ size distributions were generally well represented at coastal sites, indicating reasonable simulation of emissions from sea spray. CMAQ is able to simulate the displacement of Cl− in aged sea spray aerosol, though the extent of Cl− depletion relative to Na+ is often underpredicted. The model performance for NO3− exhibited much more site-to-site variability than that of SO42− and NH4+, with the model ranging from an underestimation to overestimation of both the peak diameter and peak particle concentration across the sites. Computing PM2.5 from the modeled size distribution parameters rather than by summing the masses in the Aitken and accumulation modes resulted in differences in daily averages of up to 1 μg m−3 (10%, while the difference in seasonal and annual model performance compared to observations from the IMPROVE, CSN and AQS networks was very small. Two updates to the CMAQ aerosol model – changes to the assumed size and mode width of emitted particles and the implementation of gravitational settling – resulted in small improvements in modeled size distributions.

  7. Gangs in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-17

    Citizen Security held in July 2008 indicated that Guatemala now has the second highest murder rate in Central America (roughly 45 per 100,000 people...training regional security forces.48 In recent years, the U.S. Southern Command has taken a leading role in discussing the problem of citizen security in...the results CRS-19 51 “Memo: The Merida Initiative and Citizen Security in Mexico and Central America,” Washington Office on Latin America, March 2008

  8. Mathematical Modeling of Intestinal Iron Absorption Using Genetic Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colins, Andrea; Gerdtzen, Ziomara P.; Nuñez, Marco T.; Salgado, J. Cristian

    2017-01-01

    Iron is a trace metal, key for the development of living organisms. Its absorption process is complex and highly regulated at the transcriptional, translational and systemic levels. Recently, the internalization of the DMT1 transporter has been proposed as an additional regulatory mechanism at the intestinal level, associated to the mucosal block phenomenon. The short-term effect of iron exposure in apical uptake and initial absorption rates was studied in Caco-2 cells at different apical iron concentrations, using both an experimental approach and a mathematical modeling framework. This is the first report of short-term studies for this system. A non-linear behavior in the apical uptake dynamics was observed, which does not follow the classic saturation dynamics of traditional biochemical models. We propose a method for developing mathematical models for complex systems, based on a genetic programming algorithm. The algorithm is aimed at obtaining models with a high predictive capacity, and considers an additional parameter fitting stage and an additional Jackknife stage for estimating the generalization error. We developed a model for the iron uptake system with a higher predictive capacity than classic biochemical models. This was observed both with the apical uptake dataset used for generating the model and with an independent initial rates dataset used to test the predictive capacity of the model. The model obtained is a function of time and the initial apical iron concentration, with a linear component that captures the global tendency of the system, and a non-linear component that can be associated to the movement of DMT1 transporters. The model presented in this paper allows the detailed analysis, interpretation of experimental data, and identification of key relevant components for this complex biological process. This general method holds great potential for application to the elucidation of biological mechanisms and their key components in other complex

  9. Gastroenterology training in Latin America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Henry Cohen; Roque Saenz; Luiz E de Almeida Troncon; Maribel Lizarzabal; Carolina Olano

    2011-01-01

    Latin America is characterized by ethnic, geographical, cultural, and economic diversity; therefore, training in gastroenterology in the region must be considered in this context. The continent's medical education is characterized by a lack of standards and the volume of research continues to be relatively small. There is a multiplicity of events in general gastroenterology and in sub-disciplines, both at regional and local levels, which ensure that many colleagues have access to information. Medical education programs must be based on a clinical vision and be considered in close contact with the patients. The programs should be properly supervised, appropriately defined,and evaluated on a regular basis. The disparity between the patients' needs, the scarce resources available, and the pressures exerted by the health systems on doctors are frequent cited by those complaining of poor professionalism. Teaching development can play a critical role in ensuring the quality of teaching and learning in universities.Continuing professional development programs activities must be planned on the basis of the doctors' needs, with clearly defined objectives and using proper learning methodologies designed for adults. They must be evaluated and accredited by a competent body, so that they may become the basis of a professional regulatory system. The specialty has made progress in the last decades, offering doctors various possibilities for professional development. The world gastroenterology organization has contributed to the speciality through three distinctive, but closely inter-related, programs: Training Centers, Train-the-Trainers, and Global Guidelines, in which Latin America is deeply involved.

  10. Natural products research in latin america.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, M P

    2001-01-01

    The biodiversity found in Latin America is one of the richest in the world, yet its potential as a source of new pharmaceuticals has not been fully investigated. This paper will explore the present status of natural products research in 19 Latin American countries. Future research needs will be presented along with reports on the ethnobotanical and bioprospection projects under way in Latin America. The presentation will be based on data collected over the last five years and will be presented within the framework of the Fine Pharmaceutical Subprogram of the Iberoamerican Program of Science and Technology for Development (CYTED), a novel international cooperation program.

  11. Generalized fish life-cycle poplulation model and computer program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeAngelis, D. L.; Van Winkle, W.; Christensen, S. W.; Blum, S. R.; Kirk, B. L.; Rust, B. W.; Ross, C.

    1978-03-01

    A generalized fish life-cycle population model and computer program have been prepared to evaluate the long-term effect of changes in mortality in age class 0. The general question concerns what happens to a fishery when density-independent sources of mortality are introduced that act on age class 0, particularly entrainment and impingement at power plants. This paper discusses the model formulation and computer program, including sample results. The population model consists of a system of difference equations involving age-dependent fecundity and survival. The fecundity for each age class is assumed to be a function of both the fraction of females sexually mature and the weight of females as they enter each age class. Natural mortality for age classes 1 and older is assumed to be independent of population size. Fishing mortality is assumed to vary with the number and weight of fish available to the fishery. Age class 0 is divided into six life stages. The probability of survival for age class 0 is estimated considering both density-independent mortality (natural and power plant) and density-dependent mortality for each life stage. Two types of density-dependent mortality are included. These are cannibalism of each life stage by older age classes and intra-life-stage competition.

  12. OpenMP Programming for a Global Inverse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wang

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of our investigation is to establish robust inverse algorithms to convert GRACE gravity and ICESat altimetry mission data into global current and past surface mass variations. To assess separation of global sources of change and to evaluate spatio-temporal resolution and accuracy statistically from full posterior covariance matrices, a high performance version of a global simultaneous grid inverse algorithm is essential. One means to accomplish this is to implement a general, well-optimized, parallel global model on massively parallel supercomputers. In our present work, an efficient parallel version of a global inverse program has been implemented on the Origin 2000 using the OpenMP programming model. In this paper, porting a sequential global code to a shared-memory computing system is discussed; several efficient strategies to optimize the code are reported; well-optimized scientific libraries are used; detailed parallel implementation of the global model is reported; performance data of the code are analyzed. Scaling performance on a shared-memory system is also discussed. The parallel version software gives good speedup and dramatically reduces total data processing time.

  13. Anaglyph, South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    landforms, including some broad areas of consistent topographic patterns that indicate the occurrence of simple erosional processes acting upon fairly uniform bedrock. Very smooth plateaus here are remnants of landforms most likely developed under geologic and environmental conditions much different than those present today. Fractures paralleling the coast are likely related to the opening of the Atlantic Ocean as South America drifted away from Africa, starting about 130 million years ago.To the southwest, broad lowlands host the Gran Chaco and Pampas regions. The depositional Gran Chaco drainages run almost exclusively from west to east from the Andes Mountains to the western edge of the Brazilian Highlands as a result of the much greater sediment supply from the Andes. Geologic processes on the Pampas are much more diverse, with stream erosion, stream deposition, subsidence, and wind processes all evident, even at the one-kilometer resolution shown here.Further south, Patagonia also displays these geologic processes plus more prominent volcanic features, including bumpy mesas, which are lava plateaus with small (and some large) volcanic cones. At its southern tip, of South America breaks into islands that include Tierra del Fuego and the Straits of Magellan.This anaglyph was created by deriving a shaded relief image from the SRTM data, draping it back over the SRTM elevation model, and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. Illumination is from the north (top). When viewed through special glasses, the anaglyph is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture

  14. Building America Developments, September 2000, Information Bulletin Number 1 (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendron, R.; Anderson, J.; Epstein, K.

    2001-12-01

    Building America Developments on-line newsletter highlights the Erie-Ellington Homes publicly-funded housing project in Boston, Massachusetts. A Building America and industry partnership that produced energy-efficient manufactured homes built with foam core panels is featured. Also, Habitat for Humanity dedicates two energy-efficient test houses in East Tennessee, and affordable, healthy homes are offered in metro Atlanta. Upcoming events in the Building America Program are also listed.

  15. Faculty development program models to advance teaching and learning within health science programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Jason W; Stein, Susan M; MacLean, Linda Garrelts; Van Amburgh, Jenny; Persky, Adam M

    2014-06-17

    Within health science programs there has been a call for more faculty development, particularly for teaching and learning. The primary objectives of this review were to describe the current landscape for faculty development programs for teaching and learning and make recommendations for the implementation of new faculty development programs. A thorough search of the pertinent health science databases was conducted, including the Education Resource Information Center (ERIC), MEDLINE, and EMBASE, and faculty development books and relevant information found were reviewed in order to provide recommendations for best practices. Faculty development for teaching and learning comes in a variety of forms, from individuals charged to initiate activities to committees and centers. Faculty development has been effective in improving faculty perceptions on the value of teaching, increasing motivation and enthusiasm for teaching, increasing knowledge and behaviors, and disseminating skills. Several models exist that can be implemented to support faculty teaching development. Institutions need to make informed decisions about which plan could be most successfully implemented in their college or school.

  16. Boolean Variables in Economic Models Solved by Linear Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixandroiu D.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the use of logical variables in economic models solved by linear programming. Focus is given to the presentation of the way logical constraints are obtained and of the definition rules based on predicate logic. Emphasis is also put on the possibility to use logical variables in constructing a linear objective function on intervals. Such functions are encountered when costs or unitary receipts are different on disjunct intervals of production volumes achieved or sold. Other uses of Boolean variables are connected to constraint systems with conditions and the case of a variable which takes values from a finite set of integers.

  17. Using a visual programming language to bridge the cognitive gap between a novice's mental model and program code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Bryan J.

    Current research suggests that many students do not know how to program very well at the conclusion of their introductory programming course. We believe that a reason novices have such difficulties learning programming is because engineering novices often learn through a lecture format where someone with programming knowledge lectures to novices, the novices attempt to absorb the content, and then reproduce it during exams. By primarily appealing to programming novices who prefer to understand visually, we research whether programming novices understand programming better if computer science concepts are presented using a visual programming language than if these programs are presented using a text-based programming language. This method builds upon previous research that suggests that most engineering students are visual learners, and we propose that using a flow-based visual programming language will address some of the most important and difficult topics to novices of programming. We use an existing flow-model tool, RAPTOR, to test this method, and share the program understanding results using this theory.

  18. Genetic Programming Modeling and Complexity Analysis of the Magnetoencephalogram of Epileptic Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgopoulos, Efstratios F.; Adamopoulos, Adam V.; Likothanassis, Spiridon D.

    In this work MagnetoEncephaloGram (MEG) recordings of epileptic patients are modeled using a genetic programming approach. This is the first time that genetic programming is used to model MEG signal. Numerous experiments were conducted giving highly successful results. It is demonstrated that genetic programming can produce very simple nonlinear models that fit with great accuracy the observed data of MEG.

  19. The Compass Model to plan faculty development programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Mostafa Al-Eraky

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Faculty development is an imperative if institutions are to develop professional and competent teachers, educators, researchers and leaders. Planning of faculty development currently focuses on meeting the perceived needs of staff and their interests. We would like to propose the Compass Model as a conceptual framework to plan faculty development, which was inspired by the interplay between intrinsic and extrinsic forces for learning, as outlined in the Self-Determination Theory (SDT. In planning faculty development, the Compass Model acknowledges four agendas (directions from various stakeholders: Strategies (N, Competencies (E, Resources (S and Wish lists (W. The model then describes four avenues for faculty development offerings (quadrants: Foundation (NE, Innovation (SE, Response (SW and Motivation (NW (i.e. outputs, activities. The model was compared theoretically with another approach to faculty development planning. It was then piloted as a quality measure for a current program to check for omissions or missed opportunities. We plan to use it in a multi-center study to compare approaches in faculty development planning in different contexts. We hope our model assists faculty developers to consider all stakeholders’ agendas when planning faculty development, beyond the current standard customer-based approach.

  20. Semantic network based component organization model for program mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王斌; 张尧学; 陈松乔

    2003-01-01

    Based on the definition of component ontology, an effective component classification mechanism and a facet named component relationship are proposed. Then an application domain oriented, hierarchical component organization model is established. At last a hierarchical component semantic network (HCSN) described by ontology interchange language(OIL) is presented and then its function is described. Using HCSN and cooperating with other components retrieving algorithms based on component description, other components information and their assembly or composite modes related to the key component can be found. Based on HCSN, component directory library is catalogued and a prototype system is constructed. The prototype system proves that component library organization based on this model gives guarantee to the reliability of component assembly during program mining.

  1. A stochastic model of translation with -1 programmed ribosomal frameshifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Brenae L.; Visscher, Koen; Watkins, Joseph

    2014-02-01

    Many viruses produce multiple proteins from a single mRNA sequence by encoding overlapping genes. One mechanism to decode both genes, which reside in alternate reading frames, is -1 programmed ribosomal frameshifting. Although recognized for over 25 years, the molecular and physical mechanism of -1 frameshifting remains poorly understood. We have developed a mathematical model that treats mRNA translation and associated -1 frameshifting as a stochastic process in which the transition probabilities are based on the energetics of local molecular interactions. The model predicts both the location and efficiency of -1 frameshift events in HIV-1. Moreover, we compute -1 frameshift efficiencies upon mutations in the viral mRNA sequence and variations in relative tRNA abundances, predictions that are directly testable in experiment.

  2. Integer programming model for optimizing bus timetable using genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wihartiko, F. D.; Buono, A.; Silalahi, B. P.

    2017-01-01

    Bus timetable gave an information for passengers to ensure the availability of bus services. Timetable optimal condition happened when bus trips frequency could adapt and suit with passenger demand. In the peak time, the number of bus trips would be larger than the off-peak time. If the number of bus trips were more frequent than the optimal condition, it would make a high operating cost for bus operator. Conversely, if the number of trip was less than optimal condition, it would make a bad quality service for passengers. In this paper, the bus timetabling problem would be solved by integer programming model with modified genetic algorithm. Modification was placed in the chromosomes design, initial population recovery technique, chromosomes reconstruction and chromosomes extermination on specific generation. The result of this model gave the optimal solution with accuracy 99.1%.

  3. A Cooperation-planning Model Based on Bilevel Programming Decision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jianfeng; ZHOU Lei; BAO Zhenqiang; BIAN Wenyu; LI Xiangqing

    2006-01-01

    This paper is based on a resource constrained active network project; the constraint of the local resource and the time constraint of the cooperation resource are considered simultaneously. And the respective benefit of the manager and cooperation partners is also considered simultaneously. And a cooperation-planning model based on bilevel multi-objective programming is designed, according to the due time and total cost. And an extended CNP based on the permitted range for resource and time requests is presented. A larger task set in scheduling cycle is on the permitting for the request of cooperation resource and time while the task manager itself may be permitted biding for tasks. As a result, the optimization space for the cooperation planning is enlarged. So not every bidding task is successfully bid by invitee, and the task manager itself takes on some bidding tasks. Finally, the genetic algorithm is given and the validity and feasibility of the model is proved by a case.

  4. BWR Refill-Reflood Program, Task 4. 7 - model development: TRAC-BWR component models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, Y K; Parameswaran, V; Shaug, J C

    1983-09-01

    TRAC (Transient Reactor Analysis Code) is a computer code for best-estimate analysis for the thermal hydraulic conditions in a reactor system. The development and assessment of the BWR component models developed under the Refill/Reflood Program that are necessary to structure a BWR-version of TRAC are described in this report. These component models are the jet pump, steam separator, steam dryer, two-phase level tracking model, and upper-plenum mixing model. These models have been implemented into TRAC-B02. Also a single-channel option has been developed for individual fuel-channel analysis following a system-response calculation.

  5. Artificial neural networks and multiple linear regression model using principal components to estimate rainfall over South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Soares dos Santos

    2016-01-01

    model output and observed monthly precipitation. We used general circulation model (GCM experiments for the 20th century (RCP historical; 1970–1999 and two scenarios (RCP 2.6 and 8.5; 2070–2100. The model test results indicate that the ANNs significantly outperform the MLR downscaling of monthly precipitation variability.

  6. Optimizing Crawler4j using MapReduce Programming Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddesh, G. M.; Suresh, Kavya; Madhuri, K. Y.; Nijagal, Madhushree; Rakshitha, B. R.; Srinivasa, K. G.

    2016-08-01

    World wide web is a decentralized system that consists of a repository of information on the basis of web pages. These web pages act as a source of information or data in the present analytics world. Web crawlers are used for extracting useful information from web pages for different purposes. Firstly, it is used in web search engines where the web pages are indexed to form a corpus of information and allows the users to query on the web pages. Secondly, it is used for web archiving where the web pages are stored for later analysis phases. Thirdly, it can be used for web mining where the web pages are monitored for copyright purposes. The amount of information processed by the web crawler needs to be improved by using the capabilities of modern parallel processing technologies. In order to solve the problem of parallelism and the throughput of crawling this work proposes to optimize the Crawler4j using the Hadoop MapReduce programming model by parallelizing the processing of large input data. Crawler4j is a web crawler that retrieves useful information about the pages that it visits. The crawler Crawler4j coupled with data and computational parallelism of Hadoop MapReduce programming model improves the throughput and accuracy of web crawling. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed solution achieves significant improvements with respect to performance and throughput. Hence the proposed approach intends to carve out a new methodology towards optimizing web crawling by achieving significant performance gain.

  7. Energy consumption model over parallel programs implemented on multicore architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Isidro-Ramirez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In High Performance Computing, energy consump-tion is becoming an important aspect to consider. Due to the high costs that represent energy production in all countries it holds an important role and it seek to find ways to save energy. It is reflected in some efforts to reduce the energy requirements of hardware components and applications. Some options have been appearing in order to scale down energy use and, con-sequently, scale up energy efficiency. One of these strategies is the multithread programming paradigm, whose purpose is to produce parallel programs able to use the full amount of computing resources available in a microprocessor. That energy saving strategy focuses on efficient use of multicore processors that are found in various computing devices, like mobile devices. Actually, as a growing trend, multicore processors are found as part of various specific purpose computers since 2003, from High Performance Computing servers to mobile devices. However, it is not clear how multiprogramming affects energy efficiency. This paper presents an analysis of different types of multicore-based architectures used in computing, and then a valid model is presented. Based on Amdahl’s Law, a model that considers different scenarios of energy use in multicore architectures it is proposed. Some interesting results were found from experiments with the developed algorithm, that it was execute of a parallel and sequential way. A lower limit of energy consumption was found in a type of multicore architecture and this behavior was observed experimentally.

  8. Building America Case Study: Northwest Energy Efficient Manufactured Housing Program High-Performance Test Homes; Whole-House Solutions for New Homes, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-05-01

    ?This project represents the third phase of a multi-year effort to develop and bring to market a High Performance Manufactured Home (HPMH). The scope of this project involved building four HPMH prototypes, resulting in what is expected to be a 30% savings relative to the Building America Benchmark. (The actual % savings varies depending on choice of heating equipment and climate zone). The HPMH home is intended to make significant progress toward performing as zero-net-energy ready. Previous phases of this project created a HPMH specification and prototyped individual measures from the package to obtain engineering approvals and develop preliminary factory construction processes. This report describes the project team's work during 2014 to build prototype homes to the HPMH specifications and to monitor the homes for energy performance and durability during 2014. Monitoring is expected to continue into 2016.
    home is intended to make significant progress toward performing as zero-net-energy ready. Previous phases of this project created a HPMH specification and prototyped individual measures from the package to obtain engineering approvals and develop preliminary factory construction processes. This report describes the project team's work during 2014 to build prototype homes to the HPMH specifications and to monitor the homes for energy performance and durability during 2014. Monitoring is expected to continue into 2016.

  9. America's Children and the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Protection Agency Search Search America's Children and the Environment (ACE) Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us ... of updates to ACE . America's Children and the Environment (ACE) America's Children and the Environment (ACE) is ...

  10. Wind for Schools: A Wind Powering America Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Energy, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Wind Powering America program (based at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory) sponsors the Wind for Schools Project to raise awareness in rural America about the benefits of wind energy while simultaneously educating college seniors regarding wind energy applications. The three primary project goals of…

  11. Building America Research Benchmark Definition, Updated December 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendron, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Engebrecht, Cheryn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2010-01-01

    To track progress toward aggressive multi-year, whole-house energy savings goals of 40%–70% and on-site power production of up to 30%, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Residential Buildings Program and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed the Building America (BA) Research Benchmark in consultation with the Building America industry teams.

  12. Building America Research Benchmark Definition: Updated December 19, 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendron, R.

    2008-12-01

    To track progress toward aggressive multi-year whole-house energy savings goals of 40-70% and onsite power production of up to 30%, DOE's Residential Buildings Program and NREL developed the Building America Research Benchmark in consultation with the Building America industry teams.

  13. Pedagogical model for online learning based on sociocultural constructivism: An alternative for the appropriation of knowledge in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ebert Bonilla Olaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes, from an academic analysis, a pedagogicalmodel applicable in virtual learning environments, based onsociocultural constructivism and from the situated and collaborativelearning styles. The model is called virtual and socioculturalconstructivism model for online learning, which makes good useof the benefits and potential of social networks and web 2.0 toolsfor constructing knowledge. Similarly, the role of the interactionsbetween knowledge, teacher, student and teaching tools isdetermined, in order to achieve a flexible and open educationalproposal. The model herein presented allows others to enrich it oruse it as a starting point for developing alternative models.

  14. Ecopedagogy in the Age of Globalization: Educators' Perspectives of Environmental Education Programs in the Americas Which Incorporate Social Justice Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misiaszek, Gregery William

    2011-01-01

    Ecopedagogy is defined in this research as transformative environmental education which critically and dialectically deconstructs how social conflicts and environmental (socio-environmental) devastation are connected. Understanding these connections is necessary because environmental destructive actions are inherently political--benefiting some…

  15. Predicting ecosystem dynamics at regional scales: an evaluation of a terrestrial biosphere model for the forests of northeastern North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvigy, David; Moorcroft, Paul R

    2012-01-19

    Terrestrial biosphere models are important tools for diagnosing both the current state of the terrestrial carbon cycle and forecasting terrestrial ecosystem responses to global change. While there are a number of ongoing assessments of the short-term predictive capabilities of terrestrial biosphere models using flux-tower measurements, to date there have been relatively few assessments of their ability to predict longer term, decadal-scale biomass dynamics. Here, we present the results of a regional-scale evaluation of the Ecosystem Demography version 2 (ED2)-structured terrestrial biosphere model, evaluating the model's predictions against forest inventory measurements for the northeast USA and Quebec from 1985 to 1995. Simulations were conducted using a default parametrization, which used parameter values from the literature, and a constrained model parametrization, which had been developed by constraining the model's predictions against 2 years of measurements from a single site, Harvard Forest (42.5° N, 72.1° W). The analysis shows that the constrained model parametrization offered marked improvements over the default model formulation, capturing large-scale variation in patterns of biomass dynamics despite marked differences in climate forcing, land-use history and species-composition across the region. These results imply that data-constrained parametrizations of structured biosphere models such as ED2 can be successfully used for regional-scale ecosystem prediction and forecasting. We also assess the model's ability to capture sub-grid scale heterogeneity in the dynamics of biomass growth and mortality of different sizes and types of trees, and then discuss the implications of these analyses for further reducing the remaining biases in the model's predictions.

  16. A Program Evaluation Model: Using Bloom's Taxonomy to Identify Outcome Indicators in Outcomes-Based Program Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Rita C.

    2011-01-01

    Outcomes-based program evaluation is a systematic approach to identifying outcome indicators and measuring results against those indicators. One dimension of program evaluation is assessing the level of learner acquisition to determine if learning objectives were achieved as intended. The purpose of the proposed model is to use Bloom's Taxonomy to…

  17. Development and validation of a habitat suitability model for the non-indigenous seagrass Zostera japonica in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    We developed a spatially-explicit, flexible 3-parameter habitat suitability model that can be used to identify and predict areas at higher risk for non-native dwarf eelgrass (Zostera japonica) invasion. The model uses simple environmental parameters (depth, nearshore slope, and s...

  18. Modeling multi-clocked data-flow programs using the Generic Modeling Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Brunette, Christian; Talpin, Jean-Pierre; Besnard, Loïc; Gautier, Thierry

    2006-01-01

    International audience; This paper presents Signal-Meta, the metamodel designed for the synchronous data-flow language Signal. It relies on the Generic Modeling Environment (GME), a configurable object-oriented toolkit that supports the creation of domain-specific modeling and program synthesis environments. The graphical description constitutes the base to build multi-clock environments, and a good front-end for the Polychrony platform. To complete this frontend, we develop a tool that trans...

  19. Process-Based Modeling to Assess the Effects of Recent Climatic Variation on Site Productivity and Forest Function across Western North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard H. Waring

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A process-based forest growth model, 3-PG (Physiological Principles Predicting Growth, parameterized with values of soil properties constrained by satellite-derived estimates of maximum leaf area index (LAImax, was run for Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii to contrast the extent to which site growth potential might vary across western North America between a cool, wet period (1950–1975 and a more recent, generally warmer and drier one (2000–2009. LAImax represents a surrogate for overall site growth potential, as demonstrated from a strong correlation between the two variables, with the latter based on the culmination of mean annual increment estimates made at 3356 ground-based U.S. Forest Service survey plots across the states of Oregon and Washington. Results indicate that since 2000, predicted LAImax has decreased more than 20% in portions of the Southwest USA and for much of the forested area in western Alberta. Similar percentage increases in LAImax were predicted for parts of British Columbia, Idaho and Montana. The modeling analysis included an assessment of changes in seasonal constraints on gross primary production (GPP. A general reduction in limitations caused by spring frost occurred across the entire study area. This has led to a longer growing season, along with notable increases in summer evaporative demand and soil drought for much of the study area away from the maritime influence of the Pacific Ocean.

  20. Pedagogy and Processes for a Computer Programming Outreach Workshop--The Bridge to College Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangney, Brendan; Oldham, Elizabeth; Conneely, Claire; Barrett, Stephen; Lawlor, John

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a model for computer programming outreach workshops aimed at second-level students (ages 15-16). Participants engage in a series of programming activities based on the Scratch visual programming language, and a very strong group-based pedagogy is followed. Participants are not required to have any prior programming experience.…

  1. Computer programs for forward and inverse modeling of acoustic and electromagnetic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellefsen, Karl J.

    2011-01-01

    A suite of computer programs was developed by U.S. Geological Survey personnel for forward and inverse modeling of acoustic and electromagnetic data. This report describes the computer resources that are needed to execute the programs, the installation of the programs, the program designs, some tests of their accuracy, and some suggested improvements.

  2. Doctoral Training in Statistics, Measurement, and Methodology in Psychology: Replication and Extension of Aiken, West, Sechrest, and Reno's (1990) Survey of PhD Programs in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, Leona S.; West, Stephen G.; Millsap, Roger E.

    2008-01-01

    In a survey of all PhD programs in psychology in the United States and Canada, the authors documented the quantitative methodology curriculum (statistics, measurement, and research design) to examine the extent to which innovations in quantitative methodology have diffused into the training of PhDs in psychology. In all, 201 psychology PhD…

  3. Doctoral training in statistics, measurement, and methodology in psychology: replication and extension of Aiken, West, Sechrest, and Reno's (1990) survey of PhD programs in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, Leona S; West, Stephen G; Millsap, Roger E

    2008-01-01

    In a survey of all PhD programs in psychology in the United States and Canada, the authors documented the quantitative methodology curriculum (statistics, measurement, and research design) to examine the extent to which innovations in quantitative methodology have diffused into the training of PhDs in psychology. In all, 201 psychology PhD programs (86%) participated. This survey replicated and extended a previous survey (L. S. Aiken, S. G. West, L. B. Sechrest, & R. R. Reno, 1990), permitting examination of curriculum development. Most training supported laboratory and not field research. The median of 1.6 years of training in statistics and measurement was mainly devoted to the modally 1-year introductory statistics course, leaving little room for advanced study. Curricular enhancements were noted in statistics and to a minor degree in measurement. Additional coverage of both fundamental and innovative quantitative methodology is needed. The research design curriculum has largely stagnated, a cause for great concern. Elite programs showed no overall advantage in quantitative training. Forces that support curricular innovation are characterized. Human capital challenges to quantitative training, including recruiting and supporting young quantitative faculty, are discussed. Steps must be taken to bring innovations in quantitative methodology into the curriculum of PhD programs in psychology.

  4. An integer programming model for assigning students to elective courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Beroš

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the problem of assigning students to elective courses according to their preferences. This process of assigning students to elective courses according to their preferences often places before academic institutions numerous obstacles, the most typical being a limited number of students who can be assigned to any particular class. Furthermore, due to financial or technical reasons, the maximum number of the elective courses is determined in advance, meaning that the institution decides which courses to conduct. Therefore, the expectation that all the students will be assigned to their first choice of courses is not realistic (perfect satisfaction. This paper presents an integer programming model that maximizes the total student satisfaction in line with a number of different constraints. The measure of student satisfaction is based on a student's order of preference according to the principle: the more a choice is met the higher the satisfaction. Following the basic model, several versions of the models are generated to cover possible real-life situations, while taking into consideration the manner student satisfaction is measured, as well as the preference of academic institution within set technical and financial constraints. The main contribution of the paper is introducing the concept of the minimal student satisfaction level that reduces the number of students dissatised with the courses to which they were assigned.

  5. Optimizing Biorefinery Design and Operations via Linear Programming Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talmadge, Michael; Batan, Liaw; Lamers, Patrick; Hartley, Damon; Biddy, Mary; Tao, Ling; Tan, Eric

    2017-03-28

    The ability to assess and optimize economics of biomass resource utilization for the production of fuels, chemicals and power is essential for the ultimate success of a bioenergy industry. The team of authors, consisting of members from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), has developed simple biorefinery linear programming (LP) models to enable the optimization of theoretical or existing biorefineries. The goal of this analysis is to demonstrate how such models can benefit the developing biorefining industry. It focuses on a theoretical multi-pathway, thermochemical biorefinery configuration and demonstrates how the biorefinery can use LP models for operations planning and optimization in comparable ways to the petroleum refining industry. Using LP modeling tools developed under U.S. Department of Energy's Bioenergy Technologies Office (DOE-BETO) funded efforts, the authors investigate optimization challenges for the theoretical biorefineries such as (1) optimal feedstock slate based on available biomass and prices, (2) breakeven price analysis for available feedstocks, (3) impact analysis for changes in feedstock costs and product prices, (4) optimal biorefinery operations during unit shutdowns / turnarounds, and (5) incentives for increased processing capacity. These biorefinery examples are comparable to crude oil purchasing and operational optimization studies that petroleum refiners perform routinely using LPs and other optimization models. It is important to note that the analyses presented in this article are strictly theoretical and they are not based on current energy market prices. The pricing structure assigned for this demonstrative analysis is consistent with $4 per gallon gasoline, which clearly assumes an economic environment that would favor the construction and operation of biorefineries. The analysis approach and examples provide valuable insights into the usefulness of analysis tools for

  6. NASA Space Radiation Program Integrative Risk Model Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Hu, Shaowen; Plante, Ianik; Ponomarev, Artem L.; Sandridge, Chris

    2015-01-01

    NASA Space Radiation Program Element scientists have been actively involved in development of an integrative risk models toolkit that includes models for acute radiation risk and organ dose projection (ARRBOD), NASA space radiation cancer risk projection (NSCR), hemocyte dose estimation (HemoDose), GCR event-based risk model code (GERMcode), and relativistic ion tracks (RITRACKS), NASA radiation track image (NASARTI), and the On-Line Tool for the Assessment of Radiation in Space (OLTARIS). This session will introduce the components of the risk toolkit with opportunity for hands on demonstrations. The brief descriptions of each tools are: ARRBOD for Organ dose projection and acute radiation risk calculation from exposure to solar particle event; NSCR for Projection of cancer risk from exposure to space radiation; HemoDose for retrospective dose estimation by using multi-type blood cell counts; GERMcode for basic physical and biophysical properties for an ion beam, and biophysical and radiobiological properties for a beam transport to the target in the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory beam line; RITRACKS for simulation of heavy ion and delta-ray track structure, radiation chemistry, DNA structure and DNA damage at the molecular scale; NASARTI for modeling of the effects of space radiation on human cells and tissue by incorporating a physical model of tracks, cell nucleus, and DNA damage foci with image segmentation for the automated count; and OLTARIS, an integrated tool set utilizing HZETRN (High Charge and Energy Transport) intended to help scientists and engineers study the effects of space radiation on shielding materials, electronics, and biological systems.

  7. The Alma-Bacon County Story: A Model for Rural America. Committee Print, 92nd Congress, 2nd Session, July 24, 1972.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nipp, Robert E.

    Designed to illustrate the revitalization process of a small rural community via use of the Model Cities Program, this case study of Alma-Bacon County, Georgia traces Alma-Bacon's: (1) historical background; (2) community development beginnings; (3) political development; (4) outstanding problems; and (5) development plans and accomplishments…

  8. A Tool for Performance Modeling of Parallel Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. González

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Current performance prediction analytical models try to characterize the performance behavior of actual machines through a small set of parameters. In practice, substantial deviations are observed. These differences are due to factors as memory hierarchies or network latency. A natural approach is to associate a different proportionality constant with each basic block, and analogously, to associate different latencies and bandwidths with each "communication block". Unfortunately, to use this approach implies that the evaluation of parameters must be done for each algorithm. This is a heavy task, implying experiment design, timing, statistics, pattern recognition and multi-parameter fitting algorithms. Software support is required. We present a compiler that takes as source a C program annotated with complexity formulas and produces as output an instrumented code. The trace files obtained from the execution of the resulting code are analyzed with an interactive interpreter, giving us, among other information, the values of those parameters.

  9. Evaluation of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ model v5.0 against size-resolved measurements of inorganic particle composition across sites in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. G. Nolte

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluates particle size–composition distributions simulated by the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ model using micro-orifice uniform deposit impactor (MOUDI measurements at 18 sites across North America. Size-resolved measurements of particulate SO42−, NO3−, NH4+, Na+, Cl−, Mg2+, Ca2+, and K+ are compared to CMAQ model output for discrete sampling periods between 2002 and 2005. The observation sites were predominantly in remote areas (e.g., National Parks in the USA and Canada, and measurements were typically made for a period of roughly 1 month. For SO42− and NH4+, model performance was consistent across the USA and Canadian sites, with the model slightly overestimating the peak particle diameter and underestimating the peak particle concentration compared to the observations. Na+ and Mg2+ size distributions were generally well represented at coastal sites, indicating reasonable simulation of emissions from sea spray. CMAQ is able to simulate the displacement of Cl− in aged sea spray aerosol, though the extent of Cl− depletion relative to Na+ is often underpredicted. The model performance for NO3− exhibited much more site-to-site variability than that of SO42− and NH4+, with the model ranging from an underestimation to overestimation of both the peak diameter and peak particle concentration across the sites. Computing PM2.5 from the modeled size distribution parameters rather than by summing the masses in the Aitken and accumulation modes resulted in differences in daily averages of up to 1 μg m−3 (10 %, while the difference in seasonal and annual model performance compared to observations from the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE, Chemical Speciation Network (CSN, and Air Quality System (AQS networks was very small. Two updates to the CMAQ aerosol model – changes to the assumed size and mode width of emitted particles and the implementation of gravitational settling

  10. COMPLEX PROGRAMS FOR MODELING HIGHWAY: WAY AND STREAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Skrypnikov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of the operation of the road caused by continuously varying from picket to picket road conditions caused by a variety of parameters projected (existing road , the variety of types of cars, their technical and economic parameters , a variety of climatic and weather conditions required to develop a complex simulation programs . This paper describes a set of programs that form the core of the subsystem "driver-vehicle-road environment". Optimization of the design solutions developed modules contribute WAY type and columns, not using indicators averaged transport - road performance, and detailed process model of functioning of the road. WAY module provides continuous sequence modeling perception of road elements mechanical subsystem "road-car " (by continuous formation and solution of the equations of motion and the characteristics of this mode. WAY module (with module PARK brings the technical contradiction between the 20-year term of road design and use of existing practices in their justification of design decisions technical parameters of cars today. The complexity of the operation of the road due to the random nature of traffic demanded inclusion in the computer -aided design of roads STREAM module. STREAM module allows to obtain simulation results of a random process, sufficient to optimize the design decisions in general and in the areas of local variation of the plan, longitudinal section, the way the situation, etc. Varie ty of road conditions possible to classify on the specifics of the formation of the flow regimes. This builds on the results of study of the process of movement of cars in the stream.

  11. Marketing for a Web-Based Master's Degree Program in Light of Marketing Mix Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Cheng-Chang

    2012-01-01

    The marketing mix model was applied with a focus on Web media to re-strategize a Web-based Master's program in a southern state university in U.S. The program's existing marketing strategy was examined using the four components of the model: product, price, place, and promotion, in hopes to repackage the program (product) to prospective students…

  12. Using Qualitative Data to Refine a Logic Model for the Cornell Family Development Credential Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Betsy

    2010-01-01

    Human service practitioners face challenges in communicating how their programs lead to desired outcomes. One framework for representation that is now widely used in the field of program evaluation is the program logic model. This article presents an example of how qualitative data were used to refine a logic model for the Cornell Family…

  13. The component model of infrastructure: a practical approach to understanding public health program infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavinghouze, S René; Snyder, Kimberly; Rieker, Patricia P

    2014-08-01

    Functioning program infrastructure is necessary for achieving public health outcomes. It is what supports program capacity, implementation, and sustainability. The public health program infrastructure model presented in this article is grounded in data from a broader evaluation of 18 state tobacco control programs and previous work. The newly developed Component Model of Infrastructure (CMI) addresses the limitations of a previous model and contains 5 core components (multilevel leadership, managed resources, engaged data, responsive plans and planning, networked partnerships) and 3 supporting components (strategic understanding, operations, contextual influences). The CMI is a practical, implementation-focused model applicable across public health programs, enabling linkages to capacity, sustainability, and outcome measurement.

  14. The Father Friendly Initiative within Families: Using a logic model to develop program theory for a father support program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervais, Christine; de Montigny, Francine; Lacharité, Carl; Dubeau, Diane

    2015-10-01

    The transition to fatherhood, with its numerous challenges, has been well documented. Likewise, fathers' relationships with health and social services have also begun to be explored. Yet despite the problems fathers experience in interactions with healthcare services, few programs have been developed for them. To explain this, some authors point to the difficulty practitioners encounter in developing and structuring the theory of programs they are trying to create to promote and support father involvement (Savaya, R., & Waysman, M. (2005). Administration in Social Work, 29(2), 85), even when such theory is key to a program's effectiveness (Chen, H.-T. (2005). Practical program evaluation. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications). The objective of the present paper is to present a tool, the logic model, to bridge this gap and to equip practitioners for structuring program theory. This paper addresses two questions: (1) What would be a useful instrument for structuring the development of program theory in interventions for fathers? (2) How would the concepts of a father involvement program best be organized? The case of the Father Friendly Initiative within Families (FFIF) program is used to present and illustrate six simple steps for developing a logic model that are based on program theory and demonstrate its relevance.

  15. Surface temperature dataset for North America obtained by application of optimal interpolation algorithm merging tree-ring chronologies and climate model output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Xing, Pei; Luo, Yong; Nie, Suping; Zhao, Zongci; Huang, Jianbin; Wang, Shaowu; Tian, Qinhua

    2017-02-01

    A new dataset of surface temperature over North America has been constructed by merging climate model results and empirical tree-ring data through the application of an optimal interpolation algorithm. Errors of both the Community Climate System Model version 4 (CCSM4) simulation and the tree-ring reconstruction were considered to optimize the combination of the two elements. Variance matching was used to reconstruct the surface temperature series. The model simulation provided the background field, and the error covariance matrix was estimated statistically using samples from the simulation results with a running 31-year window for each grid. Thus, the merging process could continue with a time-varying gain matrix. This merging method (MM) was tested using two types of experiment, and the results indicated that the standard deviation of errors was about 0.4 °C lower than the tree-ring reconstructions and about 0.5 °C lower than the model simulation. Because of internal variabilities and uncertainties in the external forcing data, the simulated decadal warm-cool periods were readjusted by the MM such that the decadal variability was more reliable (e.g., the 1940-1960s cooling). During the two centuries (1601-1800 AD) of the preindustrial period, the MM results revealed a compromised spatial pattern of the linear trend of surface temperature, which is in accordance with the phase transition of the Pacific decadal oscillation and Atlantic multidecadal oscillation. Compared with pure CCSM4 simulations, it was demonstrated that the MM brought a significant improvement to the decadal variability of the gridded temperature via the merging of temperature-sensitive tree-ring records.

  16. Integrating Paleodistribution Models and Phylogeography in the Grass-Cutting Ant Acromyrmex striatus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Southern Lowlands of South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristiano, Maykon Passos; Clemes Cardoso, Danon; Fernandes-Salomão, Tânia Maria; Heinze, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Past climate changes often have influenced the present distribution and intraspecific genetic diversity of organisms. The objective of this study was to investigate the phylogeography and historical demography of populations of Acromyrmex striatus (Roger, 1863), a leaf-cutting ant species restricted to the open plains of South America. Additionally, we modeled the distribution of this species to predict its contemporary and historic habitat. From the partial sequences of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase I of 128 A. striatus workers from 38 locations we estimated genetic diversity and inferred historical demography, divergence time, and population structure. The potential distribution areas of A. striatus for current and quaternary weather conditions were modeled using the maximum entropy algorithm. We identified a total of 58 haplotypes, divided into five main haplogroups. The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed that the largest proportion of genetic variation is found among the groups of populations. Paleodistribution models suggest that the potential habitat of A. striatus may have decreased during the Last Interglacial Period (LIG) and expanded during the Last Maximum Glacial (LGM). Overall, the past potential distribution recovered by the model comprises the current potential distribution of the species. The general structuring pattern observed was consistent with isolation by distance, suggesting a balance between gene flow and drift. Analysis of historical demography showed that populations of A. striatus had remained constant throughout its evolutionary history. Although fluctuations in the area of their potential historic habitat occurred during quaternary climate changes, populations of A. striatus are strongly structured geographically. However, explicit barriers to gene flow have not been identified. These findings closely match those in Mycetophylax simplex, another ant species that in some areas occurs in sympatry with A. striatus

  17. Latin America: population and internal unrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiarda, J H; Siqueira Wiarda, I

    1985-09-01

    This discussion of population and internal unrest in Latin America covers the following: pressures on land and agriculture; economic frustrations; the youth and radicalism; rising social tensions; and political instability. At current growth rates, Latin America's population is projected to increases between 1981 2001 by 225 million people. This staggering population growth is likely to have serious political, economic, social, strategic, and other implications. The strong opposition to family planning which came principally from nationlists, the military, and the church during the 1960s has changed to general support for voluntary family planning programs in much of Latin America. Too rapid population growth now is viewed widely as aggravating the problems of development and putting severe strains on services and facilities. The wish to limit family size is particularly strong among women. Most of Latin America's untapped land is unusable, either so steeply mountainous, densely tropical, or barren of topsoil that it cannot support life at even the most meager level of subsistence. Food production in most of Latin America has not kept pace with population growth. Since most new agricultural production is oriented toward exports rather than home consumption, conditions for most rural populations are worsening. Economic dilemmas facing Latin America include widespread poverty, the world's highest per capita debt, unemployment and underemployment that may reach between 40-50% of the workforce, negative economic growth rates over the past 5 years, immense income inequalities, declining terms of trade, extensive capital flight, little new investment or foreign assistance, increased protectionism on the part of those countriews with whom Latin America must trade, rising prices for the goods Latin America must import, and (in some countries) devastation of the economic infrastrucutre by guerrilla forces. The unprecedent flow from the countryside has made Latin America the

  18. 2013 Building America Research Planning Meeting Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzger, C. E.; Hunt, S.

    2014-02-01

    The Building America (BA) Research Planning Meeting was held October 28-30, 2013, in Washington, DC. This meeting provides one opportunity each year for the research teams, national laboratories and Department of Energy (DOE) managers to meet in person to share the most pertinent information and collaboration updates. This report documents the presentations, highlights key program updates, and outlines next steps for the program.

  19. America in the Eyes of America Watchers:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Huiyun; He, Kai

    2015-01-01

    that almost half of the survey participants thought that America would remain the global hegemon in the next ten years. Meanwhile, a large majority was also optimistic that China is a rising great power, especially in the economic sense, in the world. More than half of the respondents saw Asian military......Based on an original survey conducted in the summer of 2012 in Beijing, we examine how China's America watchers—IR scholars who work on US-China relations—have viewed China's power status in the international system, US-China relations and some specific US policies in Asia. Our survey shows...... issues, such as the South China Sea issue, as the most difficult problem between China and the US....

  20. John Turner revisited: an intra-urban migration model for colonial-type cities in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuurman, F J

    1986-01-01

    The author uses the intra-urban migration model developed by John Turner in the early 1960s to examine population movements in the city of Arequipa, Peru. Ways in which the model applies in the case of Arequipa are summarized, as are quantitative and qualitative differences between the model and the Arequipa study. The Turner model employs economic (industrialization level), demographic (level of rural-to-urban migration), and political (housing policy) criteria to distinguish a city's transitional phase. "According to these criteria Arequipa clearly belongs to the mid-transitional phase. The pattern of intra-urban migration, however, shows a mixture of Turner's mid and late transitional phases (e.g. center acts still as a reception area, but at the same time a major number of migrants settle directly in the periphery).... The town itself has a limited industrial development and hardly any municipal housing policy worth mentioning.... It is above all the demographic factor in combination with the town's morphology (a large colonial-type center, etc.) which in the case of Arequipa regulates the pattern of intra-urban migration."

  1. Lupus Foundation of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Testing New Treatments Learn More About the Lupus Foundation of America We are devoted to solving ... Spam Control Text: Please leave this field empty Lupus FAQ What is lupus? What are the common ...

  2. Prevent Child Abuse America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... call the police . Crisis and support contacts For Child Abuse Reporting Numbers in your State please visit: Child ... suspected child abuse and neglect. Parent Resources Prevent Child Abuse America (800) CHILDREN A resource for tips, referrals, ...

  3. Building America Top Innovations 2013 Profile – Zero Energy-Ready Single-Family Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-09-01

    Building homes that are zero energy-ready is a goal of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America program and one embodied in Building America’s premier home certification program, the Challenge Home program. This case study describes several examples of successful zero energy-ready home projects completed by Building America teams and partner builders.

  4. Using a Support Vector Machine and a Land Surface Model to Estimate Large-Scale Passive Microwave Temperatures over Snow-Covered Land in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Barton A.; Reichle, Rolf Helmut

    2014-01-01

    A support vector machine (SVM), a machine learning technique developed from statistical learning theory, is employed for the purpose of estimating passive microwave (PMW) brightness temperatures over snow-covered land in North America as observed by the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) satellite sensor. The capability of the trained SVM is compared relative to the artificial neural network (ANN) estimates originally presented in [14]. The results suggest the SVM outperforms the ANN at 10.65 GHz, 18.7 GHz, and 36.5 GHz for both vertically and horizontally-polarized PMW radiation. When compared against daily AMSR-E measurements not used during the training procedure and subsequently averaged across the North American domain over the 9-year study period, the root mean squared error in the SVM output is 8 K or less while the anomaly correlation coefficient is 0.7 or greater. When compared relative to the results from the ANN at any of the six frequency and polarization combinations tested, the root mean squared error was reduced by more than 18 percent while the anomaly correlation coefficient was increased by more than 52 percent. Further, the temporal and spatial variability in the modeled brightness temperatures via the SVM more closely agrees with that found in the original AMSR-E measurements. These findings suggest the SVM is a superior alternative to the ANN for eventual use as a measurement operator within a data assimilation framework.

  5. Quantifying sources of black carbon in Western North America using observationally based analysis and an emission tagging technique in the Community Atmosphere Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Zhang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5, equipped with a technique to tag black carbon (BC emissions by source regions and types, has been employed to establish source-receptor relationships for atmospheric BC and its deposition to snow over Western North America. The CAM5 simulation was conducted with meteorological fields constrained by reanalysis for year 2013 when measurements of BC in both near-surface air and snow are available for model evaluation. We find that CAM5 has a significant low bias in predicted mixing ratios of BC in snow but only a small low bias in predicted atmospheric concentrations over the Northwest USA and West Canada. Even with a strong low bias in snow mixing ratios, radiative transfer calculations show that the BC-in-snow darkening effect is substantially larger than the BC dimming effect at the surface by atmospheric BC. Local sources contribute more to near-surface atmospheric BC and to deposition than distant sources, while the latter are more important in the middle and upper troposphere where wet removal is relatively weak. Fossil fuel (FF is the dominant source type for total column BC burden over the two regions. FF is also the dominant local source type for BC column burden, deposition, and near-surface BC, while for all distant source regions combined the contribution of biomass/biofuel (BB is larger than FF. An observationally based Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF analysis of the snow-impurity chemistry is conducted to quantitatively evaluate the CAM5 BC source-type attribution. While CAM5 is qualitatively consistent with the PMF analysis with respect to partitioning of BC originating from BB and FF emissions, it significantly underestimates the relative contribution of BB. In addition to a possible low bias in BB emissions used in the simulation, the model is likely missing a significant source of snow darkening from local soil found in the observations.

  6. Forecast of criticality experiments and experimental programs needed to support nuclear operations in the United States of America: 1994--1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutherford, D.

    1994-03-01

    This Forecast is generated by the Chair of the Experiment Needs Identification Workgroup (ENIWG), with input from Department of Energy and the nuclear community. One of the current concerns addressed by ENIWG was the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board`s Recommendation 93-2. This Recommendation delineated the need for a critical experimental capability, which includes (1) a program of general-purpose experiments, (2) improving the information base, and (3) ongoing departmental programs. The nuclear community also recognizes the importance of criticality theory, which, as a stepping stone to computational analysis and safety code development, needs to be benchmarked against well-characterized critical experiments. A summary project of the Department`s needs with respect to criticality information includes (1) hands-on training, (2) criticality and nuclear data, (3) detector systems, (4) uranium- and plutonium-based reactors, and (5) accident analysis. The Workgroup has evaluated, prioritized, and categorized each proposed experiment and program. Transportation/Applications is a new category intended to cover the areas of storage, training, emergency response, and standards. This category has the highest number of priority-1 experiments (nine). Facilities capable of performing experiments include the Los Alamos Critical Experiment Facility (LACEF) along with Area V at Sandia National Laboratory. The LACEF continues to house the most significant collection of critical assemblies in the Western Hemisphere. The staff of this facility and Area V are trained and certified, and documentation is current. ENIWG will continue to work with the nuclear community to identify and prioritize experiments because there is an overwhelming need for critical experiments to be performed for basic research and code validation.

  7. Concurrent Constraint Programming: A Language and Its Execution Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖乐健; 曹元大

    2003-01-01

    To overcome inefficiency in traditional logic programming, a declarative programming language COPS is designed based on the notion of concurrent constraint programming (CCP). The improvement is achieved by the adoption of constraint-based heuristic strategy and the introduction of deterministic components in the framework of CCP. Syntax specification and an operational semantic description are presented.

  8. Support for Programming Models in Network-on-Chip-based Many-core Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten Sleth

    and scalability in an image processing application with the aim of providing insight into parallel programming issues. The second part proposes and presents the tile-based Clupea many-core architecture, which has the objective of providing configurable support for programming models to allow different programming......This thesis addresses aspects of support for programming models in Network-on- Chip-based many-core architectures. The main focus is to consider architectural support for a plethora of programming models in a single system. The thesis has three main parts. The first part considers parallelization...

  9. Constructing a starting 3D shear velocity model with sharp interfaces for SEM-based upper mantle tomography in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calo, M.; Bodin, T.; Yuan, H.; Romanowicz, B. A.; Larmat, C. S.; Maceira, M.

    2013-12-01

    Seismic tomography is currently evolving towards 3D earth models that satisfy full seismic waveforms at increasingly high frequencies. This evolution is possible thanks to the advent of powerful numerical methods such as the Spectral Element Method (SEM) that allow accurate computation of the seismic wavefield in complex media, and the drastic increase of computational resources. However, the production of such models requires handling complex misfit functions with more than one local minimum. Standard linearized inversion methods (such as gradient methods) have two main drawbacks: 1) they produce solution models highly dependent on the starting model; 2) they do not provide a means of estimating true model uncertainties. However, these issues can be addressed with stochastic methods that can sample the space of possible solutions efficiently. Such methods are prohibitively challenging computationally in 3D, but increasingly accessible in 1D. In previous work (Yuan and Romanowicz, 2010; Yuan et al., 2011) we developed a continental scale anisotropic upper mantle model of north America based on a combination of long period seismic waveforms and SKS splitting measurements, showing the pervasive presence of layering of anisotropy in the cratonic lithosphere with significant variations in depth of the mid-lithospheric boundary. The radial anisotropy part of the model has been recently updated using the spectral element method for forward wavefield computations and waveform data from the latest deployments of USarray (Yuan and Romanowicz, 2013). However, the long period waveforms (periods > 40s) themselves only provide a relatively smooth view of the mantle if the starting model is smooth, and the mantle discontinuities necessary for geodynamical interpretation are not imaged. Increasing the frequency of the computations to constrain smaller scale features is possible, but challenging computationally, and at the risk of falling in local minima of the misfit function. In

  10. Comparative analysis of integrated water resources management models and instruments in South America: case studies in Brazil and Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel dos Santos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Brazil and Colombia are rich in terms of water supply, ranking as world leaders in the supply of water resources. Despite this, both countries have problems of relative scarcity of this vital liquid in highly populated areas with much economic activity. Establishing policies and legal environmental standards has long tradition in both countries. However, although there are provisions and instruments for water management at the water basin level, these do not necessarily follow the conceptual development of integrated water resources management (IWRM. As a result, the two countries have partially implemented IWRM elements but with different characteristics both in its structure and instrumentality. In Colombia the State Government, through the Regional Environmental Corporations, implements IWRM (concessions, fee for water use, pollution rate, basin plans, etc, with no formal involvement of civil society management. In Brazil, however, IWRM management structure and tools are decentralized and participatory, as are the Water Basin Committees, entities where the State Government, municipalities and users participate, those with the greatest weight in water management. In Brazil, however, this model is not yet implemented in all watersheds. Thus, the aim of this paper is to compare the institutional and legal aspects of water management models in Brazil and Colombia with regard to the integrated water management concept. For the latter, we worked with a case study for each country regarding Nima River watershed (Colombia and Tietê Jacaré (Brazil.

  11. Development models, sustainability and occupational and environmental health in the Americas: neoliberalism versus sustainable theories of development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moure-Eraso Rafael

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the inherent contradiction between competitive capitalism and the pursuing of the "three bottom lines": 1 economic prosperity, 2 environmental quality (including the workplace and 3 social justice. An alternative, genuine, sustainable approach to development; the Integrated Human Ecosystem Approach will be described and contrasted with neoliberal development. The IHE approach was developed by The International Development Research Center of Canada in 2001. In this approach, the triple bottom line is not a simple tool for neoliberal development, but the focus of allocation and management of resources for sustainable development. The acquisition of only state power by governments opposed to neoliberalism is necessary but not sufficient condition to successfully find a human alternative to the market ideology. A road map needs to be developed in which a clear definition of technologies that permit the acquisition and implementation of an alternative ideology to achieve "social power." The IHE model provides developing countries with the basis for that ideology.

  12. Development models, sustainability and occupational and environmental health in the Americas: neoliberalism versus sustainable theories of development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Moure-Eraso

    Full Text Available This article describes the inherent contradiction between competitive capitalism and the pursuing of the "three bottom lines": 1 economic prosperity, 2 environmental quality (including the workplace and 3 social justice. An alternative, genuine, sustainable approach to development; the Integrated Human Ecosystem Approach will be described and contrasted with neoliberal development. The IHE approach was developed by The International Development Research Center of Canada in 2001. In this approach, the triple bottom line is not a simple tool for neoliberal development, but the focus of allocation and management of resources for sustainable development. The acquisition of only state power by governments opposed to neoliberalism is necessary but not sufficient condition to successfully find a human alternative to the market ideology. A road map needs to be developed in which a clear definition of technologies that permit the acquisition and implementation of an alternative ideology to achieve "social power." The IHE model provides developing countries with the basis for that ideology.

  13. Soil-transmitted helminthiasis in Latin America and the Caribbean: modelling the determinants, prevalence, population at risk and costs of control at sub-national level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josh Colston

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We present an example of a tool for quantifying the burden, the population in need of intervention and resources need to contribute for the control of soil-transmitted helminth (STH infection at multiple administrative levels for the region of Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC. The tool relies on published STH prevalence data along with data on the distribution of several STH transmission determinants for 12,273 sub-national administrative units in 22 LAC countries taken from national censuses. Data on these determinants was aggregated into a single risk index based on a conceptual framework and the statistical significance of the association between this index and the STH prevalence indicators was tested using simple linear regression. The coefficient and constant from the output of this regression was then put into a regression formula that was applied to the risk index values for all of the administrative units in order to model the estimated prevalence of each STH species. We then combine these estimates with population data, treatment thresholds and unit cost data to calculate total control costs. The model predicts an annual cost for the procurement of preventive chemotherapy of around US$ 1.7 million and a total cost of US$ 47 million for implementing a comprehensive STH control programme targeting an estimated 78.7 million school-aged children according to the WHO guidelines throughout the entirety of the countries included in the study. Considerable savings to this cost could potentially be made by embedding STH control interventions within existing health programmes and systems. A study of this scope is prone to many limitations which restrict the interpretation of the results and the uses to which its findings may be put. We discuss several of these limitations.

  14. Institutional Change in Latin America: External Models and their Unintended Consequences Cambio institucional en América Latina. Modelos externos y sus consequencias involuntarias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt Weyland

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Influential theories claim that institutions shape actor behavior but are sustained by these actors’ behavior. How do scholars escape from this trap of endogeneity? This article highlights a partially exogenous factor: institutional models and blueprints. Since these ideational schemes do not emerge from actor preferences, they play an independent, irreducible role in institutional creation. In fact, Latin America has borrowed many blueprints from the “First World.” But transferred to a different setting, these imported models often fail to command firm, reliable compliance and do not operate well. Therefore, informal mechanisms arise and guide behavior. External borrowing thus produces persistent disjunctures in institutional development. Teorías influyentes sostienen que las instituciones constriñen la conducta de los actores, pero a la vez son el producto de la acción estratégica de estos actores. ¿Cómo pueden escapar los académicos de esta trampa de endogeneidad? Este artículo resalta un factor parcialmente exógeno: modelos institucionales. Como estos esquemas ideacionales no emergen de las preferencias de los actores, tienen un papel independiente e irreductible en la creación de instituciones. Precisamente, América Latina ha copiado diversos modelos del “primer mundo.” Sin embargo, transferidos a un escenario diferente, estos modelos importados frecuentemente no operan de forma adecuada y no logran establecer un cumplimiento firme y confiable. Entonces, mecanismos informales emergen y guían la conducta de los actores. En consecuencia, la implementación de instituciones importadas genera quiebres persistentes en el desarrollo institucional.

  15. Institutional change in Latin America: external models and their unintended consequences Cambio institucional en América latina: modelos externos y consecuencias no previstas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt WEYLAND

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Influential theories claim that institutions shape actor behavior but are sustained by these actors’ behavior. How do scholars escape from this trap of endogeneity? This article highlights a partially exogenous factor: institutional models and blueprints. Since these ideational schemes do not emerge from actor preferences, they play an independent, irreducible role in institutional creation. In fact, Latin America has borrowed many blueprints from the «First World». But transferred to a different setting, these imported models often fail to command firm, reliable compliance and do not operate well. Therefore, informal mechanisms arise and guide behavior. External borrowing thus produces persistent disjunctures in institutional development.Influyentes teorías aseguran que las instituciones moldean el comportamiento de los actores, pero están fundamentadas en el comportamiento de estos mismos actores. ¿Cómo evitan los académicos esta trampa de endogeneidad? Este artículo resalta la relevancia de un factor parcialmente exógeno: los modelos institucionales y sus diseños. Dado que estos esquemas conceptuales no emergen de las preferencias de los actores, juegan un papel independiente, irreducible en la creación institucional. De hecho, América Latina ha tomado prestados muchos diseños del «Primer Mundo». Sin embargo, una vez importados a un escenario distinto, estos modelos frecuentemente fracasan a la hora de garantizar un cumplimiento confiable y firme, por lo que no operan bien. Así, aparecen mecanismos informales que guían el comportamiento de los actores. El préstamo externo produce, de esta manera, fracturas persistentes en el desarrollo institucional.

  16. Mathematical Model and Programming in VBA Excel for Package Calculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Daniel Reis Lessa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The industrial logistics is a fundamental pillar for the survival of companies in the actual increasingly competitive market. It is not exclusively about controlling the flow of external material between suppliers and the company, but for developing a detailed study of how to plan, control, handle and package those materials as well. Logistics activities must ensure the maximum efficiency in using corporate resources once they do not add value to the final product. The creation of a logistic plan, for each piece of the company’s production, has to adapt the demand parameters, seasonal or not, in the timeline. Thus, the definition of packaging (transportation and consumption must adjust in accordance with the demand, in order to allow the logistic planning to work, constantly, with order of economy batches. The packaging calculation for each part in every demand can become well complicated due to the large amount of parts in the production process. Automating the calculation process for choosing the right package for each piece is an effective method in logistics planning. This article will expose a simple and practical mathematical model for automating the packaging calculation and a logic program, created in Visual Basic language in the Excel software, used for creating graphic designs that show how the packages are being filled.

  17. The Capra Research Program for Modelling Extreme Mass Ratio Inspirals

    CERN Document Server

    Thornburg, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Suppose a small compact object (black hole or neutron star) of mass $m$ orbits a large black hole of mass $M \\gg m$. This system emits gravitational waves (GWs) that have a radiation-reaction effect on the particle's motion. EMRIs (extreme--mass-ratio inspirals) of this type will be important GW sources for LISA; LISA's data analysis will require highly accurate EMRI GW templates. In this article I outline the "Capra" research program to try to model EMRIs and calculate their GWs \\textit{ab initio}, assuming only that $m \\ll M$ and that the Einstein equations hold. Here we treat the EMRI spacetime as a perturbation of the large black hole's "background" (Schwarzschild or Kerr) spacetime and use the methods of black-hole perturbation theory, expanding in the small parameter $m/M$. The small body's motion can be described either as the result of a radiation-reaction "self-force" acting in the background spacetime or as geodesic motion in a perturbed spacetime. Several different lines of reasoning lead to the (s...

  18. Review of the ATLAS B0 model coil test program

    CERN Document Server

    Dolgetta, N; Acerbi, E; Berriaud, C; Boxman, H; Broggi, F; Cataneo, F; Daël, A; Delruelle, N; Dudarev, A; Foussat, A; Haug, F; ten Kate, H H J; Mayri, C; Paccalini, A; Pengo, R; Rivoltella, G; Sbrissa, E

    2004-01-01

    The ATLAS B0 model coil has been extensively tested, reproducing the operational conditions of the final ATLAS Barrel Toroid coils. Two test campaigns have taken place on B0, at the CERN facility where the individual BT coils are about to be tested. The first campaign aimed to test the cool-down, warm-up phases and to commission the coil up to its nominal current of 20.5 kA, reproducing Lorentz forces similar to the ones on the BT coil. The second campaign aimed to evaluate the margins above the nominal conditions. The B0 was tested up to 24 kA and specific tests were performed to assess: the coil temperature margin with respect to the design value, the performance of the double pancake internal joints, static and dynamic heat loads, behavior of the coil under quench conditions. The paper reviews the overall test program with emphasis on second campaign results not covered before. 10 Refs.

  19. Development of a program to fit data to a new logistic model for microbial growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujikawa, Hiroshi; Kano, Yoshihiro

    2009-06-01

    Recently we developed a mathematical model for microbial growth in food. The model successfully predicted microbial growth at various patterns of temperature. In this study, we developed a program to fit data to the model with a spread sheet program, Microsoft Excel. Users can instantly get curves fitted to the model by inputting growth data and choosing the slope portion of a curve. The program also could estimate growth parameters including the rate constant of growth and the lag period. This program would be a useful tool for analyzing growth data and further predicting microbial growth.

  20. Application of Species Distribution Modeling for Avian Influenza surveillance in the United States considering the North America Migratory Flyways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkhiria, Jaber; Alkhamis, Moh A.; Martínez-López, Beatriz

    2016-09-01

    Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) has recently (2014–2015) re-emerged in the United States (US) causing the largest outbreak in US history with 232 outbreaks and an estimated economic impact of $950 million. This study proposes to use suitability maps for Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza (LPAI) to identify areas at high risk for HPAI outbreaks. LPAI suitability maps were based on wild bird demographics, LPAI surveillance, and poultry density in combination with environmental, climatic, and socio-economic risk factors. Species distribution modeling was used to produce high-resolution (cell size: 500m x 500m) maps for Avian Influenza (AI) suitability in each of the four North American migratory flyways (NAMF). Results reveal that AI suitability is heterogeneously distributed throughout the US with higher suitability in specific zones of the Midwest and coastal areas. The resultant suitability maps adequately predicted most of the HPAI outbreak areas during the 2014–2015 epidemic in the US (i.e. 89% of HPAI outbreaks were located in areas identified as highly suitable for LPAI). Results are potentially useful for poultry producers and stakeholders in designing risk-based surveillance, outreach and intervention strategies to better prevent and control future HPAI outbreaks in the US.

  1. Social Security privatization in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritzer, B E

    2000-01-01

    The new, partially privatized social security system adopted by Chile in 1981 has attracted attention in many parts of the world. Since then, a number of Latin American countries have implemented the Chilean model, with some variations: either with a single- or multi-tier system, or with a period of transition to take care of those in the labor force at the time of the change. The single-tier version consists of a privatized program with individual accounts in pension fund management companies. Multi-tier systems have a privatized component and retain some form of public program. This article describes each of the new programs in Latin America, their background, and similarities and differences among them. Much more information is available for Chile than for the other countries (in part because Chile has the oldest system), enough to be able to evaluate what, in most cases, is the most accurate information. That is often not the case for the other countries, especially when dealing with subjects such as transition costs and net rates of return (rates of return minus administrative fees). No country has copied the Chilean system exactly. Bolivia, El Salvador, and Mexico have closed their public systems and set up mandatory individual accounts. Argentina has a mixed public/private system with three tiers. In Colombia and Peru, workers have a choice between the public and private programs. Uruguay created a two-tier mixed system. Costa Rica has a voluntary program for individual accounts as a supplement to the pay-as-you-go program and has just passed a law setting up mandatory accounts containing employer contributions for severance pay. All of the countries continue to face unresolved issues, including: High rates of noncompliance--the percentage of enrollees who do not actively and regularly contribute to their accounts--which could lead to low benefits and greater costs to the governments that offer a guaranteed minimum benefit; Proportionately lower benefits for

  2. A Generalised Concept of Dominance in Linear Programming Models

    OpenAIRE

    Drynan, Ross G.

    1987-01-01

    The notion of dominance most familiar to agricultural economists is perhaps the decision theoretic concept entailed in comparing one risky prospect to others. But dominance concepts are also relevant in the linear programming context, for example in identifying redundant constraints. In this note, the standard concept of dominance in linear programming is generalized by defining dominance with respect to differing levels of information about the programming problem.

  3. Selecting Simulation Models when Predicting Parallel Program Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Broberg, Magnus; Lundberg, Lars; Grahn, Håkan

    2002-01-01

    The use of multiprocessors is an important way to increase the performance of a supercom-puting program. This means that the program has to be parallelized to make use of the multi-ple processors. The parallelization is unfortunately not an easy task. Development tools supporting parallel programs are important. Further, it is the customer that decides the number of processors in the target machine, and as a result the developer has to make sure that the pro-gram runs efficiently on any numbe...

  4. Knowledge representation and rule-based solution system for dynamic programming model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡祥培; 王旭茵

    2003-01-01

    A knowledge representation has been proposed using the state-space theory of Artificial Intelligencefor Dynamic Programming Model, in which a model can be defined as a six-tuple M = (I,G,O,T,D,S). Abuilding block modeling method uses the modules of a six-tuple to form a rule-based solution model. Moreover,a rule-based system has been designed and set up to solve the Dynamic Programming Model. This knowledge-based representation can be easily used to express symbolical knowledge and dynamic characteristics for Dynam-ic Programming Model, and the inference based on the knowledge in the process of solving Dynamic Program-ming Model can also be conveniently realized in computer.

  5. The Development and Evaluation of the Parents as Teachers Program in America%美国“父母即教师”项目(PAT)的发展及效果评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨启光; 孙玉丽

    2012-01-01

    20世纪以来,美国社会的急剧变化使家庭系统面临巨大的压力并引发一系列社会问题,致使美国开始开展增加家庭教育的知识与技能、预防和减少家庭危机的系列研究与实践。以美国密苏里州为代表的“父母即教师”项目(Parents As Teachers Program,PAT),关注孩子在校园的表现与家长参与的互动关系,通过丰富的项目研究实践来提高家长的教育水平,有力地促进了家长有效参与到孩子的发展中去。美国各州普遍实践的“父母即教师”项目的评估表明,参加该项目的父母在育儿技巧、参与的程度与质量方面有显著提升;孩子在认知与入学适应能力等方面也有明显提高。该项目尤其是对贫穷家庭的孩子和非白人家庭的孩子影响更大。%Since the 20th century, because of the rapid social changes in the United States and other western countries, the family system is facing huge pressure and causing a series of social problems. As a result, they began to carry out some research practices on increasing family education knowledge and skills, preventing and reducing family crisis. As one of the early intervention programs in Missouri, the parents as teachers program pays attention to children' s performance in school and parents' participation. It aims at improving educational level of parents through abundant research projects, promoting parents to be involved in children's development. The parents as teachers program has become a universal practice in 50 states in America and other countries. The evaluation of the program shows that the parents involved in it have a significant improvement in parenting skills, quality and level of participation. For children, their cognition and entrance adaptability have increased significantly, especially for those from poor and the non-white families.

  6. Improvements in precipitation simulation over South America for past and future climates via multi-model combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Maytê Duarte Leal; Lima, Kellen Carla; Santos e Silva, Cláudio Moisés

    2016-09-01

    Combining individual forecasts is one of the practices used to improve weather prediction results. Identifying which combination of techniques results in a more accurate forecast is the subject of many comparative studies as well proposals for combined methods. Here we compare three combination techniques: (1) principal component regression (PCR), (2) convex combination by mean squared errors (MSE) and (3) ensemble average to combine six regional climate models of the Regional Climate Change Assessment for the La Plata Basin Project (CLARIS-LPB) for variable rainfall in three regions: Amazon (AMZ), Northeastern Brazil (NEB) and La Plata Basin (LPB), for the past (1961-1990) and future (2071-2100) climates. The results indicate that the average RMSE values showed improved representation of climate for LPB in some months, which is an important advance in climate studies. On the other hand, PCR presented greater accuracy (lower RMSE) than MSE in the AMZ and NEB regions. In winter months, both combinations presented lower RMSE results, mainly PCR in the three study regions. The correlation coefficient supports the results already found, namely, PCR obtained moderate to strong correlations, which were statistically significant at 5 % in both regions for all months, while MSE presented low to moderate correlations, which were statically significant at 5 % only in some months. Based on that, PCR achieved the best corrected forecast, as it was superior in forecasting precipitation due to the lower RMSE value. It is noteworthy that the PCR data were first subjected to principal component analysis (PCA) and the scores were used to perform the prediction.

  7. The ribbon continent of northwestern South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altamira-Areyan, Armando

    The tectonic structure of the Plate Boundary Zone (PBZ) between the Caribbean Plate (CARIB) and the South American Plate (SOAM) is interpreted using models that require CARIB motion from the Pacific into the Atlantic. Those models can be subdivided into: (1) those in which the island arc rocks that are now in the CARIB-SOAM PBZ have collided with the northern South America margin, either obliquely or directly during the Cretaceous or during the Cenozoic, and (2) those in which the island arc rocks now in the CARIB-SOAM PBZ collided with the west coast of South America during the Cretaceous and were transferred to the northern margin by transform motion during the Cenozoic. Magnetic anomalies were first rotated in the Central and South Atlantic, holding Africa fixed to establish how much NOAM had converged on SOAM during the Cenozoic. WSW convergence was discovered to have been accommodated in the northern boundary of the CARIB. There is no evidence of convergence in the form of Cenozoic island arc igneous rocks on the north coast of South America. Those results are consistent only with models of Class (2) that call for transform movement of material that had collided with the west coast of South America along the CARIB-SOAM PBZ on the northern margin of South America. 40Ar/39Ar ages of island arc rocks from northern Venezuela were found to be older than ca 70 Ma, which is consistent with a requirement of models of Class (2) that those rocks are from an island arc which collided with the west coast of South America during Cretaceous times. Testing that conclusion using data from Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela, the Netherlands Antilles, Trinidad and Tobago has led to the construction of a new ribbon continent model of the northwestern Cordillera of South America. Because the part of the ribbon continent on the north coast of South America has been experiencing substantial deformation in the Maracaibo block during the past 10 m.y., structures in that body have had to be

  8. Navajo-ABLE: Replication Model Navajo Assistive Technology Loan Program. Final Program Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Katie Jebb

    This final report discusses the activities and outcomes of the Navajo Assistive Bank of Loanable Equipment (Navajo-ABLE), a federally funded program designed to provide assistive technology (AT) devices, services, technical information, funding information, and training for Navajo children and youth with disabilities. The program was operated and…

  9. Thermal models of buildings. Determination of temperatures, heating and cooling loads. Theories, models and computer programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaellblad, K.

    1998-05-01

    The need to estimate indoor temperatures, heating or cooling load and energy requirements for buildings arises in many stages of a buildings life cycle, e.g. at the early layout stage, during the design of a building and for energy retrofitting planning. Other purposes are to meet the authorities requirements given in building codes. All these situations require good calculation methods. The main purpose of this report is to present the authors work with problems related to thermal models and calculation methods for determination of temperatures and heating or cooling loads in buildings. Thus the major part of the report deals with treatment of solar radiation in glazing systems, shading of solar and sky radiation and the computer program JULOTTA used to simulate the thermal behavior of rooms and buildings. Other parts of thermal models of buildings are more briefly discussed and included in order to give an overview of existing problems and available solutions. A brief presentation of how thermal models can be built up is also given and it is a hope that the report can be useful as an introduction to this part of building physics as well as during development of calculation methods and computer programs. The report may also serve as a help for the users of energy related programs. Independent of which method or program a user choose to work with it is his or her own responsibility to understand the limits of the tool, else wrong conclusions may be drawn from the results 52 refs, 22 figs, 4 tabs

  10. Workforce Education Models for K-12 STEM Education Programs: Reflections on, and Implications for, the NSF ITEST Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reider, David; Knestis, Kirk; Malyn-Smith, Joyce

    2016-07-01

    This article proposes a STEM workforce education logic model, tailored to the particular context of the National Science Foundation's Innovative Technology Experiences for Students and Teachers (ITEST) program. This model aims to help program designers and researchers address challenges particular to designing, implementing, and studying education innovations in the ITEST program, considering ongoing needs and challenges in STEM workforce education in the USA. It is grounded in conceptual frameworks developed previously by teams of ITEST constituents, for their part intended to frame STEM career education, consider how people select and prepare for STEM careers, and reinforce the important distinction between STEM content and STEM career learnings. The authors take a first step in what they hope will be an ongoing discussion and research agenda by test-fitting assumptions of the model to exploratory case studies of recent NSF ITEST projects. Brief implications for future research and other considerations are provided.

  11. Workforce Education Models for K-12 STEM Education Programs: Reflections on, and Implications for, the NSF ITEST Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reider, David; Knestis, Kirk; Malyn-Smith, Joyce

    2016-12-01

    This article proposes a STEM workforce education logic model, tailored to the particular context of the National Science Foundation's Innovative Technology Experiences for Students and Teachers (ITEST) program. This model aims to help program designers and researchers address challenges particular to designing, implementing, and studying education innovations in the ITEST program, considering ongoing needs and challenges in STEM workforce education in the USA. It is grounded in conceptual frameworks developed previously by teams of ITEST constituents, for their part intended to frame STEM career education, consider how people select and prepare for STEM careers, and reinforce the important distinction between STEM content and STEM career learnings. The authors take a first step in what they hope will be an ongoing discussion and research agenda by test-fitting assumptions of the model to exploratory case studies of recent NSF ITEST projects. Brief implications for future research and other considerations are provided.

  12. Higher Education Program Curricula Models in Tourism and Hospitality Education: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotland, Miriam

    2006-01-01

    The relevancy of program curricula in tourism and hospitality education has been called into question by key stakeholders in light of ongoing changes in the multifaceted tourism and hospitality industry. Various program models have been identified. Program content and quality of student preparedness have been debated. Balance and areas of emphasis…

  13. Adding Value through Program Integration: A Kayaking Model (Rental, Retail, Repair, Clinics and Outings).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poff, Raymond

    Outdoor programs can offset initial investment costs in services and products by developing integrated program areas. The experience of Outdoors Unlimited, a recently created kayaking program at Brigham Young University (Utah), is provided as a model. The purchase of 11 kayaks for rental was followed by the introduction of retail sales, repair…

  14. The Teach for America RockCorps, Year 1: Turning Authentic Research Experiences in Geophysics for STEM Teachers into Modeling Instruction™ in High School Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, D. R., Jr.; Neubauer, H.; Barber, T. J.; Griffith, W. A.

    2015-12-01

    National reform efforts such as the Next Generation Science Standards, Modeling Instruction™, and Project Lead the Way (PLTW) seek to more closely align K-12 students' STEM learning experiences with the practices of scientific and engineering inquiry. These reform efforts aim to lead students toward deeper understandings constructed through authentic scientific and engineering inquiry in classrooms, particularly via model building and testing, more closely mirroring the professional practice of scientists and engineers, whereas traditional instructional approaches have typically been lecture-driven. In this vein, we describe the approach taken in the first year of the Teach for America (TFA) RockCorps, a five-year, NSF-sponsored project designed to provide authentic research experiences for secondary teachers and foster the development of Geophysics-themed teaching materials through cooperative lesson plan development and purchase of scientific equipment. Initially, two teachers were selected from the local Dallas-Fort Worth Region of TFA to participate in original research studying the failure of rocks under impulsive loads using a Split-Hopkinson-Pressure Bar (SHPB). For the teachers, this work provides a context from which to derive Geophysics-themed lesson plans for their courses, Physics/Pre-AP and Principles of Engineering (POE), offered at two large public high schools in Dallas ISD. The Physics course will incorporate principles of seismic wave propagation to allow students to develop a model of wave behavior, including velocity, refraction, and resonance, and apply the model to predict propagation properties of a variety of waves through multiple media. For the PLTW POE course, tension and compression testing of a variety of rock samples will be incorporated into materials properties and testing units. Also, a project will give a group of seniors in the PLTW Engineering Design and Development course at this certified NAF Academy of Engineering the

  15. Identifying Inter-task Communication in Shared Memory Programming Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Per; Karlsson, Sven; Madsen, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Modern computers often use multi-core architectures, cov- ering clusters of homogeneous cores for high performance computing,to heterogeneous architectures typically found in embedded systems. To efficiently program such architectures, it is important to be able to par- tition and map programs on...

  16. Supporting Universal Prevention Programs: A Two-Phased Coaching Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Kimberly D.; Darney, Dana; Domitrovich, Celene; Keperling, Jennifer Pitchford; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2013-01-01

    Schools are adopting evidence-based programs designed to enhance students' emotional and behavioral competencies at increasing rates (Hemmeter et al. in "Early Child Res Q" 26:96-109, 2011). At the same time, teachers express the need for increased support surrounding implementation of these evidence-based programs (Carter and Van Norman in "Early…

  17. Symbolic Game Semantics for Model Checking Program Families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimovski, Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    . In this paper, we propose an efficient game semantics based approach for verifying open program families, i.e. program families with free (undefined) identifiers. We use symbolic representation of algorithmic game semantics, where concrete values are replaced with symbolic ones. In this way, we can compactly...

  18. Program MAMLAC : a mathematical model for impacts against crash barriers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giavotto, V.

    1972-01-01

    The digital simulation system that has been developed for impact test against safety barriers has proved to be a valuable tool; it may reduce the cost of a program, or better increase largely the extent of a program without increasing the cost. In fact it may permit to reduce considerably the number

  19. Curriculum innovation in an accelerated BSN program: the ACE Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suplee, Patricia D; Glasgow, Mary Ellen

    2008-01-01

    As the demand for registered nurses continues to rise, so too has the creation of accelerated baccalaureate nursing programs for second-degree students. This article describes an 11-month Accelerated Career Entry (ACE) Nursing Program's innovative curriculum design, which has a heavy emphasis on technology, professional socialization, and the use of a standardized patient experience as a form of summative evaluation. In addition, challenges of this program are presented. Since 2002, the ACE Program has graduated over 500 students with an average first-time NCLEX pass rate of 95-100%. Although the number of graduates from accelerated programs does not solve the severe nursing shortage, the contributions of these intelligent, assertive, pioneering graduates are important for health care.

  20. 2014 Building America House Simulation Protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, E. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Engebrecht, C. Metzger [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Horowitz, S. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hendron, R. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-03-01

    As Building America has grown to include a large and diverse cross-section of the home building and retrofit industries, it has become more important to develop accurate, consistent analysis techniques to measure progress towards the program's goals. The House Simulation Protocol (HSP) document provides guidance to program partners and managers so they can compare energy savings for new construction and retrofit projects. The HSP provides the program with analysis methods that are proven to be effective and reliable in investigating the energy use of advanced energy systems and of entire houses.

  1. LDA-Based Unified Topic Modeling for Similar TV User Grouping and TV Program Recommendation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyo, Shinjee; Kim, Eunhui; Kim, Munchurl

    2015-08-01

    Social TV is a social media service via TV and social networks through which TV users exchange their experiences about TV programs that they are viewing. For social TV service, two technical aspects are envisioned: grouping of similar TV users to create social TV communities and recommending TV programs based on group and personal interests for personalizing TV. In this paper, we propose a unified topic model based on grouping of similar TV users and recommending TV programs as a social TV service. The proposed unified topic model employs two latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) models. One is a topic model of TV users, and the other is a topic model of the description words for viewed TV programs. The two LDA models are then integrated via a topic proportion parameter for TV programs, which enforces the grouping of similar TV users and associated description words for watched TV programs at the same time in a unified topic modeling framework. The unified model identifies the semantic relation between TV user groups and TV program description word groups so that more meaningful TV program recommendations can be made. The unified topic model also overcomes an item ramp-up problem such that new TV programs can be reliably recommended to TV users. Furthermore, from the topic model of TV users, TV users with similar tastes can be grouped as topics, which can then be recommended as social TV communities. To verify our proposed method of unified topic-modeling-based TV user grouping and TV program recommendation for social TV services, in our experiments, we used real TV viewing history data and electronic program guide data from a seven-month period collected by a TV poll agency. The experimental results show that the proposed unified topic model yields an average 81.4% precision for 50 topics in TV program recommendation and its performance is an average of 6.5% higher than that of the topic model of TV users only. For TV user prediction with new TV programs, the average

  2. 75 FR 47798 - Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services-Special Demonstration Programs-Model...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-09

    ... Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services--Special Demonstration Programs--Model Demonstration Project To Improve Outcomes for Individuals Receiving Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI..., develop, and implement a model demonstration project to improve outcomes for individuals receiving...

  3. 76 FR 33306 - Medicare Program; Pioneer Accountable Care Organization Model, Request for Applications; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... Care Organization Model: Request for Applications.'' FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Maria Alexander... http://innovations.cms.gov/areas-of-focus/seamless-and-coordinated-care-models/pioneer-aco... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Medicare Program; Pioneer Accountable...

  4. Comparison of Semantics of Disjunctive Logic Programs Based on Model-Equivalent Reduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi-Shun Zhao; Yu-Ping Shen

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, it is shown that stable model semantics, perfect model semantics, and partial stable model semantics of disjunctive logic programs have the same expressive power with respect to the polynomial-time model-equivalent reduction. That is, taking perfect model semantics and stable model semantic as an example, any logic program P can be transformed in polynomial time to another logic program p' such that perfect models (resp. stable models) of P 1-1 correspond to stable models (resp. perfect models) of P', and the correspondence can be computed also in polynomial time. However, the minimal model semantics has weaker expressiveness than other mentioned semantics, otherwise, the polynomial hierarchy would collapse to NP.

  5. An OpenACC-Based Unified Programming Model for Multi-accelerator Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jungwon [ORNL; Lee, Seyong [ORNL; Vetter, Jeffrey S [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel SPMD programming model of OpenACC. Our model integrates the different granularities of parallelism from vector-level parallelism to node-level parallelism into a single, unified model based on OpenACC. It allows programmers to write programs for multiple accelerators using a uniform programming model whether they are in shared or distributed memory systems. We implement a prototype of our model and evaluate its performance with a GPU-based supercomputer using three benchmark applications.

  6. Effects of Using Model Robots in the Education of Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila PÁSZTOR

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article we try to show how new devices and methods can help in the educationof programming. At Kecskemét College programmable mobile robots and instead of behavioral,the constructivist pedagogical methods were used. Our experiments have proved our hypothesisas the improved new methodical education using devices can give more practical programmingknowledge, increases the attitude towards programming and helps to have positive programmingself-image. The results of the experimental and control groups were compared at the beginning andat the end of semester, when the programming knowledge and motives were measured. During thelearning process only the experimental groups used devices and new methods.

  7. Rebuild America Partner Update, January--February 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    Rebuild America Partner Update, the bimonthly newsletter about the Rebuild America community, covers partnership activities, industry trends, and program news. Rebuild America is a network of community partnerships--made up of local governments and businesses--that save money by saving energy. These voluntary partnerships, working with the US Department of Energy, choose the best ways to improve the energy efficiency of commercial, government and apartment buildings. Rebuild America supports them with business and technical tools and customized assistance. By the year 2003, 250 Rebuild America partnerships will be involved in over 2 billion square feet of building renovations, which will save $650 million every year in energy costs, generate $3 billion in private community investment, create 26,000 new private sector jobs, and reduce air pollution by 1.6 million tons of carbon dioxide a year.

  8. The potential distribution of invading Helicoverpa armigera in North America: is it just a matter of time?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren J Kriticos

    Full Text Available Helicoverpa armigera has recently invaded South and Central America, and appears to be spreading rapidly. We update a previously developed potential distribution model to highlight the global invasion threat, with emphasis on the risks to the United States. The continued range expansion of H. armigera in Central America is likely to change the invasion threat it poses to North America qualitatively, making natural dispersal from either the Caribbean islands or Mexico feasible. To characterise the threat posed by H. armigera, we collated the value of the major host crops in the United States growing within its modelled potential range, including that area where it could expand its range during favourable seasons. We found that the annual value of crops that would be exposed to H. armigera totalled approximately US$78 billion p.a., with US$843 million p.a. worth growing in climates that are optimal for the pest. Elsewhere, H. armigera has developed broad-spectrum pesticide resistance; meaning that if it invades the United States, protecting these crops from significant production impacts could be challenging. It may be cost-effective to undertake pre-emptive biosecurity activities such as slowing the spread of H. armigera throughout the Americas, improving the system for detecting H. armigera, and methods for rapid identification, especially distinguishing between H. armigera, H. zea and potential H. armigera x H. zea hybrids. Developing biological control programs, especially using inundative techniques with entomopathogens and parasitoids could slow the spread of H. armigera, and reduce selective pressure for pesticide resistance. The rapid spread of H. armigera through South America into Central America suggests that its spread into North America is a matter of time. The likely natural dispersal routes preclude aggressive incursion responses, emphasizing the value of preparatory communication with agricultural producers in areas suitable for

  9. THE DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF AN EVALUATION MODEL FOR VOCATIONAL PILOT PROGRAMS. FINAL REPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    TUCKMAN, BRUCE W.

    THE OBJECTIVES OF THE PROJECT WERE (1) TO DEVELOP AN EVALUATION MODEL IN THE FORM OF A HOW-TO-DO-IT MANUAL WHICH OUTLINES PROCEDURES FOR OBTAINING IMMEDIATE INFORMATION REGARDING THE DEGREE TO WHICH A PILOT PROGRAM ACHIEVES ITS STATED FINAL OBJECTIVES, (2) TO EVALUATE THIS MODEL BY USING IT TO EVALUATE TWO ONGOING PILOT PROGRAMS, AND (3) TO…

  10. Modeling function calls in program control flow in terms of Petri Nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy Kharitonov

    Full Text Available This article presents a method for representing the C/C++ function call in terms of compositional Petri Nets. Principles of modeling function and function call in the program are described. Formal composition operations to construct program model from mod ...

  11. Building a Sustainable Life Science Information Literacy Program Using the Train-the-Trainer Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Patricia; Newhouse, Renae; Perry, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    The train-the-trainer model has great potential for expanding information literacy programs without placing undue burden on already overextended librarians; it is surprisingly underused in academic libraries. At the University of Kentucky, we employed this model to create a new information literacy program in an introductory biology lab. We…

  12. Goals and Characteristics of Long-Term Care Programs: An Analytic Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Kathryn L.; Rose, Charles L.

    1989-01-01

    Used medico-social analytic model to compare five long-term care programs: Skilled Nursing Facility-Intermediate Care Facility (SNF-ICF) homes, ICF homes, foster homes, day hospitals, and home care. Identified similarities and differences among programs. Preliminary findings suggest that model is useful in the evaluation and design of long-term…

  13. Puerto Rico Experimental Model Dental Auxiliary Training Program. The Comprehensive Report, Exhibits A to F.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puerto Rico Univ., San Juan. School of Dentistry.

    This annex supplements the Puerto Rico Experimental Model Dental Training Program Comprehensive Report (CE 028 213) and is comprised of exhibits A through F. Among the information included in the exhibits is the experimental model schedule, the schematic representation, the content display, and the course outlines for all courses in the program.…

  14. The Impact of the Developmental Training Model on Staff Development in Air Force Child Development Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Candace Maria Edmonds

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to standardize training delivery and to individualize staff development based on observation and reflective practice, the Air Force implemented the Developmental Training Model (DTM) in its Child Development Programs. The goal of the Developmental Training Model is to enhance high quality programs through improvements in the training…

  15. Practice Makes Perfect? The Role of Participant Modeling in Sexual Abuse Prevention Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtele, Sandy K.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Assigned 26 kindergarten children to either a sexual abuse prevention program which taught self-protective skills through modeling and active rehearsal (PM) or a program which taught the same skills by having children watch skills modeled by experimenter (SM). Results provide support for greater efficacy of PM relative to SM for learning of…

  16. Developing Metrics in Systems Integration (ISS Program COTS Integration Model)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueders, Kathryn

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews some of the complications in developing metrics for systems integration. Specifically it reviews a case study of how two programs within NASA try to develop and measure performance while meeting the encompassing organizational goals.

  17. Vouchers for Day Care of Children: Evaluating a Program Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Michael D.

    1989-01-01

    Examined effects of a pilot voucher program on the price, supply, and quality of day care. Findings offered no conclusive evidence concerning expected benefits. Discusses vouchers' potential for easing the day care crisis. (RJC)

  18. Building a sustainable comprehensive Women's Health Program: the Michigan model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Juliet L; Johnson, Timothy R B; Warner, Patricia; Thorson, Jayne A; Punch, Margaret R

    2007-01-01

    The Women's Health Program at the University of Michigan was established in 1993 and has developed into a successful, federally supported program that links clinical research and education activities across the University. It has focused on human resource capacity building, sustainable financial support and infrastructure, and adaptability to change and opportunities. Widely accepted standards, demonstrated value, committed leaders/champions, and participatory culture have contributed to its success and are important to its future.

  19. Spatial and temporal distribution of chikungunya activity in the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    To better understand chikungunya activity in the America we mapped recent chikungunya activity in the Americas. This activity is needed to better understand that the relationships between climatic factors and disease outbreak patters are critical to the design and constructing of predictive models....

  20. Science in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Francisco J.

    1995-01-01

    A brief history of science and technology in Latin America that begins with the Mayan civilization and progresses through the colonial period to the present. Compares increased scientific productivity in the Latin American and Caribbean regions to productivity in the United States and European Union. (LZ)

  1. Replacing America's Job Bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollman, Jim

    2009-01-01

    The Job Central National Labor Exchange (www.jobcentral.com) has become the effective replacement for America's Job Bank with state workforce agencies and, increasingly, with community colleges throughout the country. The American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) has formed a partnership with Job Central to promote its use throughout the…

  2. Literacy in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornberger, Nancy H.

    1991-01-01

    Literacy in South America must be understood in terms of the linguistic diversity there, where only 2 of 14 nations and territories are monolingual. Oral traditions, standardization of indigenous languages, nonstandard varieties of colonial languages, bilingual education and mother tongue literacy, literacy teaching, and politics are discussed.…

  3. Americas at Odds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Despite lingering disputes,the United States keeps a firm grip on Latin America During his presidential campaign,Evo Morales said his election would be a "nightmare" for the United States.The Bolivian president honored his words. On September 10, Morales declared U.S.

  4. Ecodesign in Central America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crul, M.R.M.

    2003-01-01

    This PhD thesis describes and analyses the change process started by the Ecodesign project in Central America, executed between 1998 and 2002. The project started using the concept and praxis developed in Europe. Nine ecodesign projects were performed in industry, and ecodesign was introduced to cou

  5. Sarcoma Foundation of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Google+ Twitter LinkedIn YouTube © 2017 Sarcoma Foundation of America | All Rights Reserved. | Terms of Use | Privacy Policy Website Design & Hosting by 270net Technologies, Inc. X - Enter Your Location - - or - Get your current location Home About Us History People Public Filings News & Media SFA in the ...

  6. An Idea Called America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartoonian, Michael; Van Scotter, Richard; White, William E.

    2007-01-01

    America evolved out of the principles of the eighteenth-century Enlightenment, suggesting that individuals could govern themselves and that people were "endowed" with "unalienable rights" such as life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. To secure these principles, Americans would continue to work on forming a more perfect Union, by…

  7. Lateinamerika oder -amerikas? Latin America or Americas?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Belén García Timón

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Anhand interdisziplinärer und empirischer Studien wird Lateinamerika als Bühne für die Entwicklung transkultureller Phänomene präsentiert. Geschlechterverhältnisse in unterschiedlichen Kontexten stehen im Mittelpunkt der Untersuchung. Begriffe wie Macht, Rasse oder Raum werden mit dem Ziel, weg von der bisherigen Vorstellung von homogenen kulturellen Einheiten zu kommen, revidiert.Latin America is presented as a stage for the development of transcultural phenomena through the use of interdisciplinary and empirical studies. Gender relations in different contexts lie at the heart of this study. Terms such as power, race, or space are revised with the goal of moving away from current perceptions of homogenous cultural unities.

  8. A model technology transfer program for independent operators: Kansas Technology Transfer Model (KTTM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoeling, L.G.

    1993-09-01

    This report describes the development and testing of the Kansas Technology Transfer Model (KTTM) which is to be utilized as a regional model for the development of other technology transfer programs for independent operators throughout oil-producing regions in the US. It describes the linkage of the regional model with a proposed national technology transfer plan, an evaluation technique for improving and assessing the model, and the methodology which makes it adaptable on a regional basis. The report also describes management concepts helpful in managing a technology transfer program. The original Tertiary Oil Recovery Project (TORP) activities, upon which the KTTM is based, were developed and tested for Kansas and have proved to be effective in assisting independent operators in utilizing technology. Through joint activities of TORP and the Kansas Geological Survey (KGS), the KTTM was developed and documented for application in other oil-producing regions. During the course of developing this model, twelve documents describing the implementation of the KTTM were developed as deliverables to DOE. These include: (1) a problem identification (PI) manual describing the format and results of six PI workshops conducted in different areas of Kansas, (2) three technology workshop participant manuals on advanced waterflooding, reservoir description, and personal computer applications, (3) three technology workshop instructor manuals which provides instructor material for all three workshops, (4) three technologies were documented as demonstration projects which included reservoir management, permeability modification, and utilization of a liquid-level acoustic measuring device, (5) a bibliography of all literature utilized in the documents, and (6) a document which describes the KTTM.

  9. Public health nutrition in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomons, Noel W

    2003-01-01

    An inquiry into options for Masters-level training and into attitudes and perceptions among a convenience sample of nutrition students and professionals from 11 countries suggests that the term, "Public Health Nutrition", as such, is poorly represented and poorly understood in the Latin American region. At least six countries (Brazil, Chile, Cuba, Mexico, Peru, Puerto Rico) at seven sites have Masters programs to provide training for nutrition in a public health context or public health with an emphasis in nutrition. Exploring alliances from the Americas with the formal PHN discipline emerging in Europe should enrich the mutual perspective on curriculum design. However, the form and context of postgraduate training in Latin America must consider first and foremost its own job-markets, diverse public health needs, and resource allocations in building or transforming training programs.

  10. Modeling Large sound sources in a room acoustical calculation program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus Lynge

    1999-01-01

    A room acoustical model capable of modelling point, line and surface sources is presented. Line and surface sources are modelled using a special ray-tracing algorithm detecting the radiation pattern of the surfaces in the room. Point sources are modelled using a hybrid calculation method combining...... this ray-tracing method with Image source modelling. With these three source types, it is possible to model large and complex sound sources in workrooms....

  11. Temperature profile data collected using XBTs from the AMERICA MARU from the Pacific Ocean during the Thermal Structure Monitoring Program in the Pacific (TRANSPAC) project, 1977-07-06 to 1977-07-14 (NCEI Accession 8100352)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from AMERICA MARU in the Pacific Ocean from July 6, 1977 to July 14, 1977. Data were...

  12. Temperature profile data collected using XBTs from the AMERICA MARU from the Pacific Ocean during the Thermal Structure Monitoring Program in the Pacific (TRANSPAC) project, 1977-01-22 to 1977-01-31 (NCEI Accession 8100347)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from AMERICA MARU in the Pacific Ocean from January 22, 1977 to January 31, 1977. Data...

  13. Model forest program: Year in review, 1993-94. Annual publication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The Model Forest Program was initiated in response to concerns expressed by Canadians about their environment during a nationwide consultative process carried out in 1990. The Program is designed to promote the creation of local partnerships and to encourage these partnerships to formulate and implement their own working vision of sustainable forest management. This document presents developments to date, the Model Forest Network, and models across the country. Information is also included on the International Model Forest Program and Russia joining the Network. A budget for the year and an organizational chart are included.

  14. PEMILIHAN PROGRAM PENGENTASAN KEMISKINAN MELALUI PENGEMBANGAN MODEL PEMBERDAYAAN MASYARAKAT DENGAN PENDEKATAN SISTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutikno Sutikno

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to compile the programs for poverty alleviation by community empowerment model and review the determination program as effectiveness evaluation poverty alleviation program which still can’t be worked properly. Stages the compiling program of poverty alleviation is mapping the socioeconomic conditions of the poor, basic infrastructure conditions, socio-cultural issues, and potential issues; identifying the hopes and predicting the economic development opportunities; creating the poverty alleviation program by SWOT analysis and planning implementation program with KPD. Based on the result of SWOT and scoring analysis, the selected programs are training and assistance, the establishment of cooperative saving and loans, clean water for poor households, rural development with the utilization of clean water, household waste management, and package education program A, B, and C.

  15. Modeling Activities in the Department of Energy’s Atmospheric Sciences Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fast, Jerome D.; Ghan, Steven J.; Schwartz, Stephen E.

    2009-03-01

    The Department of Energy's Atmospheric Science Program (ASP) conducts research pertinent to radiative forcing of climate change by atmospheric aerosols. The program consists of approximately 40 highly interactive peer-reviewed research projects that examine aerosol properties and processes and the evolution of aerosols in the atmosphere. Principal components of the program are instrument development, laboratory experiments, field studies, theoretical investigations, and modeling. The objectives of the Program are to 1) improve the understanding of aerosol processes associated with light scattering and absorption properties and interactions with clouds that affect Earth's radiative balance and to 2) develop model-based representations of these processes that enable the effects of aerosols on Earth's climate system to be properly represented in global-scale numerical climate models. Although only a few of the research projects within ASP are explicitly identified as primarily modeling activities, modeling actually comprises a substantial component of a large fraction of ASP research projects. This document describes the modeling activities within the Program as a whole, the objectives and intended outcomes of these activities, and the linkages among the several modeling components and with global-scale modeling activities conducted under the support of the Department of Energy's Climate Sciences Program and other aerosol and climate research programs.

  16. Program Demand Cost Model for Alaskan Schools. 6th Edition. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau.

    The Program Demand Cost Model for Alaskan Schools (Cost Model) is a tool for use by school districts and their consultants in estimating school construction costs in the planning phase of a project. This document sets out the sixth edition of the demand-cost model, a rewrite of the whole system. The model can be used to establish a complete budget…

  17. Development and Validation of a Needs Assessment Model Using Stakeholders Involved in a University Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrecque, Monique

    1999-01-01

    Developed a needs-assessment model and validated the model with five groups of stakeholders connected with an undergraduate university nursing program in Canada. Used focus groups, questionnaires, a hermeneutic approach, and the magnitude-estimation scaling model to validate the model. Results show that respondents must define need to clarify the…

  18. A detailed gravimetric geoid of North America, the North Atlantic, Eurasia, and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, J. G.

    1973-01-01

    A computer program was developed for the calculation of a goid based upon a combination of satellite and surface gravity data. A detailed gravimetric geoid of North America, the North Atlantic, Eurasia, and Australia was derived by using this program.

  19. Modelling Large sound sources in a room acoustical calculation program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus Lynge

    1999-01-01

    A room acoustical model capable of modelling point, line and surface sources is presented. Line and surfacesources are modelled using a special ray-tracing algorithm detecting the radiation pattern of the surfaces in the room.Point sources are modelled using a hybrid calculation method combining...... this ray-tracing method with Image sourcemodelling. With these three source types, it is possible to model large and complex sound sources in workrooms....

  20. Skill-Based Approach Applied to Gifted Students, its Potential in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Alexi Almazán-Anaya

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents, as a reflective essay, the current educational situation of gifted students (with more intelligence than the average in Latin America and the possibility of using skill-based education within differentiated programs (intended for gifted individuals, a sector where scarce scientific studies have been done and a consensus of an ideal educative model has not been reached yet. Currently these students, in general, lack of specialized educational assistance intended to identify and develop their cognitive abilities, so it is estimated that a high percentage (95% of such population is not detected in the traditional education system. Although there are differentiated education models, they are rarely applied. A student-centered education program is a solution proposed to apply this pedagogical model and cover such population. The characteristics of this program that do support differentiated instruction for gifted individuals compatible with experiences in the US, Europe and Latin America are analyzed. Finally, this paper concludes with an analysis of possible research areas that, if explored in the future, would help us to find answers about the feasibility and relation between skill-based programs and differentiated education for gifted students.

  1. Modelling and Formal Verification of Timing Aspects in Large PLC Programs

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez Adiego, B; Blanco Vinuela, E; Tournier, J-C; Gonzalez Suarez, V M; Blech, J O

    2014-01-01

    One of the main obstacle that prevents model checking from being widely used in industrial control systems is the complexity of building formal models out of PLC programs, especially when timing aspects need to be integrated. This paper brings an answer to this obstacle by proposing a methodology to model and verify timing aspects of PLC programs. Two approaches are proposed to allow the users to balance the trade-off between the complexity of the model, i.e. its number of states, and the set of specifications possible to be verified. A tool supporting the methodology which allows to produce models for different model checkers directly from PLC programs has been developed. Verification of timing aspects for real-life PLC programs are presented in this paper using NuSMV.

  2. Model Kepemimpinan Modern di Program Pascasarjana Universitas Ahmad Dahlan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Sulisworo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the management of higher education, demand a change can be done effectively when the leadership and management are well developed. In general, internal conflicts in the education management occurred due to poor leadership. This study is a qualitative study with a phenomenological approach. The subject of the study is Graduate Program of University Ahmad Dahlan which manages five master programs. Determination of each of people which considers his/her competence, knowledge, experience and personal attributes will affect to performance and operational leadership roles, organizational, and public. Cross-departmental activities and external parties become a focus for leadership in achieving the vision and mission of the organization.

  3. Building America Best Practices Series: Volume 7.1: Guide to Determining Climate Regions by County

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baechler, Michael C.; Williamson, Jennifer L.; Gilbride, Theresa L.; Cole, Pamala C.; Hefty, Marye G.; Love, Pat M.

    2010-08-30

    This report for DOE's Building America program helps builders identify which Building America climate region they are building in. The guide includes maps comparing the Building America regions with climate designations used in the International Energy Conservation Code for Residential Buildings and lists all U.S. counties by climate zone. A very brief history of the development of the Building America climate map and descriptions of each climate zone are provided. This report is available on the Building America website www.buildingamerica.gov.

  4. Service and business model for technology enabled and home-based cardiac rehabilitation programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarela, Antti; Whittaker, Frank; Korhonen, Ilkka

    2009-01-01

    Cardiac rehabilitation programs are comprehensive life-style programs aimed at preventing recurrence of a cardiac event. However, the current programs have globally significantly low levels of uptake. Home-based model can be a viable alternative to hospital-based programs. We developed and analysed a service and business model for home based cardiac rehabilitation based on personal mentoring using mobile phones and web services. We analysed the different organizational and economical aspects of setting up and running the home based program and propose a potential business model for a sustainable and viable service. The model can be extended to management of other chronic conditions to enable transition from hospital and care centre based treatments to sustainable home-based care.

  5. Real-Time Pricing DR Programs Evaluation Based on Power Model in Electricity Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoorangiz Shams Shamsabad Farahani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Along with developing Demand Response Programs (DRPs, suitable chances have been created to take part the demand-side in electricity markets. The results of such programs are improvement of some technical and economical characteristic of power system. DRPs are divided into two categories which are priced-based and incentive-based demand response programs. This paper presents the application of power modeling for Real-Time Pricing programs (RTP as most prevalent priced-based DRPs. the nonlinear behavioral characteristic of elastic loads is considered which causes to more realistic modeling of demand response to RTP rates. In order to evaluation of proposed model, the impact of running RTP programs using proposed power model on load profile of the peak day of the Iranian power system in 2007 is investigated.

  6. The Portfolio Creation Model Developed for the Capital Investment Program Plan Review (CIPPR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-12

    Basinger, Director, DCI, CFD Scientific Letter The PORTFOLIO CREATION MODEL developed for the Capital Investment Program Plan Review (CIPPR) To inform...the portfolio creation model that has been developed to produce project portfolios for the Capital Investment Program Plan Review (CIPPR). The portfolio ...creation model is one element of the portfolio approach that has been envisioned for CIPPR in order to enable better decisions concerning the

  7. Modeling huge sound sources in a room acoustical calculation program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus Lynge

    1999-01-01

    A room acoustical model capable of modeling point sources, line sources, and surface sources is presented. Line and surface sources are modeled using a special ray-tracing algorithm detecting the radiation pattern of the surfaces of the room. Point sources are modeled using a hybrid calculation...... method combining this ray-tracing method with image source modeling. With these three source types it is possible to model huge and complex sound sources in industrial environments. Compared to a calculation with only point sources, the use of extended sound sources is shown to improve the agreement...

  8. Modeling Mathematical Programs with Equilibrium Constraints in Pyomo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, William E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Siirola, John Daniel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-07-01

    We describe new capabilities for modeling MPEC problems within the Pyomo modeling software. These capabilities include new modeling components that represent complementar- ity conditions, modeling transformations for re-expressing models with complementarity con- ditions in other forms, and meta-solvers that apply transformations and numeric optimization solvers to optimize MPEC problems. We illustrate the breadth of Pyomo's modeling capabil- ities for MPEC problems, and we describe how Pyomo's meta-solvers can perform local and global optimization of MPEC problems.

  9. Representation of drought frequency in Southern South America performed by 14 CMIP5 models. Drought risk implications and perspectives towards future projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, J. A.; Penalba, O. C.

    2012-12-01

    Drought frequency estimation is a key variable for drought risk assessment. The aim of this research is to evaluate how well the global climate models (GCMs) represent the drought frequencies in Southern South America (south of 20°S). For that purpose, we used the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), which quantifies the number of standard deviations that the accumulated rainfall in a given time scale deviates from the average value of a location in a particular period. The SPI is one of the drought indices most widely used worldwide, and one of the best suited for the study area. In order to build this index, monthly rainfall data were obtained from the CLARIS LPB Data Base for 120 of its stations, which were subjected to quality control procedures and have less than 10% of missing values. The SPI was computed for the period 1979-2008 on a time scale of 12 months, which represents long-term droughts. This procedure was also applied to the simulated precipitation from 14 CMIP5 GCMs over the study area. Two types of comparisons were performed, the first one for drought frequencies without taking into account the different drought classes and the second one for the frequencies of moderate, severe and extreme drought events. This second comparison is important given that drought risk was evaluated through a weighted index based in drought frequencies, which was constructed as a sum of drought classes -moderate, severe and extreme- with a weighting scheme. Most of the regions with moderate to high observed drought frequencies are located in the western and southern portions of La Plata Basin and over Patagonia region, while lower observed drought frequencies were obtained for Northern Argentina, Southern Brazil and Paraguay. This spatial pattern is barely reproduced by the modeled frequencies, and in some cases major differences exist. In order to analyze these differences, we performed a regional assessment of the SPI time series, which showed that the time series

  10. Geometric Modeling Applications Interface Program (GMAP). Volume 1. Executive Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-01

    Z . Code) 10. SOURCE OF FUNDING NOS. PROGRAM PROJECT TASK WORK UNIT ELEMENT NO. NO. NO. NO. 11. TITLE (Include Security Classification) GEOMETRIC...342f CI FTR560240OOlU September 1989 SECTION 2 SCOPE OF GMAP GMAP focused on the generacion , control, and exchange of computer information to replace

  11. A Model Adolescent Substance-Abuse Treatment Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copans, Stuart

    1993-01-01

    Describes two adolescent substance abuse treatment programs in New England psychiatric center: Osgood Three, which is no longer in existence, and Tyler Three, which replaced it and is struggling to grow. Considers transition from Osgood Three to Tyler Three, process of change, and learning what can be preserved from past and what must be…

  12. Programming Model and Protocols for Reconfigurable Distributed Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Arad, Cosmin Ionel

    2013-01-01

    Distributed systems are everywhere. From large datacenters to mobile devices, an ever richer assortment of applications and services relies on distributed systems, infrastructure, and protocols. Despite their ubiquity, testing and debugging distributed systems remains notoriously hard. Moreover, aside from inherent design challenges posed by partial failure, concurrency, or asynchrony, there remain significant challenges in the implementation of distributed systems. These programming challeng...

  13. Access, Equity, and Opportunity. Women in Machining: A Model Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Heather

    The Women in Machining (WIM) program is a Machine Action Project (MAP) initiative that was developed in response to a local skilled metalworking labor shortage, despite a virtual absence of women and people of color from area shops. The project identified post-war stereotypes and other barriers that must be addressed if women are to have an equal…

  14. Exploring Student Persistence in STEM Programs: A Motivational Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Rebecca A.; Aulls, Mark W.; Dedic, Helena; Hubbard, Kyle; Hall, Nathan C.

    2015-01-01

    To address continually decreasing enrollment and rising attrition in post-secondary STEM degree (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) programs, particularly for women, the present study examines the utility of motivation and emotion variables to account for persistence and achievement in science in male and female students…

  15. A Model of Women Literacy Preservation through Koran Ibu Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikka Kartika Abbas Fauzi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of literacy education is often disappointing, because many participants do not practice their literacy so that it becomes dull. Government has done efforts to preserve literariness through Koran Ibu program. This program is an effort to improve women literacy which is implemented after basic and advanced literacy education through the activity of journalism. The research focus is the improvement of literacy ability of women through Koran Ibu using with case study method. The research’s subjetcs are 20 housewives who have completed the basic and advanced literacy education program. The result of the research shows that participants significantly develops the literacy skills, it is indicated from that they are able to participate in Koran Ibu’s rubrics with their literary works based on reportage and personal experience. The program is succesful due to the coordination among  local participants (Lurah, Camat, PKK of local level, the cooperation with proper stakeholders (university and local tutor, the appropriate approach of adult learning, flexible implementation strategy but planned, and the routine evaluation.

  16. Developing Supply Chain Management Program: A Competency Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauber, Matthew H.; McSurely, Hugh B.; Tummala, V. M. Rao

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to show the process of designing and measuring learning competencies in program development. Design/methodology/approach: The paper includes cross-sectoral comparisons to draw on programmatic and pedagogical strategies, more commonly utilized in vocational education, and transfer the application of these strategies into…

  17. Effects of Using Model Robots in the Education of Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pásztor, Attila; Pap-Szigeti, Róbert; Lakatos Török, Erika

    2010-01-01

    In this article we try to show how new devices and methods can help in the education of programming. At Kecskemét College programmable mobile robots and instead of behavioral, the constructivist pedagogical methods were used. Our experiments have proved our hypothesis as the improved new methodical education using devices can give more practical…

  18. Corona: America’s First Satellite Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    nautical mi le (nm) rad ius o f A-ko-su identified as the mining of coal which may (41- 109 80-16E), Win-chiang Sheng ( Sinkiang possibly...region is the counterpart of the western or Yarkand-Fergana basin which extends from southern Hsin-chiang Sheng ( Sinkiang ) into Ihe USSR. The appearance

  19. The Capra Research Program for Modelling Extreme Mass Ratio Inspirals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornburg, Jonathan

    2011-02-01

    Suppose a small compact object (black hole or neutron star) of mass m orbits a large black hole of mass M ≫ m. This system emits gravitational waves (GWs) that have a radiation-reaction effect on the particle's motion. EMRIs (extreme-mass-ratio inspirals) of this type will be important GW sources for LISA. To fully analyze these GWs, and to detect weaker sources also present in the LISA data stream, will require highly accurate EMRI GW templates. In this article I outline the ``Capra'' research program to try to model EMRIs and calculate their GWs ab initio, assuming only that m ≪ M and that the Einstein equations hold. Because m ≪ M the timescale for the particle's orbit to shrink is too long for a practical direct numerical integration of the Einstein equations, and because this orbit may be deep in the large black hole's strong-field region, a post-Newtonian approximation would be inaccurate. Instead, we treat the EMRI spacetime as a perturbation of the large black hole's ``background'' (Schwarzschild or Kerr) spacetime and use the methods of black-hole perturbation theory, expanding in the small parameter m/M. The particle's motion can be described either as the result of a radiation-reaction ``self-force'' acting in the background spacetime or as geodesic motion in a perturbed spacetime. Several different lines of reasoning lead to the (same) basic O(m/M) ``MiSaTaQuWa'' equations of motion for the particle. In particular, the MiSaTaQuWa equations can be derived by modelling the particle as either a point particle or a small Schwarzschild black hole. The latter is conceptually elegant, but the former is technically much simpler and (surprisingly for a nonlinear field theory such as general relativity) still yields correct results. Modelling the small body as a point particle, its own field is singular along the particle worldline, so it's difficult to formulate a meaningful ``perturbation'' theory or equations of motion there. Detweiler and Whiting found

  20. A Cost Model for Storage and Weeding Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Gary S.

    1981-01-01

    Presents a simple cost model to analyze trade-offs involved in considering storage and weeding as alternatives to new construction for academic libraries. References are provided, and the Palmour cost model is presented as an appendix. (RAA)