WorldWideScience

Sample records for america model programs

  1. REBUILD AMERICA PROGRAM SCOPE OF WORK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey Brown; Bruce Exstrum

    2004-12-01

    This report summarizes the activities carried out by Aspen Systems Corporation in support of the Department of Energy's Rebuild America program during the period from October 9, 1999 to October 31, 2004. These activities were in accordance with the Scope of Work contained in a GSA MOBIS schedule task order issued by the National Energy Technology Laboratory. This report includes descriptions of activities and results in the following areas: deployment/delivery model; program and project results; program representative support activities; technical assistance; web site development and operation; business/strategic partners; and training/workshop activities. The report includes conclusions and recommendations. Five source documents are also provided as appendices.

  2. The Federal Employees Health Benefits Program: A Model for Competition in Rural America?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Keith J.; McBride, Timothy D.; Andrews, Courtney; Fraser, Roslyn; Xu, Liyan

    2005-01-01

    The Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003 (MMA) created the Medicare Advantage (MA) program, which promotes the entry of private Preferred Provider Organization (PPO) plans into regions that have not previously had Medicare managed care plans. The assumption that a competitive environment will develop is based on…

  3. A model-data intercomparison of CO2 exchange across North America: Results from the North American Carbon Program Site Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwalm, C.R.; Williams, C.A.; Schaefer, K.; Anderson, R.; Arain, M.A.; Baker, I.; Black, T.A.; Chen, G.; Ciais, P.; Davis, K. J.; Desai, A. R.; Dietze, M.; Dragoni, D.; Fischer, M.L.; Flanagan, L.B.; Grant, R.F.; Gu, L.; Hollinger, D.; Izaurralde, R.C.; Kucharik, C.; Lafleur, P.M.; Law, B.E.; Li, L.; Li, Z.; Liu, S.; Lokupitiya, E.; Luo, Y.; Ma, S.; Margolis, H.; Matamala, R.; McCaughey, H.; Monson, R. K.; Oechel, W. C.; Peng, C.; Poulter, B.; Price, D.T.; Riciutto, D.M.; Riley, W.J.; Sahoo, A.K.; Sprintsin, M.; Sun, J.; Tian, H.; Tonitto, C.; Verbeeck, H.; Verma, S.B.

    2011-06-01

    Our current understanding of terrestrial carbon processes is represented in various models used to integrate and scale measurements of CO{sub 2} exchange from remote sensing and other spatiotemporal data. Yet assessments are rarely conducted to determine how well models simulate carbon processes across vegetation types and environmental conditions. Using standardized data from the North American Carbon Program we compare observed and simulated monthly CO{sub 2} exchange from 44 eddy covariance flux towers in North America and 22 terrestrial biosphere models. The analysis period spans {approx}220 site-years, 10 biomes, and includes two large-scale drought events, providing a natural experiment to evaluate model skill as a function of drought and seasonality. We evaluate models' ability to simulate the seasonal cycle of CO{sub 2} exchange using multiple model skill metrics and analyze links between model characteristics, site history, and model skill. Overall model performance was poor; the difference between observations and simulations was {approx}10 times observational uncertainty, with forested ecosystems better predicted than nonforested. Model-data agreement was highest in summer and in temperate evergreen forests. In contrast, model performance declined in spring and fall, especially in ecosystems with large deciduous components, and in dry periods during the growing season. Models used across multiple biomes and sites, the mean model ensemble, and a model using assimilated parameter values showed high consistency with observations. Models with the highest skill across all biomes all used prescribed canopy phenology, calculated NEE as the difference between GPP and ecosystem respiration, and did not use a daily time step.

  4. Adult Education Faculty and Programs in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisdell, Elizabeth J.; Wright, Robin Redmon; Taylor, Edward W.

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on the findings of a quantitative survey of North American adult education faculty and a textual analysis of websites of adult education graduate programs in North America conducted in the fall of 2013. This study examined background information about adult education faculty and programs; the nature of faculty work interests,…

  5. Gravity and geoid model for South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blitzkow, Denizar; Oliveira Cancoro de Matos, Ana Cristina; do Nascimento Guimarães, Gabriel; Pacino, María Cristina; Andrés Lauría, Eduardo; Nunes, Marcelo; Castro Junior, Carlos Alberto Correia e.; Flores, Fredy; Orihuela Guevara, Nuris; Alvarez, Ruber; Napoleon Hernandez, José

    2016-04-01

    In the last 20 years, South America Gravity Studies (SAGS) project has undertaken an ongoing effort in establishing the fundamental gravity network (FGN); terrestrial, river and airborne relative gravity densifications; absolute gravity surveys and geoid (quasi-geoid) model computation for South America. The old FGN is being replaced progressively by new absolute measurements in different countries. In recent years, Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, Paraguay and Venezuela organizations participated with relative gravity surveys. Taking advantage of the large amount of data available, GEOID2015 model was developed for 15°N and 57°S latitude and 30 ° W and 95°W longitude based on EIGEN-6C4 until degree and order 200 as a reference field. The ocean area was completed with mean free air gravity anomalies derived from DTU10 model. The short wavelength component was estimated using FFT. The global gravity field models EIGEN-6C4, DIR_R5 were used for comparison with the new model. The new geoid model has been evaluated against 1,319 GPS/BM, in which 592 are located in Brazil and the reminder in other countries. The preliminary RMS difference between GPS/BM and GEOID2015 throughout South America and in Brazil is 46 cm and 17 cm, respectively. New activities are carrying out with the support of the IGC (Geographic and Cartographic Institute) under the coordination of EPUSP/LTG and CENEGEO (Centro de Estudos de Geodesia). The new project aims to establish new gravity points with the A-10 absolute gravimeter in South America. Recent such surveys occurred in São Paulo state, Argentina and Venezuela.

  6. Key Challenges to Collegiate Music Education Programs in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Patrick M.

    2012-01-01

    Higher education is the linchpin of music education in North America. It is primarily in collegiate institutions that music teachers are educated throughout the life cycles of their careers. This begins with preservice programs, typically at the baccalaureate level, and continues with in-service professional development and graduate degree…

  7. 76 FR 21109 - Rural Energy for America Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-14

    ... renewable energy development assistance, as provided in the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008..., and wind. Section 9001 of the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 (2008 Farm Bill) amended... interim rule for the Rural Energy for America Program (REAP), which is authorized under the...

  8. Prescription drug monitoring programs in the United States of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Félix, Sausan El Burai; Mack, Karin

    2015-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Since the late 1990s, the number of opioid analgesic overdose deaths has quadrupled in the United States of America (from 4 030 deaths in 1999 to 16 651 in 2010). The objectives of this article are to provide an overview of the problem of prescription drug overdose in the United States and to discuss actions that could help reduce the problem, with particular attention to the characteristics of prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs). These programs consist of state-level databases that monitor controlled substances. The information compiled in the databases is at the disposal of authorized persons (e.g., physicians, pharmacists, and other health-care providers) and may be used only for professional purposes. Suppliers can use such information to prevent interaction with other drugs or therapeutic duplication, or to identify drug-search behavior. Law enforcement agencies can use these programs to identify improper drug prescription or dispensing patterns, or drug diversion. PMID:25563153

  9. Wind Powering America Anemometer Loan Program: A Retrospective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, T.

    2013-05-01

    This white paper details the history, mechanics, status, and impact of the Native American Anemometer Loan Program (ALP) conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Powering America (WPA) initiative. Originally conceived in 2000 and terminated (as a WPA activity) at the end of FY 2011, the ALP has resulted in the installation of anemometers at 90 locations. In addition, the ALP provided support for the installation of anemometers at 38 additional locations under a related ALP administered by the Western Area Power Administration.

  10. TRACE Model in Pilot Cities in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2015-01-01

    This report, supported by the energy sector management assistance program (ESMAP), applies the tool for the rapid assessment of city energy (TRACE) to examine energy use in León, México. This study is one of three requested and conducted in 2013 by the World Bank Latin America and the Caribbean energy unit to begin a dialogue on energy efficiency (EE) potential in Latin America and Caribbe...

  11. 76 FR 80941 - Request for Connect America Fund Cost Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ... evaluating the model. For example, one capability that could be useful could be the ability to model revenue... COMMISSION Request for Connect America Fund Cost Models AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION... (Commission) requests interested parties to submit forward-looking cost models, consistent with the...

  12. A model-data intercomparison of CO2 exchange across North America: Results from the North American Carbon Program Site Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwalm, Christopher R; Williams, Christopher A; Schaefer, Kevin; Anderson, Ryan; Arain, M A; Baker, Ian; Barr, Alan; Black, T Andrew; Chen, Guangsheng; Chen, Jing Ming; Ciais, Philippe; Davis, Kenneth J; Desai, Ankur R; Dietze, Michael; Dragoni, Danilo; Fischer, Marc; Flanagan, Lawrence; Grant, Robert; Gu, Lianghong; Hollinger, D; Izaurralde, Roberto C; Kucharik, Chris; Lafleur, Peter; Law, Beverly E; Li, Longhui; Li, Zhengpeng; Liu, Shuguang; Lokupitiya, Erandathie; Luo, Yiqi; Ma, Siyan; Margolis, Hank; Matamala, R; McCaughey, Harry; Monson, Russell K; Oechel, Walter C; Peng, Changhui; Poulter, Benjamin; Price, David T; Riciutto, Dan M; Riley, William; Sahoo, Alok Kumar; Sprintsin, Michael; Sun, Jianfeng; Tian, Hanqin; Tonitto, Christine; Verbeeck, Hans; Verma, Shashi B

    2010-12-09

    There is a continued need for models to improve consistency and agreement with observations [Friedlingstein et al., 2006], both overall and under more frequent extreme climatic events related to global environmental change such as drought [Trenberth et al., 2007]. Past validation studies of terrestrial biosphere models have focused only on few models and sites, typically in close proximity and primarily in forested biomes [e.g., Amthor et al., 2001; Delpierre et al., 2009; Grant et al., 2005; Hanson et al., 2004; Granier et al., 2007; Ichii et al., 2009; Ito, 2008; Siqueira et al., 2006; Zhou et al., 2008]. Furthermore, assessing model-data agreement relative to drought requires, in addition to high-quality observedCO2 exchange data, a reliable drought metric as well as a natural experiment across sites and drought conditions.

  13. Programming Models in HPC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shipman, Galen M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-13

    These are the slides for a presentation on programming models in HPC, at the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Parallel Computing Summer School. The following topics are covered: Flynn's Taxonomy of computer architectures; single instruction single data; single instruction multiple data; multiple instruction multiple data; address space organization; definition of Trinity (Intel Xeon-Phi is a MIMD architecture); single program multiple data; multiple program multiple data; ExMatEx workflow overview; definition of a programming model, programming languages, runtime systems; programming model and environments; MPI (Message Passing Interface); OpenMP; Kokkos (Performance Portable Thread-Parallel Programming Model); Kokkos abstractions, patterns, policies, and spaces; RAJA, a systematic approach to node-level portability and tuning; overview of the Legion Programming Model; mapping tasks and data to hardware resources; interoperability: supporting task-level models; Legion S3D execution and performance details; workflow, integration of external resources into the programming model.

  14. Modeling EERE deployment programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cort, K. A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hostick, D. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Belzer, D. B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Livingston, O. V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2007-11-01

    The purpose of the project was to identify and characterize the modeling of deployment programs within the EERE Technology Development (TD) programs, address possible improvements to the modeling process, and note gaps in knowledge for future research.

  15. Cooperation or Security - The Emergence of Space Programs in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godefroy, A. B.

    Traditionally, Latin America has been labeled a “Third World” region, yet when one examines its various space programs the handle hardly applies. Both Argentina and Brazil received superpower assistance during the early Cold War period to develop indigenous rocketry and space capabilities that continue to evolve today. More recently, other Latin American countries have also taken advantage of the many capabilities that space power provides. However, cooperation and development in Latin America continue to be influenced by politics and security issues, an inescapable aspect of the region's history. These factors combined have had a considerable impact on the emergence of space programs in Latin America.

  16. Modeling EERE Deployment Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cort, K. A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hostick, D. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Belzer, D. B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Livingston, O. V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2007-11-01

    This report compiles information and conclusions gathered as part of the “Modeling EERE Deployment Programs” project. The purpose of the project was to identify and characterize the modeling of deployment programs within the EERE Technology Development (TD) programs, address possible improvements to the modeling process, and note gaps in knowledge in which future research is needed.

  17. Los Alamos Programming Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergen, Benjamin Karl [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-07-07

    This is the PDF of a powerpoint presentation from a teleconference on Los Alamos programming models. It starts by listing their assumptions for the programming models and then details a hierarchical programming model at the System Level and Node Level. Then it details how to map this to their internal nomenclature. Finally, a list is given of what they are currently doing in this regard.

  18. SALTRA: a regional program for workers' health and sustainable development in Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesseling, Catharina; Aragón, Aurora; Elgstrand, Kaj; Flores, Reinaldo; Hogstedt, Christer; Partanen, Timo

    2011-01-01

    In 2003, the university-based Program on Work and Health in Central America, SALTRA, was launched to build national and regional capacities in occupational safety and health with the goal of preventing and reducing poverty in Central America. SALTRA has implemented 20 projects including action projects in priority sectors (e.g., construction, sugarcane, hospitals, migrant coffee workers); strengthening of surveillance (occupational health profiles, carcinogenic exposures, fatal injuries and pesticides); a participatory model for training and risk monitoring by workers; building occupational health capacity for professionals, employers, and workers, with collaborating networks between the countries; strengthening of universities in work, environment, and health; studies of serious occupational and environmental situations; communication channels; and continued efforts to raise political awareness. SALTRA has placed issues of workers' health on political, business, and academic agendas throughout the region and has laid the foundations for achieving substantial future improvements in health conditions of all workers in the region. External evaluators envisioned SALTRA as an innovative development model.

  19. Program and Abstracts, Boron Americas IX Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feakes, Debra A.

    2006-08-09

    The Scientific and Technical Information (STI) submitted includes the final report and a collection of abstracts for the Ninth Boron in the Americas Conference which was held May 19-22, 2004, in San Marcos, Texas. The topics covered in the abstracts include: Application in Medicine, Application in Organic Synthesis and Catalysis, Boranes and Carboranes, Materials and Polymers, Metallaboranes and Metallacarboranes, Organoboron Compounds, Synthesis and Catalysis, and Theoretical Studies. Attendees represented researchers from government, industry, and academia.

  20. Modeling EERE Deployment Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cort, Katherine A.; Hostick, Donna J.; Belzer, David B.; Livingston, Olga V.

    2007-11-08

    The purpose of this report is to compile information and conclusions gathered as part of three separate tasks undertaken as part of the overall project, “Modeling EERE Deployment Programs,” sponsored by the Planning, Analysis, and Evaluation office within the Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). The purpose of the project was to identify and characterize the modeling of deployment programs within the EERE Technology Development (TD) programs, address improvements to modeling in the near term, and note gaps in knowledge where future research is needed.

  1. The United States of America fast breeder reactor program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reasons for the development of the fast breeder reactor in the United States are outlined, and the LMFBR program is discussed in detail, under the following headings: program objectives, reactor physics, fuel and materials development, fuel recycle, safety, components, plant experience program (Near Commercial Breeder Reactor). The special facilities to be used at each stage of the program are described. It is planned that the Near Commercial Breeder Reactor will be complete in 1986, and commercial plants should follow in rapid succession. An alternate fast reactor concept (Gas Cooled Fast Reactor) is outlined. The Environmental Impact Statement for the proposed program is summarized, and the cost benefit analysis supplied as part of the Environment Statement is also summarized. (U.K.)

  2. The Effectiveness of Secondary Math Teachers from Teach For America and the Teaching Fellows Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Melissa A.; Hanley S. Chiang; Tim Silva; Sheena McConnell; Kathy Sonnenfeld; Anastasia Erbe; Michael Puma

    2013-01-01

    The first large-scale, random assignment study of the effects of secondary school math teachers from Teach For America and the Teaching Fellows programs found they were as effective as, and in some cases more effective than, teachers receiving traditional certification. The study was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Education's Institute of Education Sciences.

  3. Supporting Museums--Serving Communities: An Evaluation of the Museums for America Program. Full Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apley, Alice; Frankel, Susan; Goldman, Elizabeth; Streitburger, Kim

    2011-01-01

    The Institute of Museum and Library Services is the primary source of federal support for the nation's museums. Museums for America (MFA) is the largest IMLS grant program for museums; it supports institutions by investing in high-priority, high-value activities that are clearly linked to the institution's strategic plan and enhance its value to…

  4. Methods and challenges for the health impact assessment of vaccination programs in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Marli Christovam Sartori

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe methods and challenges faced in the health impact assessment of vaccination programs, focusing on the pneumococcal conjugate and rotavirus vaccines in Latin America and the Caribbean. METHODS For this narrative review, we searched for the terms "rotavirus", "pneumococcal", "conjugate vaccine", "vaccination", "program", and "impact" in the databases Medline and LILACS. The search was extended to the grey literature in Google Scholar. No limits were defined for publication year. Original articles on the health impact assessment of pneumococcal and rotavirus vaccination programs in Latin America and the Caribbean in English, Spanish or Portuguese were included. RESULTS We identified 207 articles. After removing duplicates and assessing eligibility, we reviewed 33 studies, 25 focusing on rotavirus and eight on pneumococcal vaccination programs. The most frequent studies were ecological, with time series analysis or comparing pre- and post-vaccination periods. The main data sources were: health information systems; population-, sentinel- or laboratory-based surveillance systems; statistics reports; and medical records from one or few health care services. Few studies used primary data. Hospitalization and death were the main outcomes assessed. CONCLUSIONS Over the last years, a significant number of health impact assessments of pneumococcal and rotavirus vaccination programs have been conducted in Latin America and the Caribbean. These studies were carried out few years after the programs were implemented, meet the basic methodological requirements and suggest positive health impact. Future assessments should consider methodological issues and challenges arisen in these first studies conducted in the region.

  5. The Applied Meteorology Unit: Nineteen Years Successfully Transitioning Research Into Operations for America's Space Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madura, John T.; Bauman, William H., III; Merceret, Francis J.; Roeder, William P.; Brody, Frank C.; Hagemeyer, Bartlett C.

    2011-01-01

    The Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) provides technology development and transition services to improve operational weather support to America's space program . The AMU was founded in 1991 and operates under a triagency Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the United States Air Force (USAF) and the National Weather Service (NWS) (Ernst and Merceret, 1995). It is colocated with the 45th Weather Squadron (45WS) at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) and funded by the Space Shuttle Program . Its primary customers are the 45WS, the Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) operated for NASA by the NWS at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston, TX, and the NWS forecast office in Melbourne, FL (MLB). The gap between research and operations is well known. All too frequently, the process of transitioning research to operations fails for various reasons. The mission of the AMU is in essence to bridge this gap for America's space program.

  6. Regional Climate Modeling over South America: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvina A. Solman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes the progress achieved on regional climate modeling activities over South America since the early efforts at the beginning of the 2000s until now. During the last 10 years, simulations with regional climate models (RCMs have been performed for several purposes over the region. Early efforts were mainly focused on sensitivity studies to both physical mechanisms and technical aspects of RCMs. The last developments were focused mainly on providing high-resolution information on regional climate change. This paper describes the most outstanding contributions from the isolated efforts to the ongoing coordinated RCM activities in the framework of the CORDEX initiative, which represents a major endeavor to produce ensemble climate change projections at regional scales and allows exploring the associated range of uncertainties. The remaining challenges in modeling South American climate features are also discussed.

  7. Attempts to undermine tobacco control: tobacco industry "youth smoking prevention" programs to undermine meaningful tobacco control in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Sebrie, Ernesto M.; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2012-01-01

    We sought to understand how the tobacco industry uses "youth smoking prevention" programs in Latin America. We analyzed tobacco industry documents, so-called "social reports," media reports, and material provided by Latin American public health advocates. Since the early 1990s, multinational tobacco companies have promoted "youth smoking prevention" programs as part of their "Corporate Social Responsibility" campaigns. The companies also partnered with third-party allies in Latin America, mos...

  8. North American Water Program (NAWP): A Vision to Address North America's Freshwater Sustainability Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belvedere, D. R.; Houser, P. R.; Schiffer, R. A.; Entin, J. K.

    2013-12-01

    Dramatically changing climates has had an indelible impact on North America's water crisis; the rapid melting of glaciers has profound implications for the sustainability of Canada's rivers. However, projective increases in water demand from increasing population, industrial energy, and agriculture needs may have four times more impact on the water supply-demand imbalance than climate change. Reliable prediction of hydrologic change and extremes is of critical importance for policy and decision makers to adapt to these future water challenges. However, the models that we use to understand and forecast water availability, flooding, and drought are simply not up to the task of addressing our most pressing societal issues and national security. We need a decisive and coordinative effort to systematically improve water cycle prediction skill, coupled with reliable methodologies to translate those predictions into actionable water supply and quality information to support sustainable water management - this is a primary motivation for the proposed North American Water Program (NAWP). To decisively address these challenges, we recommend that NAWP coalesce an interdisciplinary, international and interagency effort to make significant contributions to continental-to-decision-scale hydroclimate science and solutions. By entraining, integrating and coordinating the vast array of interdisciplinary observationable and prediction resources available, NAWP will significantly advance skill in predicting, assessing, and managing variability and changes in North American water resources, as an integral part of the global climate system. We adopt three challenges to organize NAWP efforts. The first deals with developing a scientific basis and tools for mitigating and adapting to changes in the water supply-demand balance. The second challenge is benchmarking; to use incomplete and uncertain observations to assess water storage and quality dynamics, and to characterize the

  9. Kids on the Move: Afterschool Programs Promoting Healthy Eating and Physical Activity. America After 3PM Special Report. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afterschool Alliance, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Afterschool programs continue to make advances when it comes to providing students with nutritious foods, keeping them physically fit and promoting health. Such programs have great potential to help prevent obesity and instill lifelong healthy habits, serving more than 10 million children and youth across America, with more than 19 million more…

  10. Developments in Ground-Motion Modeling in Eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, G. M.; Boore, D. M.

    2012-12-01

    Recent well-recorded earthquakes in Eastern North America (ENA) have led us to re-evaluate concepts that have been "standard fare" in the development of ground-motion prediction equations (GMPEs) for ENA for decades, including all published GMPEs that are used in current practice (e.g. Atkinson and Boore, 2011, 2006, 1995; Pezeshk et al., 2011; Campbell, 2003; Toro et al., 1997, etc.). Assumptions common to all ENA GMPEs that may not be true include the following. (1) Typical ENA stress drops, in the context of a Brune model representation of the source spectrum, are in the range of 150-300 bars, with the exception of occasional high-stress events like the 1988 Saguenay earthquake. (2) Attenuation of ground motions can be modeled with a frequency-independent geometric spreading function, either bilinear or trilinear in shape (e.g. Street and Turcotte, 1975; Herrmann and Kijko, 1983; Atkinson and Mereu, 1992; Atkinson, 2004; Boatwright and Seekins, 2011), and an associated frequency-dependent anelastic attenuation term related to the regional Quality factor. The use of a bilinear or trilinear form models the transition from geometric spreading of body waves at close distances to slower surface-wave-type spreading at regional distances. We use ground-motion recordings from recent ENA events to re-examine these basic tenets of GMPE development, in light of constraints on the problem provided at low frequencies by seismic moment, and at high frequencies by stresses inferred from Empirical Greens Function (EGF) analysis. We find strong evidence, in both ground-motion data and from the constraints, that geometric attenuation may be frequency dependent. Moreover, EGF stress drops may be very high (>500 bars) - but they do not lead to particularly large high-frequency ground motions, at least at distances for which we have observations. More complex models of ENA source and attenuation processes appear to be required in order to reconcile our growing ground-motion database

  11. Model-Driven Constraint Programming

    CERN Document Server

    Chenouard, Raphael; Soto, Ricardo; 10.1145/1389449.1389479

    2010-01-01

    Constraint programming can definitely be seen as a model-driven paradigm. The users write programs for modeling problems. These programs are mapped to executable models to calculate the solutions. This paper focuses on efficient model management (definition and transformation). From this point of view, we propose to revisit the design of constraint-programming systems. A model-driven architecture is introduced to map solving-independent constraint models to solving-dependent decision models. Several important questions are examined, such as the need for a visual highlevel modeling language, and the quality of metamodeling techniques to implement the transformations. A main result is the s-COMMA platform that efficiently implements the chain from modeling to solving constraint problems

  12. Calakmul Model Forest. Reports from the field -- Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulet, M

    1997-01-01

    The Calakmul Model Forest, which is situated in the Calakmul area of Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula, is one of 18 model forests in five countries worldwide that are coordinated by the secretariat at IDRC headquarters in Ottawa. The program promotes the management of natural resources in a sustained manner by a partnership of environmentalists, industry, and local communities. The goals of the program include: 1) ensuring ongoing harvests of food, wood, and other products; 2) enhancing the standard of living of local inhabitants; 3) raising awareness of conservation; and 4) promoting ecotourism. Based upon her initial surveys, Gloria Tavera, environmental educator for the program, found that: 1) more than 50% of the local population was under 15 years of age; 2) ethnic diversity was high; 3) literacy rates were low; and 4) women and children should be targeted. Since written material would be ineffective, other avenues would have to be used, such as the film "The Lion King," which brought people together to discuss environmental issues. Other program achievements include a wildlife station, the Calakmul Botanical Gardens, and a food, arts, and crafts fair and fashion show (1995) that focused on local forest products. The wildlife station houses puma, jaguar, and wild pigs. The Botanical Gardens, which covers six hectares of land, features nature trails and a showcase of local flora (including edible plants and 56 species of native orchids). It is a base for workshops, information sessions, and educational tours to the local Mayan ruins. As a result of the fair, clothes embroidered with traditional designs are being sold to tourists at the ruins, and a cookbook has been published. Tavera is now targeting 2500 primary school children in the area via environmental workshops for their teachers.

  13. Calakmul Model Forest. Reports from the field -- Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulet, M

    1997-01-01

    The Calakmul Model Forest, which is situated in the Calakmul area of Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula, is one of 18 model forests in five countries worldwide that are coordinated by the secretariat at IDRC headquarters in Ottawa. The program promotes the management of natural resources in a sustained manner by a partnership of environmentalists, industry, and local communities. The goals of the program include: 1) ensuring ongoing harvests of food, wood, and other products; 2) enhancing the standard of living of local inhabitants; 3) raising awareness of conservation; and 4) promoting ecotourism. Based upon her initial surveys, Gloria Tavera, environmental educator for the program, found that: 1) more than 50% of the local population was under 15 years of age; 2) ethnic diversity was high; 3) literacy rates were low; and 4) women and children should be targeted. Since written material would be ineffective, other avenues would have to be used, such as the film "The Lion King," which brought people together to discuss environmental issues. Other program achievements include a wildlife station, the Calakmul Botanical Gardens, and a food, arts, and crafts fair and fashion show (1995) that focused on local forest products. The wildlife station houses puma, jaguar, and wild pigs. The Botanical Gardens, which covers six hectares of land, features nature trails and a showcase of local flora (including edible plants and 56 species of native orchids). It is a base for workshops, information sessions, and educational tours to the local Mayan ruins. As a result of the fair, clothes embroidered with traditional designs are being sold to tourists at the ruins, and a cookbook has been published. Tavera is now targeting 2500 primary school children in the area via environmental workshops for their teachers. PMID:12290332

  14. Time models for programming logics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gergely, T.; Ury, L.

    1981-01-01

    A class of such models is developed that provides the interpretation of the meaning of programs considering both time and data explicitly. It is shown how different model constructions, developed explicitly or implicitly in different kinds of programming logic, can be expressed. The proposed model construction is strong enough to become base of such theory of programming that can be built in the frame of classical first order logic and that deals not only with deterministic but with nondeterministic, interactive and parallel programming as well. 15 references.

  15. The CRAFT Fortran Programming Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas M. Pase

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Many programming models for massively parallel machines exist, and each has its advantages and disadvantages. In this article we present a programming model that combines features from other programming models that (1 can be efficiently implemented on present and future Cray Research massively parallel processor (MPP systems and (2 are useful in constructing highly parallel programs. The model supports several styles of programming: message-passing, data parallel, global address (shared data, and work-sharing. These styles may be combined within the same program. The model includes features that allow a user to define a program in terms of the behavior of the system as a whole, where the behavior of individual tasks is implicit from this systemic definition. (In general, features marked as shared are designed to support this perspective. It also supports an opposite perspective, where a program may be defined in terms of the behaviors of individual tasks, and a program is implicitly the sum of the behaviors of all tasks. (Features marked as private are designed to support this perspective. Users can exploit any combination of either set of features without ambiguity and thus are free to define a program from whatever perspective is most appropriate to the problem at hand.

  16. Assessment of a Merged Research and Education Program in Pacific Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluth, G. J.; Gierke, J. S.; Gross, E. L.; Kieckhafer, P. B.; Rose, W. I.

    2006-12-01

    The ultimate goal of integrating research with education is to encourage cross-disciplinary, creative, and critical thinking in problem solving and foster the ability to deal with uncertainty in analyzing problems and designing appropriate solutions. The National Science Foundation (NSF) is actively promoting these kinds of programs, in particular in conjunction with international collaboration. With NSF support, we are building a new educational system of applied research and engineering, using two existing programs at Michigan Tech: a Peace Corp/Master's International (PC/MI) program in Natural Hazards which features a 2-year field assignment, and an "Enterprise" program for undergraduates, which gives teams of geoengineering students the opportunity to work for three years in a business-like setting to solve real-world problems. This project involves 2 post-doctoral researchers, 3-5 Ph.D. and Master's, 5-10 PC/MI graduate students, and roughly 20 undergraduate students each year. The assessment of this project involves measurement of participant perceptions and motivations towards working in Pacific Latin America (Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala and Nicaragua), and tracking the changes as the participants complete academic and field aspects of this program. As the participants progress through their projects and Peace Corps assignments, we also get insights into the type of academic preparation best suited for international geoscience collaboration and it is not always a matter of technical knowledge. As a result, we are modifying existing courses in hazard communication, as well as developing a new course focusing on the geology of these regions taught through weekly contributions by an international team of researchers. Other efforts involve multi-university, web-based courses in critical technical topics such as volcano seismology, which because of their complex, cross-disciplinary nature are difficult to sustain from a single institution.

  17. Uranium provinces of North America; their definition, distribution, and models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Warren Irvin

    1996-01-01

    Uranium resources in North America are principally in unconformity-related, quartz-pebble conglomerate, sandstone, volcanic, and phosphorite types of uranium deposits. Most are concentrated in separate, well-defined metallogenic provinces. Proterozoic quartz-pebble conglomerate and unconformity-related deposits are, respectively, in the Blind River?Elliot Lake (BRELUP) and the Athabasca Basin (ABUP) Uranium Provinces in Canada. Sandstone uranium deposits are of two principal subtypes, tabular and roll-front. Tabular sandstone uranium deposits are mainly in upper Paleozoic and Mesozoic rocks in the Colorado Plateau Uranium Province (CPUP). Roll-front sandstone uranium deposits are in Tertiary rocks of the Rocky Mountain and Intermontane Basins Uranium Province (RMIBUP), and in a narrow belt of Tertiary rocks that form the Gulf Coastal Uranium Province (GCUP) in south Texas and adjacent Mexico. Volcanic uranium deposits are concentrated in the Basin and Range Uranium Province (BRUP) stretching from the McDermitt caldera at the Oregon-Nevada border through the Marysvale district of Utah and Date Creek Basin in Arizona and south into the Sierra de Pe?a Blanca District, Chihuahua, Mexico. Uraniferous phosphorite occurs in Tertiary sediments in Florida, Georgia, and North and South Carolina and in the Lower Permian Phosphoria Formation in Idaho and adjacent States, but only in Florida has economic recovery been successful. The Florida Phosphorite Uranium Province (FPUP) has yielded large quantities of uranium as a byproduct of the production of phosphoric acid fertilizer. Economically recoverable quantities of copper, gold, molybdenum, nickel, silver, thorium, and vanadium occur with the uranium deposits in some provinces. Many major epochs of uranium mineralization occurred in North America. In the BRELUP, uranium minerals were concentrated in placers during the Early Proterozoic (2,500?2,250 Ma). In the ABUP, the unconformity-related deposits were most likely formed

  18. Promoting Social Equity, Diversity, and Inclusion through Accreditation: Comparing National and International Standards for Public Affairs Programs in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubaii, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This purpose of this study is to examine the extent to which accreditation of public affairs programs can be a tool to advance social equity, diversity, and inclusion. The paper is presented in the context of the widespread acceptance of the importance of addressing social inequalities in Latin America and the critical role that public…

  19. What Works Clearinghouse Quick Review: "The Effectiveness of Secondary Math Teachers from Teach for America and the Teaching Fellows Program"

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The study examined the impact of Teach for America (TFA) and The New Teacher Project's Teaching Fellows (TF) programs on the mathematics achievement of students in grades 6-12. TFA and TF provide alternative routes to teacher certification and aim to provide high-quality teachers to schools in low-income areas. TFA and TF were studied separately,…

  20. Dynamic programming models and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Denardo, Eric V

    2003-01-01

    Introduction to sequential decision processes covers use of dynamic programming in studying models of resource allocation, methods for approximating solutions of control problems in continuous time, production control, more. 1982 edition.

  1. [Evolution of air pollution and impact on control programs in 3 megacities in Latin America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacasaña-Navarro, M; Aguilar-Garduño, C; Romieu, I

    1999-01-01

    The present work discusses the problems of atmospheric pollution of three Megacities of Latin America (Mexico City, Sao Paulo and Santiago). The environmental pollution control programs implemented by the Government are revised and the evolution of pollution levels during the period of 1988-1995 at Santiago de Chile and Sao Paulo, but until 1997 at Mexico City, in order to evaluate the impact of these programs. During this period, a decreasing trend is observed in the three cities in the levels of PTS, PM10, SO2, NO2, CO and O3, although most of these contaminants still exceed the air quality standards. It must be emphasized that the largest impact has been on the levels of SO2. We recommend the development of sustainable transport policies; in this context, various strategies were proposed by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) in the European Conference of Ministers of Transport. Additionally, public participation is important when decisions are taken on transport policies.

  2. Automatic programming of simulation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroer, Bernard J.; Tseng, Fan T.; Zhang, Shou X.; Dwan, Wen S.

    1988-01-01

    The objective of automatic programming is to improve the overall environment for describing the program. This improved environment is realized by a reduction in the amount of detail that the programmer needs to know and is exposed to. Furthermore, this improved environment is achieved by a specification language that is more natural to the user's problem domain and to the user's way of thinking and looking at the problem. The goal of this research is to apply the concepts of automatic programming (AP) to modeling discrete event simulation system. Specific emphasis is on the design and development of simulation tools to assist the modeler define or construct a model of the system and to then automatically write the corresponding simulation code in the target simulation language, GPSS/PC. A related goal is to evaluate the feasibility of various languages for constructing automatic programming simulation tools.

  3. A ''model'' geophysics program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1993, I tested a radio-controlled airplane designed by Jim Walker of Brigham Young University for low-elevation aerial photography. Model-air photography retains most of the advantages of standard aerial photography --- the photographs can be used to detect lineaments, to map roads and buildings, and to construct stereo pairs to measure topography --- and it is far less expensive. Proven applications on the Oak Ridge Reservation include: updating older aerial records to document new construction; using repeated overflights of the same area to capture seasonal changes in vegetation and the effects of major storms; and detecting waste trench boundaries from the color and character of the overlying grass. Aerial photography is only one of many possible applications of radio-controlled aircraft. Currently, I am funded by the Department of Energy's Office of Technology Development to review the state of the art in microavionics, both military and civilian, to determine ways this emerging technology can be used for environmental site characterization. Being particularly interested in geophysical applications, I am also collaborating with electrical engineers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to design a model plane that will carry a 3-component flux-gate magnetometer and a global positioning system, which I hope to test in the spring of 1994

  4. Model Checker for Java Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Willem

    2007-01-01

    Java Pathfinder (JPF) is a verification and testing environment for Java that integrates model checking, program analysis, and testing. JPF consists of a custom-made Java Virtual Machine (JVM) that interprets bytecode, combined with a search interface to allow the complete behavior of a Java program to be analyzed, including interleavings of concurrent programs. JPF is implemented in Java, and its architecture is highly modular to support rapid prototyping of new features. JPF is an explicit-state model checker, because it enumerates all visited states and, therefore, suffers from the state-explosion problem inherent in analyzing large programs. It is suited to analyzing programs less than 10kLOC, but has been successfully applied to finding errors in concurrent programs up to 100kLOC. When an error is found, a trace from the initial state to the error is produced to guide the debugging. JPF works at the bytecode level, meaning that all of Java can be model-checked. By default, the software checks for all runtime errors (uncaught exceptions), assertions violations (supports Java s assert), and deadlocks. JPF uses garbage collection and symmetry reductions of the heap during model checking to reduce state-explosion, as well as dynamic partial order reductions to lower the number of interleavings analyzed. JPF is capable of symbolic execution of Java programs, including symbolic execution of complex data such as linked lists and trees. JPF is extensible as it allows for the creation of listeners that can subscribe to events during searches. The creation of dedicated code to be executed in place of regular classes is supported and allows users to easily handle native calls and to improve the efficiency of the analysis.

  5. Evaluation of precipitation variability over northern South America based on CMIP5 historical model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, S. C.; Sierra, J. P.; Arias, P. A.

    2014-12-01

    Northern South America is identified as one of the most vulnerable regions to be affected by climate change. Furthermore, recent extreme wet seasons over the region have caused diverse socio-economic consequences. Hence, the evaluation of the representation of local climate of rainfall simulations at intra-annual seasonal and inter-annual time scales by the CMIP5 models is urgently required, in order to identify and analyze projections of regional and local climate under a global climate change scenario. Here, we evaluate the ability of seven of the CMIP5 models (selected based on literature review) to represent the seasonal mean precipitation and its inter-annual variability over northern South America. Our results suggest that it is easier for models to reproduce rainfall distribution during boreal summer and fall over both oceans and land, since during these seasons, not only incoming radiation, but also ocean-atmosphere feedbacks over Atlantic and Pacific oceans, locate the ITCZ on the Northern Hemisphere. Conversely, models exhibit the worse simulations of the seasonal mean precipitation during boreal winter and spring, when these processes have opposite effects locating the ITCZ. Our results suggest that the models with a better representation of the oceanic ITCZ and the local low-level jets over northern South America, such as the Choco low-level jet, are able to realistically simulate the main features of seasonal precipitation pattern over northern South America.

  6. New England Wind Forum: A Wind Powering America Project, Newsletter #5 -- January 2010, Wind and Hydropower Technologies Program (WHTP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grace, R. C.; Gifford, J.

    2010-01-01

    Wind Powering America program launched the New England Wind Forum (NEWF) in 2005 to provide a single comprehensive source of up-to-date, Web-based information on a broad array of wind energy issues pertaining to New England. The NEWF newsletter provides New England stakeholders with updates on wind energy development in the region. In addition to regional updates, Issue #5 offers an interview with Angus King, former governor of Maine and co-founder of Independence Wind.

  7. The New Weather Radar for America's Space Program in Florida: A Temperature Profile Adaptive Scan Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, L. D.; Petersen, W. A.; Deierling, W.; Roeder, W. P.

    2009-01-01

    A new weather radar is being acquired for use in support of America s space program at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, NASA Kennedy Space Center, and Patrick AFB on the east coast of central Florida. This new radar replaces the modified WSR-74C at Patrick AFB that has been in use since 1984. The new radar is a Radtec TDR 43-250, which has Doppler and dual polarization capability. A new fixed scan strategy was designed to best support the space program. The fixed scan strategy represents a complex compromise between many competing factors and relies on climatological heights of various temperatures that are important for improved lightning forecasting and evaluation of Lightning Launch Commit Criteria (LCC), which are the weather rules to avoid lightning strikes to in-flight rockets. The 0 C to -20 C layer is vital since most generation of electric charge occurs within it and so it is critical in evaluating Lightning LCC and in forecasting lightning. These are two of the most important duties of 45 WS. While the fixed scan strategy that covers most of the climatological variation of the 0 C to -20 C levels with high resolution ensures that these critical temperatures are well covered most of the time, it also means that on any particular day the radar is spending precious time scanning at angles covering less important heights. The goal of this project is to develop a user-friendly, Interactive Data Language (IDL) computer program that will automatically generate optimized radar scan strategies that adapt to user input of the temperature profile and other important parameters. By using only the required scan angles output by the temperature profile adaptive scan strategy program, faster update times for volume scans and/or collection of more samples per gate for better data quality is possible, while maintaining high resolution at the critical temperature levels. The temperature profile adaptive technique will also take into account earth curvature and refraction

  8. Modeling the Agroecological Land Suitability for Coffea arabica L. in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Leonel; Rasche, Livia; Schneider, Uwe

    2016-04-01

    Coffee production is an important income source for small farms in Central America, but climate change threatens the production. In order to develop efficient adaptation strategies, an assessment of local conditions and opportunities is essential. Lack or uncertainty of information are common challenges for such assessments. A tool to resolve these challenges is Bayesian network analysis. In this study, we developed ALECA, the first Bayesian network model to evaluate the agroecological land suitability for Coffea arabica L. A new set of suitability functions was created and subsequently used to populate the conditional probability tables of the variables. The variables include temperature, precipitation and dry season length for the climate, slope and aspect for the landform, and soil pH, cation exchange capacity and texture for the soil component. We validated ALECA by comparing a map of current coffee areas, and specific coffee areas with known suitability for coffee production in Central America to the suitability evaluations of the model; and proceeded to explore 1) the capabilities of the model to manage data uncertainty, and 2) the changes to suitability scores under climate change. The results showed that the area suitable for coffee production will decline in Central America under climate change, underlining the need for models like ALECA, which can be used to produce reliable land evaluations at local, national and regional scales under uncertainty.

  9. Restoring our urban communities: A model for an empowered America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This booklet tells the story of how two very different types of organizations - Bethel New Life and Argonne National Laboratory - have forged a partnership to rebuild West Garfield Park. This unique Partnership blends Bethel`s theological and sociological roots with Argonne`s scientific and technological expertise. Together they hope to offer the community fresh, transferable approaches to solving urban socio-economic and environmental problems. The Partnership hopes to address and solve the inner city`s technological problems through community participation and collaborative demonstrations - without losing sight of the community`s social needs. The key themes throughout this booklet - jobs, sustainable community development, energy efficiency, and environment - highlight challenges the partners face. By bringing people and technologies together, this Partnership will give West Garfield Park residents a better life -- and, perhaps, offer other communities a successful model for urban renewal.

  10. Tsunami hazard assessment in El Salvador, Central America, from seismic sources through flooding numerical models

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez-Gómez, J. A.; Í. Aniel-Quiroga; O. Q. Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez; J. Larreynaga; González, M.; M. Castro; F. Gavidia; Aguirre-Ayerbe, I.; P. González-Riancho; Carreño, E

    2013-01-01

    El Salvador is the smallest and most densely populated country in Central America; its coast has approximately a length of 320 km, 29 municipalities and more than 700 000 inhabitants. In El Salvador there have been 15 recorded tsunamis between 1859 and 2012, 3 of them causing damages and hundreds of victims. The hazard assessment is commonly based on propagation numerical models for earthquake-generated tsunamis and can be approached from both Probabilistic and D...

  11. Tsunami hazard assessment in El Salvador, Central America, from seismic sources through flooding numerical models.

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez-Gómez, J. A.; Aniel-Quiroga, Í.; O. Q. Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez; J. Larreynaga; González, M.; M. Castro; F. Gavidia; Aguirre-Ayerbe, I.; P. González-Riancho; Carreño, E

    2013-01-01

    El Salvador is the smallest and most densely populated country in Central America; its coast has an approximate length of 320 km, 29 municipalities and more than 700 000 inhabitants. In El Salvador there were 15 recorded tsunamis between 1859 and 2012, 3 of them causing damages and resulting in hundreds of victims. Hazard assessment is commonly based on propagation numerical models for earthquake-generated tsunamis and can be approached through both probabilistic and determinis...

  12. Leadership Skills Training for Youths through the Exploring Program of Boy Scouts of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Brian F.; Willis, A. Sandra

    This paper describes the Leadership Opportunity Forums for high school students sponsored by the Explorer's Post of the Birmingham Area Council of the Boy Scouts of America. The goal of the forum was to increase student leadership behaviors through informational sessions, needs assessment, informal discussions, shared meals, outdoor physical…

  13. Program for Volcanic Risk Reduction in the Americas: Translation of Science into Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, Margaret; Pierson, Thomas; Wilkinson, Stuart; Westby, Elizabeth; Driedger, Carolyn; Ewert, John

    2016-04-01

    In 2013, the United States Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Agency for International Development/Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance (USAID/OFDA) inaugurated Volcanic Risk Reduction in the Americas, a program that brings together binational delegations of scientists, civil authorities, and emergency response managers to discuss the challenges of integrating volcano science into crisis response and risk reduction practices. During reciprocal visits, delegations tour areas impacted by volcanic unrest and/or eruption, meet with affected communities, and exchange insights and best practices. The 2013 exchange focused on hazards at Mount Rainier (Washington, USA) and Nevado del Ruiz (Caldas/Tolima, Colombia). Both of these volcanoes are highly susceptible to large volcanic mudflows (lahars). The Colombia-USA exchange allowed participants to share insights on lahar warning systems, self-evacuation planning, and effective education programs for at-risk communities. [See Driedger and Ewert (2015) Abstract 76171 presented at 2015 Fall AGU, San Francisco, Calif., Dec 14-18]. The second exchange, in 2015, took place between the USA and Chile, focusing on the Long Valley volcanic region (California, USA) and Chaitén volcano (Lagos, Chile) - both are centers of rhyolite volcanism. The high viscosity of rhyolite magma can cause explosive eruptions with widespread destruction. The rare but catastrophic "super eruptions" of the world have largely been the result of rhyolite volcanism. Chaitén produced the world's first explosive rhyolite eruption in the age of modern volcano monitoring in 2008-2009. Rhyolite eruptions of similar scale and style have occurred frequently in the Long Valley volcanic region, most recently about 600 years ago. The explosivity and relative rarity of rhyolite eruptions create unique challenges to risk reduction efforts. The recent Chaitén eruption was unexpected - little was known of Chaitén's eruptive history, and because of this, monitoring

  14. The ASC Sequoia Programming Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seager, M

    2008-08-06

    In the late 1980's and early 1990's, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory was deeply engrossed in determining the next generation programming model for the Integrated Design Codes (IDC) beyond vectorization for the Cray 1s series of computers. The vector model, developed in mid 1970's first for the CDC 7600 and later extended from stack based vector operation to memory to memory operations for the Cray 1s, lasted approximately 20 years (See Slide 5). The Cray vector era was deemed an extremely long lived era as it allowed vector codes to be developed over time (the Cray 1s were faster in scalar mode than the CDC 7600) with vector unit utilization increasing incrementally over time. The other attributes of the Cray vector era at LLNL were that we developed, supported and maintained the Operating System (LTSS and later NLTSS), communications protocols (LINCS), Compilers (Civic Fortran77 and Model), operating system tools (e.g., batch system, job control scripting, loaders, debuggers, editors, graphics utilities, you name it) and math and highly machine optimized libraries (e.g., SLATEC, and STACKLIB). Although LTSS was adopted by Cray for early system generations, they later developed COS and UNICOS operating systems and environment on their own. In the late 1970s and early 1980s two trends appeared that made the Cray vector programming model (described above including both the hardware and system software aspects) seem potentially dated and slated for major revision. These trends were the appearance of low cost CMOS microprocessors and their attendant, departmental and mini-computers and later workstations and personal computers. With the wide spread adoption of Unix in the early 1980s, it appeared that LLNL (and the other DOE Labs) would be left out of the mainstream of computing without a rapid transition to these 'Killer Micros' and modern OS and tools environments. The other interesting advance in the period is that systems were being

  15. Climate change in Central America and Mexico: regional climate model validation and climate change projections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karmalkar, Ambarish V. [University of Oxford, School of Geography and the Environment, Oxford (United Kingdom); Bradley, Raymond S. [University of Massachusetts, Department of Geosciences, Amherst, MA (United States); Diaz, Henry F. [NOAA/ESRL/CIRES, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Central America has high biodiversity, it harbors high-value ecosystems and it's important to provide regional climate change information to assist in adaptation and mitigation work in the region. Here we study climate change projections for Central America and Mexico using a regional climate model. The model evaluation shows its success in simulating spatial and temporal variability of temperature and precipitation and also in capturing regional climate features such as the bimodal annual cycle of precipitation and the Caribbean low-level jet. A variety of climate regimes within the model domain are also better identified in the regional model simulation due to improved resolution of topographic features. Although, the model suffers from large precipitation biases, it shows improvements over the coarse-resolution driving model in simulating precipitation amounts. The model shows a dry bias in the wet season and a wet bias in the dry season suggesting that it's unable to capture the full range of precipitation variability. Projected warming under the A2 scenario is higher in the wet season than that in the dry season with the Yucatan Peninsula experiencing highest warming. A large reduction in precipitation in the wet season is projected for the region, whereas parts of Central America that receive a considerable amount of moisture in the form of orographic precipitation show significant decreases in precipitation in the dry season. Projected climatic changes can have detrimental impacts on biodiversity as they are spatially similar, but far greater in magnitude, than those observed during the El Nino events in recent decades that adversely affected species in the region. (orig.)

  16. Climate change in Central America and Mexico: regional climate model validation and climate change projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmalkar, Ambarish V.; Bradley, Raymond S.; Diaz, Henry F.

    2011-08-01

    Central America has high biodiversity, it harbors high-value ecosystems and it's important to provide regional climate change information to assist in adaptation and mitigation work in the region. Here we study climate change projections for Central America and Mexico using a regional climate model. The model evaluation shows its success in simulating spatial and temporal variability of temperature and precipitation and also in capturing regional climate features such as the bimodal annual cycle of precipitation and the Caribbean low-level jet. A variety of climate regimes within the model domain are also better identified in the regional model simulation due to improved resolution of topographic features. Although, the model suffers from large precipitation biases, it shows improvements over the coarse-resolution driving model in simulating precipitation amounts. The model shows a dry bias in the wet season and a wet bias in the dry season suggesting that it's unable to capture the full range of precipitation variability. Projected warming under the A2 scenario is higher in the wet season than that in the dry season with the Yucatan Peninsula experiencing highest warming. A large reduction in precipitation in the wet season is projected for the region, whereas parts of Central America that receive a considerable amount of moisture in the form of orographic precipitation show significant decreases in precipitation in the dry season. Projected climatic changes can have detrimental impacts on biodiversity as they are spatially similar, but far greater in magnitude, than those observed during the El Niño events in recent decades that adversely affected species in the region.

  17. Triple Helix and European Union (EU Funding: The case of Latin America, especially Mexico and the Seventh European Framework Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Haberleithner

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The following analysis not only seeks to develop new potential intervention models; it also aims to create a detailed analysis of the existing problems with regards to communication among the active participants of Triple Helix (especially in Mexico. The special situation in Latin America with regards to existing corruption, the unequal distribution of power between the government and the private sector, dependence on other economies and other social issues will be analysed in accordance with the main focus of the investigation. The subsequent linking of potential partners to the development of an initiative for submitting a future Triple Helix/FP7 project represent an important contribution to a longer-term perspective on the preceding investigation. The potential partnerships between Europe and Latin America (in addition to other possible world regions, such as, for example, Pacific Asia will create an initial project draft within the scope of the conference.

  18. Central Wind Forecasting Programs in North America by Regional Transmission Organizations and Electric Utilities: Revised Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, J.; Porter, K.

    2011-03-01

    The report and accompanying table addresses the implementation of central wind power forecasting by electric utilities and regional transmission organizations in North America. The first part of the table focuses on electric utilities and regional transmission organizations that have central wind power forecasting in place; the second part focuses on electric utilities and regional transmission organizations that plan to adopt central wind power forecasting in 2010. This is an update of the December 2009 report, NREL/SR-550-46763.

  19. Wave equation modelling using Julia programming language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ahreum; Ryu, Donghyun; Ha, Wansoo

    2016-04-01

    Julia is a young high-performance dynamic programming language for scientific computations. It provides an extensive mathematical function library, a clean syntax and its own parallel execution model. We developed 2d wave equation modeling programs using Julia and C programming languages and compared their performance. We used the same modeling algorithm for the two modeling programs. We used Julia version 0.3.9 in this comparison. We declared data type of function arguments and used inbounds macro in the Julia program. Numerical results showed that the C programs compiled with Intel and GNU compilers were faster than Julia program, about 18% and 7%, respectively. Taking the simplicity of dynamic programming language into consideration, Julia can be a novel alternative of existing statically typed programming languages.

  20. A three-stage colonization model for the peopling of the Americas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Kitchen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We evaluate the process by which the Americas were originally colonized and propose a three-stage model that integrates current genetic, archaeological, geological, and paleoecological data. Specifically, we analyze mitochondrial and nuclear genetic data by using complementary coalescent models of demographic history and incorporating non-genetic data to enhance the anthropological relevance of the analysis. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: Bayesian skyline plots, which provide dynamic representations of population size changes over time, indicate that Amerinds went through two stages of growth approximately 40,000 and approximately 15,000 years ago separated by a long period of population stability. Isolation-with-migration coalescent analyses, which utilize data from sister populations to estimate a divergence date and founder population sizes, suggest an Amerind population expansion starting approximately 15,000 years ago. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results support a model for the peopling of the New World in which Amerind ancestors diverged from the Asian gene pool prior to 40,000 years ago and experienced a gradual population expansion as they moved into Beringia. After a long period of little change in population size in greater Beringia, Amerinds rapidly expanded into the Americas approximately 15,000 years ago either through an interior ice-free corridor or along the coast. This rapid colonization of the New World was achieved by a founder group with an effective population size of approximately 1,000-5,400 individuals. Our model presents a detailed scenario for the timing and scale of the initial migration to the Americas, substantially refines the estimate of New World founders, and provides a unified theory for testing with future datasets and analytic methods.

  1. A Unified Approach to Modeling and Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; Møller-Pedersen, Birger

    2010-01-01

    SIMULA was a language for modeling and programming and provided a unied approach to modeling and programming in contrast to methodologies based on structured analysis and design. The current development seems to be going in the direction of separation of modeling and programming. The goal...... of this paper is to go back to the future and get inspiration from SIMULA and propose a unied approach. In addition to reintroducing the contributions of SIMULA and the Scandinavian approach to object-oriented programming, we do this by discussing a number of issues in modeling and programming and argue3 why we...

  2. A post-seismic deformation model after the 2010 earthquakes in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Laura; Drewes, Hermann; Schmidt, Michael

    2015-04-01

    The Maule 2010 earthquake in Chile generated the largest displacements of geodetic observation stations ever observed in terrestrial reference systems. Coordinate changes came up to 4 meters, and deformations were measurable in distances up to more than 1000 km from the epicentre. The station velocities in the regions adjacent to the epicentre changed dramatically after the seism; while they were oriented eastward with approximately 2 cm/year before the event, they are now directed westward with about 1 cm/year. The 2010 Baja California earthquake in Mexico produced displacements in the decimetre level also followed by anomalous velocity changes. The main problem in geodetic applications is that there is no reliable reference system to be used practically in the region. For geophysical applications we have to redefine the tectonic structure in South America. The area south of 35° S … 40° S was considered as a stable part of the South American plate. Now we see that there are large and extended crustal deformations. The paper presents a new multi-year velocity model computed from the Geocentric Reference System of the Americas (SIRGAS) including only the four years after the seismic events (mid-2010 … mid-2014). These velocities are used to derive a continuous deformation model of the entire Latin American region from Mexico to Tierra de Fuego. The model is compared with the same velocity model for SIRGAS (VEMOS2009) before the earthquakes.

  3. Apprenticeship in Latin America: The INACAP Program in Chile. A Case Study. Occasional Paper #6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corvalan-Vasquez, Oscar E.

    The development of apprenticeship programs in several Latin American countries was investigated with a focus on the results of an industrial apprenticeship program in Santiago, Chile. The program studied was the Instituto Nacional de Capacitacion Profesional (INACAP), the national vocational training institute of Chile. The purpose of the study…

  4. Regional dynamics and external influences in the discussions about the model of economic integration in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    BRICEÑO-RUIZ, José

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses the current scenario of regional economic integration in Latin America. Thus, it is argued that economic integration in this region is currently developing in three axes: an open integration axis (represented by the Pacific Alliance); a revisionist axis (symbolized by the Southern Common Market –Mercosur-) and an anti-systemic axis (represented by the Bolivarian Alliance for the People of our America –ALBA-). In each of these initiatives, diverse models of regional economi...

  5. Climate change hotspots over South America: from CMIP3 to CMIP5 multi-model datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Roger Rodrigues; Marengo, Jose Antonio

    2014-08-01

    This study identifies possible hotspots of climate change in South America through an examination of the spatial pattern of the Regional Climate Change Index (RCCI) over the region by the end of the twenty-first century. The RCCI is a qualitative index that can synthesize a large number of climate model projections, and it is suitable for identifying those regions where climate change could be more pronounced in a warmer climate. The reliability and uncertainties of the results are evaluated by using numerous state-of-the-art general circulation models (GCMs) and forcing scenarios from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phases 3 and 5. The results show that southern Amazonia and the central-western region and western portion of Minas Gerais state in Brazil are persistent climate change hotspots through different forcing scenarios and GCM datasets. In general, as the scenarios vary from low- to high-level forcing, the area of high values of RCCI increase and the magnitude intensify from central-western and southeast Brazil to northwest South America. In general, the climatic hotspots identified in this study are characterized by an increase of mean surface air temperature, mainly in the austral winter; by an increase of interannual temperature variability, predominantly in the austral summer; and by a change in the mean and interannual variability of precipitation during the austral winter.

  6. Objective calibration of regional climate models: Application over Europe and North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellprat, O.; de Elía, R.; Frigon, A.; Kotlarski, S.; Lüthi, D.; Laprise, R.; Schär, C.

    2014-12-01

    An important source of model uncertainty in climate models arises from unconfined model parameters in physical parameterizations. These parameters are commonly estimated on the basis of manual adjustments (expert tuning), which carries the risk of over-tuning the parameters for a specific climate region or time period. This issue is particularly germane in the case of regional climate models (RCM), which are often developed and used in one or a few geographical regions only. Here we address the role of objective parameter calibration in this context. Using a previously developed objective calibration methodology, we calibrate an RCM over two regions (Europe and North America) and investigate the transferability of the results. A total of eight different model parameters are calibrated, using a metamodel to account for parameter interactions. We demonstrate that the calibration is effective in reducing model biases in both domains. For Europe, this concerns in particular a pronounced reduction of the summer warm bias and the associated overestimation of interannual temperature variability, that has persisted previous expert tuning efforts and that is common in many global and regional climate models. The key process responsible behind this improvement is an increased hydrological conductivity. Over North America, there is also some reduction of the summer warm bias, but in addition the calibration achieves a pronounced reduction of winter biases in interannual temperature variability. We also find that the calibrated parameter values are almost identical for both domains, i.e. the parameter calibration is transferable between the two regions. This is a promising result and indicates that models may be more universal than previously considered.

  7. A Type Graph Model for Java Programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rensink, Arend; Zambon, Eduardo; Lee, D.; Lopes, A.; Poetzsch-Heffter, A.

    2009-01-01

    In this work we present a type graph that models all executable constructs of the Java programming language. Such a model is useful for any graph-based technique that relies on a representation of Java programs as graphs. The model can be regarded as a common representation to which all Java syntax

  8. A Type Graph Model for Java Programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rensink, Arend; Zambon, Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    In this report we present a type graph that models all executable constructs of the Java programming language. Such a model is useful for any graph-based technique that relies on a representation of Java programs as graphs. The model can be regarded as a common representation to which all Java synta

  9. Program Analysis as Model Checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Mads Chr.

    Software programs are proliferating throughout modern life, to a point where even the simplest appliances such as lightbulbs contain software, in addition to the software embedded in cars and airplanes. The correct functioning of these programs is therefore of the utmost importance, for the quality...

  10. Simulating Climate Change in Central America Using PRECIS Regional Modeling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmalkar, A. V.; Bradley, R. S.; Diaz, H. F.

    2006-12-01

    Highland tropical forests are rich in endemic species and crucial in maintaining freshwater resources in many regions. Much of their remarkable biodiversity is due to the steep climate gradients found on tropical mountains. These gradients are significantly altered due to warming, affecting many species living on the mountain slopes. Costa Rica's Monteverde Cloud Forest shows biological changes associated with changes in climatic patterns. Our goal is to understand climate change at areas of high relief in the tropics and its potential impacts on ecosystem dynamics. We address this question by focusing on Central America, which is considered to be a biodiversity hotspot. The model used is the UK Hadley Center PRECIS(Providing REgional Climates for Impact Studies) model. The model is based on HadAM3H, an improved version of the atmospheric component of the latest Hadley Center coupled AOGCM, HadCM3 and is forced at the lateral boundaries by HadAM3P GCM. The surface boundary conditions include observed SSTs and sea-ice. We carried out a baseline run (1961-1990) and a doubled CO2 run (SRES A2 2071-2100) at a resolution of 25 km (0.22°) over the region of Central America that includes several biodiversity hotspots. Model verification is performed by comparing control run results with observations and reanalysis data. Preliminary analysis shows that PRECIS has successfully captured present-day spatial and temporal climate variability that has been observed in Central America. Elevation dependency of temperature is one of the important results of this study and will be investigated in great detail. The SRES A2 run shows average warming of about 3K, with more warming at higher altitudes in general. Precipitation and relative humidity analysis shows drier conditions in the region in 2 × CO2 world. Additional techniques are being developed to better quantify model performance in areas of high relief. We plan to expand this project to other models, and to additional

  11. Mental Models and Programming Aptitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caspersen, Michael Edelgaard; Bennedsen, Jens; Larsen, Kasper Dalgaard

    2007-01-01

    Predicting the success of students participating in introductory programming courses has been an active research area for more than 25 years. Until recently, no variables or tests have had any significant predictive power. However, Dehnadi and Bornat claim to have found a simple test for programm......Predicting the success of students participating in introductory programming courses has been an active research area for more than 25 years. Until recently, no variables or tests have had any significant predictive power. However, Dehnadi and Bornat claim to have found a simple test...... for programming aptitude to cleanly separate programming sheep from non-programming goats. We briefly present their theory and test instrument. We have repeated their test in our local context in order to verify and perhaps generalise their findings, but we could not show that the test predicts students' success...... in our introductory program-ming course. Based on this failure of the test instrument, we discuss various explanations for our differing results and suggest a research method from which it may be possible to generalise local results in this area. Furthermore, we discuss and criticize Dehnadi and Bornat...

  12. A Model Proposal for Educational Television Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Feridun AKYUREK

    2005-01-01

    A Model Proposal for Educational Television Programs Assoc. Prof. Dr. Feridun AKYUREKFaculty of Communication SciencesEskisehir, Anadolu University-TURKEY ABSTRACT Almost all educational television programs are produced in similar ways and they are usually thought to be produced that way. These programs intend to reach the students of any organisation or any educetion establishment, but their ratings do not match with the expected level. In order to increase the quality of these programs and...

  13. Applied Integer Programming Modeling and Solution

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Der-San; Dang, Yu

    2011-01-01

    An accessible treatment of the modeling and solution of integer programming problems, featuring modern applications and software In order to fully comprehend the algorithms associated with integer programming, it is important to understand not only how algorithms work, but also why they work. Applied Integer Programming features a unique emphasis on this point, focusing on problem modeling and solution using commercial software. Taking an application-oriented approach, this book addresses the art and science of mathematical modeling related to the mixed integer programming (MIP) framework and

  14. 13 CFR 120.398 - America's Recovery Capital (ARC) Loan Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of repayment, taking into consideration the following: (1) Character, reputation, and credit history... SBA Loan Program Requirements as defined in Section 120.10. Loans with de minimis value may, at...

  15. Extreme Poverty Rising, Existing Government Programs Could Do More. New Federalism: National Survey of America's Families, Series B, No. B-45. Assessing the New Federalism: An Urban Institute Program To Assess Changing Social Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zedlewski, Sheila R.; Giannarelli, Linda; Morton, Joyce; Wheaton, Laura

    This brief examines how decreased program participation has affected poverty since welfare reform, reviewing changes in poverty from 1996-1998 and comparing families' current economic status with a scenario that assumes full participation in government support programs. Data come from the 1997 and 1999 National Surveys of America's Families (NSAF)…

  16. Constraints from observations and modeling on atmosphere–surface exchange of mercury in eastern North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaojie Song

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Atmosphere–surface exchange of mercury, although a critical component of its global cycle, is currently poorly constrained. Here we use the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model to interpret atmospheric Hg0 (gaseous elemental mercury data collected during the 2013 summer Nitrogen, Oxidants, Mercury and Aerosol Distributions, Sources and Sinks (NOMADSS aircraft campaign as well as ground- and ship-based observations in terms of their constraints on the atmosphere–surface exchange of Hg0 over eastern North America. Model–observation comparison suggests that the Northwest Atlantic may be a net source of Hg0, with high evasion fluxes in summer (our best sensitivity simulation shows an average oceanic Hg0 flux of 3.3 ng m-2 h-1 over the Northwest Atlantic, while the terrestrial ecosystem in the summer of the eastern United States is likely a net sink of Hg0 (our best sensitivity simulation shows an average terrestrial Hg0 flux of -0.6 ng m-2 h-1 over the eastern United States. The inferred high Hg0 fluxes from the Northwest Atlantic may result from high wet deposition fluxes of oxidized Hg, which are in turn related to high precipitation rates in this region. We also find that increasing simulated terrestrial fluxes of Hg0 in spring compared to other seasons can better reproduce observed seasonal variability of Hg0 concentration at ground-based sites in eastern North America.

  17. Infectious disease in cervids of North America: data, models, and management challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Mary Margaret; Ebinger, Michael Ryan; Blanchong, Julie Anne; Cross, Paul Chafee

    2008-01-01

    Over the past two decades there has been a steady increase in the study and management of wildlife diseases. This trend has been driven by the perception of an increase in emerging zoonotic diseases and the recognition that wildlife can be a critical factor for controlling infectious diseases in domestic animals. Cervids are of recent concern because, as a group, they present a number of unique challenges. Their close ecological and phylogenetic relationship to livestock species places them at risk for receiving infections from, and reinfecting livestock. In addition, cervids are an important resource; revenue from hunting and viewing contribute substantially to agency budgets and local economies. A comprehensive coverage of infectious diseases in cervids is well beyond the scope of this chapter. In North America alone there are a number of infectious diseases that can potentially impact cervid populations, but for most of these, management is not feasible or the diseases are only a potential or future concern. We focus this chapter on three diseases that are of major management concern and the center of most disease research for cervids in North America: bovine tuberculosis, chronic wasting disease, and brucellosis. We discuss the available data and recent advances in modeling and management of these diseases.

  18. Infectious disease in cervids of North America: data, models, and management challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Mary Margaret; Ebinger, Michael Ryan; Blanchong, Julie Anne; Cross, Paul Chafee

    2008-01-01

    Over the past two decades there has been a steady increase in the study and management of wildlife diseases. This trend has been driven by the perception of an increase in emerging zoonotic diseases and the recognition that wildlife can be a critical factor for controlling infectious diseases in domestic animals. Cervids are of recent concern because, as a group, they present a number of unique challenges. Their close ecological and phylogenetic relationship to livestock species places them at risk for receiving infections from, and reinfecting livestock. In addition, cervids are an important resource; revenue from hunting and viewing contribute substantially to agency budgets and local economies. A comprehensive coverage of infectious diseases in cervids is well beyond the scope of this chapter. In North America alone there are a number of infectious diseases that can potentially impact cervid populations, but for most of these, management is not feasible or the diseases are only a potential or future concern. We focus this chapter on three diseases that are of major management concern and the center of most disease research for cervids in North America: bovine tuberculosis, chronic wasting disease, and brucellosis. We discuss the available data and recent advances in modeling and management of these diseases. PMID:18566093

  19. The Applied Meteorology Unit: Nineteen Years Successfully Transitioning Research into Operations for America's Space Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madura, John T.; Bauman, William H.; Merceret, Francis J.; Roeder, William P.; Brody, Frank C.; Hagemeyer, Bartlett C.

    2010-01-01

    The Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) provides technology transition and technique development to improve operational weather support to the Space Shuttle and the entire American space program. The AMU is funded and managed by NASA and operated by a contractor that provides five meteorologists with a diverse mix of advanced degrees, operational experience, and associated skills including data processing, statistics, and the development of graphical user interfaces. The AMU's primary customers are the U.S. Air Force 45th Weather Squadron at Patrick Air Force Base, the National Weather Service Spaceflight Meteorology Group at NASA Johnson Space Center, and the National Weather Service Melbourne FL Forecast Office. The AMU has transitioned research into operations for nineteen years and worked on a wide range of topics, including new forecasting techniques for lightning probability, synoptic peak winds,.convective winds, and summer severe weather; satellite tools to predict anvil cloud trajectories and evaluate camera line of sight for Space Shuttle launch; optimized radar scan strategies; evaluated and implemented local numerical models; evaluated weather sensors; and many more. The AMU has completed 113 projects with 5 more scheduled to be completed by the end of 2010. During this rich history, the AMU and its customers have learned many lessons on how to effectively transition research into operations. Some of these lessons learned include collocating with the operational customer and periodically visiting geographically separated customers, operator submitted projects, consensus tasking process, use of operator primary advocates for each project, customer AMU liaisons with experience in both operations and research, flexibility in adapting the project plan based on lessons learned during the project, and incorporating training and other transition assistance into the project plans. Operator involvement has been critical to the AMU's remarkable success and many awards

  20. First Year Middle and High School Teachers' Mathematical Content Proficiency and Attitudes: Alternative Certification in the Teach for America (TFA) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Brian R.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand the mathematical content proficiency middle and high school teachers have before and after their first year teaching and taking graduate coursework in the Teach for America (TFA) program, as well as what attitudes toward mathematics TFA teachers have over the first year. There was a significant increase…

  1. 78 FR 76791 - Availability of Version 4.0 of the Connect America Fund Phase II Cost Model; Adopting Current...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-19

    ... workbook. Buried excavation costs are used. A toggle allows the user to exclude manholes (the current... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 54 Availability of Version 4.0 of the Connect America Fund Phase II Cost Model; Adopting Current Default Inputs in Final Version of Model AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission....

  2. Emerging Space Powers The New Space Programs of Asia, the Middle East, and South America

    CERN Document Server

    Harvey, Brian; Pirard, Théo

    2010-01-01

    This work introduces the important emerging space powers of the world. Brian Harvey describes the origins of the Japanese space program, from rocket designs based on WW II German U-boats to tiny solid fuel 'pencil' rockets, which led to the launch of the first Japanese satellite in 1970. The next two chapters relate how Japan expanded its space program, developing small satellites into astronomical observatories and sending missions to the Moon, Mars, comet Halley, and asteroids. Chapter 4 describes how India's Vikram Sarabhai developed a sounding rocket program in the 1960s. The following chapter describes the expansion of the Indian space program. Chapter 6 relates how the Indian space program is looking ahead to the success of the moon probe Chandrayan, due to launch in 2008, and its first manned launching in 2014. Chapters 7, 8, and 9 demonstrate how, in Iran, communications and remote sensing drive space technology. Chapter 10 outlines Brazil's road to space, begun in the mid-1960's with the launch of th...

  3. Model Checking JAVA Programs Using Java Pathfinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havelund, Klaus; Pressburger, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes a translator called JAVA PATHFINDER from JAVA to PROMELA, the "programming language" of the SPIN model checker. The purpose is to establish a framework for verification and debugging of JAVA programs based on model checking. This work should be seen in a broader attempt to make formal methods applicable "in the loop" of programming within NASA's areas such as space, aviation, and robotics. Our main goal is to create automated formal methods such that programmers themselves can apply these in their daily work (in the loop) without the need for specialists to manually reformulate a program into a different notation in order to analyze the program. This work is a continuation of an effort to formally verify, using SPIN, a multi-threaded operating system programmed in Lisp for the Deep-Space 1 spacecraft, and of previous work in applying existing model checkers and theorem provers to real applications.

  4. Evaluation of operational online-coupled regional air quality models over Europe and North America in the context of AQMEII phase 2. Part II: Particulate matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Im, U.; Bianconi, R.; Solazzo, E.; Kioutsioukis, I.; Badia, A.; Balzarini, A.; Baro, R.; Bellasio, R.; Brunner, D.; Chemel, C.; Curci, G.; Denier van der Gon, H.A.C.; Flemming, J.; Forkel, R.; Giordano, L.; Jimenez-Guerrero, P.; Hirtl, M.; Hodzic, A.; Honzak, L.; Jorba, O.; Knote, C.; Makar, P.A.; Manders-Groot, A.M.M.; Neal, L.; Perez, J.L.; Pirovano, G.; Pouliot, G.; San Jose, R.; Savage, N.; Schroder, W.; Sokhi, R.S.; Syrakov, D.; Torian, A.; Tucella, P.; Wang, K.; Werhahn, J.; Wolke, R.; Zabkar, R.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, J.; Hogrefe, C.; Galmarini, S.

    2014-01-01

    The second phase of the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII) brought together seventeen modeling groups from Europe and North America, running eight operational online-coupled air quality models over Europe and North America using common emissions and boundary conditions. T

  5. Building America Case Study: Meeting DOE Challenge Home Program Certification, Chicago, Illinois; Denver, Colorado; Devens, Massachusetts (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this project was to evaluate integrated packages of advanced measures in individual test homes to assess their performance with respect to Building America Program goals, specifically compliance with the DOE Challenge Home Program. BSC consulted on the construction of five test houses by three Cold Climate production builders in three separate US cities. BSC worked with the builders to develop a design package tailored to the cost-related impacts for each builder. Therefore, the resulting design packages do vary from builder to builder. BSC provided support through this research project on the design, construction and performance testing of the five test homes. Overall, the builders have concluded that the energy related upgrades (either through the prescriptive or performance path) represent reasonable upgrades. The builders commented that while not every improvement in specification was cost effective (as in a reasonable payback period), many were improvements that could improve the marketability of the homes and serve to attract more energy efficiency discerning prospective homeowners. However, the builders did express reservations on the associated checklists and added certifications. An increase in administrative time was observed with all builders. The checklists and certifications also inherently increase cost due to: 1. Adding services to the scope of work for various trades, such as HERS Rater, HVAC contractor. 2. Increased material costs related to the checklists, especially the EPA Indoor airPLUS and EPA WaterSense Efficient Hot Water Distribution requirement.

  6. A Model for Slicing JAVA Programs Hierarchically

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bi-Xin Li; Xiao-Cong Fan; Jun Pang; Jian-Jun Zhao

    2004-01-01

    Program slicing can be effectively used to debug, test, analyze, understand and maintain objectoriented software. In this paper, a new slicing model is proposed to slice Java programs based on their inherent hierarchical feature. The main idea of hierarchical slicing is to slice programs in a stepwise way, from package level, to class level, method level, and finally up to statement level. The stepwise slicing algorithm and the related graph reachability algorithms are presented, the architecture of the Java program Analyzing Tool (JATO) based on hierarchical slicing model is provided, the applications and a small case study are also discussed.

  7. GOES, POES, NPOESS - Plans for America s civil operational enivronmental satellite programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittberner, G.

    GOES. The United States operates two meteorological GOES satellites: GOES-East located at 75° west longitude and GOES-West at 135° West longitude. The combined GOES system covers the central and eastern Pacific Ocean; North, Central, and South America; and the central and western Atlantic Ocean. GOES-8 (East) was launched on April 13, 1994, while GOES-10 (West) was launched April 26, 1997. GOES-11 (launched May 2000) and GOES-12 (June 2001) are in on-orbit storage. The next group of satellites is the GOES-N series, which will provide up to four satellites with essentially the same Imager and Sensor capability. GOES-N is planned to be launched in 2004. Since normal time to develop new satellites is about ten years, planning is already well underway for the GOES-R series, planned to be launched in 2012. GOES-R will have substantially improved instruments. New Imaging requirements will be met by a instrument with between eight and 12 channels, and will cover the United States routinely every five mi utes withn improved resolution. Sounding requirements for temperature, moisture, and wind profiles will be met with an interferometer-like instrument having about 1500 channels and requiring a large increase in data rates. POLAR Systems - POES and NPOESS. The NOAA Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) system series has been providing continuous observations of the Earth since April 1960. Currently, NOAA-16 is the primary afternoon POES and NOAA-15 is the primary morning satellite. NOAA-12 and NOAA-14 serve as backups. At this writing, the next satellite to be launched is NOAA-M in June, 2002. Two more POES satellites remain to be launched as the nation transitions to the new NPOESS system. NOAA's longer-term plans call for increasing cooperation with the European Organization for the Exploitation of Met eorological Satellites (EUMETSAT). Through a joint cooperation agreement, EUMETSAT?s new polar- orbiting satellite, known as METOP, will carry NOAA

  8. Implementing a screening program for acromegaly in Latin America: necessity versus feasibility

    OpenAIRE

    Danilowicz, Karina; Day, Patricia Fainstein; Marcos P. Manavela; Herrera, Carlos Javier; Deheza, María Laura; Isaac, Gabriel; Juri, Ariel; Katz, Debora; Oscar D. Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Acromegaly is a rare disease with a large burden due its associated comorbidities and the life-long management required. Since the occurrence and severity of associated complications are related to length of exposure to the excess growth hormone seen in acromegaly, early diagnosis is imperative. The delay in diagnosis, however, can be long, and may be the result of a lack of disease awareness and screening programs. Since acromegaly is an uncommon disease, finding ways to increas...

  9. Proposal of Enhanced Extreme Programming Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rizwan Jameel Qureshi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Extreme programming is one of the commonly used agile methodologies in software development. It is very responsive to changing requirements even in the late phases of the project. However, quality activities in extreme programming phases are implemented sequentially along with the activities that work on the functional requirements. This reduces the agility to deliver increments continuously and makes an inverse relationship between quality and agility. Due to this relationship, extreme programming does not consume enough time on making extensive documentation and robust design. To overcome these issues, an enhanced extreme programming model is proposed. Enhanced extreme programming introduces parallelism in the activities' execution through putting quality activities into a separate execution line. In this way, the focus on delivering increments quickly is achieved without affecting the quality of the final output. In enhanced extreme programming, the quality concept is extended to include refinement of all phases of classical extreme programming and creating architectural design based on the refined design documents.

  10. Integer Programming Models for Computational Biology Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giuseppe Lancia

    2004-01-01

    The recent years have seen an impressive increase in the use of Integer Programming models for the solution of optimization problems originating in Molecular Biology. In this survey, some of the most successful Integer Programming approaches are described, while a broad overview of application areas being is given in modern Computational Molecular Biology.

  11. Comparing emission inventories and model-ready emission datasets between Europe and North America for the AQMEII project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pouliot, G.; Pierce, T.; Denier van der Gon, H.; Schaap, M.; Moran, M.; Nopmongcol, U.

    2012-01-01

    This paper highlights the similarities and differences in how emission inventories and datasets were developed and processed across North America and Europe for the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII) project and then characterizes the emissions for the two domains. We foc

  12. The American Library Association in Latin America: American Librarianship as a "Modern" Model during the Good Neighbor Policy Era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maymi-Sugranes, Hector J.

    2002-01-01

    Through American Library Association (ALA) projects in Latin America, American librarianship progressed from conceptualization to implementation as the model in modernizing Latin American library practices and societies. Development of library practices was fundamental to pursuit of a "modern" society. In fighting fascist propaganda, the United…

  13. 78 FR 17624 - Wireline Competition Bureau Adds New Discussion Topic To Connect America Cost Model Virtual Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... System (ECFS). See Electronic Filing of Documents in Rulemaking Proceedings, 63 FR 24121, May 1, 1998... Return for Connect America Cost Model,'' to seek public input on what cost of money should be utilized in.... Virtual Workshop: In addition to the usual methods for filing electronic comments, the Commission...

  14. A numerical modelling study on regional mercury budget for eastern North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Lin

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have integrated an up-to-date physio-chemical transformation mechanism of Hg into the framework of US EPA's CMAQ model system. In addition, the model adapted detailed calculations of the air-surface exchange for Hg to properly describe Hg re-emissions and dry deposition from and to natural surfaces. The mechanism covers Hg in three categories, elemental Hg (Hg0, reactive gaseous Hg (RGM and particulate Hg (HgP. With interfacing to MM5 (meteorology processor and SMOKE (emission processor, we applied the model to a 4-week period in June/July 1995 on a domain covering most of eastern North America. Results indicate that the model simulates reasonably well the levels of total gaseous Hg (TGM and the specific Hg wet deposition measurements made by the Hg deposition network (MDN. Moreover, results from various scenario runs reveal that the Hg system behaves in a closely linear way in terms of contributions from different source categories, i.e. anthropogenic emissions, natural re-emissions and background. Analyses of the scenario results suggest that 37% of anthropogenically emitted Hg was deposited back in the model domain with 5155 kg of anthropogenic Hg moving out of the domain during the simulation period. Overall, the domain served as a net source, which supplied ~a half ton of Hg to the global background pool over the period. Our model validation and a sensitivity test further rationalized the rate constant for gaseous oxidation of Hg0 by hydroxyl radical OH used in the global scale modelling study by Bergan and Rodhe (2001. A further laboratory determination of the reaction rate constant, including its temperature dependence, stands as one of the important issues critical to improving our knowledge on the budget and cycling of Hg.

  15. A Model Proposal for Educational Television Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feridun AKYUREK

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available A Model Proposal for Educational Television Programs Assoc. Prof. Dr. Feridun AKYUREKFaculty of Communication SciencesEskisehir, Anadolu University-TURKEY ABSTRACT Almost all educational television programs are produced in similar ways and they are usually thought to be produced that way. These programs intend to reach the students of any organisation or any educetion establishment, but their ratings do not match with the expected level. In order to increase the quality of these programs and to make them being regularly watched, people in education and television fields have to work in cooperation.

  16. Tsunami hazard assessment in El Salvador, Central America, from seismic sources through flooding numerical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Gómez, J. A.; Aniel-Quiroga, Í.; Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, O. Q.; Larreynaga, J.; González, M.; Castro, M.; Gavidia, F.; Aguirre-Ayerbe, I.; González-Riancho, P.; Carreño, E.

    2013-11-01

    El Salvador is the smallest and most densely populated country in Central America; its coast has an approximate length of 320 km, 29 municipalities and more than 700 000 inhabitants. In El Salvador there were 15 recorded tsunamis between 1859 and 2012, 3 of them causing damages and resulting in hundreds of victims. Hazard assessment is commonly based on propagation numerical models for earthquake-generated tsunamis and can be approached through both probabilistic and deterministic methods. A deterministic approximation has been applied in this study as it provides essential information for coastal planning and management. The objective of the research was twofold: on the one hand the characterization of the threat over the entire coast of El Salvador, and on the other the computation of flooding maps for the three main localities of the Salvadorian coast. For the latter we developed high-resolution flooding models. For the former, due to the extension of the coastal area, we computed maximum elevation maps, and from the elevation in the near shore we computed an estimation of the run-up and the flooded area using empirical relations. We have considered local sources located in the Middle America Trench, characterized seismotectonically, and distant sources in the rest of Pacific Basin, using historical and recent earthquakes and tsunamis. We used a hybrid finite differences-finite volumes numerical model in this work, based on the linear and non-linear shallow water equations, to simulate a total of 24 earthquake-generated tsunami scenarios. Our results show that at the western Salvadorian coast, run-up values higher than 5 m are common, while in the eastern area, approximately from La Libertad to the Gulf of Fonseca, the run-up values are lower. The more exposed areas to flooding are the lowlands in the Lempa River delta and the Barra de Santiago Western Plains. The results of the empirical approximation used for the whole country are similar to the results

  17. Tsunami hazard assessment in El Salvador, Central America, from seismic sources through flooding numerical models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Álvarez-Gómez

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available El Salvador is the smallest and most densely populated country in Central America; its coast has approximately a length of 320 km, 29 municipalities and more than 700 000 inhabitants. In El Salvador there have been 15 recorded tsunamis between 1859 and 2012, 3 of them causing damages and hundreds of victims. The hazard assessment is commonly based on propagation numerical models for earthquake-generated tsunamis and can be approached from both Probabilistic and Deterministic Methods. A deterministic approximation has been applied in this study as it provides essential information for coastal planning and management. The objective of the research was twofold, on the one hand the characterization of the threat over the entire coast of El Salvador, and on the other the computation of flooding maps for the three main localities of the Salvadorian coast. For the latter we developed high resolution flooding models. For the former, due to the extension of the coastal area, we computed maximum elevation maps and from the elevation in the near-shore we computed an estimation of the run-up and the flooded area using empirical relations. We have considered local sources located in the Middle America Trench, characterized seismotectonically, and distant sources in the rest of Pacific basin, using historical and recent earthquakes and tsunamis. We used a hybrid finite differences – finite volumes numerical model in this work, based on the Linear and Non-linear Shallow Water Equations, to simulate a total of 24 earthquake generated tsunami scenarios. In the western Salvadorian coast, run-up values higher than 5 m are common, while in the eastern area, approximately from La Libertad to the Gulf of Fonseca, the run-up values are lower. The more exposed areas to flooding are the lowlands in the Lempa River delta and the Barra de Santiago Western Plains. The results of the empirical approximation used for the whole country are similar to the results obtained

  18. A Type Graph Model for Java Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Rensink, Arend; Zambon, Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    In this report we present a type graph that models all executable constructs of the Java programming language. Such a model is useful for any graph-based technique that relies on a representation of Java programs as graphs. The model can be regarded as a common representation to which all Java syntax graphs must adhere. We also present the systematic approach that is being taken to generate syntax graphs from Java code. Since the type graph model is comprehensive, i.e., covers the whole langu...

  19. Opportunities of the new technological model of light vehicle fuels in South America; Oportunidades futuras no novo modelo tecnologico de combustiveis para veiculos leves na America do Sul

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dourado, Jose Diamantino de A. [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica Celso Sukow da Fonseca (CEFET-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Chaves, Hernani Aquini F.; Jones, Cleveland Maximino [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Estratigrafia e Paleontologia (DEPA)

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this work is to show which solutions the South American market is putting forth for the new technological model of the automotive fuel for light duty vehicles. A strong and irreversible trend is underway, which is seeking more environmentally friendly and economically attractive alternatives for the conventional automotive technology, based on the consumption of gasoline and diesel fuel. This trend is evident not only in Latin America, but also in many other countries and regions, and has resulted in a great number of vehicle conversions, so as to operate with vehicular natural gas. Another important way in which this trend has expressed itself is the commercial acceptance and success of the tetra fuel technology vehicles. (author)

  20. Recent Weather Technologies Delivered to America's Space Program by the Applied Meteorology Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, WIlliam, H., III; Crawford, Winifred

    2009-01-01

    The Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) is a unique joint venture of NASA, the Air Force and the National Weather Service (NWS) and has been supporting the Space Program for nearly two decades. The AMU acts as a bridge between the meteorological research community and operational forecasters by developing, evaluating and transitioning new technology and techniques to improve weather support to spaceport operations at the Eastern Range (ER) and Kennedy Space Center. Its primary customers are the 45th Weather Squadron at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS), the Spaceflight Meteorology Group at Johnson Space Center and the National Weather Service Office in Melbourne, FL. Its products are used to support NASA's Shuttle and ELV programs as well as Department of Defense and commercial launches from the ER. Shuttle support includes landing sites beyond the ER. The AMU is co-located with the Air Force operational forecasters at CCAFS to facilitate continuous two-way interaction between the AMU and its operational customers. It is operated under a NASA, Air Force, and NWS Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) by a competitively-selected contractor. The contract, which is funded and managed by NASA, provides five full time professionals with degrees in meteorology or related fields, some of whom also have operational experience. NASA provides a Ph.D.- level NASA civil service scientist as Chief of the AMU. The AMU is tasked by its customers through a unique, nationally recognized process. The tasks are limited to development, evaluation and operational transition of technology to improve weather support to spaceport operations and providing expert advice to the customers. The MOU expressly forbids using the AMU resources to conduct operations or do basic research. The presentation will provide a brief overview of the AMU and how it is tasked by its customers to provide high priority products and services. The balance of the presentation will cover a sampling of products

  1. Modeling South America regional smoke plume: aerosol optical depth variability and shortwave surface forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosário, N. E.; Longo, K. M.; Freitas, S. R.; Yamasoe, M. A.; Fonseca, R. M.

    2012-07-01

    Intra-seasonal variability of smoke aerosol optical depth (AOD) and downwelling solar irradiance at the surface during the 2002 biomass burning season in South America was modeled using the Coupled Chemistry-Aerosol-Tracer Transport model to the Brazilian developments on the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (CCATT-BRAMS). Measurements of AOD from the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) and solar irradiance at the surface from the Solar Radiation Network (SolRad-NET) were used to evaluate model results. In general, the major features associated with AOD evolution over the southern part of the Amazon Basin and cerrado ecosystem are captured by the model. The main discrepancies were found for high aerosol loading events. In the northeastern portion of the Amazon Basin the model systematically underestimated AOD. This is likely due to the cloudy nature of the region, preventing accurate detection of the fire spots used in the emission model. Moreover, measured AOD were very often close to background conditions and emissions other than smoke were not considered in the simulation. Therefore, under the background scenario, one would expect the model to underestimate AOD. The issue of high aerosol loading events in the southern part of the Amazon and cerrado is also discussed in the context of emission shortcomings. The Cuiabá cerrado site was the only one where the highest quality AERONET data were unavailable. Thus, lower quality data were used. Root-mean-square-error (RMSE) between the model and observations decreased from 0.48 to 0.17 when extreme AOD events (AOD550 nm ≥ 1.0) and Cuiabá were excluded from analysis. Downward surface solar irradiance comparisons also followed similar trends when extremes AOD were excluded. This highlights the need to improve the modelling of the regional smoke plume in order to enhance the accuracy of the radiative energy budget. Aerosol optical model based on the mean intensive properties of smoke from the southern part of the

  2. Models of crustal thickness for South America from seismic refraction, receiver functions and surface wave tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assumpção, Marcelo; Feng, Mei; Tassara, Andrés; Julià, Jordi

    2013-12-01

    An extensive compilation of crustal thicknesses is used to develop crustal models in continental South America. We consider point crustal thicknesses from seismic refraction experiments, receiver function analyses, and surface-wave dispersion. Estimates of crustal thickness derived from gravity anomalies were only included along the continental shelf and in some areas of the Andes to fill large gaps in seismic coverage. Two crustal models were developed: A) by simple interpolation of the point estimates, and B) our preferred model, based on the same point estimates, interpolated with surface-wave tomography. Despite gaps in continental coverage, both models reveal interesting crustal thickness variations. In the Andean range, the crust reaches 75 km in Southern Peru and the Bolivian Altiplano, while crustal thicknesses seem to be close to the global continental average (~ 40 km) in Ecuador and southern Colombia (despite high elevations), and along the southern Andes of Chile-Argentina (elevation lower than 2000 m). In the stable continental platform the average thickness is 38 ± 5 km (1-st. deviation) and no systematic differences are observed among Archean-Paleoproterozoic cratons, NeoProterozoic fold belts, and low-altitude intracratonic sedimentary basins. An exception is the Borborema Province (NE Brazil) with crust ~ 30-35 km thick. Narrow belts surrounding the cratons are suggested in central Brazil, parallel to the eastern and southern border of the Amazon craton, and possibly along the TransBrasiliano Lineament continuing into the Chaco basin, where crust thinner than 35 km is observed. In the sub-Andean region, between the mid-plate cratons and the Andean cordillera, the crust tends to be thinner (~ 35 km) than the average crust in the stable platform, a feature possibly inherited from the old pre-Cambrian history of the continent. We expect that these crustal models will be useful for studies of isostasy, dynamic topography, and crustal evolution of the

  3. Forest carbon uptake in North America's aging temperate deciduous forests: A data-theory-model mismatch?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, C. M.; Curtis, P.; Bond-Lamberty, B. P.; Hardiman, B. S.; Scheuermann, C. M.; Nave, L. E.; Nadelhoffer, K. J.

    2015-12-01

    Century-old temperate deciduous forests in the US upper Midwest and Northeast power much of North America's terrestrial carbon sink, but these forests' carbon uptake capacity is expected to soon decline. But will this really happen? We marshal empirical data and ecological theory to show that declines in carbon uptake are not imminent in regrown temperate deciduous forests during coming decades, despite long-held assumptions and modeling results that predict declining carbon uptake during middle stages of ecosystem development. Age and production data for temperate deciduous forests, synthesized from published literature, do not provide evidence for declining net primary and ecosystem production (NPP and NEP, respectively) within the age-range most regional forests will occupy over the next half-century. Ecological theory suggests a mechanism for sustained carbon uptake in the region's aging forests in which high-frequency, low-severity disturbances maintain NPP and NEP by increasing ecosystem complexity. This theoretical model is supported by observations from the Forest Accelerated Succession Experiment in Michigan, USA, but such mechanisms sustaining production in old forests are not broadly represented in ecosystem models. Ecosystems experiencing low-frequency, high-severity disturbances that simplify ecosystem complexity do exhibit declining production during middle stages of succession, but we suggest that such scenarios have exerted a disproportionate influence on prevailing modeling and ecological assumptions regarding age-related declines in forest production. We conclude that there is wide ecological space for forests to sustain high rates of carbon uptake during middle stages of ecosystem development, and that advancing mechanistic understanding of long-term forest carbon cycle dynamics is essential to modeling the continent's future carbon sink strength.

  4. A hierarchical network approach for modeling Rift Valley fever epidemics with applications in North America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Xue

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever is a vector-borne zoonotic disease which causes high morbidity and mortality in livestock. In the event Rift Valley fever virus is introduced to the United States or other non-endemic areas, understanding the potential patterns of spread and the areas at risk based on disease vectors and hosts will be vital for developing mitigation strategies. Presented here is a general network-based mathematical model of Rift Valley fever. Given a lack of empirical data on disease vector species and their vector competence, this discrete time epidemic model uses stochastic parameters following several PERT distributions to model the dynamic interactions between hosts and likely North American mosquito vectors in dispersed geographic areas. Spatial effects and climate factors are also addressed in the model. The model is applied to a large directed asymmetric network of 3,621 nodes based on actual farms to examine a hypothetical introduction to some counties of Texas, an important ranching area in the United States of America. The nodes of the networks represent livestock farms, livestock markets, and feedlots, and the links represent cattle movements and mosquito diffusion between different nodes. Cattle and mosquito (Aedes and Culex populations are treated with different contact networks to assess virus propagation. Rift Valley fever virus spread is assessed under various initial infection conditions (infected mosquito eggs, adults or cattle. A surprising trend is fewer initial infectious organisms result in a longer delay before a larger and more prolonged outbreak. The delay is likely caused by a lack of herd immunity while the infection expands geographically before becoming an epidemic involving many dispersed farms and animals almost simultaneously. Cattle movement between farms is a large driver of virus expansion, thus quarantines can be efficient mitigation strategy to prevent further geographic spread.

  5. Colombia and Cuba, contrasting models in Latin America's health sector reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vos, Pol; De Ceukelaire, Wim; Van der Stuyft, Patrick

    2006-10-01

    Latin American national health systems were drastically overhauled by the health sector reforms the 1990s. Governments were urged by donors and by the international financial institutions to make major institutional changes, including the separation of purchaser and provider functions and privatization. This article first analyses a striking paradox of the far-reaching reform measures: contrary to what is imposed on public health services, after privatization purchaser and provider functions are reunited. Then we compare two contrasting examples: Colombia, which is internationally promoted as a successful--and radical--example of 'market-oriented' health care reform, and Cuba, which followed a highly 'conservative' path to adapt its public system to the new conditions since the 1990s, going against the model of the international institutions. The Colombian reform has not been able to materialize its promises of universality, improved equity, efficiency and better quality, while Cuban health care remains free, accessible for everybody and of good quality. Finally, we argue that the basic premises of the ongoing health sector reforms in Latin America are not based on the people's needs, but are strongly influenced by the needs of foreign--especially North American--corporations. However, an alternative model of health sector reform, such as the Cuban one, can probably not be pursued without fundamental changes in the economic and political foundations of Latin American societies. PMID:17002735

  6. Artificial neural networks and multiple linear regression model using principal components to estimate rainfall over South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares dos Santos, T.; Mendes, D.; Rodrigues Torres, R.

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have been devoted to dynamic and statistical downscaling for analysis of both climate variability and climate change. This paper introduces an application of artificial neural networks (ANNs) and multiple linear regression (MLR) by principal components to estimate rainfall in South America. This method is proposed for downscaling monthly precipitation time series over South America for three regions: the Amazon; northeastern Brazil; and the La Plata Basin, which is one of the regions of the planet that will be most affected by the climate change projected for the end of the 21st century. The downscaling models were developed and validated using CMIP5 model output and observed monthly precipitation. We used general circulation model (GCM) experiments for the 20th century (RCP historical; 1970-1999) and two scenarios (RCP 2.6 and 8.5; 2070-2100). The model test results indicate that the ANNs significantly outperform the MLR downscaling of monthly precipitation variability.

  7. A multilingual programming model for coupled systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ong, E. T.; Larson, J. W.; Norris, B.; Tobis, M.; Steder, M.; Jacob, R. L.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Univ. of Wisconsin; Univ. of Chicago; The Australian National Univ.

    2008-01-01

    Multiphysics and multiscale simulation systems share a common software requirement-infrastructure to implement data exchanges between their constituent parts-often called the coupling problem. On distributed-memory parallel platforms, the coupling problem is complicated by the need to describe, transfer, and transform distributed data, known as the parallel coupling problem. Parallel coupling is emerging as a new grand challenge in computational science as scientists attempt to build multiscale and multiphysics systems on parallel platforms. An additional coupling problem in these systems is language interoperability between their constituent codes. We have created a multilingual parallel coupling programming model based on a successful open-source parallel coupling library, the Model Coupling Toolkit (MCT). This programming model's capabilities reach beyond MCT's native Fortran implementation to include bindings for the C++ and Python programming languages. We describe the method used to generate the interlanguage bindings. This approach enables an object-based programming model for implementing parallel couplings in non-Fortran coupled systems and in systems with language heterogeneity. We describe the C++ and Python versions of the MCT programming model and provide short examples. We report preliminary performance results for the MCT interpolation benchmark. We describe a major Python application that uses the MCT Python bindings, a Python implementation of the control and coupling infrastructure for the community climate system model. We conclude with a discussion of the significance of this work to productivity computing in multidisciplinary computational science.

  8. A continental scale model for dissolved silica mobilization in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, N.; Lauerwald, R.; Hartmann, J.; Dürr, H. H.; Loos, S.; Kempe, S.; Middelkoop, H.

    2009-04-01

    Silicon is one of the few elements that link to both the organic and inorganic carbon cycles. Dissolved silicon (DSi) is an important nutrient in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Cations accompanying the release of DSi by chemical silicate rock weathering are generally balanced by soil/atmospheric CO2. Chemical weathering is the major source of "new" bioavailable DSi for continental aquatic systems to compensate for the loss of DSi by outflow or organic precipitation and burial. We use river water chemistry data from 164 monitoring stations from the conterminous United States (WQN and NAWQA networks). Selected stations are characterized by low population density and low influence of water bodies to minimize human and DSi retention impact. Observed DSi yield in these catchments is assumed to represent natural DSi mobilization by chemical weathering. The catchments have an average size of 4400 km2 (Median: 991 km2) with a discharge weighted average DSi yield of 4.34 t SiO2 km-2a-1. To predict mobilization of DSi from chemical weathering a lumped non-linear empirical model is developed, considering control factors such as climate, morphology, hydrology, land cover, soil and lithology. A multi-lithological model approach is chosen because only very few mono-lithological catchments were identified in the dataset. The model is then extrapolated to the conterminous United States to regionally quantify the amount of DSi that is released into the river systems by chemical weathering. Small outcrops of certain lithological classes characterized by a high DSi yield are not represented on previously available small scale lithological maps. Because such localities may have a major influence on DSi fluxes from small catchments (Hartmann et al., 2009) a new high resolution lithological vector-map for North America is developed and applied in the introduced model. In accordance with previous studies, runoff and lithology are identified as the major predictors for specific DSi

  9. Interpreting the variability of CO2 columns over North America using a chemistry transport model: application to SCIAMACHY data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Monks

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available We use the GEOS-Chem chemistry transport model to interpret variability of CO2 columns and associated column-averaged volume mixing ratios (CVMRs observed by the SCIAMACHY satellite instrument during the 2003 North American growing season, accounting for the instrument averaging kernel. Model and observed columns, largely determined by surface topography, averaged on a 2°×2.5° grid, are in excellent agreement (model bias=3%, r>0.9, as expected. Model and observed CVMRs, determined by scaling column CO2 by surface pressure data, are on average within 3% but are only weakly correlated, reflecting a large positive model bias (10–15 ppmv at 50–70° N during midsummer at the peak of biospheric uptake. GEOS-Chem generally reproduces the magnitude and seasonal cycle of observed CO2 surface VMRs across North America. During midsummer we find that model CVMRs and surface VMRs converge, reflecting the instrument vertical sensitivity and the strong influence of the land biosphere on lower tropospheric CO2 columns. We use model tagged tracers to show that local fluxes largely determine CVMR variability over North America, with the largest individual CVMR contributions (1.1% from the land biosphere. Fuel sources are relatively constant while biomass burning make a significant contribution only during midsummer. We also show that non-local sources contribute significantly to total CVMRs over North America, with the boreal Asian land biosphere contributing close to 1% in midsummer at high latitudes. We used the monthly-mean Jacobian matrix for North America to illustrate that: 1 North American CVMRs represent a superposition of many weak flux signatures, but differences in flux distributions should permit independent flux estimation; and 2 the atmospheric e-folding lifetimes for many of these flux signatures are 3–4 months, beyond which time they are too well-mixed to interpret.

  10. Changes in Surface Wind Speed over North America from CMIP5 Model Projections and Implications for Wind Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujay Kulkarni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The centennial trends in the surface wind speed over North America are deduced from global climate model simulations in the Climate Model Intercomparison Project—Phase 5 (CMIP5 archive. Using the 21st century simulations under the RCP 8.5 scenario of greenhouse gas emissions, 5–10 percent increases per century in the 10 m wind speed are found over Central and East-Central United States, the Californian Coast, and the South and East Coasts of the USA in winter. In summer, climate models projected decreases in the wind speed ranging from 5 to 10 percent per century over the same coastal regions. These projected changes in the surface wind speed are moderate and imply that the current estimate of wind power potential for North America based on present-day climatology will not be significantly changed by the greenhouse gas forcing in the coming decades.

  11. Continental-scale convection-permitting modeling of the current and future climate of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changhai; Ikeda, Kyoko; Rasmussen, Roy; Barlage, Mike; Newman, Andrew J.; Prein, Andreas F.; Chen, Fei; Chen, Liang; Clark, Martyn; Dai, Aiguo; Dudhia, Jimy; Eidhammer, Trude; Gochis, David; Gutmann, Ethan; Kurkute, Sopan; Li, Yanping; Thompson, Gregory; Yates, David

    2016-08-01

    Orographic precipitation and snowpack provide a vital water resource for the western U.S., while convective precipitation accounts for a significant part of annual precipitation in the eastern U.S. As a result, water managers are keenly interested in their fate under climate change. However, previous studies of water cycle changes in the U.S. have been conducted with climate models of relatively coarse resolution, leading to potential misrepresentation of key physical processes. This paper presents results from a high-resolution climate change simulation that permits convection and resolves mesoscale orography at 4-km grid spacing over much of North America using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Two 13-year simulations were performed, consisting of a retrospective simulation (October 2000-September 2013) with initial and boundary conditions from ERA-interim and a future climate sensitivity simulation with modified reanalysis-derived initial and boundary conditions through adding the CMIP5 ensemble-mean high-end emission scenario climate change. The retrospective simulation is evaluated by validating against Snowpack Telemetry (SNOTEL) and an ensemble of gridded observational datasets. It shows overall good performance capturing the annual/seasonal/sub-seasonal precipitation and surface temperature climatology except for a summer dry and warm bias in the central U.S. In particular, the WRF seasonal precipitation agrees with SNOTEL observations within a few percent over the mountain ranges, providing confidence in the model's estimation of western U.S. seasonal snowfall and snowpack. The future climate simulation forced with warmer and moister perturbed boundary conditions enhances annual and winter-spring-fall seasonal precipitation over most of the contiguous United States (CONUS), but suppresses summertime precipitation in the central U.S. The WRF-downscaled climate change simulations provide a high-resolution dataset (i.e., High-Resolution CONUS

  12. Digital terrain model evaluation and computation of the terrain correction and indirect effect in South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denizar Blitzkow

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of this paper are to compare digital terrain models, to show the generated models for South America and to present two applications. Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM produced the most important and updated height information in the world. This paper addresses the attention to comparisons of the following models: SRTM3, DTM2002, GLOBE, GTOPO30, ETOPO2 and ETOPO5, at the common points of the grid. The comparisons are limited by latitudes 60º S and 25 º N and longitudes 100 º W and 25 º W. All these data, after some analysis, have been used to create three models for South America: SAM_1mv1, SAM_1mv2 (both of 1' grid spacing and SAM_30s (30" grid spacing. Besides this effort, the three models as well as STRM were evaluated using Bench Marks (BM in Brazil and Argentina. This paper also shows two important geodesy and geophysics applications using the SAM_1mv1: terrain correction (one of the reductions applied to the gravity acceleration and indirect effect (a consequence of the reduction of the external mass to the geoid. These are important at Andes for a precise geoid computation.Los objetivos principales de este documento son comparar modelos digitales del continente; enseñar los modelos generados para Sudamérica y presentar dos aplicaciones. Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM produjo la información más importante y más actualizada de las altitudes del mundo. Este trabajo centra su atención en las comparaciones de los modelos siguientes: SRTM3, DTM2002, GLOBO, GTOPO30, ETOPO2 y ETOPO5, en los puntos comunes de la rejilla. Las comparaciones son limitadas por las latitudes 60º S y 25 º N y longitudes 100 º W y 25 º W. Todos estos datos, después de los análisis, se han utilizado para crear tres modelos para Sudamérica: SAM_1mv1, SAM_1mv2 (1' de espaciamiento de la rejilla y SAM_30s (30" de espaciamiento de la rejilla. Los tres modelos bien como el STRM fueron evaluados usando puntos de referencia de

  13. Academic program models for undergraduate biomedical engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Shankar M

    2014-01-01

    There is a proliferation of medical devices across the globe for the diagnosis and therapy of diseases. Biomedical engineering (BME) plays a significant role in healthcare and advancing medical technologies thus creating a substantial demand for biomedical engineers at undergraduate and graduate levels. There has been a surge in undergraduate programs due to increasing demands from the biomedical industries to cover many of their segments from bench to bedside. With the requirement of multidisciplinary training within allottable duration, it is indeed a challenge to design a comprehensive standardized undergraduate BME program to suit the needs of educators across the globe. This paper's objective is to describe three major models of undergraduate BME programs and their curricular requirements, with relevant recommendations to be applicable in institutions of higher education located in varied resource settings. Model 1 is based on programs to be offered in large research-intensive universities with multiple focus areas. The focus areas depend on the institution's research expertise and training mission. Model 2 has basic segments similar to those of Model 1, but the focus areas are limited due to resource constraints. In this model, co-op/internship in hospitals or medical companies is included which prepares the graduates for the work place. In Model 3, students are trained to earn an Associate Degree in the initial two years and they are trained for two more years to be BME's or BME Technologists. This model is well suited for the resource-poor countries. All three models must be designed to meet applicable accreditation requirements. The challenges in designing undergraduate BME programs include manpower, facility and funding resource requirements and time constraints. Each academic institution has to carefully analyze its short term and long term requirements. In conclusion, three models for BME programs are described based on large universities, colleges, and

  14. NCD Prevention and Control in Latin America and the Caribbean: A Regional Approach to Policy and Program Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hospedales, C James; Barcelo, Alberto; Luciani, Silvana; Legetic, Branka; Ordunez, Pedro; Blanco, Adriana

    2012-03-01

    This article describes efforts from the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) that have supported progress in country-driven planning and implementing of actions to address noncommunicable diseases (NCD), as well as mechanisms that PAHO has supported for countries in the Americas to share and build on each other's experiences. The Regional Strategy and Plan of Action for NCD, approved by all member states in 2006, is the major frame for this work. The strategy has 4 lines of action: policy and advocacy; surveillance; health promotion and disease prevention; and integrated management of NCD and risk factors. Cross-cutting strategies include resource mobilization, communication, training, and networks and partnerships. The strategy is operationalized through biannual work plans for which countries link and commit to achieving specific objectives. PAHO then provides technical support toward achieving these plans, and countries report progress annually. The CARMEN (Collaborative Action for Risk Factor Prevention and Effective Management of NCD [Conjunto de Acciones para la Reducción y el Manejo de las Enfermedades No transmisibles]) Network provides a major platform for sharing, and the multisector Pan American Forum for Action on NCD has been launched to extend the network to include business and civil society. PAHO also supported civil society capacity building. Almost all member states have made substantial progress in implementing their national chronic disease programs, in most instances reporting exceeding the indicators of the strategic plan related to chronic diseases. From the Caribbean countries, leadership has been provided to achieve the historic UN High-Level Meeting on NCD in September 2011. The region is on track to meet the mortality reduction target set for 2013, though much remains to be done to further increase awareness of and resources for scaling up NCD prevention and control programs, given the huge health and economic burden, increasing costs

  15. Application of Magsat lithospheric modeling in South America. Part 1: Processing and interpretation of magnetic and gravity anomaly data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinze, W. J.; Braile, L. W.; Vonfrese, R. R. B. (Principal Investigator); Keller, G. R.; Lidiak, E. G.

    1984-01-01

    Scalar magnetic anomaly data from MAGSAT, reduced to vertical polarization and long wavelength pass filtered free air gravity anomaly data of South America and the Caribbean are compared to major crustal features. The continental shields generally are more magnetic than adjacent basins, oceans and orogenic belts. In contrast, the major aulacogens are characterized by negative anomalies. Spherical earth magnetic modeling of the Amazon River and Takatu aulacogens in northeastern South America indicates a less magnetic crust associated with the aulacogens. Spherical earth modeling of both positive gravity and negative magnetic anomalies observed over the Mississippi Embayment indicate the presence of a nonmagnetic zone of high density material within the lower crust associated with the aulacogen. The MAGSAT scalar magnetic anomaly data and available free air gravity anomalies over Euro-Africa indicate several similar relationships.

  16. Improvement of IDC/CTBTO Event Locations in Latin America and the Caribbean Using a Regional Seismic Travel Time Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Given, J. W.; Guendel, F.

    2013-05-01

    The International Data Centre is a vital element of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) verification mechanism. The fundamental mission of the International Data Centre (IDC) is to collect, process, and analyze monitoring data and to present results as event bulletins to Member States. For the IDC and in particular for waveform technologies, a key measure of the quality of its products is the accuracy by which every detected event is located. Accurate event location is crucial for purposes of an On Site Inspection (OSI), which would confirm the conduct of a nuclear test. Thus it is important for the IDC monitoring and data analysis to adopt new processing algorithms that improve the accuracy of event location. Among them the development of new algorithms to compute regional seismic travel times through 3-dimensional models have greatly increased IDC's location precision, the reduction of computational time, allowing forward and inverse modeling of large data sets. One of these algorithms has been the Regional Seismic Travel Time model (RSTT) of Myers et al., (2011). The RSTT model is nominally a global model; however, it currently covers only North America and Eurasia in sufficient detail. It is the intention CTBTO's Provisional Technical Secretariat and the IDC to extend the RSTT model to other regions of the earth, e.g. Latin America-Caribbean, Africa and Asia. This is particularly important for the IDC location procedure, as there are regions of the earth for which crustal models are not well constrained. For this purpose IDC has launched a RSTT initiative. In May 2012, a technical meeting was held in Vienna under the auspices of the CTBTO. The purpose of this meeting was to invite National Data Centre experts as well as network operators from Africa, Europe, the Middle East, Asia, Australia, Latin and North America to discuss the context under which a project to extend the RSTT model would be implemented. A total of 41 participants from 32 Member States

  17. Tsunami hazard assessment in El Salvador, Central America, from seismic sources through flooding numerical models

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez-Gómez, José Antonio; Aniel-Quiroga Zorrilla, Íñigo; Gutiérrez Gutiérrez, Omar Quetzalcóatl; Larreynaga Murcia, Jeniffer; González Rodríguez, Ernesto Mauricio; M. Castro; Gavidia Medina, Francisco; Aguirre Ayerbe, Ignacio; González-Riancho Calzada, Pino; Carreño Herrero, Emilio

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT. El Salvador is the smallest and most densely populated country in Central America; its coast has an approximate lenght of 320 km, 29 municipalities and more than 700.000 inhabitants. In El Salvador there were 15 recorded tsunamis between 1859 and 2012, 3 of them causing damages and resulting in hundreds of victims. Hazard assessment is commonly based on propagation numerical models for earthquake-generated tsunamis and can be approached through both probabilistic and deterministic m...

  18. Analysis of tropospheric ozone and carbon monoxide profiles over South America based on MOZAIC/IAGOS database and model simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia A. Yamasoe

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We analysed ozone and carbon monoxide profiles measured by commercial aircrafts from the MOZAIC/IAGOS fleet, during ascending and descending flights over Caracas, in Venezuela, from August 1994 to December 2009, over Rio de Janeiro, from 1994 to 2004 and from July 2012 to June 2013, and over São Paulo, in Brazil, from August 1994 to 2005. For ozone, results showed a clean atmosphere over Caracas presenting the highest seasonal mean in March, April and May. Backward trajectory analyses with FLEXPART, of case studies for which the measured concentrations were high, showed that contributions from local, Central and North America, the Caribbean and Africa either from anthropogenic emissions, biomass burning or lightning were possible. Satellite products as fire counts from MODIS, lightning flash rates from LIS, and CO and O3 from Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer and wind maps at different levels helped corroborate previous findings. Sensitivity studies performed with the chemical transport model GEOS-Chem captured the effect of anthropogenic emissions but underestimated the influence of biomass burning, which could be due to an underestimation of GFEDv2 emission inventory. The model detected the contribution of lightning from Africa in JJA and SON and from South America in DJF, possibly from the northeast of Brazil. Over São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, GEOS-Chem captured the seasonal variability of lightning produced in South America and attributed this source as the most important in this region, except in JJA, when anthropogenic emissions were addressed as the more impacting source of ozone precursors. However, comparison with the measurements indicated that the model overestimated ozone formation, which could be due to the convective parameterisation or the stratospheric influence. The highest ozone concentration was observed during September to November, but the model attributed only a small influence of biomass burning from South

  19. Modeling South America regional smoke plume: aerosol optical depth variability and shortwave surface forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. E. Rosário

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Intra-seasonal variability of smoke aerosol optical depth (AOD and downwelling solar irradiance at the surface during the 2002 biomass burning season in South America was modeled using the Coupled Chemistry-Aerosol-Tracer Transport model to the Brazilian developments on the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (CCATT-BRAMS. Measurements of AOD from the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET and solar irradiance at the surface from the Solar Radiation Network (SolRad-NET were used to evaluate model results. In general, the major features associated with AOD evolution over the southern part of the Amazon Basin and cerrado ecosystem are captured by the model. The main discrepancies were found for high aerosol loading events. In the northeastern portion of the Amazon Basin the model systematically underestimated AOD. This is likely due to the cloudy nature of the region, preventing accurate detection of the fire spots used in the emission model. Moreover, measured AOD were very often close to background conditions and emissions other than smoke were not considered in the simulation. Therefore, under the background scenario, one would expect the model to underestimate AOD. The issue of high aerosol loading events in the southern part of the Amazon and cerrado is also discussed in the context of emission shortcomings. The Cuiabá cerrado site was the only one where the highest quality AERONET data were unavailable. Thus, lower quality data were used. Root-mean-square-error (RMSE between the model and observations decreased from 0.48 to 0.17 when extreme AOD events (AOD550 nm ≥ 1.0 and Cuiabá were excluded from analysis. Downward surface solar irradiance comparisons also followed similar trends when extremes AOD were excluded. This highlights the need to improve the modelling of the regional smoke plume in order to enhance the accuracy of the radiative energy budget. Aerosol optical model based on the mean intensive properties of smoke from the

  20. Cross comparison and modelling of Goldman Sachs, Morgan Stanley, JPMorgan Chase, Bank of America, and Franklin Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Kitov, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    We have studied statistical characteristics of five share price time series. For each stock price, we estimated a best fit quantitative model for the monthly closing price as based on the decomposition into two defining consumer price indices selected from a large set of CPIs. It was found that there are two pairs of similar models (Bank of America/Morgan Stanley and Goldman Sachs/JPMorgan Chase) with a standalone model for Franklin Resources. From each pair, one can choose the company with t...

  1. Impact of Land Use Change over North America as simulated by the Canadian Regional Climate Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacon, A.; Sushama, L.; Beltrami, H.

    2014-12-01

    This study investigates the biogeophysical impacts of human-induced land cover change, particularly crops, on the regional climate of North America, using the fifth generation Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM5). To this effect, two simulations are performed with CRCM5 with different land cover datasets - one corresponding to the potential vegetation (i.e. without land use change) and the other corresponding to current land use. Most of the land use changes are concentrated over the US mid-west and south-central Canada, where forests and grasses have been replaced by crops. This transformation changes the surface parameters, particularly vegetation fractional area, leaf area index, albedo, roughness length and rooting depth among other variables, in the regions where land cover change takes place in these simulations. Both simulations span the 1988-2012 period and are driven by ERA-Interim at the lateral boundaries. The sea surface temperature and sea ice cover that vary inter-annually are also taken from ERA-Interim. Results suggest that regions where forests/grasses were replaced by crops generally show increases in albedo, particularly during the spring, fall and winter seasons, with the increase in albedo being largest for winter. This higher increase in albedo during winter is due to a snow-mediated positive feedback. The increased albedo values during winter, spring and fall are reflected in the cooler 2 meter temperature obtained in the simulation with land use change, compared to that with potential vegetation. Some cooling is observed in the summer for the simulation with land use change, mostly due to the increased latent heat fluxes. Increases in precipitation are noted for these regions, but are not statistically significant.

  2. PDDP, A Data Parallel Programming Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen H. Warren

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available PDDP, the parallel data distribution preprocessor, is a data parallel programming model for distributed memory parallel computers. PDDP implements high-performance Fortran-compatible data distribution directives and parallelism expressed by the use of Fortran 90 array syntax, the FORALL statement, and the WHERE construct. Distributed data objects belong to a global name space; other data objects are treated as local and replicated on each processor. PDDP allows the user to program in a shared memory style and generates codes that are portable to a variety of parallel machines. For interprocessor communication, PDDP uses the fastest communication primitives on each platform.

  3. Evaluation of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system against size-resolved measurements of inorganic particle composition across sites in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    This work evaluates particle size-composition distributions simulated by the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model using Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI) measurements at 18 sites across North America. Size-resolved measurements of particulate SO4<...

  4. The NIAID Radiation Countermeasures Program business model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafer, Nathaniel; Maidment, Bert W; Hatchett, Richard J

    2010-12-01

    The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) Radiation/Nuclear Medical Countermeasures Development Program has developed an integrated approach to providing the resources and expertise required for the research, discovery, and development of radiation/nuclear medical countermeasures (MCMs). These resources and services lower the opportunity costs and reduce the barriers to entry for companies interested in working in this area and accelerate translational progress by providing goal-oriented stewardship of promising projects. In many ways, the radiation countermeasures program functions as a "virtual pharmaceutical firm," coordinating the early and mid-stage development of a wide array of radiation/nuclear MCMs. This commentary describes the radiation countermeasures program and discusses a novel business model that has facilitated product development partnerships between the federal government and academic investigators and biopharmaceutical companies. PMID:21142762

  5. The NIAID Radiation Countermeasures Program business model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafer, Nathaniel; Maidment, Bert W; Hatchett, Richard J

    2010-12-01

    The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) Radiation/Nuclear Medical Countermeasures Development Program has developed an integrated approach to providing the resources and expertise required for the research, discovery, and development of radiation/nuclear medical countermeasures (MCMs). These resources and services lower the opportunity costs and reduce the barriers to entry for companies interested in working in this area and accelerate translational progress by providing goal-oriented stewardship of promising projects. In many ways, the radiation countermeasures program functions as a "virtual pharmaceutical firm," coordinating the early and mid-stage development of a wide array of radiation/nuclear MCMs. This commentary describes the radiation countermeasures program and discusses a novel business model that has facilitated product development partnerships between the federal government and academic investigators and biopharmaceutical companies.

  6. Interannual and Intraseasonal oscillations and extreme events over South America simulated by HIGEM models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custodio, Maria; Ambrizzi, Tercio

    2014-05-01

    The climatic system has its fluctuations determined mainly by the complex fluxes from the ocean and atmosphere. The fluxes transport energy, momentum and tracers within and between system components; they occur in a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. Because of this, according to Shaffrey et al. (2009) the development of high resolution global models is indispensable, to simulate the energy transfer to smaller scales and to capture the non linear interactions between wide ranges of spatial and temporal scales, and between the different components of climatic system. There are strong reasons to increase the resolution of all the atmospheric and oceanic components of coupled climatic models (AGCM) and uncoupled climatic models (GCM). The South America (SA) climate is characterized by different precipitation regimes and its variability has large influences of the large scale phenomena in the interanual (El Niño South Oscilation - ENSO) and intraseasonal (Maden Julian Oscilation - MJO) timescales. Normally, the AGCM and CGM use low horizontal resolution and present difficult in the representation of these low frequency variability phenomena. The goal of this work is to evaluate the performance of coupled and uncoupled versions of the High-Resolution Global Environmental Model, which will be denominated NUGEM (~60 Km), HiGEM (~90 km) and HadGEM (~135 km) and NUGAM (~60 Km), HiGAM (~90 Km) and HadGAM (~135 Km), respectively, in capturing the signal of interannual and intraseasonal variability of precipitation and temperature over SA. Basically we want discuss the impact of sea surface temperature in the annual cycle of atmospheric variables. The simulations were compared with precipitation data from Climate Prediction Center - Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP) and with temperature data from ERA-Interim, both for the period 1979 to 2008. The precipitation and temperature time-series were filtered on the interanual (period > 365 days) and intraseasonal (30

  7. Summary of Prioritized Research Opportunities: Building America Program Planning Meeting, Washington, D.C., November 2-4, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-02-01

    This report outlines the results of brainstorming sessions conducted at the Building America Fall 2010 planning meeting, in which research teams and national laboratories identified key research priorities to incorporate into multi-year planning, team research agendas, expert meetings, and technical standing committees.

  8. Programming Sensor Networks Using Remora Component Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taherkordi, Amirhosein; Loiret, Frédéric; Abdolrazaghi, Azadeh; Rouvoy, Romain; Le-Trung, Quan; Eliassen, Frank

    The success of high-level programming models in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) is heavily dependent on factors such as ease of programming, code well-structuring, degree of code reusability, and required software development effort. Component-based programming has been recognized as an effective approach to meet such requirements. Most of componentization efforts in WSNs were ineffective due to various reasons, such as high resource demand or limited scope of use. In this paper, we present Remora, a new approach to practical and efficient component-based programming in WSNs. Remora offers a well-structured programming paradigm that fits very well with resource limitations of embedded systems, including WSNs. Furthermore, the special attention to event handling in Remora makes our proposal more practical for WSN applications, which are inherently event-driven. More importantly, the mutualism between Remora and underlying system software promises a new direction towards separation of concerns in WSNs. Our evaluation results show that a well-configured Remora application has an acceptable memory overhead and a negligible CPU cost.

  9. Future changes in drought characteristics over Southern South America projected by a CMIP5 multi-model ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, J. A.; Penalba, O. C.

    2013-05-01

    The impact of climate change on drought main characteristics (frequency, duration and severity) was assessed over Southern South America through the precipitation outputs from a multi-model ensemble of 15 climate models of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). The Standardized Precipitation Index was used as a drought indicator, given its temporal flexibility and simplicity. Changes in drought characteristics were identified by the difference for early (2011-2040) and late (2071-2100) 21st century values with respect to the 1979-2008 baseline. In order to evaluate the multi-model outputs, model biases where identified through a comparison with the drought characteristics from the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre database for the baseline period. Future climate projections under moderate- and high-emission scenarios showed that the occurrence of short-term and long-term droughts will be more frequent in the 21st century, with shorter durations and greater severities over much of the study area. This result is independent on the scenario considered, since no significant differences were observed on drought changes. Taking into account that in most of the region the multi-model ensemble tends to produce less number of droughts, with higher duration and lower severity, the future changes scenario might be even more dramatic. Therefore, Southern South America could experience more frequent water shortages with significant economic losses if proper adaptation measures are not proposed timely.

  10. Models of development and educational styles in the process of emancipation of Latin America: the case of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dermeval SAVIANI

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available On the occasion of the commemoration of the 200 years of Independence of Latin American countries, this paper analyses the models of development and educational styles in the process of the emancipation of Ibero-America, focusing specifically on the Brazilian case. In order to do this, we use two key texts as a reference: Gregorio Weinberg’s Modelos educativos en el desarrollo histórico de América Latina (Models of Education in the Historical Development of Latin America and Germán Rama’s Estilos educacionales (Educational Styles. Both texts elaborate the educational models or styles that took part in the historical development of Latin American societies. Bearing in mind the polarization between tradition and the modernization displayed in the educational models and styles proposed by Weinberg and Rama, this work shows how the process of conservative modernization, which characterized —with different nuances— the general emancipation movement in Ibero-American countries, took place in Brazilian society.

  11. Python Program to Select HII Region Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Clare; Lamarche, Cody; Vishwas, Amit; Stacey, Gordon J.

    2016-01-01

    HII regions are areas of singly ionized Hydrogen formed by the ionizing radiaiton of upper main sequence stars. The infrared fine-structure line emissions, particularly Oxygen, Nitrogen, and Neon, can give important information about HII regions including gas temperature and density, elemental abundances, and the effective temperature of the stars that form them. The processes involved in calculating this information from observational data are complex. Models, such as those provided in Rubin 1984 and those produced by Cloudy (Ferland et al, 2013) enable one to extract physical parameters from observational data. However, the multitude of search parameters can make sifting through models tedious. I digitized Rubin's models and wrote a Python program that is able to take observed line ratios and their uncertainties and find the Rubin or Cloudy model that best matches the observational data. By creating a Python script that is user friendly and able to quickly sort through models with a high level of accuracy, this work increases efficiency and reduces human error in matching HII region models to observational data.

  12. Center for Programming Models for Scalable Parallel Computing: Future Programming Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Guang, R.

    2008-07-24

    The mission of the pmodel center project is to develop software technology to support scalable parallel programming models for terascale systems. The goal of the specific UD subproject is in the context developing an efficient and robust methodology and tools for HPC programming. More specifically, the focus is on developing new programming models which facilitate programmers in porting their application onto parallel high performance computing systems. During the course of the research in the past 5 years, the landscape of microprocessor chip architecture has witnessed a fundamental change – the emergence of multi-core/many-core chip architecture appear to become the mainstream technology and will have a major impact to for future generation parallel machines. The programming model for shared-address space machines is becoming critical to such multi-core architectures. Our research highlight is the in-depth study of proposed fine-grain parallelism/multithreading support on such future generation multi-core architectures. Our research has demonstrated the significant impact such fine-grain multithreading model can have on the productivity of parallel programming models and their efficient implementation.

  13. Wellness: A Developmental Programming Model for Residence Halls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Mark J.

    1985-01-01

    Demonstrates how a Wellness model can be an effective vehicle for promoting developmental programs in residence halls. The Wellness model is examined in terms of marketing, student development theory, and balanced programming. (BL)

  14. International Nuclear Model. Volume 3. Program description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is Volume 3 of three volumes of documentation of the International Nuclear Model (INM). This volume presents the Program Description of the International Nuclear Model, which was developed for the Nuclear and Alternate Fuels Division (NAFD), Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of Energy (DOE). The International Nuclear Model (INM) is a comprehensive model of the commercial nuclear power industry. It simulates economic decisions for reactor deployment and fuel management decision based on an input set of technical economic and scenario parameters. The technical parameters include reactor operating characteristics, fuel cycle timing and mass loss factors, and enrichment tails assays. Economic parameters include fuel cycle costs, financial data, and tax alternatives. INM has a broad range of scenario options covering, for example, process constraints, interregional activities, reprocessing, and fuel management selection. INM reports reactor deployment schedules, electricity generation, and fuel cycle requirements and costs. It also has specialized reports for extended burnup and permanent disposal. Companion volumes to Volume 3 are: Volume 1 - Model Overview, and Volume 2 - Data Base Relationships

  15. Stochastic linear programming models, theory, and computation

    CERN Document Server

    Kall, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This new edition of Stochastic Linear Programming: Models, Theory and Computation has been brought completely up to date, either dealing with or at least referring to new material on models and methods, including DEA with stochastic outputs modeled via constraints on special risk functions (generalizing chance constraints, ICC’s and CVaR constraints), material on Sharpe-ratio, and Asset Liability Management models involving CVaR in a multi-stage setup. To facilitate use as a text, exercises are included throughout the book, and web access is provided to a student version of the authors’ SLP-IOR software. Additionally, the authors have updated the Guide to Available Software, and they have included newer algorithms and modeling systems for SLP. The book is thus suitable as a text for advanced courses in stochastic optimization, and as a reference to the field. From Reviews of the First Edition: "The book presents a comprehensive study of stochastic linear optimization problems and their applications. … T...

  16. Model-based projections of Zika virus infections in childbearing women in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex Perkins, T; Siraj, Amir S; Ruktanonchai, Corrine W; Kraemer, Moritz U G; Tatem, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus is a mosquito-borne pathogen that is rapidly spreading across the Americas. Due to associations between Zika virus infection and a range of fetal maladies(1,2), the epidemic trajectory of this viral infection poses a significant concern for the nearly 15 million children born in the Americas each year. Ascertaining the portion of this population that is truly at risk is an important priority. One recent estimate(3) suggested that 5.42 million childbearing women live in areas of the Americas that are suitable for Zika occurrence. To improve on that estimate, which did not take into account the protective effects of herd immunity, we developed a new approach that combines classic results from epidemiological theory with seroprevalence data and highly spatially resolved data about drivers of transmission to make location-specific projections of epidemic attack rates. Our results suggest that 1.65 (1.45-2.06) million childbearing women and 93.4 (81.6-117.1) million people in total could become infected before the first wave of the epidemic concludes. Based on current estimates of rates of adverse fetal outcomes among infected women(2,4,5), these results suggest that tens of thousands of pregnancies could be negatively impacted by the first wave of the epidemic. These projections constitute a revised upper limit of populations at risk in the current Zika epidemic, and our approach offers a new way to make rapid assessments of the threat posed by emerging infectious diseases more generally. PMID:27562260

  17. Model-based projections of Zika virus infections in childbearing women in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex Perkins, T; Siraj, Amir S; Ruktanonchai, Corrine W; Kraemer, Moritz U G; Tatem, Andrew J

    2016-07-25

    Zika virus is a mosquito-borne pathogen that is rapidly spreading across the Americas. Due to associations between Zika virus infection and a range of fetal maladies(1,2), the epidemic trajectory of this viral infection poses a significant concern for the nearly 15 million children born in the Americas each year. Ascertaining the portion of this population that is truly at risk is an important priority. One recent estimate(3) suggested that 5.42 million childbearing women live in areas of the Americas that are suitable for Zika occurrence. To improve on that estimate, which did not take into account the protective effects of herd immunity, we developed a new approach that combines classic results from epidemiological theory with seroprevalence data and highly spatially resolved data about drivers of transmission to make location-specific projections of epidemic attack rates. Our results suggest that 1.65 (1.45-2.06) million childbearing women and 93.4 (81.6-117.1) million people in total could become infected before the first wave of the epidemic concludes. Based on current estimates of rates of adverse fetal outcomes among infected women(2,4,5), these results suggest that tens of thousands of pregnancies could be negatively impacted by the first wave of the epidemic. These projections constitute a revised upper limit of populations at risk in the current Zika epidemic, and our approach offers a new way to make rapid assessments of the threat posed by emerging infectious diseases more generally.

  18. Mid-term evaluation of the NRECA (National Rural Electric Cooperative Association) Central America Rural Electrification Support Program (CARES)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlack, R.D. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Jones, H.G. (Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Inc., TN (USA)); Garcia, A. III (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (USA). Dept. of Agricultural Engineering); Flores, E. (Flores (Edgar), Guatemala City (Guatemala))

    1990-09-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory was requested by the Regional Office for Central America and Panama to conduct a mid-term evaluation of the Cares Project, which is being implemented by the National Rural Electric Cooperative Association. This evaluation was conducted over a three week period by a four person team. Overall, the project has had numerous successes and is highly valued by local counterpart utilities and USAID Missions. Notwithstanding the significant results of the project, changes can be made in certain operating procedures and in the direction of some programmatic activities that can lead to an even more effective project.

  19. A geographical information system-based web model of arbovirus transmission risk in the continental United States of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, Sarah K; Zou, Li; Miller, Scott N

    2012-11-01

    A degree-day (DD) model of West Nile virus capable of forecasting real-time transmission risk in the continental United States of America up to one week in advance using a 50-km grid is available online at https://sites. google.com/site/arbovirusmap/. Daily averages of historical risk based on temperatures for 1994-2003 are available at 10km resolution. Transmission risk maps can be downloaded from 2010 to the present. The model can be adapted to work with any arbovirus for which the temperature-related parameters are known, e.g. Rift Valley fever virus. To more effectively assess virus establishment and transmission, the model incorporates "compound risk" maps and forecasts, which includes livestock density as a parameter.

  20. The impact of ENSO and the NAO on extreme winter precipitation in North America in observations and regional climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whan, Kirien; Zwiers, Francis

    2016-05-01

    The relationship between winter precipitation in North America and indices of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is evaluated using non-stationary generalized extreme value distributions with the indices as covariates. Both covariates have a statistically significant influence on precipitation that is well simulated by two regional climate models (RCMs), CanRCM4 and CRCM5. The observed influence of the NAO on extreme precipitation is largest in eastern North America, with the likelihood of a negative phase extreme rainfall event decreased in the north and increased in the south under the positive phase of the NAO. This pattern is generally well simulated by the RCMs although there are some differences in the extent of influence, particularly south of the Great Lakes. A La Niña-magnitude extreme event is more likely to occur under El Niño conditions in California and the southern United States, and less likely in most of Canada and a region south of the Great Lakes. This broad pattern is also simulated well by the RCMs but they do not capture the increased likelihood in California. In some places the extreme precipitation response in the RCMs to external forcing from a covariate is of the opposite sign, despite use of the same lateral boundary conditions and dynamical core. This demonstrates the importance of model physics for teleconnections to extreme precipitation.

  1. Climatic changes between 20th century and pre-industrial times over South America in regional model simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Wagner

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Two simulations with a regional climate model are analyzed for climatic changes between the late 20th century and a pre-industrial period over central and southern South America. The model simulations have been forced with large-scale boundary data from the global simulation performed with a coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model. The regional simulations have been carried out on a 0.44° × 0.44° grid (approx. 50 km × 50 km horizontal resolution. The differences in the external forcings are related to a changed greenhouse gas content of the atmosphere, being higher in the present-day simulation.

    For validation purposes the climate model is analyzed using a five year long simulation between 1993 and 1997 forced with re-analysis data. The climate model reproduces the main climatic features reasonably well, especially when comparing model output co-located with observational station data. However, the comparison between observed and simulated climate is hampered by the sparse meteorological station network in South America.

    The present-day simulation is compared with the pre-industrial simulation for atmospheric fields of near-surface temperatures, precipitation, sea level pressure and zonal wind. Higher temperatures in the present-day simulation are evident over entire South America, mostly pronounced over the southern region of the Andes Mountains and the Parana basin. During southern winter the higher temperatures prevail over the entire continent, with largest differences over the central Andes Mountains and the Amazonian basin.

    Precipitation differences show a more heterogeneous pattern, especially over tropical regions. This might be explained by changes in convective processes acting on small scales. During southern summer wetter conditions are evident over the Amazonian and Parana basin in the present-day simulation. Precipitation increases are evident over Patagonia together with decreases to the

  2. Climatic changes between 20th century and pre-industrial times over South America in regional model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, S.; Fast, I.; Kaspar, F.

    2011-09-01

    Two simulations with a regional climate model are analyzed for climatic changes between the late 20th century and a pre-industrial period over central and southern South America. The model simulations have been forced with large-scale boundary data from the global simulation performed with a coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model. The regional simulations have been carried out on a 0.44° × 0.44° grid (approx. 50 km × 50 km horizontal resolution). The differences in the external forcings are related to a changed greenhouse gas content of the atmosphere, being higher in the present-day simulation. For validation purposes the climate model is analyzed using a five year long simulation between 1993 and 1997 forced with re-analysis data. The climate model reproduces the main climatic features reasonably well, especially when comparing model output co-located with observational station data. However, the comparison between observed and simulated climate is hampered by the sparse meteorological station network in South America. The present-day simulation is compared with the pre-industrial simulation for atmospheric fields of near-surface temperatures, precipitation, sea level pressure and zonal wind. Higher temperatures in the present-day simulation are evident over entire South America, mostly pronounced over the southern region of the Andes Mountains and the Parana basin. During southern winter the higher temperatures prevail over the entire continent, with largest differences over the central Andes Mountains and the Amazonian basin. Precipitation differences show a more heterogeneous pattern, especially over tropical regions. This might be explained by changes in convective processes acting on small scales. During southern summer wetter conditions are evident over the Amazonian and Parana basin in the present-day simulation. Precipitation increases are evident over Patagonia together with decreases to the north along the western slope of the Andes

  3. Kids on the Move: Afterschool Programs Promoting Healthy Eating and Physical Activity. America After 3PM Special Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afterschool Alliance, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Afterschool programs have continued to grow in sophistication, increase their offerings and improve quality. As the role of afterschool programs has evolved from primarily providing a safe and supervised environment to a resource that provides a host of supports for their students, programs have become valuable partners in helping students reach…

  4. Ur/Web: A Simple Model for Programming the Web

    OpenAIRE

    Chlipala, Adam

    2014-01-01

    The World Wide Web has evolved gradually from a document delivery platform to an architecture for distributed programming. This largely unplanned evolution is apparent in the set of interconnected languages and protocols that any Web application must manage. This paper presents Ur/Web, a domain-specific, statically typed functional programming language with a much simpler model for programming modern Web applications. Ur/Web's model is unified, where programs in a single programming language ...

  5. Building America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brad Oberg

    2010-12-31

    IBACOS researched the constructability and viability issues of using high performance windows as one component of a larger approach to building houses that achieve the Building America 70% energy savings target.

  6. Building America Top Innovations 2012: House Simulation Protocols (the Building America Benchmark)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-01-01

    This Building America Top Innovations profile describes the DOE-sponsored House Simulation Protocols, which have helped ensure consistent and accurate energy-efficiency assessments for tens of thousands of new and retrofit homes supported by the Building America program.

  7. A new model for Context-Oriented Programs

    OpenAIRE

    El-Zawawy, Mohamed A.; Aleisa, Eisa A.

    2014-01-01

    Context-oriented programming (COP) is a new technique for programming that allows changing the context in which commands execute as a program executes. Compared to object-oriented programming (aspect-oriented programming), COP is more flexible (modular and structured). This paper presents a precise syntax-directed operational semantics for context-oriented programming with layers, as realized by COP languages like ContextJ* and ContextL. Our language model is built on Java enriched with layer...

  8. An Evaluation Model for Innovative Individualized Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Margaret B.

    1977-01-01

    Program evaluation is a tri-level process: evaluation of the learners, of the program against its own objectives, and as compared against a criterion program. Evaluation of innovative programs is primarily an issue of definition, and they should be judged in terms of the needs they were designed to satisfy. (Author/CTM)

  9. Human factors engineering program review model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    The staff of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission is performing nuclear power plant design certification reviews based on a design process plan that describes the human factors engineering (HFE) program elements that are necessary and sufficient to develop an acceptable detailed design specification and an acceptable implemented design. There are two principal reasons for this approach. First, the initial design certification applications submitted for staff review did not include detailed design information. Second, since human performance literature and industry experiences have shown that many significant human factors issues arise early in the design process, review of the design process activities and results is important to the evaluation of an overall design. However, current regulations and guidance documents do not address the criteria for design process review. Therefore, the HFE Program Review Model (HFE PRM) was developed as a basis for performing design certification reviews that include design process evaluations as well as review of the final design. A central tenet of the HFE PRM is that the HFE aspects of the plant should be developed, designed, and evaluated on the basis of a structured top-down system analysis using accepted HFE principles. The HFE PRM consists of ten component elements. Each element in divided into four sections: Background, Objective, Applicant Submittals, and Review Criteria. This report describes the development of the HFE PRM and gives a detailed description of each HFE review element.

  10. Human factors engineering program review model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The staff of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission is performing nuclear power plant design certification reviews based on a design process plan that describes the human factors engineering (HFE) program elements that are necessary and sufficient to develop an acceptable detailed design specification and an acceptable implemented design. There are two principal reasons for this approach. First, the initial design certification applications submitted for staff review did not include detailed design information. Second, since human performance literature and industry experiences have shown that many significant human factors issues arise early in the design process, review of the design process activities and results is important to the evaluation of an overall design. However, current regulations and guidance documents do not address the criteria for design process review. Therefore, the HFE Program Review Model (HFE PRM) was developed as a basis for performing design certification reviews that include design process evaluations as well as review of the final design. A central tenet of the HFE PRM is that the HFE aspects of the plant should be developed, designed, and evaluated on the basis of a structured top-down system analysis using accepted HFE principles. The HFE PRM consists of ten component elements. Each element in divided into four sections: Background, Objective, Applicant Submittals, and Review Criteria. This report describes the development of the HFE PRM and gives a detailed description of each HFE review element

  11. Social assistance and labor market programs in Latin America : methodology and key findings from the social protection database

    OpenAIRE

    Cerutti, Paula; Fruttero, Anna; Grosh, Margaret; Kostenbaum, Silvana; Oliveri, Maria Laura; Rodriguez-Alas, Claudia; Strokova, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    How much do countries spend on social protection? Do social protection programs cover all poor people? And, how well are they targeted? It is notoriously hard to find comprehensive cross-country data on social protection programs which can help answer such questions and allow to benchmark social protection systems. The World Bank s Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) Social Protection Datab...

  12. Is my DSL a modeling or programming language?

    OpenAIRE

    SUN, Yu; Demirezen, Zekai; Mernik, Marjan; Gray, Jeffrey G.; Bryant, Barrett Richard

    2012-01-01

    International audience It is often difficult to discern the differences between programming and modeling languages. As an example, the term "domain-specific language" has been used almost interchangeably in academia and industry to represent both programming and modeling languages, which has caused subtle misconceptions. The borders between a modeling and programming language are somewhat vague and not defined crisply. This paper discusses the similarities and differences between modeling ...

  13. Predoctoral Program Models in Dentistry for the Handicapped: The University of Tennessee Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessels, Kenneth E.

    1980-01-01

    A model program in dentistry for the handicapped offered at the University of Tennessee and supported by a Robert Wood Johnson Foundation grant is described. The program includes didactic instruction, observation and seminar, and clinical practice. (JMF)

  14. Downscaling GCM Output with Genetic Programming Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, X.; Dibike, Y. B.; Coulibaly, P.

    2004-05-01

    Climate change impact studies on watershed hydrology require reliable data at appropriate spatial and temporal resolution. However, the outputs of the current global climate models (GCMs) cannot be used directly because GCM do not provide hourly or daily precipitation and temperature reliable enough for hydrological modeling. Nevertheless, we can get more reliable data corresponding to future climate scenarios derived from GCM outputs using the so called 'downscaling techniques'. This study applies Genetic Programming (GP) based technique to downscale daily precipitation and temperature values at the Chute-du-Diable basin of the Saguenay watershed in Canada. In applying GP downscaling technique, the objective is to find a relationship between the large-scale predictor variables (NCEP data which provide daily information concerning the observed large-scale state of the atmosphere) and the predictand (meteorological data which describes conditions at the site scale). The selection of the most relevant predictor variables is achieved using the Pearson's coefficient of determination ( R2) (between the large-scale predictor variables and the daily meteorological data). In this case, the period (1961 - 2000) is identified to represent the current climate condition. For the forty years of data, the first 30 years (1961-1990) are considered for calibrating the models while the remaining ten years of data (1991-2000) are used to validate those models. In general, the R2 between the predictor variables and each predictand is very low in case of precipitation compared to that of maximum and minimum temperature. Moreover, the strength of individual predictors varies for every month and for each GP grammar. Therefore, the most appropriate combination of predictors has to be chosen by looking at the output analysis of all the twelve months and the different GP grammars. During the calibration of the GP model for precipitation downscaling, in addition to the mean daily

  15. Effects of land-conversion in a biosphere–atmosphere model of Northern South America – Part 1: Regional differences in hydrometeorology

    OpenAIRE

    Knox, R. G.; Longo, M; A. L. S. Swann; Zhang, K.; Levine, N. M.; Moorcroft, P. R.; R. L. Bras

    2013-01-01

    This work investigates how landuse changes over northern South America, driven by human interventions, have affected the regional patterns of hydrology. Comparisons are made to scenarios where no human disturbance of the regional vegetation is assumed. A numerical model of the terrestrial biosphere (Ecosystem Demography Model 2 – ED2) is combined with an atmospheric model (Brazilian Regional Atmospheric Modeling System – BRAMS) to investigate how land conve...

  16. BUILDING MATHEMATICAL MODELS IN DYNAMIC PROGRAMMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIANA RODICA PATER

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In short, we can say that dynamic programming is a method of optimization of systems, using their mathematical representation in phases or sequences or as we say, periods. Such systems are common in economic studies at the implementation of programs on the most advanced techniques, such as for example that involving cosmic navigation. Another concept that is involved in the study of dynamic programs is the economic horizon (number of periods or phases that a dynamic program needs. This concept often leads to the examination of the convergence of certain variables on infinite horizon. In many cases from the real economy by introducing updating, dynamic programs can be made convergent.

  17. Model for the reduction of denials of expeditions of radioactive material in the region of the America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The denials, restraints and delays of shipments of radioactive material likely to have occurred and continue to occur. Reducing them to acceptable levels can be a tangible goal that senders and recipients can anticipate and get. The basis for resolving cases of denials and delays should consider not only the participation of the competent national nuclear authorities but also other government authorities. Carriers, shippers, transport companies and recipients should consider in their queries all the wide range of authorities apparently have no involvement but they really have. This paper describes the experience gained in the country of Brazil and provides the basis of a model that could prove useful to other countries and regions, including America, if we adopt and adapt, to reduce the incidence of denials and delays of shipments of radioactive material, according to its own conditions and characteristics

  18. Integrated hydrometeorological predictions with the fully-coupled WRF-Hydro modeling system in western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gochis, D. J.; Yu, W.

    2013-12-01

    Prediction of heavy rainfall and associated streamflow responses remain as critical hydrometeorological challenges and require improved understanding of the linkages between atmospheric and land surface processes. Streamflow prediction skill is intrinsically liked to quantitative precipitation forecast skill, which emphasizes the need to produce mesoscale predictions of rainfall of high fidelity. However, in many cases land surface parameters can also exert significant control on the runoff response to heavy rainfall and on the formation or localization of heavy rainfall as well. A new generation of integrated atmospheric-hydrologic modeling systems is emerging from different groups around the world to meet the challenge of integrated water cycle predictions. In this talk the community WRF-Hydro modeling system will be presented. After a brief reviewing the architectural features of the WRF-Hydro system short-term forecasting and regional hydroclimate prediction applications of the model from western North America will be presented. In these applications, analyses will present results from observation-validated prediction experiments where atmospheric and terrestrial hydrologic model components are run in both a fully coupled mode and separately without two-way interactions. Emphasis is placed on illustrating an assessment framework using an initial state perturbation methodology to quantify the role of land-atmosphere energy and moisture flux partitioning in controlling precipitation and runoff forecast skill. Issues related to experimental design of fully-coupled model prediction experiments will also be discussed as will issues related to computational performance.

  19. Comparison of mosquito control programs in seven urban sites in Africa, the Middle East, and the Americas

    OpenAIRE

    Impoinvil, Daniel E.; Ahmad, Sajjad; Troyo,Adriana; Keating, Joseph; Githeko, Andrew K.; Mbogo, Charles M.; Kibe, Lydiah; Githure, John I.; GAD, ADEL M.; Hassan, Ali N.; Orshan, Laor; Warburg, Alon; Calderón-Arguedas, Olger; Sánchez-Loría, Victoria M.; Velit-Suarez, Rosanna

    2007-01-01

    Mosquito control programs at seven urban sites in Kenya, Egypt, Israel, Costa Rica, and Trinidad are described and compared. Site-specific urban and disease characteristics, organizational diagrams, and strengths, weaknesses, obstacles and threats (SWOT) analysis tools are used to provide a descriptive assessment of each mosquito control program, and provide a comparison of the factors affecting mosquito abatement. The information for SWOT analysis is collected from surveys, focus group discu...

  20. The Health Consultation Program: a model school nurse education program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larter, N; Chernick, L; Maire, J A; DuBois, E

    1999-08-01

    The Health Consultation Program (HCP) provides educational resources to school nurses throughout the state of Washington. It has several components, including consultation with clinical nurse specialists, a video lending library, health education materials, continuing education seminars, and preceptorships. School nurses access desired services to assist them in a variety of activities, such as developing individualized health care plans or teaching other school personnel about a child's special needs. Quotations from school nurses gathered during HCP evaluations indicate greater self-care abilities by students, improved skills of teachers and other professionals, increased planning for safe and appropriate care, and improved quality of care. PMID:10745798

  1. Children's Participation in Medicaid and SCHIP: Early in the SCHIP Era. New Federalism: National Survey of America's Families, Series B, No. B-40. Assessing the New Federalism: An Urban Institute Program To Assess Changing Social Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubay, Lisa; Kenney, Genevieve; Haley, Jennifer

    This report focuses on Medicaid and the State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) for low-income, uninsured children. It presents data from the 1999 National Survey of America's Families (NSAF), which indicated that 72 percent of eligible children without any other coverage were covered by Medicaid in 1999, leaving over 4 million…

  2. The HC-LAC: a Platform for Modeling Hydrology and Climate Change in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreda, F.; Wyatt, A.; Bruhn, M.; Wheaton, W.; Miralles-Wilhelm, F.; Muñoz-Castillo, R.; Rineer, J.

    2013-05-01

    This platform, called the Hydrology and Climate Change in Latin America and The Caribbean, or "HC-LAC", is an integrated quantitative simulation of hydrology and climate change. The HC-LAC is composed of two principal components: the Analytical Hydrography Dataset (AHD) and an enhanced version of the Generalized Watershed Loading Function (GWLF). The AHD is a spatially explicit surface water data layer of Central and South America derived from digital elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and modified by the USGS to provide more accurate flow between cells in the raster data. For the LAC area, AHD consists 230, 000 catchments and stream segments with an average area of 100 km2 and length of 10 km, respectively. The AHD data structure is patterned after the US National Hydrography Dataset Plus (NHDPlus), thus providing a proven structure for flexible data integration and analyses necessary for spatial models like the HC-LAC. The structure of the AHD enables the implementation of water balance modeling and general routing of flows through the stream network thus supporting a range of environmental models. GWLF is applied on each AHD catchment which is characterized by multiple land use and soil type. The response of each land use in a given catchment is modeled separately in generating stream flow as well as recharge to soil storage. The stream flows generated from each catchment are routed through stream networks, providing total flow at any point in the stream network. A pilot implementation of the HC-LAC was established for the Rio Grande basin in North West Argentina (drainage area 6,700 km2). The model was parameterized and calibrated using readily available data. Three stream flow time series were generated using a reference climate case and two climate change projections. The reference case was based on historical records and assumes no climate change. The two climate change projections were generated using the IPCC "A2" high

  3. Entropy based transportation model: A geometric programming approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samanta Bablu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The entropy model has attached a good deal of attention in transportation analysis, urban and regional planning as well as in other areas. This paper shows the equivalence of entropy maximization models to geometric programs. To provide a better understanding of this entropy based transportation model they are analyzed by geometric programming. Dual mathematical programs and algorithms are also obtained and are supported by an illustrative example. .

  4. Programming models for energy-aware systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Haitao

    Energy efficiency is an important goal of modern computing, with direct impact on system operational cost, reliability, usability and environmental sustainability. This dissertation describes the design and implementation of two innovative programming languages for constructing energy-aware systems. First, it introduces ET, a strongly typed programming language to promote and facilitate energy-aware programming, with a novel type system design called Energy Types. Energy Types is built upon a key insight into today's energy-efficient systems and applications: despite the popular perception that energy and power can only be described in joules and watts, real-world energy management is often based on discrete phases and modes, which in turn can be reasoned about by type systems very effectively. A phase characterizes a distinct pattern of program workload, and a mode represents an energy state the program is expected to execute in. Energy Types is designed to reason about energy phases and energy modes, bringing programmers into the optimization of energy management. Second, the dissertation develops Eco, an energy-aware programming language centering around sustainability. A sustainable program built from Eco is able to adaptively adjusts its own behaviors to stay on a given energy budget, avoiding both deficit that would lead to battery drain or CPU overheating, and surplus that could have been used to improve the quality of the program output. Sustainability is viewed as a form of supply and demand matching, and a sustainable program consistently maintains the equilibrium between supply and demand. ET is implemented as a prototyped compiler for smartphone programming on Android, and Eco is implemented as a minimal extension to Java. Programming practices and benchmarking experiments in these two new languages showed that ET can lead to significant energy savings for Android Apps and Eco can efficiently promote battery awareness and temperature awareness in real

  5. Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Community College Journal, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Includes a collection of eight short articles describing model community college programs. Discusses a literacy program, a mobile computer classroom, a support program for at-risk students, a timber-harvesting program, a multimedia presentation on successful women graduates, a career center, a collaboration with NASA, and an Israeli engineering…

  6. An optimization model to agroindustrial sector in antioquia (Colombia, South America)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, J.

    2015-06-01

    This paper develops a proposal of a general optimization model for the flower industry, which is defined by using discrete simulation and nonlinear optimization, whose mathematical models have been solved by using ProModel simulation tools and Gams optimization. It defines the operations that constitute the production and marketing of the sector, statistically validated data taken directly from each operation through field work, the discrete simulation model of the operations and the linear optimization model of the entire industry chain are raised. The model is solved with the tools described above and presents the results validated in a case study.

  7. Illiterate America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozol, Jonathan

    Intended for those involved in American social service and educational communities, this book addresses the widespread problem of illiteracy in the United States and the social consequences of this problem. Following an introduction, the chapters in the first section of the book discuss the growing crisis of illiterate America, specifically, the…

  8. Analysis of the Emission Inventories and Model-Ready Emission Datasets of Europe and North America for Phase 2 of the AQMEII Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper highlights the development of the emission inventories and emission processing for Europe (EU) and North America (NA) in the second phase of the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII) project. The main purpose of the second phase of the AQMEII...

  9. Evaluating Vocational Programs: A Three Dimensional Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Sharaf N.; Nejad, Mahmoud

    The traditional methods of assessing the academic programs in the liberal arts are inappropriate for evaluating vocational and technical programs. In traditional academic disciplines, assessment of instruction is conducted in two fashions: student evaluation at the end of a course and institutional assessment of its goals and mission. Because of…

  10. Visual Teaching Model for Introducing Programming Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehane, Ronald; Sherman, Steven

    2014-01-01

    This study examines detailed usage of online training videos that were designed to address specific course problems that were encountered in an online computer programming course. The study presents the specifics of a programming course where training videos were used to provide students with a quick start path to learning a new programming…

  11. Work-Based Learning in Rural America: Employer Participation in School-To-Work Programs and Apprenticeships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Gary Paul

    2005-01-01

    Since the 1980s, many states have initiated institutional reforms designed to address perceived deficiencies in traditional schooling. Most of these reforms involve stronger linkages between employers and schools. In this article, I examine the factors influencing employer involvement in school-to-work programs and apprenticeships in rural…

  12. Crustal density structure in northwestern South America derived from analysis and 3-D modeling of gravity and seismicity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Rojas, J.; Palma, M.

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents a three-dimensional (3-D) interpretation of new gravity and seismicity datasets for northern South America. A 3-D forward density model was constructed on the basis of deep wide-angle seismic refraction sections, Moho depth from receiver functions, and surface geology. Density values were estimated from published borehole data for sediments by using empirical velocity-density functions and considering mineralogical-chemical composition variations under typical pressure-temperature conditions for upper and lower crustal rocks. The modeled 3-D density structure was kept as simple as possible. The continental and oceanic plates were formed by two sedimentary bodies, one crustal body, and one mantle lithosphere body overlying a sub-lithospheric mantle. The Caribbean plate was modeled with an atypical crustal thickness of ~ 18 km (including sediments). The geometry of the Caribbean plate was modeled using a combination of gravity modeling and analyses of the seismicity and focal-mechanism solutions. Intermediate seismicity and the orientation of the T-axes appeared aligned along the predicted position of the slab. As a result, the estimated slab dip angle under Maracaibo and the Mérida Andes was ~ 15° and increases up to ~ 20° after 100 km depth. The model shows two orientations in the slab strike: ~ N150°E ± 5 in western Colombia and southward underneath the Maracaibo block. The modeling results suggest that the northern South American upper and lower crusts are relatively light and the density of the Caribbean crust is typical for an oceanic crust.

  13. Building an advanced climate model: Program plan for the CHAMMP (Computer Hardware, Advanced Mathematics, and Model Physics) Climate Modeling Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-01

    The issue of global warming and related climatic changes from increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere has received prominent attention during the past few years. The Computer Hardware, Advanced Mathematics, and Model Physics (CHAMMP) Climate Modeling Program is designed to contribute directly to this rapid improvement. The goal of the CHAMMP Climate Modeling Program is to develop, verify, and apply a new generation of climate models within a coordinated framework that incorporates the best available scientific and numerical approaches to represent physical, biogeochemical, and ecological processes, that fully utilizes the hardware and software capabilities of new computer architectures, that probes the limits of climate predictability, and finally that can be used to address the challenging problem of understanding the greenhouse climate issue through the ability of the models to simulate time-dependent climatic changes over extended times and with regional resolution.

  14. Energy efficiency in nonprofit agencies: Creating effective program models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A.; Prindle, B.; Scherr, M.I.; White, D.L.

    1990-08-01

    Nonprofit agencies are a critical component of the health and human services system in the US. It has been clearly demonstrated by programs that offer energy efficiency services to nonprofits that, with minimal investment, they can educe their energy consumption by ten to thirty percent. This energy conservation potential motivated the Department of Energy and Oak Ridge National Laboratory to conceive a project to help states develop energy efficiency programs for nonprofits. The purpose of the project was two-fold: (1) to analyze existing programs to determine which design and delivery mechanisms are particularly effective, and (2) to create model programs for states to follow in tailoring their own plans for helping nonprofits with energy efficiency programs. Twelve existing programs were reviewed, and three model programs were devised and put into operation. The model programs provide various forms of financial assistance to nonprofits and serve as a source of information on energy efficiency as well. After examining the results from the model programs (which are still on-going) and from the existing programs, several replicability factors'' were developed for use in the implementation of programs by other states. These factors -- some concrete and practical, others more generalized -- serve as guidelines for states devising program based on their own particular needs and resources.

  15. Support for Career Development in Youth: Program Models and Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekinda, Megan A.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines four influential programs--Citizen Schools, After School Matters, career academies, and Job Corps--to demonstrate the diversity of approaches to career programming for youth. It compares the specific program models and draws from the evaluation literature to discuss strengths and weaknesses of each. The article highlights…

  16. Spatial and temporal patterns of CH4 and N2O fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems of North America during 1979–2008: application of a global biogeochemistry model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Lu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Continental-scale estimations of terrestrial methane (CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O fluxes over a long time period are crucial to accurately assess the global balance of greenhouse gases and enhance our understanding and prediction of global climate change and terrestrial ecosystem feedbacks. Using a process-based global biogeochemical model, the Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model (DLEM, we quantified simultaneously CH4 and N2O fluxes in North America's terrestrial ecosystems from 1979 to 2008. During the past 30 years, approximately 14.69 ± 1.64 T g C a−1 (1 T g = 1012 g of CH4, and 1.94 ± 0.1 T g N a−1 of N2O were released from terrestrial ecosystems in North America. At the country level, both the US and Canada acted as CH4 sources to the atmosphere, but Mexico mainly oxidized and consumed CH4 from the atmosphere. Wetlands in North America contributed predominantly to the regional CH4 source, while all other ecosystems acted as sinks for atmospheric CH4, of which forests accounted for 36.8%. Regarding N2O emission in North America, the US, Canada, and Mexico contributed 56.19%, 18.23%, and 25.58%, respectively, to the continental source over the past 30 years. Forests and croplands were the two ecosystems that contributed most to continental N2O emission. The inter-annual variations of CH4 and N2O fluxes in North America were mainly attributed to year-to-year climatic variability. While only annual precipitation was found to have a significant effect on annual CH4 flux, both mean annual temperature and annual precipitation were significantly correlated to annual N2O flux. The regional estimates and spatiotemporal patterns of terrestrial ecosystem CH4 and N2O fluxes in North America generated in this study provide useful information for global change research and policy making.

  17. Evaluation of wetland methane emissions across North America using atmospheric data and inverse modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Scot M.; Commane, Roisin; Melton, Joe R.; Andrews, Arlyn E.; Benmergui, Joshua; Dlugokencky, Edward J.; Janssens-Maenhout, Greet; Michalak, Anna M.; Sweeney, Colm; Worthy, Doug E. J.

    2016-03-01

    Existing estimates of methane (CH4) fluxes from North American wetlands vary widely in both magnitude and distribution. In light of these differences, this study uses atmospheric CH4 observations from the US and Canada to analyze seven different bottom-up, wetland CH4 estimates reported in a recent model comparison project. We first use synthetic data to explore whether wetland CH4 fluxes are detectable at atmospheric observation sites. We find that the observation network can detect aggregate wetland fluxes from both eastern and western Canada but generally not from the US. Based upon these results, we then use real data and inverse modeling results to analyze the magnitude, seasonality, and spatial distribution of each model estimate. The magnitude of Canadian fluxes in many models is larger than indicated by atmospheric observations. Many models predict a seasonality that is narrower than implied by inverse modeling results, possibly indicating an oversensitivity to air or soil temperatures. The LPJ-Bern and SDGVM models have a geographic distribution that is most consistent with atmospheric observations, depending upon the region and season. These models utilize land cover maps or dynamic modeling to estimate wetland coverage while most other models rely primarily on remote sensing inundation data.

  18. Deadlock Detection in Basic Models of MPI Synchronization Communication Programs

    CERN Document Server

    Liao, Ming-xue

    2007-01-01

    A model of MPI synchronization communication programs is presented and its three basic simplified models are also defined. A series of theorems and methods for deciding whether deadlocks will occur among the three models are given and proved strictly. These theories and methods for simple models' deadlock detection are the necessary base for real MPI program deadlock detection. The methods are based on a static analysis through programs and with runtime detection in necessary cases and they are able to determine before compiling whether it will be deadlocked for two of the three basic models. For another model, some deadlock cases can be found before compiling and others at runtime. Our theorems can be used to prove the correctness of currently popular MPI program deadlock detection algorithms. Our methods may decrease codes that those algorithms need to change to MPI source or profiling interface and may detects deadlocks ahead of program execution, thus the overheads can be reduced greatly.

  19. Evolutionary Model to Traditional Culture and Program Organization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jing-xiao; JIN Wei-xing; YANG De-qin

    2006-01-01

    To study the relationship between the evolutions of Chinese Traditional Culture (CTC) and program organization, an outline of the CTC is generalized by reviewing literature, and which is also compartmentalized into two aspects according to economic philosophy views: traditional philosophy aspect and value judgment. Based on three dimensions, which are the philosophy aspect (P), program organization model (P), and value judgment from economic philosophy views (V), and this evolution sequence, the CTC's influence on the program organization model in the evolution is discussed; then the cultural spatial evolution model for program organization based on the three dimensions (PPV) is constructed. From analyzing the plane matrix of P-P and empirical investigating on the organizational model of construction enterprises, it is found that the ancient Chinese government organizational model still has prevailing influence on the modern program organizational model in China.

  20. Modeling Range Dynamics In Heterogeneous Landscapes: Invasion Of The Hemlock Woolly Adelgid In Eastern North America

    OpenAIRE

    Ellison, Aaron M.; Fitzpatrick, Matthew C.; Preisser, Evan L.; Porter, Adam; Elkinton, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Range expansion by native and exotic species will continue to be a major component of global change. Anticipating the potential effects of changes in species distributions requires models capable of forecasting population spread across realistic, heterogeneous landscapes and subject to spatiotemporal variability in habitat suitability. Several decades of theory and model development, as well as increased computing power and availability of fine-resolution GIS data, now make such models possib...

  1. Increased drought impacts on temperate rainforests from southern South America: results of a process-based, dynamic forest model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro G Gutiérrez

    Full Text Available Increased droughts due to regional shifts in temperature and rainfall regimes are likely to affect forests in temperate regions in the coming decades. To assess their consequences for forest dynamics, we need predictive tools that couple hydrologic processes, soil moisture dynamics and plant productivity. Here, we developed and tested a dynamic forest model that predicts the hydrologic balance of North Patagonian rainforests on Chiloé Island, in temperate South America (42°S. The model incorporates the dynamic linkages between changing rainfall regimes, soil moisture and individual tree growth. Declining rainfall, as predicted for the study area, should mean up to 50% less summer rain by year 2100. We analysed forest responses to increased drought using the model proposed focusing on changes in evapotranspiration, soil moisture and forest structure (above-ground biomass and basal area. We compared the responses of a young stand (YS, ca. 60 years-old and an old-growth forest (OG, >500 years-old in the same area. Based on detailed field measurements of water fluxes, the model provides a reliable account of the hydrologic balance of these evergreen, broad-leaved rainforests. We found higher evapotranspiration in OG than YS under current climate. Increasing drought predicted for this century can reduce evapotranspiration by 15% in the OG compared to current values. Drier climate will alter forest structure, leading to decreases in above ground biomass by 27% of the current value in OG. The model presented here can be used to assess the potential impacts of climate change on forest hydrology and other threats of global change on future forests such as fragmentation, introduction of exotic tree species, and changes in fire regimes. Our study expands the applicability of forest dynamics models in remote and hitherto overlooked regions of the world, such as southern temperate rainforests.

  2. Role of Blended Learning Approach in Development of International Distance Education Programs – Case Study from Central America

    OpenAIRE

    Seetharam Chittoor Jhansi

    2013-01-01

    Distance education is less a philosophy and more a method of education. Students can study in their own time, at the place of their choice (home, work or learning centre), and without face-to-face contact with a teacher. Technology is a critical element of distance education. International distance education program, in its broader perspective, aims to provide a multinational platform where the latest trends in distance education can be shared and discussed in a friendly environment with the ...

  3. A Comparison of Three Programming Models for Adaptive Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Hong-Zhang; Singh, Jaswinder Pal; Oliker, Leonid; Biswa, Rupak; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We study the performance and programming effort for two major classes of adaptive applications under three leading parallel programming models. We find that all three models can achieve scalable performance on the state-of-the-art multiprocessor machines. The basic parallel algorithms needed for different programming models to deliver their best performance are similar, but the implementations differ greatly, far beyond the fact of using explicit messages versus implicit loads/stores. Compared with MPI and SHMEM, CC-SAS (cache-coherent shared address space) provides substantial ease of programming at the conceptual and program orchestration level, which often leads to the performance gain. However it may also suffer from the poor spatial locality of physically distributed shared data on large number of processors. Our CC-SAS implementation of the PARMETIS partitioner itself runs faster than in the other two programming models, and generates more balanced result for our application.

  4. Developing robotic behavior using a genetic programming model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pryor, R.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Program Management Dept.

    1998-01-01

    This report describes the methodology for using a genetic programming model to develop tracking behaviors for autonomous, microscale robotic vehicles. The use of such vehicles for surveillance and detection operations has become increasingly important in defense and humanitarian applications. Through an evolutionary process similar to that found in nature, the genetic programming model generates a computer program that when downloaded onto a robotic vehicle`s on-board computer will guide the robot to successfully accomplish its task. Simulations of multiple robots engaged in problem-solving tasks have demonstrated cooperative behaviors. This report also discusses the behavior model produced by genetic programming and presents some results achieved during the study.

  5. Developing robotic behavior using a genetic programming model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the methodology for using a genetic programming model to develop tracking behaviors for autonomous, microscale robotic vehicles. The use of such vehicles for surveillance and detection operations has become increasingly important in defense and humanitarian applications. Through an evolutionary process similar to that found in nature, the genetic programming model generates a computer program that when downloaded onto a robotic vehicle's on-board computer will guide the robot to successfully accomplish its task. Simulations of multiple robots engaged in problem-solving tasks have demonstrated cooperative behaviors. This report also discusses the behavior model produced by genetic programming and presents some results achieved during the study

  6. Evolving Leaders. A Model for Promoting Leadership Development in Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palus, Charles J.; Drath, Wilfred H.

    A new model for promoting leadership development in programs emphasizes individuals' psychological development. The model, which is intended for use by individuals responsible for leadership development in organizations or by leadership development program planners/evaluators, is based on a cyclic process of three time-linked categories: readiness…

  7. A Model Acquaintance Rape Prevention Program for Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Alan D.

    1994-01-01

    Describes the underlying philosophy, content and evaluation issues, and selection and training of facilitators for a model acquaintance rape prevention program for male students conducted at Hobart College. Provides guidelines to help other colleges and universities implement a model rape prevention program for men that uses small-group discussion…

  8. Zonda downslope winds in the central Andes of South America in a 20-year climate simulation with the Eta model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antico, Pablo L.; Chou, Sin Chan; Mourão, Caroline

    2015-12-01

    The Zonda wind is a local version of the alpine foehn in the central Andes Mountains in South America. It blows on the eastern slopes and produces an extremely warm and dry condition in Argentina. In this study, the occurrence of Zonda wind events during a 20-year simulation from the regional Eta model is analyzed and results are compared to previous studies of Zonda wind events based on weather observations. We define a set of parameters to account for the zonal pressure gradient across the mountain, vertical movement, and air humidity typical of Zonda wind events. These parameters are applied to characterize Zonda wind events in model run and to classify them as surface-level or high-level episodes. The resulting annual distribution of Zonda occurrences based on composite analyses shows a preference for winter and spring with rare occurrences during summer. For the surface-level Zonda wind events, the highest frequency occurs during spring. Whereas surface-level Zonda wind episodes more commonly initiate in the afternoon, high-level Zonda wind events show no preference for a given initiation time. Our results are mostly in agreement with previous observational results.

  9. Training the next Teachers for America: A Proposal for Reconceptualizing TFA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Megan

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author offers suggestions for reconceptualizing the Teach for America (TFA) program. She recommends that TFA develop a residency training model with the following features: (1) Extend the program's current two-year commitment to three years; (2) Require first-year corps members to complete a residency year in an experienced…

  10. Regaining America's leading global position in the innovation of science and technology: Increasing engineering program enrollment in higher education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burklo, Daniel A.

    While the United States has always been a global leader in the innovation of science and technology, this leading global position is in jeopardy. As other developing countries produce intellectual capital in the form of engineers at increasing rates, the country will continue to lose ground. Today the need for the country to produce engineers is greater than ever before. Recognizing this need, attempts have been made to increase entrance into engineering fields in higher education by providing STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) activities during K-12 education. While STEM initiatives create awareness and interest, this study investigates what actually motivates individuals to choose engineering programs in higher education. A quantitative study utilizing survey results from 202 first year engineering students in the state of Ohio illustrates what has motivated them to choose engineering as a major. The study examines who, when, and what motivated the students to choose engineering by examining the relationship of influential people and STEM initiatives participated in during their K-12 education to enrollment in engineering programs at colleges and universities in the state of Ohio. The study proved the general hypothesis that there are influential people in an individual's college choice, such as the parent, and there are time periods during K-12 education when individuals are more motivated, such as the high school years. The study also showed a positive correlation between the motivation toward engineering programs and the number of STEM opportunities in which individuals participated yet there was little difference when comparing the different types of STEM initiatives.

  11. Models for predicting enteric methane emissions from dairy cows in North America, Europe, and Australia and New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appuhamy, Jayasooriya A D R N; France, James; Kebreab, Ermias

    2016-09-01

    There are several models in the literature for predicting enteric methane (CH4 ) emissions. These models were often developed on region or country-specific data and may not be able to predict the emissions successfully in every region. The majority of extant models require dry matter intake (DMI) of individual animals, which is not routinely measured. The objectives of this study were to (i) evaluate performance of extant models in predicting enteric CH4 emissions from dairy cows in North America (NA), Europe (EU), and Australia and New Zealand (AUNZ) and (ii) explore the performance using estimated DMI. Forty extant models were challenged on 55, 105, and 52 enteric CH4 measurements (g per lactating cow per day) from NA, EU, and AUNZ, respectively. The models were ranked using root mean square prediction error as a percentage of the average observed value (RMSPE) and concordance correlation coefficient (CCC). A modified model of Nielsen et al. (Acta Agriculturae Scand Section A, 63, 2013 and 126) using DMI, and dietary digestible neutral detergent fiber and fatty acid contents as predictor variables, were ranked highest in NA (RMSPE = 13.1% and CCC = 0.78). The gross energy intake-based model of Yan et al. (Livestock Production Science, 64, 2000 and 253) and the updated IPCC Tier 2 model were ranked highest in EU (RMSPE = 11.0% and CCC = 0.66) and AUNZ (RMSPE = 15.6% and CCC = 0.75), respectively. DMI of cows in NA and EU was estimated satisfactorily with body weight and fat-corrected milk yield data (RMSPE  0.60). Using estimated DMI, the Nielsen et al. (2013) (RMSPE = 12.7 and CCC = 0.79) and Yan et al. (2000) (RMSPE = 13.7 and CCC = 0.50) models still predicted emissions in respective regions well. Enteric CH4 emissions from dairy cows can be predicted successfully (i.e., RMSPE < 15%), if DMI can be estimated with reasonable accuracy (i.e., RMSPE < 10%). PMID:27148862

  12. A two-year revision: cross comparison and modeling of Goldman Sachs, Morgan Stanley, JPMorgan Chase, Bank of America, and Franklin Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Kitov, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Approximately two years ago we presented results of price modeling and extensive statistical analysis for share prices of five banks: Bank of America (BAC), Franklin Resources (BEN), Goldman Sachs (GS), JPMorgan Chase (JPM), and Morgan Stanley (MS). Using monthly closing prices (adjusted for splits and dividends) as a proxy to stock prices, we estimated the best fit (LSQ) quantitative price models based on the decomposition into two defining consumer price indices selected from a large set of...

  13. Comparison of mosquito control programs in seven urban sites in Africa, the Middle East, and the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impoinvil, Daniel E.; Ahmad, Sajjad; Troyo, Adriana; Keating, Joseph; Githeko, Andrew K.; Mbogo, Charles M; Kibe, Lydiah; Githure, John I.; Gad, Adel M.; Hassan, Ali N.; Orshan, Laor; Warburg, Alon; Calderón-Arguedas, Olger; Sánchez-Loría, Victoria M.; Velit-Suarez, Rosanna; Chadee, Dave D.; Novak, Robert J.; Beier, John C.

    2007-01-01

    Mosquito control programs at seven urban sites in Kenya, Egypt, Israel, Costa Rica, and Trinidad are described and compared. Site-specific urban and disease characteristics, organizational diagrams, and strengths, weaknesses, obstacles and threats (SWOT) analysis tools are used to provide a descriptive assessment of each mosquito control program, and provide a comparison of the factors affecting mosquito abatement. The information for SWOT analysis is collected from surveys, focus group discussions, and personal communication. SWOT analysis identified various issues affecting the efficiency and sustainability of mosquito control operations. The main outcome of our work was the description and comparison of mosquito control operations within the context of each study site’s biological, social, political, management, and economic conditions. The issues identified in this study ranged from lack of inter-sector collaboration to operational issues of mosquito control efforts. A lack of sustainable funding for mosquito control was a common problem for most sites. Many unique problems were also identified, which included lack of mosquito surveillance, lack of law enforcement, and negative consequences of human behavior. Identifying common virtues and shortcomings of mosquito control operations is useful in identifying “best practices” for mosquito control operations, thus leading to better control of mosquito biting and mosquito-borne disease transmission. PMID:17316882

  14. DSN RFI susceptibility models development program overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sue, M. K.

    1982-01-01

    The RFI model development described intended to provide an understanding of the interference susceptibility of DSN receivers. An overview of interference types and effects, analytic modelling and experimental verification is presented.

  15. Addressing Diversity in US Teacher Preparation Programs: A Survey of Elementary and Secondary Programs' Priorities and Challenges from across the United States of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Todd

    2007-01-01

    Data gathered from 142 public university elementary and secondary teacher preparation programs across the United States (representing the preparation of approximately 23,000-30,000 new teachers annually), indicated that race/ethnicity was the most emphasized diversity topic followed by special needs, language diversity, economic (social class),…

  16. Stochastic Programming Models for Engineering Design Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Popela, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to introduce various stochastic programs and related deterministic reformulations that are suitable for engineering design problems. Firstly, several application areas of engineering design are introduced and cited. Then, motivation ideas and basic concepts are presented. Later, various types of reformulations are introduced for decision problems involving uncertainty. In addition, short notes on comparison of optimal solutions are included.

  17. School-Based Programs Aimed at the Prevention and Treatment of Obesity: Evidence-Based Interventions for Youth in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobelo, Felipe; Garcia de Quevedo, Isabel; Holub, Christina K.; Nagle, Brian J.; Arredondo, Elva M.; Barquera, Simon; Elder, John P.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Rapidly rising childhood obesity rates constitute a public health priority in Latin America which makes it imperative to develop evidence-based strategies. Schools are a promising setting but to date it is unclear how many school-based obesity interventions have been documented in Latin America and what level of evidence can be…

  18. Development and Implementation of a Program Management Maturity Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartwig, Laura; Smith, Matt

    2008-12-15

    In 2006, Honeywell Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T) announced an updatedvision statement for the organization. The vision is “To be the most admired team within the NNSA [National Nuclear Security Administration] for our relentless drive to convert ideas into the highest quality products and services for National Security by applying the right technology, outstanding program management and best commercial practices.” The challenge to provide outstanding program management was taken up by the Program Management division and the Program Integration Office (PIO) of the company. This article describes how Honeywell developed and deployed a program management maturity model to drive toward excellence.

  19. Models of quantum computation and quantum programming languages

    OpenAIRE

    Miszczak, J. A.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the presented paper is to provide an introduction to the basic computational models used in quantum information theory. We review various models of quantum Turing machine, quantum circuits and quantum random access machine (QRAM) along with their classical counterparts. We also provide an introduction to quantum programming languages, which are developed using the QRAM model. We review the syntax of several existing quantum programming languages and discuss their features and limi...

  20. Summer precipitation projections over northwestern South America from CMIP5 models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomino-Lemus, Reiner; Córdoba-Machado, Samir; Gámiz-Fortis, Sonia Raquel; Castro-Díez, Yolanda; Esteban-Parra, María Jesús

    2015-08-01

    In this study, statistical downscaling (SD) models have been built using principal component regression (PCR) for simulating summer precipitation in Colombia during the period 1950-2010, and climate projections have been made for the period 2071-2100 by applying the previous SD models to the SLP outputs of five GCMs. For this, the principal components (PCs) of the SLP reanalysis data from NCEP were used as predictor variables and the observed gridded summer precipitation as predictands. The period 1950-1993 was used for calibration and 1994-2010 for validation. Bootstrap with replacement was applied to provide estimations of the statistical errors. All SD models performed reasonably well at regional scales, and the spatial distribution of the correlation coefficients between the predicted and observed gridded precipitation values shows high significant values (between 0.5 and 0.93) along the Andes range, north and north Pacific of Colombia. The ability of the GCMs to simulate the summer precipitation in Colombia, for the present climate (1971-2000), has been analyzed by calculating the differences between the simulated and observed precipitation values, with the result that the precipitation simulations made for the GCMs show strong biases. However, SD models applied to the SLP output from GCMs demonstrate their ability to faithfully reproduce the rainfall field. Finally, for summer precipitation projections in Colombia for the period 2071-2100, the SD models, recalibrated for the total period 1950-2010, have been applied to the SLP output from GCMs under the RCP2.6, RCP4.5, and RCP8.5 scenarios. The SD estimations show considerable differences with respect to SD present values, generally towards precipitation increases. The SD MIROC5, HAdGEM2-AO, and CESM1(CAM5) present significant changes in all the regions for both the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios. So, for the RCP8.5 these models project changes between 12.85% and 18.32% for the NWC region, 6.73% and 10.02% for

  1. A Holocene Database of Relative Sea Levels for North America and the Caribbean: Implications for Geophysical Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhart, S. E.; Peltier, W. R.; Horton, B. P.; Khan, N. S.; Liu, S.; Vacchi, M.

    2011-12-01

    We have expanded the previously available quality-controlled database of relative sea-level (RSL) observations for the U.S. Atlantic coast with data from the Atlantic coast of Canada, the Pacific coast of North America and the Caribbean. The Holocene sea-level database for the U.S. Atlantic coast consisted of 836 sea-level indicators. The database documented a decreasing rate of relative sea-level (RSL) rise through time with no evidence of sea level being above present in the middle to late Holocene. The highest rates of rise were found in the mid-Atlantic region. We employed the database to constrain an ensemble of glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) models using two ice (ICE-5G and ICE-6G) and two mantle viscosity variation (VM5a and VM5b). We identified significant misfits between observations and predictions using ICE-5G with the VM5a viscosity profile. ICE-6G provides some improvement for the northern Atlantic region, but misfits remain elsewhere. Decreasing the upper mantle and transition zone viscosity from 0.5*1021 Pa s (VM5a) to 0.25*1021 Pa s (VM5b) removed significant discrepancies between observations and predictions along the mid-Atlantic coastline, although misfits remained in the southern Atlantic region. The addition of new data from areas more proximal and distal to Laurentide ice loading has allowed us to further investigate the VM5b mantle viscosity profile.

  2. Building America Case Study: Accelerating the Delivery of Home-Performance Upgrades Using a Synergistic Business Model, Minneapolis, Minnesota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-04-01

    Achieving Building America energy savings goals (40 percent by 2030) will require many existing homes to install energy upgrades. Engaging large numbers of homeowners in building science-guided upgrades during a single remodeling event has been difficult for a number of reasons. Performance upgrades in existing homes tend to occur over multiple years and usually result from component failures (furnace failure) and weather damage (ice dams, roofing, siding). This research attempted to: A) Understand the homeowner's motivations regarding investing in building science based performance upgrades. B) Determining a rapidly scalable approach to engage large numbers of homeowners directly through existing customer networks. C) Access a business model that will manage all aspects of the contractor-homeowner-performance professional interface to ensure good upgrade decisions over time. The solution results from a synergistic approach utilizing networks of suppliers merging with networks of homeowner customers. Companies in the $400 to $800 billion home services industry have proven direct marketing and sales proficiencies that have led to the development of vast customer networks. Companies such as pest control, lawn care, and security have nurtured these networks by successfully addressing the ongoing needs of homes. This long-term access to customers and trust established with consistent delivery has also provided opportunities for home service providers to grow by successfully introducing new products and services like attic insulation and air sealing. The most important component for success is a business model that will facilitate and manage the process. The team analyzes a group that developed a working model.

  3. Constraints from observations and modeling on atmosphere–surface exchange of mercury in eastern North America

    OpenAIRE

    Shaojie Song; Selin, Noelle E; Lynne E. Gratz; Jesse L. Ambrose; Jaffe, Daniel A.; Viral Shah; Lyatt Jaeglé; Amanda Giang; Bin Yuan; Lisa Kaser; Apel, Eric C.; Hornbrook, Rebecca S.; Blake, Nicola J.; Weinheimer, Andrew J.; Roy L. Mauldin III

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Atmosphere–surface exchange of mercury, although a critical component of its global cycle, is currently poorly constrained. Here we use the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model to interpret atmospheric Hg0 (gaseous elemental mercury) data collected during the 2013 summer Nitrogen, Oxidants, Mercury and Aerosol Distributions, Sources and Sinks (NOMADSS) aircraft campaign as well as ground- and ship-based observations in terms of their constraints on the atmosphere–surface exchange of Hg...

  4. RCCM2-BATS model over tropical South America: Applications to tropical deforestation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahmann, A.N.; Dickinson, R.E. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    1997-08-01

    A multiyear simulation of the global climate uses a revised version of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Climate Model Version 2 (CCM2) coupled to the Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (BATS). It is compared with global and rain gauge precipitation climatologies to evaluate precipitation fields and European Centre for Medium-Range Forecasts analyses to evaluate the atmospheric circulation. The near-surface climate is compared with data from Amazonian field campaigns. The model simulation of the South American climate agrees closely with the observational record and is much improved from past simulations with previous versions of the NCAR Community Climate model over this portion of the Tropics. The model is then used to study the local and regional response to tropical deforestation over Amazonia. In addition to the standard deforestation forcing, consisting mainly of increased albedo and decreased roughness length, two additional sensitivity experiments were conducted to assess the individual contributions from these forcings to the deforestation changes. The standard deforestation simulation shows slight increases in annually averaged surface temperature (+1{degrees}C) and reductions in annually averaged precipitation and evaporation (-363 and -149 mm yr{sup -1}, respectively). As expected, increases in surface albedo over Amazonia produce a reduction in net downward solar radiation at the surface and consequently a reduction in net surface radiation and surface latent heat flux. The roughness decrease, on the other hand, reduces the surface latent heat fluxes through decreases in the surface drag coefficient. The regional changes in moisture convergence and precipitation during the Amazonian wet season display a shift in the area of maximum precipitation rather than an overall decrease over the deforested area. 45 refs., 16 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Understanding use of health services in conditional cash transfer programs: insights from qualitative research in Latin America and Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adato, Michelle; Roopnaraine, Terry; Becker, Elisabeth

    2011-06-01

    Conditional cash transfer programs provide cash grants to poor households conditional on their participation in primary health care services. While significant impacts have been demonstrated quantitatively, little attention is paid to why CCTs have these observed impacts, and as importantly- why impacts are not greater than they are. This article draws on qualitative research from four countries over a ten year period (1999-2009) to provide insights into why expected health and nutrition impacts do and do not occur. In Nicaragua, El Salvador, and Turkey, ethnographic methods were used, involving between 87 and 120 households per country, and in Mexico, focus groups were conducted with 230 people. Key informant interviews were conducted with health care providers in all countries. While CCTs operate primarily on the assumption that a cash incentive will produce behaviour change, we found multiple sociocultural and structural influences on health care decisions that compete with cash. These include beliefs around traditional and modern biomedical practices, sociocultural norms, gender relations, and the quotidian experience of poverty in many dimensions. We conclude that impacts can be increased through a better understanding of multiple contextual influences on health care decisions, and greater attention to the health education components and complementary interventions. PMID:21122965

  6. Development programs in the United States of America for the application of cement-based grouts in radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dole, L.R.; Row, T.H.

    1984-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews seven cement-based waste form development programs at six of the US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. These sites have developed a variety of processes that range from producing 25 mm (1 in.) diameter pellets in a glove box to producing 240 m (800 ft.) diameter grout sheets within the bedding planes of a deep shale formation. These successful applications of cement-based waste forms to the many radioactive waste streams from nuclear facilities bear witness to the flexibility and reliability of this class of materials. This paper also discusses the major issues regarding the application of cement-based waste forms to radioactive waste management problems. These issues are (1) leachability, (2) radiation stability, (3) thermal stability, (4) phase complexity of the matrix, and (5) effects of the waste stream composition. A cursory review of current research in each of these areas is given This paper also discusses future trends in cement-based waste form development and applications. 31 references, 11 figures.

  7. Multi-stage Stochastic Programming Models in Production Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abas Esmaeili

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Production planing is a key area of operations management. An important methodology for production planing is mathematical programming. Traditonal mathematical programming models for production planing are deterministic, and canot provide robust production plans in the presence of uncertainty. As such, deterministic planing models may yield unsatisfactory decisions. Stochastic programming, an active branch of mathematical programming dealing with optimization problems involving uncertain data, has sen several sucesful aplications in production planing. Unlike alternative aproaches to decision making under uncertainty, such as Markov decision proceses, stochastic programming requires few asumptions on the underlying stochastic proceses and alows for modeling of complicated decision structures. On the other hand, stochastic programming asumes finite number of stages and exogenous uncertainties. With recent increase in computational power and algorithmic developments, the limitations of stochastic programming arising from computational dificulties have ben relieved to a large extent. Nowadays, god production planing is a considered as one of the reason for improvement in production and many studies have ben conducted in order to identify the models of production planing. The main purpose of this research is to study multi-stage stochastic programming models in production planing.

  8. Service systems concepts, modeling, and programming

    CERN Document Server

    Cardoso, Jorge; Poels, Geert

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief explores the internal workings of service systems. The authors propose a lightweight semantic model for an effective representation to capture the essence of service systems. Key topics include modeling frameworks, service descriptions and linked data, creating service instances, tool support, and applications in enterprises.Previous books on service system modeling and various streams of scientific developments used an external perspective to describe how systems can be integrated. This brief introduces the concept of white-box service system modeling as an approach to mo

  9. A GPS and modelling study of deformation in northern Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, M.; DeMets, C.; Rogers, R.; Tenorio, C.; Hernandez, D.

    2009-09-01

    We use GPS measurements at 37 stations in Honduras and El Salvador to describe active deformation of the western end of the Caribbean Plate between the Motagua fault and Central American volcanic arc. All GPS sites located in eastern Honduras move with the Caribbean Plate, in accord with geologic evidence for an absence of neotectonic deformation in this region. Relative to the Caribbean Plate, the other stations in the study area move west to west-northwest at rates that increase gradually from 3.3 +/- 0.6 mm yr-1 in central Honduras to 4.1 +/- 0.6 mm yr-1 in western Honduras to as high as 11-12 mm yr-1 in southern Guatemala. The site motions are consistent with slow westward extension that has been inferred by previous authors from the north-striking grabens and earthquake focal mechanisms in this region. We examine the factors that influence the regional deformation by comparing the new GPS velocity field to velocity fields predicted by finite element models (FEMs) that incorporate the regional plate boundary faults and known plate motions. Our modelling suggests that the obliquely convergent (~20°) direction of Caribbean-North American Plate motion relative to the Motagua fault west of 90°W impedes the ENE-directed motion of the Caribbean Plate in southern Guatemala, giving rise to extension in southern Guatemala and western Honduras. The FEM predictions agree even better with the measured velocities if the plate motion west of the Central American volcanic arc is forced to occur over a broad zone rather than along a single throughgoing plate boundary fault. Our analysis confirms key predictions of a previous numerical model for deformation in this region, and also indicates that the curvature of the Motagua fault causes significant along-strike changes in the orientations of the principal strain-rate axes in the fault borderlands, in accord with earthquake focal mechanisms and conclusions reached in a recent synthesis of the structural and morphologic data

  10. Comparative evaluation of the IPCC AR5 CMIP5 versus the AR4 CMIP3 model ensembles for regional precipitation and their extremes over South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolen, J.; Kodra, E. A.; Ganguly, A. R.

    2011-12-01

    The assertion that higher-resolution experiments or more sophisticated process models within the IPCC AR5 CMIP5 suite of global climate model ensembles improves precipitation projections over the IPCC AR4 CMIP3 suite remains a hypothesis that needs to be rigorously tested. The questions are particularly important for local to regional assessments at scales relevant for the management of critical infrastructures and key resources, particularly for the attributes of sever precipitation events, for example, the intensity, frequency and duration of extreme precipitation. Our case study is South America, where precipitation and their extremes play a central role in sustaining natural, built and human systems. To test the hypothesis that CMIP5 improves over CMIP3 in this regard, spatial and temporal measures of prediction skill are constructed and computed by comparing climate model hindcasts with the NCEP-II reanalysis data, considered here as surrogate observations, for the entire globe and for South America. In addition, gridded precipitation observations over South America based on rain gage measurements are considered. The results suggest that the utility of the next-generation of global climate models over the current generation needs to be carefully evaluated on a case-by-case basis before communicating to resource managers and policy makers.

  11. Modeled aerosol nitrate formation pathways during wintertime in the Great Lakes region of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoo Jung; Spak, Scott N.; Carmichael, Gregory R.; Riemer, Nicole; Stanier, Charles O.

    2014-11-01

    Episodic wintertime particle pollution by ammonium nitrate is an important air quality concern across the Midwest U.S. Understanding and accurately forecasting PM2.5 episodes are complicated by multiple pathways for aerosol nitrate formation, each with uncertain rate parameters. Here, the Community Multiscale Air Quality model (CMAQ) simulated regional atmospheric nitrate budgets during the 2009 LADCO Winter Nitrate Study, using integrated process rate (IPR) and integrated reaction rate (IRR) tools to quantify relevant processes. Total nitrate production contributing to PM2.5 episodes is a regional phenomenon, with peak production over the Ohio River Valley and southern Great Lakes. Total nitrate production in the lower troposphere is attributed to three pathways, with 57% from heterogeneous conversion of N2O5, 28% from the reaction of OH and NO2, and 15% from homogeneous conversion of N2O5. TNO3 formation rates varied day-to-day and on synoptic timescales. Rate-limited production does not follow urban-rural gradients and NOx emissions due, to counterbalancing of urban enhancement in daytime HNO3 production with nocturnal reductions. Concentrations of HNO3 and N2O5 and nighttime TNO3 formation rates have maxima aloft (100-500 m), leading to net total nitrate vertical flux during episodes, with substantial vertical gradients in nitrate partitioning. Uncertainties in all three pathways are relevant to wintertime aerosol modeling and highlight the importance of interacting transport and chemistry processes during ammonium nitrate episodes, as well as the need for additional constraint on the system through field and laboratory experiments.

  12. Observations and modelling of inflation in the Lazufre volcanic region, South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearse, J.; Lundgren, P.

    2010-12-01

    The Central Volcanic Zone (CVZ) is an active volcanic arc in the central Andes, extending through Peru, southwestern Bolivia, Chile, and northwestern Argentina [De Silva, 1989; De Silva and Francis, 1991]. The CVZ includes a number of collapsed calderas, remnants of catastrophic eruptions, which are now thought to be inactive. However, recent Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) observations [Pritchard and Simons, 2004] show surface deformation occurring at some of these large ancient volcanic regions, indicating that magma chambers are slowly inflating beneath the surface. The mechanisms responsible for the initiation and growth of large midcrustal magma chambers remains poorly understood, and InSAR provides an opportunity for us to observe volcanic systems in remote regions that are otherwise difficult to monitor and observe. The Lastarria-Cordon del Azufre ("Lazufre" [Pritchard and Simons, 2002]) volcanic area is one such complex showing recent deformation, with average surface uplift rates of approximately 2.5 cm/year [Froger et al., 2007; Ruch et al, 2008]. We have processed InSAR data from ERS-1/2 and Envisat in the Lazufre volcanic area, including both ascending and descending satellite tracks. Time series analysis of the data shows steady uplift beginning in about 2000, continuing into 2010. We use boundary-element elastic models to invert for the depth and shape of the magmatic source responsible for the surface deformation. Given data from both ascending and descending tracks, we are able to resolve the ambiguity between the source depth and size, and constrain the geometry of the inflating magma source. Finite element modelling allows us to understand the effect of viscoelasticity on the development of the magma chamber.

  13. Partnerships for Progress?: Evaluating the Environment for Public-Private Partnerships in Latin America and the Caribbean: Findings and methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU)

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a new benchmarking model and index that assesses the readiness of countries in Latin America and the Caribbean to participate in public-private partnerships in the infrastructure sector. The model was built by the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) and was supported fi nancially by the Multilateral Investment Fund (MIF) and the Program to Promote Public-Private Partnerships in Latin America and the Caribbean funded by the government of Spain.

  14. The Gold Medal Fitness Program: A Model for Teacher Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jan; Konza, Deslea; Hearne, Doug; Okely, Tony

    2008-01-01

    Background: Following the 2000 Sydney Olympics, the NSW Premier, Mr Bob Carr, launched a school-based initiative in NSW government primary schools called the "Gold Medal Fitness Program" to encourage children to be fitter and more active. The Program was introduced into schools through a model of professional development, "Quality Teaching and…

  15. Paleocene floral diversities and turnover events in eastern North America and their relation to diversity models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederiksen, N.O.

    1994-01-01

    This paper uses angiosperm pollen taxon turnover (first and last appearance) and diversity events as metrics to describe the Paleocene floral history of the eastern Gulf Coast; data are from 64 samples and 67 angiosperm pollen taxa. Angiosperm pollen diversity was very low at the beginning of the Paleocene, rose slowly and then somewhat more rapidly to a maximum for the epoch in the middle of the late Paleoceneas a result of the maximum in rate of first appearances during the late early Paleocene and earliest late Paleocene. Diversity then dropped very rapidly at or near the end of the epoch as the rate of last appearances reached its maximum, resulting in the Terminal Paleocene Extinction Event. The latest Paleocene diversity decline coincided with an increase in mean annual temperature and probably in rainfall, representing the beginning of the climatic maximum for the Tertiary which characterized the early Eocene. The increase in diversity of early Paleocene floras in the eastern Gulf Coast resulted from exploitation of unfilled ecospace originating from (1) low regional diversity following the Terminal Cretaceous Extinction Event, and (2) creation of many new niches during the Paleocene, resulting, according to megafloral evidence, from a change to a new vegetation type (multistratal tropical rainforest) brought about by an increase in rainfall. The slow rate of recovery of earliest Paleocene angiosperm diversity in the eastern Gulf Coast may be explained in part by the diversity-dependence model of Carr and Kitchell (1980). However, additional factors may have contributed to the slow recovery: (1) the adverse terminal Cretaceous climates may have extended into the early Paleocene, (2) the initial Paleocene environment of the eastern Gulf Coast may have contained relatively few niches, (3) some earliest Paleocene angiosperms, particularly trees, may have had inherently poor capabilities for rapid evolution, and (4) there was a lack of significant immigration of

  16. Climate Model Simulation of Present and Future Extreme Events in Latin America and the Caribbean: What Spatial Resolution is Required?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, C. M.; Oglesby, R. J.; Mawalagedara, R.; Mohammad Abadi Kamarei, A.

    2015-12-01

    Latin America and the Caribbean are at risk of extreme climate events, including flooding rains, damaging winds, drought, heat waves, and in high elevation mountainous regions, excessive snowfalls. The causes of these events are numerous - flooding rains and damaging winds are often associated with tropical cyclones, but also can occur, either separately or in tandem, due to smaller, more localized storms. Similarly, heat waves and droughts can be large scale or localized, and frequently occur together (as excessive drying can lead to enhanced heating, while enhanced heating in turn promotes additional drying). Even in the tropics, extreme snow and ice events can have severe consequences due to avalanches, and also impact water resources. Understanding and modeling the climate controls behind these extreme events requires consideration of a range of time and space scales. A common strategy is to use a global climate model (GCM) to simulate the large-scale (~100km) daily atmospheric controls on extreme events. A limited area, high resolution regional climate model (RCM) is then employed to dynamically downscale the results, so as to better incorporate the influence of topography and, secondarily, the nature of the land cover. But what resolution is required to provide the necessary results, i.e., minimize biases due to improper resolution? In conjunction with our partners from participating Latin American and Caribbean nations, we have made an extensive series of simulations, both region-wide and for individual countries, using the WRF regional climate model to downscale output from a variety of GCMs, as well as Reanalyses (as a proxy for observations). The simulations driven by the Reanalyses are used for robust model verification against actual weather station observations. The simulations driven by GCMs are designed to provide projections of future climate, including importantly how the nature and number of extreme events may change through coming decades. Our

  17. MAPCLUS: A Mathematical Programming Approach to Fitting the ADCLUS Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabie, Phipps

    1980-01-01

    A new computing algorithm, MAPCLUS (Mathematical Programming Clustering), for fitting the Shephard-Arabie ADCLUS (Additive Clustering) model is presented. Details and benefits of the algorithm are discussed. (Author/JKS)

  18. State of the Short Dipole Model Program for the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Andreyev, N I; Kurtyka, T; Oberli, L R; Perini, D; Russenschuck, Stephan; Siegel, N; Siemko, A; Tommasini, D; Vanenkov, I; Walckiers, L

    1998-01-01

    Superconducting single and twin aperture 1-m long dipole magnets are currently being fabricated at CERN at a rate of about one per month in the framework of the short dipole model program for the LHC. The program allows to study performance improvements coming from refinements in design, components and assembly options and to accumulate statistics based on a small-scale production. The experience thus gained provides in turn feedback into the long magnet program in industry. In recent models initial quenching fields above 9 T have been obtained and after a short training the conductor limit at 2 K is reached, resulting in a central bore field exceeding 10 T. The paper describes the features of recent single aperture models, the results obtained during cold tests and the plans to ensure the continuation of a vigorous model program providing input for the fabrication of the main LHC dipoles.

  19. Using automatic programming for simulating reliability network models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Fan T.; Schroer, Bernard J.; Zhang, S. X.; Wolfsberger, John W.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents the development of an automatic programming system for assisting modelers of reliability networks to define problems and then automatically generate the corresponding code in the target simulation language GPSS/PC.

  20. Organizational and Operating Structures of a National Pork Producers Cooperative; Evaluation of Alternatives for Implementation of the Pork America "Umbrella" Model

    OpenAIRE

    Matson, James; Gehrke, Brad C.

    2001-01-01

    This paper summarizes the structural components, activities and processes evaluated during the implementation of a national pork producers' cooperative. It reviews and compares various organizational structures considered and identifies the components, activities and processes that would best allow Pork America to fulfil its mission. The paper adds detail to the organizational structure of the "umbrella model" designed by the National Pork Producers Council Cooperative Task Force. More concre...

  1. Applying Model Checking to Industrial-Sized PLC Programs

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2079190; Darvas, Daniel; Blanco Vinuela, Enrique; Tournier, Jean-Charles; Bliudze, Simon; Blech, Jan Olaf; Gonzalez Suarez, Victor M

    2015-01-01

    Programmable logic controllers (PLCs) are embedded computers widely used in industrial control systems. Ensuring that a PLC software complies with its specification is a challenging task. Formal verification has become a recommended practice to ensure the correctness of safety-critical software but is still underused in industry due to the complexity of building and managing formal models of real applications. In this paper, we propose a general methodology to perform automated model checking of complex properties expressed in temporal logics (\\eg CTL, LTL) on PLC programs. This methodology is based on an intermediate model (IM), meant to transform PLC programs written in various standard languages (ST, SFC, etc.) to different modeling languages of verification tools. We present the syntax and semantics of the IM and the transformation rules of the ST and SFC languages to the nuXmv model checker passing through the intermediate model. Finally, two real cases studies of \\CERN PLC programs, written mainly in th...

  2. Introduction of Shelf Life Extension Program in America and its inspiration%美国药品效期延长计划简介及启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴彬; 李铮; 刘妍; 郭志刚

    2013-01-01

    药品效期延长计划(shelf life extension program,以下简称SLEP)是美国国防部和美国食品药品监督管理局联合推出的一项计划,最初目的只是为了减少药品战略储备的成本,现在趋向于解决公共危机中药品潜在不足问题.本文回顾了SLEP的发展历史,全面介绍了SLEP的参与机构及职能、运行流程、产品范围、产品检测方法及产品贴标签要求,简述了SLEP延伸应用情况,并结合SLEP在实际问题中的应用进行了分析讨论.美国药品效期延长计划对我国具有启示和借鉴作用,为我国应对公共卫生突发事件奠定了理论依据.%The Shelf Life Extension Program (SLEP) is a program jointly launched by the United States Department of Defense and the Food and Drug Administration,initially only for the purpose of reducing the cost of maintaining military strategic stockpiles of certain pharmaceuticals,and now for the intent to solve the problem of potential drug shortage in public crisis.In this paper,we review the development history of SLEP,comprehensively introduce the participating institutions and their functions,operation processes,product range,product testing methods and labeling requirements under SLEP,and describe the application of SLEP in practice and its extended application.Relative proposals are presented for our reference based on the above analysis and discussion.The SLEP in America has enlightenment and reference for our country to respond to public emergencies.

  3. [Health system reforms in South America: an opportunity for UNASUR].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes-Temporão, José; Faria, Mariana

    2014-01-01

    Health systems in South America still support segmentation, privatization and fragmentation. Health reforms of the structural adjustment programs in the 1980s and 1990s in South America followed different purposes and strategies ranging from privatization, commodification and state intervention for the implementation of a national public health service with universal access as a right of the citizens. Since the 2000s, many countries have expanded social policies, reduced poverty and social inequalities, and improved access to healthcare. This article proposes to discuss the health systems in South America from historical and political backgrounds, and the progress from the reforms in the last three decades. It also presents the three paradigmatic models of reform and their evolution, as well as the contrasts between universal coverage and universal systems. Finally, it presents current strengths and weaknesses of the twelve South American health systems as well as current opportunities and challenges in health for UNASUR. PMID:25597728

  4. Photovoltaic subsystem marketing and distribution model: programming manual. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-07-01

    Complete documentation of the marketing and distribution (M and D) computer model is provided. The purpose is to estimate the costs of selling and transporting photovoltaic solar energy products from the manufacturer to the final customer. The model adjusts for the inflation and regional differences in marketing and distribution costs. The model consists of three major components: the marketing submodel, the distribution submodel, and the financial submodel. The computer program is explained including the input requirements, output reports, subprograms and operating environment. The program specifications discuss maintaining the validity of the data and potential improvements. An example for a photovoltaic concentrator collector demonstrates the application of the model.

  5. Gravity and magnetic anomaly modeling and correlation using the SPHERE program and Magsat data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braile, L. W.; Hinze, W. J. (Principal Investigator); Vonfrese, R. R. B.

    1980-01-01

    The spherical Earth inversion, modeling, and contouring software were tested and modified for processing data in the Southern Hemisphere. Preliminary geologic/tectonic maps and selected cross sections for South and Central America and the Caribbean region are being compiled and as well as gravity and magnetic models for the major geological features of the area. A preliminary gravity model of the Andeas Beniff Zone was constructed so that the density columns east and west of the subducted plates are in approximate isostatic equilibrium. The magnetic anomaly for the corresponding magnetic model of the zone is being computed with the SPHERE program. A test tape containing global magnetic measurements was converted to a tape compatible with Purdue's CDC system. NOO data were screened for periods of high diurnal activity and reduced to anomaly form using the IGS-75 model. Magnetic intensity anomaly profiles were plotted on the conterminous U.S. map using the track lines as the anomaly base level. The transcontinental magnetic high seen in POGO and MAGSAT data is also represented in the NOO data.

  6. Model for the reduction of denials of expeditions of radioactive material in the region of the America; Modelo para reducir los casos de rechazos de expediciones de material radiactivo en la region de America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallaupoma, Mario, E-mail: mmallaupoma@ipen.gob.pe, E-mail: mmallaupomag@yahoo.es [Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear (IPEN), Lima (Peru); Bruno, Natanael, E-mail: nbruno@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The denials, restraints and delays of shipments of radioactive material likely to have occurred and continue to occur. Reducing them to acceptable levels can be a tangible goal that senders and recipients can anticipate and get. The basis for resolving cases of denials and delays should consider not only the participation of the competent national nuclear authorities but also other government authorities. Carriers, shippers, transport companies and recipients should consider in their queries all the wide range of authorities apparently have no involvement but they really have. This paper describes the experience gained in the country of Brazil and provides the basis of a model that could prove useful to other countries and regions, including America, if we adopt and adapt, to reduce the incidence of denials and delays of shipments of radioactive material, according to its own conditions and characteristics.

  7. An Alternative Model for the Early Peopling of Southern South America Revealed by Analyses of Three Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Saint Pierre, Michelle; Bravi, Claudio M.; Motti, Josefina M. B.; Fuku, Noriyuki; Tanaka, Masashi; Llop, Elena; Bonatto, Sandro L.; Moraga, Mauricio

    2012-01-01

    After several years of research, there is now a consensus that America was populated from Asia through Beringia, probably at the end of the Pleistocene. But many details such as the timing, route(s), and origin of the first settlers remain uncertain. In the last decade genetic evidence has taken on a major role in elucidating the peopling of the Americas. To study the early peopling of South America, we sequenced the control region of mitochondrial DNA from 300 individuals belonging to indigenous populations of Chile and Argentina, and also obtained seven complete mitochondrial DNA sequences. We identified two novel mtDNA monophyletic clades, preliminarily designated B2l and C1b13, which together with the recently described D1g sub-haplogroup have locally high frequencies and are basically restricted to populations from the extreme south of South America. The estimated ages of D1g and B2l, about ∼15,000 years BP, together with their similar population dynamics and the high haplotype diversity shown by the networks, suggests that they probably appeared soon after the arrival of the first settlers and agrees with the dating of the earliest archaeological sites in South America (Monte Verde, Chile, 14,500 BP). One further sub-haplogroup, D4h3a5, appears to be restricted to Fuegian-Patagonian populations and reinforces our hypothesis of the continuity of the current Patagonian populations with the initial founders. Our results indicate that the extant native populations inhabiting South Chile and Argentina are a group which had a common origin, and suggest a population break between the extreme south of South America and the more northern part of the continent. Thus the early colonization process was not just an expansion from north to south, but also included movements across the Andes. PMID:22970129

  8. CoMD Implementation Suite in Emerging Programming Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-09-23

    CoMD-Em is a software implementation suite of the CoMD [4] proxy app using different emerging programming models. It is intended to analyze the features and capabilities of novel programming models that could help ensure code and performance portability and scalability across heterogeneous platforms while improving programmer productivity. Another goal is to provide the authors and venders with some meaningful feedback regarding the capabilities and limitations of their models. The actual application is a classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulation using either the Lennard-Jones method (LJ) or the embedded atom method (EAM) for primary particle interaction. The code can be extended to support alternate interaction models. The code is expected ro run on a wide class of heterogeneous hardware configurations like shard/distributed/hybrid memory, GPU's and any other platform supported by the underlying programming model.

  9. Geometric model of robotic arc welding for automatic programming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Geometric information is important for automatic programming of arc welding robot. Complete geometric models of robotic arc welding are established in this paper. In the geometric model of weld seam, an equation with seam length as its parameter is introduced to represent any weld seam. The method to determine discrete programming points on a weld seam is presented. In the geometric model of weld workpiece, three class primitives and CSG tree are used to describe weld workpiece. Detailed data structure is presented. In pose transformation of torch, world frame, torch frame and active frame are defined, and transformation between frames is presented. Based on these geometric models, an automatic programming software package for robotic arc welding, RAWCAD, is developed. Experiments show that the geometric models are practical and reliable.

  10. Spatial and temporal patterns of CH4 and N2O fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems of North America during 1979–2008: application of a global biogeochemistry model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Chen

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Continental-scale estimations of terrestrial methane (CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O fluxes over a long time period are crucial to accurately assess the global balance of greenhouse gases and enhance our understanding and prediction of global climate change and terrestrial ecosystem feedbacks. Using a process-based global biogeochemical model, the Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model (DLEM, we quantified simultaneously CH4 and N2O fluxes in North America's terrestrial ecosystems from 1979 to 2008. During the past 30 years, approximately 14.69±1.64 T g C a−1 (1 T g=1012 g of CH4, and 1.94±0.16 T g N a−1 of N2O were released from terrestrial ecosystems in North America. At the country level, both the United States and Canada acted as CH4 sources to the atmosphere, but Mexico mainly oxidized and consumed CH4 from the atmosphere. Wetlands in North America contributed predominantly to the regional CH4 source, while all other ecosystems acted as sinks for atmospheric CH4, of which forests accounted for 36.8%. Regarding N2O emission in North America, the United States, Canada, and Mexico contributed 56.19%, 18.23%, and 25.58%, respectively, to the continental source over the past 30 years. Forests and croplands were the two ecosystems that contributed most to continental N2O emission. The inter-annual variations of CH4 and N2O fluxes in North America were mainly attributed to year-to-year climatic variability. While only annual precipitation was found to have a significant effect on annual CH4 flux, both mean annual temperature and annual precipitation were significantly correlated to annual N2O flux. The regional estimates and spatiotemporal patterns of terrestrial ecosystem CH4 and N2O fluxes in North America generated in this study provide useful information for global change research and policy making.

  11. Modeling biological systems with Answer Set Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Thiele, Sven

    2012-01-01

    Biology has made great progress in identifying and measuring the building blocks of life. The availability of high-throughput methods in molecular biology has dramatically accelerated the growth of biological knowledge for various organisms. The advancements in genomic, proteomic and metabolomic technologies allow for constructing complex models of biological systems. An increasing number of biological repositories is available on the web, incorporating thousands of biochemical reactions and ...

  12. Constraints of GRACE on the Ice Model and Mantle Rheology in Glacial Isostatic Adjustment Modeling in North-America

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wal, W.; Wu, P.; Sideris, M.; Wang, H.

    2009-05-01

    GRACE satellite data offer homogeneous coverage of the area covered by the former Laurentide ice sheet. The secular gravity rate estimated from the GRACE data can therefore be used to constrain the ice loading history in Laurentide and, to a lesser extent, the mantle rheology in a GIA model. The objective of this presentation is to find a best fitting global ice model and use it to study how the ice model can be modified to fit a composite rheology, in which creep rates from a linear and non-linear rheology are added. This is useful because all the ice models constructed from GIA assume that mantle rheology is linear, but creep experiments on rocks show that nonlinear rheology may be the dominant mechanism in some parts of the mantle. We use CSR release 4 solutions from August 2002 to October 2008 with continental water storage effects removed by the GLDAS model and filtering with a destriping and Gaussian filter. The GIA model is a radially symmetric incompressible Maxwell Earth, with varying upper and lower mantle viscosity. Gravity rate misfit values are computed for with a range of viscosity values with the ICE-3G, ICE-4G and ICE-5G models. The best fit is shown for models with ICE-3G and ICE-4G, and the ICE-4G model is selected for computations with a so-called composite rheology. For the composite rheology, the Coupled Laplace Finite-Element Method is used to compute the GIA response of a spherical self-gravitating incompressible Maxwell Earth. The pre-stress exponent (A) derived from a uni- axial stress experiment is varied between 3.3 x 10-34/10-35/10-36 Pa-3s-1, the Newtonian viscosity η is varied between 1 and 3 x 1021 Pa-s, and the stress exponent is taken to be 3. Composite rheology in general results in geoid rates that are too small compared to GRACE observations. Therefore, simple modifications of the ICE-4G history are investigated by scaling ice heights or delaying glaciation. It is found that a delay in glaciation is a better way to adjust ice

  13. Universal definition of loss to follow-up in HIV treatment programs: a statistical analysis of 111 facilities in Africa, Asia, and Latin America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin H Chi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Although patient attrition is recognized as a threat to the long-term success of antiretroviral therapy programs worldwide, there is no universal definition for classifying patients as lost to follow-up (LTFU. We analyzed data from health facilities across Africa, Asia, and Latin America to empirically determine a standard LTFU definition.At a set "status classification" date, patients were categorized as either "active" or "LTFU" according to different intervals from time of last clinic encounter. For each threshold, we looked forward 365 d to assess the performance and accuracy of this initial classification. The best-performing definition for LTFU had the lowest proportion of patients misclassified as active or LTFU. Observational data from 111 health facilities-representing 180,718 patients from 19 countries-were included in this study. In the primary analysis, for which data from all facilities were pooled, an interval of 180 d (95% confidence interval [CI]: 173-181 d since last patient encounter resulted in the fewest misclassifications (7.7%, 95% CI: 7.6%-7.8%. A secondary analysis that gave equal weight to cohorts and to regions generated a similar result (175 d; however, an alternate approach that used inverse weighting for cohorts based on variance and equal weighting for regions produced a slightly lower summary measure (150 d. When examined at the facility level, the best-performing definition varied from 58 to 383 d (mean=150 d, but when a standard definition of 180 d was applied to each facility, only slight increases in misclassification (mean=1.2%, 95% CI: 1.0%-1.5% were observed. Using this definition, the proportion of patients classified as LTFU by facility ranged from 3.1% to 45.1% (mean=19.9%, 95% CI: 19.1%-21.7%.Based on this evaluation, we recommend the adoption of ≥180 d since the last clinic visit as a standard LTFU definition. Such standardization is an important step to understanding the reasons that underlie patient

  14. Can Household Benefit from Stochastic Programming Models?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kourosh Marjani; Madsen, Claus A.; Poulsen, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    The Danish mortgage market is large and sophisticated. However, most Danish mortgage banks advise private home-owners based on simple, if sensible, rules of thumb. In recent years a number of papers (from Nielsen and Poulsen in J Econ Dyn Control 28:1267–1289, 2004 over Rasmussen and Zenios in J...... slightly outperform a passive benchmark on average and are less risky than pure adjustable rate loans, we find considerable gains from using the model-based strategies. Using a strategy that minimizes conditional-value-at-risk lowers average effective yearly interest rate over a 10-year horizon by 0...

  15. Cost estimation model for advanced planetary programs, fourth edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spadoni, D. J.

    1983-01-01

    The development of the planetary program cost model is discussed. The Model was updated to incorporate cost data from the most recent US planetary flight projects and extensively revised to more accurately capture the information in the historical cost data base. This data base is comprised of the historical cost data for 13 unmanned lunar and planetary flight programs. The revision was made with a two fold objective: to increase the flexibility of the model in its ability to deal with the broad scope of scenarios under consideration for future missions, and to maintain and possibly improve upon the confidence in the model's capabilities with an expected accuracy of 20%. The Model development included a labor/cost proxy analysis, selection of the functional forms of the estimating relationships, and test statistics. An analysis of the Model is discussed and two sample applications of the cost model are presented.

  16. Climate change and risk of leishmaniasis in north america: predictions from ecological niche models of vector and reservoir species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila González

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Climate change is increasingly being implicated in species' range shifts throughout the world, including those of important vector and reservoir species for infectious diseases. In North America (México, United States, and Canada, leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease that is autochthonous in México and Texas and has begun to expand its range northward. Further expansion to the north may be facilitated by climate change as more habitat becomes suitable for vector and reservoir species for leishmaniasis. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The analysis began with the construction of ecological niche models using a maximum entropy algorithm for the distribution of two sand fly vector species (Lutzomyia anthophora and L. diabolica, three confirmed rodent reservoir species (Neotoma albigula, N. floridana, and N. micropus, and one potential rodent reservoir species (N. mexicana for leishmaniasis in northern México and the United States. As input, these models used species' occurrence records with topographic and climatic parameters as explanatory variables. Models were tested for their ability to predict correctly both a specified fraction of occurrence points set aside for this purpose and occurrence points from an independently derived data set. These models were refined to obtain predicted species' geographical distributions under increasingly strict assumptions about the ability of a species to disperse to suitable habitat and to persist in it, as modulated by its ecological suitability. Models successful at predictions were fitted to the extreme A2 and relatively conservative B2 projected climate scenarios for 2020, 2050, and 2080 using publicly available interpolated climate data from the Third Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Assessment Report. Further analyses included estimation of the projected human population that could potentially be exposed to leishmaniasis in 2020, 2050, and 2080 under the A2 and B2 scenarios. All confirmed

  17. Influence of boundary conditions to multi-model simulations of ozone and PM2.5 levels over Europe and North America in frame of AQMEII3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Ulas; Hansen, Kaj M.; Geels, Camilla; Christensen, Jesper H.; Brandt, Jørgen; Hogrefe, Christian; Galmarini, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    AQMEII (Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative) promotes research on regional air quality model evaluation across the European and North American atmospheric modelling communities, providing the ideal platform for advancing the evaluation of air quality models at the regional scale. In frame of the AQMEII3 model evaluation exercise, thirteen regional chemistry and transport models have simulated the air pollutant levels over Europe and/or North America for the year 2010, along with various sensitivity simulations of reductions in anthropogenic emissions and boundary conditions. All participating groups have performed sensitivity simulation with 20% reductions in global (GLO) anthropogenic emissions. In addition, various groups simulated sensitivity scenarios of 20% reductions in anthropogenic emissions in different HTAP-defined regions such as North America (NAM), Europe (EUR) and East Asia (EAS). The boundary conditions for the base case and the perturbation scenarios were derived from the MOZART-IFS global chemical model. The present study will evaluate the impact of these emission perturbations on regional surface ozone and PM2.5 levels as well as over individual surface measurement stations over both continents and vertical profiles over the radiosonde stations from the World Ozone and Ultraviolet Radiation Data Centre (WOUDC) and the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) stations for ozone and for PM2.5, respectively.

  18. Human Behavior Model Based Control Program for ACC Mobile Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu Pozna

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Present work is a part of the ACC autonomous car project. This paper will focuson the control program architecture. To design this architecture we will start from thehuman driver behavior model. Using this model we have constructed a three level controlprogram. Preliminary results are presented.

  19. Currency Arbitrage Detection Using a Binary Integer Programming Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soon, Wanmei; Ye, Heng-Qing

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we examine the use of a new binary integer programming (BIP) model to detect arbitrage opportunities in currency exchanges. This model showcases an excellent application of mathematics to the real world. The concepts involved are easily accessible to undergraduate students with basic knowledge in Operations Research. Through this…

  20. Modeling the complete Otto cycle: Preliminary version. [computer programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeleznik, F. J.; Mcbride, B. J.

    1977-01-01

    A description is given of the equations and the computer program being developed to model the complete Otto cycle. The program incorporates such important features as: (1) heat transfer, (2) finite combustion rates, (3) complete chemical kinetics in the burned gas, (4) exhaust gas recirculation, and (5) manifold vacuum or supercharging. Changes in thermodynamic, kinetic and transport data as well as model parameters can be made without reprogramming. Preliminary calculations indicate that: (1) chemistry and heat transfer significantly affect composition and performance, (2) there seems to be a strong interaction among model parameters, and (3) a number of cycles must be calculated in order to obtain steady-state conditions.

  1. Modeling and programming with roles: introducing JavaStage

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa, F.S.R.B.M.; Aguiar, Ademar

    2012-01-01

    Roles are not a new concept, but they have been used in two different ways: as modeling concepts in a static view and as instance extensions in a dynamic view. For these views only the dynamic offers supporting languages. The static view, although proving the utility of roles in modeling, does not offer a programming language that allows developers to use roles all the way from modeling to programming. We try to overcome this by presenting our role language JavaStage, based on the Java langua...

  2. Use of a business excellence model to improve conservation programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Simon; Groombridge, Jim

    2010-12-01

    The current shortfall in effectiveness within conservation biology is illustrated by increasing interest in "evidence-based conservation," whose proponents have identified the need to benchmark conservation initiatives against actions that lead to proven positive effects. The effectiveness of conservation policies, approaches, and evaluation is under increasing scrutiny, and in these areas models of excellence used in business could prove valuable. Typically, conservation programs require years of effort and involve rigorous long-term implementation processes. Successful balance of long-term efforts alongside the achievement of short-term goals is often compromised by management or budgetary constraints, a situation also common in commercial businesses. "Business excellence" is an approach many companies have used over the past 20 years to ensure continued success. Various business excellence evaluations have been promoted that include concepts that could be adapted and applied in conservation programs. We describe a conservation excellence model that shows how scientific processes and results can be aligned with financial and organizational measures of success. We applied the model to two well-documented species conservation programs. In the first, the Po'ouli program, several aspects of improvement were identified, such as more authority for decision making in the field and better integration of habitat management and population recovery processes. The second example, the black-footed ferret program, could have benefited from leadership effort to reduce bureaucracy and to encourage use of best-practice species recovery approaches. The conservation excellence model enables greater clarity in goal setting, more-effective identification of job roles within programs, better links between technical approaches and measures of biological success, and more-effective use of resources. The model could improve evaluation of a conservation program's effectiveness and may be

  3. Modelling of windmill induction generators in dynamic simulation programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akhmatov, Vladislav; Knudsen, Hans

    1999-01-01

    For AC networks with large amounts of induction generators-in case of e.g. windmills-the paper demonstrates a significant discrepancy in the simulated voltage recovery after faults in weak networks, when comparing result obtained with dynamic stability programs and transient programs, respectivel...... rotor. It is shown that it is possible to include a transient model in dynamic stability programs and thus obtain correct results also in dynamic stability programs. A mechanical model of the shaft system has also been included in the generator model......For AC networks with large amounts of induction generators-in case of e.g. windmills-the paper demonstrates a significant discrepancy in the simulated voltage recovery after faults in weak networks, when comparing result obtained with dynamic stability programs and transient programs, respectively...... with and without a model of the mechanical shaft. The reason for the discrepancies are explained, and it is shown that the phenomenon is due partly to the presence of DC offset currents in the induction machine stator, and partly to the mechanical shaft system of the wind turbine and the generator...

  4. Language Documentation in the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchetto, Bruna; Rice, Keren

    2014-01-01

    In the last decades, the documentation of endangered languages has advanced greatly in the Americas. In this paper we survey the role that international funding programs have played in advancing documentation in this part of the world, with a particular focus on the growth of documentation in Brazil, and we examine some of the major opportunities…

  5. Modeling and prioritizing demand response programs in power markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the responsibilities of power market regulator is setting rules for selecting and prioritizing demand response (DR) programs. There are many different alternatives of DR programs for improving load profile characteristics and achieving customers' satisfaction. Regulator should find the optimal solution which reflects the perspectives of each DR stakeholder. Multi Attribute Decision Making (MADM) is a proper method for handling such optimization problems. In this paper, an extended responsive load economic model is developed. The model is based on price elasticity and customer benefit function. Prioritizing of DR programs can be realized by means of Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) method. Considerations of ISO/utility/customer regarding the weighting of attributes are encountered by entropy method. An Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) is used for selecting the most effective DR program. Numerical studies are conducted on the load curve of the Iranian power grid in 2007. (author)

  6. Center for Programming Models for Scalable Parallel Computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Mellor-Crummey

    2008-02-29

    Rice University's achievements as part of the Center for Programming Models for Scalable Parallel Computing include: (1) design and implemention of cafc, the first multi-platform CAF compiler for distributed and shared-memory machines, (2) performance studies of the efficiency of programs written using the CAF and UPC programming models, (3) a novel technique to analyze explicitly-parallel SPMD programs that facilitates optimization, (4) design, implementation, and evaluation of new language features for CAF, including communication topologies, multi-version variables, and distributed multithreading to simplify development of high-performance codes in CAF, and (5) a synchronization strength reduction transformation for automatically replacing barrier-based synchronization with more efficient point-to-point synchronization. The prototype Co-array Fortran compiler cafc developed in this project is available as open source software from http://www.hipersoft.rice.edu/caf.

  7. Using Virtual ATE Model to Migrate Test Programs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓明; 杨乔林

    1995-01-01

    Bacause of high development costs of IC (Integrated Circuit)test programs,recycling existing test programs from one kind of ATE (Automatic Test Equipment) to another or generating directly from CAD simulation modules to ATE is more and more valuable.In this paper,a new approach to migrating test programs is presented.A virtual ATE model based on object-oriented paradigm is developed;it runs Test C++ (an intermediate test control language) programs and TeIF(Test Inftermediate Format-an intermediate pattern),migrates test programs among three kinds of ATE (Ando DIC8032,Schlumberger S15 and GenRad 1732) and generates test patterns from two kinds of CAD 9Daisy and Panda) automatically.

  8. Including UPFC dynamic phasor model into transient stability program

    OpenAIRE

    Ni, Y; Liu, H.; Zhu, H; Li, Y

    2005-01-01

    In this paper a novel time simulation approach is introduced to implement transient stability analysis with FACTS devices, in which FACTS devices will use dynamic phasor models and interface properly with conventional electromechanical transient-model-based stability program. The unified power flow controller (UPFC) is used as an example to demo the realization of the approach. In the paper, the UPFC dynamic phasor model and control scheme are presented first and followed by the interface for...

  9. An Adaptive Neural Network Model for Nonlinear Programming Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang-sun Zhang; Xin-jian Zhuo; Zhu-jun Jing

    2002-01-01

    In this paper a canonical neural network with adaptively changing synaptic weights and activation function parameters is presented to solve general nonlinear programming problems. The basic part of the model is a sub-network used to find a solution of quadratic programming problems with simple upper and lower bounds. By sequentially activating the sub-network under the control of an external computer or a special analog or digital processor that adjusts the weights and parameters, one then solves general nonlinear programming problems. Convergence proof and numerical results are given.

  10. Programming biological models in Python using PySB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Carlos F; Muhlich, Jeremy L; Bachman, John A; Sorger, Peter K

    2013-01-01

    Mathematical equations are fundamental to modeling biological networks, but as networks get large and revisions frequent, it becomes difficult to manage equations directly or to combine previously developed models. Multiple simultaneous efforts to create graphical standards, rule-based languages, and integrated software workbenches aim to simplify biological modeling but none fully meets the need for transparent, extensible, and reusable models. In this paper we describe PySB, an approach in which models are not only created using programs, they are programs. PySB draws on programmatic modeling concepts from little b and ProMot, the rule-based languages BioNetGen and Kappa and the growing library of Python numerical tools. Central to PySB is a library of macros encoding familiar biochemical actions such as binding, catalysis, and polymerization, making it possible to use a high-level, action-oriented vocabulary to construct detailed models. As Python programs, PySB models leverage tools and practices from the open-source software community, substantially advancing our ability to distribute and manage the work of testing biochemical hypotheses. We illustrate these ideas using new and previously published models of apoptosis.

  11. Microfinance: Lessons Learned in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Tomas C. Miller-Sanabria

    2000-01-01

    The relative success of microfinance in rural credit programs in Latin America is the result of a decentralized development approach stressing a large microenterprise sector, stable and permanent institutions, an appropriate regulatory framework, and a stable economy as essential prerequisites

  12. Hyperspectral Remote Sensing and Ecological Modeling Research and Education at Mid America Remote Sensing Center (MARC): Field and Laboratory Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Haluk

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to establish a new hyperspectral remote sensing laboratory at the Mid-America Remote sensing Center (MARC), dedicated to in situ and laboratory measurements of environmental samples and to the manipulation, analysis, and storage of remotely sensed data for environmental monitoring and research in ecological modeling using hyperspectral remote sensing at MARC, one of three research facilities of the Center of Reservoir Research at Murray State University (MSU), a Kentucky Commonwealth Center of Excellence. The equipment purchased, a FieldSpec FR portable spectroradiometer and peripherals, and ENVI hyperspectral data processing software, allowed MARC to provide hands-on experience, education, and training for the students of the Department of Geosciences in quantitative remote sensing using hyperspectral data, Geographic Information System (GIS), digital image processing (DIP), computer, geological and geophysical mapping; to provide field support to the researchers and students collecting in situ and laboratory measurements of environmental data; to create a spectral library of the cover types and to establish a World Wide Web server to provide the spectral library to other academic, state and Federal institutions. Much of the research will soon be published in scientific journals. A World Wide Web page has been created at the web site of MARC. Results of this project are grouped in two categories, education and research accomplishments. The Principal Investigator (PI) modified remote sensing and DIP courses to introduce students to ii situ field spectra and laboratory remote sensing studies for environmental monitoring in the region by using the new equipment in the courses. The PI collected in situ measurements using the spectroradiometer for the ER-2 mission to Puerto Rico project for the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) Airborne Simulator (MAS). Currently MARC is mapping water quality in Kentucky Lake and

  13. A model technology transfer program for independent operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoeling, L.G.

    1996-08-01

    In August 1992, the Energy Research Center (ERC) at the University of Kansas was awarded a contract by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to develop a technology transfer regional model. This report describes the development and testing of the Kansas Technology Transfer Model (KTTM) which is to be utilized as a regional model for the development of other technology transfer programs for independent operators throughout oil-producing regions in the US. It describes the linkage of the regional model with a proposed national technology transfer plan, an evaluation technique for improving and assessing the model, and the methodology which makes it adaptable on a regional basis. The report also describes management concepts helpful in managing a technology transfer program.

  14. Supplement of: The Influence of Volcanic Eruptions on the Climate of Tropical South America During the Last Millennium in an Isotope-Enabled General Circulation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colose, Christopher; LeGrande, Allegra N.; Vuille, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    Currently, little is known on how volcanic eruptions impact large-scale climate phenomena such as South American paleo-intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) position and summer monsoon behavior. In this paper, an analysis of observations and model simulations is employed to assess the influence of large volcanic eruptions on the climate of tropical South America. This problem is first considered for historically recent volcanic episodes for which more observations are available but where fewer events exist and the confounding effects of El NioSouthern Oscillation (ENSO) lead to inconclusive interpretation of the impact of volcanic eruptions at the continental scale. Therefore, we also examine a greater number of reconstructed volcanic events for the period 850CE to present that are incorporated into the NASA GISS ModelE2-R simulation of the last millennium.An advantage of this model is its ability to explicitly track water isotopologues throughout the hydrologic cycle and simulating the isotopic imprint following a large eruption. This effectively removes a degree of uncertainty associated with error-prone conversion of isotopic signals into climate variables, and allows for a direct comparison between GISS simulations and paleoclimate proxy records.Our analysis reveals that both precipitation and oxygen isotope variability respond with a distinct seasonal and spatial structure across tropical South America following an eruption. During austral winter, the heavy oxygen isotope in precipitation is enriched, likely due to reduced moisture convergence in the ITCZ domain and reduced rainfall over northern South America. During austral summer, however, more negative values of the precipitation isotopic composition are simulated over Amazonia, despite reductions in rainfall, suggesting that the isotopic response is not a simple function of the amount effect. During the South American monsoon season, the amplitude of the temperature response to volcanic forcing is larger

  15. The influence of volcanic eruptions on the climate of tropical South America during the last millennium in an isotope-enabled general circulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colose, Christopher M.; LeGrande, Allegra N.; Vuille, Mathias

    2016-04-01

    Currently, little is known on how volcanic eruptions impact large-scale climate phenomena such as South American paleo-Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) position and summer monsoon behavior. In this paper, an analysis of observations and model simulations is employed to assess the influence of large volcanic eruptions on the climate of tropical South America. This problem is first considered for historically recent volcanic episodes for which more observations are available but where fewer events exist and the confounding effects of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) lead to inconclusive interpretation of the impact of volcanic eruptions at the continental scale. Therefore, we also examine a greater number of reconstructed volcanic events for the period 850 CE to present that are incorporated into the NASA GISS ModelE2-R simulation of the last millennium. An advantage of this model is its ability to explicitly track water isotopologues throughout the hydrologic cycle and simulating the isotopic imprint following a large eruption. This effectively removes a degree of uncertainty associated with error-prone conversion of isotopic signals into climate variables, and allows for a direct comparison between GISS simulations and paleoclimate proxy records. Our analysis reveals that both precipitation and oxygen isotope variability respond with a distinct seasonal and spatial structure across tropical South America following an eruption. During austral winter, the heavy oxygen isotope in precipitation is enriched, likely due to reduced moisture convergence in the ITCZ domain and reduced rainfall over northern South America. During austral summer, however, more negative values of the precipitation isotopic composition are simulated over Amazonia, despite reductions in rainfall, suggesting that the isotopic response is not a simple function of the "amount effect". During the South American monsoon season, the amplitude of the temperature response to volcanic forcing is

  16. The Influence of Volcanic Eruptions on the Climate of Tropical South America During the Last Millennium in an Isotope-Enabled General Circulation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colose, Christopher M.; LeGrande, Allegra N.; Vuille, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    Currently, little is known on how volcanic eruptions impact large-scale climate phenomena such as South American paleo-intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) position and summer monsoon behavior. In this paper, an analysis of observations and model simulations is employed to assess the influence of large volcanic eruptions on the climate of tropical South America. This problem is first considered for historically recent volcanic episodes for which more observations are available but where fewer events exist and the confounding effects of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) lead to inconclusive interpretation of the impact of volcanic eruptions at the continental scale. Therefore, we also examine a greater number of reconstructed volcanic events for the period 850 CE to present that are incorporated into the NASA GISS ModelE2-R simulation of the last millennium. An advantage of this model is its ability to explicitly track water isotopologues throughout the hydrologic cycle and simulating the isotopic imprint following a large eruption. This effectively removes a degree of uncertainty associated with error-prone conversion of isotopic signals into climate variables, and allows for a direct comparison between GISS simulations and paleoclimate proxy records. Our analysis reveals that both precipitation and oxygen isotope variability respond with a distinct seasonal and spatial structure across tropical South America following an eruption. During austral winter, the heavy oxygen isotope in precipitation is enriched, likely due to reduced moisture convergence in the ITCZ domain and reduced rainfall over northern South America. During austral summer, however, more negative values of the precipitation isotopic composition are simulated over Amazonia, despite reductions in rainfall, suggesting that the isotopic response is not a simple function of the "amount effect". During the South American monsoon season, the amplitude of the temperature response to volcanic forcing is

  17. Latin America`s emerging non-proliferation consensus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redick, J.R.

    1994-03-01

    Latin America`s incorporation into the international nuclear non-proliferation regime is well advanced. The 1967 Tlatelolco Treaty, which established a regional nuclear-weapon-free zone (NWFZ), is nearing completion. A signal event occurred January 18, when Argentina and Chile deposited instruments of ratification to the treaty, leaving Brazil and Cuba the only major countries in Latin America that are not yet contracting parties. And after more than two decades of concern about the nuclear programs and policies in Argentina and Brazil, there is room for great optimism that Brazil may now be moving quickly on important non-proliferation issues. Even Cuba, the {open_quotes}bad boy of the neighborhood{close_quotes} in the eyes of many, which held aloof from the Tlatelolco process for three decades, has stated its willingness to join the zone in the future.

  18. Understanding science teacher enhancement programs: Essential components and a model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Samuel Albert

    Researchers and practioners alike recognize that "the national goal that every child in the United States has access to high-quality school education in science and mathematics cannot be realized without the availability of effective professional development of teachers" (Hewson, 1997, p. 16). Further, there is a plethora of reports calling for the improvement of professional development efforts (Guskey & Huberman, 1995; Kyle, 1995; Loucks-Horsley, Hewson, Love, & Stiles, 1997). In this study I analyze a successful 3-year teacher enhancement program, one form of professional development, to: (1) identify essential components of an effective teacher enhancement program; and (2) create a model to identify and articulate the critical issues in designing, implementing, and evaluating teacher enhancement programs. Five primary sources of information were converted into data: (1) exit questionnaires, (2) exit surveys, (3) exit interview transcripts, (4) focus group transcripts, and (5) other artifacts. Additionally, a focus group was used to conduct member checks. Data were analyzed in an iterative process which led to the development of the list of essential components. The Components are categorized by three organizers: Structure (e.g., science research experience, a mediator throughout the program), Context (e.g., intensity, collaboration), and Participant Interpretation (e.g., perceived to be "safe" to examine personal beliefs and practices, actively engaged). The model is based on: (1) a 4-year study of a successful teacher enhancement program; (2) an analysis of professional development efforts reported in the literature; and (3) reflective discussions with implementors, evaluators, and participants of professional development programs. The model consists of three perspectives, cognitive, symbolic interaction, and organizational, representing different viewpoints from which to consider issues relevant to the success of a teacher enhancement program. These

  19. Transforming PLC Programs into Formal Models for Verification Purposes

    CERN Document Server

    Darvas, D; Blanco, E

    2013-01-01

    Most of CERN’s industrial installations rely on PLC-based (Programmable Logic Controller) control systems developed using the UNICOS framework. This framework contains common, reusable program modules and their correctness is a high priority. Testing is already applied to find errors, but this method has limitations. In this work an approach is proposed to transform automatically PLC programs into formal models, with the goal of applying formal verification to ensure their correctness. We target model checking which is a precise, mathematical-based method to check formalized requirements automatically against the system.

  20. Model-based automated testing of critical PLC programs.

    CERN Document Server

    Fernández Adiego, B; Tournier, J-C; González Suárez, V M; Bliudze, S

    2014-01-01

    Testing of critical PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) programs remains a challenging task for control system engineers as it can rarely be automated. This paper proposes a model based approach which uses the BIP (Behavior, Interactions and Priorities) framework to perform automated testing of PLC programs developed with the UNICOS (UNified Industrial COntrol System) framework. This paper defines the translation procedure and rules from UNICOS to BIP which can be fully automated in order to hide the complexity of the underlying model from the control engineers. The approach is illustrated and validated through the study of a water treatment process.

  1. Building enterprise reuse program--A model-based approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅宏; 杨芙清

    2002-01-01

    Reuse is viewed as a realistically effective approach to solving software crisis. For an organization that wants to build a reuse program, technical and non-technical issues must be considered in parallel. In this paper, a model-based approach to building systematic reuse program is presented. Component-based reuse is currently a dominant approach to software reuse. In this approach, building the right reusable component model is the first important step. In order to achieve systematic reuse, a set of component models should be built from different perspectives. Each of these models will give a specific view of the components so as to satisfy different needs of different persons involved in the enterprise reuse program. There already exist some component models for reuse from technical perspectives. But less attention is paid to the reusable components from a non-technical view, especially from the view of process and management. In our approach, a reusable component model--FLP model for reusable component--is introduced. This model describes components from three dimensions (Form, Level, and Presentation) and views components and their relationships from the perspective of process and management. It determines the sphere of reusable components, the time points of reusing components in the development process, and the needed means to present components in terms of the abstraction level, logic granularity and presentation media. Being the basis on which the management and technical decisions are made, our model will be used as the kernel model to initialize and normalize a systematic enterprise reuse program.

  2. SISP : Simplified Interface for Stochastic Programming Establishing a hard link between mathematical programming modeling languages and SMPS codes

    CERN Document Server

    Condevaux Lanloy, Christian; King, A J

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this article is to propose a general approach to link a stochastic programming enabler to a mathematical programming modeling language. Modelers often choose to formulate their problems in well- tested, general purpose modeling languages such as GAMS and AMPL, but these modeling languages do not currently implement a natural syntax for stochastic programming. Specialized stochastic programming tools are available to efficiently generate and solve large-scale stochastic programs, but they lack many of the convenient features of the modeling languages. The lack of a well developed link between these tools and modeling languages prevents many modelers from accessing a powerful and convenient technique to take into account uncertainties. As an attempt to fill this gap, we will present SISP (Simplified Interface for Stochastic Programming), an interface between Algebraic Modeling Languages and specialized Stochastic Programming solvers, also known as SP solvers. 12 Refs.

  3. School of the Americas: At War With Democracy? Study Guide. Episode #804. America's Defense Monitor, Educational TV for the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaherty, Sean L.

    This program examines the 50-year practice of the U.S. training of Latin American soldiers at the School of the Americas. Originally designed as a jungle warfare training center in the 1950s, the program evolved into a Cold War program to promote stability and democracy in Latin America. Human rights abuses have been charged against these elite…

  4. Program Implementation in the Prison System: An Organizational Study of the Chronic Care Model Program

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Greg

    2013-01-01

    This study provides evidence of a successful implementation of a not-for-profit operational model within a public setting. The federal government placed a receiver in charge of improving health care within the California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation. To achieve the receivership's goals, a chronic care model from the not-for-profit sector was selected and implemented to improve the delivery of health care to inmates. The data suggest that operational programs developed outsi...

  5. Model forest program: Year in review, 1992-1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    As part of the Green Plan, introduced by the Federal Government in late 1990, a network of model forests was developed to demonstrate the concept of sustainable forest management in practical terms on a working scale. This annual report describes the competitive site selection process, the forests involved in the project, program milestones, the operation of model forests, and highlights of the project. Financial data is included.

  6. Coal face replacement schedule model and computer program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Yujun; Zhu Kangru

    1989-01-01

    The paper describes theory, principles and methods for setting up a general computer simulation model in order to make a coal face replacement schedule for several years. The replacement schedule models can be divided into four types, according to occurrence conditions and production techniques. The paper describes program diagrams and examples which can be used for making long-term plans of productive mines as well as new mine design. 6 figs., 1 tab.

  7. The Arctic Climate Modeling Program: Professional Development for Rural Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, Kathryn Berry

    2010-01-01

    The Arctic Climate Modeling Program (ACMP) offered yearlong science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) professional development to teachers in rural Alaska. Teacher training focused on introducing youth to workforce technologies used in Arctic research. Due to challenges in making professional development accessible to rural teachers, ACMP…

  8. DISTRIBUTED APPROACH to WEB PAGE CATEGORIZATION USING MAPREDUCE PROGRAMMING MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Malarvizhi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The web is a large repository of information and to facilitate the search and retrieval of pages from it,categorization of web documents is essential. An effective means to handle the complexity of information retrieval from the internet is through automatic classification of web pages. Although lots of automatic classification algorithms and systems have been presented, most of the existing approaches are computationally challenging. In order to overcome this challenge, we have proposed a parallel algorithm, known as MapReduce programming model to automatically categorize the web pages. This approach incorporates three concepts. They are web crawler, MapReduce programming model and the proposed web page categorization approach. Initially, we have utilized web crawler to mine the World Wide Web and the crawled web pages are then directly given as input to the MapReduce programming model. Here the MapReduce programming model adapted to our proposed web page categorization approach finds the appropriate category of the web page according to its content. The experimental results show that our proposed parallel web page categorization approach achieves satisfactory results in finding the right category for any given web page.

  9. Application of Logic Models in a Large Scientific Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, Christine M.; Head, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    It is the purpose of this article to discuss the development and application of a logic model in the context of a large scientific research program within the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO). CSIRO is Australia's national science agency and is a publicly funded part of Australia's innovation system. It conducts…

  10. Universal Instructional Design as a Model for Educational Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higbee, Jeanne L.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes Universal Instructional Design as an inclusive pedagogical model for use in educational programs, whether provided by traditional educational institutions, community-based initiatives, or workplace literacy projects. For the benefit of public relations specialists and classroom educators alike, the article begins with a…

  11. A Context-Adaptive Model for Program Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Brian K.

    1990-01-01

    Presents an adaptable, context-sensitive model for ESL/EFL program evaluation, consisting of seven steps that guide an evaluator through consideration of relevant issues, information, and design elements. Examples from an evaluation of the Reading for Science and Technology Project at the University of Guadalajara, Mexico are given. (31…

  12. Optimizing the Informal Curriculum: One Counselor Education Program Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Jane E.; Borders, L. DiAnne; Kress, Victoria E.; Shoffner, Marie

    2005-01-01

    An annual project involving students and faculty in a collaborative, 6-month planning process that culminates in a half-day program with both didactic and experiential components is presented as a model for creating powerful learning experiences external to the classroom. This article examines the CACREP (The 2001 Standards of the Council for…

  13. Advanced parallel programming models research and development opportunities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Zhaofang.; Brightwell, Ronald Brian

    2004-07-01

    There is currently a large research and development effort within the high-performance computing community on advanced parallel programming models. This research can potentially have an impact on parallel applications, system software, and computing architectures in the next several years. Given Sandia's expertise and unique perspective in these areas, particularly on very large-scale systems, there are many areas in which Sandia can contribute to this effort. This technical report provides a survey of past and present parallel programming model research projects and provides a detailed description of the Partitioned Global Address Space (PGAS) programming model. The PGAS model may offer several improvements over the traditional distributed memory message passing model, which is the dominant model currently being used at Sandia. This technical report discusses these potential benefits and outlines specific areas where Sandia's expertise could contribute to current research activities. In particular, we describe several projects in the areas of high-performance networking, operating systems and parallel runtime systems, compilers, application development, and performance evaluation.

  14. Fuzzy Goal Programming Approach in Selective Maintenance Reliability Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Gupta

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 In the present paper, we have considered the allocation problem of repairable components for a parallel-series system as a multi-objective optimization problem and have discussed two different models. In first model the reliability of subsystems are considered as different objectives. In second model the cost and time spent on repairing the components are considered as two different objectives. These two models is formulated as multi-objective Nonlinear Programming Problem (MONLPP and a Fuzzy goal programming method is used to work out the compromise allocation in multi-objective selective maintenance reliability model in which we define the membership functions of each objective function and then transform membership functions into equivalent linear membership functions by first order Taylor series and finally by forming a fuzzy goal programming model obtain a desired compromise allocation of maintenance components. A numerical example is also worked out to illustrate the computational details of the method.  Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4

  15. An inexact-stochastic dual water supply programming model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X. H.; Zhang, H. W.; Chen, B.; Guo, H. C.; Chen, G. Q.; Zhao, B. A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces an inexact-stochastic dual water supply programming (ISDWSP) model based on analysis of the inexact characteristics in demand and supply subsystems of dual water supply system and their dynamic interactions. The model is based on an inexact chance-constrained programming (ICCP) method allowing both distribution information in B (right parameter in the model constrain) and uncertainties in A (left parameter in the model constrain) and C (parameter in the model function) with objective of maximizing economic return, and constrained to available water resource, economical, environmental and social constrains. The decision-making variables of ISDWSP model are water demanded amount by different sectors and waterworks building scale. In the solution process, the ISDWSP is transformed into two deterministic sub-models, which correspond to the upper and lower bounds of the objective function, and the reasonable interval solution set in the given decision space can be obtained by solving the two sub-models. Thus, decision alternatives can be obtained by adjusting decision variable values within their solution intervals and will be useful for decision makers to choose the projected applicable conditions considering tradeoffs between eco-environmental and economic objectives. The model is also applied in a new developing zone of North China with the results of the case study providing reasonable solutions for dynamic planning of different source water (DSW) allocation in a regional system. Finally, waterworks building plan is generated based on the projected applicable conditions.

  16. 77 FR 34363 - Disability and Rehabilitation Research Projects and Centers Program; Traumatic Brain Injury Model...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... Disability and Rehabilitation Research Projects and Centers Program; Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems... Program--Disability Rehabilitation Research Project (DRRP)-- Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems Centers... for the Disability and Rehabilitation Research Projects and Centers Program administered by...

  17. Model representations of aerosol layers transported from North America over the Atlantic Ocean during the Two-Column Aerosol Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast, Jerome D.; Berg, Larry K.; Zhang, Kai; Easter, Richard C.; Ferrare, Richard A.; Hair, Johnathan W.; Hostetler, Chris A.; Liu, Ying; Ortega, Ivan; Sedlacek, Arthur; Shilling, John E.; Shrivastava, Manish; Springston, Stephen R.; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Volkamer, Rainer; Wilson, Jacqueline; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Zelenyuk, Alla

    2016-08-01

    The ability of the Weather Research and Forecasting model with chemistry (WRF-Chem) version 3.7 and the Community Atmosphere Model version 5.3 (CAM5) in simulating profiles of aerosol properties is quantified using extensive in situ and remote sensing measurements from the Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) conducted during July of 2012. TCAP was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program and was designed to obtain observations within two atmospheric columns; one fixed over Cape Cod, Massachusetts, and the other several hundred kilometers over the ocean. The performance is quantified using most of the available aircraft and surface measurements during July, and 2 days are examined in more detail to identify the processes responsible for the observed aerosol layers. The higher-resolution WRF-Chem model produced more aerosol mass in the free troposphere than the coarser-resolution CAM5 model so that the fraction of aerosol optical thickness above the residual layer from WRF-Chem was more consistent with lidar measurements. We found that the free troposphere layers are likely due to mean vertical motions associated with synoptic-scale convergence that lifts aerosols from the boundary layer. The vertical displacement and the time period associated with upward transport in the troposphere depend on the strength of the synoptic system and whether relatively high boundary layer aerosol concentrations are present where convergence occurs. While a parameterization of subgrid scale convective clouds applied in WRF-Chem modulated the concentrations of aerosols aloft, it did not significantly change the overall altitude and depth of the layers.

  18. Ghana YWCA reaches youth with model health program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    The Centre for Development and Population Activities (CEDPA) operates the Better Life Options for Girls and Young Women Initiative in Ghana. It supports the expansion of Ghana's YWCA model adolescent reproductive health program which is targeted to high risk urban and rural adolescents. This program has been so successful that it has increased the number of youth it influences 3-fold. The sexuality and family planning education programs and counseling attract the youth. Teachers, school administrators, and parents support the YWCA program because it relates the controversial issue of adolescent sexuality with a rise in girls' school dropout rates. The YWCA's Counselling Centre in Accra is the first youth facility in Ghana to provide family life education and family planning services to in-school and out-of-school youths. The YWCA is also collaborating with an association of truck drivers and young male street vendors to distribute condoms in the marketplace. Community and parental concern over rising teenage pregnancy rates, sexually transmitted diseases and HIV infections, and girls leaving school motivates the YWCA to offer this program. In Ghana, 19% of female adolescents have at least 1 child. 75% of these teenagers either did not want or plan these births. In conclusion, the YWCA program hopes to establish a consensus that youth must be helped, both for their good and for the good of Ghana. PMID:12345284

  19. Hybrid programming model for implicit PDE simulations on multicore architectures

    KAUST Repository

    Kaushik, Dinesh K.

    2011-01-01

    The complexity of programming modern multicore processor based clusters is rapidly rising, with GPUs adding further demand for fine-grained parallelism. This paper analyzes the performance of the hybrid (MPI+OpenMP) programming model in the context of an implicit unstructured mesh CFD code. At the implementation level, the effects of cache locality, update management, work division, and synchronization frequency are studied. The hybrid model presents interesting algorithmic opportunities as well: the convergence of linear system solver is quicker than the pure MPI case since the parallel preconditioner stays stronger when hybrid model is used. This implies significant savings in the cost of communication and synchronization (explicit and implicit). Even though OpenMP based parallelism is easier to implement (with in a subdomain assigned to one MPI process for simplicity), getting good performance needs attention to data partitioning issues similar to those in the message-passing case. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  20. PDDP: A data parallel programming model. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, K.H.

    1995-06-01

    PDDP, the Parallel Data Distribution Preprocessor, is a data parallel programming model for distributed memory parallel computers. PDDP impelments High Performance Fortran compatible data distribution directives and parallelism expressed by the use of Fortran 90 array syntax, the FORALL statement, and the (WRERE?) construct. Distribued data objects belong to a global name space; other data objects are treated as local and replicated on each processor. PDDP allows the user to program in a shared-memory style and generates codes that are portable to a variety of parallel machines. For interprocessor communication, PDDP uses the fastest communication primitives on each platform.

  1. Decision-Support Tools that Harmonize People and Nature: Using InVEST Water Models in Innovative Policies in China and Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghile, Y.; Daily, G. C.

    2011-12-01

    In promising a return (of services) on investments in natural capital, the scientific community needs to deliver knowledge and tools to quantify and forecast this return. To help address this challenge, the Natural Capital Project has developed a suite of models for Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs (InVEST). InVEST helps decision makers visualize the impacts of potential policies - identifying tradeoffs and compatibilities between environmental, economic, and social benefits - by modeling and mapping the delivery, distribution, and economic value of ecosystem services under alternative scenarios. We will describe InVEST water models - for sediment retention, water quality provision, and hydropower production - and their application in major land-use policies in China and Latin America. To meet increasing demand for this family of tools and related approaches, the science of ecosystem service provision must be advanced rapidly.

  2. Immune modelling and programming of a mobile robot demo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Tao; CAI Zi-xing; HE Han-gen

    2006-01-01

    An artificial immune system was modelled with self/non-self selection to overcome abnormity in a mobile robot demo. The immune modelling includes the innate immune modelling and the adaptive immune modelling. The self/non-self selection includes detection and recognition, and the self/non-self detection is based on the normal model of the demo. After the detection, the non-self recognition is based on learning unknown non-self for the adaptive immunization. The learning was designed on the neural network or on the learning mechanism from examples. The last step is elimination of all the non-self and failover of the demo. The immunization of the mobile robot demo is programmed with Java to test effectiveness of the approach. Some worms infected the mobile robot demo, and caused the abnormity. The results of the immunization simulations show that the immune program can detect 100% worms,recognize all known Worms and most unknown worms, and eliminate the worms. Moreover, the damaged files of the mobile robot demo can all be repaired through the normal model and immunization. Therefore, the immune modelling of the mobile robot demo is effective and programmable in some anti-worms and abnormity detection applications.

  3. Partial Hospitalization Programs: A Current Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitelaw, Carolyn A.; Perez, Edgardo L.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the historical background, standards, the issue of day treatment versus day care, functional issues, specialization, efficacy and cost effectiveness, utilization issues, and alternative models of care of partial hospitalization programs in North America. Emphasizes issues of relevance when planning alternative programs to inpatient…

  4. A dataflow-like programming model for future hybrid clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Breitbart

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is expected that the first exascale supercomputer will be deployed within the next 10 years, however both its CPU architecture and programming model are not known yet. Multicore CPUs are not expected to scale to the required number of cores per node, but hybrid multicore CPUs consisting of different kinds of processing elements are expected to solve this issue. They come at the cost of increased software development complexity with eg, missing cache coherency and on-chip NUMA effects. It is unclear whether MPI and OpenMP will scale to exascale systems and support easy development and scalable and efficient programs. One of the programming models considered as an alternative is the the so-called partitioned global address space~(PGAS model, which is targeted at easy development by providing one common memory address space across all cluster nodes. In this paper we first outline current and possible future hardware and introduce a new abstract hardware model able to describe hybrid clusters. We discuss how current shared memory, GPU and PGAS programming models can deal with the upcoming hardware challenges and describe how synchronization can generate unneeded inter- and intra-node transfers in case the memory consistency model is not optimal. As a major contribution, we introduce our variation of the PGAS model allowing implicit fine-grained pair-wise synchronization among the nodes and the different kinds of processors. We furthermore offer easy deployment of RDMA transfers and provide communication algorithms commonly used in MPI collective operations, but lift the requirement of the operations to be collective. Our model is based on single assignment variables and uses a data-flow like synchronization mechanism. Reading uninitialized variables results in the reading thread to be blocked until data are made available by another thread. That way synchronization is done implicitly when data are read. Explicit tiling is used to reduce

  5. Petascale computation performance of lightweight multiscale cardiac models using hybrid programming models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Bernard J; Fitch, Blake G; Pitman, Michael C; Rice, John J; Reumann, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Future multiscale and multiphysics models must use the power of high performance computing (HPC) systems to enable research into human disease, translational medical science, and treatment. Previously we showed that computationally efficient multiscale models will require the use of sophisticated hybrid programming models, mixing distributed message passing processes (e.g. the message passing interface (MPI)) with multithreading (e.g. OpenMP, POSIX pthreads). The objective of this work is to compare the performance of such hybrid programming models when applied to the simulation of a lightweight multiscale cardiac model. Our results show that the hybrid models do not perform favourably when compared to an implementation using only MPI which is in contrast to our results using complex physiological models. Thus, with regards to lightweight multiscale cardiac models, the user may not need to increase programming complexity by using a hybrid programming approach. However, considering that model complexity will increase as well as the HPC system size in both node count and number of cores per node, it is still foreseeable that we will achieve faster than real time multiscale cardiac simulations on these systems using hybrid programming models. PMID:22254341

  6. Petascale computation performance of lightweight multiscale cardiac models using hybrid programming models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Bernard J; Fitch, Blake G; Pitman, Michael C; Rice, John J; Reumann, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Future multiscale and multiphysics models must use the power of high performance computing (HPC) systems to enable research into human disease, translational medical science, and treatment. Previously we showed that computationally efficient multiscale models will require the use of sophisticated hybrid programming models, mixing distributed message passing processes (e.g. the message passing interface (MPI)) with multithreading (e.g. OpenMP, POSIX pthreads). The objective of this work is to compare the performance of such hybrid programming models when applied to the simulation of a lightweight multiscale cardiac model. Our results show that the hybrid models do not perform favourably when compared to an implementation using only MPI which is in contrast to our results using complex physiological models. Thus, with regards to lightweight multiscale cardiac models, the user may not need to increase programming complexity by using a hybrid programming approach. However, considering that model complexity will increase as well as the HPC system size in both node count and number of cores per node, it is still foreseeable that we will achieve faster than real time multiscale cardiac simulations on these systems using hybrid programming models.

  7. Computer program 'SOMC2' for spherical optical model calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a description of the computer program 'SOMC2'. It is a program for spherical optical model calculations of the nuclear scattering cross sections of neutron, proton and α particles. In the first section, the formalism and the non-linear least square algorithm are presented. Section II is devoted to the detailed explanations of all the routines of the present program. A brief explanation of the methods used to obtain not only the fitting parameters, but also their uncertainties and their correlations is given. In section III detailed explanations of the input-data cards and of the various out-puts are given. Finally some examples of calculations are presented

  8. Uncertain programming models for portfolio selection with uncertain returns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Peng, Jin; Li, Shengguo

    2015-10-01

    In an indeterminacy economic environment, experts' knowledge about the returns of securities consists of much uncertainty instead of randomness. This paper discusses portfolio selection problem in uncertain environment in which security returns cannot be well reflected by historical data, but can be evaluated by the experts. In the paper, returns of securities are assumed to be given by uncertain variables. According to various decision criteria, the portfolio selection problem in uncertain environment is formulated as expected-variance-chance model and chance-expected-variance model by using the uncertainty programming. Within the framework of uncertainty theory, for the convenience of solving the models, some crisp equivalents are discussed under different conditions. In addition, a hybrid intelligent algorithm is designed in the paper to provide a general method for solving the new models in general cases. At last, two numerical examples are provided to show the performance and applications of the models and algorithm.

  9. Identification of response surface models using genetic programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, T. L.; Spencer, A. B.; Scarpa, F.; Worden, K.; Rutherford, A.; Hemez, F.

    2006-11-01

    There is a move in modern research in Structural Dynamics towards analysing the inherent uncertainty in a given problem. This may be quantifying or fusing uncertainty models, or can be propagation of uncertainty through a system or calculation. If the system of interest is represented by, e.g. a large Finite Element (FE) model the large number of computations involved can rule out many approaches due to the expense of carrying out many runs. One way of circumnavigating this problem is to replace the true system by an approximate surrogate/replacement model, which is fast-running compared to the original. In traditional approaches using response surfaces a simple least-squares multinomial model is often adopted. The objective of this paper is to extend the class of possible models considerably by carrying out a general symbolic regression using a Genetic Programming approach. The approach is demonstrated on both univariate and multivariate problems with both computational and experimental data.

  10. Original article Rehabilitation model program for seriously ill patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne Kegye

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Patients receiving cancer treatment start lifestyle changes mostly at the end of the treatment during the rehabilitation period. Most often, the first step is a dietary change and physical exercises built into the daily routine. Patients who do this in groups led by qualified therapists and based on professional counseling can build more effective and more permanent changes into their life. To develop a complex rehabilitation program which, in the short term, aims to familiarize patients with a lifestyle which harmonizes the physical, mental, spiritual and social spheres of life and, in the long term, to build it into their everyday life in order to ameliorate the physical and mental state and reduce the psychological symptoms and the isolation of patients. The physical component focuses on diet and exercise. The psycho-social-spiritual support focuses on discovering inner sources of strength, developing active coping mechanisms and helping to achieve more open communication. Participants and procedure In February and March 2011, 8 patients treated for malignant tumors participated in the model program. The components of the model program were psychotherapy, physiotherapy, cancer consultation, nutrition counseling, creative activities and walking. Results During the period of the model program the isolation of the patients decreased and their social support and ability of coping with the illness ameliorated. They reported an ease in anxiety and depression in their everyday activities. According to feedback, their communication with each other, with the staff and with their relatives became more open. Altogether this had advantageous effects on the functioning of the ward and the mood of the staff. Conclusions The rehabilitation program confirmed that beside individual psycho-social support, beneficial and economic psycho-social support can be provided for the patients in group form along with the most effective assignment of the

  11. EVALUASI PROGRAM PEMBELAJARAN IPA SMP MENGGUNAKAN MODEL COUNTENANCE STAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astin Lukum

    2015-06-01

    THE EVALUATION OF SCIENCE TEACHING ON JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL USING STAKE’S COUNTENANCE MODEL Abstract The purpose of the study was to describe the science learning program on junior high school in Bone Bolanga district based on the Regulation of Minister of Education and Culture of the Republic of Indonesia, Number 65 of 2013 about Processing Standard of Primary and Secondary Education. This study used Stake’s Countanance evaluation model. The data were collected using observation, interview and documentation techniques. The conclusion was: (1 the planning of science learning was categorized fair (68%, it was found that lesson plan was not in accordance with the learning processing standard. (2 The implementation of science learning was categorized fair (57%, that unconformitted with learning processing implementation standard. (3 Student learning outcomes have not met the completeness of minimum criteria (KKM that categorized enough (65% and (4 There were the contingency of planing learning proces and outcome. Keywords: Program Evaluation, Stake's Countenance, Science Learning

  12. Using Runtime Analysis to Guide Model Checking of Java Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havelund, Klaus; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes how two runtime analysis algorithms, an existing data race detection algorithm and a new deadlock detection algorithm, have been implemented to analyze Java programs. Runtime analysis is based on the idea of executing the program once. and observing the generated run to extract various kinds of information. This information can then be used to predict whether other different runs may violate some properties of interest, in addition of course to demonstrate whether the generated run itself violates such properties. These runtime analyses can be performed stand-alone to generate a set of warnings. It is furthermore demonstrated how these warnings can be used to guide a model checker, thereby reducing the search space. The described techniques have been implemented in the b e grown Java model checker called PathFinder.

  13. Summary of multi-core hardware and programming model investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Suzanne Marie; Pedretti, Kevin Thomas Tauke; Levenhagen, Michael J.

    2008-05-01

    This report summarizes our investigations into multi-core processors and programming models for parallel scientific applications. The motivation for this study was to better understand the landscape of multi-core hardware, future trends, and the implications on system software for capability supercomputers. The results of this study are being used as input into the design of a new open-source light-weight kernel operating system being targeted at future capability supercomputers made up of multi-core processors. A goal of this effort is to create an agile system that is able to adapt to and efficiently support whatever multi-core hardware and programming models gain acceptance by the community.

  14. From Safety Critical Java Programs to Timed Process Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Bent; Luckow, Kasper Søe; Thomsen, Lone Leth;

    2015-01-01

    frameworks, we have in recent years pursued an agenda of translating hard-real-time embedded safety critical programs written in the Safety Critical Java Profile [33] into networks of timed automata [4] and subjecting those to automated analysis using the UPPAAL model checker [10]. Several tools have been...... built and the tools have been used to analyse a number of systems for properties such as worst case execution time, schedulability and energy optimization [12–14,19,34,36,38]. In this paper we will elaborate on the theoretical underpinning of the translation from Java programs to timed automata models...... and briefly summarize some of the results based on this translation. Furthermore, we discuss future work, especially relations to the work in [16,24] as Java recently has adopted first class higher order functions in the form of lambda abstractions....

  15. Final Report: Center for Programming Models for Scalable Parallel Computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellor-Crummey, John [William Marsh Rice University

    2011-09-13

    As part of the Center for Programming Models for Scalable Parallel Computing, Rice University collaborated with project partners in the design, development and deployment of language, compiler, and runtime support for parallel programming models to support application development for the “leadership-class” computer systems at DOE national laboratories. Work over the course of this project has focused on the design, implementation, and evaluation of a second-generation version of Coarray Fortran. Research and development efforts of the project have focused on the CAF 2.0 language, compiler, runtime system, and supporting infrastructure. This has involved working with the teams that provide infrastructure for CAF that we rely on, implementing new language and runtime features, producing an open source compiler that enabled us to evaluate our ideas, and evaluating our design and implementation through the use of benchmarks. The report details the research, development, findings, and conclusions from this work.

  16. Building America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brad Oberg

    2010-12-31

    Builders generally use a 'spec and purchase' business management system (BMS) when implementing energy efficiency. A BMS is the overall operational and organizational systems and strategies that a builder uses to set up and run its company. This type of BMS treats building performance as a simple technology swap (e.g. a tank water heater to a tankless water heater) and typically compartmentalizes energy efficiency within one or two groups in the organization (e.g. purchasing and construction). While certain tools, such as details, checklists, and scopes of work, can assist builders in managing the quality of the construction of higher performance homes, they do nothing to address the underlying operational strategies and issues related to change management that builders face when they make high performance homes a core part of their mission. To achieve the systems integration necessary for attaining 40% + levels of energy efficiency, while capturing the cost tradeoffs, builders must use a 'systems approach' BMS, rather than a 'spec and purchase' BMS. The following attributes are inherent in a systems approach BMS; they are also generally seen in quality management systems (QMS), such as the National Housing Quality Certification program: Cultural and corporate alignment, Clear intent for quality and performance, Increased collaboration across internal and external teams, Better communication practices and systems, Disciplined approach to quality control, Measurement and verification of performance, Continuous feedback and improvement, and Whole house integrated design and specification.

  17. Comparison of Building Energy Modeling Programs: Building Loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Dandan [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China); Hong, Tianzhen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Yan, Da [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China); Wang, Chuang [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China)

    2012-06-01

    This technical report presented the methodologies, processes, and results of comparing three Building Energy Modeling Programs (BEMPs) for load calculations: EnergyPlus, DeST and DOE-2.1E. This joint effort, between Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, USA and Tsinghua University, China, was part of research projects under the US-China Clean Energy Research Center on Building Energy Efficiency (CERC-BEE). Energy Foundation, an industrial partner of CERC-BEE, was the co-sponsor of this study work. It is widely known that large discrepancies in simulation results can exist between different BEMPs. The result is a lack of confidence in building simulation amongst many users and stakeholders. In the fields of building energy code development and energy labeling programs where building simulation plays a key role, there are also confusing and misleading claims that some BEMPs are better than others. In order to address these problems, it is essential to identify and understand differences between widely-used BEMPs, and the impact of these differences on load simulation results, by detailed comparisons of these BEMPs from source code to results. The primary goal of this work was to research methods and processes that would allow a thorough scientific comparison of the BEMPs. The secondary goal was to provide a list of strengths and weaknesses for each BEMP, based on in-depth understandings of their modeling capabilities, mathematical algorithms, advantages and limitations. This is to guide the use of BEMPs in the design and retrofit of buildings, especially to support China’s building energy standard development and energy labeling program. The research findings could also serve as a good reference to improve the modeling capabilities and applications of the three BEMPs. The methodologies, processes, and analyses employed in the comparison work could also be used to compare other programs. The load calculation method of each program was analyzed and compared to

  18. A programming model and execution environment for autonomous systems

    OpenAIRE

    Razafimahefa, Chrislain

    2004-01-01

    This thesis presents the design and implementation of a programming model for autonomous systems. Autonomous systems are distributed systems based on wireless networks, mobile devices and the Internet. They are characterized by the high dynamics with which their configuration evolves. Ad hoc networks, a member of autonomous systems, illustrate this point since in these networks participants can join and leave at any time. Similarly in Peer-to-Peer networks, another member of autonomous system...

  19. 07361 Abstracts Collection -- Programming Models for Ubiquitous Parallelism

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, David Chi-Leung; Cohen, Albert; Garzarán, María J.; Lengauer, Christian; Midkiff, Samuel P.

    2008-01-01

    From 02.09. to 07.09.2007, the Dagstuhl Seminar 07361 ``Programming Models for Ubiquitous Parallelism'' was held in the International Conference and Research Center (IBFI), Schloss Dagstuhl. During the seminar, several participants presented their current research, and ongoing work and open problems were discussed. Abstracts of the presentations given during the seminar as well as abstracts of seminar results and ideas are put together in this paper. The first section des...

  20. Penjadwalan Resource Pada Cloud Computing Menggunakan Model Integer Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Arlita, Nazly

    2015-01-01

    Cloud computing isn’t popular yet, but its development is increadibly. Cloud computing is being used because of the resource limitations as a contraints that blocks computation activities. This research purpose to obtain minimum cost in cloud computing service by using binary integer programming models. The service applying infrastructure as a service (IaaS) where virtualization machine being to user to use cloud computing . Optimization of this research showing which server deserves selecte...

  1. Adaptive Model for Computer-Assisted Assessment in Programming Skills

    OpenAIRE

    Molins-Ruano, P.; González-Sacristán, C.; F. Díez; Rodriguez, P.; Sacha, G. M.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we show a methodology aimed to improve the quality of the assessment process for subjects related to basic programming. The method takes into account the relevance of the items and the students answers to follow different paths to improve the accuracy of the assessment process. We have developed numerical simulations and experiments with real students that demonstrate the advantages of this model when compared with traditional evaluation tools. This method improves the objective...

  2. Monthly pan evaporation modeling using linear genetic programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guven, Aytac; Kisi, Ozgur

    2013-10-01

    This study compares the accuracy of linear genetic programming (LGP), fuzzy genetic (FG), adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), artificial neural networks (ANN) and Stephens-Stewart (SS) methods in modeling pan evaporations. Monthly climatic data including solar radiation, air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and pan evaporation from Antalya and Mersin stations, in Turkey are used in the study. The study composed of two parts. First part of the study focuses the comparison of LGP models with those of the FG, ANFIS, ANN and SS models in estimating pan evaporations of Antalya and Mersin stations, separately. From the comparison results, the LGP models are found to be better than the other models. Comparison of LGP models with the other models in estimating pan evaporations of the Mersin Station by using both stations' inputs is focused in the second part of the study. The results indicate that the LGP models better accuracy than the FG, ANFIS, ANN and SS models. It is seen that the pan evaporations can be successfully estimated by the LGP method.

  3. Modelling dynamic programming problems by generalized d-graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Kátai, Zoltán

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we introduce the concept of generalized d-graph (admitting cycles) as special dependency-graphs for modelling dynamic programming (DP) problems. We describe the d-graph versions of three famous single-source shortest algorithms (The algorithm based on the topological order of the vertices, Dijkstra algorithm and Bellman-Ford algorithm), which can be viewed as general DP strategies in the case of three different class of optimization problems. The new modelling method also makes possible to classify DP problems and the corresponding DP strategies in term of graph theory.

  4. Tecnomatix Plant Simulation modeling and programming by means of examples

    CERN Document Server

    Bangsow, Steffen

    2015-01-01

    This book systematically introduces the development of simulation models as well as the implementation and evaluation of simulation experiments with Tecnomatix Plant Simulation. It deals with all users of Plant Simulation, who have more complex tasks to handle. It also looks for an easy entry into the program. Particular attention has been paid to introduce the simulation flow language SimTalk and its use in various areas of the simulation. The author demonstrates with over 200 examples how to combine the blocks for simulation models and how to deal with SimTalk for complex control and analys

  5. Modeling dietary influences on offspring metabolic programming in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookheart, Rita T; Duncan, Jennifer G

    2016-09-01

    The influence of nutrition on offspring metabolism has become a hot topic in recent years owing to the growing prevalence of maternal and childhood obesity. Studies in mammals have identified several factors correlating with parental and early offspring dietary influences on progeny health; however, the molecular mechanisms that underlie these factors remain undiscovered. Mammalian metabolic tissues and pathways are heavily conserved in Drosophila melanogaster, making the fly an invaluable genetic model organism for studying metabolism. In this review, we discuss the metabolic similarities between mammals and Drosophila and present evidence supporting its use as an emerging model of metabolic programming. PMID:27450801

  6. A fuzzy goal programming model for biodiesel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutero, D. S.; Pangue, EMU; Tubay, J. M.; Lubag, S. P.

    2016-02-01

    A fuzzy goal programming (FGP) model for biodiesel production in the Philippines was formulated with Coconut (Cocos nucifera) and Jatropha (Jatropha curcas) as sources of biodiesel. Objectives were maximization of feedstock production and overall revenue and, minimization of energy used in production and working capital for farming subject to biodiesel and non-biodiesel requirements, and availability of land, labor, water and machine time. All these objectives and constraints were assumed to be fuzzy. Model was tested for different sets of weights. Results for all sets of weights showed the same optimal allocation. Coconut alone can satisfy the biodiesel requirement of 2% per volume.

  7. Modelling parallel programs and multiprocessor architectures with AXE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jerry C.; Fineman, Charles E.

    1991-01-01

    AXE, An Experimental Environment for Parallel Systems, was designed to model and simulate for parallel systems at the process level. It provides an integrated environment for specifying computation models, multiprocessor architectures, data collection, and performance visualization. AXE is being used at NASA-Ames for developing resource management strategies, parallel problem formulation, multiprocessor architectures, and operating system issues related to the High Performance Computing and Communications Program. AXE's simple, structured user-interface enables the user to model parallel programs and machines precisely and efficiently. Its quick turn-around time keeps the user interested and productive. AXE models multicomputers. The user may easily modify various architectural parameters including the number of sites, connection topologies, and overhead for operating system activities. Parallel computations in AXE are represented as collections of autonomous computing objects known as players. Their use and behavior is described. Performance data of the multiprocessor model can be observed on a color screen. These include CPU and message routing bottlenecks, and the dynamic status of the software.

  8. The impacts of a plume-rise scheme on earth system modeling: climatological effects of biomass aerosols on the surface temperature and energy budget of South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Menezes Neto, Otacilio L.; Coutinho, Mariane M.; Marengo, José A.; Capistrano, Vinícius B.

    2016-05-01

    Seasonal forest fires in the Amazon are the largest source of pollutants in South America. The impacts of aerosols due to biomass burning on the temperature and energy balance in South America are investigated using climate simulations from 1979 to 2005 using HadGEM2-ES, which includes the hot plume-rise scheme (HPR) developed by Freitas et al. (Estudos Avançados 19:167-185, 2005, Atmos Chem Phys 7:3385-3398, 2007, Atmos Chem Phys 10:585-594, 2010). The HPR scheme is used to estimate the vertical heights of biomass-burning aerosols based on the thermodynamic characteristics of the underlying model. Three experiments are performed. The first experiment includes the HPR scheme, the second experiment turns off the HPR scheme and the effects of biomass aerosols (BIOMASS OFF), and the final experiment assumes that all biomass aerosols are released at the surface (HPR OFF). Relative to the BIOMASS OFF experiment, the temperature decreased in the HPR experiment as the net shortwave radiation at the surface decreased in a region with a large amount of biomass aerosols. When comparing the HPR and HPR OFF experiments, the release of biomass aerosols higher on the atmosphere impacts on temperature and the energy budget because the aerosols were transported by strong winds in the upper atmospheric levels.

  9. A Game-Theoretic Model for Distributed Programming by Contract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Anders Starcke; Hvitved, Tom; Filinski, Andrzej

    2009-01-01

    We present an extension of the programming-by-contract (PBC) paradigm to a concurrent and distributed environment.  Classical PBC is characterized by absolute conformance of code to its specification, assigning blame in case of failures, and a hierarchical, cooperative decomposition model – none...... of which extend naturally to a distributed environment with multiple administrative peers. We therefore propose a more nuanced contract model based on quantifiable performance of implementations; assuming responsibility for success; and a fundamentally adversarial model of system integration, where each...... component provider is optimizing its behavior locally, with respect to potentially conflicting demands.  This model gives rise to a game-theoretic formulation of contract-governed process interactions that supports compositional reasoning about contract conformance....

  10. Performance Measurement, Visualization and Modeling of Parallel and Distributed Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jerry C.; Sarukkai, Sekhar R.; Mehra, Pankaj; Lum, Henry, Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology for debugging the performance of message-passing programs on both tightly coupled and loosely coupled distributed-memory machines. The AIMS (Automated Instrumentation and Monitoring System) toolkit, a suite of software tools for measurement and analysis of performance, is introduced and its application illustrated using several benchmark programs drawn from the field of computational fluid dynamics. AIMS includes (i) Xinstrument, a powerful source-code instrumentor, which supports both Fortran77 and C as well as a number of different message-passing libraries including Intel's NX Thinking Machines' CMMD, and PVM; (ii) Monitor, a library of timestamping and trace -collection routines that run on supercomputers (such as Intel's iPSC/860, Delta, and Paragon and Thinking Machines' CM5) as well as on networks of workstations (including Convex Cluster and SparcStations connected by a LAN); (iii) Visualization Kernel, a trace-animation facility that supports source-code clickback, simultaneous visualization of computation and communication patterns, as well as analysis of data movements; (iv) Statistics Kernel, an advanced profiling facility, that associates a variety of performance data with various syntactic components of a parallel program; (v) Index Kernel, a diagnostic tool that helps pinpoint performance bottlenecks through the use of abstract indices; (vi) Modeling Kernel, a facility for automated modeling of message-passing programs that supports both simulation -based and analytical approaches to performance prediction and scalability analysis; (vii) Intrusion Compensator, a utility for recovering true performance from observed performance by removing the overheads of monitoring and their effects on the communication pattern of the program; and (viii) Compatibility Tools, that convert AIMS-generated traces into formats used by other performance-visualization tools, such as ParaGraph, Pablo, and certain AVS/Explorer modules.

  11. Challenges faced in Latin America for the implementation of an ideal health-care model for rheumatoid arthritis patients: are we ready?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Jaillier, Juan Carlos; Posada Arango, Ana María; Martínez Pérez, David Antonio

    2015-03-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, inflammatory, progressive disease characterized by inflammation of the synovial tissue. It results in the severe functional deterioration of the joints involved and the incapacity to work. Our main aim is to determine the characteristics of the current health-care models used in treating rheumatoid arthritis patients in Latin America. We want to analyze the details, using them as the foundation to create an ideal health-care model that is focused on the patient. We have revised documents, including guides to clinical practice, monitoring models and health-care models according to the current policies and resources available in various Latin American countries. Based on this information, the qualities and deficiencies of the current models will be analyzed, in order to use this as a basis on which to construct a proposed health-care model that covers the specific needs of rheumatoid arthritis patients, considering the resources of each population. Despite the collapse seen in many health systems throughout history, we can learn from them and should develop a new model starting from the path pursued, capitalizing on our experiences, teachings, and errors committed. However, in most cases, the obstacles to the success of the systems do not lie in the fundamental structure or the "spirit of the legislator" but rather in the day-to-day development within the community and the special interest of each agent in a system.

  12. Wind Powering America Initiative (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Powering America initiative engages in technology market acceptance, barrier reduction, and technology deployment support activities. This fact sheet outlines ways in which the Wind Powering America team works to reduce barriers to appropriate wind energy deployment, primarily by focusing on six program areas: workforce development, communications and outreach, stakeholder analysis and resource assessment, wind technology technical support, wind power for Native Americans, and federal sector support and collaboration.

  13. MODEL - MODEL PEMBELAJARAN PADA PROGRAM STUDI PENDIDIKAN GURU MADRASAH IBTIDAIYAH (PGMI) STAIN SAMARINDA

    OpenAIRE

    Syeh Hawib Hamzah

    2014-01-01

    The model of learning is a vital thing in education. A good appropriate model of learning could reach the goal of learning efficently and effectively. The lecturers of education and teacher training program of STAIN Samarinda implement a various teaching and learning models when they perform their teaching, such as: model of contectual teaching, social interaction, informational proces, personal-based learning, behaviorism, cooperative learning, and problem-based learning.

  14. Model - Model Pembelajaran pada Program Studi Pendidikan Guru Madrasah Ibtidaiyah (PGMI STAIN Samarinda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syeh Hawib Hamzah

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The model of learning is a vital thing in education. A good appropriate model of learning could reach the goal of learning efficently and effectively. The lecturers of education and teacher training program of STAIN Samarinda implement a various teaching and learning models when they perform their teaching, such as: model of contectual teaching, social interaction, informational proces, personal-based learning, behaviorism, cooperative learning, and problem-based learning.

  15. Subseasonal teleconnections South America - South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Alice; Reason, Chris

    2016-04-01

    There is marked subseasonal variability over South America and southern Africa. Based on previous work showing that a teleconnection exists between the South American monsoon system and interannual summer rainfall variability over southern Africa, this study shows teleconnections between subseasonal variability over these landmasses. Observed daily gauge precipitation data for 1970-1999 are gridded to 1° resolution for South America and 2.5° for South Africa. At each grid point, anomalies of daily precipitation are calculated and submitted to a bandpass Lanczos filter to isolate subseasonal oscillations in the 20-90 day band. For each season, the filtered precipitation anomalies for the South African grid boxes are correlated with filtered precipitation anomalies in the grid boxes over South America. Lags from 0 up to 12 days are applied to the South African data, in order to investigate convection anomalies over South America that could produce atmospheric perturbations associated with South African precipitation anomalies. The significance of correlation between the filtered data takes autocorrelation into account and uses effective sample sizes. The results shown represent the best correlations for different climatic regimes such as the winter-rainfall dominated southwestern Cape, the all season rainfall South Coast and the summer-rainfall dominated Limpopo region. NCEP re-analyses are used to composite subseasonal anomalies in OLR, 200 hPa streamfunction, and vertically integrated moisture flux associated with precipitation anomaly above one standard deviation in the filtered series (positive phases) of the South African selected regions. The possible origin of the atmospheric circulation anomalies associated with those positive phases is determined using influence functions (IFs) of a vorticity equation model with a divergence source. The model is linearized about a realistic basic state and includes the divergence of the basic state and the advection of

  16. Micro Insurance Matters in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Goldberg , Mike; Ramanathan, C S

    2008-01-01

    This note discusses the rapidly evolving issue of micro insurance in Latin America and how microfinance institutions (MFIs), insurance companies and donors can respond to its challenges. This note is part of a series summarizing the Department of International Development-Latin American Markets and International Trade Program (DFID-LAMIT) eight-part distance learning program with South Ame...

  17. 2013 Building America Research Planning Meeting Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzger, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hunt, S. [Confluence Communications, Missoula, MT (united States)

    2014-02-01

    The Building America Research Planning Meeting was held October 28-30, 2013, in Washington, DC. This meeting provides one opportunity each year for the research teams, national laboratories and Department of Energy (DOE) managers to meet in person to share the most pertinent information and collaboration updates. This report documents the presentations, highlights key program updates, and outlines next steps for the program.

  18. A stochastic dynamic programming model for stream water quality management

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P P Mujumdar; Pavan Saxena

    2004-10-01

    This paper deals with development of a seasonal fraction-removal policy model for waste load allocation in streams addressing uncertainties due to randomness and fuzziness. A stochastic dynamic programming (SDP) model is developed to arrive at the steady-state seasonal fraction-removal policy. A fuzzy decision model (FDM) developed by us in an earlier study is used to compute the system performance measure required in the SDP model. The state of the system in a season is defined by streamflows at the headwaters during the season and the initial DO deficit at some pre-specified checkpoints. The random variation of streamflows is included in the SDP model through seasonal transitional probabilities. The decision vector consists of seasonal fraction-removal levels for the effluent dischargers. Uncertainty due to imprecision (fuzziness) associated with water quality goals is addressed using the concept of fuzzy decision. Responses of pollution control agencies to the resulting end-of-season DO deficit vector and that of dischargers to the fraction-removal levels are treated as fuzzy, and modelled with appropriate membership functions. Application of the model is illustrated with a case study of the Tungabhadra river in India.

  19. A Centroid Model of Species Distribution to Analyize Multi-directional Climate Change Finger Print in Avian Distribution in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Q.; Sauer, J.; Dubayah, R.

    2015-12-01

    Species distribution shift (or referred to as "fingerprint of climate change") as a primary mechanism to adapt climate change has been of great interest to ecologists and conservation practitioners. Recent meta-analyses have concluded that a wide range of animal and plant species are already shifting their distribution. However majority of the literature has focused on analyzing recent poleward and elevationally upward shift of species distribution. However if measured only in poleward shifts, the fingerprint of climate change will be underestimated significantly. In this study, we demonstrate a centroid model for range-wide analysis of distribution shifts using the North American Breeding Bird Survey. The centroid model is based on a hierarchical Bayesian framework which models population change within physiographic strata while accounting for several factors affecting species detectability. We used the centroid approach to examine large number of species permanent resident species in North America and evaluated the dreiction and magnitude of their shifting distribution. To examine the inferential ability of mean temperature and precipitation, we test a hypothesis based on climate velocity theory that species would be more likely to shift their distribution or would shift with greater magnitude in in regions with high climate change velocity. For species with significant shifts of distribution, we establish a precipitation model and a temperature model to explain their change of abundance at the strata level. Two models which are composed of mean and extreme climate indices respectively are also established to test the influences of changes in gradual and extreme climate trends.

  20. Probabilistic Constraint Programming for Parameters Optimisation of Generative Models

    CERN Document Server

    Zanin, Massimiliano; Sousa, Pedro A C; Cruz, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Complex networks theory has commonly been used for modelling and understanding the interactions taking place between the elements composing complex systems. More recently, the use of generative models has gained momentum, as they allow identifying which forces and mechanisms are responsible for the appearance of given structural properties. In spite of this interest, several problems remain open, one of the most important being the design of robust mechanisms for finding the optimal parameters of a generative model, given a set of real networks. In this contribution, we address this problem by means of Probabilistic Constraint Programming. By using as an example the reconstruction of networks representing brain dynamics, we show how this approach is superior to other solutions, in that it allows a better characterisation of the parameters space, while requiring a significantly lower computational cost.

  1. Recovery Act. Development of a Model Energy Conservation Training Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2012-07-05

    The overall objective of this project was to develop an updated model Energy Conservation training program for stationary engineers. This revision to the IUOE National Training Fund’s existing Energy Conservation training curriculum is designed to enable stationary engineers to incorporate essential energy management into routine building operation and maintenance tasks. The curriculum uses a blended learning approach that includes classroom, hands-on, computer simulation and web-based training in addition to a portfolio requirement for a workplace-based learning application. The Energy Conservation training program goal is development of a workforce that can maintain new and existing commercial buildings at optimum energy performance levels. The grant start date was July 6, 2010 and the project continued through September 30, 2012, including a three month non-funded extension.

  2. The Evolution of Cartography Graduate Programs and the Development of New Graduate Programs in Cartography: An Assessment of Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinke, Theodore R.

    This paper traces the historical development of cartography graduate programs, establishes an evolutionary model, and evaluates the model to determine if it has some utility today for the development of programs capable of producing highly skilled cartographers. Cartography is defined to include traditional cartography, computer cartography,…

  3. Building America Systems Integration Research Annual Report: FY 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gestwick, M.

    2013-05-01

    This document is the Building America FY2012 Annual Report, which includes an overview of the Building America Program activities and the work completed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the Building America industry consortia (the Building America teams). The annual report summarizes major technical accomplishments and progress towards U.S. Department of Energy Building Technologies Program's multi-year goal of developing the systems innovations that enable risk-free, cost effective, reliable and durable efficiency solutions that reduce energy use by 30%-50% in both new and existing homes.

  4. Building America Systems Integration Research Annual Report. FY 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gestwick, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-05-01

    This Building America FY2012 Annual Report includes an overview of the Building America Program activities and the work completed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the Building America industry consortia (the Building America teams). The annual report summarizes major technical accomplishments and progress towards U.S. Department of Energy Building Technologies Program's multi-year goal of developing the systems innovations that enable risk-free, cost effective, reliable and durable efficiency solutions that reduce energy use by 30%-50% in both new and existing homes.

  5. Generalized fish life-cycle poplulation model and computer program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeAngelis, D. L.; Van Winkle, W.; Christensen, S. W.; Blum, S. R.; Kirk, B. L.; Rust, B. W.; Ross, C.

    1978-03-01

    A generalized fish life-cycle population model and computer program have been prepared to evaluate the long-term effect of changes in mortality in age class 0. The general question concerns what happens to a fishery when density-independent sources of mortality are introduced that act on age class 0, particularly entrainment and impingement at power plants. This paper discusses the model formulation and computer program, including sample results. The population model consists of a system of difference equations involving age-dependent fecundity and survival. The fecundity for each age class is assumed to be a function of both the fraction of females sexually mature and the weight of females as they enter each age class. Natural mortality for age classes 1 and older is assumed to be independent of population size. Fishing mortality is assumed to vary with the number and weight of fish available to the fishery. Age class 0 is divided into six life stages. The probability of survival for age class 0 is estimated considering both density-independent mortality (natural and power plant) and density-dependent mortality for each life stage. Two types of density-dependent mortality are included. These are cannibalism of each life stage by older age classes and intra-life-stage competition.

  6. OpenMP Programming for a Global Inverse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wang

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of our investigation is to establish robust inverse algorithms to convert GRACE gravity and ICESat altimetry mission data into global current and past surface mass variations. To assess separation of global sources of change and to evaluate spatio-temporal resolution and accuracy statistically from full posterior covariance matrices, a high performance version of a global simultaneous grid inverse algorithm is essential. One means to accomplish this is to implement a general, well-optimized, parallel global model on massively parallel supercomputers. In our present work, an efficient parallel version of a global inverse program has been implemented on the Origin 2000 using the OpenMP programming model. In this paper, porting a sequential global code to a shared-memory computing system is discussed; several efficient strategies to optimize the code are reported; well-optimized scientific libraries are used; detailed parallel implementation of the global model is reported; performance data of the code are analyzed. Scaling performance on a shared-memory system is also discussed. The parallel version software gives good speedup and dramatically reduces total data processing time.

  7. Evaluation of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ model v5.0 against size-resolved measurements of inorganic particle composition across sites in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. G. Nolte

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluates particle size-composition distributions simulated by the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ model using Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI measurements at 18 sites across North America. Size-resolved measurements of particulate SO42−, NO3−, NH4+, Na+, Cl−, Mg2+, Ca2+ and K+ are compared to CMAQ model output for discrete sampling periods between 2002 and 2005. The observation sites were predominantly in remote areas (e.g. National Parks in the United States and Canada, and measurements were typically made for a period of roughly one month. For SO42− and NH4+, model performance was consistent across the US and Canadian sites, with the model slightly overestimating the peak particle diameter and underestimating the peak particle concentration compared to the observations. Na+ and Mg2+ size distributions were generally well represented at coastal sites, indicating reasonable simulation of emissions from sea spray. CMAQ is able to simulate the displacement of Cl− in aged sea spray aerosol, though the extent of Cl− depletion relative to Na+ is often underpredicted. The model performance for NO3− exhibited much more site-to-site variability than that of SO42− and NH4+, with the model ranging from an underestimation to overestimation of both the peak diameter and peak particle concentration across the sites. Computing PM2.5 from the modeled size distribution parameters rather than by summing the masses in the Aitken and accumulation modes resulted in differences in daily averages of up to 1 μg m−3 (10%, while the difference in seasonal and annual model performance compared to observations from the IMPROVE, CSN and AQS networks was very small. Two updates to the CMAQ aerosol model – changes to the assumed size and mode width of emitted particles and the implementation of gravitational settling – resulted in small improvements in modeled size distributions.

  8. Using Remotely-Sensed Land Cover and Distribution Modeling to Estimate Tree Species Migration in the Pacific Northwest Region of North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas C. Coops

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding future tree species migration is challenging due to the unprecedented rate of climate change combined with the presence of human barriers that may limit or impede species movement. Projected changes in climatic conditions outpace migration rates, and more realistic rates of range expansion are needed to make sound environmental policies. In this paper, we develop a modeling approach that takes into account both the geographic changes in the area suitable for the growth and reproduction of tree species, as well as limits imposed geographically on their potential migration using remotely-sensed land cover information. To do so, we combined a physiologically-based decision tree model with a remotely-sensed-derived diffusion-dispersal model to identify the most likely direction of future migration for 15 native tree species in the Pacific Northwest Region of North America, as well as the degree that landscape fragmentation might limit movement. Although projected changes in climate through to 2080 are likely to create favorable environments for range expansion of the 15 tree species by 65% on average, by limiting the potential movement by previously published migration rates and landscape fragmentation, range expansion will likely be 50%–90% of the potential. The hybrid modeling approach using distribution modeling and remotely-sensed data fills a gap between naïve and more complex approaches to take into account major impediments on the potential migration of native tree species.

  9. New kinematic models for Pacific-North America Motion from 3 Ma to Present, II: Evidence for a “Baja California Shear Zone”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Timothy; Farina, Fred; DeMets, Charles; Suarez-Vidal, Francisco; Fletcher, John; Marquez-Azua, Bertha; Miller, Meghan; Sanchez, Osvaldo; Umhoefer, Paul

    2000-12-01

    We use new models for present-day Pacific-North America motion to evaluate the tectonics of offshore regions west of the Californias. Vandenburg in coastal Alta California moves at the Pacific plate velocity within uncertainties (˜1 mm/yr) after correcting for strain accumulation on the San Andreas and San Gregorio-Hosgri faults with a model that includes a viscoelastic lower crust. Modeled and measured velocities at coastal sites in Baja California south of the Agua Blanca fault, a region that most previous models consider Pacific plate, differ by 3-8 mm/yr, with coastal sites moving slower that the Pacific plate. We interpret these discrepancies in terms of strain accumulation on known on-shore faults, combined with right lateral slip at a rate of 3-4 mm/yr on additional faults offshore peninsular Baja California in the Pacific. Offshore seismicity, offset Quaternary features along the west coast of Baja California, and a discrepancy between the magnetically determined spreading rate in the Gulf Rise and the total plate rate from a geological model provide independent evidence for a “Baja California shear zone.”

  10. A Matlab program and user's guide for the fractionally cointegrated VAR model

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Morten Ørregaard; Popiel, Michał Ksawery

    2016-01-01

    This manual describes the usage of the accompanying freely available Matlab program for estimation and testing in the fractionally cointegrated vector autoregressive (FCVAR) model. This program replaces an earlier Matlab program by Nielsen and Morin (2014), and although the present Matlab program is not compatible with the earlier one, we encourage use of the new program.

  11. RFI Math Model programs for predicting intermodulation interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, J. M.

    1974-01-01

    Receivers operating on a space vehicle or an aircraft having many on-board transmitters are subject to intermodulation interference from mixing in the transmitting antenna systems, the external environment, or the receiver front-ends. This paper presents the techniques utilized in RFI Math Model computer programs that were developed to aid in the prevention of interference by predicting problem areas prior to occurrence. Frequencies and amplitudes of possible intermodulation products generated in the external environment are calculated and compared to receiver sensitivities. Intermodulation products generated in receivers are evaluated to determine the adequacy of preselector ejection.

  12. Boolean Variables in Economic Models Solved by Linear Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixandroiu D.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the use of logical variables in economic models solved by linear programming. Focus is given to the presentation of the way logical constraints are obtained and of the definition rules based on predicate logic. Emphasis is also put on the possibility to use logical variables in constructing a linear objective function on intervals. Such functions are encountered when costs or unitary receipts are different on disjunct intervals of production volumes achieved or sold. Other uses of Boolean variables are connected to constraint systems with conditions and the case of a variable which takes values from a finite set of integers.

  13. Faculty development program models to advance teaching and learning within health science programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Jason W; Stein, Susan M; MacLean, Linda Garrelts; Van Amburgh, Jenny; Persky, Adam M

    2014-06-17

    Within health science programs there has been a call for more faculty development, particularly for teaching and learning. The primary objectives of this review were to describe the current landscape for faculty development programs for teaching and learning and make recommendations for the implementation of new faculty development programs. A thorough search of the pertinent health science databases was conducted, including the Education Resource Information Center (ERIC), MEDLINE, and EMBASE, and faculty development books and relevant information found were reviewed in order to provide recommendations for best practices. Faculty development for teaching and learning comes in a variety of forms, from individuals charged to initiate activities to committees and centers. Faculty development has been effective in improving faculty perceptions on the value of teaching, increasing motivation and enthusiasm for teaching, increasing knowledge and behaviors, and disseminating skills. Several models exist that can be implemented to support faculty teaching development. Institutions need to make informed decisions about which plan could be most successfully implemented in their college or school.

  14. Building America Performance Analysis Procedures for Existing Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendron, R.

    2006-05-01

    Because there are more than 101 million residential households in the United States today, it is not surprising that existing residential buildings represent an extremely large source of potential energy savings. Because thousands of these homes are renovated each year, Building America is investigating the best ways to make existing homes more energy-efficient, based on lessons learned from research in new homes. The Building America program is aiming for a 20%-30% reduction in energy use in existing homes by 2020. The strategy for the existing homes project of Building America is to establish technology pathways that reduce energy consumption cost-effectively in American homes. The existing buildings project focuses on finding ways to adapt the results from the new homes research to retrofit applications in existing homes. Research activities include a combination of computer modeling, field demonstrations, and long-term monitoring to support the development of integrated approaches to reduce energy use in existing residential buildings. Analytical tools are being developed to guide designers and builders in selecting the best approaches for each application. Also, DOE partners with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to increase energy efficiency in existing homes through the Home Performance with ENERGY STAR program.

  15. The Compass Model to plan faculty development programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Mostafa Al-Eraky

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Faculty development is an imperative if institutions are to develop professional and competent teachers, educators, researchers and leaders. Planning of faculty development currently focuses on meeting the perceived needs of staff and their interests. We would like to propose the Compass Model as a conceptual framework to plan faculty development, which was inspired by the interplay between intrinsic and extrinsic forces for learning, as outlined in the Self-Determination Theory (SDT. In planning faculty development, the Compass Model acknowledges four agendas (directions from various stakeholders: Strategies (N, Competencies (E, Resources (S and Wish lists (W. The model then describes four avenues for faculty development offerings (quadrants: Foundation (NE, Innovation (SE, Response (SW and Motivation (NW (i.e. outputs, activities. The model was compared theoretically with another approach to faculty development planning. It was then piloted as a quality measure for a current program to check for omissions or missed opportunities. We plan to use it in a multi-center study to compare approaches in faculty development planning in different contexts. We hope our model assists faculty developers to consider all stakeholders’ agendas when planning faculty development, beyond the current standard customer-based approach.

  16. A Cooperation-planning Model Based on Bilevel Programming Decision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jianfeng; ZHOU Lei; BAO Zhenqiang; BIAN Wenyu; LI Xiangqing

    2006-01-01

    This paper is based on a resource constrained active network project; the constraint of the local resource and the time constraint of the cooperation resource are considered simultaneously. And the respective benefit of the manager and cooperation partners is also considered simultaneously. And a cooperation-planning model based on bilevel multi-objective programming is designed, according to the due time and total cost. And an extended CNP based on the permitted range for resource and time requests is presented. A larger task set in scheduling cycle is on the permitting for the request of cooperation resource and time while the task manager itself may be permitted biding for tasks. As a result, the optimization space for the cooperation planning is enlarged. So not every bidding task is successfully bid by invitee, and the task manager itself takes on some bidding tasks. Finally, the genetic algorithm is given and the validity and feasibility of the model is proved by a case.

  17. A stochastic model of translation with -1 programmed ribosomal frameshifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Brenae L.; Visscher, Koen; Watkins, Joseph

    2014-02-01

    Many viruses produce multiple proteins from a single mRNA sequence by encoding overlapping genes. One mechanism to decode both genes, which reside in alternate reading frames, is -1 programmed ribosomal frameshifting. Although recognized for over 25 years, the molecular and physical mechanism of -1 frameshifting remains poorly understood. We have developed a mathematical model that treats mRNA translation and associated -1 frameshifting as a stochastic process in which the transition probabilities are based on the energetics of local molecular interactions. The model predicts both the location and efficiency of -1 frameshift events in HIV-1. Moreover, we compute -1 frameshift efficiencies upon mutations in the viral mRNA sequence and variations in relative tRNA abundances, predictions that are directly testable in experiment.

  18. Semantic network based component organization model for program mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王斌; 张尧学; 陈松乔

    2003-01-01

    Based on the definition of component ontology, an effective component classification mechanism and a facet named component relationship are proposed. Then an application domain oriented, hierarchical component organization model is established. At last a hierarchical component semantic network (HCSN) described by ontology interchange language(OIL) is presented and then its function is described. Using HCSN and cooperating with other components retrieving algorithms based on component description, other components information and their assembly or composite modes related to the key component can be found. Based on HCSN, component directory library is catalogued and a prototype system is constructed. The prototype system proves that component library organization based on this model gives guarantee to the reliability of component assembly during program mining.

  19. Chance-constrained/stochastic linear programming model for acid rain abatement—I. Complete colinearity and noncolinearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, J. H.; McBean, E. A.; Farquhar, G. J.

    A Linear Programming model is presented for development of acid rain abatement strategies in eastern North America. For a system comprised of 235 large controllable point sources and 83 uncontrolled area sources, it determines the least-cost method of reducing SO 2 emissions to satisfy maximum wet sulfur deposition limits at 20 sensitive receptor locations. In this paper, the purely deterministic model is extended to a probabilistic form by incorporating the effects of meteorologic variability on the long-range pollutant transport processes. These processes are represented by source-receptor-specific transfer coefficients. Experiments for quantifying the spatial variability of transfer coefficients showed their distributions to be approximately lognormal with logarithmic standard deviations consistently about unity. Three methods of incorporating second-moment random variable uncertainty into the deterministic LP framework are described: Two-Stage Programming Under Uncertainty (LPUU), Chance-Constrained Programming (CCP) and Stochastic Linear Programming (SLP). A composite CCP-SLP model is developed which embodies the two-dimensional characteristics of transfer coefficient uncertainty. Two probabilistic formulations are described involving complete colinearity and complete noncolinearity for the transfer coefficient covariance-correlation structure. Complete colinearity assumes complete dependence between transfer coefficients. Complete noncolinearity assumes complete independence. The completely colinear and noncolinear formulations are considered extreme bounds in a meteorologic sense and yield abatement strategies of largely didactic value. Such strategies can be characterized as having excessive costs and undesirable deposition results in the completely colinear case and absence of a clearly defined system risk level (other than expected-value) in the noncolinear formulation.

  20. A Programming Model Performance Study Using the NAS Parallel Benchmarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongzhang Shan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Harnessing the power of multicore platforms is challenging due to the additional levels of parallelism present. In this paper we use the NAS Parallel Benchmarks to study three programming models, MPI, OpenMP and PGAS to understand their performance and memory usage characteristics on current multicore architectures. To understand these characteristics we use the Integrated Performance Monitoring tool and other ways to measure communication versus computation time, as well as the fraction of the run time spent in OpenMP. The benchmarks are run on two different Cray XT5 systems and an Infiniband cluster. Our results show that in general the three programming models exhibit very similar performance characteristics. In a few cases, OpenMP is significantly faster because it explicitly avoids communication. For these particular cases, we were able to re-write the UPC versions and achieve equal performance to OpenMP. Using OpenMP was also the most advantageous in terms of memory usage. Also we compare performance differences between the two Cray systems, which have quad-core and hex-core processors. We show that at scale the performance is almost always slower on the hex-core system because of increased contention for network resources.

  1. Optimizing Crawler4j using MapReduce Programming Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddesh, G. M.; Suresh, Kavya; Madhuri, K. Y.; Nijagal, Madhushree; Rakshitha, B. R.; Srinivasa, K. G.

    2016-08-01

    World wide web is a decentralized system that consists of a repository of information on the basis of web pages. These web pages act as a source of information or data in the present analytics world. Web crawlers are used for extracting useful information from web pages for different purposes. Firstly, it is used in web search engines where the web pages are indexed to form a corpus of information and allows the users to query on the web pages. Secondly, it is used for web archiving where the web pages are stored for later analysis phases. Thirdly, it can be used for web mining where the web pages are monitored for copyright purposes. The amount of information processed by the web crawler needs to be improved by using the capabilities of modern parallel processing technologies. In order to solve the problem of parallelism and the throughput of crawling this work proposes to optimize the Crawler4j using the Hadoop MapReduce programming model by parallelizing the processing of large input data. Crawler4j is a web crawler that retrieves useful information about the pages that it visits. The crawler Crawler4j coupled with data and computational parallelism of Hadoop MapReduce programming model improves the throughput and accuracy of web crawling. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed solution achieves significant improvements with respect to performance and throughput. Hence the proposed approach intends to carve out a new methodology towards optimizing web crawling by achieving significant performance gain.

  2. Energy consumption model over parallel programs implemented on multicore architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Isidro-Ramirez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In High Performance Computing, energy consump-tion is becoming an important aspect to consider. Due to the high costs that represent energy production in all countries it holds an important role and it seek to find ways to save energy. It is reflected in some efforts to reduce the energy requirements of hardware components and applications. Some options have been appearing in order to scale down energy use and, con-sequently, scale up energy efficiency. One of these strategies is the multithread programming paradigm, whose purpose is to produce parallel programs able to use the full amount of computing resources available in a microprocessor. That energy saving strategy focuses on efficient use of multicore processors that are found in various computing devices, like mobile devices. Actually, as a growing trend, multicore processors are found as part of various specific purpose computers since 2003, from High Performance Computing servers to mobile devices. However, it is not clear how multiprogramming affects energy efficiency. This paper presents an analysis of different types of multicore-based architectures used in computing, and then a valid model is presented. Based on Amdahl’s Law, a model that considers different scenarios of energy use in multicore architectures it is proposed. Some interesting results were found from experiments with the developed algorithm, that it was execute of a parallel and sequential way. A lower limit of energy consumption was found in a type of multicore architecture and this behavior was observed experimentally.

  3. Improvements in Hanford TRU Program Utilizing Systems Modeling and Analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanford's Transuranic (TRU) Program is responsible for certifying contact-handled (CH) TRU waste and shipping the certified waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Hanford's CH TRU waste includes material that is in retrievable storage as well as above ground storage, and newly generated waste. Certifying a typical container entails retrieving and then characterizing it (Non-Destructive Examination [NDE], Non-Destructive Assay [NDA], and Head Space Gas Sampling [HSG]), validating records (data review and reconciliation), and designating the container for a payload. The certified payload is then shipped to WIPP. Systems modeling and analysis techniques were applied to Hanford's TRU Program to help streamline the certification process and increase shipping rates. The modeling and analysis yields several benefits: - Maintains visibility on system performance and predicts downstream consequences of production issues. - Predicts future system performance with higher confidence, based on tracking past performance. - Applies speculation analyses to determine the impact of proposed changes (e.g., apparent shortage of feed should not be used as basis to reassign personnel if more feed is coming in the queue). - Positively identifies the appropriate queue for all containers (e.g., discovered several containers that were not actively being worked because they were in the wrong 'physical' location - method used previously for queuing up containers). - Identifies anomalies with the various data systems used to track inventory (e.g., dimensional differences for Standard Waste Boxes). A model of the TRU Program certification process was created using custom queries of the multiple databases for managing waste containers. The model was developed using a simplified process chart based on the expected path for a typical container. The process chart was augmented with the remediation path for containers that do not meet acceptance criteria for WIPP. Containers are sorted

  4. Climate Impacts of Deforestation/Land-Use Changes in Central South America in the PRECIS Regional Climate Model: Mean Precipitation and Temperature Response to Present and Future Deforestation Scenarios

    OpenAIRE

    Canziani, Pablo O.; Gerardo Carbajal Benitez

    2012-01-01

    Deforestation/land-use changes are major drivers of regional climate change in central South America, impacting upon Amazonia and Gran Chaco ecoregions. Most experimental and modeling studies have focused on the resulting perturbations within Amazonia. Using the Regional Climate Model PRECIS, driven by ERA-40 reanalysis and ECHAM4 Baseline model for the period 1961–2000 (40-year runs), potential effects of deforestation/land-use changes in these and other neighboring ecoregions are evaluated....

  5. Artificial neural networks and multiple linear regression model using principal components to estimate rainfall over South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Soares dos Santos

    2016-01-01

    model output and observed monthly precipitation. We used general circulation model (GCM experiments for the 20th century (RCP historical; 1970–1999 and two scenarios (RCP 2.6 and 8.5; 2070–2100. The model test results indicate that the ANNs significantly outperform the MLR downscaling of monthly precipitation variability.

  6. Gastroenterology training in Latin America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Henry Cohen; Roque Saenz; Luiz E de Almeida Troncon; Maribel Lizarzabal; Carolina Olano

    2011-01-01

    Latin America is characterized by ethnic, geographical, cultural, and economic diversity; therefore, training in gastroenterology in the region must be considered in this context. The continent's medical education is characterized by a lack of standards and the volume of research continues to be relatively small. There is a multiplicity of events in general gastroenterology and in sub-disciplines, both at regional and local levels, which ensure that many colleagues have access to information. Medical education programs must be based on a clinical vision and be considered in close contact with the patients. The programs should be properly supervised, appropriately defined,and evaluated on a regular basis. The disparity between the patients' needs, the scarce resources available, and the pressures exerted by the health systems on doctors are frequent cited by those complaining of poor professionalism. Teaching development can play a critical role in ensuring the quality of teaching and learning in universities.Continuing professional development programs activities must be planned on the basis of the doctors' needs, with clearly defined objectives and using proper learning methodologies designed for adults. They must be evaluated and accredited by a competent body, so that they may become the basis of a professional regulatory system. The specialty has made progress in the last decades, offering doctors various possibilities for professional development. The world gastroenterology organization has contributed to the speciality through three distinctive, but closely inter-related, programs: Training Centers, Train-the-Trainers, and Global Guidelines, in which Latin America is deeply involved.

  7. Parallel phase model : a programming model for high-end parallel machines with manycores.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Junfeng (Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY); Wen, Zhaofang; Heroux, Michael Allen; Brightwell, Ronald Brian

    2009-04-01

    This paper presents a parallel programming model, Parallel Phase Model (PPM), for next-generation high-end parallel machines based on a distributed memory architecture consisting of a networked cluster of nodes with a large number of cores on each node. PPM has a unified high-level programming abstraction that facilitates the design and implementation of parallel algorithms to exploit both the parallelism of the many cores and the parallelism at the cluster level. The programming abstraction will be suitable for expressing both fine-grained and coarse-grained parallelism. It includes a few high-level parallel programming language constructs that can be added as an extension to an existing (sequential or parallel) programming language such as C; and the implementation of PPM also includes a light-weight runtime library that runs on top of an existing network communication software layer (e.g. MPI). Design philosophy of PPM and details of the programming abstraction are also presented. Several unstructured applications that inherently require high-volume random fine-grained data accesses have been implemented in PPM with very promising results.

  8. Towards a high resolution, integrated hydrology model of North America: Diagnosis of feedbacks between groundwater and land energy fluxes at continental scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Reed; Condon, Laura

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies demonstrate feedbacks between groundwater dynamics, overland flow, land surface and vegetation processes, and atmospheric boundary layer development that significantly affect local and regional climate across a range of climatic conditions. Furthermore, the type and distribution of vegetation cover alters land-atmosphere water and energy fluxes, as well as runoff generation and overland flow processes. These interactions can result in significant feedbacks on local and regional climate. In mountainous regions, recent research has shown that spatial and temporal variability in annual evapotranspiration, and thus water budgets, is strongly dependent on lateral groundwater flow; however, the full effects of these feedbacks across varied terrain (e.g. from plains to mountains) are not well understood. Here, we present a high-resolution, integrated hydrology model that covers much of continental North America and encompasses the Mississippi and Colorado watersheds. The model is run in a fully-transient manner at hourly temporal resolution incorporating fully-coupled land energy states and fluxes with integrated surface and subsurface hydrology. Connections are seen between hydrologic variables (such as water table depth) and land energy fluxes (such as latent heat) and spatial and temporal scaling is shown to span many orders of magnitude. Model results suggest that partitioning of plant transpiration to bare soil evaporation is a function of water table depth and later groundwater flow. Using these transient simulations as a proof of concept, we present a vision for future integrated simulation capabilities.

  9. A sample theory-based logic model to improve program development, implementation, and sustainability of Farm to School programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliffe, Michelle M

    2012-08-01

    Farm to School programs hold promise to address childhood obesity. These programs may increase students’ access to healthier foods, increase students’ knowledge of and desire to eat these foods, and increase their consumption of them. Implementing Farm to School programs requires the involvement of multiple people, including nutrition services, educators, and food producers. Because these groups have not traditionally worked together and each has different goals, it is important to demonstrate how Farm to School programs that are designed to decrease childhood obesity may also address others’ objectives, such as academic achievement and economic development. A logic model is an effective tool to help articulate a shared vision for how Farm to School programs may work to accomplish multiple goals. Furthermore, there is evidence that programs based on theory are more likely to be effective at changing individuals’ behaviors. Logic models based on theory may help to explain how a program works, aid in efficient and sustained implementation, and support the development of a coherent evaluation plan. This article presents a sample theory-based logic model for Farm to School programs. The presented logic model is informed by the polytheoretical model for food and garden-based education in school settings (PMFGBE). The logic model has been applied to multiple settings, including Farm to School program development and evaluation in urban and rural school districts. This article also includes a brief discussion on the development of the PMFGBE, a detailed explanation of how Farm to School programs may enhance the curricular, physical, and social learning environments of schools, and suggestions for the applicability of the logic model for practitioners, researchers, and policy makers. PMID:22867069

  10. The design and effectiveness of active labor market programs in OECD countries: a review of recent evidence for Latin America and the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Finn, Dan

    2012-01-01

    From the 1990s governments in many countries with extensive social protection systems have sought to realign their labor market policies by shifting their policy focus from “passive” income support payments towards more “active” programs. Such “active” measures include a diverse range of interventions and programs aimed at improving the functioning of the labor market, notably by matching the unemployed and other disadvantaged groups to jobs or, by enhancing their employability and skills to ...

  11. Modeling multi-clocked data-flow programs using the Generic Modeling Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Brunette, Christian; Talpin, Jean-Pierre; Besnard, Loïc; Gautier, Thierry

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents Signal-Meta, the metamodel designed for the synchronous data-flow language Signal. It relies on the Generic Modeling Environment (GME), a configurable object-oriented toolkit that supports the creation of domain-specific modeling and program synthesis environments. The graphical description constitutes the base to build multi-clock environments, and a good front-end for the Polychrony platform. To complete this frontend, we develop a tool that transforms the graphical Sign...

  12. Building America Case Study: Northwest Energy Efficient Manufactured Housing Program High-Performance Test Homes; Whole-House Solutions for New Homes, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-05-01

    ?This project represents the third phase of a multi-year effort to develop and bring to market a High Performance Manufactured Home (HPMH). The scope of this project involved building four HPMH prototypes, resulting in what is expected to be a 30% savings relative to the Building America Benchmark. (The actual % savings varies depending on choice of heating equipment and climate zone). The HPMH home is intended to make significant progress toward performing as zero-net-energy ready. Previous phases of this project created a HPMH specification and prototyped individual measures from the package to obtain engineering approvals and develop preliminary factory construction processes. This report describes the project team's work during 2014 to build prototype homes to the HPMH specifications and to monitor the homes for energy performance and durability during 2014. Monitoring is expected to continue into 2016.
    home is intended to make significant progress toward performing as zero-net-energy ready. Previous phases of this project created a HPMH specification and prototyped individual measures from the package to obtain engineering approvals and develop preliminary factory construction processes. This report describes the project team's work during 2014 to build prototype homes to the HPMH specifications and to monitor the homes for energy performance and durability during 2014. Monitoring is expected to continue into 2016.

  13. Predicting ecosystem dynamics at regional scales: an evaluation of a terrestrial biosphere model for the forests of northeastern North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvigy, David; Moorcroft, Paul R

    2012-01-19

    Terrestrial biosphere models are important tools for diagnosing both the current state of the terrestrial carbon cycle and forecasting terrestrial ecosystem responses to global change. While there are a number of ongoing assessments of the short-term predictive capabilities of terrestrial biosphere models using flux-tower measurements, to date there have been relatively few assessments of their ability to predict longer term, decadal-scale biomass dynamics. Here, we present the results of a regional-scale evaluation of the Ecosystem Demography version 2 (ED2)-structured terrestrial biosphere model, evaluating the model's predictions against forest inventory measurements for the northeast USA and Quebec from 1985 to 1995. Simulations were conducted using a default parametrization, which used parameter values from the literature, and a constrained model parametrization, which had been developed by constraining the model's predictions against 2 years of measurements from a single site, Harvard Forest (42.5° N, 72.1° W). The analysis shows that the constrained model parametrization offered marked improvements over the default model formulation, capturing large-scale variation in patterns of biomass dynamics despite marked differences in climate forcing, land-use history and species-composition across the region. These results imply that data-constrained parametrizations of structured biosphere models such as ED2 can be successfully used for regional-scale ecosystem prediction and forecasting. We also assess the model's ability to capture sub-grid scale heterogeneity in the dynamics of biomass growth and mortality of different sizes and types of trees, and then discuss the implications of these analyses for further reducing the remaining biases in the model's predictions.

  14. Minnesota 4-H Youth Program Quality Improvement Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Margo; Grant, Samantha

    2015-01-01

    The University of Minnesota Extension Center for Youth Development made an organizational decision in 2011 to invest in a system-wide approach to implement youth program quality into the 4-H program using the Youth Program Quality Assessment (YPQA) tool. This article describes the four key components to the Minnesota Youth Program Quality…

  15. An integer programming model for assigning students to elective courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Beroš

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the problem of assigning students to elective courses according to their preferences. This process of assigning students to elective courses according to their preferences often places before academic institutions numerous obstacles, the most typical being a limited number of students who can be assigned to any particular class. Furthermore, due to financial or technical reasons, the maximum number of the elective courses is determined in advance, meaning that the institution decides which courses to conduct. Therefore, the expectation that all the students will be assigned to their first choice of courses is not realistic (perfect satisfaction. This paper presents an integer programming model that maximizes the total student satisfaction in line with a number of different constraints. The measure of student satisfaction is based on a student's order of preference according to the principle: the more a choice is met the higher the satisfaction. Following the basic model, several versions of the models are generated to cover possible real-life situations, while taking into consideration the manner student satisfaction is measured, as well as the preference of academic institution within set technical and financial constraints. The main contribution of the paper is introducing the concept of the minimal student satisfaction level that reduces the number of students dissatised with the courses to which they were assigned.

  16. Development and validation of a habitat suitability model for the non-indigenous seagrass Zostera japonica in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    We developed a spatially-explicit, flexible 3-parameter habitat suitability model that can be used to identify and predict areas at higher risk for non-native dwarf eelgrass (Zostera japonica) invasion. The model uses simple environmental parameters (depth, nearshore slope, and s...

  17. A Program Evaluation Model: Using Bloom's Taxonomy to Identify Outcome Indicators in Outcomes-Based Program Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Rita C.

    2011-01-01

    Outcomes-based program evaluation is a systematic approach to identifying outcome indicators and measuring results against those indicators. One dimension of program evaluation is assessing the level of learner acquisition to determine if learning objectives were achieved as intended. The purpose of the proposed model is to use Bloom's Taxonomy to…

  18. A Tool for Performance Modeling of Parallel Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. González

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Current performance prediction analytical models try to characterize the performance behavior of actual machines through a small set of parameters. In practice, substantial deviations are observed. These differences are due to factors as memory hierarchies or network latency. A natural approach is to associate a different proportionality constant with each basic block, and analogously, to associate different latencies and bandwidths with each "communication block". Unfortunately, to use this approach implies that the evaluation of parameters must be done for each algorithm. This is a heavy task, implying experiment design, timing, statistics, pattern recognition and multi-parameter fitting algorithms. Software support is required. We present a compiler that takes as source a C program annotated with complexity formulas and produces as output an instrumented code. The trace files obtained from the execution of the resulting code are analyzed with an interactive interpreter, giving us, among other information, the values of those parameters.

  19. Technologies to better serve the millions of diabetic patients: a holistic, interactive and persuasive ICT model to facilitate self care, in extremely poor rural zones of Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Lombardo, Miguel; Jipsion, Armando; Vejarano, Rafael; Camargo, Ismael; Alvarez, Humberto; Mora, Elena Villalba; Ruíz, Ernestina Menasalva

    2012-04-01

    Health indicators express remarkable gaps between health systems at a world-wide level. Countries of the entire world are overflowed by the need of new strategies, methodologies and technologies to better serve the millions of patients, who demand better medical attention. The present archaic and ephemerally systematized systems widen the gap even more than the quality of medical services that should be provided for the millions of diabetic patients. It is therefore necessary to develop highly familiar environments with diabetic patients and their care needs. A Holistic, Interactive and Persuasive ICT model to facilitate self care of patients with diabetes (hIPAPD), is proposed as an innovative technological development in Panama to health optimized treatment for diabetic patients. Three health centers located in the District of Aguadulce, Province of Cocle, located on Panama's Pacific Coast, were selected to validate the model; the area presents extremely poor population, mostly with one daily meal, without any health insurance and with a high illiteracy rate. A series of experiences in the application and validation process are presented and analyzed in order to confirm the application, value and contribution of ICTs in health care in poor regions of Central America. PMID:20703674

  20. Process-Based Modeling to Assess the Effects of Recent Climatic Variation on Site Productivity and Forest Function across Western North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard H. Waring

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A process-based forest growth model, 3-PG (Physiological Principles Predicting Growth, parameterized with values of soil properties constrained by satellite-derived estimates of maximum leaf area index (LAImax, was run for Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii to contrast the extent to which site growth potential might vary across western North America between a cool, wet period (1950–1975 and a more recent, generally warmer and drier one (2000–2009. LAImax represents a surrogate for overall site growth potential, as demonstrated from a strong correlation between the two variables, with the latter based on the culmination of mean annual increment estimates made at 3356 ground-based U.S. Forest Service survey plots across the states of Oregon and Washington. Results indicate that since 2000, predicted LAImax has decreased more than 20% in portions of the Southwest USA and for much of the forested area in western Alberta. Similar percentage increases in LAImax were predicted for parts of British Columbia, Idaho and Montana. The modeling analysis included an assessment of changes in seasonal constraints on gross primary production (GPP. A general reduction in limitations caused by spring frost occurred across the entire study area. This has led to a longer growing season, along with notable increases in summer evaporative demand and soil drought for much of the study area away from the maritime influence of the Pacific Ocean.

  1. A Growth Model for Academic Program Life Cycle (APLC): A Theoretical and Empirical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acquah, Edward H. K.

    2010-01-01

    Academic program life cycle concept states each program's life flows through several stages: introduction, growth, maturity, and decline. A mixed-influence diffusion growth model is fitted to enrolment data on academic programs to analyze the factors determining progress of academic programs through their life cycles. The regression analysis yield…

  2. Pedagogy and Processes for a Computer Programming Outreach Workshop--The Bridge to College Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangney, Brendan; Oldham, Elizabeth; Conneely, Claire; Barrett, Stephen; Lawlor, John

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a model for computer programming outreach workshops aimed at second-level students (ages 15-16). Participants engage in a series of programming activities based on the Scratch visual programming language, and a very strong group-based pedagogy is followed. Participants are not required to have any prior programming experience.…

  3. Computer programs for forward and inverse modeling of acoustic and electromagnetic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellefsen, Karl J.

    2011-01-01

    A suite of computer programs was developed by U.S. Geological Survey personnel for forward and inverse modeling of acoustic and electromagnetic data. This report describes the computer resources that are needed to execute the programs, the installation of the programs, the program designs, some tests of their accuracy, and some suggested improvements.

  4. Review and evaluation of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission Safety Research Program for fiscal year 1985. A report to the Congress of the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the seventh report by the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) in response to the Congressional requirement for an annual report on the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Reactor Safety Research Program. As previously requested by the Congress, the timing of this report has been adjusted to enable the ACRS to address the proposed budget for FY 1985 that has been submitted to the Congress by the President. Part I is a compilation of our comments and recommendations regarding the NRC Safety Research Program budget for FY 1985. It is intended to serve as an Executive Summary. Part II is divided into eight chapters, each of which represents a Decision Unit of the NRC research program. In each chapter, specific comments are included on the research involved in the Decision Unit, an assessment of priorities, and recommendations regarding new directions and levels of funding

  5. Wind for Schools: A Wind Powering America Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Energy, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Wind Powering America program (based at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory) sponsors the Wind for Schools Project to raise awareness in rural America about the benefits of wind energy while simultaneously educating college seniors regarding wind energy applications. The three primary project goals of…

  6. Building America Research Benchmark Definition: Updated December 19, 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendron, R.

    2008-12-01

    To track progress toward aggressive multi-year whole-house energy savings goals of 40-70% and onsite power production of up to 30%, DOE's Residential Buildings Program and NREL developed the Building America Research Benchmark in consultation with the Building America industry teams.

  7. Building America Research Benchmark Definition, Updated December 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendron, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Engebrecht, Cheryn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2010-01-01

    To track progress toward aggressive multi-year, whole-house energy savings goals of 40%–70% and on-site power production of up to 30%, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Residential Buildings Program and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed the Building America (BA) Research Benchmark in consultation with the Building America industry teams.

  8. Building America Performance Analysis Procedures for Existing Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2006-05-01

    Building America is investigating the best ways to make existing homes more energy-efficient, based on lessons learned from research in new homes. America program is aiming for a 20%–30% reduction in energy use in existing homes by 2020.

  9. Designing a Model of Vocational Training Programs for Disables through ODL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majid, Shaista; Razzak, Adeela

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to designing a model of vocational training programs for disables. For this purpose desk review was carried out and the vocational training models/programs of Israel, U.K., Vietnam, Japan and Thailand were analyzed to form a conceptual framework of the model. Keeping in view the local conditions/requirements a model of…

  10. Evaluation of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ model v5.0 against size-resolved measurements of inorganic particle composition across sites in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. G. Nolte

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluates particle size–composition distributions simulated by the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ model using micro-orifice uniform deposit impactor (MOUDI measurements at 18 sites across North America. Size-resolved measurements of particulate SO42−, NO3−, NH4+, Na+, Cl−, Mg2+, Ca2+, and K+ are compared to CMAQ model output for discrete sampling periods between 2002 and 2005. The observation sites were predominantly in remote areas (e.g., National Parks in the USA and Canada, and measurements were typically made for a period of roughly 1 month. For SO42− and NH4+, model performance was consistent across the USA and Canadian sites, with the model slightly overestimating the peak particle diameter and underestimating the peak particle concentration compared to the observations. Na+ and Mg2+ size distributions were generally well represented at coastal sites, indicating reasonable simulation of emissions from sea spray. CMAQ is able to simulate the displacement of Cl− in aged sea spray aerosol, though the extent of Cl− depletion relative to Na+ is often underpredicted. The model performance for NO3− exhibited much more site-to-site variability than that of SO42− and NH4+, with the model ranging from an underestimation to overestimation of both the peak diameter and peak particle concentration across the sites. Computing PM2.5 from the modeled size distribution parameters rather than by summing the masses in the Aitken and accumulation modes resulted in differences in daily averages of up to 1 μg m−3 (10 %, while the difference in seasonal and annual model performance compared to observations from the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE, Chemical Speciation Network (CSN, and Air Quality System (AQS networks was very small. Two updates to the CMAQ aerosol model – changes to the assumed size and mode width of emitted particles and the implementation of gravitational settling

  11. Using Qualitative Data to Refine a Logic Model for the Cornell Family Development Credential Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Betsy

    2010-01-01

    Human service practitioners face challenges in communicating how their programs lead to desired outcomes. One framework for representation that is now widely used in the field of program evaluation is the program logic model. This article presents an example of how qualitative data were used to refine a logic model for the Cornell Family…

  12. Marketing for a Web-Based Master's Degree Program in Light of Marketing Mix Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Cheng-Chang

    2012-01-01

    The marketing mix model was applied with a focus on Web media to re-strategize a Web-based Master's program in a southern state university in U.S. The program's existing marketing strategy was examined using the four components of the model: product, price, place, and promotion, in hopes to repackage the program (product) to prospective students…

  13. Integrating Paleodistribution Models and Phylogeography in the Grass-Cutting Ant Acromyrmex striatus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Southern Lowlands of South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristiano, Maykon Passos; Clemes Cardoso, Danon; Fernandes-Salomão, Tânia Maria; Heinze, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Past climate changes often have influenced the present distribution and intraspecific genetic diversity of organisms. The objective of this study was to investigate the phylogeography and historical demography of populations of Acromyrmex striatus (Roger, 1863), a leaf-cutting ant species restricted to the open plains of South America. Additionally, we modeled the distribution of this species to predict its contemporary and historic habitat. From the partial sequences of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase I of 128 A. striatus workers from 38 locations we estimated genetic diversity and inferred historical demography, divergence time, and population structure. The potential distribution areas of A. striatus for current and quaternary weather conditions were modeled using the maximum entropy algorithm. We identified a total of 58 haplotypes, divided into five main haplogroups. The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed that the largest proportion of genetic variation is found among the groups of populations. Paleodistribution models suggest that the potential habitat of A. striatus may have decreased during the Last Interglacial Period (LIG) and expanded during the Last Maximum Glacial (LGM). Overall, the past potential distribution recovered by the model comprises the current potential distribution of the species. The general structuring pattern observed was consistent with isolation by distance, suggesting a balance between gene flow and drift. Analysis of historical demography showed that populations of A. striatus had remained constant throughout its evolutionary history. Although fluctuations in the area of their potential historic habitat occurred during quaternary climate changes, populations of A. striatus are strongly structured geographically. However, explicit barriers to gene flow have not been identified. These findings closely match those in Mycetophylax simplex, another ant species that in some areas occurs in sympatry with A. striatus

  14. Doctoral Training in Statistics, Measurement, and Methodology in Psychology: Replication and Extension of Aiken, West, Sechrest, and Reno's (1990) Survey of PhD Programs in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, Leona S.; West, Stephen G.; Millsap, Roger E.

    2008-01-01

    In a survey of all PhD programs in psychology in the United States and Canada, the authors documented the quantitative methodology curriculum (statistics, measurement, and research design) to examine the extent to which innovations in quantitative methodology have diffused into the training of PhDs in psychology. In all, 201 psychology PhD…

  15. Mean circulation in the coastal ocean off northeastern North America from a regional-scale ocean model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, K.; He, R.

    2015-07-01

    A regional-scale ocean model was used to hindcast the coastal circulation over the Middle Atlantic Bight (MAB) and Gulf of Maine (GOM) from 2004 to 2013. The model was nested inside a data assimilative global ocean model that provided initial and open boundary conditions. Realistic atmospheric forcing, tides and observed river runoff were also used to drive the model. Hindcast solutions were compared against observations, which included coastal sea levels, satellite altimetry sea surface height, in situ temperature and salinity measurements in the GOM, and observed mean depth-averaged velocities. Good agreements with observations suggest that the hindcast model is capable of capturing the major circulation variability in the MAB and GOM. Time- and space-continuous hindcast fields were used to depict the mean circulation, along- and cross-shelf transport and the associated momentum balances. The hindcast confirms the presence of the equatorward mean shelf circulation, which varies from 2.33 Sv over the Scotian Shelf to 0.22 Sv near Cape Hatteras. Using the 200 m isobath as the shelf/slope boundary, the mean cross-shelf transport calculations indicate that the shelfbreak segments off the Gulf of Maine (including the southern flank of Georges Bank and the Northeast Channel) and Cape Hatteras are the major sites for shelf water export. The momentum analysis reveals that the along-shelf sea level difference from Nova Scotia to Cape Hatteras is about 0.36 m. The nonlinear advection, stress, and horizontal viscosity terms all contribute to the ageostrophic circulation in the along-isobath direction, whereas the nonlinear advection plays a dominant role in determining the ageostrophic current in the cross-isobath direction.

  16. Concurrent Constraint Programming: A Language and Its Execution Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖乐健; 曹元大

    2003-01-01

    To overcome inefficiency in traditional logic programming, a declarative programming language COPS is designed based on the notion of concurrent constraint programming (CCP). The improvement is achieved by the adoption of constraint-based heuristic strategy and the introduction of deterministic components in the framework of CCP. Syntax specification and an operational semantic description are presented.

  17. Modeling Convective Injection of Water Vapor into the Lower Stratosphere in the Mid-Latitudes over North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapp, C.; Leroy, S. S.; Anderson, J. G.

    2015-12-01

    Water vapor in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) from the tropics to the poles is important both radiatively and chemically. Water vapor is the most important greenhouse gas, and increases in water vapor concentrations in the UTLS lead to cooling at these levels and induce warming at the surface [Forster and Shine, 1999; 2002;Solomon et al., 2010]. Water vapor is also integral to stratospheric chemistry. It is the dominant source of OH in the lower stratosphere [ Hanisco et al. , 2001], and increases in water vapor concentrations promote stratospheric ozone loss by raising the reactivity of several key heterogeneous reactions as well as by promoting the growth of reactive surface area [Anderson et al., 2012; Carslaw et al., 1995; Carslaw et al., 1997; Drdla and Muller , 2012; Kirk-Davidoff et al., 1999; Shi et al., 2001]. However, the processes that control the distribution and phase of water in this region of the atmosphere are not well understood. This is especially true at mid-latitudes where several different dynamical mechanisms are capable of influencing UTLS water vapor concentrations. The contribution by deep convective storm systems that penetrate into the lower stratosphere is the least well understood and the least well represented in global models because of the small spatial scales and short time scales over which convection occurs. To address this issue, we have begun a modeling study to investigate the convective injection of water vapor from the troposphere into the stratosphere in the mid-latitudes. Fine-scale models have been previously used to simulate convection from the troposphere to the stratosphere [e.g., Homeyer et al., 2014]. Here we employ the Advanced Research Weather and Research Forecasting model (ARW) at 3-km resolution to resolve convection over the eastern United States during August of 2007 and August of 2013. We conduct a comparison of MERRA, the reanalysis used to initialize ARW, and the model output to assess

  18. The use of the inner zone electron model AE-5 and associated computer programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teague, M. J.; Vette, J. I.

    1972-01-01

    A users guide to the inner radiation zone electron model AE-5 is introduced. The guide covers a description of the model, the forms in which it is available, directions on how to use the model, and a discussion of its limitations. Computer programs MODEL and ORP are described. These are major programs needed to use the electron models AE-4 and AE-5 and the smoothed proton models.

  19. Using a Support Vector Machine and a Land Surface Model to Estimate Large-Scale Passive Microwave Temperatures over Snow-Covered Land in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Barton A.; Reichle, Rolf Helmut

    2014-01-01

    A support vector machine (SVM), a machine learning technique developed from statistical learning theory, is employed for the purpose of estimating passive microwave (PMW) brightness temperatures over snow-covered land in North America as observed by the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) satellite sensor. The capability of the trained SVM is compared relative to the artificial neural network (ANN) estimates originally presented in [14]. The results suggest the SVM outperforms the ANN at 10.65 GHz, 18.7 GHz, and 36.5 GHz for both vertically and horizontally-polarized PMW radiation. When compared against daily AMSR-E measurements not used during the training procedure and subsequently averaged across the North American domain over the 9-year study period, the root mean squared error in the SVM output is 8 K or less while the anomaly correlation coefficient is 0.7 or greater. When compared relative to the results from the ANN at any of the six frequency and polarization combinations tested, the root mean squared error was reduced by more than 18 percent while the anomaly correlation coefficient was increased by more than 52 percent. Further, the temporal and spatial variability in the modeled brightness temperatures via the SVM more closely agrees with that found in the original AMSR-E measurements. These findings suggest the SVM is a superior alternative to the ANN for eventual use as a measurement operator within a data assimilation framework.

  20. Seven tenths incorrect: heterogeneity and change in the waist-to-hip ratios of Playboy centerfold models and Miss America pageant winners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freese, Jeremy; Meland, Sheri

    2002-05-01

    Drawing on an article by Singh (1993), many discussions of the evolutionary psychology of heterosexual male preferences have reported a remarkable consistency in the waist-to-hip ratios of Playboy centerfold models and Miss America pageant winners over time. We reexamine the measurement data on these American beauty icons and show that these reports are false in several ways. First, the variation in waist-to-hip ratios among these women is greater than reported. Second, the center of the distribution of waist-to-hip ratios is not 0.70, but less than this. Third, the average waist-to-hip ratio within both samples has changed over time in a manner that is statistically significant and can be regarded as mutually consistent. Taken together, the findings undermine some of the evidence given for the repeated suggestion that there is something special--evolutionarily hard-wired or otherwise--about a specific female waist-to-hip ratio of 0.70 as a preference of American heterosexual males. PMID:12476245

  1. Quantifying sources of black carbon in Western North America using observationally based analysis and an emission tagging technique in the Community Atmosphere Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Zhang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5, equipped with a technique to tag black carbon (BC emissions by source regions and types, has been employed to establish source-receptor relationships for atmospheric BC and its deposition to snow over Western North America. The CAM5 simulation was conducted with meteorological fields constrained by reanalysis for year 2013 when measurements of BC in both near-surface air and snow are available for model evaluation. We find that CAM5 has a significant low bias in predicted mixing ratios of BC in snow but only a small low bias in predicted atmospheric concentrations over the Northwest USA and West Canada. Even with a strong low bias in snow mixing ratios, radiative transfer calculations show that the BC-in-snow darkening effect is substantially larger than the BC dimming effect at the surface by atmospheric BC. Local sources contribute more to near-surface atmospheric BC and to deposition than distant sources, while the latter are more important in the middle and upper troposphere where wet removal is relatively weak. Fossil fuel (FF is the dominant source type for total column BC burden over the two regions. FF is also the dominant local source type for BC column burden, deposition, and near-surface BC, while for all distant source regions combined the contribution of biomass/biofuel (BB is larger than FF. An observationally based Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF analysis of the snow-impurity chemistry is conducted to quantitatively evaluate the CAM5 BC source-type attribution. While CAM5 is qualitatively consistent with the PMF analysis with respect to partitioning of BC originating from BB and FF emissions, it significantly underestimates the relative contribution of BB. In addition to a possible low bias in BB emissions used in the simulation, the model is likely missing a significant source of snow darkening from local soil found in the observations.

  2. Sharing experiences: towards an evidence based model of dengue surveillance and outbreak response in Latin America and Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Badurdeen, Shiraz; Valladares, David; Farrar, Jeremy; Gozzer, Ernesto; Kroeger, Axel; Kuswara, Novia; Ranzinger, Silvia; Tinh, Hien; Leite, Priscila; Mahendradhata, Yodi; Skewes, Ronald; Verrall, Ayesha

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The increasing frequency and intensity of dengue outbreaks in endemic and non-endemic countries requires a rational, evidence based response. To this end, we aimed to collate the experiences of a number of affected countries, identify strengths and limitations in dengue surveillance, outbreak preparedness, detection and response and contribute towards the development of a model contingency plan adaptable to country needs. METHODS: The study was undertaken in five Latin American (B...

  3. Prevent Child Abuse America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... call the police . Crisis and support contacts For Child Abuse Reporting Numbers in your State please visit: Child ... suspected child abuse and neglect. Parent Resources Prevent Child Abuse America (800) CHILDREN A resource for tips, referrals, ...

  4. America in the Eyes of America Watchers:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Huiyun; He, Kai

    2015-01-01

    almost half of the survey participants thought that America would remain the global hegemon in the next ten years. Meanwhile, a large majority was also optimistic that China is a rising great power, especially in the economic sense, in the world. More than half of the respondents saw Asian military...... issues, such as the South China Sea issue, as the most difficult problem between China and the US....

  5. 2013 Building America Research Planning Meeting Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzger, C. E.; Hunt, S.

    2014-02-01

    The Building America (BA) Research Planning Meeting was held October 28-30, 2013, in Washington, DC. This meeting provides one opportunity each year for the research teams, national laboratories and Department of Energy (DOE) managers to meet in person to share the most pertinent information and collaboration updates. This report documents the presentations, highlights key program updates, and outlines next steps for the program.

  6. Modeling a phosphorus credit trading program in an agricultural watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrales, Juliana; Naja, G Melodie; Bhat, Mahadev G; Miralles-Wilhelm, Fernando

    2014-10-01

    Water quality and economic models were linked to assess the economic and environmental benefits of implementing a phosphorus credit trading program in an agricultural sub-basin of Lake Okeechobee watershed, Florida, United States. The water quality model determined the effects of rainfall, land use type, and agricultural management practices on the amount of total phosphorus (TP) discharged. TP loadings generated at the farm level, reaching the nearby streams, and attenuated to the sub-basin outlet from all sources within the sub-basin, were estimated at 106.4, 91, and 85 mtons yr(-)(1), respectively. Almost 95% of the TP loadings reaching the nearby streams were attributed to agriculture sources, and only 1.2% originated from urban areas, accounting for a combined TP load of 87.9 mtons yr(-)(1). In order to compare a Least-Cost Abatement approach to a Command-and-Control approach, the most cost effective cap of 30% TP reduction was selected, and the individual allocation was set at a TP load target of 1.6 kg ha(-1) yr(-1) (at the nearby stream level). The Least-Cost Abatement approach generated a potential cost savings of 27% ($1.3 million per year), based on an optimal credit price of $179. Dairies (major buyer), ornamentals, row crops, and sod farms were identified as potential credit buyers, whereas citrus, improved pastures (major seller), and urban areas were identified as potential credit sellers. Almost 81% of the TP credits available for trading were exchanged. The methodology presented here can be adapted to deal with different forms of trading sources, contaminants, or other technologies and management practices. PMID:24907668

  7. Comparative analysis of integrated water resources management models and instruments in South America: case studies in Brazil and Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel dos Santos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Brazil and Colombia are rich in terms of water supply, ranking as world leaders in the supply of water resources. Despite this, both countries have problems of relative scarcity of this vital liquid in highly populated areas with much economic activity. Establishing policies and legal environmental standards has long tradition in both countries. However, although there are provisions and instruments for water management at the water basin level, these do not necessarily follow the conceptual development of integrated water resources management (IWRM. As a result, the two countries have partially implemented IWRM elements but with different characteristics both in its structure and instrumentality. In Colombia the State Government, through the Regional Environmental Corporations, implements IWRM (concessions, fee for water use, pollution rate, basin plans, etc, with no formal involvement of civil society management. In Brazil, however, IWRM management structure and tools are decentralized and participatory, as are the Water Basin Committees, entities where the State Government, municipalities and users participate, those with the greatest weight in water management. In Brazil, however, this model is not yet implemented in all watersheds. Thus, the aim of this paper is to compare the institutional and legal aspects of water management models in Brazil and Colombia with regard to the integrated water management concept. For the latter, we worked with a case study for each country regarding Nima River watershed (Colombia and Tietê Jacaré (Brazil.

  8. Immigrant America: A Portrait

    OpenAIRE

    Rumbaut, RG; Portes, A.

    2014-01-01

    This revised, updated, and expanded fourth edition of Immigrant America: A Portrait provides readers with a comprehensive and current overview of immigration to the United States in a single volume. Updated with the latest available data, Immigrant America explores the economic, political, spatial, and linguistic aspects of immigration; the role of religion in the acculturation and social integration of foreign minorities; and the adaptation process for the second generation. This revised ed...

  9. Mathematical Model and Programming in VBA Excel for Package Calculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Daniel Reis Lessa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The industrial logistics is a fundamental pillar for the survival of companies in the actual increasingly competitive market. It is not exclusively about controlling the flow of external material between suppliers and the company, but for developing a detailed study of how to plan, control, handle and package those materials as well. Logistics activities must ensure the maximum efficiency in using corporate resources once they do not add value to the final product. The creation of a logistic plan, for each piece of the company’s production, has to adapt the demand parameters, seasonal or not, in the timeline. Thus, the definition of packaging (transportation and consumption must adjust in accordance with the demand, in order to allow the logistic planning to work, constantly, with order of economy batches. The packaging calculation for each part in every demand can become well complicated due to the large amount of parts in the production process. Automating the calculation process for choosing the right package for each piece is an effective method in logistics planning. This article will expose a simple and practical mathematical model for automating the packaging calculation and a logic program, created in Visual Basic language in the Excel software, used for creating graphic designs that show how the packages are being filled.

  10. Modelling and Analysis of Real Time Systems with Logic Programming and Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banda, Gourinath

    by a compiler. To facilitate forward and backward reasoning, two different ways to model an LHA are defined. A framework consist- ing of general purpose constraint logic program tools is presented to accomplish the reachability analysis to verify a class of safety and liveness properties. A tool to compute...... to verify the reactive behaviour of concur- rent systems. Computation Tree Logic (CTL) is a temporal property specification language. Logic programming is a general purpose programming language based on predicate logic. In this dissertation, the LHA models are verified by encoding them as con- straint logic...... programs. The constraint logic program (CLP) encoding an LHA model is first specialised and then a concrete minimal model (or possibly an ab- stract minimal model) for the residual program is computed. The abstract minimal model is computed by applying the theory of abstract interpretation. The com- puted...

  11. Forecast of criticality experiments and experimental programs needed to support nuclear operations in the United States of America: 1994-1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Forecast is generated by the Chair of the Experiment Needs Identification Workgroup (ENIWG), with input from Department of Energy and the nuclear community. One of the current concerns addressed by ENIWG was the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board's Recommendation 93-2. This Recommendation delineated the need for a critical experimental capability, which includes (1) a program of general-purpose experiments, (2) improving the information base, and (3) ongoing departmental programs. The nuclear community also recognizes the importance of criticality theory, which, as a stepping stone to computational analysis and safety code development, needs to be benchmarked against well-characterized critical experiments. A summary projection of the Department's needs with respect to criticality information includes (1) hands-on training, (2) criticality and nuclear data, (3) detector systems, (4) uranium- and plutonium-based reactors, and (5) accident analysis. The Workgroup has evaluated, prioritized, and categorized each proposed experiment and program. Transportation/Applications is a new category intended to cover the areas of storage, training, emergency response, and standards. This category has the highest number of priority-1 experiments (nine). Facilities capable of performing experiments include the Los Alamos Critical Experiment Facility (LACEF) along with Area V at Sandia National Laboratory. The LACEF continues to house the most significant collection of critical assemblies in the Western Hemisphere. The staff of this facility and Area V are trained and certified, and documentation is current. ENIWG will continue to work with the nuclear community to identify and prioritize experiments because there is an overwhelming need for critical experiments to be performed for basic research and code validation

  12. Forecast of criticality experiments and experimental programs needed to support nuclear operations in the United States of America: 1994--1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutherford, D.

    1994-03-01

    This Forecast is generated by the Chair of the Experiment Needs Identification Workgroup (ENIWG), with input from Department of Energy and the nuclear community. One of the current concerns addressed by ENIWG was the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board`s Recommendation 93-2. This Recommendation delineated the need for a critical experimental capability, which includes (1) a program of general-purpose experiments, (2) improving the information base, and (3) ongoing departmental programs. The nuclear community also recognizes the importance of criticality theory, which, as a stepping stone to computational analysis and safety code development, needs to be benchmarked against well-characterized critical experiments. A summary project of the Department`s needs with respect to criticality information includes (1) hands-on training, (2) criticality and nuclear data, (3) detector systems, (4) uranium- and plutonium-based reactors, and (5) accident analysis. The Workgroup has evaluated, prioritized, and categorized each proposed experiment and program. Transportation/Applications is a new category intended to cover the areas of storage, training, emergency response, and standards. This category has the highest number of priority-1 experiments (nine). Facilities capable of performing experiments include the Los Alamos Critical Experiment Facility (LACEF) along with Area V at Sandia National Laboratory. The LACEF continues to house the most significant collection of critical assemblies in the Western Hemisphere. The staff of this facility and Area V are trained and certified, and documentation is current. ENIWG will continue to work with the nuclear community to identify and prioritize experiments because there is an overwhelming need for critical experiments to be performed for basic research and code validation.

  13. Forecast of criticality experiments and experimental programs needed to support nuclear operations in the United States of America: 1994--1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Forecast is generated by the Chair of the Experiment Needs Identification Workgroup (ENIWG), with input from Department of Energy and the nuclear community. One of the current concerns addressed by ENIWG was the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board's Recommendation 93-2. This Recommendation delineated the need for a critical experimental capability, which includes (1) a program of general-purpose experiments, (2) improving the information base, and (3) ongoing departmental programs. The nuclear community also recognizes the importance of criticality theory, which, as a stepping stone to computational analysis and safety code development, needs to be benchmarked against well-characterized critical experiments. A summary project of the Department's needs with respect to criticality information includes (1) hands-on training, (2) criticality and nuclear data, (3) detector systems, (4) uranium- and plutonium-based reactors, and (5) accident analysis. The Workgroup has evaluated, prioritized, and categorized each proposed experiment and program. Transportation/Applications is a new category intended to cover the areas of storage, training, emergency response, and standards. This category has the highest number of priority-1 experiments (nine). Facilities capable of performing experiments include the Los Alamos Critical Experiment Facility (LACEF) along with Area V at Sandia National Laboratory. The LACEF continues to house the most significant collection of critical assemblies in the Western Hemisphere. The staff of this facility and Area V are trained and certified, and documentation is current. ENIWG will continue to work with the nuclear community to identify and prioritize experiments because there is an overwhelming need for critical experiments to be performed for basic research and code validation

  14. Investigation of Multi-decadal Trends in Aerosol Direct Radiative Effects over North America using a Coupled Meteorology-Chemistry Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, R.; Pleim, J.; Wong, D.; Wei, C.; Xing, J.; Gan, M.; Yu, S.; Binkowski, F.

    2012-12-01

    While aerosol radiative effects have been recognized as some of the largest sources of uncertainty among the forcers of climate change, there has been little effort devoted to verification of the spatial and temporal variability of the magnitude and directionality of aerosol radiative forcing. A comprehensive investigation of the processes regulating aerosol distributions, their optical properties, and their radiative effects and verification of their simulated effects for past conditions relative to measurements is needed in order to build confidence in the estimates of the projected impacts arising from changes in both anthropogenic forcing and climate change. This study aims at addressing this issue through a systematic investigation of changes in anthropogenic emissions of SO2 and NOx over the past two decades in the United States, their impacts on anthropogenic aerosol loading in the North American troposphere, and subsequent impacts on regional radiation budgets. A newly developed 2-way coupled meteorology and air pollution model composed of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model is being run for 20 years (1990 - 2010) on a 12 km resolution grid that covers most of North America including the entire conterminous US. During this period US emissions of SO2 and NOx have been reduced by about 66% and 50%, respectively, mainly due to Title IV of the U.S. Clean Air Act Amendments (CAA) that aimed to reduce emissions that contribute to acid deposition. A methodology is developed to consistently estimate emission inventories for the 20-year period accounting for air quality regulations as well as population trends, economic conditions, and technology changes in motor vehicles and electric power generation. The coupled WRF-CMAQ model includes detailed treatment of direct effects of aerosols on photolysis rates as well as on shortwave radiation and the direct effects of tropospheric ozone on the long

  15. Faculty Development Program Models to Advance Teaching and Learning Within Health Science Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Lancaster, Jason W.; Stein, Susan M.; MacLean, Linda Garrelts; Van Amburgh, Jenny; Persky, Adam M.

    2014-01-01

    Within health science programs there has been a call for more faculty development, particularly for teaching and learning. The primary objectives of this review were to describe the current landscape for faculty development programs for teaching and learning and make recommendations for the implementation of new faculty development programs. A thorough search of the pertinent health science databases was conducted, including the Education Resource Information Center (ERIC), MEDLINE, and EMBAS...

  16. Development models, sustainability and occupational and environmental health in the Americas: neoliberalism versus sustainable theories of development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Moure-Eraso

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the inherent contradiction between competitive capitalism and the pursuing of the "three bottom lines": 1 economic prosperity, 2 environmental quality (including the workplace and 3 social justice. An alternative, genuine, sustainable approach to development; the Integrated Human Ecosystem Approach will be described and contrasted with neoliberal development. The IHE approach was developed by The International Development Research Center of Canada in 2001. In this approach, the triple bottom line is not a simple tool for neoliberal development, but the focus of allocation and management of resources for sustainable development. The acquisition of only state power by governments opposed to neoliberalism is necessary but not sufficient condition to successfully find a human alternative to the market ideology. A road map needs to be developed in which a clear definition of technologies that permit the acquisition and implementation of an alternative ideology to achieve "social power." The IHE model provides developing countries with the basis for that ideology.

  17. Use of a Regional Climate Model to Diagnose Circulation and Surface Climate Controls of Wildfire in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostetler, S. W.; Bartlein, P. J.; Alder, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    We explore monthly North American climate and wildfire relationships through joint analysis of a new wildfire data base and climate simulations that we conducted with the RegCM3 regional climate model. We derived the new data base, which covers 1986-2012, by screening and merging the US FPA-FOD, US NIFC and Canadian CNFDB data guided by an analysis that included the examination of "heavy-tailed" statistical distributions (Pareto and tapered Pareto) in order to maximize the number of combined records while minimizing potential irregularities and noise such as over- and under-reporting and spurious data. We associate area burned from lightning-set wildfires, as registered to the start date of the fires, with the simulated atmospheric circulation and the surface water and energy balances at 50 km over NA and at 15 km for 4 sub-regions of NA. Our 50-km results clearly associate the seasonal cycle and spatial distribution of wildfire in the US and Canada with the seasonal cycle of atmospheric circulation and surface climate, in particular to solar and long-wave radiation and latent and sensible heating. We also use the 50-km model output to diagnose the within-season temporal and spatial characteristics of wildfire (e.g., the Northern Rockies versus the Boreal forest) and the characteristics of individual fire years. Over the 15-km sub-regions, we use composite anomalies of the surface water and energy balances to differentiate the spatial and temporal controls of high- and low-fire years and to assess the role of interannual variability in the fire record

  18. A generalized threading model using integer programming that allows for secondary structure element deletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellrott, Kyle; Guo, Jun-tao; Olman, Victor; Xu, Ying

    2006-01-01

    Integer programming is a combinatorial optimization method that has been successfully applied to the protein threading problem. We seek to expand the model optimized by this technique to allow for a more accurate description of protein threading. We have developed and implemented an expanded model of integer programming that has the capability to model secondary structure element deletion, which was not possible in previous version of integer programming based optimization. PMID:17503397

  19. Soil-transmitted helminthiasis in Latin America and the Caribbean: modelling the determinants, prevalence, population at risk and costs of control at sub-national level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josh Colston

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We present an example of a tool for quantifying the burden, the population in need of intervention and resources need to contribute for the control of soil-transmitted helminth (STH infection at multiple administrative levels for the region of Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC. The tool relies on published STH prevalence data along with data on the distribution of several STH transmission determinants for 12,273 sub-national administrative units in 22 LAC countries taken from national censuses. Data on these determinants was aggregated into a single risk index based on a conceptual framework and the statistical significance of the association between this index and the STH prevalence indicators was tested using simple linear regression. The coefficient and constant from the output of this regression was then put into a regression formula that was applied to the risk index values for all of the administrative units in order to model the estimated prevalence of each STH species. We then combine these estimates with population data, treatment thresholds and unit cost data to calculate total control costs. The model predicts an annual cost for the procurement of preventive chemotherapy of around US$ 1.7 million and a total cost of US$ 47 million for implementing a comprehensive STH control programme targeting an estimated 78.7 million school-aged children according to the WHO guidelines throughout the entirety of the countries included in the study. Considerable savings to this cost could potentially be made by embedding STH control interventions within existing health programmes and systems. A study of this scope is prone to many limitations which restrict the interpretation of the results and the uses to which its findings may be put. We discuss several of these limitations.

  20. Building America Top Innovations 2013 Profile – Zero Energy-Ready Single-Family Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-09-01

    Building homes that are zero energy-ready is a goal of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America program and one embodied in Building America’s premier home certification program, the Challenge Home program. This case study describes several examples of successful zero energy-ready home projects completed by Building America teams and partner builders.

  1. Thermal models of buildings. Determination of temperatures, heating and cooling loads. Theories, models and computer programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaellblad, K.

    1998-05-01

    The need to estimate indoor temperatures, heating or cooling load and energy requirements for buildings arises in many stages of a buildings life cycle, e.g. at the early layout stage, during the design of a building and for energy retrofitting planning. Other purposes are to meet the authorities requirements given in building codes. All these situations require good calculation methods. The main purpose of this report is to present the authors work with problems related to thermal models and calculation methods for determination of temperatures and heating or cooling loads in buildings. Thus the major part of the report deals with treatment of solar radiation in glazing systems, shading of solar and sky radiation and the computer program JULOTTA used to simulate the thermal behavior of rooms and buildings. Other parts of thermal models of buildings are more briefly discussed and included in order to give an overview of existing problems and available solutions. A brief presentation of how thermal models can be built up is also given and it is a hope that the report can be useful as an introduction to this part of building physics as well as during development of calculation methods and computer programs. The report may also serve as a help for the users of energy related programs. Independent of which method or program a user choose to work with it is his or her own responsibility to understand the limits of the tool, else wrong conclusions may be drawn from the results 52 refs, 22 figs, 4 tabs

  2. Application of Species Distribution Modeling for Avian Influenza surveillance in the United States considering the North America Migratory Flyways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkhiria, Jaber; Alkhamis, Moh A.; Martínez-López, Beatriz

    2016-09-01

    Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) has recently (2014–2015) re-emerged in the United States (US) causing the largest outbreak in US history with 232 outbreaks and an estimated economic impact of $950 million. This study proposes to use suitability maps for Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza (LPAI) to identify areas at high risk for HPAI outbreaks. LPAI suitability maps were based on wild bird demographics, LPAI surveillance, and poultry density in combination with environmental, climatic, and socio-economic risk factors. Species distribution modeling was used to produce high-resolution (cell size: 500m x 500m) maps for Avian Influenza (AI) suitability in each of the four North American migratory flyways (NAMF). Results reveal that AI suitability is heterogeneously distributed throughout the US with higher suitability in specific zones of the Midwest and coastal areas. The resultant suitability maps adequately predicted most of the HPAI outbreak areas during the 2014–2015 epidemic in the US (i.e. 89% of HPAI outbreaks were located in areas identified as highly suitable for LPAI). Results are potentially useful for poultry producers and stakeholders in designing risk-based surveillance, outreach and intervention strategies to better prevent and control future HPAI outbreaks in the US.

  3. Application of Species Distribution Modeling for Avian Influenza surveillance in the United States considering the North America Migratory Flyways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkhiria, Jaber; Alkhamis, Moh A.; Martínez-López, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) has recently (2014–2015) re-emerged in the United States (US) causing the largest outbreak in US history with 232 outbreaks and an estimated economic impact of $950 million. This study proposes to use suitability maps for Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza (LPAI) to identify areas at high risk for HPAI outbreaks. LPAI suitability maps were based on wild bird demographics, LPAI surveillance, and poultry density in combination with environmental, climatic, and socio-economic risk factors. Species distribution modeling was used to produce high-resolution (cell size: 500m x 500m) maps for Avian Influenza (AI) suitability in each of the four North American migratory flyways (NAMF). Results reveal that AI suitability is heterogeneously distributed throughout the US with higher suitability in specific zones of the Midwest and coastal areas. The resultant suitability maps adequately predicted most of the HPAI outbreak areas during the 2014–2015 epidemic in the US (i.e. 89% of HPAI outbreaks were located in areas identified as highly suitable for LPAI). Results are potentially useful for poultry producers and stakeholders in designing risk-based surveillance, outreach and intervention strategies to better prevent and control future HPAI outbreaks in the US. PMID:27624404

  4. Knowledge representation and rule-based solution system for dynamic programming model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡祥培; 王旭茵

    2003-01-01

    A knowledge representation has been proposed using the state-space theory of Artificial Intelligencefor Dynamic Programming Model, in which a model can be defined as a six-tuple M = (I,G,O,T,D,S). Abuilding block modeling method uses the modules of a six-tuple to form a rule-based solution model. Moreover,a rule-based system has been designed and set up to solve the Dynamic Programming Model. This knowledge-based representation can be easily used to express symbolical knowledge and dynamic characteristics for Dynam-ic Programming Model, and the inference based on the knowledge in the process of solving Dynamic Program-ming Model can also be conveniently realized in computer.

  5. 75 FR 29555 - Medicare Program; Medicare Coverage Gap Discount Program Model Manufacturer Agreement and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services RIN 0938-AQ04 Medicare Program; Medicare... Meeting AGENCY: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), HHS. ACTION: Notice with comment period... manufacturers under the Medicare Coverage Gap Discount Program established by section 3301 of the...

  6. Navajo-ABLE: Replication Model Navajo Assistive Technology Loan Program. Final Program Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Katie Jebb

    This final report discusses the activities and outcomes of the Navajo Assistive Bank of Loanable Equipment (Navajo-ABLE), a federally funded program designed to provide assistive technology (AT) devices, services, technical information, funding information, and training for Navajo children and youth with disabilities. The program was operated and…

  7. Improvements in precipitation simulation over South America for past and future climates via multi-model combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Maytê Duarte Leal; Lima, Kellen Carla; Santos e Silva, Cláudio Moisés

    2016-09-01

    Combining individual forecasts is one of the practices used to improve weather prediction results. Identifying which combination of techniques results in a more accurate forecast is the subject of many comparative studies as well proposals for combined methods. Here we compare three combination techniques: (1) principal component regression (PCR), (2) convex combination by mean squared errors (MSE) and (3) ensemble average to combine six regional climate models of the Regional Climate Change Assessment for the La Plata Basin Project (CLARIS-LPB) for variable rainfall in three regions: Amazon (AMZ), Northeastern Brazil (NEB) and La Plata Basin (LPB), for the past (1961-1990) and future (2071-2100) climates. The results indicate that the average RMSE values showed improved representation of climate for LPB in some months, which is an important advance in climate studies. On the other hand, PCR presented greater accuracy (lower RMSE) than MSE in the AMZ and NEB regions. In winter months, both combinations presented lower RMSE results, mainly PCR in the three study regions. The correlation coefficient supports the results already found, namely, PCR obtained moderate to strong correlations, which were statistically significant at 5 % in both regions for all months, while MSE presented low to moderate correlations, which were statically significant at 5 % only in some months. Based on that, PCR achieved the best corrected forecast, as it was superior in forecasting precipitation due to the lower RMSE value. It is noteworthy that the PCR data were first subjected to principal component analysis (PCA) and the scores were used to perform the prediction.

  8. Workshare Process of Thread Programming and MPI Model on Multicore Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Refianti

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Comparison between OpenMP for thread programming model and MPI for message passing programming model will be conducted on multicore shared memory machine architectures in order to find which has a better performance in terms of speed and throughput. Application used to assess the scalability of the evaluated parallel programming solutions is matrix multiplication with customizable matrix dimension. Many research done on a large scale parallel computing which using high scale benchmark such as NSA Parallel Benchmark (NPB for their testing standardization [2]. This research will be conducted on a small scale parallel computing that emphasize more on the performance evaluation between MPI and OpenMP parallel programming model using self created benchmark. It also describes how workshare processes done on different parallel programming model. It gives comparative result between message passing and shared memory programming model in runtime and amount of throughput. Testing methodology also simple and has high usability on the available resources.

  9. Support for Programming Models in Network-on-Chip-based Many-core Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten Sleth

    This thesis addresses aspects of support for programming models in Network-on- Chip-based many-core architectures. The main focus is to consider architectural support for a plethora of programming models in a single system. The thesis has three main parts. The first part considers parallelization...... and scalability in an image processing application with the aim of providing insight into parallel programming issues. The second part proposes and presents the tile-based Clupea many-core architecture, which has the objective of providing configurable support for programming models to allow different programming...... models to be supported by a single architecture. The architecture features a specialized network interface processor which allows extensive configurability of the memory system. Based on this architecture, a detailed implementation of the cache coherent shared memory programming model is presented...

  10. Symbolic Game Semantics for Model Checking Program Families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimovski, Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    . In this paper, we propose an efficient game semantics based approach for verifying open program families, i.e. program families with free (undefined) identifiers. We use symbolic representation of algorithmic game semantics, where concrete values are replaced with symbolic ones. In this way, we can compactly...

  11. Marketing Study Abroad Programs: A Student Recruitment Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukosius, Vaidas; Festervand, Troy A.

    2013-01-01

    The number of American students studying abroad increases every year. That might suggest that recruiting students to participate in such an educational opportunity would present little difficulty. On the contrary, as domestic student participation in such programs has risen, so has the number of competing programs. Thus, the viability of any study…

  12. Supporting Universal Prevention Programs: A Two-Phased Coaching Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Kimberly D.; Darney, Dana; Domitrovich, Celene; Keperling, Jennifer Pitchford; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2013-01-01

    Schools are adopting evidence-based programs designed to enhance students' emotional and behavioral competencies at increasing rates (Hemmeter et al. in "Early Child Res Q" 26:96-109, 2011). At the same time, teachers express the need for increased support surrounding implementation of these evidence-based programs (Carter and Van Norman in "Early…

  13. Workforce Education Models for K-12 STEM Education Programs: Reflections on, and Implications for, the NSF ITEST Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reider, David; Knestis, Kirk; Malyn-Smith, Joyce

    2016-07-01

    This article proposes a STEM workforce education logic model, tailored to the particular context of the National Science Foundation's Innovative Technology Experiences for Students and Teachers (ITEST) program. This model aims to help program designers and researchers address challenges particular to designing, implementing, and studying education innovations in the ITEST program, considering ongoing needs and challenges in STEM workforce education in the USA. It is grounded in conceptual frameworks developed previously by teams of ITEST constituents, for their part intended to frame STEM career education, consider how people select and prepare for STEM careers, and reinforce the important distinction between STEM content and STEM career learnings. The authors take a first step in what they hope will be an ongoing discussion and research agenda by test-fitting assumptions of the model to exploratory case studies of recent NSF ITEST projects. Brief implications for future research and other considerations are provided.

  14. Curriculum innovation in an accelerated BSN program: the ACE Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suplee, Patricia D; Glasgow, Mary Ellen

    2008-01-01

    As the demand for registered nurses continues to rise, so too has the creation of accelerated baccalaureate nursing programs for second-degree students. This article describes an 11-month Accelerated Career Entry (ACE) Nursing Program's innovative curriculum design, which has a heavy emphasis on technology, professional socialization, and the use of a standardized patient experience as a form of summative evaluation. In addition, challenges of this program are presented. Since 2002, the ACE Program has graduated over 500 students with an average first-time NCLEX pass rate of 95-100%. Although the number of graduates from accelerated programs does not solve the severe nursing shortage, the contributions of these intelligent, assertive, pioneering graduates are important for health care.

  15. The Teach for America RockCorps, Year 1: Turning Authentic Research Experiences in Geophysics for STEM Teachers into Modeling Instruction™ in High School Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, D. R., Jr.; Neubauer, H.; Barber, T. J.; Griffith, W. A.

    2015-12-01

    National reform efforts such as the Next Generation Science Standards, Modeling Instruction™, and Project Lead the Way (PLTW) seek to more closely align K-12 students' STEM learning experiences with the practices of scientific and engineering inquiry. These reform efforts aim to lead students toward deeper understandings constructed through authentic scientific and engineering inquiry in classrooms, particularly via model building and testing, more closely mirroring the professional practice of scientists and engineers, whereas traditional instructional approaches have typically been lecture-driven. In this vein, we describe the approach taken in the first year of the Teach for America (TFA) RockCorps, a five-year, NSF-sponsored project designed to provide authentic research experiences for secondary teachers and foster the development of Geophysics-themed teaching materials through cooperative lesson plan development and purchase of scientific equipment. Initially, two teachers were selected from the local Dallas-Fort Worth Region of TFA to participate in original research studying the failure of rocks under impulsive loads using a Split-Hopkinson-Pressure Bar (SHPB). For the teachers, this work provides a context from which to derive Geophysics-themed lesson plans for their courses, Physics/Pre-AP and Principles of Engineering (POE), offered at two large public high schools in Dallas ISD. The Physics course will incorporate principles of seismic wave propagation to allow students to develop a model of wave behavior, including velocity, refraction, and resonance, and apply the model to predict propagation properties of a variety of waves through multiple media. For the PLTW POE course, tension and compression testing of a variety of rock samples will be incorporated into materials properties and testing units. Also, a project will give a group of seniors in the PLTW Engineering Design and Development course at this certified NAF Academy of Engineering the

  16. Higher Education Program Curricula Models in Tourism and Hospitality Education: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotland, Miriam

    2006-01-01

    The relevancy of program curricula in tourism and hospitality education has been called into question by key stakeholders in light of ongoing changes in the multifaceted tourism and hospitality industry. Various program models have been identified. Program content and quality of student preparedness have been debated. Balance and areas of emphasis…

  17. Pequenitos en Accion. Edgewood ISD Model Program for 3-Year-Olds Replication Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partnership for Hope, Inc., San Antonio, TX.

    This guide describes "Pequenitos en Accion" (Small Children in Action), the Edgewood (Texas) Independent School District (ISD) early childhood intervention program for Spanish-speaking 3-year-old preschool children. The program is an innovative early childhood education model involving educational programming, collaboration and integration with…

  18. Comparison of Semantics of Disjunctive Logic Programs Based on Model-Equivalent Reduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi-Shun Zhao; Yu-Ping Shen

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, it is shown that stable model semantics, perfect model semantics, and partial stable model semantics of disjunctive logic programs have the same expressive power with respect to the polynomial-time model-equivalent reduction. That is, taking perfect model semantics and stable model semantic as an example, any logic program P can be transformed in polynomial time to another logic program p' such that perfect models (resp. stable models) of P 1-1 correspond to stable models (resp. perfect models) of P', and the correspondence can be computed also in polynomial time. However, the minimal model semantics has weaker expressiveness than other mentioned semantics, otherwise, the polynomial hierarchy would collapse to NP.

  19. Effects of Using Model Robots in the Education of Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila PÁSZTOR

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article we try to show how new devices and methods can help in the educationof programming. At Kecskemét College programmable mobile robots and instead of behavioral,the constructivist pedagogical methods were used. Our experiments have proved our hypothesisas the improved new methodical education using devices can give more practical programmingknowledge, increases the attitude towards programming and helps to have positive programmingself-image. The results of the experimental and control groups were compared at the beginning andat the end of semester, when the programming knowledge and motives were measured. During thelearning process only the experimental groups used devices and new methods.

  20. The ribbon continent of northwestern South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altamira-Areyan, Armando

    The tectonic structure of the Plate Boundary Zone (PBZ) between the Caribbean Plate (CARIB) and the South American Plate (SOAM) is interpreted using models that require CARIB motion from the Pacific into the Atlantic. Those models can be subdivided into: (1) those in which the island arc rocks that are now in the CARIB-SOAM PBZ have collided with the northern South America margin, either obliquely or directly during the Cretaceous or during the Cenozoic, and (2) those in which the island arc rocks now in the CARIB-SOAM PBZ collided with the west coast of South America during the Cretaceous and were transferred to the northern margin by transform motion during the Cenozoic. Magnetic anomalies were first rotated in the Central and South Atlantic, holding Africa fixed to establish how much NOAM had converged on SOAM during the Cenozoic. WSW convergence was discovered to have been accommodated in the northern boundary of the CARIB. There is no evidence of convergence in the form of Cenozoic island arc igneous rocks on the north coast of South America. Those results are consistent only with models of Class (2) that call for transform movement of material that had collided with the west coast of South America along the CARIB-SOAM PBZ on the northern margin of South America. 40Ar/39Ar ages of island arc rocks from northern Venezuela were found to be older than ca 70 Ma, which is consistent with a requirement of models of Class (2) that those rocks are from an island arc which collided with the west coast of South America during Cretaceous times. Testing that conclusion using data from Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela, the Netherlands Antilles, Trinidad and Tobago has led to the construction of a new ribbon continent model of the northwestern Cordillera of South America. Because the part of the ribbon continent on the north coast of South America has been experiencing substantial deformation in the Maracaibo block during the past 10 m.y., structures in that body have had to be

  1. LDA-Based Unified Topic Modeling for Similar TV User Grouping and TV Program Recommendation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyo, Shinjee; Kim, Eunhui; Kim, Munchurl

    2015-08-01

    Social TV is a social media service via TV and social networks through which TV users exchange their experiences about TV programs that they are viewing. For social TV service, two technical aspects are envisioned: grouping of similar TV users to create social TV communities and recommending TV programs based on group and personal interests for personalizing TV. In this paper, we propose a unified topic model based on grouping of similar TV users and recommending TV programs as a social TV service. The proposed unified topic model employs two latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) models. One is a topic model of TV users, and the other is a topic model of the description words for viewed TV programs. The two LDA models are then integrated via a topic proportion parameter for TV programs, which enforces the grouping of similar TV users and associated description words for watched TV programs at the same time in a unified topic modeling framework. The unified model identifies the semantic relation between TV user groups and TV program description word groups so that more meaningful TV program recommendations can be made. The unified topic model also overcomes an item ramp-up problem such that new TV programs can be reliably recommended to TV users. Furthermore, from the topic model of TV users, TV users with similar tastes can be grouped as topics, which can then be recommended as social TV communities. To verify our proposed method of unified topic-modeling-based TV user grouping and TV program recommendation for social TV services, in our experiments, we used real TV viewing history data and electronic program guide data from a seven-month period collected by a TV poll agency. The experimental results show that the proposed unified topic model yields an average 81.4% precision for 50 topics in TV program recommendation and its performance is an average of 6.5% higher than that of the topic model of TV users only. For TV user prediction with new TV programs, the average

  2. LDA-Based Unified Topic Modeling for Similar TV User Grouping and TV Program Recommendation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyo, Shinjee; Kim, Eunhui; Kim, Munchurl

    2015-08-01

    Social TV is a social media service via TV and social networks through which TV users exchange their experiences about TV programs that they are viewing. For social TV service, two technical aspects are envisioned: grouping of similar TV users to create social TV communities and recommending TV programs based on group and personal interests for personalizing TV. In this paper, we propose a unified topic model based on grouping of similar TV users and recommending TV programs as a social TV service. The proposed unified topic model employs two latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) models. One is a topic model of TV users, and the other is a topic model of the description words for viewed TV programs. The two LDA models are then integrated via a topic proportion parameter for TV programs, which enforces the grouping of similar TV users and associated description words for watched TV programs at the same time in a unified topic modeling framework. The unified model identifies the semantic relation between TV user groups and TV program description word groups so that more meaningful TV program recommendations can be made. The unified topic model also overcomes an item ramp-up problem such that new TV programs can be reliably recommended to TV users. Furthermore, from the topic model of TV users, TV users with similar tastes can be grouped as topics, which can then be recommended as social TV communities. To verify our proposed method of unified topic-modeling-based TV user grouping and TV program recommendation for social TV services, in our experiments, we used real TV viewing history data and electronic program guide data from a seven-month period collected by a TV poll agency. The experimental results show that the proposed unified topic model yields an average 81.4% precision for 50 topics in TV program recommendation and its performance is an average of 6.5% higher than that of the topic model of TV users only. For TV user prediction with new TV programs, the average

  3. 75 FR 14582 - Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services-Special Demonstration Programs-Model...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-26

    ... Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services--Special Demonstration Programs--Model Demonstration Projects To Improve Outcomes for Individuals Receiving Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI... identify, develop, and implement model demonstration projects to improve outcomes for individuals...

  4. 75 FR 47798 - Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services-Special Demonstration Programs-Model...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-09

    ... Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services--Special Demonstration Programs--Model Demonstration Project To Improve Outcomes for Individuals Receiving Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI..., develop, and implement a model demonstration project to improve outcomes for individuals receiving...

  5. The Development and Evaluation of the Parents as Teachers Program in America%美国“父母即教师”项目(PAT)的发展及效果评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨启光; 孙玉丽

    2012-01-01

    20世纪以来,美国社会的急剧变化使家庭系统面临巨大的压力并引发一系列社会问题,致使美国开始开展增加家庭教育的知识与技能、预防和减少家庭危机的系列研究与实践。以美国密苏里州为代表的“父母即教师”项目(Parents As Teachers Program,PAT),关注孩子在校园的表现与家长参与的互动关系,通过丰富的项目研究实践来提高家长的教育水平,有力地促进了家长有效参与到孩子的发展中去。美国各州普遍实践的“父母即教师”项目的评估表明,参加该项目的父母在育儿技巧、参与的程度与质量方面有显著提升;孩子在认知与入学适应能力等方面也有明显提高。该项目尤其是对贫穷家庭的孩子和非白人家庭的孩子影响更大。%Since the 20th century, because of the rapid social changes in the United States and other western countries, the family system is facing huge pressure and causing a series of social problems. As a result, they began to carry out some research practices on increasing family education knowledge and skills, preventing and reducing family crisis. As one of the early intervention programs in Missouri, the parents as teachers program pays attention to children' s performance in school and parents' participation. It aims at improving educational level of parents through abundant research projects, promoting parents to be involved in children's development. The parents as teachers program has become a universal practice in 50 states in America and other countries. The evaluation of the program shows that the parents involved in it have a significant improvement in parenting skills, quality and level of participation. For children, their cognition and entrance adaptability have increased significantly, especially for those from poor and the non-white families.

  6. An OpenACC-Based Unified Programming Model for Multi-accelerator Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jungwon [ORNL; Lee, Seyong [ORNL; Vetter, Jeffrey S [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel SPMD programming model of OpenACC. Our model integrates the different granularities of parallelism from vector-level parallelism to node-level parallelism into a single, unified model based on OpenACC. It allows programmers to write programs for multiple accelerators using a uniform programming model whether they are in shared or distributed memory systems. We implement a prototype of our model and evaluate its performance with a GPU-based supercomputer using three benchmark applications.

  7. Social Security privatization in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritzer, B E

    2000-01-01

    The new, partially privatized social security system adopted by Chile in 1981 has attracted attention in many parts of the world. Since then, a number of Latin American countries have implemented the Chilean model, with some variations: either with a single- or multi-tier system, or with a period of transition to take care of those in the labor force at the time of the change. The single-tier version consists of a privatized program with individual accounts in pension fund management companies. Multi-tier systems have a privatized component and retain some form of public program. This article describes each of the new programs in Latin America, their background, and similarities and differences among them. Much more information is available for Chile than for the other countries (in part because Chile has the oldest system), enough to be able to evaluate what, in most cases, is the most accurate information. That is often not the case for the other countries, especially when dealing with subjects such as transition costs and net rates of return (rates of return minus administrative fees). No country has copied the Chilean system exactly. Bolivia, El Salvador, and Mexico have closed their public systems and set up mandatory individual accounts. Argentina has a mixed public/private system with three tiers. In Colombia and Peru, workers have a choice between the public and private programs. Uruguay created a two-tier mixed system. Costa Rica has a voluntary program for individual accounts as a supplement to the pay-as-you-go program and has just passed a law setting up mandatory accounts containing employer contributions for severance pay. All of the countries continue to face unresolved issues, including: High rates of noncompliance--the percentage of enrollees who do not actively and regularly contribute to their accounts--which could lead to low benefits and greater costs to the governments that offer a guaranteed minimum benefit; Proportionately lower benefits for

  8. The Displacement Effect of Labour-Market Programs: Estimates from the MONASH Model

    OpenAIRE

    Dixon, Peter B.; Maureen T. Rimmer

    2005-01-01

    A key question concerning labour-market programs is the extent to which they generate jobs for their target group at the expense of others. This effect is measured by displacement percentages. We describe a version of the MONASH model designed to quantify the effects of labour-market programs. Our simulation results suggests that: (1) labour-market programs can generate significant long-run increases in employment; (2) displacement percentages depend on how a labour-market program affects the...

  9. PEMILIHAN PROGRAM PENGENTASAN KEMISKINAN MELALUI PENGEMBANGAN MODEL PEMBERDAYAAN MASYARAKAT DENGAN PENDEKATAN SISTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Sutikno Sutikno; Eddy Setiadi Soedjono; Agnes Tuti Rumiati; Lantip Trisunarno

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to compile the programs for poverty alleviation by community empowerment model and review the determination program as effectiveness evaluation poverty alleviation program which still can’t be worked properly. Stages the compiling program of poverty alleviation is mapping the socioeconomic conditions of the poor, basic infrastructure conditions, socio-cultural issues, and potential issues; identifying the hopes and predicting the economic development opportunities; creating...

  10. Non-linear nuclear engineering models as genetic programming application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents a Genetic Programming paradigm and a nuclear application. A field of Artificial Intelligence, based on the concepts of Species Evolution and Natural Selection, can be understood as a self-programming process where the computer is the main agent responsible for the discovery of a program able to solve a given problem. In the present case, the problem was to find a mathematical expression in symbolic form, able to express the existent relation between equivalent ratio of a fuel cell, the enrichment of fuel elements and the multiplication factor. Such expression would avoid repeatedly reactor physics codes execution for core optimization. The results were compared with those obtained by different techniques such as Neural Networks and Linear Multiple Regression. Genetic Programming has shown to present a performance as good as, and under some features superior to Neural Network and Linear Multiple Regression. (author). 10 refs., 8 figs., 1 tabs

  11. Vouchers for Day Care of Children: Evaluating a Program Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Michael D.

    1989-01-01

    Examined effects of a pilot voucher program on the price, supply, and quality of day care. Findings offered no conclusive evidence concerning expected benefits. Discusses vouchers' potential for easing the day care crisis. (RJC)

  12. A Model of Women Literacy Preservation through Koran Ibu Program

    OpenAIRE

    Ikka Kartika Abbas Fauzi

    2016-01-01

    The effect of literacy education is often disappointing, because many participants do not practice their literacy so that it becomes dull. Government has done efforts to preserve literariness through Koran Ibu program. This program is an effort to improve women literacy which is implemented after basic and advanced literacy education through the activity of journalism. The research focus is the improvement of literacy ability of women through Koran Ibu using with case study method. The resear...

  13. A Model for Bank’s Optimal Asset Securitization Program

    OpenAIRE

    Masahiko Egami; Kaoru Hosono

    2010-01-01

    We propose a framework to examine banks’ asset securitization program. It provides a comprehensive view that explains various separate findings and claims in the literature. We derive optimal timing and quantity of banks’ asset securitization by explicitly incorporating stochastic asset returns and leverage constraints. We also quantify how much additional value can be created by asset securitization program, which gives some insights into why banks securitize assets. We further conduct some ...

  14. Modeling Large sound sources in a room acoustical calculation program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus Lynge

    1999-01-01

    A room acoustical model capable of modelling point, line and surface sources is presented. Line and surface sources are modelled using a special ray-tracing algorithm detecting the radiation pattern of the surfaces in the room. Point sources are modelled using a hybrid calculation method combining...... this ray-tracing method with Image source modelling. With these three source types, it is possible to model large and complex sound sources in workrooms....

  15. A model technology transfer program for independent operators: Kansas Technology Transfer Model (KTTM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoeling, L.G.

    1993-09-01

    This report describes the development and testing of the Kansas Technology Transfer Model (KTTM) which is to be utilized as a regional model for the development of other technology transfer programs for independent operators throughout oil-producing regions in the US. It describes the linkage of the regional model with a proposed national technology transfer plan, an evaluation technique for improving and assessing the model, and the methodology which makes it adaptable on a regional basis. The report also describes management concepts helpful in managing a technology transfer program. The original Tertiary Oil Recovery Project (TORP) activities, upon which the KTTM is based, were developed and tested for Kansas and have proved to be effective in assisting independent operators in utilizing technology. Through joint activities of TORP and the Kansas Geological Survey (KGS), the KTTM was developed and documented for application in other oil-producing regions. During the course of developing this model, twelve documents describing the implementation of the KTTM were developed as deliverables to DOE. These include: (1) a problem identification (PI) manual describing the format and results of six PI workshops conducted in different areas of Kansas, (2) three technology workshop participant manuals on advanced waterflooding, reservoir description, and personal computer applications, (3) three technology workshop instructor manuals which provides instructor material for all three workshops, (4) three technologies were documented as demonstration projects which included reservoir management, permeability modification, and utilization of a liquid-level acoustic measuring device, (5) a bibliography of all literature utilized in the documents, and (6) a document which describes the KTTM.

  16. The Impact of the Developmental Training Model on Staff Development in Air Force Child Development Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Candace Maria Edmonds

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to standardize training delivery and to individualize staff development based on observation and reflective practice, the Air Force implemented the Developmental Training Model (DTM) in its Child Development Programs. The goal of the Developmental Training Model is to enhance high quality programs through improvements in the training…

  17. Building a Sustainable Life Science Information Literacy Program Using the Train-the-Trainer Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Patricia; Newhouse, Renae; Perry, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    The train-the-trainer model has great potential for expanding information literacy programs without placing undue burden on already overextended librarians; it is surprisingly underused in academic libraries. At the University of Kentucky, we employed this model to create a new information literacy program in an introductory biology lab. We…

  18. In-space production of large space systems from extraterrestrial materials: A program implementation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vontiesenhausen, G. F.

    1977-01-01

    A program implementation model is presented which covers the in-space construction of certain large space systems from extraterrestrial materials. The model includes descriptions of major program elements and subelements and their operational requirements and technology readiness requirements. It provides a structure for future analysis and development.

  19. THE DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF AN EVALUATION MODEL FOR VOCATIONAL PILOT PROGRAMS. FINAL REPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    TUCKMAN, BRUCE W.

    THE OBJECTIVES OF THE PROJECT WERE (1) TO DEVELOP AN EVALUATION MODEL IN THE FORM OF A HOW-TO-DO-IT MANUAL WHICH OUTLINES PROCEDURES FOR OBTAINING IMMEDIATE INFORMATION REGARDING THE DEGREE TO WHICH A PILOT PROGRAM ACHIEVES ITS STATED FINAL OBJECTIVES, (2) TO EVALUATE THIS MODEL BY USING IT TO EVALUATE TWO ONGOING PILOT PROGRAMS, AND (3) TO…

  20. A model for the design and programming of multi-cores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Jesshope

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a machine/programming model for the era of multi-core chips. It is derived from the sequential model but replaces sequential composition with concurrent composition at all levels in the program except at the level where the compiler is able to make deterministic decisions on sch

  1. Comprehensive Model for Planning and Evaluating Secondary Vocational Education Programs in Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, William L.

    A comprehensive model for planning and evaluating secondary vocational education programs in Georgia was developed to assist the state's vocational supervisors and directors in planning and improving vocational programs so as to make them more effective in enhancing students' basic and employability skills. The model is based on the following…

  2. A numerical approach for optimal control model of the convex semi-infinite programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Rouhparvar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, convex semi-infinite programming is converted to an optimal control model of neural networks and the optimal control model is solved by iterative dynamic programming method. In final, numerical examples are provided for illustration of the purposed method.

  3. Practice Makes Perfect? The Role of Participant Modeling in Sexual Abuse Prevention Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtele, Sandy K.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Assigned 26 kindergarten children to either a sexual abuse prevention program which taught self-protective skills through modeling and active rehearsal (PM) or a program which taught the same skills by having children watch skills modeled by experimenter (SM). Results provide support for greater efficacy of PM relative to SM for learning of…

  4. Workshare Process of Thread Programming and MPI Model on Multicore Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Refianti, R.; Mutiara, A. B.; D.T Hasta

    2011-01-01

    Comparison between OpenMP for thread programming model and MPI for message passing programming model will be conducted on multicore shared memory machine architectures in order to find which has a better performance in terms of speed and throughput. Application used to assess the scalability of the evaluated parallel programming solutions is matrix multiplication with customizable matrix dimension. Many research done on a large scale parallel computing which using high scale benchmark such as...

  5. Using program logic model analysis to evaluate and better deliver what works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a rich history in using program theories and logic models (PT/LM) for evaluation, monitoring, and program refinement in a variety of fields, such as health care, social and education programs. The use of these tools to evaluate and improve energy efficiency programs has been growing over the last 5-7 years. This paper provides an overview of the state-of-the-art methods of logic model development, with analysis that significantly contributed to: Assessing the logic behind how the program expects to be able to meets its ultimate goals, including the 'who', the 'how', and through what mechanism. In doing so, gaps and questions that still need to be addressed can be identified. Identifying and prioritize the indicators that should be measured to evaluate the program and program theory. Determining key researchable questions that need to be answered by evaluation/research, to assess whether the mechanism assumed to cause the changes in actions, attitudes, behaviours, and business practices is workable and efficient. Also will assess the validity in the program logic and the likelihood that the program can accomplish its ultimate goals. Incorporating analysis of prior like programs and social science theories in a framework to identify opportunities for potential program refinements. The paper provides an overview of the tools, techniques and references, and uses as example the energy efficiency program analysis conducted for the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority's (NYSERDA) New York ENERGY $MART SM programs

  6. Modelling Large sound sources in a room acoustical calculation program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus Lynge

    1999-01-01

    A room acoustical model capable of modelling point, line and surface sources is presented. Line and surfacesources are modelled using a special ray-tracing algorithm detecting the radiation pattern of the surfaces in the room.Point sources are modelled using a hybrid calculation method combining...... this ray-tracing method with Image sourcemodelling. With these three source types, it is possible to model large and complex sound sources in workrooms....

  7. Nutritional situation in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-01

    PAHO member countries maintain food and nutrition surveillance systems. The prevalence of malnutrition among children aged 0-4 in Latin American and Caribbean countries ranges from 0.8% in Chile to 38.5% in Guatemala. It is 2.9% in the US. Low height-for-age is most common among children aged 0-4 in Guatemala (57.9%), Bolivia (38.3%), Peru (35.2%), and Ecuador (34%). The interval between observations of malnutrition prevalence ranged from 22 years in Honduras to 3-4 years in Nicaragua and Panama. Overall, there was a downward trend in malnutrition rates in the Americas. Yet, malnutrition is increasing in Guatemala and Panama. Breast feeding, good weaning practices, appropriate feeding during disease episodes, nutrition education, and programs for immunization and control of diarrhea and respiratory diseases account for the downward trend. Anemia rates among pregnant women (=or 11 g Hb/dl) vary from 13% in Asuncion, Paraguay, to 61% in Misiones, Argentina. Those for preschoolers range from 22% to 45% in Brazil and 27% to 53% in Peru. The prevalence of goiter is more than 50% in Merida, Venezuela, and Chameza, Colombia. It differs greatly in different areas within the same country. Most countries have laws requiring iodination of all salt for human consumption, yet violations are common. Certain areas of the countries in the Americas have vitamin A deficiency rates ranging from 5% to 48.8%. Some countries have enacted laws for sugar enrichment with retinol palmitate to reduce vitamin A deficiency. During the 1970s, deaths from chronic diseases related to nutrition increased 105% in South America, 56% in Central America, Mexico, and Panama, and 21% in the Caribbean. Prevalence of obesity among children aged 0-6 varies from 2.2% in Nicaragua and Brazil to 10.7% in Chile. Adult obesity is most common in Uruguay (about 50%). It is more common among females than males. The highest rates among 20-29 year olds are in Chile, Costa Rica, Cuba, and Peru. The US adult obesity

  8. 2014 Building America House Simulation Protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, E. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Engebrecht, C. Metzger [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Horowitz, S. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hendron, R. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-03-01

    As Building America has grown to include a large and diverse cross-section of the home building and retrofit industries, it has become more important to develop accurate, consistent analysis techniques to measure progress towards the program's goals. The House Simulation Protocol (HSP) document provides guidance to program partners and managers so they can compare energy savings for new construction and retrofit projects. The HSP provides the program with analysis methods that are proven to be effective and reliable in investigating the energy use of advanced energy systems and of entire houses.

  9. Model forest program: Year in review, 1993-94. Annual publication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The Model Forest Program was initiated in response to concerns expressed by Canadians about their environment during a nationwide consultative process carried out in 1990. The Program is designed to promote the creation of local partnerships and to encourage these partnerships to formulate and implement their own working vision of sustainable forest management. This document presents developments to date, the Model Forest Network, and models across the country. Information is also included on the International Model Forest Program and Russia joining the Network. A budget for the year and an organizational chart are included.

  10. Program Models A Laser Beam Focused In An Aerosol Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, J. P.

    1996-01-01

    Monte Carlo analysis performed on packets of light. Program for Analysis of Laser Beam Focused Within Aerosol Spray (FLSPRY) developed for theoretical analysis of propagation of laser pulse optically focused within aerosol spray. Applied for example, to analyze laser ignition arrangement in which focused laser pulse used to ignite liquid aerosol fuel spray. Scattering and absorption of laser light by individual aerosol droplets evaluated by use of electromagnetic Lorenz-Mie theory. Written in FORTRAN 77 for both UNIX-based computers and DEC VAX-series computers. VAX version of program (LEW-16051). UNIX version (LEW-16065).

  11. Model Kepemimpinan Modern di Program Pascasarjana Universitas Ahmad Dahlan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Sulisworo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the management of higher education, demand a change can be done effectively when the leadership and management are well developed. In general, internal conflicts in the education management occurred due to poor leadership. This study is a qualitative study with a phenomenological approach. The subject of the study is Graduate Program of University Ahmad Dahlan which manages five master programs. Determination of each of people which considers his/her competence, knowledge, experience and personal attributes will affect to performance and operational leadership roles, organizational, and public. Cross-departmental activities and external parties become a focus for leadership in achieving the vision and mission of the organization.

  12. Modeling huge sound sources in a room acoustical calculation program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus Lynge

    1999-01-01

    A room acoustical model capable of modeling point sources, line sources, and surface sources is presented. Line and surface sources are modeled using a special ray-tracing algorithm detecting the radiation pattern of the surfaces of the room. Point sources are modeled using a hybrid calculation...... method combining this ray-tracing method with image source modeling. With these three source types it is possible to model huge and complex sound sources in industrial environments. Compared to a calculation with only point sources, the use of extended sound sources is shown to improve the agreement with...

  13. Modeling Mathematical Programs with Equilibrium Constraints in Pyomo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, William E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Siirola, John Daniel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-07-01

    We describe new capabilities for modeling MPEC problems within the Pyomo modeling software. These capabilities include new modeling components that represent complementar- ity conditions, modeling transformations for re-expressing models with complementarity con- ditions in other forms, and meta-solvers that apply transformations and numeric optimization solvers to optimize MPEC problems. We illustrate the breadth of Pyomo's modeling capabil- ities for MPEC problems, and we describe how Pyomo's meta-solvers can perform local and global optimization of MPEC problems.

  14. Rebuild America Partner Update, January--February 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    Rebuild America Partner Update, the bimonthly newsletter about the Rebuild America community, covers partnership activities, industry trends, and program news. Rebuild America is a network of community partnerships--made up of local governments and businesses--that save money by saving energy. These voluntary partnerships, working with the US Department of Energy, choose the best ways to improve the energy efficiency of commercial, government and apartment buildings. Rebuild America supports them with business and technical tools and customized assistance. By the year 2003, 250 Rebuild America partnerships will be involved in over 2 billion square feet of building renovations, which will save $650 million every year in energy costs, generate $3 billion in private community investment, create 26,000 new private sector jobs, and reduce air pollution by 1.6 million tons of carbon dioxide a year.

  15. The potential distribution of invading Helicoverpa armigera in North America: is it just a matter of time?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren J Kriticos

    Full Text Available Helicoverpa armigera has recently invaded South and Central America, and appears to be spreading rapidly. We update a previously developed potential distribution model to highlight the global invasion threat, with emphasis on the risks to the United States. The continued range expansion of H. armigera in Central America is likely to change the invasion threat it poses to North America qualitatively, making natural dispersal from either the Caribbean islands or Mexico feasible. To characterise the threat posed by H. armigera, we collated the value of the major host crops in the United States growing within its modelled potential range, including that area where it could expand its range during favourable seasons. We found that the annual value of crops that would be exposed to H. armigera totalled approximately US$78 billion p.a., with US$843 million p.a. worth growing in climates that are optimal for the pest. Elsewhere, H. armigera has developed broad-spectrum pesticide resistance; meaning that if it invades the United States, protecting these crops from significant production impacts could be challenging. It may be cost-effective to undertake pre-emptive biosecurity activities such as slowing the spread of H. armigera throughout the Americas, improving the system for detecting H. armigera, and methods for rapid identification, especially distinguishing between H. armigera, H. zea and potential H. armigera x H. zea hybrids. Developing biological control programs, especially using inundative techniques with entomopathogens and parasitoids could slow the spread of H. armigera, and reduce selective pressure for pesticide resistance. The rapid spread of H. armigera through South America into Central America suggests that its spread into North America is a matter of time. The likely natural dispersal routes preclude aggressive incursion responses, emphasizing the value of preparatory communication with agricultural producers in areas suitable for

  16. Modeling Activities in the Department of Energy’s Atmospheric Sciences Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fast, Jerome D.; Ghan, Steven J.; Schwartz, Stephen E.

    2009-03-01

    The Department of Energy's Atmospheric Science Program (ASP) conducts research pertinent to radiative forcing of climate change by atmospheric aerosols. The program consists of approximately 40 highly interactive peer-reviewed research projects that examine aerosol properties and processes and the evolution of aerosols in the atmosphere. Principal components of the program are instrument development, laboratory experiments, field studies, theoretical investigations, and modeling. The objectives of the Program are to 1) improve the understanding of aerosol processes associated with light scattering and absorption properties and interactions with clouds that affect Earth's radiative balance and to 2) develop model-based representations of these processes that enable the effects of aerosols on Earth's climate system to be properly represented in global-scale numerical climate models. Although only a few of the research projects within ASP are explicitly identified as primarily modeling activities, modeling actually comprises a substantial component of a large fraction of ASP research projects. This document describes the modeling activities within the Program as a whole, the objectives and intended outcomes of these activities, and the linkages among the several modeling components and with global-scale modeling activities conducted under the support of the Department of Energy's Climate Sciences Program and other aerosol and climate research programs.

  17. Boys & Girls Clubs of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National BGC Week Join Our Cause Donate Now Boys & Girls Clubs of America and the UPS Foundation ... the Dangers Faced When Behind-the-Wheel MORE» Boys & Girls Clubs of America Names Jocelyn Woods National ...

  18. America's Children and the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Protection Agency Search Search America's Children and the Environment Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us America's Children and the Environment is an EPA report that presents key information ...

  19. Economic integration in the Americas

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    This pioneering study shows that economic integration in the Americas is not simply a matter of removing trade barriers. Economic Integration in the Americas addresses the pervasive effects of economic integration on the economy as a whole.

  20. Modelling and Formal Verification of Timing Aspects in Large PLC Programs

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez Adiego, B; Blanco Vinuela, E; Tournier, J-C; Gonzalez Suarez, V M; Blech, J O

    2014-01-01

    One of the main obstacle that prevents model checking from being widely used in industrial control systems is the complexity of building formal models out of PLC programs, especially when timing aspects need to be integrated. This paper brings an answer to this obstacle by proposing a methodology to model and verify timing aspects of PLC programs. Two approaches are proposed to allow the users to balance the trade-off between the complexity of the model, i.e. its number of states, and the set of specifications possible to be verified. A tool supporting the methodology which allows to produce models for different model checkers directly from PLC programs has been developed. Verification of timing aspects for real-life PLC programs are presented in this paper using NuSMV.

  1. PEMILIHAN PROGRAM PENGENTASAN KEMISKINAN MELALUI PENGEMBANGAN MODEL PEMBERDAYAAN MASYARAKAT DENGAN PENDEKATAN SISTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutikno Sutikno

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to compile the programs for poverty alleviation by community empowerment model and review the determination program as effectiveness evaluation poverty alleviation program which still can’t be worked properly. Stages the compiling program of poverty alleviation is mapping the socioeconomic conditions of the poor, basic infrastructure conditions, socio-cultural issues, and potential issues; identifying the hopes and predicting the economic development opportunities; creating the poverty alleviation program by SWOT analysis and planning implementation program with KPD. Based on the result of SWOT and scoring analysis, the selected programs are training and assistance, the establishment of cooperative saving and loans, clean water for poor households, rural development with the utilization of clean water, household waste management, and package education program A, B, and C.

  2. A hydrological programming language extension for integrated catchment models

    OpenAIRE

    Kraft, Philipp

    2012-01-01

    In the last decade, the application of classical hydrological rainfall runoff models is disputed as a valid method for understanding water transport in landscapes (eg. Beven 2002 and 2006, Seibert and McDonnell 2002, Sivapalan et al. 2003, Kirchner 2006, Tetzlaff et al. 2008), since current models lack the ability for formulation and rejection of hypotheses. Vache and McDonnell (2006) developed a framework for the rejection of model structures, where each model structure is understood as a hy...

  3. Americas at Odds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Despite lingering disputes,the United States keeps a firm grip on Latin America During his presidential campaign,Evo Morales said his election would be a "nightmare" for the United States.The Bolivian president honored his words. On September 10, Morales declared U.S.

  4. Ecodesign in Central America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crul, M.R.M.

    2003-01-01

    This PhD thesis describes and analyses the change process started by the Ecodesign project in Central America, executed between 1998 and 2002. The project started using the concept and praxis developed in Europe. Nine ecodesign projects were performed in industry, and ecodesign was introduced to cou

  5. Literacy in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornberger, Nancy H.

    1991-01-01

    Literacy in South America must be understood in terms of the linguistic diversity there, where only 2 of 14 nations and territories are monolingual. Oral traditions, standardization of indigenous languages, nonstandard varieties of colonial languages, bilingual education and mother tongue literacy, literacy teaching, and politics are discussed.…

  6. Still Teaching for America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronholz, June

    2013-01-01

    In this article, June Kronholz talks to co-chief executives of Teach For America (TFA), Elisa Villanueva Beard and Matt Kramer about how TFA has managed to keep its forward momentum for almost 24 years. Four primary reasons are discussed: (1) Common Vision, Regional Innovation; (2) Data-Driven Improvement; (3) Global Reach; and (4) Stoking the…

  7. Two Visions of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capaldi, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    Since the seventeenth century, there have been two narratives about modernity in general and America in particular. The author uses the term "narrative" to include (a) facts, (b) arguments, and most important, (c) a larger vision of how one sees the world and chooses to engage the world. The first and originalist narrative is the Lockean Liberty…

  8. Only "In America"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Maria Eugenia

    2011-01-01

    As the daughter of an interracial couple growing up in a middle-class town on Long Island in the 1970s, Soledad O'Brien learned not to let inappropriate or racist comments throw her. Now as the anchorwoman of CNN's "In America" documentary unit, she says she asks those uncomfortable questions about race all the time. She shines spotlight on…

  9. An Idea Called America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartoonian, Michael; Van Scotter, Richard; White, William E.

    2007-01-01

    America evolved out of the principles of the eighteenth-century Enlightenment, suggesting that individuals could govern themselves and that people were "endowed" with "unalienable rights" such as life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. To secure these principles, Americans would continue to work on forming a more perfect Union, by…

  10. A Model of Women Literacy Preservation through Koran Ibu Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikka Kartika Abbas Fauzi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of literacy education is often disappointing, because many participants do not practice their literacy so that it becomes dull. Government has done efforts to preserve literariness through Koran Ibu program. This program is an effort to improve women literacy which is implemented after basic and advanced literacy education through the activity of journalism. The research focus is the improvement of literacy ability of women through Koran Ibu using with case study method. The research’s subjetcs are 20 housewives who have completed the basic and advanced literacy education program. The result of the research shows that participants significantly develops the literacy skills, it is indicated from that they are able to participate in Koran Ibu’s rubrics with their literary works based on reportage and personal experience. The program is succesful due to the coordination among  local participants (Lurah, Camat, PKK of local level, the cooperation with proper stakeholders (university and local tutor, the appropriate approach of adult learning, flexible implementation strategy but planned, and the routine evaluation.

  11. Exploring Student Persistence in STEM Programs: A Motivational Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Rebecca A.; Aulls, Mark W.; Dedic, Helena; Hubbard, Kyle; Hall, Nathan C.

    2015-01-01

    To address continually decreasing enrollment and rising attrition in post-secondary STEM degree (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) programs, particularly for women, the present study examines the utility of motivation and emotion variables to account for persistence and achievement in science in male and female students…

  12. "A Perfect Murder": An (Imperfect) School Theater Program Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Nicole S.; Grosso, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Over the last five years, the Urban Assembly School for Law and Justice (SLJ), a new, small public high school in Brooklyn, and The Essentials, a professional theater company, have joined forces to offer a low-budget, high-quality, in-house afterschool theater program for SLJ students. Both SLJ and The Essentials were in nascent stages when the…

  13. Identifying Inter-task Communication in Shared Memory Programming Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Per; Karlsson, Sven; Madsen, Jan

    2009-01-01

    the cores of the architecture. We believe that communication patterns need to become explicit in the source code to make it easier to analyze and partition parallel programs. Extraction of these patterns are difficult to automate due to limitations in compiler techniques when determining the effects...

  14. A Model Program for Churches and Ex-Offender Reintegration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Thomas; Ryan, Patricia; Parikh, Crystal

    1998-01-01

    Prison Fellowship Ministries' church and community based Transition of Prisoners (TOP) program in Detroit is examined. TOP mobilizes, trains, and equips primarily African-American churches and volunteers to assist ex-offenders to successfully reintegrate into their community. Preliminary outcome data suggest that participation in TOP reduces need…

  15. Access, Equity, and Opportunity. Women in Machining: A Model Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Heather

    The Women in Machining (WIM) program is a Machine Action Project (MAP) initiative that was developed in response to a local skilled metalworking labor shortage, despite a virtual absence of women and people of color from area shops. The project identified post-war stereotypes and other barriers that must be addressed if women are to have an equal…

  16. Developing Supply Chain Management Program: A Competency Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauber, Matthew H.; McSurely, Hugh B.; Tummala, V. M. Rao

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to show the process of designing and measuring learning competencies in program development. Design/methodology/approach: The paper includes cross-sectoral comparisons to draw on programmatic and pedagogical strategies, more commonly utilized in vocational education, and transfer the application of these strategies into…

  17. Programming Model and Protocols for Reconfigurable Distributed Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Arad, Cosmin Ionel

    2013-01-01

    Distributed systems are everywhere. From large datacenters to mobile devices, an ever richer assortment of applications and services relies on distributed systems, infrastructure, and protocols. Despite their ubiquity, testing and debugging distributed systems remains notoriously hard. Moreover, aside from inherent design challenges posed by partial failure, concurrency, or asynchrony, there remain significant challenges in the implementation of distributed systems. These programming challeng...

  18. Developing Competency-Based Program Models in Three Community Colleges.

    OpenAIRE

    Ann E. Person; Lisbeth Goble; Julie Bruch

    2014-01-01

    Under the Trade Adjustment Assistance Community College and Career Training (TAACCCT) grants program, the U.S. Department of Labor, Employment and Training Administration is funding an ambitious, multi-pronged effort encouraging community colleges and groups of institutions working as consortia to improve education, employment, and training outcomes for economically dislocated and low-skilled adult workers.

  19. Effects of Using Model Robots in the Education of Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pásztor, Attila; Pap-Szigeti, Róbert; Lakatos Török, Erika

    2010-01-01

    In this article we try to show how new devices and methods can help in the education of programming. At Kecskemét College programmable mobile robots and instead of behavioral, the constructivist pedagogical methods were used. Our experiments have proved our hypothesis as the improved new methodical education using devices can give more practical…

  20. 76 FR 68011 - Medicare Program; Advanced Payment Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ... following goals through implementation of the Advance Payment Model: Test whether advance payments will.../seamless-and-coordinated-care-models/advance-payment/ . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Questions... provide high quality, coordinated care and generate cost savings. The Advance Payment Model will...

  1. Estimation of Spatial Influence Models Using Mixed-Integer Programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Billionnet, A.

    2009-01-01

    Estimation of ecosystem models is an important task and many studies have been carried out on the problem. However, estimating some models may be difficult. Here, we want to estimate two nonlinear spatial influence models by using the classical least-squares method, and that requires the solution of

  2. Lateinamerika oder -amerikas? Latin America or Americas?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Belén García Timón

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Anhand interdisziplinärer und empirischer Studien wird Lateinamerika als Bühne für die Entwicklung transkultureller Phänomene präsentiert. Geschlechterverhältnisse in unterschiedlichen Kontexten stehen im Mittelpunkt der Untersuchung. Begriffe wie Macht, Rasse oder Raum werden mit dem Ziel, weg von der bisherigen Vorstellung von homogenen kulturellen Einheiten zu kommen, revidiert.Latin America is presented as a stage for the development of transcultural phenomena through the use of interdisciplinary and empirical studies. Gender relations in different contexts lie at the heart of this study. Terms such as power, race, or space are revised with the goal of moving away from current perceptions of homogenous cultural unities.

  3. Real-Time Pricing DR Programs Evaluation Based on Power Model in Electricity Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoorangiz Shams Shamsabad Farahani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Along with developing Demand Response Programs (DRPs, suitable chances have been created to take part the demand-side in electricity markets. The results of such programs are improvement of some technical and economical characteristic of power system. DRPs are divided into two categories which are priced-based and incentive-based demand response programs. This paper presents the application of power modeling for Real-Time Pricing programs (RTP as most prevalent priced-based DRPs. the nonlinear behavioral characteristic of elastic loads is considered which causes to more realistic modeling of demand response to RTP rates. In order to evaluation of proposed model, the impact of running RTP programs using proposed power model on load profile of the peak day of the Iranian power system in 2007 is investigated.

  4. The cepa project: a new model for community-based program planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, D; Apostol, E; Balfour, D; Claudio, C; Marinoff, J; O'Hare, N; Rodriguez, M; Santiago, C

    1993-01-01

    The article describes a new model of community-based program planning developed by the Centro de Educacion, Prevencion y Accion (CEPA) project, an HIV prevention program for Puerto Ricans located in Holyoke, Massachusetts. Based on models of critical thinking, empowerment and participatory education, the basic philosophy of the CEPA project is to narrow the gap between program developers and program recipients to the greatest extent possible. The article discusses the successes and challenges encountered in approaching this ideal. The article concludes with recommendations for public health professionals considering the use of community-based approaches to address public health issues. PMID:20841236

  5. Channel and active component abstractions for WSN programming - a language model with operating system support

    OpenAIRE

    P. Harvey; Dearle, A.; Lewis, J.; Sventek, J.

    2012-01-01

    To support the programming of Wireless Sensor Networks, a number of unconventional programming models have evolved, in particular the event-based model. These models are non-intuitive to programmers due to the introduction of unnecessary, non-intrinsic complexity. Component-based languages like Insense can eliminate much of this unnecessary complexity via the use of active components and synchronous channels. However, simply layering an Insense implementation over an existing event-based syst...

  6. Performance Evaluation of Parallel Message Passing and Thread Programming Model on Multicore Architectures

    OpenAIRE

    D.T Hasta; Mutiara, A. B.

    2010-01-01

    The current trend of multicore architectures on shared memory systems underscores the need of parallelism. While there are some programming model to express parallelism, thread programming model has become a standard to support these system such as OpenMP, and POSIX threads. MPI (Message Passing Interface) which remains the dominant model used in high-performance computing today faces this challenge. Previous version of MPI which is MPI-1 has no shared memory concept, and Current MPI version ...

  7. The Use of Spread Models to Inform Eradication Programs: Application to Red Imported Fire Ants

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Spring; Oscar Cacho; Craig Jennings

    2010-01-01

    A central theme of the invasion biology literature is to predict the introduction and spread of biological invasions but predictive models rarely are applied to inform invasion management. Here, we demonstrate the utility of a spatio-temporal predictive model that has been used to inform Australia's largest eradication program, the program to eradicate the red imported fire ant (RIFA) from Brisbane. That model has informed eradication efforts in two main ways: estimating the probability of pr...

  8. The National Cancer Informatics Program (NCIP) Annotation and Image Markup (AIM) Foundation Model

    OpenAIRE

    Mongkolwat, Pattanasak; Kleper, Vladimir; Talbot, Skip; Rubin, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge contained within in vivo imaging annotated by human experts or computer programs is typically stored as unstructured text and separated from other associated information. The National Cancer Informatics Program (NCIP) Annotation and Image Markup (AIM) Foundation information model is an evolution of the National Institute of Health’s (NIH) National Cancer Institute’s (NCI) Cancer Bioinformatics Grid (caBIG®) AIM model. The model applies to various image types created by various techn...

  9. 中国对美国木质林产品出口波动分析%Empirical Analysis on Causes for Exportation Fluctuation of Timber-Forest Products from China to America: Based on CMS Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘庆博; 刘俊昌; 陈文汇

    2012-01-01

    Using the constant market share (CMS) model, this paper analyzes the exportation fluctuation of timber-forest products from China to America by 2002--2010 trade date from UN Comtrade. It finds that the exportation growth of Chinese timber-forest products to America is mainly from the competitive effect. The structural effect is the mainly reason for the exportation fluctuation of timber-forest products from China to America; cross-effect is not significantly. By the financial crisis from 2008 to 2010, the exportation of timber-forest products from China and the main countries to America are negative increase; this also reflected in growth effects inhibit the exportation of China and the main countries%采用联合国统计署2002--2010年的贸易数据,运用CMS模型对中国出口美国木质林产品的波动进行实证分析。结果表明:竞争力效应是中国出口美国木质林产品增长的主要因素,结构效应则是中国对美国木质林产品出口波动的最主要动因,交叉效应作用不明显;2008--2010年,受金融危机的影响,中国及主要国家对美国木质林产品的出口都出现了负增长,这也体现在增长效应对各国出口显著的抑制作用上。

  10. Representation of drought frequency in Southern South America performed by 14 CMIP5 models. Drought risk implications and perspectives towards future projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, J. A.; Penalba, O. C.

    2012-12-01

    Drought frequency estimation is a key variable for drought risk assessment. The aim of this research is to evaluate how well the global climate models (GCMs) represent the drought frequencies in Southern South America (south of 20°S). For that purpose, we used the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), which quantifies the number of standard deviations that the accumulated rainfall in a given time scale deviates from the average value of a location in a particular period. The SPI is one of the drought indices most widely used worldwide, and one of the best suited for the study area. In order to build this index, monthly rainfall data were obtained from the CLARIS LPB Data Base for 120 of its stations, which were subjected to quality control procedures and have less than 10% of missing values. The SPI was computed for the period 1979-2008 on a time scale of 12 months, which represents long-term droughts. This procedure was also applied to the simulated precipitation from 14 CMIP5 GCMs over the study area. Two types of comparisons were performed, the first one for drought frequencies without taking into account the different drought classes and the second one for the frequencies of moderate, severe and extreme drought events. This second comparison is important given that drought risk was evaluated through a weighted index based in drought frequencies, which was constructed as a sum of drought classes -moderate, severe and extreme- with a weighting scheme. Most of the regions with moderate to high observed drought frequencies are located in the western and southern portions of La Plata Basin and over Patagonia region, while lower observed drought frequencies were obtained for Northern Argentina, Southern Brazil and Paraguay. This spatial pattern is barely reproduced by the modeled frequencies, and in some cases major differences exist. In order to analyze these differences, we performed a regional assessment of the SPI time series, which showed that the time series

  11. 3-Self behavior modification programs base on the PROMISE Model for clients at metabolic risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intarakamhang, Ungsinun

    2011-12-29

    The objectives of this mixed methods research were 1) to study effects of the health behavior modification program (HBMP) conducted under the principles of the PROMISE Model and the CIPP Model and 2) to compare the 3-self health behaviors and the biomedical indicators before with after the program completion. During the program, three sample groups including 30 program leaders, 30 commanders and 120 clients were assessed, and there were assessments taken on 4,649 volunteers who were at risk of metabolic syndrome before and after the program conducted in 17 hospitals. The collected data were analyzed by the t-test and the path analysis. The research instruments were questionnaires used for program evaluation, structuralized interview forms, and questionnaires used for 3-self health behavior assessment. The findings were as follows: 1) During the program, the assessment result deriving from comparing the overall opinions toward the program among the three sample groups showed no difference (F=2.219), 2) The program management factors based on the PROMISE Model (positive reinforcement, optimism, context, and process or activity provision) had an overall influence on the product or success of the HBMP (pself-efficacy, self-regulation, and self-care) were significantly higher than those appeared before the participation (p< 0.05), and their biomedical indicators (BMI, blood pressure, waistline, blood glucose, lipid profiles, cholesterol, and HbA1c) were significantly lower than those measured before the program (p< 0.05).

  12. Creating A Model HTTP Server Program Using java

    CERN Document Server

    Veerasamy, Bala Dhandayuthapani

    2010-01-01

    HTTP Server is a computer programs that serves webpage content to clients. A webpage is a document or resource of information that is suitable for the World Wide Web and can be accessed through a web browser and displayed on a computer screen. This information is usually in HTML format, and may provide navigation to other webpage's via hypertext links. WebPages may be retrieved from a local computer or from a remote HTTP Server. WebPages are requested and served from HTTP Servers using Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP). WebPages may consist of files of static or dynamic text stored within the HTTP Server's file system. Client-side scripting can make WebPages more responsive to user input once in the client browser. This paper encompasses the creation of HTTP server program using java language, which is basically supporting for HTML and JavaScript.

  13. Use of a Business Excellence Model to Improve Conservation Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Black, Simon A.; Groombridge, Jim J

    2010-01-01

    The current shortfall in effectiveness within conservation biology is illustrated by increasing interest in “evidence-based conservation,” whose proponents have identified the need to benchmark conservation initiatives against actions that lead to proven positive effects. The effectiveness of conservation policies, approaches, and evaluation is under increasing scrutiny, and in these areasmodels of excellence used in business could prove valuable. Typically, conservation programs ...

  14. WIND: an Interaction Lightweight Programming Model for Geographical Web Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Luong, The Nhan; Etcheverry, Patrick; Nodenot, Thierry; Marquesuzaà, Christophe

    2009-01-01

    15 pages International audience Recent research has attested the implementation and the effectiveness of Geographic Information Systems in geographic teaching. Different works and experiments have shown that current Web Mapping Services and frameworks are partially unfitted for the design and easy programming of web applications dedicated to the teaching of geographic information. Our research problem is enabling to teachers to design by themselves an Active Reading Learning Scenario ma...

  15. A computer program to trace seismic ray distribution in complex two-dimensional geological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacoub, Nazieh K.; Scott, James H.

    1970-01-01

    A computer program has been developed to trace seismic rays and their amplitudes and energies through complex two-dimensional geological models, for which boundaries between elastic units are defined by a series of digitized X-, Y-coordinate values. Input data for the program includes problem identification, control parameters, model coordinates and elastic parameter for the elastic units. The program evaluates the partitioning of ray amplitude and energy at elastic boundaries, computes the total travel time, total travel distance and other parameters for rays arising at the earth's surface. Instructions are given for punching program control cards and data cards, and for arranging input card decks. An example of printer output for a simple problem is presented. The program is written in FORTRAN IV language. The listing of the program is shown in the Appendix, with an example output from a CDC-6600 computer.

  16. Fractured rock modeling in the National Waste Terminal Storage Program: a review of requirements and status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    St. John, C.; Krug, A.; Key, S.; Monsees, J.

    1983-05-01

    Generalized computer codes capable of forming the basis for numerical models of fractured rock masses are being used within the NWTS program. Little additional development of these codes is considered justifiable, except in the area of representation of discrete fractures. On the other hand, model preparation requires definition of medium-specific constitutive descriptions and site characteristics and is therefore legitimately conducted by each of the media-oriented projects within the National Waste Terminal Storage program. However, it is essential that a uniform approach to the role of numerical modeling be adopted, including agreement upon the contribution of modeling to the design and licensing process and the need for, and means of, model qualification for particular purposes. This report discusses the role of numerical modeling, reviews the capabilities of several computer codes that are being used to support design or performance assessment, and proposes a framework for future numerical modeling activities within the NWTS program.

  17. Fractured rock modeling in the National Waste Terminal Storage Program: a review of requirements and status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Generalized computer codes capable of forming the basis for numerical models of fractured rock masses are being used within the NWTS program. Little additional development of these codes is considered justifiable, except in the area of representation of discrete fractures. On the other hand, model preparation requires definition of medium-specific constitutive descriptions and site characteristics and is therefore legitimately conducted by each of the media-oriented projects within the National Waste Terminal Storage program. However, it is essential that a uniform approach to the role of numerical modeling be adopted, including agreement upon the contribution of modeling to the design and licensing process and the need for, and means of, model qualification for particular purposes. This report discusses the role of numerical modeling, reviews the capabilities of several computer codes that are being used to support design or performance assessment, and proposes a framework for future numerical modeling activities within the NWTS program

  18. Stochastic Robust Mathematical Programming Model for Power System Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Cong; Changhyeok, Lee; Haoyong, Chen; Mehrotra, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a stochastic robust framework for two-stage power system optimization problems with uncertainty. The model optimizes the probabilistic expectation of different worst-case scenarios with ifferent uncertainty sets. A case study of unit commitment shows the effectiveness of the proposed model and algorithms.

  19. Program Assessment: Getting to a Practical How-To Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, Lorraine R.; Corbitt, Gail; Adams, Steven J.

    2010-01-01

    The Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) International's assurance of learning (AoL) standards require that schools develop a sophisticated continuous-improvement process. The authors review various assessment models and develop a practical, 6-step AoL model based on the literature and the authors' AoL-implementation…

  20. The impact of the biotechnology in the sustainable development of the agriculture in the Latin America and Caribbean region: The Andean countries as model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In accordance with the premise that the base of the sustainable agricultural development is based on the conviction that it is possible to increase the agricultural production without affecting the natural resources non-renewable, the author makes a conceptual mark of the technological revolution in Latin America, he makes an analysis of the environment and the paper of the different organisms of the state inside this field