WorldWideScience

Sample records for america initiative in focus

  1. The Merida Initiative: Security-Surveillance Harmonization in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson Arteaga Botello

    2009-01-01

    This work analyses the Merida Initiative, whose objective is to coordinate the information systems used against terrorism, organized crime, and drug and arms trafficking between the United States, Mexico and Central America. This implies the introduction of communication equipment, data bases and surveillance technology, which not only reinforces the security policies of the ‘western hemisphere’, but also consolidates and broadens the spaces of exception in Mexico and Central America, thus er...

  2. Resilient Cities Initiative on Climate Change in Latin America and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Resilient Cities Initiative on Climate Change in Latin America and the Caribbean ... and Development Knowledge Network will help strengthen decision-making and ... represent a serious threat for fast-growing small- and medium-sized cities. ... guidance on how to integrate gender practices into climate resilient plans for ...

  3. Stroke Prevention in Atrial Fibrillation: Focus on Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayrton R. Massaro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Atrial fibrillation (AF is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia, with an estimated prevalence of 1-2% in North America and Europe. The increased prevalence of AF in Latin America is associated with an ageing general population, along with poor control of key risk factors, including hypertension. As a result, stroke prevalence and associated mortality have increased dramatically in the region. Therefore, the need for effective anticoagulation strategies in Latin America is clear. The aim of this review is to provide a contemporary overview of anticoagulants for stroke prevention. The use of vitamin K antagonists (VKAs, eg, warfarin and aspirin in the prevention of stroke in patients with AF in Latin America remains common, although around one fifth of all AF patients receive no anticoagulation. Warfarin use is complicated by a lack of access to effective monitoring services coupled with an unpredictable pharmacokinetic profile. The overuse of aspirin is associated with significant bleeding risks and reduced efficacy for stroke prevention in this patient group. The non-VKA oral anticoagulants (NOACbs represent a potential means of overcoming many limitations associated with VKA and aspirin use, including a reduction in the need for monitoring and a reduced risk of hemorrhagic events. The ultimate decision of which anticoagulant drug to utilize in AF patients depends on a multitude of factors. More research is needed to appreciate the impact of these factors in the Latin American population and thereby reduce the burden of AF-associated stroke in this region.

  4. The Merida Initiative: Security-Surveillance Harmonization in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Arteaga Botello

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This work analyses the Merida Initiative, whose objective is to coordinate the information systems used against terrorism, organized crime, and drug and arms trafficking between the United States, Mexico and Central America. This implies the introduction of communication equipment, data bases and surveillance technology, which not only reinforces the security policies of the ‘western hemisphere’, but also consolidates and broadens the spaces of exception in Mexico and Central America, thus eroding their already weakened democratic institutions.  Resumen: La Iniciativa Mérida: la armonización de seguridad y vigilancia en América LatinaEl trabajo analiza la Iniciativa Mérida, que tiene por objetivo coordinar los sistemas de información contra el terrorismo, el crimen organizado, el tráfico de drogas y de armas entre Estados Unidos, México y Centroamérica. Esto implica la introducción de equipos de comunicación, bases de datos y tecnología de vigilancia, las que no sólo refuerzan las políticas de seguridad del ‘hemisferio occidental’, sino también consolidan los espacios de excepción en México y Centroamérica, erosionando las ya debilitadas instituciones democráticas.

  5. Robotic-assisted partial Nephrectomy: initial experience in South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo C. Lemos

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE:To report the initial outcomes of robotic-assisted partial nephrectomy in a tertiary center in South America. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From 11/2008 to 12/2009, a total of 16 transperitoneal robotic-assisted partial nephrectomies were performed in 15 patients to treat 18 kidney tumors. One patient with bilateral tumor had two procedures, while two patients with two synchronous unilateral tumors had a single operation to remove them. Eleven (73% patients were male and the right kidney was affected in 7 (46% patients. The median patient age and tumor size were 57 years old and 30 mm, respectively. Five (28% tumors were hilar and/or centrally located. RESULTS: The median operative time, warm ischemia time and estimated blood loss was 140 min, 27 min and 120 mL, respectively. Blood transfusion was required in one patient with bilateral tumor, and one additional pyelolithotomy was performed due to a 15mm stone located in the renal pelvis. The histopathology analysis showed 15 (83% malignant tumors, which 10 (67% were clear cell carcinoma. The median hospital stay was 72 hrs and no major complication was observed. CONCLUSION: Robotic-assisted partial nephrectomy is safe and represents a valuable option to perform minimally invasive nephron-sparing surgery.

  6. Health outcomes among HIV-positive Latinos initiating antiretroviral therapy in North America versus Central and South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesar, Carina; Koethe, John R; Giganti, Mark J; Rebeiro, Peter; Althoff, Keri N; Napravnik, Sonia; Mayor, Angel; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Wolff, Marcelo; Padgett, Denis; Sierra-Madero, Juan; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Sterling, Timothy R; Willig, James; Levison, Julie; Kitahata, Mari; Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria C; Moore, Richard D; McGowan, Catherine; Shepherd, Bryan E; Cahn, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Latinos living with HIV in the Americas share a common ethnic and cultural heritage. In North America, Latinos have a relatively high rate of new HIV infections but lower rates of engagement at all stages of the care continuum, whereas in Latin America antiretroviral therapy (ART) services continue to expand to meet treatment needs. In this analysis, we compare HIV treatment outcomes between Latinos receiving ART in North America versus Latin America. Methods HIV-positive adults initiating ART at Caribbean, Central and South America Network for HIV (CCASAnet) sites were compared to Latino patients (based on country of origin or ethnic identity) starting treatment at North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design (NA-ACCORD) sites in the United States and Canada between 2000 and 2011. Cox proportional hazards models compared mortality, treatment interruption, antiretroviral regimen change, virologic failure and loss to follow-up between cohorts. Results The study included 8400 CCASAnet and 2786 NA-ACCORD patients initiating ART. CCASAnet patients were younger (median 35 vs. 37 years), more likely to be female (27% vs. 20%) and had lower nadir CD4 count (median 148 vs. 195 cells/µL, p<0.001 for all). In multivariable analyses, CCASAnet patients had a higher risk of mortality after ART initiation (adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) 1.61; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.32 to 1.96), particularly during the first year, but a lower hazard of treatment interruption (AHR: 0.46; 95% CI: 0.42 to 0.50), change to second-line ART (AHR: 0.56; 95% CI: 0.51 to 0.62) and virologic failure (AHR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.48 to 0.57). Conclusions HIV-positive Latinos initiating ART in Latin America have greater continuity of treatment but are at higher risk of death than Latinos in North America. Factors underlying these differences, such as HIV testing, linkage and access to care, warrant further investigation. PMID:26996992

  7. Ethical issues in genetics and public health in Latin America with a focus on Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penchaszadeh, Victor B

    2015-07-01

    This paper reviews the health situation and developments in medical genetics and bioethics in Latin America, with a focus on Argentina. The region is the most inequitable in the world, with an average Gini Index of 52.5 and 25 % of the population living in poverty. Health expenditures are low and health systems are fragmented and privatised, with curtailed governmental responsibility and regulation. Health-care decision making is mostly in the hands of private insurance corporations and the medical-industrial complex, so that what is (or is not) covered by health plans is arbitrary and determined by the market and not by population health needs. This inequity and the lack of meaningful governmental intervention in the provision of health care, including genetic services, are at the heart of the bioethical dilemmas in Latin America. It is not surprising, therefore, that bioethics in the region has developed an approach grounded in social justice, equity and human rights as guiding principles, in contrast to the individualism espoused by Anglo-Saxon bioethics. The main ethical issues identified in genetics in Latin America are (1) inequity in access to genetic services, particularly in prenatal diagnosis, (2) genetic discrimination and (3) the lack of adherence to internationally accepted requisites of clinical validity and utility for diagnostic and predictive genetic testing. In this context, there is a risk that the impressive advances in genetics/genomics occurring in developed countries may fail to improve the public's health and deepen inequity, with the implementation of expensive genetic technologies of unproven validity.

  8. ACHP | Summary of the Preserve America Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Initiative Preserve America: Explore and Enjoy Our Heritage (logo) Summary of the Preserve America Initiative Preserve America is a White House initiative that encourages and supports community efforts to preserve and enjoy our priceless cultural and natural heritage. The goals of the initiative include a greater shared

  9. Cable Diagnostic Focused Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartlein, R.A.; Hampton, R.N.

    2010-12-30

    This report summarizes an extensive effort made to understand how to effectively use the various diagnostic technologies to establish the condition of medium voltage underground cable circuits. These circuits make up an extensive portion of the electric delivery infrastructure in the United States. Much of this infrastructure is old and experiencing unacceptable failure rates. By deploying efficient diagnostic testing programs, electric utilities can replace or repair circuits that are about to fail, providing an optimal approach to improving electric system reliability. This is an intrinsically complex topic. Underground cable systems are not homogeneous. Cable circuits often contain multiple branches with different cable designs and a range of insulation materials. In addition, each insulation material ages differently as a function of time, temperature and operating environment. To complicate matters further, there are a wide variety of diagnostic technologies available for assessing the condition of cable circuits with a diversity of claims about the effectiveness of each approach. As a result, the benefits of deploying cable diagnostic testing programs have been difficult to establish, leading many utilities to avoid the their use altogether. This project was designed to help address these issues. The information provided is the result of a collaborative effort between Georgia Tech NEETRAC staff, Georgia Tech academic faculty, electric utility industry participants, as well as cable system diagnostic testing service providers and test equipment providers. Report topics include: •How cable systems age and fail, •The various technologies available for detecting potential failure sites, •The advantages and disadvantages of different diagnostic technologies, •Different approaches for utilities to employ cable system diagnostics. The primary deliverables of this project are this report, a Cable Diagnostic Handbook (a subset of this report) and an online

  10. Instructional Media Initiatives: Focusing on the Educational Resources Center at Thirteen/wnet, New York, New York-- Slavery and the Making of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donlevy, Jim

    2005-01-01

    Slavery and the Making of America, a four-part series from PBS, is airing throughout the United States during February 2005. This landmark series examines the history of slavery in the United States and the significant role it played in shaping the development of the Nation. This article describes the series, including online resources, and…

  11. Promising Practices in Citywide Afterschool Initiatives. CityWorks: Focus on Infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Georgia

    This brief is the first in a series featuring promising practices in city-wide after-school initiatives, with a focus at the infrastructure level, focusing on the infrastructure representing the underlying elements or framework that hold a system or initiative together. The brief identifies practices to support the public relations function and…

  12. Treatment and prevention of malnutrition in Latin America: focus on Chile and Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisstaub, Gerardo; Aguilar, Ana Maria; Uauy, Ricardo

    2014-06-01

    Seven million children under 5 years of age died worldwide in 2011, and one-third had malnutrition. Latin America and Caribbean countries stand out for the notable improvement of their health and nutrition situation, particularly in pregnant women and young children. Nutrition-sensitive interventions such as promoting food security, women's empowerment, social safety nets, clean water, and sanitation, among others, are critical for success. In Bolivia, the program Desnutrición Cero (Malnutrition Zero) was able to reduce mortality from severe malnutrition after 5 years from 25% to less than 5%, based on widespread implementation of the World Health Organization 10-steps protocol for hospitalized care and the application of community management. The Economic Commission for Latin America estimated the cost of malnutrition for Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, and the Dominican Republic as US $6,658 million. Approximately 1 million children have dropped out of school because of malnutrition, and as a result, malnourished children have 2 years less schooling, which brings social and economic losses not only to those affected but to society at large. National and international nutrition and food programs developed over the past 50 years have been implemented as integral components of broader strategies of primary healthcare and education, oriented toward preventing deaths and improving the quality of life of low-socioeconomic-status groups. Treating hundreds or thousands of affected children will not solve the global public health problem of malnutrition. Access to adequate amounts of quality foods represents a basic human right and is a necessary precondition for health. In turn, good nutrition and health are prerequisites for human, social, and economic development.

  13. National Genome Research Initiative: A New Paradigm For Teaching Research To Undergraduates In South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Ovalle

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: From 2007 to 2011, the Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI recruited professors across the US to test a new paradigm in undergraduate education: the National Genome Research Initiative (NGRI. Undergraduates were taught to isolate bacteriophages, characterize their findings, and report to the scientific community.Objective: The educational goal of the NGRI program was to expose science undergraduates to an authentic research experience to increase graduation rates. The scientific goal was to isolate mycobacteriophages to be used as therapeutic agents against disease-causing mycobacteria.Materials and Methods: In a one-semester lab course undergraduates are taught to find, grow, and purify bacteriophages. In the second semester, students use bioinformatic software to annotate sequences of their bacteriophages.Results: Ahead of data on student graduation rates, the NGRI program has generated expanded productivity for US undergraduates. Over a four year period, thousands of participants were taught to collect bacteriophages, annotate sequences, and present their findings. Those undergraduates will have isolated 2300+ phages, annotated 250+ sequences, presented hundreds of posters at conferences across the US, and are co-authors on papers published by labs participating in the NGRI program.Discussion: Many professors in the US academic community are convinced that the NGRI program will have lasting impact on the US educational system. Several professors have banded together to form the Phage Galaxy Consortium to continue HHMI’s goal of implementation of the NGRI program at all US colleges.Conclusions: HHMI’s paradigm is ready for distribution to Central and South America.

  14. Time to HAART Initiation after Diagnosis and Treatment of Opportunistic Infections in Patients with AIDS in Latin America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Crabtree-Ramírez

    Full Text Available Since 2009, earlier initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART after an opportunistic infection (OI has been recommended based on lower risks of death and AIDS-related progression found in clinical trials. Delay in HAART initiation after OIs may be an important barrier for successful outcomes in patients with advanced disease. Timing of HAART initiation after an OI in "real life" settings in Latin America has not been evaluated.Patients in the Caribbean, Central and South America network for HIV Epidemiology (CCASAnet ≥18 years of age at enrolment, from 2001-2012 who had an OI before HAART initiation were included. Patients were divided in an early HAART (EH group (those initiating within 4 weeks of an OI and a delayed HAART (DH group (those initiating more than 4 weeks after an OI. All patients with an AIDS-defining OI were included. In patients with more than one OI the first event reported was considered. Calendar trends in the proportion of patients in the EH group (before and after 2009 were estimated by site and for the whole cohort. Factors associated with EH were estimated using multivariable logistic regression models.A total of 1457 patients had an OI before HAART initiation and were included in the analysis: 213 from Argentina, 686 from Brazil, 283 from Chile, 119 from Honduras and 156 from Mexico. Most prevalent OI were Tuberculosis (31%, followed by Pneumocystis pneumonia (24%, Invasive Candidiasis (16% and Toxoplasmosis (9%. Median time from OI to HAART initiation decreased significantly from 5.7 (interquartile range [IQR] 2.8-12.1 weeks before 2009 to 4.3 (IQR 2.0-7.1 after 2009 (p<0.01. Factors associated with starting HAART within 4 weeks of OI diagnosis were lower CD4 count at enrolment (p-<0.001, having a non-tuberculosis OI (p<0.001, study site (p<0.001, and more recent years of OI diagnosis (p<0.001.The time from diagnosis of an OI to HAART initiation has decreased in Latin America coinciding with the

  15. DRIVERS OF E-GOVERNMENT MATURITY IN TWO DEVELOPING REGIONS: FOCUS ON LATIN AMERICA AND SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Princely Ifinedo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This research focuses on the determinants of e-government (E-gov maturity in two comparable regions of the world i.e. Latin America and Sub-Saharan Africa (LA&SSA. E-gov maturity refers to the growth levels in a country’s online services and its citizens’ online participation in governance. To date, few researchers have focused on the determinants of E-gov maturity in LA&SSA. Given the challenges faced by LA&SSA with regard to the implementations and deployment of technological innovations including E-gov, research such as this current one is needed to enrich insight in such contexts. Building on a prior framework and the modernization theory, the impacts of macro-environmental factors of political, economic, social, and technological dimensions on E-gov maturity in LA&SSA are examined. A 5-year panel data consisting of 160 observations or data points was used for analysis in conjunction with structural equation modeling. The data analysis underscored the pertinence of some of the factors on E-gov maturity in LA&SSA. The implications of the study’s findings for research and policy making are discussed.

  16. Space conference of the americas: an initiative for space collaboration in the pan-american continent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocampo, A.; Aleman, B.; Arevalo, C.; Camacho, S.; Fea, M.; Canutto, V.; Gonzalez, R.; Laffaiteur, M.

    The Space Conference of the Americas was created as an effort to facilitate dialogue and foment collaboration in the field of space in the Americas. The aim of these conferences is to promote cooperation in the areas of space science and space technology for peaceful uses of space among the Pan-American countries to contribute to the economic and social development plans of countries in the region of the Americas and to improve the quality of life of its citizens. The participants in the Conference includedrepresentatives from governments, space agencies, research institutes, academia, NGOs and industry, from within and outside the region. Four conferences have being organized with the stewardship of the United Nations Office of Outer Space Affairs and co-sponsored by the European Space Agency. The first "Space Conference of the Americas (CEA): Prospects in Cooperation," was held in San Jose, Costa Rica March 1990, the second CEA was held in Santiago, Chile in April 1993, the third CEA was held in Montevideo, Uruguay in November 1996 and the fourth CEA in Cartagena, Colombia in May 2002. A Pro-tempore Secretariat (SPT) is created at each of these events and resides in the conference host country. The current SPT is located in Colombia and is responsible for maintaining continuity and promoting the implementation of the recommendations contained in the Plan of Action of the Conference and projects proposed at the IVCEA. A web site for the IVCEA can be found at http://www.minrelext.gov.co/ivcea/ A summary of the activities being developed by the Pro-tempore Secretariat for the IVCEA will be discussed. These conferences have acted as catalyst to bring about cohesion of space activities for the region. One example is the "Declaration of Santiago" that brought about the formulation of a Chilean civil space agency that is now being established. These regional efforts can prove to be critical for the development of the region and for bridging the gap between developing

  17. Assistance Focus: Latin America/Caribbean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-03-29

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center, an initiative of the Clean Energy Ministerial, helps countries throughout the world create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. Through the Solutions Center's no-cost 'Ask an Expert' service, a team of international experts has delivered assistance to countries in all regions of the world. High-impact examples from the Latin American/Caribbean region are featured here.

  18. Assistance Focus: Latin America and the Caribbean Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-05-17

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center, an initiative of the Clean Energy Ministerial, helps countries throughout the world create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. Through the Solutions Center's no-cost Ask an Expert service, a team of international experts has delivered assistance to countries in all regions of the world, including Latin America and the Caribbean.

  19. Focus: global currents in national histories of science: the "global turn" and the history of science in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCook, Stuart

    2013-12-01

    The "global turn" in the history of science offers new ways to think about how to do national and regional histories of science, in this case the history of science in Latin America. For example, it questions structuralist and diffusionist models of the spread of science and shows the often active role that people in Latin America (and the rest of the Global South) played in the construction of "universal" scientific knowledge. It suggests that even national or regional histories of science must be situated in a global context; all too often, such histories have treated global processes as a distant backdrop. At the same time, historians need to pay constant attention to the role of power in the construction of scientific knowledge. Finally, this essay highlights a methodological tool for writing globally inflected histories of science: the method of "following".

  20. Quality-improvement initiatives focused on enhancing customer service in the outpatient pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulin, Tenley J; Bain, Kevin T; Balderose, Bonnie K

    2015-09-01

    The development and implementation of quality-improvement initiatives to enhance customer service in an outpatient pharmacy of a Veterans Affairs (VA) medical center are described. Historically low customer service satisfaction rates with the outpatient pharmacy at the Philadelphia Veterans Affairs Medical Center prompted this quality-improvement project. A three-question survey was designed to be easily and quickly administered to veterans in the outpatient pharmacy waiting area. Using 5-point Likert scale, veterans were asked to rate (1) their overall experience with the outpatient pharmacy service and (2) their satisfaction with the customer service provided by the pharmacy department. They were also asked how they thought the pharmacy department could improve its customer service. After receiving feedback from the survey, several quality-improvement initiatives were developed. The initiatives were categorized as environmental, personnel, communicative, and technological. For each initiative, one or more tasks were developed and the initiatives were subsequently implemented over eight months. After each task was completed, veterans were surveyed to measure the impact of the change. A total of 79 veterans were surveyed before the implementation of the quality-improvement initiatives, and 49% and 68% rated their experience with the outpatient pharmacy and customer service favorably, respectively. Twenty-five veterans were surveyed after the implementation of numerous quality-improvement interventions, with 44% and 72% rating their experience with the outpatient pharmacy and customer service favorably. Customer service satisfaction with an outpatient pharmacy service at a VA medical center was enhanced through the implementation of various quality-improvement initiatives. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Peer Mentoring for Undergraduates in a Research-Focused Diversity Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Thomas E.; Logan, Kay; Lindwall, Jennifer; Beals, Caitlyn

    2017-01-01

    To provide multi-dimensional support for undergraduates from traditionally underrepresented backgrounds who aspire to careers in research, the BUILD EXITO project, part of a major NIH-funded diversity initiative, matches each scholar with three mentors: peer mentor (advanced student), career mentor (faculty adviser), and research mentor (research…

  2. Progress and challenges in implementing HIV care and treatment policies in Latin America following the treatment 2.0 initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Freddy; Gomez, Bertha; Ravasi, Giovanni; Ghidinelli, Massimo

    2015-12-19

    The Pan American Health Organization provides technical cooperation to countries in Latin America and the Caribbean for the scale-up of HIV care and treatment based on the Treatment 2.0 initiative. Fourteen Joint Review Missions (JRMs) were conducted between March 2012 and October 2014. Evaluating the degree of implementation of the recommendations of the JRMs and their impact on health policies, would help countries identify their gaps and areas for priority interventions. A descriptive analysis of the JRM recommendations was conducted for eight countries. An in-depth cross-sectional retrospective analysis of the degree of implementation of these recommendations in Ecuador, Venezuela, Bolivia, and El Salvador was performed through a standardized self-administered questionnaire applied to key informants. A comparative quantitative analysis on the optimization of antiretroviral regimens 'before/after' JRMs was conducted in three of the latter four countries, using data reported in 2013 and 2014. The priority areas with most recommendations were the optimization of antiretroviral treatment (ART) regimens (n = 57), the rational and efficient use of resources (n = 27) and the provision of point-of-care diagnostics and monitoring tools (n = 26), followed by community mobilization (n = 23), strategic information (n = 17) and the adaptation of delivery services (n = 15). The in-depth analysis in four countries showed that the two priority areas where most progress was observed were the rational and efficient use of resources (62%) and the optimization of ART regimens (60%). Adaptation of delivery services, community mobilization and strategic information were rated at 52% and the provision of point-of-care diagnostics and monitoring tools 38%. The quantitative analysis on optimization evidenced a 36% reduction in the number of first-line and second-line ART regimens, a 5.4% increase in the proportion of patients on WHO-recommended first-line regimens, a 19.4% increase in

  3. Cofimvaba: Innovative and systemic technology application in rural, education focused, agri-based development initiatives

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Rensburg, J

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this presentation the author shares current learning on the use of more targeted and systemic ICT for development as well as broader technology for development education and LED-focused interventions in the science, engineering and technology...

  4. Cross-Sectional Analysis of Late HAART Initiation in Latin America and the Caribbean: Late Testers and Late Presenters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabtree-Ramírez, Brenda; Caro-Vega, Yanink; Shepherd, Bryan E.; Wehbe, Firas; Cesar, Carina; Cortés, Claudia; Padgett, Denis; Koenig, Serena; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Cahn, Pedro; McGowan, Catherine; Masys, Daniel; Sierra-Madero, Juan

    2011-01-01

    Background Starting HAART in a very advanced stage of disease is assumed to be the most prevalent form of initiation in HIV-infected subjects in developing countries. Data from Latin America and the Caribbean is still lacking. Our main objective was to determine the frequency, risk factors and trends in time for being late HAART initiator (LHI) in this region. Methodology Cross-sectional analysis from 9817 HIV-infected treatment-naïve patients initiating HAART at 6 sites (Argentina, Chile, Haiti, Honduras, Peru and Mexico) from October 1999 to July 2010. LHI had CD4+ count ≤200cells/mm3 prior to HAART. Late testers (LT) were those LHI who initiated HAART within 6 months of HIV diagnosis. Late presenters (LP) initiated after 6 months of diagnosis. Prevalence, risk factors and trends over time were analyzed. Principal Findings Among subjects starting HAART (n = 9817) who had baseline CD4+ available (n = 8515), 76% were LHI: Argentina (56%[95%CI:52–59]), Chile (80%[95%CI:77–82]), Haiti (76%[95%CI:74–77]), Honduras (91%[95%CI:87–94]), Mexico (79%[95%CI:75–83]), Peru (86%[95%CI:84–88]). The proportion of LHI statistically changed over time (except in Honduras) (p≤0.02; Honduras p = 0.7), with a tendency towards lower rates in recent years. Males had increased risk of LHI in Chile, Haiti, Peru, and in the combined site analyses (CSA). Older patients were more likely LHI in Argentina and Peru (OR 1.21 per +10-year of age, 95%CI:1.02–1.45; OR 1.20, 95%CI:1.02–1.43; respectively), but not in CSA (OR 1.07, 95%CI:0.94–1.21). Higher education was associated with decreased risk for LHI in Chile (OR 0.92 per +1-year of education, 95%CI:0.87–0.98) (similar trends in Mexico, Peru, and CSA). LHI with date of HIV-diagnosis available, 55% were LT and 45% LP. Conclusion LHI was highly prevalent in CCASAnet sites, mostly due to LT; the main risk factors associated were being male and older age. Earlier HIV-diagnosis and earlier treatment initiation

  5. [Health-Promoting Schools Regional Initiative of the Americas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ippolito-Shepherd, Josefa; Cerqueira, Maria Teresa; Ortega, Diana Patricia

    2005-01-01

    In Latin America, comprehensive health promotion programmes and activities are being implemented in the school setting, which take into account the conceptual framework of the Health-Promoting Schools Regional Initiative of the Pan American Health Organization, Regional office of the World Health Organization (PAHO/WHO). These programmes help to strengthen the working relationships between the health and education sectors. The Health-Promoting Schools Regional Initiative, officially launched by PAHO/WHO in 1995, aims to form future generations to have the knowledge, abilities, and skills necessary for promoting and caring for their health and that of their family and community, as well as to create and maintain healthy environments and communities. The Initiative focuses on three main components: comprehensive health education, the creation and maintenance of healthy physical and psychosocial environments, and the access to health and nutrition services, mental health, and active life. In 2001, PAHO conducted a survey in 19 Latin American countries to assess the status and trends of Health-Promoting Schools in the Region, for the appropriate regional, subregional, and national planning of pertinent health promotion and health education programmes and activities. The results of this survey provided information about policies and national plans, multisectoral coordination mechanisms for the support of health promotion in the school settings, the formation and participation in national and international networks of Health-Promoting Schools and about the level of dissemination of the strategy. For the successful development of Health-Promoting Schools is essential to involve the society as a whole, in order to mobilise human resources and materials necessary for implementing health promotion in the school settings. Thus, the constitution and consolidation of networks has been a facilitating mechanism for the exchange of ideas, resources and experiences to strengthen

  6. Mixed Waste Focus Area - Waste form initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakaoka, R.; Waters, R.; Pohl, P.; Roach, J.

    1998-01-01

    The mission of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) is to provide acceptable technologies that enable implementation of mixed waste treatment systems which are developed in partnership with end-users, stakeholders, tribal governments, and regulators. To accomplish this mission, a technical baseline was established in 1996 and revised in 1997. The technical baseline forms the basis for determining which technology development activities will be supported by the MWFA. The primary attribute of the technical baseline is a set of prioritized technical deficiencies or roadblocks related to implementation of mixed waste treatment systems. The Waste Form Initiative (WFI) was established to address an identified technical deficiency related to waste form performance. The primary goal of the WFI was to ensure that the mixed low-level waste (MLLW) treatment technologies being developed, currently used, or planned for use by DOE would produce final waste forms that meet the waste acceptance criteria (WAC) of the existing and/or planned MLLW disposal facilities. The WFI was limited to an evaluation of the disposal requirements for the radioactive component of MLLW. Disposal requirements for the hazardous component are dictated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and were not addressed. This paper summarizes the technical basis, strategy, and results of the activities performed as part of the WFI

  7. Robotic-assisted modified retroauricular cervical approach: initial experience in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chulam, Thiago Celestino; Lira, Renan Bezerra; Kowalski, Luiz Paulo

    2016-01-01

    to evaluate the thickness of the gastric wall at the time of intra gastric balloon (IGB) placement, at the time of its withdrawal and one month after withdrawal. fifteen morbidly obese patients underwent the introduction of IGB under general anesthesia. In all patients, there was infusion of 500ml of distilled water in the balloon for the test. Measurements of the thickness of the gastric wall were made in the antrum, body and proximal body, using a radial echoendoscope with a frequency of 12MHz and maximum zoom, and its own balloon inflated with 5ml of distilled water. the presence of IGB led to increased wall thickness of the gastric body by expanding the muscle layer. These changes were apparently transient, since 30 days after the balloon withdrawal there was a tendency to return of the wall thickness values ​​observed before the balloon insertion. the use of intragastric balloon for the treatment of obesity determines transient increase in the wall thickness of the gastric body caused by expanded muscle layer. A preocupação com a melhoria dos resultados estéticos e funcionais sem comprometimento dos resultados oncológicos na cirurgia de cabeça e pescoço tem aumentado significativamente. Os procedimentos minimamente invasivos e principalmente aqueles que utilizam a tecnologia robótica permitiram o desenvolvimento de novas abordagens, incluindo o acesso retroauricular, que agora é usado rotineiramente, especialmente na Coréia do Sul. A presente nota irá ilustrar a técnica e a experiência inicial na América Latina, demonstrando que esta abordagem é viável, segura e eficaz oncologicamente, podendo ser utilizada em casos selecionados com um benefício estético evidente.

  8. Energy market integration in South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammons, T.J.; Franco, N. de; Sbertoli, L.V.; Khelil, C.; Rudnick, H.; Clerici, A.; Longhi, A.

    1997-01-01

    This article is a summary of presentations made during the 1997 Winter Meeting panel session on Power and Natural Gas in Latin America: Towards an Integrated Market. Reregulation and demand for energy resources to support economic growth are driving international natural gas and electricity exchange initiatives. Panelists focused on the gas and electric power industry in Latin America in terms of the: transport of gas or transmission of electricity; energy market integration in the southern cone of South America; and issues on gas use for electricity generation in South America countries. Countries such as Argentina, Bolivia, and Peru will export natural gas to Brazil, Uruguay, Paraguay and Chile, an the energy matrices of these countries will change

  9. FOCUS: the Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists' initiative to improve quality and safety in the cardiovascular operating room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbeito, Atilio; Lau, William Travis; Weitzel, Nathaen; Abernathy, James H; Wahr, Joyce; Mark, Jonathan B

    2014-10-01

    The Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists (SCA) introduced the FOCUS initiative (Flawless Operative Cardiovascular Unified Systems) in 2005 in response to the need for a rigorous scientific approach to improve quality and safety in the cardiovascular operating room (CVOR). The goal of the project, which is supported by the SCA Foundation, is to identify hazards and develop evidence-based protocols to improve cardiac surgery safety. A hazard is anything that has the potential to cause a preventable adverse event. Specifically, the strategic plan of FOCUS includes 3 goals: (1) identifying hazards in the CVOR, (2) prioritizing hazards and developing risk-reduction interventions, and (3) disseminating these interventions. Collectively, the FOCUS initiative, through the work of several groups composed of members from different disciplines such as clinical medicine, human factors engineering, industrial psychology, and organizational sociology, has identified and documented significant hazards occurring daily in our CVORs. Some examples of frequent occurrences that contribute to reduce the safety and quality of care provided to cardiac surgery patients include deficiencies in teamwork, poor OR design, incompatible technologies, and failure to adhere to best practices. Several projects are currently under way that are aimed at better understanding these hazards and developing interventions to mitigate them. The SCA, through the FOCUS initiative, has begun this journey of science-driven improvement in quality and safety. There is a long and arduous road ahead, but one we need to continue to travel.

  10. Energy, Economic, and Environmental Benefits of the Solar America Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grover, S.

    2007-08-01

    The President's Solar America Initiative (SAI) was launched in January 2006 as part of the administration's Advanced Energy Initiative. The SAI is being led by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Solar Energy Technologies Program (SETP), with NREL providing analytical and technical support. The SAI has a goal of installing 5-10 GW of photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States by 2015 and 70-100 GW of PV systems in the United States by 2030. To make PV cost-competitive with other energy resources, this requires that the installed cost of PV fall from approximately $8/Wdc in 2005 to $3.3/Wdc in 2015 and $2.5/Wdc in 2030. This report presents estimates of the potential energy, economic, and environmental benefits that could result should the SAI PV installation goals be achieved.

  11. Review on the worldwide regulatory framework for biosimilars focusing on the Mexican case as an emerging market in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra-Cabrera, Ricardo; Mena-Pérez, Sandra Carolina; Bondani-Guasti, Augusto; García-Arrazola, Roeb

    2013-12-01

    The global biopharmaceutical market is worth over $100 billion USD. Nearly 90% of these products will lose their patent in the next ten years, leading to the commercialization of their subsequent versions, known as 'biosimilars'. Biosimilars are much more complex molecules than chemically synthesized generics in terms of size, structure, stability, microheterogeneity, manufacture, etc. Therefore, a specific regulatory framework is needed in order to demonstrate their comparability with innovative products, as well as their quality, safety and efficacy. The EU published the first regulatory pathway in 2005 and has approved 14 biosimilars. Mexico has recently developed a clear regulatory pathway for these products. Their legal basis was established in Article 222 Bis of General Law of Health in 2009, clear specifications in the Regulation for Health Goods in 2011, and further requirements in the Mexican Official Norm NOM-EM-001-SSA1-2012. The aim of this review is to summarize the regulatory pathways for biosimilars in the world with a special focus on Mexican experience, so as contribute to the development of regulations in other countries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A position paper on how cost and quality reforms are changing healthcare in America: focus on nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Barry S; Maddox, P J; Ray, Nancy

    2013-11-01

    Healthcare spending in the United States is the highest in the world, yet quality indicators such as life expectancy and infant mortality lag other countries. U.S. reforms are under way to lower costs and raise quality of care, notably the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA). Value-based purchasing (VBP) and programs for reducing the incidence of hospital-acquired conditions (HACs) and hospital readmissions represent initial changes. With these programs, overarching themes are to coordinate care during and beyond hospitalization and to ensure that physicians and hospitals are aligned in their treatment strategies. Hospital malnutrition represents a large, hidden, and costly component of medical care; hospital administrators and caregivers alike must harness the benefits of nutrition as a vital component of healthcare. Medical, nursing, and allied health training programs must find places in their curricula to increase awareness of nutrition and promote knowledge of best-practice nutrition interventions. Hospitals use dietitians and nutrition support teams as critical members of the patient care team, but more work needs to be done to disseminate and enforce best nutrition practices. Such training, nutrition interventions, and practice changes can help prevent and treat malnutrition and thus help avert HACs, reduce hospital readmissions, lower infection and complication rates, and shorten hospital stays. Nutrition care is an effective way to reduce costs and improve patient outcomes. This article calls hospital executives and bedside clinicians to action: recognize the value of nutrition care before, during, and after hospitalization, as well as develop training programs and policies that promote nutrition care.

  13. Togetherness in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Jan Knippers

    1984-01-01

    There is a growing unacknowledged reality to the oneness of America. Latin America is increasingly sharing not only the blessings of U.S.-style modernization, but its demons as well. Also, many problems that have long plagued Latin America, e.g., indebtedness and militarism, are becoming more apparent in the United States. (RM)

  14. Small-scale bioenergy initiatives: brief description and preliminary lessons on livelihood impacts from case studies in Asia, Latin America and Afica. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-01-15

    Fifteen case studies from Africa, Asia, and Latin America were undertaken to assess the impacts that different types of local-level bioenergy initiatives can have on rural livelihoods. The report concludes with preliminary lessons and recommendations for further work.

  15. America’s Shadow Warriors on a Mission to Kill Pablo: Focus on Special Operations Forces in Light of Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-04-19

    in 1999-2000. However, Bowden gets lots of Colombia-specific details right to those familiar with the country, even the Hotel Tequendama. He...teams sent there in the 1960’s. Clancy/Stiner state that with SF help, “La violencia ” in Colombia ended. Although Colombia experienced a

  16. A new endemic focus of Chagas disease in the northern region of Veraguas Province, Western Half Panama, Central America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azael Saldaña

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chagas disease was originally reported in Panama in 1931. Currently, the best knowledge of this zoonosis is restricted to studies done in historically endemic regions. However, little is known about the distribution and epidemiology of Chagas disease in other rural areas of the country. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out between May 2005 - July 2008 in four rural communities of the Santa Fe District, Veraguas Province. The study included an entomologic search to collect triatomines, bloodmeal type identification and infection rate with trypanosomes in collected vectors using a dot- blot and PCR analysis, genotyping of circulating Trypanosoma cruzi (mini-exon gene PCR analysis and the detection of chagasic antibodies among inhabitants. The vector Rhodnius pallescens was more frequently found in La Culaca and El Pantano communities (788 specimens, where it was a sporadic household visitor. These triatomines presented darker coloration and larger sizescompared with typical specimens collected in Central Panama. Triatoma dimidiata was more common in Sabaneta de El Macho (162 specimens. In one small sub-region (El Macho, 60% of the houses were colonized by this vector. Of the examined R. pallescens, 54.7.0% (88/161 had fed on Didelphis marsupialis, and 24.6% (34/138 of T. dimidiata specimens collected inside houses were positive for human blood. R. pallescens presented an infection index with T. cruzi of 17.7% (24/136, with T. rangeli of 12.5% (17/136 and 50.7% (69/136 were mixed infections. In 117 T. dimidiata domestic specimens the infection index with T. cruzi was 21.4%. Lineage I of T. cruzi was confirmed circulating in these vectors. A T. cruzi infection seroprevalence of 2.3% (24/1,056 was found in this population. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of Chagas disease endemicity in Santa Fe District, and it should be considered a neglected public health problem in this area of Panama.

  17. Identifying the role of initial wave parameters on tsunami focusing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydın, Baran

    2018-04-01

    Unexpected local tsunami amplification, which is referred to as tsunami focusing, is attributed to two different mechanisms: bathymetric features of the ocean bottom such as underwater ridges and dipolar shape of the initial wave itself. In this study, we characterize the latter; that is, we explore how amplitude and location of the focusing point vary with certain geometric parameters of the initial wave such as its steepness and crest length. Our results reveal two important features of tsunami focusing: for mild waves maximum wave amplitude increases significantly with transverse length of wave crest, while location of the focusing point is almost invariant. For steep waves, on the other hand, increasing crest length dislocates focusing point significantly, while it causes a rather small increase in wave maximum.

  18. Rabies in the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabies in the Americas Search this site Welcome Previous Meetings Steering Committee Contact Sitemap Welcome The Rabies in the Americas (RITA) meeting is an annual event that has been held since 1990 managers of rabies programs, wildlife biologists, laboratory personnel and other people interested in

  19. The role of providers in implementation of the National Kidney Foundation-Dialysis Outcomes Quality Initiative: Fresenius Medical Care North America perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, J M; Wick, G; Borella, L

    1999-01-01

    This is a brief review of the history of utilization of quality indicators by a major dialysis provider and how those indicators have been modified in response to the National Kidney Foundation-Dialysis Outcomes Quality Initiative (NKF-DOQI). Fresenius Medical Care North America (FMCNA) has monitored adequacy of dialysis, anemia management, and nutrition therapy for a number of years, using a self-directed continuous quality improvement program. FMCNA supports the NKF-DOQI Guidelines and has used the DOQI as it continues to enhance its patient quality care program. Specific goals and action thresholds of that program are delineated.

  20. Lessons learned from the application of a participatory evaluation methodology to healthy municipalities, cities and communities initiatives in selected countries of the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Marilyn; Franceschini, Maria Cristina

    2007-01-01

    Health promotion has made significant strides in the past few decades in the Americas. Creating a healthy and supportive setting, also known as the settings approach, continues to be one of the most widely used health promotion strategies. Interest in evaluating the effectiveness of these strategies has been increasing greatly in the past few years. Participatory evaluation holds great promise for helping to generate this evidence and promote understanding of the factors that affect, positively or negatively, the advances of health promotion in the Region. During 2004-2006, a Participatory Evaluation methodology was introduced into several countries in the Americas through formal trainings conducted by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) in collaboration with country partners. This article summarizes the main lessons learned from the application of the participatory evaluation methodology in various countries in Latin America and the Caribbean. Factors affecting the evaluation of the initiatives were identified at multiple levels (individual, community, organizational, political, economic, etc.). Specific issues that were addressed included the political context, turnover of personnel in key institutions, concerns related to the effectiveness of participatory processes, and the existence of strong and sustained leadership at the country level. These factors are intertwined and affect each other in very complex ways, a fact that was reflected in the municipalities' experiences with participatory evaluation. Challenges included the ability to secure resources for the evaluation, the time needed to conclude the process, and working in an intersectoral manner. However, participating municipalities reported that the process of implementing a participatory evaluation and working with various stakeholders had an empowering effect: communities and stakeholders were more willing and interested in participating in health promotion initiatives in a sustained manner

  1. Applying Diagnostics to Enhance Cable System Reliability (Cable Diagnostic Focused Initiative, Phase II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartlein, Rick [Georgia Tech Research Corporation (GTRC), Atlanta, GA (United States). National Electric Energy Testing, Research and Applications Center (NEETRAC); Hampton, Nigel [Georgia Tech Research Corporation (GTRC), Atlanta, GA (United States). National Electric Energy Testing, Research and Applications Center (NEETRAC); Perkel, Josh [Georgia Tech Research Corporation (GTRC), Atlanta, GA (United States). National Electric Energy Testing, Research and Applications Center (NEETRAC); Hernandez, JC [Univ. de Los Andes, Merida (Venezuela); Elledge, Stacy [Georgia Tech Research Corporation (GTRC), Atlanta, GA (United States). National Electric Energy Testing, Research and Applications Center (NEETRAC); del Valle, Yamille [Georgia Tech Research Corporation (GTRC), Atlanta, GA (United States). National Electric Energy Testing, Research and Applications Center (NEETRAC); Grimaldo, Jose [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Deku, Kodzo [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering

    2016-02-01

    The Cable Diagnostic Focused Initiative (CDFI) played a significant and powerful role in clarifying the concerns and understanding the benefits of performing diagnostic tests on underground power cable systems. This project focused on the medium and high voltage cable systems used in utility transmission and distribution (T&D) systems. While many of the analysis techniques and interpretations are applicable to diagnostics and cable systems outside of T&D, areas such as generating stations (nuclear, coal, wind, etc.) and other industrial environments were not the focus. Many large utilities in North America now deploy diagnostics or have changed their diagnostic testing approach as a result of this project. Previous to the CDFI, different diagnostic technology providers individually promoted their approach as the “the best” or “the only” means of detecting cable system defects.

  2. A qualitative study of nutrition-based initiatives at selected food banks in the feeding America network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handforth, Becky; Hennink, Monique; Schwartz, Marlene B

    2013-03-01

    Food banks are the foundation of the US emergency food system. Although their primary mission is to alleviate hunger, the rise in obesity and diet-related diseases among food-insecure individuals has led some food bank personnel to actively promote more nutritious products. A qualitative interview approach was used to assess nutrition-related policies and practices among a sample of 20 food banks from the national Feeding America network. Most food bank personnel reported efforts to provide more fresh produce to their communities. Several described nutrition-profiling systems to evaluate the quality of products. Some food banks had implemented nutrition policies to cease distributing low-nutrient products, such as soda and candy; however, these policies were more controversial than other strategies. The obstacles to implementing strong nutrition policies included fear of reducing the total amount of food distributed, discomfort choosing which foods should not be permitted, and concern about jeopardizing relationships with donors and community partners. Empirical research is needed to measure how food bank nutrition policies influence relationships with food donors, the amount of food distributed, the nutritional quality of food distributed, and the contribution of food bank products to the food security and nutritional status of the communities they serve. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. America in the Eyes of America Watchers:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Huiyun; He, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Based on an original survey conducted in the summer of 2012 in Beijing, we examine how China's America watchers—IR scholars who work on US-China relations—have viewed China's power status in the international system, US-China relations and some specific US policies in Asia. Our survey shows that ...

  4. Arthritis in America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Digital Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Arthritis in America Time to Take Action! Language: English ( ... by about 40% by being physically active. Problem Arthritis is common and a growing health threat. Arthritis ...

  5. Study on the Argument of "Menstruation" in Late Nineteenth-Century America : Focusing on M. P. Jacobi's The Question of Rest for Women during Menstruation

    OpenAIRE

    横山, 美和

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the argument concerning “menstruation” in late nineteenth-century America. With regard to an expansion of women's higher education, Sex in Education (1873) by Dr. Edward Clarke generated a controversy by stating that young women needed rest during menstruation; therefore the rigor of higher education would fail their health. Dr. Mary Putnam Jacobi refuted this argument in The Question of Rest for Women during Menstruation (1877). She attempted to combat the male research...

  6. Understanding the critics : a case study of opposition to wind power initiatives in Europe and North America. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etcheverry, J.

    2005-01-01

    The causes behind public opposition to wind power projects were examined. A summary of factors identified in existing literature as affecting public perception of wind farms included physical, contextual, political, and socio-economic concerns. It was suggested that opposition to wind projects was correlated with the types of institutional policies used in a country to support development of the renewable energy sector. Explicit policy choices directly affect the type of project ownership as well as public acceptance and opposition of wind power projects. A review of international wind power policies and development was presented. While Denmark pioneered advanced renewable tariffs (ARTs) and remain fourth in the world, with over 3177 MW, public opposition to wind power is developing due to an increasing shift in ownership from co-operatives to individuals. Germany uses ARTs and has become leader in the world with over 17,000 MW. Canada uses tendering and ranks fourteenth in the world, with 570 MW. Opposition to wind power is increasing in some provinces who argue that it poses a threat to tourism opportunities and presents a visual intrusion to the landscape. Opposition in the United Kingdom has existed for decades. However, the United Kingdom ranks ninth in the world, with 880 MW and has one of Europe's best wind regimes. Spain uses ARTs and now ranks second in the world with 8263 MW with a new target of 20,000 MW by 2011. Some locations in Spain have been declared out of bounds for wind power development, and opposition is developing against proposed offshore facilities. It was concluded that the wind power industry needs to advocate for community power policy initiatives, listen to local people and maximize local participation, as well as accepting that some areas will remain out of bounds for development. refs., tabs., figs

  7. Remote Sensing for Hazard Mitigation and Resource Protection in Pacific Latin America: New NSF sponsored initiative at Michigan Tech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, W. I.; Bluth, G. J.; Gierke, J. S.; Gross, E.

    2005-12-01

    Though much of the developing world has the potential to gain significantly from remote sensing techniques in terms of public health and safety and, eventually, economic development, they lack the resources required to advance the development and practice of remote sensing. Both developed and developing countries share a mutual interest in furthering remote sensing capabilities for natural hazard mitigation and resource development, and this common commitment creates a solid foundation upon which to build an integrated education and research project. This will prepare students for careers in science and engineering through their efforts to solve a suite of problems needing creative solutions: collaboration with foreign agencies; living abroad immersed in different cultures; and adapting their academic training to contend with potentially difficult field conditions and limited resources. This project makes two important advances: (1) We intend to develop the first formal linkage among geoscience agencies from four Pacific Latin American countries (Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua and Ecuador), focusing on the collaborative development of remote sensing tools for hazard mitigation and water resource development; (2) We will build a new educational system of applied research and engineering, using two existing educational programs at Michigan Tech: a new Peace Corp/Master's International (PC/MI) program in Natural Hazards which features a 2-year field assignment, and an "Enterprise" program for undergraduates, which gives teams of geoengineering students the opportunity to work for three years in a business-like setting to solve real-world problems This project will involve 1-2 post-doctoral researchers, 3 Ph.D., 9 PC/MI, and roughly 20 undergraduate students each year.

  8. Public Health in the Americas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Duncan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available

    In this special issue the four articles focus on population health in terms of primary care and preventive medicine. This critical area of health often receives less attention than health care issues (more so in the popular press but also in academic analyses.Upon reviewing these very interesting and illuminating articles it was striking that despite significant cultural, economic, geographic and historical differences there are many commonalities which exist throughout the Americas.

  9. Neosporosis in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, D P

    2005-01-20

    This work gathers reports about Neospora-infections in South America. Neospora-infections have been reported from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, Peru and Uruguay. Evidence of exposure to N. caninum was mentioned in cattle, goats, sheep, dogs, cats, water buffaloes, alpacas, llamas, South American opossums, wolves and other wild canids. No antibodies were found in horses. Interesting epidemiological and pathological data were described. Two isolations were performed from dogs, one from cattle, and recently five from water buffaloes. Since the cattle industry is important in South America and reproductive losses caused by Neospora-infection have been identified, more investigations are needed in order to understand its epidemiology and control the disease.

  10. Barriers to initiating tuberculosis treatment in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review focused on children and youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Brittney J; Esmaili, B Emily; Cunningham, Coleen K

    2017-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is the deadliest infectious disease globally, with 10.4 million people infected and more than 1.8 million deaths in 2015. TB is a preventable, treatable, and curable disease, yet there are numerous barriers to initiating treatment. These barriers to treatment are exacerbated in low-resource settings and may be compounded by factors related to childhood. Timely initiation of tuberculosis (TB) treatment is critical to reducing disease transmission and improving patient outcomes. The aim of this paper is to describe patient- and system-level barriers to TB treatment initiation specifically for children and youth in sub-Saharan Africa through systematic review of the literature. This review was conducted in October 2015 in accordance with preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Six databases were searched to identify studies where primary or secondary objectives were related to barriers to TB treatment initiation and which included children or youth 0-24 years of age. A total of 1490 manuscripts met screening criteria; 152 met criteria for full-text review and 47 for analysis. Patient-level barriers included limited knowledge, attitudes and beliefs regarding TB, and economic burdens. System-level barriers included centralization of services, health system delays, and geographical access to healthcare. Of the 47 studies included, 7 evaluated cost, 19 health-seeking behaviors, and 29 health system infrastructure. Only 4 studies primarily assessed pediatric cohorts yet all 47 studies were inclusive of children. Recognizing and removing barriers to treatment initiation for pediatric TB in sub-Saharan Africa are critical. Both patient- and system-level barriers must be better researched in order to improve patient outcomes.

  11. Incidence of virological failure and major regimen change of initial combination antiretroviral therapy in the Latin America and the Caribbean: an observational cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesar, Carina; Jenkins, Cathy A.; Shepherd, Bryan E.; Padgett, Denis; Mejía, Fernando; Ribeiro, Sayonara Rocha; Cortes, Claudia P.; Pape, Jean W.; Madero, Juan Sierra; Fink, Valeria; Sued, Omar; McGowan, Catherine; Cahn, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Background Access to combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) is expanding in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). There is little information in this region regarding incidence of and factors associated with regimen failure and regimen change. Methods Antiretroviral-naïve adults starting cART from 2000-2014 at sites in seven countries throughout LAC were included. Cumulative incidence of virologic failure and major regimen change were estimated with death considered a competing event. Findings 14,027 cART initiators (60% male, median age 37 years, median CD4 156 cells/mm3, median HIV-RNA 5·0 log10 copies/mL, and 28% with clinical AIDS) were followed for a median of 3·9 years. 1,719 patients presented virologic failure and 1,955 had a major regimen change. Excluding GHESKIO-Haiti (which did not regularly measure HIV-RNA), cumulative incidence of virologic failure was 7·8%, 19·2%, and 25·8% at one, three, and five years after cART initiation, respectively; cumulative incidence of major regimen change was 5·9%, 12·7%, and 18·2%. Incidence of major regimen change at GHESKIO-Haiti at five years was 10·7%. Virologic failure was associated with younger age (adjusted hazard ratio[aHR]=2·03 for 20 vs. 40 years; 95% confidence interval[CI] 1·68-2·44), infection through injection-drug use (IDU) (aHR=1·60; 95%CI 1·02-2·52), initiation in earlier calendar years (aHR=1·28 for 2002 vs. 2006; 95%CI 1·13-1·46), and starting with a boosted protease inhibitor (aHR=1·17 vs. non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor; 95%CI 1·00-1·64). Interpretation Incidence of virologic failure was generally lower than in North America/Europe. Our results suggest the need to design strategies to reduce failure and major regimen change among younger patients and those with a history of IDU. Funding US National Institutes of Health: U01 AI069923. PMID:26520929

  12. Ecodesign in Central America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crul, M.R.M.

    2003-01-01

    This PhD thesis describes and analyses the change process started by the Ecodesign project in Central America, executed between 1998 and 2002. The project started using the concept and praxis developed in Europe. Nine ecodesign projects were performed in industry, and ecodesign was introduced to

  13. Language in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postman, Neil, Ed.; And Others

    The essays published in this collection were written in response to the basic question, "To what extent is the language of politics/advertising/psychotherapy/education/bureaucracy/etc. facilitating or impeding our chances of survival?" The general topic here is the contemporary use of language and the semantic environment in America, especially in…

  14. Only "In America"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Maria Eugenia

    2011-01-01

    As the daughter of an interracial couple growing up in a middle-class town on Long Island in the 1970s, Soledad O'Brien learned not to let inappropriate or racist comments throw her. Now as the anchorwoman of CNN's "In America" documentary unit, she says she asks those uncomfortable questions about race all the time. She shines spotlight…

  15. Literacy in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornberger, Nancy H.

    1991-01-01

    Literacy in South America must be understood in terms of the linguistic diversity there, where only 2 of 14 nations and territories are monolingual. Oral traditions, standardization of indigenous languages, nonstandard varieties of colonial languages, bilingual education and mother tongue literacy, literacy teaching, and politics are discussed.…

  16. A micro focus with macro impact: Exploration of initial abstraction coefficient ratio (λ) in Soil Conservation Curve Number (CN) methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling, L; Yusop, Z

    2014-01-01

    Researchers started to cross examine United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Soil Conservation Services (SCS) Curve Number (CN) methodology after the technique produced inconsistent results throughout the world. More field data from recent decades were leaning against the assumption of the initial abstraction coefficient ratio value proposed by SCS in 1954. Physiographic conditions were identified as vital influencing factors to be considered under this methodology while practitioners of this method are encouraged to validate and derive regional specific relationship and employ the method with caution

  17. Nuclear governance in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Layla Dawood

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article provides an outlook of the regional relations concerning nuclear technology in Latin America. For that purpose, we initially discuss the historic relationship of the Latin American countries with the set of rules, norms, principles and organizations involved in nuclear governance. The article provides an analysis of the connection between the multilateral institutional framework and the bilateral arrangements aimed at curbing the proliferation of nuclear weapons in the region. The current state of nuclear cooperation among the countries of the region is also mapped. In addition, the article assesses the peaceful use of nuclear technology in the region and the potential expansion of the use of nuclear energy by the Latin American countries. Considerations on the trends for nuclear cooperation among the countries of Latin America are also offered.

  18. Economic integration in the Americas

    OpenAIRE

    Uitdewilligen, G.

    1997-01-01

    This pioneering study shows that economic integration in the Americas is not simply a matter of removing trade barriers. Economic Integration in the Americas addresses the pervasive effects of economic integration on the economy as a whole.

  19. Cholera in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The cholera epidemic 1st hit South America in January 1991 in the coastal town of Chancay, Peru. In 2 weeks, it spread over 2000 km of the Pacific coast. By the end of the 1st month, it had already reached the mountains and tropical forests. By August 1991, cholera cases were reported in order of appearances in Ecuador, Colombia, Chile, Brazil, the US, Mexico, Guatemala, Bolivia, and El Salvador. Health authorities still do not know how it was introduced into South America. The case fatality rate has remained at a low of 1%, probably due to the prompt actions of health authorities in informing the public of the epidemic and what preventive cautions should be taken. This epidemic is part of the 7th pandemic which originated in Celebes, Indonesia in 1961. Cholera can spread relatively unchecked in Latin America because sewage in urban areas is not treated even though they do have sewage collection systems. The untreated wastewater enters rivers and the ocean. Consumption of raw seafood is not unusual and has been responsible for cholera infection in some cases. In fact, many countries placed import restrictions on marine products from Peru following the outbreak at a loss of $US10-$US40 million. Municipal sewage treatment facilities, especially stabilization ponds, would prevent the spread of cholera and other pathogens. In rural areas, pit latrines located away from wells can effectively dispose of human wastes. Most water supplies in Latin America are not disinfected. Disinfection drinking water with adequate levels of chlorine would effectively destroy V. cholera. If this is not possible, boiling the water for 2-3 minutes would destroy the pathogen. Any cases of cholera must be reported to PAHO. PAHO has responded to the outbreak by forming a Cholera Task Force and arranged transport of oral rehydration salts, intravenous fluids, antibiotics, and other essential medical supplies.

  20. Demographic tensions in Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-08-01

    This discussion of Central America focuses on the rapid growth of its population, its stagnating economy, and those countries that are socioeconomically advanced. Between 1950-85 the population of Central America tripled, from 9.1 million to 26. 4 million, due to marked mortality declines and the absence of off-setting fertility declines. The distribution of Central Americas's growing populations sets its population growth apart from that of other developing regions. Currently, almost half of all Central Americans live in cities. Although the average growth rate for Central American countries has fallen and is expected to drop further, the decline does not counterbalance the effect of the absolute rise in population numbers. The average annual growth rate of more than 3% annually in the 1960s fell to about 2.6% in recent years, but this decline is due primarily to socioeconomically advanced Costa Rica and Panama. Central America's age structure further complicates the population crisis. About 43% of Central Americans are under the age of 15. When the increasingly larger young population group enters it reproductive years, the potential for future growth (albeit the falling rate of population increase) is unparalleled. UN population projections show the region's population at 40 million by the year 2000. The 1973 oil crisis began a downward spiral for the buoyant post World War II Central American economy. Between 1950-79, real per capita income growth in Central America doubled, with Central American economies growing an average of 5.3% annually. By the early 1980s, overseas markets of the trade-dependent countries of Central America had dried up due to protectionism abroad and slumping basic commodity prices. These and other factors plunged Central America into its current economic malaise of falling real per capita income, rising unemployment, curtailed export led economic growth, and a rising cost of living. In general, economic growth in Central America

  1. Guidance on Noncorticosteroid Systemic Immunomodulatory Therapy in Noninfectious Uveitis: Fundamentals Of Care for UveitiS (FOCUS) Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Andrew D; Rosenbaum, James T; Al-Dhibi, Hassan A; Belfort, Rubens; Brézin, Antoine P; Chee, Soon Phaik; Davis, Janet L; Ramanan, Athimalaipet V; Sonoda, Koh-Hei; Carreño, Ester; Nascimento, Heloisa; Salah, Sawsen; Salek, Sherveen; Siak, Jay; Steeples, Laura

    2018-05-01

    An international, expert-led consensus initiative to develop systematic, evidence-based recommendations for the treatment of noninfectious uveitis in the era of biologics. The availability of biologic agents for the treatment of human eye disease has altered practice patterns for the management of noninfectious uveitis. Current guidelines are insufficient to assure optimal use of noncorticosteroid systemic immunomodulatory agents. An international expert steering committee comprising 9 uveitis specialists (including both ophthalmologists and rheumatologists) identified clinical questions and, together with 6 bibliographic fellows trained in uveitis, conducted a Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses protocol systematic review of the literature (English language studies from January 1996 through June 2016; Medline [OVID], the Central Cochrane library, EMBASE, CINAHL, SCOPUS, BIOSIS, and Web of Science). Publications included randomized controlled trials, prospective and retrospective studies with sufficient follow-up, case series with 15 cases or more, peer-reviewed articles, and hand-searched conference abstracts from key conferences. The proposed statements were circulated among 130 international uveitis experts for review. A total of 44 globally representative group members met in late 2016 to refine these guidelines using a modified Delphi technique and assigned Oxford levels of evidence. In total, 10 questions were addressed resulting in 21 evidence-based guidance statements covering the following topics: when to start noncorticosteroid immunomodulatory therapy, including both biologic and nonbiologic agents; what data to collect before treatment; when to modify or withdraw treatment; how to select agents based on individual efficacy and safety profiles; and evidence in specific uveitic conditions. Shared decision-making, communication among providers and safety monitoring also were addressed as part of the recommendations

  2. The emergence of scientific management in America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin-George Toma

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A scientific approach to management was initiated for the first time in America in the late 19th century. Scientific management arose mainly from the need to increase efficiency in America, but other key factors were the spread of big businesses and the expanding application of science in industry. The aims of our paper are to present the emergence of scientific management in America and to emphasize the contribution of some of the most representatives American authors to its development. The methodological approach is literature review. Our paper shows that scientific management was essentially an American achievement that provided useful lessons for the whole human society.

  3. Timekeeping in the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, J. M.; Lombardi, M. A.

    2015-10-01

    Time and its measurement belong to the most fundamental core of physics, and many scientific and technological advances are directly or indirectly related to time measurements. Timekeeping is essential to everyday life, and thus is the most measured physical quantity in modern societies. Time can also be measured with less uncertainty and more resolution than any other physical quantity. The measurement of time is of the utmost importance for many applications, including: global navigation satellite systems, communications networks, electric power generation, astronomy, electronic commerce, and national defense and security. This paper discusses how time is kept, coordinated, and disseminated in the Americas.

  4. TIMEKEEPING IN THE AMERICAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, J M; Lombardi, M A

    Time and its measurement belong to the most fundamental core of physics, and many scientific and technological advances are directly or indirectly related to time measurements. Timekeeping is essential to everyday life, and thus is the most measured physical quantity in modern societies. Time can also be measured with less uncertainty and more resolution than any other physical quantity. The measurement of time is of the utmost importance for many applications, including: global navigation satellite systems, communications networks, electric power generation, astronomy, electronic commerce, and national defense and security. This paper discusses how time is kept, coordinated, and disseminated in the Americas.

  5. Initial Awareness as Perceived by a Group of Senior Students Majoring in High School Teaching in regards to their Own Teaching Process Focused on Assessment Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Ignacio Sánchez-Sánchez

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Developed in a regional campus of a university located 200 miles south of Santiago de Chile, the research showed the initial awareness of 50 senior students majoring in three High School Teaching Training Programs: Spanish Language; History; and Math, in regards to their own teaching process The qualitative approach used in this research is supported by the grounded theory. The critical incident technique was used to obtain the information about the individuals mentioned above, after their first period as in-practice High School teachers. Results show that the assessment teaching functions are mostly mentioned as essential to improve their teaching activities focused on the learning process of high school students. However, Teacher Training Programs should also emphasize real challenges and the abilities that a teacher must successfully develop during the process, instead of mainly focusing on measurement instruments and theoretical outlines

  6. Alleviating Urban Energy Poverty in Latin America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-02-15

    This regional study is comprised of three case studies, which concentrate on Greater Buenos Aires, Caracas and Rio de Janeiro - Caju. Each case focuses on the analysis of specific aspects of urban poverty, energy availability and policies to improve living conditions from the energy point of view. Unlike other developing regions in the world, the problem of energy poverty in Latin America has been concentrated increasingly in the large cities and urban areas. This problem has deep systemic, economic, political, structural and cultural roots. Providing basic energy services to the urban poor is an issue that requires far more attention and expertise than it is receiving today, and therefore WEC has taken the initiative to address this issue, and the results of their study are presented in this report.

  7. Feasibility Study of Biopower in East Helena, Montana. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriarty, K.

    2013-02-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed the RE-Powering America's Land initiative to reuse contaminated sites for renewable energy generation when aligned with the community's vision for the site. The former American Smelting and Refining Company (Asarco) smelter in East Helena, Montana, was selected for a feasibility study under the initiative. Biomass was chosen as the renewable energy resource based on the wood products industry in the area. Biopower was selected as the technology based on Montana's renewable portfolio standard (RPS) requiring utilities to purchase renewable power.

  8. Bacterial sinusitis can be a focus for initial lung colonisation and chronic lung infection in patients with cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanæs, Kasper

    2013-01-01

    (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Achromobacter xylosoxidans, Burkholderia cepacia complex). The environment in the sinuses is in many ways similar to that of the lower respiratory tract, e.g. low oxygen concentration in secretions. Sinus bacteria are more difficult to eradicate than in the lungs, thus, having good...

  9. Identifying factors likely to influence compliance with diagnostic imaging guideline recommendations for spine disorders among chiropractors in North America: a focus group study using the Theoretical Domains Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bussières André E

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF was developed to investigate determinants of specific clinical behaviors and inform the design of interventions to change professional behavior. This framework was used to explore the beliefs of chiropractors in an American Provider Network and two Canadian provinces about their adherence to evidence-based recommendations for spine radiography for uncomplicated back pain. The primary objective of the study was to identify chiropractors’ beliefs about managing uncomplicated back pain without x-rays and to explore barriers and facilitators to implementing evidence-based recommendations on lumbar spine x-rays. A secondary objective was to compare chiropractors in the United States and Canada on their beliefs regarding the use of spine x-rays. Methods Six focus groups exploring beliefs about managing back pain without x-rays were conducted with a purposive sample. The interview guide was based upon the TDF. Focus groups were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed by two independent assessors using thematic content analysis based on the TDF. Results Five domains were identified as likely relevant. Key beliefs within these domains included the following: conflicting comments about the potential consequences of not ordering x-rays (risk of missing a pathology, avoiding adverse treatment effects, risks of litigation, determining the treatment plan, and using x-ray-driven techniques contrasted with perceived benefits of minimizing patient radiation exposure and reducing costs; beliefs about consequences; beliefs regarding professional autonomy, professional credibility, lack of standardization, and agreement with guidelines widely varied ( social/professional role & identity; the influence of formal training, colleagues, and patients also appeared to be important factors ( social influences; conflicting comments regarding levels of confidence and comfort in managing patients

  10. Neurotrauma Research in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Rubiano

    2014-10-01

    It is time to think about how consortium studies related to neurotrauma in Latin America are needed, in order to integrate robust databases that reveal the true variability in the comprehensive care of these patients, including aspects of pre-hospital care, emergency care, surgical and intensive care management, without neglecting fundamental aspects like integral rehabilitation. It is time to develop a Latin American traumatic coma data bank. This initiative should be led by research groups from the region, trying to understand and integrate data analysis in a better fashion, trying to reduce the potential of bias as a result of misunderstanding the dynamic of health systems with limited resources, low capabilities for urgent inter-hospital referral and lack subspecialty training that is still in the process of development.

  11. Developing nanotechnology in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kay, Luciano; Shapira, Philip

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the development of nanotechnology in Latin America with a particular focus on Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Uruguay. Based on data for nanotechnology research publications and patents and suggesting a framework for analyzing the development of R and D networks, we identify three potential strategies of nanotechnology research collaboration. Then, we seek to identify the balance of emphasis upon each of the three strategies by mapping the current research profile of those four countries. In general, we find that they are implementing policies and programs to develop nanotechnologies but differ in their collaboration strategies, institutional involvement, and level of development. On the other hand, we find that they coincide in having a modest industry participation in research and a low level of commercialization of nanotechnologies.

  12. Biomass energy in Central America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, J M [Biomass Users` Network, Regional Office for Central America and the Caribbean, San Jose (Costa Rica)

    1995-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to introduce the concept of biomass to energy issues and opportunities in Central America. In this region, made up of seven countries (Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama), the biomass sector has the potential to play a crucial role in alleviating the environmental and development predicaments faced by all economies of the region. This paper assesses the available biomass resources at the regional and country levels and gives an overview of the current utilization of biomass fuels. It also describes the overall context in which the biomass-to-energy initiatives are immersed. At the regional level, biomass energy consumption accounts for more than 50% of total energy consumption. In regard to the utilization of biomass for energy purposes, it is clear that Central America faces a critical juncture at two levels, both mainly in rural areas: in the productive sector and at the household level. The absence of sustainable development policies and practices has jeopardized the availability of biomass fuels, particularly wood. Firewood is an important source of energy for rural industries such as coffee processing, which is one of the largest productive activities in the region. This paper comments on some of the most successful technological innovations already in place in the region, for instance, the rapid development of co-generation projects by the sugar cane industry, especially in El Salvador and Guatemala, the substitution of coffee husks for firewood in coffee processing plants in Costa Rica and El Salvador and the sustainable use of pine forests for co-generation in Honduras. Only one out of every two inhabitants in Central America now has access to electricity from the public grid. Biomass fuels, mainly firewood but also, to a lesser extent, other crop residues such as corn stalks, are the main source of energy for cooking and heating by most of the population. (It is foreseen that by the end

  13. Biomass energy in Central America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to introduce the concept of biomass to energy issues and opportunities in Central America. In this region, made up of seven countries (Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama), the biomass sector has the potential to play a crucial role in alleviating the environmental and development predicaments faced by all economies of the region. This paper assesses the available biomass resources at the regional and country levels and gives an overview of the current utilization of biomass fuels. It also describes the overall context in which the biomass-to-energy initiatives are immersed. At the regional level, biomass energy consumption accounts for more than 50% of total energy consumption. In regard to the utilization of biomass for energy purposes, it is clear that Central America faces a critical juncture at two levels, both mainly in rural areas: in the productive sector and at the household level. The absence of sustainable development policies and practices has jeopardized the availability of biomass fuels, particularly wood. Firewood is an important source of energy for rural industries such as coffee processing, which is one of the largest productive activities in the region. This paper comments on some of the most successful technological innovations already in place in the region, for instance, the rapid development of co-generation projects by the sugar cane industry, especially in El Salvador and Guatemala, the substitution of coffee husks for firewood in coffee processing plants in Costa Rica and El Salvador and the sustainable use of pine forests for co-generation in Honduras. Only one out of every two inhabitants in Central America now has access to electricity from the public grid. Biomass fuels, mainly firewood but also, to a lesser extent, other crop residues such as corn stalks, are the main source of energy for cooking and heating by most of the population. (It is foreseen that by the end

  14. Geoparks in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mantesso-Neto, V.; Mansur, K.; López, R.; Schilling, M.; Ramos, V.

    2010-01-01

    A Geopark is a territory delimited part of a holistic concept of protection, education and sustainable development, based on geological sites of particular importance, rarity or aesthetic geological sites. A Geopark achieves its goals through three main areas: geoconservation, education and geotourism. The first network of Geoparks born in Europe in 2000, and from 2004 UNESCO is promoting the creation of a Global Geoparks Network (Global Geoparks Network, GGN ). Currently, there are 64 Global Geoparks in 19 countries, and the movement is in full development. In Latin America there is hardly Araripe Geopark in Brazil. Presented in this work, projects and studies related to the development of Geoparks in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Peru and Venezuela. We understand that Colombia, Cuba, Ecuador, Mexico and Nicaragua have projects in this line, but the details are not yet readily available. The authors invite geoscientists and professionals in related fields to join a movement for the creation of the Latin American Network of Geoparks, intended as a framework for the conservation, sustainable use and disclosure of our national geological heritage

  15. Austin Community College District's P-16 Initiative Graduates America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, Mary; Madsen, Gary

    2010-01-01

    Austin Community College (ACC) District's P-16 Initiative supports partnerships with 30 school districts--reaching traditionally underserved students and bridging the gap between high school and college--so more Texas students can reach their educational goals. The P-16 Initiative is a constellation of efforts designed to provide broad-based…

  16. Feasibility Study of Anaerobic Digestion of Food Waste in St. Bernard, Louisiana. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriarty, K.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed the RE-Powering America's Land initiative to re-use contaminated sites for renewable energy generation when aligned with the community's vision for the site. The former Kaiser Aluminum Landfill in St. Bernard Parish, Louisiana, was selected for a feasibility study under the program. Preliminary work focused on selecting a biomass feedstock. Discussions with area experts, universities, and the project team identified food wastes as the feedstock and anaerobic digestion (AD) as the technology.

  17. Parenting the Chinese Way in America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Echo H.; Hertberg-Davis, Holly

    2009-01-01

    This paper illustrates a case study on two Chinese American families with gifted children, and the major topic focuses on the influence of parenting beliefs and practices on children's talent development. In-depth interviews were employed to collect data from the Chinese parents who lived in America, and research questions include the daily…

  18. Geography, Resources, and Environment of Latin America: An Undergraduate Science Course focused on Attracting Hispanic students to Science and on Educating Non-Hispanics about Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujana, I.; Stern, R. J.; Ledbetter, C. E.

    2004-12-01

    With NSF-CCLI funding, we have developed, taught, and evaluated a new lower-division science course for non-majors, entitled "Geography, Resources, and Environment of Hispanic America" (GRELA). This is an adaptation of a similar course, "Geology and Development of Modern Africa" developed by Barbara Tewksbury (Hamilton College), to attract African American students to science by highlighting cultural ties with their ancestral lands. We think that a similar approach focusing on Latin America may attract Hispanic undergraduates, at the same time that it increases awareness among non-Hispanic students about challenges facing our neighbors to the south. GRELA is an interdisciplinary exploration of how the physical and biological environment of Mexico, Central America, and South America have influenced the people who live there. The course consists of 20 lectures and requires the student to present a report partnering with correspondents in Latin American universities. GRELA begins with an overview of Latin American physical and cultural geography and geologic evolution followed by a series of modules that relate the natural resources and environment of Latin America to the history, economy, and culture of the region. This is followed by an exploration of pre-Columbian cultures. The use of metals by pre-Columbian, colonial, and modern cultures is presented next. We then discuss hydrocarbon resources, geothermal energy, and natural hazards of volcanoes and earthquakes. The last half of the course focuses on Earth System Science themes, including El Nino, glaciers, the Amazon river and rainforest, and coral reefs. The final presentation concerns population growth and water resources along the US-Mexico border. Grades are based on two midterms, one final, and a project which requires that groups of students communicate with scientists in Latin America to explore some aspect of geography, natural resources, or the environment of a Latin American region of common interest

  19. Nuclear options in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-11-01

    An account is given of the Treaty of Tlatelolco, 1967, providing for the designation of Latin America as a Nuclear Weapon-Free Zone (NWFZ); additional protocols attached to the Treaty are available for signature by States outside the region. The Treaty is administered by the Organisation for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America (OPANAL). Reference is made to its latest meeting, held in May 1983. The present paper also discusses the following: Non-Proliferation Treaty (with references to safeguards agreements concluded between each State and the IAEA); nuclear suppliers' group; peaceful nuclear explosions; nuclear energy programmes in Latin America. (U.K.)

  20. Maltreatment of people with serious mental illness in the early 20th century: a focus on Nazi Germany and eugenics in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Bernard A

    2012-12-01

    Prejudice and stigma against people with mental illness can be seen throughout history. The worst instance of this prejudice was connected to the rise of the eugenics movement in the early 20th century. Although the Nazi German T-4 program of killing people with mental illness was the most egregious culmination of this philosophy, the United States has its own dark eugenics history-nearing a slippery slope all too similar to that of the Nazis. Mental health care clinicians need to examine this period to honor the memory of the victims of eugenics and to guarantee that nothing like this will ever happen again.

  1. Nitrogen Cycling In Latin America and : Drivers, Impacts And Vulnerabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ometto, J. P.; Bustamante, M.; Forti, M. C.; Peres, T.; Stein, A. F.; Jaramillo, V.; Perez, C.; Pinho, P. F.; Ascarrunz, N.; Austin, A.; Martinelli, L. A.

    2015-12-01

    Latin America is at a crossroads where a balance should be found between production of the major agricultural commodities, reasonable and planned urbanization and conservation of its natural ecosystems and associated goods and services. Most of the natural biological fixation of the globe occurs in forests of Latin America. On the other hand, Latin America has one of the highest rate of deforestation in the world, and one of the highest increases in the use of nitrogen fertilizers. A better understanding of the responses of the N cycle to human impacts will allow better conservation of biodiversity and natural resources, with an improvement in food security and more effective land use choices in biofuel development. Latin America is a unique region in multiple aspects, and particularly relevant for this proposal are the broad climatic gradient and economic patterns that include a diverse range of natural ecosystems and socio-economic development pathways. Additionally, the region is impaired by the lack of information on actual impacts of human activity on N cycling across this diverse range of ecosystems. Finally, the large expanse of tropical ecosystems and reservoirs of biodiversity juxtaposed with an intense economic incentive for development make our understanding of human impacts in this context particularly important for global change research in the region. An evaluation of current and predicted changes in climate and land use on nitrogen stocks and fluxes in the region what is being develop by the Nnet network (Nitrogen Cycling In Latin America: Drivers, Impacts And Vulnerabilities ). This presentation will bring the latest results of this integrative initiative in Latin America, focusing on the nitrogen budget associated to provision of ecosystem services and climate change.

  2. Environmental Governance in Latin America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Castro, F.; Hogenboom, B.; Baud, M.

    2016-01-01

    The multiple purposes of nature - livelihood for communities, revenues for states, commodities for companies, and biodiversity for conservationists - have turned environmental governance in Latin America into a highly contested arena. In such a recourse-rich region, unequal power relations,

  3. The Vietnamese in America. In America Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, Paul

    The history of Vietnamese immigration to the United States is traced, and contributions Vietnamese immigrants have made to the United States are reviewed in this book which is part of a series for children. Most Vietnamese immigrants came in the wake of the Vietnam War, making them among the recent immigrants to the United States. Determination,…

  4. African Ethnobotany in the Americas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egleé L. Zent

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Review of African Ethnobotany in the Americas. Edited by Robert Voeks and John Rashford. 2013. Springer. Pp. 429, 105 illustrations, 69 color illustrations. $49.95 (paperback. ISBN 978‐1461408352.

  5. Status of radiation curing in South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, L.D.B.; Rotta, A.C.; Petrie, I.

    2007-01-01

    In August 2006, an agreement between the Rad tech International North America and the ATBCR, the Brazillian Technical Association for Radiation cure, turns ATCBR into RadTech South America. This new institution starts with already 10 years of history and pioneering technical experience and achievements in UV and EB radiation cure. Both RadTech institutions have asserted a whole cooperation and information exchange to continue with the initial ATBCR compromise in promoting UV and EB curing technology and to make it available to professionals, enterprise and other organizations. The RadTech South America has it's headquarter at the Energy and Nuclear Research Institute, IPEN, in Sao Paulo, Brazil, from whom also gets sponsorship. (Author)

  6. Sustainability of biofuels in Latin America: Risks and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssen, Rainer, E-mail: rainer.janssen@wip-munich.de [WIP Renewable Energies, Sylvensteinstrasse 2, 81369 Munich (Germany); Rutz, Dominik Damian [WIP Renewable Energies, Sylvensteinstrasse 2, 81369 Munich (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    Several Latin American countries are setting up biofuel programmes to establish alternative markets for agricultural commodities. This is mainly triggered by the current success of Brazilian bioethanol production for the domestic market and for export. Furthermore, the global biofuel market is expected to increase due to ambitious biofuel programmes in the EU and in the USA. Colombia, Venezuela, Costa Rica and Guatemala are focusing on bioethanol production from sugarcane whereas biofuel production in Argentina is based on soy biodiesel. Recent developments of the biofuel sector take place extremely rapid especially in Argentina, which became one of the five largest biodiesel producers in the world in 2008. Till date no specific biofuel sustainability certification systems have been implemented in Latin American, as well as on global level. This fact and the predominant use of food crops for biofuel production raise concerns about the sustainability of biofuel production related to environmental and social aspects. This paper provides an overview of the hotspots of conflicts in biofuel production in Latin America. It investigates presently available sustainability tools and initiatives to ensure sustainable biofuel production in Latin America. Finally, it provides an outlook on how to integrate sustainability in the Latin American biofuel sector. - Research Highlights: > This study investigates risks and opportunities of biofuels in Latin America. > Latin American countries are setting up programmes to promote biofuel development. > Strong biofuel sectors provide opportunities for economic development. > Potential negative impact includes deforestation and effects on food security. > Sustainability initiatives exist to minimise negative impact.

  7. Sustainability of biofuels in Latin America: Risks and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssen, Rainer; Rutz, Dominik Damian

    2011-01-01

    Several Latin American countries are setting up biofuel programmes to establish alternative markets for agricultural commodities. This is mainly triggered by the current success of Brazilian bioethanol production for the domestic market and for export. Furthermore, the global biofuel market is expected to increase due to ambitious biofuel programmes in the EU and in the USA. Colombia, Venezuela, Costa Rica and Guatemala are focusing on bioethanol production from sugarcane whereas biofuel production in Argentina is based on soy biodiesel. Recent developments of the biofuel sector take place extremely rapid especially in Argentina, which became one of the five largest biodiesel producers in the world in 2008. Till date no specific biofuel sustainability certification systems have been implemented in Latin American, as well as on global level. This fact and the predominant use of food crops for biofuel production raise concerns about the sustainability of biofuel production related to environmental and social aspects. This paper provides an overview of the hotspots of conflicts in biofuel production in Latin America. It investigates presently available sustainability tools and initiatives to ensure sustainable biofuel production in Latin America. Finally, it provides an outlook on how to integrate sustainability in the Latin American biofuel sector. - Research Highlights: → This study investigates risks and opportunities of biofuels in Latin America. → Latin American countries are setting up programmes to promote biofuel development. → Strong biofuel sectors provide opportunities for economic development. → Potential negative impact includes deforestation and effects on food security. → Sustainability initiatives exist to minimise negative impact.

  8. Allergen extracts for immunotherapy in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Cardona-Villa

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Latin American Society of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology (SLAAI presents a document about the use of immunotherapy (IT in Latin America, where administration patterns, indications and contraindications, effects on health, adverse events and socioeconomic impact are reviewed. Objective: To review publications analyzing the use of IT in Latin America. Methods: A literature review was carried out in order to identify works addressing IT in Latin America. This review was focused on practical scientific information available on IT in the region, and a parallel comparison was made with practices observed in the United States and European countries. Results: Of the 21 Latin American countries included, only 9 had original articles meeting the selection criteria; a total of 82 articles were selected, most of them from Brazil and Mexico. Most widely used allergenic extracts in Latin America tropical and subtropical regions were those of mites and pollen. Conclusion: Although it is true that there are huge challenges for the future of IT in Latin America, studies on subcutaneous IT and sublingual IT are increasing, but most of them are retrospective and some have design bias, and more prospective studies are therefore required, using internationally validated scales for clinical evaluation.

  9. Human immunodeficiency virus, AIDS, and drug consumption in South America and the Caribbean: epidemiological evidence and initiatives to curb the epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Mariana A; Malta, Monica; Enriquez, Melissa; Bastos, Francisco I

    2005-01-01

    The paper reviews data on drug use in relation to the spread of human immunodeficiency virus and AIDS in South America and the Caribbean. Information was gathered by thoroughly reviewing major bibliographic databanks, web sites of international institutions and regional networks working with substance misuse or human immunodeficiency virus and AIDS, and abstracts from conferences and meetings. Although some gaps remain, a growing body of evidence documents the significant role of injected cocaine in the Brazilian and Southern Cone epidemics. The Caribbean and the Andean areas have thus far been spared in large part from the spread of injection drug use and its consequences, but the situation has been changing in Southern Cone countries towards a higher prevalence of harmful injection habits. Additional challenges have been posed by the increasing availability of heroin in the Andean Area and the abuse of crack cocaine and its impact on the sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus in many cities. Harm reduction strategies have been established in most areas of Brazil and are gaining momentum in Argentina. Other countries in the Region still face serious limitations due to restrictive legislation and lack of broader support. Greater participation of Latin American and Caribbean countries in research protocols and continued debate on both successful and failed experiences should be encouraged in order to minimize existing barriers to the full adoption of effective measures to curb the human immunodeficiency virus and AIDS epidemic in this Region.

  10. Global monthly CO2 flux inversion with a focus over North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Deng; Chen, Jing M.; Ishizawa, Misa; Chiu-Wai Yuen; Gang Mo; Higuchi, Kaz; Chan, Douglas; Maksyutov, Shamil

    2007-01-01

    A nested inverse modelling system was developed for estimating carbon fluxes of 30 regions in North America and 20 regions for the rest of the globe. Monthly inverse modelling was conducted using CO 2 concentration measurements of 3 yr (2001-2003) at 88 sites. Inversion results show that in 2003 the global carbon sink is -2.76 ± 0.55 Pg C. Oceans and lands are responsible for 88.5% and 11.5% of the sink, respectively. Northern lands are the largest sinks with North America contributing a sink of -0.97 ± 0.21 Pg C in 2003, of which Canada's sink is -0.34 ± 0.14 Pg C. For Canada, the inverse results show a spatial pattern in agreement, for the most part, with a carbon source and sink distribution map previously derived through ecosystem modelling. However, discrepancies in the spatial pattern and in flux magnitude between these two estimates exist in certain regions. Numerical experiments with a full covariance matrix, with the consideration of the error structure of the a priori flux field based on meteorological variables among the 30 North America regions, resulted in a small but meaningful improvement in the inverted fluxes. Uncertainty reduction analysis suggests that new observation sites are still needed to further improve the inversion for these 30 regions in North America

  11. PSA in America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linn, M.A.; Cunningham, M.A.; Johnson, D.H.

    1996-01-01

    Although the concept of acceptable risk has always been the foundation of the nuclear industry design, the use of formal PSA (or PRA-probabilistic risk assessment) in the U.S. nuclear power industry has followed an unusual path in arriving at its current level of notability. Prior to 1975, probabilistic evaluations were limited to a few specific applications such as the evaluation of man-made (i.e., airplane crashes) and natural (i.e., earthquakes) hazards. In 1975, the industry was introduced to comprehensive PSA by the Reactor Safety Study (WASH-1400). However, the study languished in relative obscurity until the accident at Three Mile Island 2 (TMI-2) in 1979. This event significantly altered the industry's view of severe accidents in the U.S. and worldwide. Investigative committees of TMI-2 recommended that PSA techniques be more widely used to augment the traditional deterministic methods of determining nuclear plant safety. This initiated an unprecedented effort by nuclear regulators and licensees worldwide to significantly improve the state of knowledge of severe accidents at nuclear power plants. In the U.S., use of PSA began to increase as evidenced by its application in the anticipated transient without scram and station blackout rulemakings, generic issue prioritization and resolution, risk-based inspection guidelines, backfit policy, and technical specification improvements. However, broad application of probabilistic techniques to the industry as a whole was initiated in 1986 with the publication of Safety Goals for the Operation of Nuclear Power Plant; Policy Statement. This put PSA front and center in the U.S. regulatory arena by open-quotes establish[ing] goals that broadly define an acceptable level of radiological risk that might be imposed on the public as a result of nuclear power plant operation.close quotes Both qualitative safety goals and quantitative objectives were articulated in this policy statement

  12. Impact and Process Evaluation of the U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Powering America Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-05-01

    This report presents an evaluation of the impacts and processes of the former Wind Powering America(WPA) initiative sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). WPA has an underlying goal of dramatically increasing the use of wind energy in the U.S.

  13. Comparison of team-focused CPR vs standard CPR in resuscitation from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: Results from a statewide quality improvement initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, David A; Darrell Nelson, R; Monk, Lisa; Tyson, Clark; Jollis, James G; Granger, Christopher B; Corbett, Claire; Garvey, Lee; Runyon, Michael S

    2016-08-01

    Team-focused CPR (TFCPR) is a choreographed approach to cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) with emphasis on minimally interrupted high-quality chest compressions, early defibrillation, discourages endotracheal intubation and encourages use of the bag-valve-mask (BVM) and/or blind-insertion airway device (BIAD) with a ventilation rate of 8-10 breaths/min to minimize hyperventilation. Widespread incorporation of TFCPR in North Carolina (NC) EMS agencies began in 2011, yet its impact on outcomes is unknown. To determine whether TFCPR improves survival with good neurological outcome in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients compared to standard CPR. This retrospective cohort analysis of NC EMS agencies reporting data to the Cardiac Arrest Registry for Enhanced Survival (CARES) database from January 2010 to June 2014 included adult, non-traumatic OHCA with presumed cardiac etiology where EMS performed CPR or patient received defibrillation. Exclusions were arrest terminated per EMS policy or DNR. EMS agencies self-reported the TFCPR implementation dates. Patients were categorized as receiving either TFCPR or standard CPR. The primary outcome was good neurologic outcome at time of hospital discharge defined as Pittsburgh Cerebral Performance Category (CPC) 1-2. Of 14,994 OHCAs, 14,129 patients were included for analysis with a mean age 65 (IQR 50-81) years, 61% male, 7.3% with good neurologic outcome, 24.3% with shockable initial rhythm, and 71.5% receiving TFCPR. Of the 3427 (24.3%) with an initial shockable rhythm, 739 (71.9%) had a good neurological outcome. Good neurologic outcome was higher with TFCPR [836 (8.3%, 95%CI 7.7-8.8%)] vs. standard CPR [193 (4.8%, 95%CI 4.2-5.5%)]. Logistic regression controlling for demographic and arrest characteristics revealed TFCPR (OR 1.5), witnessed arrest (OR 4.3), initial shockable rhythm (OR 7.1), and in-hospital hypothermia (OR 3.3) were associated with good neurologic outcome. Mechanical CPR device (OR 0.68), CPR

  14. Nuclear and Mitochondrial DNA Analyses of Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos canadensis from Three Areas in Western North America; Initial Results and Conservation Implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica H Craig

    Full Text Available Understanding the genetics of a population is a critical component of developing conservation strategies. We used archived tissue samples from golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos canadensis in three geographic regions of western North America to conduct a preliminary study of the genetics of the North American subspecies, and to provide data for United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS decision-making for golden eagle management. We used a combination of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA D-loop sequences and 16 nuclear DNA (nDNA microsatellite loci to investigate the extent of gene flow among our sampling areas in Idaho, California and Alaska and to determine if we could distinguish birds from the different geographic regions based on their genetic profiles. Our results indicate high genetic diversity, low genetic structure and high connectivity. Nuclear DNA Fst values between Idaho and California were low but significantly different from zero (0.026. Bayesian clustering methods indicated a single population, and we were unable to distinguish summer breeding residents from different regions. Results of the mtDNA AMOVA showed that most of the haplotype variation (97% was within the geographic populations while 3% variation was partitioned among them. One haplotype was common to all three areas. One region-specific haplotype was detected in California and one in Idaho, but additional sampling is required to determine if these haplotypes are unique to those geographic areas or a sampling artifact. We discuss potential sources of the high gene flow for this species including natal and breeding dispersal, floaters, and changes in migratory behavior as a result of environmental factors such as climate change and habitat alteration. Our preliminary findings can help inform the USFWS in development of golden eagle management strategies and provide a basis for additional research into the complex dynamics of the North American subspecies.

  15. Nuclear and Mitochondrial DNA Analyses of Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos canadensis) from Three Areas in Western North America; Initial Results and Conservation Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Erica H; Adams, Jennifer R; Waits, Lisette P; Fuller, Mark R; Whittington, Diana M

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the genetics of a population is a critical component of developing conservation strategies. We used archived tissue samples from golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos canadensis) in three geographic regions of western North America to conduct a preliminary study of the genetics of the North American subspecies, and to provide data for United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) decision-making for golden eagle management. We used a combination of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop sequences and 16 nuclear DNA (nDNA) microsatellite loci to investigate the extent of gene flow among our sampling areas in Idaho, California and Alaska and to determine if we could distinguish birds from the different geographic regions based on their genetic profiles. Our results indicate high genetic diversity, low genetic structure and high connectivity. Nuclear DNA Fst values between Idaho and California were low but significantly different from zero (0.026). Bayesian clustering methods indicated a single population, and we were unable to distinguish summer breeding residents from different regions. Results of the mtDNA AMOVA showed that most of the haplotype variation (97%) was within the geographic populations while 3% variation was partitioned among them. One haplotype was common to all three areas. One region-specific haplotype was detected in California and one in Idaho, but additional sampling is required to determine if these haplotypes are unique to those geographic areas or a sampling artifact. We discuss potential sources of the high gene flow for this species including natal and breeding dispersal, floaters, and changes in migratory behavior as a result of environmental factors such as climate change and habitat alteration. Our preliminary findings can help inform the USFWS in development of golden eagle management strategies and provide a basis for additional research into the complex dynamics of the North American subspecies.

  16. Nuclear and mitochondrial DNA analyses of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos canadensis) from three areas in western North America; initial results and conservation implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Erica H; Adams, Jennifer R.; Waits, Lisette P.; Fuller, Mark R.; Whittington, Diana M.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the genetics of a population is a critical component of developing conservation strategies. We used archived tissue samples from golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos canadensis) in three geographic regions of western North America to conduct a preliminary study of the genetics of the North American subspecies, and to provide data for United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) decision-making for golden eagle management. We used a combination of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop sequences and 16 nuclear DNA (nDNA) microsatellite loci to investigate the extent of gene flow among our sampling areas in Idaho, California and Alaska and to determine if we could distinguish birds from the different geographic regions based on their genetic profiles. Our results indicate high genetic diversity, low genetic structure and high connectivity. Nuclear DNA Fst values between Idaho and California were low but significantly different from zero (0.026). Bayesian clustering methods indicated a single population, and we were unable to distinguish summer breeding residents from different regions. Results of the mtDNA AMOVA showed that most of the haplotype variation (97%) was within the geographic populations while 3% variation was partitioned among them. One haplotype was common to all three areas. One region-specific haplotype was detected in California and one in Idaho, but additional sampling is required to determine if these haplotypes are unique to those geographic areas or a sampling artifact. We discuss potential sources of the high gene flow for this species including natal and breeding dispersal, floaters, and changes in migratory behavior as a result of environmental factors such as climate change and habitat alteration. Our preliminary findings can help inform the USFWS in development of golden eagle management strategies and provide a basis for additional research into the complex dynamics of the North American subspecies.

  17. Construction and application of Bayesian networks to support decision-making in the water, sanitation and hygiene sector: a case study of SIASAR initiative in Central America

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Foguet, Agustí; Requejo Castro, David; Giné Garriga, Ricard; Martínez Crespo, Gonzalo; Rodríguez Serrano, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    The 2030 Agenda includes a dedicated goal on water and sanitation (SDG 6) that sets out to “ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all”. SDG 6 expands the MDG focus on drinking water and sanitation to cover the entire water cycle. A clear lesson from the MDGs is that we cannot manage what we do not measure, and there is little doubt about the role of monitoring and evaluation data in providing the evidence base for decision-making. Against this background, ...

  18. ACHP | News | First Lady Laura Bush Launches Preserve America Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    . Thank you, Secretary Norton, for your service to our country. Thank you, John for your leadership as resources are essentially democratic in spirit, purpose, and method." That is our call today. Our land

  19. Laying the Foundation for a Solar America: The Million Solar Roofs Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strahs, G.; Tombari, C.

    2006-10-01

    As the U.S. Department of Energy's Solar Energy Technology Program embarks on the next phase of its technology acceptance efforts under the Solar America Initiative, there is merit to examining the program's previous market transformation effort, the Million Solar Roofs Initiative. Its goal was to transform markets for distributed solar technologies by facilitating the installation of solar systems.

  20. Focused ultrasound in ophthalmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silverman RH

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ronald H Silverman1,2 1Department of Ophthalmology, Columbia University Medical Center, 2F.L. Lizzi Center for Biomedical Engineering, Riverside Research, New York, NY, USA Abstract: The use of focused ultrasound to obtain diagnostically significant information about the eye goes back to the 1950s. This review describes the historical and technological development of ophthalmic ultrasound and its clinical application and impact. Ultrasound, like light, can be focused, which is crucial for formation of high-resolution, diagnostically useful images. Focused, single-element, mechanically scanned transducers are most common in ophthalmology. Specially designed transducers have been used to generate focused, high-intensity ultrasound that through thermal effects has been used to treat glaucoma (via cilio-destruction, tumors, and other pathologies. Linear and annular transducer arrays offer synthetic focusing in which precise timing of the excitation of independently addressable array elements allows formation of a converging wavefront to create a focus at one or more programmable depths. Most recently, linear array-based plane-wave ultrasound, in which the array emits an unfocused wavefront and focusing is performed solely on received data, has been demonstrated for imaging ocular anatomy and blood flow. While the history of ophthalmic ultrasound extends back over half-a-century, new and powerful technologic advances continue to be made, offering the prospect of novel diagnostic capabilities. Keywords: ophthalmic ultrasound, ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM, high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU, ultrafast imaging, Doppler imaging 

  1. Educating Women in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwager, Sally

    1987-01-01

    Surveys literature on the history of coeducation, focusing on the marginalization of women. Discusses these themes: republican education; female literacy; the girls' academy; women and the history of teaching; life-cycle patterns; the migration of teachers from New England; black women teachers; urbanization and feminization; immigration; students…

  2. Rural Poverty in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Keith Griffin

    1999-01-01

    The fact that most poor people in Latin America live in urban areas had implied that poverty in the region is regarded as largely an urban phenomenon. However, this document exposes what available data suggest: that rural poverty still is significant in many Latin American countries.

  3. Fire management in central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrea L. Koonce; Armando González-Cabán

    1992-01-01

    Information on fire management operations in Central America is scant. To evaluate the known level of fire occurrence in seven countries in that area, fire management officers were asked to provide information on their fire control organizations and on any available fire statistics. The seven countries surveyed were Guatemala, Belize, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua,...

  4. Tuning History in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez Albo, Marco

    2017-01-01

    This article analyses the development and achievements of the area of History in the Tuning-Latin America Project from its launch in 2004 to its completion in 2013. Through two phases and nine general meetings, academics from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Guatemala, Mexico and Peru, along with academics from Spain, Portugal…

  5. Initial results from the Wisconsin Spherically Convergent Ion Focus experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorson, T.A.; Durst, R.D.; Fonck, R.J.; Foucher, B.S.; Wainwright, L.P.

    1995-01-01

    The Spherically Convergent Ion Focus (SCIF) is an alternative plasma confinement scheme in which ions are electrostatically confined, accelerated, and concentrated at fusion-relevant energies. This concept has been recently promoted for various near-term applications including waste disposal, particle production, neutron radiography and tomography, plastic explosive detection, materials research, and medical isotope production. The Wisconsin SCIF experiments are designed to evaluate the practicality of the SCIF concept for given applications. In the experiment, a wire globe serves as a simple means of producing the trapping potential well and the ion source consists of a cold, uniform plasma at the edge. Hydrogen ions formed from the background neutral gas are typically accelerated to energies of 5--20 kV, and measured cathode grid currents approach the space-charge limit for concentric spheres. Core size measurements utilize spectrally-filtered CCD camera images of the visible emission from the core region, and the minimal observed core radius of 0.6 cm (HWHM) is within a factor of 2--3 of the theoretical convergence ratio for the device. Neutral particle interactions and potential asymmetries imposed by the grid lead to non-ideal convergence, as evidenced by measured potential asymmetries and core size dependence on cathode grid spacing. Floating probes with 30 kV isolation have allowed unique measurements of the density, electric potential and temperature in the converged core. The ratio of core to edge density is 10--20, which is in good agreement with scaling from radial flux conservation

  6. Healthy Municipios in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, H E; Llanos, G; Contreras, A; Rocabado, F; Gross, S; Suárez, J; González, J

    1995-09-01

    This article describes the Healthy Municipios movement in Latin America and gives examples of some PAHO projects that could become demonstration projects. The Healthy Municipios movement was established in the early 1990s. The movement aims to promote healthy municipalities according to objectives set forth in the 1987 Ottawa Charter on Health Promotion, the 1992 Declaration of Bogota, and the 1993 Caribbean Health Promotion Charter. The movement is a joint effort of government, the health sector, and the community in promoting health locally. Key features of the movement are its creativity, variety, political strength, and adaptation to local conditions. Technical cooperation serves the purpose of facilitating information exchange and promotes the use of modern techniques of analysis and scientific and technical information. All projects shared the following common features: initiation by the local community with strong political commitment, intersectoral organizational structure, widespread community mobilization and participation, problem solving activities, and a recognizable leader. Pioneering projects include the Comprehensive Project for Cienfuegos, Cuba; the Health Manizales, Colombia; the Network in Mexico; Baruta and El Hatillo, Venezuela; Valdivia, Chile; and San Carlos Canton, Costa Rica. It is concluded that these projects and most others aim to assure equity. These efforts are important for placing health on the political agenda and implementing healthy policies. The Valdivia project, for example, serves a population of about 120,000 in the urban city of Valdivia, the semi-urban area, and rural areas. The project was officially sanctioned by the President of Chile on World Health Day in 1993. Progress was reported in mass communication and school-based programs. Attention was directed also to prevention of risk factors for noncommunicable diseases and to the problem of traffic accidents.

  7. Progress toward elimination of onchocerciasis in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauerbrey, Mauricio; Rakers, Lindsay J; Richards, Frank O

    2018-03-01

    The Onchocerciasis Elimination Program for the Americas (OEPA) is a regional initiative and international partnership that has made considerable progress toward its goal since it was launched in 1993. Its strategy is based on mass drug administration of ivermectin (Mectizan, donated by MSD, also known as Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA), twice or four times per year, with at least 85% coverage of eligible populations. From 1989 to 2016, 11 741 276 ivermectin treatments have been given in the Americas, eliminating transmission in 11 of 13 foci. The OEPA's success has had a great influence on programs in Africa, especially Sudan and Uganda, which moved from a control to an elimination strategy in 2006 and 2007, respectively. The successes in the Americas have also greatly influenced WHO guidelines for onchocerciasis transmission elimination. With four of the six originally endemic American countries now WHO verified as having eliminated onchocerciasis transmission, and 95% of ivermectin treatments in the region halted, the regional focus is now on the remaining active transmission zone, called the Yanomami Area, on the border between Venezuela and Brazil. Both countries have difficult political climates that hinder the elimination task in this remote and relatively neglected region. As with other elimination efforts, 'the final inch' is often the most difficult task of all.

  8. Violence and Abuse in Rural America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Guide Rural Health Topics & States Topics View more Violence and Abuse in Rural America Violence and abuse ... of harassment, stalking, and bullying? How prevalent is violence and abuse in rural America? According to the ...

  9. Credit Stagnation in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Adolfo Barajas; Roberto Steiner

    2002-01-01

    This study examines the recent marked slowdown in bank credit to the private sector in Latin America. Based on the study of eight countries (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Peru, Mexico, and Venezuela), the magnitude of the slowdown is documented, comparing it to historical behavior and to slowdown episodes in other regions of the world. Second, changes in bank balance sheets are examined to determine whether the credit slowdown is merely a reflection of a slowdown in bank deposi...

  10. Oil investment in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kielmas, M.

    1994-01-01

    In the early 1990s Latin America became a favoured target for foreign investors as one of the side-effects of the collapse of communism in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union. The reason is linked to macroeconomic reforms in Latin America and the failure of equivalent reforms in the former communist countries. Latin American state-owned-oil companies have been welcomed as borrowers on the international financial markets. Simultaneously private sector investment in the oil industry has increased. This chapter examines nationalisation and the state oil companies, the financing of the state sector, privatisation, the boosting of oil exploration and security issues. The sustainability of the economic reforms in the region is discussed. (UK)

  11. Volcanic hazards in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, William I.; Bluth, Gregg J.S.; Carr, Michael J.; Ewert, John W.; Patino, Lina C.; Vallance, James W.

    2006-01-01

    This volume is a sampling of current scientific work about volcanoes in Central America with specific application to hazards. The papers reflect a variety of international and interdisciplinary collaborations and employ new methods. The book will be of interest to a broad cross section of scientists, especially volcanologists. The volume also will interest students who aspire to work in the field of volcano hazards mitigation or who may want to work in one of Earth’s most volcanically active areas.

  12. Heart Failure in North America

    OpenAIRE

    Blair, John E. A; Huffman, Mark; Shah, Sanjiv J

    2013-01-01

    Heart failure is a major health problem that affects patients and healthcare systems worldwide. Within the continent of North America, differences in economic development, genetic susceptibility, cultural practices, and trends in risk factors and treatment all contribute to both inter-continental and within-continent differences in heart failure. The United States and Canada represent industrialized countries with similar culture, geography, and advanced economies and infrastructure. During t...

  13. Issues in focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-08-01

    The issues worldwide that deserve attention pertain to international migration, the education of women, family planning, missing female children, and prevention and control of AIDS cases. Migration outside country borders has been increasing due to economic and social disparities, and uncounted and unrecognized refugees are fleeing environmental disasters. The educational status of women has increased over the past 30 years. For example, female illiteracy has declined among women aged 20-24 years from 19% to 8% in Latin America, from 38% to 12% in eastern and western Asia, and from 80% to 49% in Africa. These improvements are significant, but the problem remains, where, for instance in Africa, there is still extensive illiteracy (75% of females aged under 25 years). A 1993 Population Action International Report states that low female educational levels and weak family planning and health programs are related to large family size and high child death rates. During the 1980s family planning was linked with ecological concerns. Progress has been made in the increase in contraceptive users in developing countries from 14% to 53% during 1965-70. Fertility has declined from 6.1 children per woman in the 1950s to 3.7. Kenya is a good example of a country with high fertility that reduced fertility through its emphasis on family planning. Obstacles to increased prevalence of contraception still remain. In Mexico more than 50% of public birth control services are provided to women in secret due to fear of their husband's abuse. Population pressure can result in the loss of girl children through higher mortality, better nutrition, neglect, or gender preference in the early fetal stages. The challenge of AIDS will be in caring for the sick and adjusting to social changes due to the expected increases in orphaned children.

  14. Natural gas in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Despite having proven reserves equal to that of North America, natural gas has traditionally played a minor role in the energy policies of Latin American countries, being considered secondary to oil. There has, therefore, been a neglect of the sector with a resultant lack of an adequate infrastructure throughout the region, perhaps with the exception of Argentina. However, with a massive increase in energy demand, growing concerns with environmental matters and a need to reduce the massive pollution levels in major cities in the region, natural gas is forecast to play a much greater role in Latin America's energy profile, with final consumption forecast to rise at 5.4% per annum for the next 15 years. This book assesses both the development of the use of natural gas in the power industrial sector and proposals for its growth into the residential, commercial and transport sectors. It analyses the significant investment required and the governments' need to turn to the private sector for investment and innovation. Natural Gas in Latin America analyses the possibilities and pitfalls of investing in the sector and describes the key trends and issues. It analyses all aspects of the gas industry from exploration and production to transportation and distribution to end users. (Author)

  15. Livestock reproduction in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Proceedings of the Final Research Co-ordination Meeting of the FAO/IAEA/ARCAL III Regional Network for Improving the Reproductive Management of Meat- and Milk-Producing Livestock in Latin America with the Aid of Radioimmunoassay, organized by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture and held in Bogota, 19-23 September 1988. The general goals of this programme, which was part of the ARCAL (Arreglos Regionales Cooperativos para la promocion de la ciencia y la tecnologia nucleares en America Latina) project, were to characterize and improve the reproductive management of milk, meat and fibre producing livestock maintained under the diverse environmental and management conditions prevailing in the Latin America region. In particular, the programme addressed the efficacy of using radioimmunoassay methods of measuring reproductive performance based on breeding and production records, behaviour and clinical parameters. One of the major achievements of the programme was the establishment of viable RIA laboratories in each of the participant countries

  16. The impact in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, M.

    1985-01-01

    President Eisenhower's Atoms for Peace program represented a radical departure from the policy of secrecy and denial that existed during the immediate postwar period, after the rejection of the Baruch Plan for international control of nuclear energy and nuclear weapons. Although the genesis and philosophy of the program are well known, the author emphasizes certain general aspects and considers specific situations in Latin America about the purposes and premises of Atoms for Peace

  17. Biofuels in Central America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, E.

    2007-08-01

    This report presents the results of an analysis of the biofuel markets in El Salvador, Panama, Costa Rica and Honduras. The aim of this report is to provide insight in the current situation and the expected developments in these markets and thus to provide investors with an image of the opportunities that could be present in this sector. An attempt has been made to provide a clear overview of this sector in the countries concerned. Due to a lack of data this has not been fully accomplished in some cases. [mk] [nl

  18. Populism in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-20

    Justicialist Party). In the first round of voting in April 2003, he finished a close second to former president Carlos Saul Menem . Shortly before the...scheduled runoff, however, Menem —trailing 15 Kirchner by a wide margin in opinion polls—withdrew his candidacy, and Kirchner became president-elect by default...A week later, Kirchner was sworn in as the president.16 Since the second presidential term of Carlos Saul Menem (July 8, 1995 – December 9, 1999

  19. Arabs in America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐长贵

    2004-01-01

    In the eyes of many people in the United States, Arab-Americans are an invisible part of the population. Though Arab-Americans as a community have made great contributions to American society in the fields from literature to politics to medicine, many Americans know very little about Americans of Arab descent(血统).

  20. Homelessness in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumohl, Jim, Ed.

    This book about homelessness in the United States offers 16 chapters in three parts. Part 1, "History Definitions, and Causes," includes: (1) "Redefining the Cursed Word: A Historical Interpretation of American Homelessness" (Kim Hopper and Jim Baumohl); (2) "Homelessness: Definitions and Counts" (Martha R. Burt); (3)…

  1. Labor Education in America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Kenneth D.

    1971-01-01

    Labor education reflects the pragmaticism of American culture and supports the system. It emphasizes leadership training, loyalty building, and political education. The control of labor education is centralized in union headquarters. (VW)

  2. Gangs in Central America

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ribando, Clare

    2005-01-01

    ... activities of Central American gangs. Citizens in several Central American countries have identified crime and gang violence among the top issues of popular concern, and Honduras and El Salvador have recently enacted tough anti-gang legislation...

  3. Modeling intercontinental transport of ozone in North America with CAMx for the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII) Phase 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nopmongcol, Uarporn; Liu, Zhen; Stoeckenius, Till; Yarwood, Greg

    2017-08-01

    Intercontinental ozone (O3) transport extends the geographic range of O3 air pollution impacts and makes local air pollution management more difficult. Phase 3 of the Air Quality Modeling Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII-3) is examining the contribution of intercontinental transport to regional air quality by applying regional-scale atmospheric models jointly with global models. We investigate methods for tracing O3 from global models within regional models. The CAMx photochemical grid model was used to track contributions from boundary condition (BC) O3 over a North American modeling domain for calendar year 2010 using a built-in tracer module called RTCMC. RTCMC can track BC contributions using chemically reactive tracers and also using inert tracers in which deposition is the only sink for O3. Lack of O3 destruction chemistry in the inert tracer approach leads to overestimation biases that can exceed 10 ppb. The flexibility of RTCMC also allows tracking O3 contributions made by groups of vertical BC layers. The largest BC contributions to seasonal average daily maximum 8 h averages (MDA8) of O3 over the US are found to be from the mid-troposphere (over 40 ppb) with small contributions (a few ppb) from the upper troposphere-lower stratosphere. Contributions from the lower troposphere are shown to not penetrate very far inland. Higher contributions in the western than the eastern US, reaching an average of 57 ppb in Denver for the 30 days with highest MDA8 O3 in 2010, present a significant challenge to air quality management approaches based solely on local or US-wide emission reductions. The substantial BC contribution to MDA8 O3 in the Intermountain West means regional models are particularly sensitive to any biases and errors in the BCs. A sensitivity simulation with reduced BC O3 in response to 20 % lower emissions in Asia found a near-linear relationship between the BC O3 changes and surface O3 changes in the western US in all seasons and across

  4. Modeling intercontinental transport of ozone in North America with CAMx for the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII Phase 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Nopmongcol

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Intercontinental ozone (O3 transport extends the geographic range of O3 air pollution impacts and makes local air pollution management more difficult. Phase 3 of the Air Quality Modeling Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII-3 is examining the contribution of intercontinental transport to regional air quality by applying regional-scale atmospheric models jointly with global models. We investigate methods for tracing O3 from global models within regional models. The CAMx photochemical grid model was used to track contributions from boundary condition (BC O3 over a North American modeling domain for calendar year 2010 using a built-in tracer module called RTCMC. RTCMC can track BC contributions using chemically reactive tracers and also using inert tracers in which deposition is the only sink for O3. Lack of O3 destruction chemistry in the inert tracer approach leads to overestimation biases that can exceed 10 ppb. The flexibility of RTCMC also allows tracking O3 contributions made by groups of vertical BC layers. The largest BC contributions to seasonal average daily maximum 8 h averages (MDA8 of O3 over the US are found to be from the mid-troposphere (over 40 ppb with small contributions (a few ppb from the upper troposphere–lower stratosphere. Contributions from the lower troposphere are shown to not penetrate very far inland. Higher contributions in the western than the eastern US, reaching an average of 57 ppb in Denver for the 30 days with highest MDA8 O3 in 2010, present a significant challenge to air quality management approaches based solely on local or US-wide emission reductions. The substantial BC contribution to MDA8 O3 in the Intermountain West means regional models are particularly sensitive to any biases and errors in the BCs. A sensitivity simulation with reduced BC O3 in response to 20 % lower emissions in Asia found a near-linear relationship between the BC O3 changes and surface O3 changes in the

  5. Criminal Justice in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croddy, Marshall; And Others

    An introduction to criminal law, processes, and justice is provided in this high school level text. Content is divided into six chapters, each treating a particular aspect of criminal procedure and the social and political issues surrounding it. Chapter 1 considers the criminal, the effects of crime on its victims, and legislation to aid victims.…

  6. Pop Culture in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, David Manning, Ed.

    The nature of today's popular culture, its place in American life, and its merit or lack of it are the themes of these essays from "The New York Times Magazine." Introductory essays discuss the use of leisure time, paying the cost of the arts, and whether American society can be considered "cultured." Subsequent essays discuss the nature of radio…

  7. Death Penalty in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Amie L.

    1997-01-01

    Examines the legal and moral issues, controversies, and unique trial procedures involved with the death penalty. Discusses the 1972 landmark Supreme Court decision that resulted in many states abolishing this punishment, only to reintroduce it later with different provisions. Reviews the controversial case of Sam Sheppard. (MJP)

  8. Confrontation: Aging in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, George

    This publication contains two activities on aging for use with secondary students. The activities are designed to challenge the prevailing myths about growing old, to provide students with better information, and to foster more positive attitudes about older people. In the first activity, which will take about five class periods, students clarify…

  9. Literacy in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graubard, Stephen R., Ed.

    1990-01-01

    This collection of essays addresses issues related to basic literacy and mathematical competence in the United States. Articles include the following: "The Roots of Literacy" (David Hawkins); "Historical Perspectives on Literacy and Schooling" (Daniel P. Resnick); "Reconciling the Literacies of Generations" (William…

  10. Modern physics in America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fickinger, W.; Kowalski, K.L.

    1988-01-01

    This report contain papers on the following topics: physics at higher energies and smaller distances: are there limits; reminiscences of my father; atoms, molecules and light; the life of the stars; neutrinos from the atmosphere and beyond; the search for gravitational waves: probing the dynamics of space-time; experimental gaze at nonlinear phenomena; a physicist's view of biology; strange insulators, strange semiconductors, strange metals: High T c as a case history in condensed-matter physics; grand challenges to computational science; the supercollider: assault on the summit; is the whole universe composed of superstrings; SN1987A: the supernovae of a lifetime; and the discovery and physics of superconductivity above 100 K

  11. Dialogicality in Focus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The phenomenon which dialogism addresses is human interaction. It enables us to conceptualise human interaction as intersubjective, symbolic, cultural, transformative and conflictual, in short, as complex. The complexity of human interaction is evident in all domains of human life, for example, i......, because rather than applying dialogism to this or that domain, the present volume focuses on dialogicality itself to interrogate the concepts and methods which are taken for granted in the burgeoning literature. (Imprint: Nova Press)...

  12. Changing patterns of migration in Latin America: how can research develop intelligence for public health?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baltica Cabieses

    Full Text Available Migration patterns in Latin America have changed significantly in recent decades, particularly since the onset of global recession in 2007. These recent economic changes have highlighted and exacerbated the weakness of evidence from Latin America regarding migration-a crucial determinant of health. Migration patterns are constantly evolving in Latin America, but research on migration has not developed at the same speed. This article focuses on the need for better understanding of the living conditions and health of migrant populations in Latin America within the context of the recent global recession. The authors explain how new data on migrant well-being could be obtained through improved evidence from censuses and ongoing research surveys to 1 better inform policy-makers about the needs of migrant populations in Latin America and 2 help determine better ways of reaching undocumented immigrants. Longitudinal studies on immigrants in Latin America are essential for generating a better representation of migrant living conditions and health needs during the initial stages of immigration and over time. To help meet this need, the authors support the promotion of sustainable sources of data and evidence on the complex relationship between migration and health.

  13. Cargo Security Initiatives in the EU and the USA, their Impact on Business Operations and Mutual Recognition with Focus on AEO and C-TPAT

    OpenAIRE

    Szelp, Attila

    2010-01-01

    The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 had a tremendous impact on international trade policy. The USA was the first country to introduce cargo security and facilitation measures as a counteraction. The EU and international organizations also established new security programs in order to better secure cargo movements across borders. This thesis gives an overview of security initiatives introduced by international organizations, the EU and the USA, with an emphasis on the tr...

  14. Contribution of Global Polio Eradication Initiative-Funded Personnel to the Strengthening of Routine Immunization Programs in the 10 Focus Countries of the Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Ent, Maya M V X; Swift, Rachel D; Anaokar, Sameer; Hegg, Lea Anne; Eggers, Rudolf; Cochi, Stephen L

    2017-07-01

    The Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan (PEESP) established a target that at least 50% of the time of personnel receiving funding from the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) for polio eradication activities (hereafter, "GPEI-funded personnel") should be dedicated to the strengthening of immunization systems. This article describes the self-reported profile of how GPEI-funded personnel allocate their time toward immunization goals and activities beyond those associated with polio, the training they have received to conduct tasks to strengthen routine immunization systems, and the type of tasks they have conducted. A survey of approximately 1000 field managers of frontline GPEI-funded personnel was conducted by Boston Consulting Group in the 10 focus countries of the PEESP during 2 phases, in 2013 and 2014, to determine time allocation among frontline staff. Country-specific reports on the training of GPEI-funded personnel were reviewed, and an analysis of the types of tasks that were reported was conducted. A total of 467 managers responded to the survey. Forty-seven percent of the time (range, 23%-61%) of GPEI-funded personnel was dedicated to tasks related to strengthening immunization programs, other than polio eradication. Less time was spent on polio-associated activities in countries that had already interrupted wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission, compared with findings for WPV-endemic countries. All countries conducted periodic trainings of the GPEI-funded personnel. The types of non-polio-related tasks performed by GPEI-funded personnel varied among countries and included surveillance, microplanning, newborn registration and defaulter tracing, monitoring of routine immunization activities, and support of district immunization task teams, as well as promotion of health behaviors, such as clean-water use and good hygiene and sanitation practices. In all countries, GPEI-funded personnel perform critical tasks in the strengthening of routine

  15. Patterns of demographic change in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubelaker, D H

    1992-06-01

    Considerable scholarly debate has focused on the nature of demographic change in the Americas before and after 1492. Recent research on human skeletal samples and related archeological materials suggests that morbidity and mortality were increasing throughout much of the Western Hemisphere before 1492 in response to increased population density, increased sedentism, and changing subsistence. The evidence suggests that after 1492 population reduction was caused not by continental pandemics but by localized or regional epidemics augmented by social and economic disruption. The twentieth century has witnessed remarkable Native American population recovery, fueled both by improvements in health care and changing definitions of "being Indian."

  16. Studies on the Ecology, Biogeography and Evolution of Palms (Arecaceae) with Focus on the Americas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiserhardt, Wolf L.

    and evolutionary processes. These topics fall into four categories: (i) Previous empirical evidence on the factors influencing palm species distributions, community composition, and species richness was summarised in a hierarchical scale framework. The effects of different components of the abiotic environment......, biotic interactions, and dispersal are integrally dependent on spatiotemporal scale. Historical, including evolutionary factors are clearly important for palm distributions and diversity. (ii) Broad-scale patterns of palm species richness and phylogenetic turnover were studied across the Americas....... Richnessenvironment relationships were found to be spatially variable; richness-water correlations decreased in strength, and richness-energy correlations increased in strength with latitude, indicating complex and systematic interactions between factors. Evolutionary history has a significant impact on continental...

  17. Impact craters in South America

    CERN Document Server

    Acevedo, Rogelio Daniel; Ponce, Juan Federico; Stinco, Sergio G

    2015-01-01

    A complete and updated catalogue of impact craters and structures in South America from 2014 is presented here. Approximately eighty proven, suspected and disproven structures have been identified by several sources in this continent. All the impact sites of this large continent have been exhaustively reviewed: the proved ones, the possible ones and some very doubtful. Many sites remain without a clear geological ""in situ"" confirmation and some of them could be even rejected. Argentina and Brazil are leading the list containing almost everything detected. In Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Guyana,

  18. Isotope hydrology in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, B.R.

    1976-01-01

    There are a broad range of nuclear techniques applicable to a variety of hydrological problems and these techniques are becoming recognized as an additional and, in some cases, indispensable tool available to the hydrologist in his quest to meet the increasing demands for water by agriculture, industry and community water supply. In Latin America we find examples of almost all the nuclear hydrological techniques. This article endeavours to give a summary account of the status of isotope hydrology in the region and the types of problems to which these techniques have been applied

  19. POLICY PORT IN LATIN AMERICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Victoria Flores

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This work achieves a contextual approach the port services market in Latin America, from the document review the legal framework and jurisprudence. It observes and evaluates the phenomenon under study, establishing a correlation between the grant in the shape of the free supply and demand for services and operating in a market of few suppliers, resulting in national legislation and concession contracts defending a free market and on the other hand, case law on market practice indicating that there is no free market to defend.

  20. Final Scientific/Technical Report Solar America Initiative: Solar Outreach and Communications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weissman, Jane M

    2011-09-10

    The purpose of the Solar America Initiative: Solar Outreach and Communications grant was to promote better communications among stakeholders; address infrastructure barriers to solar energy; and coordinate with industry, the U.S. Department of Energy, national laboratories, states, cities and counties. The Interstate Renewable Energy Council (IREC), a non-profit organization formed in 1982, approached this grant project by establishing a wide range of communication and outreach activities including newsletters, workshops, webinars, model practices and publications; by advancing easy and fair hook-up rules to the utility grid; and by upgrading training based on industry competency standards. The Connecting to the Grid project and the Solar Codes and Standards Public Hearings project offered communication coupled with technical assistance to overcome interconnection, net metering and other regulatory and program barriers. The Workforce Development Project tackled building a strong workforce through quality training and competency assessment programs. IREC's web site, the semi-monthly state and stakeholder newsletter and the metrics report resulted in better communications among stakeholders. Workshops and phone seminars offered technical assistance and kept stakeholders up-to-date on key issues. All of these activities resulted in implementing sustainable solutions to institutional and market barriers to solar energy and getting the right information to the right people.

  1. Energy problems in latin america.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldemberg, J

    1984-03-30

    Present energy consumption patterns, known reserves of conventional energy sources (oil, gas, coal, and hydroelectricity), and the impact of the oil crisis on the oil-importing countries of Latin America are discussed. New approaches to energy use, including improvements on end-use efficiency, fuel substitutions, nonconventional energy sources, and changes in consumption patterns, are important. Of particular significance are the alcohol program in Brazil and the possibilities for increased use of hydroelectricity. Investments needed to sustain a reasonable increase in production from conventional energy sources up to 1990 are presented.

  2. Rheological phenomena in focus

    CERN Document Server

    Boger, DV

    1993-01-01

    More than possibly any other scientific discipline, rheology is easily visualized and the relevant literature contains many excellent photographs of unusual and often bizarre phenomena. The present book brings together these photographs for the first time. They are supported by a full explanatory text. Rheological Phenomena in Focus will be an indispensable support manual to all those who teach rheology or have to convince colleagues of the practical relevance of the subject within an industrial setting. For those who teach fluid mechanics, the book clearly illustrates the difference be

  3. Energy in Latin America: Present and future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, Johnny N; Sheffield, John W [University of Missouri-Rolla (United States)

    1997-07-01

    The primary focus of this paper is on the analysis of the current situation of energy production and consumption in the region as a whole, to examine the determinants of energy supply and demand growth, and to forecast the future growth of energy production, consumption, and balances. Since the growth of oil demand in Latin American countries themselves began to accelerate in the early 1990s, the lack of investment and development and the consequence shrinking base of Latin America's energy exports may pose serious challenges to North America, where dependence on the Middle Eastern oil and gas is growing. This paper attempts to present different scenarios and strategies to tackle the problem of Latin America's future net energy supply. [Spanish] El enfoque principal de este articulo es sobre la base de la situacion actual de la produccion y consumo de energia en la region como un todo, para examinar las determinantes del suministro de energia y el crecimiento de la demanda y la prediccion del crecimiento futuro de la produccion de energia, consumo y balances. Desde el crecimiento de la demanda del petroleo, en los paises latinoamericanos, ellos mismos empezaron a acelerar a principios de los 90s, la falta de inversion y desarrollo y la consecuencia del encogimiento de la base de las exportaciones de energia de Latinoamerica podrian imponer serios retos a Norte America, en donde la dependencia del petroleo y del gas del Medio-Oeste esta creciendo. Este articulo intenta presentar diferentes escenarios y estrategias para atacar el problema del suministro neto de energia de Latinoamerica.

  4. Energy in Latin America: Present and future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, Johnny N; Sheffield, John W [University of Missouri-Rolla (United States)

    1997-07-01

    The primary focus of this paper is on the analysis of the current situation of energy production and consumption in the region as a whole, to examine the determinants of energy supply and demand growth, and to forecast the future growth of energy production, consumption, and balances. Since the growth of oil demand in Latin American countries themselves began to accelerate in the early 1990s, the lack of investment and development and the consequence shrinking base of Latin America's energy exports may pose serious challenges to North America, where dependence on the Middle Eastern oil and gas is growing. This paper attempts to present different scenarios and strategies to tackle the problem of Latin America's future net energy supply. [Spanish] El enfoque principal de este articulo es sobre la base de la situacion actual de la produccion y consumo de energia en la region como un todo, para examinar las determinantes del suministro de energia y el crecimiento de la demanda y la prediccion del crecimiento futuro de la produccion de energia, consumo y balances. Desde el crecimiento de la demanda del petroleo, en los paises latinoamericanos, ellos mismos empezaron a acelerar a principios de los 90s, la falta de inversion y desarrollo y la consecuencia del encogimiento de la base de las exportaciones de energia de Latinoamerica podrian imponer serios retos a Norte America, en donde la dependencia del petroleo y del gas del Medio-Oeste esta creciendo. Este articulo intenta presentar diferentes escenarios y estrategias para atacar el problema del suministro neto de energia de Latinoamerica.

  5. Identification of research needs for quantification of nutrient dynamics in integrated crop/livestock systems in East Asia and Latin America with a focus on conservation and sustainability issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blair, Graeme

    2002-01-01

    Between 1979/81 and 1999 livestock numbers increased throughout S.E. Asia and Tropical America despite the increasing human population density in these regions Indonesia, Myanmar and Thailand dominate the large ruminant population in S.E. Asia. . The large ruminant population in these countries is dwarfed by that in China. In tropical America Brazil, Colombia and Venezuela have the largest large ruminant populations . In S.E. Asia, between 1979/81 and 1999, cattle numbers increased by 91% but buffalo numbers decreased by 3%. The cattle population in Tropical America has increased by 19%. The largest small ruminant population in S. E. Asia occurs in Indonesia and, in Tropical America, in Brazil and Mexico. There has been a very significant (90%) increase in small ruminants in S.E. Asia. The major needs of the largely cut and carry systems used in much of S E Asia and Africa is to provide a year-round supply of high quality forages to supplement low quality crop residues and forages cut from roadsides and wastelands. Because of the reluctance of farmers to fertilise forages in these systems it is an imperative that the flow of nutrients from the soil to the plant and then to the animal be as efficient as possible. In the past legumes, particularly tree and shrub legumes, have been the preferred supplementary forage supply but as systems become more intensive increased attention needs to be paid to N fertilised grasses and direct supplementation of animals with N, P, and other nutrients. The research to be undertaken needs to trace the flow and balance of nutrients (particularly N,P,K,S,Zn and C) through the plant production cycle, particularly the recycling of nutrients when associated with carbon in crop residues and specialist supplementary fodder crops. Studies are also needed on the efficiency of animal feeding and nutrient utilisation, especially in the re- utilisation of manure, urine and bedding material in subsequent crop production. Additional research is

  6. Gastroenterology training in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Henry; Saenz, Roque; de Almeida Troncon, Luiz E; Lizarzabal, Maribel; Olano, Carolina

    2011-01-01

    Latin America is characterized by ethnic, geographical, cultural, and economic diversity; therefore, training in gastroenterology in the region must be considered in this context. The continent’s medical education is characterized by a lack of standards and the volume of research continues to be relatively small. There is a multiplicity of events in general gastroenterology and in sub-disciplines, both at regional and local levels, which ensure that many colleagues have access to information. Medical education programs must be based on a clinical vision and be considered in close contact with the patients. The programs should be properly supervised, appropriately defined, and evaluated on a regular basis. The disparity between the patients’ needs, the scarce resources available, and the pressures exerted by the health systems on doctors are frequent cited by those complaining of poor professionalism. Teaching development can play a critical role in ensuring the quality of teaching and learning in universities. Continuing professional development programs activities must be planned on the basis of the doctors’ needs, with clearly defined objectives and using proper learning methodologies designed for adults. They must be evaluated and accredited by a competent body, so that they may become the basis of a professional regulatory system. The specialty has made progress in the last decades, offering doctors various possibilities for professional development. The world gastroenterology organization has contributed to the speciality through three distinctive, but closely inter-related, programs: Training Centers, Train-the-Trainers, and Global Guidelines, in which Latin America is deeply involved. PMID:21633594

  7. Atomic energy in Latin America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1967-06-15

    Most countries in Latin America, including all those on the mainland, are Members of the Agency. Interest in the possibilities of nuclear energy has led to considerable activity, much of it in direct collaboration with the IAEA. Member States in the region are: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela. Of these, Argentina, Brazil, Colombia and Venezuela are operating, and Mexico and Uruguay are constructing, research reactors, while Chile and Peru are studying proposals. Argentina, Brazil, Mexico and Uruguay have all agreed to accept Agency safeguards for reactors. The possibility of future needs for nuclear power is under examination by several countries, in some cases being related to desalination of water. All atomic work in Latin America is devoted to peaceful uses, and note-worthy progress has been made with proposals for a treaty which would make the whole region a militarily de-nuclearized zone. It is proposed that when this comes into effect the Agency will be asked to apply the controls developed in its safeguards system, and to carry out the inspections necessary to establish that work in progress is solely for peaceful purposes

  8. Atomic energy in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-01-01

    Most countries in Latin America, including all those on the mainland, are Members of the Agency. Interest in the possibilities of nuclear energy has led to considerable activity, much of it in direct collaboration with the IAEA. Member States in the region are: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela. Of these, Argentina, Brazil, Colombia and Venezuela are operating, and Mexico and Uruguay are constructing, research reactors, while Chile and Peru are studying proposals. Argentina, Brazil, Mexico and Uruguay have all agreed to accept Agency safeguards for reactors. The possibility of future needs for nuclear power is under examination by several countries, in some cases being related to desalination of water. All atomic work in Latin America is devoted to peaceful uses, and note-worthy progress has been made with proposals for a treaty which would make the whole region a militarily de-nuclearized zone. It is proposed that when this comes into effect the Agency will be asked to apply the controls developed in its safeguards system, and to carry out the inspections necessary to establish that work in progress is solely for peaceful purposes

  9. Suggestions for the New Social Entrepreneurship Initiative: Focus on Building a Body of Research-Proven Programs, Shown to Produce Major Gains in Education, Poverty Reduction, Crime Prevention, and Other Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coalition for Evidence-Based Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This paper outlines a possible approach to implementing the Social Entrepreneurship initiative, focused on building a body of research-proven program models/strategies, and scaling them up, so as to produce major progress in education, poverty reduction, crime prevention, and other areas. The paper summarizes the rationale for this approach, then…

  10. Stabilization of in-tank residual wastes and external-tank soil contamination for the tank focus area, Hanford Tank Initiative: Applications to the AX tank farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, D.L.

    1997-01-01

    This report investigates five technical areas for stabilization of decommissioned waste tanks and contaminated soils at the Hanford Site AX Farm. The investigations are part of a preliminary evacuation of end-state options for closure of the AX Tanks. The five technical areas investigated are: (1) emplacement of cementations grouts and/or other materials; (2) injection of chemicals into contaminated soils surrounding tanks (soil mixing); (3) emplacement of grout barriers under and around the tanks; (4) the explicit recognition that natural attenuation processes do occur; and (5) combined geochemical and hydrological modeling. Research topics are identified in support of key areas of technical uncertainty, in each of the five areas. Detailed cost-benefit analyses of the technologies are not provided. This investigation was conducted by Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico, during FY 1997 by tank Focus Area (EM-50) funding

  11. Crash and rebound of indigenous populations in lowland South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Marcus J.; Walker, Robert S.; Kesler, Dylan C.

    2014-04-01

    Lowland South America has long been a battle-ground between European colonization and indigenous survival. Initial waves of European colonization brought disease epidemics, slavery, and violence that had catastrophic impacts on indigenous cultures. In this paper we focus on the demography of 238 surviving populations in Brazil. We use longitudinal censuses from all known indigenous Brazilian societies to quantify three demographic metrics: 1) effects of European contact on indigenous populations; 2) empirical estimates of minimum viable population sizes; and 3) estimates of post-contact population growth rates. We use this information to conduct population viability analysis (PVA). Our results show that all surviving populations suffered extensive mortality during, and shortly after, contact. However, most surviving populations exhibit positive growth rates within the first decade post-contact. Our findings paint a positive demographic outlook for these indigenous populations, though long-term survival remains subject to powerful externalities, including politics, economics, and the pervasive illegal exploitation of indigenous lands.

  12. Position paper: Inland waterways classification for South America : Core concepts and initial proposals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaimurzina, A.; Koedijk, O.C.; Wilmsmeier, G.; Dohms, A.; Montiel, D.; Pauli, G.; Rigo, P; Spengler, T.; Wens, F.

    2016-01-01

    South America, as of yet, has not been able to take full advantage of its extensive system of naturally navigable waterways and in making them an integrated part of the region’s transport network to cater for the ever increasing demand for cargo and human mobility. Infrastructure limitations are one

  13. Community Colleges in America: A Historical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Richard L.

    2003-01-01

    Drury traces the development of community colleges in America from their earliest days through modern times, describing the social, political, religious, and economic factors that influenced their development.

  14. Training centres in Latin America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1959-04-15

    Early 1958 the Brazilian representative on the Board of Governors of the International Atomic Energy Agency - supported by the Governors from Argentina and Guatemala -proposed that a study should be made of the possibility of setting up one or more atomic energy training centres in Latin America. On the Board's recommendation, the Director General of the Agency appointed a fact-finding team to make anon-the-spot study. In drafting this report the team was invited to consider the following points: (a) The need for establishing one or more regional training centres; (b) Existing facilities that are being or could be used for training, together with technical data concerning them; (c) The general scientific technological and industrial conditions of the countries visited insofar as they have a bearing on their training needs and capabilities. The authors of the report conclude that 'a training centre in radio-botany should provide vitally needed knowledge and vitally needed specialists to all the agricultural installations in Latin America. A training centre like this might provide an excellent model upon which to base training centres in other areas'. The report recommends that: 1. The Agency should meet the requests of Latin American universities by, for example, supplying equipment and sending experts; 2. At least one specialized training centre should be established as soon as possible. Taking as an example the field of radio-botany, such a centre would provide trained specialists in radio-botany to agricultural institutions throughout Latin America and also provide basic research results vital to agriculture. The cost of new facilities might be of the order of $7 500 000, with an annual budget of approximately $650 000. Staff required: 40 scientists and 175 employees; 3. Whenever it appears feasible to gather necessary staff of high creative ability and established productivity and when funds can be made available for facilities, equipment and operating costs, at

  15. Training centres in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1959-01-01

    Early 1958 the Brazilian representative on the Board of Governors of the International Atomic Energy Agency - supported by the Governors from Argentina and Guatemala -proposed that a study should be made of the possibility of setting up one or more atomic energy training centres in Latin America. On the Board's recommendation, the Director General of the Agency appointed a fact-finding team to make anon-the-spot study. In drafting this report the team was invited to consider the following points: (a) The need for establishing one or more regional training centres; (b) Existing facilities that are being or could be used for training, together with technical data concerning them; (c) The general scientific technological and industrial conditions of the countries visited insofar as they have a bearing on their training needs and capabilities. The authors of the report conclude that 'a training centre in radio-botany should provide vitally needed knowledge and vitally needed specialists to all the agricultural installations in Latin America. A training centre like this might provide an excellent model upon which to base training centres in other areas'. The report recommends that: 1. The Agency should meet the requests of Latin American universities by, for example, supplying equipment and sending experts; 2. At least one specialized training centre should be established as soon as possible. Taking as an example the field of radio-botany, such a centre would provide trained specialists in radio-botany to agricultural institutions throughout Latin America and also provide basic research results vital to agriculture. The cost of new facilities might be of the order of $7 500 000, with an annual budget of approximately $650 000. Staff required: 40 scientists and 175 employees; 3. Whenever it appears feasible to gather necessary staff of high creative ability and established productivity and when funds can be made available for facilities, equipment and operating costs, at

  16. IAI Training in Climate and Health in the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aron, J. L.

    2007-05-01

    The Inter-American Institute for Global Change Research (IAI) has addressed training in climate and health in the Americas in two major ways. First, IAI supports students to engage in research training. A multi-country health activity funded by IAI was the collaborative research network (CRN) on Diagnostics and Prediction of Human Health Impacts in the Tropical Americas, which focused principally on the effect of El Nino/Southern Oscillation and other aspects of climate variability on mosquito-borne diseases malaria and dengue. The CRN involved students in Brazil, Mexico, Venezuela, Colombia and Jamaica. The CRN was also linked to other climate and health projects that used a similar approach. Second, IAI organizes training institutes to expand the network of global change research scientists and facilitate the transfer of global change research into practice. The IAI Training Institute on Climate and Health in the Americas was held on November 7 - 18, 2005 at the University of the West Indies in Kingston, Jamaica, engaging participants from the CRN and other programs in the Americas. The Training Institute's central objective was to help strengthen local and regional capacity to address the impacts of climate variability and climate change on human health in the populations of the Americas, particularly Latin America and the Caribbean. The Training Institute had three core components: Science; Applications; and Proposal Development for Seed Grants. Recommendations for future Training Institutes included incorporating new technologies and communicating with policy-makers to develop more proactive societal strategies to manage risks.

  17. Arthropod Envenomation in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Timothy B; Cheema, Navneet

    2017-05-01

    Arthropods (phylum Arthopoda) account for a higher percentage of morbidity and mortality to humans than do mammalian bites, snake bites, or marine envenomation. They are ubiquitous in domestic dwellings, caves, and campsites and in wilderness settings such as deserts, forests, and lakes. Although arthropods are most intrusive during warmer months, many are active throughout the winter, particularly indoors. Arthropods are also nocturnal and often bite unsuspecting victims while they are sleeping. Encounters with humans are generally defensive, accidental, or reactive. An individual stung by an insect or bitten by an arachnid may experience pain and local swelling, an anaphylactic reaction, or life-threatening toxicity. This review discusses the clinical presentation and latest treatment recommendations for bites and stings from spiders, scorpions, bees, ants, ticks and centipedes of North America. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Balsam fir conservation and red spruce ecosystem restoration initiatives in the West Virginia highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey A. Bonasso; David W. Saville

    2010-01-01

    The West Virginia Highlands Conservancy has been working for more than a decade to protect, conserve, and restore the spruce-fir forests in West Virginia. Beginning in the mid 1990s an effort was initiated to conserve balsam fir in West Virginia where it reaches its southern most extent in North America. This work led to further efforts which have focused on the...

  19. Developing a framework for assessing adaptability of citizen-focused e-Government initiatives in developing countries : The Case of Tanzania; Exploratory Phase Results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yonazi, J.; Boonstra, A.; Sol, H.G.; Remenyi, D

    2008-01-01

    Citizens' adoption of e-government initiatives is a key element towards successful implementation of e-government projects. Understanding the factors that may potentially influence citizens' adoption of e-government plays a key role when developing government electronic services for the public. Such

  20. The bentonite industry in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, D.A.; Hnatiw, D.S.J.; Walker, B.T.

    1992-11-01

    The Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program is studying a concept for the disposal of nuclear fuel waste at a depth of 500 to 1000 m below the surface in stable crystalline rock of the Canadian Shield. The waste containers would be surrounded by a clay-based buffer material, composed of equal proportions of bentonite clay and silica sand. In the reference disposal concept, some 1.9 x 10 5 Mg of used fuel would be emplaced. This would require 2.5 x 10 6 Mg of bentonite. A review of the bentonite industry in North America was carried out to establish the availability of sufficient high-quality material. There are proven reserves of sodium bentonite clay in excess of 1.5 x 10 8 Mg, and vast supplies are known to exist but not yet proven. The Canadian conceptual disposal vault would require 6 x 10 4 Mg of sodium bentonite each year for 40 years. The bentonite industry of North America has an installed annual production capacity of 2 x 10 7 Mg. A disposal vault would therefore require approximately 2% of the industry capacity. A number of commercial products have been screened for potential suitability for use as a component of the buffer. Ten currently marketed bentonite products have been identified as meeting the initial quality standards for the buffer, and two non-commercial bentonites have been identified as having the potential for use in a disposal vault. (Author) (14 figs., 7 tabs., 18 refs.)

  1. FOCUS AND CONSTITUENT QUESTION FORMATION IN DAGBANI

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Issah

    Key words: SpecFoc, focus marker, clause initial, constituent interrogatives, information ... 1Throughout this work, I use the phrase interrogative words in a general way to refer to the ...... Wh-Questions and extraction asymmetries in Malagasy.

  2. Technical assistance in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oteiza-Quirno, A.

    1976-01-01

    As in the other regions, nuclear technology development in Latin America reflects mainly the degree of technological development already existing in each country. It is quite significant that in nearly all countries in Latin America the medical profession has been the first to show interest in using nuclear techniques. As a result, a country such as Uruguay has become a source of recruitment for technical assistance experts in nuclear medicine to other developing countries, while at the same time it continues to receive assistance for new sophisticated techniques from the IAEA. Part of this assistance, in turn, comes from the neighbouring countries, Argentina and Brazil. For example, an expert from Uruguay is currently assigned under an Agency programme to Costa Rica, El Salvador and Guatemala, and experts from Argentina and Brazil have been sent to Uruguay. This is an example of 'horizontal' development, meaning mutual assistance between developing countries under programmes supported by the United Nations Agencies, which is now being emphasized by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Still in the field of nuclear medicine, another significant model is provided by Bolivia. With assistance from the IAEA, and thanks to the availability of a good professional infrastructure in that country, a net of nuclear medicine services has been started, consisting of a well-developed nuclear medicine centre in La Paz and regional centres in Cochabamba, Sucre and Santa Cruz. Because of its great variations in altitude, Bolivia is in the position of being able to conduct research on the adaptation of man to diverse environmental conditions. The Agency has contributed, and continues to do so, to these programmes by sending experts, providing for training abroad of Bolivian doctors under its fellowship programmes, and providing basic equipment for all four centres. Independently of the cases described above, the IAEA has implemented or is implementing a considerable

  3. Rural territorial dynamics in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Chiriboga

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article draws from the preliminary findings of an ongoing appliedresearch program on rural territorial dynamics carried out by the Latin American Center for Rural Development (RIMISP. The article provides some initial findings on 4 territories, of the 11 territories that are part of the overall study. The case studies include the island of Chiloé in southern Chile, the province of Tungurahua in Ecuador, a dairy farm region of Santo Tomás Nicaragua and Cuatro Lagunas near Cuzco Perú. Rural areas in Latin America are characterized by their dual nature with agro-exporting enclaves linked to global value chains alongside impoverished peasant economies, leading to differentiated policy recommendations. The research attempts to find relationships between reduced poverty and inequality in winning regions, measured by three variables, with issues of access to resources, human capital, political empowerment, markets and institutions, with particular attention to innovative social coalitions.

  4. Sustainable cities in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Tejerina, Miguel

    2015-11-01

    In the present day, Latin America is the most urbanised region - and also the most inequitable - on the planet, which means that its urban areas amass both huge wealth and huge poverty. Within this context, dealing with climate change is also a chance to increase citizens' well-being. Better public transport and more efficient energy and waste management are, besides being effective measures to reduce emissions, ultimately actions with a strong social component and work towards improving transportation and public health care and generate savings for citizens. Equally, actions geared towards boosting urban resilience represent measures that go beyond adaptation responses to climate change and primarily benefit those that are most vulnerable in the population. In the context of the future new global climate agreement, cities are taking a more prominent role in this new urban era, and gained in importance in the Sustainable Development Goals, LAC has a lot to give in the lessons learned from urbanisation. Rapidly urbanising regions like Asia and Africa, where population growth will be concentrated in cities in the present and near future, could learn a lot from the urbanisation process that has occurred, and continues to occur, in LAC. From the transport industry to energy and water, successful cases are numerous and varied, as are the setbacks, from which valuable lessons can be drawn for the purposes of more effectively facing up to this new global urban reality

  5. [Prenatal care in Latin America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buekens, P; Hernández, P; Infante, C

    1990-01-01

    Available data on the coverage of prenatal care in Latin America were reviewed. In recent years, only Bolivia had a coverage of prenatal care of less than 50 per cent. More than 90 per cent of pregnant women received prenatal care in Chile, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, and Puerto Rico. Prenatal care increased between the 1970 and 1980 in the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, and Peru. The coverage of prenatal care decreased in Bolivia and Colombia. The mean number of visits increased in Cuba and Puerto Rico. The increase of prenatal care in Guatemala and Honduras is due to increased care by traditional birth attendants, compared to the role of health care institutions. We compared the more recent data on tetanus immunization of pregnant women to the more recent data on prenatal care. The rates of tetanus immunization are always lower than the rates of prenatal care attendance, except in Costa Rica. The rates of tetanus immunization was less than half as compared to the rates of prenatal care in Bolivia, Guatemala, and Peru. To improve the content of prenatal care should be an objective complementary to the increase of the number of attending women.

  6. Focus Meeting 2, ``Astronomical Heritage: Progressing the UNESCO-IAU Initiative'' Introduction and overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggles, Clive; Sidorenko, Anna

    2016-10-01

    Marking seven years of formal cooperation between the IAU and the UNESCO World Heritage Centre to implement UNESCO's ``Astronomy and World Heritage'' Thematic Initiative, this Focus Meeting reviewed achievements, challenges, and progress on particular World Heritage List nomination projects.

  7. Democratic survival in Latin America (1945-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aníbal PÉREZ-LIÑÁN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Why do democracies survive or break down? In this paper, it returns to this classic question with an empirical focus on Latin America from 1945 to 2005. The argument deviates from the quantitative literature and a good part of the qualitative literature on democratic survival and breakdown. It is argued that structural variables such as the level of development and inequalities have not shaped prospects for democratic survival in Latin America. Nor, contrary to findings in some of the literature, has economic performance affected the survival of competitive regimes. Instead, it is focused on the regional political environment and on actors’ normative preferences about democracy and dictatorship and their policy radicalism or moderation. It is argued that 1 a higher level of development did not increase the likelihood of democratic survival in Latin America over this long time; 2 if actors have a normative preference for democracy, it is more likely to survive; and 3 policy moderation facilitates democratic survival.

  8. An Overview of CLT Research and Implementation in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiling Pei; Douglas Rammer; Marjan Popovski; Tom Williamson; Philip Line; John W. van de Lindt

    2016-01-01

    Although not yet seen as common practice, building with cross laminated timber (CLT) is gaining momentum in North America. Behind the scenes of the widely publicized project initiatives such as the Wood Innovation Design Centre Building in Canada and the recent U.S. Tall Wood Building Competition, substantial research, engineering, and development has been completed or...

  9. Science and Passion in America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagredo Baeza, Rafael

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In addition to increasing our knowledge and understanding of the naturalists who explored America at various times, particularly in the 18th and 19th centuries, we seek to discuss the personal, intimate, private, and sentimental nature of individuals who are usually described as well-bred, parsimonious, unfeeling, objective, rigorous, and methodical. For the same reason, perhaps, they are assumed to have stayed aloof from any form of sentimental or passionate relationships in the course of their excursions, despite the fact that the latter often lasted not for months but for years, and that in some instances were not conducted overland but involved prolonged voyages on the high seas.

    Además de avanzar en el conocimiento y comprensión de los naturalistas que exploraron América en algún momento, particularmente en los siglos XVIII y XIX, nos interesa relevar la dimensión personal, íntima, privada, sentimental, de sujetos que corrientemente son presentados como hombres comedidos, parcos, fríos, objetivos, rigurosos y metódicos y, tal vez por eso, se supone, ajenos a cualquier tipo de relación sentimental o pasional durante sus excursiones. Esto, a pesar de que muchas de ellas se prolongaron no ya por meses, sino que por años y que algunas de ellas no fueron itinerarios terrestres, sino que esencialmente marítimos, con largas temporadas en alta mar.

  10. The role of prevention focus under stereotype threat: Initial cognitive mobilization is followed by depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ståhl, Tomas; Van Laar, Colette; Ellemers, Naomi

    2012-06-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that stereotype threat induces a prevention focus and impairs central executive functions. The present research examines how these 2 consequences of stereotype threat are related. The authors argue that the prevention focus is responsible for the effects of stereotype threat on executive functions and cognitive performance. However, because the prevention focus is adapted to deal with threatening situations, the authors propose that it also leads to some beneficial responses to stereotype threat. Specifically, because stereotype threat signals a high risk of failure, a prevention focus initiates immediate recruitment of cognitive control resources. The authors further argue that this response initially facilitates cognitive performance but that the additional cognitive demands associated with working under threat lead to cognitive depletion over time. Study 1 demonstrates that stereotype threat (vs. control) facilitates immediate cognitive control capacity during a stereotype-relevant task. Study 2 experimentally demonstrates the process by showing that stereotype threat (vs. control) facilitates cognitive control as a default, as well as when a prevention focus has been experimentally induced, but not when a promotion focus has been induced. Study 3 shows that stereotype threat facilitates initial math performance under a prevention focus, whereas no effect is found under a promotion focus. Consistent with previous research, however, stereotype threat impaired math performance over time under a prevention focus, but not under a promotion focus. 2012 APA, all rights reserved

  11. Earth Stewardship: An initiative by the Ecological Society of America to foster engagement to sustain Planet Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapin, F. Stuart; Pickett, S.T.A.; Power, Mary E.; Collins, Scott L.; Baron, Jill S.; Inouye, David W.; Turner, Monica G.

    2017-01-01

    The Ecological Society of America (ESA) has responded to the growing commitment among ecologists to make their science relevant to society through a series of concerted efforts, including the Sustainable Biosphere Initiative (1991), scientific assessment of ecosystem management (1996), ESA’s vision for the future (2003), Rapid Response Teams that respond to environmental crises (2005), and the Earth Stewardship Initiative (2009). During the past 25 years, ESA launched five new journals, largely reflecting the expansion of scholarship linking ecology with broader societal issues. The goal of the Earth Stewardship Initiative is to raise awareness and to explore ways for ecologists and other scientists to contribute more effectively to the sustainability of our planet. This has occurred through four approaches: (1) articulation of the stewardship concept in ESA publications and Website, (2) selection of meeting themes and symposia, (3) engagement of ESA sections in implementing the initiative, and (4) outreach beyond ecology through collaborations and demonstration projects. Collaborations include societies and groups of Earth and social scientists, practitioners and policy makers, religious and business leaders, federal agencies, and artists and writers. The Earth Stewardship Initiative is a work in progress, so next steps likely include continued nurturing of these emerging collaborations, advancing the development of sustainability and stewardship theory, improving communication of stewardship science, and identifying opportunities for scientists and civil society to take actions that move the Earth toward a more sustainable trajectory.

  12. Regulatory Focus as a Mediator of the Influence of Initiating Structure and Servant Leadership on Employee Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubert, Mitchell J.; Kacmar, K. Michele; Carlson, Dawn S.; Chonko, Lawrence B.; Roberts, James A.

    2008-01-01

    In this research, the authors test a model in which the regulatory focus of employees at work mediates the influence of leadership on employee behavior. In a nationally representative sample of 250 workers who responded over 2 time periods, prevention focus mediated the relationship of initiating structure to in-role performance and deviant…

  13. Clitopilus argentinus in North America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baroni, Timothy J.

    1992-01-01

    Clitopilus argentinus is reported for the first time from North America. A full description and illustrations of the basidiomata and microscopic structures are provided. An X-ray elemental analysis of the diagnostic ‘hyaline’ incrustations of the pileus surface shows these extracellular structures

  14. Going Digital in Rural America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malecki, Edward J.

    This paper examines the extent to which rural America is digital--has access to the Internet and to newer technologies such as wireless broadband--and discusses rural supply and demand for "going digital." Supply aspects include issues of both infrastructure and public policy. Demand aspects include entrepreneurs (business users) and…

  15. Initial experiment of focusing wiggler of MM wave Free Electron Laser on LAX-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Keishi; Maebara, Sunao; Watanabe, Akihiko; Kishimoto, Yasuaki; Nagashima, Takashi; Maeda, Hikosuke; Shiho, Makoto; Oda, Hisako; Kawasaki, Sunao.

    1991-03-01

    Initial results of Free Electron laser (FEL) Experiment in the mm wave region are presented. The experiment is carried out using a induction linac system (LAX-1: Large current Accelerator Experiment) of E b = 1 MeV, Ib = 1 ∼ 3 kA. The wiggler of FEL is composed of the curved surface magnets arrays (focusing wiggler), which is found to be effective for a transport of low energy and high current beam through the wiggler. The superradiance of the mm wave region (30 GHz ∼ 40 GHz) is observed. The growth rate of this radiation is 0.42 dB/cm. (author)

  16. [Health manpower in the Americas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, R P; Brito, P

    1986-01-01

    The article summarizes the country studies on the development of the health manpower situation published in this issue of Educación médica y Salud, Vol. 20, No. 3, 1986. The countries covered are Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Cuba, Colombia, Mexico, and the United States of America. In these studies, the concept of disequilibrium or lack of balance and proportion was used to describe and examine some specific situations. However, no study took this concept as an object of further theoretical development, and in some it was preferred to replace it explicitly with the term "problem." The following categories of health personnel are considered: physicians, nurses and "other professions" (the latter very briefly). Professional training, the labor market, the relationship between supply and demand and the relationship with the geographic distribution of members of the health professions in the country are discussed. The studies summarized show that the situations and trends are similar in most of the countries, but that specific variations exist owing to structural and situational aspects in each. The most notable differences are seen between the characteristics of the manpower in the developed and in the developing countries. The variations in the English-speaking countries of the Caribbean are also brought out. Finally, there is a discussion of the occupational pyramid of the human resources in the health field, which consists of three horizontal segments. At the vertex are the university-trained categories; the middle is occupied by the technicians and auxiliary personnel, and at the base are the occupations requiring a low educational level.

  17. The Global Financial Crisis and currency crises in Latin America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonman, Tjeerd M.; Jacobs, Jan P.A.M.; Kuper, Gerard H.

    2012-01-01

    The Global Financial Crisis (GFC) has aected many regions including Latin America. This paper focuses on currency crises in Argentina, Brazil and Mexico. We estimate an Early Warning System, consisting of a dynamic factor model and an ordered logit model, with monthly data for 1990-2007. Ex ante

  18. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Biopower at the Chanute Air Force Base in Rantoul, Illinois. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scarlata, C.; Mosey, G.

    2013-05-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Former Chanute Air Force Base site in Rantoul, Illinois, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) was contacted to provide technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this study was to assess the site for a possible biopower system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and impacts of different biopower options.

  19. Policy in Focus

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Public Education in Mexico: Is all the. Spending for ... advantage of its demographic transition if proper educational and health policies are in place to .... traditional Generational Accounting, and ..... that, in modern societies, when individuals.

  20. Godel's Theorem in Focus

    CERN Document Server

    Shanker, S G

    2012-01-01

    A layman's guide to the mechanics of Gödel's proof together with a lucid discussion of the issues which it raises. Includes an essay discussing the significance of Gödel's work in the light of Wittgenstein's criticisms.

  1. Energy in focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, G.; Stegelmann, H.U.

    1985-01-01

    Part one of the publication abstracted contains some introductory information about different aspects of energy supply. The publication summarizes a number of papers held in connection with a project dealing with the 'social compatibility of energy systems'. The papers were presented to different groups interested in the subject by technico-scientific experts from university or research institutes. In a popular way the papers discuss the properties of different energy sources and deal with different conversion techniques applied on the electric power and heat market. They point out environmental effects, health and safety risks of energy systems and economic aspects of different energy systems. Part two deals with competing long-term energy systems in the Federal Republic of Germany, that is with the four 'energy paths' of the Enquete Commission. The paths are covering a large variety of feasible developments and trends and therefore reflect all aspects of the energy debate to their full extent. (orig./HP) [de

  2. IAEA fast reactor knowledge preservation initiative. Project focus: KNK-II reactor, Karlsruhe, Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-08-01

    This Working Material (including the attached CD-ROM) documents progress made in the IAEA's initiative to preserve knowledge in the fast reactor domain. The brochure describes briefly the context of the initiative and gives an introduction to the contents of the CD-ROM. In 2003/2004 a first focus of activity was concentrated on the preservation of knowledge related to the KNK-II experimental fast reactor in Karlsruhe, Germany. The urgency of this project was given by the impending physical destruction of the installation, including the office buildings. Important KNK-II documentation was brought to safety and preserved just in time. The CD-ROM contains the full texts of 264 technical and scientific documents describing research, development and operating experience gained with the KNK-II installation over a period of time from 1965 to 2002, extending through initial investigations, 17 years of rich operating experience, and final shutdown and decommissioning. The index to the documents on the CD-ROM is printed at the end of this booklet in chronological order and is accessible on the CD by subject index and chronological index. The CD-ROM contains in its root directory also the document 'fr c lassification.pdf' which describes the classification system used for the present collection of documents on the fast reactor KNK-II

  3. Health and health services in Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfield, R M; Rodriguez, P F

    1985-08-16

    Despite rapid economic growth since World War II, health conditions improved only slowly in most of Central America. This is a result of poor medical, social, and economic infrastructure, income maldistribution, and the poor utilization of health investments. The economic crisis of the 1980s and civil strife have further endangered health in the region. Life expectancy has fallen among men in El Salvador and civil strife has become the most common cause of death in Guatemala, Nicaragua, and El Salvador. Large-scale US assistance has done little to improve conditions, and refugees continue to pour into North America. It is estimated that there are more than a million refugees within Central America, while a million have fled to the United States. Costa Rica and Nicaragua are partial exceptions to this dismal health picture. An effective approach to the many health problems in Central America will require joint planning and cooperation among all countries in the region.

  4. The global pertussis initiative: Meeting report from the Regional Latin America Meeting, Costa Rica, 5-6 December, 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulloa-Gutierrez, Rolando; Hozbor, Daniela; Avila-Aguero, Maria L; Caro, Jaime; Wirsing von König, Carl-Heinz; Tan, Tina; Plotkin, Stanley

    2010-11-01

    Pertussis remains endemic across the world, with an estimated 279,000 deaths in 2002, the majority in infants under 1 year of age. Worldwide epidemiologic data indicates increasing infection rates in older children and adults, which act as a source of infection to young infants. The Global Pertussis Initiative (GPI) is an expert scientific forum, which has published consensus recommendations for the monitoring, prevention, and treatment of the disease. This paper reports the proceedings of a regional meeting, held in Costa Rica in December 2008. The meeting gathered information on regional epidemiological, diagnostic capabilities and the ability to introduce GPI recommended vaccine strategies in Latin America. The capacity of Latin American countries to conduct vaccination programs is high and there is considerable government support. Whole-cell pertussis vaccines are used across Latin America, which appear to be quite effective. A 4-dose schedule is typically used (2, 4, 6, and 18 months), and a booster given at 4 to 6 years of age, with coverage often above 90%, but with regions of low coverage due to political and geographical difficulties. Adequate surveillance is lacking in many countries, giving insufficient data to guide vaccination policy. Improvements are being made, with countries such as Costa Rica, Panama, and Argentina introducing polymerase chain reaction (PCR) diagnosis. Those countries that do not currently use a preschool booster should launch one. Implementing vaccination programs in adolescents and/or adults to reduce exposure to infants would be beneficial and possible in most countries, given their current infrastructure.

  5. Flocs in Focus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thor Nygaard

    Suspended particle dynamics are important drivers for land-sea interactions. This has been examined in two coastal/marine environments, influenced by recently eroded particles from land. The main study region is an Arctic fjord, Disko Fjord on West Greenland. The rates of warming due to climate......, organic particles, and zooplankton. The study shows that the suspended particle dynamics are highly influenced by zooplankton grazing, and at the same time are influenced by the supply of inorganic particles from land, and we highlight that the interaction can have a large impact on the vertical flux......, and their relevance for earth system interactions....

  6. Prosodic Focus Marking in Bai.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Zenghui; Chen, A.; Van de Velde, Hans

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates prosodic marking of focus in Bai, a Sino-Tibetan language spoken in the Southwest of China, by adopting a semi-spontaneous experimental approach. Our data show that Bai speakers increase the duration of the focused constituent and reduce the duration of the post-focus

  7. Water Quality and Fecal-Indicator Detection in Response to an Impaired Urban Watershed: Turkey Creek "Gulf of Mexico Initiative Focus"; and a "Making a Visible Difference" Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The historical communities of Turkey Creek originated in 1866, when a group of emancipated African-Americans purchased land in Harrison County, MS, along the Turkey Creek watershed. Many of the current members of this community are descendants from the original settlers. This wa...

  8. Municipal Forest Management in Latin America | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2004-01-01

    Jan 1, 2004 ... Book cover Municipal Forest Management in Latin America ... forest management schemes we could use as models to develop policies? ... Call for proposals: Innovations for the economic inclusion of marginalized youth.

  9. Suicide in America: Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Trials? Finding Help Reprints For More Information Share Suicide in America: Frequently Asked Questions Download PDF Download ... a week. Text “HOME” to 741741. What Is Suicide? Suicide is when people direct violence at themselves ...

  10. Stabilization of in-tank residual wastes and external-tank soil contamination for the tank focus area, Hanford tank initiative: Applications to the AX Tank Farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balsley, S.D.; Krumhansl, J.L.; Borns, D.J.; McKeen, R.G.

    1998-07-01

    A combined engineering and geochemistry approach is recommended for the stabilization of waste in decommissioned tanks and contaminated soils at the AX Tank Farm, Hanford, WA. A two-part strategy of desiccation and gettering is proposed for treatment of the in-tank residual wastes. Dry portland cement and/or fly ash are suggested as an effective and low-cost desiccant for wicking excess moisture from the upper waste layer. Getters work by either ion exchange or phase precipitation to reduce radionuclide concentrations in solution. The authors recommend the use of specific natural and man-made compounds, appropriately proportioned to the unique inventory of each tank. A filler design consisting of multilayered cementitous grout with interlayered sealant horizons should serve to maintain tank integrity and minimize fluid transport to the residual waste form. External tank soil contamination is best mitigated by placement of grouted skirts under and around each tank, together with installation of a cone-shaped permeable reactive barrier beneath the entire tank farm. Actinide release rates are calculated from four tank closure scenarios ranging from no action to a comprehensive stabilization treatment plan (desiccant/getters/grouting/RCRA cap). Although preliminary, these calculations indicate significant reductions in the potential for actinide transport as compared to the no-treatment option

  11. Focus of B-to-B e-commerce initiatives and related benefits in manufacturing small- and medium-sized enterprises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elie, E.; Lefebvre, L.A.; Lefebvre, E.

    2007-01-01

    Empirical research into business-to-business e-commerce issues involving manufacturing small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) is still embryonic. In an attempt to partially fill this gap, this paper presents empirical data from an electronic survey conducted among 96 manufacturing SMEs to

  12. Focus of B-to-B e-commerce initiatives and related benefits in manufacturing small- and medium-sized enterprises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elie, E.; Lefebvre, L.A.; Lefebvre, E.

    2007-01-01

    Empirical research into business-to-business e-commerce issues involving manufacturing small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) is still embryonic. In an attempt to partially fill this gap, this paper presents empirical data from an electronic survey conducted among 96 manufacturing SMEs to

  13. Obesity and hypertension in Latin America: Current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruilope, L M; Nunes Filho, A C B; Nadruz, W; Rodríguez Rosales, F F; Verdejo-Paris, J

    In the countries of Central America, South America and the Caribbean, there has been a dramatic rise in obesity, the metabolic syndrome, hypertension and other cardiovascular risk factors in the last few decades. Epidemiological evidence highlights a consistent correlation between obesity and hypertension, and the presence of obesity predisposes an individual to a greater risk of hypertension although the mechanisms remain unclear. Obesity and hypertension are two key drivers of the cardio-renal disease continuum, and patients with uncontrolled cardiovascular risk in their mid-life will likely have an increased risk of clinical cardiovascular and renal outcomes in old age. This article summarizes the current status for the prevalence and consequences of obesity and hypertension in Latin America, with the aim of initiating a call to action to all stakeholders for greater implementation of primary prevention strategies, particularly in the young. Copyright © 2018 SEH-LELHA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of a Hydroelectric Installation at the Jeddo Mine Drainage Tunnel. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, J. O.; Mosey, G.

    2013-02-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Jeddo Tunnel discharge site for a feasibility study of renewable energy potential. The purpose of this report is to assess technical and economic viability of the site for hydroelectric and geothermal energy production. In addition, the report outlines financing options that could assist in the implementation of a system.

  15. Honeybee health in South America

    OpenAIRE

    Maggi , Matías; Antúnez , Karina; Invernizzi , Ciro; Aldea , Patricia; Vargas , Marisol; Negri , Pedro; Brasesco , Constanza; De Jong , David; Message , Dejair; Teixeira , Erica Weinstein; Principal , Judith; Barrios , Carlos; Ruffinengo , Sergio; Da Silva , Rafael Rodríguez; Eguaras , Martín

    2016-01-01

    International audience; AbstractHoneybees are essential components to modern agriculture and economy. However, a continuous increase in cases of colony losses and colony depopulation are being reported worldwide. This critical situation has put the fragile equilibrium between bees and plants on the edge. As a consequence, several scientists have begun to focus their lines of research on this issue. Most researchers agree that there is no single explanation for the observed colony losses. Inst...

  16. Holocene glacial fluctuations in southern South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynhout, S.; Sagredo, E. A.; Kaplan, M. R.; Aravena, J. C.; Martini, M. A.; Strelin, J. A.; Schaefer, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    Understanding the timing and magnitude of former glacier fluctuations is critical to decipher long-term climatic trends and to unravel both natural cycles and human impact on the current glacial behavior. Despite more than seven decades of research efforts, a unifying model of Holocene glacial fluctuations in Southern South America remains elusive. Here, we present the state-of-the-art regarding the timing of Holocene glacial fluctuation in southern Patagonia-Tierra del Fuego, with a focus on a new generation of high-resolution radiocarbon and 10Be surface exposure dating chronologies. Recently acquired evidence suggest that after receding from advanced Late Glacial positions, Patagonian glaciers were for the most part close to, or even behind, present ice margins during the Early Holocene. On the other hand, emerging chronologies indicate that in some areas there were extensive expansions (century scale?) that punctuated the warm interval. Subsequently, we have evidence of multiple millennial timescale glacial advances starting in the middle Holocene. Several glacial maxima are defined by moraines and other landforms from 7000 years ago to the 19th century, with a gap sometime between 4,500 and 2,500 years ago. The last set of advances began around 800-600 years ago. Although glacial activity is documented in Patagonia at the same time as the European Little Ice Age, the extent of these glacial events are less prominent than those of the mid-Holocene. The causes that may explain these glacial fluctuations remain elusive. Finally, we discuss ongoing efforts to better define the timing and extent of Holocene glaciations in southern South America, and to establish the basis to test competing hypothesis of regional Holocene climate variability.

  17. Naval Station Newport Wind Resource Assessment. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites, and The Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robichaud, R.; Fields, J.; Roberts, J. O.

    2012-02-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) launched the RE-Powering America's Land initiative to encourage development of renewable energy (RE) on potentially contaminated land and mine sites. EPA is collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate RE options at Naval Station (NAVSTA) Newport in Newport, Rhode Island where multiple contaminated areas pose a threat to human health and the environment. Designated a superfund site on the National Priorities List in 1989, the base is committed to working toward reducing the its dependency on fossil fuels, decreasing its carbon footprint, and implementing RE projects where feasible. The Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center (NFESC) partnered with NREL in February 2009 to investigate the potential for wind energy generation at a number of Naval and Marine bases on the East Coast. NAVSTA Newport was one of several bases chosen for a detailed, site-specific wind resource investigation. NAVSTA Newport, in conjunction with NREL and NFESC, has been actively engaged in assessing the wind resource through several ongoing efforts. This report focuses on the wind resource assessment, the estimated energy production of wind turbines, and a survey of potential wind turbine options based upon the site-specific wind resource.

  18. Use of Opioids in Latin America: The Need of an Evidence-Based Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, María Antonieta; Kraychete, Durval Campos; Iskandar, Aziza Jreige; Colimon, Frantz; Lara-Solares, Argelia; Cantisani, José Alberto Flores; Amescua-García, César; Núñez, María del Rocío Guillén; Bonilla, Patricia; Lech, Osvandré; Hernández-Castro, John Jairo; Guerrero, Carlos; Barrera, William Delgado; Gallegos, Manuel Sempértegui; Cook, María Berenguel; Garcia, João Batista Santos; Hernández, Concepción Pérez

    2016-04-01

    The subject of this publication has been focused on local considerations for facilitating regional best practice, including identifying and uniformly adopting the most relevant international guidelines on opioid use (OU) in chronic pain management. The Change Pain Latin America (CPLA) Advisory Panel conducted a comprehensive, robust, and critical analysis of published national and international reviews and guidelines of OU, considering those most appropriate for Latin America. A PubMed search was conducted using the terms "opioid," "chronic," and "pain" and then refined using the filters "practice guidelines" and "within the last 5 years" (2007-2012). Once the publications were identified, they were selected using five key criteria: "Evidence based," "Comprehensive," "From a well-recognized source," "Current publications," and "Based on best practice" and then critically analyzed considering 10 key criteria for determining the most relevant guidelines to be applied in Latin America. The initial PubMed search identified 177 reviews and guidelines, which was reduced to 16 articles using the five preliminary criteria. After a secondary analysis according to the 10 key criteria specific to OU in Latin America, 10 publications were selected for critical review and discussion. The CPLA advisory panel considered the "Safe and effective use of opioids for chronic non-cancer pain" (published in 2010 by the NOUGG of Canada) to be valid, relevant to Latin America, practical, evidence-based, concise, unambiguous, and sufficiently educational to provide clear instruction on OU and pain management and, thus, recommended for uniform adoption across the Latin America region. © 2015 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Strategies to reduce mortality and morbidity due to AIDS-related cryptococcal meningitis in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose E. Vidal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Latin America is the region with the third most AIDS-related cryptococcal meningitis infections globally. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART has reduced the number of infections; however, the number of deaths and the case-fatality rate continues to be unacceptable. In this review, we focus on the burden of AIDS-related cryptococcosis in Latin America and discuss potential strategies to reduce early mortality from Cryptococcus. In this review, we highlight the importance of: (1 earlier HIV diagnosis and HAART initiation with retention-in-care to avoid AIDS; (2 pre-HAART cryptococcal antigen (CRAG screening with preemptive fluconazole treatment; (3 better diagnostics (e.g. CRAG testing; and (4 optimal treatment with aggressive management of intracranial pressure and induction therapy with antifungal combination. Implementation of these strategies can reduce cryptococcal-related deaths, improve care, and reduce healthcare costs.

  20. Report of Committee for JAEA Internationalization Initiative. Focusing on the activities of local teams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-10-01

    The 'Committee for JAEA Internationalization Initiative' was established in 2010 with the view to discuss the policy and improvement plans for JAEA's achievement of an international center of excellence (ICOE), which include improving the environment to accept foreign researchers, etc. The existing issues to be solved in the effort for ICOE and recommendations for the solutions, which were discussed in the committee, and challenges in developing human resources with a global mindset were written in the report summarizing the activities conducted in the following two years. This report was compiled focusing on the efforts in respective sites made during a period of two years from 2013 to 2014 by the local teams that were set up in accordance with the situation of the R and D centers hosting a number of foreign researchers, etc. based on the above-mentioned recommendations. (author)

  1. Racism in America through adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Munk, Jakob; Jakobsen, Sebastian; Chung, Jacinta; Schulze, Anja; Papakonstantinou, Vaitza

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the adaptation of the movie 12 Years a Slave from the memoir of Solomon Northup. In order to analyse the adaptation, several theories will be used as guidelines for our research such as adaptation theories and film techniques. The analysis will lead through the different chapters of the book focusing on atmosphere, characters and religion. The main themes dealt with in the book as well as the movie will be linked with the events which unfolded in Ferguson and Baltimore. In...

  2. [Key points for the management of dermatitis in Latin America. The SLAAI Consensus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Jorge; Páez, Bruno; Macías-Weinmann, Alejandra; De Falco, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of atopic dermatitis in Latin America, as in other regions, has been increasing in recent years. The SLAAI consensus is based on a systematic search for articles related to dermatitis, with focus in the pathophysiology and treatment and its impact on Latin America, and reviewed using the Delphi methodology (Revista Alergia Mexico 2014;61:178-211). In this article we highlight the key points of consensus and particular considerations in Latin America.

  3. Focused conformational sampling in proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacci, Marco; Langini, Cassiano; Vymětal, Jiří; Caflisch, Amedeo; Vitalis, Andreas

    2017-11-01

    A detailed understanding of the conformational dynamics of biological molecules is difficult to obtain by experimental techniques due to resolution limitations in both time and space. Computer simulations avoid these in theory but are often too short to sample rare events reliably. Here we show that the progress index-guided sampling (PIGS) protocol can be used to enhance the sampling of rare events in selected parts of biomolecules without perturbing the remainder of the system. The method is very easy to use as it only requires as essential input a set of several features representing the parts of interest sufficiently. In this feature space, new states are discovered by spontaneous fluctuations alone and in unsupervised fashion. Because there are no energetic biases acting on phase space variables or projections thereof, the trajectories PIGS generates can be analyzed directly in the framework of transition networks. We demonstrate the possibility and usefulness of such focused explorations of biomolecules with two loops that are part of the binding sites of bromodomains, a family of epigenetic "reader" modules. This real-life application uncovers states that are structurally and kinetically far away from the initial crystallographic structures and are also metastable. Representative conformations are intended to be used in future high-throughput virtual screening campaigns.

  4. The medicinal use of chocolate in early North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucciarelli, Deanna L; Grivetti, Louis E

    2008-10-01

    The medicinal use of chocolate has a long history in North America dating back to the 16th century. From Mesoamerican Codices and European Treatises scholars have determined that for hundreds of years the beverage called chocolate was administered to the sick and prescribed homeopathically to prevent illness. Yet, little scholarship exists that focuses on medicinal chocolate usage in early North America (18th-19th century). This paper examines medical practices during this era and associated medicinal norms with special attention given to chocolate/cocoa usage. Given the current scientific attention on the relationship between dark chocolate consumption and heart disease attenuation it is timely to investigate and chronicle America's medical forebears' understanding of, and practices related to, the medicinal use of chocolate. Indeed, there is a significant amount of literature to suggest that chocolate was used for wellness and to treat illness.

  5. From upstream to downstream: Megatrends and latest developments in Latin America`s hydrocarbons sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Kang; Pezeshki, S.; McMahon, J.

    1995-08-01

    In recent years, Latin America`s hydrocarbons sector has been characterized by reorganization, revitalization, regional cooperation, environmental awakening, and steady expansion. The pattern of these changes, which appear to be the megatrends of the region`s hydrocarbons sector development, will continue during the rest of the 1990s. To further study the current situation and future prospects of Latin America`s hydrocarbons sector, we critically summarize in this short article the key issues in the region`s oil and gas development. These megatrends in Latin America`s hydrocarbons sector development will impact not only the future energy demand and supply in the region, but also global oil flows in the North American market and across the Pacific Ocean. Each country is individually discussed; pipelines to be constructed are discussed also.

  6. History of primary vasculitis in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias Gammara, Antonio; Coral, Paola; Quintana, Gerardo; Toro, Carlos E; Flores, Luis Felipe; Matteson, Eric L; Restrepo, José Félix

    2010-03-01

    A literature review utilizing Fepafem, Bireme, LiLacs, Scielo Colombia, Scielo Internacional, former MedLine, Pubmed, and BVS Colombia as well as manual searches in the libraries of major Latin American universities was performed to study vasculitis in Latin America. Since 1945, a total of 752 articles have been published by Latin American authors. However, only a minority are devoted to primary vasculitides, and even fewer have been published in indexed journals. Approximately 126 are in OLD, Medline, Pubmed, Bireme, and Scielo. Most publications are from Mexico, followed by Brazil and Colombia. Systematic studies of the epidemiology of primary idiopathic vasculitis are available for a few countries, i.e. Brazil, Mexico, Colombia, Chile, and Peru. Takayasu arteritis and ANCA-associated vasculitis are the best studied forms of vasculitis in Latin America. Interest and expertise in vasculitis is growing in Latin America, as reflected in the increased number of published articles from this region of the world in the last decade. Racial and environmental factors are possibly responsible for the differential expression of various types of primary vasculitis observed in Latin America. With time, the unique features, epidemiology, and better treatment strategies for idiopathic vasculitides in Latin America will emerge.

  7. Development and evaluation of addiction treatment programs in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Navarrete, Rodrigo; Medina-Mora, María Elena; Pérez-López, Alejandro; Horigian, Viviana E

    2018-07-01

    The aim of this article is to present a state-of-the-art review of the scientific studies that have evaluated healthcare systems, services and programs for addiction treatment in Latin America. As a secondary aim, this article presents a brief description and analysis of the addiction prevention and treatment resources and programs available in Latin America, based on information from the ATLAS on Substance Use (ATLAS-SU) project led by the WHO. Substance use disorders (SUDs) are among the main causes associated with global burden of disease. Around the world, many initiatives have been proposed to promote policies to reduce substance use and reduce the impact of SUD, including integrating treatments into healthcare systems, increasing access to treatment programs and impacting outcome measures. In Latin America, multiple efforts have been implemented to improve addiction services and programs, although little is known about the impact they have generated. International studies report the availability of strategies and public inicitatives on prevention and treatment of addiction in Latin America. These studies also report established networks of public and private services that include prevention and detoxification programs, outpatient and residential treatment, and also social reintegration initiatives. However, despite these advances, information on the evaluation of the progress, results and impact of these programs is limited.

  8. Regulatory focus in groupt contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faddegon, Krispijn Johannes

    2009-01-01

    The thesis examines the influence of group processes on the regulatory focus of individual group members. It is demonstrated that the group situation can affect group members' regulatory focus both in a top-down fashion (via the identitiy of the group) and in a bottom-up fashion (emerging from the

  9. Systematic Review of Research on Educational Leadership and Management in Latin America, 1991-2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Felipe Aravena; Hallinger, Philip

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to further our understanding of educational leadership and management (EDLM) knowledge production in Latin America. We conducted a "topographical review" of 48 articles from Latin America published in eight "core" EDLM journals published between 1991 and 2017. Data analysis focused on…

  10. EERE-Supported International Activities in Latin America (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-05-01

    The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) is involved in a variety of international initiatives, partnerships, and events that promote greater understanding and use of renewable energy (RE) and energy efficiency (EE) worldwide. In support of the Energy and Climate Partnership of the Americas (ECPA), EERE is working with several Latin American countries to advance EE and RE deployment for economic growth, energy security, poverty relief, and disaster recovery goals. This fact sheet highlights those activities.

  11. Scaling up Agroecological Approaches for Food Sovereignty in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel A Altieri; Clara I Nicholls

    2008-01-01

    As the expansion of agroexports and biofuels continues unfolding in Latin America, the concepts of food sovereignty and agroecologically based production systems gain increasing attention. Miguel A. Altieri and Clara I. Nicholls suggest that the key importance will be the involvement of farmers directly in the formulation of the research agenda and on their active participation in the process of technological innovation and dissemination through models that focus on sharing experiences, stren...

  12. Russian Initiatives in Internet Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Sergeevich Shirin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the research of Russian initiatives concerning its participation in international system of Internet governance. In the research, conceptual and theoretic basis for participation of state governments in Internet governance is given, academic discourse of this issue is assessed, the review of main Russian initiatives made from 2005 (since the second stage of the World Summit on Information Society till the present day is carried out. The conclusion is made that the most successful Internet governance initiative of Russia is the implementation of cyrillic top level domains. Much less successful are Russian attempts to reconstruct existing organizational structure of Internet governance. Russian policy is assessed as a policy of preferring loud statements and PR rather than real influence on development of Internet technologies. Russia consideres Internet as political resource and tries to increase its influence on decision making process on a political, not operational level of Internet governance. The author states that federal government of the United States of America has fully lost the control on the domain name systems. These functions are going to be given to the private sector, while ICANN, which was established according to the Memorandum of Understanding/Joint Project Agreement with U.S. Department of Commerce, is becoming a truly independent international organization. Considering this, the author comes to the conclusion that political transformations for the sake of Russia are already made. He also forecast that next initiatives of Russia will be directed to the segmentation of the Internet.

  13. National Identity and Language in Multi-Ethnic Latin America. Occasional Papers, 24.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mar-Molinero, Clare

    A discussion of the relationship between national identity and language in Spanish-speaking Latin America focuses on issues concerning indigenous languages, education, and literacy. The sociolinguistic history and configuration Spanish-speaking Latin America are outlined briefly, noting the influences of indigenous populations, non-Spanish…

  14. Sputnik's Impact on Science Education in America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrow, Charles H.

    2007-04-01

    The launch of Sputnik, the world's first artificial Earth orbiting satellite, by the Soviet Union on October 4, 1957 was a triggering event. Before Sputnik pressure had been rising to mobilize America's intellectual resources to be more effective and useful in dealing with the Cold War. Sputnik released that pressure by stirring up a mixture of American hysteria, wounded self-esteem, fears of missile attacks, and deep questioning of the intellectual capabilities of popular democratic society and its educational system. After Sputnik the federal government took several remarkable actions: President Eisenhower established the position of Presidential Science Advisor; the House and the Senate reorganized their committee structures to focus on science policy; Congress created NASA -- the National Aeronautics and Space Agency -- and charged it to create a civilian space program; they tripled funding for the National Science Foundation to support basic research but also to improve science education and draw more young Americans into science and engineering; and they passed the National Defense Education Act which involved the federal government to an unprecedented extent with all levels of American education. I will describe some pre-Sputnik pressures to change American education, review some important effects of the subsequent changes, and talk about one major failure of change fostered by the national government.

  15. The circulation of European knowledge Niklas Luhmann in the Hispanic Americas

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez Medina, Leandro

    2014-01-01

    This book studies the circulation of social knowledge by focusing on the reception of Niklas Luhmann's systems theory in Hispanic America. It shows that theories need active involvement from scholars in the receiving field in order to travel.

  16. Germanic heritage languages in North America: Acquisition, attrition and change

    OpenAIRE

    Johannessen, Janne Bondi; Salmons, Joseph C.; Westergaard, Marit; Anderssen, Merete; Arnbjörnsdóttir, Birna; Allen, Brent; Pierce, Marc; Boas, Hans C.; Roesch, Karen; Brown, Joshua R.; Putnam, Michael; Åfarli, Tor A.; Newman, Zelda Kahan; Annear, Lucas; Speth, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    This book presents new empirical findings about Germanic heritage varieties spoken in North America: Dutch, German, Pennsylvania Dutch, Icelandic, Norwegian, Swedish, West Frisian and Yiddish, and varieties of English spoken both by heritage speakers and in communities after language shift. The volume focuses on three critical issues underlying the notion of ‘heritage language’: acquisition, attrition and change. The book offers theoretically-informed discussions of heritage language processe...

  17. Political Transmigrants: Rethinking Hmong Political Activism in America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nengher N. Vang, Ph.D

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the initial resettlement of the Hmong in the United States in the mid-1970s, they have maintained strong political and military relationships with the Lao People‘s Democratic Republic (LPDR. Yet, there is little research on that relationship and the involvement of the Hmong in the United States in political developments in Laos. Most works on Hmong political activism have focused on the electoral participation and representation of Hmong Americans in relation to American domestic politics. In this article, using archival, ethnographic, and interview data that I have collected between 2006 and 2009 in Laos, Thailand, and the United States, I describe and analyze the non-domestic or transnational form of Hmong American political expression and participation. I argue that Hmong political activism in America not only was transnational from the outset, but that their transnational involvement in political developments in Laos and their relations with the Lao PDR government also had a significant impact on their ethnic politics. Many Hmong political activists made their entry into ethnic politics through the door of transnational politics, and many were motivated by transnational political issues to participate in domestic American politics. By exploring their transnational involvement in political developments in Laos and their relations with the Lao PDR government, we get a more complete and dynamic understanding of Hmong political activism in the United States than is possible by focusing exclusively on domestic and electoral participation. Examining their transnational politics also allows us to see the transnationality of not only their culture, identity, and community but also that of their political activities and aspirations.

  18. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Brisbane Baylands Brownfield Site in Brisbane, California. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salasovich, J.; Geiger, J.; Healey, V.; Mosey, G.

    2013-04-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Brisbane Baylands site in Brisbane, California, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  19. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Price Landfill Site in Pleasantville, New Jersey. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salasovich, J.; Geiger, J.; Mosey, G.; Healey, V.

    2013-05-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Price Landfill site in Pleasantville, New Jersey, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site. This study did not assess environmental conditions at the site.

  20. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Kolthoff Landfill in Cleveland, Ohio. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salasovich, J.; Geiger, J.; Mosey, G.; Healey, V.

    2013-06-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region 5, in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Kolthoff Landfill site in Cleveland, Ohio, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  1. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Geothermal Power Generation at the Lakeview Uranium Mill Site in Lakeview, Oregon. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillesheim, M.; Mosey, G.

    2013-11-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Lakeview Uranium Mill site in Lakeview, Oregon, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The EPA contracted with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to provide technical assistance for the project. The purpose of this report is to describe an assessment of the site for possible development of a geothermal power generation facility and to estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts for the facility. In addition, the report recommends development pathways that could assist in the implementation of a geothermal power system at the site.

  2. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the TechCity East Campus Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Site in Kingston, New York. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salasovich, James [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Geiger, Jesse W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mosey, Gail [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Healey, Victoria [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the TechCity East Campus site in Kingston, New York, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this study is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  3. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Former Fort Ord Army Base Site in Marina, California. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoltenberg, B.; Konz, C.; Mosey, G.

    2013-05-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Former Fort Ord Army Base (FOAB) site in Marina, California, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  4. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Standard Chlorine of Delaware Superfund Site in Delaware City, Delaware. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salasovich, J.; Geiger, J.; Mosey, G.; Healey, V.

    2013-06-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Standard Chlorine of Delaware site in Delaware City, Delaware, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  5. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Crazy Horse Landfill Site in Salinas, California. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoltenberg, B.; Konz, C.; Mosey, G.

    2013-03-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Crazy Horse Landfill site in Salinas, California, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) was contacted to provide technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, operation and maintenance requirements, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  6. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Sky Park Landfill Site in Eau Claire, Wisconsin. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, J.; Mosey, G.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Sky Park Landfill site in Eau Claire, Wisconsin, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  7. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Kerr McGee Site in Columbus, Mississippi. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, J.; Mosey, G.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Kerr McGee site in Columbus, Mississippi, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  8. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Tronox Facility in Savannah, Georgia. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiatreungwattana, K.; Geiger, J.; Healey, V.; Mosey, G.

    2013-03-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Tronox Facility site in Savannah, Georgia, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  9. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Chino Mine in Silver City, New Mexico. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiatreungwattana, K.; Geiger, J.; Healey, V.; Mosey, G.

    2013-04-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Chino Mine site in Silver City, New Mexico, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  10. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Former Bethlehem Steel Plant Brownfield Site in Lackawanna, New York. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salasovich, J.; Geiger, J.; Mosey, G.; Healey, V.

    2013-04-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Former Bethlehem Steel Plant site in Lackawanna, New York, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  11. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Peru Mill Industrial Park in the City of Deming, New Mexico. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiatreungwattana, K.; Geiger, J.; Healey, V.; Mosey, G.

    2013-04-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Peru Mill Industrial Park site in the City of Deming, New Mexico, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  12. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Tower Road Site in Aurora, Colorado. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Geet, O.; Mosey, G.

    2013-03-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Tower Road site in Aurora, Colorado, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site. This study did not assess environmental conditions at the site.

  13. Problems of Public Initiatives Realization in the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guziy A. E.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The article reads about the institute of public initiatives in the Russian Federation. The comparative law analysis of this form of democracy with the analogous institute in the United States of America has been conducted.

  14. Urban restructuring and deregulations in Latin America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carmona, M.

    1992-01-01

    With this work we continue the debate on the trends of urban restructuring in Latin America. In fact due to the large economic crisis of the 80-ies, the continent has decreased is living standards to that of 12 years ago. The productive potential has increased in 1,3% in circumstances that in the

  15. On the German Language in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Brian A.

    Sociolinguistic patterns among German immigrants to the United States of America are examined in this paper. Earlier studies in this area, including Wolfgang Viereck's work published in "Orbis" in 1967 and 1968, are examined. Through an analysis of the immigration patterns of the citizens of Glarus, Switzerland, in 1845 to New Glarus,…

  16. Pathfinders on Black Dance in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Loriene, Ed.

    This is a compilation of 18 pathfinders (i.e., a bibliographic instruction aid) on black dance in America, prepared by graduate students in the "Information Resources in the Humanities" and the "Information Resources in the Social Sciences" classes in the Graduate School of Library and Information Science at the University of…

  17. Communication dated 23 June 2009 received from the Permanent Mission of the United States of America with regard to Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism Plenary Meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a communication dated 23 June 2009 from the Permanent Mission of the United States of America transmitting the 16 June 2009 message from President Barack Obama to the Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism (GICNT) Plenary Meeting held in the Hague on 16-17 June 2009. As requested in that communication, the abovementioned message is herewith circulated for the information of all Member States

  18. Status of soil acidification in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. E. Fenn; T. G. Huntington; S. B. McLaughlin; C. Eagar; A. Gomez; R. B. Cook

    2006-01-01

    Forest soil acidification and depletion of nutrient cations have been reported for several forested regions in North America, predominantly in the eastern United States, including the northeast and in the central Appalachians, but also in parts of southeastern Canada and the southern U.S. Continuing regional inputs of nitrogen and sulfur are of concern because of...

  19. Articulations of eroticism and race: Domestic service in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Wade, Peter

    2013-01-01

    'Service', particularly 'domestic service', operates as a specific articulation or intersection of processes of race, class, gender and age that reiterates images of the sexual desirability of some women racially marked by blackness or indigeneity in Latin America. The sexualisation of racially subordinated people has been linked to the exercise of power. This article focuses on an aspect of subordination related to the condition of being a servant, and the 'domestication' and 'acculturation'...

  20. Disparities in sexually transmitted disease rates across the "eight Americas".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesson, Harrell W; Kent, Charlotte K; Owusu-Edusei, Kwame; Leichliter, Jami S; Aral, Sevgi O

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine rates of 3 bacterial sexually transmitted diseases (STDs; syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia) in 8 subpopulations (known as the "eight Americas") defined by race and a small number of county-level sociodemographic and geographical characteristics. The eight Americas are (1) Asians and Pacific Islanders in specific counties; (2) Northland low-income rural white; (3) Middle America; (4) Low-income whites in Appalachia and Mississippi Valley; (5) Western Native American; (6) Black middle America; (7) Southern low-income rural black; and (8) High-risk urban black. A list of the counties comprising each of the eight Americas was obtained from the corresponding author of the original eight Americas project, which examined disparities in mortality rates across the eight Americas. Using county-level STD surveillance data, we calculated syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia rates (new cases per 100,000) for each of the eight Americas. Reported STD rates varied substantially across the eight Americas. STD rates were generally lowest in Americas 1 and 2 and highest in Americas 6, 7, and 8. Although disparities in STDs across the eight Americas are generally similar to the well-established disparities in STDs across race/ethnicity, the grouping of counties into the eight Americas does offer additional insight into disparities in STDs in the United States. The high STD rates we found for black Middle America are consistent with the assertion that sexual networks and social factors are important drivers of racial disparities in STDs.

  1. Tarnished Gold: Classical Music in America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asia, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    A few articles have appeared recently regarding the subject of the health of classical music (or more broadly, the fine arts) in America. These include "Classical Music's New Golden Age," by Heather Mac Donald, in the "City Journal" and "The Decline of the Audience," by Terry Teachout, in "Commentary." These articles appeared around the time of…

  2. What's Cooking in America's Schoolyard Gardens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Cathy

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses what's cooking in America's schoolyard gardens. From First Lady Michelle Obama's world-famous Kitchen Garden, to Alice Waters' groundbreaking Edible Schoolyard in Berkeley, California, to a nationally recognized elementary school learning garden in the small Midwestern town of Ashland, Missouri, school children are planting…

  3. Integrating Ecohealth Assessment in the Americas | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    However, very few impact assessment laws are adequately implemented in Latin ... Integrated eco-health assessment law in the Americas : a hemispheric research ... IWRA/IDRC webinar on climate change and adaptive water management. International Water Resources Association, in close collaboration with IDRC, ...

  4. Profession of neuropsychology in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos; Stevens, Lillian; Morlett Paredes, Alejandra; Ardila, Alfredo; Rivera, Diego

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze characteristics of individuals working in the profession of neuropsychology in Latin America in order to understand their background, professional training, current work situation, assessment and diagnostic procedures used, rehabilitation techniques employed, population targeted, teaching responsibilities, and research activities. A total of 808 professionals working in neuropsychology from 17 countries in Latin America completed an online survey between July 2013 and January 2014. The majority of participants were female and the mean age was 36.76 years (range 21-74 years). The majority of professionals working in neuropsychology in Latin America have a background in psychology, with some additional specialized training and supervised clinical practice. Over half work in private practice, universities, or private clinics and are quite satisfied with their work. Those who identify themselves as clinicians primarily work with individuals with learning problems, ADHD, mental retardation, TBI, dementia, and stroke. The majority respondents cite the top barrier in the use of neuropsychological instruments to be the lack of normative data for their countries. The top perceived barriers to the field include: lack of academic training programs, lack of clinical training opportunities, lack of willingness to collaborate between professionals, and lack of access to neuropsychological instruments. There is a need in Latin America to increase regulation, improve graduate curriculums, enhance existing clinical training, develop professional certification programs, validate existing neuropsychological tests, and create new, culturally-relevant instruments.

  5. Initial feasibility of a woman-focused intervention for pregnant african-american women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Hendrée E; Berkman, Nancy D; Kline, Tracy L; Ellerson, Rachel Middlesteadt; Browne, Felicia A; Poulton, Winona; Wechsberg, Wendee M

    2011-01-01

    African-American women who use crack are vulnerable to HIV because of the complex social circumstances in which they live. Drug-abuse treatment for these women during pregnancy may provide time for changing risk behaviors. This paper examines the initial 6-month feasibility of a women-focused HIV intervention, the Women's CoOp, adapted for pregnant women, relative to treatment-as-usual among 59 pregnant African-American women enrolled in drug-abuse treatment. At treatment entry, the women were largely homeless, unemployed, practicing unsafe sex, and involved in violence. Results indicated marked reductions in homelessness, use of cocaine and illegal drugs, involvement in physical violence, and an increase in knowledge of HIV from baseline to 6-month followup for both conditions. Findings suggest that the Women's CoOp intervention could be successfully adapted to treat this hard-to-reach population. Future studies should examine the efficacy of the pregnancy-adapted Women's CoOp for women not enrolled in drug-abuse treatment.

  6. The Mediterranean fruit fly in Central America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vail, V.; Moore, I.; Nadel, D.

    1976-01-01

    Various methods of controlling the medfly are available and include the use of insecticides, bait sprays and the sterile insect technique (SIT). Each of these control strategies may be used alone or in sequence. With regard to the application of the SIT, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture through its Insect and Pest Control Section and Entomology Laboratory is in an excellent position to assist in containing the medfly in Central America. For the past 12 years, the laboratory has participated in all phases of medfly control by sterile insect releases in various climates. This involvement has included planning of medfly campaigns, development of pre-release techniques (bait spraying, trapping, etc.) and shipment and release of sterilized medflies. Small-scale field tests utilizing the SIT have been carried out by nine countries: Italy (Procida, Capri), Spain, Cyprus, Israel, Tunisia, Peru, Panama, Costa Rica and Nicaragua. Other field projects presently being counselled and serviced are located in Argentina, Venezuela and the Canary Islands. The research and development that are still needed to effectively stabilize and gain control of the medfly situation in Central America include: The development and use of effective quarantine procedures in various countries; Development of effective conventional medfly control procedures under the conditions found in Central America; Development of methods to determine the geographic origin of medflies introduced into new areas; Medfly mass production (viz. all aspects of rearing Central American strains); Assessing the performance (competitiveness, etc.) of various strains; Logistics, including the development of systems for releasing pre-adult stages; Genetic rearing methods: developmental research in this area is particularly promising since the preferential production of males would allow considerable savings in the rearing costs of medflies for release; Development of adequate surveillance

  7. Finnish in America: Two Kinds of Finglish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karttunen, Frances; Moore, Kate

    The Finnish language spoken by Finns who emigrated to America is often called "Finglish;" two distinct varieties are discussed in this paper. American Finnish differs from native Finnish in its assimilation of a substantial number of loan words that augment and sometimes replace the original vocabulary. Many loan words deal with employment,…

  8. Generation project development opportunities in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, R.W.

    1993-01-01

    This presentation addresses the pitfalls and benefits of developing power generation projects in Latin America. The topics of the presentation include the countries where there is opportunity for development, the opportunities that exist in these countries, the influence of geographic proximity, and competition from the Far East and the European Community

  9. The extractive imperative in Latin America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Arsel (Murat); Barbara Hogenboom (B.); L. Pellegrini (Lorenzo)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractOne of the main features of contemporary development politics in Latin America is the prominent role of the state. Another feature is the intensification of natural resource extraction. This extractivist drive is especially pronounced in the countries that are part of the ‘turn to the

  10. The extractive imperative in Latin America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arsel, M.; Hogenboom, B.; Pellegrini, L.

    2016-01-01

    One of the main features of contemporary development politics in Latin America is the prominent role of the state. Another feature is the intensification of natural resource extraction. This extractivist drive is especially pronounced in the countries that are part of the ‘turn to the left’, which

  11. German Studies in America. German Studies Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Volkmar; Osterle, Heinz D.

    This volume contains two papers, "German Studies in America," by Volkmar Sander, and "Historicism, Marxism, Structuralism: Ideas for German Culture Courses," by Heinz D. Osterle. The first paper discusses the position of German studies in the United States today. The greatest challenge comes from low enrollments; therefore,…

  12. The status of cryptococcosis in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Firacative

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Cryptococcosis is a life-threatening fungal infection caused by the encapsulated yeasts Cryptococcus neoformans and C. gattii, acquired from the environment. In Latin America, as occurring worldwide, C. neoformans causes more than 90% of the cases of cryptococcosis, affecting predominantly patients with HIV, while C. gattii generally affects otherwise healthy individuals. In this region, cryptococcal meningitis is the most common presentation, with amphotericin B and fluconazole being the antifungal drugs of choice. Avian droppings are the predominant environmental reservoir of C. neoformans, while C. gattii is associated with several arboreal species. Importantly, C. gattii has a high prevalence in Latin America and has been proposed to be the likely origin of some C. gattii populations in North America. Thus, in the recent years, significant progress has been made with the study of the basic biology and laboratory identification of cryptococcal strains, in understanding their ecology, population genetics, host-pathogen interactions, and the clinical epidemiology of this important mycosis in Latin America.

  13. Forest health conditions in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tkacz, Borys; Moody, Ben; Castillo, Jaime Villa; Fenn, Mark E.

    2008-01-01

    Some of the greatest forest health impacts in North America are caused by invasive forest insects and pathogens (e.g., emerald ash borer and sudden oak death in the US), by severe outbreaks of native pests (e.g., mountain pine beetle in Canada), and fires exacerbated by changing climate. Ozone and N and S pollutants continue to impact the health of forests in several regions of North America. Long-term monitoring of forest health indicators has facilitated the assessment of forest health and sustainability in North America. By linking a nationwide network of forest health plots with the more extensive forest inventory, forest health experts in the US have evaluated current trends for major forest health indicators and developed assessments of future risks. Canada and Mexico currently lack nationwide networks of forest health plots. Development and expansion of these networks is critical to effective assessment of future forest health impacts. - The forests of North America continue to face many biotic and abiotic stressors including fragmentation, fires, native and invasive pests, and air pollution

  14. Focused genetic recombination of bacteriophage t4 initiated by double-strand breaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbakov, Victor; Granovsky, Igor; Plugina, Lidiya; Shcherbakova, Tamara; Sizova, Svetlana; Pyatkov, Konstantin; Shlyapnikov, Michael; Shubina, Olga

    2002-10-01

    A model system for studying double-strand-break (DSB)-induced genetic recombination in vivo based on the ets1 segCDelta strain of bacteriophage T4 was developed. The ets1, a 66-bp DNA fragment of phage T2L containing the cleavage site for the T4 SegC site-specific endonuclease, was inserted into the proximal part of the T4 rIIB gene. Under segC(+) conditions, the ets1 behaves as a recombination hotspot. Crosses of the ets1 against rII markers located to the left and to the right of ets1 gave similar results, thus demonstrating the equal and symmetrical initiation of recombination by either part of the broken chromosome. Frequency/distance relationships were studied in a series of two- and three-factor crosses with other rIIB and rIIA mutants (all segC(+)) separated from ets1 by 12-2100 bp. The observed relationships were readily interpretable in terms of the modified splice/patch coupling model. The advantages of this localized or focused recombination over that distributed along the chromosome, as a model for studying the recombination-replication pathway in T4 in vivo, are discussed.

  15. Wind energy developments in the Americas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swisher, R.; Ancona, D.F.

    1990-01-01

    This paper will highlight the key wind energy activities and programs of American countries. In South and Central America, wind technology awareness and opportunity is spreading. Countries have projects in the beginning stages of development and many sites with excellent wind resources are believed to exist. Argentina, Costa Rica, Colombia, Mexico, and several Caribbean countries are among those active in wind energy development. In Canada, after a decade of research and systems development, the Department of Energy Mines and Resources is conducting a review of all renewable energy technologies, including wind, to develop a strategic plan for future activities. Canadian industry continues development of various vertical axis projects and the Province of Alberta has begun a program to assess wind potential in that region. In the United States, commercial application of wind energy is continuing to expand. During 1989, over 140 MW of new wind turbine capacity was installed in wind power plants, bringing the total operating in the U.S. to 14600 turbines and 1,400 MW. During 1989, these machines produced over 2.1 billion kWh, enough to supply the residential needs of Washington D.C. or San Francisco. This is an increase of 15% over the 1988 total, even though installed operating capacity dropped by about 10% as smaller, out-dated turbines were phased out or replaced. The U.S. government is in the process of formulating a new National Energy Strategy. It seems clear that renewable energy and energy efficiency will play an increasingly important role in this strategy. The U.S. wind program continues to emphasize broad-based technology development, but has also initiated conceptual design studies for an advanced wind turbine for power generation in the late 1990s. (Author)

  16. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Biomass Power Generation at the Former Farmland Industries Site in Lawrence, Kansas. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomberlin, G.; Mosey, G.

    2013-03-01

    Under the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) provided funding to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to support a feasibility study of biomass renewable energy generation at the former Farmland Industries site in Lawrence, Kansas. Feasibility assessment team members conducted a site assessment to gather information integral to this feasibility study. Information such as biomass resources, transmission availability, on-site uses for heat and power, community acceptance, and ground conditions were considered.

  17. Adolescent Pregnancy in America: Causes and Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenico, Desirae M.; Jones, Karen H.

    2007-01-01

    Adolescent pregnancy has occurred throughout America's history. Only in recent years has it been deemed an urgent crisis, as more young adolescent mothers give birth outside of marriage. At-risk circumstances associated with adolescent pregnancy include medical and health complications, less schooling and higher dropout rates, lower career…

  18. The French Language in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdman, Albert, Ed.

    The annual bulletin of the French 8 section of the Annual Meeting of the Modern Language Association of America is presented with the texts of papers read at both the 1969 and 1970 sessions. The 1970 papers, in French, include Jean Louis Darbelnet's "Etude Sociolinguistique des contacts entre 1'Anglais et le Francais au Canada et en…

  19. The genus Kochia (Chenopodiaceae) in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge-Lin Chu; Stewart Sanderson

    2008-01-01

    The genus Kochia and Bassia with which it has been combined, of Chenopodiaceae tribe Camphorosmeae, were at one time considered to include plants native to Eurasia, Australia, and North America, and included species of both C3 and C4 photosynthetic types. This aggregate has been reduced in size by removal of a large group of C3 Australian genera and species. Because of...

  20. A Family-Focused Delirium Educational Initiative With Practice and Research Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, Christina May; Monroe, Todd; McDougall, Graham J; Fick, Donna M

    2016-01-01

    Delirium is burdensome and psychologically distressing for formal and informal caregivers, yet family caregivers often have very little understanding or knowledge about delirium. As part of a large multisite intervention study, the Early Nurse Detection of Delirium Superimposed on Dementia (END-DSD), the authors identified a need for family educational materials. This educational initiative's purpose was to develop a delirium admission brochure for family members to aid in the prevention and earlier identification of delirium during hospitalization. A brochure was developed using an iterative approach with an expert panel. Following three iterations, a final brochure was approved. The authors found that an iterative expert consensus approach can be used to develop a brochure for families. Major content areas were helping families understand the difference between delirium and dementia, signs and symptoms of delirium, causes of delirium, and strategies family members can use to prevent delirium. A caregiver-focused educational brochure is one intervention to use in targeting older adults hospitalized with delirium.

  1. RedeAmericas: building research capacity in young leaders for sustainable growth in community mental health services in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, L; Pratt, C; Valencia, E; Conover, S; Fernández, R; Burrone, M S; Cavalcanti, M T; Lovisi, G; Rojas, G; Alvarado, R; Galea, S; Price, L N; Susser, E

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the development and initial accomplishments of a training program of young leaders in community mental health research as part of a Latin American initiative known as RedeAmericas. RedeAmericas was one of five regional 'Hubs' funded by the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) to improve community mental health care and build mental health research capacity in low- and middle-income countries. It included investigators in six Latin American cities - Santiago, Chile; Medellín, Colombia; Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; and Córdoba, Neuquén, and Buenos Aires in Argentina - working together with a team affiliated with the Global Mental Health program at Columbia University in New York City. One component of RedeAmericas was a capacity-building effort that included an Awardee program for early career researchers in the mental health field. We review the aims of this component, how it developed, and what was learned that would be useful for future capacity-building efforts, and also comment on future prospects for maintaining this type of effort.

  2. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Ft. Hood Military Base Outside Killeen, Texas. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geiger, J.; Lisell, L.; Mosey, G.

    2013-10-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative through the Region 6 contract, selected Ft. Hood Army Base in Killeen, Texas, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this study is to assess the site for possible photovoltaic (PV) system installations and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  3. Focusing America's National Powers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kabana, Dana P

    2006-01-01

    .... The National Security Counsel (NSC) should modify its efforts to take full advantage of all sources of power to ensure national security by first establishing the NSC/Deputies Committee as the element mandated to manage the interagency process...

  4. Finding focus: a study of the historical development of focus in English

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komen, E.R.

    2013-01-01

    This study reveals how two important focus articulations change over time in written English. Constituent focus, often accompanied by contrast, makes use of the clause-initial position in the oldest stages of English, but as this position comes to be used for the grammatical subject over time, the

  5. Electric motors in the focus; Elektroantrieb im Focus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilms, Jan

    2013-05-15

    In August 2013, the first electric series production model of Ford comes to the market: the Focus Electric. A 23-kWh lithium-ion battery supplies the 107 kilowatts (145 hp) electric motor of the Focus Electric with energy. This battery enables a range of 162 kilometers and a limited top speed of 136 kilometers per hour. However, with 40,000 Euro this electric-powered vehicles is too expensive.

  6. Focus groups in organizational research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Kamfer

    1989-05-01

    Full Text Available Focus groups are commonly used in marketing research. In this article an application of the focus group technique within an organizational context is described. Nine focus groups were conducted during the planning stage of a survey intended to establish employee perceptions of advancement policies and practices in a major South African manufacturing company. Fourteen themes emerged from a content analysis of the discussions. Two of these reflected aspects requiring commitment decisions from management toward the survey. The others indicated areas of concern which should be included in the survey. In this way, the focus groups contributed useful information for the subsequent sample survey. Opsomming Fokusgroepe word algemeen in bemarkingsnavorsing aangewend. In hierdie studie word 'n toepassingvan die fokusgroeptegniek in die konteks van 'n opname binne 'n organisasie beskryf. Nege fokusgroepbesprekings is gevoer tydens die beplanningstadium van 'n opname wat binne 'n Suid-Afrikaanse vervaardigingsonderneming gedoen is. Die doel van die opname was om die persepsies van werknemers teenoor die bestaande personeel- en bestuursontwikkelingsbeleid en -praktyke van die maatskappy te bepaal. Veertien temas is deur middel van 'n inhoudontleding gei'dentifiseer. Twee hiervan het aspekte aangedui waaroor bestuur beginselbesluite t.o.v. die opname sou moes neem. Die ander het probleemareas aangedui wat by die ondersoek selfingesluit behoort te word. Sodoende het die fokusgroepe inligting verskafwat vir die latere vraelysopname belangrik was.

  7. Drivers of animal welfare policy in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas, S M; Gallo, C; Galindo, F

    2014-04-01

    Owing to its large size and ethnic, social, cultural and economic diversity, the Americas' production volume is set to make the region one of the world's leading providers of animal foodstuffs. Animal husbandry, transport and slaughter conditions vary from country to country in response to their differing climatic and geographic characteristics. This article examines the main drivers of animal welfare in the Americas, including the standards of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), legislation, codes of practice and advances in education, training, research and development. It recognises the important roles played by all the various stakeholders in changing perceptions of animal welfare by raising public awareness and promoting communication and cooperation as drivers of overall change in the Americas. Regional and international organisations, public and private-sector bodies, academia and non-governmental organisations have launched a number of initiatives with encouraging results. In 2009, the OIE established the Chile-Uruguay Collaborating Centre for Animal Welfare Research, which is now the OIE Collaborating Centre for Animal Welfare and Livestock Production Systems and has recently incorporated Mexico. The Collaborating Centre works closely with official OIE Delegates and the Focal Points for Animal Welfare of national Veterinary Services. The OIE Regional Animal Welfare Strategy for the Americas was adopted in 2012, under the coordination of the OIE Regional Representation for the Americas, as a guide for developing future policies based on a regional approach. The way to achieve cultural change for improving animal welfare, operator safety and the sector's profitability is through training and knowledge transfer. The results demonstrate that the joint efforts of all institutions and the active role of the Collaborating Centre have been most effective, as have the continuing education programmes implemented by universities.

  8. Diagnosis and epidemiology of animal diseases in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooling, A.

    1998-01-01

    Support for scientists and their endeavours in developing countries by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture is provided through FAO/IAEA Co-ordinated Research Projects (CRP) and IAEA Technical Co-operation Projects (TCPs). Using these mechanisms the Animal Production and Health Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agricultural aims to encourage and improve the capacity of national institutions in developing countries to identify and resolve problems connected with improving livestock productivity and health. In 1986, the Section introduced and animal health component into its Project. The initial support was for five years but in 1991 this was extended for a further three years and linked with the support available from the IAEA's Technical Co-operation Project through national and regional TCPs and ARCAL activities in Latin America dealing with diagnosis of animal diseases. Central to this overall project ws the use of ELISA for the diagnosis and control of livestock diseases. FAO/IAEA CRPs are developed around a well defined research topic on which between 15 and 20 national institutes collaborate - the topic itself being defined through consultation with national authorities in developing and developed countries and international agricultural research centers and organizations. The primary role of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture in such programmes is to ensure that the inputs and efforts under these programmes are co-ordinated and that the results are published. The studies being reported in this IAEA TECDOC were initiated in 1991 and whilst the focus was on three major disease affecting livestock in the region (foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), brucellosis and babesiosis) the approach taken by individual Research Control holders was different and thus in some cases research concentrated on assay validation whilst in other cases the focus was on the

  9. Geographic thougth in Latin America: A retrospective and general balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Sergio Urquijo Torres

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report results of a thorough contemporary historiographic revision of published geographic research and geography research departments and centers in Latin America. The main focus was on the recognition of transnational subjects and global processes and patterns. We argue that this type of retrospective analyses allows the understanding of the what and the what for of Latin America (LAG Geography. First we describe the current situation of LAG as a social science. Second, we explain the nature of LA social processes that, in the 90s, triggered geographic change and subsequent theoretical reflection on this change in LAG and in other related social sciences. To this end, we describe how the major traditions in geographic research have influenced LAG thinking. To conclude, we suggest the major achievements that we think characterize the current situation of LAG.

  10. Depletion field focusing in semiconductors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, M.W.J.; Gelder, Van A.P.

    1996-01-01

    We calculate the three-dimensional depletion field profile in a semiconductor, for a planar semiconductor material with a spatially varying potential upon the surface, and for a tip-shaped semiconductor with a constant surface potential. The nonuniform electric field gives rise to focusing or

  11. Instabilities in the plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaeppeler, H.J.

    1975-03-01

    The plasma focus was studied by many research teams in view of a possible approach to controlled thermonuclear fusion. Though it is questionable whether the plasma focus will ever lead to a fusion reactor, it nevertheless constitutes a strong source of neutron, X- and gamma radiation for simulating fusion reactor conditions. Furthermore, the plasma focus yields very high temperatures (10 7 K) and densities (> 10 19 cm -3 ) and thus provides interesting conditions for the study of high density plasmas. This review paper starts with a description of the compression stage of the focussing plasma, using a snow-plough model. It is shown that sophisticated MHD calculations substantiate the snowplough theory, but are not suited to describe the phenomena in the final compressed stage. For this purpose, a particle-in-cell calculation is employed, yielding a beam-beam collision model for the neutron production. Experimental evidence indicates that neutron production is associated with the appearence of m = O instabilities and is the direct result of collisions between anomalously accelerated ions. One of the mechanisms of ion acceleration are strong local electric fields. Another possible mechanism can bee seen in beam-plasma instabilities caused by runaway electrons. The analytical derivation of the dispersion relation for plasma focus conditions including runaway effect is discussed (orig.) [de

  12. How to Initiate and Develop the Market of DME - With Focus on Bio-DME?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baudin, Anders; Nordvall, Hans-Olof (School of Engineering, Linnaeus Univ., Vaexjoe (Sweden))

    2010-01-15

    The theme of this study is how to initiate and develop the market for DME with focus on Bio-DME. In particular, the view considered is that DME can replace diesel and LPG. Initiating and market development for other application is not included here. Regional diesel prices are highly correlated. One can even argue that there seems to be a world market price. Furthermore, they are strongly volatile, which can be traced to the relationship to crude oil. The volatility in diesel - and oil - prices is taken care of in a well developed market for financial instruments (e.g. futures, options). Similar financial risk handling is not yet available for the unit price of DME. A considerable amount of structured information exists in companies, also with consultants and researchers, on how different end-use sectors are expected to react to variation in diesel prices. Knowledge of the end-use sectors' likely reaction to the introduction of DME prices in comparison to diesel prices is generally unknown and is thus only subject to discussion. Obtaining information on this process is, however, the crucial point in the introduction of the market for (bio-)DME. In the short term the introduction phase might be shorter if DME could be mixed with diesel (cf. DME in LPG). This would imply unaltered infrastructure. The advantage of leaving aside adaptation of engines and changing infrastructure would imply that the thresholds for introduction of DME are reduced - the consequence would be that larger production volumes of DME would be obtained quicker. The business risk would also be reduced. But is it possible to mix DME (fossil and bio) with diesel? One standpoint is that this is impossible. Other researchers argue that mix is possible up to 25 per cent - some claim even higher. The problem is that viscosity tends to be too low. Further studies will cast light on this problem. Parallel efforts should be initiated to introduce systems with 100 per cent DME. This requires adaptation

  13. Modern contraceptive use, unmet need, and demand satisfied among women of reproductive age who are married or in a union in the focus countries of the Family Planning 2020 initiative: a systematic analysis using the Family Planning Estimation Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Niamh; Sonneveldt, Emily; Stover, John; Weinberger, Michelle; Williamson, Jessica; Wei, Chuchu; Brown, Win; Alkema, Leontine

    2018-03-03

    The London Summit on Family Planning in 2012 inspired the Family Planning 2020 (FP2020) initiative and the 120×20 goal of having an additional 120 million women and adolescent girls become users of modern contraceptives in 69 of the world's poorest countries by the year 2020. Working towards achieving 120 × 20 is crucial for ultimately achieving the Sustainable Development Goals of universal access and satisfying demand for reproductive health. Thus, a performance assessment is required to determine countries' progress. An updated version of the Family Planning Estimation Tool (FPET) was used to construct estimates and projections of the modern contraceptive prevalence rate (mCPR), unmet need for, and demand satisfied with modern methods of contraception among women of reproductive age who are married or in a union in the focus countries of the FP2020 initiative. We assessed current levels of family planning indicators and changes between 2012 and 2017. A counterfactual analysis was used to assess if recent levels of mCPR exceeded pre-FP2020 expectations. In 2017, the mCPR among women of reproductive age who are married or in a union in the FP2020 focus countries was 45·7% (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 42·4-49·1), unmet need for modern methods was 21·6% (19·7-23·9), and the demand satisfied with modern methods was 67·9% (64·4-71·1). Between 2012 and 2017 the number of women of reproductive age who are married or in a union who use modern methods increased by 28·8 million (95% UI 5·8-52·5). At the regional level, Asia has seen the mCPR among women of reproductive age who are married or in a union grow from 51·0% (95% UI 48·5-53·4) to 51·8% (47·3-56·5) between 2012 and 2017, which is slow growth, particularly when compared with a change from 23·9% (22·9-25·0) to 28·5% (26·8-30·2) across Africa. At the country level, based on a counterfactual analysis, we found that 61% of the countries that have made a commitment to FP2020 exceeded pre

  14. Multinational experience with hypersensitivity drug reactions in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jares, Edgardo José; Sánchez-Borges, Mario; Cardona-Villa, Ricardo; Ensina, Luis Felipe; Arias-Cruz, Alfredo; Gómez, Maximiliano; Barayazarra, Susana; Bernstein, Jonathan A; Serrano, Carlos D; Cuello, Mabel Noemi; Morfin-Maciel, Blanca María; De Falco, Alicia; Cherrez-Ojeda, Iván

    2014-09-01

    Epidemiologic drug allergy data from Latin America are scarce, and there are no studies on specific procedures focusing on this topic in Latin America. To assess the clinical characteristics and management of hypersensitivity drug reactions in different Latin American countries. An European Network of Drug Allergy questionnaire survey was implemented in 22 allergy units in 11 Latin American countries to report on consecutive patients who presented with a suspected hypersensitivity drug reaction. Each unit used its own protocols to investigate patients. Included were 868 hypersensitivity drug reactions in 862 patients (71% of adults and elderly patients were women and 51% of children were girls, P = .0001). Children presented with less severe reactions than adults and elderly patients (P Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Fish biodiversity and conservation in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, R E; Albert, J S; Di Dario, F; Mincarone, M M; Petry, P; Rocha, L A

    2016-07-01

    The freshwater and marine fish faunas of South America are the most diverse on Earth, with current species richness estimates standing above 9100 species. In addition, over the last decade at least 100 species were described every year. There are currently about 5160 freshwater fish species, and the estimate for the freshwater fish fauna alone points to a final diversity between 8000 and 9000 species. South America also has c. 4000 species of marine fishes. The mega-diverse fish faunas of South America evolved over a period of >100 million years, with most lineages tracing origins to Gondwana and the adjacent Tethys Sea. This high diversity was in part maintained by escaping the mass extinctions and biotic turnovers associated with Cenozoic climate cooling, the formation of boreal and temperate zones at high latitudes and aridification in many places at equatorial latitudes. The fresh waters of the continent are divided into 13 basin complexes, large basins consolidated as a single unit plus historically connected adjacent coastal drainages, and smaller coastal basins grouped together on the basis of biogeographic criteria. Species diversity, endemism, noteworthy groups and state of knowledge of each basin complex are described. Marine habitats around South America, both coastal and oceanic, are also described in terms of fish diversity, endemism and state of knowledge. Because of extensive land use changes, hydroelectric damming, water divergence for irrigation, urbanization, sedimentation and overfishing 4-10% of all fish species in South America face some degree of extinction risk, mainly due to habitat loss and degradation. These figures suggest that the conservation status of South American freshwater fish faunas is better than in most other regions of the world, but the marine fishes are as threatened as elsewhere. Conserving the remarkable aquatic habitats and fishes of South America is a growing challenge in face of the rapid anthropogenic changes of the 21

  16. Epidemiology of cervical cancer in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capote Negrin, Luis G

    2015-01-01

    The basic aspects of the descriptive epidemiology of cervical cancer in Latin America are presented. A decrease in the incidence and mortality rates has been observed in the period from 2000 to 2012 in all countries across the region, this has not occurred at the same proportions, and in many countries, observed figures of incidence and mortality are among the highest levels in the world. In Latin America, calculating a mean measure of the numbers from the GLOBOCAN data from 2000 to 2012, we can observe a difference of up to fivefold of the incidence (Puerto Rico 9,73 Vs Bolivia 50,73) and almost seven times for mortality (Puerto Rico 3,3 Vs Nicaragua 21,67). A report of the epidemiology, risk factors, and evaluation of screening procedures regarding the possible impact of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine I in the prevention of cervical cancer is presented.

  17. The Global Opioid Policy Initiative (GOPI) project to evaluate the availability and accessibility of opioids for the management of cancer pain in Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean, and the Middle East: introduction and methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherny, N I; Cleary, J; Scholten, W; Radbruch, L; Torode, J

    2013-12-01

    Opioid analgesics are critical to the effective relief of cancer pain. Effective treatment is predicated on sound assessments, individually tailored analgesic therapy, and the availability and accessibility of the required medications. In some countries, pain relief is hampered by the lack of availability or barriers to the accessibility of opioid analgesics. As the follow-up to a successful project to evaluate the availability and accessibility of opioids and regulatory barriers in Europe, the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) and the European Association for Palliative Care (EAPC) undertook to expand their research to those parts of the world where data were lacking regarding these aspects of care, in particular Africa, Asia, the Middle East, Latin America and the Caribbean, and the states of India. This project has been undertaken in collaboration with the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC), the Pain and Policy Studies Group (PPSG) of the University of Wisconsin, and the World Health Organization (WHO), together with a consortium of 17 international oncology and palliative care societies. This article describes the study methodology.

  18. Status of RNB facilities in North America

    CERN Document Server

    Nolen, J A

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents the status of accelerator facilities in North America that are involved in research using radioactive nuclear beams (RNB), including existing and operating facilities, ones currently under construction or undergoing major upgrades, and ones being planned or proposed for the future. Existing RNB facilities are located at TRIUMF (TISOL) in Vancouver, B.C., the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Argonne Tandem Linear Accelerator System (ATLAS) at Argonne National Laboratory, the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL) at Michigan State University, the Nuclear Structure Laboratory at the University of Notre Dame, the 88" Cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, and the Cyclotron Institute at Texas A&M University. Currently, there are two major RNB facility upgrades in progress in North America, one at TRIUMF, the ISAC project, and one at NSCL, the Intensity Upgrade project. For the future, the U.S. Nuclear Science A...

  19. Education, democracy and development in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Candido

    1993-11-01

    The education first brought to America by Europeans was hardly more than ornamental culture, literacy was generally unimportant, and African slaves were not educated at all. Only in this century did industrialization cause some governments to provide economic and technological support through training and education. In the last decade, the debt crisis curtailed spending, while numbers of students and teachers continued to rise. A comparison between Latin America and South Korea illustrates the former's relative decline in investment. The advent of populist and corporatist democracies did not alleviate the situation, although there is now some evidence of concern for basic education for poorer children. With economic adjustment programmes, little else has been done for those who have suffered the heaviest burdens, and no obvious solutions to poverty and technological obsolescence are in prospect. A major reform of State institutions is called for, including a commitment to education, a change in the economic model, and a recognition of global interdependence.

  20. [Medicine in the discovery of America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Gallo, Alvaro

    2003-01-01

    The present manuscript aims to record some general aspects of science, and in particular from the beginning of anatomic studies, during the discovery of America. We mention by Vesalio, who was the best known anatomist of his time in the Western world. In addition this establishes the legal origins of the medical profession in Spain and America, with emphasis on distinct treatments, for example, those in Peru and Chile. This manuscript contains anecdotes and accounts of the time, the use of medicines of the day, and the relationship these had with the native medicine. Finally, medical department of Chile is described, together with a mention of the first hospitals of the Republic of Chile.

  1. Middle Class and Democracy in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Fierro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The consolidation of the middle class has been interpreted by modernization and postmodernization theories as a key factor for the functioning and stability of the democratic system. However, in Latin America the middle class has tended to be associated with two contradictory positions. On the one hand, it is emphasized that it plays a stabilizing and democratic role while, on the other hand, it is linked to supporting military coups. With the purpose of elucidate such a dilemma, the relationship that can be established between the socioeconomic status and the degree of support for democracy will be examined. In order to do this, an empirical analysis from Latinbarometer surveys databases will be conducted, covering seventeen countries in the region for the period from 1996 to 2011. It will be concluded that the middle class in Latin America does not have particularly more favorable attitudes toward democracy than other social segments.

  2. Borders and Borderlands in the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    both licit and illicit networks. Traditional territorial security concerns declined in the Americas following the end of the Cold War, and NAFTA in...deepen economic ties and liberalize regimes, privileging development over security.12 Similarly, trade, fostered through NAFTA , has shaped and affected...FOR FURTHER RESEARCH States determine what a “problem” at the border is through their constitutions , legal regimes, and policies. This means that

  3. Challenges for Scientists in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalergis, Alexis M; Lacerda, Marcus; Rabinovich, Gabriel A; Rosenstein, Yvonne

    2016-09-01

    Despite political turmoil and economical crisis, research in Latin America has considerably advanced over recent decades. The present 'Point of View' outlines our perspectives on the working conditions, successes, difficulties, limitations, and challenges of biomedical scientific communities in four Latin American countries: Argentina (G.A.R.), Brazil (M.L.), Chile (A.K.), and Mexico (Y.R.). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Potential for Conflict in South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-01

    34Anglo-Argentine War." 2 Dov S. Zakheim, "The South Atlantic Conflict: Strategic, Military, and Technological Lessons", in Alberto Coll and Anthony Arendt...For example, Brazil’s period of greatest military growth after the war was during the civilian qovernment or Juscelino Kubitschek (1956-61); Joao ...W. Goodman and Juan Riel, eds., Civil Military Relations in Latin America: The Military ana Fower, c. August 1987. Coll, Alberto , and Anthony Arendt

  5. Three Waves of Populism in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Olga V. Varentsova

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary political regimes in Venezuela and Bolivia led by late Hugo Châvez (now by his successor Nicolas Maduro) and Evo Morales are considered by foreign and Russian scholars as part of the third wave of populism. In the 20th century Latin America already witnessed two waves of populism which coincided with significant political transitions, namely a transition from oligarchy to mass politics accompanied by implementation of import substitution industrialization policies, and a transiti...

  6. Barriers to Clinical Research in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Chomsky-Higgins, Kathryn; Miclau, Theodore A.; Mackechnie, Madeline C.; Aguilar, Dino; Avila, Jorge Rubio; dos Reis, Fernando Baldy; Balmaseda, Roberto; Barquet, Antonio; Ceballos, Alfredo; Contreras, Fernando; Escalante, Igor; Elias, Nelson; Vincenti, Sergio Iriarte; Lozano, Christian; Medina, Fryda

    2017-01-01

    Enhancing health research capacity in developing countries is a global health priority. Understanding the orthopedic burden of disease in Latin America will require close partnership between more-developed and less-developed countries. To this end, the Osteosynthesis and Trauma Care Foundation assembled a research consortium of Latin-American orthopedic leaders. Prior to the meeting, we surveyed attendees on perceived barriers to conducting research at their institutions. During the event, wo...

  7. Racism Is Alive and Well in America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Joyce Lynn

    2009-01-01

    If the recent elections of a Black man to the presidency and a Hispanic woman to the Supreme Court of the United States, or news that Ku Klux Klan membership is down from its estimated high of 6 million in 1924 to about 8,000 in 2008 makes one think racism is gone from America, think again! Idaho residents still express concern about the image of…

  8. Focusing Telescopes in Nuclear Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Ballmoos, Peter von

    2007-01-01

    This volume is the first of its kind on focusing gamma-ray telescopes. Forty-eight refereed papers provide a comprehensive overview of the scientific potential and technical challenges of this nascent tool for nuclear astrophysics. The book features articles dealing with pivotal technologies such as grazing incident mirrors, multilayer coatings, Laue- and Fresnel-lenses - and even an optic using the curvature of space-time. The volume also presents an overview of detectors matching the ambitious objectives of gamma ray optics, and facilities for operating such systems on the ground and in space. The extraordinary scientific potential of focusing gamma-ray telescopes for the study of the most powerful sources and the most violent events in the Universe is emphasized in a series of introductory articles. Practicing professionals, and students interested in experimental high-energy astrophysics, will find this book a useful reference

  9. First record of giant anteater (xenarthra, myrmecophagidae) in north america.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, C A; McDonald, H G

    1987-04-10

    A right metacarpal III represents the first North American record of the giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla). Recovered in northwestern Sonora, Mexico, with a rich vertebrate fauna of early Pleistocene (Irvingtonian) age, it belongs to a cohort of large mammals that dispersed from South America to North America along a savanna corridor. Presumably habitat and climatic changes have subsequently driven this mammalian family more than 3000 kilometers back into Central America from its former expansion into temperate North America.

  10. Implementation of Community-Wide Teen Pregnancy Prevention Initiatives: Focus on Partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tevendale, Heather D; Fuller, Taleria R; House, L Duane; Dee, Deborah L; Koumans, Emilia H

    2017-03-01

    Seeking to reduce teen pregnancy and births in communities with rates above the national average, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, in partnership with the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office of Adolescent Health Teen Pregnancy Prevention Program, developed a joint funding opportunity through which grantees worked to implement and test an approach involving community-wide teen pregnancy prevention initiatives. Once these projects had been in the field for 2.5 years, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention staff developed plans for a supplemental issue of the Journal of Adolescent Health to present findings from and lessons learned during implementation of the community-wide initiatives. When the articles included in the supplemental issue are considered together, common themes emerge, particularly those related to initiating, building, and maintaining strong partnerships. Themes seen across articles include the importance of (1) sharing local data with partners to advance initiative implementation, (2) defining partner roles from the beginning of the initiatives, (3) developing teams that include community partners to provide direction to the initiatives, and (4) addressing challenges to maintaining strong partnerships including partner staff turnover and delays in implementation. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Vaginal and Oral Sex Initiation Timing: A Focus on Gender and Race/Ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holway, Giuseppina Valle

    2015-07-01

    Most previous studies on sexual initiation timing have examined its effects on a variety of subsequent outcomes without first examining the correlates and predictors of these timing categories. Studies that do exist often do not utilize samples through young adulthood, leading to a misclassified set of sexual timing categories. In addition, the literature does not adequately address the issues of oral sex timing. Therefore, the objectives of this study were 1) to explore age-cutoffs that mark the "normative" and "non-normative" entry into vaginal and oral sex among young women and men in the U.S., creating sexual four sexual initiation timing categories - "early," "normative," "late," and "inexperienced," and; 2) to examine the association between race/ethnicity and sexual initiation timing by gender. The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) was used in both descriptive and multivariate contexts to determine the net association of gender and race/ethnicity with vaginal and oral sex initiation timing. Age-cutoffs for vaginal sex timing were similar for women and men, yet differed by gender for oral sex timing. Women were more likely than men to initiate vaginal sex (20% vs. 18%) and oral sex (19% vs. 16%) at an early age and less likely than men to initiate these behaviors at a late age (18% vs. 19% for vaginal sex, and 15% vs. 16% for oral sex). Although most respondents initiated these two behaviors by young adulthood, a considerable proportion remained inexperienced, with men more likely than women to report inexperience with vaginal sex (7% vs. 5%), and women more likely than men to report abstaining from oral sex (8% vs. 6%). Race/ethnic differences in sexual initiation timing remained robust in the face of controls for both women and men. Understanding the timing at which adolescents and young adults transition to first vaginal and first oral sex is critical for sex education curriculum and policy makers.

  12. Obsidian provenance research in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glascock, Michael D

    2002-08-01

    The characterization of archaeological materials to support provenance research has grown rapidly over the past few decades. Volcanic obsidian has several unique properties that make it the ideal archaeological material for studying prehistoric trade and exchange. This Account describes our laboratory's development of a systematic methodology for the characterization of obsidian sources and artifacts from Mesoamerica and other regions of North and South America in support of archaeological research.

  13. Regional Military Security Cooperation in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-11

    North America, Europe, Russia, Japan, South Korea, China, India , Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Argentina, Brazil, and Chile.24 The Non...Sea.47 Additionally, he sees competition and conflict over water arising in the river basins of the Nile, Jordon, Tigris, and Euphrates rivers . This... interlinks with oil competition, as it is the same geographic region.48 Finally, he views Africa as an additional hot spot as there are many

  14. Natural gas developments in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faith, P.L.

    1996-01-01

    Natural gas opportunities in Latin America are discussed with reference to the Bolivia to Brazil Gas Pipeline Project. This fully integrated natural gas project extends from reserves development to market consumption and involves cooperation between countries and between the public and private sector. The project's success will depend, it is argued on the thorough integration and cooperation of all stages from reserve exploration, through pipeline construction, and distribution to power generation. (UK)

  15. Forest Health Status in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borys Tkacz

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The forests of North America provide a variety of benefits including water, recreation, wildlife habitat, timber, and other forest products. However, they continue to face many biotic and abiotic stressors including fires, native and invasive pests, fragmentation, and air pollution. Forest health specialists have been monitoring the health of forests for many years. This paper highlights some of the most damaging forest stressors affecting North American forests in recent years and provides some projections of future risks.

  16. Energy convergence in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dadson, A.

    1998-01-01

    The current status in energy markets in the U.S. was characterized as: (1) wholesale market for gas and electricity fully competitive, (2) de-integration in integrated utilities has begun, and (3) retail open access has accelerated. Customer choices in an open market were enumerated. The pace of reform in the U.S. electric industry was compared to reforms in the telecommunications, airlines, and natural gas industries. The structure and shape of the market in 2001, with additional restructuring in the intervening years factored in, was predicted. According to the prediction, value and usage of generation is likely to change dramatically, the entire cost structure of the industry will show significant drop, broad-based energy markets will be the major drivers in the business and retail competition will create a new class of very demanding consumers. A viewgraph showing the corporate profile of Enron, one of the United States' largest energy corporations was also provided.14 figs

  17. Religious Diversity and Islam in America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Uddin Khan

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Diversity is the essence and spirit of America or the West both as a place and a people. Islam also allows for diversity within its concept of unity and oneness of God. Muslims, therefore, have no problem co-existing in peace with the Jews, Christians and the followers of other religions. Problems arise (a when secular values or principles disturb the working balance of the otherwise mutually exclusive religious diversity and harmony in America; (b when one follows opportunist policies, practices double standards, and is moved by mere worldly or political interests; and (c when war against the Zionist-and-neoconservative-manufactured terrorism turns into war against Islam. Such misleading and mischievous tendencies or policies prevent peace from prevailing, which ultimately tarnish the image of religions in the eyes of their followers and those of the rest making a mockery of the idea of religious diversity even in the so-called most democratic country called the United States of America!

  18. Humanities in Latin America academies

    OpenAIRE

    Cerutti-Guldberg, Horacio

    2014-01-01

    This article originates from one of the presentations offered in the IV Encuentro de Humanidades “Citizen participation, humanism, and social commitment: between theory and practice”, held in June of 2013 in Liberia, Guanacaste, Costa Rica. This production addresses diverse topics about Humanities, in contrast to the “hard” sciences and their importance in Latin American universities, both from an epistemological and practical perspective. Also, it questions contemporary philosophic education...

  19. Biomass in Latin America -- overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, W.R.

    1993-01-01

    The paper discusses the interest of the Organization of American States as a participant in this hemispheric conference on biomass, provides an introduction to the Latin American experience in biomass energy through open-quotes snapshotsclose quotes of various country activities, and concludes with a discussion of four conditions that form strong incentives for new north/south and south/north ventures in the biomass energy and chemical arena in this hemisphere

  20. Land & Development in Latin America: Issues and Openings for ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... openings and constraints with regard to such policies at the local, national, and international levels? ... land policy initiatives in areas like titling, credit, taxation, and sustainable land use; and ... ROSSA's latest bulletin puts a focus on women.

  1. Another survey in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1962-01-01

    A preliminary assistance mission of the International Atomic Energy Agency visited Chile, Colombia and Ecuador during November-December 1961. Members of the mission also visited Argentina to acquaint themselves with atomic energy developments in that country. The information collected and the studies made by such missions help in evaluating the technical assistance needs of the countries concerned and often form the basis of specific projects of assistance. Some of the information contained in the comprehensive reports of the mission is summarized in this article

  2. Native Knowledge in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, Clara Sue

    1985-01-01

    Native American science is defined as activities of native peoples of the New World in observing physical phenomena and attempting to explain and control them. Problems in studying native science, ethnoscience and native science, archaeostronomy and ethnoastronomy, ethnobotany, agriculture, technology, and future directions are discussed. (JN)

  3. Rural Labour in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Janvry, Alain; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the status of rural labor and the performance of labor markets in Latin American agriculture. Points out the rapidly declining share of agriculture in the total labor force, weak capacity for creating nonagricultural employment, and rapidly increasing migration to towns. (JOW)

  4. Child Labor in America's History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Harold

    1976-01-01

    A brief history of child labor and the fight for legislation to control it at both the state and federal level. The current legal status and the continued existence of child labor in modern times are also discussed. (MS)

  5. Arthritis in America PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the March 2017 CDC Vital Signs report. Many adults in the United States have arthritis. Learn how to reduce the pain of arthritis, as well as manage the condition.

  6. Isotope hydrology in Latin America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payne, B R [International Atomic Energy Agency, Division of Research and Laboratories, Isotope Hydrology Section, Vienna (Austria)

    1972-07-01

    A wide variety of problems in hydrology have proved susceptible to the use of nuclear techniques. Conclusions may be drawn from the relative abundances of certain 'environmental isotopes', such as heavy stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water molecules, tritium, carbon-14 and silicon-32, in atmospheric, surface or ground water; origin and rate of flow, for example, may be deduced. Artificial radioisotopes may be used similarly as a logical extension to well-known tracer techniques using dyes and salts. Inherent in the use of such radiotracers are the advantages of very high detection sensitivity (and thus very low required concentrations and the elimination of density effects), and a choice of a variety of nuclides alien to the geohydrological system (and hence unique identification and low background). (author)

  7. Rural Agroindustry in Latin America

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC acknowledges the considerable support, during the design and review ... well able to attend to subsequent steps in the food- and fibre-production chain. ...... to make obligatory the pasteurization of milk for all manufactured milk products.

  8. The state in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Centeno

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available How capable is the Latin American state? This article analyses tax, civil service, and electoral data as well as performance measurements in the areas of public safety, rule of law, economic regulation and social services, to compare the region with other parts of the world and to define intra-regional differentiation. Generally speaking, the Latin American state is not very strong or effective, but the states of Chile and Brazil are perhaps the best in the region.

  9. The state in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Ángel Centeno

    2009-01-01

    How capable is the Latin American state? This article analyses tax, civil service, and electoral data as well as performance measurements in the areas of public safety, rule of law, economic regulation and social services, to compare the region with other parts of the world and to define intra-regional differentiation. Generally speaking, the Latin American state is not very strong or effective, but the states of Chile and Brazil are perhaps the best in the region.

  10. Lynch syndrome in South America: past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccaro, Carlos A; Sarroca, Carlos; Rossi, Benedito; Lopez-Kostner, Francisco; Dominguez, Mev; Calo, Natalia Causada; Cutait, Raul; Valle, Adriana Della; Nuñez, Lina; Neffa, Florencia; Alvarez, Karin; Gonzalez, Maria Laura; Kalfayan, Pablo; Lynch, Henry T; Church, James

    2016-07-01

    After decades of unawareness about Lynch syndrome, the medical community in South America is increasingly interested and informed. The visits and support of mentors like H. T. Lynch had been crucial to this awakening. Several countries have at least one registry with skilled personnel in genetic counseling and research. However, this only represents a very restricted resource for the region. According to the GETH, there are 27 hereditary cancer care centers in South America (21 in Brazil, 3 in Argentina, 1 in Uruguay, 1 in Chile and 1 in Peru). These registries differ in fundamental aspects of function, capabilities and funding, but are able to conduct high quality clinical, research and educational activities due to the dedication and personal effort of their members, and organizational support. More support from the governments as well as the participation of the community would boost the initiatives of people leading these groups. Meantime, the collaboration among the South American registries and the involvement of registries and leaders from developed countries will allow to maximize the efficiency in caring for affected patients and their families. The aim of this article is to describe how the knowledge of LS began to be spread in South America, how the first registries were organized and to summarize the current state of progress. In addition, we will provide an update of the clinical and molecular findings in the region.

  11. Hot continent: South America is open for fast growth in the natural gas sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinsch, A. E.

    1997-01-01

    Opportunities for participation in the rapid expansion of the natural gas sector in South America following privatization and deregulation initiatives, were examined on a country-by-country basis. In Colombia and Venezuela opportunities exist primarily in domestic development of the gas sector, whereas in the countries of the southern cone - Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, Peru and Uruguay - the situation is said to be ripe for energy sector integration. Currently, a second regional pipeline link, with a capacity of 129 Bcf/year, is nearing completion, which will carry gas from west Argentina to Santiago, Chile, to supplement the 77 Bcf/year pipeline carrying gas from Bolivia to the Argentine border, where it connects with a trunk line to supply the Buenos Aires market. A Canadian Energy Research Institute study, to be published in the summer of 1997, focuses on the various pipeline links being put forward to integrate the gas resources in the southern cone with existing and potential gas markets. The integration scenarios examined are predicted to reveal both economic and commercial merit for the pipeline corridors. Canadian energy and pipeline companies are said to be well positioned to take advantage of the opportunities resulting from these initiatives, and to help making the vision of an integrated gas pipeline network in the southern cone of South America a reality

  12. Avian influenza in Latin America: A systematic review of serological and molecular studies from 2000-2015.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Afanador-Villamizar

    Full Text Available Avian influenza or bird flu is a highly contagious acute viral disease that can occur in epidemics and cross-border forms in poultry and wild birds. The characteristics of avian influenza viruses (AIVs allow the emergence of new viral variants, some with zoonotic and pandemic potential. AIVs have been identified in Latin America; however, there is a lack of understanding of these viruses at the regional level. We performed a systematic literature review on serological or molecular evidence of AIVs circulation in Latin America. Methods were designed based on the PRISMA and STROME guidelines. Only peer-reviewed studies published between 2000 to 2015 and data was analysed based on country, viral subtype, avian species, and phylogenetic origins. From 271 studies initially found only twenty-six met our inclusion criteria. Evidence of AIVs infection was found in most Latin American countries, with Mexico as the country with the largest number of conducted studies and reported cases during the period analysed, followed by Chile and Argentina. Most of the AIVs were early reported through surveillance systems and at least 14 different subtypes of influenza viruses were reported in birds, and the presence of both low (92.9% and high (7.1% pathogenic AIVs was shown in Latin America. Of the reported AIVs in Latin America, 43.7% belong to migratory birds, 28.1% to local wild birds, and 28.1% to poultry. The migratory bird population mainly comprises families belonging to the orders Anseriformes and Charadriformes. We highlight the importance of epidemiological surveillance systems and the possible role of different migratory birds in the transmission of AIVs within the Americas. Our findings demonstrate the limited information on AIVs in Latin America and highlight the need of more studies on AIVs at the regional level, particularly those focused on identifying the endemic subtypes in regional wild birds.

  13. Occupational health in Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesseling, Catharina; Aragón, Aurora; Morgado, Hugo; Elgstrand, Kaj; Hogstedt, Christer; Partanen, Timo

    2002-01-01

    The 12.4 million economically active population (EAP) of the seven Central American countries includes a large informal sector. Social security covers only 14-60%. No surveillance of occupational safety and health (OSH) hazards or accidents exists. Extrapolating the incidence of occupational accidents among insured Costa Rican workers to the Central American EAP yields two million accidents yearly, still a gross underestimate. Occupational diseases are underreported, misdiagnosed, and not recognized as such. A number of regional OSH programs aim at modernization of the labor administrations and address the formal sector, in particular textile maquila, in connection with free trade agreements. The weak role of the ministries of health is expected to strengthen under the Pan American Health Organization OSH program. Employers largely influence new policies. Workers' influence on OSH policies has been weak, with only about 10% unionization rate and scarce resources and OSH knowledge. Informal workers, however, are getting organized. OSH research is underdeveloped and not linked to policy making. Construction, agriculture, and general un/underemployment are considered priorities for intervention. The informal sector needs to be included in national and regional OSH policies. Regional collaboration and international development support are of strategic importance to achieve sustainable improvement in OSH.

  14. Convergence Patterns in Latin America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quiroga, Paola Andrea Barrientos

    characteristics, and external shocks in the region. I study three important phases, following Thorp (1998): from 1900 to 1930, the exporting phase, from 1931 to 1974, the industrialization phase, and from 1975 to 2007, the globalization phase. During the last two phases, I find strong evidence of convergence...

  15. Promoting PV in Latin America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogarin, Mauro

    2010-07-01

    The Euro Solar Programme is financed by the European Commission's Office of Cooperation and its main goal is to promote renewable energy in eight Latin American countries: Bolivia, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Paraguay and Peru. (orig.)

  16. Social Change in Urban America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnbaum, Max; Mogey, John

    This work includes introductory material on the community with emphasis on the inner city, prefaces to each group of readings, the readings themselves, and bibliographies. The book presents readings on topics that are central to an understanding of social change in the inner city. The first section, on the city as community and as bureaucracy,…

  17. America: AGA [American Gas Association] initiative aims to boost gas demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraser, K.M.

    1992-01-01

    This article focuses on the aim of the American Gas Association to increase natural gas demand in the key areas of gas electric generation, natural gas vehicles, gas cooling, and conversion of oil burning facilities, electric water heaters and household appliances such as space heating, stoves, washers and lighting. The need to improve the reliability of natural gas supplies is discussed. It is anticipated that natural gas will not replace coal as the main energy source for power generation, but that it will help utilities to meet environmental regulations. (UK)

  18. Arthritis in America PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-03-07

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the March 2017 CDC Vital Signs report. Many adults in the United States have arthritis. Learn how to reduce the pain of arthritis, as well as manage the condition.  Created: 3/7/2017 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 3/7/2017.

  19. Catastrophe in plasma focus evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikuta, Kazunari.

    1984-07-01

    A theory of generating strong electric field in a dense plasma column in plasma focus is established by applying the formula for the electron thermal conductivity in destroyed magnetic surfaces like those in tokamaks. The origin of the electric field may be from abrupt rise of plasma resistivity when the irregularity of magnetic field is weak. However, the electric field can be from the inductive origin in case the irregularity attains a certain level. Both origin should be mixed up depending on the magnitude of the irregularity. (author)

  20. Further Democratizing Latin America: Broadening Access to Higher Education and Promoting Science Policies Focused on the Advanced Training of Human Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Heitor

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We focus this paper on the conditions to build reliable science, technology and higher education systems in Latin America, based on international comparative studies, fieldwork and interviews conducted over the last three years. The analysis shows that science can have a major role in furthering the democratization of society through public policies that foster opportunities to access knowledge and the advanced training of human resources. Broadening the social basis for higher education promotes the qualification of the labour force and contributes to social and economic development. The need to guarantee higher education diversity, strengthening scientific institutions and investing in a strong science base, is deemed as critical, but goes far beyond policies centred on innovation and industry-science relationships. It requires adequate training and attraction of skilled people, as well as the social promotion of a scientific and technological culture.

  1. Airborne Measurements in Support of the NASA Atmospheric Carbon and Transport - America (ACT-America) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Byron; Davis, Ken; Barrick, John; Browell, Edward; Chen, Gao; Dobler, Jeremy; Fried, Alan; Lauvaux, Thomas; Lin, Bing; McGill, Matt; hide

    2015-01-01

    NASA announced the research opportunity Earth Venture Suborbital -2 (EVS-2) mission in support of the NASA's science strategic goals and objectives in 2013. Penn State University, NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC), and other academic institutions, government agencies, and industrial companies together formulated and proposed the Atmospheric Carbon and Transport -America (ACT -America) suborbital mission, which was subsequently selected for implementation. The airborne measurements that are part of ACT-America will provide a unique set of remote and in-situ measurements of CO2 over North America at spatial and temporal scales not previously available to the science community and this will greatly enhance our understanding of the carbon cycle. ACT -America will consist of five airborne campaigns, covering all four seasons, to measure regional atmospheric carbon distributions and to evaluate the accuracy of atmospheric transport models used to assess carbon sinks and sources under fair and stormy weather conditions. This coordinated mission will measure atmospheric carbon in the three most important regions of the continental US carbon balance: Northeast, Midwest, and South. Data will be collected using 2 airborne platforms (NASA Wallops' C-130 and NASA Langley's B-200) with both in-situ and lidar instruments, along with instrumented ground towers and under flights of the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO-2) satellite. This presentation provides an overview of the ACT-America instruments, with particular emphasis on the airborne CO2and backscatter lidars, and the, rationale, approach, and anticipated results from this mission.

  2. Ocean deformation processes at the Caribbean-North America-South America triple junction: Initial results of the 2007 ANTIPLAC marine survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benard, F.; Deville, E.; Le Drezen, E.; Loubrieu, B.; Maltese, L.; Patriat, M.; Roest, W.; Thereau, E.; Umber, M.; Vially, R.

    2007-12-01

    Marine geophysical data (multibeam and seismic lines) acquired in 2007 (ANTIPLAC survey) in the North-South Americas-Caribbean triple point (Central Atlantic, Barracuda and Tiburon ridges area), provide information about the structure, the tectonic processes and the timing of the deformation in this large diffuse zone of polyphase deformation. The deformation of the plate boundary between the north and south Americas is distributed on several structures located in the Atlantic plain, at the front of the Barbados accretionary prism. In this area of deformation of the Atlantic oceanic lithosphere, the main depressions and transform troughs are filled by Late Pliocene-Pleistocene turbidite sediments, especially in the Barracuda trough, north of Barracuda ridge. These sediments are not issued from the Lesser Antilles volcanic arc but they are sourced from the East, probably by the Orinoco turbidite distal system, through channels transiting in the Atlantic abyssal plain. These Late Pliocene- Quaternary sediments show locally spectacular evidences of syntectonic deformation. It can be shown notably that Barracuda ridge includes a pre-existing transform fault system which has been folded and uplifted very recently during Pleistocene times. This recent deformation has generate relieves up to 2 km high with associated erosion processes notably along the northern flank the Barracuda ridge. The subduction of these recently deformed ridges induces deformation of earlier structures within the Barbados accretionary prism. These asperities within the Atlantic oceanic lithosphere which is subducted in the Lesser Antilles active margin are correlated with the zone of intense seismic activity below the volcanic arc.

  3. Remittances in Central America: Whose Money is it Anyway?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Luis Rocha

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In opposition to optimistic visions that present remittances as an opportunity for developing countries, this paper shows they are part and parcel of a process of economic imperialism, whereby their use and final destinations are strictly conditioned. In order to go beyond a conception of remittances as epiphenomenon, and in order to trace the role they play, this paper focuses on the transnational strategies of capital. It finds that remittances enable an increase in foreign investment and import production by facilitating the rise of a new class of consumers in Central America. Remittances create and feed a purchasing power that would not exist in their absence. Factories, fast food restaurants, communications companies, banks, travel agencies, and supermarkets are opening new branches throughout Central America in order to benefit from transnational savings that would otherwise be used differently. In this way, remittances are conditioned and co-opted by transnational capital’s strategies to sustain an ever growing market, with Central America more generally – and once again – potentially at risk of becoming characterized by enclave economies and chronic commercial deficits. The remittance-based economic model furthermore cannot be sustainable in the long run unless Central American countries keep exporting workers ad infinitum, something that is obviously not possible.

  4. Temporal Trends in Late Preterm and Early Term Birth Rates in 6 High-Income Countries in North America and Europe and Association With Clinician-Initiated Obstetric Interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richards, Jennifer L.; Kramer, Michael S.; Deb-Rinker, Paromita

    2016-01-01

    Importance: Clinicians have been urged to delay the use of obstetric interventions (eg, labor induction, cesarean delivery) until 39 weeks or later in the absence of maternal or fetal indications for intervention. Objective: To describe recent trends in late preterm and early term birth rates in 6......: Use of clinician-initiated obstetric intervention (either labor induction or prelabor cesarean delivery) during delivery. Main Outcomes and Measures: Annual country-specific late preterm (34-36 weeks) and early term (37-38 weeks) birth rates. Results: The study population included 2 415 432 Canadian...... births in 2006-2012 (3.6% late preterm; 18.7% early term); and 25 788 558 US births in 2006-2014 (6.0% late preterm; 26.9% early term). Late preterm birth rates decreased in Norway (3.9% to 3.5%) and the United States (6.8% to 5.7%). Early term birth rates decreased in Norway (17.6% to 16.8%), Sweden (19...

  5. Development and implementation of technologies for physical telerehabilitation in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabián Narváez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Telerehabilitation has arised by the inclusion of emerging technologies for capturing, transmitting, analyzing and visualizing movement patterns associated to musculoskeletal disorders. This therapeutic strategy enables to carry out diagnosis processes and provide rehabilitation treatments. This paper presents a systematic review of the current development and implementation of telerehabilitation technologies in Latin America. The main goal is to explore the scientific literature and dissemination sources to establish if such technologies have been introduced in this region. Likewise, this work highlights existing prototypes or systems that are to being used or that are still under development. A systematic search strategy was conducted by two different searches: the first one involves a rigorous literature search from the most relevant scientific digital repositories; the second one included telerehabilitation projects and programs retrieved by an advanced Google search. A total of 53 documents from six countries (Colombia, Brazil, Mexico, Ecuador, Chile and Argentina were found. Most of them were focused on academic and research initiatives to develop in-home telerehabilitation technologies for pediatric and elderly populations affected by motor and functional impairment, cerebral palsy, neurocognitive disorders and stroke. The analysis of the findings revealed the need for a comprehensive approach that integrates health care and the social system to increase the current availability of telerehabilitation initiatives in Latin America.

  6. Use of Third Line Antiretroviral Therapy in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesar, Carina; Shepherd, Bryan E.; Jenkins, Cathy A.; Ghidinelli, Massimo; Castro, Jose Luis; Veloso, Valdiléa Gonçalves; Cortes, Claudia P.; Padgett, Denis; Crabtree-Ramirez, Brenda; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Fink, Valeria; Duran, Adriana; Sued, Omar; McGowan, Catherine C.; Cahn, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Background Access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is expanding in Latin America. Many patients require second and third line therapy due to toxicity, tolerability, failure, or a combination of factors. The need for third line HAART, essential for program planning, is not known. Methods Antiretroviral-naïve patients ≥18 years who started first HAART after January 1, 2000 in Caribbean, Central and South America Network (CCASAnet) sites in Argentina, Brazil, Honduras, Mexico, and Peru were included. Clinical trials participants were excluded. Third line HAART was defined as use of darunavir, tipranavir, etravirine, enfuvirtide, maraviroc or raltegravir. Need for third line HAART was defined as virologic failure while on second line HAART. Results Of 5853 HAART initiators followed for a median of 3.5 years, 310 (5.3%) failed a second line regimen and 44 (0.8%) received a third line regimen. Cumulative incidence of failing a 2nd or starting a 3rd line regimen was 2.7% and 6.0% three and five years after HAART initiation, respectively. Predictors at HAART initiation for failing a second or starting a third line included female sex (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.54, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18–2.00, p = 0.001), younger age (HR = 2.76 for 20 vs. 40 years, 95% CI 1.86–4.10, p<0.001), and prior AIDS (HR = 2.17, 95% CI 1.62–2.90, p<0.001). Conclusions Third line regimens may be needed for at least 6% of patients in Latin America within 5 years of starting HAART, a substantial proportion given the large numbers of patients on HAART in the region. Improved accessibility to third line regimens is warranted. PMID:25221931

  7. Use of third line antiretroviral therapy in Latin America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Cesar

    Full Text Available Access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART is expanding in Latin America. Many patients require second and third line therapy due to toxicity, tolerability, failure, or a combination of factors. The need for third line HAART, essential for program planning, is not known.Antiretroviral-naïve patients ≥18 years who started first HAART after January 1, 2000 in Caribbean, Central and South America Network (CCASAnet sites in Argentina, Brazil, Honduras, Mexico, and Peru were included. Clinical trials participants were excluded. Third line HAART was defined as use of darunavir, tipranavir, etravirine, enfuvirtide, maraviroc or raltegravir. Need for third line HAART was defined as virologic failure while on second line HAART.Of 5853 HAART initiators followed for a median of 3.5 years, 310 (5.3% failed a second line regimen and 44 (0.8% received a third line regimen. Cumulative incidence of failing a 2nd or starting a 3rd line regimen was 2.7% and 6.0% three and five years after HAART initiation, respectively. Predictors at HAART initiation for failing a second or starting a third line included female sex (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.54, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18-2.00, p = 0.001, younger age (HR = 2.76 for 20 vs. 40 years, 95% CI 1.86-4.10, p<0.001, and prior AIDS (HR = 2.17, 95% CI 1.62-2.90, p<0.001.Third line regimens may be needed for at least 6% of patients in Latin America within 5 years of starting HAART, a substantial proportion given the large numbers of patients on HAART in the region. Improved accessibility to third line regimens is warranted.

  8. Ensuring America's Future by Increasing Latino College Completion: Latino College Completion in 50 States. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Deborah; Soliz, Megan

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. This initiative included the release of a benchmarking guide for projections of degree attainment disaggregated by race/ethnicity that offered multiple metrics to track…

  9. Cinema and Literature in Latin America: Mario Bellatin's interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Leonel Cherri

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the last turn of the century, literature and cinema produced in Latin America have insisted on represent, in many ways, social violence. This phenomenon has been described as an aestheticized "boom" of violence and, at the same time, as a reflection on the marginality of certain subjects and the biopolitical relations that they expose. This work focuses on certain literary and audiovisual productions by Mario Bellatin such as Salón de Belleza, Bola negra – el musical de Ciudad Juárez and La escuela del dolor humano de Sechuán in order to address such matter.

  10. US of tissue banking and transplantation in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strong, M.; Moogk, M.

    1999-01-01

    Tissue banking in North America began as surgical bone banking in individual hospitals and progressed to recovery of cadaveric tissues, initially by the United States Navy Tissue Bank and more recently to regional tissue banks throughout North America. The American Association of Tissue Banks was established in 1976 to develop standards for tissue banking and the eventual inspection and accreditation of tissue banks. The gathering of statistics of tissue banking practices was first undertaken in 1992, from accredited tissue banks. The most recent statistics were compiled in 1997 and will be reported at this conference.There are currently 63 accredited tissue banks in North America, 60 in the United States and three in Canada. Overall, tissue donation has increased by 48% during this 5 year reporting time. During the same period, the number of living surgical bone donors has decreased from nearly 3,000 to less than 500. This impact is largely due to the new regulations that have been implemented by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). There were over 340,000 bone grafts distributed in 1996, an increase of 20% over 1992, 33% were not sterilized, 21% were sterilized using irradiation, and 45% were demineralized. Only 1% were processed using ethylene oxide as a sterilant, a decrease from 15% in 1992. The primary mode of preservation and storage is freeze-drying with 90% of the tissues falling into this category and the rest being frozen. The second largest number of grafts distributed were skin grafts. Total tissue grafts distributed including cornea was 445,417. In January 1998, the FDA Final Rule regarding regulation of tissue banking became effective. The elements of that Final Rule and new tissue banking rules the FDA has proposed will be discussed along with regulations recently published by the Health and Human Services Department relative to organ and tissue donor referrals. Tissue Banking in North America continues to evolve and has become more and more

  11. Assessment and monitoring of onchocerciasis in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Pérez, Mario A; Unnasch, Thomas R; Real-Najarro, Olga

    2011-01-01

    Onchocerciasis has historically been one of the leading causes of infectious blindness worldwide. It is endemic to tropical regions both in Africa and Latin America and in the Yemen. In Latin America, it is found in 13 foci located in 6 different countries. The epidemiologically most important focus of onchocerciasis in the Americas is located in a region spanning the border between Guatemala and Mexico. However, the Amazonian focus straddling the border of Venezuela and Brazil is larger in overall area because the Yanomami populations are scattered over a very large geographical region. Onchocerciasis is caused by infection with the filarial parasite Onchocerca volvulus. The infection is spread through the bites of an insect vector, black flies of the genus Simulium. In Africa, the major vectors are members of the S. damnosum complex, while numerous species serve as vectors of the parasite in Latin America. Latin America has had a long history of attempts to control onchocerciasis, stretching back almost 100 years. The earliest programmes used a strategy of surgical removal of the adult parasites from affected individuals. However, because many of the adult parasites lodge in undetectable and inaccessible areas of the body, the overall effect of this strategy on the prevalence of infection was relatively minor. In 1988, a new drug, ivermectin, was introduced that effectively killed the larval stage (microfilaria) of the parasite in infected humans. As the microfilaria is both the stage that is transmitted by the vector fly and the cause of most of the pathologies associated with the infection, ivermectin opened up a new strategy for the control of onchocerciasis. Concurrent with the use of ivermectin for the treatment of onchocerciasis, a number of sensitive new diagnostic tools were developed (both serological and nucleic acid based) that provided the efficiency, sensitivity and specificity necessary to monitor the decline and eventual elimination of

  12. Phylodynamic analysis of avian infectious bronchitis virus in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marandino, Ana; Pereda, Ariel; Tomás, Gonzalo; Hernández, Martín; Iraola, Gregorio; Craig, María Isabel; Hernández, Diego; Banda, Alejandro; Villegas, Pedro; Panzera, Yanina; Pérez, Ruben

    2015-06-01

    Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a coronavirus of chickens that causes great economic losses to the global poultry industry. The present study focuses on South American IBVs and their genetic relationships with global strains. We obtained full-length sequences of the S1 coding region and N gene of IBV field isolates from Uruguay and Argentina, and performed Phylodynamic analysis to characterize the strains and estimate the time of the most recent common ancestor. We identified two major South American genotypes, which were here denoted South America I (SAI) and Asia/South America II (A/SAII). The SAI genotype is an exclusive South American lineage that emerged in the 1960s. The A/SAII genotype may have emerged in Asia in approximately 1995 before being introduced into South America. Both SAI and A/SAII genotype strains clearly differ from the Massachusetts strains that are included in the vaccine formulations being used in most South American countries. © 2015 The Authors.

  13. Eradication of cervical cancer in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Xavier Bosch

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer remains within the three most common cancer in women worldwide and is still the commonest female cancer in 41 of 184 countries. Within Latin America, cervical ranks as the most common cancer among women in Bolivia and Peru and the second most frequent in Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Paraguay, The Guyanas, Surinam and Venezuela. Due to its relatively early age at onset, it ranks among the three most frequent cancers in women aged below 45 years in 82% of all countries in the world irrespective of their screening practices.   DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21149/spm.v58i2.7777

  14. WELFARE REGIMES IN LATIN AMERICA AND CARIBBEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melisa Campana-Alabarce

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a characterization of Latin American and Caribbean Welfare regimes in historiographical perspective. Firstly, it makes a review of the emergence conditions of Welfare States in Western Europe and its core features, with particular emphasis on its role as a method to regulate inequalities in industrial capitalism. Dialoguing with it, then stops in the specific configurations that welfare regimes have taken in Latin America during the course of the twentieth century. Finally, it provides a map of its contemporary features and the major challenges that the States of the region face in his capacity as right guarantors for the future.

  15. The later evolution of modern sport in Latin America: the North American influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbena, J L

    2001-01-01

    American impact on modern sports in Latin America overlaps geographically and chronologically with the European, especially British, impact. Principally baseball in the Caribbean basin, more recently basketball and volleyball across the hemisphere and occasionally American football in more limited areas illustrate a north-to-south movement executed by businessmen, educators, missionaries, military personnel, returning travelers (often students), sports entrepreneurs and television. Often initially supported by promoters of development within Latin America, this transfer has altered local recreational patterns and attracted Latin athletes to pursue careers in North America, provoking accusations of cultural imperialism and exploitation.

  16. Forgotten Places: Uneven Development in Rural America. Rural America Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyson, Thomas A., Ed.; Falk, William W., Ed.

    This book examines predominantly rural regions of the United States that lag behind the rest of the country in income, employment, access to services, and measures of education and health. Case studies of nine regions examine historical background; current economic and social conditions (including demography, educational attainment, and…

  17. Sources of Economic Fluctuations in Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfredo Toledo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Using panel data from Central America, this paper studies the determining factors of inflation and aggregate output fluctuations by estimating two Structural Vector Autoregressive (SVAR models. Price and output variables are included in one of the models, whereas M2 and the price of oil are additional variables in the other one. Findings of this study suggest that price is determined by the demand, while output seems to be influenced mainly by the supply shocks in that area. It was also evidenced that the price of oil does not have a significant impact on the general price level in that region.

  18. Racism and Health in Rural America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozhimannil, Katy B; Henning-Smith, Carrie

    2018-01-01

    This commentary responds to the recent article by Dr. James et al. on racial and ethnic health disparities in rural America, published in the November 16 issue of Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. We applaud Dr. James and colleagues for their important contribution uncovering intra-rural racial and ethnic disparities and build on their paper by discussing potential mechanisms, including structural racism. We also discuss several pragmatic steps that can be taken in research, policy, and practice to address racial and ethnic disparities in rural communities and to work toward health equity for all rural residents.

  19. Privatization of oil companies in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsyth, A.; Mommer, B.; McBeth, B.

    1995-01-01

    Three linked articles explore the current movement towards privatization in the various countries of South America. While the progress away from state control varies from country to country, the first article argues that the movement will offer economic benefits to the Latin American petroleum industry as a whole, despite the political difficulties which must be overcome. In the second article, public distaste for the nationalization of the Venezuelan oil industry back in 1943, petroleum engineers, economists, private sector representatives and oil industry employees all oppose wholesale privatization, favouring national and private investment within Venezuela. The last author argues for an efficient regulatory framework to oversee privatization schemes. (UK)

  20. Sharing regulatory data as tools for strengthening health systems in the Region of the Americas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varley Dias Sousa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Regulatory transparency is an imperative characteristic of a reliable National Regulatory Authority. In the region of the Americas, the process of building an open government is still fragile and fragmented across various Health Regulatory Agencies (HRAs and Regional Reference Authorities (RRAs. This study assessed the transparency status of RRAs, focusing on various medicine life-cycle documents (the Medicine Dossier, Clinical Trial Report, and Inspection Report as tools for strengthening health systems. Based on a narrative (nonsystematic review of RRA regulatory transparency, transparency status was classified as one of two types: public disclosure of information (intra-agency data and data- and work-sharing (inter-agency data. The risks/benefits of public disclosure of medicine-related information were assessed, taking into account 1 the involvement and roles of multiple stakeholders (health care professionals, regulators, industry, community, and academics and 2 the protection of commercial and personal confidential data. Inter-agency data- and work-sharing was evaluated in the context of harmonization and cooperation projects that focus on regulatory convergence. Technical and practical steps for establishing an openness directive for the pharmaceutical regulatory environment are proposed to improve and strengthen health systems in the Americas. Addressing these challenges requires leadership from entities such as the Pan American Health Organization to steer and support collaborative regional alliances that advance the development and establishment of a trustworthy regulatory environment and a sustainable public health system in the Americas, using international successful initiatives as reference and taking into account the domestic characteristics and experiences of each individual country.

  1. Sharing regulatory data as tools for strengthening health systems in the Region of the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Varley Dias; Ramalho, Pedro I; Silveira, Dâmaris

    2016-05-01

    Regulatory transparency is an imperative characteristic of a reliable National Regulatory Authority. In the region of the Americas, the process of building an open government is still fragile and fragmented across various Health Regulatory Agencies (HRAs) and Regional Reference Authorities (RRAs). This study assessed the transparency status of RRAs, focusing on various medicine life-cycle documents (the Medicine Dossier, Clinical Trial Report, and Inspection Report) as tools for strengthening health systems. Based on a narrative (nonsystematic) review of RRA regulatory transparency, transparency status was classified as one of two types: public disclosure of information (intra-agency data) and data- and work-sharing (inter-agency data). The risks/benefits of public disclosure of medicine-related information were assessed, taking into account 1) the involvement and roles of multiple stakeholders (health care professionals, regulators, industry, community, and academics) and 2) the protection of commercial and personal confidential data. Inter-agency data- and work-sharing was evaluated in the context of harmonization and cooperation projects that focus on regulatory convergence. Technical and practical steps for establishing an openness directive for the pharmaceutical regulatory environment are proposed to improve and strengthen health systems in the Americas. Addressing these challenges requires leadership from entities such as the Pan American Health Organization to steer and support collaborative regional alliances that advance the development and establishment of a trustworthy regulatory environment and a sustainable public health system in the Americas, using international successful initiatives as reference and taking into account the domestic characteristics and experiences of each individual country.

  2. Earth and water resources and hazards in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Charles G.; Fary, R.W.; Guffanti, Marianne; Laura, Della; Lee, M.P.; Masters, C.D.; Miller, R.L.; Quinones-Marques, Ferdinand; Peebles, R.W.; Reinemund, J.A.; Russ, D.P.

    1984-01-01

    Long-range economic development in Central America will depend in large part on production of indigenous mineral, energy, and water resources and on mitigation of the disastrous effects of geologic and hydrologic hazards such as landslides, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and floods. The region has six world-class metal mines at present as well as additional evidence of widespread mineralization. Systematic investigations using modern mineral exploration techniques should reveal more mineral deposits suitable for development. Widespread evidence of lignite and geothermal resources suggests that intensive studies could identify producible energy sources in most Central American countries. Water supply and water quality vary greatly from country to country. Local problems of ground- and surface-water availability and of contamination create a need for systematic programs to provide better hydrologic data, capital improvements, and management. Disastrous earthquakes have destroyed or severely damaged many cities in Central America. Volcanic eruptions, landslides, mudflows, and floods have devastated most of the Pacific side of Central America at one time or another. A regional approach to earthquake, volcano, and flood-risk analysis and monitoring, using modern technology and concepts, would provide the facilities and means for acquiring knowledge necessary to reduce future losses. All Central American countries need to strengthen institutions and programs dealing with earth and water resources and natural hazards. Some of these needs may be satisfied through existing or pending projects and technical and economic assistance from U.S. or other sources. The need for a comprehensive study of the natural resources of Central America and the requirements for their development is evident. The U.S. Caribbean Basin Initiative offers both an excellent opportunity for a regional approach to these pervasive problems and an opportunity for international cooperation.

  3. Elements for a Geopolitics of Infrastructure Megaprojects in Latin America and Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Vladimir Sánchez Calderón

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a critical approach to projects and initiatives of supranational physical connection through infrastructure improvement for transport and energy, regarding specifically their socio-spatial implications at the national and local levels. With this purpose, we examined how infrastructure projects in Colombia are linked to two sub-continental initiatives that seek to build a physical platform for the region: the Plan Puebla Panama (PPP for Central America (including Colombia, and the Initiative for Regional Integration of South America (IIRSA.

  4. Developing regional workplace health and hazard surveillance in the Americas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi Bernard C. K.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available An objective of the Workers' Health Program at the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO is to strengthen surveillance in workers' health in the Region of the Americas in order to implement prevention and control strategies. To date, four phases of projects have been organized to develop multinational workplace health and hazard surveillance in the Region. Phase 1 was a workshop held in 1999 in Washington, D.C., for the purpose of developing a methodology for identifying and prioritizing the top three occupational sentinel health events to be incorporated into the surveillance systems in the Region. Three surveillance protocols were developed, one each for fatal occupational injuries, pesticide poisoning,4 and low back pain, which were identified in the workshop as the most important occupational health problems. Phase 2 comprised projects to disseminate the findings and recommendations of the Washington Workshop, including publications, pilot projects, software development, electronic communication, and meetings. Phase 3 was a sub-regional meeting in 2000 in Rosario, Argentina, to follow up on the progress in carrying out the recommendations of the Washington workshop and to create a Virtual Regional Center for Latin America that could coordinate the efforts of member countries. Currently phase 4 includes a number of projects to achieve the objectives of this Center, such as pilot projects, capacity building, editing a compact disk, analyzing legal systems and intervention strategies, software training, and developing an internet course on surveillance. By documenting the joint efforts made to initiate and develop Regional multinational surveillance of occupational injuries and diseases in the Americas, this paper aims to provide experience and guidance for others wishing to initiate and develop regional multinational surveillance for other diseases or in other regions.

  5. Fostering renewable energy markets in North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Jeremy [North American Comission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC), (United States)

    2007-06-15

    This presentation describes projects, programs and other issues addressed in order to promote renewable energy markets in North America. These are carried out by the North American Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC). In the first part of this presentation, there are going to be found some of the rules imposed by the North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation (NAAEC). Then, it is shown the structure of the CEC as well as its programs, besides, there are presented the environment projects and the objectives along with their respective trades. There are described both benefits environmental and non-environmental. Also, there are shown the issues which the CEC is working in. And finally, it is shown a list mentioning the aspects that would change if: the expansion of the Mexico's Federal Commission of Electricity (CFE), happens, the grid-interconnected and the self supply of Renewable Electricity increase. [Spanish] En esta presentacion se describen los proyectos, los programas y otras cuestiones, cuyo objetivo es impulsar los mercados de energia renovable en America del Norte, realizadas por la North American Commission for Environmental Cooperation. En la primera parte, se encuentran algunas de las reglas impuestas por el Acuerdo de Cooperacion Ambiental de America del Norte (ACAAN). Enseguida, se muestra la estructura y los programas de la Comision para la Cooperacion Ambiental (CCA). Asimismo, se describen los proyectos ambientales, los objetivos junto con sus correspondientes tratados. Mas adelante, se explican tanto los beneficios ambientales como aquellos que no lo son. Igualmente, explican las cuestiones que podrian cambiar de: suceder la expansion de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), incrementarse el auto- suministro de la energia renovable y los sistemas interconectados.

  6. Focusing telescopes in nuclear astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Von Ballmoos, P.; Knodlseder, R.; Sazonov, S.; Griffiths, R.; Bastie, P.; Halloin, H.; Pareschi, G.; Ramsey, B.; Jensen, C.; Buis, E.J.; Ulmer, M.; Giommi, P.; Colafrancesco, S.; Comastri, A.; Barret, D.; Leising, M.; Hernanz, M.; Smith, D.; Abrosimov, N.; Smither, B.; Ubertini, P.; Olive, J.F.; Lund, N.; Pisa, A.; Courtois, P.; Roa, D.; Harrison, F.; Pareschi, G.; Frontera, F.; Von Ballmoos, P.; Barriere, N.; Rando, N.; Borde, J.; Hinglais, E.; Cledassou, R.; Duchon, P.; Sghedoni, M.; Huet, B.; Takahashi, T.; Caroli, E.; Quadrinin, L.; Buis, E.J.; Skinner, G.; Krizmanic, J.; Pareschi, G.; Loffredo, G.; Wunderer, C.; Weidenspointner, G.; Wunderer, C.; Koechlin, L.; Bignami, G.; Von Ballmoos, P.; Tueller, J.; Andritschke, T.; Laurens, A.; Evrard, J.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this workshop is to consider the next generation of instrumentation to be required within the domain of nuclear astrophysics. A small, but growing community has been pursuing various techniques for the focusing of hard X-rays and gamma-rays with the aim of achieving a factor of up to 100 improvement in sensitivity over present technologies. Balloon flight tests of both multilayer mirrors and a Laue lens have been performed and ideas abound. At present, implementation scenarios for space missions are being studied at Esa, CNES, and elsewhere. The workshop will provide a first opportunity for this new community to meet, exchange technological know-how, discuss scientific objectives and synergies, and consolidate implementation approaches within National and European Space Science programs. This document gathers the slides of all the presentations

  7. Focusing telescopes in nuclear astrophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Von Ballmoos, P; Knodlseder, R; Sazonov, S; Griffiths, R; Bastie, P; Halloin, H; Pareschi, G; Ramsey, B; Jensen, C; Buis, E J; Ulmer, M; Giommi, P; Colafrancesco, S; Comastri, A; Barret, D; Leising, M; Hernanz, M; Smith, D; Abrosimov, N; Smither, B; Ubertini, P; Olive, J F; Lund, N; Pisa, A; Courtois, P; Roa, D; Harrison, F; Pareschi, G; Frontera, F; Von Ballmoos, P; Barriere, N; Rando, N; Borde, J; Hinglais, E; Cledassou, R; Duchon, P; Sghedoni, M; Huet, B; Takahashi, T; Caroli, E; Quadrinin, L; Buis, E J; Skinner, G; Krizmanic, J; Pareschi, G; Loffredo, G; Wunderer, C; Weidenspointner, G; Wunderer, C; Koechlin, L; Bignami, G; Von Ballmoos, P; Tueller, J; Andritschke, T; Laurens, A; Evrard, J

    2005-07-01

    The objective of this workshop is to consider the next generation of instrumentation to be required within the domain of nuclear astrophysics. A small, but growing community has been pursuing various techniques for the focusing of hard X-rays and gamma-rays with the aim of achieving a factor of up to 100 improvement in sensitivity over present technologies. Balloon flight tests of both multilayer mirrors and a Laue lens have been performed and ideas abound. At present, implementation scenarios for space missions are being studied at Esa, CNES, and elsewhere. The workshop will provide a first opportunity for this new community to meet, exchange technological know-how, discuss scientific objectives and synergies, and consolidate implementation approaches within National and European Space Science programs. This document gathers the slides of all the presentations.

  8. Tuberculosis control in the Americas: current approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pio, A; Western, K

    1976-01-01

    Tuberculosi remains a serious public health problem in the Americas, and it has not declined as rapidly or as much as experts projected it would in the 1940's. Scientific advances in control of the disease over the last three decades have produced effective chemotherapeutic agents, established the immunizing capacity of BCG vaccine, and demonstrated the superior value of bacteriologic diagnosis in symptomatic individuals over mass community x-ray surveys, which are both inefficient and costly. They have also shown that most cases can be treated on an ambulatory basis, obviating the need for the lengthy hospital stays which have heretofore weighed so heavily on budgets. By standardization of control methods, both for diagnosis and for chemotherapy, these tasks can be taken on by polyvalent staff in the general health services, whose wide coverage places them in a position to reach a much larger segment of the population than that attended by the traditional vertical system. To a greater or lesser degree, all the countries in the Americas are beginning to orient their strategies in this direction, and some of them already have considerable progress to report.

  9. [The cholera epidemic in Latin America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsvik, O

    1992-05-30

    An outbreak of cholera started in Peru in January 1991 and spread through most Latin American countries within a year. This was the first known epidemic of cholera in America for more than a century. In 1991, 321,334 persons were reported to have cholera in Peru, 119,063 were hospitalized, and 2,906 died. Other countries like Ecuador, Colombia, Guatemala, Brazil, Mexico, Bolivia, Chile, El Salvador, Venezuela and Honduras were also affected, but these countries combined accounted for only 20% of the cases registered in Peru. In April 1992, all Latin American countries except Uruguay, Paraguay and French Guyana have reported cholera. The mortality rate for the epidemic in Latin America was only 1%, mainly owing to good oral rehydration treatment provided by Local health services and the Pan American Health Organization. The causative organism was Vibrio cholerae, serogroup O1, serotype Inaba (and Ogawa) of the El Tor biotype. Genetic characterization shows this strain to be unique, and the designation is reserved for the Latin American strain, distinguishing it from the other El Tor isolates from the 7th pandemic.

  10. Toxocariasis in North America: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel M Lee

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Toxocariasis is an important neglected tropical disease that can manifest as visceral or ocular larva migrans, or covert toxocariasis. All three forms pose a public health problem and cause significant morbidity in areas of high prevalence. To determine the burden of toxocariasis in North America, we conducted a systematic review of the literature following PRISMA guidelines. We found 18 articles with original prevalence, incidence, or case data for toxocariasis. Prevalence estimates ranged from 0.6% in a Canadian Inuit community to 30.8% in Mexican children with asthma. Commonly cited risk factors included: African-American race, poverty, male sex, and pet ownership or environmental contamination by animal feces. Increased prevalence of Toxocara spp. infection was linked in a group of case control studies conducted in Mexico to several high risk groups including waste pickers, asthmatic children, and inpatient psychiatry patients. Further research is needed to determine the true current burden of toxocariasis in North America; however the prevalence estimates gathered in this review suggest that the burden of disease is significant.

  11. Security Inequalities in North America: Reassessing Regional Security Complex Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Kilroy

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article re-evaluates earlier work done by the authors on Regional Security Complex Theory (RSCT in North America, using sectoral analysis initially developed by Buzan and Waever, but also adding the variables of institutions, identity, and interests. These variables are assessed qualitatively in the contemporary context on how they currently impress upon the process of securitization within sectoral relations between Canada, Mexico, and the United States. The article reviews the movement from bilateral security relations between these states to the development of a trilateral response to regional security challenges post- 9/11. It further addresses the present period and what appears to be a security process derailed by recent political changes and security inequalities, heightened by the election of Donald Trump in 2016. The article argues that while these three states initially evinced a convergence of regional security interests after 9/11, which did create new institutional responses, under the current conditions, divergence in political interests and security inequalities have reduced the explanatory power of RSCT in North America. Relations between states in North American are becoming less characterized by the role of institutions and interests and more by identity politics in the region.

  12. BAT-BORNE RABIES IN LATIN AMERICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis E. Escobar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The situation of rabies in America is complex: rabies in dogs has decreased dramatically, but bats are increasingly recognized as natural reservoirs of other rabies variants. Here, bat species known to be rabies-positive with different antigenic variants, are summarized in relation to bat conservation status across Latin America. Rabies virus is widespread in Latin American bat species, 22.5%75 of bat species have been confirmed as rabies-positive. Most bat species found rabies positive are classified by the International Union for Conservation of Nature as “Least Concern”. According to diet type, insectivorous bats had the most species known as rabies reservoirs, while in proportion hematophagous bats were the most important. Research at coarse spatial scales must strive to understand rabies ecology; basic information on distribution and population dynamics of many Latin American and Caribbean bat species is needed; and detailed information on effects of landscape change in driving bat-borne rabies outbreaks remains unassessed. Finally, integrated approaches including public health, ecology, and conservation biology are needed to understand and prevent emergent diseases in bats.

  13. Women and Politics in Latin America: Perspectives and Limits of the Institutional Aspects of Women's Political Representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Campo, Esther

    2005-01-01

    This article attempts to offer a general panorama of some issues related to political representation of women in Latin America. Specifically, it analyzes the advances made in the representation of women in politics during the 1990s. It offers a descriptive analysis of national cases in Latin America from an institutional focus. In spite of the…

  14. Petroleum industry in Latin America: volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinsch, A.E.; Tissot, R.R.

    1995-01-01

    This first volume of a three-volume series, provided an overview of major economic trends, and energy reserves (i.e. crude oil, natural gas and electricity) in Latin America. Established crude oil reserves were estimated at 125 billion barrels, with Mexico and Venezuela accounting for over 90 percent of the total. Established natural gas reserves were estimated at 249 Tcf, roughly one half of it being in Venezuela. It was noted that since natural gas exploration was still in its infancy in the region, this figure was very likely an underestimate of available resources. The current physical and market characteristics of the petroleum sector in each of the seven Latin American countries were examined in detail, as were the legal, regulatory, fiscal and political environments. Latin American efforts at integration were examined, with emphasis on regional trade agreements and energy integration. The central conclusion of the study was that Latin America appeared poised for a period of sustained economic development, with the energy sector occupying center stage. tabs., figs., refs

  15. Las actividades en la naturaleza en la formación inicial docente: un acercamiento desde los sentidos Activities in nature in initial teacher training: an approach focusing on meanings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Castillo Retamal

    2012-09-01

    assigned to this learning sector and focuses on the re-signification that emerges from the concepts and experiences of the individuals who go through the process of initial education. As a result, the main purpose is to comprehend how future teachers assign sense and meaning to the relationship they establish with the natural environment, since they understand the generation of an eminently complex link, which configures the human being from the viewpoint of the bio-geo-structure of the natural spaces, man/nature relationship and the very historical character of the individual. On the other hand, the landmark of this research is the interpretative paradigm and the qualitative methodology, since the core question is to comprehend the notions of meaning of physical education teacher whose education is in progress, in the perspective of the activities in the natural environment.

  16. Asthma control in Latin America: the Asthma Insights and Reality in Latin America (AIRLA) survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neffen, Hugo; Fritscher, Carlos; Schacht, Francisco Cuevas; Levy, Gur; Chiarella, Pascual; Soriano, Joan B; Mechali, Daniel

    2005-03-01

    The aims of this survey were (1) to assess the quality of asthma treatment and control in Latin America, (2) to determine how closely asthma management guidelines are being followed, and (3) to assess perception, knowledge and attitudes related to asthma in Latin America. We surveyed a household sample of 2,184 adults or parents of children with asthma in 2003 in 11 countries in Latin America. Respondents were asked about healthcare utilization, symptom severity, activity limitations and medication use. Daytime asthma symptoms were reported by 56% of the respondents, and 51% reported being awakened by their asthma at night. More than half of those surveyed had been hospitalized, attended a hospital emergency service or made unscheduled emergency visits to other healthcare facilities for asthma during the previous year. Patient perception of asthma control did not match symptom severity, even in patients with severe persistent asthma, 44.7% of whom regarded their disease as being well or completely controlled. Only 2.4% (2.3% adults and 2.6% children) met all criteria for asthma control. Although 37% reported treatment with prescription medications, only 6% were using inhaled corticosteroids. Most adults (79%) and children (68%) in this survey reported that asthma symptoms limited their activities. Absence from school and work was reported by 58% of the children and 31% of adults, respectively. Asthma control in Latin America falls short of goals in international guidelines, and in many aspects asthma care and control in Latin America suffer from the same shortcomings as in other areas of the world.

  17. Spread of Zika virus in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Sun, Kaiyuan; Chinazzi, Matteo; Pastore Y Piontti, Ana; Dean, Natalie E; Rojas, Diana Patricia; Merler, Stefano; Mistry, Dina; Poletti, Piero; Rossi, Luca; Bray, Margaret; Halloran, M Elizabeth; Longini, Ira M; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2017-05-30

    We use a data-driven global stochastic epidemic model to analyze the spread of the Zika virus (ZIKV) in the Americas. The model has high spatial and temporal resolution and integrates real-world demographic, human mobility, socioeconomic, temperature, and vector density data. We estimate that the first introduction of ZIKV to Brazil likely occurred between August 2013 and April 2014 (90% credible interval). We provide simulated epidemic profiles of incident ZIKV infections for several countries in the Americas through February 2017. The ZIKV epidemic is characterized by slow growth and high spatial and seasonal heterogeneity, attributable to the dynamics of the mosquito vector and to the characteristics and mobility of the human populations. We project the expected timing and number of pregnancies infected with ZIKV during the first trimester and provide estimates of microcephaly cases assuming different levels of risk as reported in empirical retrospective studies. Our approach represents a modeling effort aimed at understanding the potential magnitude and timing of the ZIKV epidemic and it can be potentially used as a template for the analysis of future mosquito-borne epidemics.

  18. Estimation of gas reserves in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laherrere, J.

    2001-01-01

    If the oil market is global, the gas market is divided into three zones: North America, Europe and Asia. The official forecast of the future demand of North America gas is optimist as it is based on estimates of resources which are ten times those of the proved reserves. The poor practice (SEC rules) of proved reserves (when the rest of the world uses proven+probable) leads to a constant revision and a growth of the past discoveries, showing well a wrong evaluation. The official databases are then very poor, even those of the US federal domain, which have to be public. The study of the technical data of reserves of US, Canada and Mexico leads to a more pessimistic estimation of the ultimate reserves and then to the future local supply. In the Gulf of Mexico (the main hope), the production of natural gas in shallow water decline and the discoveries in the deep-water are mainly oil. The non-conventional gas seems to level. But the future demand is also too optimistic, based on cheap price and on a steady growth. However the local gas supply will be likely insufficient, and the demand will need imported liquefied natural gas. (author)

  19. Legislation on renewable energy sources in Central America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebollo, Jose

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents the development of renewable energy in Central America and the cooperation given by the European Comission in the promotion of renewable energy sources. Also discuss the current situation in energy demand in Central America and possible solutions linked to legislation that promotes the inversion of the private sector. The legal framework in each country of Central America is presented and its impact in the increasing of generation of energy through tax reductions, trading and prices

  20. Conservation of native Pacific trout diversity in western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penaluna, Brooke E.; Abadía-Cardoso, Alicia; Dunham, Jason B.; García de León, Francisco J; Gresswell, Robert E.; Luna, Arturo Ruiz; Taylor, Eric B.; Shepard, Bradley B.; Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Bestgen, Kevin R.; Rogers, Kevin H.; Escalante, Marco A; Keeley, Ernest R; Temple, Gabriel; Williams, Jack E.; Matthews, Kathleen; Pierce, Ron; Mayden, Richard L.; Kovach, Ryan; Garza, John Carlos; Fausch, Kurt D.

    2016-01-01

    Pacific trout Oncorhynchus spp. in western North America are strongly valued in ecological, socioeconomic, and cultural views, and have been the subject of substantial research and conservation efforts. Despite this, the understanding of their evolutionary histories, overall diversity, and challenges to their conservation is incomplete. We review the state of knowledge on these important issues, focusing on Pacific trout in the genus Oncorhynchus. Although most research on salmonid fishes emphasizes Pacific salmon, we focus on Pacific trout because they share a common evolutionary history, and many taxa in western North America have not been formally described, particularly in the southern extent of their ranges. Research in recent decades has led to the revision of many hypotheses concerning the origin and diversification of Pacific trout throughout their range. Although there has been significant success at addressing past threats to Pacific trout, contemporary and future threats represented by nonnative species, land and water use activities, and climate change pose challenges and uncertainties. Ultimately, conservation of Pacific trout depends on how well these issues are understood and addressed, and on solutions that allow these species to coexist with a growing scope of human influences.

  1. Growth of PETROBRAS international gas reserves in Latin America; Crescimento das reservas internacionais de gas da PETROBRAS na America Latina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabe, Claudio [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil); Syrio, Julio Cesar; Pizarro, Jorge Oscar de Sant' Anna [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents the work developed at PETROBRAS International to increase the natural gas reserves and production in Latin America. The results indicate that the company's new strategic focus has been providing an increase of its production of natural gas in 270%, in which daily production in September reached 84192 boed. The same happened with reserves in 2002, that increased in 37,2 billions m{sup 3}. This growth was mainly due to incorporation of Perez Conpanc and Petrolera Santa Fe. (author)

  2. Distributed energy generation in the best enterprise center of Latin America; Geracao distribuida no melhor centro empresarial da America Latina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchetti Filho, Enzo; Vasconcelos, Luiz Guilherme [Newmar Energia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    In order to maintain a continuous reliable supply of electrical energy to the buildings that constitutes the best Office Building in Latin America, the United Nations Business Center (CENU) decided to implement its own source of electric power, that operates alternatively with the electrical energy supplied by the grid. The fuel chosen in this project is Natural Gas, (05 sets of generator group, installed at the first underground ) and no problems with storage and pollution are present. NewmarEnergia is actuating in this project since the initial development to the final operation and management of it, and a good performance is being verified. (author)

  3. Tlatelolco regime and nonproliferation in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redick, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    The regime established by the Treaty of Tlatelolco supports peace and security in the Latin American region and global nonproliferation efforts. Circumstances leading to the creation of the nuclear-weapon-free zone include careful preparations and negotiations, individual leadership, existence of certain shared cultural and legal traditions of Latin American countries, and the temporary stimulus of the Cuban missile crisis. The lack of overt superpower pressure on Latin America, compared with more turbulent regions, has permitted continued progress toward full realization of the zone. Tlatelolco's negotiating process, as well as the substance of the Treaty, deserve careful consideration relative to other areas. The Treaty enjoys wide international approval, but full support by certain Latin American States (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Cuba) has been negatively affected by the failure of the US Senate to ratify Tlatelolco's Protocol I. Nuclear programs of Argentina, Brazil, and Mexico are expanding rapidly and these nations are forming linkages with West European countries, rather than the United States. The May 1980 Argentine-Brazilian nuclear agreement foresees significant cooperation between the two nation's nuclear energy commissions and more coordinated resistance to the nuclear supplier countries. Argentine-Brazilian nuclear convergence and the response accorded to it by the United States will have significant implications for the future of the Tlatelolco regime and nonproliferation in Latin America. 52 references

  4. Magnetic tearing in plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharkawy, W.

    1994-01-01

    A plasma focus device used is Mather type filled with hydrogen gas at pressure between 0.1 and 1 torr. When connected to a large capacitor ≤10 KV a discharge is started with peak current 100 KA. Under the influence of the radial electric field E r , due to the potential between electrodes, and B φ the plasma will drift in the axial direction with velocity cE r /B φ . An induced axial magnetic field B z has been detected which due to sheath velocity. A propagation of magnetosonic wave has been observed with velocity ≅10 3 m sec -1 . Such a wave might be excited when the magnetic pressure is much greater than the plasma kinetic pressure B 2 /8π>nKT. Assuming (MHD) to be stable, Tearing model was driven which generally has smaller growth rates than (MHD) modes. Using the designed theoretical model and the plasma parameters the electron energy dΦ/dt=Ba 2 /τ R was calculated to be 2.22 KeV, which is comparable with that detected from X-ray measurements. (author)

  5. Pre-Feasibility Analysis of Pellet Manufacturing on the Former Loring Air Force Base Site. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunsberger, R.; Mosey, G.

    2014-04-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Lands initiative, engaged the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to conduct feasibility studies to assess the viability of developing renewable energy generating facilities on contaminated sites. This site, in Limestone, Maine -- formerly the location of the Loring Air Force Base but now owned by the Aroostook Band of Micmac -- was selected for the potential to produce heating pellets from woody feedstock. Biomass was chosen as the renewable energy resource to evaluate based on abundant woody-biomass resources available in the area. NREL also evaluates potential savings from converting existing Micmac property from oil-fired heating to pellet heating.

  6. The usefulness of changing focus during examination using Gram staining as initial diagnostic clue for infective tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atsukawa, Yoshiko; Kawakami, Sayoko; Asahara, Miwa; Ishigaki, Shinobu; Tanaka, Takashi; Ono, Yasuo; Nishiya, Hajime; Fujisaki, Ryuichi; Koga, Ichiro; Ota, Yasuo; Miyazawa, Yukihisa

    2011-08-01

    Gram staining is a useful technique for detecting bacteria but is highly questionable in detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Its detection generally requires special staining, such as Ziehl-Neelsen staining. We experienced three cases in which tuberculosis was first suggested by Gram staining of sputum or pus, confirmed by Ziehl-Neelsen staining, and diagnosed by polymerase chain reaction or culture. To find colorless tubercle bacilli in clinical samples with various organisms, varying the focus to slightly longer and shorter during study of the slides is indispensable. We present criteria for detecting infective pulmonary tuberculosis in Gram staining. First, in the ordinary focus, weakly stained, thin, gram-positive bacilli are found; second, with a slightly longer focus distance, the thin, cord-like, conspicuous gram-positive bacilli can be observed; and third, with a shorter focus distance, the gram-positive bacilli have changed into the brightened, colorless, or ghost ones. Four laboratory technologists each evaluated 20 Gram-stained samples after being lectured on the criteria, with no prior information about the sample. They accurately evaluated the presence of the bacilli in Gram-stained preparations in more than 90% of samples containing 3+ bacilli on Ziehl-Neelsen staining. Gram staining is available as an easy and rapid initial clue to recognize highly infective tuberculosis.

  7. Juncus planifolius (Juncaceae) in North America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Henrik

    1980-01-01

    Juncus planifolius is reported for the first time from North America. Bibliographic notes on this species and its synonymy are given. Its distribution, dispersal and relationships within the genus are discussed.......Juncus planifolius is reported for the first time from North America. Bibliographic notes on this species and its synonymy are given. Its distribution, dispersal and relationships within the genus are discussed....

  8. Brazilian Hybrid Security in South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Duarte Villa

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Existing research on security governance in South America functions on dichotomous lines. Analysis of Brazil’s security practices is a case in point. On the one hand, scholars point out the balance of power and hegemonic institutions as the main discourse in the security practices between Brazil and its South American neighbors. On the other hand, some other emphasize the importance of democracy, cooperation on defense and security, and peaceful conflict resolution between states in the region as indicators for the emergence of a security community between Brazil and its neighbors in the South American region. The way in which multiple orders coexist is not given adequate attention in empirical research. This article seeks to overcome this dichotomy. By foregrounding Brazil’s regional security practices, particularly during the Lula and Rousseff administration, I show the hybrid and sometimes ambivalent security governance system in Brazil, where mechanisms of balance of power and security community overlap in important ways.

  9. Hepatitis B seroprevalence in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thêmis R. Silveira

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The seroprevalence of hepatitis B was investigated in over 12 000 subjects in six countries of Latin America: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, the Dominican Republic, Mexico, and Venezuela. Each study population was stratified according to age, gender, and socioeconomic status. Antibodies against hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc were measured in order to determine hepatitis B infection. The highest overall seroprevalence was found in the Dominican Republic (21.4%, followed by Brazil (7.9%, Venezuela (3.2%, Argentina (2.1%, Mexico (1.4%, and Chile (0.6%. In all the countries an increase in seroprevalence was found among persons 16 years old and older, suggesting sexual transmission as the major route of infection. In addition, comparatively high seroprevalence levels were seen at an early age in the Dominican Republic and Brazil, implicating a vertical route of transmission.

  10. Embedding research to improve program implementation in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Nhan; Langlois, Etienne V; Reveiz, Ludovic; Varallyay, Ilona; Elias, Vanessa; Mancuso, Arielle; Becerra-Posada, Francisco; Ghaffar, Abdul

    2017-06-08

    In the last 10 years, implementation research has come to play a critical role in improving the implementation of already-proven health interventions by promoting the systematic uptake of research findings and other evidence-based strategies into routine practice. The Alliance for Health Policy and Systems Research and the Pan American Health Organization implemented a program of embedded implementation research to support health programs in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) in 2014-2015. A total of 234 applications were received from 28 countries in the Americas. The Improving Program Implementation through Embedded Research (iPIER) scheme supported 12 implementation research projects led by health program implementers from nine LAC countries: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Panama, Peru, and Saint Lucia. Through this experience, we learned that the "insider" perspective, which implementers bring to the research proposal, is particularly important in identifying research questions that focus on the systems failures that often manifest in barriers to implementation. This paper documents the experience of and highlights key conclusions about the conduct of embedded implementation research. The iPIER experience has shown great promise for embedded research models that place implementers at the helm of implementation research initiatives.

  11. Embedding research to improve program implementation in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nhan Tran

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the last 10 years, implementation research has come to play a critical role in improving the implementation of already-proven health interventions by promoting the systematic uptake of research findings and other evidence-based strategies into routine practice. The Alliance for Health Policy and Systems Research and the Pan American Health Organization implemented a program of embedded implementation research to support health programs in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC in 2014–2015. A total of 234 applications were received from 28 countries in the Americas. The Improving Program Implementation through Embedded Research (iPIER scheme supported 12 implementation research projects led by health program implementers from nine LAC countries: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Panama, Peru, and Saint Lucia. Through this experience, we learned that the “insider” perspective, which implementers bring to the research proposal, is particularly important in identifying research questions that focus on the systems failures that often manifest in barriers to implementation. This paper documents the experience of and highlights key conclusions about the conduct of embedded implementation research. The iPIER experience has shown great promise for embedded research models that place implementers at the helm of implementation research initiatives.

  12. Osteoporosis in Latin America: panel expert review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Clark

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Latin American region is undergoing a demographic and epidemiological transition, which is leading to an increase in chronic and degenerative diseases. Osteoporosis (OP and fragility fractures (FF are emerging as main causes of disease burden with great impact on health institutions. Purpose. This review article provides an updated overview of trends in the epidemiology and economic impact of OP and FF, as well as in diagnosis and available treatments in Latin America, including calcium, vitamin D and prevention programs. Methods. Expert panel. Conclusions. According to this review, there is a lack of epidemiological and economic information in the region. It is desirable to obtain information regarding quality of life in OP and FF as well as to highlight prevention as a tool to reduce FF.

  13. Crime and criminal justice in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ghiringhelli de Azevedo

    Full Text Available After a presentation of indicators that allow assessing the degree of democratization of the criminal justice system in the context of democratization process in Latin America, this article points out the discrepancy existing in that domain, in the several instances that make up the justice system, from criminal legislation to the prison system. Examining the specific situation of Brazil and Argentina, problems in the functioning of institutions responsible by crime as well as the increase in crime control are pointed out as factors that cause a growing loss of legitimacy for the system, which is unable to justify its high degree of selectivity and authoritarianism. Some efforts under way to approach that phenomenon are listed. Finally, a few alternatives for institutional improvement are presented, among which the action of social scientists by producing research and analyses, as a crucial instrument to enlarge institutional ability to deal with current social conflict on democratic bases.

  14. Voluntary reduction of trans-fatty acids in Latin America and the Caribbean: current situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge-Rojas, Rafael; Colón-Ramos, Uriyoán; Jacoby, Enrique; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2011-02-01

    As part of the Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization Trans-Fat-Free Americas initiative, 12 representatives from food industries in Latin America and the Caribbean signed a declaration stating their intention to voluntarily eliminate industrially produced trans-fatty acids (TFA) from the Americas. A year later, in order to document the extent of the voluntary reduction, each declarant was asked to describe all reformulations and reductions in the TFA content of their products. After up to six requests for data, only three declarants provided such information in detail, and three others offered an overall summary of their reformulations. Additionally, three declarants reported the barriers that limit this process: availability of oil substitutes, cost, and consumers' sensory acceptance. The content of TFA and saturated fat in the food supply in the Americas should be regulated and strictly monitored in order to adequately evaluate a reduction of TFA in the region.

  15. Landfills in Latin America: Colombian case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguera, Katia M; Olivero, Jesus T.

    2010-01-01

    The management and disposal of domestic solid waste are critical issues in urban areas of Latin America. In Colombia, in general, the final destination of this waste is its deposition in landfills. This review aims to provide basic information on general conditions of these sites in major cities of the country. Although existing landfills have diversity of operational problems, those most frequently include an inadequate treatment of the leachates, the emission of unpleasant odors and poor management of solid waste coverage. Although it is necessary to improve the operation and maintenance of landfills, it is also urgent to increase the commitment of Health and Environmental Agencies on programs that reduce waste production and promote the sustainable use of those wastes with economic value.

  16. Direct Spanish Investments in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Arahuetes García

    1995-11-01

    Full Text Available In the period 1981-1992, the international flow of direct investments witnessed significant changes which affected their magnitude, geographical orientation, sectorial distribution, forms of investment and sources of financing. This happened in such a way that traditional distribution among industrialized and developing countries was modified as was the capacity for attraction of the different areas in development. In this sense, the main contrast could be seen in the growing importance of East and South East Asia and the decline of Latin American countries which traditionally have been the largest receivers of direct investments within the group of developing countries. The expansive phase of direct investments begun in 1986 threatened to exclude Latin American countries but the establishment of a new framework for the treatment of the problem of external debt -the Brady Plan-, the change in the context of theinternational economy in 1990 and the stability and economic growth of the countries of the region favoured, without a doubt, the recovery of the capacity for attraction for new flows of direct investments regarding Latin American countries.In this way, Latin America registered once again a growing participation in the international flow of direct investments. The evolution of direct Spanish investment in Latin America followed a path similar to that of wider international flows and, after the intense absorption of the first years of the Eighties, the rest of the decade registered a discreet attraction for investors which only began to change course from 1989 onwards with the reestablishment of the new phase of the economic cycle in the countries of the region.

  17. [Power and health in South America: international sanitary conferences, 1870-1889].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Cleide de Lima

    2013-06-01

    This article analyzes the international sanitary conferences that were held in South America in 1873 and 1887, involving the Brazilian Empire and the Republics of Argentina and Uruguay, as an integral part of a series of similar events that took place in Europe and North America starting in the second half of the nineteenth century. The interests of the countries involved, namely trade relations and immigration from Europe - both directly affected by the epidemics - are discussed, and the repercussions of these sanitary agreements on the other countries in the Americas are indicated. The American health conventions in the late nineteenth century represented the first initiatives in the Americas to solve international public health problems.

  18. New physics schools in Latin America

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    From left to right : Professor Luis Masperi, Director of CLAF, John Ellis, Egil Lillestøl, and Professor Roger Cashmore, Director for Collider Programmes. On Monday 29 January, Professor Luis Masperi, Director of CLAF (Centro LatinoAmericano de Fisica), visited CERN to join Professor Roger Cashmore, in signing an agreement concerning a new programme of CERN-CLAF Schools in Latin America. The inaugural school will take place in Itacuruca, Brazil, in May 2001, and has been supported by Spain, Portugal, France and Italy. The signing was attended by John Ellis (the Director General's Non-Member State Advisor), Egil Lillestøl (Director of the Physics Schools), and Claire Earnshaw (School Administrator).

  19. Energy demand and life quality in America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spitalnik, J.

    2004-01-01

    Being considered an intermediate growth among projections of technological development expressive or of development restricted by ecological considerations, in the next 50 years, the demand of primary energy in the countries of the American continent arrived to value sufficiently high to allow to consent at levels of quality of life but next to those enjoyed at the moment in developed countries. There will be an expansion substantial of electric power demand that rots to require the installation, in countries of Latin America and Caribbean, of power plants with total capacity of the order of 400 GW until half-filled of century. The resource to the nuclear source was accentuated starting from the decade of 2020 and an enormous challenge for the governments of the region it will be the one of driving the construction of about 2.300 MW/year nuclear power plants between 2020 and 2050. (Author)

  20. Plasma focusing in coaxial gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, H.M.; Masoud, M.M.; El-Khalafawy, T.

    1986-01-01

    A capacitor bank has been discharged between two coaxial electrodes of 6.6 cm outer diameter, 3.2 cm inner diameter and length of 31.5 cm. filled with hydrogen gas at pressure of 310 μHg. Results show that, the axial and radial plasma current reach a maximum value at a position adjacent to the gun muzzle, at which the plasma focus occurs. The measurement of the electron temperature and density and azimuthal electric field along the axis of the expansion chamber, gives a maximum value at z∼18 cm from the gun muzzle, while the axial plasma current and velocity has a minimum value at that position. These results indicate that a second point of a plasma focus has been formed at z∼18 cm from the gun muzzle, along the axis of the expansion chamber

  1. IAEA Nobel Prize money fights cancer crisis in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    established in 2004 to help developing nations combat the growing cancer crisis. Building on the IAEA's 30 years of expertise in promoting radiotherapy, PACT's goal is to help develop more cancer treatment facilities and provide the trained personnel who can operate them in the world's developing regions and ensure that they are integrated into comprehensive cancer control programmes. 'PACT is building partnerships with the WHO and other international cancer-control organisations so that the battle against cancer can be waged at country level,' says the Head of PACT, Massoud Samiei. 'This entails a broad multi-disciplinary approach that includes cancer prevention, early detection, diagnosis, treatment and palliation and, more importantly, education and training of professionals.' The IAEA's share of the 2005 Nobel Peace Prize award is also being devoted to training personnel from developing countries in the fight against cancer and malnutrition. Current estimates suggest that several billion US$ are needed if the cancer crisis in low and middle-income nations is to be contained effectively. Initial funding for PACT comes from the IAEA and several non-traditional donors. PACT seeks to raise donor awareness of the cancer problem to mobilize new resources and enable developing countries to introduce, expand or improve their cancer control planning and programming, to provide services in a sustainable manner. The meeting opens at 09.00 on Monday, 23 April, at Roffo Hospital. At 10.45, there will be a press conference/panel discussion with opening session speakers. These include: Juan Antonio Casas-Zamora, Director, Division for Latin America, Department of Technical Cooperation, IAEA; Massoud Samiei, Head, PACT Programme Office, Programme of Action for Cancer Therapy (PACT), IAEA; Jose Antonio Pages, PAHO/WHO Representative, Argentina; R. Sankaranarayanan, Head, Screening Group, International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC); Elmer Huerta, President-elect, American Cancer

  2. IAEA Nobel Prize money fights cancer crisis in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    established in 2004 to help developing nations combat the growing cancer crisis. Building on the IAEA's 30 years of expertise in promoting radiotherapy, PACT's goal is to help develop more cancer treatment facilities and provide the trained personnel who can operate them in the world's developing regions and ensure that they are integrated into comprehensive cancer control programmes. 'PACT is building partnerships with the WHO and other international cancer-control organisations so that the battle against cancer can be waged at country level,' says the Head of PACT, Massoud Samiei. 'This entails a broad multi-disciplinary approach that includes cancer prevention, early detection, diagnosis, treatment and palliation and, more importantly, education and training of professionals.' The IAEA's share of the 2005 Nobel Peace Prize award is also being devoted to training personnel from developing countries in the fight against cancer and malnutrition. Current estimates suggest that several billion US$ are needed if the cancer crisis in low and middle-income nations is to be contained effectively. Initial funding for PACT comes from the IAEA and several non-traditional donors. PACT seeks to raise donor awareness of the cancer problem to mobilize new resources and enable developing countries to introduce, expand or improve their cancer control planning and programming, to provide services in a sustainable manner. The meeting opens at 09.00 on Monday, 23 April, at Roffo Hospital. At 10.45, there will be a press conference/panel discussion with opening session speakers. These include: Juan Antonio Casas-Zamora, Director, Division for Latin America, Department of Technical Cooperation, IAEA; Massoud Samiei, Head, PACT Programme Office, Programme of Action for Cancer Therapy (PACT), IAEA; Jose Antonio Pages, PAHO/WHO Representative, Argentina; R. Sankaranarayanan, Head, Screening Group, International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC); Elmer Huerta, President-elect, American Cancer

  3. Human Conservation in Central America, Summary of a Conference (Guatemala, Central America).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conservation Foundation, Washington, DC.

    This booklet is a resume consisting chiefly of extracts from papers that were presented at a conference on Human Conservation in Central America, held in Guatemala in 1965, as well as from discussions that took place during the conferences. With cooperation of numerous organizations and guidance from the Conservation Foundation, a discussion of…

  4. Stakeholder Education for Community-Wide Health Initiatives: A Focus on Teen Pregnancy Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, Cara; Suellentrop, Katherine; Griesse, Rebecca; House, Lawrence Duane; Brittain, Anna

    2018-01-01

    Teen pregnancies and births continue to decline due in part to implementation of evidence-based interventions and clinical strategies. While local stakeholder education is also thought to be critical to this success, little is known about what types of strategies work best to engage stakeholders. With the goal of identifying and describing evidence-based or best practice strategies for stakeholder education in community-based public health initiatives, we conducted a systematic literature review of strategies used for effective stakeholder education. Over 400 articles were initially retrieved; 59 articles met inclusion criteria. Strategies were grouped into four steps that communities can use to support stakeholder education efforts: identify stakeholder needs and resources, develop a plan, develop tailored and compelling messaging, and use implementation strategies. These strategies lay a framework for high-quality stakeholder education. In future research, it is important to prioritize evaluating specific activities taken to raise awareness, educate, and engage a community in community-wide public health efforts.

  5. Acute pesticide poisoning and pesticide registration in Central America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wesseling, Catharina; Corriols, Marianela; Bravo, Viria

    2005-01-01

    The International Code of Conduct on the Distribution and Use of Pesticides of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations has been for 20 years the most acknowledged international initiative for reducing negative impact from pesticide use in developing countries. We analyzed pesticide use and poisoning in Central America, particularly in Costa Rica and Nicaragua, and evaluated whether registration decisions are based on such data, in accordance with the FAO Code. Extensive use of very hazardous pesticides continues in Central America and so do poisonings with organophosphates, carbamates, endosulfan and paraquat as the main causative agents. Central American governments do not carry out or commission scientific risk assessments. Instead, guidelines from international agencies are followed for risk management through the registration process. Documentation of pesticide poisonings during several decades never induced any decision to ban or restrict a pesticide. However, based on the official surveillance systems, in 2000, the ministers of health of the seven Central American countries agreed to ban or restrict twelve of these pesticides. Now, almost 4 years later, restrictions have been implemented in El Salvador and in Nicaragua public debate is ongoing. Chemical and agricultural industries do not withdraw problematic pesticides voluntarily. In conclusion, the registration processes in Central America do not comply satisfactorily with the FAO Code. However, international regulatory guidelines are important in developing countries, and international agencies should strongly extend its scope and influence, limiting industry involvement. Profound changes in international and national agricultural policies, steering towards sustainable agriculture based on non-chemical pest management, are the only way to reduce poisonings

  6. Syphilis testing practices in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Thuy T; Kamb, Mary L; Luu, Minh; Ham, D Cal; Perez, Freddy

    2017-09-01

    To present the findings of the Pan American Health Organization's 2014 survey on syphilis testing policies and practices in the Americas. Representatives of national/regional reference and large, lower-level laboratories from 35 member states were invited to participate. A semi-structured, electronically administered questionnaire collected data on syphilis tests, algorithms, equipment/commodities, challenges faced and basic quality assurance (QA) strategies employed (i.e. daily controls, standard operating procedures, technician training, participating in external QA programmes, on-site evaluations). The 69 participating laboratories from 30 (86%) member states included 41 (59%) national/regional reference and 28 (41%) lower-level laboratories. Common syphilis tests conducted were the rapid plasma reagin (RPR) (62% of surveyed laboratories), venereal disease research laboratory (VDRL) (54%), fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption (FTA-ABS) (41%) and Treponema pallidum haemagglutination assay (TPHA) (32%). Only three facilities reported using direct detection methods, and 28 (41% overall, 32% of lower-level facilities) used rapid tests. Most laboratories (62%) used only traditional testing algorithms (non-treponemal screening and treponemal confirmatory testing); however, 12% used only a reverse sequence algorithm (treponemal test first), and 14% employed both algorithms. Another nine (12%) laboratories conducted only one type of serologic test. Although most reference (97%) and lower-level (89%) laboratories used at least one QA strategy, only 16% reported using all five basic strategies. Commonly reported challenges were stock-outs of essential reagents or commodities (46%), limited staff training (73%) and insufficient equipment (39%). Many reference and clinical laboratories in the Americas face challenges in conducting appropriate syphilis testing and in ensuring quality of testing. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd The Pan-American Health Organization retains

  7. Violence against women in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlick Robinson, G

    2003-08-01

    Although North America is viewed as a place where women have equal rights and status, violence against women is still rampant. Forty to 51% of women experience some type of violence in their lifetime including child abuse, physical violence, rape and domestic violence. The perpetrator is most likely to be a current or former partner. Such violence stems from historical views of women as property and may flourish because of the public's reluctance to get involved in family matters. The concept of violence has been expanded to include non-traditional types such as sexual harassment, breeches of fiduciary trust and stalking. Treatment of victims of violence must include ensuring their safety, encouraging them to make healthy choices and helping them to understand they are not at fault. Education at all levels is required to change attitudes which perpetuate violence despite laws which forbid it.

  8. Fostering renewable electricity markets in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wingate, M.; Hamrin, J.; Kvale, L.; Alatorre, C.

    2007-04-01

    This paper provided an overview of key market demand and supply drivers for the renewable electricity in Canada, the United States and Mexico. The aim of the paper was to assist North American governments in supporting the development of renewable electricity by addressing barriers that currently contribute to higher costs as well as challenges related to policy implementation. The paper outlined regulatory mandates and discussed issues related to voluntary purchases, and financial incentives. Current policy frameworks for renewable electricity were also examined. Opportunities for developing the renewable electricity market North America were explored. Wind power environmental standards were reviewed. Various green pricing schemes were discussed. The paper also included recommendations for the current electricity market as well as for members of the North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation. 84 refs., 4 tabs., 7 figs

  9. The Role of the Private Sector in Reducing Corruption in Latin America

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project will study private sector efforts to promote better compliance with anticorruption laws in Latin America. Corruption, bribery, and the private sector In the last decade, global efforts to curb economic crimes in developing countries have focused increasingly on the private sector's role in helping to prevent bribery ...

  10. Perspectives on Strengthening Cancer Research and Control in Latin America Through Partnerships and Diplomacy: Experience of the National Cancer Institute’s Center for Global Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvina Frech

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available According to the Pan American Health Organization, noncommunicable diseases, including cancer, are the leading causes of preventable and premature death in the Americas. Governments and health care systems in Latin America face numerous challenges as a result of increasing morbidity and mortality from cancer. Multiple international organizations have recognized the need for collaborative action on and technical support for cancer research and control in Latin America. The Center for Global Health at the US National Cancer Institute (NCI-CGH is one entity among many that are working in the region and has sought to develop a strategy for working in Latin America that draws on and expands the collaborative potential of engaged, skilled, and diverse partners. NCI-CGH has worked toward developing and implementing initiatives in collaboration with global partners that share the common objectives of building a global cancer research community and translating research results into evidence-informed policy and practice. Both objectives are complementary and synergistic and are additionally supported by an overarching strategic framework that is focused on partnerships and science diplomacy. This work highlights the overall strategy for NCI-CGH engagement in Latin America through partnerships and diplomacy, and highlights selected collaborative efforts that are aimed at improving cancer outcomes in the region.

  11. Using Remote Sensing Products for Environmental Analysis in South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Brito Silva

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Land cover plays a major role in many biogeochemical models that represent processes and connections with terrestrial systems; hence, it is a key component for public decisions in ecosystems management. The advance of remote sensing technology, combined with the emergence of new operational products, offers alternatives to improve the accuracy of environmental monitoring and analysis. This work uses the GLOBCOVER, the Vegetation Continuous Field (VCF, MODIS Fire Radiative Power (FRP and the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM remotely sensed databases to analyze the biomass burning distribution, the land use and land cover characteristics and the percent of tree cover in South America during the years 2000 to 2005. Initially, GLOBCOVER was assessed based on VCF product, and subsequently used for quantitative analysis of the spatial distribution of the South America fires with the fire radiative power (FRP. The results show that GLOBCOVER has a tendency to overestimate forest classes and to underestimate urban and mangroves areas. The fire quantification based on GLOBCOVER product shows that the highest incidence of fires can be observed in the arc of deforestation, located in the Amazon forest border, with vegetation cover composed mainly of broadleaved evergreen or semi-deciduous forest. A time series analysis of FRP database indicates that biomass burning occurs mainly in areas of broadleaved evergreen or semi-deciduous forest and in Brazilian Cerrado associated with grassland management, agricultural land clearing and with the deforestation of Amazon tropical rainforest. Also, variations in FRP intensity and spread can be attributed to rainfall anomalies, such as in 2004, when South America had a positive anomaly rainfall.

  12. University involvement in sustainability initiatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, Martin; Christensen, Per; Thrane, Mikkel

    2007-01-01

    With an outset in the case of Aalborg University, the linkages (actual, potential and missing) between academic work in research & education and sustainability initiatives are explored. The focus is both on the university's core activities as a provider of research and education and on the univer......With an outset in the case of Aalborg University, the linkages (actual, potential and missing) between academic work in research & education and sustainability initiatives are explored. The focus is both on the university's core activities as a provider of research and education...... and on the university's activities as an organisation, i.e. its own operation and its accounting for this. Sustainability is defined as a continuous process requiring balance between (the emergence of) problems and our ability and capability to solve them. Some core questions that this paper seeks to answer are: "How...... is Sustainable Development understood at executive level at the university? How (if at all) is sustainable development integrated in the core activities of the university? How is the university attached to ‘real life outside the ivory tower', e.g. through the establishing of Public-Private-Academic Partnerships...

  13. Focusing elementary students with active classrooms: exploring teachers’ perceptions of self-initiated practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine A. Foran

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to explore the perceptions of elementary teachers who routinely prioritized physical activity in their classrooms. Researchers are reporting improved student academic test results following physical activity sessions, however, classroom teachers are challenged in balancing curricular and other expectations. Hence, teachers who voluntarily implement physical activity have views that are unique and important for promoting the practice to others. We interviewed seven teachers from grades 1-6, using the qualitative constructivist approach to grounded theory qualitative research. Teachers valued physical activity because it enhanced their students’ focus on classroom activities. Common attributes amongst the teachers were active lifestyles, previous employment experiencesusing physical activity, and a pedagogical approach prioritizing physical activity throughout the day. Additionally, the teachers perceived that belonging to schools with a culture of movement was important. Teachers view physical activity as a teaching asset when they perceive a positive impact on their students’ ability to focus. Specific teacher attributes and a school environment that embraces physical activity may predispose teachers to these views, and represent areas that should be further explored. Pre-service courses could be one way to provide teachers with experience and a repertoire of easy physical activities.

  14. Introduction: seismology and earthquake engineering in Central and South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, A.F.

    1983-01-01

    Reports the state-of-the-art in seismology and earthquake engineering that is being advanced in Central and South America. Provides basic information on seismological station locations in Latin America and some of the programmes in strong-motion seismology, as well as some of the organizations involved in these activities.-from Author

  15. Water reuse in South America: A Chilean study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piero, M.D.

    1998-07-01

    The driest desert in the western hemisphere is the source of the largest and most lucrative copper mining and processing business in South America. The newest, most explosive capitalist economy in South America is fueled by an industry whose ancient water supply is on the verge of collapse. Farther south, a textbook example of 1950's industrial pollution continues to be dumped in the Bio Bio River, the water supply of the country's third largest city. In the temperate Central Valley, public health advisories regularly warn consumers against consuming vegetables irrigated with river water containing raw sewage. In the warm summer months, hepatitis and cholera epidemics are frequent and deadly. In the last 5 years, these areas have initiated major sewage treatment plant and system improvements with significant reuse components. The technologies and reuse applications of reclaimed water that are now being used in Chile are being monitored and evaluated by Peru, Argentina, and Brazil. Major efforts at environmental cleanups are now being combined with new strategies to sue reclaimed water to meet the needs of South American in the 21st century.

  16. Alien conifer invasions in South America: short fuse burning?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Richardson, DM

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available conifers has a much shorter history in South America, and invasions are a recent phenomenon. A workshop was convened in Argentina in May 2007 to discuss the rapid emergence of problems with invasive conifers in South America. Workshop delegates agreed that...

  17. Focusing on the Whole Student: An Evaluation of Massachusetts's Wraparound Zone Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Allison Gruner; Slama, Rachel; Park, So Jung; Russo, Patrick; Winner, Kendra; Bzura, Robin; Jones, Wehmah; Williamson, Sandra

    2018-01-01

    We used a comparative interrupted time series design to examine the impact of the Massachusetts' Wraparound Zone Initiative on student achievement, attendance, retention, and suspension. This initiative was designed to create coordinated district systems that allow schools to proactively and systematically address students' nonacademic needs. The…

  18. Ion Motion in the Adiabatic Focuser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henestroza, E.; Sessler, A.M.; Yu, S.S.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we numerically study the effect of ion motion in an adiabatic focuser, motivated by a recent suggestion that ion motion in an adiabatic focuser might be significant and even preclude operation of the focuser as previously envisioned. It is shown that despite ion motion the adiabatic focuser should work as well as originally envisioned

  19. America in Perspective: Yesterday's Questions and Today's Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danzer, Gerald A.

    In 1780, a prize was established in France for the best answer to the question; "Was the discovery of America a blessing or a curse to mankind?" This question and its only response from an individual living in America, constitute the basis of a high school history class unit. The background of the question and the content are developed,…

  20. Scaling open data for development in Latin America | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Scaling open data for development in Latin America. Latin America is the most unequal region in the world and faces complex development challenges. Among these is the unprecedented number of corruption scandals in the region, which demonstrates the need to develop new approaches to foster accountability, ...

  1. The Problems of Integration and Security in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Tereza Gutierres del Sid

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problems of Latin America, associated with the geopolitical changes after the collapse of the bipolar system and change the balance of power in favor of the United States. G-20, which involved three countries in the region, did not led to radical changes in the reform of global governance. The development of integration processes and regional coordination has undergone a major transformation. Regional coordination in matters of the defense and security within the Union of South American Nations (UNASUR is expanding, it focuses on the revision of defense projects. Variety regionalization processes (MERCOSUR, ALBA, ACH, SELAC, new trade unions (Alliance Pacific, Trans-Pacific Partnership, the idea of a transatlantic partnership, the change in the US strategy in the region lead to the fragmentation of Latin America. Countries in the region are faced with the choice of an effective strategy of development in terms of new centers of power (China, Russia, primarily in the Asia Pacific

  2. Perception of Ethical Misconduct by Neuropsychology Professionals in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panyavin, Ivan S; Goldberg-Looney, Lisa D; Rivera, Diego; Perrin, Paul B; Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos

    2015-08-01

    To date, extremely limited research has focused on the ethical aspects of clinical neuropsychology practice in Latin America. The current study aimed to identify the frequency of perceived ethical misconduct in a sample of 465 self-identified neuropsychology professionals from Latin America in order to better guide policies for training and begin to establish standards for practitioners in the region. Frequencies of neuropsychologists who knew another professional engaging in ethical misconduct ranged from 1.1% to 60.4% in the areas of research, clinical care, training, and professional relationships. The most frequently reported perceived misconduct was in the domain of professional training and expertise, with nearly two thirds of participants knowing other professionals who do not possess adequate training to be working as neuropsychologists. The least frequently reported perceived misconduct was in the domain of professional relationships. Nearly one third of participants indicated that they had never received formal training in professional ethics. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. International Financial Reporting Standards and Earnings Management in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Augusto Timm Rathke

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the level of earnings management in Latin America after the adoption of the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS and analyzes the role of cross-listing in the United States. The literature on earnings management in less developed countries is still under construction, and few studies focus on this issue, especially with respect to Latin America, despite its relevant role in the global economy. This paper fills this gap in the literature as it analyzes the level of IFRS earnings management regarding the first and main Latin American countries applying IFRS (Brazil and Chile, when compared to the main Anglo-Saxon countries with IFRS tradition (United Kingdom and Australia, and with the main Continental European economies (France and Germany. The results show that Latin American firms present a higher level of earnings management than Continental European and Anglo-Saxon firms, and this opportunistic behavior remains significant when only global players with cross-listing in the United States are analyzed. Thus, even with a unique set of high quality accounting standards (IFRS and strong reporting incentives, countries’ specific characteristics still play an important role in the way IFRS is implemented in each country.

  4. Brazilian human resources in a polarized Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elza Fátima Rosa Veloso

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an overview of human resource strategies employed by Brazilian companies in a polarized region of Latin America. Firstly, we highlighted the concerns of Brazilian managers in respect to the coming years, and to identify the current strategic approach of prominent companies in the Brazilian market. Secondly, we identified possible strategies for internationalization, particularly in the context of Latin America. The results of two surveys were used: one prospecting management trends by 2015 and another consisting of a sample of 541 companies that participate in a national survey in which HR managers answered a questionnaire. Among the results, it is noteworthy that the main issues of concern for Brazilian managers in the coming years. We found most the companies concerned with these challenges in the industries of information technology, iron and steel, and health services. Forty-nine of a total of 541 companies intend to internationalize, 17 of them towards Latin American. Their profile characterization allowed us to divide them into two groups: those focusing on the local needs of Latin American, and those looking to meet the expanding needs of Brazil or the country of their parent company.

  5. Funding Initiatives | Women in Science | Initiatives | Indian Academy ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Initiatives; Women in Science; Funding Initiatives ... The Fellowship Scheme for Women Scientists for societal programmes is initiative of the ... at a young age of 52, after a valiant battle with cancer, today on 29th March 2016 in Delhi.

  6. The politics of avoidable blindness in Latin America--surgery, solidarity, and solutions: the case of Misión Milagro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrison, Tanya L; Armada, Francisco; Rai, Nanky; Muntaner, Caries

    2012-01-01

    Avoidable blindness, especially when caused by cataracts, is a disease primarily of the economically disadvantaged sectors of the population. With a focus on Latin America and the Caribbean, this paper focuses on the program Misión Milagro within its historical, political, and economic contexts. This initiative, led by the governments of Cuba and Venezuela, covers close to 35 countries across Latin America, the Caribbean, Asia, and Africa. It is well-known throughout Latin America as close to 2 million patients have undergone free screening, corrective surgery, and rehabilitation since its inception in 2004. Misión Milagro shows that implementation of a massive initiative to curb avoidable blindness caused by cataracts in a relatively short time is feasible. The program is also built upon a unique model of international cooperation, which stresses social objectives and solidarity rather than hegemonic international initiatives built on commercial relationships. It also provides elements that could be applied to other public health issues of global or national relevance, not only to other low-middle-income countries, but also to high-income countries such as Canada.

  7. Industrial Hemp in North America: Production, Politics and Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome H. Cherney

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Most of the Western World banned the cultivation of Cannabis sativa in the early 20th century because biotypes high in ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, the principal intoxicant cannabinoid are the source of marijuana. Nevertheless, since 1990, dozens of countries have authorized the licensed growth and processing of “industrial hemp” (cultivars with quite low levels of THC. Canada has concentrated on hemp oilseed production, and very recently, Europe changed its emphasis from fiber to oilseed. The USA, historically a major hemp producer, appears on the verge of reintroducing industrial hemp production. This presentation provides updates on various agricultural, scientific, social, and political considerations that impact the commercial hemp industry in the United States and Canada. The most promising scenario for the hemp industry in North America is a continuing focus on oilseed production, as well as cannabidiol (CBD, the principal non-intoxicant cannabinoid considered by many to have substantial medical potential, and currently in great demand as a pharmaceutical. Future success of the industrial hemp industry in North America is heavily dependent on the breeding of more productive oilseed cultivars, the continued development of consumer goods, reasonable but not overly restrictive regulations, and discouragement of overproduction associated with unrealistic enthusiasm. Changing attitudes have generated an unprecedented demand for the cannabis plant and its products, resulting in urgent needs for new legislative, regulatory, and business frameworks, as well as scientific, technological, and agricultural research.

  8. Rural Agroindustry in Latin America : An Evaluation of the PRODAR ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Rural Agroindustry in Latin America : An Evaluation of the PRODAR Network. Couverture du livre Rural Agroindustry in Latin America : An Evaluation of the PRODAR Network. Auteur(s) : Ed Weber (CRDI), Bernard Bridier (CIRAD) et Raul Fiorentino (IFAD). Maison(s) d'édition : CRDI. 1 janvier 1997. ISBN : Épuisé.

  9. Land & Development in Latin America: Issues and Openings for ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Land & Development in Latin America: Issues and Openings for Policy Research. Book cover Land & Development in Latin America: Issues and Openings for Policy Research. Auteur(s) : Stephen Baranyi, Carmen Diana Deere, and Manuel Morales. Maison(s) d'édition : North-South Institute, IDRC. 1 janvier 2004. ISBN :.

  10. Aquatic risk assessment of pesticides in Latin America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carriquiriborde, P.; Mirabella, P.; Waichman, A.; Solomon, K.; Brink, van den P.J.; Maund, S.J.

    2014-01-01

    Latin America is anticipated to be a major growth market for agriculture and production is increasing with use of technologies such as pesticides. Reports of contamination of aquatic ecosystems by pesticides in Latin America have raised concerns about potential for adverse ecological effects. In the

  11. Rotavirus vaccines and vaccination in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linhares Alexandre C.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, rotaviruses account for more than 125 million cases of infantile gastroenteritis and nearly 1 million deaths per year, mainly in developing countries. Rather than other control measures, vaccination is most likely to have a major impact on rotavirus disease incidence. The peak incidence of rotavirus diarrhea occurs between 6 and 24 months of age. In developing countries, however, cases are not uncommon among children younger than 6 months. G serotypes 1 to 4 are responsible for most disease, but there are indications that in Brazil that G type 5 is of emerging epidemiological importance. Both homotypic and heterotypic responses are elicited during natural rotavirus infection, and the immunological response at the intestinal mucosal surface is probably the more consistent predictor of clinical immunity. With the primary objective of protecting children against life-threatening dehydrating diarrhea, many approaches to rotavirus vaccine development have been attempted. One vaccine, the tetravalent rhesus-human reassortant rotavirus vaccine (RRV-TV, was given licensing approval in the United States of America, introduced to the market, and later withdrawn. A number of studies have found better efficacy of RRV-TV in developed countries than in developing ones. Field trials with a 4 X 10(4 plaque-forming units (PFU preparation of RRV-TV have been carried out in two countries in Latin America, Brazil and Peru. Those trials yielded protective efficacy rates against all rotavirus diarrhea ranging from 18% to 35%. Data from a large catchment trial in Venezuela with a higher RRV-TV dose, of 4 X 10(5 PFU/dose, indicated an efficacy rate of 48% against all rotavirus diarrhea and 88% against severe rotavirus diarrhea. It appears that breast-feeding does not compromise the efficacy of RRV-TV if three doses of the vaccine are administered. Similarly, possible interference of oral poliovirus vaccine with the "take" of the rotavirus vaccine can be

  12. Rotavirus vaccines and vaccination in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre C. Linhares

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, rotaviruses account for more than 125 million cases of infantile gastroenteritis and nearly 1 million deaths per year, mainly in developing countries. Rather than other control measures, vaccination is most likely to have a major impact on rotavirus disease incidence. The peak incidence of rotavirus diarrhea occurs between 6 and 24 months of age. In developing countries, however, cases are not uncommon among children younger than 6 months. G serotypes 1 to 4 are responsible for most disease, but there are indications that in Brazil that G type 5 is of emerging epidemiological importance. Both homotypic and heterotypic responses are elicited during natural rotavirus infection, and the immunological response at the intestinal mucosal surface is probably the more consistent predictor of clinical immunity. With the primary objective of protecting children against life-threatening dehydrating diarrhea, many approaches to rotavirus vaccine development have been attempted. One vaccine, the tetravalent rhesus-human reassortant rotavirus vaccine (RRV-TV, was given licensing approval in the United States of America, introduced to the market, and later withdrawn. A number of studies have found better efficacy of RRV-TV in developed countries than in developing ones. Field trials with a 4 X 10(4 plaque-forming units (PFU preparation of RRV-TV have been carried out in two countries in Latin America, Brazil and Peru. Those trials yielded protective efficacy rates against all rotavirus diarrhea ranging from 18% to 35%. Data from a large catchment trial in Venezuela with a higher RRV-TV dose, of 4 X 10(5 PFU/dose, indicated an efficacy rate of 48% against all rotavirus diarrhea and 88% against severe rotavirus diarrhea. It appears that breast-feeding does not compromise the efficacy of RRV-TV if three doses of the vaccine are administered. Similarly, possible interference of oral poliovirus vaccine with the "take" of the rotavirus vaccine can be

  13. Energy sector developments in Central America and the Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, J.

    1997-01-01

    Energy sector developments in Central America and the Caribbean were discussed. Central America is composed of six small countries whose total population is 32 million. The Caribbean population is 20.5 million. Central America is generally poor in hydrocarbon reserves but the geological prospects in several of the countries are encouraging. The oil and petroleum products supply and demand picture, the main characteristics of the hydrocarbon market, structure of the oil industry, hydrocarbon market reforms, pricing issues and recent trend towards reforms in the electric power industry in Central America were discussed. An overview of the Inter-American Development Bank's (IDB) effort to provide technical assistance and loans to strengthen the energy sector development in Central America and the Caribbean was also given. 17 refs., 2 tabs., 23 figs

  14. Snow cover and temperature relationships in North America and Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, J.; Owe, M.; Rango, A.

    1983-01-01

    In this study the snow cover extent during the autumn months in both North America and Eurasia has been related to the ensuing winter temperature as measured at several locations near the center of each continent. The relationship between autumn snow cover and the ensuing winter temperatures was found to be much better for Eurasia than for North America. For Eurasia the average snow cover extent during the autumn explained as much as 52 percent of the variance in the winter (December-February) temperatures compared to only 12 percent for North America. However, when the average winter snow cover was correlated with the average winter temperature it was found that the relationship was better for North America than for Eurasia. As much as 46 percent of the variance in the winter temperature was explained by the winter snow cover in North America compared to only 12 percent in Eurasia.

  15. Industrial Wage Inequality in Latin America in Global Perspective, 1900-2000

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frankema, E.H.P.

    2012-01-01

    Standard economic theories of wage inequality focus on the factor-biased nature of technological change and globalization. This paper examines the long-run development of industrial wage inequality in Latin America from a global comparative perspective. We find that wage inequality was comparatively

  16. Working towards residential Radon survey in South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zielinski, Jan M.; University of Ottawa, ON; Canoba, Analia C.; Shilnikova, Natalia S.; Veiga, Lene H. S.

    2008-01-01

    Information about residential radon levels in low and middle income countries is very sparse. In response to the World Health Organization initiative in the International Radon Project, we propose a research project that will address this knowledge gap in South America by conducting a residential radon survey. Following initial in vitro and in vivo studies of radon and studies of uranium miners exposed to radon, over twenty large case-control studies of lung cancer risk from exposure to residential radon have been completed worldwide by year 2004. Recently pooled data from these individual studies have been analyzed. These collaborative analyses of the indoor studies in Europe, North America, and China provide strong direct evidence that radon is causing a substantial number of lung cancers in the general population. To reduce radon lung cancer risk, national authorities must have methods and tools based on solid scientific evidence to develop sound public health policies. We propose to conduct a survey in ten South American countries using the distribution and analysis of passive alpha tracking detectors in houses selected at random in pre-selected cities in each participating country. We also present an approach to estimate the cost of carrying out such a survey and the radon laboratory infrastructure needed. The results of the proposed survey will allow to conduct assessment of the exposure to residential radon in the populations of South American countries and to assess the health impact of this exposure. The results of the project will also help national health authorities in developing national residential radon action levels and regulations, as well as provide public health guidance for radon awareness and mitigation. (author)

  17. NATIVE LANGUAGE INFLUENCE IN LEARNERS'. ASSESSMENT OF ENGLISH FOCUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Garcia Lecumberri

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Accentual focus is a frequent linguistic device in English which may also be used in Spanish but less widely and less frequently. Given this disparity, it was expected that native language influence would manifest itself in FL leamers' focus assessrnents as cornpared to native English speakers. Other factors were also expected to account of listener perceptions, such as task type and linguistic competence. Two focus domains were used to test hypotheses: utterance initial and utterance medial focus. Focus identification was tested using two tasks which differed in their cognitive demands: multiple choice and open questions. Acceptability was estirnated by asking listeners to rate utterances on a five point scale. English NL listeners displayed better focus identification rates as cornpared to FL learners. This result may be understood both as an effect of native competence advantage and also as a reflection of native language influence. Both listener groups found utterance initial focus easier to identi@ and considered it to be more acceptable than medial focus. Both groups showed worse results in the open test, which is interpreted as a consequence of this task being more demanding on listeners' explicit knowledge. These trends were much more pronounced amongst FL leamers. It is suggested that the potential ambiguity of English medial focus is partly responsible for the bias against it. Additionally, Spanish listeners results show the their NL influence in this bias as well as in the good results for initial focus and acceptability estirnations.

  18. Natural gas integration in Latin America: end of a dream?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moutinho dos Santos, E.; Oxilia Davalos, V.E.; Tadeu Werneck Faga, M.

    2007-01-01

    Throughout the 1990's to year 2000, energy integration, and particularly natural gas integration, was seen as a major goal in the southern cone of South America. The regional perspective for energy was related to an even more challenging objective - Latin American economic integration, which was quickly moving forward by the constitution of Mercosur, the free trade zone built by Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay and Paraguay, and also having Bolivia and Chile as special partners. Mercosur was getting stronger and becoming a successful political project. Trade conflicts existed, but they were considered normal and nobody would disagree about the viability of Mercosur. By the beginning of the 21. century, the economic integration process in South America was already advancing timidly as compared to the impetus from the beginning of 1990's. Mercosur started facing complex and almost insurmountable challenges after the numerous global financial crises (from 1998 to 2003) had affected the economic balances in the region. Energy and gas integration in South America has equally lost perspective as fast as the importance of economic integration has declined. The economic crises in the region and poor energy policies have discourage energy companies to invest. The paper presents this recent history of rise and fall in the concept of economic and energy integration in the southern cone of South America. Despite the abundance of energy resources, and particularly the plethora of recently discovered natural gas, the region has been experiencing systematic and important energy shortages, which may threaten its economic recovery. A stronger energy integration policy would help all the partner countries to reduce energy supply risks. Yet, energy (and gas) integration in the southern cone is still a complex long-term political project, which must involve all countries, but whose future perspective is unclear. It seems almost impossible to keep pushing forward this project without

  19. Natural gas integration in latin america: forward or backwards?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moutinho Dos Santos, E.; Oxilia Davalos, V.E.; Tadeu Werneck Faga, M.

    2006-01-01

    Throughout the 1990's to Year 2000, energy integration, and particularly natural gas integration, was seen as a major goal in the Southern Cone of South America, The regional perspective for energy was related to an even more challenging objective - Latin American economic integration, which was quickly moving forward by the constitution of MERCOSUR, the free trade zone built by Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay and Paraguay, and also having Bolivia and Chile as special partners. MERCOSUR was getting stronger and becoming a successful political project. Trade conflicts existed, but they were considered normal and nobody would disagree about the viability of MERCOSUR. By the beginning of the 21. Century, the economic integration process in South America was already advancing timidly as compared to the impetus from the beginning of 1990's. MERCOSUR started facing complex and almost insurmountable challenges after the numerous global financial crises (from 1998 to 2003) which had affected the economic balances in the region. Energy and gas integration in South America has equally lost perspective as fast as the importance of economic integration has declined. The economic crises in the region and poor energy policies have discouraged energy companies to invest. The paper presents this recent history of rising and falling in the concept of economic and energy integration in the Southern Cone of South America. Despite the abundance of energy resources, and particularly the plethora of recently discovered natural gas, the region has been experiencing systematic and important energy shortages, which may threaten its economic recovery. A stronger energy integration policy would help all the partner countries to reduce energy supply risks. Yet, energy (and gas) integration in the Southern Cone is still a complex long-term political project, which must involve all countries, but whose future perspective is unclear. It seems almost impossible to keep pushing forward this project

  20. Current Status of Engineering Education in America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Ronald E.

    Many faculty believe that engineering education in America is at a crossroads and much change is needed. International competition in engineering and the global economy have major potential impact on the engineering workforce of the future. We must find ways to educate U.S. engineers to be competitive and creative contributors in the worldwide arena. Recent national reports are sounding the alarm that the U.S. is losing it leadership in technology and innovation, with consequences for economic prosperity and national security. The report Rising Above the Gathering Storm discusses this dilemma in detail and offers four recommendations to U.S. policymakers. The report Educating the Engineer of 2020 discusses new ways to prepare American engineers for the 21st Century. Furthermore, changes in ABET accreditation, along with new paradigms of teaching and new technology in the classroom, are changing the scholarship of engineering education. We must find ways to promote change in engineering faculty for this new opportunity in engineering educational scholarship. Future engineering students are now in K-12, which is becoming an increasingly diverse population that in the past has not been fully represented in engineering education. Current trends show disaffection for pursuing studies in science and engineering in the youth of our U.S. society. We must find new ways to portray engineering as an exciting and rewarding career, and certainly as an educational platform for professional careers beyond the baccalaureate degree.

  1. Next generation of individual account pension reforms in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritzer, Barbara E; Kay, Stephen J; Sinha, Tapen

    2011-01-01

    Latin America led the world in introducing individual retirement accounts intended to complement or replace defined benefit state-sponsored, pay-as-you-go systems. After Chile implemented the first system in 1981, a number of other Latin American countries incorporated privately managed individual accounts as part of their retirement income systems beginning in the 1990s. This article examines the subsequent "reform of the reform" of these pension systems, with a focus on the recent overhaul of the Chilean system and major reforms in Mexico, Peru, and Colombia. The authors analyze key elements of pension reform in the region relating to individual accounts: system coverage, fees, competition, investment, the impact of gender on benefits, financial education, voluntary savings, and payouts.

  2. Social Rehabilitation of Minors in the United States of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Barczykowska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The United States of America was one of the first countries in the world, which at the turn of the nineteenth and twentieth century took to building the justice and social rehabilitation system for minors. To date, many reforms have been made, initiated by a variety of circumstances, with their participation. Currently, due to the increase in juvenile criminality, the high costs and low efficiency, questions are posed about the future of the American social rehabilitation system. Next to the typical social rehabilitation trends, ideas of strict punishment of juveniles, on an equal footing with adults, are being implemented. In light of the above, this article is to show the historical and institutional conditions of actions undertaken towards minors, and an attempt to answer the question of what direction the American juvenile social rehabilitation system is heading.

  3. Design and Fabrication of Solar Updraft Tower and Estimation of Power Generation; Initially Focused on Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayub, F.; Akhand, S.; Khan, A. S.; Saklayen, G.

    2018-05-01

    In our studies we focused on area of sourcing, converting and delivering sustainable energy, concentrating at the potential role of solar power. Power generation through a solar updraft tower (SUT) has been a promising approach for sustainable generation of renewable energy. Developing nations are faced with many challenges. Conventional sources are insufficient to meet the increasing demand of a developing, industrious nation (e.g. Bangladesh). Our project aims in reducing electricity crisis and forming a solution for our country, Bangladesh. The electricity generated can be supplied to the national grid. This will mean reduced cost for the government in the long run and also allow the government to reduce its dependency on costly and unsustainable fossil fuel. This cost reduction benefit can be passed on to the public as reduced energy cost or preferably through nationwide energy infrastructure development. This technology will not only help with the energy concern of Bangladesh but also will help to improve the situations of other developing countries alike Bangladesh. All in all implementing this technology will pave the way towards a better world and form a part of an integrated ecosystem of sustainable energy technology.

  4. The buffalo in Southern South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zava

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The number of buffaloes in the American continent is growing at the explosive rate of 12.7 % a year, well above all other continents. Within this context the different situations of the southern part of South America are described, those countries that two hundred years ago were part of the River Plate Viceroyship and the Chile General Command, both of them part of the Spanish empire. The first steps of buffaloes in Paraguay, Bolivia and Uruguay. The expansion of buffaloes in Argentina and their recent start up in Chile. The production systems in the region are described, principally Argentina and Paraguay. The major changes and expansion of agriculture in Argentina are displacing cattle production from the North towards the Tropics, where buffalo has proven to be very superior in productivity compared to cattle production thanks to its very good adaptation to the local conditions. In Paraguay, a totally subtropical country, something very similar is happening. Paraguay has consolidated its sales of buffalo hides and beef. Argentina is well on its way to having a very efficient buffalo beef marketing competing with cattle of the highest quality. Buffalo milk production is still not mature in these countries, although there are several projects underway in Uruguay, Bolivia and Argentina.

  5. Biomedical engineering undergraduate education in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allende, R; Morales, D; Avendano, G; Chabert, S

    2007-01-01

    As in other parts of the World, in recent times there has been an increasing interest on Biomedical Engineering (BME) in Latin America (LA). This interest grows from the need for a larger number of such specialists, originated in a spreading use of health technologies. Indeed, at many universities, biomedical engineering departments have been created, which also brought along discussions on strategies to achieve the best education possible for both undergraduate and graduate programs. In these settings, different positions were taken as regards which subject to emphasize. In such a context, this work aimed to make a survey on the 'state-of-the-art' of undergraduate BME education in LA, and to analyze the observed differences. Broadly speaking, similar education profiles are perceived in the entire continent, with main emphasis on electronics and bioinstrumentation, biology and informatics respectively. Much less relevance is given to biomechanics and biomaterials. This tendency is similar in Departments with many decades of experience or in newly opened ones

  6. Remote Sensing of Aerosol Backscatter and Earth Surface Targets By Use of An Airborne Focused Continuous Wave CO2 Doppler Lidar Over Western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarzembski, Maurice A.; Srivastava, Vandana; Goodman, H. Michael (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Airborne lidar systems are used to determine wind velocity and to measure aerosol or cloud backscatter variability. Atmospheric aerosols, being affected by local and regional sources, show tremendous variability. Continuous wave (cw) lidar can obtain detailed aerosol loading with unprecedented high resolution (3 sec) and sensitivity (1 mg/cubic meter) as was done during the 1995 NASA Multi-center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor (MACAWS) mission over western North America and the Pacific Ocean. Backscatter variability was measured at a 9.1 micron wavelength cw focused CO2 Doppler lidar for approximately 52 flight hours, covering an equivalent horizontal distance of approximately 30,000 km in the troposphere. Some quasi-vertical backscatter profiles were also obtained during various ascents and descents at altitudes that ranged from approximately 0.1 to 12 km. Similarities and differences for aerosol loading over land and ocean were observed. Mid-tropospheric aerosol backscatter background mode was approximately 6 x 10(exp -11)/ms/r, consistent with previous lidar datasets. While these atmospheric measurements were made, the lidar also retrieved a distinct backscatter signal from the Earth's surface from the unfocused part of the focused cw lidar beam during aircraft rolls. Atmospheric backscatter can be highly variable both spatially and temporally, whereas, Earth-surface backscatter is relatively much less variant and can be quite predictable. Therefore, routine atmospheric backscatter measurements by an airborne lidar also give Earth surface backscatter which can allow for investigating the Earth terrain. In the case where the Earth's surface backscatter is coming from a well-known and fairly uniform region, then it can potentially offer lidar calibration opportunities during flight. These Earth surface measurements over varying Californian terrain during the mission were compared with laboratory backscatter measurements using the same lidar of various

  7. A survey of transmission tariffs in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lusztig, C.; Feldberg, P.; Orans, R.; Olson, A.

    2006-01-01

    One goal of electricity restructuring is to facilitate voluntary transactions in workably competitive wholesale electricity markets. Unfettered wholesale trading, however, can only take place under open and comparable access to transmission by all market participants at non-discriminatory tariffs. Since a rich body of literature exists for topics like nodal pricing, transmission rights, ancillary services, and optimal dispatch, this paper's focus is to survey the transmission tariffs actually used in North America to achieve open and comparable transmission access. In doing so, it provides a practical guide to developing a transmission tariff, illustrated by the survey's role in shaping the tariff filed by a company like the British Columbia Transmission Company (BCTC) with its regulator, the British Columbia Utilities Commission (BCUC). (author)

  8. Where and how breastfeeding promotion initiatives should focus its attention? A study from rural Wardha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongre A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In India, the practice of breastfeeding is almost universal, but initiation of breastfeeding is generally quite late and colostrum is discarded. Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illness (IMNCI strategy recommended systematic assessment of breastfeeding and emphasized counseling of the mother on proper positioning and attachment of infant to the breast. Objective: To assess breastfeeding among mothers of below six months children in rural Wardha. Materials and Methods: The present cross-sectional study was undertaken in surrounding 23 villages of Kasturba Rural Health Training Center (KRHTC, Anji. Two Auxiliary Nurse Midwives (ANMs trained in IMNCI paid house visits to 99 mothers during the study period and undertook the assessment of breastfeeding using IMNCI assessment form for young infants. Auxiliary Nurse Midwives observed and recorded the positioning and attachment of infant to the breast as per IMNCI guidelines. The data were entered and analyzed using Epi_Info (version 6.04d software package. Results: Most of the deliveries 94 (94.9% took place in the healthcare facilities. Majority 61 (61.6% newborn babies had received breastfeeding within half an hour. About half of the mothers had any of the feeding problems like feeding less than eight times in 24 h, giving any other food or drinks or is low weight for age. Significantly more mothers with feeding problems had problems in positioning and attachment of infant to the breast as compared with those mothers who did not have any feeding problems. Conclusions: In the settings, where practice of institutional delivery is high, the staff of healthcare facility should ensure education of the mothers regarding position and attachment of infant to the breast before discharge from the healthcare facility. At the village level, Village Health Nutrition Day (VHND can be utilized for health education of future mothers and support for the breastfeeding mothers. The IMNCI

  9. Poverty and inequality in Latin America: From growth to conditional transfers of income

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ignacio Antón Pérez

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the scale, interpretation and policies of the fight against inequality and poverty in Latin America. To this end, the article presents, firstly, the continent’s situation with respect to inequality and poverty, as well as its evolution over the past decades. Secondly, the authors examine the changing interpretation that has been made – through the economy and economic policy – of the importance of inequality and poverty in development processes. The article then offers a review of this debate, providing information on the link between economic growth and poverty in Latin America, given the fact that independently of this link, many policies exist aimed at combating poverty, whether to reduce its intensity or its effects. Finally, and prior to the conclusions, the authors present an overview of this kind of policies in Latin America, focusing particularly on the ones that have proven most effective.

  10. Constructing America from the Sea: Maritime Archaeology Research, International Cooperation and Best Practices in the Underwater Cultural Heritage of Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey da Silva, Arturo; Herrera Tovar, Jorge M.

    2017-12-01

    This article introduces this special issue of the Journal of Maritime Archaeology by giving a brief introduction to the current situation of the practice of maritime archaeology in Latin America, as well as reviewing the main challenges that the discipline faces here. An assessment of existing regional cooperation, the presence of maritime archaeology within the international community and its importance to develop new theoretical and methodological perspectives that advance access to knowledge is made. Finally, the article focuses on some of the current work carried out in Latin America.

  11. News Media Consumption and Political Behavior in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Salzman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available News media are an important factor in any democratic society. Research focused on developed democracies has paved the way for analysis in the context of less well-developed democracies. The project endeavors to continue that investigation into whether and how news media consumption affects democratic behavior among individuals in a region comprised of developing democracies: Latin America. Employing rich survey data available from the 2008 Latin American Public Opinion Project, traditional analyses are used to test one of the most basic questions for political communication researchers: Does news media consumption motivate or depress political participation? The results indicate that, on average, news media mobilize political participation, albeit to different degrees per medium and participation type. This seems to happen because those media socialize Latin Americans to value political participation.

  12. Forest pests in central America: Field guide. Technical manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    In Central America, plant health problems have grown to an unprecedented level during the past few years along with the establishment of extensive homogeneous forest plantations, at times leading to the such drastic solutions as widespread felling of trees or massive use of pesticides. This field guide on forest pests was commissioned by the Multipurpose Tree Crop Dissemination (MADELENA) project and focuses on pests found in Costa Rica, home of PIROF (Programa Interinstitucional de Proteccion Forestal), a pioneer in forest pest research. The guide offers fast identification of forest pests and some general information on their biology and epidemiology. It consists of two sections: (1) lists of the specific pests (insects, vertebrates, pathogens, and parasites) of 18 priority forest tree species, and lists of the specific tree part or developmental stage they afflict.

  13. Mao's steps in Monroe's backyard: towards a United States-China hegemonic struggle in Latin America?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose León-Manríquez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Contrary to what could be expected given the United States' historical hegemony of Latin America, growing Chinese influence in this region has not led to a dispute between China and the US. Despite activism of hard-line groups in the United States, both parties have faced the issue with noticeable pragmatism. This attitude could be explained by three variables: the US political negligence towards Latin America in the Post-Cold War, the focus of Sino-Latin American relations on economic rather than geopolitical or ideological affairs, and the scanty relevance of the region in the top priorities of overall Washington-Beijing relations.

  14. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus in South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno M. Teixeira

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The rapid emergence of AIDS in humans during the period between 1980 and 2000 has led to extensive efforts to understand more fully similar etiologic agents of chronic and progressive acquired immunodeficiency disease in several mammalian species. Lentiviruses that have gene sequence homology with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV have been found in different species (including sheep, goats, horses, cattle, cats, and several Old World monkey species. Lentiviruses, comprising a genus of the Retroviridae family, cause persistent infection that can lead to varying degrees of morbidity and mortality depending on the virus and the host species involved. Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV causes an immune system disease in domestic cats (Felis catus involving depletion of the CD4+ population of T lymphocytes, increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections, and sometimes death. Viruses related to domestic cat FIV occur also in a variety of nondomestic felids. This is a brief overview of the current state of knowledge of this large and ancient group of viruses (FIVs in South America.

  15. Rabies in the Americas: 1998-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire de Carvalho, Mary; Vigilato, Marco A N; Pompei, Julio A; Rocha, Felipe; Vokaty, Alexandra; Molina-Flores, Baldomero; Cosivi, Ottorino; Del Rio Vilas, Victor J

    2018-03-01

    Through national efforts and regional cooperation under the umbrella of the Regional Program for the Elimination of Rabies, dog and human rabies have decreased significantly in Latin America and Caribbean (LAC) countries over the last three decades. To achieve this decline, LAC countries had to develop national plans, and consolidate capabilities such as regular mass dog vaccination, opportune post-exposure prophylaxis and sensitive surveillance. This paper presents longitudinal data for 21 LAC countries on dog vaccination, PEP and rabies surveillance collected from the biannual regional meeting for rabies directors from 1998-2014 and from the Regional Epidemiologic Surveillance System for Rabies (SIRVERA). Differences in human and dog rabies incidence rates and dog vaccination rates were shown between low, middle and high-income countries. At the peak, over 50 million dogs were vaccinated annually in national campaigns in the countries represented. The reported number of animal exposures remained fairly stable during the study period with an incidence rate ranging from 123 to 191 reported exposures per 100,000 people. On average, over 2 million doses of human vaccine were applied annually. In the most recent survey, only 37% of countries reported that they had sufficient financial resources to meet the program objectives. The data show a sufficient and sustained effort of the LAC countries in the area of dog vaccination and provide understanding of the baseline effort required to reduce dog-mediated rabies incidence.

  16. Rabies in the Americas: 1998-2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Freire de Carvalho

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Through national efforts and regional cooperation under the umbrella of the Regional Program for the Elimination of Rabies, dog and human rabies have decreased significantly in Latin America and Caribbean (LAC countries over the last three decades. To achieve this decline, LAC countries had to develop national plans, and consolidate capabilities such as regular mass dog vaccination, opportune post-exposure prophylaxis and sensitive surveillance. This paper presents longitudinal data for 21 LAC countries on dog vaccination, PEP and rabies surveillance collected from the biannual regional meeting for rabies directors from 1998-2014 and from the Regional Epidemiologic Surveillance System for Rabies (SIRVERA. Differences in human and dog rabies incidence rates and dog vaccination rates were shown between low, middle and high-income countries. At the peak, over 50 million dogs were vaccinated annually in national campaigns in the countries represented. The reported number of animal exposures remained fairly stable during the study period with an incidence rate ranging from 123 to 191 reported exposures per 100,000 people. On average, over 2 million doses of human vaccine were applied annually. In the most recent survey, only 37% of countries reported that they had sufficient financial resources to meet the program objectives. The data show a sufficient and sustained effort of the LAC countries in the area of dog vaccination and provide understanding of the baseline effort required to reduce dog-mediated rabies incidence.

  17. Feline immunodeficiency virus in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Bruno M; Hagiwara, Mitika K; Cruz, Juliano C M; Hosie, Margaret J

    2012-03-01

    The rapid emergence of AIDS in humans during the period between 1980 and 2000 has led to extensive efforts to understand more fully similar etiologic agents of chronic and progressive acquired immunodeficiency disease in several mammalian species. Lentiviruses that have gene sequence homology with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have been found in different species (including sheep, goats, horses, cattle, cats, and several Old World monkey species). Lentiviruses, comprising a genus of the Retroviridae family, cause persistent infection that can lead to varying degrees of morbidity and mortality depending on the virus and the host species involved. Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) causes an immune system disease in domestic cats (Felis catus) involving depletion of the CD4+ population of T lymphocytes, increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections, and sometimes death. Viruses related to domestic cat FIV occur also in a variety of nondomestic felids. This is a brief overview of the current state of knowledge of this large and ancient group of viruses (FIVs) in South America.

  18. Outcomes of HIV-positive patients with cryptococcal meningitis in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabtree Ramírez, B; Caro Vega, Y; Shepherd, B E; Le, C; Turner, M; Frola, C; Grinsztejn, B; Cortes, C; Padgett, D; Sterling, T R; McGowan, C C; Person, A

    2017-10-01

    Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is associated with substantial mortality in HIV-infected patients. Optimal timing of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in persons with CM represents a clinical challenge, and the burden of CM in Latin America has not been well described. Studies suggest that early ART initiation is associated with higher mortality, but data from the Americas are scarce. HIV-infected adults in care between 1985-2014 at participating sites in the Latin America (the Caribbean, Central and South America network (CCASAnet)) and the Vanderbilt Comprehensive Care Clinic (VCCC) and who had CM were included. Survival probabilities were estimated. Risk of death when initiating ART within the first 2 weeks after CM diagnosis versus initiating between 2-8 weeks was assessed using dynamic marginal structural models adjusting for site, age, sex, year of CM, CD4 count, and route of HIV transmission. 340 patients were included (Argentina 58, Brazil 138, Chile 28, Honduras 27, Mexico 34, VCCC 55) and 142 (42%) died during the observation period. Among 151 patients with CM prior to ART 56 (37%) patients died compared to 86 (45%) of 189 with CM after ART initiation (p=0.14). Patients diagnosed with CM after ART had a higher risk of death (p=0.03, log-rank test). The probability of survival was not statistically different between patients who started ART within 2 weeks of CM (7/24, 29%) vs. those initiating between 2-8 weeks (14/53, 26%) (p=0.96), potentially due to lack of power. In this large Latin-American cohort, patients with CM had very high mortality rates, especially those diagnosed after ART initiation. This study reflects the overwhelming burden of CM in HIV-infected patients in Latin America. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Sustainable transport practices in Latin America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogat, J.; Hinostroza, M. [UNEP Risoe Centre (Denmark)

    2007-05-15

    The rapid growth of Latin American cities beginning in the 70s has led to, among other things, growing mobility and demand for transportation. The lack of efficient, reliable and safe public transport systems has promoted the switch away from buses and trains towards private cars. Some of the impacts of a steadily increasing car fleet have been increased congestion, number of accidents and environmental deterioration. Recognising the potential implications of such a development, policy makers and officials found it necessary and went ahead to reformulate transport policies with the aim of providing safe, cost-effective and environmental-friendly public transport systems. Bus rapid transit (BRT) became the answer in a number of Latin American cities. The successful experiences of Curitiba in Brazil and Bogota in Colombia have served as the source of inspiration for other cities in Latin America, Asia, Europe and the USA. Thus, the BRT represents a unique example of South-South, South-North technology transfer. This paper presents some of the Latin American experiences and discusses their achievement and drawbacks. (au)

  20. Youth employment to reduce violence in Central America | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    By combining quantitative and qualitative approaches, mapping out initiatives and outcomes, and focusing both on beneficiaries of employment programs for vulnerable youth and policymakers in charge of program design and implementation, the project aims to uncover the strengths and weaknesses of these interventions ...

  1. Biological control of emerald ash borer in North America: current progress and potential for success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian J. Duan; Leah S. Bauer; Juli R. Gould; Jonathan P. Lelito

    2012-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis), a buprestid native to north-east Asia, was first discovered in North America near Detroit in 2002. EAB has since spread to at least 15 U.S. States and two Canadian provinces, threatening the existence of native ash trees (Fraxinus spp.). A classical biocontrol program was initiated...

  2. Three Waves of Populism in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga V. Varentsova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary political regimes in Venezuela and Bolivia led by late Hugo Châvez (now by his successor Nicolas Maduro and Evo Morales are considered by foreign and Russian scholars as part of the third wave of populism. In the 20th century Latin America already witnessed two waves of populism which coincided with significant political transitions, namely a transition from oligarchy to mass politics accompanied by implementation of import substitution industrialization policies, and a transition from authoritarian rule to democracy during the third wave of democratization which triggered neoliberal reforms inspired by Washington Consensus. This article presents common characteristics of Latin American populist regimes that emerged in different historical periods which help identify the origins as well as distinctive features of Venezuelan and Bolivian political regimes. It is stated that the Châvez and Morales left populist regimes resemble classic populist regimes in that they rely on incendiary anti-establishment discourse. Therefore, left populist regimes are characterized by high levels of polarization as well as weak institutionalization and class or indigenous orientation. Election of left populist leaders may lead to institutional deadlock, uneven playing field and transition to competitive authoritarianism.

  3. Nutrition status of children in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmendia, M. L.; Jones‐Smith, J.; Lutter, C. K.; Miranda, J. J.; Pedraza, L. S.; Popkin, B. M.; Ramirez‐Zea, M.; Salvo, D.; Stein, A. D.

    2017-01-01

    Summary The prevalence of overweight and obesity is rapidly increasing among Latin American children, posing challenges for current healthcare systems and increasing the risk for a wide range of diseases. To understand the factors contributing to childhood obesity in Latin America, this paper reviews the current nutrition status and physical activity situation, the disparities between and within countries and the potential challenges for ensuring adequate nutrition and physical activity. Across the region, children face a dual burden of undernutrition and excess weight. While efforts to address undernutrition have made marked improvements, childhood obesity is on the rise as a result of diets that favour energy‐dense, nutrient‐poor foods and the adoption of a sedentary lifestyle. Over the last decade, changes in socioeconomic conditions, urbanization, retail foods and public transportation have all contributed to childhood obesity in the region. Additional research and research capacity are needed to address this growing epidemic, particularly with respect to designing, implementing and evaluating the impact of evidence‐based obesity prevention interventions. PMID:28741907

  4. Looking at OER with a Critical Eye: Strengthening OER Initiatives by Focusing on Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses aspects of adopting, adapting, and building Open Educational Resources (OER) that have the potential to influence student learning but are sometimes overlooked by OER advocates. The author makes recommendations for ensuring that OER initiatives have a positive impact on student learning and argues that librarians can be…

  5. Burden of allergic rhinitis: allergies in America, Latin America, and Asia-Pacific adult surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, Eli O; Blaiss, Michael S; Naclerio, Robert M; Stoloff, Stuart W; Derebery, M Jennifer; Nelson, Harold S; Boyle, John M; Wingertzahn, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR; also nasal allergies or "hay fever") is a chronic upper airway inflammatory disease that affects ∼60 million adults and children in the United States. The duration and severity of AR symptoms contribute to a substantial burden on patients' quality of life (QoL), sleep, work productivity, and activity. This study was designed to examine symptoms, QoL, productivity, comorbidities, disease management, and pharmacologic treatment of AR in United States and ex-U.S. sufferers. Allergies in America was a comprehensive telephone-based survey of 2500 adults with AR. These data are compared and contrasted with findings from the Pediatric Allergies in America, Allergies in Latin America, and Allergies in Asia-Pacific telephone surveys. The prevalence of physician-diagnosed AR was 14% in U.S. adults, 7% in Latin America adults, and 9% in Asia-Pacific adults. Nasal congestion is the most common and bothersome symptom for adults. Approximately two-thirds of adults rely on medication to relieve intolerable AR symptoms. Incomplete relief, slow onset, <24-hour relief, and reduced efficacy with sustained use were commonly reported with AR medications, including intranasal corticosteroids. One in seven U.S. adults reported achieving little to no relief with AR medications. Bothersome adverse effects of AR medications included drowsiness, a drying feeling, medication dripping down the throat, and bad taste. Perception of inadequate efficacy was the leading cause of medication discontinuation or change and contributed to treatment dissatisfaction. These findings support the assertion that AR burden has been substantially underestimated and identify several important challenges to successful management of AR.

  6. Irrigation Water Management in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aureo S de Oliveira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Latin American countries show a great potential for expanding their irrigated areas. Irrigation is important for strengthening local and regional economy and for enhancing food security. The present paper aimed at providing a brief review on key aspects of irrigation management in Latin America. Poor irrigation management can have great impact on crop production and on environment while good management reduces the waste of soil and water and help farmers maximizing their profits. It was found that additional research is needed to allow a better understanding of crop water requirements under Latin American conditions as well as to provide farmers with local derived information for irrigation scheduling. The advantages of deficit irrigation practices and the present and future opportunities with the application of remote sensing tools for water management were also considered. It is clear that due to the importance of irrigated agriculture, collaborative work among Latin American researchers and institutions is of paramount importance to face the challenges imposed by a growing population, environment degradation, and competition in the global market.

  7. Re-emergence of cholera in the Americas: Risks, susceptibility, and ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu JP Poirier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The re-emergence of cholera in Haiti has established a new reservoir for the seventh cholera pandemic which threatens to spread to other countries in the Americas. Materials and Methods: Statistics from this new epidemic are compared to the 1991 Peru epidemic, which demonstrated the speed and complexity with which this disease can spread from country to country. Environmental factors implicated in the spread of Vibrio cholerae such as ocean currents and temperatures, as well as biotic factors from zooplankton to waterfowl pose a risk for many countries in the Americas. Results: The movement of people and goods from Hispaniola are mostly destined for North America, but occur to some degree throughout the Americas. These modes of transmission, and the probability of uncontrolled community spread beyond Hispaniola, however, are completely dependent upon risk factors within these countries such as water quality and availability of sanitation. Although North America has excellent coverage of these deterrents to the spread of infectious gastrointestinal diseases, many countries throughout Latin America and the Caribbean lack these basic services and infrastructures. Conclusions : In order to curb the immediate spread of cholera in Hispaniola, treatment availability should be expanded to all parts of the island and phase II epidemic management initiatives must be developed.

  8. Trends in Longevity in the Americas: Disparities in Life Expectancy in Women and Men, 1965-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian R Hambleton

    Full Text Available We describe trends in life expectancy at birth (LE and between-country LE disparities since 1965, in Latin America and the Caribbean.LE trends since 1965 are described for three geographical sub-regions: the Caribbean, Central America, and South America. LE disparities are explored using a suite of absolute and relative disparity metrics, with measurement consensus providing confidence to observed differences. LE has increased throughout Latin America and the Caribbean. Compared to the Caribbean, LE has increased by an additional 6.6 years in Central America and 4.1 years in South America. Since 1965, average reductions in between-country LE disparities were 14% (absolute disparity and 23% (relative disparity in the Caribbean, 55% and 51% in Central America, 55% and 52% in South America.LE in Latin America and the Caribbean is exceeding 'minimum standard' international targets, and is improving relative to the world region with the highest human longevity. The Caribbean, which had the highest LE and the lowest between-country LE disparities in Latin America and the Caribbean in 1965-70, had the lowest LE and the highest LE disparities by 2005-10. Caribbean Governments have championed a collaborative solution to the growing burden of non-communicable disease, with 15 territories signing on to the Declaration of Port of Spain, signalling regional commitment to a coordinated public-health response. The persistent LE inequity between Caribbean countries suggests that public health interventions should be tailored to individual countries to be most effective. Between- and within-country disparity monitoring for a range of health metrics should be a priority, first to guide country-level policy initiatives, then to contribute to the assessment of policy success.

  9. 75 FR 51272 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; STAR METRICS-Science and Technology in America's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-19

    ... on Innovation, Competitiveness and Science SUMMARY: In compliance with the requirement of Section... Technology for America's Reinvestment: Measuring the Effects of Research on Innovation, Competitiveness and... aim of STAR METRICS is twofold. The initial goal of STAR METRICS is to provide mechanisms that will...

  10. What Do We Know about the Development of Creativity in South America?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preiss, David D.; Grau, Valeska; Ortiz, Dominga; Bernardino, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    We review recent research about the development of creativity in South America focusing on studies of individual differences in creativity and educational and developmental studies of children and adolescents' creativity. Most South American researchers are influenced by mainstream psychometric approaches, although computational and cultural…

  11. A pedagogia em foco: Estudo bibliográfico sobre formação inicial, desenvolvimento profissional e professores iniciantes. Pedagogy in focus: Bibliographic study on initial training, professional development and inexperienced teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cardoso, Lilian A. M.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper consists in a discussion of the results of a bibliographical research, conducted in the annals of the annual meetings of the National Association of Graduate Studies and Research in Education (ANPEd and the Public Domain Portal’s database of thesis and dissertations. The goal of this research was to identify relevant data to the training of teachers who have been working with the early years of Elementary School in the recent past. Conceiving teacher education as a continuous development, in which the initial training and teaching experiences are the first stages of a career that interconnect during the professional development process, we’ve selected the following descriptors: initial training, professional development and inexperienced teachers. The results indicate a number of authors taken as reference to discuss teachers’ training and themes variation. However, we’ve noticed a tenuous exploration of issues related to professional development and inexperienced teachers. The number of papers that study initial training, although more numerous, is still insufficient when we observe the variety of themes involved in this stage of training. The considered studies reiterate the need of reviewing initial teacher training, the interference of different factors in professional development and the importance of supporting programs for inexperienced teachers. O trabalho constitui-se em uma discussão sobre os resultados de uma pesquisa bibliográfica, realizada nos anais das reuniões anuais da Associação Nacional de Pós-Graduação e Pesquisa em Educação - ANPEd e no banco de teses e dissertações do Portal Domínio Público. Nesta pesquisa o objetivo foi levantar dados pertinentes à formação de professores dos anos iniciais do Ensino Fundamental nos últimos anos. Concebendo a formação de professores como um contínuo de desenvolvimento, no qual a formação inicial e as primeiras experiências docentes constituem fases

  12. Self-focusing in laser produced spark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakos, J.S.; Foeldes, I.B.

    1983-05-01

    The self-focusing effect appearing in different phases of development of laser produced breakdown plasma in air is investigated. Self-focusing during the ionization process is demonstrated. Thermal self-focusing was observed in the later stage of the plasma development at moderate light intensities. Plasma development was investigated by forward and side scattering of the laser light in the plasma. A crossed beam experiment gave evidence of the thermal mechanism of self-focusing. (author)

  13. Endemism in the moss flora of North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Benjamin E; Shaw, Blanka; Shaw, A Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    Identifying regions of high endemism is a critical step toward understanding the mechanisms underlying diversification and establishing conservation priorities. Here, we identified regions of high moss endemism across North America. We also identified lineages that contribute disproportionately to endemism and document the progress of efforts to inventory the endemic flora. To understand the documentation of endemic moss diversity in North America, we tabulated species publication dates to document the progress of species discovery across the continent. We analyzed herbarium specimen data and distribution data from the Flora of North America project to delineate major regions of moss endemism. Finally, we surveyed the literature to assess the importance of intercontinental vs. within-continent diversification for generating endemic species. Three primary regions of endemism were identified and two of these were further divided into a total of nine subregions. Overall endemic richness has two peaks, one in northern California and the Pacific Northwest, and the other in the southern Appalachians. Description of new endemic species has risen steeply over the last few decades, especially in western North America. Among the few studies documenting sister species relationships of endemics, recent diversification appears to have played a larger role in western North America, than in the east. Our understanding of bryophyte endemism continues to grow rapidly. Large continent-wide data sets confirm early views on hotspots of endemic bryophyte richness and indicate a high rate of ongoing species discovery in North America. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  14. Prosodic Marking of Narrow Focus in Seoul Korean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae-Sung Jeon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores prosodic marking of narrow (corrective focus in Seoul Korean. Korean lacks lexical stress and it has a phonologized association between the Accentual Phrase (AP initial segment and intonation. In the experiment, 4 speakers read sentences including a two-item list which were designed to elicit either an L or H AP-initial tone. The durational variations, the pitch events at prosodic boundaries, and 'F''0 'span in 32 sentences read neutrally and 64 sentences read with one of the items under focus were analyzed. The results show that the focused constituent consistently initiates a new prosodic phrase. In comparison to the neutrally spoken or defocused counterpart, the focused constituent was more likely to be realized as an Intonational Phrase (IP in some contexts. Bitonal IP boundary tones were more likely to occur under focus than monotonal tones. In addition, in focused constituents, durational expansion particularly at the phrase-edges, expansion in 'F''0 'span, and raising of the phrase-initial pitch were observed. On the other hand, defocused constituents were not phonetically reduced compared to the neutral counterparts. The results imply that the phonetic cues spreading over the focused constituent complement the exaggerated prosodic boundaries.

  15. FOCUS ON NIVOLUMAB IN NSCLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Luigi Cortinovis

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Immunotherapy is changing the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. The PD-1 inhibitor nivolumab has demonstrated meaningful results in terms of efficacy with a good safety profile. The novel approach of treating NSCLC using immunotherapy has still unsolved questions and challenging issues in regard to the optimal selection of the patient, its role in first line of treatment, the individualization of the correct methodology of radiologic assessment and efficacy analysis, the best management of immunomediated adverse events, and how to overcome the immunoresistance.

  16. Thomas A. Foster, ed. Women in Early America

    OpenAIRE

    Detsi, Zoe

    2016-01-01

    Women in Early America is an intriguing collection of essays offering richly diverse readings of women’s lives and experiences in 17th- and 18th- century America. This volume is a significant contribution to the scholarship concerning the role of women in history and their participation in historical moments of political change and cultural negotiation. From Gerda Lerner’s seminal work on The Woman in American History (1971) to Linda Kerber’s enlightening book titled Women’s America: Refocusi...

  17. Literature in focus: Paul Ginsparg

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Paul Ginsparg, professor of physics, computing and information science at Cornell University, is best known as the creator of an online system for distributing scientific research results. Known by scientists around the world as "arXiv.org", the system was designed to distribute electronic copies of the preprints that until 17 years ago were all distributed on paper and shipped in their thousands by the postal services. Ginsparg, at the time based at Los Alamos, carried out this work in his spare time using surplus equipment! It is amusing to look backwards and observe how this new technology was perceived in the beginning: In early 1994 Ginsparg happened to serve on a committee advising the American Physical Society (APS) about putting Physical Review Letters online. He suggested that a Web interface along the lines of the xxx.lanl.gov prototype might be a good way for the APS to disseminate its documents. A response came back from another committee member: "Installing and learni...

  18. A call to arms: Time to do cognitive science in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Marmolejo-Ramos

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous theoretical reviews about the development of Psychology in Latin America suggest that Latin American psychology has a promising future. This paper empirically checks whether that status remains justified. In so doing, the frequency of programs/research domains in three salient psychological areas is assessed in Latin America and in two other regions of the world. A chi-square statistic is used to analyse the collected data. Programs/research domains and regions of the world are the independent variables and frequency of programs/research domains per world region is the dependent variable. Results suggest that whereas in Latin America the work onSocial/Organizational Psychology is moving within expected parameters, there is a rather strong focus on Clinical/Psychoanalytical Psychology. Results also show that Experimental/Cognitive Psychology is much underestimated. In Asia, however, the focus on all areas of psychology seems to be distributed within expected parameters, whereas Europe outperforms regarding Experimental/Cognitive Psychology research. Potentialreasons that contribute to Latin America's situation are discussed and specific solutions are proposed. It is concluded that the scope of Experimental/Cognitive Psychology in Latin America should be broadened into a Cognitive Science research program.

  19. The impact of Chagas disease control in Latin America: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, J C P; Silveira, A C; Schofield, C J

    2002-07-01

    social care and improved productivity) is highly positive. Effective control of Chagas disease is now seen as an attainable goal that depends primarily on maintaining political will, so that the major constraints involve problems associated with the decentralisation of public health services and the progressive political disinterest in Chagas disease. Counterbalancing this are the political and technical cooperation strategies such as the "Southern Cone Initiative" launched in 1991. This international approach, coordinated by PAHO, has been highly successful, already reaching elimination of Chagas disease transmission in Uruguay, Chile, and large parts of Brazil and Argentina. The Southern Cone Initiative also helped to stimulate control campaigns in other countries of the region (Paraguay, Bolivia, Peru) which have also reached tangible regional successes. This model of international activity has been shown to be feasible and effective, with similar initiatives developed since 1997 in the Andean Region and in Central America. At present, Mexico and the Amazon Region remain as the next major challenges. With consolidation of operational programmes in all endemic countries, the future focus will be on epidemiological surveillance and care of those people already infected. In political terms, the control of Chagas disease in Latin America can be considered, so far, as a victory for international scientific cooperation, but will require continuing political commitment for sustained success.

  20. The impact of Chagas disease control in Latin America: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JCP Dias

    2002-07-01

    of medical and social care and improved productivity is highly positive. Effective control of Chagas disease is now seen as an attainable goal that depends primarily on maintaining political will, so that the major constraints involve problems associated with the decentralisation of public health services and the progressive political disinterest in Chagas disease. Counterbalancing this are the political and technical cooperation strategies such as the "Southern Cone Initiative" launched in 1991. This international approach, coordinated by PAHO, has been highly successful, already reaching elimination of Chagas disease transmission in Uruguay, Chile, and large parts of Brazil and Argentina. The Southern Cone Initiative also helped to stimulate control campaigns in other countries of the region (Paraguay, Bolivia, Peru which have also reached tangible regional successes. This model of international activity has been shown to be feasible and effective, with similar initiatives developed since 1997 in the Andean Region and in Central America. At present, Mexico and the Amazon Region remain as the next major challenges. With consolidation of operational programmes in all endemic countries, the future focus will be on epidemiological surveillance and care of those people already infected. In political terms, the control of Chagas disease in Latin America can be considered, so far, as a victory for international scientific cooperation, but will require continuing political commitment for sustained success.

  1. The Price of Power-Universities in America and New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, James R.

    1973-01-01

    Explains some of the ills affecting universities in America and New Zealand, student alienation and unrest, the loss of morale on the part of staff, and the collapse of standards, by focusing on the social roles of the university and its interaction with the larger society. (Author)

  2. The Social Condition of Higher Education: Globalisation and (beyond) Regionalisation in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Alfredo M.; Robertson, Susan L.; Dale, Roger

    2012-01-01

    This article aims to discuss the relationship between higher education (HE), globalisation and regionalism projects focusing on HE in Latin America and Brazil. It is claimed that HE has predominantly taken the diverse, yet concerted and co-ordinated routes of globalisation and regionalisation and, by doing so, been profoundly transformed. The…

  3. Influencing pro-poor telecommunications policy in Latin America ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-06-24

    Jun 24, 2016 ... Research conducted by DIRSI (Regional Dialogue on the Information ... In Brazil, DIRSI research findings were taken up in the design of the National ... Involving urban communities in controlling dengue fever in Latin America.

  4. Population pressures in Latin America. [Updated reprint].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrick, T W

    1991-04-01

    This publication examines the main demographic changes in Latin America since World War II, and considers their social and economic impact on the region. The paper looks at the following demographic trends: population growth, fertility, death rate, internal migration, international migration, and age structure. It also examines other factors such as marriage and family structure, and employment and education. Furthermore, the publication provides a discussion of the relationship between population growth and economic development from both a neo-Malthusian and Structuralist view. Finally, the paper considers the region's current population policies and future population prospects. From 1950-65, annual population growth averaged 2.8%, which decreased moderately to 2.4% from 1965-85. The report identified 3 population growth patterns in the region: 1) countries which experienced early and gradual declines in birth and death rates and generally lower population growth rates (the group includes Argentina, Cuba, Uruguay, with Chile and Panama also closely fitting the description); 2) countries which underwent rapid declines in birth rate during the 1950s and which began experiencing declines in the birth rate after 1960 (Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, Mexico, Paraguay, and Venezuela, with Ecuador and Peru as borderline cases); and 3) countries which didn't begin to experience declines in mortality rates until relatively late and which lag behind in fertility declines (Bolivia, Haiti, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua). Although population growth has slowed and will continue to fall, UN projections do not expect the population to stabilize until late in the 21st Century.

  5. Peer-to-peer Services in the Field of Accommodation: Finland vs. Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Tuominen, Sofia; Kosunen, Sonja

    2016-01-01

    This thesis focuses on peer-to-peer services in the field of accommodation, more closely Airbnb. The thesis aims at researching the differences of the use of Airbnb in Finland and Latin America with the main focus on Mexico. The thesis is commissioned by SMAL (Association of Finnish Travel Agents). The thesis will consist of eight parts. The first part presents an overall introduction of the topic, aims, commissioner, methods and hypotheses. The second part presents the sharing economy ph...

  6. Nuclear medicine in the countries of Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touya, Eh.

    1987-01-01

    The role of nuclear medicine in protection of health in Latin America states is shown. Nuclear medicine methods are applied in Latin America countries for diagnosis of coronary disease, cancer, malfunctioning of separate organs and transplants, kidney transplants in particular. The present situation in protection of health in the region is evaluated. It is emphasized that nuclear medicine should play its role in the course of public health improvement in those countries

  7. Impact of Tobacco Tax Increases in Latin America | CRDI - Centre ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Although most evidence on the impact of such taxes is being generated in other regions, several studies in ... an overview that will quantify all the expected effects of cigarette price increases in Latin America. ... Agent(e) responsable du CRDI.

  8. Building equitable health systems in Latin America | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The region's segmented health systems make it difficult to provide equal access to ... to reorganize healthcare systems in Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay. ... Involving urban communities in controlling dengue fever in Latin America.

  9. Experts discuss unconventional conflicts in the Americas | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2015-07-10

    Jul 10, 2015 ... Experts discuss unconventional conflicts in the Americas ... in illicit activities — like drug smuggling and illegal mining — that destabilize societies and ruin lives. ... Social exclusion and "violences" in Central American cities.

  10. Analysis and modeling of "focus" in context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovy, Dirk; Anumanchipalli, Gopala; Parlikar, Alok

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses a crowd-sourced definition of a speech phenomenon we have called focus. Given sentences, text and speech, in isolation and in context, we asked annotators to identify what we term the focus word. We present their consistency in identifying the focused word, when presented with text...... or speech stimuli. We then build models to show how well we predict that focus word from lexical (and higher) level features. Also, using spectral and prosodic information, we show the differences in these focus words when spoken with and without context. Finally, we show how we can improve speech synthesis...

  11. Assessing the ‘Arrival of Democracy’ in Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kees Biekart

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available – Central America in the New Millennium: Living Transition and Reimagining Democracy, edited by Jennifer L. Burrell and Ellen Moodie. CEDLA Latin America Studies (CLAS Vol. 102. New York and Oxford: Berghahn Books, 2013.– The Politics of Modern Central America: Civil War, Democratization, and Underdevelopment, by Fabrice Lehoucq. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2012.– Handbook of Central American Governance, edited by Diego Sánchez-Ancochea and Salvador Martí i Puig. Milton Park and New York: Routledge, 2014.

  12. Traveling Artists in America: Visions and Views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diener, Pablo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Visual registers of Latin America acquired new characteristics at the dawning of the 19th century. Alongside the pointedly secular practice of the scientific Enlightenment, naturalistic in character, there emerged an artistic current that produced images with a strong subjective quality. This American iconography of the 19th century was the work of traveling artists. In the exercise of their work, painters and drawers were led through modern esthetical premises that proposed an amalgam of artistic activity and the production of scientific knowledge. This article intends to venture into that genre of the arts based on a study of the theoretical context that sustains it, observing the range of themes it covered.

    Los registros visuales de la América ibérica adquirieron un perfil nuevo con los albores del siglo XIX. Paralelamente a la práctica más que secular de la ilustración científica de carácter naturalista surgió una vertiente artística que produjo un tipo de imágenes con una fuerte carga subjetiva. Esa iconografía americana decimonónica fue obra de los artistas viajeros. En el ejercicio de su tarea, pintores y dibujantes fueron conducidos por premisas estéticas modernas, que proponían una amalgama del quehacer artístico con la producción de conocimiento científico. Este artículo propone una incursión en ese género de las bellas artes a partir de un estudio del contexto teórico que la sustenta, observando el abanico temático que abarcó.

  13. Domestication and human demographic history in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, S Ivan; Postillone, María Bárbara; Rindel, Diego

    2017-05-01

    The early groups of hunter-gatherers who peopled South America faced significant ecological changes in their trophic niche for a relatively short period after the initial peopling. In particular, the incorporation of cultigens during the Holocene led to a wider trophic niche and probably to an increased carrying capacity of the environment. Here, we study the relationship between the incorporation of domestic resources during the Holocene and the demographic dynamics of human populations at a regional scale in South America. We employ mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), radiocarbon data and Bayesian methods to estimate differences in population size, human occupation and explore the demographic changes of human populations in three regions (i.e., South-Central Andes, Northwest, and South Patagonia). We also use archaeological evidence to infer the main diet changes in these regions. The absolute population size during the later Late Holocene was fifteen times larger in the South-Central Andes than in Northwest Patagonia, and two times larger in the latter region than in South Patagonia. The South-Central Andes display the earlier and more abrupt population growth, beginning about 9000 years BP, whereas Northwest Patagonia exhibits a more slow growth, beginning about 7000-7500 years BP. South Patagonia represents a later and slower population increase. In this work we uncovered a well-supported pattern of the demographic change in the populations from South-Central Andes and Patagonia, obtained on the basis of different data and quantitative approaches, which suggests that the incorporation of domestic resources was paramount for the demographic expansion of these populations during the Holocene. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Competitive Grants for Digital Innovation in Latin America and the ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Competitive Grants for Digital Innovation in Latin America and the Caribbean - Phase II ... and funded 26 research projects developed by institutions in 13 countries. ... information and communication technologies (ICTs), and help formulate the ...

  15. Russian Culture and Theatrical Performance in America 1891-1933

    OpenAIRE

    Pagani, Maria Pia

    2015-01-01

    Maria Pia Pagani invites you to read Valleri J. Hohman, Russian Culture and Theatrical Performance in America 1891-1933, Palgrave MacMillan, Palgrave Studies in Theatre and Performance History, New York 2011, pp. 230.

  16. Defense White Papers in the Americas: A Comparative Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cope, John

    2002-01-01

    In preparation for the October 2000 Defense Ministerial of the Americas (DMA) in Manaus Brazil and at the request of the Office of the Secretary of Defense, the Institute for National Strategic Studies (INSS...

  17. Nuclear debate and its implications in Latin America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huacuz V, J M

    1977-09-01

    The controversy associated with nuclear power has been grouped into three areas: safety, economics, and availability of uranium. Implications of these factors are discussed in terms of their effects on Third World countries, particularly in Latin America.

  18. HTGR development in the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    The status of high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGR) development in the United States of America is described, including the organizational structure for the development support, HTGR development programme, and plans for future activities in the field

  19. Building America FY 2016 Annual Report: Building America Is Driving Real Solutions in the Race to Zero Energy Homes -- Appendix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sara Farrar, Stacey Rothgeb, Ben Polly, Lieko Earle, Tim Merrigan

    2017-01-01

    This document is a set of appendices presenting technical discussion and references as a companion to the 'Building America FY 2016 Annual Report: Building America Is Driving Real Solutions in the Race to Zero Energy Homes' publication.

  20. Blindness and visual impairment in the Americas and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, B; West, S K

    2002-05-01

    To summarise available data on the prevalence and causes of visual impairment and blindness in the Americas and the Caribbean. The published literature was searched in Medline and LILACS using the following key words: blindness, visual impairment, prevalence. Articles were reviewed, and the references of the articles were also searched for relevant articles, which were also reviewed. Using the mortality in children under the age of 5 as an indicator, the overall prevalence of childhood blindness (in the under age 15 group) for the region was estimated at 0.45/1000, with the majority (67%) living in countries with mortality of children under age 5 above 30/1000 live births. Corneal opacities were more common in countries where the under 5 year mortality are above 30/1000 live births and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) was an important cause in countries with intermediate death rates. For adults, overall blindness rates were not estimated because of the social, economic, and ethnic diversity in the region. The primary causes of visual loss in adults in the Americas were age related eye diseases, notably cataract and glaucoma in the African-American and Hispanic populations, and age related macular degeneration in the white population. Uncorrected refractive error was a significant cause of decreased vision across ages, ethnic groups, and countries. More data are needed on the magnitude and causes of visual loss for the Caribbean and Latin American countries. Rates of blindness and visual loss from available data within these countries are widely disparate. Prevention and control of avoidable blindness needs to be an ongoing focus in this region.

  1. Criminal Insurgency in the Americas and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    sector budget cuts, and decreasing remittances to Mexico from immigrants in the United States increase monetary incentives for rural dwellers to...coercion of rural populations to enlist them in the drug trade.24 Another may focus on killings, as used to be the case with Los Zetas, the hired...Caracas under the Spanish name Banco Internacional de Desarrollo C.A., an independent subsidiary of the Export Bank of Iran. In October of that year, the

  2. Understanding Interface Design and Mobile Money Perceptions in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Chiang, Chun-Wei; Anderson, Caroline; Flores-Saviaga, Claudia; Arenas, Eduardo Jr; Colin, Felipe; Romero, Mario; Rivera-Loaiza, Cuauhtemoc; Chavez, Norma Elva; Savage, Saiph

    2018-01-01

    Mobile money can facilitate financial inclusion in developing countries, which usually have high mobile phone use and steady remittance activity. Many countries in Latin America meet the minimum technological requirements to use mobile money, however, the adoption in this region is relatively low. This paper investigates the different factors that lead people in Latin America to distrust and therefore not adopt mobile money. For this purpose, we analyzed 27 mobile money applications on the ma...

  3. Towards a Geography of Unmarried Cohabitation in the Americas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Lopez-Gay

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: As the incidence of cohabitation has been rising in many parts of the world, efforts to determine the forces driving the cohabitation boom have also been intensifying. But most of the analyses of this issue conducted so far were carried out at a national level, and did not account for regional heterogeneity within countries. Objective: This paper presents the geography of unmarried cohabitation in the Americas. We offer a large-scale, cross-national perspective, together with small-area estimates of cohabitation. We created this map for several reasons. (i First, our examination of the geography of cohabitation reveals considerable spatial heterogeneity, and challenges the explanatory frameworks which may work at the international level, but which have low explanatory power with regard to intra-national variation. (ii Second, we argue that historical pockets of cohabitation can still be identified by examining the current geography of cohabitation. (iii Finally, our map serves as an initial step in efforts to determine whether the recent increase in cohabitation is an intensification of pre-existing traditions, or whether it has different roots that suggest that a new geography may be evolving. Methods: Census microdata from 39 countries and 19,000 local units have been pooled together to map the prevalence of cohabitation among women. Results: The results show inter- and intra-national regional contrasts. The highest rates of cohabitation are found in areas of Central America, the Caribbean, Colombia, and Peru. The lowest rates are mainly found in the United States and Mexico. In all of the countries, the spatial autocorrelation statistics indicate that there is substantial spatial heterogeneity. Conclusions: Our results lead us to ask what forces may have shaped these patterns, and they remind us that these forces need to be taken into account when seeking to explain recent cohabitation patterns, and especially the rise in

  4. Synthetic focusing in ultrasound modulated tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Kuchment, Peter; Kunyansky, Leonid

    2010-01-01

    Several hybrid tomographic methods utilizing ultrasound modulation have been introduced lately. Success of these methods hinges on the feasibility of focusing ultrasound waves at an arbitrary point of interest. Such focusing, however, is difficult to achieve in practice. We thus propose a way to avoid the use of focused waves through what we call synthetic focusing, i.e. by reconstructing the would-be response to the focused modulation from the measurements corresponding to realistic unfocused waves. Examples of reconstructions from simulated data are provided. This non-technical paper describes only the general concept, while technical details will appear elsewhere. © 2010 American Institute of Mathematical Sciences.

  5. Synthetic focusing in ultrasound modulated tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Kuchment, Peter

    2010-09-01

    Several hybrid tomographic methods utilizing ultrasound modulation have been introduced lately. Success of these methods hinges on the feasibility of focusing ultrasound waves at an arbitrary point of interest. Such focusing, however, is difficult to achieve in practice. We thus propose a way to avoid the use of focused waves through what we call synthetic focusing, i.e. by reconstructing the would-be response to the focused modulation from the measurements corresponding to realistic unfocused waves. Examples of reconstructions from simulated data are provided. This non-technical paper describes only the general concept, while technical details will appear elsewhere. © 2010 American Institute of Mathematical Sciences.

  6. Municipal Governments and Development in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Victory

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available The processes of democratization, State reforms and administrative de-concentration that have marked the last 15 years of Latin American societies have brought about a reevaluation of the role of municipalities. The decentralization of the State has been put forth as basic objective and the economic productive restructuring happening around the world calls for a response from local initiatives: that is to say, initiatives to effect a new strategy of development “from the bottom up” that values territory as a geographic space bounded by a community of interests. One of the important actors in these local initiatives are the municipal governments who, as a first government resort, must respond to the vast demands of the population. These institutions are not consolidated, however. Instead, they are generally weak, with little economic, political and ideological power, and are limited in their autonomy, authority, legitimacy and capacity for management. In the first part of the article, and in an effort to characterize the political autonomy of the region’s municipalities, their distinct elements are analyzed – the system of representative democracy, competencies and resources, etc.. The most notorious deficiencies of Latin American municipalities are also studied. The second section analyzes the roles that these municipalities should take on to overcome these deficiencies, and goes on to offer action proposals towards creating a new model for municipal management, new ways of making policy from the municipality, and an analysis of the different instruments for promoting the local economy.

  7. Obesity and the food system transformation in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popkin, B M; Reardon, T

    2018-04-24

    The Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) region faces a major diet-related health problem accompanied by enormous economic and social costs. The shifts in diet are profound: major shifts in intake of less-healthful low-nutrient-density foods and sugary beverages, changes in away-from-home eating and snacking and rapid shifts towards very high levels of overweight and obesity among all ages along with, in some countries, high burdens of stunting. Diet changes have occurred in parallel to, and in two-way causality with, changes in the broad food system - the set of supply chains from farms, through midstream segments of processing, wholesale and logistics, to downstream segments of retail and food service (restaurants and fast food chains). An essential contribution of this piece is to marry and integrate the nutrition transition literature with the literature on the economics of food system transformation. These two literatures and debates have been to date largely 'two ships passing in the night'. This review documents in-depth the recent history of rapid growth and transformation of that broad food system in LAC, with the rapid rise of supermarkets, large processors, fast food chains and food logistics firms. The transformation is the story of a 'double-edged sword', showing its links to various negative diet side trends, e.g. the rise of consumption of fast food and highly processed food, as well as in parallel, to various positive trends, e.g. the reduction of the cost of food, de-seasonalization, increase of convenience of food preparation reducing women's time associated with that and increase of availability of some nutritious foods like meat and dairy. We view the transformation of the food system, as well as certain aspects of diet change linked to long-run changes in employment and demographics (e.g. the quest for convenience), as broad parameters that will endure for the next decades without truly major regulatory and fiscal changes. We then focus in on

  8. Treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos M Luna

    Full Text Available The global spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA means it is now a pathogen of worldwide public health concern. Within Latin America, MRSA is highly prevalent, with the proportion of S. aureus isolates that are methicillin-resistant on the rise, yet resources for managing the infection are limited. While several guidelines exist for the treatment of MRSA infections, many are written for the North American or European setting and need adaptation for use in Latin America. In this article, we aim to emphasize the importance of appropriate treatment of MRSA in the healthcare and community settings of Latin America. We present a summary of the available guidelines and antibiotics, and discuss particular considerations for clinicians treating MRSA in Latin America

  9. Air cargo in the Mid-America Freight Coalition region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    This report contains a contextual review of air cargo transportation in the 10-state Mid-America Freight Coalition (MAFC) region including the industrys recent history, security implications, and integration within the greater MAFC economy. The re...

  10. Integration of the "Americas" in the 21st Century

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guimaraes, Milton

    2001-01-01

    Through a program of comprehensive research and detailed analysis, the paper presents current and proposed steps for the Integration of the Americas in the 21st Century within the time frame agreed...

  11. Thirsty Cities: Urban Environments and Water Supply in Latin America

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Many cities in Latin America and the Caribbean are experiencing a water crisis as sources become exhausted or degraded. Urbanization, deteriorating infrastructures with a lack of funds for repairs, and inadequate polices are conspiring to cause water shortages.

  12. Juvenile Violence, Policing and Access to Justice in Latin America ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Juvenile Violence, Policing and Access to Justice in Latin America ... Brazil, Colombia and Mexico, this project will examine youth crime, relations with the police ... Call for new OWSD Fellowships for Early Career Women Scientists now open.

  13. Environmental governance in Latin America: towards an integrative research agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baud, M.; de Castro, F.; Hogenboom, B.

    2011-01-01

    Latin America plays an important international role with regard to environmental governance. Knowledge generated by empirical and theoretical studies on environmental challenges can support the renewed efforts in the region to achieve equitable and sustainable natural resource use. Although link

  14. A Structured Review of Antithrombotic Therapy in Peripheral Artery Disease With a Focus on Revascularization: A TASC (InterSociety Consensus for the Management of Peripheral Artery Disease) Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Connie N; Norgren, Lars; Ansel, Gary M; Capell, Warren H; Fletcher, John P; Fowkes, F Gerry R; Gottsäter, Anders; Hitos, Kerry; Jaff, Michael R; Nordanstig, Joakim; Hiatt, William R

    2017-06-20

    Peripheral artery disease affects >200 million people worldwide and is associated with significant limb and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Limb revascularization is recommended to improve function and quality of life for symptomatic patients with peripheral artery disease with intermittent claudication who have not responded to medical treatment. For patients with critical limb ischemia, the goals of revascularization are to relieve pain, help wound healing, and prevent limb loss. The baseline risk of cardiovascular and limb-related events demonstrated among patients with stable peripheral artery disease is elevated after revascularization and related to atherothrombosis and restenosis. Both of these processes involve platelet activation and the coagulation cascade, forming the basis for the use of antiplatelet and anticoagulant therapies to optimize procedural success and reduce postprocedural cardiovascular risk. Unfortunately, few high-quality, randomized data to support use of these therapies after peripheral artery disease revascularization exist, and much of the rationale for the use of antiplatelet agents after endovascular peripheral revascularization is extrapolated from percutaneous coronary intervention literature. Consequently, guideline recommendations for antithrombotic therapy after lower limb revascularization are inconsistent and not always evidence-based. In this context, the purpose of this structured review is to assess the available randomized data for antithrombotic therapy after peripheral arterial revascularization, with a focus on clinical trial design issues that may affect interpretation of study results, and highlight areas that require further investigation. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Discovery of the oldest record of Nitellopsis obtusa (Charophyceae, Charophyta) in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karol, Kenneth G; Sleith, Robin S

    2017-10-01

    Studies of the colonization and spread of invasive species improves our understanding of key concepts in population biology as well as informs control and prevention efforts. The characean green alga Nitellopsis obtusa (starry stonewort) is rare in its native Eurasian range but listed by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) as an aggressive invasive in North America. First documented in North America in 1978 from New York, United States, it has since been reported from numerous inland lakes from Minnesota to Vermont, and from Lake Ontario and inland lakes in southern Ontario, Canada. While the ecological impacts of N. obtusa are not clearly understood in its invasive range, initial results show negative environmental effects. We have discovered a liquid-preserved herbarium specimen that predates the 1978 records by at least 4 years, and is the first confirmed record of N. obtusa in Québec. © 2017 Phycological Society of America.

  16. Social Security privatization in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritzer, B E

    2000-01-01

    The new, partially privatized social security system adopted by Chile in 1981 has attracted attention in many parts of the world. Since then, a number of Latin American countries have implemented the Chilean model, with some variations: either with a single- or multi-tier system, or with a period of transition to take care of those in the labor force at the time of the change. The single-tier version consists of a privatized program with individual accounts in pension fund management companies. Multi-tier systems have a privatized component and retain some form of public program. This article describes each of the new programs in Latin America, their background, and similarities and differences among them. Much more information is available for Chile than for the other countries (in part because Chile has the oldest system), enough to be able to evaluate what, in most cases, is the most accurate information. That is often not the case for the other countries, especially when dealing with subjects such as transition costs and net rates of return (rates of return minus administrative fees). No country has copied the Chilean system exactly. Bolivia, El Salvador, and Mexico have closed their public systems and set up mandatory individual accounts. Argentina has a mixed public/private system with three tiers. In Colombia and Peru, workers have a choice between the public and private programs. Uruguay created a two-tier mixed system. Costa Rica has a voluntary program for individual accounts as a supplement to the pay-as-you-go program and has just passed a law setting up mandatory accounts containing employer contributions for severance pay. All of the countries continue to face unresolved issues, including: High rates of noncompliance--the percentage of enrollees who do not actively and regularly contribute to their accounts--which could lead to low benefits and greater costs to the governments that offer a guaranteed minimum benefit; Proportionately lower benefits for

  17. Reaching remote areas in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaimes, R

    1994-01-01

    Poor communities in remote and inaccessible areas tend to not only be cut off from family planning education and services, but they are also deprived of basic primary health care services. Efforts to bring family planning to such communities and populations should therefore be linked with other services. The author presents three examples of programs to bring effective family planning services to remote communities in Central and South America. Outside of the municipal center in the Tuxtlas region of Mexico, education and health levels are low and people live according to ancient customs. Ten years ago with the help of MEXFAM, the IPPF affiliate in Mexico, two social promoters established themselves in the town of Catemaco to develop a community program of family planning and health care offering education and prevention to improve the quality of people's lives. Through their health brigades taking health services to towns without an established health center, the program has influenced an estimated 100,000 people in 50 villages and towns. The program also has a clinic. In Guatemala, the Family Welfare Association (APROFAM) gave bicycles to 240 volunteer health care workers to facilitate their outreach work in rural areas. APROFAM since 1988 has operated an integrated program to treat intestinal parasites and promote family planning in San Lucas de Toliman, an Indian town close to Lake Atitlan. Providing health care to more than 10,000 people, the volunteer staff has covered the entire department of Solola, reaching each family in the area. Field educators travel on motorcycles through the rural areas of Guatemala coordinating with the health volunteers the distribution of contraceptives at the community level. The Integrated Project's Clinic was founded in 1992 and currently carries out pregnancy and Pap tests, as well as general lab tests. Finally, Puna is an island in the middle of the Gulf of Guayaquil, Ecuador. Women on the island typically have 10

  18. The arts, health, and aging in america: 2005-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Gay Powell; Noelker, Linda S; Bienvenu, Beth

    2015-04-01

    In advance of the White House Conference on Aging (WHCoA) in 1981, 1995, and 2005, the arts and aging communities held mini-conferences to ensure that arts, culture, and livability were part of larger public policy discussions. This article takes a historical look at recommendations from the 2005 WHCoA Mini-Conference on Creativity and Aging in America, including arts in health care, lifelong learning, and livability through universal design. Overarching recommendations in 2005 requested investments in research, including cost-benefit analyses; identification of best practices and model programs; program dissemination to broaden the availability of arts programs. The "Arts" is a broad term encompassing all forms of arts including music, theater, dance, visual arts, literature, multimedia and design, folk, and traditional arts to engage the participation of all older Americans; promotion of innovative public and private partnerships to support arts program development, including workforce development (e.g., artists, social workers, and health care providers); and public awareness of the importance of arts participation to healthy aging. Through the leadership of the National Endowment for the Arts and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, thinking about the arts and aging has broadened to include greater emphasis on a whole-person approach to the health and well-being of older adults. This approach engages older adults in arts participation not only as audience members, but as vital members of their community through creative expression focusing on life stories for intergenerational as well as interprofessional collaboration. This article reviews progress made to date and identifies critical gaps in services for future consideration at a 2015 Mini-Conference on Creativity and Aging related to the WCHoA area of emphasis on healthy aging. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights

  19. A new era for uranium mining in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poissonet, M.; Marvy, A.

    1997-01-01

    North America will be one of the few places in the world where continuous development of new uranium mining projects and renewed, more intense exploration will occur for the coming years. Although the present project approval process and regulatory regime can be seen as a burden, past discoveries of world-class deposits have made North America the best place to invest in uranium production for many years to come. (author) 1 fig

  20. [Scientific journals of medical students in Latin-America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Samith, Ignacio; Oróstegui-Pinilla, Diana; Angulo-Bazán, Yolanda; Mayta-Tristán, Percy; Rodríguez-Morales, Alfonso J

    2010-11-01

    This article deals with the history and evolution of student's scientific journals in Latin-America, their beginnings, how many still exist and which is their future projection. Relevant events show the growth of student's scientific journals in Latin-America and how are they working together to improve their quality. This article is addressed not only for Latin American readers but also to worldwide readers. Latin American medical students are consistently working together to publish scientific research, whose quality is constantly improving.