WorldWideScience

Sample records for america model programs

  1. REBUILD AMERICA PROGRAM SCOPE OF WORK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey Brown; Bruce Exstrum

    2004-12-01

    This report summarizes the activities carried out by Aspen Systems Corporation in support of the Department of Energy's Rebuild America program during the period from October 9, 1999 to October 31, 2004. These activities were in accordance with the Scope of Work contained in a GSA MOBIS schedule task order issued by the National Energy Technology Laboratory. This report includes descriptions of activities and results in the following areas: deployment/delivery model; program and project results; program representative support activities; technical assistance; web site development and operation; business/strategic partners; and training/workshop activities. The report includes conclusions and recommendations. Five source documents are also provided as appendices.

  2. A model-data intercomparison of CO2 exchange across North America: Results from the North American Carbon Program Site Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwalm, C.R.; Williams, C.A.; Schaefer, K.; Anderson, R.; Arain, M.A.; Baker, I.; Black, T.A.; Chen, G.; Ciais, P.; Davis, K. J.; Desai, A. R.; Dietze, M.; Dragoni, D.; Fischer, M.L.; Flanagan, L.B.; Grant, R.F.; Gu, L.; Hollinger, D.; Izaurralde, R.C.; Kucharik, C.; Lafleur, P.M.; Law, B.E.; Li, L.; Li, Z.; Liu, S.; Lokupitiya, E.; Luo, Y.; Ma, S.; Margolis, H.; Matamala, R.; McCaughey, H.; Monson, R. K.; Oechel, W. C.; Peng, C.; Poulter, B.; Price, D.T.; Riciutto, D.M.; Riley, W.J.; Sahoo, A.K.; Sprintsin, M.; Sun, J.; Tian, H.; Tonitto, C.; Verbeeck, H.; Verma, S.B.

    2011-06-01

    Our current understanding of terrestrial carbon processes is represented in various models used to integrate and scale measurements of CO{sub 2} exchange from remote sensing and other spatiotemporal data. Yet assessments are rarely conducted to determine how well models simulate carbon processes across vegetation types and environmental conditions. Using standardized data from the North American Carbon Program we compare observed and simulated monthly CO{sub 2} exchange from 44 eddy covariance flux towers in North America and 22 terrestrial biosphere models. The analysis period spans {approx}220 site-years, 10 biomes, and includes two large-scale drought events, providing a natural experiment to evaluate model skill as a function of drought and seasonality. We evaluate models' ability to simulate the seasonal cycle of CO{sub 2} exchange using multiple model skill metrics and analyze links between model characteristics, site history, and model skill. Overall model performance was poor; the difference between observations and simulations was {approx}10 times observational uncertainty, with forested ecosystems better predicted than nonforested. Model-data agreement was highest in summer and in temperate evergreen forests. In contrast, model performance declined in spring and fall, especially in ecosystems with large deciduous components, and in dry periods during the growing season. Models used across multiple biomes and sites, the mean model ensemble, and a model using assimilated parameter values showed high consistency with observations. Models with the highest skill across all biomes all used prescribed canopy phenology, calculated NEE as the difference between GPP and ecosystem respiration, and did not use a daily time step.

  3. Building America: The Advanced Whole-Home Efficiency Program (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engebrecht, C.

    2012-02-01

    This presentation discusses the Building America Program. This presentation discusses the background and goals of the program. A few hot topic technologies are discussed. Outreach activities are discussed as well.

  4. Adult Education Faculty and Programs in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisdell, Elizabeth J.; Wright, Robin Redmon; Taylor, Edward W.

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on the findings of a quantitative survey of North American adult education faculty and a textual analysis of websites of adult education graduate programs in North America conducted in the fall of 2013. This study examined background information about adult education faculty and programs; the nature of faculty work interests,…

  5. Global Climate Model Scenarios for Precipitation in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlfeld, D.

    2005-12-01

    Global and regional climate models are valuable tools for assessing the impacts of alternate greenhouse emission scenarios on future climate. In recent years, the number of models available has increased and the sophistication of these models has generally improved. Recently, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has made model output from a range of global climate models available through the Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. A comparison is made between observed and predicted precipitation from 18 global climate models for the period 1979 to 2000 in three regions of North America using monthly averaged output of the 20C3M experiment (climate of the 20th century) and the CPC Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP) data. Precipitation averaged over monthly, seasonal and annual time periods is considered. The three regions encompass western, central and eastern North America excluding Alaska, northern Canada and Latin America. Most models compare well with observed precipitation for the central and eastern regions at all time scales. Discrepancies between model results and observed precipitation are generally smallest in summer and fall seasons. For the western region, models are less successful in comparison to observed precipitation. A subset of models, those deemed to be most successful at reproducing observed precipitation, are used to analyze the impact of various greenhouse gas emission scenarios (including the Commit and SRESB1 experiments) on precipitation in the mid- and late-21st century.

  6. Ecosystem Demography Model: Scaling Vegetation Dynamics Across South America

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This model product contains the source code for the Ecosystem Demography Model (ED version 1.0) as well as model input and output data for a portion of South America...

  7. Wind Powering America Anemometer Loan Program: A Retrospective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, T.

    2013-05-01

    This white paper details the history, mechanics, status, and impact of the Native American Anemometer Loan Program (ALP) conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Powering America (WPA) initiative. Originally conceived in 2000 and terminated (as a WPA activity) at the end of FY 2011, the ALP has resulted in the installation of anemometers at 90 locations. In addition, the ALP provided support for the installation of anemometers at 38 additional locations under a related ALP administered by the Western Area Power Administration.

  8. Whole-House Approach Benefits Builders, Buyers, and the Environment Building America Program Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2001-05-01

    This document provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy's Building America program. Building America works with the residential building industry to develop and implement innovative building processes and technologies.

  9. Programming Models in HPC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shipman, Galen M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-13

    These are the slides for a presentation on programming models in HPC, at the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Parallel Computing Summer School. The following topics are covered: Flynn's Taxonomy of computer architectures; single instruction single data; single instruction multiple data; multiple instruction multiple data; address space organization; definition of Trinity (Intel Xeon-Phi is a MIMD architecture); single program multiple data; multiple program multiple data; ExMatEx workflow overview; definition of a programming model, programming languages, runtime systems; programming model and environments; MPI (Message Passing Interface); OpenMP; Kokkos (Performance Portable Thread-Parallel Programming Model); Kokkos abstractions, patterns, policies, and spaces; RAJA, a systematic approach to node-level portability and tuning; overview of the Legion Programming Model; mapping tasks and data to hardware resources; interoperability: supporting task-level models; Legion S3D execution and performance details; workflow, integration of external resources into the programming model.

  10. Modeling EERE deployment programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cort, K. A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hostick, D. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Belzer, D. B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Livingston, O. V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2007-11-01

    The purpose of the project was to identify and characterize the modeling of deployment programs within the EERE Technology Development (TD) programs, address possible improvements to the modeling process, and note gaps in knowledge for future research.

  11. The Expanded Program on Immunization in the Americas: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    The basis for the Pan America Health Organization/World Health Organization Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) is provided by a resolution (WHA27.57) adopted by the World Health Assembly in May 1974. The program's longterm objectives include: to reduce morbidity and mortality from diphtheria, whooping cough, tetanus, measles, tuberculosis, and poliomyelitis by providing immunization services directed against those disease for every child in the world by 1990; to promote countries' self-reliance in the delivery of immunization services within the context of comprehensive health services; and to promote regional self-reliance in matters of vaccine production and quality control. The EPI, which requires a longterm commitment to continued immunization activities, is an essential element of PAHO/WHO's strategy to achieve health for all by the year 2000. Immunization coverage has been included among the indicators which will be used to monitor the success of that strategy at regional and global levels. As of April 1985, available country reports showed that immunization coverage in the Americas had improved considerably since the EPI was launched in 1977. In 1978, for example, only a very small proportion of the children under 1 year of age (less than 10%) outside the US and Canada lived in countr ies where 50% immunization coverage with the EPI vaccines had been attained for this age group. By 1984, over 55% of these children were living in countries where at least 50% infant coverage with DPT and measles vaccines had been attained, and over 80% were living in countries where at least 50% infant coverage with polio vaccine had been attained. Immunization coverage generally improved between 1980-84, especially in the 12 smaller countries of the subregion with populations of less than 130,000. In the period since EPI training activities were initiated in early 1979 through the end of 1984, it is estimated that at least 15,000 health workers attended EPI workshops

  12. Embedding research to improve program implementation in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Nhan; Langlois, Etienne V; Reveiz, Ludovic; Varallyay, Ilona; Elias, Vanessa; Mancuso, Arielle; Becerra-Posada, Francisco; Ghaffar, Abdul

    2017-06-08

    In the last 10 years, implementation research has come to play a critical role in improving the implementation of already-proven health interventions by promoting the systematic uptake of research findings and other evidence-based strategies into routine practice. The Alliance for Health Policy and Systems Research and the Pan American Health Organization implemented a program of embedded implementation research to support health programs in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) in 2014-2015. A total of 234 applications were received from 28 countries in the Americas. The Improving Program Implementation through Embedded Research (iPIER) scheme supported 12 implementation research projects led by health program implementers from nine LAC countries: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Panama, Peru, and Saint Lucia. Through this experience, we learned that the "insider" perspective, which implementers bring to the research proposal, is particularly important in identifying research questions that focus on the systems failures that often manifest in barriers to implementation. This paper documents the experience of and highlights key conclusions about the conduct of embedded implementation research. The iPIER experience has shown great promise for embedded research models that place implementers at the helm of implementation research initiatives.

  13. Modeling EERE Deployment Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cort, K. A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hostick, D. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Belzer, D. B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Livingston, O. V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2007-11-01

    This report compiles information and conclusions gathered as part of the “Modeling EERE Deployment Programs” project. The purpose of the project was to identify and characterize the modeling of deployment programs within the EERE Technology Development (TD) programs, address possible improvements to the modeling process, and note gaps in knowledge in which future research is needed.

  14. Los Alamos Programming Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergen, Benjamin Karl [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-07-07

    This is the PDF of a powerpoint presentation from a teleconference on Los Alamos programming models. It starts by listing their assumptions for the programming models and then details a hierarchical programming model at the System Level and Node Level. Then it details how to map this to their internal nomenclature. Finally, a list is given of what they are currently doing in this regard.

  15. An Overview of Residential Ventilation Activities in the Building America Program (Phase I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barley, D.

    2001-05-21

    This report provides an overview of issues involved in residential ventilation; provides an overview of the various ventilation strategies being evaluated by the five teams, or consortia, currently involved in the Building America Program; and identifies unresolved technical issues.

  16. Modelling mite dynamics on apple trees in eastern North America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartman, J.M.; Werf, van der W.; Nyrop, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    The model described in this paper simulates seasonal dynamics of Panonychus ulmi and the phytoseiid predator Typhlodromus pyri on apple trees in Eastern North America. It was originally developed to understand the effect of weather, predation, cannibalism, alternate food for the predator, and uneven

  17. Open Business Models (Latin America) - Phase I | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Open Business Models (Latin America) - Phase I. The Centro de Tecnologia e Sociedade (CTS - Center for Technology and Society) is part of the Fundação Getulio Vargas Law School in Rio de Janeiro and is the only institution in Brazil that specifically deals with the interplay of law, technology and society. The CTS is ...

  18. Canada-Latin America and Caribbean Zika Virus Research Program ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-05-10

    May 10, 2016 ... A new funding opportunity on Zika virus is responding to the virus outbreak and the health threat it represents for the affected populations in the hardest hit countries in Latin America and the Caribbean. The Canadian Institutes for Health Research and the International Development Research Centre, ...

  19. Program and Abstracts, Boron Americas IX Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feakes, Debra A.

    2006-08-09

    The Scientific and Technical Information (STI) submitted includes the final report and a collection of abstracts for the Ninth Boron in the Americas Conference which was held May 19-22, 2004, in San Marcos, Texas. The topics covered in the abstracts include: Application in Medicine, Application in Organic Synthesis and Catalysis, Boranes and Carboranes, Materials and Polymers, Metallaboranes and Metallacarboranes, Organoboron Compounds, Synthesis and Catalysis, and Theoretical Studies. Attendees represented researchers from government, industry, and academia.

  20. Modeling EERE Deployment Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cort, Katherine A.; Hostick, Donna J.; Belzer, David B.; Livingston, Olga V.

    2007-11-08

    The purpose of this report is to compile information and conclusions gathered as part of three separate tasks undertaken as part of the overall project, “Modeling EERE Deployment Programs,” sponsored by the Planning, Analysis, and Evaluation office within the Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). The purpose of the project was to identify and characterize the modeling of deployment programs within the EERE Technology Development (TD) programs, address improvements to modeling in the near term, and note gaps in knowledge where future research is needed.

  1. SALTRA: a regional program for workers' health and sustainable development in Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesseling, Catharina; Aragón, Aurora; Elgstrand, Kaj; Flores, Reinaldo; Hogstedt, Christer; Partanen, Timo

    2011-01-01

    In 2003, the university-based Program on Work and Health in Central America, SALTRA, was launched to build national and regional capacities in occupational safety and health with the goal of preventing and reducing poverty in Central America. SALTRA has implemented 20 projects including action projects in priority sectors (e.g., construction, sugarcane, hospitals, migrant coffee workers); strengthening of surveillance (occupational health profiles, carcinogenic exposures, fatal injuries and pesticides); a participatory model for training and risk monitoring by workers; building occupational health capacity for professionals, employers, and workers, with collaborating networks between the countries; strengthening of universities in work, environment, and health; studies of serious occupational and environmental situations; communication channels; and continued efforts to raise political awareness. SALTRA has placed issues of workers' health on political, business, and academic agendas throughout the region and has laid the foundations for achieving substantial future improvements in health conditions of all workers in the region. External evaluators envisioned SALTRA as an innovative development model.

  2. Central America Regional Climate Change Program: Tools for Your Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Dan; Irving, Bill; Yeager, Carey

    2006-01-01

    USAID/E-CAM and EGAT's Global Climate Change Team, in partnership with EPA, NASA, Oak Ridge National Lab, and the Central American Commission for Environment and Development (CCAD), have had a significant impact on the region's ability to monitor, mitigate, and adapt to environmental threats. Environmental decision-making tools and data are posted on a website (SERVIR: http://servir.nsstc.nasa.pov/home.html)that provides satellite and geographic data and maps to anybody with an Internet connection. The SERVIR program has been identified as the model for the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) - a major international effort to develop a 21st century system for environmental management and disaster response. In coordination with the USAID/EPA program, NASA has developed a GIs tool that enables countries to examine their forest cover and document changes on an annual basis. This information is used in calculating carbon emissions as part of greenhouse gas inventories, but also serves a valuable monitoring function. In addition, USAID/E-CAM and EGAT's Global Climate Change Team in collaboration with EPA are helping countries meet their obligations as signatories to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). EPA is assisting Central American governments to improve the quality of their greenhouse gas emission inventories reported to the UNFCCC through the development of tools and improvements in data quality. New EPA tools developed include software to automatically calculate greenhouse gas emissions for the agricultural and forestry sector inventories, determine key sources of greenhouse gas emissions, and document institutional arrangements. Several of these tools are state of the art and are comparable to tools currently used in the U.S.

  3. Food Stamp and School Lunch Programs Alleviate Food Insecurity in Rural America. Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kristin; Savage, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    The Food Stamp and the National School Lunch Programs play a vital role in helping poor, rural Americans obtain a more nutritious diet and alleviate food insecurity and hunger. This fact sheet looks at the extent to which rural America depends on these programs and describes characteristics of beneficiaries of these federal nutrition assistance…

  4. 78 FR 22043 - Rural Energy for America Program-Grants and Guaranteed Loans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    ... Bill expands the program to include two new renewable energy technologies: hydroelectric and ocean...'' and by removing ``high pressure steam for'' because it is not needed. Hydroelectric energy. The term... Service Rural Utilities Service 7 CFR Part 4280 Rural Energy for America Program--Grants and Guaranteed...

  5. Paediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation training program in Latin-America: the RIBEPCI experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Herce, Jesús; Matamoros, Martha M; Moya, Luis; Almonte, Enma; Coronel, Diana; Urbano, Javier; Carrillo, Ángel; Del Castillo, Jimena; Mencía, Santiago; Moral, Ramón; Ordoñez, Flora; Sánchez, Carlos; Lagos, Lina; Johnson, María; Mendoza, Ovidio; Rodriguez, Sandra

    2017-09-12

    To describe the design and to present the results of a paediatric and neonatal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training program adapted to Latin-America. A paediatric CPR coordinated training project was set up in several Latin-American countries with the instructional and scientific support of the Spanish Group for Paediatric and Neonatal CPR. The program was divided into four phases: CPR training and preparation of instructors; training for instructors; supervised teaching; and independent teaching. Instructors from each country participated in the development of the next group in the following country. Paediatric Basic Life Support (BLS), Paediatric Intermediate (ILS) and Paediatric Advanced (ALS) courses were organized in each country adapted to local characteristics. Five Paediatric Resuscitation groups were created sequentially in Honduras (2), Guatemala, Dominican Republican and Mexico. During 5 years, 6 instructors courses (94 students), 64 Paediatric BLS Courses (1409 students), 29 Paediatrics ILS courses (626 students) and 89 Paediatric ALS courses (1804 students) were given. At the end of the program all five groups are autonomous and organize their own instructor courses. Training of autonomous Paediatric CPR groups with the collaboration and scientific assessment of an expert group is a good model program to develop Paediatric CPR training in low- and middle income countries. Participation of groups of different countries in the educational activities is an important method to establish a cooperation network.

  6. Assessment of graduate orthodontic programs in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burk, Thomas; Orellana, Maria

    2013-04-01

    This study collected information on four main aspects of U.S. and Canadian orthodontic programs: demographic profiles of residents, requirements for graduation, graduate curriculum, and number of faculty and staff members. Program directors at seventy U.S. and Canadian orthodontic programs were invited to participate in a twenty-question survey and to distribute a ten-question survey to their residents. Twenty program directors and eighty-four residents completed the anonymous, online surveys on Qualtrics.com in July-August 2010. The average age of surveyed residents was 29.6 years of age; 73 percent were non-Hispanic white, with 14 percent Asian/Asian-American, 5 percent Hispanic, and 1 percent African American. A small percentage of residents (13 percent) were foreign-trained. The majority of residents (64 percent) were male. There was a wide variety of clinical and didactic requirements in the programs. Almost all programs emphasized treatment with functional appliances and clear aligners. An average of three full-time and ten part-time faculty members were dedicated to each residency program. This survey reveals a potential shortage of minority orthodontic residents currently being trained in orthodontic programs, in addition to several commonalities and differences among the programs' curricula, graduation requirements, and numbers of faculty and staff members. This preliminary survey will hopefully inspire measures to address the discrepancies revealed, particularly the lack of minority students and full-time faculty members.

  7. Introducing Program Evaluation Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca GÂRBOAN

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Programs and project evaluation models can be extremely useful in project planning and management. The aim is to set the right questions as soon as possible in order to see in time and deal with the unwanted program effects, as well as to encourage the positive elements of the project impact. In short, different evaluation models are used in order to minimize losses and maximize the benefits of the interventions upon small or large social groups. This article introduces some of the most recently used evaluation models.

  8. 45 CFR 2516.840 - By what standards will the Corporation evaluate individual Learn and Serve America programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... individual Learn and Serve America programs? 2516.840 Section 2516.840 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE SCHOOL-BASED SERVICE-LEARNING... Learn and Serve America programs? The Corporation will evaluate programs based on the following: (a) The...

  9. [Educational and research program on diagnosis and treatment of otitis media in Latin America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriaga, M A; Eavy, R; Stool, S E; Guerrero, J; Odio, C N; Santos, J I

    1990-02-01

    Otitis media in Latin America is an important cause of hearing impairment and infectious complications which can be prevented without an inordinate effort or investment of resources. The Latin American Otitis Media Research and Training Program is a multidisciplinary, international project designed to improve the detection an treatment of otitis media in Latin America. Over 200 health care providers have already participated in pilot seminars presented in Brazil, Costa Rica, and Mexico. These sessions were highlighted by audiovisual presentations emphasizing pneumatic otoscopy. We conclude that this focused program of medical education can significantly contribute to improve primary health care in the region.

  10. A synthetic seismicity model for the Middle America Trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Steven N.

    1991-01-01

    A novel iterative technique, based on the concept of fault segmentation and computed using 2D static dislocation theory, for building models of seismicity and fault interaction which are physically acceptable and geometrically and kinematically correct, is presented. The technique is applied in two steps to seismicity observed at the Middle America Trench. The first constructs generic models which randomly draw segment strengths and lengths from a 2D probability distribution. The second constructs predictive models in which segment lengths and strengths are adjusted to mimic the actual geography and timing of large historical earthquakes. Both types of models reproduce the statistics of seismicity over five units of magnitude and duplicate other aspects including foreshock and aftershock sequences, migration of foci, and the capacity to produce both characteristic and noncharacteristic earthquakes. Over a period of about 150 yr the complex interaction of fault segments and the nonlinear failure conditions conspire to transform an apparently deterministic model into a chaotic one.

  11. Justice downwind: America's atomic testing program in the 1950s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, H.

    1986-01-01

    Drawing on personal interviews, case histories, and the archives of the Atomic Energy Commission, Professor Ball discusses the American nuclear-testing program from 1951 to 1963, the impact of the testing on people living downwind from the Nevada Test Site, long-term effects of radiation exposure, and the clash between the ''downwinders'' and the government

  12. 77 FR 2948 - Notice of Funding Availability for the Rural Energy for America Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... grant for Fiscal Year 2012 funds. Applicants may only submit one energy audit grant application and one... Rural Energy for America Program (REAP) for Fiscal Year 2012 for financial assistance as follows: grants... energy systems and for energy efficiency improvement projects; grants for conducting energy audits...

  13. Supporting Museums--Serving Communities: An Evaluation of the Museums for America Program. Full Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apley, Alice; Frankel, Susan; Goldman, Elizabeth; Streitburger, Kim

    2011-01-01

    The Institute of Museum and Library Services is the primary source of federal support for the nation's museums. Museums for America (MFA) is the largest IMLS grant program for museums; it supports institutions by investing in high-priority, high-value activities that are clearly linked to the institution's strategic plan and enhance its value to…

  14. Supporting Museums--Serving Communities: An Evaluation of the Museums for America Program. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Institute of Museum and Library Services, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Museums for America (MFA) is the largest IMLS grant program for museums; it supports institutions by investing in high-priority, high-value activities that are clearly linked to the institution's strategic plan and enhance its value to its community. MFA grants situate projects within a framework of meeting three strategic goals: engaging…

  15. Paediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation training program in Latin-America: the RIBEPCI experience

    OpenAIRE

    L?pez-Herce, Jes?s; Matamoros, Martha M.; Moya, Luis; Almonte, Enma; Coronel, Diana; Urbano, Javier; Carrillo, ?ngel; del Castillo, Jimena; Menc?a, Santiago; Moral, Ram?n; Ordo?ez, Flora; S?nchez, Carlos; Lagos, Lina; Johnson, Mar?a; Mendoza, Ovidio

    2017-01-01

    Background To describe the design and to present the results of a paediatric and neonatal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training program adapted to Latin-America. Methods A paediatric CPR coordinated training project was set up in several Latin-American countries with the instructional and scientific support of the Spanish Group for Paediatric and Neonatal CPR. The program was divided into four phases: CPR training and preparation of instructors; training for instructors; supervised tea...

  16. Methods and challenges for the health impact assessment of vaccination programs in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Sartori, Ana Marli Christovam; Nascimento, Andr?ia de F?tima; Yuba, T?nia Yuka; de So?rez, Patr?cia Coelho; Novaes, Hillegonda Maria Dutilh

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe methods and challenges faced in the health impact assessment of vaccination programs, focusing on the pneumococcal conjugate and rotavirus vaccines in Latin America and the Caribbean. METHODS For this narrative review, we searched for the terms "rotavirus", "pneumococcal", "conjugate vaccine", "vaccination", "program", and "impact" in the databases Medline and LILACS. The search was extended to the grey literature in Google Scholar. No limits were defined for pu...

  17. Methods and challenges for the health impact assessment of vaccination programs in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, Ana Marli Christovam; Nascimento, Andréia de Fátima; Yuba, Tânia Yuka; Soárez, Patrícia Coelho de; Novaes, Hillegonda Maria Dutilh

    2015-01-01

    To describe methods and challenges faced in the health impact assessment of vaccination programs, focusing on the pneumococcal conjugate and rotavirus vaccines in Latin America and the Caribbean. For this narrative review, we searched for the terms "rotavirus", "pneumococcal", "conjugate vaccine", "vaccination", "program", and "impact" in the databases Medline and LILACS. The search was extended to the grey literature in Google Scholar. No limits were defined for publication year. Original articles on the health impact assessment of pneumococcal and rotavirus vaccination programs in Latin America and the Caribbean in English, Spanish or Portuguese were included. We identified 207 articles. After removing duplicates and assessing eligibility, we reviewed 33 studies, 25 focusing on rotavirus and eight on pneumococcal vaccination programs. The most frequent studies were ecological, with time series analysis or comparing pre- and post-vaccination periods. The main data sources were: health information systems; population-, sentinel- or laboratory-based surveillance systems; statistics reports; and medical records from one or few health care services. Few studies used primary data. Hospitalization and death were the main outcomes assessed. Over the last years, a significant number of health impact assessments of pneumococcal and rotavirus vaccination programs have been conducted in Latin America and the Caribbean. These studies were carried out few years after the programs were implemented, meet the basic methodological requirements and suggest positive health impact. Future assessments should consider methodological issues and challenges arisen in these first studies conducted in the region.

  18. Methods and challenges for the health impact assessment of vaccination programs in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Marli Christovam Sartori

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe methods and challenges faced in the health impact assessment of vaccination programs, focusing on the pneumococcal conjugate and rotavirus vaccines in Latin America and the Caribbean. METHODS For this narrative review, we searched for the terms "rotavirus", "pneumococcal", "conjugate vaccine", "vaccination", "program", and "impact" in the databases Medline and LILACS. The search was extended to the grey literature in Google Scholar. No limits were defined for publication year. Original articles on the health impact assessment of pneumococcal and rotavirus vaccination programs in Latin America and the Caribbean in English, Spanish or Portuguese were included. RESULTS We identified 207 articles. After removing duplicates and assessing eligibility, we reviewed 33 studies, 25 focusing on rotavirus and eight on pneumococcal vaccination programs. The most frequent studies were ecological, with time series analysis or comparing pre- and post-vaccination periods. The main data sources were: health information systems; population-, sentinel- or laboratory-based surveillance systems; statistics reports; and medical records from one or few health care services. Few studies used primary data. Hospitalization and death were the main outcomes assessed. CONCLUSIONS Over the last years, a significant number of health impact assessments of pneumococcal and rotavirus vaccination programs have been conducted in Latin America and the Caribbean. These studies were carried out few years after the programs were implemented, meet the basic methodological requirements and suggest positive health impact. Future assessments should consider methodological issues and challenges arisen in these first studies conducted in the region.

  19. Status of nuclear power programs in South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spitalnik, J.

    2010-10-01

    Analysis of nuclear power plants construction in four South American countries - Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Uruguay - is made based on programs set up by government specialized agencies. In Argentina, in a time-span up to 2023, the nuclear power program considers a five-fold increase of the current installed capacity reaching some 5,000 M We. The Brazilian reference scenario will install additional 4,000 M We, up to 2030, to reach a total installed capacity of about 6,000 M We. Other scenarios could bring this total to some 8,000 - 10,000 M We. Chile and Uruguay have started strategic studies to place the nuclear power option in the future energy matrix of the country. The government of Chile set up, in 2007, a Task Group to determine whether nuclear power could be considered a viable option. This Group concluded that nuclear power is a mature, safe competitive, and low carbon emitter technology that could be considered a viable option. A Nuclear Advisory Group was created who made studies to install a nuclear power plant in the 2016-2021 time-span. In December 2008, the Uruguayan Government created a high level Working Group to establish the feasibility conditions for Nuclear Power Generation in the country. (Author)

  20. The Applied Meteorology Unit: Nineteen Years Successfully Transitioning Research Into Operations for America's Space Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madura, John T.; Bauman, William H., III; Merceret, Francis J.; Roeder, William P.; Brody, Frank C.; Hagemeyer, Bartlett C.

    2011-01-01

    The Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) provides technology development and transition services to improve operational weather support to America's space program . The AMU was founded in 1991 and operates under a triagency Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the United States Air Force (USAF) and the National Weather Service (NWS) (Ernst and Merceret, 1995). It is colocated with the 45th Weather Squadron (45WS) at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) and funded by the Space Shuttle Program . Its primary customers are the 45WS, the Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) operated for NASA by the NWS at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston, TX, and the NWS forecast office in Melbourne, FL (MLB). The gap between research and operations is well known. All too frequently, the process of transitioning research to operations fails for various reasons. The mission of the AMU is in essence to bridge this gap for America's space program.

  1. [The modeling of science: the example of North America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morán-Mendoza, Angel Onofre

    2004-01-01

    Science is a complex human activity that is modeled by a myriad of factors beyond the researcher's control, especially in the medical sciences, where human and economic resources, as well as bioethical and regulatory factors play an important role. Bioethical and regulatory factors are similar between the US, Canada and Mexico, however these countries differ markedly in their economic and human resources: In Canada and the US there are government institutions (CIHR and NIH, respectively) to specifically provide funding to health research, while in Mexico the principal source of funding for all sciences is the National Council for Science and Technology (CONACYT). The NIH budget for clinical research alone during 2002 was over 7 US billion dollars; the CIHR funding for health research projects was approximately 300 US million dollars, while the support from CONACYT for research and infrastructure in health was aproximately 70 US million dollars. In the year 2000, the US had 8.17 researchers in all areas per 1,000 habitants--of the economically active population (EAP)--, Canada had 5.78 and Mexico 0.55 researchers. These factors impact greatly the scientific productivity: While Canada and the US contributed in 1991-1998 with 31.4% of the world's scientific productivity--measured as the number of articles published--, Latin America contributed with only 2.4% of the world's productivity. This paper also discusses other factors that model science, scientific inquiry, and scientific activity such as, the role of the industry, the media and scientific journals. How these factors influence the Medical Sciences in North America is exemplified herein.

  2. Model Program Evaluations. Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkansas Safe Schools Initiative Division, 2002

    2002-01-01

    There are probably thousands of programs and courses intended to prevent or reduce violence in this nation's schools. Evaluating these many programs has become a problem or goal in itself. There are now many evaluation programs, with many levels of designations, such as model, promising, best practice, exemplary and noteworthy. "Model program" is…

  3. Central America Field Epidemiology Training Program (CA FETP): a pathway to sustainable public health capacity development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Augusto; Cáceres, Victor M

    2008-12-16

    The Central America Field Epidemiology Training Program (CA FETP) is a public health capacity-building training programme aimed at developing high-caliber field epidemiologists at various levels of the public health system. It began in 2000 as part of the effort to rebuild public health infrastructure in six Central American and Caribbean countries following the devastation of Hurricanes Mitch and Georges in late 1998. Since then, the CA FETP has evolved from one regional training programme managed by CDC to several national FETPs with each country assuming ownership of its domestic programme. The curriculum is competency-based, and is divided into a three-tiered training pyramid that corresponds to the needs at the local, district and central levels of the health system. Trainees at each tier spend about 20% of their time in the classroom and 80% in the field implementing what they have learned while being mentored by graduates of the programme. FETP trainees have responded to multiple natural disasters and conducted hundreds of investigations including surveillance evaluations, outbreak responses and planned studies. Also graduates of the CA FETP are assuming influential positions in their respective ministries. As countries meet the challenge of institutionalizing their programmes, the CA FETP concept will increasingly be recognized as a model for sustainable public health capacity development.

  4. Central America Field Epidemiology Training Program (CA FETP: a pathway to sustainable public health capacity development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cáceres Victor M

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Central America Field Epidemiology Training Program (CA FETP is a public health capacity-building training programme aimed at developing high-caliber field epidemiologists at various levels of the public health system. It began in 2000 as part of the effort to rebuild public health infrastructure in six Central American and Caribbean countries following the devastation of Hurricanes Mitch and Georges in late 1998. Since then, the CA FETP has evolved from one regional training programme managed by CDC to several national FETPs with each country assuming ownership of its domestic programme. The curriculum is competency-based, and is divided into a three-tiered training pyramid that corresponds to the needs at the local, district and central levels of the health system. Trainees at each tier spend about 20% of their time in the classroom and 80% in the field implementing what they have learned while being mentored by graduates of the programme. FETP trainees have responded to multiple natural disasters and conducted hundreds of investigations including surveillance evaluations, outbreak responses and planned studies. Also graduates of the CA FETP are assuming influential positions in their respective ministries. As countries meet the challenge of institutionalizing their programmes, the CA FETP concept will increasingly be recognized as a model for sustainable public health capacity development.

  5. Central America Field Epidemiology Training Program (CA FETP): a pathway to sustainable public health capacity development

    OpenAIRE

    L?pez, Augusto; C?ceres, Victor M

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The Central America Field Epidemiology Training Program (CA FETP) is a public health capacity-building training programme aimed at developing high-caliber field epidemiologists at various levels of the public health system. It began in 2000 as part of the effort to rebuild public health infrastructure in six Central American and Caribbean countries following the devastation of Hurricanes Mitch and Georges in late 1998. Since then, the CA FETP has evolved from one regional training pr...

  6. Basic physics program for a low energy antiproton source in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, B.E.; Nieto, M.M.

    1987-01-01

    We summarize much of the important science that could be learned at a North American low energy antiproton source. It is striking that there is such a diverse and multidisciplinary program that would be amenable to exploration. Spanning the range from high energy particle physics to nuclear physics, atomic physics, and condensed matter physics, the program promises to offer many new insights into these disparate branches of science. It is abundantly clear that the scientific case for rapidly proceeding towards such a capability in North America is both alluring and strong. 38 refs., 2 tabs

  7. Palliative care education in Latin America: A systematic review of training programs for healthcare professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vindrola-Padros, Cecilia; Mertnoff, Rosa; Lasmarias, Cristina; Gómez-Batiste, Xavier

    2018-02-01

    The integration of palliative care (PC) education into medical and nursing curricula has been identified as an international priority. PC education has undergone significant development in Latin America, but gaps in the integration of PC courses into undergraduate and postgraduate curricula remain. The aim of our review was to systematically examine the delivery of PC education in Latin America in order to explore the content and method of delivery of current PC programs, identify gaps in the availability of education opportunities, and document common barriers encountered in the course of their implementation. We carried out a systematic review of peer-reviewed academic articles and grey literature. Peer-reviewed articles were obtained from the following databases: CINAHL Plus, Embase, the Web of Science, and Medline. Grey literature was obtained from the following directories: the International Association for Hospice and Palliative Care's Global Directory of Education in Palliative Care, the Worldwide Hospice Palliative Care Alliance's lists of palliative care resources, the Latin American Association for Palliative Care's training resources, and the Latin American Atlas of Palliative Care. The inclusion criteria were that the work: (1) focused on describing PC courses; (2) was aimed at healthcare professionals; and (3) was implemented in Latin America. The PRISMA checklist was employed to guide the reporting of methods and findings. We found 36 programs that were delivered in 8 countries. Most of the programs were composed of interdisciplinary teams, taught at a postgraduate level, focused on pain and symptom management, and utilized classroom-based methods. The tools for evaluating the courses were rarely reported. The main barriers during implementation included: a lack of recognition of the importance of PC education, a lack of funding, and the unavailability of trained teaching staff. Considerable work needs to be done to improve the delivery of PC

  8. The Onchocerciasis Elimination Program for the Americas: a history of partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Blanks

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available The decision in 1987 by the pharmaceutical firm Merck & Co. to provide Mectizan® (ivermectin free of charge to river blindness control programs has challenged the international public health community to find effective ways to distribute the drug to rural populations most affected by onchocerciasis. In the Americas, PAHO responded to that challenge by calling for the elimination of all morbidity from onchocerciasis from the Region by the year 2007 through mass distribution of ivermectin. Since 1991, a multinational, multiagency partnership (consisting of PAHO, the endemic countries, nongovernmental development organizations, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta, Georgia, as well as academic institutions and funding agencies has developed the political, financial, and technical support needed to move toward the realization of that goal. This partnership is embodied in the Onchocerciasis Elimination Program for the Americas (OEPA, which is supported by the River Blindness Foundation (RBF and now by the Carter Center. OEPA was conceived as a means of maintaining a regional initiative to eliminate what is otherwise a low priority disease. Since its inception in 1993, the OEPA has provided more than US$ 2 million in financial, managerial, and technical assistance to stimulate and/or support programs in Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico, and Venezuela, so as to take full advantage of the Merck donation. Now halfway into a five-year, US$ 4 million grant provided through the Inter-American Development Bank, the OEPA's capacity to support the regional initiative is assured through 1999.

  9. Strategies for establishing organ transplant programs in developing countries: the Latin America and Caribbean experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Pestana, José Osmar; Duro-Garcia, Valter

    2006-07-01

    The Latin America and Caribbean region is composed of 39 countries. It is remarkable the progress of transplantation in the region in despite of the low economic resources when compared to other regions. The criteria for brain death are well established and culturally accepted. The consent for retrieval is based on required family consent in most countries. The regulations for living donors are also well established, with restrictions to unrelated donors and prohibition of any kind of commerce. The access to transplant is limited by the model of public financing by each country, and those with public universal coverage have no financial restrictions to cover the costs for any citizen; in countries with restricted coverage, the access is restricted to the employment status. There is a progressive increment in the annual number of solid organ transplants in Latin America, reaching near 10,000 in 2004, accomplished by adequate legislation that is also concerned with the prohibition of organ commerce.

  10. Kids on the Move: Afterschool Programs Promoting Healthy Eating and Physical Activity. America After 3PM Special Report. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afterschool Alliance, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Afterschool programs continue to make advances when it comes to providing students with nutritious foods, keeping them physically fit and promoting health. Such programs have great potential to help prevent obesity and instill lifelong healthy habits, serving more than 10 million children and youth across America, with more than 19 million more…

  11. Integrated Modeling and Assessment of Climate Change Mitigation in North America: Lessons learned from Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olguin-Alvarez, M. I.; Kurz, W. A.; Wayson, C.; Birdsey, R.; Richardson, K.; Angeles, G.; Vargas, B.; Corral, J.; Magnan, M.; Fellows, M.; Morken, S.; Maldonado, V.; Mascorro, V.; Meneses, C.; Galicia, G.; Serrano, E.

    2016-12-01

    The Government of Mexico has recently designed a system of measurement, reporting and verification (MRV) to account for the emissions and removals of greenhouse gases (GHG) associated with the country's forest sector. This system reports national-scale GHG emissions based on the "stock-difference" approach combining information from two sets of measurements from the national forest inventory and remote sensing data. However, consistent with the commitments made by the country to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the MRV system must strive to reduce, as far as practicable, the uncertainties associated with national estimates on GHG fluxes. Since 2012, the Mexican government through its National Forestry Commission, with support from the North America Commission of Environmental Cooperation, the Forest Services of Canada and USA, the SilvaCarbon Program and research institutes in Mexico, has made progress towards the use of carbon dynamics models ("gain-loss" approach) to reduce uncertainty of the GHG estimates in strategic landscapes. In Mexico, most of the forests are under social tenure where management includes a wide array of activities (e.g. selective harvesting, firewood collection). Altering these diverse management activities (REDD+ strategies as well as harvested wood products), can augment their mitigation potential. Here we present the main steps conducted to compile and integrate information from forest inventories, remote sensing, disturbance data and ecosystem carbon transfers to generate inputs required to calibrate these models and validate their outputs. The analyses are supported by the use of the CBM-CFS3 model with the appropriate modification of the model parameters and input data according to the 2006 guidelines of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) for preparing Tier 3-GHG inventories. The ultimate goal of this tri-national effort is to show how the data and tools developed for carbon

  12. Program Analysis as Model Checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Mads Chr.

    and abstract interpretation. Model checking views the program as a finite automaton and tries to prove logical properties over the automaton model, or present a counter-example if not possible — with a focus on precision. Abstract interpretation translates the program semantics into abstract semantics...... are considered, among others numerical analysis of c programs, and worst-case execution time analysis of ARM programs. It is shown how lattice automata allow automatic and manual tuning of the precision and efficiency of the verification procedure. In the case of worst-case execution time analysis a sound......Software programs are proliferating throughout modern life, to a point where even the simplest appliances such as lightbulbs contain software, in addition to the software embedded in cars and airplanes. The correct functioning of these programs is therefore of the utmost importance, for the quality...

  13. Evaluation of the RAQMS Regional Model During the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment-North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H.; Pierce, R.; Crawford, J. H.; Considine, D. B.; Al-Saadi, J. A.; Kittaka, C.; Hitchman, M.; Tripoli, G. J.

    2009-12-01

    The Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment-North America (INTEX-A) field campaign took place over North America (NA) and the Atlantic during July-August 2004. Among the goals of INTEX-A were to characterize the composition of the troposphere over NA and the outflow of pollution from NA, and to validate satellite observations of tropospheric composition. We test and improve the regional component of the Real-time Air Quality Modeling System (RAQMSN) using the comprehensive dataset, including surface, ozonesonde, aircraft, and satellite measurements of ozone and its precursors obtained during INTEX-A. We show that RAQMSN is able to reproduce the major characteristics of tropospheric ozone-CO-NOx-hydrocarbon chemistry over NA during INTEX-A. RAQMSN CO and tropospheric NO2 columns are highly correlated with those of MOPITT and SCIAMACHY, respectively. The model high NO2 bias in the Ohio River Valley reflects the fact that the emission inventory used did not take into account the reduced power plant NOx emissions from this region in 2004 as a result of pollution control programs. The model simulates well the strong day-to-day variability of O3 in the tropopause region as seen in the IONS (INTEX Ozonesonde Network Study) ozonesonde data, but shows more stratospherically influenced air in the upper troposphere (UT). The model is also able to simulate the westerly outflow of O3 to the Atlantic as revealed by the tropospheric ozone residual (TOR, July-August 2005-2008 climatology) data from OMI/MLS. We compare RAQMSN simulations with NASA DC-8 in-situ CO, NO2, O3, and total PAN observations during INTEX-A. The simulated CO is within 10 ppbv of the observations except below 900 hPa where the model is about 40 ppbv too high, consistent with a recent report that the national anthropogenic emission inventory from the US EPA is too high by 60% in summer. While overestimated in the boundary layer, NO2 and PAN are underestimated in the UT. Model lightning NOx emissions are

  14. Dynamic programming models and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Denardo, Eric V

    2003-01-01

    Introduction to sequential decision processes covers use of dynamic programming in studying models of resource allocation, methods for approximating solutions of control problems in continuous time, production control, more. 1982 edition.

  15. Operational model evaluation for particulate matter in Europe and North America in the context of AQMEII

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Solazzo, E.; Bianconi, R.; Pirovano, G.; Matthias, V.; Vautard, R.; Moran, M.D.; Wyat Appel, K.; Bessagnet, B.; Brandt, J.; Christensen, J.H.; Chemel, C.; Coll, I.; Ferreira, J.; Forkel, R.; Francis, X.V.; Grell, G.; Grossi, P.; Hansen, A.B.; Miranda, A.I.; Nopmongcol, U.; Prank, M.; Sartelet, K.N.; Schaap, M.; Silver, J.D.; Sokhi, R.S.; Vira, J.; Werhahn, J.; Wolke, R.; Yarwood, G.; Zhang, J.; Rao, S.T.; Galmarini, S.

    2012-01-01

    Ten state-of-the-science regional air quality (AQ) modeling systems have been applied to continental-scale domains in North America and Europe for full-year simulations of 2006 in the context of Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII), whose main goals are model

  16. A ''model'' geophysics program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyquist, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    In 1993, I tested a radio-controlled airplane designed by Jim Walker of Brigham Young University for low-elevation aerial photography. Model-air photography retains most of the advantages of standard aerial photography --- the photographs can be used to detect lineaments, to map roads and buildings, and to construct stereo pairs to measure topography --- and it is far less expensive. Proven applications on the Oak Ridge Reservation include: updating older aerial records to document new construction; using repeated overflights of the same area to capture seasonal changes in vegetation and the effects of major storms; and detecting waste trench boundaries from the color and character of the overlying grass. Aerial photography is only one of many possible applications of radio-controlled aircraft. Currently, I am funded by the Department of Energy's Office of Technology Development to review the state of the art in microavionics, both military and civilian, to determine ways this emerging technology can be used for environmental site characterization. Being particularly interested in geophysical applications, I am also collaborating with electrical engineers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to design a model plane that will carry a 3-component flux-gate magnetometer and a global positioning system, which I hope to test in the spring of 1994

  17. Model evaluation and ensemble modelling of surface-level ozone in Europe and North America in the context of AQMEII

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Solazzo, E.; Bianconi, R.; Vautard, R.; Appel, K.W.; Moran, M.D.; Hogrefe, C.; Bessagnet, B.; Brandt, J.; Christensen, J.H.; Chemel, C.; Coll, I.; Denier van der Gon, H.A.C.; Ferreira, J.; Forkel, R.; Francis, X.V.; Grell, G.; Grossi, P.; Hansen, A.B.; Jeričević, A.; Kraljević, L.; Miranda, A.I.; Nopmongcol, U.; Pirovano, G.; Prank, M.; Riccio, A.; Sartelet, K.N.; Schaap, M.; Silver, J.D.; Sokhi, R.S.; Vira, J.; Werhahn, J.; Wolke, R.; Yarwood, G.; Zhang, J.; Rao, S.; Galmarini, S.

    2012-01-01

    More than ten state-of-the-art regional air quality models have been applied as part of the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII). These models were run by twenty independent groups in Europe and North America. Standardised modelling outputs over a full year (2006) from each

  18. Hyperparameterization of soil moisture statistical models for North America with Ensemble Learning Models (Elm)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, P. D.; Brener, G.; Duffy, D.; Nearing, G. S.; Pelissier, C.

    2017-12-01

    Hyperparameterization, of statistical models, i.e. automated model scoring and selection, such as evolutionary algorithms, grid searches, and randomized searches, can improve forecast model skill by reducing errors associated with model parameterization, model structure, and statistical properties of training data. Ensemble Learning Models (Elm), and the related Earthio package, provide a flexible interface for automating the selection of parameters and model structure for machine learning models common in climate science and land cover classification, offering convenient tools for loading NetCDF, HDF, Grib, or GeoTiff files, decomposition methods like PCA and manifold learning, and parallel training and prediction with unsupervised and supervised classification, clustering, and regression estimators. Continuum Analytics is using Elm to experiment with statistical soil moisture forecasting based on meteorological forcing data from NASA's North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS). There Elm is using the NSGA-2 multiobjective optimization algorithm for optimizing statistical preprocessing of forcing data to improve goodness-of-fit for statistical models (i.e. feature engineering). This presentation will discuss Elm and its components, including dask (distributed task scheduling), xarray (data structures for n-dimensional arrays), and scikit-learn (statistical preprocessing, clustering, classification, regression), and it will show how NSGA-2 is being used for automate selection of soil moisture forecast statistical models for North America.

  19. The Effectiveness of Secondary Math Teachers from Teach For America and the Teaching Fellows Programs. NCEE 2013-4015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Melissa A.; Chiang, Hanley S.; Silva, Tim; McConnell, Sheena; Sonnenfeld, Kathy; Erbe, Anastasia; Puma, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Teach For America (TFA) and the Teaching Fellows programs are an important and growing source of teachers of hard-to-staff subjects in high-poverty schools, but comprehensive evidence of their effectiveness has been limited. This report presents findings from the first large-scale random assignment study of secondary math teachers from these…

  20. Promoting Social Equity, Diversity, and Inclusion through Accreditation: Comparing National and International Standards for Public Affairs Programs in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubaii, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This purpose of this study is to examine the extent to which accreditation of public affairs programs can be a tool to advance social equity, diversity, and inclusion. The paper is presented in the context of the widespread acceptance of the importance of addressing social inequalities in Latin America and the critical role that public…

  1. Ecosystem Demography Model: Scaling Vegetation Dynamics Across South America

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This model product contains the source code for the Ecosystem Demography Model (ED version 1.0) as well as model input and output data for a portion of...

  2. Model Checker for Java Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Willem

    2007-01-01

    Java Pathfinder (JPF) is a verification and testing environment for Java that integrates model checking, program analysis, and testing. JPF consists of a custom-made Java Virtual Machine (JVM) that interprets bytecode, combined with a search interface to allow the complete behavior of a Java program to be analyzed, including interleavings of concurrent programs. JPF is implemented in Java, and its architecture is highly modular to support rapid prototyping of new features. JPF is an explicit-state model checker, because it enumerates all visited states and, therefore, suffers from the state-explosion problem inherent in analyzing large programs. It is suited to analyzing programs less than 10kLOC, but has been successfully applied to finding errors in concurrent programs up to 100kLOC. When an error is found, a trace from the initial state to the error is produced to guide the debugging. JPF works at the bytecode level, meaning that all of Java can be model-checked. By default, the software checks for all runtime errors (uncaught exceptions), assertions violations (supports Java s assert), and deadlocks. JPF uses garbage collection and symmetry reductions of the heap during model checking to reduce state-explosion, as well as dynamic partial order reductions to lower the number of interleavings analyzed. JPF is capable of symbolic execution of Java programs, including symbolic execution of complex data such as linked lists and trees. JPF is extensible as it allows for the creation of listeners that can subscribe to events during searches. The creation of dedicated code to be executed in place of regular classes is supported and allows users to easily handle native calls and to improve the efficiency of the analysis.

  3. Designing Academic Leadership Minor Programs: Emerging Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diallo, Lamine; Gerhardt, Kris

    2017-01-01

    With a growing number of leadership programs in universities and colleges in North America, leadership educators and researchers are engaged in a wide ranging dialogue to propose clear processes, content, and designs for providing academic leadership education. This research analyzes the curriculum design of 52 institutions offering a "Minor…

  4. Analysis of subsidence in northeastern Venezuela as a discriminator of tectonic models for northern South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erikson, Johan P.; Pindell, James L.

    1993-10-01

    Subsidence analysis of northeastern Venezuela's exposed, parautochthonous Lower Cretaceous-Miocene sedimentary section reveals an Atlantic-type passive-margin subsidence history for the entire Cretaceous-middle Eocene interval; Oligocene-Miocene subsidence was rapid and great and was caused by foredeep formation and emplacement of the fold-and-thrust belt that now exposes the passive-margin sedimentary section. Our analyses support tectonic models of South America's northern margin which propose Cenozoic eastward migration of a foredeep along northern South America's late Mesozoic passive margin. The calculated subsidence is inconsistent with tectonic models that propose middle or Late Cretaceous subduction or obduction.

  5. Interactive differential equations modeling program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rust, B.W.; Mankin, J.B.

    1976-01-01

    Due to the recent emphasis on mathematical modeling, many ecologists are using mathematics and computers more than ever, and engineers, mathematicians and physical scientists are now included in ecological projects. However, the individual ecologist, with intuitive knowledge of the system, still requires the means to critically examine and adjust system models. An interactive program was developed with the primary goal of allowing an ecologist with minimal experience in either mathematics or computers to develop a system model. It has also been used successfully by systems ecologists, engineers, and mathematicians. This program was written in FORTRAN for the DEC PDP-10, a remote terminal system at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. However, with relatively minor modifications, it can be implemented on any remote terminal system with a FORTRAN IV compiler, or equivalent. This program may be used to simulate any phenomenon which can be described as a system of ordinary differential equations. The program allows the user to interactively change system parameters and/or initial conditions, to interactively select a set of variables to be plotted, and to model discontinuities in the state variables and/or their derivatives. One of the most useful features to the non-computer specialist is the ability to interactively address the system parameters by name and to interactively adjust their values between simulations. These and other features are described in greater detail

  6. International programs and veterinary public health in the Americas--success, challenges, and possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arambulo, Primo

    2008-09-15

    The veterinary public health (VPH) program at the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) began in 1949 when an arrangement with the newly founded World Health Organization made PAHO its Regional Office for the Americas to serve as the specialized health agency both for the Organization of American States and the United Nations. It started as a Section of Veterinary Medicine to help eradicate rabies on both sides of the US-Mexico border, and PAHO grew to be the biggest VPH program in the world. By providing a political and technical base, PAHO assisted its member states to organize and develop their national VPH programs and activities, and it provides technical cooperation and works with their national counterparts to solve national and local problems. In the 1980s and 1990s, PAHO concentrated that cooperation on several, specific needs: the elimination of dog-transmitted human rabies, hemispheric eradication of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), regional action planning for food safety, control/eradication of bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis, and surveillance and prevention of emerging zoonoses and food-borne diseases. The Pan American centers developed a number of diagnostic antigens and a continental system for the surveillance of FMD and vesicular diseases, using geographic quadrant technology to augment sensitivity, analyze data, and make decisions. Another visible accomplishment is the elimination of hydatidosis in the endemic countries and regions of the southern cone. In addition, the VPH program of PAHO pioneered the mobilization of the private sector to participate in official programs. Nevertheless, privatization of animal and human health services has had a negative effect on human resources and infrastructure by weakening essential epidemiological functions in some countries. Today, there is a need for closer coordination between veterinary medicine and medical services. Practically all potential bioterrorism agents are zoonoses, and it is cost

  7. STABLISHING A DERADICALIZATION/DISENGAGEMENT MODEL FOR AMERICA'S CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES: RECOMMENDATIONS FOR COUNTERING PRISON RADICALIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, Tony C.

    2013-01-01

    CHDS State/Local Prison radicalization has been identified as a potentially significant threat to Americas homeland security. When considering the inmate population currently housed within the Federal Bureau of Prisons with a terrorism nexus and the fact that 95 percent of our inmate population will return to our communities, the need for a proactive posture to prison radicalization becomes evident. Currently, the United States has no prison deradicalization program. This thesis provides a...

  8. Evaluation of six NEHRP B/C crustal amplification models proposed for use in western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boore, David; Campbell, Kenneth W.

    2016-01-01

    We evaluate six crustal amplification models based on National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) B/C crustal profiles proposed for use in western North America (WNA) and often used in other active crustal regions where crustal properties are unknown. One of the models is based on an interpolation of generic rock velocity profiles previously proposed for WNA and central and eastern North America (CENA), in conjunction with material densities based on an updated velocity–density relationship. A second model is based on the velocity profile used to develop amplification factors for the Next Generation Attenuation (NGA)‐West2 project. A third model is based on a near‐surface velocity profile developed from the NGA‐West2 site database. A fourth model is based on velocity and density profiles originally proposed for use in CENA but recently used to represent crustal properties in California. We propose two alternatives to this latter model that more closely represent WNA crustal properties. We adopt a value of site attenuation (κ0) for each model that is either recommended by the author of the model or proposed by us. Stochastic simulation is used to evaluate the Fourier amplification factors and their impact on response spectra associated with each model. Based on this evaluation, we conclude that among the available models evaluated in this study the NEHRP B/C amplification model of Boore (2016) best represents median crustal amplification in WNA, although the amplification models based on the crustal profiles of Kamai et al. (2013, 2016, unpublished manuscript, see Data and Resources) and Yenier and Atkinson (2015), the latter adjusted to WNA crustal properties, can be used to represent epistemic uncertainty.

  9. Open Business Models (Latin America) - Phase II | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Open business is a different way of doing business related to information, knowledge and culture, in which intellectual property does not play the role of being either the primary incentive or the primary source of remuneration. Open business models include, for example, making content or services available free of charge ...

  10. Renewable energy for America`s cities: Advanced Community Energy Systems Proposed Research, Development and Demonstration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleason, T.C.J.

    1993-01-01

    The first purpose of this paper is to describe ACES technologies and their potential impact on the environment, the US energy supply system and economy. The second purpose is to recommend an R,D&D program to the US Department of Energy which has as its goal the rapid development of the most promising of the new technologies. ACES supply thermal energy to groups of buildings, communities and cities in the form of hot or chilled water for building space heating, domestic hot water or air conditioning. The energy is supplied via a network of insulated, underground pipes linking central sources of supply with buildings. ACES, by definition, employ very high energy efficiency conversion technologies such as cogeneration, heat pumps, and heat activated chillers. These systems also use renewable energy sources such as solar energy, winter cold, wind, and surface and subsurface warm and cold waters. ACES compose a new generation of community-scale building heating and air conditioning supply technologies. These new systems can effect a rapid and economical conversion of existing cities to energy supply by very efficient energy conversion systems and renewable energy systems. ACES technologies are the most promising near term means by which cities can make the transition from our present damaging dependence on fossil fuel supply systems to an economically and environmentally sustainable reliance on very high efficiency and renewable energy supply systems. When fully developed to serve an urban area, ACES will constitute a new utility system which can attain a level of energy efficiency, economy and reliance on renewable energy sources not possible with currently available energy supply systems.

  11. New England Wind Forum: A Wind Powering America Project, Newsletter #5 -- January 2010, Wind and Hydropower Technologies Program (WHTP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grace, R. C.; Gifford, J.

    2010-01-01

    Wind Powering America program launched the New England Wind Forum (NEWF) in 2005 to provide a single comprehensive source of up-to-date, Web-based information on a broad array of wind energy issues pertaining to New England. The NEWF newsletter provides New England stakeholders with updates on wind energy development in the region. In addition to regional updates, Issue #5 offers an interview with Angus King, former governor of Maine and co-founder of Independence Wind.

  12. The New Weather Radar for America's Space Program in Florida: A Temperature Profile Adaptive Scan Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, L. D.; Petersen, W. A.; Deierling, W.; Roeder, W. P.

    2009-01-01

    A new weather radar is being acquired for use in support of America s space program at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, NASA Kennedy Space Center, and Patrick AFB on the east coast of central Florida. This new radar replaces the modified WSR-74C at Patrick AFB that has been in use since 1984. The new radar is a Radtec TDR 43-250, which has Doppler and dual polarization capability. A new fixed scan strategy was designed to best support the space program. The fixed scan strategy represents a complex compromise between many competing factors and relies on climatological heights of various temperatures that are important for improved lightning forecasting and evaluation of Lightning Launch Commit Criteria (LCC), which are the weather rules to avoid lightning strikes to in-flight rockets. The 0 C to -20 C layer is vital since most generation of electric charge occurs within it and so it is critical in evaluating Lightning LCC and in forecasting lightning. These are two of the most important duties of 45 WS. While the fixed scan strategy that covers most of the climatological variation of the 0 C to -20 C levels with high resolution ensures that these critical temperatures are well covered most of the time, it also means that on any particular day the radar is spending precious time scanning at angles covering less important heights. The goal of this project is to develop a user-friendly, Interactive Data Language (IDL) computer program that will automatically generate optimized radar scan strategies that adapt to user input of the temperature profile and other important parameters. By using only the required scan angles output by the temperature profile adaptive scan strategy program, faster update times for volume scans and/or collection of more samples per gate for better data quality is possible, while maintaining high resolution at the critical temperature levels. The temperature profile adaptive technique will also take into account earth curvature and refraction

  13. Coupled Global-Regional Climate Model Simulations of Future Changes in Hydrology over Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oglesby, R. J.; Erickson, D. J.; Hernandez, J. L.; Irwin, D.

    2005-12-01

    Central America covers a relatively small area, but is topographically very complex, has long coast-lines, large inland bodies of water, and very diverse land cover which is both natural and human-induced. As a result, Central America is plagued by hydrologic extremes, especially major flooding and drought events, in a region where many people still barely manage to eke out a living through subsistence. Therefore, considerable concern exists about whether these extreme events will change, either in magnitude or in number, as climate changes in the future. To address this concern, we have used global climate model simulations of future climate change to drive a regional climate model centered on Central America. We use the IPCC `business as usual' scenario 21st century run made with the NCAR CCSM3 global model to drive the regional model MM5 at 12 km resolution. We chose the `business as usual' scenario to focus on the largest possible changes that are likely to occur. Because we are most interested in near-term changes, our simulations are for the years 2010, 2015, and 2025. A long `present-day run (for 2005) allows us to distinguish between climate variability and any signal due to climate change. Furthermore, a multi-year run with MM5 forced by NCEP reanalyses allows an assessment of how well the coupled global-regional model performs over Central America. Our analyses suggest that the coupled model does a credible job simulating the current climate and hydrologic regime, though lack of sufficient observations strongly complicates this comparison. The suite of model runs for the future years is currently nearing completion, and key results will be presented at the meeting.

  14. Conceptual Modeling via Logic Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    CONCEPTUAL MODELING VIA LOGIC PROGRAMaNG 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) John Burge, Bill Noah, Las Smith 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED 14. DATE OF...interpreter and named it Prolog for middle. He found that his program got into an "Programmation en logique ." It provided the infinite loop unless he used... lA N C I WA v Cruse Mle Submartine 44 0 0 0 0 0835 I 9 33 ICC 33 High F.e cruise Misaile 640 0 8S S44 0 0 High Post cruise missile 840 2 7S 440 too

  15. Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Gerald Michael

    1986-01-01

    Notes the problematical elements of diversity within Latin America, establishes priorities for the social studies curriculum, and reviews what should be taught about its geography, resources, people, religion, customs, economics, politics, history, and international relationships. Lists Latin American Studies programs and published instructional…

  16. Reconciling migration models to the Americas with the variation of North American native mitogenomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achilli, Alessandro; Perego, Ugo A; Lancioni, Hovirag; Olivieri, Anna; Gandini, Francesca; Hooshiar Kashani, Baharak; Battaglia, Vincenza; Grugni, Viola; Angerhofer, Norman; Rogers, Mary P; Herrera, Rene J; Woodward, Scott R; Labuda, Damian; Smith, David Glenn; Cybulski, Jerome S; Semino, Ornella; Malhi, Ripan S; Torroni, Antonio

    2013-08-27

    In this study we evaluated migration models to the Americas by using the information contained in native mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) from North America. Molecular and phylogeographic analyses of B2a mitogenomes, which are absent in Eskimo-Aleut and northern Na-Dene speakers, revealed that this haplogroup arose in North America ∼11-13 ka from one of the founder Paleo-Indian B2 mitogenomes. In contrast, haplogroup A2a, which is typical of Eskimo-Aleuts and Na-Dene, but also present in the easternmost Siberian groups, originated only 4-7 ka in Alaska, led to the first Paleo-Eskimo settlement of northern Canada and Greenland, and contributed to the formation of the Na-Dene gene pool. However, mitogenomes also show that Amerindians from northern North America, without any distinction between Na-Dene and non-Na-Dene, were heavily affected by an additional and distinctive Beringian genetic input. In conclusion, most mtDNA variation (along the double-continent) stems from the first wave from Beringia, which followed the Pacific coastal route. This was accompanied or followed by a second inland migratory event, marked by haplogroups X2a and C4c, which affected all Amerindian groups of Northern North America. Much later, the ancestral A2a carriers spread from Alaska, undertaking both a westward migration to Asia and an eastward expansion into the circumpolar regions of Canada. Thus, the first American founders left the greatest genetic mark but the original maternal makeup of North American Natives was subsequently reshaped by additional streams of gene flow and local population dynamics, making a three-wave view too simplistic.

  17. Predicting geographic distributions of Phacellodomus species (Aves: Furnariidae in South America based on ecological niche modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Salete Gurgel Costa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Phacellodomus Reichenbach, 1853, comprises nine species of Furnariids that occur in South America in open and generally dry areas. This study estimated the geographic distributions of Phacellodomus species in South America by ecological niche modeling. Applying maximum entropy method, models were produced for eight species based on six climatic variables and 949 occurrence records. Since highest climatic suitability for Phacellodomus species has been estimated in open and dry areas, the Amazon rainforest areas are not very suitable for these species. Annual precipitation and minimum temperature of the coldest month are the variables that most influence the models. Phacellodomus species occurred in 35 ecoregions of South America. Chaco and Uruguayan savannas were the ecoregions with the highest number of species. Despite the overall connection of Phacellodomus species with dry areas, species such as P. ruber, P. rufifrons, P. ferrugineigula and P. erythrophthalmus occurred in wet forests and wetland ecoregions.

  18. High invasion potential ofHydrilla verticillatain the Americas predicted using ecological niche modeling combined with genetic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jinning; Xu, Xuan; Tao, Qing; Yi, Panpan; Yu, Dan; Xu, Xinwei

    2017-07-01

    Ecological niche modeling is an effective tool to characterize the spatial distribution of suitable areas for species, and it is especially useful for predicting the potential distribution of invasive species. The widespread submerged plant Hydrilla verticillata (hydrilla) has an obvious phylogeographical pattern: Four genetic lineages occupy distinct regions in native range, and only one lineage invades the Americas. Here, we aimed to evaluate climatic niche conservatism of hydrilla in North America at the intraspecific level and explore its invasion potential in the Americas by comparing climatic niches in a phylogenetic context. Niche shift was found in the invasion process of hydrilla in North America, which is probably mainly attributed to high levels of somatic mutation. Dramatic changes in range expansion in the Americas were predicted in the situation of all four genetic lineages invading the Americas or future climatic changes, especially in South America; this suggests that there is a high invasion potential of hydrilla in the Americas. Our findings provide useful information for the management of hydrilla in the Americas and give an example of exploring intraspecific climatic niche to better understand species invasion.

  19. Development and Analysis of a Hurricane Hazard Model for Disaster Risk Assessment in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pita, G. L.; Gunasekera, R.; Ishizawa, O. A.

    2014-12-01

    Hurricane and tropical storm activity in Central America has consistently caused over the past decades thousands of casualties, significant population displacement, and substantial property and infrastructure losses. As a component to estimate future potential losses, we present a new regional probabilistic hurricane hazard model for Central America. Currently, there are very few openly available hurricane hazard models for Central America. This resultant hazard model would be used in conjunction with exposure and vulnerability components as part of a World Bank project to create country disaster risk profiles that will assist to improve risk estimation and provide decision makers with better tools to quantify disaster risk. This paper describes the hazard model methodology which involves the development of a wind field model that simulates the gust speeds at terrain height at a fine resolution. The HURDAT dataset has been used in this study to create synthetic events that assess average hurricane landfall angles and their variability at each location. The hazard model also then estimates the average track angle at multiple geographical locations in order to provide a realistic range of possible hurricane paths that will be used for risk analyses in all the Central-American countries. This probabilistic hurricane hazard model is then also useful for relating synthetic wind estimates to loss and damage data to develop and calibrate existing empirical building vulnerability curves. To assess the accuracy and applicability, modeled results are evaluated against historical events, their tracks and wind fields. Deeper analyses of results are also presented with a special reference to Guatemala. The findings, interpretations, and conclusions expressed in this paper are entirely those of the authors. They do not necessarily represent the views of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/World Bank and its affiliated organizations, or those of the

  20. Active fault characterization throughout the Caribbean and Central America for seismic hazard modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styron, Richard; Pagani, Marco; Garcia, Julio

    2017-04-01

    The region encompassing Central America and the Caribbean is tectonically complex, defined by the Caribbean plate's interactions with the North American, South American and Cocos plates. Though active deformation over much of the region has received at least cursory investigation the past 50 years, the area is chronically understudied and lacks a modern, synoptic characterization. Regardless, the level of risk in the region - as dramatically demonstrated by the 2010 Haiti earthquake - remains high because of high-vulnerability buildings and dense urban areas home to over 100 million people, who are concentrated near plate boundaries and other major structures. As part of a broader program to study seismic hazard worldwide, the Global Earthquake Model Foundation is currently working to quantify seismic hazard in the region. To this end, we are compiling a database of active faults throughout the region that will be integrated into similar models as recently done in South America. Our initial compilation hosts about 180 fault traces in the region. The faults show a wide range of characteristics, reflecting the diverse styles of plate boundary and plate-margin deformation observed. Regional deformation ranges from highly localized faulting along well-defined strike-slip faults to broad zones of distributed normal or thrust faulting, and from readily-observable yet slowly-slipping structures to inferred faults with geodetically-measured slip rates >10 mm/yr but essentially no geomorphic expression. Furthermore, primary structures such as the Motagua-Polochic Fault Zone (the strike-slip plate boundary between the North American and Caribbean plates in Guatemala) display strong along-strike slip rate gradients, and many other structures are undersea for most or all of their length. A thorough assessment of seismic hazard in the region will require the integration of a range of datasets and techniques and a comprehensive characterization of epistemic uncertainties driving

  1. Program for Volcanic Risk Reduction in the Americas: Translation of Science into Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, Margaret; Pierson, Thomas; Wilkinson, Stuart; Westby, Elizabeth; Driedger, Carolyn; Ewert, John

    2016-04-01

    In 2013, the United States Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Agency for International Development/Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance (USAID/OFDA) inaugurated Volcanic Risk Reduction in the Americas, a program that brings together binational delegations of scientists, civil authorities, and emergency response managers to discuss the challenges of integrating volcano science into crisis response and risk reduction practices. During reciprocal visits, delegations tour areas impacted by volcanic unrest and/or eruption, meet with affected communities, and exchange insights and best practices. The 2013 exchange focused on hazards at Mount Rainier (Washington, USA) and Nevado del Ruiz (Caldas/Tolima, Colombia). Both of these volcanoes are highly susceptible to large volcanic mudflows (lahars). The Colombia-USA exchange allowed participants to share insights on lahar warning systems, self-evacuation planning, and effective education programs for at-risk communities. [See Driedger and Ewert (2015) Abstract 76171 presented at 2015 Fall AGU, San Francisco, Calif., Dec 14-18]. The second exchange, in 2015, took place between the USA and Chile, focusing on the Long Valley volcanic region (California, USA) and Chaitén volcano (Lagos, Chile) - both are centers of rhyolite volcanism. The high viscosity of rhyolite magma can cause explosive eruptions with widespread destruction. The rare but catastrophic "super eruptions" of the world have largely been the result of rhyolite volcanism. Chaitén produced the world's first explosive rhyolite eruption in the age of modern volcano monitoring in 2008-2009. Rhyolite eruptions of similar scale and style have occurred frequently in the Long Valley volcanic region, most recently about 600 years ago. The explosivity and relative rarity of rhyolite eruptions create unique challenges to risk reduction efforts. The recent Chaitén eruption was unexpected - little was known of Chaitén's eruptive history, and because of this, monitoring

  2. The Perceived Role of the Teach for America Program on Teachers' Long-Term Career Aspirations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottfried, Michael A.; Straubhaar, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    In urban school systems, the percentage of teachers that leave the profession is disproportionally high. Part of the driving force for this high rate of teacher turnover are alternative certification programmes, like Teach For America (TFA) which recruits teachers only for a short-term teaching commitment. This study contributes a novel…

  3. Public health programs as surrogates for social action in Suriname, South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peplow, Daniel; Augustine, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the merits of public health activism that advocates for social change in which health is the outcome of interest. We acknowledge that while efforts at the individual level are important, social network models consider the underlying mechanisms that lie outside the public health sector. This paper considers the inequitable health of Indigenous people who bear a disproportionate share of the negative health consequences due to economic development programs that follow an assimilation model. This paper discusses a combination of theoretical constructs to understand and solve the problems at hand. It concludes that while the attention paid to technological and behavioral solutions at the individual level yields important health outcomes, attention should also be paid to structural causes that address social, political and economic barriers to prevent disease, disability and premature death. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Construction cost prediction model for conventional and sustainable college buildings in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othman Subhi Alshamrani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The literature lacks in initial cost prediction models for college buildings, especially comparing costs of sustainable and conventional buildings. A multi-regression model was developed for conceptual initial cost estimation of conventional and sustainable college buildings in North America. RS Means was used to estimate the national average of construction costs for 2014, which was subsequently utilized to develop the model. The model could predict the initial cost per square feet with two structure types made of steel and concrete. The other predictor variables were building area, number of floors and floor height. The model was developed in three major stages, such as preliminary diagnostics on data quality, model development and validation. The developed model was successfully tested and validated with real-time data.

  5. Climate predictability and prediction skill on seasonal time scales over South America from CHFP models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Marisol; Vera, C. S.

    2017-10-01

    This work presents an assessment of the predictability and skill of climate anomalies over South America. The study was made considering a multi-model ensemble of seasonal forecasts for surface air temperature, precipitation and regional circulation, from coupled global circulation models included in the Climate Historical Forecast Project. Predictability was evaluated through the estimation of the signal-to-total variance ratio while prediction skill was assessed computing anomaly correlation coefficients. Both indicators present over the continent higher values at the tropics than at the extratropics for both, surface air temperature and precipitation. Moreover, predictability and prediction skill for temperature are slightly higher in DJF than in JJA while for precipitation they exhibit similar levels in both seasons. The largest values of predictability and skill for both variables and seasons are found over northwestern South America while modest but still significant values for extratropical precipitation at southeastern South America and the extratropical Andes. The predictability levels in ENSO years of both variables are slightly higher, although with the same spatial distribution, than that obtained considering all years. Nevertheless, predictability at the tropics for both variables and seasons diminishes in both warm and cold ENSO years respect to that in all years. The latter can be attributed to changes in signal rather than in the noise. Predictability and prediction skill for low-level winds and upper-level zonal winds over South America was also assessed. Maximum levels of predictability for low-level winds were found were maximum mean values are observed, i.e. the regions associated with the equatorial trade winds, the midlatitudes westerlies and the South American Low-Level Jet. Predictability maxima for upper-level zonal winds locate where the subtropical jet peaks. Seasonal changes in wind predictability are observed that seem to be related to

  6. A Unified Approach to Modeling and Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; Møller-Pedersen, Birger

    2010-01-01

    of this paper is to go back to the future and get inspiration from SIMULA and propose a unied approach. In addition to reintroducing the contributions of SIMULA and the Scandinavian approach to object-oriented programming, we do this by discussing a number of issues in modeling and programming and argue3 why we......SIMULA was a language for modeling and programming and provided a unied approach to modeling and programming in contrast to methodologies based on structured analysis and design. The current development seems to be going in the direction of separation of modeling and programming. The goal...

  7. Configuring a regional model for climate change simulations over South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvão de Souza, Samuel; Araújo Costa, Alexandre; Cassain Sales, Domingo

    2013-04-01

    The Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS), developed at Colorado State University is being used for regional climate simulations at the State University of Ceará in the context of Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX). This work describes configuration tests for simulations over an extended South America CORDEX domain, for a short period (1984 - 1985). The horizontal model grid comprises 182 by 172 points with 50 km spacing, ranging from 85.25W - 20.75W and 58.75S - 15.25N. The regional model was driven by data from the member 1 of the historical run from the global model HadGEM2-ES and regional model precipitation results were compared against GPCP data. The use of large-scale nudging was shown to be a very important parameter, as we tested central nudging timescales ranging from relatively strong (12h) to weak (10 days). Strong nudging was generally associated with a wet bias over the Amazon and Central Brazil, which was reduced as the nudging timescale increased. Simulations with weak nudging, in opposition, tended to produce a dry bias. The role of the width of the nudging "buffer zone" for lateral nudging was also investigated and model results suggest that a small number of points (3, in our case) can indeed be used, with no negative impacts in the model results over the area of interest within its domain We analyzed model sensitivity regarding parameters of plant fisiology (such as root depth and stomatal resistance), and the number of model soil levels, but those showed less influence in model results. In the end, we found that the best possible RAMS configuration that enable investigating climate processes and climate change over South America (especially over the Amazon) is the one that uses a 5-day large-scale nudging timescale, a 3-point "buffer zone" for lateral nudging and a 2,0m deep soil model, with 20 levels.

  8. Triple Helix and European Union (EU Funding: The case of Latin America, especially Mexico and the Seventh European Framework Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Haberleithner

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The following analysis not only seeks to develop new potential intervention models; it also aims to create a detailed analysis of the existing problems with regards to communication among the active participants of Triple Helix (especially in Mexico. The special situation in Latin America with regards to existing corruption, the unequal distribution of power between the government and the private sector, dependence on other economies and other social issues will be analysed in accordance with the main focus of the investigation. The subsequent linking of potential partners to the development of an initiative for submitting a future Triple Helix/FP7 project represent an important contribution to a longer-term perspective on the preceding investigation. The potential partnerships between Europe and Latin America (in addition to other possible world regions, such as, for example, Pacific Asia will create an initial project draft within the scope of the conference.

  9. Vaccination Week in the Americas, 2011: an opportunity to assess the routine vaccination program in the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Daniel; Sodha, Samir V; Kurtis, Hannah J; Ghisays, Gladys; Wannemuehler, Kathleen A; Danovaro-Holliday, M Carolina; Ropero-Álvarez, Alba María

    2015-04-17

    Vaccination Week in the Americas (VWA) is an annual initiative in countries and territories of the Americas every April to highlight the work of national expanded programs on immunization (EPI) and increase access to vaccination services for high-risk population groups. In 2011, as part of VWA, Venezuela targeted children aged less than 6 years in 25 priority border municipalities using social mobilization to increase institution-based vaccination. Implementation of social communication activities was decentralized to the local level. We conducted a survey in one border municipality of Venezuela to evaluate the outcome of VWA 2011 and provide a snapshot of the overall performance of the routine EPI at that level. We conducted a coverage survey, using stratified cluster sampling, in the Venezuelan municipality of Bolivar (bordering Colombia) in August 2011. We collected information for children aged 85%, with a few exceptions. Low levels of VWA awareness among caregivers probably contributed to the limited vaccination of eligible children during the VWA activities in Bolivar in 2011. However, vaccine coverage for most EPI vaccines was high. Additionally, high vaccination card availability and high participation in VWA among those caregivers aware of it in 2011 suggest public trust in the EPI program in the municipality. Health authorities have used survey findings to inform changes to the routine EPI and better VWA implementation in subsequent years.

  10. A Type Graph Model for Java Programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rensink, Arend; Zambon, Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    In this report we present a type graph that models all executable constructs of the Java programming language. Such a model is useful for any graph-based technique that relies on a representation of Java programs as graphs. The model can be regarded as a common representation to which all Java

  11. A Type Graph Model for Java Programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rensink, Arend; Zambon, Eduardo; Lee, D.; Lopes, A.; Poetzsch-Heffter, A.

    2009-01-01

    In this work we present a type graph that models all executable constructs of the Java programming language. Such a model is useful for any graph-based technique that relies on a representation of Java programs as graphs. The model can be regarded as a common representation to which all Java syntax

  12. Educational Program Evaluation Using CIPP Model

    OpenAIRE

    Warju, Warju

    2016-01-01

    There are many models of evaluation that can be used to evaluate a program. However, the most commonly used is the context, input, process, output (CIPP) evaluation models. CIPP evaluation model developed by Stufflebeam and Shinkfield in 1985. The evaluation context is used to give a rational reason a selected program or curriculum to be implemented. A wide scale, context can be evaluated on: the program's objectives, policies that support the vision and mission of the institution, the releva...

  13. Building Program Models Incrementally from Informal Descriptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-10-01

    AD-AOB6 50 STANFORD UNIV CA DEPT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE F/G 9/2 BUILDING PROGRAM MODELS INCREMENTALLY FROM INFORMAL DESCRIPTION--ETC(U) OCT 79 B P...port SCI.ICS.U.79.2 t Building Program Models Incrementally from Informal Descriptions by Brian P. McCune Research sponsored by Defense Advanced...TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Building Program Models Incrementally from Informal Descriptions. , technical, October 1979 6. PERFORMING ORG

  14. Meta-analysis and time series modeling allow a systematic review of primary HIV-1 drug-resistant prevalence in Latin America and Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Antonio Victor Campos; De Moura, Ronald Rodrigues; Da Silva, Ronaldo Celerino; Kamada, Anselmo Jiro; Guimarães, Rafael Lima; Brandão, Lucas André Cavalcanti; Coelho, Hemílio Fernandes Campos; Crovella, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Here we review the prevalence of HIV-1 primary drug resistance in Latin America and Caribbean using meta-analysis as well as time-series modeling. We also discuss whether there could be a drawback to HIV/AIDS programs due to drug resistance in Latin America and Caribbean in the next years. We observed that, although some studies report low or moderate primary drug resistance prevalence in Caribbean countries, this evidence needs to be updated. In other countries, such as Brazil and Argentina, the prevalence of drug resistance appears to be rising. Mutations conferring resistance against reverse transcriptase inhibitors were the most frequent in the analyzed populations (70% of all mutational events). HIV-1 subtype B was the most prevalent in Latin America and the Caribbean, although subtype C and B/F recombinants have significant contributions in Argentina and Brazil. Thus, we suggest that primary drug resistance in Latin America and the Caribbean could have been underestimated. Clinical monitoring should be improved to offer better therapy, reducing the risk for HIV-1 resistance emergence and spread, principally in vulnerable populations, such as men who have sex with men transmission group, sex workers and intravenous drug users.

  15. Petrogenetic Modeling with a Spreadsheet Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Paul Eric

    1988-01-01

    Describes how interactive programs for scientific modeling may be created by using spreadsheet software such as LOTUS 1-2-3. Lists the advantages of using this method. Discusses fractional distillation, batch partial melting, and combination models as examples. (CW)

  16. Great Expectations: Leveraging America's Investment in Educational Technology. The E-Rate at Five, Enhancing Policymaking and New Evaluation Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickard, Norris, Ed.

    In February 2000, the Benton Foundation, with the Center for Children and Technology, released "The E-Rate in America: A Tale of Four Cities." This report is a continuation of that work. Two overarching concerns have emerged in the current policy climate: it is imperative that the E-Rate program is structured in such a way as to maximize…

  17. Applied Integer Programming Modeling and Solution

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Der-San; Dang, Yu

    2011-01-01

    An accessible treatment of the modeling and solution of integer programming problems, featuring modern applications and software In order to fully comprehend the algorithms associated with integer programming, it is important to understand not only how algorithms work, but also why they work. Applied Integer Programming features a unique emphasis on this point, focusing on problem modeling and solution using commercial software. Taking an application-oriented approach, this book addresses the art and science of mathematical modeling related to the mixed integer programming (MIP) framework and

  18. A revised kinematic model for the relative motion between Pacific oceanic plates and North America since the Late Cretaceous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doubrovine, Pavel V.; Tarduno, John A.

    2008-12-01

    The convergence between the Pacific, Farallon, and Kula oceanic plates and the North American plate has provided a driving force for tectonic processes that have shaped the western margin of North America. Yet reconstructions of plate motion in the Pacific basin have traditionally relied on the assumption of fixed hot spots. In the last decade, substantial Cretaceous to Paleogene motion between the Pacific and Atlantic hot spots has been recognized, providing motivation to reevaluate the history of relative motion between Pacific oceanic plates and North America by means of plate circuit reconstructions. This paper presents new kinematic models based on two alternative plate circuits linking the Pacific plate to North America since Late Cretaceous time. When compared to models relying on fixity of Pacific and Indo-Atlantic hot spots, our reconstructions suggest that the Pacific-Kula and Pacific-Farallon ridges were ˜600-1000 km closer to the western margin of North America and hence that the Farallon and Kula plates were smaller in Late Cretaceous to middle Eocene time. These findings cast significant doubt on the viability of a configuration of the Farallon-Kula ridge that juxtaposes the Kula plate with the southern part of the paleo-North American margin during this time interval. The results of our new reconstructions also suggest more oblique convergence between the Farallon (or Kula) plate and North America from the Late Cretaceous to the middle Eocene related to the combination of dominantly northwest motion of the Pacific plate and steady southwest motion of North America. This provides an efficient mechanism for the coast-parallel translation of some accreted terranes of North America. It may also explain the structure of geological units in western North America, such as the Central Belt of the Franciscan Complex, which show a dominant coast-parallel fabric formed during an interval coeval with the episode of oblique convergence.

  19. Model Checking JAVA Programs Using Java Pathfinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havelund, Klaus; Pressburger, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes a translator called JAVA PATHFINDER from JAVA to PROMELA, the "programming language" of the SPIN model checker. The purpose is to establish a framework for verification and debugging of JAVA programs based on model checking. This work should be seen in a broader attempt to make formal methods applicable "in the loop" of programming within NASA's areas such as space, aviation, and robotics. Our main goal is to create automated formal methods such that programmers themselves can apply these in their daily work (in the loop) without the need for specialists to manually reformulate a program into a different notation in order to analyze the program. This work is a continuation of an effort to formally verify, using SPIN, a multi-threaded operating system programmed in Lisp for the Deep-Space 1 spacecraft, and of previous work in applying existing model checkers and theorem provers to real applications.

  20. [External serology quality control programs developed in Latin America with the support of PAHO from 1997 through 2000].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáez-Alquézar, Amadeo; Otani, Marcia M; Sabino, Ester C; Salles, Nanci A; Chamone, Dalton F

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate the quality of serological screening of blood donors in five groups of blood banks in Latin America that participated over the 1997-2000 period in an external serology control project developed with support from the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO). With assistance from PAHO, the Serology Authority of the Pro-Blood Foundation/Blood Center of São Paulo (Fundação Pró-Sangue/Hemocentro de São Paulo), of São Paulo, Brazil, carried out the external quality control project and served as its "organizing center" (OC). The OC developed five external serology quality control "programs" (ESQCPs), or external evaluation activities, for the respective groups of participating blood banks. There was one ESQCP each in 1997, 1999, and 2000, and there were two in 1998. In these five programs, the number of participating blood banks ranged from 13 to 21, and the number of countries ranged from 11 to 16. In each program, the OC used a set of 24 blinded sera samples with different reactivities for the various infectious agents for which screening is obligatory in Brazil. Each participating institution in each program received a sera set, to be processed using that institution's standard screening procedures. After returning its results to the OC, each participant received an answer key for the sera set, to be used in evaluating its own performance. All the individual results were kept strictly confidential. At the end of each program, the OC prepared and sent to all the participants a final report that contained information on the overall results from that program. An analysis of the five programs showed that there was a lack of homogeneity among the countries with respect to the strategies and the parameters used in screening blood donors. Few laboratories screened for human T-cell-lymphotropic virus (beginning with the 1997 program, the respective rates were 17%, 27%, 35%, 39%, and 45%). Rates of screening were also low for antibodies to the hepatitis B core

  1. Mental Models and Programming Aptitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caspersen, Michael Edelgaard; Bennedsen, Jens; Larsen, Kasper Dalgaard

    2007-01-01

    Predicting the success of students participating in introductory programming courses has been an active research area for more than 25 years. Until recently, no variables or tests have had any significant predictive power. However, Dehnadi and Bornat claim to have found a simple test for programm...

  2. Lessons learned in evaluating the Familias Fuertes program in three countries in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Orpinas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This report describes 1 the evaluation of the Familias Fuertes primary prevention program in three countries (Bolivia, Colombia, and Ecuador and 2 the effect of program participation on parenting practices. Familias Fuertes was implemented in Bolivia (10 groups, 96 parents, Colombia (12 groups, 173 parents, and Ecuador (five groups, 42 parents to prevent the initiation and reduce the prevalence of health-compromising behaviors among adolescents by strengthening family relationships and enhancing parenting skills. The program consists of seven group sessions (for 6-12 families designed for parents/caregivers and their 10-14-year-old child. Parents/caregivers answered a survey before the first session and at the completion of the program. The survey measured two important mediating constructs: "positive parenting" and "parental hostility." The Pan American Health Organization provided training for facilitators. After the program, parents/caregivers from all three countries reported significantly higher mean scores for "positive parenting" and significantly lower mean scores for "parental hostility" than at the pre-test. "Positive parenting" practices paired with low "parental hostility" are fundamental to strengthening the relationship between parents/caregivers and the children and reducing adolescents' health-compromising behaviors. More research is needed to examine the long-term impact of the program on adolescent behaviors.

  3. Language Teaching Models in Teacher Training Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Aslan, Alper

    2016-01-01

    Any language teacher who has gone through some kind of training program for the teaching of English should be familiar with various specific language teaching models that constitute the core of the training process. A language teaching model is a guide that helps the trainee to sequence the activities designed for the expectations and needs of learners in a lesson. This paper reviews the common language teaching models in teacher training programs (PPP, OHE, III, TTT, TBLT, ESA, ARC) and disc...

  4. The Applied Meteorology Unit: Nineteen Years Successfully Transitioning Research into Operations for America's Space Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madura, John T.; Bauman, William H.; Merceret, Francis J.; Roeder, William P.; Brody, Frank C.; Hagemeyer, Bartlett C.

    2010-01-01

    The Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) provides technology transition and technique development to improve operational weather support to the Space Shuttle and the entire American space program. The AMU is funded and managed by NASA and operated by a contractor that provides five meteorologists with a diverse mix of advanced degrees, operational experience, and associated skills including data processing, statistics, and the development of graphical user interfaces. The AMU's primary customers are the U.S. Air Force 45th Weather Squadron at Patrick Air Force Base, the National Weather Service Spaceflight Meteorology Group at NASA Johnson Space Center, and the National Weather Service Melbourne FL Forecast Office. The AMU has transitioned research into operations for nineteen years and worked on a wide range of topics, including new forecasting techniques for lightning probability, synoptic peak winds,.convective winds, and summer severe weather; satellite tools to predict anvil cloud trajectories and evaluate camera line of sight for Space Shuttle launch; optimized radar scan strategies; evaluated and implemented local numerical models; evaluated weather sensors; and many more. The AMU has completed 113 projects with 5 more scheduled to be completed by the end of 2010. During this rich history, the AMU and its customers have learned many lessons on how to effectively transition research into operations. Some of these lessons learned include collocating with the operational customer and periodically visiting geographically separated customers, operator submitted projects, consensus tasking process, use of operator primary advocates for each project, customer AMU liaisons with experience in both operations and research, flexibility in adapting the project plan based on lessons learned during the project, and incorporating training and other transition assistance into the project plans. Operator involvement has been critical to the AMU's remarkable success and many awards

  5. High-resolution boreal winter precipitation projections over tropical America from CMIP5 models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomino-Lemus, Reiner; Córdoba-Machado, Samir; Gámiz-Fortis, Sonia Raquel; Castro-Díez, Yolanda; Esteban-Parra, María Jesús

    2017-11-01

    Climate-change projections for boreal winter precipitation in Tropical America has been addressed by statistical downscaling (SD) using the principal component regression with sea-level pressure (SLP) as the predictor variable. The SD model developed from the reanalysis of SLP and gridded precipitation GPCC data, has been applied to SLP outputs from 20 CGMS of CMIP5, both from the present climate (1971-2000) and for the future (2071-2100) under the RCP2.6, RCP4.5, and RCP8.5 scenarios. The SD model shows a suitable performance over large regions, presenting a strong bias only in small areas characterized by very dry climate conditions or poor data coverage. The difference in percentage between the projected SD precipitation and the simulated SD precipitation for present climate, ranges from moderate to intense changes in rainfall (positive or negative, depending on the region and the SD GCM model considered), as the radiative forcing increases from the RCP2.6 to RCP8.5. The disparity in the GCMs outputs seems to be the major source of uncertainty in the projected changes, while the scenario considered appears less decisive. Mexico and eastern Brazil are the areas showing the most coherent decreases between SD GCMs, while northwestern and southeastern South America show consistently significant increases. This coherence is corroborated by the results of the ensemble mean which projects positive changes from 10°N towards the south, with exceptions such as eastern Brazil, northern Chile and some smaller areas, such as the center of Colombia, while projected negative changes are the majority found in the northernmost part.

  6. Emerging Space Powers The New Space Programs of Asia, the Middle East, and South America

    CERN Document Server

    Harvey, Brian; Pirard, Théo

    2010-01-01

    This work introduces the important emerging space powers of the world. Brian Harvey describes the origins of the Japanese space program, from rocket designs based on WW II German U-boats to tiny solid fuel 'pencil' rockets, which led to the launch of the first Japanese satellite in 1970. The next two chapters relate how Japan expanded its space program, developing small satellites into astronomical observatories and sending missions to the Moon, Mars, comet Halley, and asteroids. Chapter 4 describes how India's Vikram Sarabhai developed a sounding rocket program in the 1960s. The following chapter describes the expansion of the Indian space program. Chapter 6 relates how the Indian space program is looking ahead to the success of the moon probe Chandrayan, due to launch in 2008, and its first manned launching in 2014. Chapters 7, 8, and 9 demonstrate how, in Iran, communications and remote sensing drive space technology. Chapter 10 outlines Brazil's road to space, begun in the mid-1960's with the launch of th...

  7. Validity of cardiovascular risk prediction models in Latin America and among Hispanics in the United States of America: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes-Bergoderi, Mery; Thomas, Randal J; Albuquerque, Felipe N; Batsis, John A; Burdiat, Gerard; Perez-Terzic, Carmen; Trejo-Gutierrez, Jorge; Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco

    2012-08-01

    To assess the use and validity of prediction models to estimate the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Latin America and among Hispanic populations in the United States of America. This was a systematic review of three databases: Ovid MEDLINE (1 January 1950-15 April 2010), LILACS (1 January 1988-15 April 2010), and EMBASE (1 January 1988-15 April 2010). MeSH search terms and domains were related to CVD, prediction rules, Latin America (including the Caribbean), and Hispanics in the United States. Database searches were supplemented by correspondence with experts in the field. A total of 1 655 abstracts were identified, of which five cohorts with a total of 13 142 subjects met inclusion criteria. A Mexican cohort showed that the predicted/observed event-rate ratio for coronary heart disease (CHD) according to the Framingham risk score (FRS) was 1.68 (95% CI, 1.26-2.11); incident myocardial infarction, 1.36 (95% CI, 0.90-1.83); and CHD death, 1.21 (95% CI, 0.43-2.00). In Ecuador, a prediction model for CVD and total deaths in hypertensive patients had an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.79 (95% CI, 0.72-0.86), while the World Health Organization method had an AUC of 0.74 (95% CI, 0.67-0.82). A study predicting mortality risk in people with Chagas' disease had an AUC of 0.81 (95% CI, 0.72-0.90). Among a United State s cohort that included Hispanics, FRS overestimated CVD risk for Hispanics with an AUC of 0.69. Another study in the United States that assessed FRS factors predicting CVD death among Mexican-Americans had an AUC of 0.78. The evidence regarding CVD risk prediction rules in Latin America or among Hispanics in the United States is modest at best. It is likely that the FRS overestimates CVD risk in Hispanics when not properly recalibrated.

  8. Measurement control program at model facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    A measurement control program for the model plant is described. The discussion includes the technical basis for such a program, the application of measurement control principles to each measurement, and the use of special experiments to estimate measurement error parameters for difficult-to-measure materials. The discussion also describes the statistical aspects of the program, and the documentation procedures used to record, maintain, and process the basic data

  9. 78 FR 26747 - Amendment to Notice of Funding Availability for the Rural Energy for America Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-08

    ... Statement USDA prohibits discrimination in all its programs and activities on the basis of race, color... status, religion, sexual orientation, genetic information, political beliefs, reprisal, or because all or...) 720-2600 (voice and TDD). To file a complaint of discrimination, write to: USDA, Assistant Secretary...

  10. 78 FR 34978 - Amendment to Notice of Funding Availability for the Rural Energy for America Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    .... Nondiscrimination Statement USDA prohibits discrimination in all its programs and activities on the basis of race..., parental status, religion, sexual orientation, genetic information, political beliefs, reprisal, or because... at (202) 720-2600 (voice and TDD). To file a complaint of discrimination, write to: USDA, Assistant...

  11. Valuing Brazilian Youth: IDRA's Coca Cola Valued Youth Program in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montecel, Maria Robledo

    2008-01-01

    Intercultural Development Research Association (IDRA) is an independent, non-profit organization with a vision for schools that work for all children. It partnered with Coca-Cola in 1984 and began a dropout prevention program just as it was conducting the first comprehensive study of school dropouts in Texas. Its annual studies since then have…

  12. 75 FR 26283 - Proposed Collection, Submission for OMB Review, Museums for America Grant Program Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ... Program Evaluation AGENCY: Institute of Museum and Library Services, The National Foundation on the Arts... Institute of Museum and Library Services announces the following information collection has been submitted... collection of information is necessary for the proper performance of the functions of the agency, including...

  13. Predicting large wildfires across western North America by modeling seasonal variation in soil water balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, Richard H; Coops, Nicholas C

    A lengthening of the fire season, coupled with higher temperatures, increases the probability of fires throughout much of western North America. Although regional variation in the frequency of fires is well established, attempts to predict the occurrence of fire at a spatial resolution soil water reserves were coupled more directly to maximum leaf area index (LAI max ) and stomatal behavior. In an earlier publication, we used LAI max and a process-based forest growth model to derive and map the maximum available soil water storage capacity (ASW max ) of forested lands in western North America at l km resolution. To map large fires, we used data products acquired from NASA's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometers (MODIS) over the period 2000-2009. To establish general relationships that incorporate the major biophysical processes that control evaporation and transpiration as well as the flammability of live and dead trees, we constructed a decision tree model (DT). We analyzed seasonal variation in the relative availability of soil water ( fASW ) for the years 2001, 2004, and 2007, representing respectively, low, moderate, and high rankings of areas burned. For these selected years, the DT predicted where forest fires >1 km occurred and did not occur at ~100,000 randomly located pixels with an average accuracy of 69 %. Extended over the decade, the area predicted burnt varied by as much as 50 %. The DT identified four seasonal combinations, most of which included exhaustion of ASW during the summer as critical; two combinations involving antecedent conditions the previous spring or fall accounted for 86 % of the predicted fires. The approach introduced in this paper can help identify forested areas where management efforts to reduce fire hazards might prove most beneficial.

  14. Educating Physicians for Rural America: Validating Successes and Identifying Remaining Challenges With the Rural Medical Scholars Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat, John R; Leeper, James D; Murphy, Shannon; Brandon, John E; Jackson, James R

    2018-02-01

    To evaluate the Rural Medical Scholars (RMS) Program's effectiveness to produce rural physicians for Alabama. A nonrandomized intervention study compared RMS (1997-2002) with control groups in usual medical education (1991-2002) at the University of Alabama School of Medicine's main and regional campuses. Participants were RMS and others admitted to regular medical education, and the intervention was the RMS Program. Measures assessed the percentage of graduates practicing in rural areas. Odds ratios compared effectiveness of producing rural Alabama physicians. The RMS Program (N = 54), regional campuses (N = 182), and main campus (N = 649) produced 48.1% (odds ratio 6.4, P rural physicians, respectively. The RMS Program, contrasted to other local programs of medical education, was effective in producing rural physicians. These results were comparable to benchmark programs in the Northeast and Midwest USA on which the RMS Program was modeled, justifying the assumption that model programs can be replicated in different regions. However, this positive effect was not shared by a disparate rural minority population, suggesting that models for rural medical education must be adjusted to meet the challenge of such communities for physicians. © 2017 National Rural Health Association.

  15. Evaluation of operational on-line-coupled regional air quality models over Europe and North America in the context of AQMEII phase 2. Part I: Ozone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Im, U.; Bianconi, R.; Solazzo, E.; Kioutsioukis, I.; Badia, A.; Balzarini, A.; Baró, R.; Bellasio, R.; Brunner, D.; Chemel, C.; Curci, G.; Flemming, J.; Forkel, R.; Giordano, L.; Jiménez-Guerrero, P.; Hirtl, M.; Hodzic, A.; Honzak, L.; Jorba, O.; Knote, C.; Kuenen, J.J.P.; Makar, P.A.; Manders-Groot, A.; Neal, L.; Pérez, J.L.; Pirovano, G.; Pouliot, G.; San Jose, R.; Savage, N.; Schroder, W.; Sokhi, R.S.; Syrakov, D.; Torian, A.; Tuccella, P.; Werhahn, J.; Wolke, R.; Yahya, K.; Zabkar, R.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, J.; Hogrefe, C.; Galmarini, S.

    2015-01-01

    The second phase of the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII) brought together sixteen modeling groups from Europe and North America, running eight operational online-coupled air quality models over Europe and North America on common emissions and boundary conditions. With

  16. Evaluation of operational online-coupled regional air quality models over Europe and North America in the context of AQMEII phase 2. Part II: Particulate matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Im, U.; Bianconi, R.; Solazzo, E.; Kioutsioukis, I.; Badia, A.; Balzarini, A.; Baro, R.; Bellasio, R.; Brunner, D.; Chemel, C.; Curci, G.; Denier van der Gon, H.A.C.; Flemming, J.; Forkel, R.; Giordano, L.; Jimenez-Guerrero, P.; Hirtl, M.; Hodzic, A.; Honzak, L.; Jorba, O.; Knote, C.; Makar, P.A.; Manders-Groot, A.M.M.; Neal, L.; Perez, J.L.; Pirovano, G.; Pouliot, G.; San Jose, R.; Savage, N.; Schroder, W.; Sokhi, R.S.; Syrakov, D.; Torian, A.; Tucella, P.; Wang, K.; Werhahn, J.; Wolke, R.; Zabkar, R.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, J.; Hogrefe, C.; Galmarini, S.

    2014-01-01

    The second phase of the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII) brought together seventeen modeling groups from Europe and North America, running eight operational online-coupled air quality models over Europe and North America using common emissions and boundary conditions.

  17. The Effectiveness of Secondary Math Teachers from Teach For America and the Teaching Fellows Programs. Executive Summary. NCEE 2013-4016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Melissa A.; Chiang, Hanley S.; Silva, Tim; McConnell, Sheena; Sonnenfeld, Kathy; Erbe, Anastasia; Puma, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Teach For America (TFA) and the Teaching Fellows programs are an important and growing source of teachers of hard-to-staff subjects in high-poverty schools, but comprehensive evidence of their effectiveness has been limited. This report presents findings from the first large-scale random assignment study of secondary math teachers from these…

  18. Geoid modeling in Mexico and the collaboration with Central America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avalos, D.; Gomez, R.

    2012-12-01

    The model of geoidal heights for Mexico, named GGM10, is presented as a geodetic tool to support vertical positioning in the context of regional height system unification. It is a purely gravimetric solution computed by the Stokes-Helmert technique in resolution of 2.5 arc minutes. This product from the Instituto Nacional de Estadistica y Geografia (INEGI) is released together with a series of 10 gravimetric models which add to the improvements in description of the gravity field. In the recent years, the INEGI joined the initiative of the U.S. National Geodetic Survey and the Canada's Geodetic Survey Division to promote the regional height system unification. In an effort to further improve the compatibility among national geoid models in the region, the INEGI has begun to champion a network of specialists that includes national representatives from Central America and the Caribbean. Through the opening of opportunities for training and more direct access to international agreements and discussions, the tropical region is gaining participation. Now a significantly increased number of countries is pushing for a future North and Central American geoid-based vertical datum as support of height system unification.eoidal height in Mexico, mapped from the model GGM10.

  19. Macroeconomic impacts of climate change mitigation in Latin America: A cross-model comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kober, Tom; Summerton, Philip; Pollitt, Hector; Chewpreecha, Unnada; Ren, Xiaolin; Wills, William; Octaviano, Claudia; McFarland, James; Beach, Robert; Cai, Yongxia; Calderon, Silvia; Fisher-Vanden, Karen; Rodriguez, Ana Maria Loboguerrero

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we analyse macroeconomic consequences of greenhouse gas emission mitigation in Latin America up to 2050 through a multi-model comparison approach undertaken in the context of the CLIMACAP–LAMP research project. We compare two carbon tax scenarios with a business-as-usual scenario of anticipated future energy demand. In the short term, with carbon prices reaching around $15/tCO 2 by 2030, most models agree that the reduction in consumer spending, as a proxy for welfare, is limited to about 0.3%. By 2050, at carbon prices of $165/tCO 2 , there is much more divergence in the estimated impact on consumer spending as well as GDP across models and regions, which reflects uncertainties about technology costs and substitution opportunities between technologies. We observe that the consequences of increasingly higher carbon prices, in terms of reduced consumer spending and GDP, tend to be fairly linear with the carbon price in our CGE models. However, the consequences are divergent and nonlinear in our econometric model, that is linked to an energy system model that simulates step-changes in technology substitution. The results of one model show that climate policy measures can have positive effects on consumer spending and GDP, which results from an investment stimulus and the redistribution of carbon price revenues to consumers. - Highlights: • Depending on the model approach negative and positive macro-economic impacts are possible if carbon taxes are introduced. • Limited impact of moderate carbon taxes (up to $15/tCO 2 by 2030) on consumer spending in the medium-term • Impact of High CO 2 prices (around $165/tCO 2 in 2050) on GDP 5% at most in the long-term

  20. Training in reproductive health and sexuality: the case of a regional program in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, S; Gogna, M

    1997-01-01

    Beginning in July 1993, a 5-year program has sought to provide social research, training, and technical assistance in reproductive health and sexuality in Argentina, Chile, Peru, and Colombia by 1) building research capacity and promoting an interdisciplinary approach to reproductive health and sexuality and 2) promoting a gender perspective to these issues. The target groups are women's nongovernmental organizations (NGOs); family planning, reproductive health, and women's health providers; and social scientists conducting health-related research. Training activities include regional workshops, a Regional Resident Fellowship Program to support graduate-level education, and provision of technical assistance. The first 3 years of the program have revealed that the basic training needs in these areas include 1) helping women's NGOs improve their record-keeping capacity, evaluation processes, theoretical and methodological background, and institutional-building ability; 2) sensitizing women's health providers to sociocultural dimension of health-illness issues and to a gender and human rights perspective; and 3) training social scientist researchers to apply their skills in applied research, develop their theoretical background, and improve research quality control procedures. The main challenges for training activities in the field of reproductive health and sexuality are posed by the complexity of the issues and their interdisciplinary nature.

  1. The impact of health-management training programs in Latin America on job performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz-Monsalve Sonia Janeth

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was undertaken in Mexico, Colombia, and El Salvador to determine the impact of a management training program on health managers' job performance. A quasi-experimental design was used where in the baseline study an intervention group of 85 district health managers in the three countries was compared with a control group of 71 managers who did not receive the training program. After the implementation of an 18-month training program (which included 5-day training workshops and a series of tasks to be carried out between the workshops, the outcome in terms of improved job performance (i.e. use of predefined management techniques was measured through twelve management performance indicators. The data collection tools were two questionnaires, participant observation in managers' workplaces, focus group discussions, staff interviews, and document analysis. In Mexico, the control group showed 8.3 times weaker management performance compared to the intervention group; in Colombia the value was 3.6 and in El Salvador 2.4. Factors associated with a successful training outcome were: (a training techniques, (b strengthening of enabling factors, and (c reinforcement mechanisms.

  2. Air pollution in Latin America: Bottom-up Vehicular Emissions Inventory and Atmospheric Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra Espinosa, S.; Vela, A. V.; Calderon, M. G.; Carlos, G.; Ynoue, R.

    2016-12-01

    Air pollution is a global environmental and health problem. Population of Latin America are facing air quality risks due to high level of air pollution. According to World Health Organization (WHO; 2016), several Latin American cities have high level of pollution. Emissions inventories are a key tool for air quality, however they normally present lack of quality and adequate documentation in developing countries. This work aims to develop air quality assessments in Latin American countries by 1) develop a high resolution emissions inventory of vehicles, and 2) simulate air pollutant concentrations. The bottom-up vehicular emissions inventory used was obtained with the REMI model (Ibarra et al., 2016) which allows to interpolate traffic over road network of Open Street Map to estimate vehicular emissions 24-h, each day of the week. REMI considers several parameters, among them the average age of fleet which was associated with gross domestic product (GDP) per capita. The estimated pollutants are CO, NOx, HC, PM2.5, NO, NO2, CO2, N2O, COV, NH3 and Fuel Consumption. The emissions inventory was performed at the biggest cities, including every capital of Latin America's countries. Initial results shows that the cities with most CO emissions are Buenos Aires 162800 (t/year), São Paulo 152061 (t/year), Campinas 151567 (t/year) and Brasilia 144332 (t/year). The results per capita shows that the city with most CO emissions per capita is Campinas, with 130 (kgCO/hab/year), showed in figure 1. This study also cover high resolution air quality simulations with WRF-Chem main cities in Latin America. Results will be assessed comparing: fuel estimates with local fuel sales, traffic count interpolation with available traffic data set at each city, and comparison between air pollutant simulations with air monitoring observation data. Ibarra, S., R. Ynoue, and S. Mhartain. 2016: "High Resolution Vehicular Emissions Inventory for the Megacity of São Paulo." Manuscript submitted to

  3. Land-atmosphere interaction patterns in southeastern South America using satellite products and climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spennemann, P. C.; Salvia, M.; Ruscica, R. C.; Sörensson, A. A.; Grings, F.; Karszenbaum, H.

    2018-02-01

    In regions of strong Land-Atmosphere (L-A) interaction, soil moisture (SM) conditions can impact the atmosphere through modulating the land surface fluxes. The importance of the identification of L-A interaction regions lies in the potential improvement of the weather/seasonal forecast and the better understanding of the physical mechanisms involved. This study aims to compare the terrestrial segment of the L-A interaction from satellite products and climate models, motivated by previous modeling studies pointing out southeastern South America (SESA) as a L-A hotspot during austral summer. In addition, the L-A interaction under dry or wet anomalous conditions over SESA is analyzed. To identify L-A hotspots the AMSRE-LPRM SM and MODIS land surface temperature products; coupled climate models and uncoupled land surface models were used. SESA highlights as a strong L-A interaction hotspot when employing different metrics, temporal scales and independent datasets, showing consistency between models and satellite estimations. Both AMSRE-LPRM bands (X and C) are consistent showing a strong L-A interaction hotspot over the Pampas ecoregion. Intensification and a larger spatial extent of the L-A interaction for dry summers was observed in both satellite products and models compared to wet summers. These results, which were derived from measured physical variables, are encouraging and promising for future studies analyzing L-A interactions. L-A interaction analysis is proposed here as a meeting point between remote sensing and climate modelling communities of Argentina, within a region with the highest agricultural and livestock production of the continent, but with an important lack of in-situ SM observations.

  4. Rain-on-snow events over North America based on two Canadian regional climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Il Jeong, Dae; Sushama, Laxmi

    2018-01-01

    This study evaluates projected changes to rain-on-snow (ROS) characteristics (i.e., frequency, rainfall amount, and runoff) for the future 2041-2070 period with respect to the current 1976-2005 period over North America using six simulations, based on two Canadian RCMs, driven by two driving GCMs for RCP4.5 and 8.5 emission pathways. Prior to assessing projected changes, the two RCMs are evaluated by comparing ERA-Interim driven RCM simulations with available observations, and results indicate that both models reproduce reasonably well the observed spatial patterns of ROS event frequency and other related features. Analysis of current and future simulations suggest general increases in ROS characteristics during the November-March period for most regions of Canada and for northwestern US for the future period, due to an increase in the rainfall frequency with warmer air temperatures in future. Future ROS runoff is often projected to increase more than future ROS rainfall amounts, particularly for northeastern North America, during snowmelt months, as ROS events usually accelerate snowmelt. The simulations show that ROS event is a primary flood generating mechanism over most of Canada and north-western and -central US for the January-May period for the current period and this is projected to continue in the future period. More focused analysis over selected basins shows decreases in future spring runoff due to decreases in both snow cover and ROS runoff. The above results highlight the need to take into consideration ROS events in water resources management adaptation strategies for future climate.

  5. Integer Programming Models for Sales Resource Allocation

    OpenAIRE

    Andris A. Zoltners; Prabhakant Sinha

    1980-01-01

    A practical conceptual framework for sales resource allocation modeling is presented in this paper. A literature review of sales resource allocation models is described in terms of this framework. The conceptual framework also lends itself to several integer programming models which may be used to address the variety of sales resource allocation decisions faced by every sales organization. A general model for sales resource allocation is developed which incorporates multiple sales resources, ...

  6. Tsunami hazard assessment in El Salvador, Central America, from seismic sources through flooding numerical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Gómez, J. A.; Aniel-Quiroga, Í.; Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, O. Q.; Larreynaga, J.; González, M.; Castro, M.; Gavidia, F.; Aguirre-Ayerbe, I.; González-Riancho, P.; Carreño, E.

    2013-11-01

    El Salvador is the smallest and most densely populated country in Central America; its coast has an approximate length of 320 km, 29 municipalities and more than 700 000 inhabitants. In El Salvador there were 15 recorded tsunamis between 1859 and 2012, 3 of them causing damages and resulting in hundreds of victims. Hazard assessment is commonly based on propagation numerical models for earthquake-generated tsunamis and can be approached through both probabilistic and deterministic methods. A deterministic approximation has been applied in this study as it provides essential information for coastal planning and management. The objective of the research was twofold: on the one hand the characterization of the threat over the entire coast of El Salvador, and on the other the computation of flooding maps for the three main localities of the Salvadorian coast. For the latter we developed high-resolution flooding models. For the former, due to the extension of the coastal area, we computed maximum elevation maps, and from the elevation in the near shore we computed an estimation of the run-up and the flooded area using empirical relations. We have considered local sources located in the Middle America Trench, characterized seismotectonically, and distant sources in the rest of Pacific Basin, using historical and recent earthquakes and tsunamis. We used a hybrid finite differences-finite volumes numerical model in this work, based on the linear and non-linear shallow water equations, to simulate a total of 24 earthquake-generated tsunami scenarios. Our results show that at the western Salvadorian coast, run-up values higher than 5 m are common, while in the eastern area, approximately from La Libertad to the Gulf of Fonseca, the run-up values are lower. The more exposed areas to flooding are the lowlands in the Lempa River delta and the Barra de Santiago Western Plains. The results of the empirical approximation used for the whole country are similar to the results

  7. Intraseasonal Oscillations over South America: A Study with a Regional Climate Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Baode; Chao, Winston

    2003-01-01

    The National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) regional climate model version 2 (RegCM2) is used to investigate the observed characteristics of intraseasonal oscillations over South America. Our study is mainly concentrated on an intraseaonal mode, which is observed to account for a large portion of the intraseasonal variation, to have a standing feature and to be independent of the MJO. The NCEPDOE AMIP-II reanalysis is utilized to provide initial and lateral boundary conditions for the RegCM2 based upon the OOZ, 062, 122 and 182 data.Our results indicate that the intraseasonal oscillation still exists with time- averaged lateral boundary condition, which prevents the MJO and other outside disturbances from entering the model's domain, suggesting a locally forced oscillation responsible for ths intraseasonal mode independent of the MJO. Further experiments show that the annual and daily variabilities and a radiative-convective interaction are not essential to the locally forced intraseasonal oscillation. The intraseasonal oscillations over Amazon in our model essentially result from interactions among atmospheric continental- scale circulation, surface radiation, surface sensible and latent heat fluxes, and cumulus convection. The wavelet analyses of various surface energy fluxes and surface energy budget also verify that the primary cause of intraseasonal oscillation is the interaction of land surface processes with the atmosphere.

  8. WRF model forecasts and their use for hydroclimate monitoring over southern South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Omar; Lovino, Miguel; Berbery, E. Hugo

    2017-04-01

    Weather forecasting and monitoring systems based on regional models are becoming increasingly relevant for decision support in agriculture and water management. This work evaluates the predictive and monitoring capabilities of a system based on WRF model simulations at 15 km grid spacing over a domain that encompasses La Plata Basin (LPB) in southern South America, where agriculture and water resources are essential. The model's skill up to a lead-time of 7 days is evaluated with daily precipitation and 2m temperature in-situ observations. Results show high prediction performance with 7 days lead-time throughout the domain and particularly over LPB, where about 70% of rain and no-rain days are correctly predicted. The scores tend to be better over humid climates than over arid-to-semiarid climates. Compared to the arid-semiarid climate, the humid climate has a higher probability of detection and less false alarms. The ranges of the skill scores are similar to those found over the United States, suggesting that proper choice of parameterizations lead to no loss of performance of the model. Daily mean, minimum and maximum forecast temperatures are highly correlated with observations up to 7 day lead time. The best performance is for daily mean temperature, followed by minimum temperature and a slightly weaker performance for maximum temperature over arid regions. The usefulness of WRF products for hydroclimate monitoring was tested for an unprecedented drought in southern Brazil and for a slightly above normal precipitation season in northeastern Argentina. In both cases the model products reproduce the observed precipitation conditions with consistent impacts on soil moisture, evapotranspiration and runoff. This evaluation validates the model's usefulness to fore-cast weather up to one week and to monitor climate conditions in real time. The scores suggest that the forecast lead-time can be extended into week two, while bias correction methods can reduce part of the

  9. A Multi-Model Study of Energy Supply Investments in Latin America under Climate Control Policy Energy Economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kober, T.; Falzon, J.; van der Zwaan, B.; Calvin, K.; Kanudia, A.; Kitous, A.; Labriet, M.

    In this paper we investigate energy supply investment requirements in Latin America until 2050 through a multi-model approach as jointly applied in the CLIMACAP-LAMP research project. We compare a business-as-usual scenario needed to satisfy anticipated future energy demand with a set of scenarios

  10. Simulating the impacts of disturbances on forest carbon cycling in North America: processes, data, models, and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuguang Liu; Ben Bond-Lamberty; Jeffrey A. Hicke; Rodrigo Vargas; Shuqing Zhao; Jing Chen; Steven L. Edburg; Yueming Hu; Jinxun Liu; A. David McGuire; Jingfeng Xiao; Robert Keane; Wenping Yuan; Jianwu Tang; Yiqi Luo; Christopher Potter; Jennifer Oeding

    2011-01-01

    Forest disturbances greatly alter the carbon cycle at various spatial and temporal scales. It is critical to understand disturbance regimes and their impacts to better quantify regional and global carbon dynamics. This review of the status and major challenges in representing the impacts of disturbances in modeling the carbon dynamics across North America revealed some...

  11. Comparing emission inventories and model-ready emission datasets between Europe and North America for the AQMEII project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pouliot, G.; Pierce, T.; Denier van der Gon, H.; Schaap, M.; Moran, M.; Nopmongcol, U.

    2012-01-01

    This paper highlights the similarities and differences in how emission inventories and datasets were developed and processed across North America and Europe for the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII) project and then characterizes the emissions for the two domains. We

  12. Modeling South America regional smoke plume: aerosol optical depth variability and shortwave surface forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosário, N. E.; Longo, K. M.; Freitas, S. R.; Yamasoe, M. A.; Fonseca, R. M.

    2012-07-01

    Intra-seasonal variability of smoke aerosol optical depth (AOD) and downwelling solar irradiance at the surface during the 2002 biomass burning season in South America was modeled using the Coupled Chemistry-Aerosol-Tracer Transport model to the Brazilian developments on the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (CCATT-BRAMS). Measurements of AOD from the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) and solar irradiance at the surface from the Solar Radiation Network (SolRad-NET) were used to evaluate model results. In general, the major features associated with AOD evolution over the southern part of the Amazon Basin and cerrado ecosystem are captured by the model. The main discrepancies were found for high aerosol loading events. In the northeastern portion of the Amazon Basin the model systematically underestimated AOD. This is likely due to the cloudy nature of the region, preventing accurate detection of the fire spots used in the emission model. Moreover, measured AOD were very often close to background conditions and emissions other than smoke were not considered in the simulation. Therefore, under the background scenario, one would expect the model to underestimate AOD. The issue of high aerosol loading events in the southern part of the Amazon and cerrado is also discussed in the context of emission shortcomings. The Cuiabá cerrado site was the only one where the highest quality AERONET data were unavailable. Thus, lower quality data were used. Root-mean-square-error (RMSE) between the model and observations decreased from 0.48 to 0.17 when extreme AOD events (AOD550 nm ≥ 1.0) and Cuiabá were excluded from analysis. Downward surface solar irradiance comparisons also followed similar trends when extremes AOD were excluded. This highlights the need to improve the modelling of the regional smoke plume in order to enhance the accuracy of the radiative energy budget. Aerosol optical model based on the mean intensive properties of smoke from the southern part of the

  13. Opportunities of the new technological model of light vehicle fuels in South America; Oportunidades futuras no novo modelo tecnologico de combustiveis para veiculos leves na America do Sul

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dourado, Jose Diamantino de A. [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica Celso Sukow da Fonseca (CEFET-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Chaves, Hernani Aquini F.; Jones, Cleveland Maximino [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Estratigrafia e Paleontologia (DEPA)

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this work is to show which solutions the South American market is putting forth for the new technological model of the automotive fuel for light duty vehicles. A strong and irreversible trend is underway, which is seeking more environmentally friendly and economically attractive alternatives for the conventional automotive technology, based on the consumption of gasoline and diesel fuel. This trend is evident not only in Latin America, but also in many other countries and regions, and has resulted in a great number of vehicle conversions, so as to operate with vehicular natural gas. Another important way in which this trend has expressed itself is the commercial acceptance and success of the tetra fuel technology vehicles. (author)

  14. The Mental Health of Rural America: The Rural Programs of the National Institute of Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahraes, Herbert; And Others

    Prepared by the National Institute of Mental Health staff and grantees, this report gives not only the quantitative research data, but also demonstrations of community mental health efforts that serve as excellent models for other communities to follow. Chapter I presents An Introduction: The Setting and an Overview; Chapter II, Studies of Rural…

  15. Recent Progress in Mountain Permafrost Modelling using BTS in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnaventure, P. P.; Lewkowicz, A. G.

    2009-04-01

    This presentation reports on progress in mapping and modelling mountain permafrost in North America over the past 5 years using the Basal Temperature of Snow (BTS) technique. It describes the methodology and some of the challenges in our current study aimed at modelling permafrost at a resolution of 30 x 30 m, for the entire southern half of the Yukon Territory, an area of 250 x 103 km2. This mountainous region differs from those in Europe and Asia by having a sparse population, very limited base-line information (such as climate data) and relatively low levels of infrastructure. However, major infrastructure projects, such as pipelines, roads, railways and mines are being proposed and climate change is expected to affect permafrost distribution and characteristics, including potentially triggering landslides and other natural hazards. The research involves developing BTS-based models validated using late-summer ground-truthing. Models have been created for three areas and work is currently underway in five other locations in the Yukon with possible future sites in northern British Columbia. Work to date has examined the suitability of the method in differing climatic zones, the interchangeability of models between areas, and the potential effects of climatic change. Current data collection is focused on the potential impact of atmospheric temperature inversions on permafrost distribution: each of the study areas has been equipped with a network of air, ground surface and permafrost surface temperature sensors as well as snow-depth monitoring devices, located within different topographic situations. Another challenge is the interpolation of permafrost probabilities between distant study areas: information developed from a data-base of more than 1500 rock glaciers is expected to help in this regard. The project, which is scheduled for completion within the next 12 months, will provide essential information relating to the spatial attributes and sensitivities of

  16. [Toward a model of communications in public health in Latin America and the Caribbean].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macías-Chapula, César A

    2005-12-01

    So far, there have been no bibliometric or scientometric studies that make it possible to examine, with quantitative, retrospective, and comprehensive criteria, the scientific output on public health in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). Further, the weakness of the existing information systems makes it impossible to examine the relevance, quality, and impact of this scientific output, with a view to evaluating it in terms of societal needs and existing patterns of scientific communication. This article presents the results of a bibliographic analysis of the scientific output in the area of public health in Latin America and the Caribbean. The ultimate goal of the analysis is to build a model of scientific communication in this field, to help researchers, managers, and others working in the area of public health to make decisions and choose actions to take. We conducted a literature review in order to identify the distribution of publications on public health that were produced by LAC researchers and published in each of the LAC countries from 1980 through 2002. The review used the Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Saúde Pública (LILACS-SP) (Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Public Health) bibliographic database. That database is operated by the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences Information (BIREME), which is in São Paulo, Brazil. We processed the LILACS-SP data using two software packages, Microsoft Excel and Bibexcel, to obtain indicators of the scientific output, the type of document, the language, the number of authors for each publication, the thematic content, and the participating institutions. For the 1980-2002 period, there were 97,605 publications registered, from a total of 37 LAC countries. For the analysis presented in this article, we limited the sample to the 8 countries in Latin America and the Caribbean that had at least 3,000 documents each registered in the LILACS-SP database over the 1980-2002 study

  17. Recent Weather Technologies Delivered to America's Space Program by the Applied Meteorology Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, WIlliam, H., III; Crawford, Winifred

    2009-01-01

    The Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) is a unique joint venture of NASA, the Air Force and the National Weather Service (NWS) and has been supporting the Space Program for nearly two decades. The AMU acts as a bridge between the meteorological research community and operational forecasters by developing, evaluating and transitioning new technology and techniques to improve weather support to spaceport operations at the Eastern Range (ER) and Kennedy Space Center. Its primary customers are the 45th Weather Squadron at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS), the Spaceflight Meteorology Group at Johnson Space Center and the National Weather Service Office in Melbourne, FL. Its products are used to support NASA's Shuttle and ELV programs as well as Department of Defense and commercial launches from the ER. Shuttle support includes landing sites beyond the ER. The AMU is co-located with the Air Force operational forecasters at CCAFS to facilitate continuous two-way interaction between the AMU and its operational customers. It is operated under a NASA, Air Force, and NWS Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) by a competitively-selected contractor. The contract, which is funded and managed by NASA, provides five full time professionals with degrees in meteorology or related fields, some of whom also have operational experience. NASA provides a Ph.D.- level NASA civil service scientist as Chief of the AMU. The AMU is tasked by its customers through a unique, nationally recognized process. The tasks are limited to development, evaluation and operational transition of technology to improve weather support to spaceport operations and providing expert advice to the customers. The MOU expressly forbids using the AMU resources to conduct operations or do basic research. The presentation will provide a brief overview of the AMU and how it is tasked by its customers to provide high priority products and services. The balance of the presentation will cover a sampling of products

  18. A continental scale model for dissolved silica mobilization in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, N.; Lauerwald, R.; Hartmann, J.; Dürr, H. H.; Loos, S.; Kempe, S.; Middelkoop, H.

    2009-04-01

    Silicon is one of the few elements that link to both the organic and inorganic carbon cycles. Dissolved silicon (DSi) is an important nutrient in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Cations accompanying the release of DSi by chemical silicate rock weathering are generally balanced by soil/atmospheric CO2. Chemical weathering is the major source of "new" bioavailable DSi for continental aquatic systems to compensate for the loss of DSi by outflow or organic precipitation and burial. We use river water chemistry data from 164 monitoring stations from the conterminous United States (WQN and NAWQA networks). Selected stations are characterized by low population density and low influence of water bodies to minimize human and DSi retention impact. Observed DSi yield in these catchments is assumed to represent natural DSi mobilization by chemical weathering. The catchments have an average size of 4400 km2 (Median: 991 km2) with a discharge weighted average DSi yield of 4.34 t SiO2 km-2a-1. To predict mobilization of DSi from chemical weathering a lumped non-linear empirical model is developed, considering control factors such as climate, morphology, hydrology, land cover, soil and lithology. A multi-lithological model approach is chosen because only very few mono-lithological catchments were identified in the dataset. The model is then extrapolated to the conterminous United States to regionally quantify the amount of DSi that is released into the river systems by chemical weathering. Small outcrops of certain lithological classes characterized by a high DSi yield are not represented on previously available small scale lithological maps. Because such localities may have a major influence on DSi fluxes from small catchments (Hartmann et al., 2009) a new high resolution lithological vector-map for North America is developed and applied in the introduced model. In accordance with previous studies, runoff and lithology are identified as the major predictors for specific DSi

  19. A high-resolution model for Eurasia-North America plate kinematics since 20 Ma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkouriev, S.; DeMets, C.

    2008-06-01

    We derive the first chronologically detailed model of Eurasia-North America plate motion since 20 Ma from ship and airplane surveys of the well-expressed magnetic lineations along this slowly spreading plate boundary, including previously unavailable dense Russian magnetic data from the southern Reykjanes Ridge and northern Mid-Atlantic ridge near the Charlie Gibbs fracture zone. From more than 7000 crossings of 21 magnetic anomalies from Anomaly 1n (0.78 Ma) to Anomaly 6n (19.7 Ma), we estimate best-fitting finite rotations and realistic uncertainties. Linear regressions of total opening distances versus their reversal ages at different locations along the plate boundary show that reversal boundaries are shifted systematically outwards from the spreading axis with respect to their idealized locations, with the outward shift ranging from more than 5 km between Iceland and the Charlie Gibbs fracture zone to ~2 km elsewhere. This outward displacement, which is a consequence of the finite zone of seafloor accretion, degrades estimates of the underlying plate motion and is thus removed for the ensuing kinematic analysis. The corrected plate motion rotations reveal surprising, previously unrecognized features in the relative motions of these two plates. Within the uncertainties, motion was steady from 20 to 8 Ma around a pole that was located ~600 km north of the present pole, with seafloor spreading rates that changed by no more than 5 per cent (1 mm yr-1) along the Reykjanes Ridge during this period. Seafloor spreading rates decreased abruptly by 20 +/- 2 per cent at 7.5-6.5 Ma, coinciding with rapid southward migration of the pole of rotation and a 5°-10° counter-clockwise change in the plate slip direction. Eurasia-North America plate motion since 6.7 Ma has remained remarkably steady, with an apparently stationary axis of rotation and upper limit of +/-2 per cent on any variations in the rate of angular rotation during this period. Based on the good agreement

  20. Increased Drought Impacts on Temperate Rainforests from Southern South America: Results of a Process-Based, Dynamic Forest Model

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez, Alvaro G.; Armesto, Juan J.; Díaz, M. Francisca; Huth, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Increased droughts due to regional shifts in temperature and rainfall regimes are likely to affect forests in temperate regions in the coming decades. To assess their consequences for forest dynamics, we need predictive tools that couple hydrologic processes, soil moisture dynamics and plant productivity. Here, we developed and tested a dynamic forest model that predicts the hydrologic balance of North Patagonian rainforests on Chiloé Island, in temperate South America (42°S). The model incor...

  1. Academic program models for undergraduate biomedical engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Shankar M

    2014-01-01

    There is a proliferation of medical devices across the globe for the diagnosis and therapy of diseases. Biomedical engineering (BME) plays a significant role in healthcare and advancing medical technologies thus creating a substantial demand for biomedical engineers at undergraduate and graduate levels. There has been a surge in undergraduate programs due to increasing demands from the biomedical industries to cover many of their segments from bench to bedside. With the requirement of multidisciplinary training within allottable duration, it is indeed a challenge to design a comprehensive standardized undergraduate BME program to suit the needs of educators across the globe. This paper's objective is to describe three major models of undergraduate BME programs and their curricular requirements, with relevant recommendations to be applicable in institutions of higher education located in varied resource settings. Model 1 is based on programs to be offered in large research-intensive universities with multiple focus areas. The focus areas depend on the institution's research expertise and training mission. Model 2 has basic segments similar to those of Model 1, but the focus areas are limited due to resource constraints. In this model, co-op/internship in hospitals or medical companies is included which prepares the graduates for the work place. In Model 3, students are trained to earn an Associate Degree in the initial two years and they are trained for two more years to be BME's or BME Technologists. This model is well suited for the resource-poor countries. All three models must be designed to meet applicable accreditation requirements. The challenges in designing undergraduate BME programs include manpower, facility and funding resource requirements and time constraints. Each academic institution has to carefully analyze its short term and long term requirements. In conclusion, three models for BME programs are described based on large universities, colleges, and

  2. A New Strategic Model for Latin America: Preparation, Engagement and Accommodation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guttierrez, Francis; Suggs, Sherry

    1998-01-01

    ... governments and global perspectives. Combined with an increasingly developed sense of national awareness, these countries are no longer subject to imperialistic influence or US hemispheric ideals, Latin America is looking to chart its own future...

  3. Digital terrain model evaluation and computation of the terrain correction and indirect effect in South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denizar Blitzkow

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of this paper are to compare digital terrain models, to show the generated models for South America and to present two applications. Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM produced the most important and updated height information in the world. This paper addresses the attention to comparisons of the following models: SRTM3, DTM2002, GLOBE, GTOPO30, ETOPO2 and ETOPO5, at the common points of the grid. The comparisons are limited by latitudes 60º S and 25 º N and longitudes 100 º W and 25 º W. All these data, after some analysis, have been used to create three models for South America: SAM_1mv1, SAM_1mv2 (both of 1' grid spacing and SAM_30s (30" grid spacing. Besides this effort, the three models as well as STRM were evaluated using Bench Marks (BM in Brazil and Argentina. This paper also shows two important geodesy and geophysics applications using the SAM_1mv1: terrain correction (one of the reductions applied to the gravity acceleration and indirect effect (a consequence of the reduction of the external mass to the geoid. These are important at Andes for a precise geoid computation.Los objetivos principales de este documento son comparar modelos digitales del continente; enseñar los modelos generados para Sudamérica y presentar dos aplicaciones. Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM produjo la información más importante y más actualizada de las altitudes del mundo. Este trabajo centra su atención en las comparaciones de los modelos siguientes: SRTM3, DTM2002, GLOBO, GTOPO30, ETOPO2 y ETOPO5, en los puntos comunes de la rejilla. Las comparaciones son limitadas por las latitudes 60º S y 25 º N y longitudes 100 º W y 25 º W. Todos estos datos, después de los análisis, se han utilizado para crear tres modelos para Sudamérica: SAM_1mv1, SAM_1mv2 (1' de espaciamiento de la rejilla y SAM_30s (30" de espaciamiento de la rejilla. Los tres modelos bien como el STRM fueron evaluados usando puntos de referencia de

  4. Changes in Surface Wind Speed over North America from CMIP5 Model Projections and Implications for Wind Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujay Kulkarni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The centennial trends in the surface wind speed over North America are deduced from global climate model simulations in the Climate Model Intercomparison Project—Phase 5 (CMIP5 archive. Using the 21st century simulations under the RCP 8.5 scenario of greenhouse gas emissions, 5–10 percent increases per century in the 10 m wind speed are found over Central and East-Central United States, the Californian Coast, and the South and East Coasts of the USA in winter. In summer, climate models projected decreases in the wind speed ranging from 5 to 10 percent per century over the same coastal regions. These projected changes in the surface wind speed are moderate and imply that the current estimate of wind power potential for North America based on present-day climatology will not be significantly changed by the greenhouse gas forcing in the coming decades.

  5. Logic integer programming models for signaling networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haus, Utz-Uwe; Niermann, Kathrin; Truemper, Klaus; Weismantel, Robert

    2009-05-01

    We propose a static and a dynamic approach to model biological signaling networks, and show how each can be used to answer relevant biological questions. For this, we use the two different mathematical tools of Propositional Logic and Integer Programming. The power of discrete mathematics for handling qualitative as well as quantitative data has so far not been exploited in molecular biology, which is mostly driven by experimental research, relying on first-order or statistical models. The arising logic statements and integer programs are analyzed and can be solved with standard software. For a restricted class of problems the logic models reduce to a polynomial-time solvable satisfiability algorithm. Additionally, a more dynamic model enables enumeration of possible time resolutions in poly-logarithmic time. Computational experiments are included.

  6. Description of mathematical models and computer programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The paper gives a description of mathematical models and computer programs for analysing possible strategies for spent fuel management, with emphasis on economic analysis. The computer programs developed, describe the material flows, facility construction schedules, capital investment schedules and operating costs for the facilities used in managing the spent fuel. The computer programs use a combination of simulation and optimization procedures for the economic analyses. Many of the fuel cycle steps (such as spent fuel discharges, storage at the reactor, and transport to the RFCC) are described in physical and economic terms through simulation modeling, while others (such as reprocessing plant size and commissioning schedules, interim storage facility commissioning schedules etc.) are subjected to economic optimization procedures to determine the approximate lowest-cost plans from among the available feasible alternatives

  7. Prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among respiratory tract isolates in Latin America: results from SENTRY antimicrobial surveillance program (1997-98).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sader, H S; Gales, A C; Granacher, T D; Pfaller, M A; Jones, R N

    2000-10-01

    One thousand seventy-three bacterial isolates were collected from patients with community acquired respiratory tract infections (CARTI) in 11 Latin American centers (7 countries) during 1997 and 1998. They were tested against numerous antimicrobial agents by the reference broth microdilution method as part of the ongoing multinational SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program. Among Streptococcus pneumoniae (553 isolates), approximately 61% were susceptible to penicillin. There was a great variation of the penicillin susceptibility rates among participating countries. The highest susceptibility rates were found in Argentina (76.7%) and Brazil (71.9%), while the lowest rate of penicillin susceptibility was detected in Mexico (33.3%). High level resistance to penicillin and resistance to cefotaxime were observed in nearly 10% of the isolates. The newer quinolones, levofloxacin (MIC(90) 2 microg/mL) and gatifloxacin (MIC90 0.5 microg/mL), were active against 100% of the isolates tested. Among the other non-beta-lactams drugs tested, the rank order of susceptibility against the pneumococci was: chloramphenicol (93.9%)>clindamycin (93.2%)> azithromycin (89.1%) > clarithromycin (88.7%)>tetracycline (78.5%)> trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (55.7%). The percentage of Haemophilus influenzae (361 isolates) isolates resistant to amoxicillin was 12. 7% (beta-lactamase positive). Among Moraxella catarrhalis (159 isolates) isolates, only 8.2% were susceptible. Clavulanic acid restored the activity of amoxicillin against both species. Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole was active against only 59.5% of H. influenzae, while susceptibility to this compound among M. catarrhalis was 96.1%. All other compounds tested were active against>95% of H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis isolates. These species were susceptible to levofloxacin (MIC90 resistance rates are particularly high among pneumococci in some countries. The newer fluoroquinolones show an excellent potency and spectrum against

  8. Capacity-Building Programs Under the Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States signed the Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR) in August 2004 with five Central American countries (Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua) and the Dominican Republic.

  9. Improvement of IDC/CTBTO Event Locations in Latin America and the Caribbean Using a Regional Seismic Travel Time Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Given, J. W.; Guendel, F.

    2013-05-01

    The International Data Centre is a vital element of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) verification mechanism. The fundamental mission of the International Data Centre (IDC) is to collect, process, and analyze monitoring data and to present results as event bulletins to Member States. For the IDC and in particular for waveform technologies, a key measure of the quality of its products is the accuracy by which every detected event is located. Accurate event location is crucial for purposes of an On Site Inspection (OSI), which would confirm the conduct of a nuclear test. Thus it is important for the IDC monitoring and data analysis to adopt new processing algorithms that improve the accuracy of event location. Among them the development of new algorithms to compute regional seismic travel times through 3-dimensional models have greatly increased IDC's location precision, the reduction of computational time, allowing forward and inverse modeling of large data sets. One of these algorithms has been the Regional Seismic Travel Time model (RSTT) of Myers et al., (2011). The RSTT model is nominally a global model; however, it currently covers only North America and Eurasia in sufficient detail. It is the intention CTBTO's Provisional Technical Secretariat and the IDC to extend the RSTT model to other regions of the earth, e.g. Latin America-Caribbean, Africa and Asia. This is particularly important for the IDC location procedure, as there are regions of the earth for which crustal models are not well constrained. For this purpose IDC has launched a RSTT initiative. In May 2012, a technical meeting was held in Vienna under the auspices of the CTBTO. The purpose of this meeting was to invite National Data Centre experts as well as network operators from Africa, Europe, the Middle East, Asia, Australia, Latin and North America to discuss the context under which a project to extend the RSTT model would be implemented. A total of 41 participants from 32 Member States

  10. Equivalence Problem Solvability in Biparametric Gateway Program Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Molchanov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Algebraic program models with procedures are designed to analyze program semantic properties on their models called program schemes. Procedural liberisation problem and equivalence problem are stated for program models with procedures in which both defining parameters are chosen independently. Program models with procedures built over a given program model without procedures are investigated. Algorithms for both stated tasks are proposed for models where an additional restriction is applied: the intersection emptiness problem is solvable in the program model without procedures. Polynomial estimates for the complexity of the algorithms are shown. Some topics for further investigation are proposed.

  11. PDDP, A Data Parallel Programming Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen H. Warren

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available PDDP, the parallel data distribution preprocessor, is a data parallel programming model for distributed memory parallel computers. PDDP implements high-performance Fortran-compatible data distribution directives and parallelism expressed by the use of Fortran 90 array syntax, the FORALL statement, and the WHERE construct. Distributed data objects belong to a global name space; other data objects are treated as local and replicated on each processor. PDDP allows the user to program in a shared memory style and generates codes that are portable to a variety of parallel machines. For interprocessor communication, PDDP uses the fastest communication primitives on each platform.

  12. Analysis of tropospheric ozone and carbon monoxide profiles over South America based on MOZAIC/IAGOS database and model simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia A. Yamasoe

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We analysed ozone and carbon monoxide profiles measured by commercial aircrafts from the MOZAIC/IAGOS fleet, during ascending and descending flights over Caracas, in Venezuela, from August 1994 to December 2009, over Rio de Janeiro, from 1994 to 2004 and from July 2012 to June 2013, and over São Paulo, in Brazil, from August 1994 to 2005. For ozone, results showed a clean atmosphere over Caracas presenting the highest seasonal mean in March, April and May. Backward trajectory analyses with FLEXPART, of case studies for which the measured concentrations were high, showed that contributions from local, Central and North America, the Caribbean and Africa either from anthropogenic emissions, biomass burning or lightning were possible. Satellite products as fire counts from MODIS, lightning flash rates from LIS, and CO and O3 from Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer and wind maps at different levels helped corroborate previous findings. Sensitivity studies performed with the chemical transport model GEOS-Chem captured the effect of anthropogenic emissions but underestimated the influence of biomass burning, which could be due to an underestimation of GFEDv2 emission inventory. The model detected the contribution of lightning from Africa in JJA and SON and from South America in DJF, possibly from the northeast of Brazil. Over São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, GEOS-Chem captured the seasonal variability of lightning produced in South America and attributed this source as the most important in this region, except in JJA, when anthropogenic emissions were addressed as the more impacting source of ozone precursors. However, comparison with the measurements indicated that the model overestimated ozone formation, which could be due to the convective parameterisation or the stratospheric influence. The highest ozone concentration was observed during September to November, but the model attributed only a small influence of biomass burning from South

  13. The North Pacific Summer Jet and Climate Extremes Over North America: Mechanisms and Model Biases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, S. D.; Wang, H.; Chang, Y.; Koster, R. D.; Molod, A.

    2017-12-01

    The North Pacific summer jet (NPSJ) plays a critical role as a waveguide for weather systems and other sub-seasonal Rossby waves entering North America and therefore has a controlling influence on the warm season weather and climate extremes over much of the continent. In particular, much of the warm season precipitation that occurs over the central United States depends on subseasonal transients that are able to tap moisture from the Gulf of Mexico as they propagate across the continent. The GEOS-5 atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM), like many AGCMs, is deficient in the simulation of the NPSJ. It is shown that the deficiency is composed of: 1) a stunted jet in which the strongest winds are confined to the Asian continent, failing to extend across the North Pacific into the Gulf of Alaska as observed, and 2) a zonally symmetric poleward shift in the jet. These biases combine to impede the eastward propagation of the weather systems into the continent (the stunted jet), and deprive those systems that do enter the continent access to the moisture from the Gulf (the northward shift), leading to a dry bias over the central US. It is shown that the stunted jet bias is the result of too strong heating that occurs just south of the jet core over and near Tibet. Furthermore, it is shown that the poleward shift of the NPSJ can be corrected in the current GEOS-5 AGCM by increasing the vertical resolution. The implications of these results for improving warm season forecasts of extreme events will be discussed.

  14. ZATPAC: a model consortium evaluates teen programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Kathryn; Murphy, Dana; Parsons, Chris

    2009-09-01

    How do we advance the environmental literacy of young people, support the next generation of environmental stewards and increase the diversity of the leadership of zoos and aquariums? We believe it is through ongoing evaluation of zoo and aquarium teen programming and have founded a consortium to pursue those goals. The Zoo and Aquarium Teen Program Assessment Consortium (ZATPAC) is an initiative by six of the nation's leading zoos and aquariums to strengthen institutional evaluation capacity, model a collaborative approach toward assessing the impact of youth programs, and bring additional rigor to evaluation efforts within the field of informal science education. Since its beginning in 2004, ZATPAC has researched, developed, pilot-tested and implemented a pre-post program survey instrument designed to assess teens' knowledge of environmental issues, skills and abilities to take conservation actions, self-efficacy in environmental actions, and engagement in environmentally responsible behaviors. Findings from this survey indicate that teens who join zoo/aquarium programs are already actively engaged in many conservation behaviors. After participating in the programs, teens showed a statistically significant increase in their reported knowledge of conservation and environmental issues and their abilities to research, explain, and find resources to take action on conservation issues of personal concern. Teens also showed statistically significant increases pre-program to post-program for various conservation behaviors, including "I talk with my family and/or friends about things they can do to help the animals or the environment," "I save water...," "I save energy...," "When I am shopping I look for recycled products," and "I help with projects that restore wildlife habitat."

  15. NCD Prevention and Control in Latin America and the Caribbean: A Regional Approach to Policy and Program Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hospedales, C James; Barcelo, Alberto; Luciani, Silvana; Legetic, Branka; Ordunez, Pedro; Blanco, Adriana

    2012-03-01

    This article describes efforts from the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) that have supported progress in country-driven planning and implementing of actions to address noncommunicable diseases (NCD), as well as mechanisms that PAHO has supported for countries in the Americas to share and build on each other's experiences. The Regional Strategy and Plan of Action for NCD, approved by all member states in 2006, is the major frame for this work. The strategy has 4 lines of action: policy and advocacy; surveillance; health promotion and disease prevention; and integrated management of NCD and risk factors. Cross-cutting strategies include resource mobilization, communication, training, and networks and partnerships. The strategy is operationalized through biannual work plans for which countries link and commit to achieving specific objectives. PAHO then provides technical support toward achieving these plans, and countries report progress annually. The CARMEN (Collaborative Action for Risk Factor Prevention and Effective Management of NCD [Conjunto de Acciones para la Reducción y el Manejo de las Enfermedades No transmisibles]) Network provides a major platform for sharing, and the multisector Pan American Forum for Action on NCD has been launched to extend the network to include business and civil society. PAHO also supported civil society capacity building. Almost all member states have made substantial progress in implementing their national chronic disease programs, in most instances reporting exceeding the indicators of the strategic plan related to chronic diseases. From the Caribbean countries, leadership has been provided to achieve the historic UN High-Level Meeting on NCD in September 2011. The region is on track to meet the mortality reduction target set for 2013, though much remains to be done to further increase awareness of and resources for scaling up NCD prevention and control programs, given the huge health and economic burden, increasing costs

  16. Mother's Education and Children's Outcomes: How Dual-Generation Programs Offer Increased Opportunities for America's Families. Disparities among America's Children. No. 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Donald J.; Napierala, Jeffrey S.

    2014-01-01

    Policies and programs aimed at increasing educational and economic opportunities typically target either low-income children or their mothers, but not both, which limits their impact in fostering intergenerational mobility. This insight undergirds the development and implementation of dual-generation strategies, which focus simultaneously on both…

  17. School-based programs aimed at the prevention and treatment of obesity: evidence-based interventions for youth in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobelo, Felipe; Garcia de Quevedo, Isabel; Holub, Christina K; Nagle, Brian J; Arredondo, Elva M; Barquera, Simón; Elder, John P

    2013-09-01

    Rapidly rising childhood obesity rates constitute a public health priority in Latin America which makes it imperative to develop evidence-based strategies. Schools are a promising setting but to date it is unclear how many school-based obesity interventions have been documented in Latin America and what level of evidence can be gathered from such interventions. We performed a systematic review of papers published between 1965 and December 2010. Interventions were considered eligible if they had a school-based component, were done in Latin America, evaluated an obesity related outcome (body mass index [BMI], weight, %body fat, waist circumference, BMI z-score), and compared youth exposed vs not exposed. Ten studies were identified as having a school-based component. Most interventions had a sample of normal and overweight children. The most successful interventions focused on prevention rather than treatment, had longer follow-ups, a multidisciplinary team, and fewer limitations in execution. Three prevention and 2 treatment interventions found sufficient improvements in obesity-related outcomes. We found sufficient evidence to recommend school-based interventions to prevent obesity among youth in Latin America. Evidence-based interventions in the school setting should be promoted as an important component for integrated programs, policies, and monitoring frameworks designed to reverse the childhood obesity in the region. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  18. Database structure for plasma modeling programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufresne, M.; Silvester, P.P.

    1993-01-01

    Continuum plasma models often use a finite element (FE) formulation. Another approach is simulation models based on particle-in-cell (PIC) formulation. The model equations generally include four nonlinear differential equations specifying the plasma parameters. In simulation a large number of equations must be integrated iteratively to determine the plasma evolution from an initial state. The complexity of the resulting programs is a combination of the physics involved and the numerical method used. The data structure requirements of plasma programs are stated by defining suitable abstract data types. These abstractions are then reduced to data structures and a group of associated algorithms. These are implemented in an object oriented language (C++) as object classes. Base classes encapsulate data management into a group of common functions such as input-output management, instance variable updating and selection of objects by Boolean operations on their instance variables. Operations are thereby isolated from specific element types and uniformity of treatment is guaranteed. Creation of the data structures and associated functions for a particular plasma model is reduced merely to defining the finite element matrices for each equation, or the equations of motion for PIC models. Changes in numerical method or equation alterations are readily accommodated through the mechanism of inheritance, without modification of the data management software. The central data type is an n-relation implemented as a tuple of variable internal structure. Any finite element program may be described in terms of five relational tables: nodes, boundary conditions, sources, material/particle descriptions, and elements. Equivalently, plasma simulation programs may be described using four relational tables: cells, boundary conditions, sources, and particle descriptions

  19. Transnational nursing programs: models, advantages and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Michael

    2002-07-01

    Conducting transnational programs can be a very rewarding activity for a School, Faculty or University. Apart from increasing the profile of the university, the conduct of transnational programs can also provide the university with openings for business opportunities, consultative activities, and collaborative research. It can also be a costly exercise placing an enormous strain on limited resources with little reward for the provider. Transnational ventures can become nonviable entities in a very short period of time due to unanticipated global economic trends. Transnational courses offered by Faculties of Business and Computing are commonplace, however, there is a growing number of health science programs, particularly nursing that are being offered transnational. This paper plans an overview of several models employed for the delivery of transnational nursing courses and discusses several key issues pertaining to conducting courses outside the host university's country.

  20. The NIAID Radiation Countermeasures Program business model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafer, Nathaniel; Maidment, Bert W; Hatchett, Richard J

    2010-12-01

    The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) Radiation/Nuclear Medical Countermeasures Development Program has developed an integrated approach to providing the resources and expertise required for the research, discovery, and development of radiation/nuclear medical countermeasures (MCMs). These resources and services lower the opportunity costs and reduce the barriers to entry for companies interested in working in this area and accelerate translational progress by providing goal-oriented stewardship of promising projects. In many ways, the radiation countermeasures program functions as a "virtual pharmaceutical firm," coordinating the early and mid-stage development of a wide array of radiation/nuclear MCMs. This commentary describes the radiation countermeasures program and discusses a novel business model that has facilitated product development partnerships between the federal government and academic investigators and biopharmaceutical companies.

  1. Stellar Atmospheric Modelling for the ACCESS Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Matthew; Kaiser, Mary Elizabeth; Bohlin, Ralph; Kurucz, Robert; ACCESS Team

    2018-01-01

    A goal of the ACCESS program (Absolute Color Calibration Experiment for Standard Stars) is to enable greater discrimination between theoretical astrophysical models and observations, where the comparison is limited by systematic errors associated with the relative flux calibration of the targets. To achieve these goals, ACCESS has been designed as a sub-orbital rocket borne payload and ground calibration program, to establish absolute flux calibration of stellar targets at high resolution spectra in addition to the HST/CALSPEC data, we have generated stellar atmosphere models for ACCESS flight candidates, as well as a selection of A and G stars from the CALSPEC database. Stellar atmosphere models were generated using Atlas 9 and Atlas 12 Kurucz stellar atmosphere software. The effective temperature, log(g), metallicity, and redenning were varied and the chi-squared statistic was minimized to obtain a best-fit model. A comparison of these models and the results from interpolation between grids of existing models will be presented. The impact of the flexibility of the Atlas 12 input parameters (e.g. solar metallicity fraction, abundances, microturbulent velocity) is being explored.

  2. Model for behavior observation training programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berghausen, P.E. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Continued behavior observation is mandated by ANSI/ANS 3.3. This paper presents a model for behavior observation training that is in accordance with this standard and the recommendations contained in US NRC publications. The model includes seventeen major topics or activities. Ten of these are discussed: Pretesting of supervisor's knowledge of behavior observation requirements, explanation of the goals of behavior observation programs, why behavior observation training programs are needed (legal and psychological issues), early indicators of emotional instability, use of videotaped interviews to demonstrate significant psychopathology, practice recording behaviors, what to do when unusual behaviors are observed, supervisor rationalizations for noncompliance, when to be especially vigilant, and prevention of emotional instability

  3. Generalized data stacking programming model with applications

    OpenAIRE

    Hala Samir Elhadidy; Rawya Yehia Rizk; Hassen Taher Dorrah

    2016-01-01

    Recent researches have shown that, everywhere in various sciences the systems are following stacked-based stored change behavior when subjected to events or varying environments “on and above” their normal situations. This paper presents a generalized data stack programming (GDSP) model which is developed to describe the system changes under varying environment. These changes which are captured with different ways such as sensor reading are stored in matrices. Extraction algorithm and identif...

  4. Superheroes and Transformers: Rethinking Teach for America's Leadership Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujilo, Tine; Scott, Janelle

    2014-01-01

    Interviews with a broad swath of current and former Teach For America alumni and current corps members reveal a decided preference for school leaders whose personality traits are akin to superhero/ines--charismatic, courageous, demanding--and who have a tendency to try to usher in greater student achievement via primarily managerial agendas,…

  5. Can Household Benefit from Stochastic Programming Models?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kourosh Marjani; Madsen, Claus A.; Poulsen, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    The Danish mortgage market is large and sophisticated. However, most Danish mortgage banks advise private home-owners based on simple, if sensible, rules of thumb. In recent years a number of papers (from Nielsen and Poulsen in J Econ Dyn Control 28:1267–1289, 2004 over Rasmussen and Zenios in J...... Risk 10:1–18, 2007 to Pedersen et al. in Ann Oper Res, 2013) have suggested a model-based, stochastic programming approach to mortgage choice. This paper gives an empirical comparison of performance over the period 2000–2010 of the rules of thumb to the model-based strategies. While the rules of thumb...

  6. Genetic Programming for Automatic Hydrological Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadalawada, Jayashree; Babovic, Vladan

    2017-04-01

    One of the recent challenges for the hydrologic research community is the need for the development of coupled systems that involves the integration of hydrologic, atmospheric and socio-economic relationships. This poses a requirement for novel modelling frameworks that can accurately represent complex systems, given, the limited understanding of underlying processes, increasing volume of data and high levels of uncertainity. Each of the existing hydrological models vary in terms of conceptualization and process representation and is the best suited to capture the environmental dynamics of a particular hydrological system. Data driven approaches can be used in the integration of alternative process hypotheses in order to achieve a unified theory at catchment scale. The key steps in the implementation of integrated modelling framework that is influenced by prior understanding and data, include, choice of the technique for the induction of knowledge from data, identification of alternative structural hypotheses, definition of rules, constraints for meaningful, intelligent combination of model component hypotheses and definition of evaluation metrics. This study aims at defining a Genetic Programming based modelling framework that test different conceptual model constructs based on wide range of objective functions and evolves accurate and parsimonious models that capture dominant hydrological processes at catchment scale. In this paper, GP initializes the evolutionary process using the modelling decisions inspired from the Superflex framework [Fenicia et al., 2011] and automatically combines them into model structures that are scrutinized against observed data using statistical, hydrological and flow duration curve based performance metrics. The collaboration between data driven and physical, conceptual modelling paradigms improves the ability to model and manage hydrologic systems. Fenicia, F., D. Kavetski, and H. H. Savenije (2011), Elements of a flexible approach

  7. Energy technology roll-out for climate change mitigation: A multi-model study for Latin America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van der Zwaan, Bob; Kober, Tom; Calderon, Silvia; Clarke, Leon; Daenzer, Katie; Kitous, Alban; Labriet, Maryse; Lucena, André F. P.; Octaviano, Claudia; Di Sbroiavacca, Nicolas

    2016-05-01

    In this paper we investigate opportunities for energy technology deployment under climate change mitigation efforts in Latin America. Through several carbon tax and CO2 abatement scenarios until 2050 we analyze what resources and technologies, notably for electricity generation, could be cost-optimal in the energy sector to significantly reduce CO2 emissions in the region. By way of sensitivity test we perform a cross-model comparison study and inspect whether robust conclusions can be drawn across results from different models as well as different types of models (general versus partial equilibrium). Given the abundance of biomass resources in Latin America, they play a large role in energy supply in all scenarios we inspect. This is especially true for stringent climate policy scenarios, for instance because the use of biomass in power plants in combination with CCS can yield negative CO2 emissions. We find that hydropower, which today contributes about 800 TWh to overall power production in Latin America, could be significantly expanded to meet the climate policies we investigate, typically by about 50%, but potentially by as much as 75%. According to all models, electricity generation increases exponentially with a two- to three-fold expansion between 2010 and 2050.Wefind that in our climate policy scenarios renewable energy overall expands typically at double-digit growth rates annually, but there is substantial spread in model results for specific options such as wind and solar power: the climate policies that we simulate raise wind power in 2050 on average to half the production level that hydropower provides today, while they raise solar power to either a substantially higher or a much lower level than hydropower supplies at present, depending on which model is used. Also for CCS we observe large diversity in model outcomes, which reflects the uncertainties with regard to its future implementation potential as a result of

  8. Protecting America's economy, environment, health, and security against invasive species requires a strong federal program in systematic biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilda Diaz-Soltero; Amy Y. Rossman

    2011-01-01

    Systematics is the science that identifies and groups organisms by understanding their origins, relationships, and distributions. It is fundamental to understanding life on earth, our crops, wildlife, and diseases, and it provides the scientific foundation to recognize and manage invasive species. Protecting America's economy, environment, health, and security...

  9. Summary of Prioritized Research Opportunities: Building America Program Planning Meeting, Washington, D.C., November 2-4, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-02-01

    This report outlines the results of brainstorming sessions conducted at the Building America Fall 2010 planning meeting, in which research teams and national laboratories identified key research priorities to incorporate into multi-year planning, team research agendas, expert meetings, and technical standing committees.

  10. Long-term energy prospective modeling for South America - Application to international climate negotiations

    OpenAIRE

    Postic, Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    Together, Central and South America and the Caribbean represent more than 450 million people and 12% of the Earth's total emerged land. The region stands out in the global energy landscape for the outstanding contribution of renewable sources to its energy production. Maintaining this level of renewable energy in the future might prove a challenging task, as ‘historical' energy sources (hydropower, biomass) run into sustainability issues and ‘new' options (wind, solar, geothermal energy) stil...

  11. Python Program to Select HII Region Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Clare; Lamarche, Cody; Vishwas, Amit; Stacey, Gordon J.

    2016-01-01

    HII regions are areas of singly ionized Hydrogen formed by the ionizing radiaiton of upper main sequence stars. The infrared fine-structure line emissions, particularly Oxygen, Nitrogen, and Neon, can give important information about HII regions including gas temperature and density, elemental abundances, and the effective temperature of the stars that form them. The processes involved in calculating this information from observational data are complex. Models, such as those provided in Rubin 1984 and those produced by Cloudy (Ferland et al, 2013) enable one to extract physical parameters from observational data. However, the multitude of search parameters can make sifting through models tedious. I digitized Rubin's models and wrote a Python program that is able to take observed line ratios and their uncertainties and find the Rubin or Cloudy model that best matches the observational data. By creating a Python script that is user friendly and able to quickly sort through models with a high level of accuracy, this work increases efficiency and reduces human error in matching HII region models to observational data.

  12. Models of development and educational styles in the process of emancipation of Latin America: the case of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dermeval SAVIANI

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available On the occasion of the commemoration of the 200 years of Independence of Latin American countries, this paper analyses the models of development and educational styles in the process of the emancipation of Ibero-America, focusing specifically on the Brazilian case. In order to do this, we use two key texts as a reference: Gregorio Weinberg’s Modelos educativos en el desarrollo histórico de América Latina (Models of Education in the Historical Development of Latin America and Germán Rama’s Estilos educacionales (Educational Styles. Both texts elaborate the educational models or styles that took part in the historical development of Latin American societies. Bearing in mind the polarization between tradition and the modernization displayed in the educational models and styles proposed by Weinberg and Rama, this work shows how the process of conservative modernization, which characterized —with different nuances— the general emancipation movement in Ibero-American countries, took place in Brazilian society.

  13. Unified Program Design: Organizing Existing Programming Models, Delivery Options, and Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubenstein, Lisa DaVia; Ridgley, Lisa M.

    2017-01-01

    A persistent problem in the field of gifted education has been the lack of categorization and delineation of gifted programming options. To address this issue, we propose Unified Program Design as a structural framework for gifted program models. This framework defines gifted programs as the combination of delivery methods and curriculum models.…

  14. Program Partitioning using Dynamic Trust Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Dan; Probst, Christian W.; Jensen, Christian D.

    2006-01-01

    Developing distributed applications is a difficult task. It is further complicated if system-wide security policies shall be specified and enforced, or if both data and hosts are owned by principals that do not fully trust each other, as is typically the case in service-oriented or grid-based sce......Developing distributed applications is a difficult task. It is further complicated if system-wide security policies shall be specified and enforced, or if both data and hosts are owned by principals that do not fully trust each other, as is typically the case in service-oriented or grid......-based scenarios. Language-based technologies have been suggested to support developers of those applications---the \\$\\backslash\\$emph{Decentralized Label Model} and \\$\\backslash\\$emph{Secure Program Partitioning} allow to annotate programs with security specifications, and to partition the annotated program...... across a set of hosts, obeying both the annotations and the trust relation between the principals. The resulting applications guarantee \\$\\backslash\\$emph{by construction} that safety and confidentiality of both data and computations are ensured. In this work, we develop a generalised version...

  15. Stochastic linear programming models, theory, and computation

    CERN Document Server

    Kall, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This new edition of Stochastic Linear Programming: Models, Theory and Computation has been brought completely up to date, either dealing with or at least referring to new material on models and methods, including DEA with stochastic outputs modeled via constraints on special risk functions (generalizing chance constraints, ICC’s and CVaR constraints), material on Sharpe-ratio, and Asset Liability Management models involving CVaR in a multi-stage setup. To facilitate use as a text, exercises are included throughout the book, and web access is provided to a student version of the authors’ SLP-IOR software. Additionally, the authors have updated the Guide to Available Software, and they have included newer algorithms and modeling systems for SLP. The book is thus suitable as a text for advanced courses in stochastic optimization, and as a reference to the field. From Reviews of the First Edition: "The book presents a comprehensive study of stochastic linear optimization problems and their applications. … T...

  16. Ecological niche modeling and distribution of Ornithodoros hermsi associated with tick-borne relapsing fever in western North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage, Kylie M; Johnson, Tammi L; Teglas, Michael B; Nieto, Nathan C; Schwan, Tom G

    2017-10-01

    Tick-borne relapsing fever in western North America is a zoonosis caused by the spirochete bacterium, Borrelia hermsii, which is transmitted by the bite of infected Ornithodoros hermsi ticks. The pathogen is maintained in natural cycles involving small rodent hosts such as chipmunks and tree squirrels, as well as the tick vector. In order for these ticks to establish sustained and viable populations, a narrow set of environmental parameters must exist, primarily moderate temperatures and moderate to high amounts of precipitation. Maximum Entropy Species Distribution Modeling (Maxent) was used to predict the species distribution of O. hermsi and B. hermsii through time and space based on current climatic trends and future projected climate changes. From this modeling process, we found that the projected current distributions of both the tick and spirochete align with known endemic foci for the disease. Further, global climate models predict a shift in the distribution of suitable habitat for the tick vector to higher elevations. Our predictions are useful for targeting surveillance efforts in areas of high risk in western North America, increasing the efficiency and accuracy of public health investigations and vector control efforts.

  17. Toward Continuous Program Improvement: Using a Logic Model for Professional Development School Program Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ye; Rohr, Jean; Miller, Samuel D.; Levin, Barbara B.; Mercier, Susan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a model for evaluating a professional development school program to enact an evidence-based model for a continuous cycle of program improvement. Guided by the logic model for program evaluation, we developed three survey instruments based on the professional development school standards of the National…

  18. America's challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, G N

    1968-01-01

    As government increasingly recognizes its own obligations to support and provide family planning as a health and social measure, serious questions are raised as to the proper role for Planned Parenthood World Federation as a private organization. Federal programs both at home and abroad tend to make private fundraising more difficult, whatever the role of this organization may be. Contrary to common impression, experience thus far indicates that the existence of governmental programs does not decrease demands on Planned Parenthood as a private agency. A wide gap also exists between public acceptance, which has been realized, and public conviction, which still has not been accepted. Only those who feel distress at the vision of an all-encompassing megalopolis, only those with concern for the qualify of life in the crowd, and only those who see finite limits of resources recognize that the US must someday plan a halt to population growth. As the gap between the developed and the underdeveloped world widens, economists point out that the US, with less than 6% of the world's population, already consumes some 50% of the world's available raw materials. Business and government leaders are beginning to understand the rate at which an industrial and affluent society consumes the world's substance and threatens the environment. If the assumption is correct that the population explosion constitutes a major threat to life on earth, then America's own attitudes and actions at home, as well as abroad and in the developing countries, are vital. In the next few years Planned Parenthood faces the task of converting the tide of public acceptance into one of conviction and effective action on a giant scale both at home and abroad. In its effort, Planned Parenthood has continued to expand its own service functions. It now has 157 local affiliates with an additional 30 in the organizational stage. In 1967 Planned Parenthood affiliates operated 470 family planning centers, 71 more than

  19. A geographical information system-based web model of arbovirus transmission risk in the continental United States of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah K. Konrad

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A degree-day (DD model of West Nile virus capable of forecasting real-time transmission risk in the continental United States of America up to one week in advance using a 50-km grid is available online at https://sites. google.com/site/arbovirusmap/. Daily averages of historical risk based on temperatures for 1994-2003 are available at 10- km resolution. Transmission risk maps can be downloaded from 2010 to the present. The model can be adapted to work with any arbovirus for which the temperature-related parameters are known, e.g. Rift Valley fever virus. To more effectively assess virus establishment and transmission, the model incorporates “compound risk” maps and forecasts, which includes livestock density as a parameter.

  20. LATIN-MH: a model for building research capacity within Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonini, B B; Araya, R; Quayle, J; Silva Evangelista, M; Price, LeS N; Menezes, P R

    2017-01-01

    Latin America Treatment and Innovation Network in Mental Health (LATIN-MH) is a research hub located in Brazil and Peru that conducts a research project to help reduce the treatment gap in mental health in Latin America (LA). Besides its research core, LATIN-MH has a Capacity Building (CB) component that aims to help young researchers receive the specific training to contribute to the growing scientific production in mental health in LA. LATIN-MH proposal in CB includes a series of actions to prepare professionals in the research area. The main proposals are described here, which include online study groups, promotion of scientific meetings, hands-on training in different levels and sharing of information. LATIN-MH CB activities are at its initial stages but the proposed activities were well evaluated by the participants. The first participating fellows who finished their fellowships are contributing elsewhere in the mental treatment and human resources formation area. The repercussion of LATIN-MH actions in CB and its evaluation, particularly on the formation of human resources and dissemination of information, show that the hub is contributing to the critic formation of young researchers and the circulation of important information.

  1. The Application of Spaceborne Remote Sensing Datasets for Species Distribution Modeling in South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, K. C.; Carnaval, A.; Waltari, E.; Schroeder, R.

    2012-12-01

    generate models of species distributions for a set of well-sampled local endemic vertebrates, using a maximum-entropy approach. Model accuracy is contrasted to that of models based on the WorldClim database. The remote sensing products provide varying levels of performance, related to spatial resolution and temporal fidelity. Results of this project will improve prediction of species distributions, supporting associated biogeographic, evolutionary, ecological, and conservation research. This work is supported through funding provided by The City College of New York SEED grant program.

  2. Human factors engineering program review model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    The staff of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission is performing nuclear power plant design certification reviews based on a design process plan that describes the human factors engineering (HFE) program elements that are necessary and sufficient to develop an acceptable detailed design specification and an acceptable implemented design. There are two principal reasons for this approach. First, the initial design certification applications submitted for staff review did not include detailed design information. Second, since human performance literature and industry experiences have shown that many significant human factors issues arise early in the design process, review of the design process activities and results is important to the evaluation of an overall design. However, current regulations and guidance documents do not address the criteria for design process review. Therefore, the HFE Program Review Model (HFE PRM) was developed as a basis for performing design certification reviews that include design process evaluations as well as review of the final design. A central tenet of the HFE PRM is that the HFE aspects of the plant should be developed, designed, and evaluated on the basis of a structured top-down system analysis using accepted HFE principles. The HFE PRM consists of ten component elements. Each element in divided into four sections: Background, Objective, Applicant Submittals, and Review Criteria. This report describes the development of the HFE PRM and gives a detailed description of each HFE review element

  3. Human factors engineering program review model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    The staff of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission is performing nuclear power plant design certification reviews based on a design process plan that describes the human factors engineering (HFE) program elements that are necessary and sufficient to develop an acceptable detailed design specification and an acceptable implemented design. There are two principal reasons for this approach. First, the initial design certification applications submitted for staff review did not include detailed design information. Second, since human performance literature and industry experiences have shown that many significant human factors issues arise early in the design process, review of the design process activities and results is important to the evaluation of an overall design. However, current regulations and guidance documents do not address the criteria for design process review. Therefore, the HFE Program Review Model (HFE PRM) was developed as a basis for performing design certification reviews that include design process evaluations as well as review of the final design. A central tenet of the HFE PRM is that the HFE aspects of the plant should be developed, designed, and evaluated on the basis of a structured top-down system analysis using accepted HFE principles. The HFE PRM consists of ten component elements. Each element in divided into four sections: Background, Objective, Applicant Submittals, and Review Criteria. This report describes the development of the HFE PRM and gives a detailed description of each HFE review element.

  4. Neural Network Program Package for Prosody Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Santarius

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available This contribution describes the programme for one part of theautomatic Text-to-Speech (TTS synthesis. Some experiments (for example[14] documented the considerable improvement of the naturalness ofsynthetic speech, but this approach requires completing the inputfeature values by hand. This completing takes a lot of time for bigfiles. We need to improve the prosody by other approaches which useonly automatically classified features (input parameters. Theartificial neural network (ANN approach is used for the modeling ofprosody parameters. The program package contains all modules necessaryfor the text and speech signal pre-processing, neural network training,sensitivity analysis, result processing and a module for the creationof the input data protocol for Czech speech synthesizer ARTIC [1].

  5. Teaching model of problem solving Programming Fundamentals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Darwin Tutillo-Arcentales

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The formation process has been studied by several authors in those last years, although not always focusing in the technology careers which requires of a pedagogical and didactic point of view, which promotes behaviouring changes in the teachers with impact in the quality of graduates. The purposes of this paper is: to value the pedagogical fundamentals of the formation in the career Analysis of systems,in order to promote qualitative and quantitative improvements  in the students learning. The questioner applied to students and teachers proved the difficulties in the contents related to the algorithmic procedures, which constitutes a necessary content in their formation and to them contributes other syllabus of the first level. So it is necessary to model a theoretical construction which express the new relationships established from the psychological and didactic point of view in order to solving those situations from the programing.

  6. Generalized data stacking programming model with applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala Samir Elhadidy

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent researches have shown that, everywhere in various sciences the systems are following stacked-based stored change behavior when subjected to events or varying environments “on and above” their normal situations. This paper presents a generalized data stack programming (GDSP model which is developed to describe the system changes under varying environment. These changes which are captured with different ways such as sensor reading are stored in matrices. Extraction algorithm and identification technique are proposed to extract the different layers between images and identify the stack class the object follows; respectively. The general multi-stacking network is presented including the interaction between various stack-based layering of some applications. The experiments prove that the concept of stack matrix gives average accuracy of 99.45%.

  7. Modeling Weather Impact on Ground Delay Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yao; Kulkarni, Deepak

    2011-01-01

    Scheduled arriving aircraft demand may exceed airport arrival capacity when there is abnormal weather at an airport. In such situations, Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) institutes ground-delay programs (GDP) to delay flights before they depart from their originating airports. Efficient GDP planning depends on the accuracy of prediction of airport capacity and demand in the presence of uncertainties in weather forecast. This paper presents a study of the impact of dynamic airport surface weather on GDPs. Using the National Traffic Management Log, effect of weather conditions on the characteristics of GDP events at selected busy airports is investigated. Two machine learning methods are used to generate models that map the airport operational conditions and weather information to issued GDP parameters and results of validation tests are described.

  8. Mid-term evaluation of the NRECA (National Rural Electric Cooperative Association) Central America Rural Electrification Support Program (CARES)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlack, R.D. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Jones, H.G. (Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Inc., TN (USA)); Garcia, A. III (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (USA). Dept. of Agricultural Engineering); Flores, E. (Flores (Edgar), Guatemala City (Guatemala))

    1990-09-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory was requested by the Regional Office for Central America and Panama to conduct a mid-term evaluation of the Cares Project, which is being implemented by the National Rural Electric Cooperative Association. This evaluation was conducted over a three week period by a four person team. Overall, the project has had numerous successes and is highly valued by local counterpart utilities and USAID Missions. Notwithstanding the significant results of the project, changes can be made in certain operating procedures and in the direction of some programmatic activities that can lead to an even more effective project.

  9. Kids on the Move: Afterschool Programs Promoting Healthy Eating and Physical Activity. America After 3PM Special Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afterschool Alliance, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Afterschool programs have continued to grow in sophistication, increase their offerings and improve quality. As the role of afterschool programs has evolved from primarily providing a safe and supervised environment to a resource that provides a host of supports for their students, programs have become valuable partners in helping students reach…

  10. Rural-to-urban migration in Latin America: an update and thoughts on the model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, D L; Piperata, B A

    2004-01-01

    Urbanization is an important demographic phenomenon, and in Latin America it transformed the settlement pattern from rural to predominantly urban in less than 50 years. Understanding the biological consequences of this change in settlement pattern is an important challenge for human biologists. One approach to understanding the effects of urban environments on human biology has been to study rural-to-urban migrants. In Latin America this research has shown that 1) the fertility of migrants tends to be intermediate between that of rural and urban populations, and 2) migrants tend to suffer higher rates of mortality and morbidity, at least initially, than long-term urban residents. There is some indication that the actual physical conditions under which migrants live in urban areas-and these tend to be among the most impoverished-are more important variables than migrant status per se. Studying rural-to-urban migrants requires careful attention to a number of conceptual issues. One issue is the definition of rural and urban. These two types of settlements are no longer as distinct as they once were, and "urban" can mean very different things in different places. Another issue is the complexity of current migration patterns. The classic case of people moving from a distinctly rural setting to a distinctly urban one and staying there for the remainder of their lives is not the norm. Third, the urban environments of large cities are extraordinarily heterogeneous environments with enormous socioeconomic differentials in health. Hence, it matters where in the urban environment the migrants live. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. The Use of Molecular Modeling Programs in Medicinal Chemistry Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrold, Marc W.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes and evaluates the use of a molecular modeling computer program (Alchemy II) in a pharmaceutical education program. Provided are the hardware requirements and basic program features as well as several examples of how this program and its features have been applied in the classroom. (GLR)

  12. Climatic change on the Gulf of Fonseca (Central America) using two-step statistical downscaling of CMIP5 model outputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribalaygua, Jaime; Gaitán, Emma; Pórtoles, Javier; Monjo, Robert

    2018-05-01

    A two-step statistical downscaling method has been reviewed and adapted to simulate twenty-first-century climate projections for the Gulf of Fonseca (Central America, Pacific Coast) using Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) climate models. The downscaling methodology is adjusted after looking for good predictor fields for this area (where the geostrophic approximation fails and the real wind fields are the most applicable). The method's performance for daily precipitation and maximum and minimum temperature is analysed and revealed suitable results for all variables. For instance, the method is able to simulate the characteristic cycle of the wet season for this area, which includes a mid-summer drought between two peaks. Future projections show a gradual temperature increase throughout the twenty-first century and a change in the features of the wet season (the first peak and mid-summer rainfall being reduced relative to the second peak, earlier onset of the wet season and a broader second peak).

  13. Climate downscaling over South America for 1971-2000: application in SMAP rainfall-runoff model for Grande River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Felipe das Neves Roque; Alves, José Luis Drummond; Cataldi, Marcio

    2018-03-01

    This paper aims to validate inflow simulations concerning the present-day climate at Água Vermelha Hydroelectric Plant (AVHP—located on the Grande River Basin) based on the Soil Moisture Accounting Procedure (SMAP) hydrological model. In order to provide rainfall data to the SMAP model, the RegCM regional climate model was also used working with boundary conditions from the MIROC model. Initially, present-day climate simulation performed by RegCM model was analyzed. It was found that, in terms of rainfall, the model was able to simulate the main patterns observed over South America. A bias correction technique was also used and it was essential to reduce mistakes related to rainfall simulation. Comparison between rainfall simulations from RegCM and MIROC showed improvements when the dynamical downscaling was performed. Then, SMAP, a rainfall-runoff hydrological model, was used to simulate inflows at Água Vermelha Hydroelectric Plant. After calibration with observed rainfall, SMAP simulations were evaluated in two different periods from the one used in calibration. During calibration, SMAP captures the inflow variability observed at AVHP. During validation periods, the hydrological model obtained better results and statistics with observed rainfall. However, in spite of some discrepancies, the use of simulated rainfall without bias correction captured the interannual flow variability. However, the use of bias removal in the simulated rainfall performed by RegCM brought significant improvements to the simulation of natural inflows performed by SMAP. Not only the curve of simulated inflow became more similar to the observed inflow, but also the statistics improved their values. Improvements were also noticed in the inflow simulation when the rainfall was provided by the regional climate model compared to the global model. In general, results obtained so far prove that there was an added value in rainfall when regional climate model was compared to global climate

  14. Building America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brad Oberg

    2010-12-31

    IBACOS researched the constructability and viability issues of using high performance windows as one component of a larger approach to building houses that achieve the Building America 70% energy savings target.

  15. A Component-based Programming Model for Composite, Distributed Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidson, Thomas M.; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The nature of scientific programming is evolving to larger, composite applications that are composed of smaller element applications. These composite applications are more frequently being targeted for distributed, heterogeneous networks of computers. They are most likely programmed by a group of developers. Software component technology and computational frameworks are being proposed and developed to meet the programming requirements of these new applications. Historically, programming systems have had a hard time being accepted by the scientific programming community. In this paper, a programming model is outlined that attempts to organize the software component concepts and fundamental programming entities into programming abstractions that will be better understood by the application developers. The programming model is designed to support computational frameworks that manage many of the tedious programming details, but also that allow sufficient programmer control to design an accurate, high-performance application.

  16. Interventions Using Regular Activities to Engage High-Risk School-Age Youth: a Review of After-School Programs in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cid, Alejandro

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, I review an issue that is an urgent challenge in the development field-the effectiveness of after-school programs for preventing school-age youth violence in vulnerable settings in Latin American and the Caribbean. These programs have proliferated in the region and include sports, recreation, music, tutoring, and other focused activities. Given their popularity and because they target known risk factors for violence (such as drop-out from school, poor academic performance, lack of motivation, too much idle time, low quality and quantity of adult supervision, and social isolation), it is critical to examine empirically whether they can be effective prevention strategies. Unfortunately, most rigorous trials of after-school interventions to prevent youth violence have been conducted in developed countries, with far fewer in Latin America. In this review, a broad range of databases was searched systematically. Only six studies in five Latin American and Caribbean countries were identified. Reported results indicate at least some benefits for youth behavior, although not across all youth. Additional concerns regarding how these programs are implemented and whether specific components can be tied to violence prevention are noted. The need for more rigorous evaluation of these programs is noted.

  17. Tracing social interactions in Pleistocene North America via 3D model analysis of stone tool asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sholts, Sabrina B; Gingerich, Joseph A M; Schlager, Stefan; Stanford, Dennis J; Wärmländer, Sebastian K T S

    2017-01-01

    Stone tools, often the sole remnant of prehistoric hunter-gatherer behavior, are frequently used as evidence of ancient human mobility, resource use, and environmental adaptation. In North America, studies of morphological variation in projectile points have provided important insights into migration and interactions of human groups as early as 12-13 kya. Using new approaches to 3D imaging and morphometric analysis, we here quantify bifacial asymmetry among early North American projectile point styles to better understand changes in knapping technique and cultural transmission. Using a sample of 100 fluted bifaces of Clovis and post-Clovis styles in the eastern United States ca. 13,100-9,000 cal BP (i.e., Clovis, Debert-Vail, Bull Brook, Michaud-Neponset/Barnes, and Crowfield), we employed two different approaches for statistical shape analysis: our previously presented method for analysis of 2D flake scar contours, and a new approach for 3D surface analysis using spherical harmonics (SPHARM). Whereas bifacial asymmetry in point shape does not vary significantly across this stylistic sequence, our measure of asymmetric flake scar patterning shows temporal variation that may signify the beginning of regionalization among early New World colonists.

  18. Employment and Training for America's Homeless: Report on the Job Training for the Homeless Demonstration Program. Report to Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Bell Associates, Inc., Arlington, VA.

    The Job Training for the Homeless Demonstration Program (JTHDP) was evaluated to assess its implications for providing effective employment and training services for homeless persons. Findings indicated that it is feasible to establish employment and training programs at the local level to serve the general homeless population and specific…

  19. Model for the reduction of denials of expeditions of radioactive material in the region of the America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallaupoma, Mario; Bruno, Natanael

    2013-01-01

    The denials, restraints and delays of shipments of radioactive material likely to have occurred and continue to occur. Reducing them to acceptable levels can be a tangible goal that senders and recipients can anticipate and get. The basis for resolving cases of denials and delays should consider not only the participation of the competent national nuclear authorities but also other government authorities. Carriers, shippers, transport companies and recipients should consider in their queries all the wide range of authorities apparently have no involvement but they really have. This paper describes the experience gained in the country of Brazil and provides the basis of a model that could prove useful to other countries and regions, including America, if we adopt and adapt, to reduce the incidence of denials and delays of shipments of radioactive material, according to its own conditions and characteristics

  20. Automation of program model developing for complex structure control objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, A.P.; Sizova, T.B.; Mikhejkina, N.D.; Sankovskij, G.A.; Tyufyagin, A.N.

    1991-01-01

    A brief description of software for automated developing the models of integrating modular programming system, program module generator and program module library providing thermal-hydraulic calcualtion of process dynamics in power unit equipment components and on-line control system operation simulation is given. Technical recommendations for model development are based on experience in creation of concrete models of NPP power units. 8 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  1. Programming models for energy-aware systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Haitao

    Energy efficiency is an important goal of modern computing, with direct impact on system operational cost, reliability, usability and environmental sustainability. This dissertation describes the design and implementation of two innovative programming languages for constructing energy-aware systems. First, it introduces ET, a strongly typed programming language to promote and facilitate energy-aware programming, with a novel type system design called Energy Types. Energy Types is built upon a key insight into today's energy-efficient systems and applications: despite the popular perception that energy and power can only be described in joules and watts, real-world energy management is often based on discrete phases and modes, which in turn can be reasoned about by type systems very effectively. A phase characterizes a distinct pattern of program workload, and a mode represents an energy state the program is expected to execute in. Energy Types is designed to reason about energy phases and energy modes, bringing programmers into the optimization of energy management. Second, the dissertation develops Eco, an energy-aware programming language centering around sustainability. A sustainable program built from Eco is able to adaptively adjusts its own behaviors to stay on a given energy budget, avoiding both deficit that would lead to battery drain or CPU overheating, and surplus that could have been used to improve the quality of the program output. Sustainability is viewed as a form of supply and demand matching, and a sustainable program consistently maintains the equilibrium between supply and demand. ET is implemented as a prototyped compiler for smartphone programming on Android, and Eco is implemented as a minimal extension to Java. Programming practices and benchmarking experiments in these two new languages showed that ET can lead to significant energy savings for Android Apps and Eco can efficiently promote battery awareness and temperature awareness in real

  2. The intraannual variability of land-atmosphere coupling over North America in the Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang Kam Wing, G.; Sushama, L.; Diro, G. T.

    2016-12-01

    This study investigates the intraannual variability of soil moisture-temperature coupling over North America. To this effect, coupled and uncoupled simulations are performed with the fifth-generation Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM5), driven by ERA-Interim. In coupled simulations, land and atmosphere interact freely; in uncoupled simulations, the interannual variability of soil moisture is suppressed by prescribing climatological values for soil liquid and frozen water contents. The study also explores projected changes to coupling by comparing coupled and uncoupled CRCM5 simulations for current (1981-2010) and future (2071-2100) periods, driven by the Canadian Earth System Model. Coupling differs for the northern and southern parts of North America. Over the southern half, it is persistent throughout the year while for the northern half, strongly coupled regions generally follow the freezing line during the cold months. Detailed analysis of the southern Canadian Prairies reveals seasonal differences in the underlying coupling mechanism. During spring and fall, as opposed to summer, the interactive soil moisture phase impacts the snow depth and surface albedo, which further impacts the surface energy budget and thus the surface air temperature; the air temperature then influences the snow depth in a feedback loop. Projected changes to coupling are also season specific: relatively drier soil conditions strengthen coupling during summer, while changes in soil moisture phase, snow depth, and cloud cover impact coupling during colder months. Furthermore, results demonstrate that soil moisture variability amplifies the frequency of temperature extremes over regions of strong coupling in current and future climates.

  3. How does dynamical downscaling affect model biases and future projections of explosive extratropical cyclones along North America's Atlantic coast?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, C.; Zwiers, F. W.; Hodges, K. I.; Scinocca, J. F.

    2018-01-01

    Explosive extratropical cyclones (EETCs) are rapidly intensifying low pressure systems that generate severe weather along North America's Atlantic coast. Global climate models (GCMs) tend to simulate too few EETCs, perhaps partly due to their coarse horizontal resolution and poorly resolved moist diabatic processes. This study explores whether dynamical downscaling can reduce EETC frequency biases, and whether this affects future projections of storms along North America's Atlantic coast. A regional climate model (CanRCM4) is forced with the CanESM2 GCM for the periods 1981 to 2000 and 2081 to 2100. EETCs are tracked from relative vorticity using an objective feature tracking algorithm. CanESM2 simulates 38% fewer EETC tracks compared to reanalysis data, which is consistent with a negative Eady growth rate bias (-0.1 day^{-1}). Downscaling CanESM2 with CanRCM4 increases EETC frequency by one third, which reduces the frequency bias to -22%, and increases maximum EETC precipitation by 22%. Anthropogenic greenhouse gas forcing is projected to decrease EETC frequency (-15%, -18%) and Eady growth rate (-0.2 day^{-1}, -0.2 day^{-1}), and increase maximum EETC precipitation (46%, 52%) in CanESM2 and CanRCM4, respectively. The limited effect of dynamical downscaling on EETC frequency projections is consistent with the lack of impact on the maximum Eady growth rate. The coarse spatial resolution of GCMs presents an important limitation for simulating extreme ETCs, but Eady growth rate biases are likely just as relevant. Further bias reductions could be achieved by addressing processes that lead to an underestimation of lower tropospheric meridional temperature gradients.

  4. 511, America's traveler information number. Deployment assistance report #1, Business models and cost considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Business models and cost recovery are the critical factors for determining the sustainability of the traveler information service, and 511. In March 2001 the Policy Committee directed the 511 Working Group to investigate plausible business models and...

  5. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of unusual nonfermentative gram-negative bacilli isolated from Latin America: report from the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program (1997-2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C Gales

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial susceptibility of 176 unusual non-fermentative gram-negative bacilli (NF-GNB collected from Latin America region through the SENTRY Program between 1997 and 2002 was evaluated by broth microdilution according to the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS recommendations. Nearly 74% of the NF-BGN belonged to the following genera/species: Burkholderia spp. (83, Achromobacter spp. (25, Ralstonia pickettii (16, Alcaligenes spp. (12, and Cryseobacterium spp. (12. Generally, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (MIC50, 16 µg/ml; 18.8% susceptible and meropenem (MIC50, 8 µg/ml; 50% susceptible against Ralstonia pickettii. Since selection of the most appropriate antimicrobial agents for testing and reporting has not been established by the NCCLS for many of NF-GNB species, results from large multicenter studies may help to guide the best empiric therapy.

  6. The HC-LAC: a Platform for Modeling Hydrology and Climate Change in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreda, F.; Wyatt, A.; Bruhn, M.; Wheaton, W.; Miralles-Wilhelm, F.; Muñoz-Castillo, R.; Rineer, J.

    2013-05-01

    This platform, called the Hydrology and Climate Change in Latin America and The Caribbean, or "HC-LAC", is an integrated quantitative simulation of hydrology and climate change. The HC-LAC is composed of two principal components: the Analytical Hydrography Dataset (AHD) and an enhanced version of the Generalized Watershed Loading Function (GWLF). The AHD is a spatially explicit surface water data layer of Central and South America derived from digital elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and modified by the USGS to provide more accurate flow between cells in the raster data. For the LAC area, AHD consists 230, 000 catchments and stream segments with an average area of 100 km2 and length of 10 km, respectively. The AHD data structure is patterned after the US National Hydrography Dataset Plus (NHDPlus), thus providing a proven structure for flexible data integration and analyses necessary for spatial models like the HC-LAC. The structure of the AHD enables the implementation of water balance modeling and general routing of flows through the stream network thus supporting a range of environmental models. GWLF is applied on each AHD catchment which is characterized by multiple land use and soil type. The response of each land use in a given catchment is modeled separately in generating stream flow as well as recharge to soil storage. The stream flows generated from each catchment are routed through stream networks, providing total flow at any point in the stream network. A pilot implementation of the HC-LAC was established for the Rio Grande basin in North West Argentina (drainage area 6,700 km2). The model was parameterized and calibrated using readily available data. Three stream flow time series were generated using a reference climate case and two climate change projections. The reference case was based on historical records and assumes no climate change. The two climate change projections were generated using the IPCC "A2" high

  7. Outdoor Program Models: Placing Cooperative Adventure and Adventure Education Models on the Continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Steven P.

    In two articles on outdoor programming models, Watters distinguished four models on a continuum ranging from the common adventure model, with minimal organizational structure and leadership control, to the guide service model, in which leaders are autocratic and trips are highly structured. Club programs and instructional programs were in between,…

  8. Model Teacher - School Dental Hygiene Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lowell W.

    The purpose of this study, which was carried out during the 1972-73 school year at three parochial schools in the Houston area, was to determine the effectiveness of the Toothkeeper Program, a multimedia program of oral hygiene training carefully developed and packaged to establish effective long-term dental hygiene practice. The study population…

  9. Visual Teaching Model for Introducing Programming Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehane, Ronald; Sherman, Steven

    2014-01-01

    This study examines detailed usage of online training videos that were designed to address specific course problems that were encountered in an online computer programming course. The study presents the specifics of a programming course where training videos were used to provide students with a quick start path to learning a new programming…

  10. A Model Program for International Commerce Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funston, Richard

    To address the economy's growing reliance on international business, San Diego State University has recently introduced a program in international commerce. The program was developed by packaging coursework in three existing areas: business administration, language training, and area studies. Although still in its infancy, the international…

  11. Freud's antipathy to America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, S L

    1991-01-01

    Freud first saw this in America's attitude toward the use of cocaine. It was freely and legally used and even promoted by American physicians as beneficial in many medical conditions. Freud was first swept along by America's prococaine enthusiasm. He narrowly missed destroying his own medical reputation by his continuing close connection and advocacy of cocaine. Freud made his only visit to America in 1909. Despite the success of his visit and the congeniality of Americans toward him, he was already programmed toward a negative response. He allowed minor everyday inconveniences and cultural differences to spoil the trip for him. The chronic intestinal distress that had bothered him previously now was labelled as his "American dyspepsia." He developed additional reasons for disliking America. They accepted his three key dissenters, Adler, Jung, and Rank. He even believed that these three men achieved greater notoriety and popularity in America than he did. In fact, the Freudian psychoanalytic movement became much larger and more powerful in America than did the followings of any or all of his defectors. Freud did not like the shortcuts and lack of mastery of the basics of psychoanalysis that he believed happened in America. Some of this was true, but it was mainly exaggerated in Freud's mind. The gold of psychoanalysis was never transformed into a practical but deficient psychoanalytic alloy as Freud feared it might. There was a genuine disagreement about whether a psychoanalyst should have to become a medical doctor or not. It was a complicated issue in America because of laws that said that doing psychoanalysis was practicing medicine. Freud viewed the American stand against recognizing lay analysts as more evidence of American's being a rebellious son. Economic factors also played a significant factor in Freud's dislike of America. Freud was initially enthusiastic about President Wilson and his plans for peace. He found after World War I that all of his savings

  12. Merging tree ring chronologies and climate system model simulated temperature by optimal interpolation algorithm in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Xing, Pei; Luo, Yong; Zhao, Zongci; Nie, Suping; Huang, Jianbin; Wang, Shaowu; Tian, Qinhua

    2015-04-01

    A new dataset of annual mean surface temperature has been constructed over North America in recent 500 years by performing optimal interpolation (OI) algorithm. Totally, 149 series totally were screened out including 69 tree ring width (MXD) and 80 tree ring width (TRW) chronologies are screened from International Tree Ring Data Bank (ITRDB). The simulated annual mean surface temperature derives from the past1000 experiment results of Community Climate System Model version 4 (CCSM4). Different from existing research that applying data assimilation approach to (General Circulation Models) GCMs simulation, the errors of both the climate model simulation and tree ring reconstruction were considered, with a view to combining the two parts in an optimal way. Variance matching (VM) was employed to calibrate tree ring chronologies on CRUTEM4v, and corresponding errors were estimated through leave-one-out process. Background error covariance matrix was estimated from samples of simulation results in a running 30-year window in a statistical way. Actually, the background error covariance matrix was calculated locally within the scanning range (2000km in this research). Thus, the merging process continued with a time-varying local gain matrix. The merging method (MM) was tested by two kinds of experiments, and the results indicated standard deviation of errors can be reduced by about 0.3 degree centigrade lower than tree ring reconstructions and 0.5 degree centigrade lower than model simulation. During the recent Obvious decadal variability can be identified in MM results including the evident cooling (0.10 degree per decade) in 1940-60s, wherein the model simulation exhibit a weak increasing trend (0.05 degree per decade) instead. MM results revealed a compromised spatial pattern of the linear trend of surface temperature during a typical period (1601-1800 AD) in Little Ice Age, which basically accorded with the phase transitions of the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO) and

  13. Overview of Global/Regional Models Used to Evaluate Tropospheric Ozone in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew S.

    2015-01-01

    Ozone (O3) is an important greenhouse gas, toxic pollutant, and plays a major role in atmospheric chemistry. Tropospheric O3 which resides in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) is highly reactive and has a lifetime on the order of days, however, O3 in the free troposphere and stratosphere has a lifetime on the order of weeks or months. Modeling O3 mixing ratios at and above the surface is difficult due to the multiple formation/destruction processes and transport pathways that cause large spatio-temporal variability in O3 mixing ratios. This talk will summarize in detail the global/regional models that are commonly used to simulate/predict O3 mixing ratios in the United States. The major models which will be focused on are the: 1) Community Multi-scale Air Quality Model (CMAQ), 2) Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions (CAMx), 3) Goddard Earth Observing System with Chemistry (GEOS-Chem), 4) Real Time Air Quality Modeling System (RAQMS), 5) Weather Research and Forecasting/Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model, National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR)'s Model for OZone And Related chemical Tracers (MOZART), and 7) Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) AM3 model. I will discuss the major modeling components which impact O3 mixing ratio calculations in each model and the similarities/differences between these models. This presentation is vital to the 2nd Annual Tropospheric Ozone Lidar Network (TOLNet) Conference as it will provide an overview of tools, which can be used in conjunction with TOLNet data, to evaluate the complex chemistry and transport pathways controlling tropospheric O3 mixing ratios.

  14. The 1995 Ratings of Doctoral Programs: A Hedonic Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenberg, Ronald G.; Hurst, Peter J.

    1998-01-01

    Describes how to employ multivariate regression models and National Research Council data (used to rank doctoral programs) to analyze how measures of program size, faculty seniority, and faculty research and doctoral-degree productivity influence subjective ratings of doctoral programs in 35 academic fields. Illustrates how to compute the effects…

  15. Energy efficiency in nonprofit agencies: Creating effective program models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A.; Prindle, B.; Scherr, M.I.; White, D.L.

    1990-08-01

    Nonprofit agencies are a critical component of the health and human services system in the US. It has been clearly demonstrated by programs that offer energy efficiency services to nonprofits that, with minimal investment, they can educe their energy consumption by ten to thirty percent. This energy conservation potential motivated the Department of Energy and Oak Ridge National Laboratory to conceive a project to help states develop energy efficiency programs for nonprofits. The purpose of the project was two-fold: (1) to analyze existing programs to determine which design and delivery mechanisms are particularly effective, and (2) to create model programs for states to follow in tailoring their own plans for helping nonprofits with energy efficiency programs. Twelve existing programs were reviewed, and three model programs were devised and put into operation. The model programs provide various forms of financial assistance to nonprofits and serve as a source of information on energy efficiency as well. After examining the results from the model programs (which are still on-going) and from the existing programs, several replicability factors'' were developed for use in the implementation of programs by other states. These factors -- some concrete and practical, others more generalized -- serve as guidelines for states devising program based on their own particular needs and resources.

  16. Modeling, Specification and Construction of PLC-programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Kuzmin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new approach to construction of reliable discrete PLC-programs with timers — programming based on specification and verification — is proposed. Timers are modelled in a discrete way. For the specification of a program behavior we use the linear-time temporal logic LTL. Programming is carried out in the ST-language according to a LTLspecification. A new approach to programming of PLC is shown by an example. The proposed programming approach provides an ability of a correctness analysis of PLC-programs using the model checking method. The programming requires fulfillment of the following two conditions: 1 a value of each variable should be changed not more than once per one full PLC-program implementation (per one full working cycle of PLC; 2 a value of each variable should only be changed in one place of a PLC-program. Under the proposed approach the change of the value of each program variable is described by a pair of LTL-formulas. The first LTL-formula describes situations that increase the value of the corresponding variable, the second LTL-formula specifies conditions leading to a decrease of the variable value. The LTL-formulas (used for specification of the corresponding variable behavior are constructive in the sense that they construct the PLC-program, which satisfies temporal properties expressed by these formulas. Thus, the programming of PLC is reduced to the construction of LTL-specification of the behavior of each program variable.

  17. Developing robotic behavior using a genetic programming model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pryor, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    This report describes the methodology for using a genetic programming model to develop tracking behaviors for autonomous, microscale robotic vehicles. The use of such vehicles for surveillance and detection operations has become increasingly important in defense and humanitarian applications. Through an evolutionary process similar to that found in nature, the genetic programming model generates a computer program that when downloaded onto a robotic vehicle's on-board computer will guide the robot to successfully accomplish its task. Simulations of multiple robots engaged in problem-solving tasks have demonstrated cooperative behaviors. This report also discusses the behavior model produced by genetic programming and presents some results achieved during the study

  18. Increased drought impacts on temperate rainforests from southern South America: results of a process-based, dynamic forest model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Alvaro G; Armesto, Juan J; Díaz, M Francisca; Huth, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Increased droughts due to regional shifts in temperature and rainfall regimes are likely to affect forests in temperate regions in the coming decades. To assess their consequences for forest dynamics, we need predictive tools that couple hydrologic processes, soil moisture dynamics and plant productivity. Here, we developed and tested a dynamic forest model that predicts the hydrologic balance of North Patagonian rainforests on Chiloé Island, in temperate South America (42°S). The model incorporates the dynamic linkages between changing rainfall regimes, soil moisture and individual tree growth. Declining rainfall, as predicted for the study area, should mean up to 50% less summer rain by year 2100. We analysed forest responses to increased drought using the model proposed focusing on changes in evapotranspiration, soil moisture and forest structure (above-ground biomass and basal area). We compared the responses of a young stand (YS, ca. 60 years-old) and an old-growth forest (OG, >500 years-old) in the same area. Based on detailed field measurements of water fluxes, the model provides a reliable account of the hydrologic balance of these evergreen, broad-leaved rainforests. We found higher evapotranspiration in OG than YS under current climate. Increasing drought predicted for this century can reduce evapotranspiration by 15% in the OG compared to current values. Drier climate will alter forest structure, leading to decreases in above ground biomass by 27% of the current value in OG. The model presented here can be used to assess the potential impacts of climate change on forest hydrology and other threats of global change on future forests such as fragmentation, introduction of exotic tree species, and changes in fire regimes. Our study expands the applicability of forest dynamics models in remote and hitherto overlooked regions of the world, such as southern temperate rainforests.

  19. Increased drought impacts on temperate rainforests from southern South America: results of a process-based, dynamic forest model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro G Gutiérrez

    Full Text Available Increased droughts due to regional shifts in temperature and rainfall regimes are likely to affect forests in temperate regions in the coming decades. To assess their consequences for forest dynamics, we need predictive tools that couple hydrologic processes, soil moisture dynamics and plant productivity. Here, we developed and tested a dynamic forest model that predicts the hydrologic balance of North Patagonian rainforests on Chiloé Island, in temperate South America (42°S. The model incorporates the dynamic linkages between changing rainfall regimes, soil moisture and individual tree growth. Declining rainfall, as predicted for the study area, should mean up to 50% less summer rain by year 2100. We analysed forest responses to increased drought using the model proposed focusing on changes in evapotranspiration, soil moisture and forest structure (above-ground biomass and basal area. We compared the responses of a young stand (YS, ca. 60 years-old and an old-growth forest (OG, >500 years-old in the same area. Based on detailed field measurements of water fluxes, the model provides a reliable account of the hydrologic balance of these evergreen, broad-leaved rainforests. We found higher evapotranspiration in OG than YS under current climate. Increasing drought predicted for this century can reduce evapotranspiration by 15% in the OG compared to current values. Drier climate will alter forest structure, leading to decreases in above ground biomass by 27% of the current value in OG. The model presented here can be used to assess the potential impacts of climate change on forest hydrology and other threats of global change on future forests such as fragmentation, introduction of exotic tree species, and changes in fire regimes. Our study expands the applicability of forest dynamics models in remote and hitherto overlooked regions of the world, such as southern temperate rainforests.

  20. Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, P. Sarita, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This serial issue features 6 members of the Indiana University System faculty who have focused their research on Latin America, past and present. The first article, "A Literature of Their Own," highlights Darlene Sadlier's research on Brazilian women's fiction and poetry that has led to an interest in the interplay of Brazilian and…

  1. Illiterate America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozol, Jonathan

    Intended for those involved in American social service and educational communities, this book addresses the widespread problem of illiteracy in the United States and the social consequences of this problem. Following an introduction, the chapters in the first section of the book discuss the growing crisis of illiterate America, specifically, the…

  2. Textbook America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, Walter

    1980-01-01

    Focuses on how political attitudes have been influenced by American history textbooks at various times throughout history. Excerpts from traditional and revisionist textbooks are presented, with emphasis on "America Revised" by Frances FitzGerald. Journal available from Harper's Magazine Co., 2 Park Ave., New York, NY 10016. (DB)

  3. Mathematical programming model for the optimization of nutritional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of a mathematical programming model for determining optimal nutritional strategy for a dairy cow is described. Mixed Integer Programming (MIP) may be used to fit curvilinear functions, such as the changes in the nutrient requirements of the cow, into a standard mathematical programme. The model determines the.

  4. Modeling the effects of study abroad programs on college students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvin H. Yu; Garry E. Chick; Duarte B. Morais; Chung-Hsien Lin

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the possibility of modeling the effects of a study abroad program on students from a university in the northeastern United States. A program effect model was proposed after conducting an extensive literature review and empirically examining a sample of 265 participants in 2005. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA),...

  5. Building America's Job Skills with Effective Workforce Programs: A Training Strategy to Raise Wages and Increase Work Opportunities. Strategy Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenstone, Michael; Looney, Adam

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the importance of effective training and workforce development programs as part of a broader strategy to increase the competitiveness of American workers. Although rapid technological change and increasing global competition have delivered great economic benefits to the U.S. economy overall, the development of new and more…

  6. Process of a cyclotron modeling with SNOP program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, V.L.

    2015-01-01

    The description of the SNOP program developed in JINR and intended for numerical modeling of a beam dynamics in accelerating setups of cyclotron type is presented. The main methods of work with program components, and also stages of numerical modeling of a cyclotron, the analysis of the main characteristics of the accelerated bunch by means of the SNOP are given. The explanation of some algorithms and procedures used in the program is given. [ru

  7. Climate model assessment of changes in winter-spring streamflow timing over North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kam, Jonghun; Knutson, Thomas R.; Milly, Paul C. D.

    2018-01-01

    Over regions where snow-melt runoff substantially contributes to winter-spring streamflows, warming can accelerate snow melt and reduce dry-season streamflows. However, conclusive detection of changes and attribution to anthropogenic forcing is hindered by brevity of observational records, model uncertainty, and uncertainty concerning internal variability. In this study, a detection/attribution of changes in mid-latitude North American winter-spring streamflow timing is examined using nine global climate models under multiple forcing scenarios. In this study, robustness across models, start/end dates for trends, and assumptions about internal variability is evaluated. Marginal evidence for an emerging detectable anthropogenic influence (according to four or five of nine models) is found in the north-central U.S., where winter-spring streamflows have been coming earlier. Weaker indications of detectable anthropogenic influence (three of nine models) are found in the mountainous western U.S./southwestern Canada and in extreme northeastern U.S./Canadian Maritimes. In the former region, a recent shift toward later streamflows has rendered the full-record trend toward earlier streamflows only marginally significant, with possible implications for previously published climate change detection findings for streamflow timing in this region. In the latter region, no forced model shows as large a shift toward earlier streamflow timing as the detectable observed shift. In other (including warm, snow-free) regions, observed trends are typically not detectable, although in the U.S. central plains we find detectable delays in streamflow, which are inconsistent with forced model experiments.

  8. Application of General Circulation Models to Assess the Potential Impact of Climate Change on Potential Distribution and Relative Abundance of Melanoplus sanguinipes (Fabricius (Orthoptera: Acrididae in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Olfert

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate is the dominant factor determining the distribution and abundance of most insect species. In recent years, the issue of climatic changes caused by human activities and the effects on agriculture has raised concern. General circulation model scenarios were applied to a bioclimatic model of Melanoplus sanguinipes to assess the potential impact of global warming on its distribution and relative abundance. Native to North America and widely distributed, M. sanguinipes is one of the grasshopper species of the continent most responsible for economic damage to grain, oilseed, pulse, and forage crops. Compared to predicted range and distribution under current climate conditions, model results indicated that M. sanguinipes would have increased range and relative abundance under the three general circulation model scenarios in more northern regions of North America. Conversely, model output predicted that the range of this crop pest could contract in regions where climate conditions became limiting.

  9. Management training in global health education: a Health Innovation Fellowship training program to bring healthcare to low-income communities in Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Andrea M; Pearson, Andy A; Bertelsen, Nathan S

    2018-01-01

    Interprofessional education is increasingly recognized as essential for health education worldwide. Although effective management, innovation, and entrepreneurship are necessary to improve health systems, business schools have been underrepresented in global health education. Central America needs more health professionals trained in health management and innovation to respond to health disparities, especially in rural communities. This paper explores the impact of the Health Innovation Fellowship (HIF), a new training program for practicing health professionals offered jointly by the Central American Healthcare Initiative and INCAE Business School, Costa Rica. Launched in 2014, HIF's goal is to create a network of highly trained interdisciplinary health professionals in competencies to improve health of Central American communities through better health management. The program's fellows carried out innovative healthcare projects in their local regions. The first three annual cohorts (total of 43 fellows) represented all health-related professions and sectors (private, public, and civil society) from six Central American countries. All fellows attended four 1-week, on-site modular training sessions, received ongoing mentorship, and stayed connected through formal and informal networks and webinars through which they exchange knowledge and support each other. CAHI stakeholders supported HIF financially. Impact evaluation of the three-year pilot training program is positive: fellows improved their health management skills and more than 50% of the projects found either financial or political support for their implementation. HIF's strengths include that both program leaders and trainees come from the Global South, and that HIF offers a platform to collaborate with partners in the Global North. By focusing on promoting innovation and management at a top business school in the region, HIF constitutes a novel capacity-building effort within global health education. HIF

  10. Spatial and temporal patterns of CH4 and N2O fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems of North America during 1979–2008: application of a global biogeochemistry model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Lu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Continental-scale estimations of terrestrial methane (CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O fluxes over a long time period are crucial to accurately assess the global balance of greenhouse gases and enhance our understanding and prediction of global climate change and terrestrial ecosystem feedbacks. Using a process-based global biogeochemical model, the Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model (DLEM, we quantified simultaneously CH4 and N2O fluxes in North America's terrestrial ecosystems from 1979 to 2008. During the past 30 years, approximately 14.69 ± 1.64 T g C a−1 (1 T g = 1012 g of CH4, and 1.94 ± 0.1 T g N a−1 of N2O were released from terrestrial ecosystems in North America. At the country level, both the US and Canada acted as CH4 sources to the atmosphere, but Mexico mainly oxidized and consumed CH4 from the atmosphere. Wetlands in North America contributed predominantly to the regional CH4 source, while all other ecosystems acted as sinks for atmospheric CH4, of which forests accounted for 36.8%. Regarding N2O emission in North America, the US, Canada, and Mexico contributed 56.19%, 18.23%, and 25.58%, respectively, to the continental source over the past 30 years. Forests and croplands were the two ecosystems that contributed most to continental N2O emission. The inter-annual variations of CH4 and N2O fluxes in North America were mainly attributed to year-to-year climatic variability. While only annual precipitation was found to have a significant effect on annual CH4 flux, both mean annual temperature and annual precipitation were significantly correlated to annual N2O flux. The regional estimates and spatiotemporal patterns of terrestrial ecosystem CH4 and N2O fluxes in North America generated in this study provide useful information for global change research and policy making.

  11. Building the Rule of Law: U.S. Assistance Programs and Police/Military Relations in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-02-01

    1. REPORT DATE FEB 2003 2. REPORT TYPE N /A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Biulding the Rule of Law: U.S. Assistance Programs...military poses a far greater problem for democratically-elected civilian governments, as Bolivian President Gonzalo Sanchez de Lozado once put it...Defense Minister Luis Fernando Ramirez Acuna, the army was key”.8 Latin American military and police forces are increasingly dependent upon foreign

  12. 78 FR 12271 - Wireline Competition Bureau Seeks Additional Comment In Connect America Cost Model Virtual Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ... (202) 863-2893, facsimile (202) 863-2898, or via the Internet at http://www.bcpiweb.com . In addition, the Virtual Workshop may be accessed via the Internet at http://www.fcc.gov/blog/wcb-cost-model... this proceeding. The Bureau will not rely on anonymous comments posted during the workshop in reaching...

  13. Stochastic dynamic programming model for optimal resource ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Bhuvaneswari

    2018-04-11

    Apr 11, 2018 ... containers, doctors, nurses, cash and stocks. Similarly, the uncertainty may have different characterizations in these applications. An approximate stochastic dynamic programming (SDP) [3] allows nodes with a number of possible actions with clear strategies for devising an effective decision on optimal ...

  14. Summer precipitation projections over northwestern South America from CMIP5 models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomino-Lemus, Reiner; Córdoba-Machado, Samir; Gámiz-Fortis, Sonia Raquel; Castro-Díez, Yolanda; Esteban-Parra, María Jesús

    2015-08-01

    In this study, statistical downscaling (SD) models have been built using principal component regression (PCR) for simulating summer precipitation in Colombia during the period 1950-2010, and climate projections have been made for the period 2071-2100 by applying the previous SD models to the SLP outputs of five GCMs. For this, the principal components (PCs) of the SLP reanalysis data from NCEP were used as predictor variables and the observed gridded summer precipitation as predictands. The period 1950-1993 was used for calibration and 1994-2010 for validation. Bootstrap with replacement was applied to provide estimations of the statistical errors. All SD models performed reasonably well at regional scales, and the spatial distribution of the correlation coefficients between the predicted and observed gridded precipitation values shows high significant values (between 0.5 and 0.93) along the Andes range, north and north Pacific of Colombia. The ability of the GCMs to simulate the summer precipitation in Colombia, for the present climate (1971-2000), has been analyzed by calculating the differences between the simulated and observed precipitation values, with the result that the precipitation simulations made for the GCMs show strong biases. However, SD models applied to the SLP output from GCMs demonstrate their ability to faithfully reproduce the rainfall field. Finally, for summer precipitation projections in Colombia for the period 2071-2100, the SD models, recalibrated for the total period 1950-2010, have been applied to the SLP output from GCMs under the RCP2.6, RCP4.5, and RCP8.5 scenarios. The SD estimations show considerable differences with respect to SD present values, generally towards precipitation increases. The SD MIROC5, HAdGEM2-AO, and CESM1(CAM5) present significant changes in all the regions for both the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios. So, for the RCP8.5 these models project changes between 12.85% and 18.32% for the NWC region, 6.73% and 10.02% for

  15. A simulation model for wind energy storage systems. Volume 3: Program descriptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, A. W.; Edsinger, R. W.; Burroughs, J. D.

    1977-01-01

    Program descriptions, flow charts, and program listings for the SIMWEST model generation program, the simulation program, the file maintenance program, and the printer plotter program are given. For Vol 2, see .

  16. Multi-scale mantle structure underneath the Americas from a new tomographic model of seismic shear velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porritt, R. W.; Becker, T. W.; Auer, L.; Boschi, L.

    2017-12-01

    We present a whole-mantle, variable resolution, shear-wave tomography model based on newly available and existing seismological datasets including regional body-wave delay times and multi-mode Rayleigh and Love wave phase delays. Our body wave dataset includes 160,000 S wave delays used in the DNA13 regional tomographic model focused on the western and central US, 86,000 S and SKS delays measured on stations in western South America (Porritt et al., in prep), and 3,900,000 S+ phases measured by correlation between data observed at stations in the IRIS global networks (IU, II) and stations in the continuous US, against synthetic data generated with IRIS Syngine. The surface wave dataset includes fundamental mode and overtone Rayleigh wave data from Schaeffer and Levedev (2014), ambient noise derived Rayleigh wave and Love wave measurements from Ekstrom (2013), newly computed fundamental mode ambient noise Rayleigh wave phase delays for the continuous US up to July 2017, and other, previously published, measurements. These datasets, along with a data-adaptive parameterization utilized for the SAVANI model (Auer et al., 2014), should allow significantly finer-scale imaging than previous global models, rivaling that of regional-scale approaches, under the USArray footprint in the continuous US, while seamlessly integrating into a global model. We parameterize the model for both vertically (vSV) and horizontally (vSH) polarized shear velocities by accounting for the different sensitivities of the various phases and wave types. The resulting, radially anisotropic model should allow for a range of new geodynamic analysis, including estimates of mantle flow induced topography or seismic anisotropy, without generating artifacts due to edge effects, or requiring assumptions about the structure of the region outside the well resolved model space. Our model shows a number of features, including indications of the effects of edge-driven convection in the Cordillera and along

  17. Climate change projections of boreal summer precipitation over tropical America by using statistical downscaling from CMIP5 models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomino-Lemus, Reiner; Córdoba-Machado, Samir; Raquel Gámiz-Fortis, Sonia; Castro-Díez, Yolanda; Jesús Esteban-Parra, María

    2017-12-01

    Climate change projections for the last 30 years of the 21st century, for boreal summer precipitation in tropical America, have been made by developing a statistical downscaling (SD) model applied to the SLP outputs of 20 GCMs of CMIP5, for present climate (1970-2000), and for future (2071-2100) under the RCP2.6, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios. For present climate, many SD GCMs faithfully reproduce the precipitation field in many regions of the study area. For future climate, as the radiative forcing increases, the projected changes intensify and the regions affected expand, with higher coherence between models. The zone between central and southeastern Brazil registered the most pronounced precipitation changes by a large number of SD models, even for the RCP2.6. Except for this region in Brazil, in general, the changes in rainfall range from moderate (± 25%) to intense (from ±70% to ±100%) as the radiative forcing increases from the RCP2.6-RCP8.5. For this latter scenario, all SD models present significant precipitation changes for more than 50% of the area, in some cases reaching 75% of area with significant changes. For the ensemble mean, the results show three extensive regions with significant changes under the three scenarios, the most highlighted changes being for the RCP8.5: a northwest-southeast band that extends from northern Mexico to eastern Brazil, crossing through northern Colombia, along with the regions in the south of the study area, with generally moderate precipitation increases; and a band that extends from eastern Ecuador to southeastern Brazil, with major decreasing changes. This pattern of change could be related with a possible strengthening in frequency in terms of La Niña events for the end of the century.

  18. Regaining America's leading global position in the innovation of science and technology: Increasing engineering program enrollment in higher education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burklo, Daniel A.

    While the United States has always been a global leader in the innovation of science and technology, this leading global position is in jeopardy. As other developing countries produce intellectual capital in the form of engineers at increasing rates, the country will continue to lose ground. Today the need for the country to produce engineers is greater than ever before. Recognizing this need, attempts have been made to increase entrance into engineering fields in higher education by providing STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) activities during K-12 education. While STEM initiatives create awareness and interest, this study investigates what actually motivates individuals to choose engineering programs in higher education. A quantitative study utilizing survey results from 202 first year engineering students in the state of Ohio illustrates what has motivated them to choose engineering as a major. The study examines who, when, and what motivated the students to choose engineering by examining the relationship of influential people and STEM initiatives participated in during their K-12 education to enrollment in engineering programs at colleges and universities in the state of Ohio. The study proved the general hypothesis that there are influential people in an individual's college choice, such as the parent, and there are time periods during K-12 education when individuals are more motivated, such as the high school years. The study also showed a positive correlation between the motivation toward engineering programs and the number of STEM opportunities in which individuals participated yet there was little difference when comparing the different types of STEM initiatives.

  19. Symbolic Game Semantics for Model Checking Program Families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimovski, Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    . In this paper, we propose an efficient game semantics based approach for verifying open program families, i.e. program families with free (undefined) identifiers. We use symbolic representation of algorithmic game semantics, where concrete values are replaced with symbolic ones. In this way, we can compactly...... represent program families with infinite integers as so-called (finite-state) featured symbolic automata. Specifically designed model checking algorithms are then employed to verify safety of all programs from a family at once and pinpoint those programs that are unsafe (respectively, safe). We present...

  20. Development and Implementation of a Program Management Maturity Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartwig, Laura; Smith, Matt

    2008-12-15

    In 2006, Honeywell Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T) announced an updatedvision statement for the organization. The vision is “To be the most admired team within the NNSA [National Nuclear Security Administration] for our relentless drive to convert ideas into the highest quality products and services for National Security by applying the right technology, outstanding program management and best commercial practices.” The challenge to provide outstanding program management was taken up by the Program Management division and the Program Integration Office (PIO) of the company. This article describes how Honeywell developed and deployed a program management maturity model to drive toward excellence.

  1. Comparison of mosquito control programs in seven urban sites in Africa, the Middle East, and the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impoinvil, Daniel E.; Ahmad, Sajjad; Troyo, Adriana; Keating, Joseph; Githeko, Andrew K.; Mbogo, Charles M; Kibe, Lydiah; Githure, John I.; Gad, Adel M.; Hassan, Ali N.; Orshan, Laor; Warburg, Alon; Calderón-Arguedas, Olger; Sánchez-Loría, Victoria M.; Velit-Suarez, Rosanna; Chadee, Dave D.; Novak, Robert J.; Beier, John C.

    2007-01-01

    Mosquito control programs at seven urban sites in Kenya, Egypt, Israel, Costa Rica, and Trinidad are described and compared. Site-specific urban and disease characteristics, organizational diagrams, and strengths, weaknesses, obstacles and threats (SWOT) analysis tools are used to provide a descriptive assessment of each mosquito control program, and provide a comparison of the factors affecting mosquito abatement. The information for SWOT analysis is collected from surveys, focus group discussions, and personal communication. SWOT analysis identified various issues affecting the efficiency and sustainability of mosquito control operations. The main outcome of our work was the description and comparison of mosquito control operations within the context of each study site’s biological, social, political, management, and economic conditions. The issues identified in this study ranged from lack of inter-sector collaboration to operational issues of mosquito control efforts. A lack of sustainable funding for mosquito control was a common problem for most sites. Many unique problems were also identified, which included lack of mosquito surveillance, lack of law enforcement, and negative consequences of human behavior. Identifying common virtues and shortcomings of mosquito control operations is useful in identifying “best practices” for mosquito control operations, thus leading to better control of mosquito biting and mosquito-borne disease transmission. PMID:17316882

  2. Comparison of mosquito control programs in seven urban sites in Africa, the Middle East, and the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impoinvil, Daniel E; Ahmad, Sajjad; Troyo, Adriana; Keating, Joseph; Githeko, Andrew K; Mbogo, Charles M; Kibe, Lydiah; Githure, John I; Gad, Adel M; Hassan, Ali N; Orshan, Laor; Warburg, Alon; Calderón-Arguedas, Olger; Sánchez-Loría, Victoria M; Velit-Suarez, Rosanna; Chadee, Dave D; Novak, Robert J; Beier, John C

    2007-10-01

    Mosquito control programs at seven urban sites in Kenya, Egypt, Israel, Costa Rica, and Trinidad are described and compared. Site-specific urban and disease characteristics, organizational diagrams, and strengths, weaknesses, obstacles and threats (SWOT) analysis tools are used to provide a descriptive assessment of each mosquito control program, and provide a comparison of the factors affecting mosquito abatement. The information for SWOT analysis is collected from surveys, focus-group discussions, and personal communication. SWOT analysis identified various issues affecting the efficiency and sustainability of mosquito control operations. The main outcome of our work was the description and comparison of mosquito control operations within the context of each study site's biological, social, political, management, and economic conditions. The issues identified in this study ranged from lack of inter-sector collaboration to operational issues of mosquito control efforts. A lack of sustainable funding for mosquito control was a common problem for most sites. Many unique problems were also identified, which included lack of mosquito surveillance, lack of law enforcement, and negative consequences of human behavior. Identifying common virtues and shortcomings of mosquito control operations is useful in identifying "best practices" for mosquito control operations, thus leading to better control of mosquito biting and mosquito-borne disease transmission.

  3. Ability of Latin America laboratories to detect antimicrobial resistance patterns: experience of the SENTRY antimicrobial surveillance program (1997-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo E. Mendes

    Full Text Available The accuracy of antimicrobial susceptibility tests is a crucial step for the clinical management of patients with serious infections. They must be reliable and precise because they will guide antimicrobial therapy. Our main objective was to compare the results of susceptibility testing performed by the SENTRY coordinator laboratory with those reported by the participating Latin American medical centers. A total of 10,277 bacterial isolates were tested by the reference broth microdilution method at the coordinator laboratory in the United States. The tests were performed and interpreted following the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS recommendations. Ten antimicrobial agent-organism combinations were analyzed. The susceptibility methods utilized in each of the medical centers were also evaluated. Total agreement of the results was obtained in nearly 88% of the antimicrobial agent-organism combinations. "Very major" (false-susceptible results and "major errors" (false-resistant results were observed in 12% and 6% of the cases, respectively. The highest disagreements were observed for coagulase-negative Staphylococcus - oxacillin (20% - very major error and Burkholderia cepacia - imipenem (21% - very major error. The susceptibility method with the highest agreement rate was Etest® (92% > PASCO® (91% > agar dilution (91% > MicroScan® (90% > Vitek® (87%. External quality assurance data obtained by surveillance programs such as the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program are not only helpful for detecting the emergence of patterns of antimicrobial resistance, but also to monitor the performance of the participating microbiology laboratories.

  4. Ability of Latin America laboratories to detect antimicrobial resistance patterns: experience of the SENTRY antimicrobial surveillance program (1997-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendes Rodrigo E.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy of antimicrobial susceptibility tests is a crucial step for the clinical management of patients with serious infections. They must be reliable and precise because they will guide antimicrobial therapy. Our main objective was to compare the results of susceptibility testing performed by the SENTRY coordinator laboratory with those reported by the participating Latin American medical centers. A total of 10,277 bacterial isolates were tested by the reference broth microdilution method at the coordinator laboratory in the United States. The tests were performed and interpreted following the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS recommendations. Ten antimicrobial agent-organism combinations were analyzed. The susceptibility methods utilized in each of the medical centers were also evaluated. Total agreement of the results was obtained in nearly 88% of the antimicrobial agent-organism combinations. "Very major" (false-susceptible results and "major errors" (false-resistant results were observed in 12% and 6% of the cases, respectively. The highest disagreements were observed for coagulase-negative Staphylococcus - oxacillin (20% - very major error and Burkholderia cepacia - imipenem (21% - very major error. The susceptibility method with the highest agreement rate was Etest® (92% > PASCO® (91% > agar dilution (91% > MicroScan® (90% > Vitek® (87%. External quality assurance data obtained by surveillance programs such as the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program are not only helpful for detecting the emergence of patterns of antimicrobial resistance, but also to monitor the performance of the participating microbiology laboratories.

  5. New upper mantle model for North America: no longer a pyrolite composition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchuc, E.; Malinowski, M.

    2009-04-01

    We compare the traveltimes data for P and S waves from the long range seismic profiles and from the earthquakes recorded to the offset of 3000 km with theoretical traveltimes predicted by standard seismological models: PREM, IASP- 91, AK-135 and especially by seismo-petrological model PREF (Cammarano and Romanowicz - 2007). For our analysis we are used data from north American array also. Our analysis suggests that for several events in the distance range 2000-3000 km, the first-arrivals are characterized by a relatively high velocity of 8.7-8.9 km/s. It is about 2.5% higher than P-wave velocity of the Lehmann phases, observed in the nearest offset and about 3% smaller than velocity below 410 km discontinuity. S waves model suggested significant differences in Vp/Vs ratio. We suggest that this is a new first-order seismological boundary which can be interpreted as a top of the mantle transition zone. Seismological arguments for the existence of such a boundary are as follows: refracted waves with velocity 8.7-8.9 km/s and reflected waves find by Warren at al. (1967) and by Thybo and Perchuc (1997b). Several new publications suggested existence of a low velocity zone above the 410-km discontinuity. We also see this feature in our studies. Important suggestion is existence of 300 km discontinuity below cold areas and it is also difficult to exclude this boundary below "cold" areas however phases from this boundary are in secondary impulses. Depth of this boundary strongly depends on the thermal state of the mantle in particular regions. In conclusion we can say that the mantle transition zone starts much earlier and the lower part of the upper mantle is much faster than predicted by purely pyrolitic mantle model. Several petrological studies suggest influences of fluids (especially H2O) on the character of the 410 km discontinuity and of the transition zone. All the differences in experimental data can be explained by the effect of temperature on the phase

  6. Service systems concepts, modeling, and programming

    CERN Document Server

    Cardoso, Jorge; Poels, Geert

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief explores the internal workings of service systems. The authors propose a lightweight semantic model for an effective representation to capture the essence of service systems. Key topics include modeling frameworks, service descriptions and linked data, creating service instances, tool support, and applications in enterprises.Previous books on service system modeling and various streams of scientific developments used an external perspective to describe how systems can be integrated. This brief introduces the concept of white-box service system modeling as an approach to mo

  7. Equatorial ionospheric zonal drift model and vertical drift statistics from UHF scintillation measurements in South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. E. Sheehan

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available UHF scintillation measurements of zonal ionospheric drifts have been conducted at Ancon, Peru since 1994 using antennas spaced in the magnetic east-west direction to cross-correlate geo-synchronous satellite signals. An empirical model of average drift over a wide range of Kp and solar flux conditions was constructed from successive two-dimensional fits of drift vs. the parameters and day of year. The model exhibits the typical local time trend of maximum eastward velocity in the early evening with a gradual decrease and reversal in the early morning hours. As expected, velocities at all hours increase with the solar flux and decrease with Kp activity. It was also found that vertical drifts could contribute to the variability of drift measurements to the east of Ancon at a low elevation angle. The vertical drift at the ionospheric intersection to the east can be estimated when combined with nearly overhead observations at Ancon or a similar spaced-antenna site at Antofagasta, Chile. Comparisons on five days with nearly simultaneous measurements of vertical drift by the Julia radar at Jicamarca, Peru show varying agreement with the spaced-antenna estimates. Statistical results from 1997 to 2001 generally agree with radar and satellite studies.

  8. Building America Case Study: Accelerating the Delivery of Home-Performance Upgrades Using a Synergistic Business Model, Minneapolis, Minnesota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-04-01

    Achieving Building America energy savings goals (40 percent by 2030) will require many existing homes to install energy upgrades. Engaging large numbers of homeowners in building science-guided upgrades during a single remodeling event has been difficult for a number of reasons. Performance upgrades in existing homes tend to occur over multiple years and usually result from component failures (furnace failure) and weather damage (ice dams, roofing, siding). This research attempted to: A) Understand the homeowner's motivations regarding investing in building science based performance upgrades. B) Determining a rapidly scalable approach to engage large numbers of homeowners directly through existing customer networks. C) Access a business model that will manage all aspects of the contractor-homeowner-performance professional interface to ensure good upgrade decisions over time. The solution results from a synergistic approach utilizing networks of suppliers merging with networks of homeowner customers. Companies in the $400 to $800 billion home services industry have proven direct marketing and sales proficiencies that have led to the development of vast customer networks. Companies such as pest control, lawn care, and security have nurtured these networks by successfully addressing the ongoing needs of homes. This long-term access to customers and trust established with consistent delivery has also provided opportunities for home service providers to grow by successfully introducing new products and services like attic insulation and air sealing. The most important component for success is a business model that will facilitate and manage the process. The team analyzes a group that developed a working model.

  9. Investigation of the Moisture Recycling Ratio over South America: A Modelling Approach using HadCM3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charan Pattnayak, Kanhu; Gloor, Emanuel; Tindall, Julia; Briener, Roel

    2017-04-01

    It is a well-known fact that precipitation relies on terrestrial evaporation (moisture recycling). This study makes use of new definitions of moisture recycling from van der Ent, et al. 2010 to study the complete process of continental moisture feedback. Earlier studies have shown that there exist many regions over the globe that relies heavily on recycled moisture as well as that supplies moisture. In South America, the Río de la Plata basin depends on evaporation from the Amazon forest for 70% of its water resources. Stable water isotope (δ18O) can be used, as a good proxy for precipitation and it is a better tool to study convective processes and hydrological cycle. Analysing the δ18O would help to identify the moisture source for precipitation. In this study, we try to explain to the relation between δ18O and the moisture recycling ratio using atmospheric component of Hadley Centre Coupled Climate Model (HadCM3). And also we analyse the impact of land cover change on δ18O and the moisture recycling ratio. Further, we will analyse the changes of moisture recycling pattern from pre-industrial to the present scenario.

  10. New Model Organization of Higher Education for Latin America and the Caribean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evaristo Méndez

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper to analyze the modern university, the institutional and academic crisis, and their epistemological and social frameworks. The positivism of Higher Education of modernity in the Western world was characterized by disciplinaridad, repetition and accumulation of knowledge and bureaucratic organization untied in its academy. After a theoretical study we suggests a new organizational model of higher education based on the principles of transdisciplinarity and systems thinking and complexity of science finds dialogue with the rest of cultural expressions. The new networking organization will be on flexible integration academic in real time. Inside of the networks, the key factors are the centers of integrated development. In this centers will be formed the universities to improve their roles than researcher, entrepreneur, manager, leader, educator and communicator.

  11. Observations and modelling of inflation in the Lazufre volcanic region, South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearse, J.; Lundgren, P.

    2010-12-01

    The Central Volcanic Zone (CVZ) is an active volcanic arc in the central Andes, extending through Peru, southwestern Bolivia, Chile, and northwestern Argentina [De Silva, 1989; De Silva and Francis, 1991]. The CVZ includes a number of collapsed calderas, remnants of catastrophic eruptions, which are now thought to be inactive. However, recent Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) observations [Pritchard and Simons, 2004] show surface deformation occurring at some of these large ancient volcanic regions, indicating that magma chambers are slowly inflating beneath the surface. The mechanisms responsible for the initiation and growth of large midcrustal magma chambers remains poorly understood, and InSAR provides an opportunity for us to observe volcanic systems in remote regions that are otherwise difficult to monitor and observe. The Lastarria-Cordon del Azufre ("Lazufre" [Pritchard and Simons, 2002]) volcanic area is one such complex showing recent deformation, with average surface uplift rates of approximately 2.5 cm/year [Froger et al., 2007; Ruch et al, 2008]. We have processed InSAR data from ERS-1/2 and Envisat in the Lazufre volcanic area, including both ascending and descending satellite tracks. Time series analysis of the data shows steady uplift beginning in about 2000, continuing into 2010. We use boundary-element elastic models to invert for the depth and shape of the magmatic source responsible for the surface deformation. Given data from both ascending and descending tracks, we are able to resolve the ambiguity between the source depth and size, and constrain the geometry of the inflating magma source. Finite element modelling allows us to understand the effect of viscoelasticity on the development of the magma chamber.

  12. Public bikesharing in North America during a period of rapid expansion : understanding business models, industry trends and user impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Public bikesharingthe shared use of a bicycle fleetis an innovative transportation strategy that has recently emerged in : major cities around the world, including North America. Information technology (IT)-based bikesharing systems typically p...

  13. Consideration of an applied model of public health program infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavinghouze, René; Snyder, Kimberly; Rieker, Patricia; Ottoson, Judith

    2013-01-01

    Systemic infrastructure is key to public health achievements. Individual public health program infrastructure feeds into this larger system. Although program infrastructure is rarely defined, it needs to be operationalized for effective implementation and evaluation. The Ecological Model of Infrastructure (EMI) is one approach to defining program infrastructure. The EMI consists of 5 core (Leadership, Partnerships, State Plans, Engaged Data, and Managed Resources) and 2 supporting (Strategic Understanding and Tactical Action) elements that are enveloped in a program's context. We conducted a literature search across public health programs to determine support for the EMI. Four of the core elements were consistently addressed, and the other EMI elements were intermittently addressed. The EMI provides an initial and partial model for understanding program infrastructure, but additional work is needed to identify evidence-based indicators of infrastructure elements that can be used to measure success and link infrastructure to public health outcomes, capacity, and sustainability.

  14. Research on teacher education programs: logic model approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Xiaoxia A; Poon, Rebecca C; Nunes, Nicole L; Stone, Elisa M

    2013-02-01

    Teacher education programs in the United States face increasing pressure to demonstrate their effectiveness through pupils' learning gains in classrooms where program graduates teach. The link between teacher candidates' learning in teacher education programs and pupils' learning in K-12 classrooms implicit in the policy discourse suggests a one-to-one correspondence. However, the logical steps leading from what teacher candidates have learned in their programs to what they are doing in classrooms that may contribute to their pupils' learning are anything but straightforward. In this paper, we argue that the logic model approach from scholarship on evaluation can enhance research on teacher education by making explicit the logical links between program processes and intended outcomes. We demonstrate the usefulness of the logic model approach through our own work on designing a longitudinal study that focuses on examining the process and impact of an undergraduate mathematics and science teacher education program. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Paleocene floral diversities and turnover events in eastern North America and their relation to diversity models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederiksen, N.O.

    1994-01-01

    This paper uses angiosperm pollen taxon turnover (first and last appearance) and diversity events as metrics to describe the Paleocene floral history of the eastern Gulf Coast; data are from 64 samples and 67 angiosperm pollen taxa. Angiosperm pollen diversity was very low at the beginning of the Paleocene, rose slowly and then somewhat more rapidly to a maximum for the epoch in the middle of the late Paleoceneas a result of the maximum in rate of first appearances during the late early Paleocene and earliest late Paleocene. Diversity then dropped very rapidly at or near the end of the epoch as the rate of last appearances reached its maximum, resulting in the Terminal Paleocene Extinction Event. The latest Paleocene diversity decline coincided with an increase in mean annual temperature and probably in rainfall, representing the beginning of the climatic maximum for the Tertiary which characterized the early Eocene. The increase in diversity of early Paleocene floras in the eastern Gulf Coast resulted from exploitation of unfilled ecospace originating from (1) low regional diversity following the Terminal Cretaceous Extinction Event, and (2) creation of many new niches during the Paleocene, resulting, according to megafloral evidence, from a change to a new vegetation type (multistratal tropical rainforest) brought about by an increase in rainfall. The slow rate of recovery of earliest Paleocene angiosperm diversity in the eastern Gulf Coast may be explained in part by the diversity-dependence model of Carr and Kitchell (1980). However, additional factors may have contributed to the slow recovery: (1) the adverse terminal Cretaceous climates may have extended into the early Paleocene, (2) the initial Paleocene environment of the eastern Gulf Coast may have contained relatively few niches, (3) some earliest Paleocene angiosperms, particularly trees, may have had inherently poor capabilities for rapid evolution, and (4) there was a lack of significant immigration of

  16. A stochastic dynamic programming model for stream water quality ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper deals with development of a seasonal fraction-removal policy model for waste load allocation in streams addressing uncertainties due to randomness and fuzziness. A stochastic dynamic programming (SDP) model is developed to arrive at the steady-state seasonal fraction-removal policy. A fuzzy decision model ...

  17. Optimum workforce-size model using dynamic programming approach

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents an optimum workforce-size model which determines the minimum number of excess workers (overstaffing) as well as the minimum total recruitment cost during a specified planning horizon. The model is an extension of other existing dynamic programming models for manpower planning in the sense ...

  18. optimum workforce-size model using dynamic programming approach

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    This paper presents an optimum workforce-size model which determines the minimum number of excess workers (overstaffing) as well as the minimum total recruitment cost during a specified planning horizon. The model is an extension of other existing dynamic programming models for manpower planning in the sense ...

  19. Credibilistic programming an introduction to models and applications

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    It provides fuzzy programming approach to solve real-life decision problems in fuzzy environment. Within the framework of credibility theory, it provides a self-contained, comprehensive and up-to-date presentation of fuzzy programming models, algorithms and applications in portfolio analysis.

  20. Application of the simplex method of linear programming model to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work discussed how the simplex method of linear programming could be used to maximize the profit of any business firm using Saclux Paint Company as a case study. It equally elucidated the effect variation in the optimal result obtained from linear programming model, will have on any given firm. It was demonstrated ...

  1. Development programs in the United States of America for the application of cement-based grouts in radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dole, L.R.; Row, T.H.

    1984-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews seven cement-based waste form development programs at six of the US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. These sites have developed a variety of processes that range from producing 25 mm (1 in.) diameter pellets in a glove box to producing 240 m (800 ft.) diameter grout sheets within the bedding planes of a deep shale formation. These successful applications of cement-based waste forms to the many radioactive waste streams from nuclear facilities bear witness to the flexibility and reliability of this class of materials. This paper also discusses the major issues regarding the application of cement-based waste forms to radioactive waste management problems. These issues are (1) leachability, (2) radiation stability, (3) thermal stability, (4) phase complexity of the matrix, and (5) effects of the waste stream composition. A cursory review of current research in each of these areas is given This paper also discusses future trends in cement-based waste form development and applications. 31 references, 11 figures.

  2. Development programs in the United States of America for the application of cement-based grouts in radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dole, L.R.; Row, T.H.

    1984-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews seven cement-based waste form development programs at six of the US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. These sites have developed a variety of processes that range from producing 25 mm (1 in.) diameter pellets in a glove box to producing 240 m (800 ft.) diameter grout sheets within the bedding planes of a deep shale formation. These successful applications of cement-based waste forms to the many radioactive waste streams from nuclear facilities bear witness to the flexibility and reliability of this class of materials. This paper also discusses the major issues regarding the application of cement-based waste forms to radioactive waste management problems. These issues are (1) leachability, (2) radiation stability, (3) thermal stability, (4) phase complexity of the matrix, and (5) effects of the waste stream composition. A cursory review of current research in each of these areas is given This paper also discusses future trends in cement-based waste form development and applications. 31 references, 11 figures

  3. Validation of snow characteristics and snow albedo feedback in the Canadian Regional Climate Model simulations over North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, B.; Sushama, L.; Diro, G. T.

    2015-12-01

    Snow characteristics and snow albedo feedback (SAF) over North America, as simulated by the fifth-generation Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM5), when driven by ERA-40/ERA-Interim, CanESM2 and MPI-ESM-LR at the lateral boundaries, are analyzed in this study. Validation of snow characteristics is performed by comparing simulations against available observations from MODIS, ISCCP and CMC. Results show that the model is able to represent the main spatial distribution of snow characteristics with some overestimation in snow mass and snow depth over the Canadian high Arctic. Some overestimation in surface albedo is also noted for the boreal region which is believed to be related to the snow unloading parameterization, as well as the overestimation of snow albedo. SAF is assessed both in seasonal and climate change contexts when possible. The strength of SAF is quantified as the amount of additional net shortwave radiation at the top of the atmosphere as surface albedo decreases in association with a 1°C increase in surface temperature. Following Qu and Hall (2007), this is expressed as the product of the variation in planetary albedo with surface albedo and the change in surface albedo for 1°C change in surface air temperature during the season, which in turn is determined by the strength of the snow cover and snowpack metamorphosis feedback loops. Analysis of the latter term in the seasonal cycle suggests that for CRCM5 simulations, the snow cover feedback loop is more dominant compared to the snowpack metamorphosis feedback loop, whereas for MODIS, the two feedback loops have more or less similar strength. Moreover, the SAF strength in the climate change context appears to be weaker than in the seasonal cycle and is sensitive to the driving GCM and the RCP scenario.

  4. Time Aquatic Resources Modeling and Analysis Program (STARMAP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Colorado State University has received funding from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for its Space-Time Aquatic Resources Modeling and Analysis Program...

  5. State of the Short Dipole Model Program for the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Andreyev, N I; Kurtyka, T; Oberli, L R; Perini, D; Russenschuck, Stephan; Siegel, N; Siemko, A; Tommasini, D; Vanenkov, I; Walckiers, L

    1998-01-01

    Superconducting single and twin aperture 1-m long dipole magnets are currently being fabricated at CERN at a rate of about one per month in the framework of the short dipole model program for the LHC. The program allows to study performance improvements coming from refinements in design, components and assembly options and to accumulate statistics based on a small-scale production. The experience thus gained provides in turn feedback into the long magnet program in industry. In recent models initial quenching fields above 9 T have been obtained and after a short training the conductor limit at 2 K is reached, resulting in a central bore field exceeding 10 T. The paper describes the features of recent single aperture models, the results obtained during cold tests and the plans to ensure the continuation of a vigorous model program providing input for the fabrication of the main LHC dipoles.

  6. Applying Model Checking to Industrial-Sized PLC Programs

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2079190; Darvas, Daniel; Blanco Vinuela, Enrique; Tournier, Jean-Charles; Bliudze, Simon; Blech, Jan Olaf; Gonzalez Suarez, Victor M

    2015-01-01

    Programmable logic controllers (PLCs) are embedded computers widely used in industrial control systems. Ensuring that a PLC software complies with its specification is a challenging task. Formal verification has become a recommended practice to ensure the correctness of safety-critical software but is still underused in industry due to the complexity of building and managing formal models of real applications. In this paper, we propose a general methodology to perform automated model checking of complex properties expressed in temporal logics (\\eg CTL, LTL) on PLC programs. This methodology is based on an intermediate model (IM), meant to transform PLC programs written in various standard languages (ST, SFC, etc.) to different modeling languages of verification tools. We present the syntax and semantics of the IM and the transformation rules of the ST and SFC languages to the nuXmv model checker passing through the intermediate model. Finally, two real cases studies of \\CERN PLC programs, written mainly in th...

  7. TEKNIK LINKING DALAM PEMBACAAN BERITA TELEVISI VOICE OF AMERICA: Studi Pembelajaran Kreatif pada Mata Kuliah Bahasa Inggris Program Studi Televisi dan Film FSRD Institut Seni Indonesia Surakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donie Fadjar Kurniawan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus of the research is to explore creativity in the application of linking techniquesto improve English fluency in order to increase the understanding of the English languagethrough the medium of television news. The method used is a combination betweendemonstrations and simulations method, based on experiences through reading andlistening skills. Simultaneously both these skills are applied in the instructional processin the classroom by using English-language news items from Voice of America SpecialEducation Report. The result of this study is that technique of linking is found in theEnglish News presented in television. Linking technique was applied to the type ofconsonant-vowel as well as the vowel-vowel. Consonant-vowel found in more thanthe vowel-vowel. The more linking technique found the more it makes a rapid speechin the case of presenting English news. By knowing the characteristics of the applicationof the technique linking, it is expected that Indonesian audience in general and studentof television study program in particular can understand the news more easily.

  8. Renewable energy for America's cities: Advanced Community Energy Systems Proposed Research, Development and Demonstration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleason, T.C.J.

    1993-01-01

    The first purpose of this paper is to describe ACES technologies and their potential impact on the environment, the US energy supply system and economy. The second purpose is to recommend an R,D D program to the US Department of Energy which has as its goal the rapid development of the most promising of the new technologies. ACES supply thermal energy to groups of buildings, communities and cities in the form of hot or chilled water for building space heating, domestic hot water or air conditioning. The energy is supplied via a network of insulated, underground pipes linking central sources of supply with buildings. ACES, by definition, employ very high energy efficiency conversion technologies such as cogeneration, heat pumps, and heat activated chillers. These systems also use renewable energy sources such as solar energy, winter cold, wind, and surface and subsurface warm and cold waters. ACES compose a new generation of community-scale building heating and air conditioning supply technologies. These new systems can effect a rapid and economical conversion of existing cities to energy supply by very efficient energy conversion systems and renewable energy systems. ACES technologies are the most promising near term means by which cities can make the transition from our present damaging dependence on fossil fuel supply systems to an economically and environmentally sustainable reliance on very high efficiency and renewable energy supply systems. When fully developed to serve an urban area, ACES will constitute a new utility system which can attain a level of energy efficiency, economy and reliance on renewable energy sources not possible with currently available energy supply systems.

  9. School-Based Programs Aimed at the Prevention and Treatment of Obesity: Evidence-Based Interventions for Youth in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobelo, Felipe; Garcia de Quevedo, Isabel; Holub, Christina K.; Nagle, Brian J.; Arredondo, Elva M.; Barquera, Simon; Elder, John P.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Rapidly rising childhood obesity rates constitute a public health priority in Latin America which makes it imperative to develop evidence-based strategies. Schools are a promising setting but to date it is unclear how many school-based obesity interventions have been documented in Latin America and what level of evidence can be…

  10. Photovoltaic subsystem marketing and distribution model: programming manual. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-07-01

    Complete documentation of the marketing and distribution (M and D) computer model is provided. The purpose is to estimate the costs of selling and transporting photovoltaic solar energy products from the manufacturer to the final customer. The model adjusts for the inflation and regional differences in marketing and distribution costs. The model consists of three major components: the marketing submodel, the distribution submodel, and the financial submodel. The computer program is explained including the input requirements, output reports, subprograms and operating environment. The program specifications discuss maintaining the validity of the data and potential improvements. An example for a photovoltaic concentrator collector demonstrates the application of the model.

  11. Constraints of GRACE on the Ice Model and Mantle Rheology in Glacial Isostatic Adjustment Modeling in North-America

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wal, W.; Wu, P.; Sideris, M.; Wang, H.

    2009-05-01

    GRACE satellite data offer homogeneous coverage of the area covered by the former Laurentide ice sheet. The secular gravity rate estimated from the GRACE data can therefore be used to constrain the ice loading history in Laurentide and, to a lesser extent, the mantle rheology in a GIA model. The objective of this presentation is to find a best fitting global ice model and use it to study how the ice model can be modified to fit a composite rheology, in which creep rates from a linear and non-linear rheology are added. This is useful because all the ice models constructed from GIA assume that mantle rheology is linear, but creep experiments on rocks show that nonlinear rheology may be the dominant mechanism in some parts of the mantle. We use CSR release 4 solutions from August 2002 to October 2008 with continental water storage effects removed by the GLDAS model and filtering with a destriping and Gaussian filter. The GIA model is a radially symmetric incompressible Maxwell Earth, with varying upper and lower mantle viscosity. Gravity rate misfit values are computed for with a range of viscosity values with the ICE-3G, ICE-4G and ICE-5G models. The best fit is shown for models with ICE-3G and ICE-4G, and the ICE-4G model is selected for computations with a so-called composite rheology. For the composite rheology, the Coupled Laplace Finite-Element Method is used to compute the GIA response of a spherical self-gravitating incompressible Maxwell Earth. The pre-stress exponent (A) derived from a uni- axial stress experiment is varied between 3.3 x 10-34/10-35/10-36 Pa-3s-1, the Newtonian viscosity η is varied between 1 and 3 x 1021 Pa-s, and the stress exponent is taken to be 3. Composite rheology in general results in geoid rates that are too small compared to GRACE observations. Therefore, simple modifications of the ICE-4G history are investigated by scaling ice heights or delaying glaciation. It is found that a delay in glaciation is a better way to adjust ice

  12. Programming models used on Many-Core architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotný, Jan

    2014-12-01

    The time in which we live is characterized by an ever-increasing amount of data that we are able to explore and acquire. In all fields of science we could find some examples. Processing large volumes of information thus brings the requirement for engaging computational science. With increasing demands on data processing is advantageous to use new technology and start using parallel computation. Effective use of current technology requires from programmers new knowledge and skills. They meet with the countless new programming models and tools. In this article, we summarize the most commonly used programming models and points which good programming model should meet. The article also try to highlight the reasons why one should use a structured parallel programming.

  13. An alternative model for the early peopling of southern South America revealed by analyses of three mitochondrial DNA haplogroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Saint Pierre, Michelle; Bravi, Claudio M; Motti, Josefina M B; Fuku, Noriyuki; Tanaka, Masashi; Llop, Elena; Bonatto, Sandro L; Moraga, Mauricio

    2012-01-01

    After several years of research, there is now a consensus that America was populated from Asia through Beringia, probably at the end of the Pleistocene. But many details such as the timing, route(s), and origin of the first settlers remain uncertain. In the last decade genetic evidence has taken on a major role in elucidating the peopling of the Americas. To study the early peopling of South America, we sequenced the control region of mitochondrial DNA from 300 individuals belonging to indigenous populations of Chile and Argentina, and also obtained seven complete mitochondrial DNA sequences. We identified two novel mtDNA monophyletic clades, preliminarily designated B2l and C1b13, which together with the recently described D1g sub-haplogroup have locally high frequencies and are basically restricted to populations from the extreme south of South America. The estimated ages of D1g and B2l, about ~15,000 years BP, together with their similar population dynamics and the high haplotype diversity shown by the networks, suggests that they probably appeared soon after the arrival of the first settlers and agrees with the dating of the earliest archaeological sites in South America (Monte Verde, Chile, 14,500 BP). One further sub-haplogroup, D4h3a5, appears to be restricted to Fuegian-Patagonian populations and reinforces our hypothesis of the continuity of the current Patagonian populations with the initial founders. Our results indicate that the extant native populations inhabiting South Chile and Argentina are a group which had a common origin, and suggest a population break between the extreme south of South America and the more northern part of the continent. Thus the early colonization process was not just an expansion from north to south, but also included movements across the Andes.

  14. A Decision Model for Evaluating Potential Change in Instructional Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amor, J. P.; Dyer, J. S.

    A statistical model designed to assist elementary school principals in the process of selection educational areas which should receive additional emphasis is presented. For each educational area, the model produces an index number which represents the expected "value" per dollar spent on an instructional program appropriate for strengthening that…

  15. Currency Arbitrage Detection Using a Binary Integer Programming Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soon, Wanmei; Ye, Heng-Qing

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we examine the use of a new binary integer programming (BIP) model to detect arbitrage opportunities in currency exchanges. This model showcases an excellent application of mathematics to the real world. The concepts involved are easily accessible to undergraduate students with basic knowledge in Operations Research. Through this…

  16. Model-Checking Real-Time Control Programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, T. K.; Kristoffersen, K. J.; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we present a method for automatic verification of real-time control programs running on LEGO(R) RCX(TM) bricks using the verification tool UPPALL. The control programs, consisting of a number of tasks running concurrently, are automatically translated into the mixed automata model...... of UPPAAL. The fixed scheduling algorithm used by the LEGO(R) RCX(TM) processor is modeled in UPPALL, and supply of similar (sufficient) timed automata models for the environment allows analysis of the overall real-time system using the tools of UPPALL. To illustrate our technique for sorting LEGO(R) bricks...

  17. Gravity and magnetic anomaly modeling and correlation using the SPHERE program and Magsat data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braile, L. W.; Hinze, W. J. (Principal Investigator); Vonfrese, R. R. B.

    1980-01-01

    The spherical Earth inversion, modeling, and contouring software were tested and modified for processing data in the Southern Hemisphere. Preliminary geologic/tectonic maps and selected cross sections for South and Central America and the Caribbean region are being compiled and as well as gravity and magnetic models for the major geological features of the area. A preliminary gravity model of the Andeas Beniff Zone was constructed so that the density columns east and west of the subducted plates are in approximate isostatic equilibrium. The magnetic anomaly for the corresponding magnetic model of the zone is being computed with the SPHERE program. A test tape containing global magnetic measurements was converted to a tape compatible with Purdue's CDC system. NOO data were screened for periods of high diurnal activity and reduced to anomaly form using the IGS-75 model. Magnetic intensity anomaly profiles were plotted on the conterminous U.S. map using the track lines as the anomaly base level. The transcontinental magnetic high seen in POGO and MAGSAT data is also represented in the NOO data.

  18. SPSS and SAS programming for the testing of mediation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, William N; Benuzillo, Jose G; Carrico, Mineh S

    2004-01-01

    Mediation modeling can explain the nature of the relation among three or more variables. In addition, it can be used to show how a variable mediates the relation between levels of intervention and outcome. The Sobel test, developed in 1990, provides a statistical method for determining the influence of a mediator on an intervention or outcome. Although interactive Web-based and stand-alone methods exist for computing the Sobel test, SPSS and SAS programs that automatically run the required regression analyses and computations increase the accessibility of mediation modeling to nursing researchers. To illustrate the utility of the Sobel test and to make this programming available to the Nursing Research audience in both SAS and SPSS. The history, logic, and technical aspects of mediation testing are introduced. The syntax files sobel.sps and sobel.sas, created to automate the computation of the regression analysis and test statistic, are available from the corresponding author. The reported programming allows the user to complete mediation testing with the user's own data in a single-step fashion. A technical manual included with the programming provides instruction on program use and interpretation of the output. Mediation modeling is a useful tool for describing the relation between three or more variables. Programming and manuals for using this model are made available.

  19. The Onchocerciasis Elimination Program for the Americas: a history of partnership Programa de Eliminación de la Oncocercosis para las Américas: historia de solidaridad

    OpenAIRE

    J Blanks; F Richards; F Beltrán; R Collins; E Álvarez; G. Zea Flores; B Bauler; R Cedillos; M Heisler; D Brandling-Bennett; W Baldwin; M Bayona; R Klein; M Jacox

    1998-01-01

    The decision in 1987 by the pharmaceutical firm Merck & Co. to provide Mectizan® (ivermectin) free of charge to river blindness control programs has challenged the international public health community to find effective ways to distribute the drug to rural populations most affected by onchocerciasis. In the Americas, PAHO responded to that challenge by calling for the elimination of all morbidity from onchocerciasis from the Region by the year 2007 through mass distribution of ivermectin. Sin...

  20. Report of the 2014 Programming Models and Environments Summit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heroux, Michael [US Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Lethin, Richard [US Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-09-19

    Programming models and environments play the essential roles in high performance computing of enabling the conception, design, implementation and execution of science and engineering application codes. Programmer productivity is strongly influenced by the effectiveness of our programming models and environments, as is software sustainability since our codes have lifespans measured in decades, so the advent of new computing architectures, increased concurrency, concerns for resilience, and the increasing demands for high-fidelity, multi-physics, multi-scale and data-intensive computations mean that we have new challenges to address as part of our fundamental R&D requirements. Fortunately, we also have new tools and environments that make design, prototyping and delivery of new programming models easier than ever. The combination of new and challenging requirements and new, powerful toolsets enables significant synergies for the next generation of programming models and environments R&D. This report presents the topics discussed and results from the 2014 DOE Office of Science Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) Programming Models & Environments Summit, and subsequent discussions among the summit participants and contributors to topics in this report.

  1. Modelling the work flow of a nuclear waste management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeyer Mortensen, K.; Pinci, V.

    1997-03-01

    In this paper we describe a modelling project to improve a nuclear waste management program in charge of the creation of a new system for the permanent disposal of nuclear waste. SADT (Structural Analysis and Design Technique) is used in order to provide a work-flow description of the functions to be performed by the waste management program. This description is then translated into a number of Coloured Petri Nets (CPN or CP-nets) corresponding to different program functions where additional behavioural inscriptions provide basis for simulation. Each of these CP-nets is simulated to produce timed event charts that are useful for understanding the behaviour of the program functions under different scenarios. Then all the CPN models are linked together to form a single stand-alone application that is useful for validating the interaction and cooperation between the different program functions. A technique for linking executable CPN models is developed for supporting large modelling projects and parallel development of independent CPN models. (au) 11 refs

  2. Modeling and prioritizing demand response programs in power markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aalami, H.A.; Moghaddam, M. Parsa; Yousefi, G.R.

    2010-01-01

    One of the responsibilities of power market regulator is setting rules for selecting and prioritizing demand response (DR) programs. There are many different alternatives of DR programs for improving load profile characteristics and achieving customers' satisfaction. Regulator should find the optimal solution which reflects the perspectives of each DR stakeholder. Multi Attribute Decision Making (MADM) is a proper method for handling such optimization problems. In this paper, an extended responsive load economic model is developed. The model is based on price elasticity and customer benefit function. Prioritizing of DR programs can be realized by means of Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) method. Considerations of ISO/utility/customer regarding the weighting of attributes are encountered by entropy method. An Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) is used for selecting the most effective DR program. Numerical studies are conducted on the load curve of the Iranian power grid in 2007. (author)

  3. Center for Programming Models for Scalable Parallel Computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Mellor-Crummey

    2008-02-29

    Rice University's achievements as part of the Center for Programming Models for Scalable Parallel Computing include: (1) design and implemention of cafc, the first multi-platform CAF compiler for distributed and shared-memory machines, (2) performance studies of the efficiency of programs written using the CAF and UPC programming models, (3) a novel technique to analyze explicitly-parallel SPMD programs that facilitates optimization, (4) design, implementation, and evaluation of new language features for CAF, including communication topologies, multi-version variables, and distributed multithreading to simplify development of high-performance codes in CAF, and (5) a synchronization strength reduction transformation for automatically replacing barrier-based synchronization with more efficient point-to-point synchronization. The prototype Co-array Fortran compiler cafc developed in this project is available as open source software from http://www.hipersoft.rice.edu/caf.

  4. Solving seismological problems using sgraph program: II-waveform modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelwahed, Mohamed F.

    2012-01-01

    One of the seismological programs to manipulate seismic data is SGRAPH program. It consists of integrated tools to perform advanced seismological techniques. SGRAPH is considered a new system for maintaining and analyze seismic waveform data in a stand-alone Windows-based application that manipulate a wide range of data formats. SGRAPH was described in detail in the first part of this paper. In this part, I discuss the advanced techniques including in the program and its applications in seismology. Because of the numerous tools included in the program, only SGRAPH is sufficient to perform the basic waveform analysis and to solve advanced seismological problems. In the first part of this paper, the application of the source parameters estimation and hypocentral location was given. Here, I discuss SGRAPH waveform modeling tools. This paper exhibits examples of how to apply the SGRAPH tools to perform waveform modeling for estimating the focal mechanism and crustal structure of local earthquakes.

  5. Energy Technology Roll-Out for Climate Change Mitigation: A Multi-Model Study for Latin America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zwaan, B.; Kober, T.; Calderon, S.; Clarke, L.; Daenzer, K.; Kitous, A.; Labriet, M.; Lucena, A.F.P.; Octaviano, C.; Di Sbroiavacca, N.

    In this paper we investigate opportunities for energy technology deployment under climate change mitigation efforts in Latin America. Through several carbon tax and CO2 abatement scenarios until 2050 we analyze what resources and technologies, notably for electricity generation, could be

  6. Programming biological models in Python using PySB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Carlos F; Muhlich, Jeremy L; Bachman, John A; Sorger, Peter K

    2013-01-01

    Mathematical equations are fundamental to modeling biological networks, but as networks get large and revisions frequent, it becomes difficult to manage equations directly or to combine previously developed models. Multiple simultaneous efforts to create graphical standards, rule-based languages, and integrated software workbenches aim to simplify biological modeling but none fully meets the need for transparent, extensible, and reusable models. In this paper we describe PySB, an approach in which models are not only created using programs, they are programs. PySB draws on programmatic modeling concepts from little b and ProMot, the rule-based languages BioNetGen and Kappa and the growing library of Python numerical tools. Central to PySB is a library of macros encoding familiar biochemical actions such as binding, catalysis, and polymerization, making it possible to use a high-level, action-oriented vocabulary to construct detailed models. As Python programs, PySB models leverage tools and practices from the open-source software community, substantially advancing our ability to distribute and manage the work of testing biochemical hypotheses. We illustrate these ideas using new and previously published models of apoptosis.

  7. Automatic generation of Fortran programs for algebraic simulation models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schopf, W.; Rexer, G.; Ruehle, R.

    1978-04-01

    This report documents a generator program by which econometric simulation models formulated in an application-orientated language can be transformed automatically in a Fortran program. Thus the model designer is able to build up, test and modify models without the need of a Fortran programmer. The development of a computer model is therefore simplified and shortened appreciably; in chapter 1-3 of this report all rules are presented for the application of the generator to the model design. Algebraic models including exogeneous and endogeneous time series variables, lead and lag function can be generated. In addition, to these language elements, Fortran sequences can be applied to the formulation of models in the case of complex model interrelations. Automatically the generated model is a module of the program system RSYST III and is therefore able to exchange input and output data with the central data bank of the system and in connection with the method library modules can be used to handle planning problems. (orig.) [de

  8. Utility of Small Animal Models of Developmental Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Clare M; Vickers, Mark H

    2018-01-01

    Any effective strategy to tackle the global obesity and rising noncommunicable disease epidemic requires an in-depth understanding of the mechanisms that underlie these conditions that manifest as a consequence of complex gene-environment interactions. In this context, it is now well established that alterations in the early life environment, including suboptimal nutrition, can result in an increased risk for a range of metabolic, cardiovascular, and behavioral disorders in later life, a process preferentially termed developmental programming. To date, most of the mechanistic knowledge around the processes underpinning development programming has been derived from preclinical research performed mostly, but not exclusively, in laboratory mouse and rat strains. This review will cover the utility of small animal models in developmental programming, the limitations of such models, and potential future directions that are required to fully maximize information derived from preclinical models in order to effectively translate to clinical use.

  9. Universal definition of loss to follow-up in HIV treatment programs: a statistical analysis of 111 facilities in Africa, Asia, and Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Benjamin H; Yiannoutsos, Constantin T; Westfall, Andrew O; Newman, Jamie E; Zhou, Jialun; Cesar, Carina; Brinkhof, Martin W G; Mwango, Albert; Balestre, Eric; Carriquiry, Gabriela; Sirisanthana, Thira; Mukumbi, Henri; Martin, Jeffrey N; Grimsrud, Anna; Bacon, Melanie; Thiebaut, Rodolphe

    2011-10-01

    Although patient attrition is recognized as a threat to the long-term success of antiretroviral therapy programs worldwide, there is no universal definition for classifying patients as lost to follow-up (LTFU). We analyzed data from health facilities across Africa, Asia, and Latin America to empirically determine a standard LTFU definition. At a set "status classification" date, patients were categorized as either "active" or "LTFU" according to different intervals from time of last clinic encounter. For each threshold, we looked forward 365 d to assess the performance and accuracy of this initial classification. The best-performing definition for LTFU had the lowest proportion of patients misclassified as active or LTFU. Observational data from 111 health facilities-representing 180,718 patients from 19 countries-were included in this study. In the primary analysis, for which data from all facilities were pooled, an interval of 180 d (95% confidence interval [CI]: 173-181 d) since last patient encounter resulted in the fewest misclassifications (7.7%, 95% CI: 7.6%-7.8%). A secondary analysis that gave equal weight to cohorts and to regions generated a similar result (175 d); however, an alternate approach that used inverse weighting for cohorts based on variance and equal weighting for regions produced a slightly lower summary measure (150 d). When examined at the facility level, the best-performing definition varied from 58 to 383 d (mean=150 d), but when a standard definition of 180 d was applied to each facility, only slight increases in misclassification (mean=1.2%, 95% CI: 1.0%-1.5%) were observed. Using this definition, the proportion of patients classified as LTFU by facility ranged from 3.1% to 45.1% (mean=19.9%, 95% CI: 19.1%-21.7%). Based on this evaluation, we recommend the adoption of ≥180 d since the last clinic visit as a standard LTFU definition. Such standardization is an important step to understanding the reasons that underlie patient attrition

  10. North America: Chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Mark D.; Beaubien, Elisabeth G.; Crimmins, Theresa M.; Weltzin, Jake F.; Edited by Schwartz, Mark D.

    2013-01-01

    Plant phenological observations and networks in North America have been largely local and regional in extent until recent decades. In the USA, cloned plant monitoring networks were the exception to this pattern, with data collection spanning the late 1950s until approximately the early 1990s. Animal observation networks, especially for birds have been more extensive. The USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN), established in the mid-2000s is a recent effort to operate a comprehensive national-scale network in the United States. In Canada, PlantWatch, as part of Nature Watch, is the current national-scale plant phenology program.

  11. A model technology transfer program for independent operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoeling, L.G.

    1996-08-01

    In August 1992, the Energy Research Center (ERC) at the University of Kansas was awarded a contract by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to develop a technology transfer regional model. This report describes the development and testing of the Kansas Technology Transfer Model (KTTM) which is to be utilized as a regional model for the development of other technology transfer programs for independent operators throughout oil-producing regions in the US. It describes the linkage of the regional model with a proposed national technology transfer plan, an evaluation technique for improving and assessing the model, and the methodology which makes it adaptable on a regional basis. The report also describes management concepts helpful in managing a technology transfer program.

  12. Hyperspectral Remote Sensing and Ecological Modeling Research and Education at Mid America Remote Sensing Center (MARC): Field and Laboratory Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Haluk

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to establish a new hyperspectral remote sensing laboratory at the Mid-America Remote sensing Center (MARC), dedicated to in situ and laboratory measurements of environmental samples and to the manipulation, analysis, and storage of remotely sensed data for environmental monitoring and research in ecological modeling using hyperspectral remote sensing at MARC, one of three research facilities of the Center of Reservoir Research at Murray State University (MSU), a Kentucky Commonwealth Center of Excellence. The equipment purchased, a FieldSpec FR portable spectroradiometer and peripherals, and ENVI hyperspectral data processing software, allowed MARC to provide hands-on experience, education, and training for the students of the Department of Geosciences in quantitative remote sensing using hyperspectral data, Geographic Information System (GIS), digital image processing (DIP), computer, geological and geophysical mapping; to provide field support to the researchers and students collecting in situ and laboratory measurements of environmental data; to create a spectral library of the cover types and to establish a World Wide Web server to provide the spectral library to other academic, state and Federal institutions. Much of the research will soon be published in scientific journals. A World Wide Web page has been created at the web site of MARC. Results of this project are grouped in two categories, education and research accomplishments. The Principal Investigator (PI) modified remote sensing and DIP courses to introduce students to ii situ field spectra and laboratory remote sensing studies for environmental monitoring in the region by using the new equipment in the courses. The PI collected in situ measurements using the spectroradiometer for the ER-2 mission to Puerto Rico project for the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) Airborne Simulator (MAS). Currently MARC is mapping water quality in Kentucky Lake and

  13. Changes in Arctic and Boreal ecosystems of North America: Integrating Recent Results from the Field, Remote Sensing and Ecosystem Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, S. J.; Rogers, B. M.; Mack, M. C.; Goulden, M.; Pastick, N. J.; Berner, L. T.; Fisher, J.

    2017-12-01

    The Arctic and boreal forest biomes have global significance in terms of climate feedbacks associated with land surface interactions with the atmosphere. Changes in Arctic tundra and boreal forest ecosystem productivity and fire disturbance feedbacks have been well documented in recent years, but findings are often only locally relevant and are sometimes inconsistent among research teams. Part of these inconsistencies lie in utilization of different data sets and time periods considered. Integrated approaches are thus needed to adequately address changes in these ecosystems in order to assess consistency and variability of change, as well as ecosystem vulnerability and resiliency across spatial and temporal scales. Ultimately this can best be accomplished via multiple lines of evidence including remote sensing, field measurements and various types of data-constrained models. We will discuss some recent results integrating multiple lines of evidence for directional ecosystem change in the Arctic and boreal forest biomes of North America. There is increasing evidence for widespread spatial and temporal variability in Arctic and boreal ecosystem productivity changes that are strongly influenced by cycles of changing fire disturbance severity and its longer-term implications (i.e legacy effects). Integrated, multi-approach research, like that currently underway as part of the NASA-led Arctic Boreal Vulnerability Experiment (above.nasa.gov), is an effective way to capture the complex mechanisms that drive patterns and directionality of ecosystem structure and function, and ultimately determine feedbacks to environmental change, particularly in the context of global climate change. Additional ongoing ABoVE research will improve our understanding of the consequences of environmental changes underway, as well as increase our confidence in making projections of the ecosystem responses, vulnerability and resilience to change. ABoVE will also build a lasting legacy of

  14. An expert system model for mapping tropical wetlands and peatlands reveals South America as the largest contributor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumbricht, Thomas; Roman-Cuesta, Rosa Maria; Verchot, Louis; Herold, Martin; Wittmann, Florian; Householder, Ethan; Herold, Nadine; Murdiyarso, Daniel

    2017-09-01

    Wetlands are important providers of ecosystem services and key regulators of climate change. They positively contribute to global warming through their greenhouse gas emissions, and negatively through the accumulation of organic material in histosols, particularly in peatlands. Our understanding of wetlands' services is currently constrained by limited knowledge on their distribution, extent, volume, interannual flood variability and disturbance levels. We present an expert system approach to estimate wetland and peatland areas, depths and volumes, which relies on three biophysical indices related to wetland and peat formation: (1) long-term water supply exceeding atmospheric water demand; (2) annually or seasonally water-logged soils; and (3) a geomorphological position where water is supplied and retained. Tropical and subtropical wetlands estimates reach 4.7 million km 2 (Mkm 2 ). In line with current understanding, the American continent is the major contributor (45%), and Brazil, with its Amazonian interfluvial region, contains the largest tropical wetland area (800,720 km 2 ). Our model suggests, however, unprecedented extents and volumes of peatland in the tropics (1.7 Mkm 2 and 7,268 (6,076-7,368) km 3 ), which more than threefold current estimates. Unlike current understanding, our estimates suggest that South America and not Asia contributes the most to tropical peatland area and volume (ca. 44% for both) partly related to some yet unaccounted extended deep deposits but mainly to extended but shallow peat in the Amazon Basin. Brazil leads the peatland area and volume contribution. Asia hosts 38% of both tropical peat area and volume with Indonesia as the main regional contributor and still the holder of the deepest and most extended peat areas in the tropics. Africa hosts more peat than previously reported but climatic and topographic contexts leave it as the least peat-forming continent. Our results suggest large biases in our current understanding of

  15. Transforming PLC Programs into Formal Models for Verification Purposes

    CERN Document Server

    Darvas, D; Blanco, E

    2013-01-01

    Most of CERN’s industrial installations rely on PLC-based (Programmable Logic Controller) control systems developed using the UNICOS framework. This framework contains common, reusable program modules and their correctness is a high priority. Testing is already applied to find errors, but this method has limitations. In this work an approach is proposed to transform automatically PLC programs into formal models, with the goal of applying formal verification to ensure their correctness. We target model checking which is a precise, mathematical-based method to check formalized requirements automatically against the system.

  16. Model-based automated testing of critical PLC programs.

    CERN Document Server

    Fernández Adiego, B; Tournier, J-C; González Suárez, V M; Bliudze, S

    2014-01-01

    Testing of critical PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) programs remains a challenging task for control system engineers as it can rarely be automated. This paper proposes a model based approach which uses the BIP (Behavior, Interactions and Priorities) framework to perform automated testing of PLC programs developed with the UNICOS (UNified Industrial COntrol System) framework. This paper defines the translation procedure and rules from UNICOS to BIP which can be fully automated in order to hide the complexity of the underlying model from the control engineers. The approach is illustrated and validated through the study of a water treatment process.

  17. On the Feasibility of a Unified Modelling and Programming Paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, Jan

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the feasibility of a unified modelling and programming paradigm is discussed from the perspective of large scale system development and verification in collaborative development environments. We motivate the necessity to utilise multiple formalisms for development and verification......, in particular for complex cyber-physical systems or systems of systems. Though modelling, programming, and verification will certainly become more closely integrated in the future, we do not expect a single formalism to become universally applicable and accepted by the development and verification communities...

  18. A constraint programming model for mixed model type 2 assembly line balancing problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacı Mehmet Alağaş

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new constraint programming model for mixed-model assembly line balancing problem. The proposed model minimizes the cycle time for a given number of stations. The proposed model is tested with literature problems and its performance is evaluated by comparing to mathematical model. Best obtained solution and elapsed CPU time are used as performance criteria. The experimental results show that the proposed constraint programming model performs well and can be used as an alternative modeling technique to solve the problem.

  19. Western North America dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, A.; Becker, T. W.; Humphreys, G.; Gérault, M.

    2009-12-01

    Basal shear tractions, as generated by mantle convection, are likely to affect the stress field over western North America, and hence, influence the deformation of the North American lithosphere. Earlier studies (Humphreys & Coblentz (2007)) have argued for the importance of shear tractions beneath the continent, but at a reduced amplitude from those predicted by Becker & O'Connell (2001). However, these tractions did not take into account the existence of lateral viscosity variations (LVVs) beneath North America, resulting from strong cratonic root and weak plate margin. We evaluate the tractions and the resulting stresses over North America by incorporating LVVs in a global, high resolution, finite element convection code, CitcomS. Since our ultimate goal is to match observables, such as plate motions and geoid, in addition to stresses, we perform a global inversion for both radial and lateral viscosity variations and choose the viscosity structures that yield a good fit simultaneously to both the global geoid and plate motions. We evaluate the tractions and corresponding stress field from those models. We also attempt to incorporate the effects of gravitational potential energy (GPE) in our convection model. The combined stress field from GPE and tractions are compared to stress observations, such as the World Stress Map.

  20. Integration of a Multizone Airflow Model into a Thermalsimulation Program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Sørensen, Karl Grau; Heiselberg, Per

    2007-01-01

    An existing computer model for dynamic hygrothermal analysis of buildings has been extended with a multizone airflow model based on loop equations to account for the coupled thermal and airflow in natural and hybrid ventilated buildings. In water distribution network and related fields loop...... a methodology adopted from water distribution network that automatically sets up the independent loops and is easy to implement into a computer program. Finally an example of verification of the model is given which demonstrates the ability of the models to accurately predict the airflow of a simple multizone...

  1. Community Based Educational Model on Water Conservation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudiajeng, L.; Parwita, I. G. L.; Wiraga, I. W.; Mudhina, M.

    2018-01-01

    The previous research showed that there were indicators of water crisis in the northern and eastern part of Denpasar city and most of coastal area experienced on seawater intrusion. The recommended water conservation programs were rainwater harvesting and educate the community to develop a water saving and environmentally conscious culture. This research was conducted to built the community based educational model on water conservation program through ergonomics SHIP approach which placed the human aspect as the first consideration, besides the economic and technically aspects. The stakeholders involved in the program started from the problem analyses to the implementation and the maintenance as well. The model was built through three main steps, included determination of accepted design; building the recharge wells by involving local communities; guidance and assistance in developing a water saving and environmentally conscious culture for early childhood, elementary and junior high school students, community and industry. The program was implemented based on the “TRIHITA KARANA” concept, which means the relationship between human to God, human-to-human, and human to environment. Through the development of the model, it is expected to grow a sense of belonging and awareness from the community to maintain the sustainability of the program.

  2. The Influence of Volcanic Eruptions on the Climate of Tropical South America During the Last Millennium in an Isotope-Enabled General Circulation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colose, Christopher M.; LeGrande, Allegra N.; Vuille, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    Currently, little is known on how volcanic eruptions impact large-scale climate phenomena such as South American paleo-intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) position and summer monsoon behavior. In this paper, an analysis of observations and model simulations is employed to assess the influence of large volcanic eruptions on the climate of tropical South America. This problem is first considered for historically recent volcanic episodes for which more observations are available but where fewer events exist and the confounding effects of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) lead to inconclusive interpretation of the impact of volcanic eruptions at the continental scale. Therefore, we also examine a greater number of reconstructed volcanic events for the period 850 CE to present that are incorporated into the NASA GISS ModelE2-R simulation of the last millennium. An advantage of this model is its ability to explicitly track water isotopologues throughout the hydrologic cycle and simulating the isotopic imprint following a large eruption. This effectively removes a degree of uncertainty associated with error-prone conversion of isotopic signals into climate variables, and allows for a direct comparison between GISS simulations and paleoclimate proxy records. Our analysis reveals that both precipitation and oxygen isotope variability respond with a distinct seasonal and spatial structure across tropical South America following an eruption. During austral winter, the heavy oxygen isotope in precipitation is enriched, likely due to reduced moisture convergence in the ITCZ domain and reduced rainfall over northern South America. During austral summer, however, more negative values of the precipitation isotopic composition are simulated over Amazonia, despite reductions in rainfall, suggesting that the isotopic response is not a simple function of the "amount effect". During the South American monsoon season, the amplitude of the temperature response to volcanic forcing is

  3. Supplement of: The Influence of Volcanic Eruptions on the Climate of Tropical South America During the Last Millennium in an Isotope-Enabled General Circulation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colose, Christopher; LeGrande, Allegra N.; Vuille, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    Currently, little is known on how volcanic eruptions impact large-scale climate phenomena such as South American paleo-intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) position and summer monsoon behavior. In this paper, an analysis of observations and model simulations is employed to assess the influence of large volcanic eruptions on the climate of tropical South America. This problem is first considered for historically recent volcanic episodes for which more observations are available but where fewer events exist and the confounding effects of El NioSouthern Oscillation (ENSO) lead to inconclusive interpretation of the impact of volcanic eruptions at the continental scale. Therefore, we also examine a greater number of reconstructed volcanic events for the period 850CE to present that are incorporated into the NASA GISS ModelE2-R simulation of the last millennium.An advantage of this model is its ability to explicitly track water isotopologues throughout the hydrologic cycle and simulating the isotopic imprint following a large eruption. This effectively removes a degree of uncertainty associated with error-prone conversion of isotopic signals into climate variables, and allows for a direct comparison between GISS simulations and paleoclimate proxy records.Our analysis reveals that both precipitation and oxygen isotope variability respond with a distinct seasonal and spatial structure across tropical South America following an eruption. During austral winter, the heavy oxygen isotope in precipitation is enriched, likely due to reduced moisture convergence in the ITCZ domain and reduced rainfall over northern South America. During austral summer, however, more negative values of the precipitation isotopic composition are simulated over Amazonia, despite reductions in rainfall, suggesting that the isotopic response is not a simple function of the amount effect. During the South American monsoon season, the amplitude of the temperature response to volcanic forcing is larger

  4. Model of Communication Program Corporate Social Responsibility for Empowerment Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Rizar Nugroho

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Community empowerment is one of the keys to success in running development of a region. The empowerment program carried out with models, shapes and different strategies. The purpose of this study was to analyze (1 Determine the perception of the implementation of communication channels and approaches to communications made in the program CSR companies. (2 Analyze the influence of the characteristics of the beneficiaries, and the communication channel communication approach CSR program the company towards community empowerment. The samples used in this study were 410 respondents. This study is designed as a quantitative research boosted by the approach of a qualitative study using descriptive analysis and structural equation modeling (SEM. The results of this study include: (1 Perception of beneficiaries for variables communication channels, communication approach and community empowerment approach is generally considered good. (2 The variables that affect the community empowerment are approach communication and communication channels, while the characteristics of the beneficiaries had no significant effect.

  5. Menu variations for diabetes mellitus patients using Goal Programming model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhoruri, Atmini; Lestari, Dwi; Ratnasari, Eminugroho

    2017-08-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) was a chronic metabolic disease characterized by higher than normal blood glucose level (normal blood glucose level = = 80 -120 mg/dl). In this study, type 2 DM which mostly caused by unhealthy eating habits would be investigated. Related to eating habit, DM patients needed dietary menu planning with an extracare regarding their nutrients intake (energy, protein, fat and carbohydrate). Therefore, the measures taken were by organizing nutritious dietary menu for diabetes mellitus patients. Dietary menu with appropriate amount of nutrients was organized by considering the amount of calories, proteins, fats and carbohydrates. In this study, Goal Programming model was employed to determine optimal dietary menu variations for diabetes mellitus patients by paying attention to optimal expenses. According to the data obtained from hospitals in Yogyakarta, optimal menu variations would be analyzed by using Goal Programming model and would be completed by using LINGO computer program.

  6. Language Documentation in the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchetto, Bruna; Rice, Keren

    2014-01-01

    In the last decades, the documentation of endangered languages has advanced greatly in the Americas. In this paper we survey the role that international funding programs have played in advancing documentation in this part of the world, with a particular focus on the growth of documentation in Brazil, and we examine some of the major opportunities…

  7. Application of Logic Models in a Large Scientific Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, Christine M.; Head, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    It is the purpose of this article to discuss the development and application of a logic model in the context of a large scientific research program within the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO). CSIRO is Australia's national science agency and is a publicly funded part of Australia's innovation system. It conducts…

  8. PROGRAM COMPLEX FOR MODELING OF THE DETAILS HARDENING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Kundas

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article there is presented the program complex ThermoSim, consisting of preprocessor, processor and postprocessor and intended for modeling (analysis of thermalphysic processes and characteristics of details of instrument-making and machine-building, diagnostics and optimization of technological processes of heat treatment and details constructions without using the destructive control methods.

  9. A quadratic programming model for crop combinations in intercropping

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One particularly known problem that confronts the farmer is that of determining optimal crop combinations for an intercropping scheme. This work therefore sets out to develop a model which determines optimally a crop combination that will yield maximum profit when interactive effects are present. A quadratic programming ...

  10. Universal Instructional Design as a Model for Educational Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higbee, Jeanne L.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes Universal Instructional Design as an inclusive pedagogical model for use in educational programs, whether provided by traditional educational institutions, community-based initiatives, or workplace literacy projects. For the benefit of public relations specialists and classroom educators alike, the article begins with a…

  11. Fuzzy Goal Programming Approach in Selective Maintenance Reliability Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Gupta

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 In the present paper, we have considered the allocation problem of repairable components for a parallel-series system as a multi-objective optimization problem and have discussed two different models. In first model the reliability of subsystems are considered as different objectives. In second model the cost and time spent on repairing the components are considered as two different objectives. These two models is formulated as multi-objective Nonlinear Programming Problem (MONLPP and a Fuzzy goal programming method is used to work out the compromise allocation in multi-objective selective maintenance reliability model in which we define the membership functions of each objective function and then transform membership functions into equivalent linear membership functions by first order Taylor series and finally by forming a fuzzy goal programming model obtain a desired compromise allocation of maintenance components. A numerical example is also worked out to illustrate the computational details of the method.  Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4

  12. Supporting universal prevention programs: a two-phased coaching model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Kimberly D; Darney, Dana; Domitrovich, Celene; Keperling, Jennifer Pitchford; Ialongo, Nicholas S

    2013-06-01

    Schools are adopting evidence-based programs designed to enhance students' emotional and behavioral competencies at increasing rates (Hemmeter et al. in Early Child Res Q 26:96-109, 2011). At the same time, teachers express the need for increased support surrounding implementation of these evidence-based programs (Carter and Van Norman in Early Child Educ 38:279-288, 2010). Ongoing professional development in the form of coaching may enhance teacher skills and implementation (Noell et al. in School Psychol Rev 34:87-106, 2005; Stormont et al. 2012). There exists a need for a coaching model that can be applied to a variety of teacher skill levels and one that guides coach decision-making about how best to support teachers. This article provides a detailed account of a two-phased coaching model with empirical support developed and tested with coaches and teachers in urban schools (Becker et al. 2013). In the initial universal coaching phase, all teachers receive the same coaching elements regardless of their skill level. Then, in the tailored coaching phase, coaching varies according to the strengths and needs of each teacher. Specifically, more intensive coaching strategies are used only with teachers who need additional coaching supports, whereas other teachers receive just enough support to consolidate and maintain their strong implementation. Examples of how coaches used the two-phased coaching model when working with teachers who were implementing two universal prevention programs (i.e., the PATHS curriculum and PAX Good Behavior Game [PAX GBG]) provide illustrations of the application of this model. The potential reach of this coaching model extends to other school-based programs as well as other settings in which coaches partner with interventionists to implement evidence-based programs.

  13. Assessing environmental attributes and effects of climate change on Sphagnum peatland distributions in North America using single- and multi-species models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oke, Tobi A; Hager, Heather A

    2017-01-01

    The fate of Northern peatlands under climate change is important because of their contribution to global carbon (C) storage. Peatlands are maintained via greater plant productivity (especially of Sphagnum species) than decomposition, and the processes involved are strongly mediated by climate. Although some studies predict that warming will relax constraints on decomposition, leading to decreased C sequestration, others predict increases in productivity and thus increases in C sequestration. We explored the lack of congruence between these predictions using single-species and integrated species distribution models as proxies for understanding the environmental correlates of North American Sphagnum peatland occurrence and how projected changes to the environment might influence these peatlands under climate change. Using Maximum entropy and BIOMOD modelling platforms, we generated single and integrated species distribution models for four common Sphagnum species in North America under current climate and a 2050 climate scenario projected by three general circulation models. We evaluated the environmental correlates of the models and explored the disparities in niche breadth, niche overlap, and climate suitability among current and future models. The models consistently show that Sphagnum peatland distribution is influenced by the balance between soil moisture deficit and temperature of the driest quarter-year. The models identify the east and west coasts of North America as the core climate space for Sphagnum peatland distribution. The models show that, at least in the immediate future, the area of suitable climate for Sphagnum peatland could expand. This result suggests that projected warming would be balanced effectively by the anticipated increase in precipitation, which would increase Sphagnum productivity.

  14. The impact in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, M.

    1985-01-01

    President Eisenhower's Atoms for Peace program represented a radical departure from the policy of secrecy and denial that existed during the immediate postwar period, after the rejection of the Baruch Plan for international control of nuclear energy and nuclear weapons. Although the genesis and philosophy of the program are well known, the author emphasizes certain general aspects and considers specific situations in Latin America about the purposes and premises of Atoms for Peace

  15. Use of linear programming models in experimentation with plant nutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Brino Garcia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition is an important issue of plant cultivation and experimentation with plant nutrients is a supporting tool for agriculture. However, use of high purity grade reagents as nutrient sources can be expensive and increases the cost of an experiment. The objective of this study was to minimize the acquisition cost of high purity grade reagents in experiments on plant nutrient deficiency by using the missing element technique through linear programming models, and to generate recommendation tables for preparation of culture solutions, as well as to quantify gains through a simulated experiment. Two linear programming models were formulated containing concentration constraints for each nutrient in the culture solution. Model A was based on 16 reagents for preparation of the culture solution, while model B was based on 27 reagents, looking to increase choice options. Results showed that both models minimized the acquisition cost of reagents, allowing a 9.03% reduction in model A and a 25.98% reduction in model B. The missing sulfur treatment proved the most costly for reagent acquisition while the missing nitrogen treatment proved the least costly. It was concluded that the formulated models were capable of reducing acquisition costs of reagents, yet the recommendations generated by them should be tested and checked for practical viability.

  16. Programming Models for Concurrency and Real-Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitek, Jan

    Modern real-time applications are increasingly large, complex and concurrent systems which must meet stringent performance and predictability requirements. Programming those systems require fundamental advances in programming languages and runtime systems. This talk presents our work on Flexotasks, a programming model for concurrent, real-time systems inspired by stream-processing and concurrent active objects. Some of the key innovations in Flexotasks are that it support both real-time garbage collection and region-based memory with an ownership type system for static safety. Communication between tasks is performed by channels with a linear type discipline to avoid copying messages, and by a non-blocking transactional memory facility. We have evaluated our model empirically within two distinct implementations, one based on Purdue’s Ovm research virtual machine framework and the other on Websphere, IBM’s production real-time virtual machine. We have written a number of small programs, as well as a 30 KLOC avionics collision detector application. We show that Flexotasks are capable of executing periodic threads at 10 KHz with a standard deviation of 1.2us and have performance competitive with hand coded C programs.

  17. A Programming Model for Massive Data Parallelism with Data Dependencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, Xiaohui; Mueller, Frank; Potok, Thomas E.; Zhang, Yongpeng

    2009-01-01

    Accelerating processors can often be more cost and energy effective for a wide range of data-parallel computing problems than general-purpose processors. For graphics processor units (GPUs), this is particularly the case when program development is aided by environments such as NVIDIA s Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA), which dramatically reduces the gap between domain-specific architectures and general purpose programming. Nonetheless, general-purpose GPU (GPGPU) programming remains subject to several restrictions. Most significantly, the separation of host (CPU) and accelerator (GPU) address spaces requires explicit management of GPU memory resources, especially for massive data parallelism that well exceeds the memory capacity of GPUs. One solution to this problem is to transfer data between the GPU and host memories frequently. In this work, we investigate another approach. We run massively data-parallel applications on GPU clusters. We further propose a programming model for massive data parallelism with data dependencies for this scenario. Experience from micro benchmarks and real-world applications shows that our model provides not only ease of programming but also significant performance gains

  18. Modeling and prototyping of biometric systems using dataflow programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minakova, N.; Petrov, I.

    2018-01-01

    The development of biometric systems is one of the labor-intensive processes. Therefore, the creation and analysis of approaches and techniques is an urgent task at present. This article presents a technique of modeling and prototyping biometric systems based on dataflow programming. The technique includes three main stages: the development of functional blocks, the creation of a dataflow graph and the generation of a prototype. A specially developed software modeling environment that implements this technique is described. As an example of the use of this technique, an example of the implementation of the iris localization subsystem is demonstrated. A variant of modification of dataflow programming is suggested to solve the problem related to the undefined order of block activation. The main advantage of the presented technique is the ability to visually display and design the model of the biometric system, the rapid creation of a working prototype and the reuse of the previously developed functional blocks.

  19. Hybrid programming model for implicit PDE simulations on multicore architectures

    KAUST Repository

    Kaushik, Dinesh

    2011-01-01

    The complexity of programming modern multicore processor based clusters is rapidly rising, with GPUs adding further demand for fine-grained parallelism. This paper analyzes the performance of the hybrid (MPI+OpenMP) programming model in the context of an implicit unstructured mesh CFD code. At the implementation level, the effects of cache locality, update management, work division, and synchronization frequency are studied. The hybrid model presents interesting algorithmic opportunities as well: the convergence of linear system solver is quicker than the pure MPI case since the parallel preconditioner stays stronger when hybrid model is used. This implies significant savings in the cost of communication and synchronization (explicit and implicit). Even though OpenMP based parallelism is easier to implement (with in a subdomain assigned to one MPI process for simplicity), getting good performance needs attention to data partitioning issues similar to those in the message-passing case. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  20. Flexible building stock modelling with array-programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøgger, Morten; Wittchen, Kim Bjarne

    2017-01-01

    Many building stock models employ archetype-buildings in order to capture the essential characteristics of a diverse building stock. However, these models often require multiple archetypes, which make them inflexible. This paper proposes an array-programming based model, which calculates the heat...... demand of each building separately. This approach makes it possible to study any subset of the building stock without loss of information. Moreover, the calculated heat demand can readily be compared to a registered consumption in individual buildings to account for discrepancies. Results show, that we...

  1. Modelling of windmill induction generators in dynamic simulation programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akhmatov, Vladislav; Knudsen, Hans

    1999-01-01

    For AC networks with large amounts of induction generators-in case of e.g. windmills-the paper demonstrates a significant discrepancy in the simulated voltage recovery after faults in weak networks, when comparing result obtained with dynamic stability programs and transient programs, respectively...... with and without a model of the mechanical shaft. The reason for the discrepancies are explained, and it is shown that the phenomenon is due partly to the presence of DC offset currents in the induction machine stator, and partly to the mechanical shaft system of the wind turbine and the generator rotor...

  2. Evaluation of the Consistency among In Situ and Remote Sensing Measurements of CO2 over North America using the CarbonTracker-Lagrange Regional Inverse Modeling Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, A. E.; Trudeau, M.; Hu, L.; Thoning, K. W.; Shiga, Y. P.; Michalak, A. M.; Benmergui, J. S.; Mountain, M. E.; Nehrkorn, T.; O'Dell, C.; Jacobson, A. R.; Miller, J.; Sweeney, C.; Chen, H.; Ploeger, F.; Tans, P. P.

    2017-12-01

    CarbonTracker-Lagrange (CT-L) is a regional inverse modeling system for estimating CO2 fluxes with rigorous uncertainty quantification. CT-L uses footprints from the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT) model driven by high-resolution (10 to 30 km) meteorological fields from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. We have computed a library of footprints corresponding to in situ and remote sensing measurements of CO2 over North America for 2007-2015. GOSAT and OCO-2 XCO2 retrievals are simulated using a suite of CT-L terrestrial ecosystem flux estimates that have been optimized with respect to in situ atmospheric CO2 measurements along with fossil fuel fluxes from emissions inventories. A vertical profile of STILT-WRF footprints was constructed corresponding to each simulated satellite retrieval, and CO2 profiles are generated by convolving the footprints with fluxes and attaching initial values advected from the domain boundaries. The stratospheric contribution to XCO2 has been estimated using 4-dimensional CO2 fields from the NOAA CarbonTracker model (version CT2016) and from the Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere (CLaMS), after scaling the model fields to match data from the NOAA AirCore surface-to-stratosphere air sampling system. Tropospheric lateral boundary conditions are from CT2016 and from an empirical boundary value product derived from aircraft and marine boundary layer data. The averaging kernel and a priori CO2 profile are taken into account for direct comparisons with retrievals. We have focused on North America due to the relatively dense in situ measurements available with the aim of developing strategies for combined assimilation of in situ and remote sensing data. We will consider the extent to which interannual variability in terrestrial fluxes is manifest in the real and simulated satellite retrievals, and we will investigate possible systematic biases in the satellite retrievals and in the model.

  3. An occupational medical program for a 'model' uranium mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, H.T.

    1979-01-01

    The basic purpose of occupational health programs in uranium milling are to insure that no employee receives an exposure to carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic, highly toxic, pneumoconiosis-producing, or dangerous physical agents that could result in chronic or acute injury and to assure that significant concentrations or levels of the above are not present in either the plant or general environment. This paper defines a model mill as consisting of crushing, sizing, acid leach, separation, solvent extraction, drying and packaging operations and describes the employee health hazards associated with each. It also describes a type program consisting of a balanced combination of exposure monitoring and survey, air samples, personnel dosimetry, bioassay, training, medical surveillance, and emergency planning based on the employee exposure situation. Experience with such a program is also discussed, and some techniques of practically meeting the regulatory requirements and protecting the worker are outlined. (Auth.)

  4. Efficient mixed integer programming models for family scheduling problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Ye Lin

    Full Text Available This paper proposes several mixed integer programming models which incorporate optimal sequence properties into the models, to solve single machine family scheduling problems. The objectives are total weighted completion time and maximum lateness, respectively. Experiment results indicate that there are remarkable improvements in computational efficiency when optimal sequence properties are included in the models. For the total weighted completion time problems, the best model solves all of the problems up to 30-jobs within 5 s, all 50-job problems within 4 min and about 1/3 of the 75-job to 100-job problems within 1 h. For maximum lateness problems, the best model solves almost all the problems up to 30-jobs within 11 min and around half of the 50-job to 100-job problems within 1 h. Keywords: Family scheduling, Sequence independent setup, Total weighted completion time, Maximum lateness

  5. Development of CANDU 6 Primary Heat Transport System Modeling Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Hyung-beom; Kim, Sung-min; Park, Joong-woo; Kim, Kwang-su; Ko, Dae-hack; Han, Bong-seob

    2007-01-01

    NUCIRC is a steady-state thermal-hydraulic code used for design and performance analyses of CANDU Heat Transport System. The code is used to build PHT model in Wolsong NPP and to calculate channel flow distribution. Wolsong NPP has to calculate channel flow distribution and quality of coolant at the ROH header after every outage by OPP (Operating Policy and Principal). PHT modeling work is time consuming which need a lot of operation experience and specialty. It is very difficult to build PHT model as plant operator in two weeks which is obligate for plant operation after every outage. That is why Wolsong NPP develop NUMODEL (NUcirc MODELing) with many-years experience and a know-how of using NUCIRC code. NUMODEL is computer program which is used to create PHT model based on utilizing NUCIRC code

  6. Future change of climate in South America in the late twenty-first century: intercomparison of scenarios from three regional climate models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marengo, Jose A.; Valverde, Maria C.; Torres, Roger R.; Santos, Daniel C. [Centro de Ciencia do Sistema Terrestre, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, CCST/INPE, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ambrizzi, Tercio; Rocha, Rosmeri P. da [University of Sao Paulo, IAG-DCA/USP, Department of Atmospheric Sciences, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Alves, Lincoln M. [Centro de Previsao de Tempo e Estudos Climaticos, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, CPTEC/INPE, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Cuadra, Santiago V. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa, Vicosa, MG (Brazil); Ferraz, Simone E.T. [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil)

    2010-11-15

    Regional climate change projections for the last half of the twenty-first century have been produced for South America, as part of the CREAS (Cenarios REgionalizados de Clima Futuro da America do Sul) regional project. Three regional climate models RCMs (Eta CCS, RegCM3 and HadRM3P) were nested within the HadAM3P global model. The simulations cover a 30-year period representing present climate (1961-1990) and projections for the IPCC A2 high emission scenario for 2071-2100. The focus was on the changes in the mean circulation and surface variables, in particular, surface air temperature and precipitation. There is a consistent pattern of changes in circulation, rainfall and temperatures as depicted by the three models. The HadRM3P shows intensification and a more southward position of the subtropical Pacific high, while a pattern of intensification/weakening during summer/winter is projected by the Eta CCS/RegCM3. There is a tendency for a weakening of the subtropical westerly jet from the Eta CCS and HadRM3P, consistent with other studies. There are indications that regions such of Northeast Brazil and central-eastern and southern Amazonia may experience rainfall deficiency in the future, while the Northwest coast of Peru-Ecuador and northern Argentina may experience rainfall excesses in a warmer future, and these changes may vary with the seasons. The three models show warming in the A2 scenario stronger in the tropical region, especially in the 5 N-15 S band, both in summer and especially in winter, reaching up to 6-8 C warmer than in the present. In southern South America, the warming in summer varies between 2 and 4 C and in winter between 3 and 5 C in the same region from the 3 models. These changes are consistent with changes in low level circulation from the models, and they are comparable with changes in rainfall and temperature extremes reported elsewhere. In summary, some aspects of projected future climate change are quite robust across this set of

  7. Future change of climate in South America in the late twenty-first century: intercomparison of scenarios from three regional climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marengo, Jose A.; Ambrizzi, Tercio; Da Rocha, Rosmeri P.; Alves, Lincoln M.; Cuadra, Santiago V.; Valverde, Maria C.; Torres, Roger R.; Santos, Daniel C.; Ferraz, Simone E. T.

    2010-11-01

    Regional climate change projections for the last half of the twenty-first century have been produced for South America, as part of the CREAS (Cenarios REgionalizados de Clima Futuro da America do Sul) regional project. Three regional climate models RCMs (Eta CCS, RegCM3 and HadRM3P) were nested within the HadAM3P global model. The simulations cover a 30-year period representing present climate (1961-1990) and projections for the IPCC A2 high emission scenario for 2071-2100. The focus was on the changes in the mean circulation and surface variables, in particular, surface air temperature and precipitation. There is a consistent pattern of changes in circulation, rainfall and temperatures as depicted by the three models. The HadRM3P shows intensification and a more southward position of the subtropical Pacific high, while a pattern of intensification/weakening during summer/winter is projected by the Eta CCS/RegCM3. There is a tendency for a weakening of the subtropical westerly jet from the Eta CCS and HadRM3P, consistent with other studies. There are indications that regions such of Northeast Brazil and central-eastern and southern Amazonia may experience rainfall deficiency in the future, while the Northwest coast of Peru-Ecuador and northern Argentina may experience rainfall excesses in a warmer future, and these changes may vary with the seasons. The three models show warming in the A2 scenario stronger in the tropical region, especially in the 5°N-15°S band, both in summer and especially in winter, reaching up to 6-8°C warmer than in the present. In southern South America, the warming in summer varies between 2 and 4°C and in winter between 3 and 5°C in the same region from the 3 models. These changes are consistent with changes in low level circulation from the models, and they are comparable with changes in rainfall and temperature extremes reported elsewhere. In summary, some aspects of projected future climate change are quite robust across this set of

  8. The FITS model office ergonomics program: a model for best practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chim, Justine M Y

    2014-01-01

    An effective office ergonomics program can predict positive results in reducing musculoskeletal injury rates, enhancing productivity, and improving staff well-being and job satisfaction. Its objective is to provide a systematic solution to manage the potential risk of musculoskeletal disorders among computer users in an office setting. A FITS Model office ergonomics program is developed. The FITS Model Office Ergonomics Program has been developed which draws on the legislative requirements for promoting the health and safety of workers using computers for extended periods as well as previous research findings. The Model is developed according to the practical industrial knowledge in ergonomics, occupational health and safety management, and human resources management in Hong Kong and overseas. This paper proposes a comprehensive office ergonomics program, the FITS Model, which considers (1) Furniture Evaluation and Selection; (2) Individual Workstation Assessment; (3) Training and Education; (4) Stretching Exercises and Rest Break as elements of an effective program. An experienced ergonomics practitioner should be included in the program design and implementation. Through the FITS Model Office Ergonomics Program, the risk of musculoskeletal disorders among computer users can be eliminated or minimized, and workplace health and safety and employees' wellness enhanced.

  9. Criminality and Violence in Latin America: a Comparative ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Canada-Latin America and Caribbean Zika Virus Research Program. A new funding opportunity on Zika virus is responding to the virus outbreak and the health threat it represents for the affected populations in the hardest hit countries in Latin America and the... View moreCanada-Latin America and Caribbean Zika Virus ...

  10. Original article Rehabilitation model program for seriously ill patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne Kegye

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Patients receiving cancer treatment start lifestyle changes mostly at the end of the treatment during the rehabilitation period. Most often, the first step is a dietary change and physical exercises built into the daily routine. Patients who do this in groups led by qualified therapists and based on professional counseling can build more effective and more permanent changes into their life. To develop a complex rehabilitation program which, in the short term, aims to familiarize patients with a lifestyle which harmonizes the physical, mental, spiritual and social spheres of life and, in the long term, to build it into their everyday life in order to ameliorate the physical and mental state and reduce the psychological symptoms and the isolation of patients. The physical component focuses on diet and exercise. The psycho-social-spiritual support focuses on discovering inner sources of strength, developing active coping mechanisms and helping to achieve more open communication. Participants and procedure In February and March 2011, 8 patients treated for malignant tumors participated in the model program. The components of the model program were psychotherapy, physiotherapy, cancer consultation, nutrition counseling, creative activities and walking. Results During the period of the model program the isolation of the patients decreased and their social support and ability of coping with the illness ameliorated. They reported an ease in anxiety and depression in their everyday activities. According to feedback, their communication with each other, with the staff and with their relatives became more open. Altogether this had advantageous effects on the functioning of the ward and the mood of the staff. Conclusions The rehabilitation program confirmed that beside individual psycho-social support, beneficial and economic psycho-social support can be provided for the patients in group form along with the most effective assignment of the

  11. Programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    The programmer's task is often taken to be the construction of algorithms, expressed in hierarchical structures of procedures: this view underlies the majority of traditional programming languages, such as Fortran. A different view is appropriate to a wide class of problem, perhaps including some problems in High Energy Physics. The programmer's task is regarded as having three main stages: first, an explicit model is constructed of the reality with which the program is concerned; second, this model is elaborated to produce the required program outputs; third, the resulting program is transformed to run efficiently in the execution environment. The first two stages deal in network structures of sequential processes; only the third is concerned with procedure hierarchies. (orig.)

  12. Programming

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, M A

    1982-01-01

    The programmer's task is often taken to be the construction of algorithms, expressed in hierarchical structures of procedures: this view underlies the majority of traditional programming languages, such as Fortran. A different view is appropriate to a wide class of problem, perhaps including some problems in High Energy Physics. The programmer's task is regarded as having three main stages: first, an explicit model is constructed of the reality with which the program is concerned; second, this model is elaborated to produce the required program outputs; third, the resulting program is transformed to run efficiently in the execution environment. The first two stages deal in network structures of sequential processes; only the third is concerned with procedure hierarchies.

  13. Summary of multi-core hardware and programming model investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Suzanne Marie; Pedretti, Kevin Thomas Tauke; Levenhagen, Michael J.

    2008-05-01

    This report summarizes our investigations into multi-core processors and programming models for parallel scientific applications. The motivation for this study was to better understand the landscape of multi-core hardware, future trends, and the implications on system software for capability supercomputers. The results of this study are being used as input into the design of a new open-source light-weight kernel operating system being targeted at future capability supercomputers made up of multi-core processors. A goal of this effort is to create an agile system that is able to adapt to and efficiently support whatever multi-core hardware and programming models gain acceptance by the community.

  14. Final Report: Center for Programming Models for Scalable Parallel Computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellor-Crummey, John [William Marsh Rice University

    2011-09-13

    As part of the Center for Programming Models for Scalable Parallel Computing, Rice University collaborated with project partners in the design, development and deployment of language, compiler, and runtime support for parallel programming models to support application development for the “leadership-class” computer systems at DOE national laboratories. Work over the course of this project has focused on the design, implementation, and evaluation of a second-generation version of Coarray Fortran. Research and development efforts of the project have focused on the CAF 2.0 language, compiler, runtime system, and supporting infrastructure. This has involved working with the teams that provide infrastructure for CAF that we rely on, implementing new language and runtime features, producing an open source compiler that enabled us to evaluate our ideas, and evaluating our design and implementation through the use of benchmarks. The report details the research, development, findings, and conclusions from this work.

  15. EVALUASI PROGRAM PEMBELAJARAN IPA SMP MENGGUNAKAN MODEL COUNTENANCE STAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astin Lukum

    2015-06-01

    THE EVALUATION OF SCIENCE TEACHING ON JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL USING STAKE’S COUNTENANCE MODEL Abstract The purpose of the study was to describe the science learning program on junior high school in Bone Bolanga district based on the Regulation of Minister of Education and Culture of the Republic of Indonesia, Number 65 of 2013 about Processing Standard of Primary and Secondary Education. This study used Stake’s Countanance evaluation model. The data were collected using observation, interview and documentation techniques. The conclusion was: (1 the planning of science learning was categorized fair (68%, it was found that lesson plan was not in accordance with the learning processing standard. (2 The implementation of science learning was categorized fair (57%, that unconformitted with learning processing implementation standard. (3 Student learning outcomes have not met the completeness of minimum criteria (KKM that categorized enough (65% and (4 There were the contingency of planing learning proces and outcome. Keywords: Program Evaluation, Stake's Countenance, Science Learning

  16. Using Runtime Analysis to Guide Model Checking of Java Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havelund, Klaus; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes how two runtime analysis algorithms, an existing data race detection algorithm and a new deadlock detection algorithm, have been implemented to analyze Java programs. Runtime analysis is based on the idea of executing the program once. and observing the generated run to extract various kinds of information. This information can then be used to predict whether other different runs may violate some properties of interest, in addition of course to demonstrate whether the generated run itself violates such properties. These runtime analyses can be performed stand-alone to generate a set of warnings. It is furthermore demonstrated how these warnings can be used to guide a model checker, thereby reducing the search space. The described techniques have been implemented in the b e grown Java model checker called PathFinder.

  17. Comparison of Building Energy Modeling Programs: Building Loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Dandan [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China); Hong, Tianzhen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Yan, Da [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China); Wang, Chuang [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China)

    2012-06-01

    This technical report presented the methodologies, processes, and results of comparing three Building Energy Modeling Programs (BEMPs) for load calculations: EnergyPlus, DeST and DOE-2.1E. This joint effort, between Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, USA and Tsinghua University, China, was part of research projects under the US-China Clean Energy Research Center on Building Energy Efficiency (CERC-BEE). Energy Foundation, an industrial partner of CERC-BEE, was the co-sponsor of this study work. It is widely known that large discrepancies in simulation results can exist between different BEMPs. The result is a lack of confidence in building simulation amongst many users and stakeholders. In the fields of building energy code development and energy labeling programs where building simulation plays a key role, there are also confusing and misleading claims that some BEMPs are better than others. In order to address these problems, it is essential to identify and understand differences between widely-used BEMPs, and the impact of these differences on load simulation results, by detailed comparisons of these BEMPs from source code to results. The primary goal of this work was to research methods and processes that would allow a thorough scientific comparison of the BEMPs. The secondary goal was to provide a list of strengths and weaknesses for each BEMP, based on in-depth understandings of their modeling capabilities, mathematical algorithms, advantages and limitations. This is to guide the use of BEMPs in the design and retrofit of buildings, especially to support China’s building energy standard development and energy labeling program. The research findings could also serve as a good reference to improve the modeling capabilities and applications of the three BEMPs. The methodologies, processes, and analyses employed in the comparison work could also be used to compare other programs. The load calculation method of each program was analyzed and compared to

  18. The Agita São Paulo Program as a model for using physical activity to promote health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Mahecha Matsudo

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The "Agita São Paulo" Program applies a multilevel intervention approach to promoting physical activity among the 37 million inhabitants of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The verb "agita" means to move the body, but the term also suggests changing the way of thinking and becoming a more active citizen. Since being launched in 1996, the Program has been widely copied throughout Brazil and in other countries of Latin America, and the World Health Organization has characterized it as a model for other developing countries. The Program aims to disseminate a clear and simple message to the community as well as establish partnerships with governmental and nongovernmental organizations and other entities. The Agita São Paulo message encourages people to adopt an active lifestyle by accumulating at least 30 minutes of moderate physical activity per day, on most days of the week. The Program has three main target groups: students, workers, and the elderly. The Program organizes "mega-events" that simultaneously reach and involve large numbers of people, and it also conducts ongoing activities with institutions that become partners of the Program. Intervention studies that the Program has carried out on specific, small groups have found both changes in behavior and an increasing awareness of the Program's name and message. In addition, surveys have found that a growing number of persons in the state of São Paulo have become aware of the Program and its message and have changed their physical activity level. A number of the special features of and lessons learned from the Agita São Paulo Program may have contributed to its success, including: a multisectorial approach; broad use of partnerships; the inclusion principle (avoiding messages or attitudes that might exclude any social group; the scientific basis for all the Program activities; the extensive free media coverage that the Program has received; a "two-hats" approach, using either governmental

  19. Coupling R and PHREEQC: Efficient Programming of Geochemical Models

    OpenAIRE

    De Lucia, Marco; Kühn, Michael

    2013-01-01

    We present a new interface between the geochemical simulator PHREEQC and the open source language R. It represents a tool to flexibly and efficiently program and automate every aspect of geochemical modelling. The interface helps particularly to setup and run large numbers of simulations and visualise the results. Also profiting of numberless high-quality R extension packages, performing sensitivity analysis or Monte Carlo simulations becomes straightforward. Further, an algorithm to speedup ...

  20. Model-Based Programming of Fault-Aware Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Brian C.; Ingham, Michel D.; Chung, Seung; Elliott, Paul; Hofbaur, Michael; Sullivan, Gregory T.

    2003-01-01

    A wide range of sensor-rich, networked embedded systems are being created that must operate robustly for years in the face of novel failures by managing complex autonomic processes. These systems are being composed, for example, into vast networks of space, air, ground, and underwater vehicles. Our objective is to revolutionize the way in which we control these new artifacts by creating reactive model-based programming languages that enable everyday systems to reason intelligently and enable ...

  1. The Athletic Prevention Programming and Leadership Education (APPLE) Model: Developing Substance Abuse Prevention Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Grossman, Susan J.; Gieck, Joe; Fang, Wei Li; Freedman, Alan

    1993-01-01

    Alcohol and other drug (AOD) abuse affects every sector of society, and student-athletes are no exception. Because many factors affecting athletes do not affect other students, athletic departments commonly approach prevention through AOD education. Different educational approaches are described in this article, particularly the Athletic Prevention Programming and Leadership Education (APPLE) model. Project APPLE is designed to enable an athletic department to systematically analyze its AOD p...

  2. Tecnomatix Plant Simulation modeling and programming by means of examples

    CERN Document Server

    Bangsow, Steffen

    2015-01-01

    This book systematically introduces the development of simulation models as well as the implementation and evaluation of simulation experiments with Tecnomatix Plant Simulation. It deals with all users of Plant Simulation, who have more complex tasks to handle. It also looks for an easy entry into the program. Particular attention has been paid to introduce the simulation flow language SimTalk and its use in various areas of the simulation. The author demonstrates with over 200 examples how to combine the blocks for simulation models and how to deal with SimTalk for complex control and analys

  3. An integer programming model for distal humerus fracture fixation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maratt, Joseph D; Peaks, Ya-Sin A; Doro, Lisa Case; Karunakar, Madhav A; Hughes, Richard E

    2008-05-01

    To demonstrate the feasibility of an integer programming model to assist in pre-operative planning for open reduction and internal fixation of a distal humerus fracture. We describe an integer programming model based on the objective of maximizing the reward for screws placed while satisfying the requirements for sound internal fixation. The model maximizes the number of bicortical screws placed while avoiding screw collision and favoring screws of greater length that cross multiple fracture planes. The model was tested on three types of total articular fractures of the distal humerus. Solutions were generated using 5, 9, 21 and 33 possible screw orientations per hole. Solutions generated using 33 possible screw orientations per hole and five screw lengths resulted in the most clinically relevant fixation plan and required the calculation of 1,191,975 pairs of screws that resulted in collision. At this level of complexity, the pre-processor took 104 seconds to generate the constraints for the solver, and a solution was generated in under one minute in all three cases. Despite the large size of this problem, it can be solved in a reasonable amount of time, making use of the model practical in pre-surgical planning.

  4. A Game-Theoretic Model for Distributed Programming by Contract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Anders Starcke; Hvitved, Tom; Filinski, Andrzej

    2009-01-01

    We present an extension of the programming-by-contract (PBC) paradigm to a concurrent and distributed environment.  Classical PBC is characterized by absolute conformance of code to its specification, assigning blame in case of failures, and a hierarchical, cooperative decomposition model – none...... of which extend naturally to a distributed environment with multiple administrative peers. We therefore propose a more nuanced contract model based on quantifiable performance of implementations; assuming responsibility for success; and a fundamentally adversarial model of system integration, where each...... component provider is optimizing its behavior locally, with respect to potentially conflicting demands.  This model gives rise to a game-theoretic formulation of contract-governed process interactions that supports compositional reasoning about contract conformance....

  5. Model - Model Pembelajaran pada Program Studi Pendidikan Guru Madrasah Ibtidaiyah (PGMI STAIN Samarinda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syeh Hawib Hamzah

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The model of learning is a vital thing in education. A good appropriate model of learning could reach the goal of learning efficently and effectively. The lecturers of education and teacher training program of STAIN Samarinda implement a various teaching and learning models when they perform their teaching, such as: model of contectual teaching, social interaction, informational proces, personal-based learning, behaviorism, cooperative learning, and problem-based learning.

  6. A model for a national low level waste program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blankenhorn, James A.

    2009-01-01

    A national program for the management of low level waste is essential to the success of environmental clean-up, decontamination and decommissioning, current operations and future missions. The value of a national program is recognized through procedural consistency and a shared set of resources. A national program requires a clear waste definition and an understanding of waste characteristics matched against available and proposed disposal options. A national program requires the development and implementation of standards and procedures for implementing the waste hierarchy, with a specitic emphasis on waste avoidance, minimization and recycling. It requires a common set of objectives for waste characterization based on the disposal facility's waste acceptance criteria, regulatory and license requirements and performance assessments. Finally, a national waste certification program is required to ensure compliance. To facilitate and enhance the national program, a centralized generator services organization, tasked with providing technical services to the generators on behalf of the national program, is necessary. These subject matter experts are the interface between the generating sites and the disposal facility(s). They provide an invaluable service to the generating organizations through their involvement in waste planning prior to waste generation and through championing implementation of the waste hierarchy. Through their interface, national treatment and transportation services are optimized and new business opportunities are identified. This national model is based on extensive experience in the development and on-going management of a national transuranic waste program and management of the national repository, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. The Low Level Program at the Savannah River Site also successfully developed and implemented the waste hierarchy, waste certification and waste generator services concepts presented below. The Savannah River Site

  7. Building America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brad Oberg

    2010-12-31

    Builders generally use a 'spec and purchase' business management system (BMS) when implementing energy efficiency. A BMS is the overall operational and organizational systems and strategies that a builder uses to set up and run its company. This type of BMS treats building performance as a simple technology swap (e.g. a tank water heater to a tankless water heater) and typically compartmentalizes energy efficiency within one or two groups in the organization (e.g. purchasing and construction). While certain tools, such as details, checklists, and scopes of work, can assist builders in managing the quality of the construction of higher performance homes, they do nothing to address the underlying operational strategies and issues related to change management that builders face when they make high performance homes a core part of their mission. To achieve the systems integration necessary for attaining 40% + levels of energy efficiency, while capturing the cost tradeoffs, builders must use a 'systems approach' BMS, rather than a 'spec and purchase' BMS. The following attributes are inherent in a systems approach BMS; they are also generally seen in quality management systems (QMS), such as the National Housing Quality Certification program: Cultural and corporate alignment, Clear intent for quality and performance, Increased collaboration across internal and external teams, Better communication practices and systems, Disciplined approach to quality control, Measurement and verification of performance, Continuous feedback and improvement, and Whole house integrated design and specification.

  8. The Pan American Health Organization’s role and perspectives on the mapping and modeling of the neglected tropical diseases in Latin America and the Caribbean: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven K. Ault

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO, which functions as the regional office for the Americas of the World Health Organization, is committed to provide technical cooperation to countries to update the epidemiological information available for mapping and modelling of the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs, a set of diseases mainly caused by parasites affecting people living in low socioeconomic and favourable environmental conditions. This communication discusses PAHO’s role and perspectives in the use of mapping and modelling of these diseases with a view to promote its use in the development and implementation of integrated, inter-programmatic and inter-sectoral plans for the prevention, control or elimination of the NTDs and other infectious diseases related to poverty.

  9. The Pan American Health Organization's role and perspectives on the mapping and modeling of the neglected tropical diseases in Latin America and the Caribbean: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ault, Steven K; Nicholls, Ruben Santiago; Saboya, Martha IdaIí

    2012-09-01

    The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), which functions as the regional office for the Americas of the World Health Organization, is committed to provide technical cooperation to countries to update the epidemiological information available for mapping and modelling of the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), a set of diseases mainly caused by parasites affecting people living in low socioeconomic and favourable environmental conditions. This communication discusses PAHO's role and perspectives in the use of mapping and modelling of these diseases with a view to promote its use in the development and implementation of integrated, inter-programmatic and inter-sectoral plans for the prevention, control or elimination of the NTDs and other infectious diseases related to poverty.

  10. Optical Neural Network Models Applied To Logic Program Execution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stormon, Charles D.

    1988-05-01

    Logic programming is being used extensively by Artificial Intelligence researchers to solve problems including natural language processing and expert systems. These languages, of which Prolog is the most widely used, promise to revolutionize software engineering, but much greater performance is needed. Researchers have demonstrated the applicability of neural network models to the solution of certain NP-complete problems, but these methods are not obviously applicable to the execution of logic programs. This paper outlines the use of neural networks in four aspects of the logic program execution cycle, and discusses results of a simulation of three of these. Four neural network functional units are described, called the substitution agent, the clause filter, the structure processor, and the heuristics generator, respectively. Simulation results suggest that the system described may provide several orders of magnitude improvement in execution speed for large logic programs. However, practical implementation of the proposed architecture will require the application of optical computing techniques due to the large number of neurons required, and the need for massive, adaptive connectivity.

  11. Evaluation of Medical Education virtual Program: P3 model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaee, Rita; Shokrpour, Nasrin; Boroumand, Maryam

    2016-10-01

    In e-learning, people get involved in a process and create the content (product) and make it available for virtual learners. The present study was carried out in order to evaluate the first virtual master program in medical education at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences according to P3 Model. This is an evaluation research study with post single group design used to determine how effective this program was. All students 60 who participated more than one year in this virtual program and 21 experts including teachers and directors participated in this evaluation project. Based on the P3 e-learning model, an evaluation tool with 5-point Likert rating scale was designed and applied to collect the descriptive data. Students reported storyboard and course design as the most desirable element of learning environment (2.30±0.76), but they declared technical support as the less desirable part (1.17±1.23). Presence of such framework in this regard and using it within the format of appropriate tools for evaluation of e-learning in universities and higher education institutes, which present e-learning curricula in the country, may contribute to implementation of the present and future e-learning curricula efficiently and guarantee its implementation in an appropriate way.

  12. The impacts of a plume-rise scheme on earth system modeling: climatological effects of biomass aerosols on the surface temperature and energy budget of South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Menezes Neto, Otacilio L.; Coutinho, Mariane M.; Marengo, José A.; Capistrano, Vinícius B.

    2017-08-01

    Seasonal forest fires in the Amazon are the largest source of pollutants in South America. The impacts of aerosols due to biomass burning on the temperature and energy balance in South America are investigated using climate simulations from 1979 to 2005 using HadGEM2-ES, which includes the hot plume-rise scheme (HPR) developed by Freitas et al. (Estudos Avançados 19:167-185, 2005, Atmos Chem Phys 7:3385-3398, 2007, Atmos Chem Phys 10:585-594, 2010). The HPR scheme is used to estimate the vertical heights of biomass-burning aerosols based on the thermodynamic characteristics of the underlying model. Three experiments are performed. The first experiment includes the HPR scheme, the second experiment turns off the HPR scheme and the effects of biomass aerosols (BIOMASS OFF), and the final experiment assumes that all biomass aerosols are released at the surface (HPR OFF). Relative to the BIOMASS OFF experiment, the temperature decreased in the HPR experiment as the net shortwave radiation at the surface decreased in a region with a large amount of biomass aerosols. When comparing the HPR and HPR OFF experiments, the release of biomass aerosols higher on the atmosphere impacts on temperature and the energy budget because the aerosols were transported by strong winds in the upper atmospheric levels.

  13. Genetic Programming and Standardization in Water Temperature Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritza Arganis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An application of Genetic Programming (an evolutionary computational tool without and with standardization data is presented with the aim of modeling the behavior of the water temperature in a river in terms of meteorological variables that are easily measured, to explore their explanatory power and to emphasize the utility of the standardization of variables in order to reduce the effect of those with large variance. Recorded data corresponding to the water temperature behavior at the Ebro River, Spain, are used as analysis case, showing a performance improvement on the developed model when data are standardized. This improvement is reflected in a reduction of the mean square error. Finally, the models obtained in this document were applied to estimate the water temperature in 2004, in order to provide evidence about their applicability to forecasting purposes.

  14. Mathematical model for HIV spreads control program with ART treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maimunah; Aldila, Dipo

    2018-03-01

    In this article, using a deterministic approach in a seven-dimensional nonlinear ordinary differential equation, we establish a mathematical model for the spread of HIV with an ART treatment intervention. In a simplified model, when no ART treatment is implemented, disease-free and the endemic equilibrium points were established analytically along with the basic reproduction number. The local stability criteria of disease-free equilibrium and the existing criteria of endemic equilibrium were analyzed. We find that endemic equilibrium exists when the basic reproduction number is larger than one. From the sensitivity analysis of the basic reproduction number of the complete model (with ART treatment), we find that the increased number of infected humans who follow the ART treatment program will reduce the basic reproduction number. We simulate this result also in the numerical experiment of the autonomous system to show how treatment intervention impacts the reduction of the infected population during the intervention time period.

  15. Stochastic programming framework for Lithuanian pension payout modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrius Kabašinskas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides a scientific approach to the problem of selecting a pension fund by taking into account some specific characteristics of the Lithuanian Republic (LR pension accumulation system. The decision making model, which can be used to plan a long-term pension accrual of the Lithuanian Republic (LR citizens, in an optimal way is presented. This model focuses on factors that influence the sustainability of the pension system selection under macroeconomic, social and demographic uncertainty. The model is formalized as a single stage stochastic optimization problem where the long-term optimal strategy can be obtained based on the possible scenarios generated for a particular participant. Stochastic programming methods allow including the pension fund rebalancing moment and direction of investment, and taking into account possible changes of personal income, changes of society and the global financial market. The collection of methods used to generate scenario trees was found useful to solve strategic planning problems.

  16. Mathematical Modeling of Intestinal Iron Absorption Using Genetic Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colins, Andrea; Gerdtzen, Ziomara P; Nuñez, Marco T; Salgado, J Cristian

    2017-01-01

    Iron is a trace metal, key for the development of living organisms. Its absorption process is complex and highly regulated at the transcriptional, translational and systemic levels. Recently, the internalization of the DMT1 transporter has been proposed as an additional regulatory mechanism at the intestinal level, associated to the mucosal block phenomenon. The short-term effect of iron exposure in apical uptake and initial absorption rates was studied in Caco-2 cells at different apical iron concentrations, using both an experimental approach and a mathematical modeling framework. This is the first report of short-term studies for this system. A non-linear behavior in the apical uptake dynamics was observed, which does not follow the classic saturation dynamics of traditional biochemical models. We propose a method for developing mathematical models for complex systems, based on a genetic programming algorithm. The algorithm is aimed at obtaining models with a high predictive capacity, and considers an additional parameter fitting stage and an additional Jackknife stage for estimating the generalization error. We developed a model for the iron uptake system with a higher predictive capacity than classic biochemical models. This was observed both with the apical uptake dataset used for generating the model and with an independent initial rates dataset used to test the predictive capacity of the model. The model obtained is a function of time and the initial apical iron concentration, with a linear component that captures the global tendency of the system, and a non-linear component that can be associated to the movement of DMT1 transporters. The model presented in this paper allows the detailed analysis, interpretation of experimental data, and identification of key relevant components for this complex biological process. This general method holds great potential for application to the elucidation of biological mechanisms and their key components in other complex

  17. Recovery Act. Development of a Model Energy Conservation Training Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2012-07-05

    The overall objective of this project was to develop an updated model Energy Conservation training program for stationary engineers. This revision to the IUOE National Training Fund’s existing Energy Conservation training curriculum is designed to enable stationary engineers to incorporate essential energy management into routine building operation and maintenance tasks. The curriculum uses a blended learning approach that includes classroom, hands-on, computer simulation and web-based training in addition to a portfolio requirement for a workplace-based learning application. The Energy Conservation training program goal is development of a workforce that can maintain new and existing commercial buildings at optimum energy performance levels. The grant start date was July 6, 2010 and the project continued through September 30, 2012, including a three month non-funded extension.

  18. C++, objected-oriented programming, and astronomical data models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, A.

    1992-01-01

    Contemporary astronomy is characterized by increasingly complex instruments and observational techniques, higher data collection rates, and large data archives, placing severe stress on software analysis systems. The object-oriented paradigm represents a significant new approach to software design and implementation that holds great promise for dealing with this increased complexity. The basic concepts of this approach will be characterized in contrast to more traditional procedure-oriented approaches. The fundamental features of objected-oriented programming will be discussed from a C++ programming language perspective, using examples familiar to astronomers. This discussion will focus on objects, classes and their relevance to the data type system; the principle of information hiding; and the use of inheritance to implement generalization/specialization relationships. Drawing on the object-oriented approach, features of a new database model to support astronomical data analysis will be presented.

  19. Implementing a citizen's DWI reporting program using the Extra Eyes model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    This manual is a guide for law enforcement agencies and community organizations in creating and implementing a citizens DWI reporting program in their communities modeling the Operation Extra Eyes program. Extra Eyes is a program that engages volu...

  20. Optimal timing of joint replacement using mathematical programming and stochastic programming models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keren, Baruch; Pliskin, Joseph S

    2011-12-01

    The optimal timing for performing radical medical procedures as joint (e.g., hip) replacement must be seriously considered. In this paper we show that under deterministic assumptions the optimal timing for joint replacement is a solution of a mathematical programming problem, and under stochastic assumptions the optimal timing can be formulated as a stochastic programming problem. We formulate deterministic and stochastic models that can serve as decision support tools. The results show that the benefit from joint replacement surgery is heavily dependent on timing. Moreover, for a special case where the patient's remaining life is normally distributed along with a normally distributed survival of the new joint, the expected benefit function from surgery is completely solved. This enables practitioners to draw the expected benefit graph, to find the optimal timing, to evaluate the benefit for each patient, to set priorities among patients and to decide if joint replacement should be performed and when.

  1. Architecture and Programming Models for High Performance Intensive Computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-29

    written in funJava, a functional programming language. • Implement selected test programs in funJava for demonstrating performance and en- ergy efficiency... Programming language The funJava programming language is a version of standard Java , restricted to a functional subset. This simple functional programming ... programs written in funJava, a functional programming language. • Implement selected test programs in funJava for demonstrating performance and energy

  2. Togetherness in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Jan Knippers

    1984-01-01

    There is a growing unacknowledged reality to the oneness of America. Latin America is increasingly sharing not only the blessings of U.S.-style modernization, but its demons as well. Also, many problems that have long plagued Latin America, e.g., indebtedness and militarism, are becoming more apparent in the United States. (RM)

  3. A Stochastic Programming Model for Fuel Treatment Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohannad Kabli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This work considers a two-stage stochastic integer programming (SIP approach for optimizing fuel treatment planning under uncertainty in weather and fire occurrence for rural forests. Given a set of areas for potentially performing fuel treatment, the problem is to decide the best treatment option for each area under uncertainty in future weather and fire occurrence. A two-stage SIP model is devised whose objective is to minimize the here-and-now cost of fuel treatment in the first-stage, plus the expected future costs due to uncertain impact from potential fires in the second-stage calculated as ecosystem services losses. The model considers four fuel treatment options: no treatment, mechanical thinning, prescribed fire, and grazing. Several constraints such as budgetary and labor constraints are included in the model and a standard fire behavior model is used to estimate some of the parameters of the model such as fuel levels at the beginning of the fire season. The SIP model was applied to data for a study area in East Texas with 15 treatment areas under different weather scenarios. The results of the study show, for example, that unless the expected ecosystem services values for an area outweigh fuel treatment costs, no treatment is the best choice for the area. Thus the valuation of the area together with the probability of fire occurrence and behavior strongly drive fuel treatment choices.

  4. Mapping recent chikungunya activity in the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    To better understand chikungunya activity in the America we mapped recent chikungunya activity in the Americas. This activity is needed to better understand that the relationships between climatic factors and disease outbreak patters are critical to the design and constructing of predictive models....

  5. THE PROGRAMED CELL DEATH REGULATORS OF ISOLATED MODEL SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Vatlitsov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The technology evolution creates the prerequisites for the emergence of new informational concept and approaches to the formation of a fundamentally new principles of biological objects understanding. The aim was to study the activators of the programmed cell death in an isolated system model. Cell culture aging parameters were performed on flow cytometer. It had formed the theory that the changes in the concentrations of metal ions and increase their extracellular concentration had formed a negative gradient into the cells.regulation of cell death. It was shown that the metals ions concentrations.

  6. Managing problem employees: a model program and practical guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Laurence

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a model program for managing problem employees that includes a description ofthe basic types of problem employees and employee problems, as well as practical recommendations for. (1) selection and screening, (2) education and training, (3) coaching and counseling, (4) discipline, (5) psychological fitness-for-duty evaluations, (6) mental health services, (7) termination, and (8) leadership and administrative strategies. Throughout, the emphasis on balancing the need for order and productivity in the workplace with fairness and concern for employee health and well-being.

  7. Partial Hospitalization Programs: A Current Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitelaw, Carolyn A.; Perez, Edgardo L.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the historical background, standards, the issue of day treatment versus day care, functional issues, specialization, efficacy and cost effectiveness, utilization issues, and alternative models of care of partial hospitalization programs in North America. Emphasizes issues of relevance when planning alternative programs to inpatient…

  8. Winter-to-Summer Precipitation Phasing in Southwestern North America: A Multi-Century Perspective from Paleoclimatic Model-Data Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coats, Sloan; Smerdon, Jason E.; Seager, Richard; Griffin, Daniel; Cook, Benjamin I.

    2015-01-01

    The phasing of winter-to-summer precipitation anomalies in the North American monsoon (NAM) region 2 (113.25 deg W-107.75 deg W, 30 deg N-35.25 deg N-NAM2) of southwestern North America is analyzed in fully coupled simulations of the Last Millennium and compared to tree ring reconstructed winter and summer precipitation variability. The models simulate periods with in-phase seasonal precipitation anomalies, but the strength of this relationship is variable on multidecadal time scales, behavior that is also exhibited by the reconstructions. The models, however, are unable to simulate periods with consistently out-of-phase winter-to-summer precipitation anomalies as observed in the latter part of the instrumental interval. The periods with predominantly in-phase winter-to-summer precipitation anomalies in the models are significant against randomness, and while this result is suggestive of a potential for dual-season drought on interannual and longer time scales, models do not consistently exhibit the persistent dual-season drought seen in the dendroclimatic reconstructions. These collective findings indicate that model-derived drought risk assessments may underestimate the potential for dual-season drought in 21st century projections of hydroclimate in the American Southwest and parts of Mexico.

  9. Groundwater modelling of Aespoe using the ECLIPSE program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wokil, H.

    1995-06-01

    The pre-investigations indicated that the dominant rocks ranged in composition from true granite to dioritic or gabbroic rocks. In conjunction with these investigations at the area, a number of indications were obtained of high transmissive fracture zones. To be able to understand the fracture zone NE-1 as well as possible, a number of hydraulic tests were performed, for example a tracer test. The program ECLIPSE 100 is one of the standard programs in the oil industry which is used to simulate oil fields. ECLIPSE 100 is a multi-facility simulator and it can be used to simulate 1, 2 and 3 phase systems, one option is oil, two phase options are oil/gas, oil/water or gas/water, and the third option is oil/gas/water. Good results were obtained from the simulator match of the tracer concentration versus time to the measured values from the tracer test of the fracture zone NE-1. The simulation was less successful in modelling the draw-down of water in the wells. We were also unable to reach a balance situation for the water pressure prior to injecting the tracer in order to accommodate several weeks of leakage into the tunnel prior to the tracer test. As a main conclusion, we found the results of the simulation to be satisfactory and we believe that further work should be done to adapt the program completely for groundwater simulation. 19 refs, 10 tabs, 13 figs.

  10. Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Units - A model partnership program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennerline, Donald E.; Childs, Dawn E.

    2017-04-20

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Units (CRU) program is a unique model of cooperative partnership among the USGS, other U.S. Department of the Interior and Federal agencies, universities, State fish and wildlife agencies, and the Wildlife Management Institute. These partnerships are maintained as one of the USGS’s strongest links to Federal and State land and natural resource management agencies.Established in 1935 to meet the need for trained professionals in the growing field of wildlife management, the program currently consists of 40 Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Units located on university campuses in 38 States and supports 119 research scientist positions when fully funded. The threefold mission of the CRU program is to (1) conduct scientific research for the management of fish, wildlife, and other natural resources; (2) provide technical assistance to natural resource managers in the application of scientific information to natural resource policy and management; and (3) train future natural resource professionals.

  11. Species-specific ecological niche modelling predicts different range contractions for Lutzomyia intermedia and a related vector of Leishmania braziliensis following climate change in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Shannon; Rangel, Elizabeth F; Ready, Paul D; Carvalho, Bruno M

    2017-03-24

    Before 1996 the phlebotomine sand fly Lutzomyia neivai was usually treated as a synonym of the morphologically similar Lutzomyia intermedia, which has long been considered a vector of Leishmania braziliensis, the causative agent of much cutaneous leishmaniasis in South America. This report investigates the likely range changes of both sand fly species in response to a stabilisation climate change scenario (RCP4.5) and a high greenhouse gas emissions one (RCP8.5). Ecological niche modelling was used to identify areas of South America with climates currently suitable for each species, and then the future distributions of these climates were predicted based on climate change scenarios. Compared with the previous ecological niche model of L. intermedia (sensu lato) produced using the GARP algorithm in 2003, the current investigation modelled the two species separately, making use of verified presence records and additional records after 2001. Also, the new ensemble approach employed ecological niche modelling algorithms (including Maximum Entropy, Random Forests and Support Vector Machines) that have been widely adopted since 2003 and perform better than GARP, as well as using a more recent climate change model (HadGEM2) considered to have better performance at higher resolution than the earlier one (HadCM2). Lutzomyia intermedia was shown to be the more tropical of the two species, with its climatic niche defined by higher annual mean temperatures and lower temperature seasonality, in contrast to the more subtropical L. neivai. These different latitudinal ranges explain the two species' predicted responses to climate change by 2050, with L. intermedia mostly contracting its range (except perhaps in northeast Brazil) and L. neivai mostly shifting its range southwards in Brazil and Argentina. This contradicts the findings of the 2003 report, which predicted more range expansion. The different findings can be explained by the improved data sets and modelling methods. Our

  12. Faculty development program models to advance teaching and learning within health science programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Jason W; Stein, Susan M; MacLean, Linda Garrelts; Van Amburgh, Jenny; Persky, Adam M

    2014-06-17

    Within health science programs there has been a call for more faculty development, particularly for teaching and learning. The primary objectives of this review were to describe the current landscape for faculty development programs for teaching and learning and make recommendations for the implementation of new faculty development programs. A thorough search of the pertinent health science databases was conducted, including the Education Resource Information Center (ERIC), MEDLINE, and EMBASE, and faculty development books and relevant information found were reviewed in order to provide recommendations for best practices. Faculty development for teaching and learning comes in a variety of forms, from individuals charged to initiate activities to committees and centers. Faculty development has been effective in improving faculty perceptions on the value of teaching, increasing motivation and enthusiasm for teaching, increasing knowledge and behaviors, and disseminating skills. Several models exist that can be implemented to support faculty teaching development. Institutions need to make informed decisions about which plan could be most successfully implemented in their college or school.

  13. Integer programming model for optimizing bus timetable using genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wihartiko, F. D.; Buono, A.; Silalahi, B. P.

    2017-01-01

    Bus timetable gave an information for passengers to ensure the availability of bus services. Timetable optimal condition happened when bus trips frequency could adapt and suit with passenger demand. In the peak time, the number of bus trips would be larger than the off-peak time. If the number of bus trips were more frequent than the optimal condition, it would make a high operating cost for bus operator. Conversely, if the number of trip was less than optimal condition, it would make a bad quality service for passengers. In this paper, the bus timetabling problem would be solved by integer programming model with modified genetic algorithm. Modification was placed in the chromosomes design, initial population recovery technique, chromosomes reconstruction and chromosomes extermination on specific generation. The result of this model gave the optimal solution with accuracy 99.1%.

  14. ModelArchiver—A program for facilitating the creation of groundwater model archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Richard B.

    2018-03-01

    ModelArchiver is a program designed to facilitate the creation of groundwater model archives that meet the requirements of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) policy (Office of Groundwater Technical Memorandum 2016.02, https://water.usgs.gov/admin/memo/GW/gw2016.02.pdf, https://water.usgs.gov/ogw/policy/gw-model/). ModelArchiver version 1.0 leads the user step-by-step through the process of creating a USGS groundwater model archive. The user specifies the contents of each of the subdirectories within the archive and provides descriptions of the archive contents. Descriptions of some files can be specified automatically using file extensions. Descriptions also can be specified individually. Those descriptions are added to a readme.txt file provided by the user. ModelArchiver moves the content of the archive to the archive folder and compresses some folders into .zip files.As part of the archive, the modeler must create a metadata file describing the archive. The program has a built-in metadata editor and provides links to websites that can aid in creation of the metadata. The built-in metadata editor is also available as a stand-alone program named FgdcMetaEditor version 1.0, which also is described in this report. ModelArchiver updates the metadata file provided by the user with descriptions of the files in the archive. An optional archive list file generated automatically by ModelMuse can streamline the creation of archives by identifying input files, output files, model programs, and ancillary files for inclusion in the archive.

  15. Optimizing Crawler4j using MapReduce Programming Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddesh, G. M.; Suresh, Kavya; Madhuri, K. Y.; Nijagal, Madhushree; Rakshitha, B. R.; Srinivasa, K. G.

    2017-06-01

    World wide web is a decentralized system that consists of a repository of information on the basis of web pages. These web pages act as a source of information or data in the present analytics world. Web crawlers are used for extracting useful information from web pages for different purposes. Firstly, it is used in web search engines where the web pages are indexed to form a corpus of information and allows the users to query on the web pages. Secondly, it is used for web archiving where the web pages are stored for later analysis phases. Thirdly, it can be used for web mining where the web pages are monitored for copyright purposes. The amount of information processed by the web crawler needs to be improved by using the capabilities of modern parallel processing technologies. In order to solve the problem of parallelism and the throughput of crawling this work proposes to optimize the Crawler4j using the Hadoop MapReduce programming model by parallelizing the processing of large input data. Crawler4j is a web crawler that retrieves useful information about the pages that it visits. The crawler Crawler4j coupled with data and computational parallelism of Hadoop MapReduce programming model improves the throughput and accuracy of web crawling. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed solution achieves significant improvements with respect to performance and throughput. Hence the proposed approach intends to carve out a new methodology towards optimizing web crawling by achieving significant performance gain.

  16. Artificial neural networks and multiple linear regression model using principal components to estimate rainfall over South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Soares dos Santos

    2016-01-01

    model output and observed monthly precipitation. We used general circulation model (GCM experiments for the 20th century (RCP historical; 1970–1999 and two scenarios (RCP 2.6 and 8.5; 2070–2100. The model test results indicate that the ANNs significantly outperform the MLR downscaling of monthly precipitation variability.

  17. Evolution of an international external quality assurance model to support laboratory investigation of Streptococcus pneumoniae, developed for the SIREVA project in Latin America, from 1993 to 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovgren, Marguerite; Talbot, James A; Brandileone, Maria Cristina; Casagrande, Silvana T; Agudelo, Clara Inés; Castañeda, Elizabeth; Regueira, Mabel; Corso, Alejandra; Heitmann, Ingrid; Maldonado, Aurora; Echániz-Avilés, Gabriela; Soto-Noguerón, Araceli; Hortal, María; Camou, Teresa; Gabastou, Jean-Marc; Di Fabio, José Luis

    2007-10-01

    In 1993 the Pan American Health Organization initiated a laboratory-based surveillance system, called the SIREVA project, to learn about Streptococcus pneumoniae invasive disease in Latin American children. In 1994, National Laboratories in six countries were trained to perform serotyping and antibiotic susceptibility testing using broth microdilution to determine the MIC for specified antibiotics. An international External Quality Assurance (EQA) program was developed to monitor and support ongoing laboratory performance. The EQA program was coordinated by the National Centre for Streptococcus (NCS), Edmonton, Canada, and included external proficiency testing (EPT) and a validation process requiring regular submission of a sample of isolates from each laboratory to the NCS for verification of the serotype and MIC. In 1999, the EQA program was decentralized to use three of the original laboratories as regional quality control centers to address operational concerns and to accommodate the growth of the laboratory network to more than 20 countries including the Caribbean region. The overall EPT serotyping accuracies for phase I (1993 to 1998) and phase II (1999 to 2005) were 88.0 and 93.8%, respectively; the MIC correlations within +/-1 log(2) dilution of the expected result were 83.0 and 91.0% and the interpretive category agreements were 89.1 and 95.3%. Overall, the validation process serotyping accuracies for phases I and II were 81.9 and 88.1%, respectively, 80.4 and 90.5% for MIC agreement, and 85.8 and 94.3% for category agreement. These results indicate a high level of testing accuracy in participating National Laboratories and a sustained increase in EQA participation in Latin America and the Caribbean.

  18. Elia Kazan's America America: A Message for America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molofsky, Merle

    2018-03-26

    Elia Kazan's 1963 film, America America is a tribute to the immigrant experience of his own forebears, and has relevance to the refugee crisis of today. In stark black and white cinematography, the film provides insight into the refugee-immigrant experience, personified in Stavros, a young man longing for freedom, obsessed with an idealized America. His hope and innocence cannot safeguard him. His memories of his happy childhood and loving family create idealizing transferences to a world of others who manipulate and betray him as he undertakes his quest. Eventually he too learns to manipulate and betray, unconsciously identifying with the aggressor. History will offer ethical challenges, the black and white cinematography mirroring the black and white perception of good and bad, the shades of grey evoking a maturation of understanding.

  19. Replacement model of city bus: A dynamic programming approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arifin, Dadang; Yusuf, Edhi

    2017-06-01

    This paper aims to develop a replacement model of city bus vehicles operated in Bandung City. This study is driven from real cases encountered by the Damri Company in the efforts to improve services to the public. The replacement model propounds two policy alternatives: First, to maintain or keep the vehicles, and second is to replace them with new ones taking into account operating costs, revenue, salvage value, and acquisition cost of a new vehicle. A deterministic dynamic programming approach is used to solve the model. The optimization process was heuristically executed using empirical data of Perum Damri. The output of the model is to determine the replacement schedule and the best policy if the vehicle has passed the economic life. Based on the results, the technical life of the bus is approximately 20 years old, while the economic life is an average of 9 (nine) years. It means that after the bus is operated for 9 (nine) years, managers should consider the policy of rejuvenation.

  20. Parallel phase model : a programming model for high-end parallel machines with manycores.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Junfeng (Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY); Wen, Zhaofang; Heroux, Michael Allen; Brightwell, Ronald Brian

    2009-04-01

    This paper presents a parallel programming model, Parallel Phase Model (PPM), for next-generation high-end parallel machines based on a distributed memory architecture consisting of a networked cluster of nodes with a large number of cores on each node. PPM has a unified high-level programming abstraction that facilitates the design and implementation of parallel algorithms to exploit both the parallelism of the many cores and the parallelism at the cluster level. The programming abstraction will be suitable for expressing both fine-grained and coarse-grained parallelism. It includes a few high-level parallel programming language constructs that can be added as an extension to an existing (sequential or parallel) programming language such as C; and the implementation of PPM also includes a light-weight runtime library that runs on top of an existing network communication software layer (e.g. MPI). Design philosophy of PPM and details of the programming abstraction are also presented. Several unstructured applications that inherently require high-volume random fine-grained data accesses have been implemented in PPM with very promising results.

  1. An assessment of geographical distribution of different plant functional types over North America simulated using the CLASS–CTEM modelling framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Shrestha

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The performance of the competition module of the CLASS–CTEM (Canadian Land Surface Scheme and Canadian Terrestrial Ecosystem Model modelling framework is assessed at 1° spatial resolution over North America by comparing the simulated geographical distribution of its plant functional types (PFTs with two observation-based estimates. The model successfully reproduces the broad geographical distribution of trees, grasses and bare ground although limitations remain. In particular, compared to the two observation-based estimates, the simulated fractional vegetation coverage is lower in the arid southwest North American region and higher in the Arctic region. The lower-than-observed simulated vegetation coverage in the southwest region is attributed to lack of representation of shrubs in the model and plausible errors in the observation-based data sets. The observation-based data indicate vegetation fractional coverage of more than 60 % in this arid region, despite only 200–300 mm of precipitation that the region receives annually, and observation-based leaf area index (LAI values in the region are lower than one. The higher-than-observed vegetation fractional coverage in the Arctic is likely due to the lack of representation of moss and lichen PFTs and also likely because of inadequate representation of permafrost in the model as a result of which the C3 grass PFT performs overly well in the region. The model generally reproduces the broad spatial distribution and the total area covered by the two primary tree PFTs (needleleaf evergreen trees, NDL-EVG; and broadleaf cold deciduous trees, BDL-DCD-CLD reasonably well. The simulated fractional coverage of tree PFTs increases after the 1960s in response to the CO2 fertilization effect and climate warming. Differences between observed and simulated PFT coverages highlight model limitations and suggest that the inclusion of shrubs, and moss and lichen PFTs, and an adequate representation of

  2. 2013 Building America Research Planning Meeting Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzger, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hunt, S. [Confluence Communications, Missoula, MT (united States)

    2014-02-01

    The Building America Research Planning Meeting was held October 28-30, 2013, in Washington, DC. This meeting provides one opportunity each year for the research teams, national laboratories and Department of Energy (DOE) managers to meet in person to share the most pertinent information and collaboration updates. This report documents the presentations, highlights key program updates, and outlines next steps for the program.

  3. Changing community health behaviors: a model for program development and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, M R; Laitakari, J K; Huff, F; Rautaharju, P M

    1986-01-01

    A model has been proposed to improve program development and management of behavior change programs with large-scale community impact. It can be applied to epidemiologic problems of which lifestyle is an important component, such as heart disease, adolescent pregnancy, hypertension, weight control, and cancer control and prevention programs. The model combines two previously existing models: one indicating that program development is an ongoing cyclical process which starts with uncertainty yet can progress to institutionalization with suitable testing; and the second model indicating that program management within each developmental cycle progresses through specific phases which can be hampered by plateaus and setbacks. Nine systems are essential for program development and operations: education (philosophy, objectives, and content), communications, reward, intervention, program process, program development, and program evaluation. These systems can be used as a guide to facilitate selection from the many guidelines recommended in the literature, and to ensure coordination of innovative program elements.

  4. Pedagogical model for online learning based on sociocultural constructivism: An alternative for the appropriation of knowledge in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ebert Bonilla Olaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes, from an academic analysis, a pedagogicalmodel applicable in virtual learning environments, based onsociocultural constructivism and from the situated and collaborativelearning styles. The model is called virtual and socioculturalconstructivism model for online learning, which makes good useof the benefits and potential of social networks and web 2.0 toolsfor constructing knowledge. Similarly, the role of the interactionsbetween knowledge, teacher, student and teaching tools isdetermined, in order to achieve a flexible and open educationalproposal. The model herein presented allows others to enrich it oruse it as a starting point for developing alternative models.

  5. Predicting ecosystem dynamics at regional scales: an evaluation of a terrestrial biosphere model for the forests of northeastern North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvigy, David; Moorcroft, Paul R

    2012-01-19

    Terrestrial biosphere models are important tools for diagnosing both the current state of the terrestrial carbon cycle and forecasting terrestrial ecosystem responses to global change. While there are a number of ongoing assessments of the short-term predictive capabilities of terrestrial biosphere models using flux-tower measurements, to date there have been relatively few assessments of their ability to predict longer term, decadal-scale biomass dynamics. Here, we present the results of a regional-scale evaluation of the Ecosystem Demography version 2 (ED2)-structured terrestrial biosphere model, evaluating the model's predictions against forest inventory measurements for the northeast USA and Quebec from 1985 to 1995. Simulations were conducted using a default parametrization, which used parameter values from the literature, and a constrained model parametrization, which had been developed by constraining the model's predictions against 2 years of measurements from a single site, Harvard Forest (42.5° N, 72.1° W). The analysis shows that the constrained model parametrization offered marked improvements over the default model formulation, capturing large-scale variation in patterns of biomass dynamics despite marked differences in climate forcing, land-use history and species-composition across the region. These results imply that data-constrained parametrizations of structured biosphere models such as ED2 can be successfully used for regional-scale ecosystem prediction and forecasting. We also assess the model's ability to capture sub-grid scale heterogeneity in the dynamics of biomass growth and mortality of different sizes and types of trees, and then discuss the implications of these analyses for further reducing the remaining biases in the model's predictions.

  6. 78 FR 17624 - Wireline Competition Bureau Adds New Discussion Topic To Connect America Cost Model Virtual Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... (202) 863-2893, facsimile (202) 863-2898, or via the Internet at http://www.bcpiweb.com . In addition, the Virtual Workshop may be accessed via the Internet at http://www.fcc.gov/blog/wcb-cost-model... anonymous comments posted during the workshop in reaching decisions regarding the model. Participants should...

  7. 78 FR 32224 - Availability of Version 3.1.2 of the Connect America Fund Phase II Cost Model; Additional...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ... (202) 863-2893, facsimile (202) 863-2898, or via the Internet at http://www.bcpiweb.com . In addition, the Virtual Workshop may be accessed via the Internet at http://www.fcc.gov/blog/wcb-cost-model... anonymous comments posted during the workshop in reaching decisions regarding the model. Participants should...

  8. Chance-constrained/stochastic linear programming model for acid rain abatement—I. Complete colinearity and noncolinearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, J. H.; McBean, E. A.; Farquhar, G. J.

    A Linear Programming model is presented for development of acid rain abatement strategies in eastern North America. For a system comprised of 235 large controllable point sources and 83 uncontrolled area sources, it determines the least-cost method of reducing SO 2 emissions to satisfy maximum wet sulfur deposition limits at 20 sensitive receptor locations. In this paper, the purely deterministic model is extended to a probabilistic form by incorporating the effects of meteorologic variability on the long-range pollutant transport processes. These processes are represented by source-receptor-specific transfer coefficients. Experiments for quantifying the spatial variability of transfer coefficients showed their distributions to be approximately lognormal with logarithmic standard deviations consistently about unity. Three methods of incorporating second-moment random variable uncertainty into the deterministic LP framework are described: Two-Stage Programming Under Uncertainty (LPUU), Chance-Constrained Programming (CCP) and Stochastic Linear Programming (SLP). A composite CCP-SLP model is developed which embodies the two-dimensional characteristics of transfer coefficient uncertainty. Two probabilistic formulations are described involving complete colinearity and complete noncolinearity for the transfer coefficient covariance-correlation structure. Complete colinearity assumes complete dependence between transfer coefficients. Complete noncolinearity assumes complete independence. The completely colinear and noncolinear formulations are considered extreme bounds in a meteorologic sense and yield abatement strategies of largely didactic value. Such strategies can be characterized as having excessive costs and undesirable deposition results in the completely colinear case and absence of a clearly defined system risk level (other than expected-value) in the noncolinear formulation.

  9. A sample theory-based logic model to improve program development, implementation, and sustainability of Farm to School programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliffe, Michelle M

    2012-08-01

    Farm to School programs hold promise to address childhood obesity. These programs may increase students’ access to healthier foods, increase students’ knowledge of and desire to eat these foods, and increase their consumption of them. Implementing Farm to School programs requires the involvement of multiple people, including nutrition services, educators, and food producers. Because these groups have not traditionally worked together and each has different goals, it is important to demonstrate how Farm to School programs that are designed to decrease childhood obesity may also address others’ objectives, such as academic achievement and economic development. A logic model is an effective tool to help articulate a shared vision for how Farm to School programs may work to accomplish multiple goals. Furthermore, there is evidence that programs based on theory are more likely to be effective at changing individuals’ behaviors. Logic models based on theory may help to explain how a program works, aid in efficient and sustained implementation, and support the development of a coherent evaluation plan. This article presents a sample theory-based logic model for Farm to School programs. The presented logic model is informed by the polytheoretical model for food and garden-based education in school settings (PMFGBE). The logic model has been applied to multiple settings, including Farm to School program development and evaluation in urban and rural school districts. This article also includes a brief discussion on the development of the PMFGBE, a detailed explanation of how Farm to School programs may enhance the curricular, physical, and social learning environments of schools, and suggestions for the applicability of the logic model for practitioners, researchers, and policy makers.

  10. 75 FR 19959 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Notice of Petition for Waiver of Samsung...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ... Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Notice of Petition for Waiver of Samsung Electronics America, Inc.... SUMMARY: This notice announces receipt of and publishes the Samsung Electronics America, Inc. (Samsung... refrigerator-freezers to additional Samsung basic models. Through this document, DOE also solicits comments...

  11. Optimizing Biorefinery Design and Operations via Linear Programming Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talmadge, Michael; Batan, Liaw; Lamers, Patrick; Hartley, Damon; Biddy, Mary; Tao, Ling; Tan, Eric

    2017-03-28

    The ability to assess and optimize economics of biomass resource utilization for the production of fuels, chemicals and power is essential for the ultimate success of a bioenergy industry. The team of authors, consisting of members from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), has developed simple biorefinery linear programming (LP) models to enable the optimization of theoretical or existing biorefineries. The goal of this analysis is to demonstrate how such models can benefit the developing biorefining industry. It focuses on a theoretical multi-pathway, thermochemical biorefinery configuration and demonstrates how the biorefinery can use LP models for operations planning and optimization in comparable ways to the petroleum refining industry. Using LP modeling tools developed under U.S. Department of Energy's Bioenergy Technologies Office (DOE-BETO) funded efforts, the authors investigate optimization challenges for the theoretical biorefineries such as (1) optimal feedstock slate based on available biomass and prices, (2) breakeven price analysis for available feedstocks, (3) impact analysis for changes in feedstock costs and product prices, (4) optimal biorefinery operations during unit shutdowns / turnarounds, and (5) incentives for increased processing capacity. These biorefinery examples are comparable to crude oil purchasing and operational optimization studies that petroleum refiners perform routinely using LPs and other optimization models. It is important to note that the analyses presented in this article are strictly theoretical and they are not based on current energy market prices. The pricing structure assigned for this demonstrative analysis is consistent with $4 per gallon gasoline, which clearly assumes an economic environment that would favor the construction and operation of biorefineries. The analysis approach and examples provide valuable insights into the usefulness of analysis tools for

  12. A Model Intervention Program for Secondary School Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Gerber

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Valdosta State University and the Valdosta City Schools (Valdosta, GA partnered in 2008 to form the Valdosta Early College Academy (VECA. VECA epitomizes the early college concept of (a admitting underperforming students with multiple risk factors for dropping out of school (e.g., low socioeconomic status, minority, and first-generation high school or college and (b providing college level dual enrollment courses. VECA is very different than nearly every other early college school in the nation. Most (85% of the 200 early colleges currently operating in the United States begin with students in the 9th grade. Nearly all of the remaining early colleges begin with 7th grade; only a few are 6–12-grade schools. VECA targets two primary priorities, (a innovations that complement the implementation of higher standards and high-quality assessments and (b innovations that support college access and success. The primary purpose of this paper is to chronicle the genesis and development of VECA. This program is very successful, replete with research opportunities, and represents a model early college program. We plan to continue to grow VECA to ultimately include grades six through twelve and to research that growth and development.

  13. Minnesota 4-H Youth Program Quality Improvement Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Margo; Grant, Samantha

    2015-01-01

    The University of Minnesota Extension Center for Youth Development made an organizational decision in 2011 to invest in a system-wide approach to implement youth program quality into the 4-H program using the Youth Program Quality Assessment (YPQA) tool. This article describes the four key components to the Minnesota Youth Program Quality…

  14. Climate Impacts of Deforestation/Land-Use Changes in Central South America in the PRECIS Regional Climate Model: Mean Precipitation and Temperature Response to Present and Future Deforestation Scenarios

    OpenAIRE

    Canziani, Pablo O.; Carbajal Benitez, Gerardo

    2012-01-01

    Deforestation/land-use changes are major drivers of regional climate change in central South America, impacting upon Amazonia and Gran Chaco ecoregions. Most experimental and modeling studies have focused on the resulting perturbations within Amazonia. Using the Regional Climate Model PRECIS, driven by ERA-40 reanalysis and ECHAM4 Baseline model for the period 1961–2000 (40-year runs), potential effects of deforestation/land-use changes in these and other neighboring ecoregions are evaluated....

  15. A Tool for Performance Modeling of Parallel Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. González

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Current performance prediction analytical models try to characterize the performance behavior of actual machines through a small set of parameters. In practice, substantial deviations are observed. These differences are due to factors as memory hierarchies or network latency. A natural approach is to associate a different proportionality constant with each basic block, and analogously, to associate different latencies and bandwidths with each "communication block". Unfortunately, to use this approach implies that the evaluation of parameters must be done for each algorithm. This is a heavy task, implying experiment design, timing, statistics, pattern recognition and multi-parameter fitting algorithms. Software support is required. We present a compiler that takes as source a C program annotated with complexity formulas and produces as output an instrumented code. The trace files obtained from the execution of the resulting code are analyzed with an interactive interpreter, giving us, among other information, the values of those parameters.

  16. A Model Program for Translational Medicine in Epilepsy Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lacey A.; Ullmann, Jeremy F. P.; Olson, Heather E.; El Achkar, Christelle M.; Truglio, Gessica; Kelly, McKenna; Rosen-Sheidley, Beth; Poduri, Annapurna

    2017-01-01

    Recent technological advances in gene sequencing have led to a rapid increase in gene discovery in epilepsy. However, the ability to assess pathogenicity of variants, provide functional analysis, and develop targeted therapies has not kept pace with rapid advances in sequencing technology. Thus, although clinical genetic testing may lead to a specific molecular diagnosis for some patients, test results often lead to more questions than answers. As the field begins to focus on therapeutic applications of genetic diagnoses using precision medicine, developing processes that offer more than equivocal test results is essential. The success of precision medicine in epilepsy relies on establishing a correct genetic diagnosis, analyzing functional consequences of genetic variants, screening potential therapeutics in the preclinical laboratory setting, and initiating targeted therapy trials for patients. We describe the structure of a comprehensive, pediatric Epilepsy Genetics Program that can serve as a model for translational medicine in epilepsy. PMID:28056630

  17. A Model Program for Translational Medicine in Epilepsy Genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lacey A; Ullmann, Jeremy F P; Olson, Heather E; Achkar, Christelle M El; Truglio, Gessica; Kelly, McKenna; Rosen-Sheidley, Beth; Poduri, Annapurna

    2017-03-01

    Recent technological advances in gene sequencing have led to a rapid increase in gene discovery in epilepsy. However, the ability to assess pathogenicity of variants, provide functional analysis, and develop targeted therapies has not kept pace with rapid advances in sequencing technology. Thus, although clinical genetic testing may lead to a specific molecular diagnosis for some patients, test results often lead to more questions than answers. As the field begins to focus on therapeutic applications of genetic diagnoses using precision medicine, developing processes that offer more than equivocal test results is essential. The success of precision medicine in epilepsy relies on establishing a correct genetic diagnosis, analyzing functional consequences of genetic variants, screening potential therapeutics in the preclinical laboratory setting, and initiating targeted therapy trials for patients. The authors describe the structure of a comprehensive, pediatric Epilepsy Genetics Program that can serve as a model for translational medicine in epilepsy.

  18. CMIP5 land surface models systematically underestimate inter-annual variability of net ecosystem exchange in semi-arid southwestern North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacBean, N.; Scott, R. L.; Biederman, J. A.; Vuichard, N.; Hudson, A.; Barnes, M.; Fox, A. M.; Smith, W. K.; Peylin, P. P.; Maignan, F.; Moore, D. J.

    2017-12-01

    Recent studies based on analysis of atmospheric CO2 inversions, satellite data and terrestrial biosphere model simulations have suggested that semi-arid ecosystems play a dominant role in the interannual variability and long-term trend in the global carbon sink. These studies have largely cited the response of vegetation activity to changing moisture availability as the primary mechanism of variability. However, some land surface models (LSMs) used in these studies have performed poorly in comparison to satellite-based observations of vegetation dynamics in semi-arid regions. Further analysis is therefore needed to ensure semi-arid carbon cycle processes are well represented in global scale LSMs before we can fully establish their contribution to the global carbon cycle. In this study, we evaluated annual net ecosystem exchange (NEE) simulated by CMIP5 land surface models using observations from 20 Ameriflux sites across semi-arid southwestern North America. We found that CMIP5 models systematically underestimate the magnitude and sign of NEE inter-annual variability; therefore, the true role of semi-arid regions in the global carbon cycle may be even more important than previously thought. To diagnose the factors responsible for this bias, we used the ORCHIDEE LSM to test different climate forcing data, prescribed vegetation fractions and model structures. Climate and prescribed vegetation do contribute to uncertainty in annual NEE simulations, but the bias is primarily caused by incorrect timing and magnitude of peak gross carbon fluxes. Modifications to the hydrology scheme improved simulations of soil moisture in comparison to data. This in turn improved the seasonal cycle of carbon uptake due to a more realistic limitation on photosynthesis during water stress. However, the peak fluxes are still too low, and phenology is poorly represented for desert shrubs and grasses. We provide suggestions on model developments needed to tackle these issues in the future.

  19. Leveraging this Golden Age of Remote Sensing and Modeling of Terrestrial Hydrology to Understand Water Cycling in the Water Availability Grand Challenge for North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, T. H.; Famiglietti, J. S.; Stephens, G. L.

    2016-12-01

    We live in a time of increasing strains on our global fresh water availability due to increasing population, warming climate, changes in precipitation, and extensive depletion of groundwater supplies. At the same time, we have seen enormous growth in capabilities to remotely sense the regional to global water cycle and model complex systems with physically based frameworks. The GEWEX Water Availability Grand Challenge for North America is poised to leverage this convergence of remote sensing and modeling capabilities to answer fundamental questions on the water cycle. In particular, we envision an experiment that targets the complex and resource-critical Western US from California to just into the Great Plains, constraining physically-based hydrologic modeling with the US and international remote sensing capabilities. In particular, the last decade has seen the implementation or soon-to-be launch of water cycle missions such as GRACE and GRACE-FO for groundwater, SMAP for soil moisture, GPM for precipitation, SWOT for terrestrial surface water, and the Airborne Snow Observatory for snowpack. With the advent of convection-resolving mesoscale climate and water cycle modeling (e.g. WRF, WRF-Hydro) and mesoscale models capable of quantitative assimilation of remotely sensed data (e.g. the JPL Western States Water Mission), we can now begin to test hypotheses on the nature and changes in the water cycle of the Western US from a physical standpoint. In turn, by fusing water cycle science, water management, and ecosystem management while addressing these hypotheses, this golden age of remote sensing and modeling can bring all fields into a markedly less uncertain state of present knowledge and decadal scale forecasts.

  20. Testing a blowing snow model against distributed snow measurements at Upper Sheep Creek, Idaho, United States of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajiv Prasad; David G. Tarboton; Glen E. Liston; Charles H. Luce; Mark S. Seyfried

    2001-01-01

    In this paper a physically based snow transport model (SnowTran-3D) was used to simulate snow drifting over a 30 m grid and was compared to detailed snow water equivalence (SWE) surveys on three dates within a small 0.25 km2 subwatershed, Upper Sheep Creek. Two precipitation scenarios and two vegetation scenarios were used to carry out four snow transport model runs in...

  1. Sensitivity of the Plume Rise Model in the estimation of biomass burning plume injection heights in South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrada, Gonzalo A.; Freitas, Saulo; Pereira, Gabriel; Paugam, Ronan

    2017-04-01

    This study had the aim to evaluate the new developments on the Plume Rise Model (PRM), embedded into the Brazilian developments on the Regional Atmospheric Modelling System (BRAMS). PRM computes the biomass burning plume injection heights and returns that information to the host model. Then, the atmospheric model releases all the fire emissions at this height. New developments are based on the initialization data used by the PRM, using fire size and fire radiative power (FRP) from remote sensing. The main difference between the two new versions is the conversion parameter (β) used to convert from FRP to the plume convective flux. In addition, a new scheme to generate daily fire emission fluxes is offered using the fire radiative energy (computed from remote sensing) in the Brazilian Biomass Burning Emission Model (3BEM-FRE). Model results using the three versions of the PRM are compared with observed airborne CO and O3 data from the SAMBBA campaign, which took place in southern Amazonia and Cerrado (savanna-like) regions in September 2012. Results show that improvements in both 3BEM-FRE and PRM models, had a better performance in the vertical and horizontal reproduction of CO and O3 than the original versions of them, especially in the middle and upper troposphere. Nevertheless, with some difficulty to reproduce the emissions by the end of the campaign, probably due to the cumulus parameterization used, which overestimated the precipitation in the region of study. Also, developments made in the 3BEM model show better agreement with the observed remote sensing data of daily fire emissions than the original version of it in the Amazon region, but with some difficulty in the Cerrado.

  2. Remote programming of cochlear implants: a telecommunications model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElveen, John T; Blackburn, Erin L; Green, J Douglas; McLear, Patrick W; Thimsen, Donald J; Wilson, Blake S

    2010-09-01

    Evaluate the effectiveness of remote programming for cochlear implants. Retrospective review of the cochlear implant performance for patients who had undergone mapping and programming of their cochlear implant via remote connection through the Internet. Postoperative Hearing in Noise Test and Consonant/Nucleus/Consonant word scores for 7 patients who had undergone remote mapping and programming of their cochlear implant were compared with the mean scores of 7 patients who had been programmed by the same audiologist over a 12-month period. Times required for remote and direct programming were also compared. The quality of the Internet connection was assessed using standardized measures. Remote programming was performed via a virtual private network with a separate software program used for video and audio linkage. All 7 patients were programmed successfully via remote connectivity. No untoward patient experiences were encountered. No statistically significant differences could be found in comparing postoperative Hearing in Noise Test and Consonant/Nucleus/Consonant word scores for patients who had undergone remote programming versus a similar group of patients who had their cochlear implant programmed directly. Remote programming did not require a significantly longer programming time for the audiologist with these 7 patients. Remote programming of a cochlear implant can be performed safely without any deterioration in the quality of the programming. This ability to remotely program cochlear implant patients gives the potential to extend cochlear implantation to underserved areas in the United States and elsewhere.

  3. Anaglyph, South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    landforms, including some broad areas of consistent topographic patterns that indicate the occurrence of simple erosional processes acting upon fairly uniform bedrock. Very smooth plateaus here are remnants of landforms most likely developed under geologic and environmental conditions much different than those present today. Fractures paralleling the coast are likely related to the opening of the Atlantic Ocean as South America drifted away from Africa, starting about 130 million years ago.To the southwest, broad lowlands host the Gran Chaco and Pampas regions. The depositional Gran Chaco drainages run almost exclusively from west to east from the Andes Mountains to the western edge of the Brazilian Highlands as a result of the much greater sediment supply from the Andes. Geologic processes on the Pampas are much more diverse, with stream erosion, stream deposition, subsidence, and wind processes all evident, even at the one-kilometer resolution shown here.Further south, Patagonia also displays these geologic processes plus more prominent volcanic features, including bumpy mesas, which are lava plateaus with small (and some large) volcanic cones. At its southern tip, of South America breaks into islands that include Tierra del Fuego and the Straits of Magellan.This anaglyph was created by deriving a shaded relief image from the SRTM data, draping it back over the SRTM elevation model, and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. Illumination is from the north (top). When viewed through special glasses, the anaglyph is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture

  4. Simulation model for wind energy storage systems. Volume III. Program descriptions. [SIMWEST CODE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, A.W.; Edsinger, R.W.; Burroughs, J.D.

    1977-08-01

    The effort developed a comprehensive computer program for the modeling of wind energy/storage systems utilizing any combination of five types of storage (pumped hydro, battery, thermal, flywheel and pneumatic). An acronym for the program is SIMWEST (Simulation Model for Wind Energy Storage). The level of detail of SIMWEST is consistent with a role of evaluating the economic feasibility as well as the general performance of wind energy systems. The software package consists of two basic programs and a library of system, environmental, and load components. Volume III, the SIMWEST program description contains program descriptions, flow charts and program listings for the SIMWEST Model Generation Program, the Simulation program, the File Maintenance program and the Printer Plotter program. Volume III generally would not be required by SIMWEST user.

  5. A Program Evaluation Model: Using Bloom's Taxonomy to Identify Outcome Indicators in Outcomes-Based Program Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Rita C.

    2011-01-01

    Outcomes-based program evaluation is a systematic approach to identifying outcome indicators and measuring results against those indicators. One dimension of program evaluation is assessing the level of learner acquisition to determine if learning objectives were achieved as intended. The purpose of the proposed model is to use Bloom's Taxonomy to…

  6. Linear programming model can explain respiration of fermentation products.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Möller

    Full Text Available Many differentiated cells rely primarily on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation for generating energy in the form of ATP needed for cellular metabolism. In contrast most tumor cells instead rely on aerobic glycolysis leading to lactate to about the same extent as on respiration. Warburg found that cancer cells to support oxidative phosphorylation, tend to ferment glucose or other energy source into lactate even in the presence of sufficient oxygen, which is an inefficient way to generate ATP. This effect also occurs in striated muscle cells, activated lymphocytes and microglia, endothelial cells and several mammalian cell types, a phenomenon termed the "Warburg effect". The effect is paradoxical at first glance because the ATP production rate of aerobic glycolysis is much slower than that of respiration and the energy demands are better to be met by pure oxidative phosphorylation. We tackle this question by building a minimal model including three combined reactions. The new aspect in extension to earlier models is that we take into account the possible uptake and oxidation of the fermentation products. We examine the case where the cell can allocate protein on several enzymes in a varying distribution and model this by a linear programming problem in which the objective is to maximize the ATP production rate under different combinations of constraints on enzymes. Depending on the cost of reactions and limitation of the substrates, this leads to pure respiration, pure fermentation, and a mixture of respiration and fermentation. The model predicts that fermentation products are only oxidized when glucose is scarce or its uptake is severely limited.

  7. Building America Systems Integration Research Annual Report: FY 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gestwick, M.

    2013-05-01

    This document is the Building America FY2012 Annual Report, which includes an overview of the Building America Program activities and the work completed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the Building America industry consortia (the Building America teams). The annual report summarizes major technical accomplishments and progress towards U.S. Department of Energy Building Technologies Program's multi-year goal of developing the systems innovations that enable risk-free, cost effective, reliable and durable efficiency solutions that reduce energy use by 30%-50% in both new and existing homes.

  8. Building America Systems Integration Research Annual Report. FY 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gestwick, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-05-01

    This Building America FY2012 Annual Report includes an overview of the Building America Program activities and the work completed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the Building America industry consortia (the Building America teams). The annual report summarizes major technical accomplishments and progress towards U.S. Department of Energy Building Technologies Program's multi-year goal of developing the systems innovations that enable risk-free, cost effective, reliable and durable efficiency solutions that reduce energy use by 30%-50% in both new and existing homes.

  9. Assessing pesticide risks to threatened and endangered species using population models: Findings and recommendations from a CropLife America Science Forum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, V E; Brain, R; Edwards, D; Galic, N; Hall, T; Honegger, J; Meyer, C; Moore, D R J; Nacci, D; Pastorok, R; Preuss, T G; Railsback, S F; Salice, C; Sibly, R M; Tenhumberg, B; Thorbek, P; Wang, M

    2015-07-01

    This brief communication reports on the main findings and recommendations from the 2014 Science Forum organized by CropLife America. The aim of the Forum was to gain a better understanding of the current status of population models and how they could be used in ecological risk assessments for threatened and endangered species potentially exposed to pesticides in the United States. The Forum panelists' recommendations are intended to assist the relevant government agencies with implementation of population modeling in future endangered species risk assessments for pesticides. The Forum included keynote presentations that provided an overview of current practices, highlighted the findings of a recent National Academy of Sciences report and its implications, reviewed the main categories of existing population models and the types of risk expressions that can be produced as model outputs, and provided examples of how population models are currently being used in different legislative contexts. The panel concluded that models developed for listed species assessments should provide quantitative risk estimates, incorporate realistic variability in environmental and demographic factors, integrate complex patterns of exposure and effects, and use baseline conditions that include present factors that have caused the species to be listed (e.g., habitat loss, invasive species) or have resulted in positive management action. Furthermore, the panel advocates for the formation of a multipartite advisory committee to provide best available knowledge and guidance related to model implementation and use, to address such needs as more systematic collection, digitization, and dissemination of data for listed species; consideration of the newest developments in good modeling practice; comprehensive review of existing population models and their applicability for listed species assessments; and development of case studies using a few well-tested models for particular species to

  10. The New York State Bird Conservation Area (BCA) Program: A Model for the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. F. Burger; D. J. Adams; T. Post; L. Sommers; B. Swift

    2005-01-01

    The New York State Bird Conservation Area (BCA) Program, modeled after the National Audubon Society?s Important Bird Areas Program, is based on legislation signed by Governor Pataki in 1997. New York is the first state in the nation to enact such a program. The BCA Program seeks to provide a comprehensive, ecosystem approach to conserving birds and their habitats on...

  11. High-Resolution Ecological Niche Modeling of Ixodes scapularis Ticks Based on Passive Surveillance Data at the Northern Frontier of Lyme Disease Emergence in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soucy, Jean-Paul R; Slatculescu, Andreea M; Nyiraneza, Christine; Ogden, Nicholas H; Leighton, Patrick A; Kerr, Jeremy T; Kulkarni, Manisha A

    2018-03-22

    Lyme disease (LD) is a bacterial infection transmitted by the black-legged tick (Ixodes scapularis) in eastern North America. It is an emerging disease in Canada due to the expanding range of its tick vector. Environmental risk maps for LD, based on the distribution of the black-legged tick, have focused on coarse determinants such as climate. However, climatic factors vary little within individual health units, the level at which local public health decision-making takes place. We hypothesize that high-resolution environmental data and routinely collected passive surveillance data can be used to develop valid models for tick occurrence and provide insight into ecological processes affecting tick presence at fine scales. We used a maximum entropy algorithm (MaxEnt) to build a habitat suitability model for I. scapularis in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada using georeferenced occurrence points from passive surveillance data collected between 2013 and 2016 and high-resolution land cover and elevation data. We evaluated our model using an independent tick presence/absence dataset collected through active surveillance at 17 field sites during the summer of 2017. Our model showed a good ability to discriminate positive sites from negative sites for tick presence (AUC = 0.878 ± 0.019, classification accuracy = 0.835 ± 0.020). Heavily forested suburban and rural areas in the west and southwest of Ottawa had higher predicted suitability than the more agricultural eastern areas. This study demonstrates the value of passive surveillance data to model local-scale environmental risk for the tick vector of LD at sites of interest to public health. Given the rising incidence of LD and other emerging vector-borne diseases in Canada, our findings support the ongoing collection of these data and collaboration with researchers to provide a timely and accurate portrait of evolving public health risk.

  12. The Alma-Bacon County Story: A Model for Rural America. Committee Print, 92nd Congress, 2nd Session, July 24, 1972.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nipp, Robert E.

    Designed to illustrate the revitalization process of a small rural community via use of the Model Cities Program, this case study of Alma-Bacon County, Georgia traces Alma-Bacon's: (1) historical background; (2) community development beginnings; (3) political development; (4) outstanding problems; and (5) development plans and accomplishments…

  13. Building America Performance Analysis Procedures for Existing Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendron, R.

    2006-05-01

    Because there are more than 101 million residential households in the United States today, it is not surprising that existing residential buildings represent an extremely large source of potential energy savings. Because thousands of these homes are renovated each year, Building America is investigating the best ways to make existing homes more energy-efficient, based on lessons learned from research in new homes. The Building America program is aiming for a 20%-30% reduction in energy use in existing homes by 2020. The strategy for the existing homes project of Building America is to establish technology pathways that reduce energy consumption cost-effectively in American homes. The existing buildings project focuses on finding ways to adapt the results from the new homes research to retrofit applications in existing homes. Research activities include a combination of computer modeling, field demonstrations, and long-term monitoring to support the development of integrated approaches to reduce energy use in existing residential buildings. Analytical tools are being developed to guide designers and builders in selecting the best approaches for each application. Also, DOE partners with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to increase energy efficiency in existing homes through the Home Performance with ENERGY STAR program.

  14. Technologies to better serve the millions of diabetic patients: a holistic, interactive and persuasive ICT model to facilitate self care, in extremely poor rural zones of Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Lombardo, Miguel; Jipsion, Armando; Vejarano, Rafael; Camargo, Ismael; Alvarez, Humberto; Mora, Elena Villalba; Ruíz, Ernestina Menasalva

    2012-04-01

    Health indicators express remarkable gaps between health systems at a world-wide level. Countries of the entire world are overflowed by the need of new strategies, methodologies and technologies to better serve the millions of patients, who demand better medical attention. The present archaic and ephemerally systematized systems widen the gap even more than the quality of medical services that should be provided for the millions of diabetic patients. It is therefore necessary to develop highly familiar environments with diabetic patients and their care needs. A Holistic, Interactive and Persuasive ICT model to facilitate self care of patients with diabetes (hIPAPD), is proposed as an innovative technological development in Panama to health optimized treatment for diabetic patients. Three health centers located in the District of Aguadulce, Province of Cocle, located on Panama's Pacific Coast, were selected to validate the model; the area presents extremely poor population, mostly with one daily meal, without any health insurance and with a high illiteracy rate. A series of experiences in the application and validation process are presented and analyzed in order to confirm the application, value and contribution of ICTs in health care in poor regions of Central America.

  15. Fish Processed Production Planning Using Integer Stochastic Programming Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmansyah, Mawengkang, Herman

    2011-06-01

    Fish and its processed products are the most affordable source of animal protein in the diet of most people in Indonesia. The goal in production planning is to meet customer demand over a fixed time horizon divided into planning periods by optimizing the trade-off between economic objectives such as production cost and customer satisfaction level. The major decisions are production and inventory levels for each product and the number of workforce in each planning period. In this paper we consider the management of small scale traditional business at North Sumatera Province which performs processing fish into several local seafood products. The inherent uncertainty of data (e.g. demand, fish availability), together with the sequential evolution of data over time leads the production planning problem to a nonlinear mixed-integer stochastic programming model. We use scenario generation based approach and feasible neighborhood search for solving the model. The results which show the amount of each fish processed product and the number of workforce needed in each horizon planning are presented.

  16. Marketing for a Web-Based Master's Degree Program in Light of Marketing Mix Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Cheng-Chang

    2012-01-01

    The marketing mix model was applied with a focus on Web media to re-strategize a Web-based Master's program in a southern state university in U.S. The program's existing marketing strategy was examined using the four components of the model: product, price, place, and promotion, in hopes to repackage the program (product) to prospective students…

  17. Evaluation of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ model v5.0 against size-resolved measurements of inorganic particle composition across sites in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. G. Nolte

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluates particle size–composition distributions simulated by the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ model using micro-orifice uniform deposit impactor (MOUDI measurements at 18 sites across North America. Size-resolved measurements of particulate SO42−, NO3−, NH4+, Na+, Cl−, Mg2+, Ca2+, and K+ are compared to CMAQ model output for discrete sampling periods between 2002 and 2005. The observation sites were predominantly in remote areas (e.g., National Parks in the USA and Canada, and measurements were typically made for a period of roughly 1 month. For SO42− and NH4+, model performance was consistent across the USA and Canadian sites, with the model slightly overestimating the peak particle diameter and underestimating the peak particle concentration compared to the observations. Na+ and Mg2+ size distributions were generally well represented at coastal sites, indicating reasonable simulation of emissions from sea spray. CMAQ is able to simulate the displacement of Cl− in aged sea spray aerosol, though the extent of Cl− depletion relative to Na+ is often underpredicted. The model performance for NO3− exhibited much more site-to-site variability than that of SO42− and NH4+, with the model ranging from an underestimation to overestimation of both the peak diameter and peak particle concentration across the sites. Computing PM2.5 from the modeled size distribution parameters rather than by summing the masses in the Aitken and accumulation modes resulted in differences in daily averages of up to 1 μg m−3 (10 %, while the difference in seasonal and annual model performance compared to observations from the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE, Chemical Speciation Network (CSN, and Air Quality System (AQS networks was very small. Two updates to the CMAQ aerosol model – changes to the assumed size and mode width of emitted particles and the implementation of gravitational settling

  18. The Component Model of Infrastructure: A Practical Approach to Understanding Public Health Program Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Kimberly; Rieker, Patricia P.

    2014-01-01

    Functioning program infrastructure is necessary for achieving public health outcomes. It is what supports program capacity, implementation, and sustainability. The public health program infrastructure model presented in this article is grounded in data from a broader evaluation of 18 state tobacco control programs and previous work. The newly developed Component Model of Infrastructure (CMI) addresses the limitations of a previous model and contains 5 core components (multilevel leadership, managed resources, engaged data, responsive plans and planning, networked partnerships) and 3 supporting components (strategic understanding, operations, contextual influences). The CMI is a practical, implementation-focused model applicable across public health programs, enabling linkages to capacity, sustainability, and outcome measurement. PMID:24922125

  19. 78 FR 38265 - Wireline Competition Bureau Adds Two New Discussion Topics to Connect America Cost Model Virtual...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-26

    ...-2898, or via the Internet at http://www.bcpiweb.com . In addition, the Virtual Workshop may be accessed via the Internet at http://www.fcc.gov/blog/wcb-cost-model-virtual-workshop-2012 . 1. On Tuesday... official public record of this proceeding. The Bureau will not rely on anonymous comments posted during the...

  20. 78 FR 23192 - Wireline Competition Bureau Adds New Discussion Topic to Connect America Cost Model Virtual Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    ... 20554, telephone (800) 378-3160 or (202) 863-2893, facsimile (202) 863-2898, or via the Internet at http://www.bcpiweb.com . In addition, the Virtual Workshop may be accessed via the Internet at http://www.fcc... anonymous comments posted during the workshop in reaching decisions regarding the model. Participants should...

  1. Building America Case Study: Northwest Energy Efficient Manufactured Housing Program High-Performance Test Homes; Whole-House Solutions for New Homes, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-05-01

    ?This project represents the third phase of a multi-year effort to develop and bring to market a High Performance Manufactured Home (HPMH). The scope of this project involved building four HPMH prototypes, resulting in what is expected to be a 30% savings relative to the Building America Benchmark. (The actual % savings varies depending on choice of heating equipment and climate zone). The HPMH home is intended to make significant progress toward performing as zero-net-energy ready. Previous phases of this project created a HPMH specification and prototyped individual measures from the package to obtain engineering approvals and develop preliminary factory construction processes. This report describes the project team's work during 2014 to build prototype homes to the HPMH specifications and to monitor the homes for energy performance and durability during 2014. Monitoring is expected to continue into 2016.
    home is intended to make significant progress toward performing as zero-net-energy ready. Previous phases of this project created a HPMH specification and prototyped individual measures from the package to obtain engineering approvals and develop preliminary factory construction processes. This report describes the project team's work during 2014 to build prototype homes to the HPMH specifications and to monitor the homes for energy performance and durability during 2014. Monitoring is expected to continue into 2016.

  2. Modeling Convective Injection of Water Vapor into the Lower Stratosphere in the Mid-Latitudes over North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapp, C.; Leroy, S. S.; Anderson, J. G.

    2015-12-01

    Water vapor in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) from the tropics to the poles is important both radiatively and chemically. Water vapor is the most important greenhouse gas, and increases in water vapor concentrations in the UTLS lead to cooling at these levels and induce warming at the surface [Forster and Shine, 1999; 2002;Solomon et al., 2010]. Water vapor is also integral to stratospheric chemistry. It is the dominant source of OH in the lower stratosphere [ Hanisco et al. , 2001], and increases in water vapor concentrations promote stratospheric ozone loss by raising the reactivity of several key heterogeneous reactions as well as by promoting the growth of reactive surface area [Anderson et al., 2012; Carslaw et al., 1995; Carslaw et al., 1997; Drdla and Muller , 2012; Kirk-Davidoff et al., 1999; Shi et al., 2001]. However, the processes that control the distribution and phase of water in this region of the atmosphere are not well understood. This is especially true at mid-latitudes where several different dynamical mechanisms are capable of influencing UTLS water vapor concentrations. The contribution by deep convective storm systems that penetrate into the lower stratosphere is the least well understood and the least well represented in global models because of the small spatial scales and short time scales over which convection occurs. To address this issue, we have begun a modeling study to investigate the convective injection of water vapor from the troposphere into the stratosphere in the mid-latitudes. Fine-scale models have been previously used to simulate convection from the troposphere to the stratosphere [e.g., Homeyer et al., 2014]. Here we employ the Advanced Research Weather and Research Forecasting model (ARW) at 3-km resolution to resolve convection over the eastern United States during August of 2007 and August of 2013. We conduct a comparison of MERRA, the reanalysis used to initialize ARW, and the model output to assess

  3. Visual Environment for Rich Data Interpretation (VERDI) program for environmental modeling systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    VERDI is a flexible, modular, Java-based program used for visualizing multivariate gridded meteorology, emissions and air quality modeling data created by environmental modeling systems such as the CMAQ model and WRF.

  4. An abort-aware model of transactional programming

    OpenAIRE

    Etessami, Kousha; Godefroid, Patrice

    2011-01-01

    There has been a lot of recent research on transaction-based concurrent programming, aimed at offering an easier concurrent programming paradigm that enables programmers to better exploit the parallelism of modern multi-processor machines, such as multi-core microprocessors. We introduce Transactional State Machines (TSMs) as an abstract finite-datamodel of transactional shared-memory concurrent programs. TSMs are a variant of concurrent boolean programs (or concurrent extended recursive stat...

  5. PEER NGA-East Overview: Development of a Ground Motion Characterization Model (Ground Motion Prediction Equations) for Central and Eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulet, C. A.; Abrahamson, N. A.; Al Atik, L.; Atkinson, G. M.; Bozorgnia, Y.; Graves, R. W.; Kuehn, N. M.; Youngs, R. R.

    2017-12-01

    The Next Generation Attenuation project for Central and Eastern North America (CENA), NGA-East, is a major multi-disciplinary project coordinated by the Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center (PEER). The project was co-sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). NGA-East involved a large number of participating researchers from various organizations in academia, industry and government and was carried-out as a combination of 1) a scientific research project and 2) a model-building component following the NRC Seismic Senior Hazard Analysis Committee (SSHAC) Level 3 process. The science part of the project led to several data products and technical reports while the SSHAC component aggregated the various results into a ground motion characterization (GMC) model. The GMC model consists in a set of ground motion models (GMMs) for median and standard deviation of ground motions and their associated weights, combined into logic-trees for use in probabilistic seismic hazard analyses (PSHA). NGA-East addressed many technical challenges, most of them related to the relatively small number of earthquake recordings available for CENA. To resolve this shortcoming, the project relied on ground motion simulations to supplement the available data. Other important scientific issues were addressed through research projects on topics such as the regionalization of seismic source, path and attenuation of motions, the treatment of variability and uncertainties and on the evaluation of site effects. Seven working groups were formed to cover the complexity and breadth of topics in the NGA-East project, each focused on a specific technical area. This presentation provides an overview of the NGA-East research project and its key products.

  6. Integrating Paleodistribution Models and Phylogeography in the Grass-Cutting Ant Acromyrmex striatus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Southern Lowlands of South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristiano, Maykon Passos; Clemes Cardoso, Danon; Fernandes-Salomão, Tânia Maria; Heinze, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Past climate changes often have influenced the present distribution and intraspecific genetic diversity of organisms. The objective of this study was to investigate the phylogeography and historical demography of populations of Acromyrmex striatus (Roger, 1863), a leaf-cutting ant species restricted to the open plains of South America. Additionally, we modeled the distribution of this species to predict its contemporary and historic habitat. From the partial sequences of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase I of 128 A. striatus workers from 38 locations we estimated genetic diversity and inferred historical demography, divergence time, and population structure. The potential distribution areas of A. striatus for current and quaternary weather conditions were modeled using the maximum entropy algorithm. We identified a total of 58 haplotypes, divided into five main haplogroups. The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed that the largest proportion of genetic variation is found among the groups of populations. Paleodistribution models suggest that the potential habitat of A. striatus may have decreased during the Last Interglacial Period (LIG) and expanded during the Last Maximum Glacial (LGM). Overall, the past potential distribution recovered by the model comprises the current potential distribution of the species. The general structuring pattern observed was consistent with isolation by distance, suggesting a balance between gene flow and drift. Analysis of historical demography showed that populations of A. striatus had remained constant throughout its evolutionary history. Although fluctuations in the area of their potential historic habitat occurred during quaternary climate changes, populations of A. striatus are strongly structured geographically. However, explicit barriers to gene flow have not been identified. These findings closely match those in Mycetophylax simplex, another ant species that in some areas occurs in sympatry with A. striatus

  7. Surface temperature dataset for North America obtained by application of optimal interpolation algorithm merging tree-ring chronologies and climate model output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Xing, Pei; Luo, Yong; Nie, Suping; Zhao, Zongci; Huang, Jianbin; Wang, Shaowu; Tian, Qinhua

    2017-02-01

    A new dataset of surface temperature over North America has been constructed by merging climate model results and empirical tree-ring data through the application of an optimal interpolation algorithm. Errors of both the Community Climate System Model version 4 (CCSM4) simulation and the tree-ring reconstruction were considered to optimize the combination of the two elements. Variance matching was used to reconstruct the surface temperature series. The model simulation provided the background field, and the error covariance matrix was estimated statistically using samples from the simulation results with a running 31-year window for each grid. Thus, the merging process could continue with a time-varying gain matrix. This merging method (MM) was tested using two types of experiment, and the results indicated that the standard deviation of errors was about 0.4 °C lower than the tree-ring reconstructions and about 0.5 °C lower than the model simulation. Because of internal variabilities and uncertainties in the external forcing data, the simulated decadal warm-cool periods were readjusted by the MM such that the decadal variability was more reliable (e.g., the 1940-1960s cooling). During the two centuries (1601-1800 AD) of the preindustrial period, the MM results revealed a compromised spatial pattern of the linear trend of surface temperature, which is in accordance with the phase transition of the Pacific decadal oscillation and Atlantic multidecadal oscillation. Compared with pure CCSM4 simulations, it was demonstrated that the MM brought a significant improvement to the decadal variability of the gridded temperature via the merging of temperature-sensitive tree-ring records.

  8. The Father Friendly Initiative within Families: Using a logic model to develop program theory for a father support program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervais, Christine; de Montigny, Francine; Lacharité, Carl; Dubeau, Diane

    2015-10-01

    The transition to fatherhood, with its numerous challenges, has been well documented. Likewise, fathers' relationships with health and social services have also begun to be explored. Yet despite the problems fathers experience in interactions with healthcare services, few programs have been developed for them. To explain this, some authors point to the difficulty practitioners encounter in developing and structuring the theory of programs they are trying to create to promote and support father involvement (Savaya, R., & Waysman, M. (2005). Administration in Social Work, 29(2), 85), even when such theory is key to a program's effectiveness (Chen, H.-T. (2005). Practical program evaluation. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications). The objective of the present paper is to present a tool, the logic model, to bridge this gap and to equip practitioners for structuring program theory. This paper addresses two questions: (1) What would be a useful instrument for structuring the development of program theory in interventions for fathers? (2) How would the concepts of a father involvement program best be organized? The case of the Father Friendly Initiative within Families (FFIF) program is used to present and illustrate six simple steps for developing a logic model that are based on program theory and demonstrate its relevance. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The so-called "Spanish model" - tobacco industry strategies and its impact in Europe and Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Nick K; Sebrié, Ernesto M; Fernández, Esteve

    2011-12-07

    To demonstrate the tobacco industry rationale behind the "Spanish model" on non-smokers' protection in hospitality venues and the impact it had on some European and Latin American countries between 2006 and 2011. Tobacco industry documents research triangulated against news and media reports. As an alternative to the successful implementation of 100% smoke-free policies, several European and Latin American countries introduced partial smoking bans based on the so-called "Spanish model", a legal framework widely advocated by parts of the hospitality industry with striking similarities to "accommodation programmes" promoted by the tobacco industry in the late 1990s. These developments started with the implementation of the Spanish tobacco control law (Ley 28/2005) in 2006 and have increased since then. The Spanish experience demonstrates that partial smoking bans often resemble tobacco industry strategies and are used to spread a failed approach on international level. Researchers, advocates and policy makers should be aware of this ineffective policy.

  10. Development of a Program Logic Model and Evaluation Plan for a Participatory Ergonomics Intervention in Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaegers, Lisa; Dale, Ann Marie; Weaver, Nancy; Buchholz, Bryan; Welch, Laura; Evanoff, Bradley

    2013-01-01

    Background Intervention studies in participatory ergonomics (PE) are often difficult to interpret due to limited descriptions of program planning and evaluation. Methods In an ongoing PE program with floor layers, we developed a logic model to describe our program plan, and process and summative evaluations designed to describe the efficacy of the program. Results The logic model was a useful tool for describing the program elements and subsequent modifications. The process evaluation measured how well the program was delivered as intended, and revealed the need for program modifications. The summative evaluation provided early measures of the efficacy of the program as delivered. Conclusions Inadequate information on program delivery may lead to erroneous conclusions about intervention efficacy due to Type III error. A logic model guided the delivery and evaluation of our intervention and provides useful information to aid interpretation of results. PMID:24006097

  11. World review: Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    The article gives information on contracts announced (and to whom) throughout Latin America in all aspects of the petroleum, natural gas and petrochemicals industries. Countries specifically mentioned are Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico, Trinidad and Venezuela. The future for the oil industry in Latin America is viewed as 'highly prospective'

  12. Review and evaluation of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission Safety Research Program for fiscal year 1985. A report to the Congress of the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-02-01

    This is the seventh report by the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) in response to the Congressional requirement for an annual report on the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Reactor Safety Research Program. As previously requested by the Congress, the timing of this report has been adjusted to enable the ACRS to address the proposed budget for FY 1985 that has been submitted to the Congress by the President. Part I is a compilation of our comments and recommendations regarding the NRC Safety Research Program budget for FY 1985. It is intended to serve as an Executive Summary. Part II is divided into eight chapters, each of which represents a Decision Unit of the NRC research program. In each chapter, specific comments are included on the research involved in the Decision Unit, an assessment of priorities, and recommendations regarding new directions and levels of funding

  13. A Model for Evaluating Mental Health Programs: The Functional Baseline System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krowinski, William J.; Fitt, David X.

    1978-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation model for a partial hospitalization program. The evaluation instrument, the Functional Baseline System (FBS), is presented with its use in assessing program effectiveness and efficiency. (Author)

  14. Education Model Program on Water-Energy Research: A New STEM Graduate Program from Development through Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCay, D.; Fiorenza, P.; Lautz, L.

    2017-12-01

    More than half of Ph.D. scientists and engineers find employment in non-academic sectors. Recognizing the range of career options for graduate degree holders and the need to align graduate education with the expectations of prospective employers, the National Science Foundation (NSF) created the NSF Research Traineeship (NRT) program. To date, over 100 NRT programs have been funded. As these programs are implemented, it is important to assess their progress, successes, and challenges. This presentation describes the ongoing evaluation of one NRT program, "Education Model Program on Water-Energy Research" (or EMPOWER) at Syracuse University. Through seminars, mini-grants, professional development activities, field courses, internship opportunities, and coursework, EMPOWER's goal is to equip students with the skills needed for the range of career options in water and energy. In collaboration with an external evaluator, EMPOWER is examining the fidelity of the program to proposed goals, providing feedback to inform project improvement (formative assessment) and assessing the effectiveness of achieving program goals (summative assessment). Using a convergent parallel mixed method design, qualitative and quantitative data were collected to develop a full assessment of the first year of the program. Evaluation findings have resulted in several positive changes to the program. For example, EMPOWER students perceive themselves to have high technical skills, but the data show that the students do not believe that they have a strong professional network. Based on those findings, EMPOWER offered several professional development events focused on building one's professional network. Preliminary findings have enabled the EMPOWER leadership team to make informed decisions about the ways the program elements can be redesigned to better meet student needs, about how to the make the program more effective, and determine the program elements that may be sustained beyond the funding

  15. Substance Use Prevention Programs for Indigenous Adolescents in the United States of America, Canada, Australia and New Zealand: Protocol for a Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snijder, Mieke; Stapinski, Lexine; Lees, Briana; Newton, Nicola; Champion, Katrina; Chapman, Catherine; Ward, James; Teesson, Maree

    2018-02-01

    Indigenous adolescents are at a higher risk of experiencing harms related to substance use compared with their non-Indigenous counterparts as a consequence of earlier onset and higher rates of substance use. Early onset of substance use has been identified as a risk factor for future substance use problems and other health, social, and family outcomes. Therefore, prevention of substance use among adolescents has been identified as a key area to improve health of Indigenous Peoples. Evidence exists for the effectiveness of prevention approaches for adolescents in mainstream populations and, most recently, for the use of computer- and Internet-delivered interventions to overcome barriers to implementation. However, there is currently no conclusive evidence about the effectiveness of these approaches for Indigenous adolescents. The purpose of this review is to synthesize the international evidence regarding the effectiveness of substance use prevention programs for Indigenous adolescents in the United States, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. A total of 8 peer-reviewed databases and 20 gray literature databases will be searched, using search terms in line with the aims of this review and based on previous relevant reviews of substance use prevention. Studies will be included if they evaluate a substance use prevention program with Indigenous adolescents (aged 10 to 19 years) as the primary participant group and are published between January 1, 1990 and August 31, 2017. A narrative synthesis will be provided about the effectiveness of the programs, the type of program (whether culture-based, adapted, or unadapted), delivery of the program (computer- and Internet-delivered or traditional), and the setting in which the programs are delivered (community, school, family, clinical, or a combination). The study will identify core elements of effective substance use prevention programs among Indigenous adolescents and appraise the methodological quality of the studies. This

  16. The Knowledge Is Power Program (KIPP): An Analysis of One Model's Efforts to Promote Achievement in Underserved Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macey, Erin; Decker, Janet; Eckes, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    Many claim that the Knowledge is Power Program has experienced success in closing the achievement gap in urban and rural communities across America. Studies suggest that KIPP charter schools enroll an overwhelming proportion of poor and minority students and often outperform their district peers. However, the purpose of this study is not to…

  17. From Safety Critical Java Programs to Timed Process Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Bent; Luckow, Kasper Søe; Thomsen, Lone Leth

    2015-01-01

    The idea of analysing real programs by process algebraic methods probably goes back to the Occam language using the CSP process algebra [43]. In [16,24] Degano et al. followed in that tradition by analysing Mobile Agent Programs written in the Higher Order Functional, Concurrent and Distributed......, programming language Facile [47], by equipping Facile with a process algebraic semantics based on true concurrency. This semantics facilitated analysis of programs revealing subtle bugs that would otherwise be very hard to find. Inspired by the idea of translating real programs into process algebraic...

  18. America in the Eyes of America Watchers:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Huiyun; He, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Based on an original survey conducted in the summer of 2012 in Beijing, we examine how China's America watchers—IR scholars who work on US-China relations—have viewed China's power status in the international system, US-China relations and some specific US policies in Asia. Our survey shows that ...

  19. Reliability in the Power System Modeled in a Multi- Stage Stochastic Mixed Integer Programming Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen Nielsen, Michael Pascal

    Contributions from this article are that it takes the characteristics of the power system into account at different stages, which gives a more realistic presentation of the welfare aspects to be gained by an optimal operation/ dispatch of the power system. This article is utilizing a Multi......-Stage Stochastic Mixed Integer Programming Model that handles uncertainty in a flexible and practical way. The method applied relies on state-of-the-art modeling within this field, but the method applied in this article is extended by using decomposition....

  20. The Young, the Restless and the Jobless: The Case for a National Jobs Stimulus Program Targeted on America's Young Adults. Public Policy Issues Monograph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sum, Andrew; Mangum, Garth; Taggart, Robert

    Although young people across the United States have suffered disproportionately in the recent recession, the economic and social effects of high levels of youth unemployment have received only scant media and political attention and few state or federal dollars. Analyses of successful youth and young adult programs identified seven core principles…

  1. Doctoral training in statistics, measurement, and methodology in psychology: replication and extension of Aiken, West, Sechrest, and Reno's (1990) survey of PhD programs in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, Leona S; West, Stephen G; Millsap, Roger E

    2008-01-01

    In a survey of all PhD programs in psychology in the United States and Canada, the authors documented the quantitative methodology curriculum (statistics, measurement, and research design) to examine the extent to which innovations in quantitative methodology have diffused into the training of PhDs in psychology. In all, 201 psychology PhD programs (86%) participated. This survey replicated and extended a previous survey (L. S. Aiken, S. G. West, L. B. Sechrest, & R. R. Reno, 1990), permitting examination of curriculum development. Most training supported laboratory and not field research. The median of 1.6 years of training in statistics and measurement was mainly devoted to the modally 1-year introductory statistics course, leaving little room for advanced study. Curricular enhancements were noted in statistics and to a minor degree in measurement. Additional coverage of both fundamental and innovative quantitative methodology is needed. The research design curriculum has largely stagnated, a cause for great concern. Elite programs showed no overall advantage in quantitative training. Forces that support curricular innovation are characterized. Human capital challenges to quantitative training, including recruiting and supporting young quantitative faculty, are discussed. Steps must be taken to bring innovations in quantitative methodology into the curriculum of PhD programs in psychology. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. The so-called "Spanish model" - Tobacco industry strategies and its impact in Europe and Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background To demonstrate the tobacco industry rationale behind the "Spanish model" on non-smokers' protection in hospitality venues and the impact it had on some European and Latin American countries between 2006 and 2011. Methods Tobacco industry documents research triangulated against news and media reports. Results As an alternative to the successful implementation of 100% smoke-free policies, several European and Latin American countries introduced partial smoking bans based on the so-called "Spanish model", a legal framework widely advocated by parts of the hospitality industry with striking similarities to "accommodation programmes" promoted by the tobacco industry in the late 1990s. These developments started with the implementation of the Spanish tobacco control law (Ley 28/2005) in 2006 and have increased since then. Conclusion The Spanish experience demonstrates that partial smoking bans often resemble tobacco industry strategies and are used to spread a failed approach on international level. Researchers, advocates and policy makers should be aware of this ineffective policy. PMID:22151884

  3. The so-called "Spanish model" - Tobacco industry strategies and its impact in Europe and Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneider Nick K

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To demonstrate the tobacco industry rationale behind the "Spanish model" on non-smokers' protection in hospitality venues and the impact it had on some European and Latin American countries between 2006 and 2011. Methods Tobacco industry documents research triangulated against news and media reports. Results As an alternative to the successful implementation of 100% smoke-free policies, several European and Latin American countries introduced partial smoking bans based on the so-called "Spanish model", a legal framework widely advocated by parts of the hospitality industry with striking similarities to "accommodation programmes" promoted by the tobacco industry in the late 1990s. These developments started with the implementation of the Spanish tobacco control law (Ley 28/2005 in 2006 and have increased since then. Conclusion The Spanish experience demonstrates that partial smoking bans often resemble tobacco industry strategies and are used to spread a failed approach on international level. Researchers, advocates and policy makers should be aware of this ineffective policy.

  4. EvoBuild: A Quickstart Toolkit for Programming Agent-Based Models of Evolutionary Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagh, Aditi; Wilensky, Uri

    2017-10-01

    Extensive research has shown that one of the benefits of programming to learn about scientific phenomena is that it facilitates learning about mechanisms underlying the phenomenon. However, using programming activities in classrooms is associated with costs such as requiring additional time to learn to program or students needing prior experience with programming. This paper presents a class of programming environments that we call quickstart: Environments with a negligible threshold for entry into programming and a modest ceiling. We posit that such environments can provide benefits of programming for learning without incurring associated costs for novice programmers. To make this claim, we present a design-based research study conducted to compare programming models of evolutionary processes with a quickstart toolkit with exploring pre-built models of the same processes. The study was conducted in six seventh grade science classes in two schools. Students in the programming condition used EvoBuild, a quickstart toolkit for programming agent-based models of evolutionary processes, to build their NetLogo models. Students in the exploration condition used pre-built NetLogo models. We demonstrate that although students came from a range of academic backgrounds without prior programming experience, and all students spent the same number of class periods on the activities including the time students took to learn programming in this environment, EvoBuild students showed greater learning about evolutionary mechanisms. We discuss the implications of this work for design research on programming environments in K-12 science education.

  5. EvoBuild: A Quickstart Toolkit for Programming Agent-Based Models of Evolutionary Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagh, Aditi; Wilensky, Uri

    2018-04-01

    Extensive research has shown that one of the benefits of programming to learn about scientific phenomena is that it facilitates learning about mechanisms underlying the phenomenon. However, using programming activities in classrooms is associated with costs such as requiring additional time to learn to program or students needing prior experience with programming. This paper presents a class of programming environments that we call quickstart: Environments with a negligible threshold for entry into programming and a modest ceiling. We posit that such environments can provide benefits of programming for learning without incurring associated costs for novice programmers. To make this claim, we present a design-based research study conducted to compare programming models of evolutionary processes with a quickstart toolkit with exploring pre-built models of the same processes. The study was conducted in six seventh grade science classes in two schools. Students in the programming condition used EvoBuild, a quickstart toolkit for programming agent-based models of evolutionary processes, to build their NetLogo models. Students in the exploration condition used pre-built NetLogo models. We demonstrate that although students came from a range of academic backgrounds without prior programming experience, and all students spent the same number of class periods on the activities including the time students took to learn programming in this environment, EvoBuild students showed greater learning about evolutionary mechanisms. We discuss the implications of this work for design research on programming environments in K-12 science education.

  6. A life-cycle model for wave-dominated tidal inlets along passive margin coasts of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seminack, Christopher T.; McBride, Randolph A.

    2018-03-01

    A regional overview of 107 wave-dominated tidal inlets along the U.S. Atlantic coast, U.S. Gulf of Mexico coast, and Canadian Gulf of St. Lawrence coast yielded a generalized wave-dominated tidal inlet life-cycle model that recognized the rotational nature of tidal inlets. Tidal inlets are influenced by concurrently acting processes transpiring over two timescales: short-term, event-driven processes and long-term, evolutionary processes. Wave-dominated tidal inlets are classified into three rotational categories based on net longshore sediment transport direction and rotation direction along the landward (back-barrier) portion of the inlet channel: downdrift channel rotation, updrift channel rotation, or little-to-no channel rotation. Lateral shifting of the flood-tidal delta depocenter in response to available estuarine accommodation space appears to control inlet channel rotation. Flood-tidal delta deposits fill accommodation space locally within the estuary (i.e., creating bathymetric highs), causing the tidal-inlet channel to rotate. External influences, such as fluvial discharge, pre-existing back-barrier channels, and impeding salt marsh will also influence inlet-channel rotation. Storm events may rejuvenate the tidal inlet by scouring sediment within the flood-tidal delta, increasing local accommodation space. Wave-dominated tidal inlets are generally unstable and tend to open, concurrently migrate laterally and rotate, infill, and close. Channel rotation is a primary reason for wave-dominated tidal inlet closure. During rotation, the inlet channel lengthens and hydraulic efficiency decreases, thus causing tidal prism to decrease. Tidal prism, estuarine accommodation space, and sediment supply to the flood-tidal delta are the primary variables responsible for tidal inlet rotation. Stability of wave-dominated tidal inlets is further explained by: stability (S) = tidal prism (Ω) + estuarine accommodation space (V) - volume of annual sediment supply (Mt

  7. Community Earth System Model Simulations Reveal the Relative Importance of Afforestation and Forest Management to Surface Temperature in Eastern North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin J. Ahlswede

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Afforestation changes the land surface energy balance, though the effects on climate in temperate regions is uncertain, particularly the changes associated with forest management. In this study, we used idealized Community Earth System Model simulations to assess the influence of afforestation and afforestation management in eastern North America on climate via changes in the biophysics of the land surface. Afforestation using broadleaf deciduous trees maintained at high leaf area index (LAI in the southern part of the study region provided the greatest climate benefit by cooling summer surface air temperatures (Tsa. In contrast, the greatest warming occurred in the northern extent of the study region when afforesting with needleleaf evergreen trees maintained at high LAI. Forest management had an equal or greater influence on Tsa than the overall decision to afforest land in the southern extent of the region. Afforestation had a greater influence on Tsa than forest management in the northern extent. Integrating our results, focused on biophysical processes, with other research quantifying carbon cycle sensitivity to management can help guide the use of temperate afforestation to optimize climate benefits. Further, our results highlight the potential importance of including forest management in simulations of past and future climate.

  8. America's Children and the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Protection Agency Search Search America's Children and the Environment (ACE) Contact Us Share ACE presents key information ... of updates to ACE . America's Children and the Environment (ACE) America's Children and the Environment (ACE) is ...

  9. Risk assessment to an integrated planning model for UST programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, K.W.

    1993-01-01

    The US Postal Service maintains the largest civilian fleet in the United States totaling approximately 180,000 vehicles. To support the fleets daily energy requirements, the Postal Service also operates one of the largest networks of underground storage tanks nearly 7,500 nationwide. A program to apply risk assessment to planning, budget development and other management actions was implemented during September, 1989. Working closely with a consultant, the postal service developed regulatory and environmental risk criteria and weighting factors for a ranking model. The primary objective was to identify relative risks for each underground tank at individual facilities. Relative risks at each facility were determined central to prioritizing scheduled improvements to the tank network. The survey was conducted on 302 underground tanks in the Northeast Region of the US. An environmental and regulatory risk score was computed for each UST. By ranking the tanks according to their risk score, tanks were classified into management action categories including, but the limited to, underground tank testing, retrofit, repair, replacement and closure

  10. A program for verification of phylogenetic network models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawan, Andreas D M; Lu, Bingxin; Zhang, Louxin

    2016-09-01

    Genetic material is transferred in a non-reproductive manner across species more frequently than commonly thought, particularly in the bacteria kingdom. On one hand, extant genomes are thus more properly considered as a fusion product of both reproductive and non-reproductive genetic transfers. This has motivated researchers to adopt phylogenetic networks to study genome evolution. On the other hand, a gene's evolution is usually tree-like and has been studied for over half a century. Accordingly, the relationships between phylogenetic trees and networks are the basis for the reconstruction and verification of phylogenetic networks. One important problem in verifying a network model is determining whether or not certain existing phylogenetic trees are displayed in a phylogenetic network. This problem is formally called the tree containment problem. It is NP-complete even for binary phylogenetic networks. We design an exponential time but efficient method for determining whether or not a phylogenetic tree is displayed in an arbitrary phylogenetic network. It is developed on the basis of the so-called reticulation-visible property of phylogenetic networks. A C-program is available for download on http://www.math.nus.edu.sg/∼matzlx/tcp_package matzlx@nus.edu.sg Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Development models, sustainability and occupational and environmental health in the Americas: neoliberalism versus sustainable theories of development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Moure-Eraso

    Full Text Available This article describes the inherent contradiction between competitive capitalism and the pursuing of the "three bottom lines": 1 economic prosperity, 2 environmental quality (including the workplace and 3 social justice. An alternative, genuine, sustainable approach to development; the Integrated Human Ecosystem Approach will be described and contrasted with neoliberal development. The IHE approach was developed by The International Development Research Center of Canada in 2001. In this approach, the triple bottom line is not a simple tool for neoliberal development, but the focus of allocation and management of resources for sustainable development. The acquisition of only state power by governments opposed to neoliberalism is necessary but not sufficient condition to successfully find a human alternative to the market ideology. A road map needs to be developed in which a clear definition of technologies that permit the acquisition and implementation of an alternative ideology to achieve "social power." The IHE model provides developing countries with the basis for that ideology.

  12. Modelling and Analysis of Real Time Systems with Logic Programming and Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banda, Gourinath

    to verify the reactive behaviour of concur- rent systems. Computation Tree Logic (CTL) is a temporal property specification language. Logic programming is a general purpose programming language based on predicate logic. In this dissertation, the LHA models are verified by encoding them as con- straint logic...... programs. The constraint logic program (CLP) encoding an LHA model is first specialised and then a concrete minimal model (or possibly an ab- stract minimal model) for the residual program is computed. The abstract minimal model is computed by applying the theory of abstract interpretation. The com- puted...... by a compiler. To facilitate forward and backward reasoning, two different ways to model an LHA are defined. A framework consist- ing of general purpose constraint logic program tools is presented to accomplish the reachability analysis to verify a class of safety and liveness properties. A tool to compute...

  13. Devil is in the details: Using logic models to investigate program process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyton, David J; Scicchitano, Michael

    2017-12-01

    Theory-based logic models are commonly developed as part of requirements for grant funding. As a tool to communicate complex social programs, theory based logic models are an effective visual communication. However, after initial development, theory based logic models are often abandoned and remain in their initial form despite changes in the program process. This paper examines the potential benefits of committing time and resources to revising the initial theory driven logic model and developing detailed logic models that describe key activities to accurately reflect the program and assist in effective program management. The authors use a funded special education teacher preparation program to exemplify the utility of drill down logic models. The paper concludes with lessons learned from the iterative revision process and suggests how the process can lead to more flexible and calibrated program management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Integration of the Hydrologic Simulation Program--FORTRAN (HSPF) Watershed Water Quality Model into the Watershed Modeling System (WMS)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Deliman, Patrick

    1999-01-01

    ...) into the Watershed Modeling System (WMS) was initiated as part of an overall goal of the Water Quality Research Program to provide water quality capabilities within the framework of a comprehensive graphical modeling environment...

  15. Energy problems in latin america.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldemberg, J

    1984-03-30

    Present energy consumption patterns, known reserves of conventional energy sources (oil, gas, coal, and hydroelectricity), and the impact of the oil crisis on the oil-importing countries of Latin America are discussed. New approaches to energy use, including improvements on end-use efficiency, fuel substitutions, nonconventional energy sources, and changes in consumption patterns, are important. Of particular significance are the alcohol program in Brazil and the possibilities for increased use of hydroelectricity. Investments needed to sustain a reasonable increase in production from conventional energy sources up to 1990 are presented.

  16. Thermal models of buildings. Determination of temperatures, heating and cooling loads. Theories, models and computer programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaellblad, K.

    1998-05-01

    The need to estimate indoor temperatures, heating or cooling load and energy requirements for buildings arises in many stages of a buildings life cycle, e.g. at the early layout stage, during the design of a building and for energy retrofitting planning. Other purposes are to meet the authorities requirements given in building codes. All these situations require good calculation methods. The main purpose of this report is to present the authors work with problems related to thermal models and calculation methods for determination of temperatures and heating or cooling loads in buildings. Thus the major part of the report deals with treatment of solar radiation in glazing systems, shading of solar and sky radiation and the computer program JULOTTA used to simulate the thermal behavior of rooms and buildings. Other parts of thermal models of buildings are more briefly discussed and included in order to give an overview of existing problems and available solutions. A brief presentation of how thermal models can be built up is also given and it is a hope that the report can be useful as an introduction to this part of building physics as well as during development of calculation methods and computer programs. The report may also serve as a help for the users of energy related programs. Independent of which method or program a user choose to work with it is his or her own responsibility to understand the limits of the tool, else wrong conclusions may be drawn from the results 52 refs, 22 figs, 4 tabs

  17. A generalized threading model using integer programming that allows for secondary structure element deletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellrott, Kyle; Guo, Jun-tao; Olman, Victor; Xu, Ying

    2006-01-01

    Integer programming is a combinatorial optimization method that has been successfully applied to the protein threading problem. We seek to expand the model optimized by this technique to allow for a more accurate description of protein threading. We have developed and implemented an expanded model of integer programming that has the capability to model secondary structure element deletion, which was not possible in previous version of integer programming based optimization.

  18. CISLUNAR program manual: A low-thrust trajectory determination model

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-01

    CISLUNAR is a stand-alone computer program designed to generate the trajectory of a low-thrust spacecraft travelling in Earth-Moon space. The program allows the creation of functional trajectories dependent on the supplied spacecraft characteristics. The trajectory generation is a user interactive process. The original intent was for the program user to modify the necessary control values until a staisfactory trajectory has been created.

  19. Programming While Construction of Engineering 3D Models of Complex Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheyfets, A. L.

    2017-11-01

    The capabilities of geometrically accurate computational 3D models construction with the use of programming are presented. The construction of models of an architectural arch and a glo-boid worm gear is considered as an example. The models are designed in the AutoCAD pack-age. Three programs of construction are given. The first program is for designing a multi-section architectural arch. The control of the arch’s geometry by impacting its main parameters is shown. The second program is for designing and studying the working surface of a globoid gear’s worm. The article shows how to make the animation for this surface’s formation. The third program is for formation of a worm gear cavity surface. The cavity formation dynamics is studied. The programs are written in the AutoLisp programming language. The program texts are provided.

  20. Investigation of Multi-decadal Trends in Aerosol Direct Radiative Effects over North America using a Coupled Meteorology-Chemistry Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, R.; Pleim, J.; Wong, D.; Wei, C.; Xing, J.; Gan, M.; Yu, S.; Binkowski, F.

    2012-12-01

    While aerosol radiative effects have been recognized as some of the largest sources of uncertainty among the forcers of climate change, there has been little effort devoted to verification of the spatial and temporal variability of the magnitude and directionality of aerosol radiative forcing. A comprehensive investigation of the processes regulating aerosol distributions, their optical properties, and their radiative effects and verification of their simulated effects for past conditions relative to measurements is needed in order to build confidence in the estimates of the projected impacts arising from changes in both anthropogenic forcing and climate change. This study aims at addressing this issue through a systematic investigation of changes in anthropogenic emissions of SO2 and NOx over the past two decades in the United States, their impacts on anthropogenic aerosol loading in the North American troposphere, and subsequent impacts on regional radiation budgets. A newly developed 2-way coupled meteorology and air pollution model composed of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model is being run for 20 years (1990 - 2010) on a 12 km resolution grid that covers most of North America including the entire conterminous US. During this period US emissions of SO2 and NOx have been reduced by about 66% and 50%, respectively, mainly due to Title IV of the U.S. Clean Air Act Amendments (CAA) that aimed to reduce emissions that contribute to acid deposition. A methodology is developed to consistently estimate emission inventories for the 20-year period accounting for air quality regulations as well as population trends, economic conditions, and technology changes in motor vehicles and electric power generation. The coupled WRF-CMAQ model includes detailed treatment of direct effects of aerosols on photolysis rates as well as on shortwave radiation and the direct effects of tropospheric ozone on the long

  1. Prenatal programming of sexual partner preference: the ram model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roselli, C E; Stormshak, F

    2009-03-01

    In our laboratory, the domestic ram is used as an experimental model to study the early programming of neural mechanisms underlying same-sex partner preference. This interest developed from the observation that approximately 8% of domestic rams are sexually attracted to other rams (male-oriented) in contrast to the majority of rams that are attracted to oestrous ewes (female-oriented). One prominent feature of sexual differentiation in many species is the presence of a sexually dimorphic nucleus (SDN) in the preoptic/anterior hypothalamus that is larger in males than in females. Lesion studies in rats and ferrets implicate the SDN in the expression of sexual preferences. We discovered an ovine SDN (oSDN) in the preoptic/anterior hypothalamus that is smaller in male- than in female-oriented rams and similar in size to the oSDN of ewes. Neurones of the oSDN show abundant aromatase expression that is also reduced in male-oriented compared to female-oriented rams. This observation suggests that sexual partner preferences are neurologically hard-wired and could be influenced by hormones. Aromatase-containing neurones constitute a nascent oSDN as early as day 60 of gestation, which becomes sexually dimorphic by day 135 of gestation when it is two-fold larger in males than in females. Exposure of fetal female lambs to exogenous testosterone from days 30-90 of gestation resulted in a masculinised oSDN. These data demonstrate that the oSDN develops prenatally and may influence adult sexual preferences. Surprisingly, inhibition of aromatase activity in the brain of ram foetuses during the critical period did not interfere with defeminisation of adult sexual partner preference or oSDN volume. These results fail to support an essential role for neural aromatase in the sexual differentiation of sheep brain and behaviour. Thus, we propose that oSDN morphology and male-typical partner preferences may instead be programmed through an androgen receptor mechanism not involving

  2. Improvements in precipitation simulation over South America for past and future climates via multi-model combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Maytê Duarte Leal; Lima, Kellen Carla; Santos e Silva, Cláudio Moisés

    2017-07-01

    Combining individual forecasts is one of the practices used to improve weather prediction results. Identifying which combination of techniques results in a more accurate forecast is the subject of many comparative studies as well proposals for combined methods. Here we compare three combination techniques: (1) principal component regression (PCR), (2) convex combination by mean squared errors (MSE) and (3) ensemble average to combine six regional climate models of the Regional Climate Change Assessment for the La Plata Basin Project (CLARIS-LPB) for variable rainfall in three regions: Amazon (AMZ), Northeastern Brazil (NEB) and La Plata Basin (LPB), for the past (1961-1990) and future (2071-2100) climates. The results indicate that the average RMSE values showed improved representation of climate for LPB in some months, which is an important advance in climate studies. On the other hand, PCR presented greater accuracy (lower RMSE) than MSE in the AMZ and NEB regions. In winter months, both combinations presented lower RMSE results, mainly PCR in the three study regions. The correlation coefficient supports the results already found, namely, PCR obtained moderate to strong correlations, which were statistically significant at 5 % in both regions for all months, while MSE presented low to moderate correlations, which were statically significant at 5 % only in some months. Based on that, PCR achieved the best corrected forecast, as it was superior in forecasting precipitation due to the lower RMSE value. It is noteworthy that the PCR data were first subjected to principal component analysis (PCA) and the scores were used to perform the prediction.

  3. Vectors, hosts, and control measures for Zika virus in the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Sarah J.; Pearce, John; Ramey, Andy M.

    2017-01-01

    We examine Zika virus (ZIKV) from an ecological perspective and with a focus on the Americas. We assess (1) the role of wildlife in ZIKV disease ecology, (2) how mosquito behavior and biology influence disease dynamics, and (3) how nontarget species and ecosystems may be impacted by vector control programs. Our review suggests that free-ranging, non-human primates may be involved in ZIKV transmission in the Old World; however, other wildlife species likely play a limited role in maintaining or transmitting ZIKV. In the Americas, a zoonotic cycle has not yet been definitively established. Understanding behaviors and habitat tolerances of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, two ZIKV competent vectors in the Americas, will allow more accurate modeling of disease spread and facilitate targeted and effective control efforts. Vector control efforts may have direct and indirect impacts to wildlife, particularly invertebrate feeding species; however, strategies could be implemented to limit detrimental ecological effects.

  4. The Development Study of a Medical Ethics Education Program by Using Simple ISD Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Jon; Yoo, Hyoo Hyun; Joo, Chan Uhng

    2011-09-01

    Simple instructional systems design (ISD) model is based on a fast development, usability test, and continuos feedback, which are necessary for educational program development in medical school. This study aims to figure out the usability of Simple ISD model for a medical ethics education program by describing a developmental details of each phase and its evaluation results. Research has been conducted in two steps. First, while researchers participated in the program development by using Simple ISD model, we collected empirical data of each development activities. Second, the developed program was evaluated by students' web-based usability test, a 8-students' focus group interview and 5 faculty members' individual interviews in 4 domains; learning contents, instructional methods and strategies, achievement evaluation, and self-evaluation. Following the circular process of analysis, design, development, and usability test of Simple ISD model, a 10-week medical ethics program covering 9 instructional topics was developed. The average points of response on the developed medical ethics program in 2008 and 2009 are increased from 3.96 to 4.59 and 4.41, respectively. The prospects and limitations of the program are discussed. From a development study of the medical ethics program by using Simple ISD model, we could implement a more usable medical ethics program, and found 4 different usability of the Simple ISD model; the rapid development of educational program, program improvement by continuous feedback, faculty members' engagement in instructional design, and professional development of the faculty members.

  5. Heat Pump Water Heater Modeling in EnergyPlus (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, E.; Christensen, C.

    2012-03-01

    This presentation summarizes NREL's development of a HPWH model for use in hourly building energy simulation programs, such as BEopt; this presentation was given at the Building America Stakeholder meeting on March 1, 2012, in Austin, Texas.

  6. Heat Pump Water Heating Modeling in EnergyPlus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Christensen, Craig [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-03-01

    This presentation summarizes NREL's development of a HPWH model for use in hourly building energy simulation programs, such as BEopt; this presentation was given at the Building America Stakeholder meeting on March 1, 2012, in Austin, Texas.

  7. Producing the Drainage Layer Database for North America (WATGRID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seglenieks, F. R.; Soulis, E. D.; Mackay, M.

    2004-05-01

    The hydrological component of coupled atmospheric-hydrologic models requires the creation of the drainage layer database (i.e. stream channel network, slopes, etc.). This is often done from a digital elevation model (DEM) using a lowest neighbour approach, however this method can lead to incorrect flow directions especially with large grid sizes. Using a technique developed by the Waterloo Hydrology Lab at the University of Waterloo, the drainage layer database for North America was produced at varying resolutions for a project called WATGRID. The projection used was based on the polar stereographic projection used by the Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM) for the Mackenzie Basin GEWEX Study (MAGS) at resolutions of 500, 200, and 51 km. The procedure involved first obtaining the best possible DEM and land cover map. Currently the best available public domain data set for elevation is the GTOPO30 database and for land cover it is the Global Land Cover Characterization database. Both of these data sets have a resolution of approximately 1 km and are available for all of North America from the USGS. The DEM was then verified so that it produced the correct derived river channels. To do this the river network derived from the DEM was compared to the river networks available in vector format from base maps of North America. The DEM was modified until the derived stream network produced drainage areas within 5% of measured values for all basins over 500 000 km2. Once the DEM was verified, the program WATMAP was used to derive the drainage layer database for various resolutions. This program divides the data sets into grid squares based on the required projection and resolution, then for each grid square it calculates the inflows and outflows around the perimeter of the grid square. From this, the program can determine the maximum outflow and inflow to derive parameters such as main drainage direction, secondary drainage direction, and channel slope. The program also

  8. Soil-transmitted helminthiasis in Latin America and the Caribbean: modelling the determinants, prevalence, population at risk and costs of control at sub-national level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josh Colston

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We present an example of a tool for quantifying the burden, the population in need of intervention and resources need to contribute for the control of soil-transmitted helminth (STH infection at multiple administrative levels for the region of Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC. The tool relies on published STH prevalence data along with data on the distribution of several STH transmission determinants for 12,273 sub-national administrative units in 22 LAC countries taken from national censuses. Data on these determinants was aggregated into a single risk index based on a conceptual framework and the statistical significance of the association between this index and the STH prevalence indicators was tested using simple linear regression. The coefficient and constant from the output of this regression was then put into a regression formula that was applied to the risk index values for all of the administrative units in order to model the estimated prevalence of each STH species. We then combine these estimates with population data, treatment thresholds and unit cost data to calculate total control costs. The model predicts an annual cost for the procurement of preventive chemotherapy of around US$ 1.7 million and a total cost of US$ 47 million for implementing a comprehensive STH control programme targeting an estimated 78.7 million school-aged children according to the WHO guidelines throughout the entirety of the countries included in the study. Considerable savings to this cost could potentially be made by embedding STH control interventions within existing health programmes and systems. A study of this scope is prone to many limitations which restrict the interpretation of the results and the uses to which its findings may be put. We discuss several of these limitations.

  9. Institutional change in Latin America: external models and their unintended consequences Cambio institucional en América latina: modelos externos y consecuencias no previstas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt WEYLAND

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Influential theories claim that institutions shape actor behavior but are sustained by these actors’ behavior. How do scholars escape from this trap of endogeneity? This article highlights a partially exogenous factor: institutional models and blueprints. Since these ideational schemes do not emerge from actor preferences, they play an independent, irreducible role in institutional creation. In fact, Latin America has borrowed many blueprints from the «First World». But transferred to a different setting, these imported models often fail to command firm, reliable compliance and do not operate well. Therefore, informal mechanisms arise and guide behavior. External borrowing thus produces persistent disjunctures in institutional development.Influyentes teorías aseguran que las instituciones moldean el comportamiento de los actores, pero están fundamentadas en el comportamiento de estos mismos actores. ¿Cómo evitan los académicos esta trampa de endogeneidad? Este artículo resalta la relevancia de un factor parcialmente exógeno: los modelos institucionales y sus diseños. Dado que estos esquemas conceptuales no emergen de las preferencias de los actores, juegan un papel independiente, irreducible en la creación institucional. De hecho, América Latina ha tomado prestados muchos diseños del «Primer Mundo». Sin embargo, una vez importados a un escenario distinto, estos modelos frecuentemente fracasan a la hora de garantizar un cumplimiento confiable y firme, por lo que no operan bien. Así, aparecen mecanismos informales que guían el comportamiento de los actores. El préstamo externo produce, de esta manera, fracturas persistentes en el desarrollo institucional.

  10. Dance Educator Enrichment Program (DEEP): A Model for Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofras, Pamela Anderson; Emory-Maier, Ambre

    2005-01-01

    In 2001, North Carolina Dance Theatre, The University of North Carolina at Charlotte, and the Charlotte-Mecklenburg School system joined forces to create a multidimensional, professional development program for dance professionals (teachers and artists) in the public schools called, The Dance Educator Enrichment Program (DEEP). DEEP was designed…

  11. Building Psychosocial Programming in Geriatrics Fellowships: A Consortium Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelman, Ronald D.; Ansell, Pamela; Breckman, Risa; Snow, Caitlin E.; Ehrlich, Amy R.; Greene, Michele G.; Greenberg, Debra F.; Raik, Barrie L.; Raymond, Joshua J.; Clabby, John F.; Fields, Suzanne D.; Breznay, Jennifer B.

    2011-01-01

    Geriatric psychosocial problems are prevalent and significantly affect the physical health and overall well-being of older adults. Geriatrics fellows require psychosocial education, and yet to date, geriatrics fellowship programs have not developed a comprehensive geriatric psychosocial curriculum. Fellowship programs in the New York tristate area…

  12. The 1995 NRC Ratings of Doctoral Programs: A Hedonic Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenberg, Ronald G.; Hurst, Peter J.

    1996-01-01

    Using the 1995 National Research Council ratings of doctoral programs in 41 fields, a statistical methodology is offered for assessing how measures of program size, faculty seniority, faculty research productivity, and faculty productivity in producing doctoral degrees influenced raters' decisions. Then using data for one field, economics,…

  13. Program MAMLAC : a mathematical model for impacts against crash barriers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giavotto, V.

    1972-01-01

    The digital simulation system that has been developed for impact test against safety barriers has proved to be a valuable tool; it may reduce the cost of a program, or better increase largely the extent of a program without increasing the cost. In fact it may permit to reduce considerably the number

  14. Model Programs for Infants and Toddlers with Handicaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnes, Merle B.; Stayton, Vicki D.

    Part of a volume which explores current issues in service delivery to infants and toddlers (ages birth to 3) with handicapping conditions, this chapter describes the history of the Handicapped Children's Early Education Program (HCEEP) and provides information on exemplary program components based on written responses to a survey of 67 HCEEP…

  15. Identifying Inter-task Communication in Shared Memory Programming Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Per; Karlsson, Sven; Madsen, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Modern computers often use multi-core architectures, cov- ering clusters of homogeneous cores for high performance computing,to heterogeneous architectures typically found in embedded systems. To efficiently program such architectures, it is important to be able to par- tition and map programs onto...... the cores of the architecture. We believe that communication patterns need to become explicit in the source code to make it easier to analyze and partition parallel programs. Extraction of these patterns are difficult to automate due to limitations in compiler techniques when determining the effects...... of pointers. In this paper, we propose an OpenMP extension which allows programmers to explicitly declare the pointer based data-sharing between coarse-grain program parts. We present a dependency directive, expressing the input and output relation between program parts and pointers to shared data, as well...

  16. Forecast of criticality experiments and experimental programs needed to support nuclear operations in the United States of America: 1994-1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutherford, D.

    1995-01-01

    This Forecast is generated by the Chair of the Experiment Needs Identification Workgroup (ENIWG), with input from Department of Energy and the nuclear community. One of the current concerns addressed by ENIWG was the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board's Recommendation 93-2. This Recommendation delineated the need for a critical experimental capability, which includes (1) a program of general-purpose experiments, (2) improving the information base, and (3) ongoing departmental programs. The nuclear community also recognizes the importance of criticality theory, which, as a stepping stone to computational analysis and safety code development, needs to be benchmarked against well-characterized critical experiments. A summary projection of the Department's needs with respect to criticality information includes (1) hands-on training, (2) criticality and nuclear data, (3) detector systems, (4) uranium- and plutonium-based reactors, and (5) accident analysis. The Workgroup has evaluated, prioritized, and categorized each proposed experiment and program. Transportation/Applications is a new category intended to cover the areas of storage, training, emergency response, and standards. This category has the highest number of priority-1 experiments (nine). Facilities capable of performing experiments include the Los Alamos Critical Experiment Facility (LACEF) along with Area V at Sandia National Laboratory. The LACEF continues to house the most significant collection of critical assemblies in the Western Hemisphere. The staff of this facility and Area V are trained and certified, and documentation is current. ENIWG will continue to work with the nuclear community to identify and prioritize experiments because there is an overwhelming need for critical experiments to be performed for basic research and code validation

  17. Forecast of criticality experiments and experimental programs needed to support nuclear operations in the United States of America: 1994--1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutherford, D.

    1994-03-01

    This Forecast is generated by the Chair of the Experiment Needs Identification Workgroup (ENIWG), with input from Department of Energy and the nuclear community. One of the current concerns addressed by ENIWG was the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board`s Recommendation 93-2. This Recommendation delineated the need for a critical experimental capability, which includes (1) a program of general-purpose experiments, (2) improving the information base, and (3) ongoing departmental programs. The nuclear community also recognizes the importance of criticality theory, which, as a stepping stone to computational analysis and safety code development, needs to be benchmarked against well-characterized critical experiments. A summary project of the Department`s needs with respect to criticality information includes (1) hands-on training, (2) criticality and nuclear data, (3) detector systems, (4) uranium- and plutonium-based reactors, and (5) accident analysis. The Workgroup has evaluated, prioritized, and categorized each proposed experiment and program. Transportation/Applications is a new category intended to cover the areas of storage, training, emergency response, and standards. This category has the highest number of priority-1 experiments (nine). Facilities capable of performing experiments include the Los Alamos Critical Experiment Facility (LACEF) along with Area V at Sandia National Laboratory. The LACEF continues to house the most significant collection of critical assemblies in the Western Hemisphere. The staff of this facility and Area V are trained and certified, and documentation is current. ENIWG will continue to work with the nuclear community to identify and prioritize experiments because there is an overwhelming need for critical experiments to be performed for basic research and code validation.

  18. Updating Linear Schedules with Lowest Cost: a Linear Programming Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biruk, Sławomir; Jaśkowski, Piotr; Czarnigowska, Agata

    2017-10-01

    Many civil engineering projects involve sets of tasks repeated in a predefined sequence in a number of work areas along a particular route. A useful graphical representation of schedules of such projects is time-distance diagrams that clearly show what process is conducted at a particular point of time and in particular location. With repetitive tasks, the quality of project performance is conditioned by the ability of the planner to optimize workflow by synchronizing the works and resources, which usually means that resources are planned to be continuously utilized. However, construction processes are prone to risks, and a fully synchronized schedule may expire if a disturbance (bad weather, machine failure etc.) affects even one task. In such cases, works need to be rescheduled, and another optimal schedule should be built for the changed circumstances. This typically means that, to meet the fixed completion date, durations of operations have to be reduced. A number of measures are possible to achieve such reduction: working overtime, employing more resources or relocating resources from less to more critical tasks, but they all come at a considerable cost and affect the whole project. The paper investigates the problem of selecting the measures that reduce durations of tasks of a linear project so that the cost of these measures is kept to the minimum and proposes an algorithm that could be applied to find optimal solutions as the need to reschedule arises. Considering that civil engineering projects, such as road building, usually involve less process types than construction projects, the complexity of scheduling problems is lower, and precise optimization algorithms can be applied. Therefore, the authors put forward a linear programming model of the problem and illustrate its principle of operation with an example.

  19. Using Program Theory Models in Evaluation of Industrial Modernization Programs: Three Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torvatn, Hans

    1999-01-01

    Uses three case studies from Norwegian industrial modernization programs (a formative evaluation, a summative evaluation, and an additionality analysis) to demonstrate the strengths and weaknesses of an evaluation tool called "chains of reasoning." Chains of reasoning uses text and a graphic image to present program activities and goals.…

  20. Wind for Schools: A Wind Powering America Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Energy, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Wind Powering America program (based at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory) sponsors the Wind for Schools Project to raise awareness in rural America about the benefits of wind energy while simultaneously educating college seniors regarding wind energy applications. The three primary project goals of…

  1. Building America Performance Analysis Procedures for Existing Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2006-05-01

    Building America is investigating the best ways to make existing homes more energy-efficient, based on lessons learned from research in new homes. America program is aiming for a 20%–30% reduction in energy use in existing homes by 2020.

  2. Building America Research Benchmark Definition: Updated December 19, 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendron, R.

    2008-12-01

    To track progress toward aggressive multi-year whole-house energy savings goals of 40-70% and onsite power production of up to 30%, DOE's Residential Buildings Program and NREL developed the Building America Research Benchmark in consultation with the Building America industry teams.

  3. Building America Research Benchmark Definition, Updated December 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendron, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Engebrecht, Cheryn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2010-01-01

    To track progress toward aggressive multi-year, whole-house energy savings goals of 40%–70% and on-site power production of up to 30%, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Residential Buildings Program and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed the Building America (BA) Research Benchmark in consultation with the Building America industry teams.

  4. Policy Influence and Urban Slums in Latin America : Ecohealth ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Policy Influence and Urban Slums in Latin America : Ecohealth International Workshop. IDRC's Ecosystem Approaches to Human Health (Ecohealth) program initiative has been active in Latin America and the Caribbean for the past eight years. Ecohealth recognizes that it is now imperative to systematize the lessons ...

  5. Paralyzed Veterans of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Connected Twitter @PVA1946 Facebook @Paralyzed Veterans of America Instagram @PVA1946 National Veterans Wheelchair Games App Download Now ... 838-7782 CONNECT WITH US Facebook Twitter YouTube Instagram Flickr STAY INFORMED WITH NEWS & UPDATES Enter your ...

  6. Prevent Child Abuse America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... call the police . Crisis and support contacts For Child Abuse Reporting Numbers in your State please visit: Child ... suspected child abuse and neglect. Parent Resources Prevent Child Abuse America (800) CHILDREN A resource for tips, referrals, ...

  7. Higher Education Program Curricula Models in Tourism and Hospitality Education: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotland, Miriam

    2006-01-01

    The relevancy of program curricula in tourism and hospitality education has been called into question by key stakeholders in light of ongoing changes in the multifaceted tourism and hospitality industry. Various program models have been identified. Program content and quality of student preparedness have been debated. Balance and areas of emphasis…

  8. Using the Improvement-Focused Model to Evaluate an Online Teacher Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Lisa M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this evaluation was to determine the effectiveness of an online reading teacher and literacy instructor training program. A mixed-method research design was used in conjunction with the improvement-focused model of program evaluation to help the researcher identify strengths and weaknesses of the program. Overall, data showed the…

  9. Transforming Territories (Latin America) | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project aims to support policies and programs that create greater opportunities and improve the well-being of 900,000 people living in poverty in the rural-urban territories of Chile, Colombia, and Mexico. Poverty in the region Two-thirds of people in Latin America and the Caribbean live in areas that have not ...

  10. Subsistence Farming in Latin America: Media Possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinson, Tom L.

    1978-01-01

    Identifies and discusses potential instructional tools related to subsistence farming in Latin America. Instructional aids discussed include games, films, annotated bibliographies of audiovisual instructional aids, and an innovative program developed by Encyclopaedia Britannica Educational Corporation which allows teachers to construct their own…

  11. A model technology transfer program for independent operators: Kansas Technology Transfer Model (KTTM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoeling, L.G.

    1993-09-01

    This report describes the development and testing of the Kansas Technology Transfer Model (KTTM) which is to be utilized as a regional model for the development of other technology transfer programs for independent operators throughout oil-producing regions in the US. It describes the linkage of the regional model with a proposed national technology transfer plan, an evaluation technique for improving and assessing the model, and the methodology which makes it adaptable on a regional basis. The report also describes management concepts helpful in managing a technology transfer program. The original Tertiary Oil Recovery Project (TORP) activities, upon which the KTTM is based, were developed and tested for Kansas and have proved to be effective in assisting independent operators in utilizing technology. Through joint activities of TORP and the Kansas Geological Survey (KGS), the KTTM was developed and documented for application in other oil-producing regions. During the course of developing this model, twelve documents describing the implementation of the KTTM were developed as deliverables to DOE. These include: (1) a problem identification (PI) manual describing the format and results of six PI workshops conducted in different areas of Kansas, (2) three technology workshop participant manuals on advanced waterflooding, reservoir description, and personal computer applications, (3) three technology workshop instructor manuals which provides instructor material for all three workshops, (4) three technologies were documented as demonstration projects which included reservoir management, permeability modification, and utilization of a liquid-level acoustic measuring device, (5) a bibliography of all literature utilized in the documents, and (6) a document which describes the KTTM.

  12. FMCSA safety program effectiveness measurement : Intervention Model in fiscal year 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    This report presents results from FMCSAs Roadside Intervention Model for fiscal year 2007. The model estimates the number of crashes avoided, as well as injuries avoided and lives saved, as a result of the Agencys roadside inspection program. T...

  13. A generic model for evaluation of the Federal Aviation Administration air traffic control specialist training programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    The Systems Analysis Research Unit at the Civil Aeromedical Institute (CAMI) has developed a generic model for Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Academy training program evaluation. The model will serve as a basis for integrating the total data b...

  14. LDA-Based Unified Topic Modeling for Similar TV User Grouping and TV Program Recommendation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyo, Shinjee; Kim, Eunhui; Kim, Munchurl

    2015-08-01

    Social TV is a social media service via TV and social networks through which TV users exchange their experiences about TV programs that they are viewing. For social TV service, two technical aspects are envisioned: grouping of similar TV users to create social TV communities and recommending TV programs based on group and personal interests for personalizing TV. In this paper, we propose a unified topic model based on grouping of similar TV users and recommending TV programs as a social TV service. The proposed unified topic model employs two latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) models. One is a topic model of TV users, and the other is a topic model of the description words for viewed TV programs. The two LDA models are then integrated via a topic proportion parameter for TV programs, which enforces the grouping of similar TV users and associated description words for watched TV programs at the same time in a unified topic modeling framework. The unified model identifies the semantic relation between TV user groups and TV program description word groups so that more meaningful TV program recommendations can be made. The unified topic model also overcomes an item ramp-up problem such that new TV programs can be reliably recommended to TV users. Furthermore, from the topic model of TV users, TV users with similar tastes can be grouped as topics, which can then be recommended as social TV communities. To verify our proposed method of unified topic-modeling-based TV user grouping and TV program recommendation for social TV services, in our experiments, we used real TV viewing history data and electronic program guide data from a seven-month period collected by a TV poll agency. The experimental results show that the proposed unified topic model yields an average 81.4% precision for 50 topics in TV program recommendation and its performance is an average of 6.5% higher than that of the topic model of TV users only. For TV user prediction with new TV programs, the average

  15. An OpenACC-Based Unified Programming Model for Multi-accelerator Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jungwon [ORNL; Lee, Seyong [ORNL; Vetter, Jeffrey S [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel SPMD programming model of OpenACC. Our model integrates the different granularities of parallelism from vector-level parallelism to node-level parallelism into a single, unified model based on OpenACC. It allows programmers to write programs for multiple accelerators using a uniform programming model whether they are in shared or distributed memory systems. We implement a prototype of our model and evaluate its performance with a GPU-based supercomputer using three benchmark applications.

  16. Satin: A high-level and efficient grid programming model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nieuwpoort, R.V.; Wrzesinska, G.; Jacobs, C.J.H.; Bal, H.E.

    2010-01-01

    Computational grids have an enormous potential to provide compute power. However, this power remains largely unexploited today for most applications, except trivially parallel programs. Developing parallel grid applications simply is too difficult. Grids introduce several problems not encountered

  17. Non-linear nuclear engineering models as genetic programming application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domingos, Roberto P.; Schirru, Roberto; Martinez, Aquilino S.

    1997-01-01

    This work presents a Genetic Programming paradigm and a nuclear application. A field of Artificial Intelligence, based on the concepts of Species Evolution and Natural Selection, can be understood as a self-programming process where the computer is the main agent responsible for the discovery of a program able to solve a given problem. In the present case, the problem was to find a mathematical expression in symbolic form, able to express the existent relation between equivalent ratio of a fuel cell, the enrichment of fuel elements and the multiplication factor. Such expression would avoid repeatedly reactor physics codes execution for core optimization. The results were compared with those obtained by different techniques such as Neural Networks and Linear Multiple Regression. Genetic Programming has shown to present a performance as good as, and under some features superior to Neural Network and Linear Multiple Regression. (author). 10 refs., 8 figs., 1 tabs

  18. Advanced communication system time domain modeling techniques ASYSTD software description. Volume 2: Program support documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    The theoretical basis for the ASYSTD program is discussed in detail. In addition, the extensive bibliography given in this document illustrates some of the extensive work accomplished in the area of time domain simulation. Additions have been in the areas of modeling and language program enhancements, orthogonal transform modeling, error analysis, general filter models, BER measurements, etc. Several models have been developed which utilize the COMSAT generated orthogonal transform algorithms.

  19. Mathematical programming models for classification problems with applications to credit scoring

    OpenAIRE

    Falangis, Konstantinos

    2013-01-01

    Mathematical programming (MP) can be used for developing classification models for the two–group classification problem. An MP model can be used to generate a discriminant function that separates the observations in a training sample of known group membership into the specified groups optimally in terms of a group separation criterion. The simplest models for MP discriminant analysis are linear programming models in which the group separation measure is generally based on th...

  20. South America in a new world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto van Klaveren

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available South American countries participate on the new international stage in very diverse ways, reflecting their different political models and preferences. The big changes that have seriously affected the international system have had a profound impact on South America. The United States are no longer the dominant power in the world, nor in their old backyard, South America. Europe retains a certain role in the area, but the crisis it is undergoing is limiting its influence in the region. Relations between South American counties are increasing, but not within the framework of a single, coherent integration process. China, India, Korea, and other Asian countries are joining Japan’s traditional and always discreet presence in the area, but up to now Asia has confined itself to economic exchanges with South America. In general, South America is consolidating itself as the second-largest emerging region on the planet, after Asia, and is projecting that reality in its international relations.