WorldWideScience

Sample records for america field trip

  1. A Biomes Field Trip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, William H.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes a field trip designed to give students opportunities to experience relevant data leading to concepts in biogeography. Suggests that teachers (including college instructors) adapt the areas studied and procedures used to their own locations. Includes a suggested field trip handout. (JN)

  2. Virtual Field Geologic Trip System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Wang; Linfu Xue; Xiaojun Zhou

    2003-01-01

    Virtual Field Geologic Trip System (VFGTS) constructed by the technique of visualization can efficiently present geologic field information and widely used in the field of geologic education. This paper introduces the developing thinking of VFGTS and discusses the main implement processes. Building VFGTS mainly includes systemically gathering of field geological data, the building of virtual geological world, and displaying of virtual geologic world and human-computer interaction.

  3. What? A Field Trip on the Playground?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbutt, Barb

    1983-01-01

    THE FOLLOWING IS THE FULL TEXT OF THIS DOCUMENT: In this day and age of budget problems, school districts are cutting back on many programs, one of which is field trips. Why worry? There must be dozens of trips that can be made on the playground of your school. Let's look into activities that can be accomplished there. SOIL STUDIES: Have you ever…

  4. Fellows in the Middle: Fabulous Field Trips

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Mary Lou

    2008-05-01

    Montclair State University's NSF GK-12 Program focuses on grades 7 and 8 in five urban public school districts in northern New Jersey. Each year four fieldtrips are taken by the students, middle school teachers, and graduate student Fellows. Many interdisciplinary hands-on lessons are written for use before, during and after each trip with this year's theme of Earth history. The Sterling Hill Mine trip evoked lessons on geology, economics, crystal structure, density, and pH. A virtual trip (webcam link) to scientists in the rainforest of Panama prompted critical thinking, categorizing layers and animals, and construction of model food webs. In the field trip to the NJ School of Conservation the students will build model aquifers, measure tree heights, and measure stream flow to compare to their Hackensack River. Finally the students will travel to MSU for a Math/Science Day with research talks, lab tours, hands-on activities, and a poster session. In January 2008 seventeen teachers, Fellows, and grant personnel took a field trip to China to set up collaborations with researchers and schools in Beijing and Xi'an, including the Beijing Ancient Observatory. All field trips are fabulous! Next year (IYA) our theme will be planetary science and will feature field trips to the Newark Museum's Dreyfuss Planetarium, BCC Buehler Challenger & Science Center, and star parties. We look forward to invigorating middle school science and mathematics with exciting astronomy. Funded by NSF #0638708

  5. Memorable Experiences of a Science Field Trip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Doug

    2000-01-01

    Attempts to learn more about memorable experiences associated with science field trips by conducting a 1-month and an 18-month evaluation of elementary school students who had participated in an environmental science program at a community park in a Midwestern city. Concludes that students' memories were nonspecific and disassociated from…

  6. Field Trips, Minus the Smelly Bus Ride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barack, Lauren

    2005-01-01

    As school boards nationwide are forced to wield the budget ax-extracurricular activities are often the first items to go. Sports, art classes, and even field trips are increasingly rare. Still, children are curious--and so some schools are turning to virtual means to take students out of the classroom. This article briefly discusses virtual…

  7. Hunton Group core workshop and field trip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, K.S. [ed.

    1993-12-31

    The Late Ordovician-Silurian-Devonian Hunton Group is a moderately thick sequence of shallow-marine carbonates deposited on the south edge of the North American craton. This rock unit is a major target for petroleum exploration and reservoir development in the southern Midcontinent. The workshop described here was held to display cores, outcrop samples, and other reservoir-characterization studies of the Hunton Group and equivalent strata throughout the region. A field trip was organized to complement the workshop by allowing examination of excellent outcrops of the Hunton Group of the Arbuckle Mountains.

  8. The "Science" Behind a Successful Field Trip to the Zoo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Catherine Marie; Matthews, Catherine E.

    2011-01-01

    A field trip to the local zoo is often a staple in many elementary school curricula. Many zoos offer free entry to local teachers and their students. Teachers take students on field trips to enrich the curriculum, make connections to what students are learning in school, and provide students with meaningful learning experiences (Kisiel 2007).…

  9. Using Virtual Field Trips to Connect Students with University Scientists: Core Elements and Evaluation of zipTrips[TM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedokun, Omolola A.; Hetzel, Kristin; Parker, Loran Carleton; Loizzo, Jamie; Burgess, Wilella D.; Robinson, J. Paul

    2012-01-01

    Physical field trips to scientists' work places have been shown to enhance student perceptions of science, scientists and science careers. Although virtual field trips (VFTs) have emerged as viable alternatives (or supplements) to traditional physical fieldtrips, little is known about the potential of virtual field trips to provide the same or…

  10. The Beginner's Guide to Interactive Virtual Field Trips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanetis, Jan

    2010-01-01

    For students, field trips can be the best of both worlds: a welcome and exciting break from day-to-day classroom activities and a memorable, real-world experience that will solidify the curriculum in their minds. Unfortunately, the most desirable trips--those to far-away, enticing destinations--have long been inaccessible to all but a select few,…

  11. WIPP site and vicinity geological field trip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Environmental Evaluation Group is conducting an assessment of the radiological health risks to people from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. As a part of this work, EEG is making an effort to improve the understanding of those geological issues concerning the WIPP site which may affect the radiological consequences of the proposed repository. One of the important geological issues to be resolved is the timing and the nature of the dissolution processes which may have affected the WIPP site. EEG organized a two-day conference of geological scientists, on January 17-18, 1980. On the basis of the January conference and the June field trip, EEG has formed the following conclusions: (1) it has not been clearly established that the site or the surrounding area has been attacked by deep dissolution to render it unsuitable for the nuclear waste pilot repository; (2) the existence of an isolated breccia pipe at the site unaccompanied by a deep dissolution wedge, is a very remote possibility; (3) more specific information about the origin and the nature of the brine reservoirs is needed. An important question that should be resolved is whether each encounter with artesian brine represents a separate pocket or whether these occurrences are interconnected; (4) Anderson has postulated a major tectonic fault or a fracture system at the Basin margin along the San Simon Swale; (5) the area in the northern part of the WIPP site, identified from geophysical and bore hole data as the disturbed zone, should be further investigated to cleary understand the nature and significance of this structural anomaly; and (6) a major drawback encountered during the discussions of geological issues related to the WIPP site is the absence of published material that brings together all the known information related to a particular issue

  12. Astronaut Neil Armstrong studies rock samples during geological field trip

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Neil Armstrong, commander of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission, studies rock samples during a geological field trip to the Quitman Mountains area near the Fort Quitman ruins in far west Texas.

  13. Field trips in the southern Rocky Mountains, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, E.P.; Erslev, E.A. (eds.)

    2004-07-01

    The theme of the 2004 GSA Annual Meeting and Exposition, 'Geoscience in a Changing World' covers both new and traditional areas of the earth sciences. The Front Range of the Rocky Mountains and the High Plains preserve an outstanding record of geological processes from Precambrian through Quaternary times, and thus served as excellent educational exhibits for the meeting. The chapters in this field guide all contain technical content as well as a field trip log describing field trip routes and stops. Of the 25 field trips offered at the Meeting. 14 are described in the guidebook, covering a wide variety of geoscience disciplines, with chapters on tectonics (Precambrian and Laramide), stratigraphy and paleoenvironments (e.g., early Paleozoic environments, Jurassic eolian environments, the K-T boundary, the famous Oligocene Florissant fossil beds), economic deposits (coal and molybdenum), geological hazards, and geoarchaeology. Two papers have been abstracted separately for the Coal Abstracts database.

  14. Evidence, explanations, and recommendations for teachers' field trip strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebar, Bryan

    Field trips are well recognized by researchers as an educational approach with the potential to complement and enhance classroom science teaching by exposing students to unique activities, resources, and content in informal settings. The following investigation addresses teachers' field trip practices in three related manuscripts: (1) A study examining the details of teachers' pedagogical strategies intended to facilitate connections between students' experiences and the school curricula while visiting an aquarium; (2) A study documenting and describing sources of knowledge that teachers draw from when leading field trips to an aquarium; (3) A position paper that reviews and summarizes research on effective pedagogical strategies for field trips. Together these three pieces address key questions regarding teachers' practices on field trips: (1) What strategies are teachers employing (and not employing) during self-guided field trips to facilitate learning tied to the class curriculum? (2) What sources of knowledge do teachers utilize when leading field trips? (3) How can teachers be better prepared to lead trips that promote learning? The Oregon Coast Aquarium served as the field trip site for teachers included in this study. The setting suited these questions because the aquarium serves tens of thousands of students on field trips each year but provides no targeted programming for these students as they explore the exhibits. In other words, the teachers who lead field trips assume much of the responsibility for facilitating students' experience. In order to describe and characterize teachers' strategies to link students' experiences to the curriculum, a number of teachers (26) were observed as they led their students' visit to the public spaces of the aquarium. Artifacts, such as worksheets, used during the visit were collected for analysis as well. Subsequently, all teachers were surveyed regarding their use of the field trip and their sources of knowledge for

  15. Understanding Trajectories of Experience in Situated Learning Field Trips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Canova Calori

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the role context plays in promoting engagement and exploration in situated learning experiences during field trips. We look at field trips where children engage with the physical and social context in order to learn about cultural and social aspects of the city they live in. By drawing on empirical data collected by means of qualitative methods, we discuss how learning unfolds along trajectories of experience towards pre-defined and emerging learning objectives. We reflect of the role technology can play in sup-porting learning experiences outside the classroom.

  16. A Field Trip without Buses: Connecting Your Students to Scientists through a Virtual Visit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedokun, Omolola; Parker, Loran Carleton; Loizzo, Jamie; Burgess, Wilella; Robinson, J. Paul

    2011-01-01

    One school offers zipTrips as an alternative to actual field trips taken outside of school. ZipTrips are web- and broadcast-delivered electronic field trips that include online videos, lesson plans, and a live, 45-minute interactive program consisting of four core components: an in-studio audience, live interaction with scientists, prerecorded…

  17. Symptom clusters on primary care medical service trips in five regions in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dainton, Christopher; Chu, Charlene

    2015-09-01

    Short-term primary care medical service trips organized by the North American non-governmental organizations (NGOs) serve many communities in Latin America that are poorly served by the national health system. This descriptive study contributes to the understanding of the epidemiology of patients seen on such low-resource trips. An analysis was conducted on epidemiologic data collected from anonymized electronic medical records on patients seen during 34 short-term medical service trips in five regions in Ecuador, Guatemala, and the Dominican Republic between April 2013 and April 2014. A total of 22,977 patients were assessed by North American clinicians (physicians, nurse practitioners, physician assistants) on primary care, low-resource medical service trips. The majority of patients were female (67.1%), and their average age was 36. The most common presenting symptoms in all regions were general pain, upper respiratory tract symptoms, skin disorders, eye irritation, dyspepsia, and nonspecific abdominal complaints; 71-78% of primary care complaints were easily aggregated into well-defined symptom clusters. The results suggest that guideline development for clinicians involved in these types of medical service trips should focus on management of the high-yield symptom clusters described by these data.

  18. Using GIS for planning field trips: In-situ assessment of Geopoints for field trips with mobile devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, Sarah; Kisser, Thomas; Ditter, Raimund

    2016-04-01

    Up to now no application is existing for collecting data via mobile devices using a geographical information system referring to the evaluation of Geopoints. Classified in different geographical topics a Geopark can be rated for suitability of Geopoints for field trips. The systematically acquisition of the suitability of Geopoints is necessary, especially when doing field trips with lower grade students who see a physical-geographic phenomenon for the first time. For this reason, the development of such an application is an invention for easy handling evaluations of Geopoints on the basis of commonly valid criteria like esthetic attraction, interestingness, and pithiness (Streifinger 2010). Collecting data provides the opportunity of receiving information of particularly suitable Geopoints out of the sight from students, tourists and others. One solution for collecting data in a simple and intuitive form is Survey123 for ArcGIS (http://survey123.esri.com/#/). You can create surveys using an ArcGIS Online organizational account and download your own survey or surveys "that may have been shared with you" (https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/survey-123-for-arcgis/id993015031?mt=8) on your mobile device. "Once a form is downloaded, you will be able to start collecting data."(https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/survey-123-for-arcgis/id993015031?mt=8) Free of cost and use while disconnected the application can easily be used via mobile device on field trips. On a 3-day field trip which is held three times per year in the Geopark Bergstraße-Odenwald Survey123 is being used to evaluate the suitability of different Geopoints for different topics (geology, soils, vegetation, climate). With every field trip about 25 students take part in the survey and evaluate each Geopoint at the route. So, over the time, the docents know exactly which Geopoints suites perfect for teaching geology for example, and why it suites that good. The field trip is organized in an innovative way. Before

  19. Meaningful Field Trip in Education of Renewable Energy Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan Said Tortop

    2013-01-01

    Renewable energy sources, in terms of countries‟ obtaining their energy needs from clean and without harming the environment is becoming increasingly important. This situation also requires improving the quality of science education will be given in this field. In this activity, in a field trip to the center for the renewable energy resources technologies, the application of learning cycle model appropriate for constructivist approach is shown. In the example of solar chimney activity accordi...

  20. A New Take on the Field Trip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukes, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Because Laura Lukes used to be a geologist, when she started teaching science, she wanted to incorporate field experiences in her classroom. But, like many teachers, she faced obstacles: insufficient budgets, testing requirements, a lack of chaperones and transportation, and the safety concerns that come with fieldwork. As a result, a real field…

  1. On a Field Trip with Bourdieu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    How can Bourdieu help us grasp international politics today? How can the con- cept of ‘‘field,’’ originally coined for analyzing relations within states, provide an understanding of emerging patterns of transnational governance? I argue that Bourdieu provides us with sophisticated analytical tools...

  2. Trip Report-Produced-Water Field Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, Enid J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-05-25

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) conducted field testing of a produced-water pretreatment apparatus with assistance from faculty at the Texas A&M University (TAMU) protein separation sciences laboratory located on the TAMU main campus. The following report details all of the logistics surrounding the testing. The purpose of the test was to use a new, commercially-available filter media housing containing modified zeolite (surfactant-modified zeolite or SMZ) porous medium for use in pretreatment of oil and gas produced water (PW) and frac-flowback waters. The SMZ was tested previously in October, 2010 in a lab-constructed configuration ('old multicolumn system'), and performed well for removal of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) from PW. However, a less-expensive, modular configuration is needed for field use. A modular system will allow the field operator to add or subtract SMZ filters as needed to accommodate site specific conditions, and to swap out used filters easily in a multi-unit system. This test demonstrated the use of a commercial filter housing with a simple flow modification and packed with SMZ for removing BTEX from a PW source in College Station, Texas. The system will be tested in June 2012 at a field site in Pennsylvania for treating frac-flowback waters. The goals of this test are: (1) to determine sorption efficiency of BTEX in the new configuration; and (2) to observe the range of flow rates, backpressures, and total volume treated at a given flow rate.

  3. The Effectiveness of a Virtual Field Trip (VFT) Module in Learning Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haris, Norbaizura; Osman, Kamisah

    2015-01-01

    Virtual Field Trip is a computer aided module of science developed to study the Colonisation and Succession in Mangrove Swamps, as an alternative to the real field trip in Form for Biology. This study is to identify the effectiveness of the Virtual Field Trip (VFT) module towards the level of achievement in the formative test for this topic. This…

  4. Understanding Social Learning Behaviors via a Virtual Field Trip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Bai

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This is a multidisciplinary study investigating how a virtual rather than face-to-face field trip can be conducted in a real-world setting and how students respond to such a social learning opportunity. Our participants followed a story of a stroke patient at her virtual home and in a virtual hospital via a teaching vignette. They were then given a new case and got on a virtual trip via a multiuser virtual environment. They played the roles of patients, relatives, doctors, or nurses, experiencing the emotional, physical, or social impacts those stakeholders may go through. Our study finds the overall participation of the Virtual Group is 50% more than the Text Group. Although the Virtual Group generates much more nodes in total, they focused much less on knowledge sharing and comparing than the Text Group (46 vs. 67, but more on other higher-level aspects of social interactions, such as knowledge discovery (57 vs. 42, co-construction (66 vs. 39, testing and modification (58 vs. 24 and application of newly constructed meaning (60 vs. 16. Analysis of students’ virtual field activities and in-depth discussions of important issues implied are included to help understand social learning behaviors during a virtual field trip. Sustainability of such systems is discussed.

  5. Using a Field Trip Inventory to Determine If Listening to Elementary School Students' Conversations, While on a Zoo Field Trip, Enhances Preservice Teachers' Abilities to Plan Zoo Field Trips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Patricia; Mathews, Cathy; Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether listening to spontaneous conversations of elementary students and their teachers/chaperones, while they were visiting a zoo, affected preservice elementary teachers' conceptions about planning a field trip to the zoo. One hundred five preservice elementary teachers designed field trips prior to and after…

  6. Spreading Geodiversity awareness in schools through field trips and ICT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magagna, Alessandra; Giardino, Marco; Ferrero, Elena

    2014-05-01

    Geodiversity, unlike Biodiversity, is not a topic included in the Italian schools curriculum. Nevertheless, Geomorphology is taught at all levels, and it seems to be the right tool for introducing the students to the concepts related to Geodiversity. In this context, a research on the use of field trips and Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) is being carried out for spreading the value of Geodiversity in Secondary Schools. Relevant international literature states that field trips are effective didactic tools for Earth Science education, because they stimulate an active learning process and allow students to appreciate the geological complexity of an area. On the other side, ICT allow students to get knowledge about the variety of landforms of their own territory by staying indoor, using virtual field trips and free software like Google Earth, Google Maps, Bing etc. In order to connect the two strategies, an innovative educational project is proposed here; it involves both the indoor and the outdoor activities, by enhancing a critical approach to the complexity of geological processes. As a starting point, a multimedia product on 20 Italian geological tours, designed for analyzing Geodiversity at a regional scale, has been tested with teachers and students, in order to understand its effectiveness by using it solely indoor. In a second phase, teachers and students have been proposed to compare and integrate indoor and outdoor activities to approach Geodiversity directly at a local scale, by means of targeted field trips. For achieving this goal, during the field trips, students used their mobile devices (smartphone and tablet) equipped with free and/or open source applications (Epicollect, Trimble Outdoor Navigator). These tools allow to track field trips, to gather data (geomorphological observations and related photographs), and to elaborate them in the laboratory; a process useful for reasoning on concepts such as spatial and temporal scales and for

  7. Implementing virtual field trips in the curriculum of geography students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steegen, An; Verstraeten, Gert; Martens, Lotte

    2016-04-01

    Current online geospatial databases and tools offer many opportunities in geoscience education. On the one hand a variety of geoscientific topics and regions can be studied without traditional fieldwork, and on the other hand, field-based learning activities can be prepared or post-processed. In this research, the use of Virtual Field Trips (VFTs) in Google EarthTM is studied. In the framework of geomorphology courses, undergraduate geography students were given VFTs as developed by the lecturers or had to develop VFTs themselves, after visiting a study area. Maps, photographs, GPS-tracks, literature and other spatial information were integrated in the VFTs. The effect of VFTs on learning outcomes, on the insight in the horizontal and vertical relationships between the spatially varying topics, and motivation were measured. Results confirm that students are positive about the use of VFTs. They indicate that VFTs significantly improve their mental map of the study area, whereby horizontal relationships were strengthened. Also the additional information in some VFTs proved to have positive effects on studying and structuring the learning content. Students also appreciated to work independently with the VFTs and saw possibilities for integrating various geoscientific topics. However, there are also some constraints in working with VFTs. It was clear from the study that VFTs have to be embedded in the curriculum as students do not use or develop VFTs spontaneously. Indeed, it takes a lot of time to develop a VFT, and students also appreciate a variety in work forms. Also some technical difficulties on sufficient wireless internet access and flexible work spaces have to be encountered. Besides this, curricula developers should be aware that VFTs are an interesting tool additionally to field trips, but that they cannot replace the field trips.

  8. Determination of Biology Department Students' Past Field Trip Experiences and Examination of Their Self-Efficacy Beliefs in Planning and Organising Educational Field Trips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozdogan, Aykut Emre

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the past field trip experiences of pre-service teachers who are graduates of Faculty of Sciences, Department of Biology and who had pedagogical formation training certificate and to examine their self-efficacy beliefs in planning and organizing field trips with regard to different variables. The study was…

  9. Factors that influence learning during a scientific field trip in a natural environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orion, Nir; Hofstein, Avi

    This study deals with the educational effectiveness of field trips. The main purpose was to obtain insight concerning factors that might influence the ability of students to learn during a scientific field trip in a natural environment. The research was conducted in the context of a 1-day geologic field trip by 296 students in Grades 9 through 11 in high schools in Israel. The study combined qualitative and quantitative research methods. Data were collected from three different sources (student, teacher, and outside observer) in three stages (before, after, and during the field trip). Using observations and questionnaires we investigated: a) the nature of student learning during the field trip, b) student attitudes toward the field trip, and c) changes in student knowledge and attitudes after the field trip. Our findings suggest that the educational effectiveness of a field trip is controlled by two major factors: the field trip quality and the Novelty space (or Familiarity Index). The educational quality of a field trip is determined by its structure, learning materials, and teaching method, and the ability to direct learning to a concrete interaction with the environment. The novelty space consists of three prefield variables: cognitive, psychological, and geographic. The learning performance of students whose Novelty Space was reduced before the field trip was significantly higher than that of students whose Novelty Space had not been so reduced. Thus, the former group gained significantly higher achievement and attitude levels. It is suggested that a field trip should occur early in the concrete part of the curriculum, and should be preceded by a relatively short preparatory unit that focuses on increasing familiarity with the learning setting of the field trip, thereby limiting the Novelty Space factors.Received: 23 March 1993; Revised: 24 January 1994;

  10. Effective Lesson Planning: Field Trips in the Science Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, C. R.

    2010-10-01

    Science field trips can positively impact and motivate students. However, if a field trip is not executed properly, with appropriate preparation and follow-up reinforcement, it can result in a loss of valuable educational time and promote misconceptions in the students. This study was undertaken to determine if a classroom lesson before an out-of-the-classroom activity would affect learner gain more or less than a lesson after the activity. The study was based on the immersive theater movie ``Earth's Wild Ride'' coupled with a teacher-led Power Point lesson. The participants in the study were students in a sixth grade physical science class. The order of lessons showed no detectable effect on final learner outcomes. Based on pre- and post-testing, improvement in mean learning gain came from the teacher-led lesson independent of the movie. The visit to the immersive theater, however, had significant positive effects that did not show up in the quantitative results of the testing.

  11. Field trips and their effect on student achievement in and attitudes toward science: A comparison of a physical versus a virtual field trip to the Indian River Lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Lesley Cochran

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of physical and virtual field trips on students' achievement in estuarine ecology and their attitudes toward science. The study also assessed the effect of students' learning styles, the interaction between group membership and learning styles, and the effect of group membership on students' ability to answer questions at different levels of Bloom's (1956) taxonomy. Working with a convenient sample of 67 freshmen and sophomore non-science majors, students were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups (physical, n = 32 and virtual, n = 35). Prior to treatment, students' learning styles were determined, students were pre-assessed on the two targeted measures, and all students attended four consecutive, in-class, 75-minute lectures on estuarine ecology and the Indian River Lagoon (IRL). Pre-assessed data indicated no significant differences between the groups on the two dependent measures. On the weekend following the lecture series, the physical field trip group engaged in a set of predetermined activities at the IRL for 2 hours in the morning. Later that afternoon, the virtual field trip group participated in a 2-hour virtual trip to the IRL that exactly matched the physical field trip activities. This virtual trip incorporated the CD-ROM The Living Lagoon: An Electronic Field Trip. Following each trip, students were post-assessed using the same pre-assessment instruments. MANCOVA results indicated no significant differences on all research factors (i.e., group membership, learning style, and group-learning style interaction). Data analysis also revealed that there was no significant effect of group membership on students' ability to answer questions at different levels of Bloom's taxonomy. These findings imply that educators can integrate virtual field trips that are structured in the same manner as their corresponding physical field trips without significantly impacting student achievement or attitudes.

  12. Teachers as Secondary Players: Involvement in Field Trips to Natural Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alon, Nirit Lavie; Tal, Tali

    2016-07-01

    This study focused on field trips to natural environments where the teacher plays a secondary role alongside a professional guide. We investigated teachers' and field trip guides' views of the teacher's role, the teacher's actual function on the field trip, and the relationship between them. We observed field trips, interviewed teachers and guides, and administered questionnaires. We found different levels of teacher involvement, ranging from mainly supervising and giving technical help, to high involvement especially in the cognitive domain and sometimes in the social domain. Analysis of students' self-reported outcomes showed that the more students believe their teachers are involved, the higher the self-reported learning outcomes.

  13. Field and Classroom Strategies for Improving Critical Thinking on Introductory Geoscience Field Trips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boryta, M. D.; Walker, B.; Long, T.

    2011-12-01

    Although field experiences for introductory geoscience students have tremendous potential with respect to recruiting and retaining majors and enriching their understanding of geologic concepts, implementing field trips that promote critical thinking for introductory students is challenging. After observing that many of our students struggled at applying concepts they learned in the classroom to unfamiliar field areas, we developed teaching strategies and instructional materials for the classroom and the field to promote critical thinking and self-directed learning on field trips. We assessed the effectiveness of these modifications using video, interviews, student field trip reports and field notebooks. Student co-inquirers played a vital role during the project in field instruction and data analysis. We will discuss think-alouds, the importance of repetition in the classroom, allowing adequate processing time, field trip preparation exercises for the classroom, and other significant pedagogical changes that we made. Video of students in the field at the beginning, middle, and end of the project will be shown to illustrate the progressive changes in students' approaches to outcrop analysis over the course of the project.

  14. Incorporating "Virtual" and "Real World" Field Trips into Introductory Geography Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friess, Daniel A.; Oliver, Grahame J. H.; Quak, Michelle S. Y.; Lau, Annie Y. A.

    2016-01-01

    The "field trip" is a key pedagogical tool within geographical education to encourage deep learning, though they are increasingly difficult to implement due to reduced budgets, safety concerns and increasing class sizes. We incorporated three field-learning activities into a large introductory module. A traditional staff-led trip was the…

  15. Promoting Field Trip Confidence: Teachers Providing Insights for Pre-Service Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ateskan, Armagan; Lane, Jennie F.

    2016-01-01

    Pre-service teachers need experiences in practical matters as a part of field trip preparations programmes. For 14 years, a private, non-profit university in Turkey has involved pre-service teachers in field trip planning, implementation and evaluation. A programme assessment was conducted through a case study to examine the long-term effects of…

  16. Meaningful Field Trip in Education of Renewable Energy Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Said Tortop

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy sources, in terms of countries‟ obtaining their energy needs from clean and without harming the environment is becoming increasingly important. This situation also requires improving the quality of science education will be given in this field. In this activity, in a field trip to the center for the renewable energy resources technologies, the application of learning cycle model appropriate for constructivist approach is shown. In the example of solar chimney activity according to 5E model, in elaboration step, students, by using their imagination and creativity, put out recommendations and new designs for the efficiency of the application of solar chimney. It is quite important for educators to follow what kind of acquisitions that students will gain and what kind of changes will occur in their perceptions and attitudes towards renewable energy technologies thanks to this activity. Related documents are in attachments. This activity has been very helpful in the education of young scientists on the field of renewable energy sources technologies.

  17. Trip report for field visit to Fayetteville Shale gas wells.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J. A.; Environmental Science Division

    2007-09-30

    This report describes a visit to several gas well sites in the Fayetteville Shale on August 9, 2007. I met with George Sheffer, Desoto Field Manager for SEECO, Inc. (a large gas producer in Arkansas). We talked in his Conway, Arkansas, office for an hour and a half about the processes and technologies that SEECO uses. We then drove into the field to some of SEECO's properties to see first-hand what the well sites looked like. In 2006, the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) made several funding awards under a program called Low Impact Natural Gas and Oil (LINGO). One of the projects that received an award is 'Probabilistic Risk-Based Decision Support for Oil and Gas Exploration and Production Facilities in Sensitive Ecosystems'. The University of Arkansas at Fayetteville has the lead on the project, and Argonne National Laboratory is a partner. The goal of the project is to develop a Web-based decision support tool that will be used by mid- and small-sized oil and gas companies as well as environmental regulators and other stakeholders to proactively minimize adverse ecosystem impacts associated with the recovery of gas reserves in sensitive areas. The project focuses on a large new natural gas field called the Fayetteville Shale. Part of the project involves learning how the natural gas operators do business in the area and the technologies they employ. The field trip on August 9 provided an opportunity to do that.

  18. The View at the Zoo: Using a Photographic Scavenger Hunt as the Basis for an Interdisciplinary Field Trip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Lynn; Breitbarth, Pamela; Brungardt, Matthew; Dorr, Carrie; Balgopal, Meena

    2010-01-01

    Most educators have a love-hate relationship with field trips. On the one hand, field trips are a great way to get students out of the building, enhance learning, and have some fun. On the other hand, field trips are a lot of work and worry. Especially now, with the increased cost of transportation and the need for curricular ties, field trips…

  19. Field trip guide to selected outcrops, Arbuckle Mountains, Oklahoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-11-17

    The Arbuckle Mountains, named for Brigadier General Matthew Arbuckle, are located in south-central Oklahoma. The formations that comprise the Arbuckle Mountains have been extensively studied for hydrocarbon source rock and reservoir rock characteristics that can be applied to the subsurface in the adjacent Anadarko and Ardmore basins. Numerous reports and guidebooks have been written concerning the Arbuckle Mountains. A few important general publications are provided in the list of selected references. The purpose of this handout is to provide general information on the geology of the Arbuckle Mountains and specific information on the four field trip stops, adapted from the literature. The four stops were at: (1) Sooner Rock and Sand Quarry; (2) Woodford Shale; (3) Hunton Anticline and Hunton Quarry; and (4) Tar Sands of Sulfur Area. As part of this report, two papers are included for more detail: Paleomagnetic dating of basinal fluid migration, base-metal mineralization, and hydrocarbon maturation in the Arbuckle Mountains, Oklahoma and Laminated black shale-bedded chert cyclicity in the Woodford Formation, southern Oklahoma.

  20. Forest Field Trips among High School Science Teachers in the Southern Piedmont

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Shannon M.; Munsell, John F.; Seiler, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Students benefit in many ways by taking field trips to forests. Improved academic performance, increased participation in outdoor recreation, and a better grasp of natural resources management are some of the advantages. However, trips are not easy for teachers to organize and lead. Declining budgets, on-campus schedules, and standards of learning…

  1. Study Abroad Field Trip Improves Test Performance through Engagement and New Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houser, Chris; Brannstrom, Christian; Quiring, Steven M.; Lemmons, Kelly K.

    2011-01-01

    Although study abroad trips provide an opportunity for affective and cognitive learning, it is largely assumed that they improve learning outcomes. The purpose of this study is to determine whether a study abroad field trip improved cognitive learning by comparing test performance between the study abroad participants (n = 20) and their peers who…

  2. Studying Geology of Central Texas through Web-Based Virtual Field Trips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, C.; Khan, S. D.; Wellner, J. S.

    2007-12-01

    Each year over 2500 students, mainly non-science majors, take introductory geology classes at the University of Houston. Optional field trips to Central Texas for these classes provide a unique learning opportunity for students to experience geologic concepts in a real world context. The field trips visit Enchanted Rock, Inks Lake, Bee Cave Road, Lion Mountain, and Slaughter Gap. Unfortunately, only around 10% of our students participate in these field trips. We are developing a web-based virtual field trip for Central Texas to provide an additional effective learning experience for students in these classes. The module for Enchanted Rock is complete and consists of linked geological maps, satellite imagery, digital elevation models, 3-D photography, digital video, and 3-D virtual reality visualizations. The ten virtual stops focus on different geologic process and are accompanied by questions and answers. To test the efficacy of the virtual field trip, we developed a quiz to measure student learning and a survey to evaluate the website. The quiz consists of 10 questions paralleling each stop and information on student attendance on the Central Texas field trip and/or the virtual field trip. From the survey, the average time spent on the website was 26 minutes, and overall the ratings of the virtual field trip were positive. Most noticeably students responded that the information on the website was relevant to their class and that the pictures, figures, and animations were essential to the website. Although high correlation coefficients between responses were expected for some questions (i.e., 0.89 for "The content or text of the website was clear" and "The information on the website was easy to read"), some correlations were less expected: 0.77 for "The number of test questions was appropriate" and "The information on the website was easy to read," and 0.70 for "The test questions reinforced the material presented on the website" and "The information on the

  3. Meta-Analytic Evaluation of a Virtual Field Trip to Connect Middle School Students with University Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedokun, Omolola A.; Liu, Jia; Parker, Loran Carleton; Burgess, Wilella

    2015-01-01

    Although virtual field trips are becoming popular, there are few empirical studies of their impacts on student outcomes. This study reports on a meta-analytic evaluation of the impact of a virtual field trip on student perceptions of scientists. Specifically, the study examined the summary effect of zipTrips broadcasts on evaluation…

  4. A Way to Change Learning: Field Trips as a University Pedagogical Resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érika Vásquez Salazar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article represents the systematization of different experiences related to educational field trips in higher education taking place between 2005 and 2012 within the Primary Education Division (DEB at Universidad Nacional, Costa Rica. Field trips were used as an educational resource to develop attitudes and aptitudes in students from various education majors. The author proposes pedagogical field trips as a possible strategy to promote innovation in higher education and achieve a positive change in teaching and learning processes. Field trips are presented as a tool that allows students to complete their coursework in a more significant and participative manner being in contact with the educational reality and to become humanized and to reinvent themselves as persons and future teachers.

  5. The Animal Exhibits at the Field Museum. Activities for Focused Field Trips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickland, Thomas, J.

    Museum visits allow students to see animals from South America, North America, Africa, Asia, and the North Pole without rain, snow, or mosquitoes. This activity guide was developed for teachers, chaperones, and students to use with the animal exhibits in the Daniel F. and Ada L. Rice Wing of the Field Museum of Chicago. Activities are designed for…

  6. Field trip guide to the Valles Caldera and its geothermal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, F.E.; Bolivar, S.L.

    1983-12-01

    This field trip guide has been compiled from extensive field trips led at Los Alamos National Laboratory during the past six years. The original version of this guide was designed to augment a workshop on the Valles Caldera for the Continental Scientific Drilling Program (CSDP). This workshop was held at Los Alamos, New Mexico, 5-7 October 1982. More stops were added to this guide to display the volcanic and geothermal features at the Valles Caldera. The trip covers about 90 miles (one way) and takes two days to complete; however, those who wish to compress the trip into one day are advised to use the designated stops listed in the Introduction. Valles Caldera and vicinity comprise both one of the most exciting geothermal areas in the United States and one of the best preserved Quaternary caldera complexes in the world.

  7. Photovoice as an evaluation tool for student learning on a field trip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrendt, Marc; Machtmes, Krisanna

    2016-05-01

    Background: Photovoice is one method that enables an educator to view an experience from a student's perspective. This study examined how teachers might use photovoice during an informal learning experience to understand the students' experiences and experiential gain. Design and methods: Participants in this study consisted of six students, three male and three female, ranging from ninth through twelfth grade at a rural Ohio high school, who attended a field trip to a biological field station for a four-day immersive science experience. Students were provided cameras to photograph what they believed was important, interesting, or significant during an immersive four-day science trip to a biological field station, individualizing their observations in ways meaningful to them, and enabling them to assimilate or accommodate the experiences to their schema. Results: Analysis identified five positive benefits to use photovoice as an evaluation tool: teachers were provided qualitative evidence to evaluate student interaction on the field trip; teachers could evaluate the students' photographs and captions to determine if the field trip met the learning objectives; students were empowered to approach the goals and objectives of the field trip by making the field trip personally relevant; students assimilated and accommodated the new observations and experiences to their own schema; students automatically reflected upon the learning experience as they captioned the photos. Conclusions: Through photovoice, the teachers were enabled to qualitatively assess each student's experience and learning from the field trip by illustrating what the students experienced and thought was significant; providing the teachers a method to evaluate all participating students, including those who are secretive or do not normally contribute to class discussions.

  8. Exploring the use of Virtual Field Trips with elementary school teachers: A collaborative action research approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jeffrey Lance

    This research examines how elementary school teachers, when supported, use Virtual Field Trips (VFTs) to address the curricula in meaningful ways. I conducted a qualitative study with six teachers, in a collaborative action research context over a six month period. The teachers, five males and one female, all taught either grade five or six and utilized Virtual Field Trips within a variety of curricula areas including science, social studies, music and language arts. In addition, the thesis examines resulting integration of technology into the regular classroom program as a product of the utilization of Virtual Field Trips. The process of collaborative action research was applied as a means of personal and professional growth both for the participants and the researcher/facilitator. By the end of the research study, all participants had learned to integrate Virtual Field Trips into their classroom program, albeit with different levels of success and in different curricula areas. The development of attitudes, skills and knowledge for students and teachers alike was fostered through the participation in Virtual Field Trips. A common concern regarding the utilization of Virtual Field Trips was the time spent locating an appropriate site that met curricula expectations. Participation in the collaborative action research process allowed each teacher to grow professionally, personally and socially. Each participant strongly encouraged the utilization of a long term project with a common area of exploration as a means for positive professional development. Implications and recommendations for future research on the utilization of Virtual Field Trips, as well as the viability of collaborative action research to facilitate teacher development are presented.

  9. Collaborative Research: Bringing Problem Solving in the Field into the Classroom: Developing and Assessing Virtual Field Trips for Teaching Sedimentary and Introductory Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, P.; Caldwell, M.

    2012-12-01

    Coastal Florida offers a unique setting for the facilitation of learning about a variety of modern sedimentary environments. Despite the conflicting concept of "virtual" and "actual" field trip, and the uncertainties associated with the implementation and effectiveness, virtual trips provide likely the only way to reach a large diversified student population and eliminate travel time and expenses. In addition, with rapidly improving web and visualization technology, field trips can be simulated virtually. It is therefore essential to systematically develop and assess the educational effectiveness of virtual field trips. This project is developing, implementing, and assessing a series of virtual field trips for teaching undergraduate sedimentary geology at a large four-year research university and introductory geology at a large two-year community college. The virtual field trip is based on a four-day actual field trip for a senior level sedimentary geology class. Two versions of the virtual field trip, one for advanced class and one for introductory class, are being produced. The educational outcome of the virtual field trip will be compared to that from actual field trip. This presentation summarizes Year 1 achievements of the three-year project. The filming, editing, and initial production of the virtual field trip have been completed. Formative assessments were conducted by the Coalition for Science Literacy at the University of South Florida. Once tested and refined, the virtual field trips will be disseminated through broadly used web portals and workshops at regional and national meetings.

  10. Career-focused field trips as experienced by at-risk rural students: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutson, Tommye L.

    A lack of recent research focused on field trips as pedagogy in K-12 settings established the foundation for this work. The research design followed multiple-case case study model. The participants were four male students from a small rural high school in central Texas. Each participant, previously labeled as academically "at-risk", had identified an inability to describe connections between academic science content as presented in their common classes and future jobs, vocational training, and/or careers requiring higher education. Because the participants had no directed field excursions addressing this desirable knowledge and/or skill, a career-focused field trip was designed to address the self-identified deficit reported by the participants. The specific research questions were: (1) How does the ability to describe connections between academic science content (biology, chemistry, and physics) and future careers change as rural students experience a purposeful excursion to a post-secondary facility providing vocational training? (2) When do the connection(s) between content and future careers become evident to students? (3) What effects or impact do newly discovered connections have on rural students' aspirations with regard to future career or higher education options? Data were gathered using existing school records, an initial survey, one-to-one interviews conducted before and after the field trip, focus groups conducted before and after the field trip, and observations during the field trip. Data analysis revealed that all participants were able to describe various connections between academic content and careers after the field trip, as well as identify a specific incident that initially established those connections. In addition, all of the participants reported discovering options for careers during the field trip not previously realized or considered. Each participant indicated that they found field trips to be effective. As a result of their singular

  11. Mass Wasting Following the 2002 Missionary Ridge Fire near Durango, Colorado, a Field Trip Guidebook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigio, Erica R.; Blair, Robert W.; Burke, Michael; Cannon, Susan H.; deWolfe, Victor G.; Ey, John; Gartner, Joseph E.; Gillam, Mary L.; Knowlton, N.D.; Santi, Paul M.; Schulz, William H.; Coe, Jeffrey A.

    2007-01-01

    This field trip guide focuses on mass wasting following the 2002 Missionary Ridge fire near Durango, Colorado. We prepared this guide to accompany a May 4, 2006, field trip during the second Roy J. Shlemon Specialty Conference, which was held in Durango, Colorado, May 3-5. The conference, entitled Mass Wasting in Disturbed Watersheds, was sponsored by the Association of Environmental & Engineering Geologists (AEG) and the AEG Foundation. The objective of this Shlemon Conference was to bring together practitioners and researchers to define the current state of practice and identify unresolved problems with regard to the prediction and mitigation of mass wasting in disturbed watersheds. The one-day field trip begins and ends in Durango. Many of the field trip stops are at debris-flow fans around the periphery of the burn area, but one stop examines landslide activity in the burn area that initiated during spring 2005 snowmelt within a dormant, deep-seated landslide, as well as an erosion/debris-flow mitigation effort in a drainage basin above Lemon Reservoir. Also provided are descriptions of the Missionary Ridge fire, the geologic and climatic setting of the field-trip area, and the general effects of wildfire on watersheds.

  12. Using Virtual Field Trips to Connect Students with University Scientists: Core Elements and Evaluation of zipTrips™

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedokun, Omolola A.; Hetzel, Kristin; Parker, Loran Carleton; Loizzo, Jamie; Burgess, Wilella D.; Paul Robinson, J.

    2012-10-01

    Physical field trips to scientists' work places have been shown to enhance student perceptions of science, scientists and science careers. Although virtual field trips (VFTs) have emerged as viable alternatives (or supplements) to traditional physical fieldtrips, little is known about the potential of virtual field trips to provide the same or similar science career exploration advantages as physical field trips. The overarching goal of this paper is to describe a VFT, zipTrips™, designed to provide middle school students, especially those in resource limited rural areas, with access to university scientists. Using zipTrips as a case example, the paper identifies and describes some of the core characteristics and elements of high quality authentic VFTs that foster student-scientist interactions. In addition, the paper uses program evaluation data to examine the impact of zipTrips on student perceptions of scientists.

  13. Utilizing Geo-Referenced Mobile Game Technology for Universally Accessible Virtual Geology Field Trips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursztyn, Natalie; Pederson, Joel; Shelton, Brett; Walker, Andrew; Campbell, Todd

    2015-01-01

    Declining interest and low persistence is well documented among undergraduate students in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math in the United States. For geoscience, field trips are important attractors to students, however with high enrollment courses and increasing costs they are becoming rare. We propose in this concept paper that the…

  14. How to Make a Field Trip a Hands-On Investigative Laboratory: Learning about Marine Invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrowes, Patricia A.

    2007-01-01

    Research has shown that when students are given the opportunity to ask their own questions and design their own experiments, they become more interested in learning the answers. In this article, the author describes an effective method to do a field trip to the beach and gets her students to make observations about marine animals, come up with a…

  15. Effect of Field Trip On Students’ Academic Performance in Basic Technology in Ilorin Metropolis, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Ganiyu Alasela Amosa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of field trip in teaching and learning helps to bring about effective and efficient learning in Basic Technology. Field trip is a group excursion away from the normal education environment for firsthand experience of an historic site or place of special interest. This study therefore was geared toward finding out the effect of field trip on students’ academic performance in learning practical skills in Basic Technology in Ilorin, Nigeria. A pre‐test, post‐test and control group quasi‐experimental design was adopted for this study. Two sampled upper basic Schools were selected from Ilorin East Local Government Area of Kwara State using purposive sampling technique. The two sampled upper basic Schools comprised 50 students who were randomly assigned to treatment (25 students and control (25 students groups. Analysis of Co‐variance (ANCOVA was used to analyze the data collected. The findings revealed that at significant level, the value produced F (2, 22 = 3.44 > 0.109 Therefore, hypothesis one was rejected. Also, at 0.05 significant level, the value produced F (2, 9 = 4.26 > 0.433. Therefore, hypothesis two was rejected. Based on the findings, it was recommended among others that; teachers should take students on field trip so as to promote and encourage active engagement in learning, self‐motivation, discovery learning and learning by experience.

  16. Design and implementation of a genomics field trip program aimed at secondary school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQueen, Jennifer; Wright, Jody J; Fox, Joanne A

    2012-01-01

    With the rapid pace of advancements in biological research brought about by the application of computer science and information technology, we believe the time is right for introducing genomics and bioinformatics tools and concepts to secondary school students. Our approach has been to offer a full-day field trip in our research facility where secondary school students carry out experiments at the laboratory bench and on a laptop computer. This experience offers benefits for students, teachers, and field trip instructors. In delivering a wide variety of science outreach and education programs, we have learned that a number of factors contribute to designing a successful experience for secondary school students. First, it is important to engage students with authentic and fun activities that are linked to real-world applications and/or research questions. Second, connecting with a local high school teacher to pilot programs and linking to curricula taught in secondary schools will enrich the field trip experience. Whether or not programs are linked directly to local teachers, it is important to be flexible and build in mechanisms for collecting feedback in field trip programs. Finally, graduate students can be very powerful mentors for students and should be encouraged to share their enthusiasm for science and to talk about career paths. Our experiences suggest a real need for effective science outreach programs at the secondary school level and that genomics and bioinformatics are ideal areas to explore.

  17. Design and implementation of a genomics field trip program aimed at secondary school students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer McQueen

    Full Text Available With the rapid pace of advancements in biological research brought about by the application of computer science and information technology, we believe the time is right for introducing genomics and bioinformatics tools and concepts to secondary school students. Our approach has been to offer a full-day field trip in our research facility where secondary school students carry out experiments at the laboratory bench and on a laptop computer. This experience offers benefits for students, teachers, and field trip instructors. In delivering a wide variety of science outreach and education programs, we have learned that a number of factors contribute to designing a successful experience for secondary school students. First, it is important to engage students with authentic and fun activities that are linked to real-world applications and/or research questions. Second, connecting with a local high school teacher to pilot programs and linking to curricula taught in secondary schools will enrich the field trip experience. Whether or not programs are linked directly to local teachers, it is important to be flexible and build in mechanisms for collecting feedback in field trip programs. Finally, graduate students can be very powerful mentors for students and should be encouraged to share their enthusiasm for science and to talk about career paths. Our experiences suggest a real need for effective science outreach programs at the secondary school level and that genomics and bioinformatics are ideal areas to explore.

  18. Quarry Quest. A Field Trip Guide to the Indiana Limestone District, Monroe and Lawrence Counties, Indiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewmaker, Sherman N.

    This guide provides information for planning a field trip to the Indiana Limestone District. This district, located in Monroe and Lawrence Counties, Indiana, is responsible for material that has dominated the building-limestone market in the United States for nearly a century. A few of the many well-known buildings using Indiana limestone are the…

  19. Deepening Students' Scientific Inquiry Skills during a Science Museum Field Trip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutwill, Joshua P.; Allen, Sue

    2012-01-01

    Field trips to science museums can provide students with educational experiences, particularly when museum programs emphasize scientific inquiry skill building over content knowledge acquisition. We describe the creation and study of 2 programs designed to significantly enhance students' inquiry skills at any interactive science museum exhibit…

  20. Taking an Internet Field Trip: Promoting Cultural and Historical Diversity through Mayan Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furner, Joseph; Holbein, Marie F. Doan; Scullion, Karin Jackson

    2000-01-01

    Introduces Internet field trips as a means of instruction for diverse student populations; explores the Mayan mathematics system in an interdisciplinary fourth grade math lesson; suggests strategies for students with limited English proficiency base on TESOL (Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages); and includes a sample lesson plan.…

  1. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF A VIRTUAL FIELD TRIP (VFT MODULE IN LEARNING BIOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbaizura HARIS

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Virtual Field Trip is a computer aided module of science developed to study the Colonisation and Succession in Mangrove Swamps, as an alternative to the real field trip in Form for Biology. This study is to identify the effectiveness of the Virtual Field Trip (VFT module towards the level of achievement in the formative test for this topic. This study was conducted to 60 students employing a quasi-experimental design involving a treatment group taught using the VFT module and a control group who were taught using conventional methods. Analysis into the effectiveness of the virtual module was done descriptively, followed by inferential analysis involving the two-way ANOVA. The results showed significant differences in the mean scores of pre and post achievement between students taught using VFT and students who were taught using conventional methods for objective, structure and essay type questions. The study concluded that teaching and learning by using the VFT module, integrated with ICT, has a positive impact on student achievement whencompared to conventional methods. This study focuses on the use of the VFT recognizing that teachers are often unable to conduct a real field trip on location.

  2. Learning on Zoo Field Trips: The Interaction of the Agendas and Practices of Students, Teachers, and Zoo Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Susan Kay; Passmore, Cynthia; Anderson, David

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on the findings of a case study that investigated the interaction of the agendas and practices of students, teachers, and zoo educators during a class field trip to a zoo. The study reports on findings of the analysis of two case classes of students and their perceptions of their learning experiences during the field trip. The…

  3. Field Trip to the Moon. LRO/LCROSS Edition. Informal Educator's Guide. EG-2008-09-48-MSFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), 2007

    2007-01-01

    Field Trip to the Moon uses an inquiry-based learning approach that fosters team building and introduces participants to careers in science and engineering. The program components include the Field Trip to the Moon DVD [not included here], Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO)/Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) Activities, and…

  4. A field trip guidebook to the type localities of Marland Billings' 1935 Paleozoic bedrock stratigraphy near Littleton, New Hampshire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Douglas W.; Rankin, Mary B.

    2014-01-01

    Marland Billings' classic paper published in 1937 in the Geological Society of America Bulletin established a succession of six stratigraphic units in rocks of low metamorphic grade near Littleton, New Hampshire. The two youngest units are fossiliferous in the area, with ages established at the time as “middle” Silurian and Early Devonian. Billings and students mapped the same stratigraphic section in adjacent areas of progressively higher regional metamorphic grade. This work laid the foundation upon which a major part of subsequent work in New England has been directly or indirectly built. This guidebook was written for a field trip held in March 2013 to visit roadcuts that are as close as possible in March to the type localities or areas of Billings’ six-fold stratigraphic succession. Ten stops are in rocks of chlorite grade of Acadian(?) metamorphism; the final stop visits amphibolite of the Ammonoosuc Volcanics. Fieldwork by the authors over the past 20 years confirms Billings’ broad conclusions.

  5. Taiwan: a perfect field trip to study active tectonics and erosion processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigot-Cormier, Florence; Beauval, Véronique; Martinez, Claire-Marie; Seyeux, Jana

    2014-05-01

    Taiwan is located at the boundary between the Philippine Sea Plate to the East and the Eurasian Plate to the West. This plate boundary is rather complex since it comprises two subduction zones of reverse polarities. Due to this specific geodynamic context, this field is a perfect area to answer the French program in 5th grade (erosion processes) and 4th grade (active tectonics) in Earth Science class. That's why for the second year, students from the Lycée Français de Shanghai (LFS) in 4th grade will go for a 4-day field trip to discover volcanoes (in the Yangminshan National Park) and para-seismic constructions in the 101 Tower at Taipei. It will remind them the program of their previous class (5ème) through the visit of Yehliu Geographic Park and some other areas in the North of the Island where they will be able to observe different erosion processes (wind or water) carving the landscape. The aim of this field trip is first to show them that Earth Sciences cannot be studied only in class but also on the field to get a better understanding of the processes. In this manner, after having understood the internal thermal system of our Earth in class, they will see its manifestations on the surface of the Earth, by seeing an active explosive volcano with gas ejection, specific mineralization, and hot springs. Furthermore on the field, they will be able to do a link between the external and internal geodynamics processes usually studied separately in middle school. The poster presented will detail the first field trip in Taiwan realized in May 2013 by the LFS 4th grade students and will be made by the students going in June 2014. Thus, this activity will allow them to get a perspective of the topic that they will discover on the field trip.

  6. The Practice of Prospective Science Teachers regarding the Planning of Education Based Trips: Evaluation of Six Different Field Trips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozdogan, Aykut Emre

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explain how planning educational trips out of school environments for training purposes should be as well as to determine the opinions and the practices of prospective science teachers. The study that lasted for two years was carried out in parallel with the elective course "Science Education in Informal Learning…

  7. Geologic field-trip guide to Lassen Volcanic National Park and vicinity, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muffler, L. J. Patrick; Clynne, Michael A.

    2015-07-22

    This geologic field-trip guide provides an overview of Quaternary volcanism in and around Lassen Volcanic National Park in northern California. The guide begins with a comprehensive overview of the geologic framework and the stratigraphic terminology of the Lassen region, based primarily on the “Geologic map of Lassen Volcanic National Park and vicinity” (Clynne and Muffler, 2010). The geologic overview is then followed by detailed road logs describing the volcanic features that can readily be seen in the park and its periphery. Twenty-one designated stops provide detailed explanations of important volcanic features. The guide also includes mileage logs along the highways leading into the park from the major nearby communities. The field-trip guide is intended to be a flexible document that can be adapted to the needs of a visitor approaching the park from any direction.

  8. Educational Field Trips at the World’s Largest Physics Laboratory

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    This video documents the educational field trip to CERN by high-school students of Ellinogermaniki Agogi, Greece. The aim of this video is to demonstrate a methodological approach, structured into three steps, that other schools can follow in order to get the most out of the CERN experience. The video has been supported but the Go-Lab and Inspiring Science Education Projects, co-funded by the EU’s 7th Framework Programme.

  9. A Transformative Undergraduate Field Trip to the Grand Canyon and Death Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    Seeing the iconic Grand Canyon and Death Valley in person is a transformative experience for most geologists, including nine undergraduate geology students from upstate New York. The students were enrolled in a one-credit course designed around a nine-day spring-break field trip to Grand Canyon National Park (GCNP) and Death Valley National Park (DVNP). We met once a week before the trip to plan day-to-day activities and discuss background geologic information. Students selected a research topic related to our itinerary and wrote a guidebook entry for the topic. Students' entries were combined with papers, maps, and background material to make a guidebook. The printed guidebooks provided students with a "publication" of their work to show to others and refer to in the field. The nine-day field trip started with a flight into Las Vegas, NV, on 3/1/14. We spent three nights camping at the South Rim of the Grand Canyon, one night camping in Valley of Fire State Park (VOFSP, 55 mi N of Las Vegas), and three nights staying at the Shoshone Education and Research Center (SHEAR) east of Death Valley. Highlights of the trip included the hike along the Bright Angel Trail (and fault) to Plateau Point and recognition of the Great Unconformity at GCNP; the White Domes loop hike, camping at the Beehives, and observation of the Muddy Mountain Overthrust in VOFSP; and hikes at Ubehebe Crater, Badwater Salt Flat, and Natural Bridge Canyon in DVNP. Each student presented his/her research topic at a pertinent point in the field trip; students were impressively well-prepared. One requirement of the course was a poster presentation on each student's research topic at our Undergraduate Research Symposium in April. For most of the students, the poster session was the first experience preparing and presenting a poster. In addition, the class gave a joint colloquium presentation to several hundred science majors and a number of science faculty at Saint Rose. Each student spoke for five

  10. Cold War: Flora's Undercover Agents. A Campus Winter Field Trip to Illustrate That Plants Do Indeed Thermoregulate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGolier, Teresa

    2002-01-01

    Proposes using a winter field trip to explore how various plants on a campus thermoregulate. Describes techniques for determining the location of cold stresses in plants and how plants manage to deal with the cold stresses. (DDR)

  11. High magnetic field facilities in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, R.; Grössinger, R.; Bertorello, H.; Broto, J. M.; Davies, H. A.; Estevez-Rams, E.; Gonzalez, J.; Matutes, J.; Sinnecker, J. P.; Sagredo, V.

    2006-11-01

    The EC supported a network (under the Framework 5 ALFA Programme) designated HIFIELD (Project number II0147FI) and entitled: "Measurement methods involving high magnetic fields for advanced and novel materials". As a result, high field facilities were initiated, constructed or extended at the following laboratories in Latin America: University Cordoba (Argentina), CES, Merida (Venezuela), CIMAV, Chihuahua (Mexico), University Federal de Rio de Janeiro (Brazil).

  12. Field-trip guide to the southeastern foothills of the Santa Cruz Mountains in Santa Clara County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffer, Philip W.; Messina, Paula

    2002-01-01

    This field trip is an introduction to the geology of the southeastern foothills of the Santa Cruz Mountains in southern Santa Clara County. Seven stops include four short hikes to access rock exposures and views of the foothills east of Loma Prieta Peak between Gilroy and San José. Field-trip destinations highlight the dominant rock types of the "Franciscan assemblage" including outcrops of serpentinite, basalt, limestone, ribbon chert, graywacke sandstone, and shale. General discussions include how the rocks formed, and how tectonism and stream erosion have changed the landscape through time. All field trip stops are on public land; most are near reservoir dams of the Santa Clara Valley Water District. In addition, stops include examination of an Ohlone Indian heritage site and the New Almaden Mining Museum.

  13. Tuning the Field Trip: Audio-Guided Tours as a Replacement for 1-Day Excursions in Human Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissmann, Torsten

    2013-01-01

    Educators are experiencing difficulties with 1-day field trips in human geography. Instead of teaching students how to apply theory in the field and learn to "sense" geography in everyday life, many excursions have degraded into tourist-like events where lecturers try to motivate rather passive students against a noisy urban backdrop.…

  14. Field Trip 5: HYDROGEOLOGY OF BEER AND WINE IN THE YAKIMA VALLEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Last, George V.; Bachmann, Matthew P.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.

    2011-05-05

    The climate and geology of eastern Washington are ideally suited to the production of hops and wine grapes. Nearly all of Washington’s hop and wine-grape production is located in the lower Yakima River Basin , which is one of the most intensively irrigated areas in the United States. Most of this irrigation water has been supplied by surface water reservoirs and canal systems drawing from the Yakima River. However, increasing demands for water has spurred the increased use of groundwater resources. This field trip guide explores many aspects of the geology and hydrogeology in the lower Yakima River Basin, particularly as they relate to water resources that support the local beer and wine industries.

  15. Determining Virtual Environment "Fit": The Relationship between Navigation Style in a Virtual Field Trip, Student Self-Reported Desire to Visit the Field Trip Site in the Real World, and the Purposes of Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutwiler, M. Shane; Lin, Ming-Chao; Chang, Chun-Yen

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a follow-up analysis of the data reported in Lin et al. ("Learn Media Technol." doi: 10.1080/17439884.2011.629660 , 2011), we investigated the relationship between student use of a virtual field trip (VFT) system and the probability of students reporting wanting to visit the national park site upon which the VFT was modeled,…

  16. A brave new world: considering the pedagogic potential of Virtual World Field Trips (VWFTs in initial teacher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitzsimons Sabrina

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In its broadest and historical sense, place-based education refers to education that occurs outside of the physical boundaries of a school building (Dewey 1910; Sobel 1996; Theobald 1997; Woodhouse and Knapp 2000. Place-based education, colloquially referred to as the ‘field trip’, is predominantly considered a pedagogic tool of the sciences. It involves a physical movement from the school-based location to a place of interest, for example, a geography field trip to an ecological landscape or science visit to a local museum. This paper considers the use of virtual world field trips (VWFTs within the context of a pre-service Teacher Education programme. The paper presents data from one undergraduate module offered on a programme of initial teacher education. The paper identifies three significant elements of virtual world field trips: place, people and content. First, the virtual world can provide access to places not possible in the offline context as a result of geographic, economic or religious factors. Second, exposure to and dialogue with a variety of world views can challenge students’ assumptions, facilitate reflection and provide an opportunity for oneto-one teaching encounters. Third, from a teacher educator perspective, engagement in virtual world field trips can provide a space for teachers to model teaching methodologies and model creative learning techniques, thus providing student teachers with an insight into different approaches to teaching.

  17. A Field Trip to the Archaean in Search of Darwin’s Warm Little Pond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Damer

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Charles Darwin’s original intuition that life began in a “warm little pond” has for the last three decades been eclipsed by a focus on marine hydrothermal vents as a venue for abiogenesis. However, thermodynamic barriers to polymerization of key molecular building blocks and the difficulty of forming stable membranous compartments in seawater suggest that Darwin’s original insight should be reconsidered. I will introduce the terrestrial origin of life hypothesis, which combines field observations and laboratory results to provide a novel and testable model in which life begins as protocells assembling in inland fresh water hydrothermal fields. Hydrothermal fields are associated with volcanic landmasses resembling Hawaii and Iceland today and could plausibly have existed on similar land masses rising out of Earth’s first oceans. I will report on a field trip to the living and ancient stromatolite fossil localities of Western Australia, which provided key insights into how life may have emerged in Archaean, fluctuating fresh water hydrothermal pools, geological evidence for which has recently been discovered. Laboratory experimentation and fieldwork are providing mounting evidence that such sites have properties that are conducive to polymerization reactions and generation of membrane-bounded protocells. I will build on the previously developed coupled phases scenario, unifying the chemical and geological frameworks and proposing that a hydrogel of stable, communally supported protocells will emerge as a candidate Woese progenote, the distant common ancestor of microbial communities so abundant in the earliest fossil record.

  18. Getting to Know and Address Your State Science Standards to Connect Classroom Instruction and Field Trips During IYA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarski, M.; Larsen, K.

    2008-11-01

    Astronomy activities often pose problems for in-service teachers, especially at the elementary level, as many do not have a solid content background. Often astronomy instruction revolves around reading and answering questions. This is not an effective way to work with abstract concepts or engage students, and also fails to meet the standards of inquiry-based instruction recommended by the National Science Teachers Association and national and state standards. Science museums and planetariums bring unique and exciting perspectives to astronomy education. However, bringing students to the museum can sometimes be perceived as only a ``cool field trip.'' With mounting pressure for teachers to teach to the new standardized tests demanded by No Child Left Behind, and shrinking school budgets, field trips are rapidly becoming an endangered species. Coordinating museum, science center, and planetarium offerings with national and state science standards can renew interest in (and perceived relevance of) field trips. Therefore, university faculty, in-service teachers, and museum/planetarium staff can form successful partnerships which can both improve student learning and increase attendance at informal education science events and facilities. This workshop will first briefly introduce participants to national and representative state standards as well as research on in-service teachers' astronomy content knowledge and the educational value of field trips. For the majority of the workshop, participants will engage in the actual steps of coordinating, planning, and writing inquiry-based astronomy curriculum embedded performance tasks that collectively meet the learning needs of students in elementary, middle, or high school.

  19. Barrier Island Ecology: A Professional Development Activity for Faculty and Staff of Calhoun Community College. Field Trip Reference Booklet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Don; And Others

    As part of the Professional Development Workshop at Calhoun Community College, the Department of Natural Sciences conducted the third annual Spring Wilderness Pilgrimage in March 1989, a week-long environmental awareness field trip for faculty and staff. Designed as a study of the plants and animals on a barrier island off the coast of Florida,…

  20. Development and Implementation of a Series of Laboratory Field Trips for Advanced High School Students to Connect Chemistry to Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubrecht, Katherine B.; Padwa, Linda; Shen, Xiaoqi; Bazargan, Gloria

    2015-01-01

    We describe the content and organization of a series of day-long field trips to a university for high school students that connect chemistry content to issues of sustainability. The seven laboratory activities are in the areas of environmental degradation, energy production, and green chemistry. The laboratory procedures have been modified from…

  1. Virtual Field Trips: Using Google Maps to Support Online Learning and Teaching of the History of Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluke, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    I report on a pilot study on the use of Google Maps to provide virtual field trips as a component of a wholly online graduate course on the history of astronomy. The Astronomical Tourist Web site (http://astronomy.swin.edu.au/sao/tourist), themed around the role that specific locations on Earth have contributed to the development of astronomical…

  2. Bridging the Field Trip Gap: Integrating Web-Based Video as a Teaching and Learning Partner in Interior Design Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehl, Amy

    2013-01-01

    This study utilizes web-based video as a strategy to transfer knowledge about the interior design industry in a format that interests the current generation of students. The model of instruction developed is based upon online video as an engaging, economical, and time-saving alternative to a field trip, guest speaker, or video teleconference.…

  3. Upper Primary Level History Teachers' Attitudes toward the Use of School Field Trips as an Educational Aid throughout Schools in Irbid First Education Directorate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menazel, Basil H.

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to identify upper primary level History teachers' attitudes toward the use of school field trips as an educational aid throughout schools in the Irbid First Education Directorate, through exploring the importance of school field trips in the creation of an interactive atmosphere and to encourage school administration attitudes…

  4. A Field Trip to the Moon: Using Cutting-Edge Scientific Visualizations in Astronomy Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Ryan; Connolly, R.

    2007-05-01

    Visualizations of 3-D models and astronomical data bring the Universe to life for audiences in an immediate and personal way. Computer-generated visuals can now depict space exploration and current astronomical discoveries with unprecedented fidelity, placing complex concepts within reach and communicating the excitement of discovery and exploration to a wide range of ages. Since 1998, the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH) has mapped three-dimensional data groups ranging in scale from the solar neighborhood to the large-scale structure of the Universe: this “Digital Universe” provides the foundation for much of our visualization work. With support from NASA’s Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD), AMNH and NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center have utilized this technology to develop an experiential “journey” to the Moon for the immersive planetarium environment. We will present selected visualizations from A Field Trip to the Moon, as well as results from the evaluation research. We describe best-practice teaching strategies for using visualizations to support learning, including strategies to scaffold with authentic activities, use real-world observations, and to create opportunities for questioning and the reporting of findings. Visualizations add a new dimension to teaching and outreach. But more important than simply the presence of technology in the classroom is its implementation, and we will recommend methods for using visualizations effectively to support project-based learning and inquiry.

  5. iVFTs - immersive virtual field trips for interactive learning about Earth's environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, G.; Anbar, A. D.; Semken, S. C.; Summons, R. E.; Oliver, C.; Buxner, S.

    2014-12-01

    Innovations in immersive interactive technologies are changing the way students explore Earth and its environment. State-of-the-art hardware has given developers the tools needed to capture high-resolution spherical content, 360° panoramic video, giga-pixel imagery, and unique viewpoints via unmanned aerial vehicles as they explore remote and physically challenging regions of our planet. Advanced software enables integration of these data into seamless, dynamic, immersive, interactive, content-rich, and learner-driven virtual field explorations, experienced online via HTML5. These surpass conventional online exercises that use 2-D static imagery and enable the student to engage in these virtual environments that are more like games than like lectures. Grounded in the active learning of exploration, inquiry, and application of knowledge as it is acquired, users interact non-linearly in conjunction with an intelligent tutoring system (ITS). The integration of this system allows the educational experience to be adapted to each individual student as they interact within the program. Such explorations, which we term "immersive virtual field trips" (iVFTs), are being integrated into cyber-learning allowing science teachers to take students to scientifically significant but inaccessible environments. Our team and collaborators are producing a diverse suite of freely accessible, iVFTs to teach key concepts in geology, astrobiology, ecology, and anthropology. Topics include Early Life, Biodiversity, Impact craters, Photosynthesis, Geologic Time, Stratigraphy, Tectonics, Volcanism, Surface Processes, The Rise of Oxygen, Origin of Water, Early Civilizations, Early Multicellular Organisms, and Bioarcheology. These diverse topics allow students to experience field sites all over the world, including, Grand Canyon (USA), Flinders Ranges (Australia), Shark Bay (Australia), Rainforests (Panama), Teotihuacan (Mexico), Upheaval Dome (USA), Pilbara (Australia), Mid-Atlantic Ridge

  6. Urban Environmental Excursions: Designing field trips to demonstrate sustainable connections between natural and engineered systems in urban environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemke, L. D.

    2012-12-01

    Field trips are a proven and effective instructional tool to connect students with the world around them. In most communities, opportunities abound to allow students to make connections between concepts introduced in classroom or lab activities and the urban environment that surrounds them. Potential destinations include solid and liquid waste disposal sites, brownfield redevelopment sites, hazardous waste sites, industrial complexes, or sites with ongoing environmental restoration efforts. Each of these locations presents opportunities to explore sustainable aspects of anthropogenic activities in relation to the natural systems that they seek to modify or exploit. Early planning is essential, however, because it can sometimes take several months lead time to arrange for a large group tour of industrial or municipal sites. Several practices may be employed to design effective learning experiences for students when visiting such sites. These include: 1) choose local sites to keep trips relevant and practical; 2) balance sites of environmental concern with those where significant progress is being made in environmental restoration or stewardship; 3) connect sites with a pertinent theme (e.g., air quality, water quality, economic development, environmental justice, etc.); 4) develop a sense of location among student participants by providing a map showing the relationship between campus and the field sites; 5) prepare a guidebook containing one-page descriptions of each stop along with a list of questions to stimulate discussion and promote active engagement among all participants; 6) employ expert guides to maximize students' access to authoritative information; 7) tie each field experience to your curriculum; and 8) model active learning by asking genuine questions and engaging in open discussions with experts and student participants. In this presentation, urban field trip design will be illustrated with examples from trips run in conjunction with freshman

  7. Let's Go to Market! Field Trips to Discover Economics and Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Diana

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how her first grade class embarked on a journey of learning through a unit of study about local food markets. The study was a rich exploration of the cultural diversity of the city of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, as well as an introduction to basic concepts about economics. Through their trips to a farm and…

  8. Educating the Public about Meteorites and Impacts through Virtual Field Trips and Classroom Experience Boxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashcraft, Teresa; Hines, R.; Minitti, M.; Taylor, W.; Morris, M. A.; Wadhwa, M.

    2014-01-01

    With specimens representing over 2,000 individual meteorites, the Center for Meteorite Studies (CMS) at Arizona State University (ASU) is home to the world's largest university-based meteorite collection. As part of our mission to provide educational opportunities that expand awareness and understanding of the science of meteoritics, CMS continues to develop new ways to engage the public in meteorite and space science, including the opening of a new Meteorite Gallery, and expansion of online resources through upgrades to the CMS website, meteorites.asu.edu. In 2008, CMS was the recipient of a philanthropic grant to improve online education tools and develop loanable modules for educators. These modules focus on the origin of meteorites, and contain actual meteorite specimens, media resources, a user guide, and lesson plans, as well as a series of engaging activities that utilize hands-on materials geared to help students develop logical thinking, analytical skills, and proficiency in STEM disciplines. In 2010, in partnership with the ASU NASA Astrobiology Institute team, CMS obtained a NASA EPOESS grant to develop Virtual Field Trips (VFTs) complemented by loanable “Experience Boxes” containing lesson plans, media, and hands-on objects related to the VFT sites. One VFT-Box pair focuses on the record of the oldest multicellular organisms on Earth. The second VFT-Box pair focuses on the Upheaval Dome (UD) structure, a meteorite impact crater in Utah’s Canyonlands National Park. UD is widely accepted as the deeply eroded remnant of a ~5 kilometer impact crater (e.g. Kriens et al., 1999). The alternate hypothesis that the Dome was formed by the upwelling of salt from a deposit underlying the region (e.g. Jackson et al., 1998) makes UD an ideal site to learn not only about specific scientific principles present in the Next Generation Science Standards, but also the process of scientific inquiry. The VFTs are located on an interactive website dedicated to VFTs, vft

  9. Enhancing Geologic Education in Grades 5-12: Creating Virtual Field Trips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitek, J. D.; Gamache, K. R.; Giardino, J. R.; Schroeder, C. E.

    2011-12-01

    New tools of technology enhance and facilitate the ability to bring the "field experience" into the classroom as part of the effort necessary to turn students onto the geosciences. The real key is high-speed computers and high-definition cameras with which to capture visual images. Still and movie data are easily obtained as are large and small-scale images from space, available through "Google Earth°". GPS information provides accurate location data to enhance mapping efforts. One no longer needs to rely on commercial ventures to show students any aspect of the "real" world. The virtual world is a viable replacement. The new cost-effective tools mean everyone can be a producer of information critical to understanding Earth. During the last four summers (2008-2011), Texas teachers have participated in G-Camp, an effort to instill geologic and geomorphic knowledge such that the information will make its way into classrooms. Teachers have acquired thousands of images and developed concepts that are being used to enhance their ability to promote geology in their classrooms. Texas will soon require four years of science at the high-school level, and we believe that geology or Earth science needs to be elevated to the required level of biology, chemistry and physics. Teachers need to be trained and methodology developed that is exciting to students. After all, everyone on Earth needs to be aware of the hazardous nature of geologic events not just to pass an exam, but for a lifetime. We use a video, which is a composite of our ventures, to show how data collected during these trips can be used in the classroom. . Social media, Facebook°, blogs, and email facilitate sharing information such that everyone can learn from each other about the best way to do things. New tools of technology are taking their place in every classroom to take advantage of the skills students bring to the learning environment. Besides many of these approaches are common to video gaming, and

  10. Students’ Attitudes and Understandings about Science in their Field Trip to Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunju; Feldman, Allan

    2014-06-01

    The LIGO Science Education Center in Livingston, LA, provides K-12 students with 3.5-hour field trip programs that consist of watching a documentary, touring the LIGO facilities, exploring interactive science exhibits, and hands-on classroom activities with the Center’s staff. In our study we administered a pre/post-survey, which consisted of Likert-type and open-ended questions, to approximately 1,000 secondary students who visited LIGO in Spring 2013. In this paper we report on our current findings from a half-way analysis about 1) the students’ attitudes and interests about science; 2) their understanding about basic scientific concepts relevant to LIGO science, gravity, light, and sound; and 3) their understanding about the LIGO project. In comparison between pre and post-responses using a paired-samples t-test, the results showed that the field trip to LIGO had significant (pstudents who think that "science is fun" and that they "would want to be a scientist." In addition, they had significant (presponded that they did not even hear about LIGO and 17.8% could not explain what it was although they heard about it (as they were from the local schools). On the other hand, 86.6% students were able to explain about LIGO project in post-test. Among them, more than half of the students (59.3%) correctly described the purpose of the LIGO project. Another 9.3% recognized it as a science research center without further information about what specifying the purpose of LIGO. About 8% held misconceptions, and 7% recognized LIGO as a science learning center. The students’ learning in this field trip happened mainly by: encountering the new concept; recalling their prior knowledge and reinforcing it; and being able to connect the scientific concept to how it is applied in a professional science research.

  11. Grand Canyon as a universally accessible virtual field trip for intro Geoscience classes using geo-referenced mobile game technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursztyn, N.; Pederson, J. L.; Shelton, B.

    2012-12-01

    There is a well-documented and nationally reported trend of declining interest, poor preparedness, and lack of diversity within U.S. students pursuing geoscience and other STEM disciplines. We suggest that a primary contributing factor to this problem is that introductory geoscience courses simply fail to inspire (i.e. they are boring). Our experience leads us to believe that the hands-on, contextualized learning of field excursions are often the most impactful component of lower division geoscience classes. However, field trips are becoming increasingly more difficult to run due to logistics and liability, high-enrollments, decreasing financial and administrative support, and exclusivity of the physically disabled. Recent research suggests that virtual field trips can be used to simulate this contextualized physical learning through the use of mobile devices - technology that exists in most students' hands already. Our overarching goal is to enhance interest in introductory geoscience courses by providing the kinetic and physical learning experience of field trips through geo-referenced educational mobile games and test the hypothesis that these experiences can be effectively simulated through virtual field trips. We are doing this by developing "serious" games for mobile devices that deliver introductory geology material in a fun and interactive manner. Our new teaching strategy will enhance undergraduate student learning in the geosciences, be accessible to students of diverse backgrounds and physical abilities, and be easily incorporated into higher education programs and curricula at institutions globally. Our prototype involves students virtually navigating downstream along a scaled down Colorado River through Grand Canyon - physically moving around their campus quad, football field or other real location, using their smart phone or a tablet. As students reach the next designated location, a photo or video in Grand Canyon appears along with a geological

  12. 2007 Rocky Mountain Section Friends of the Pleistocene Field Trip - Quaternary Geology of the San Luis Basin of Colorado and New Mexico, September 7-9, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machette, Michael N.; Coates, Mary-Margaret; Johnson, Margo L.

    2007-01-01

    Prologue Welcome to the 2007 Rocky Mountain Cell Friends of the Pleistocene Field Trip, which will concentrate on the Quaternary geology of the San Luis Basin of Colorado and New Mexico. To our best knowledge, Friends of the Pleistocene (FOP) has never run a trip through the San Luis Basin, although former trips in the region reviewed the 'Northern Rio Grande rift' in 1987 and the 'Landscape History and Processes on the Pajarito Plateau' in 1996. After nearly a decade, the FOP has returned to the Rio Grande rift, but to an area that has rarely hosted a trip with a Quaternary focus. The objective of FOP trips is to review - in the field - new and exciting research on Quaternary geoscience, typically research being conducted by graduate students. In our case, the research is more topically oriented around three areas of the San Luis Basin, and it is being conducted by a wide range of Federal, State, academic, and consulting geologists. This year's trip is ambitious?we will spend our first day mainly on the Holocene record around Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve, the second day on the Quaternary stratigraphy around the San Luis Hills, including evidence for Lake Alamosa and the 1.0 Ma Mesita volcano, and wrap up the trip's third day in the Costilla Plain and Sunshine Valley reviewing alluvial stratigraphy, the history of the Rio Grande, and evidence for young movement on the Sangre de Cristo fault zone. In the tradition of FOP trips, we will be camping along the field trip route for this meeting. On the night before our trip, we will be at the Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve's Pinyon Flats Campground, a group facility located about 2 miles north of the Visitors Center. After the first day's trip, we will dine and camp in the Bachus pit, about 3 miles southwest of Alamosa. For the final night (after day 2), we will bed down at La Junta Campground at the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Wild and Scenic Rivers State Recreation Area, west of Questa

  13. Bringing Grand Canyon to the College Campus: Assessment of Student Learning in the Geosciences Through Virtual Field Trip Games for Mobile Smart-Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursztyn, N.; Walker, A.; Shelton, B.; Pederson, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    Geoscience educators have long considered field trips to be the most effective way of attracting students into the discipline. A solution for bringing student-driven, engaging, kinesthetic field experiences to a broader audience lies in ongoing advances in mobile-communication technology. This NSF-TUES funded project developed three virtual field trip experiences for smartphones and tablets (on geologic time, geologic structures, and hydrologic processes), and then tested their performance in terms of student interest in geoscience as well as gains in learning. The virtual field trips utilize the GPS capabilities of smartphones and tablets, requiring the students to navigate outdoors in the real world while following a map on their smart device. This research, involving 873 students at five different college campuses, used analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and multiple regression for statistical methods. Gains in learning across all participants are minor, and not statistically different between intervention and control groups. Predictors of gains in content comprehension for all three modules are the students' initial interest in the subject and their base level knowledge. For the Geologic Time and Structures modules, being a STEM major is an important predictor of student success. Most pertinent for this research, for Geologic Time and Hydrologic Processes, gains in student learning can be predicted by having completed those particular virtual field trips. Gender and race had no statistical impact, indicating that the virtual field trip modules have broad reach across student demographics. In related research, these modules have been shown to increase student interest in the geosciences more definitively than the learning gains here. Thus, future work should focus on improving the educational impact of mobile-device field trips, as their eventual incorporation into curricula is inevitable.

  14. Determining Virtual Environment "Fit": The Relationship Between Navigation Style in a Virtual Field Trip, Student Self-Reported Desire to Visit the Field Trip Site in the Real World, and the Purposes of Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutwiler, M. Shane; Lin, Ming-Chao; Chang, Chun-Yen

    2013-06-01

    In this study, a follow-up analysis of the data reported in Lin et al. (Learn Media Technol. doi: 10.1080/17439884.2011.629660, 2011), we investigated the relationship between student use of a virtual field trip (VFT) system and the probability of students reporting wanting to visit the national park site upon which the VFT was modeled, controlling for content knowledge and prior visits to the park. Students who were able to navigate the VFT in teams were more likely than their peers who had the system demonstrated by a teacher to want to visit the national park. In addition, students with higher pre-intervention content knowledge were more likely to want to visit the national park than their peers with lower pre-test scores, in both the teacher demonstration and student co-navigation conditions.

  15. The Effects of In-Nature and Virtual-Nature Field Trip Experiences On Proenvironmental Attitudes and Behaviors, And Environmental Knowledge Of Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferderbar, Catherine A.

    To develop sustainable solutions to remediate the complex ecological problems of earth's soil, water, and air degradation requires the talents and skills of knowledgeable, motivated people (UNESCO, 1977; UNESCO, 2010). Researchers historically emphasized that time spent in outdoor, nature activities (Wells & Lekies, 2006), particularly with an adult mentor (Chawla & Cushing, 2007), promotes environmental knowledge and nature-relatedness, precursors to environmental literacy. Research has also demonstrated that technology is integral to the lives of youth, who spend 7:38 hours daily (Rideout, et al., 2010), engaged in electronics. Educators would benefit from knowing if in-nature and virtual-nature field trip experiences provide comparable levels of knowledge and connectedness, to nurture student proenvironmentalism. To investigate field trip phenomena, the researcher studied the impact of virtual-nature and in-nature experiences during which students analyzed water quality along Midwestern rivers. The quasi-experimental, mixed method convergent parallel design with a purposeful sample (n=131) of middle school students from two Midwestern K-8 schools, utilized scientist participant observer field records and narrative response, written assessment aligned to field trip content to evaluate knowledge acquisition. To gain insight into student environmental dispositions, participant observers recorded student comments and behaviors throughout field trips. A survey, administered Pre-Treatment, Post-Treatment 1 and Post-Treatment 2, focused on family water-related behaviors and student perceptions of the need for local government water protection. The findings demonstrated both field trips increased content knowledge significantly, with large effect size. Content knowledge gain from one experience transferred to and was augmented by the second experience. Skill gain (technical and observational) varied by type of field trip and did not transfer. Technical skill was often

  16. Giant Otter Project in Peru Field Trip and Activity Report - 2001

    OpenAIRE

    Groenendijk J.; Hajek F.

    2002-01-01

    The giant otter (Pteronura brasiliensis) was uplisted from 'vulnerable' to 'endangered' by IUCN in 2000; habitat destruction in South America currently poses the greatest threat to the species. In 1990, the project 'Status, habitat, behaviour and conservation of Giant Otters in Peru' was initiated by the Frankfurt Zoological Society - Help for Threatened Wildlife (FZS) in order to increase knowledge and national awareness of these unique animals and to develop a comprehensive plan for their c...

  17. Integrating geoscience and Native American experiences through a multi-state geoscience field trip for high school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelso, P. R.; Brown, L. M.; Spencer, M.; Sabatine, S.; Goetz, E. R.

    2012-12-01

    experiences led by Lake Superior State University professors, K-12 earth science teachers, local science experts (most with tribal affiliation), and local Native American leaders. Student selection is based on an application that includes academic background and performance, a personal essay, and teacher and counselor references. All of the students invited to be part of the GRANITE program participated in the summer field excursion. The GRANITE summer field trip was structured to address over 50% of Michigan's high school geology standards. Each student's geoscience knowledge and interest is assessed through questionnaires administered pre- and post the summer field experience. Also, student feedback is gathered during the GRANITE field trip and more than six months post field trip. Students recorded field observations and discussion in their field books which they used to produce powerpoint slides summarizing and reflecting upon what they did and learned each day. Students' post field excursion, content-oriented scores increased each of the three years of the program. In addition to geosciences content growth, all of the students responded affirmatively that GRANITE "increased my understanding of how geoscientists study the Earth "and "increased my knowledge of the importance of geoscience to our society."

  18. Giant Otter Project in Peru Field Trip and Activity Report - 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Groenendijk J.

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The giant otter (Pteronura brasiliensis was uplisted from 'vulnerable' to 'endangered' by IUCN in 2000; habitat destruction in South America currently poses the greatest threat to the species. In 1990, the project 'Status, habitat, behaviour and conservation of Giant Otters in Peru' was initiated by the Frankfurt Zoological Society - Help for Threatened Wildlife (FZS in order to increase knowledge and national awareness of these unique animals and to develop a comprehensive plan for their conservation in Peru. The progress of the Project has been described continually in the IUCN Otter Specialist Group Bulletin.

  19. Late Devonian (Frasnian) bivalves from the Nocedo Formation: the results of Wilhelm Kegel’s 1927 field trip to northern Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amler, M.R.W.

    2010-01-01

    During a field trip to the Peña-Corada Unit of the southernmost Esla region of the Cantabrian Mountains in 1927, the German stratigrapher Wilhelm Kegel sampled brachiopods and bivalves from a section in the Laoz valley near La Ercina. The stratigraphic position is believed to be part of the Nocedo F

  20. Surface electric fields for North America during historical geomagnetic storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lisa H.; Homeier, Nicole; Gannon, Jennifer L.

    2013-08-01

    To better understand the impact of geomagnetic disturbances on the electric grid, we recreate surface electric fields from two historical geomagnetic storms—the 1989 "Quebec" storm and the 2003 "Halloween" storms. Using the Spherical Elementary Current Systems method, we interpolate sparsely distributed magnetometer data across North America. We find good agreement between the measured and interpolated data, with larger RMS deviations at higher latitudes corresponding to larger magnetic field variations. The interpolated magnetic field data are combined with surface impedances for 25 unique physiographic regions from the United States Geological Survey and literature to estimate the horizontal, orthogonal surface electric fields in 1 min time steps. The induced horizontal electric field strongly depends on the local surface impedance, resulting in surprisingly strong electric field amplitudes along the Atlantic and Gulf Coast. The relative peak electric field amplitude of each physiographic region, normalized to the value in the Interior Plains region, varies by a factor of 2 for different input magnetic field time series. The order of peak electric field amplitudes (largest to smallest), however, does not depend much on the input. These results suggest that regions at lower magnetic latitudes with high ground resistivities are also at risk from the effect of geomagnetically induced currents. The historical electric field time series are useful for estimating the flow of the induced currents through long transmission lines to study power flow and grid stability during geomagnetic disturbances.

  1. Surface electric fields for North America during historical geomagnetic storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lisa H.; Homeier, Nichole; Gannon, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    To better understand the impact of geomagnetic disturbances on the electric grid, we recreate surface electric fields from two historical geomagnetic storms—the 1989 “Quebec” storm and the 2003 “Halloween” storms. Using the Spherical Elementary Current Systems method, we interpolate sparsely distributed magnetometer data across North America. We find good agreement between the measured and interpolated data, with larger RMS deviations at higher latitudes corresponding to larger magnetic field variations. The interpolated magnetic field data are combined with surface impedances for 25 unique physiographic regions from the United States Geological Survey and literature to estimate the horizontal, orthogonal surface electric fields in 1 min time steps. The induced horizontal electric field strongly depends on the local surface impedance, resulting in surprisingly strong electric field amplitudes along the Atlantic and Gulf Coast. The relative peak electric field amplitude of each physiographic region, normalized to the value in the Interior Plains region, varies by a factor of 2 for different input magnetic field time series. The order of peak electric field amplitudes (largest to smallest), however, does not depend much on the input. These results suggest that regions at lower magnetic latitudes with high ground resistivities are also at risk from the effect of geomagnetically induced currents. The historical electric field time series are useful for estimating the flow of the induced currents through long transmission lines to study power flow and grid stability during geomagnetic disturbances.

  2. The good field trip: How elementary students from diverse socio-economic backgrounds learn science, art, and technology at a museum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martell, Sandra Toro

    The Good Field Trip is a study that uses an ethnographic approach to answer the question of what learning looks like during a field trip to a museum. The study uses the Contextual Model of Learning (Falk & Dierking, 2000) to investigate elementary students' personal, physical, and sociocultural contexts of learning as well as how time affects students' thoughts and feelings about the experience. The author accompanied a group of eight students on a three and a half day camp-like experience to a museum that promotes environmental stewardship and the integration of art, science, and technology use and learning. The author videotaped the students' conversations and experiences and interviewed students before, during, and after the trip. Analyses of the videotapes were supplemented with student documents, including comic books, journal notes, and reflective essays about the trip. Findings include that not all experiences are marked as science, art, and technology; technology use does not occur; art is presented in a more formalized manner than science, which is composed of observation and the acquisition of knowledge about plants and animals; and conversations and activities resemble traditional modes of learning in school settings.

  3. DEVELOPING EDUCATIONAL VIDEO IN THE FIELD OF STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT: A ROAD TRIP STORY

    OpenAIRE

    Ozan AĞLARGÖZ

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to share the design process of how a series of educational material within the field of strategic management developed. The main logic behind the study is the idea when the coherence between the students’ learning styles and educational material is ensured, the effectiveness of learning and teaching activities expected to be increased. Design process conducted within this study has been step-by-step described supported by relevant literature. A series of education...

  4. Giant Otter Project in Peru: Field Trip and Activity Report 1999

    OpenAIRE

    Groenendijk J.; Hajek F.; Isola S.; Schenk C.

    2000-01-01

    In 1999, the Giant Otter Conservation Project of the Frankfurt Zoological Society - Help for Threatened Wildlife (FZS) was given new impetus with the full-time presence of staff in Peru, both within the field as well as in Lima. The four main objectives of the Project were pushed forward: (1) capacitation, promotion and networking initiatives were furthered; (2) government institutions were advised with respect to habitat and Giant Otter management; (3) scientific research was carried out in ...

  5. Virtual Field Trips: Using Google Maps to Support Online Learning and Teaching of the History of Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluke, Christopher J.

    I report on a pilot study on the use of Google Maps to provide virtual field trips as a component of a wholly online graduate course on the history of astronomy. The Astronomical Tourist Web site (http://astronomy.swin.edu.au/sao/tourist), themed around the role that specific locations on Earth have contributed to the development of astronomical knowledge, was created using the Google Maps application programming interface. Students used this Web site as a component of their assessment and to help motivate and support online discussions. The site also aims to help build a stronger online community among geographically distributed students as they share in the creation of an Internet resource that will be used and enhanced by others over time. I describe the structure of the Web site and how it was integrated into student essays, and I provide a summary of student responses to this new learning and teaching approach. This project is an example of how Web 2.0 applications can be used to build new learning environments.

  6. Comparison of the effectiveness of real and virtual field trips in biology and ecology classes in lower secondary school based on the example of the Maribor island natural educational trail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhek, Miro

    The present doctoral thesis presents a case study within the scope of which real and virtual field trips have been compared. The emphasis of the study was on determining the levels of knowledge gain effectiveness in the fields of biology and ecology in the final triad (third) of lower secondary school education. The analysis included students completing various tasks along the Maribor Island natural education trail, which had been digitized and inserted into Geopedia. The study was conducted in autumn of 2011 and included 464 students (enrolled in grades from 6 to 9) from 11 lower secondary schools located in the Maribor area. The results have generally shown minute differences between the levels of knowledge acquisition effectiveness between both field trips. During the real field trip, the majority of the students included in the study achieved better results particularly at tasks where they were able to benefit from first-hand experience. During the virtual field trip, individual students were more successful at tasks where they were allowed to access a computer in order to obtain additional information. Within the scope of the study, we had also surveyed lower secondary and secondary school teachers on the frequency of including field trips in the curriculum, on the obstacles that the teachers faced with regard to including field work in it, and on their views on real and virtual field trips. The survey included a total of 386 teachers, the majority whom were teaching the subjects of biology, geography, and natural science. The results have shown that the surveyed teachers regard field trips as a very important educational method that particularly encourages experience-based learning in nature. The views of the teachers on virtual field trips were generally positive, but only when regarded and applied as a supplemental teaching tool and not as a substitute for real field trips.

  7. DEVELOPING EDUCATIONAL VIDEO IN THE FIELD OF STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT: A ROAD TRIP STORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozan AĞLARGÖZ

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to share the design process of how a series of educational material within the field of strategic management developed. The main logic behind the study is the idea when the coherence between the students’ learning styles and educational material is ensured, the effectiveness of learning and teaching activities expected to be increased. Design process conducted within this study has been step-by-step described supported by relevant literature. A series of educational videos, 9 episodes encompassing strategic management process as well as strategic alliances, corporate social responsibility and strategic leadership, were designed based on Kolb’s Learning Styles, guided by the ADDIE model, resting upon the empirical material extracted from semi-structured interviews and observation.

  8. Giant Otter Project in Peru: Field Trip and Activity Report 1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Groenendijk J.

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available In 1999, the Giant Otter Conservation Project of the Frankfurt Zoological Society - Help for Threatened Wildlife (FZS was given new impetus with the full-time presence of staff in Peru, both within the field as well as in Lima. The four main objectives of the Project were pushed forward: (1 capacitation, promotion and networking initiatives were furthered; (2 government institutions were advised with respect to habitat and Giant Otter management; (3 scientific research was carried out in order to complement existing results; and (4 contributions were made towards the development of a national distribution map for the species. Following, a more detailed account of each of these key activities is given.

  9. Wallace Creek Virtual Field Trip: Teaching Geoscience Concepts with LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, S. E.; Arrowsmith, R.; Crosby, C. J.

    2009-12-01

    Recently available data such as LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) high-resolution topography can assist students to better visualize and understand geosciences concepts. It is important to bring these data into geosciences curricula as teaching aids while ensuring that the visualization tools, virtual environments, etc. do not serve as barriers to student learning. As a Southern California Earthquake Center ACCESS-G intern, I am creating a “virtual field trip” to Wallace Creek along the San Andreas Fault (SAF) using Google Earth as a platform and the B4 project LiDAR data. Wallace Creek is an excellent site for understanding the centennial-to-millennial record of SAF slip because of its dramatic stream offsets. Using the LiDAR data instead of, or alongside, traditional visualizations and teaching methods enhances a student’s ability to understand plate tectonics, the earthquake cycle, strike-slip faults, and geomorphology. Viewing a high-resolution representation of the topography in Google Earth allows students to analyze the landscape and answer questions about the behavior of the San Andreas Fault. The activity guides students along the fault allowing them to measure channel offsets using the Google Earth measuring tool. Knowing the ages of channels, they calculate slip rate. They look for the smallest channel offsets around Wallace Creek in order to determine the slip per event. At both a “LiDAR and Education” workshop and the Cyberinfrastructure Summer Institute for Geoscientists (CSIG), I presented the Wallace Creek activity to high school and college earth science teachers. The teachers were positive in their responses and had numerous important suggestions including the need for a teacher’s manual for instruction and scientific background, and that the student goals and science topics should be specific and well-articulated for the sake of both the teacher and the student. The teachers also noted that the technology in classrooms varies

  10. Petrographic description of calcite/opal samples collected on field trip of December 5-9, 1992. Special report No. 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study is part of the research program of the Yucca Mountain Project intended to provide the State of Nevada with a detailed analysis and assessment of the water-deposited minerals of Yucca Mountain and adjacent regions. Forty-three separate stops were made and 203 samples were collected during the five days of the field trip. This report describes petrographic observations made on the calcite/opal samples

  11. Late Devonian (Frasnian) bivalves from the Nocedo Formation: the results of Wilhelm Kegel’s 1927 field trip to northern Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Amler, M.R.W.

    2010-01-01

    During a field trip to the Peña-Corada Unit of the southernmost Esla region of the Cantabrian Mountains in 1927, the German stratigrapher Wilhelm Kegel sampled brachiopods and bivalves from a section in the Laoz valley near La Ercina. The stratigraphic position is believed to be part of the Nocedo Formation of Frasnian age. This fauna includes poorly preserved steinkerns of a near-shore bivalve fauna that was prepared for publication including labels and proposed names, but never published. T...

  12. Has the implementation of the TRIPS Agreement in Latin America and the Caribbean produced intellectual property legislation that favours public health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Maria Auxiliadora; Bermudez, Jorge Antonio Zepeda; Chaves, Gabriela Costa; Velásquez, Germán

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The World Trade Organization's Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) Agreement establishes minimum standards for intellectual property rights, including patent protection for pharmaceuticals; therefore, it may make it difficult for developing countries to gain access to medicines, especially those countries that are the least developed. This study aims to determine whether implementation of the TRIPS Agreement in Latin American and Caribbean countries has generated patent legislation that is sensitive to public health needs. METHODS: Legislation in 11 Latin American and Caribbean countries was analysed. The variables considered in the analysis were: the term of patents issued, patentable subject matter, transition periods (that is, time until legislation was enacted), reversal of the burden of proof of patent infringement, exhaustion of rights, compulsory licensing and the early working exception (which allows a country to complete all procedures necessary to register a generic product before the original patent expires). FINDINGS: By 2000, all of the countries studied had reformed their legislation to conform to the agreement. Brazil and Argentina used the transition period until 2005 to grant patents in the pharmaceutical industry. All countries, except Panama, made use of the safeguards and flexibilities available through the agreement by including mechanisms for compulsory licensing in their legislation. Argentina; Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela (countries that represented the Andean community); the Dominican Republic; and Panama included mechanisms to allow parallel importation. Mexico did not. Brazil only permits parallel importation after a compulsory licence has been issued. The early working exception is included in legislation in Brazil and the Dominican Republic. CONCLUSION: The countries in this study did not incorporate all of the mechanisms allowed for by the Agreement and are not adequately using the

  13. Map Service Showing Geology, Oil and Gas Fields, and Geologic Provinces of South America

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digitally compiled map includes geology, oil and gas fields, and geologic provinces of South America. The oil and gas map is part of a worldwide series...

  14. Field-trip guide to the geology of the Lexington Reservoir and Loma Prieta areas in the Santa Cruz Mountains, Santa Clara and Santa Cruz counties, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffer, Philip W.; Messina, Paula

    2002-01-01

    This guide contains a road log and five stop descriptions for a field trip in the southern Santa Cruz Mountains. The trip officially begins at the boat dock parking area on Alma Bridge Road near the dam of Lexington Reservoir. Stop 1 involves a walk up the Limekiln Trail to examine a large landslide in serpentinite that frequently takes out the trail. Stop 2 is at Miller Point picnic area along the shore of the reservoir where exposures of massive, fractured graywacke sandstone are capped with terrace gravel deposits. Stop 3 is along Highland Way in the Santa Cruz Mountains where large landslides have occasionally force the closure of the road. Stop 4A-C are several closely spaced outcrop areas along Loma Prieta Avenue and Summit-Mt. Madonna Road in the Loma Prieta summit area. A walk to scenic vista points provide opportunity to discuss the evolution of regional landscape along the crest of the Sierra Azul. In addition, a variety of rock types are exposed in the Stop 4 area along a series of road cuts, including Cretaceous age conglomerate, turbidites (consisting of interbedded sandstone and shale), and fossiliferous mudstone. Stop 5 involves returning to the boat dock parking area to examine geology and the placement of the Lexington Dam in the Los Gatos Creek canyon.

  15. 6th Regional Symposium of the International Fossil Algae Associaton, Milano, July 1-5, 2009. Abstracts and Field trip guide-book.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Benzoni

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The 6th Regional Symposium of the IFAA held in Milano, from 1 to 5 July 2009, follows the 5th Regional meeting in Ferrara (2005 and the 9th International Symposium held in Zagreb (2007. The Symposium was jointly organized by the University of Milano-Bicocca, Department of Geological Sciences and Geotechnologies, and by the University of Genova, Dip.Te.Ris. Geologists and paleontologists of the University of Genova have been studying coralline-rich outcrops of the Tertiary Piedmont Basin since the end of the XIX Century (G. Rovereto, M. Airoldi, S. Conti, V.I. Mastrorilli, producing the scientific descriptions of dozens of new species, the types of which are housed in the Genova Dip.Te.Ris.This volume represetn the abstract book and the field trip guide book edited for the symposium.

  16. Trade, TRIPS, and pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard D; Correa, Carlos; Oh, Cecilia

    2009-02-21

    The World Trade Organization's Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) set global minimum standards for the protection of intellectual property, substantially increasing and expanding intellectual-property rights, and generated clear gains for the pharmaceutical industry and the developed world. The question of whether TRIPS generates gains for developing countries, in the form of increased exports, is addressed in this paper through consideration of the importance of pharmaceuticals in health-care trade, outlining the essential requirements, implications, and issues related to TRIPS, and TRIPS-plus, in which increased restrictions are imposed as part of bilateral free-trade agreements. TRIPS has not generated substantial gains for developing countries, but has further increased pharmaceutical trade in developed countries. The unequal trade between developed and developing countries (ie, exporting and importing high-value patented drugs, respectively) raises the issue of access to medicines, which is exacerbated by TRIPS-plus provisions, although many countries have not even enacted provision for TRIPS flexibilities. Therefore this paper focuses on options that are available to the health community for negotiation to their advantage under TRIPS, and within the presence of TRIPS-plus. PMID:19167054

  17. Cotton Trip in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ting

    2010-01-01

    @@ During their trip in Beijing,the leadership delegation members,Charles Parker,Harrison Ashley(Vice President of NCC Ginner Services),along with Karin Malmstrom(China Director of CCI)shared a time to accept the interview,giving a general introduction about their China trip and the cotton industry in USA.

  18. Bringing Adam Smith's Pin Factory to Life: Field Trips and Discussions as Forms of Experiential Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galizzi, Monica

    2014-01-01

    Educators are often aware of the need to implement a variety of teaching techniques to reach out to students with different learning styles. I describe an attempt to target multimodal learners by bringing classical economic texts and concepts to life through discussions, field visits and role playing exercises. In my Labor Economics class I…

  19. Lake Mason trip report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a summary of the August 31, 1998 trip to Lake Mason to review the hydrology, current conditions, habitat and wildlife. This site visit occurred due...

  20. Grand Canyon as a Universally Accessible Virtual Field Trip for Intro Geoscience Classes Using Geo-Referenced Mobile Game Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Bursztyn, Natalie; Pederson, Joel; Shelton, Brett E.

    2012-01-01

    There is a well-documented and nationally reported trend of declining interest, poor preparedness, and lack of diversity within U.S. students pursuing geoscience and other STEM disciplines. We suggest that a primary contributing factor to this problem is that introductory geoscience courses simply fail to inspire (i.e. they are boring). Our experience leads us to believe that the hands-on, contextualized learning of field excursions are often the most impactful component of lower division geo...

  1. Placer Gold Composition and Provenance Studies in the Kuznetskiy Alatau and Western Sayan, South-East Siberia: Results of Field Trip, Summer 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. J.G. Paxman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of a study of gold samples obtained by students during a practical field trip in the summer of 2014. Placer gold samples retrieved from four rivers in southeast Siberia (Khakassia and Tyva territories by panning and sluicing were described and analyzed compositionally by Scanning Electron Microscopy. There is evidence from grain flattening and morphology for significant variations in gold transport distance, both within and between sample locations. The composition and texture of gold is compared to similar studies in the Yukon, and it is inferred that most of the placer gold in the region originated from orogenic lode sources. This orogenic gold is of Devonian to Carboniferous age. There is also evidence for a contribution from igneous intrusion-related bedrock gold, which is supported by the presence of granite, granodiorite and sienite intrusions of Devonian age. There is scope for further study, since relatively few grains were analyzed here. In addition, if compositional data of the prospective primary gold deposits can be obtained, there would be potential for more precise determination of provenance.

  2. Monitoring sustainable development. Reports from the field -- Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, R

    1997-01-01

    The Fundacion Pro-Sierra Nevada (FPSN) has sponsored environmental and development projects in the Sierra Nevada mountains in Colombia for 10 years. This region, an acknowledged ecological treasure, has been plagued with armed conflict and deforestation. FPSN believed their efforts were having a positive impact on the environment, but, through their participation in the field-testing of a new research methodology, they now have valuable, new information upon which to base their projects and increase the likelihood of project success. The new methodology used by FPSN since 1994 is participatory and reflective analytical mapping (PRAM) and is based on Map Maker, a computer software program that creates simple maps of any geographic area from complex environmental and social information. PRAM methodology is based on the idea that sustainable development depends on both environmental and social factors. The FPSN field-testing involved identification of the six social and environmental indicators that would have the greatest impact on sustainability. Environmental data came from FPSN's files, and social data came from community leaders and experts. The data were used to rate each of the 11 municipalities in the region and to generate color-coded maps. This analysis revealed that three regions previously ignored by FPSN were home to the weakest economies and the highest level of social despair. This field work allowed FPSN to understand that sustainability requires social as well as environmental improvements and that FPSN needs to develop links with appropriate agencies to effect social changes. PMID:12290331

  3. Bitter Happy Trips

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGYUN

    2005-01-01

    My husband and I worked in Gyilong County of Tibet for six hard years in the late 1970s. We enjoyed the right of paid visits to see our parents back in the hometown at certain intervals. We were happy about this program, although we often found such trips were somewhat bittersweet.

  4. Storm-time total electron content and its response to penetration electric fields over South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M. de Siqueira

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work the response of the ionosphere due to the severe magnetic storm of 7–10 November 2004 is investigated by analyzing GPS Total Electron Content (TEC maps constructed for the South America sector. In order to verify the disturbed zonal electric fields in South America during the superstorm, ionospheric vertical drift data obtained from modeling results are used in the analysis. The vertical drifts were inferred from ΔH magnetometer data (Jicamarca-Piura following the methodology presented by Anderson et al. (2004. Also used were vertical drifts measured by the Jicamarca ISR. Data from a digisonde located at São Luís, Brazil (2.33° S, 44.2° W, dip latitude 0.25° are presented to complement the Jicamarca equatorial data. Penetration electric fields were observed by the comparison between the equatorial vertical drifts and the Interplanetary Electric Field (IEF. The TEC maps obtained from GPS data reflect the ionospheric response over the South America low-latitude and equatorial region. They reveal unexpected plasma distributions and TEC levels during the main phase of the superstorm on 7 November, which is coincident with the local post-sunset hours. At this time an increase in the pre-reversal enhancement was expected to develop the Equatorial Ionization Anomaly (EIA but we observed the absence of EIA. The results also reveal well known characteristics of the plasma distributions on 8, 9, and 10 November. The emphasized features are the expansion and intensification of EIA due to prompt penetration electric fields on 9 November and the inhibition of EIA during post-sunset hours on 7, 8, and 10 November. One important result is that the TEC maps provided a bi-dimensional view of the ionospheric changes offering a spatial description of the electrodynamics involved, which is an advantage over TEC measured by isolated GPS receivers.

  5. Giving Students Control over Their Learning; from Self-guided Museum Visits and Field Trips to Using Scanning Technology to Link Content to Earth Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkby, K. C.; Phipps, M.

    2011-12-01

    While it may seem counterintuitive, sometimes stepping back is one of the more effective pedagogical approaches instructors can make. On museum visits, an instructor's presence fundamentally alters students' experiences and can curtail student learning by limiting questions or discouraging students from exploring their own interests. Students often rely on the instructor and become passive observers, rather than engaged learners. As an alternative to instructor-led visits, self-guided student explorations of museum exhibits proved to be both popular and pedagogically effective. On pre-instruction and post-instruction surveys, these ungraded, self-guided explorations match or exceed the efficacy of traditional graded lab instruction and completely eclipse gains normally achieved by traditional lecture instruction. In addition, these explorations achieve the remarkable goal of integrating undergraduate earth science instruction into students' social lives. Based on the success of the self-guided museum explorations, this fall saw the debut of an attempt to expand this concept to field experiences. A self-guided student field exploration of Saint Anthony Falls focuses on the intersections of geological processes with human history. Students explore the waterfalls' evolution, its early interpretation by 18th and 19th century Dakota and Euro-America societies, and its subsequent social and economic impacts on Upper Midwest societies. Self-guided explorations allow students to explore field settings on their own or with friends and family in a more relaxed manner. At the same time, these explorations give students control over, and responsibility for, their own learning - a powerful pedagogical approach. Student control over their learning is also the goal of an initiative to use scanning technologies, such as linear bar codes, 2D barcodes and radio-frequency identification (RFID), to revolutionize sample identification and study. Scanning technology allows students to

  6. Development and formability analysis of TRIP seamless steel tube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Zicheng; Zhu Fuxian

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the production technology of transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) steel was first introduced into the steel tube manufacture field to produce the steel tubes with high strength and plasticity. The TRIP seamless steel tubes with the microstructure of ferrite, bainite, retained austenite and a little martensite were successfully fabricated using a cold-drawn steel tube with two-stage heat treatment technique and continu- ous heat treatment process, respectively. The ring tensile test and cold bend test were carried out to study the formability of the newly developed TRIP seamless steel tube. The results showed that the TRIP seamless steel tubes have a good cold formability, and they are available to be used in the tube hydroforming process. In ad- dition, the equipment of continuous heat treatment developed in the current study can be used to produce TRIP steel tube, and it may serve as an important reference for the industrial production of TRIP steel tube.

  7. Trip to Fish Springs - August 21, 22, 1959

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document discusses field survey results from several trips to Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge in August 1959. The following topics are outlined; water...

  8. Current clinical advances and future perspectives in the psychiatry/mental health field of Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cía, Alfredo H; Rojas, Rodrigo Córdoba; Adad, Miguel Abib

    2010-01-01

    The history of Mental Health in Latin America is relatively young. It dates back to the mid nineteenth century and widely developed during the twentieth century, with formidable scientific, social, political, and ethical challenges. Latin American psychiatry has contributed in the fields of epidemiology, phenomenology, social psychiatry, psychiatric and epistemological research, and clinical genetics as well. More recent advances can also be seen in clinical psychotherapy and psychopharmacology. Now, there is a formal and informal recognition of various areas of expertise, such as children and adolescents, addictions, anxiety disorders, among others. However, we need to solve the health problems resulting from mental illnesses as well as the disorders related to the social, environmental, political, and economic factors of a continent marked by the precariousness of underdevelopment, which have a high impact on population health. Therefore, considering and trying to minimize the impact of those factors, contributing to the destigmatization of mental illnesses and their consequences, together with the growing number of non-governmental organizations (NGOs), human rights defenders, public figures, etc., and collaborating in building a society that guarantees the right to mental health and adequate treatment and rehabilitation are part of our present challenges in Latin America. PMID:20874063

  9. Field guide to geologic excursions in southwestern Utah and adjacent areas of Arizona and Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, William R.; Lund, William R.

    2002-01-01

    This field guide contains road logs for field trips planned in conjunction with the 2002 Rocky Mountain Section meeting of the Geological Society of America held at Southern Utah University in Cedar City, Utah. There are a total of eight field trips, covering various locations and topics in southwestern Utah and adjacent areas of Arizona and Nevada. In addition, the field guide contains a road log for a set of Geological Engineering Field Camp Exercises run annually by the University of Missouri at Rolla in and around Cedar City. Two of the field trips address structural aspects of the geology in southwestern Utah and northwestern Arizona; two trips deal with ground water in the region; and along with the Field Camp Exercises, one trip, to the Grand Staircase, is designed specifically for educators. The remaining trips examine the volcanology and mineral resources of a large area in and around the Tusher Mountains in Utah; marine and brackish water strata in the Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument; and the Pine Valley Mountains, which are cored by what may be the largest known laccolith in the world. The "Three Corners" area of Utah, Arizona, and Nevada is home to truly world-class geology, and I am confident that all of the 2002 Rocky Mountain Section meeting attendees will find a field trip suited to their interests.

  10. Holocene lahars and their byproducts along the historical path of the White River between Mount Rainier and Seattle: Geological Society of America Field Trip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, T A; Zehfuss, P H; Atwater, B F; Vallance, J W; Brenniman, H

    2003-10-16

    Clay-poor lahars of late Holocene age from Mount Rainier change down the White River drainage into lahar-derived fluvial and deltaic deposits that filled an arm of Puget Sound between the sites of Auburn and Seattle, 110-150 km downvalley from the volcano's summit. Lahars in the debris-flow phase left cobbly and bouldery deposits on the walls of valleys within 70 km of the summit. At distances of 80-110 km, transitional (hyperconcentrated) flows deposited pebbles and sand that coat terraces in a gorge incised into glacial drift and the mid-Holocene Osceola Mudflow. On the broad, level floor of the Kent valley at 110-130 km, lahars in the runout or streamflow phase deposited mostly sand-size particles that locally include the trunks of trees probably entrained by the flows. Beyond 130 km, in the Duwamish valley of Tukwila and Seattle, laminated andesitic sand derived from Mount Rainier built a delta northward across the Seattle fault. This distal facies, warped during an earthquake in A.D. 900-930, rests on estuarine mud at depths as great as 20 m. The deltaic filling occurred in episodes that appear to overlap in time with the lahars. As judged from radiocarbon ages of twigs and logs, at least three episodes of distal deposition postdate the Osceola Mudflow. One of these episodes occurred about 2200-2800 cal yr B.P., and two others occurred 1700-1000 cal yr B.P. The most recent episode ended by about the time of the earthquake of A.D. 900-930. The delta's northward march to Seattle averaged between 6 and 14 m/yr in the late Holocene.

  11. Aboriginal Drained-Field Cultivation in the Americas: Pre-Columbian reclamation of wet lands was widespread in the savannas and highlands of Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denevan, W M

    1970-08-14

    The three main types of land reclamation in aboriginal America were irrigation, terracing, and drainage. Of these, drainage techniques have received the least attention, probably because they are no longer important and because the remnants are not conspicuous. Nevertheless, drained-field cultivation was widespread and was practiced in varied environments, including high-land basins, tropical savannas, and temperate flood plains. Sites ranged from seasonally waterlogged or flooded areas to permanent lakes. Ridging, mounding, and ditching were emphasized, rather than diking. Tools were simple, crops varied, and fertilization was accomplished mainly by mulching.

  12. The return trip effect: Why the return trip often seems to take less time

    OpenAIRE

    van de Ven, N.; van Rijswijk, L.; Roy, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    Three studies confirm the existence of the return trip effect: The return trip often seems shorter than the initial trip, even though the distance traveled and the actual time spent traveling are identical. A pretest shows that people indeed experience a return trip effect regularly, and the effect was found on a bus trip (Study 1), a bicycle trip (Study 2), and when participants watched a video of someone else traveling (Study 3). The return trip effect also existed when another, equidistant...

  13. Stainless steels with trip/twip/sbip effect; Nichtrostende Staehle mit TRIP/TWIP/SBIP-Effekt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, A.; Gutte, H.; Jahn, A.; Scheller, P.R. [Institut fuer Eisen- und Stahltechnologie, TU Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany)

    2009-08-15

    Economic austenitic steels with high energy absorption capability are in the focus of worldwide research activities, whereby the steels which show TRIP, TWIP and/or SBIP effects play a crucial role. New austenitic or austenitic-martensitic stainless steels with a high cold workability and energy absorption capability are currently developed and tested in laboratory scale at the Institute of Iron and Steel Technology at the Technical University Bergakademie Freiberg. The mechanical properties of these steels are essentially influenced by the TRIP, TWIP and SBIP effect, becoming evident in hot formed and solution annealed steels as well as in as-cast steels. The TRIP/TWIP/SBIP effects have a significant impact on the toughness and the strength of stainless steels consisting of metastable austenite. The TRIP effect owns a paramount position since it serves for a simultaneous increase of toughness and strength. The influences of alloying elements like manganese or nickel on the TRIP effect are in the centre of the investigations at the Institute of Iron and Steel Technology. These austenitic or austenitc-martensitic stainless steels provide the ability for new applications fields due to their excellent mechanical properties. Exemplary, in the Collaborative Research Centre SFB 799 ''TRIP-Matrix-Composites'', financed through the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft DFG, the suitability of this new class of steels for cast components in ductile and transformation strengthened high performance (metal) ceramic composite materials will be investigated. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [German] Weltweit verstaerken sich die Bemuehungen bei der Suche nach kostenguenstigen austenitischen Stahlgueten mit hohem Energieabsorptionsvermoegen. Dabei zeichnen sich verschiedene Forschungsrichtungen ab, die sich auf Staehle mit TRIP-, TWIP- und SBIP-Effekt{sup 1} oder entsprechenden Kombinationen konzentrieren. Am Institut fuer Eisen- und

  14. CNMI Commercial Purchases (Trip Ticket)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), Division of Fish and Wildlife (DFW) collects 'Trip Ticket' or purchase invoice data from vendors that buy fish...

  15. Trip report Rainwater Basin Nebraska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is a summary a trip to Rainwater Basin Wetland Management District in 1991, and focuses on the hydrology and soil habitat types. It is part of the...

  16. Present-Day 3D Velocity Field of Eastern North America Based on Continuous GPS Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudarzi, Mohammad Ali; Cocard, Marc; Santerre, Rock

    2016-07-01

    The Saint Lawrence River valley in eastern Canada was studied using observations of continuously operating GPS (CGPS) stations. The area is one of the most seismically active regions in eastern North America characterized by many earthquakes, which is also subject to an ongoing glacial isostatic adjustment. We present the current three-dimensional velocity field of eastern North America obtained from more than 14 years (9 years on average) of data at 112 CGPS stations. Bernese GNSS and GITSA software were used for CGPS data processing and position time series analysis, respectively. The results show the counterclockwise rotation of the North American plate in the No-Net-Rotation model with the average of 16.8 ± 0.7 mm/year constrained to ITRF 2008. We also present an ongoing uplift model for the study region based on the present-day CGPS observations. The model shows uplift all over eastern Canada with the maximum rate of 13.7 ± 1.2 mm/year and subsidence to the south mainly over northern USA with a typical rate of -1 to -2 mm/year and the minimum value of -2.7 ± 1.4 mm/year. We compared our model with the rate of radial displacements from the ICE-5G model. Both models agree within 0.02 mm/year at the best stations; however, our model shows a systematic spatial tilt compared to ICE-5G. The misfits between two models amount to the maximum relative subsidence of -6.1 ± 1.1 mm/year to the east and maximum relative uplift of 5.9 ± 2.7 mm/year to the west. The intraplate horizontal velocities are radially outward from the centers of maximum uplift and are inward to the centers of maximum subsidence with the typical velocity of 1-1.6 ± 0.4 mm/year that is in agreement with the ICE-5G model to the first order.

  17. Present-Day 3D Velocity Field of Eastern North America Based on Continuous GPS Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudarzi, Mohammad Ali; Cocard, Marc; Santerre, Rock

    2016-03-01

    The Saint Lawrence River valley in eastern Canada was studied using observations of continuously operating GPS (CGPS) stations. The area is one of the most seismically active regions in eastern North America characterized by many earthquakes, which is also subject to an ongoing glacial isostatic adjustment. We present the current three-dimensional velocity field of eastern North America obtained from more than 14 years (9 years on average) of data at 112 CGPS stations. Bernese GNSS and GITSA software were used for CGPS data processing and position time series analysis, respectively. The results show the counterclockwise rotation of the North American plate in the No-Net-Rotation model with the average of 16.8 ± 0.7 mm/year constrained to ITRF 2008. We also present an ongoing uplift model for the study region based on the present-day CGPS observations. The model shows uplift all over eastern Canada with the maximum rate of 13.7 ± 1.2 mm/year and subsidence to the south mainly over northern USA with a typical rate of -1 to -2 mm/year and the minimum value of -2.7 ± 1.4 mm/year. We compared our model with the rate of radial displacements from the ICE-5G model. Both models agree within 0.02 mm/year at the best stations; however, our model shows a systematic spatial tilt compared to ICE-5G. The misfits between two models amount to the maximum relative subsidence of -6.1 ± 1.1 mm/year to the east and maximum relative uplift of 5.9 ± 2.7 mm/year to the west. The intraplate horizontal velocities are radially outward from the centers of maximum uplift and are inward to the centers of maximum subsidence with the typical velocity of 1-1.6 ± 0.4 mm/year that is in agreement with the ICE-5G model to the first order.

  18. Development and formability analysis of TRIP seamless steel tube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Zicheng; Zhu Fuxian

    2014-01-01

    In this paper,the production technology of transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) steel was first introduced into the steel tube manufacture field to produce the steel tubes with high strength and plasticity. The TRIP seamless steel tubes with the microstructure of ferrite,bainite,retained austenite and a little martensite were successfully fabricated using a cold-drawn steel tube with two-stage heat treatment technique and continu-ous heat treatment process,respectively. The ring tensile test and cold bend test were carried out to study the formability of the newly developed TRIP seamless steel tube. The results showed that the TRIP seamless steel tubes have a good cold formability,and they are available to be used in the tube hydroforming process. In ad-dition,the equipment of continuous heat treatment developed in the current study can be used to produce TRIP steel tube,and it may serve as an important reference for the industrial production of TRIP steel tube.

  19. Tripping Effects on the Friction Factor in Turbulent Pipe Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Salaymeh, A.; Bayoumi, O. A.; Durst, F.; Gad-El-Hak, M.

    2004-11-01

    Tripping devices are usually installed at the entrance of laboratory-scale pipe test sections to obtain a fully developed turbulent flow sooner. The tripping of laminar flow to induce turbulence can be carried out in different ways, such as using cylindrical wires, sand papers, well-organized tape letters, fences, etc. Claims of tripping effects have been made periodically since the classical experiments of Nikuradse (1932), which covered a significant range of Reynolds numbers. NikuradseÂ's data have become the metric by which theories are established, and have also been the subject of intense scrutiny. Several subsequent experiments reported friction factors as much as 5% lower than those measured by Nikuradse, and the authors of those reports attributed the difference to tripping effects. In the present study, measurements with and without ring tripping devices of different blocking areas of 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% have been carried out to determine the effect of entrance condition on the developing flow field in pipes. Along with pressure drop measurements to compute the skin friction, both Pitot tube and hot-wire anemometry measurements have been used to accurately determine the mean velocity profile over the working test section at different Reynolds numbers in the range of 1× 10^5--4.5 × 10^5. The results we obtained suggest that the tripping technique has an insignificant effect on the wall friction factor, in agreement with Nikuradse's original data.

  20. Trip Generation Model Based on Destination Attractiveness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Liya; GUAN Hongzhi; YAN Hai

    2008-01-01

    Traditional trip generation forecasting methods use unified average trip generation rates to determine trip generation volumes in various traffic zones without considering the individual characteristics of each traffic zone.Therefore,the results can have significant errors.To reduce the forecasting error produced by uniform trip generation rates for different traffic zones,the behavior of each traveler was studied instead of the characteristics of the traffic zone.This paper gives a method for calculating the trip efficiency and the effect of traffic zones combined with a destination selection model based on disaggregate theory for trip generation.Beijing data is used with the trip generation method to predict trip volumes.The results show that the disaggregate model in this paper is more accurate than the traditional method.An analysis of the factors influencing traveler behavior and destination selection shows that the attractiveness of the traffic zone strongly affects the trip generation volume.

  1. A low-cost repellent for malaria vectors in the Americas: results of two field trials in Guatemala and Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Sihuincha Moisés; Darling Samuel T; Moore Sarah J; Padilla Norma; Devine Gregor J

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The cost of mosquito repellents in Latin America has discouraged their wider use among the poor. To address this problem, a low-cost repellent was developed that reduces the level of expensive repellent actives by combining them with inexpensive fixatives that appear to slow repellent evaporation. The chosen actives were a mixture of para-menthane-diol (PMD) and lemongrass oil (LG). Methods To test the efficacy of the repellent, field trials were staged in Guatemala and Pe...

  2. Guidelines for Setting Up an Extended Field Trip to Florida and the Florida Keys: An Interactive Experiential Training Field Biology Program Consisting of Pretrip Instruction, Search Image Training, Field Exercises, and Observations of Tropical Habitats and Coral Reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Claude D.; And Others

    The importance of experiential aspects of biological study is addressed using multi-dimensional classroom and field classroom approaches to student learning. This document includes a guide to setting up this style of field experience. Several teaching innovations are employed to introduce undergraduate students to the literature, techniques, and…

  3. Learning from a Bike Trip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren, Mike

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a bike trip which marks the culmination of a unit reviewing map-reading capabilities. In seventh grade, students develop various map skills, including cardinal and intermediate directions, how to measure distance on a map using a scale of miles, how to interpret the legend of a map, and how to locate places…

  4. Transforming an Exposure trip to Botanical Expedition: Introducing Ecological Research thru Exposure Trip in an Eco-tourism Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo C. Lunar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available – Fieldtrips can be considered as one of the three avenues through which science can be taught - through formal classroom teaching, practical work and field trips. An exposure trip at Bangkong Kahoy Valley Field Study Center was arranged for a class of BS Biology and BS Education students enrolled in Ecology Course. This approach purposefully transformed the usual exposure trip from being a casual site visit into a focused and productive learning experience. This transformation from exposure trip to a botanical expedition has exceeded the initial activity goals. Rather than a day off from learning, the time spent at the study center has been a meaningful opportunity to engage students in an active ecological research project while delivering valuable science content. Employing the descriptive survey design, the learning gains of the students were assessed and students were directed to do a guided reflection writing using the ORID Model of Focused Conversation. The learning gains and reflections of the students confirmed that students can collaboratively develop focused research questions, make meaning from a variety of sources, carry out a vegetation analysis and conduct surveys on socio-economic status, plant resource utilization and ecotourism assessment of the host community. As students prepared for their trip and synthesized their learning afterward, they were able to come up with very impressive and scientifically sound research outputs.

  5. Reconnaissance of Field Sites for the Study of Chemical Weathering on the Guayana Shield, South America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steefell, C I

    2003-02-01

    Despite the fact that chemical weathering of silicate rocks plays an important role in the draw-down of CO{sub 2} over geologic time scales (Berner and Berner, 1996), the overall controls on the rate of chemical weathering are still not completely understood. Lacking a mechanistic understanding of these controls, it remains difficult to evaluate a hypothesis such as that presented by Raymo and Ruddiman (1992), who suggested that enhanced weathering and CO{sub 2} draw-down resulting from the uplift of the Himalayas contributed to global cooling during the Cenozoic. At an even more fundamental level, the three to four order of magnitude discrepancy between laboratory and field weathering rates is still unresolved (White et al., 1996). There is as yet no comprehensive, mechanistic model for silicate chemical weathering that considers the coupled effects of precipitation, vadose zone flow, and chemical reactions. The absence of robust process models for silicate weathering and the failure to resolve some of these important questions may in fact be related-the controls on the overall rates of weathering cannot be understood without considering the weathering environment as one in which multiple, time-dependent chemical and physical processes are coupled (Malmstrom, 2000). Once chemical weathering is understood at a mechanistic process level, the important controls on chemical weathering (physical erosion, temperature, precipitation) can be folded into larger scale models tracking the global carbon cycle. Our goal in this study was to carry out the preliminary work needed to establish a field research site for chemical weathering om the Cuayana Shield in South America. The Guayana Shield is a Precambrian province greater than 1.5 billion years old covering portions of Venezuela, Guyana (the country), Surinam, French Guiana, and Brazil (Figure 1). More important than the age of the rocks themselves, however, is the age of the erosion surface developed on the Shield, with

  6. Policy and project implementation in the field of biomass energy in England. Report of a study trip to England. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May 1998 a group of Dutch experts in the field of biomass energy visited several biomass processing plants and a biomass plantation in England to gain insight and learn from experiences of projects and the policy with respect to biomass in the United Kingdom. Also a seminar was organized to discuss the British and Dutch policy with regard to biomass energy. The British policy resulted in a relatively successful market for renewable energy, in particular based on the Non Fossil Fuel Obligation (NFFO), a regulating competition by means of which a price convergence has been realized. The essence of NFFO that it makes projects 'bankable' by offering a guaranteed sellback. Only a limited number of biomass installations is in operation in England. In the next few years some biomass projects will be implemented (50-100 MWe) in which short rotation crops will play an important part. 50 refs

  7. Psychobiography Training in Psychology in North America: Mapping the Field and Charting a Course

    OpenAIRE

    Ponterotto, Joseph G.; Reynolds, Jason D.; Samantha Morel; Linda Cheung

    2015-01-01

    Psychobiography holds an important position in the history of psychology, yet little is known about the status of psychobiographical training and dissertation research in psychology departments. This brief report identified psychobiography courses throughout North America and content analyzed a sample of 65 psychobiography dissertations to discern the theories and methods that have most commonly anchored this research. Results identified few psychology courses specifically in psychobiography,...

  8. Statiscal Downscaling of a surface wind field over northeastern North America: annual to centennial variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucio-Eceiza, Etor E.; Fidel González-Rouco, J.; Navarro, Jorge; García-Bustamante, Elena; Beltrami, Hugo

    2016-04-01

    The region of North Eastern North America is located in a privileged geographical position that allows for interesting relationships between various large-scale circulation modes and the seasonal surface wind. This is a region where the large-scale configurations foster the transit of tropical cyclonic events during the summer season and even more intense extratropical cyclones during winter. In this work we present a statistical downscaling method based on Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) that exploits the relationships among the main modes of circulation over the North Atlantic and Pacific Sectors and the behaviour of surface wind. The statistical technique has been implemented with predictor variables (mean sea level pressure and geopotential height at different levels) provided by all the reanalysis products available to date. The regional scale data consist of a set of 526 sites distributed over North Eastern North America that span over a period of about 60 years (1953-2010). These data have been previously subjected to an exhaustive quality control process, height standardization and wind direction homogenization. Several decades of observations allow for the study of intra to multidecadal variability. Also, the sensitivity of the downscaling methodology to the selection of a systematic sampling of model parameter values has been explored. The statistical relationship obtained by this method also allows for the reconstruction of the regional wind behaviour back to the mid 19th century through various 20th century reanalysis and instrumental sea level pressure datasets.

  9. Geology Field Trips as Performance Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Callan

    2009-01-01

    One of the most important goals the author has for students in his introductory-level physical geology course is to give them the conceptual skills for solving geologic problems on their own. He wants students to leave his course as individuals who can use their knowledge of geologic processes and logic to figure out the extended geologic history…

  10. New Breed of Retail Field Trips Emerging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borja, Rhea R.

    2004-01-01

    Children from the 145-student Ets Chiyim School in Montgomery Village, Md., were not visiting Washington's National Zoo, a 35-minute drive away. Rather, they walked through the fluorescent-lit, merchandise-laden aisles of a local Petco, a San Diego, Calif.-based pet-store chain with 690 locations nationwide. Ets Chiyim is one of a growing number…

  11. Psychobiography Training in Psychology in North America: Mapping the Field and Charting a Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponterotto, Joseph G; Reynolds, Jason D; Morel, Samantha; Cheung, Linda

    2015-08-01

    Psychobiography holds an important position in the history of psychology, yet little is known about the status of psychobiographical training and dissertation research in psychology departments. This brief report identified psychobiography courses throughout North America and content analyzed a sample of 65 psychobiography dissertations to discern the theories and methods that have most commonly anchored this research. Results identified few psychology courses specifically in psychobiography, with a larger number of courses incorporating psychobiographical and/or narrative elements. With regard to psychobiography dissertations, the majority focused on artists, pioneering psychologists, and political leaders. Theories undergirding psychobiographical studies were most frequently psychoanalytic and psychodynamic. Methodologically, a majority of the dissertations were anchored in constructivist (discovery-oriented) qualitative procedures, with a minority incorporating mixed methods designs. The authors highlight the value of psychobiographical training to psychology students and present avenues and models for incorporating psychobiography into psychology curriculums. PMID:27247670

  12. TRIP RATES FOR CONDOMINIUM CONSTRUCTION PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wirach Hirun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of large scale condominium construction projects had dramatically increased in Bangkok. Many projects had occurred in either densely populated areas or in central business districts, where traffic conditions were usually highly congested. To prevent traffic problems, a traffic impact study must be prepared and submitted for review by concerned public authorities. Unit trip generation rates were important data in traffic impact analysis. Without accurate unit trip generation rates, public agencies could not obtain accurate information on the traffic that will be generated. This study aimed to study trip rates and the factors affecting them for condominium construction project in Bangkok. The data were collected from 30 condominium construction sites located in 15 districts of Bangkok. The analysis used the linear regression method and was divided into three cases: 1 trip rates for all vehicles, 2 trip rates for classified vehicles, and 3 trip rates for all types of condominium. All case analyses considered weekdays, Saturday, and Sunday. The results found that trip rates related to the number of dwellings in the condominium. The trip rates for all vehicle types on weekdays, Saturday, and Sunday were 10.636, 4.647, and 9.294 vehicles per 100 dwelling units per day respectively. The trip rates for six-wheeled and ten-wheeled trucks on weekdays, Saturday, and Sunday were 2.046, 0.975, and 0.575 vehicles per 100 dwelling units per day respectively. The trip rate for four-wheeled trucks and passenger cars on weekdays was 1.960. Regarding condominium types, the trip rate for low rise condominiums for all vehicle types on weekdays was 5.315 while the trip rates for high rise condominiums for weekdays, Saturday, and Sunday were 3.965, 2.667, and 1.261 respectively.

  13. Risk analysis and control measures after turbine trip but reactor not trip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the work experience, this paper presents the phenomenon and risks that may occur after turbine trip but reactor not trip while full power operation of PWR nuclear power plant, and put forward control measures to discuss. (authors)

  14. Does a satisfying trip result in more future trips with that mode?

    OpenAIRE

    De Vos, Jonas; Schwanen, Tim; Van Acker, Veronique; Witlox, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that travel satisfaction – the experienced emotions during, and cognitive evaluation of, a trip – can be affected by travel mode choice and other trip characteristics. However, as satisfactory trips might improve a person’s attitudes toward the used mode, persons may be more likely to use that same mode for future trips of the same kind. Hence, a cyclical process between travel mode choice and travel satisfaction might occur. In this paper we analyse this proce...

  15. Influence of PAHO publications on scientific production in the health field in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, A

    1996-06-01

    The influence and impact of PAHO publications on scientific production in the field of health in Latin America and the Caribbean was the subject of a study based on a sample of 45 biomedical journals published between 1985 and 1992 in 17 countries of the Region. A total of 8644 works (mostly articles), containing 82,143 citations, were studied. Of these, 3,806 citations were found to refer to works published by PAHO Headquarters in Washington, D.C.-the Boletín de la Oficina Sanitaria Panamericana receiving 1,444 (38% of the total), the English-language Bulletin of PAHO receiving 222 (6%), works in PAHO's Scientific Publications Series receiving 1064 (28%), and works in other PAHO publications receiving 1076 (28%). Overall, PAHO publications appeared to account for a significant share of the citations studied.

  16. Testing of the TriP Chip Running at 132 nsec Using a Modified AFE Board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this note we describe the first set of tests done with a sample of TriP chips that were mounted on a modified AFE board. The modifications consisted of different firmware and the replacement of one power supply switch. The board used was a standard AFEIc board (red type) on which new MCMs (MCMIIs) were mounted. The new MCMs were designed to support the TriP and emulate the SVX for readout when mounted on an AFEIc board. The TriP and the MCMs are described in Ref. [1]. Two versions of the MCMII were designed and built: one (MCMIIb) supports two TriP chips wirebonded directly to the MCM substrate. The other, (MCMIIc) supports one TriP which can be either wirebonded directly or packaged into a standard TQFP surface mount package. Due to space constraints, this MCM can support only 1 TriP. We tested 6 TriP chips on 3 different MCMIIb (MCMIIb-1, MCMIIb-2 and MCMIIb-3) and 2 other TriPs were tested on MCMIIc, one of them with an unpackaged TriP (MCMIIc-1) and the other with a packaged TriP (MCMIIc-2). A set of 10 programable internal registers control the TriP operation, the description of these registers can be found in [1]. Table 1 shows the values used for the tests described in this note. In Ref. [1] there is a description of the signals that are needed to operate the TriP chip. We implemented in a Field Programable Gate Array (FPGA), also part of the MCM, a set of shift registers that allow us to download via the 1553 interface to the AFE board, any desired timing for the signals that the FPGA has to send to the TriP chip. These registers are run with a 121.21 MHz clock (which is 16x the crossing clock and phase locked to it), which means that each bit corresponds to a time interval of 8.25 nsec. Finer control of timing is possible, but this changing the programing of the FPGA and recompiling. The bits downloaded to these shift registers inside the TriP are listed in Table 2

  17. Reflections on a Trip: Two Decades Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis-Berman, Jennifer; Berman, Dene

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on a longitudinal qualitative study that involves the interviews of four adults who participated in one of two 10-day wilderness therapy trips 25 years ago. Using qualitative data collection techniques, we conducted in-depth interviews. Respondents were asked to reflect on their lives, the wilderness therapy trip, and the…

  18. Status of the reactor TRIP in HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unexpected reactor trip in HANARO since the first criticality in February, 1995 was investigated. The total numbers of the reactor trip events were 136 and it was 10.4 cases on average each year. During the early stage of the HANARO operation from 1995 to 1997, unexpected reactor trips were occurred frequently. 67% of the total unexpected reactor trips were occurred in that period, which were 91 cases. That duration was for a power ascension test as one of the reactor performance tests. The unexpected reactor trips were mainly caused by system problems and operators' error. Some cases were caused by electric power failure. The most frequent system problem was originated from fluctuation of the signal of the neutron power measuring system. To prevent the reactor trips by this phenomenon, the circuit of the reactor protection system was changed. Operators' error were occurred by mismatching of the neutron and thermal power, which was caused when the deviation of the neutron and thermal power is larger than 3 MW while the reactor power increases. To reduce reactor operators' error, operational procedure was revised and the operators have been trained with the revised one. That has on effect on reducing unexpected reactor trips dramatically. Reactor trips have been occurred by the class-IV power failure or a few problems of system error but never by operators' error since 2000. (author)

  19. Joint Actions of the Republic of Tajikistan and the United States of America in the Field of Weapons of Mass Destruction Non-Proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the legislative basis in the field of radiation safety and security and regulatory authority establishment in Tajikistan. Joint actions undertaken after the civil war in Tajikistan by regulatory authorities of the Governments of the United States of America and Tajikistan are presented. Actions performed and planned in order to prevent proliferation of weapons of mass destruction in Tajikistan are presented. (author)

  20. Field use of a vaccinia-rabies recombinant vaccine for the control of sylvatic rabies in Europe and North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brochier, B; Aubert, M F; Pastoret, P P; Masson, E; Schon, J; Lombard, M; Chappuis, G; Languet, B; Desmettre, P

    1996-09-01

    During recent years, most research on the control of sylvatic rabies has concentrated on developing methods of oral vaccination of wild rabies vectors. To improve both the safety and the stability of the vaccine used, a recombinant vaccinia virus, which expresses the immunising glycoprotein of rabies virus (VRG), has been developed and tested extensively in the laboratory as well as in the field. From 1989 to 1995, approximately 8.5 million VRG vaccine doses were dispersed in Western Europe to vaccinate red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), and in the United States of America (USA) to vaccinate raccoons (Procyon lotor) and coyotes (Canis latrans). In Europe, the use of VRG has led to the elimination of sylvatic rabies from large areas of land, which have consequently been freed from the need for vaccination. Nevertheless, despite very good examples of cross-border cooperation, reinfections have occurred in some regions, due to the difficulty of co-ordinating vaccination plans among neighbouring countries. In the USA, preliminary data from field trails indicate a significant reduction in the incidence of rabies in vaccinated areas. PMID:9025144

  1. Multiproxy summer and winter surface air temperature field reconstructions for southern South America covering the past centuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neukom, R.; Grosjean, M.; Wanner, H. [University of Bern, Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research (OCCR), Bern (Switzerland); University of Bern, Institute of Geography, Climatology and Meteorology, Bern (Switzerland); Luterbacher, J. [Justus Liebig University of Giessen, Department of Geography, Climatology, Climate Dynamics and Climate Change, Giessen (Germany); Villalba, R.; Morales, M.; Srur, A. [CONICET, Instituto Argentino de Nivologia, Glaciologia y Ciencias Ambientales (IANIGLA), Mendoza (Argentina); Kuettel, M. [University of Bern, Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research (OCCR), Bern (Switzerland); University of Bern, Institute of Geography, Climatology and Meteorology, Bern (Switzerland); University of Washington, Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Seattle (United States); Frank, D. [Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL, Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Jones, P.D. [University of East Anglia, Climatic Research Unit, School of Environmental Sciences, Norwich (United Kingdom); Aravena, J.-C. [Centro de Estudios Cuaternarios de Fuego Patagonia y Antartica (CEQUA), Punta Arenas (Chile); Black, D.E. [Stony Brook University, School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, Stony Brook (United States); Christie, D.A.; Urrutia, R. [Universidad Austral de Chile Valdivia, Laboratorio de Dendrocronologia, Facultad de Ciencias Forestales y Recursos Naturales, Valdivia (Chile); D' Arrigo, R. [Earth Institute at Columbia University, Tree-Ring Laboratory, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Palisades, NY (United States); Lara, A. [Universidad Austral de Chile Valdivia, Laboratorio de Dendrocronologia, Facultad de Ciencias Forestales y Recursos Naturales, Valdivia (Chile); Nucleo Cientifico Milenio FORECOS, Fundacion FORECOS, Valdivia (Chile); Soliz-Gamboa, C. [Utrecht Univ., Inst. of Environmental Biology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Gunten, L. von [Univ. of Bern (Switzerland); Univ. of Massachusetts, Climate System Research Center, Amherst (United States)

    2011-07-15

    We statistically reconstruct austral summer (winter) surface air temperature fields back to ad 900 (1706) using 22 (20) annually resolved predictors from natural and human archives from southern South America (SSA). This represents the first regional-scale climate field reconstruction for parts of the Southern Hemisphere at this high temporal resolution. We apply three different reconstruction techniques: multivariate principal component regression, composite plus scaling, and regularized expectation maximization. There is generally good agreement between the results of the three methods on interannual and decadal timescales. The field reconstructions allow us to describe differences and similarities in the temperature evolution of different sub-regions of SSA. The reconstructed SSA mean summer temperatures between 900 and 1350 are mostly above the 1901-1995 climatology. After 1350, we reconstruct a sharp transition to colder conditions, which last until approximately 1700. The summers in the eighteenth century are relatively warm with a subsequent cold relapse peaking around 1850. In the twentieth century, summer temperatures reach conditions similar to earlier warm periods. The winter temperatures in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries were mostly below the twentieth century average. The uncertainties of our reconstructions are generally largest in the eastern lowlands of SSA, where the coverage with proxy data is poorest. Verifications with independent summer temperature proxies and instrumental measurements suggest that the interannual and multi-decadal variations of SSA temperatures are well captured by our reconstructions. This new dataset can be used for data/model comparison and data assimilation as well as for detection and attribution studies at sub-continental scales. (orig.)

  2. Plasmodium falciparum field isolates from South America use an atypical red blood cell invasion pathway associated with invasion ligand polymorphisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Lopez-Perez

    Full Text Available Studies of Plasmodium falciparum invasion pathways in field isolates have been limited. Red blood cell (RBC invasion is a complex process involving two invasion protein families; Erythrocyte Binding-Like (EBL and the Reticulocyte Binding-Like (PfRh proteins, which are polymorphic and not fully characterized in field isolates. To determine the various P. falciparum invasion pathways used by parasite isolates from South America, we studied the invasion phenotypes in three regions: Colombia, Peru and Brazil. Additionally, polymorphisms in three members of the EBL (EBA-181, EBA-175 and EBL-1 and five members of the PfRh (PfRh1, PfRh2a, PfRh2b, PfRh4, PfRh5 families were determined. We found that most P. falciparum field isolates from Colombia and Peru invade RBCs through an atypical invasion pathway phenotypically characterized as resistant to all enzyme treatments (NrTrCr. Moreover, the invasion pathways and the ligand polymorphisms differed substantially among the Colombian and Brazilian isolates while the Peruvian isolates represent an amalgam of those present in the Colombian and Brazilian field isolates. The NrTrCr invasion profile was associated with the presence of the PfRh2a pepC variant, the PfRh5 variant 1 and EBA-181 RVNKN variant. The ebl and Pfrh expression levels in a field isolate displaying the NrTrCr profile also pointed to PfRh2a, PfRh5 and EBA-181 as being possibly the major players in this invasion pathway. Notably, our studies demonstrate the uniqueness of the Peruvian P. falciparum field isolates in terms of their invasion profiles and ligand polymorphisms, and present a unique opportunity for studying the ability of P. falciparum parasites to expand their invasion repertoire after being reintroduced to human populations. The present study is directly relevant to asexual blood stage vaccine design focused on invasion pathway proteins, suggesting that regional invasion variants and global geographical variation are likely to

  3. Trip report : Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This trip report is on a visit to Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge on September 20 and 21 2001. Wetlands inspected on the Moore Drainage included Martin,...

  4. Large Pelagic Logbook Trip Survey (Vessels)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains catch and effort for fishing trips that are taken by vessels with a Federal permit issued for the swordfish and sharks under the Highly...

  5. Pre-Trip Notification Database (PTNS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The PTNS contains pre-trip notification data from vessels participating in the Northeast Multispecies groundfish fishery from 2010 to present and the Longfin squid...

  6. Lobster Processing and Sales Trip Report Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a federally mandated log which is required to be mailed in to NMFS after a fishing trip. This data set includes lobster processing and sales information...

  7. A low-cost repellent for malaria vectors in the Americas: results of two field trials in Guatemala and Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sihuincha Moisés

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cost of mosquito repellents in Latin America has discouraged their wider use among the poor. To address this problem, a low-cost repellent was developed that reduces the level of expensive repellent actives by combining them with inexpensive fixatives that appear to slow repellent evaporation. The chosen actives were a mixture of para-menthane-diol (PMD and lemongrass oil (LG. Methods To test the efficacy of the repellent, field trials were staged in Guatemala and Peru. Repellent efficacy was determined by human-landing catches on volunteers who wore the experimental repellents, control, or 15% DEET. The studies were conducted using a balanced Latin Square design with volunteers, treatments, and locations rotated each night. Results In Guatemala, collections were performed for two hours, commencing three hours after repellent application. The repellent provided >98% protection for five hours after application, with a biting pressure of >100 landings per person/hour. The 15% DEET control provided lower protection at 92% (p 46 landings per person/hour. The 20% DEET control provided significantly lower protection at 64% (p Conclusion In both locations, the PMD/LG repellent provided excellent protection up to six hours after application against a wide range of disease vectors including Anopheles darlingi. The addition of fixatives to the repellent extended its longevity while enhancing efficacy and significantly reducing its cost to malaria-endemic communities.

  8. [Norms and standards for radiofrequency electromagnetic fields in Latin America: guidelines for exposure limits and measurement protocols].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skvarca, Jorge; Aguirre, Aníbal

    2006-01-01

    New technologies that use electromagnetic fields (EMF) have proved greatly beneficial to humankind. EMF are used in a variety of ways in the transmission of electrical energy and in telecommunications, industry, and medicine. However, some studies have shown that EMF could be detrimental to one's health, having found an association between exposure to EMF on the one hand, and the incidence of some types of cancer as well as behavioral changes on the other. Although so far there is no concrete proof that exposure to low-intensity EMF is hazardous, researchers continue to study the issue in an attempt to reach a consensus opinion and to establish safety standards. While developing and establishing such norms and standards have traditionally been the responsibility of international specialized agencies, national health authorities should take an active part in this process. Currently the Pan American Health Organization is promoting scientific research, often in the form of epidemiologic studies, in order to propose uniform norms and standards. Some Latin American countries, including Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, and Venezuela, have already enacted incomplete or partial legislation based on recommended international standards. This article describes the norms established in Latin America and the particular approach taken by each country.

  9. Scrutinized: The TRIPS Agreement and Public Health

    OpenAIRE

    Subhan, Junaid

    2006-01-01

    SUMMARY The World Trade Organization’s (WTO’s) Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) of 1994 seeks to implement a uniform set of intellectual property protection across member nations to provide greater stability in international economic relations. Critics argue that the TRIPS agreement provides unnecessarily strong protection of intellectual property rights which serves to prevent the ill in developing nations from having access to affordable essential m...

  10. TRIPS and Pharmaceuticals: Implications for India

    OpenAIRE

    S. Mehta, Pradeep

    2012-01-01

    On the post-Uruguay Round world trade scenario, after the accords in agriculture and textiles and clothing, the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPs) is the issue affecting developing countries like India. One of the seven intellectual properties covered under TRIPs is that of patents. It has been the contentious issue for several reasons. India is committed to amend its patent laws by the year 2005 (for technologies previously unprotected in its market). ...

  11. Building America Case Study: Field Testing an Unvented Roof with Fibrous Insulation and Tiles, Orlando, Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-11-01

    This research is a test implementation of an unvented tile roof assembly in a hot-humid climate (Orlando, FL; Zone 2A), insulated with air permeable insulation (netted and blown fiberglass). Given the localized moisture accumulation and failures seen in previous unvented roof field work, it was theorized that a 'diffusion vent' (water vapor open, but air barrier 'closed') at the highest points in the roof assembly might allow for the wintertime release of moisture, to safe levels. The 'diffusion vent' is an open slot at the ridge and hips, covered with a water-resistant but vapor open (500+ perm) air barrier membrane. As a control comparison, one portion of the roof was constructed as a typical unvented roof (self-adhered membrane at ridge). The data collected to date indicate that the diffusion vent roof shows greater moisture safety than the conventional, unvented roof design. The unvented roof had extended winter periods of 95-100% RH, and wafer (wood surrogate RH sensor) measurements indicating possible condensation; high moisture levels were concentrated at the roof ridge. In contrast, the diffusion vent roofs had drier conditions, with most peak MCs (sheathing) below 20%. In the spring, as outdoor temperatures warmed, all roofs dried well into the safe range (10% MC or less). Some roof-wall interfaces showed moderately high MCs; this might be due to moisture accumulation at the highest point in the lower attic, and/or shading of the roof by the adjacent second story. Monitoring will be continued at least through spring 2016 (another winter and spring).

  12. Planning a pharmacy-led medical mission trip, part 2: servant leadership and team dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Dana A; Brown, Daniel L; Yocum, Christine K

    2012-06-01

    While pharmacy curricula can prepare students for the cognitive domains of pharmacy practice, mastery of the affective aspects can prove to be more challenging. At the Gregory School of Pharmacy, medical mission trips have been highly effective means of impacting student attitudes and beliefs. Specifically, these trips have led to transformational changes in student leadership capacity, turning an act of service into an act of influence. Additionally, building team unity is invaluable to the overall effectiveness of the trip. Pre-trip preparation for teams includes activities such as routine team meetings, team-building activities, and implementation of committees, as a means of promoting positive team dynamics. While in the field, team dynamics can be fostered through activities such as daily debriefing sessions, team disclosure times, and provision of medical services.

  13. Identifying Active Faults in Northeast North America Using Hypocenters and Multiscale Edge Wavelet Analyses of Potential Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, K.; Horowitz, F.; Ebinger, C. J.; Navarrete, L. C.; Diaz-Etchevehere, D.

    2015-12-01

    Multiscale edge Poisson wavelet analyses of potential field data ("worms") have a physical interpretation as the locations of lateral boundaries in a source distribution that exactly generates the observed field. The worm technique is therefore well-suited to analyses of crustal-scale stuctures that could be reactivated by tectonic stress or by fluid injection processes, providing new tools to analyze existing continental-scale data sets. Northeastern North America (US, Canada) hosts potentially damaging intraplate earthquakes, yet many of the Proterozoic structures are covered by thick sedimentary sequences or dense vegetation, and crustal structure is relatively poorly known.For the purpose of extending basement structure beneath the Appalachian basin and establishing a consistent regional basis for comparison, we use worms to identify steeply dipping structures in compiled gravity and magnetic anomaly data sets. We compare results to intraplate earthquake locations to assess seismic hazards. Clearly, not all locations of lateral boundaries are faults, and we do not expect all faults to have shown activity in the ~50 years of seismic records available. However, proximity statistics between hypocenters and worms are of interest since they assist in the identification and location of a subset of potentially active faults. We compare structures of lateral mass-density or magnetization contrast with locations of earthquake hypocenters cataloged from the ISC, the NEIC, and the ANF from the EarthScope Transportable Array. We develop a GIS based method for calculating hypocenter/worm proximity, and we will show statistics and maps from this method for the region at the meeting.

  14. Arizona Geology Trip - February 25-28, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Gretchen A.; Ross, Amy J.

    2008-01-01

    A variety of hardware developers, crew, mission planners, and headquarters personnel traveled to Gila Bend, Arizona, in February 2008 for a CxP Lunar Surface Systems Team geology experience. Participating in this field trip were the CxP Space Suit System (EC5) leads: Thomas (PLSS) and Ross (PGS), who presented the activities and findings learned from being in the field during this KC. As for the design of a new spacesuit system, this allowed the engineers to understand the demands this type of activity will have on NASA's hardware, systems, and planning efforts. The engineers also experienced the methods and tools required for lunar surface activity.

  15. Hyperspectral Remote Sensing and Ecological Modeling Research and Education at Mid America Remote Sensing Center (MARC): Field and Laboratory Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Haluk

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to establish a new hyperspectral remote sensing laboratory at the Mid-America Remote sensing Center (MARC), dedicated to in situ and laboratory measurements of environmental samples and to the manipulation, analysis, and storage of remotely sensed data for environmental monitoring and research in ecological modeling using hyperspectral remote sensing at MARC, one of three research facilities of the Center of Reservoir Research at Murray State University (MSU), a Kentucky Commonwealth Center of Excellence. The equipment purchased, a FieldSpec FR portable spectroradiometer and peripherals, and ENVI hyperspectral data processing software, allowed MARC to provide hands-on experience, education, and training for the students of the Department of Geosciences in quantitative remote sensing using hyperspectral data, Geographic Information System (GIS), digital image processing (DIP), computer, geological and geophysical mapping; to provide field support to the researchers and students collecting in situ and laboratory measurements of environmental data; to create a spectral library of the cover types and to establish a World Wide Web server to provide the spectral library to other academic, state and Federal institutions. Much of the research will soon be published in scientific journals. A World Wide Web page has been created at the web site of MARC. Results of this project are grouped in two categories, education and research accomplishments. The Principal Investigator (PI) modified remote sensing and DIP courses to introduce students to ii situ field spectra and laboratory remote sensing studies for environmental monitoring in the region by using the new equipment in the courses. The PI collected in situ measurements using the spectroradiometer for the ER-2 mission to Puerto Rico project for the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) Airborne Simulator (MAS). Currently MARC is mapping water quality in Kentucky Lake and

  16. [Travellers to South America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloveras, Susana Cristina

    2011-12-01

    The geography, tourist attractions and the multiple sites of historical and cultural interest make South America as an important destination chosen by travelers. The continent has a wide climatic variation from north to south, making exposure to risk different between the tropics and the temperate or cold regions. In the countries of tropical South America, the greatest risk is associated with the possibility of acquiring vector-borne diseases, like yellow fever, dengue, malaria and leishmaniasis. The risk of acquiring traveler's diarrhea and food-borne illness is similar across the continent, with some variations according to country and to visit urban or rural areas. Rabies, pertussis and diphtheria have appeared as epidemics in several countries and other diseases such as rickettsiosis, hantavirosis and viral encephalitis have expanded their distribution. The geographic and epidemiological diversity of South America, promotes a challenge for travel medicine specialists because during the pre-travel advice they have to take in account the kind of trip, traveller's medical history, exposure to risk and the dynamics of endemic emerging and reemerging diseases in the region.

  17. Justice in Urban America Session

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamont, Robert M.

    1972-01-01

    Teachers, attorneys and law educators met to evaluate 1971 workshops in law education and to plan improved learning experiences at future workshops. The use of mock trials, simulations, field trips, case methods, visiting speakers were discussed. Seven positive contributions of a summer institute workshop were recognized. (JB)

  18. NEWS: A trip to CERN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, A. D.

    2000-07-01

    the canteen. Over lunch we mixed with physicists of many different nationalities and backgrounds. Figure 1 Figure 1. In the afternoon we visited Microcosm, the CERN visitors centre, and the LEP control room and also the SPS. Here the students learned new applications for much of the physics of standing waves and resonance that they had been taught in the classroom. Later that night, we visited a bowling alley where momentum and collision theory were put into practice. The following morning we returned to CERN and visited the large magnet testing facility. Here again physics was brought to life. We saw superconducting magnets being assembled and tested and the students gained a real appreciation of the problems and principles involved. The afternoon was rounded off by a visit to a science museum in Geneva - well worth a visit, as some of us still use some of the apparatus on display. Friday was our last full day so we visited Chamonix in the northern Alps. In the morning, we ascended the Aiguille de Midi - by cable car. Twenty minutes and 3842 m later we emerged into 50 km h-1 winds and -10 °C temperature, not counting the -10 °C wind chill factor. A crisp packet provided an unusual demonstration of the effects of air pressure (figure 2). Figure 2 Figure 2. The views from the summit were very spectacular though a few people experienced mild altitude sickness. That afternoon the party went to the Mer de Glace. Being inside a 3 million year-old structure moving down a mountain at 3 cm per day was an interesting experience, as was a tot of whisky with 3 million year-old water. Once again the local scenery was very photogenic and the click and whirr of cameras was a constant background noise. Saturday morning saw an early start for the long drive home. Most students - and some staff - took the opportunity to catch up on their sleep. Thanks are due to many people without whom the trip would never have taken place. Anne Craige, Stuart Williams

  19. Abnormal Events for Emergency Trip in HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Guk Hun; Choi, M. J.; Park, S. I.; Kim, H. W.; Kim, S. J.; Park, J. H.; Kwon, I. C

    2006-12-15

    This report gathers abnormal events related to emergency trip of HANARO that happened during its operation over 10 years since the first criticality on February 1995. The collected examples will be utilized to the HANARO's operators as a useful guide.

  20. The SMS-GPS-Trip-Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinau, Kristian Hegner; Harder, Henrik; Weber, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a new method for collecting travel behavior data, based on a combination of GPS tracking and SMS technology, coined the SMS–GPS-Trip method. The state-of-the-art method for collecting data for activity based traffic models is a combination of travel diaries and GPS tracking...

  1. The TRIP from ULF to ARF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado, Manuel; Serrano, Manuel

    2010-04-13

    ARF is a key activator of p53, and together they form a critical duo for protection against cancer. Previous evidence had recognized the regulatory potential of ubiquitin-mediated degradation of ARF. The recent identification of TRIP12/ULF as a ubiquitin ligase of ARF adds an important missing piece to the ARF/p53 pathway.

  2. No "big trips" for the universe

    CERN Document Server

    Faraoni, V

    2007-01-01

    It has been claimed in several papers that a phantom energy-dominated universe can undergo a ``big trip'', i.e., tunneling through a wormhole that grows faster than the cosmic substratum due to the accretion of phantom energy, and will reappear on the other mouth of the wormhole. We show that such claims are unfounded and contradict the Einstein equations.

  3. 49 CFR 236.834 - Trip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.834 Trip. A movement of a locomotive over all or any portion of automatic train stop, train control or cab signal territory between the terminals for that locomotive; a movement in one direction. Cross Reference:...

  4. Press trip of Magic Cities Germany

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>Germany is the first European country which becomes the legal travel destination for the Chinese. Our reporter has joined a press trip of Magic Cities Germany and harvested amazing impressions of the magic sites of Germany Cities: Hannover, Frankfurt and Stuttgart.

  5. Microstructural Development during Welding of TRIP steels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amirthalingam, M.

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) are promising solutions for the production of lighter automobiles which reduce fuel consumption and increase passenger safety by improving crash-worthiness. Transformation Induced Plasticity Steel (TRIP) are part of the advanced high strength steels which off

  6. Automobile trip to Fish Springs, March 16, 1959

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These memoranda describe trips to Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. The purpose of these trips was to access the condition of the land in the Fish Springs area.

  7. Lacreek NWR : Trip report, July 19-21, 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Memorandum to the Lacreek National Wildlife Refuge manager reporting a trip, on July 19-21, 1995, to evaluate wetland and upland management on the refuge. The trip...

  8. Southeast Region Headboat Survey-Trip Estimates by Type

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a summary of the number of trips by vessel/area/month/trip type through time and is a means of gauging headboat fishery effort and compliance through time.

  9. Austenite stability in TRIP steels studied by synchrotron radiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blondé, R.

    2014-01-01

    TRIP steel is a material providing great mechanical properties. Such steels show a good balance between high-strength and ductility, not only as a result of the fine microstructure, but also because of the well-known TRIP effect. The Transformation Induced-Plasticity (TRIP) phenomenon is the transfo

  10. "An open field and fair play". The relationship between Britain and the Southern Cone of America, c. 1808-1830.

    OpenAIRE

    Somarriva, M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract This thesis explores the relationship between Great Britain and the Southern Cone of America between 1808 and 1830, from the perspective of the cultural representations which both regions developed about themselves and about each other. In order to do so, this work consulted newspapers, journals, pamphlets, prospectuses and books published in Great Britain and in the United Provinces, Chile and Perú between 1808 and the 1830’s. This work analyses the way in which cultural representat...

  11. Development of RPS trip logic based on PLD technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jong Gyun; Lee, Dong Young [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-15

    The majority of instrumentation and control (I and C) systems in today's nuclear power plants (NPPs) are based on analog technology. Thus, most existing I and C systems now face obsolescence problems. Existing NPPs have difficulty in repairing and replacing devices and boards during maintenance because manufacturers no longer produce the analog devices and boards used in the implemented I and C systems. Therefore, existing NPPs are replacing the obsolete analog I and C systems with advanced digital systems. New NPPs are also adopting digital I and C systems because the economic efficiencies and usability of the systems are higher than the analog I and C systems. Digital I and C systems are based on two technologies: a microprocessor based system in which software programs manage the required functions and a programmable logic device (PLD) based system in which programmable logic devices, such as field programmable gate arrays, manage the required functions. PLD based systems provide higher levels of performance compared with microprocessor based systems because PLD systems can process the data in parallel while microprocessor based systems process the data sequentially. In this research, a bistable trip logic in a reactor protection system (RPS) was developed using very high speed integrated circuits hardware description language (VHDL), which is a hardware description language used in electronic design to describe the behavior of the digital system. Functional verifications were also performed in order to verify that the bistable trip logic was designed correctly and satisfied the required specifications. For the functional verification, a random testing technique was adopted to generate test inputs for the bistable trip logic.

  12. A Trip to the Statler Hilton Hotel. The Special Education Curriculum Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Muriel

    A program designed for high school level work-study classes for students of limited mental ability presents specific curriculum methods and materials to teach information regarding positions available in the hotel industry. A field trip tour of the Boston Statler Hilton Hotel if the focal activity of the unit, and is accompanied by a history of…

  13. Westinghouse inadvertent plant trip reduction program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During recent years, the nuclear power industry has become increasingly aware of the high average number of inadvertent plant trips experienced by commercial units in the United States versus similar experience in other countries, most strikingly, Japan. The need to address this problem stems from the potential consequences which include lost generating capacity (and lost revenue) for the utility, the cost of replacement power, reductions in component and plant life expectancies (due to cycling), and customer dissatisfaction. Perhaps another, more subtle, concern is the impact these trips have on the general public and the confidence that it has in the maturity of the commercial nuclear power program in the United States. This paper serves two purposes: first, it summarizes the program Westinghouse has established to reduce the frequency of unplanned automatic scrams, and second, it discusses several observations, made during the implementation of this program at different utilities

  14. Analysis of reactor coolant pump trip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The trip of one reactor coolant pump accident is simulated with using the IAEA-developed WWER-1000 simulation computer software (IAEA-Code) in this article. The results are compared with the information presented for Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant for the same scenario (analyzed by the code Dynamika-97). The obtained results are compatible with the Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant's given data and show a good overall agreement between them

  15. Trip by Colonel and Mrs Hebbert. 1943

    OpenAIRE

    Hebbert, Henry Eric, 1893-1980, Colonel

    2004-01-01

    229 x 186 mm. A hand-drawn map showing the route of the Hebberts' trip through Eritrea to Ethiopia from Khartoum in 1943. In addition to the map, drawn in blue ink, there are annotations in black ink which read: 'Car Mileage Kh-Kh [presumably Khartoum-Khartoum] 3900 miles' and 'Chain dotted generally by car 3900 mile + By Mule (a) Semiam Mts [presumably Simen Mountains] (b) Lalibela'.

  16. Your private trips with Carlson Wagonlit Travel

    CERN Multimedia

    Carlson Wagonlit Travel

    2015-01-01

    Your Carlson Wagonlit Travel agency at CERN (building 62) also organizes private trips!     Do not hesitate to contact the “Tourism” team, at your disposal from Monday to Friday from 8:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. Phone: 72763. E-mail: cern@carlsonwagonlit.ch. Since 1 January 2015, everyone working at CERN benefits from lower booking fees.

  17. Advanced Tourist Trip Planning Using Hybrid Recommender

    OpenAIRE

    Saso KOCESKI; Petrevska, Biljana

    2013-01-01

    The paper intends to underline that tourists’ and travelers’ behaviour and preferences have changed dramatically specifically in the way how they search for information. In order to create a tailor-made itinerary and enhance the way of planning a tourist trip, the paper suggests introduction of tourism recommendation systems. For this purpose, a methodology is proposed that assists all interested parties in planning their vacation in more intelligent and sophisticated way by generating a pers...

  18. TRIPs Agreement, Important Multilateral WTO Treaty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana-Maria Florescu

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at presenting the content and the frame of the TRIPs. Agreement. It starts by introducing the reader to the terms that defined the world economical climate by the time of the Agreement negociation. Also, it explains the need of having an Agreement on intellectual property rights with impact on the business world. Moreover, the article reviews the main provisions of the Agreement and the most important intellectual property rights.

  19. Microstructural Development during Welding of TRIP steels

    OpenAIRE

    Amirthalingam, M.

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) are promising solutions for the production of lighter automobiles which reduce fuel consumption and increase passenger safety by improving crash-worthiness. Transformation Induced Plasticity Steel (TRIP) are part of the advanced high strength steels which offers a high strength and toughness combination with excellent uniform elongation. However, the higher alloying content of these steel limits their weldability and the thermal cycle of a welding proc...

  20. Scrutinized: the TRIPS agreement and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhan, Junaid

    2006-07-01

    The World Trade Organization's (WTO's) Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) of 1994 seeks to implement a uniform set of intellectual property protection across member nations to provide greater stability in international economic relations. Critics argue that the TRIPS agreement provides unnecessarily strong protection of intellectual property rights which serves to prevent the ill in developing nations from having access to affordable essential medications. The first recommendation that this paper makes is to provide two sets of intellectual property protection, one that applies to essential medications such as AIDS drugs and certain antibiotics and another that applies to drugs that treat non-life threatening conditions. The second recommendation builds upon the first recommendation: if two sets of intellectual property protection legislation are enacted, patents on essential medications should be restricted to patents on processes rather than the product itself. The third recommendation seeks to amend the language of the TRIPS agreement to make it obligatory for member nations to implement provisions on compulsory licensing within their domestic legislation. PMID:18523624

  1. Transforming medical imaging: the first SCAR TRIP conference a position paper from the SCAR TRIP subcommittee of the SCAR research and development committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriole, Katherine P; Morin, Richard L

    2006-03-01

    The First Society for Computer Applications in Radiology (SCAR) Transforming the Radiological Interpretation Process (TRIP) Conference and Workshop, "Transforming Medical Imaging" was held on January 31-February 1, 2005 in Bethesda, MD. Representatives from all areas of medical and scientific imaging-academia, research, industry, and government agencies-joined together to discuss the future of medical imaging and potential new ways to manage the explosion in numbers, size, and complexity of images generated by today's continually advancing imaging technologies. The two-day conference included plenary, scientific poster, and breakout sessions covering six major research areas related to TRIP. These topic areas included human perception, image processing and computer-aided detection, data visualization, image set navigation and usability, databases and systems integration, and methodology evaluation and performance validation. The plenary presentations provided a general status review of each broad research field to use as a starting point for discussion in the breakout sessions, with emphasis on specific topics requiring further study. The goals for the breakout sessions were to define specific research questions in each topic area, to list the impediments to carrying out research in these fields, to suggest possible solutions and near- and distant-future directions for each general topic, and to report back to the general session. The scientific poster session provided another mechanism for presenting and discussing TRIP-related research. This report summarizes each plenary and breakout session, and describes the group recommendations as to the issues facing the field, major impediments to progress, and the outlook for radiology in the short and long term. The conference helped refine the definition of the SCAR TRIP Initiative and the problems facing radiology with respect to the dramatic growth in medical imaging data, and it underscored a present and future need

  2. Predictors of trips to food destinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerr Jacqueline

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Food environment studies have focused on ethnic and income disparities in food access. Few studies have investigated distance travelled for food and did not aim to inform the geographic scales at which to study the relationship between food environments and obesity. Further, studies have not considered neighborhood design as a predictor of food purchasing behavior. Methods Atlanta residents (N = 4800 who completed a travel diary and reported purchasing or consuming food at one of five food locations were included in the analyses. A total of 11,995 food-related trips were reported. Using mixed modeling to adjust for clustering of trips by participants and households, person-level variables (e.g. demographics, neighborhood-level urban form measures, created in GIS, and trip characteristics (e.g. time of day, origin and destination were investigated as correlates of distance travelled for food and frequency of grocery store and fast food outlet trips. Results Mean travel distance for food ranged from 4.5 miles for coffee shops to 6.3 miles for superstores. Type of store, urban form, type of tour, day of the week and ethnicity were all significantly related to distance travelled for food. Origin and destination environment, type of tour, day of week, age, gender, income, ethnicity, vehicle access and obesity status were all significantly related to visiting a grocery store. Home neighborhood environment, day of week, type of tour, gender, income, education level, age, and obesity status were all significantly related to likelihood of visiting a fastfood outlet. Conclusions The present study demonstrated that people travel sizeable distances for food and this distance is related to urban. Results suggest that researchers need to employ different methods to characterize food environments than have been used to assess urban form in studies of physical activity. Food is most often purchased while traveling from locations other

  3. Evaluating Differences in Landscape Interpretation between Webcam and Field-Based Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolivras, Korine N.; Luebbering, Candice R.; Resler, Lynn M.

    2012-01-01

    Field trips have become less common due to issues including budget constraints and large class sizes. Research suggests that virtual field trips can substitute for field visits, but the role of webcams has not been evaluated. To investigate the potential for webcams to substitute for field trips, participants viewed urban and physical landscapes…

  4. Microstructure Evolution during Friction Stir Spot Welding of TRIP steel

    OpenAIRE

    Lomholt, Trine Colding; Somers, Marcel A. J.; da Silva Fanta, Alice Bastos; Pantleon, Karen

    2013-01-01

    TRansformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) stål er udviklet til anvendelse i bilindustrien på grund af den fremragende kombination af høj styrke og formbarhed. Mikrostrukturen af TRIP stål er en kompleks blanding af mange mikrostruktur-dele: ferrit, bainit, martensit og austenit. TRIP effekten er aktiveret under indflydelse af ekstern mekanisk belastning, der fører til en martensitisk transformation af austenit. Martensit-dannelsen under deformation bidrager til de fremragende mekaniske egenska...

  5. Building America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brad Oberg

    2010-12-31

    IBACOS researched the constructability and viability issues of using high performance windows as one component of a larger approach to building houses that achieve the Building America 70% energy savings target.

  6. Trip Oriented Search on Activity Tra jectory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈伟; 赵雷; 许佳捷; 刘冠锋; 郑凯; 周晓方

    2015-01-01

    Driven by the flourish of location-based services, trajectory search has received significant attentions in recent years. Different from existing studies that focus on searching trajectories with spatio-temporal information and text de-scriptions, we study a novel problem of searching trajectories with spatial distance, activities, and rating scores. Given a query q with a threshold of distance, a set of activities, a start point S and a destination E, trip oriented search on activity trajectory (TOSAT) returns k trajectories that can cover the activities with the highest rating scores within the threshold of distance. In addition, we extend the query with an order, i.e., order-sensitive trip oriented search on activity trajectory (OTOSAT), which takes both the order of activities in a query q and the order of trajectories into consideration. It is very challenging to answer TOSAT and OTOSAT efficiently due to the structural complexity of trajectory data with rating infor-mation. In order to tackle the problem efficiently, we develop a hybrid index AC-tree to organize trajectories. Moreover, the optimized variant RAC+-tree and novel algorithms are introduced with the goal of achieving higher performance. Extensive experiments based on real trajectory datasets demonstrate that the proposed index structures and algorithms are capable of achieving high efficiency and scalability.

  7. Breaking away to South America

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2011-01-01

    In December 2010, Peter Dreesen of CERN’s Technology Department (TE) returned from a long trip to South America. In four months he traversed the entire Andean range, from the equator to a latitude of 55 degrees south—on a bicycle!   Peter Dreesen on the Salar de Uyuni Lake, Bolivia. 11 000 kilometres is one long bike ride! And yet, that’s what Peter Dreesen did, travelling from Quito, Ecuador to Ushuaia, Argentina. Peter, an engineer in the TE Department, is no novice: the year before, he cycled from Paris to Peking, a distance of 13 500 kilometres, in just over four months. His latest voyage began last August, when he loaded his bicycle and boarded a plane for South America. In the saddle. After a week of acclimatisation at three thousand metres altitude, Peter left Quito on 6 August 2010. He arrived in Ushuaia (el fin del mundo, the end of the world, as it’s known in South America) on 12 December 2010. He recounts: “It was a bizarre sensation...

  8. Gezocht: de beste roofmijt voor Californische trips in roos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arkesteijn, M.; Pijnakker, J.

    2012-01-01

    De Californische trips, Frankliniella occidentalis, is een van de belangrijkste plagen in de glastuinbouw. De introductie van deze trips dateert van 1984. Het plaaginsect vormt nu een struikelblok voor de verdere uitbreiding van geïntegreerde bestrijding. In roos kan een klein aantal van deze tripse

  9. Psychological Sense of Community and Group Cohesion on Wilderness Trips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breunig, Mary; O'Connell, Tim; Todd, Sharon; Young, Anderson; Anderson, Lynn; Anderson, Dale

    2008-01-01

    A primary purpose of many wilderness trip programs is the development of positive interpersonal relationships and group experiences that lead to enhanced sense of community among group members. Although there is anecdotal evidence to support the development of sense of community on wilderness trips, there is little empirical evidence to support…

  10. Field tests for round-trip imaging at a 1.4  km distance with change detection and ranging using a short-wave infrared super-continuum laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammed N; Freeman, Michael J; Peterson, Lauren M; Ke, Kevin; Ifarraguerri, Agustin; Bailey, Christopher; Baxley, Frank; Wager, Michael; Absi, Anthony; Leonard, James; Baker, Hyatt; Rucci, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Field tests have been conducted of a broadband illuminator for active hyperspectral imaging (HSI) using a short-wave infrared supercontinuum laser (SWIR-SCL). We demonstrated irradiance comparable to the sun for two-way measurements at a 1.4 km distance between laser and target, and performed change detection and ranging. The experimental results suggest that the range resolution of our method is ∼1.5  cm even at the 1.4 km distance. Hence, we demonstrated the possibility to perform HSI with active broadband illumination using the SWIR-SCL. To our knowledge, this experiment is the first-ever to test two-way propagation of the active HSI illumination over a long distance. The 64 W SWIR-SCL provides near sunlight-equivalent illumination over multiple square meters, and the laser could enable HSI 24 h a day, even under a cloud cover, as well as enhanced capabilities such as change detection and ranging. PMID:26974617

  11. Safety aspects of unplanned shutdowns and trips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The issue of unplanned shutdowns and trips is receiving increased attention worldwide in view of its importance to plant safety and availability. There exists significant variation in the number of forced shutdowns for nuclear power plants of the same type operating worldwide. The reduction of the frequency of these events will have safety benefits in terms of reducing the frequency of plant transients and the challenges to the safety systems, and the risks of possible incidents. This report provides an insight into the causes of unplanned shutdowns experienced in operating nuclear power plants worldwide, the good practices that have been found effective in minimizing their occurrence, and the measures that have been taken to reduce these events. Specific information on the experiences, approaches and practices of some countries in dealing with this issue is presented in Appendix A

  12. Literacy and Access to the Written Culture by Youth and Adults Excluded from the School System: A Cross-Country Field Study in Nine Countries in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Rosa-Maria

    2008-01-01

    The title of this article refers to a field study carried out in 2006-2007 in nine countries in Latin America and the Caribbean. The article summarizes the basic concepts, aims, methodology and findings of the study. In conclusion, the author points out a number of important policy changes that are called for in this domain. While the study itself…

  13. User oriented trajectory search for trip recommendation

    KAUST Repository

    Shang, Shuo

    2012-01-01

    Trajectory sharing and searching have received significant attentions in recent years. In this paper, we propose and investigate a novel problem called User Oriented Trajectory Search (UOTS) for trip recommendation. In contrast to conventional trajectory search by locations (spatial domain only), we consider both spatial and textual domains in the new UOTS query. Given a trajectory data set, the query input contains a set of intended places given by the traveler and a set of textual attributes describing the traveler\\'s preference. If a trajectory is connecting/close to the specified query locations, and the textual attributes of the trajectory are similar to the traveler\\'e preference, it will be recommended to the traveler for reference. This type of queries can bring significant benefits to travelers in many popular applications such as trip planning and recommendation. There are two challenges in the UOTS problem, (i) how to constrain the searching range in two domains and (ii) how to schedule multiple query sources effectively. To overcome the challenges and answer the UOTS query efficiently, a novel collaborative searching approach is developed. Conceptually, the UOTS query processing is conducted in the spatial and textual domains alternately. A pair of upper and lower bounds are devised to constrain the searching range in two domains. In the meantime, a heuristic searching strategy based on priority ranking is adopted for scheduling the multiple query sources, which can further reduce the searching range and enhance the query efficiency notably. Furthermore, the devised collaborative searching approach can be extended to situations where the query locations are ordered. The performance of the proposed UOTS query is verified by extensive experiments based on real and synthetic trajectory data in road networks. © 2012 ACM.

  14. Illiterate America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozol, Jonathan

    Intended for those involved in American social service and educational communities, this book addresses the widespread problem of illiteracy in the United States and the social consequences of this problem. Following an introduction, the chapters in the first section of the book discuss the growing crisis of illiterate America, specifically, the…

  15. Coal geology of the Paleocene-Eocene Calvert Bluff Formation (Wilcox Group) and the Eocene Manning Formation (Jackson Group) in east-central Texas; field trip guidebook for the Society for Organic Petrology, Twelfth Annual Meeting, The Woodlands, Texas, August 30, 1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, Peter D.; Crowley, Sharon S.

    1995-01-01

    The Jackson and Wilcox Groups of eastern Texas (fig. 1) are the major lignite producing intervals in the Gulf Region. Within these groups, the major lignite-producing formations are the Paleocene-Eocene Calvert Bluff Formation (Wilcox) and the Eocene Manning Formation (Jackson). According to the Keystone Coal Industry Manual (Maclean Hunter Publishing Company, 1994), the Gulf Coast basin produces about 57 million short tons of lignite annually. The state of Texas ranks number 6 in coal production in the United States. Most of the lignite is used for electric power generation in mine-mouth power plant facilities. In recent years, particular interest has been given to lignite quality and the distribution and concentration of about a dozen trace elements that have been identified as potential hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. As pointed out by Oman and Finkelman (1994), Gulf Coast lignite deposits have elevated concentrations of many of the HAPs elements (Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Hg, Mn, Se, U) on a as-received gm/mmBtu basis when compared to other United States coal deposits used for fuel in thermo-electric power plants. Although regulations have not yet been established for acceptable emissions of the HAPs elements during coal burning, considerable research effort has been given to the characterization of these elements in coal feed stocks. The general purpose of the present field trip and of the accompanying collection of papers is to investigate how various aspects of east Texas lignite geology might collectively influence the quality of the lignite fuel. We hope that this collection of papers will help future researchers understand the complex, multifaceted interrelations of coal geology, petrology, palynology and coal quality, and that this introduction to the geology of the lignite deposits of east Texas might serve as a stimulus for new ideas to be applied to other coal basins in the U.S. and abroad.

  16. Take Geology Field Trips Right to the Schoolyard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curriculum Review, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a sample activity to introduce students to geologic processes while opening up and expanding their curiosity about the world around them. This exercise is targeted towards younger students, but could serve as a short introductory activity for further schoolyard mapping activities for older students. In this activity, students…

  17. Beyond the Field Trip: Teaching Tourism through Tours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelner, Shaul; Sanders, George

    2009-01-01

    A course in the sociology of tourism offers an opportunity to examine a world-transforming force that is penetrating more and more aspects of social life. It also offers an opportunity to create a learning environment that uses the object of study as the medium of study. This article examines how instructors can use tourism to teach the sociology…

  18. Teach Creatively, Learn Creativity: The Non-Assessed Field Trip

    OpenAIRE

    Griffin, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The story is a familiar one. A student starts an architecture course because of their creative interests only to find that their passions are overshadowed by the distraction of attaining a good grade. One can empathize with any student who succumbs to the Death Star-like gravitational pull of measured achievement; quantifying ability by means of attributing letters and percentages is axiomatically ingrained in almost all teaching systems and affects schools throughout the world. Giving ...

  19. The Destiny of Universes After the Big Trip

    CERN Document Server

    Yurov, A V

    2007-01-01

    The big trip can be describe with the help of the Wheeler-DeWitt wave equation ${\\hat H}\\psi(w,a)=0$. The probability to find the universe after big trip in the state with $w=w_0$ will be maximal if $\\partial\\psi(w,a)/\\partial w|_{w=w_0}=0$ for any values of the scale factor $a$. It is shown that this will be the case if and only if $w_0=-1/3$. This fact allows one to suggest that vast majority of universes in multiverse must be in this state after their big trips.

  20. Advanced transportation concept for round-trip space travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Chen-Wan L.

    1988-01-01

    A departure from the conventional concept of round-trip space travel is introduced. It is shown that a substantial reduction in the initial load required of the Shuttle or other launch vehicle can be achieved by staging the ascent orbit and leaving fuel for the return trip at each stage of the orbit. Examples of round trips from a low-inclination LEO to a high-inclination LEO and from an LEO to a GEO are used to show the merits of the new concept. Potential problem areas and research needed for the development of an efficient space transportation network are discussed.

  1. REVIEW AND PROSPECT OF HIGH STRENGTH LOW ALLOY TRIP STEEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L. Li; P. Wollants; Y.L. He; B.C. De Cooman; X.C. Wei; Z.Y. Xu

    2003-01-01

    Research status of high strength low alloy TRIP (transformation induced plasticity)steels for automobile structural parts is briefly described. Composition and microstructure factors especially the morphology, size and volume fraction of retained austenite,which largely influence the strength and ductility of the steel, are reviewed and discussed one after another. Modelling of the inter-critical annealing and martempering processes as well as the designing of the TRIP steel aided by commercial software are introduced. Some special aspects of the dynamic mechanical properties of TRIP steel are firstly reported.

  2. LAS GIRAS: UNA PRÁCTICA PEDAGÓGICA EN EL REPERTORIO PROBLEMAS ECOLÓGICOS, ESCUELA DE ESTUDIOS GENERALES, EN LA UNIVERSIDAD DE COSTA RICA (THE FIELD TRIP STUDY: A PEDAGOGICAL PRACTICE IN THE REPERTOIRE OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS, SCHOOL OF GENERAL STUDIES, AT UNIVERSITY OF COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiménez Morales Ana Patricia

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:Durante el primer semestre del 2007, se realizó un estudio para evaluar la opinión de los estudiantes del Repertorio de Problemas Ecológicos, de la Escuela de Estudios Generales de la Universidad de Costa Rica, 155 estudiantes fueron entrevistados después de participar en una gira de estudio como una actividad del curso.El objetivo de la investigación fue indagar la importancia de las giras al campo como apoyo a su formación profesional, así como promotora de un cambio de concepción de mundo en su relación con el ambiente. Además, era de interés evaluar la presencia del curso en el ámbito universitario debido a que es un curso de repertorio dirigido a estudiante de carreras diferentes a las ciencias básicas. Como resultado de la investigación se obtuvo que la mayoría de los entrevistados (70.97% ve la gira importante en su formación profesional, pues les permite una educación integral. Además, esta práctica le permitió al 65.8% de los participantes cambiar su concepción de mundo en relación con el ambiente y a un 19.35% reafirmar sus creencias, permitiéndoles observar personalmente lo que ya conocían en forma teórica. A nivel U niversitario se comprobó que el curso tiene una presencia importante, los estudiantes que participaron como informantes pertenecían a 44 carreras de 12 facultades distintas.Abstract:During the first term of 2007 a study to evaluate the opinion of the students of the Repertoire of Ecological Problems, of the School of General Studies of the University of Costa Rica was carried out, 155 students were interviewed after participating in a study field trip. The objective of the research was to investigate the relevance of this practice in its professional development, as well as promotional of a change of world conception in its relation with the environment. In addition, it was of interest to evaluate the presence of the course in the university scope because it is a course of repertoire

  3. Position-dependent shear-induced austenite– martensite transformation in double-notched TRIP and dual-phase steel samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blondé, R.J.P.; Jimenez-Melero, E.; Anusuya Ponnusami, S.; Zhao, L.; Schell, N.; Brück, E.H.; Van der Zwaag, S.; Van Dijk, N.H.

    2014-01-01

    While earlier studies on transformation-induced-plasticity (TRIP) steels focused on the determination of the austenite-to-martensite decomposition in uniform deformation or thermal fields, the current research focuses on the determination of the local retained austenite-to-martensite transformation

  4. Peer Pressure Road Trip 2012 - A Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popnoe, Olivia

    2012-10-01

    Each year since 2005 the Angelo State University SPS ``Peer Pressure Team'' has travelled for a week in May to promote physics and other sciences for grades K-12. This year, the Peer Pressure Team visited schools in West Texas and New Mexico. This was the first year the team has traveled outside of Texas, inspired by the SPS 2012 theme ``Physics Beyond Borders.'' The purpose of the Road Tours is to encourage an interest in science in children in grades K-12 and give experience in presenting and explaining physics to the undergraduate volunteers. The schools attended are carefully selected based on socioeconomic need and an underrepresentation in physics, as well as other sciences. During this week, the Peer Pressure Team saw about 1,500 students over 10 shows. Surveys were given to teachers post-demonstration to have students complete and return so the Team could gauge the effectiveness of the outreach program. In addition, the surveys allow the Team to determine which demonstrations had the most impact. We present the details of this year's road trip with the results and analysis of the survey data.

  5. Short-Term Effects of Field Programme on Students' Knowledge and Attitude toward Biology: A Slovak Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokop, Pavol; Tuncer, Gaye; Kvasnicak, Radoslav

    2007-01-01

    Field trips are ideal for increasing students' experience and perceptions of various organisms and their relationship between the original habitat. However, in general field trips are greatly neglected by teachers and their short-term effects are thought to be questionable. Therefore, we conducted a one-day field trip for both improving students'…

  6. United States: Ukraine Technical Exchange II trip report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May 15--21, 1994, the first technical conference was held at Hanford between Ukraine-Chornobyl, Westinghouse Hanford, and SAIC, to exchange technical information and experience gained in cleanup and stabilization of radioactive contamination at Hanford and Chornobyl. Protocol was signed for a second exchange and technology demonstration program in Kiev and near Chornobyl power plants. Technical Exchange No. 2 was held from August 28--September 9, 1994, with 3 focus areas: field demonstration of DOE-Hanford technologies and application to cleanup of contaminated lands resulting from 1986 Chornobyl accident; application of other US DOE-technologies; and observation/evaluation of Ukraine-developed technologies for potential application in USA. Three radiological mapping systems were demonstrated near Chornobyl: man-carried Ultrasonic Ranging and Data System, a mobile radiological data system, and NOMAD field gamma spectroscopy system. The Ukraine-Chornobyl team hosted technical presentations, discussions and field trips for 4.5 days, providing insight on the Chornobyl problem and allowing the US team to present overviews on DOE technologies that may be applicable to the Chornobyl situation. It is concluded that Ukrainian scientists have tremendous talent and expended considerable energy in attempting to tackle such a problem, but economic and cultural conditions with Ukraine have prevented them from acquiring the resources to implement basic aspects of characterization and remediation activities. Most of their publications are in Russian only. Their translation, plus resources to carry out proposals for bench scale and field demonstration projects, could benefit the DOE complex and other nuclear programs. The considerable cultural and economic change occurring in Ukraine, is providing opportunities for private industries to assist in the changes and for DOE, others to apply cleanup technologies, and it is essential that close institutional relations be established

  7. United States: Ukraine Technical Exchange II trip report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moak, D.J.; Wendling, M.A.

    1995-02-01

    May 15--21, 1994, the first technical conference was held at Hanford between Ukraine-Chornobyl, Westinghouse Hanford, and SAIC, to exchange technical information and experience gained in cleanup and stabilization of radioactive contamination at Hanford and Chornobyl. Protocol was signed for a second exchange and technology demonstration program in Kiev and near Chornobyl power plants. Technical Exchange No. 2 was held from August 28--September 9, 1994, with 3 focus areas: field demonstration of DOE-Hanford technologies and application to cleanup of contaminated lands resulting from 1986 Chornobyl accident; application of other US DOE-technologies; and observation/evaluation of Ukraine-developed technologies for potential application in USA. Three radiological mapping systems were demonstrated near Chornobyl: man-carried Ultrasonic Ranging and Data System, a mobile radiological data system, and NOMAD field gamma spectroscopy system. The Ukraine-Chornobyl team hosted technical presentations, discussions and field trips for 4.5 days, providing insight on the Chornobyl problem and allowing the US team to present overviews on DOE technologies that may be applicable to the Chornobyl situation. It is concluded that Ukrainian scientists have tremendous talent and expended considerable energy in attempting to tackle such a problem, but economic and cultural conditions with Ukraine have prevented them from acquiring the resources to implement basic aspects of characterization and remediation activities. Most of their publications are in Russian only. Their translation, plus resources to carry out proposals for bench scale and field demonstration projects, could benefit the DOE complex and other nuclear programs. The considerable cultural and economic change occurring in Ukraine, is providing opportunities for private industries to assist in the changes and for DOE, others to apply cleanup technologies, and it is essential that close institutional relations be established.

  8. You Can't Reach for the Stars if You are Tripping Over the Ground! (Preventing Slips, Trips, and Falls)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Darcy; Raysich, Mark; Kirkland, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Although there are very few mishaps related to ground, vehicle or payload processing at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), employees have experienced a significant number of injuries due to slips, trips, and falls outside of performing flight processing operations. Slips, trips, and falls are major causes of occupational injuries at KSC, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and in general industry. To help KSC employees avoid these injuries, and allow them to be fully productive, KSC launched an initiative in 2013 to reduce slips, trips, and falls. This initiative is based on a four-part model focusing on DATA analysis, HAZARD awareness, PREVENTIVE methods, and BALANCE.

  9. Hawaii Longline Fishery Trip Expenditure (2004 to present)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a time-series dataset of trip expenditure data for the Hawaii-based longline fleet for the period August 2004 to present. The data collection includes 10...

  10. American Samoa Longline Fishery Trip Expenditure (2006 to present)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a time-series dataset for trip expenditure data for the American Samoa-based longline fleet from August 2006 to present. The dataset includes 10 variable...

  11. [July 1999 trip report : Kirwin National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes a trip to Kirwin National Wildlife Refuge in 1999. It provides general background on the refuge, and reviews recreational activities, habitat...

  12. [August 1992 trip report : Kirwin NWR and Rainwater Basin WMD

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This trip report evaluates the current years farming and grazing results for Kirwin National Wildlife Refuge and Rainwater Basin Wetland Management District.

  13. My trip to Britain,my greatest inspiration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈嘉瑜

    2015-01-01

    During a summer vacation I went to Britain to visit our sister school there with the teachers and students delegation in our school for a cross-cultural communication trip and we stayed there for about a month.What I saw and experienced during the trip broadened my horizon and had a great effect on me and it’s really a wonderful and unforgettable experience in my life.

  14. Systematic comparison of trip distribution laws and models

    OpenAIRE

    Lenormand, Maxime; Bassolas, Aleix; Ramasco, José J.

    2015-01-01

    Trip distribution laws are basic for the travel demand characterization needed in transport and urban planning. Several approaches have been considered in the last years. One of them is the so-called gravity law, in which the number of trips is assumed to be related to the population at origin and destination and to decrease with the distance. The mathematical expression of this law resembles Newton's law of gravity, which explains its name. Another popular approach is inspired by the theory ...

  15. Modelling leisure day trips between Berlin and its surrounding

    OpenAIRE

    Beuck, Ulrike

    2005-01-01

    The paper describes the development, application and validation of a quantitative spatial model for leisure day trips from Berlin into the surrounding regions. Leisure activities can contribute substantially to the economies of rural regions like the surroundings of Berlin, but these activities are also often very sensitive to environmental quality, which is usually negatively affected by the traffic caused by the leisure travelers...A model of the spatial distribution of leisure day trips ca...

  16. Systematic comparison of trip distribution laws and models

    OpenAIRE

    Lenormand, Maxime; Bassolas, Aleix; José J. Ramasco

    2016-01-01

    Trip distribution laws are basic for the travel demand characterization needed in transport and urban planning. Several approaches have been considered in the last years. One of them is the so-called gravity law, in which the number of trips is assumed to be related to the population at origin and destination and to decrease with the distance. The mathematical expression of this law resembles Newton's law of gravity, which explains its name. Another popular approach is inspired by the theory ...

  17. Language Travel or Language Tourism: Have Educational Trips Changed So Much?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laborda, Jesus Garcia

    2007-01-01

    This article points out the changes in organization, students and language learning that language trips, as contrasted with educational trips (of which language trips are a subgroup) have gone through in the last years. The article emphasizes the need to differentiate between language trips and language tourism based on issues of additional…

  18. Round trip landing missions to the asteroid Eros, 1981 opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambo, G. A.

    1971-01-01

    A comprehensive, Del V (magnitude of impulsive velocity-change vector) study of short staytime (0 to 30 days), short total trip time (10 to 160 days) round trip landing missions (fast missions) is presented. The characteristics of the following selected round trip landing missions are described: mission A (fast mission) with 120-day total trip time, 0-day stay-time, and 73,000-fps total mission Del V; mission B (opposition class) with 380-day total trip time, 0-day staytime, and 52,000-fps total mission Del V; and mission C (conjuction class) with 540-day total trip time, 175-day staytime, and 39,000-fps total mission Del V. A study of large-tank Agena, chemical propulsion stage (CPS), and nuclear stage was conducted. A payload of 5000 pounds was assumed. The propulsion requirements for mission A were found to be two large-tank Agenas and ten CPSs (or alternatively, two large-tank Agenas and five nuclear stages) while mission B required two large-tank Agenas and two CPSs. Mission C can be performed with one large-tank Agena and one CPS.

  19. User Oriented Trajectory Search for Trip Recommendation

    KAUST Repository

    Ding, Ruogu

    2012-07-08

    Trajectory sharing and searching have received significant attention in recent years. In this thesis, we propose and investigate the methods to find and recommend the best trajectory to the traveler, and mainly focus on a novel technique named User Oriented Trajectory Search (UOTS) query processing. In contrast to conventional trajectory search by locations (spatial domain only), we consider both spatial and textual domains in the new UOTS query. Given a trajectory data set, the query input contains a set of intended places given by the traveler and a set of textual attributes describing the traveler’s preference. If a trajectory is connecting/close to the specified query locations, and the textual attributes of the trajectory are similar to the traveler’s preference, it will be recommended to the traveler. This type of queries can enable many popular applications such as trip planning and recommendation. There are two challenges in UOTS query processing, (i) how to constrain the searching range in two domains and (ii) how to schedule multiple query sources effectively. To overcome the challenges and answer the UOTS query efficiently, a novel collaborative searching approach is developed. Conceptually, the UOTS query processing is conducted in the spatial and textual domains alternately. A pair of upper and lower bounds are devised to constrain the searching range in two domains. In the meantime, a heuristic searching strategy based on priority ranking is adopted for scheduling the multiple query sources, which can further reduce the searching range and enhance the query efficiency notably. Furthermore, the devised collaborative searching approach can be extended to situations where the query locations are ordered. Extensive experiments are conducted on both real and synthetic trajectory data in road networks. Our approach is verified to be effective in reducing both CPU time and disk I/O time.

  20. User Oriented Trajectory Search for Trip Recommendation

    KAUST Repository

    Ding, Ruogu

    2012-09-08

    Trajectory sharing and searching have received significant attention in recent years. In this thesis, we propose and investigate the methods to find and recommend the best trajectory to the traveler, and mainly focus on a novel technique named User Oriented Trajectory Search (UOTS) query processing. In contrast to conventional trajectory search by locations (spatial domain only), we consider both spatial and textual domains in the new UOTS query. Given a trajectory data set, the query input contains a set of intended places given by the traveler and a set of textual attributes describing the traveler’s preference. If a trajectory is connecting/close to the specified query locations, and the textual attributes of the trajectory are similar to the traveler’s preference, it will be recommended to the traveler. This type of queries can enable many popular applications such as trip planning and recommendation. There are two challenges in UOTS query processing, (i) how to constrain the searching range in two domains and (ii) how to schedule multiple query sources effectively. To overcome the challenges and answer the UOTS query efficiently, a novel collaborative searching approach is developed. Conceptually, the UOTS query processing is conducted in the spatial and textual domains alternately. A pair of upper and lower bounds are devised to constrain the searching range in two domains. In the meantime, a heuristic searching strategy based on priority ranking is adopted for scheduling the multiple query sources, which can further reduce the searching range and enhance the query efficiency notably. Furthermore, the devised collaborative searching approach can be extended to situations where the query locations are or- dered. Extensive experiments are conducted on both real and synthetic trajectory data in road networks. Our approach is verified to be effective in reducing both CPU time and disk I/O time.

  1. Fatigue Properties of TRIP800 Steel Plate%TRIP800钢板疲劳性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于燕; 杨海峰

    2012-01-01

    对厚度为1.8mm的国产TRIP800 MPa钢板进行疲劳试验,并运用最小二乘法对试验数据进行拟合,获得了在对称循环应力下的疲劳经验公式.结果表明:TRIP800 MPa钢板在加载频率为8Hz、R=0的条件下疲劳极限是560MPa;TRIP800钢板的疲劳裂纹源位于表面下的夹杂物处,裂纹扩展区为韧性断裂,瞬断区为脆性断裂.%A fatigue life test was carried out on 1.8 mm domestic TRIP800 MPa steel plate. The least square method was used to fit, and then the symmetrical cyclic stress of fatigue experience formula was obtained. The results show that TRIP800 MPa steel plate loading for 8 Hz in frequency, R=0 condition: fatigue limit is 560 MPa. TRIP800 steel plate fatigue crack source is located under the surface of the inclusion place, crack growth area for the ductile fracture, transient breaking area for the brittle fiacture.

  2. Primary heat transport pump trip by ground fault (deterioration of insulation in the cable quick disconnect)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At 08:29 Sept. 1, 1988, Wolsong unit 1 was operating at 100% full power when a primary heat transport pump was suddenly tripped by breaker trip due to ground fault in the power distribution connector assembly. Soon after the pump trip, the reactor was shut down automatically on low heat transport flow. Operators tried to restart the pump twice but failed. A field operator reported to the shift supervisor that he found an electrical spark and smoke at the vicinity of the pump when the pump started to run. Inspection showed that a power distribution connector assembly for making fast and easy power connections to the PHT pump motor, 3312-PM2, was damaged severely by thermal shock. Particularly, broken parts of the insulating plug flew away across the boiler room and dropped to the floor. Direct causes of the failure were bad contact and deterioration of integrity along the creep paths between the insulating plug and the connector housing. The failed connector assembly had been used for more than 7 years. Its status had been checked infrequently during the in-service period. The standard torque value was not applied to the installation of connectors. Therefore, we concluded that long term inservice in combinations of application of improper torque value induced failure of insulation. This paper describes the scenarios, causes of the event and corrective actions to prevent recurrence of this event. (author)

  3. The return trip is felt shorter only postdictively: A psychophysiological study of the return trip effect [corrected].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryosuke Ozawa

    Full Text Available The return trip often seems shorter than the outward trip even when the distance and actual time are identical. To date, studies on the return trip effect have failed to confirm its existence in a situation that is ecologically valid in terms of environment and duration. In addition, physiological influences as part of fundamental timing mechanisms in daily activities have not been investigated in the time perception literature. The present study compared round-trip and non-round-trip conditions in an ecological situation. Time estimation in real time and postdictive estimation were used to clarify the situations where the return trip effect occurs. Autonomic nervous system activity was evaluated from the electrocardiogram using the Lorenz plot to demonstrate the relationship between time perception and physiological indices. The results suggest that the return trip effect is caused only postdictively. Electrocardiographic analysis revealed that the two experimental conditions induced different responses in the autonomic nervous system, particularly in sympathetic nervous function, and that parasympathetic function correlated with postdictive timing. To account for the main findings, the discrepancy between the two time estimates is discussed in the light of timing strategies, i.e., prospective and retrospective timing, which reflect different emphasis on attention and memory processes. Also each timing method, i.e., the verbal estimation, production or comparative judgment, has different characteristics such as the quantification of duration in time units or knowledge of the target duration, which may be responsible for the discrepancy. The relationship between postdictive time estimation and the parasympathetic nervous system is also discussed.

  4. Appraisal of boundary layer trips for landing gear testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Philip; Feltham, Graham; Ekmekci, Alis

    2013-11-01

    Dynamic similarity during scaled model testing is difficult to maintain. Forced boundary layer transition via a surface protuberance is a common method used to address this issue, however few guidelines exist for the effective tripping of complex geometries, such as aircraft landing gears. To address this shortcoming, preliminary wind tunnel tests were performed at Re = 500,000. Surface transition visualisation and pressure measurements show that zigzag type trips of a given size and location are effective at promoting transition, thus preventing the formation of laminar separation bubbles and increasing the effective Reynolds number from the critical regime to the supercritical regime. Extension of these experiments to include three additional tripping methods (wires, roughness strips, CADCUT dots) in a range of sizes, at Reynolds number of 200,000 and below, have been performed in a recirculating water channel. Analysis of surface pressure measurements and time resolved PIV for each trip device, size and location has established a set of recommendations for successful use of tripping for future, low Reynolds number landing gear testing.

  5. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of High Manganese TRIP Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Jin-long; XI Yan; SHI Wen; LI Lin

    2012-01-01

    Microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of newly designed 0.1C-6Mn-0.5Si-1Al TRIP-aided steels under different annealing conditions and the effects of matrix microstructure before intercritical annealing on the final microstructure were studied by means of X-ray diffraction(XRD),scanning electron microcopy(SEM),dilatometric simulation,optical microstructure(OM) and tensile testing in this work.The experimental results indicate that the TRIP steel with Mn of 6% could form a considerable amount of retained austenite with good TRIP effect after a simple intercritical annealing treatment,and the matrix microstructure before intercritical annealing treatment can greatly affect the final microstructure.The original microstructure of the ferritic matrix steel was eliminated,while annealed martensite was remained from the martensite matrix steel under the same intercritical annealing conditions

  6. Mechanical and Microstructural Characterization of an Aluminum Bearing Trip Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsalve, Alberto; Guzmán, Alexis; De Barbieri, Flavio; Artigas, Alfredo; Carvajal, Linton; Bustos, Oscar; Garza-Montes-de Oca, Nelson F.; Colás, Rafael

    2016-06-01

    The mechanical properties and microstructural characteristics of a steel able to sustain the TRIP-effect were studied. The material was prepared by taking in mind the partial substitution of silicon by aluminum following a processing route that included hot forging, hot and cold rolling, intercritical annealing, and a final bainitic isothermal treatment. The mechanical properties that were obtained resulted to be above those of commercial a 780 TRIP steel. The TRIP phenomenon was confirmed by the change in retained austenite before and after deforming the steel; X-ray diffraction was used to evaluate the volume content of retained austenite. Formability of the steel under study can be rationalized in terms of the texture developed in the material.

  7. Texture developed during deformation of Transformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, M.; Shanta, C.; Asim, T.; Sushil, M.

    2015-04-01

    Automotive industry is currently focusing on using advanced high strength steels (AHSS) due to its high strength and formability for closure applications. Transformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) steel is promising material for this application among other AHSS. The present work is focused on the microstructure development during deformation of TRIP steel sheets. To mimic complex strain path condition during forming of automotive body, Limit Dome Height (LDH) tests were conducted and samples were deformed in servo hydraulic press to find the different strain path. FEM Simulations were done to predict different strain path diagrams and compared with experimental results. There is a significant difference between experimental and simulation results as the existing material models are not applicable for TRIP steels. Micro texture studies were performed on the samples using EBSD and X-RD techniques. It was observed that austenite is transformed to martensite and texture developed during deformation had strong impact on limit strain and strain path.

  8. Microstructure characterization of Friction Stir Spot Welded TRIP steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomholt, Trine Colding; Adachi, Yoshitaka; Peterson, Jeremy;

    2012-01-01

    Transformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) steels have not yet been successfully joined by any welding technique. It is desirable to search for a suitable welding technique that opens up for full usability of TRIP steels. In this study, the potential of joining TRIP steel with Friction Stir Spot...... Welding (FSSW) is investigated. The aim of the study is to investigate whether acceptable welds can be produced, and additionally, to obtain an understanding of the microstructural changes during welding. The microstructure was investigated with a combination of microscopical techniques with the aim...... of identifying the transformations occurring during welding. Reflected light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and electron backscatter diffraction were among the methods applied for detailed investigations. The microstructure adjacent to the welds can generally be subdivided in two thermo...

  9. What drives people? Analyzing leisure-shopping trip decisions making

    OpenAIRE

    DE CEUNYNCK, Tim; KUSUMASTUTI, Diana; HANNES, Els; JANSSENS, Davy; Wets, Geert

    2011-01-01

    Because of the strong increase in the number of leisure-shopping trips, a shift towards more sustainable leisure-shopping behaviour is desirable. This can be attained by having a better insight into people’s reasoning in choosing a transport mode and shopping location for this type of activities. Thus, this paper highlights individuals’ leisure-trip decision-making processes. The uniqueness of this study is the use of a large sample group, consisting of 221 respondents. A Computer-Based Causa...

  10. Bake hardening behavior of TRIP and DP steels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jicheng Zhang; Renyu Fu; Mei Zhang; Rendong Liu; Xicheng Wei; Lin Li

    2008-01-01

    The bake hardening (BH) behavior of transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) and dual-phase (DP) steels after different prestrains was studied. The experimental results indicate that TRIP steel exhibits good BH ability while DP steel does not, and prestrain displays a strong effect on the BH values of both steels. The comparison of microstructures of the two steels showed that the hard second phase in the matrix might be harmful to the BH ability. For deformed specimens, baking resulted in a loss of uniform elongation, but there was no obvious decrease in uniform elongation for unprestrained specimens.

  11. A simplified approach to detect undervoltage tripping of wind generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigrist, Lukas; Rouco, Luis [Universidad Pontificia Comillas, Madrid (Spain). Inst. de Investigacion Tecnologica

    2012-07-01

    This paper proposes a simplified but fast approach based on a Norton equivalent of wind generators to detect undervoltage tripping of wind generators. This approach is successfully applied to a real wind farm. The relevant grid code requires the wind farm to withstand a voltage dip of 0% retained voltage. The ability of the wind generators to raise the voltage supplying reactive current and to avoid undervoltage tripping is investigated. The obtained results are also compared with the results obtained from detailed dynamic simulations, which make use of wind generator models complying with the relevant grid code. (orig.)

  12. Social Capital and International Migration from Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Douglas S; Aysa-Lastra, María

    2011-01-01

    We combine data from the Latin American Migration Project and the Mexican Migration Project to estimate models predicting the likelihood of taking of first and later trips to the United States from five nations: Mexico, the Dominican Republic, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, and Peru. The models test specific hypotheses about the effects of social capital on international migration and how these effects vary with respect to contextual factors. Our findings confirm the ubiquity of migrant networks and the universality of social capital effects throughout Latin America. They also reveal how the sizes of these effects are not uniform across settings. Social capital operates more powerfully on first as opposed to later trips and interacts with the cost of migration. In addition, effects are somewhat different when considering individual social capital (measuring strong ties) and community social capital (measuring weak ties). On first trips, the effect of strong ties in promoting migration increases with distance whereas the effect of weak ties decreases with distance. On later trips, the direction of effects for both individual and community social capital is negative for long distances but positive for short distances. PMID:21915379

  13. Computer simulation of equilibrium conditions following a plant 'trip'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limb, D.

    When a process or part of a process experiences an emergency 'trip', the contained fluids redistribute themselves based upon the prevailing pressure gradients and depending upon the positions of valves at the time of the trip. Reverse flow through rotating compression machinery may occur, depending upon the locations of non-return valves. Reduction in pressure and mixing of cryogenic fluids of different compositions and/or temperatures can both lead to generation of significant volumes of vapour. This equilibration process is usually largely over in a matter of seconds rather than minutes. Key questions facing process and mechanical designers are: what is the settle-out pressure, and can we ensure relief valves do not lift following a trip? To answer these related questions it is necessary to analyse the state of the system prior to the trip, and then, based upon valve positions, etc., construct a model of the worst case probable scenarios for the qualitative redistribution of fluid inventory. At this point the simulation program may be employed to help calculate rigorously the final settle out conditions for each of the possible scenarios. This technique is particularly appropriate for cryogenic processes including refrigeration cycles. It is illustrated here with the help of a multistage hydrocarbon compressor example. Other related non-standard applications of the steady state process simulation program are identified.

  14. Solving touristic trip planning problem by using taboo search approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadri Sylejmani

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce an algorithm that automatically plans a touristic trip by considering some hard and soft constrains. Opening and closing hours of POIs, trip duration and trip allocated budget represent the hard constraints, while the satisfaction factors of the POIs and travelling distance in the trip are considered as soft constraints. We use the soft constraints to evaluate the generated solution of the algorithm. The algorithm is developed by utilizing the taboo search method as a meta heuristic. The operators of Swap, Insert and Delete are used to explore the search space. The Swap and Insert operator are used in each iteration of the algorithm loop, while the Delete operator is used whenever the algorithm tends to enter in an endless cycle. The algorithm is developed by using Java programming language, while the data repositories are created in the XML format. The algorithm is tested with 40 instances of POIs of the city of Vienna. Various entry parameters of the algorithm are used to test its performance. The results gained are discussed and compared in respect to the optimal solution.

  15. Geïntegreerde trips- en spintbestrijding in chrysant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerling, E.A.M.; Berg, van den D.

    2008-01-01

    Raspportage van vierjarig project (2001-2004) waarbij op semi-praktijkschaal in proefkassen werd onderzocht wat de werkelijke bijdrage van natuurlijke vijanden en biologische middelen aan de bestrijding van trips en spint in chrysant is. Op basis hiervan werd geprobeerd zinvolle geïntegreerde bestri

  16. The LEP RF Trip and Beam Loss Diagnostics System

    CERN Document Server

    Arnaudon, L; Beetham, G; Ciapala, Edmond; Juillard, J C; Olsen, R

    2002-01-01

    During the last years of operation the number of operationally independent RF stations distributed around LEP reached a total of 40. A serious difficulty when running at high energy and high beam intensities was to establish cause and effect in beam loss situations, where the trip of any single RF station would result in beam loss, rapidly producing further multiple RF station trips. For the last year of operation a fast post-mortem diagnostics system was developed to allow precise time-stamping of RF unit trips and beam intensity changes. The system was based on eight local DSP controlled fast acquisition and event recording units, one in each RF sector, connected to critical RF control signals and fast beam intensity monitors and synchronised by GPS. The acquisition units were armed and synchronised at the start of each fill. At the end of the fill the local time-stamped RF trip and beam intensity change history tables were recovered, events ordered and the results stored in a database for subsequent analys...

  17. TRIPS Agreement, International Technology Transfer and Least Developed Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark V. Shugurov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The author examines the role of the trade-related aspects of intellectual property rights (TRIPS Agreement in facilitation the international technology transfer to least developed countries (LDCs. The primary purpose of this study is to investigate the new conditions of technology development of LDCs connected with TRIPS adoption. Special attention is paid to the potentials of Article 66.2 for solving the problem of LDCs capacity building. The article presents detailed analysis of the discussions on the impact of the TRIPS provisions concerning the strengthening of the intellectual property rights (IPRs and the protection of technology transfer to LDCs. An important finding of this study is the recognition of the need to take urgent measures for the transition unto a new model of partnership between developed countries and LDCs in area of technology transfer and IPRs protection. The study concluded that a new model needed to be elaborated at the international level should be based on the effective implementation of Article 66.2 of the TRIPS Agreement.

  18. 49 CFR 236.586 - Daily or after trip test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Inspection and Tests; Locomotive § 236.586 Daily or after trip test..., each locomotive equipped with an automatic cab signal or train stop or train control device...

  19. A model for sustainable short-term international medical trips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchdev, Parminder; Ahrens, Kym; Click, Eleanor; Macklin, Lori; Evangelista, Doris; Graham, Elinor

    2007-01-01

    The health status of many people in developing countries is often dismal compared with the norms in industrialized countries. Increasingly, medical practitioners in the United States and other industrialized countries have become interested in global health issues, an interest that often takes the form of short-term international medical trips. We discuss several ethical issues associated with participation in such trips and use our experiences in developing the Children's Health International Medical Project of Seattle (CHIMPS) to outline and illustrate a set of 7 guiding principles for making these trips. CHIMPS is a resident-run, faculty-supported international medical program founded in 2002 by pediatric residents at the University of Washington in Seattle. Members of CHIMPS work with a rural community in El Salvador to support ongoing public health interventions there and provide sustainable medical care in collaboration with the community and a local nongovernmental organization. The 7 principles developed as a result of this work-mission, collaboration, education, service, teamwork, sustainability, and evaluation-can be used as a model for health practitioners as they develop or select international medical trips. The importance of partnering with the community and working within the existing medical and public health infrastructure is emphasized. Many of the challenges of doing international medical work can be overcome when efforts are guided by a few specific principles, such as those we have outlined. PMID:17660105

  20. Systematic comparison of trip distribution laws and models

    CERN Document Server

    Lenormand, Maxime; Ramasco, José J

    2016-01-01

    Trip distribution laws are basic for the travel demand characterization needed in transport and urban planning. Several approaches have been considered in the last years. One of them is the so-called gravity law, in which the number of trips is assumed to be related to the population at origin and destination and to decrease with the distance. The mathematical expression of this law resembles Newton's law of gravity, which explains its name. Another popular approach is inspired by the theory of intervening opportunities and it has been concreted into the so-called radiation models. Individuals are supposed to travel until they find a job opportunity, so the population and jobs spatial distributions naturally lead to a trip flow network. In this paper, we perform a thorough comparison between the gravity and the radiation approaches in their ability at estimating commuting flows. We test the gravity and the radiation laws against empirical trip data at different scales and coming from different countries. Diff...

  1. Journal of South African Trip: January 14-March 1, 1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Carl R.

    1987-01-01

    Provides a personal account, dictated en route, of Carl Rogers' experiences during his trip to South Africa. Documents extensive commitment to people and to a process leading to peace. Journal ends with conviction that violence can be avoided and that no group really wants violence. (Author)

  2. Un Viaje al Aeropuerto (A Trip to the Airport).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This illustrated, bilingual Spanish-English intermediate reader describes a class trip to an airport, in which the class tours the airport, and learns about airport activities, the parts of an airplane, and other related topics. Each page of the text is illustrated with a drawing. The narrative is followed by a list of 24 suggested learning…

  3. What drives people? Analyzing leisure-shopping trip decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Ceunynck, T.; Kusumastuti, D.; Hannes, E.; Janssens, D.; Wets, G.

    2011-01-01

    Because of the strong increase in the number of leisure-shopping trips, a shift towards more sustainable leisure-shopping behaviour is desirable. This can be attained by having a better insight into people’s reasoning in choosing a transport mode and shopping location for this type of activities. Th

  4. CNMI, American Samoa, and Guam Small Boat Fishery Trip Expenditure (2009 to present)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a time-series dataset of trip expenditure data including actual fishing trip expenses, input usage, and input prices, for boat-based reef fish, bottomfish,...

  5. Literacy and Access to the Written Culture by Youth and Adults Excluded from the School System . A cross-country field study in nine countries in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Rosa-Maria

    2008-11-01

    LITERACY AND ACCESS TO THE WRITTEN CULTURE BY YOUTH AND ADULTS EXCLUDED FROM THE SCHOOL SYSTEM - The title of this article refers to a field study carried out in 2006-2007 in nine countries in Latin America and the Caribbean. The article summarizes the basic concepts, aims, methodology and findings of the study. In conclusion, the author points out a number of important policy changes that are called for in this domain. While the study itself was carried out in a particular region, the findings have implications for a wider international audience.

  6. A Heuristic for Locating Electric Vehicle Charging Stations for Trip Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wen, Min; Røpke, Stefan

    We present the problem of locating a limited number of electric vehiclecharging stations for a given set of trip chains, each of which consistsof a series of linked short trips and is represented by a sequence ofintervening stops along the trip chain. The objective of this problemis to maximize...... the number of trip chains that can be completed by the electric vehicle without running out of battery. A mixed-integer programmingformulation as well as a heuristic for solving this problemwill be presented....

  7. Questionnaire-based person trip visualization and its integration to quantitative measurements in Myanmar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimijiama, S.; Nagai, M.

    2016-06-01

    With telecommunication development in Myanmar, person trip survey is supposed to shift from conversational questionnaire to GPS survey. Integration of both historical questionnaire data to GPS survey and visualizing them are very important to evaluate chronological trip changes with socio-economic and environmental events. The objectives of this paper are to: (a) visualize questionnaire-based person trip data, (b) compare the errors between questionnaire and GPS data sets with respect to sex and age and (c) assess the trip behaviour in time-series. Totally, 345 individual respondents were selected through random stratification to assess person trip using a questionnaire and GPS survey for each. Conversion of trip information such as a destination from the questionnaires was conducted by using GIS. The results show that errors between the two data sets in the number of trips, total trip distance and total trip duration are 25.5%, 33.2% and 37.2%, respectively. The smaller errors are found among working-age females mainly employed with the project-related activities generated by foreign investment. The trip distant was yearly increased. The study concluded that visualization of questionnaire-based person trip data and integrating them to current quantitative measurements are very useful to explore historical trip changes and understand impacts from socio-economic events.

  8. Nuevos atrayentes de trips ayudan a los agricultores en el control de plagas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, van R.W.H.M.; Kogel, de W.J.; Teulon, D.

    2007-01-01

    Los trips constituyen una plaga importante que afecta a muchos cultivos diferentes. El año pasado se probaron con éxito, en situaciones prácticas, aromas atrayentes de trips de las flores y trips de la cebolla. El producto, que estará a disposición de los cultivadores en junio, resultó efectivo en t

  9. Field measurements of radium in the human body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two whole body counting systems have been developed and employed for field measurements. The radium contents of nine previously unmeasured cases have been determined during three field trips. Future trips are being scheduled to make body radioactivity measurements on a specific subpopulation of CHR radium cases

  10. Babcock and Wilcox Owners' Group program: Trip reduction and transient response improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1985, the average trip frequency for the industry was 4.3 trips per plant per year while Babcock ampersand Wilcox (B ampersand W)-designed plants had 4.5 trips. In early 1986, the B ampersand W Owners' Group (B ampersand WOG) established goals to reduce trip frequency and improve posttrip transient response. Through the recommendations of the B ampersand WOG Trip Reduction and Transient Response Improvement Program (TR/TRIP) and other utility initiatives, the trip frequency for the B ampersand WOG plants has been on a progressive downward trend and has been consistently below the industry average since 1986. The successful results in trip reduction for the B ampersand WOG plants are shown. The B ampersand WOG has implemented several programs that have resulted in fewer trips per plant. This success can be attributed to the following: (1) a comprehensive program to evaluate each trip and transient for root-cause determination, define corrective actions, share information, and peer reviews; (2) a broad program to review systems and components that contribute to trips and transients, identify specific recommendations to correct deficiencies, utility commitment to implementation, conduct internal monitoring and indirectly exert peer pressure; (3) an awareness of the goals at all levels in the organization coupled with strong executive-level involvement; and (4) timely implementation of recommendations

  11. Customer satisfaction with individual shopping trip experiences in grocery retailing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Grunert, Klaus G; Jensen, Birger Boutrup;

    Grocery retailers from Aldi to Wal-Mart strive to satisfy their customers. Grocery shopping is a frequently recurring activity that can provide both utilitarian and hedonic value to customers. Utilitarian value is derived from accomplishing the need that stimulated a particular shopping trip......, whereas hedonic value reflects the potential entertainment and emotional worth associated with the shopping trip. Recognising this duality, in addition to enabling customers to satisfy utilitarian needs related to product-acquisition, grocery retailers increasingly try to offer customers pleasurable...... encounters with that retailer. There are relatively few studies of satisfaction within the grocery retail sector. However, because grocery shopping is a frequently recurring activity that is often routine and task-oriented in nature, and thus dominated by utilitarian rather than hedonic concerns, different...

  12. Analysis of reactor trips originating in balance of plant systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stetson, F.T.; Gallagher, D.W.; Le, P.T.; Ebert, M.W. (Science Applications International Corp., McLean, VA (USA))

    1990-09-01

    This report documents the results of an analysis of balance-of-plant (BOP) related reactor trips at commercial US nuclear power plants of a 5-year period, from January 1, 1984, through December 31, 1988. The study was performed for the Plant Systems Branch, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The objectives of the study were: to improve the level of understanding of BOP-related challenges to safety systems by identifying and categorizing such events; to prepare a computerized data base of BOP-related reactor trip events and use the data base to identify trends and patterns in the population of these events; to investigate the risk implications of BOP events that challenge safety systems; and to provide recommendations on how to address BOP-related concerns in regulatory context. 18 refs., 2 figs., 27 tabs.

  13. Analysis of reactor trips originating in balance of plant systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the results of an analysis of balance-of-plant (BOP) related reactor trips at commercial US nuclear power plants of a 5-year period, from January 1, 1984, through December 31, 1988. The study was performed for the Plant Systems Branch, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The objectives of the study were: to improve the level of understanding of BOP-related challenges to safety systems by identifying and categorizing such events; to prepare a computerized data base of BOP-related reactor trip events and use the data base to identify trends and patterns in the population of these events; to investigate the risk implications of BOP events that challenge safety systems; and to provide recommendations on how to address BOP-related concerns in regulatory context. 18 refs., 2 figs., 27 tabs

  14. The Big Trip and Wheeler-DeWitt equation

    CERN Document Server

    Yurov, Artyom V; Yurov, Valerian A

    2012-01-01

    Of all the possible ways to describe the behavior of the universe that has undergone a big trip the Wheeler-DeWitt equation should be the most accurate -- provided, of course, that we employ the correct formulation. In this article we start by discussing the standard formulation introduced by Gonz\\'alez-D\\'iaz and Jimenez-Madrid, and show that it allows for a simple yet efficient method of the solution's generation, which is based on the Moutard transformation. Next, by shedding the unnecessary restrictions, imposed on aforementioned standard formulation we introduce a more general form of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation. One immediate prediction of this new formula is that for the universe the probability to emerge right after the big trip in a state with $w=w_0$ will be maximal if and only if $w_0=-1/3$.

  15. 10 years after implementation of TRIPS obligations in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Mahesh D

    2015-01-01

    The Patent (Amendment) Act of 2005 enforced after TRIPS raises many issues which hinder growth of Indian pharma companies. To tackle this, Indian pharma companies doubled their R&D expenditure and became significant players in global generic drug market. Indian pharmaceutical companies, which predominantly focused on import-oriented market, shifted to research-based approach by signing various agreements with MNCs that led to M&A and technology transfer. At the same time growth in R&D activities increased ANDA and DMF filing in the USA and Europe. Companies also kept their social responsibility by selling medicines at affordable price to patients. This paper highlights the changing business scenario of Indian pharmaceutical companies to counteract various issues evolved from new patent regime after TRIPS. PMID:26030078

  16. Microstructure Evolution during Friction Stir Spot Welding of TRIP steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomholt, Trine Colding

    Transformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) steels have been developed for automotive applications due to the excellent high strength and formability. The microstructure of TRIP steels is a complex mixture of various microstructural constituents; ferrite, bainite, martensite and retained austenite...... deteriorating the uniform elongation. The unique deformation properties can be exploited in automotive applications for crash resistant parts due to the high energy absorption, thus improving passenger safety. Furthermore, the high strength and good formability permits the application of thinner sheet material...... Welding (FSSW) is investigated. The aim of the study is to assess whether high quality welds can be produced and, in particular, to obtain an understanding of the microstructural changes during welding. The microstructure of the welded samples was investigated by means of reflected light microscopy...

  17. Assuring microstructural homegeniety in dual phase and trip steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera-Diaz-del-Castillo, P.E.J.; Zwaag, S. van der [Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, Delft Univ., Delft (Netherlands)

    2004-11-01

    The presence of ferrite/pearlite bands in dual phase and TRIP assisted steels is a consequence of microchemical segregation which causes mechanical properties anisotropy. Such inhomogeneous phase distribution produces a lowering of the mechanical properties such as fracture behaviour. This anisotropy is commonly not accounted in micromechanics computations which often assume a random distribution of phases in the solid. The present paper deals with an integral model for this undesirable band formation accounting for the solute segregation caused by solidification, microcomponent diffusion present in the austenitisation process, and the nucleation of the transformed phase in segregated regions. In the present work, the model was applied to two industrial grade dual phase steels and two TRIP assisted steels. The influence of such parameters on band formation is summarised in a number of ''band prevention plots'', which are aimed at providing the optimum processing conditions for ferrite/pearlite band prevention. (orig.)

  18. Visiting the USSR: a trip of a lifetime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Geraldine

    2012-01-01

    To Russia, who me? That is actually how it all began. A decade or more ago, I had the opportunity to visit what was then known as the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), Russia. Although, this place held high priority on my list of places to go, I never thought such a trip was within my reach. This idea was quite fascinating to me because of the events that did happen there, including the Russian space ship Sputnik and the dog, the high stepping military officers, Red Square and the St. Basil's Cathedral. After reading a lot about Russia, I thought it would be great to see a clean place, where it was unlawful to throw paper on the streets, and ride in public transportation such as the buses, taxis and the subway system, which were immaculately clean. It was an exciting trip, one, I will always remember, but would be a difficult adjustment to make, to live. PMID:22774358

  19. Are short daily trips compensated by higher leisure mobility?

    OpenAIRE

    Petter Næss

    2006-01-01

    Studies in several cities have shown that inner-city residents travel shorter distances and use cars less for local transport than suburbanites do. However, according to some authors, a low daily amount of travel is likely to be compensated through more extensive leisure mobility at weekends and on holidays. On the basis of a study of residential location and travel in the Copenhagen metropolitan area, this paper addresses the phenomenon of compensatory travel. For travel within ‘weekend trip...

  20. Press formability YAG laser welded TRIP/DP tailored blanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasaka, A.; Sugimoto, K. I.; Kobayashi, M.; Makii, K.; Ikeda, S.

    2004-06-01

    In the present work, to improve the press formability of the combination of the TRIP steel and ferrite-martensite dual-phase (DP) steel, the mechanical properties and press formability (stretch-formability) of YAG laser welded TRIP/DP tailored blanks were investigated. An as-cold-rolled sheet steel with the chemical composition of (0.1 0.3)C 1.5Si 1.5Mn (mass%) was used in this study. For comparison, 0.14C 0.22Si 1.78Mn (mass%) DP steel was also prepared. The quenched DP steel is called MDP0, and the tempered MDP0 steel is called MDP4. For butt welding, the blank obtained after the heat treatment was cut using a fine cutter, and YAG laser processing equipment was used. The press formability was evaluated from the maximum stretch-height (Hmax). Tensile tests and stretch forming tests have been conducted for laser butt welded joints obtained from the combination of the different steel. The Hmax value of the MDP0 steel was not controlled at the strength level of the DP steel, and was not different from the Hmax value of the MDP4 steel. It is thought that this was assisted to TRIP of the TDP steel because the tensile strength of the TDP steel is consequentially lower than that of the MDP0 steel. High ductility and the high stretch-formability were able to be secured by the high strength TRIP/DP tailored blanks.

  1. Equilibrium analysis of trip chains in congested networks

    OpenAIRE

    Heydecker, B.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a model of travel in a chain of trips joining several locations througha congested network. We develop a microscopic analysis of individual benefits obtained byspending time at each of the locations and costs incurred through travel between them. This iscombined with a macroscopic equilibrium model of travel during congested peak periods toshow how individuals? travel choices are influenced by the congestion that result fromcorresponding choices made by others. We sh...

  2. EFFECT OF CHEMICAL COMPOSITION ON RETAINED AUSTENITE IN TRIP STEEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y. Chen; X. Chen; Q.F. Wang; G.L. Yuan; C.Y. Li; X.Y. Li; Y.X. Wang

    2002-01-01

    The systematic chemical compositions including common C, Si, Mn, Al, and micro- alloying elements of Ti and Nb were designed for high volume fraction of retained austenite as much as possible. The thermo-cycle experiments were conducted by using Gleeble 2000 thermo-dynamic test machine for finding the appropriate composition. The experimental results showed that chemical composition had a significant effect on retained austenite, and the appropriate compositions were determined for commercial production of TRIP steels.

  3. A turbine trip transient analyses with TRAC-BF1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports a turbine trip transient analysis for a BWR/5 nuclear power plant performed with TRAC-BF1 code, a well-known best-estimate code used for transient analyses of boiling water reactors. The work undertook an evaluation of several safety parameters, such as dome pressure rise, maximum temperature in the fuel, maximum reactor power, total reactivity, and others. 2 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs

  4. Prediction of the mechanical behaviour of TRIP steel

    OpenAIRE

    Perdahcioglu, E.S.; Geijselaers, H.J.M.; Tekkaya, A. E.; Hirt, G.

    2011-01-01

    TRIP steel typically contains four different phases, ferrite, bainite, austenite and martensite. During deformation the metastable retained austenite tends to transform to stable martensite. The accompanying transformation strain has a beneficial effect on the ductility of the steel during forming. By changing the alloy composition, the rolling procedure and the thermal processing of the steel, a wide range of different morphologies and microstructures can be obtained. Interesting parameters ...

  5. Pulsed-laser atom probe studies of a precipitation hardened maraging TRIP steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitrieva, O; Choi, P; Gerstl, S S A; Ponge, D; Raabe, D

    2011-05-01

    A precipitation hardened maraging TRIP steel was analyzed using a pulsed laser atom probe. The laser pulse energy was varied from 0.3 to 1.9 nJ to study its effect on the measured chemical compositions and spatial resolution. Compositional analyses using proximity histograms did not show any significant variations in the average matrix and precipitate compositions. The only remarkable change in the atom probe data was a decrease in the ++/+ charge state ratios of the elements. The values of the evaporation field used for the reconstructions exhibit a linear dependence on the laser pulse energy. The adjustment of the evaporation fields used in the reconstructions for different laser pulse energies was based on the correlation of the obtained cluster shapes to the TEM observations. No influence of laser pulse energy on chemical composition of the precipitates and on the chemical sharpness of their interfaces was detected.

  6. Urban association rules: uncovering linked trips for shopping behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshimura, Yuji; Hobin, Juan N Bautista; Ratti, Carlo; Blat, Josep

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we introduce the method of urban association rules and its uses for extracting frequently appearing combinations of stores that are visited together to characterize shoppers' behaviors. The Apriori algorithm is used to extract the association rules (i.e., if -> result) from customer transaction datasets in a market-basket analysis. An application to our large-scale and anonymized bank card transaction dataset enables us to output linked trips for shopping all over the city: the method enables us to predict the other shops most likely to be visited by a customer given a particular shop that was already visited as an input. In addition, our methodology can consider all transaction activities conducted by customers for a whole city in addition to the location of stores dispersed in the city. This approach enables us to uncover not only simple linked trips such as transition movements between stores but also the edge weight for each linked trip in the specific district. Thus, the proposed methodo...

  7. Thermal and mechanical stability of retained austenite in aluminum-containing multiphase TRIP steels

    CERN Document Server

    Zwaag, S; Kruijver, S O; Sietsma, J

    2002-01-01

    Stability of retained austenite is the key issue to understand transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) effect. In this work, both thermal stability and mechanical stability are investigated by thermo-magnetic as well as in situ conventional X-ray diffraction and micro synchrotron radiation diffraction measurements. The thermal stability in a 0.20C-1.52Mn-0.25Si-0.96Al (wt%) TRIP steel is studied in the temperature range between 5 and 300 K under a constant magnetic field of 5T. It is found that almost all austenite transforms thermally to martensite upon cooling to 5K and M sub s and M sub f temperatures are analyzed to be 355 and 115 K. Transformation kinetics on the fraction versus temperature relation are well described by a model based on thermodynamics. From the in situ conventional X-ray and synchrotron diffraction measurements in a 0.17C-1.46Mn-0.26Si-1.81Al (wt%) steel, the volume fraction of retained austenite is found to decrease as the strain increases according to Ludwigson and Berger relation. T...

  8. Fermilab and Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederman, Leon M.

    2006-09-01

    As Director of Fermilab, starting in 1979, I began a series of meetings with scientists in Latin America. The motivation was to stir collaboration in the field of high energy particle physics, the central focus of Fermilab. In the next 13 years, these Pan American Symposia stirred much discussion of the use of modern physics, created several groups to do collaborative research at Fermilab, and often centralized facilities and, today, still provides the possibility for much more productive North-South collaboration in research and education. In 1992, I handed these activities over to the AAAS, as President. This would, I hoped, broaden areas of collaboration. Such collaboration is unfortunately very sensitive to political events. In a rational world, it would be the rewards, cultural and economic, of collaboration that would modulate political relations. We are not there yet.

  9. Pre-trip vs. post-trip destination image variations: A case of inbound tourists to Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Jani, Dev; Nguni, Winnie

    2016-01-01

    Despite the conceptual indications of destination image to vary with factors like travel status and tourist behaviour, there are few studies that have empirically researched the variations in destination image particularly in emerging destinations like those in Africa. This study aimed at testing the variation of pre- and post trip destination image held by inbound travellers to Tanzania. Four hypotheses were defined to test variation of destination image with travel status, destination famil...

  10. Predictive Process Optimization for Fracture Ductility in Automotive TRIP Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jiadong

    In light of the emerging challenges in the automotive industry of meeting new energy-saving and environment-friendly requirements imposed by both the government and the society, the auto makers have been working relentlessly to reduce the weight of automobiles. While steel makers pushed out a variety of novel Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) to serve this market with new needs, TRIP (Transformation Induced Plasticity) steels is one of the most promising materials for auto-body due to its exceptional combination of strength and formability. However, current commercial automotive TRIP steels demonstrate relatively low hole-expansion (HE) capability, which is critical in stretch forming of various auto parts. This shortcoming on ductility has been causing fracture issues in the forming process and limits the wider applications of this steel. The kinetic theory of martensitic transformations and associated transformation plasticity is applied to the optimization of transformation stability for enhanced mechanical properties in a class of high strength galvannealed TRIP steel. This research leverages newly developed characterization and simulation capabilities, supporting computational design of high-performance steels exploiting optimized transformation plasticity for desired mechanical behaviors, especially for the hole-expansion ductility. The microstructure of the automotive TRIP sheet steels was investigated, using advanced tomographic characterization including nanoscale Local Electrode Atom Probe (LEAP) microanalysis. The microstructural basis of austenite stability, the austenite carbon concentration in particular, was quantified and correlated with measured fracture ductility through transformation plasticity constitutive laws. Plastic flow stability for enhanced local fracture ductility at high strength is sought to maintain high hole-expansion ductility, through quantifying the optimal stability and the heat-treatment process to achieve it. An additional

  11. Gain and Loss on Art Field Trips: the Field Trip of Jianshui and Mengzi by 2009 Art Major%艺术采风得与失——以2009级艺术专业建水、蒙自采风为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐应龙; 赵昂

    2012-01-01

    艺术采风是理论与实践相结合的体验性课程,既要通过田野了解民间艺术现状,又要在实践中运用课堂学习的理论知识,其效果较难实现。本文选择了一些学生的采风日记、访谈实录,点评得失,反思跟进,彰显提前案头工作的意义,探索采风日记的写作要点及如何实现艺术采风的目标。%Art of collecting folk songs is an experiencing course combining theory with practice. We should not only realize the current situation of folk arts through the field, but also apply the theory to the practice. This article chooses some students' col- lecting diaries and interviews to comment on the gain and loss, as well as to rethink and improve the good questioning techniques. All of those would demonstrate the significance of bring the desk - bound job forward, explore the writing essentials of collecting diary, and how to achieve the goals of the art of collecting folk songs.

  12. Small break LOCA analysis for RCP trip strategy for YGN 3 and 4 emergency procedure guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A continued operation of RCPs during a certain small break LOCA may increase unnecessary inventory loss from the RCS causing a severe core uncovery which might lead to a fuel failure. After TMI-2 accident, the CEOG developed RCP trip strategy called 'Trip-Two/Leave-Two' (T2/L2) in response to NRC requests and incorporated it in the generic EPG for CE plants. The T2/L2 RCP trip strategy consists of tripping the first two RCPs on low RCS pressure and then tripping the remaining two RCPs if a LOCA has occurred. This analysis determines the RCP trip setpoint and demonstrates the safe operational aspects of RCP trip strategy during a small break LOCA for YGN 3 and 4. The trip setpoint of the first two RCPs for YGN 3 and 4 is calculated to be 1775 psia in pressurizer pressure based on the limiting small break LOCA with 0.15 ft2 break size in the hot leg. The analysis results show that YGN 3 and 4 can maintain the core coolability even if the operator fails to trip the second two RCPs or trips at worst time. Also, the YGN 3 and 4 RCP trip strategy demonstrates that both the 10 CFR 50.46 requirements on PCT and the ANSI standards 58.8 requirements on operator action time can be satisfied with enough margin. Therefore, it is concluded that the T2/L2 RCP trip strategy with a trip setpoint of 1775 psia for YGN 3 and 4 can provide improved operator guidance for the RCP operation during accidents. 11 figs., 4 tabs., 9 refs. (Author)

  13. How combined trip purposes are associated with transport choice for short distance trips. Results from a cross-sectional study in the Netherlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eline Scheepers

    Full Text Available One way to increase physical activity is to stimulate a shift from car use to walking or cycling. In single-purpose trips, purpose was found to be an important predictor of transport choice. However, as far as known, no studies have been conducted to see how trips with combined purposes affect this decision. This study was designed to provide insight into associations between combined purposes and transport choice.An online questionnaire (N = 3,663 was used to collect data concerning transport choice for four primary purposes: shopping, going to public natural spaces, sports, and commuting. Per combination of primary trip purpose and transport choice, participants were asked to give examples of secondary purposes that they combine with the primary purpose. Logistic regression analyses were used to model the odds of both cycling and walking versus car use.Primary trip purposes combined with commuting, shopping, visiting private contacts or medical care were more likely to be made by car than by cycling or walking. Combinations with visiting catering facilities, trips to social infrastructure facilities, recreational outings, trips to facilities for the provision of daily requirements or private contacts during the trip were more likely to be made by walking and/or cycling than by car.Combined trip purposes were found to be associated with transport choice. When stimulating active transport focus should be on the combined-trip purposes which were more likely to be made by car, namely trips combined with commuting, other shopping, visiting private contacts or medical care.

  14. Neural network design with combined backpropagation and creeping random search learning algorithms applied to the determination of retained austenite in TRIP steels; Diseno de redes neuronales con aprendizaje combinado de retropropagacion y busqueda aleatoria progresiva aplicado a la determinacion de austenita retenida en aceros TRIP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toda-Caraballo, I.; Garcia-Mateo, C.; Capdevila, C.

    2010-07-01

    At the beginning of the decade of the nineties, the industrial interest for TRIP steels leads to a significant increase of the investigation and application in this field. In this work, the flexibility of neural networks for the modelling of complex properties is used to tackle the problem of determining the retained austenite content in TRIP-steel. Applying a combination of two learning algorithms (backpropagation and creeping-random-search) for the neural network, a model has been created that enables the prediction of retained austenite in low-Si / low-Al multiphase steels as a function of processing parameters. (Author). 34 refs.

  15. VLA Hosts "Flag Across America"

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-11-01

    The National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) hosted the runners and support personnel of the "Americans United Flag Across America" run as the transcontinental memorial and fundraising effort came through New Mexico. The flag run arrived at NRAO's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope west of Socorro, NM, early in the post-Midnight morning of Monday, November 5, and departed after sunrise that morning en route to the Arizona border. Drivers, runners and support personnel stayed overnight at the VLA. During the night, a "VLA Night Owl Run" kept the flag moving around the VLA area until the westward trek resumed after dawn. The run began Oct. 11, one month after the terrorist attacks on New York and Washington. Organized by employees of American and United Airlines to honor the flight crews lost in those attacks, to show support for U.S. troops and to raise funds to help the victims' families, the run will take an American flag from Boston Logan Airport to Los Angeles International Airport. The Boston-to-Los Angeles trip represents the intended journey of American Flight 11 and United Flight 175, both of which were crashed by terrorists into the World Trade Center. "Our observatory was proud to host this group and honored that they brought this flag through our facility," said Miller Goss, NRAO's director of VLA operations. The runners carried a flag that flew in a U.S. F-16 over Iraq in support of Operation Southern Watch on Oct. 2, and has visited Ground Zero in Manhattan. The flag is scheduled to arrive in Los Angeles on Veterans Day, Nov. 11. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  16. Active commuting to school in Portuguese adolescents: Using PALMS to detect trips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pizarro, Andreia Nogueira; Schipperijn, Jasper; Andersen, Henriette Bondo;

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The declining levels of physical activity (PA) have led to active commuting to school (ACS) being seen as a key strategy to increase PA levels in school-aged children. In Portugal, no data exists on the patterns of this behavior, an essential step for developing evidence......-based and effective interventions. The purpose of this study is to explore the travel to school behavior using an objective methodology. Methods 155 adolescents (mean age 15.9±1.1 years) wore an accelerometer and a GPS for 7 consecutive days. Home and school addresses were geocoded to identify home-school trips....... The web-based tool PALMS was used to combine GPS and accelerometer data, categorize Moderate to Vigorous Physical Activity (MVPA) and classify trip mode of home-school trips into: walking, bicycling or vehicle. Results 609 trips were identified as home-school trips. Walking was the most frequent trip mode...

  17. Harvesting Collective Trend Observations from Large Scale Study Trips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Kaare; Ovesen, Nis

    2014-01-01

    To enhance industrial design students’ decoding and understanding of the technological possibilities and the diversity of needs and preferences in different cultures it is not unusual to arrange study trips where such students acquire a broader view to strengthen their professional skills and...... numbers of students to the annual Milan Design Week and the Milan fair ‘I Saloni’ in Italy. The present paper describes and evaluates the method, the theory behind it, the practical execution of the trend registration, the results from the activities and future perspectives....

  18. Study of nuclear power plant stability. Trip criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence that nuclear power plants and high voltage power systems have on each other when confronted by disturbances in the offsite network may lead, due to dynamic effects, to plant trip. It is therefore necessary to study the disturbances in the network and the effects on plant equipment by means of dynamic simulations which evaluate the unit protection system and the auxiliary services so as to obtain maximum unit availability without jeopardizing its safety. These studies can be conducted since there are models and software tools capable of simulating dynamic behaviour of the electric system, including the excitation systems and specific speed governors obtainment of valid. (author)

  19. Activity time budget during foraging trips of emperor penguins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichi Watanabe

    Full Text Available We developed an automated method using depth and one axis of body acceleration data recorded by animal-borne data loggers to identify activities of penguins over long-term deployments. Using this technique, we evaluated the activity time budget of emperor penguins (n = 10 both in water and on sea ice during foraging trips in chick-rearing season. During the foraging trips, emperor penguins alternated dive bouts (4.8 ± 4.5 h and rest periods on sea ice (2.5 ± 2.3 h. After recorder deployment and release near the colony, the birds spent 17.9 ± 8.4% of their time traveling until they reached the ice edge. Once at the ice edge, they stayed there more than 4 hours before the first dive. After the first dive, the mean proportions of time spent on the ice and in water were 30.8 ± 7.4% and 69.2 ± 7.4%, respectively. When in the water, they spent 67.9 ± 3.1% of time making dives deeper than 5 m. Dive activity had no typical diurnal pattern for individual birds. While in the water between dives, the birds had short resting periods (1.2 ± 1.7 min and periods of swimming at depths shallower than 5 m (0.25 ± 0.38 min. When the birds were on the ice, they primarily used time for resting (90.3 ± 4.1% of time and spent only 9.7 ± 4.1% of time traveling. Thus, it appears that, during foraging trips at sea, emperor penguins traveled during dives >5 m depth, and that sea ice was primarily used for resting. Sea ice probably provides refuge from natural predators such as leopard seals. We also suggest that 24 hours of sunlight and the cycling of dive bouts with short rest periods on sea ice allow emperor penguins to dive continuously throughout the day during foraging trips to sea.

  20. Effect of Thermomechanical Processing on Microstructures of TRIP Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Zheng-you; DING Hua; DU Lin-xiu; DING Hao; ZHANG Xin

    2007-01-01

    In order to control retained austenite, the effect of hot deformation in the intercritical region on the microstructure of hot-rolled transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) steel was studied on a Gleeble 1500 hot simulator. Compressive strains varying in amounts from 0 to 60% were imposed in the intercritical region, and effects on the formation of polygonal ferrite, carbide-free bainite and retained austenite were determined. With increasing the hot deformation amount and the ferrite content and decreasing the carbide-free bainite content, the volume fraction of retained austenite decreases. Increased dislocation density, grain refinement of ferrite and carbon enrichment are the main factors which control retained austenite stability.

  1. The Scope of Gene Patent Protection and the TRIPS Agreement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Tine

    2007-01-01

    The Scope of Gene Patent Protection and the TRIPS Agreement - An Exclusively Nondiscriminatory Approach?   Gene patenting in Europe has provoked much debate both before and since the adoption of Directive 98/44/EC on the legal protection of biotechnological inventions. Some of the major points...... of discussion have been focused on the scope of protection (e.g. purpose-bound protection) and gene patents being subject to a specific DNA regime on patent rights. The Directive can be interpreted as favouring such a solution, but so far the European Commission has decided neither to support nor reject...

  2. Recrystallization Modelling of Hot Deformed Si-Mn TRIP Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Li-juan; WU Di; ZHAO Xian-ming

    2007-01-01

    By means of hot compression single and double hit experiments, the kinetics of dynamic and static recrystallization in hot-rolled Si-Mn TRIP steel was studied, and the emphasis was put on the influence of high silicon content. The results show that the calculated parameters are consistent with the experimental ones, and addition of silicon retards both dynamic and static recrystallization as well as increases the flow stress of austenite, and the non-recrystallization zone can be enlarged by increasing the silicon contents.

  3. Characterization of micro machined surface from TRIP/TWIP steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smaga M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution micro machining induced changes in surface morphology, including phase transformation from fcc-austenite into hcp- and bcc-martensite as well as defined surface topography of TRIP/TWIP steel was characterized by scanning electron microscopy using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD technique. For this, applying micro milling and micro grinding processes with tool diameter of 45 µm, structures were machined into flat specimen surfaces of X30MnAl17–1 steel in defined areas previously characterized by EBSD.

  4. The trip of the tip: understanding the growth cone machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, Laura Anne; Van Vactor, David

    2009-05-01

    The central component in the road trip of axon guidance is the growth cone, a dynamic structure that is located at the tip of the growing axon. During its journey, the growth cone comprises both 'vehicle' and 'navigator'. Whereas the 'vehicle' maintains growth cone movement and contains the cytoskeletal structural elements of its framework, a motor to move forward and a mechanism to provide traction on the 'road', the 'navigator' aspect guides this system with spatial bias to translate environmental signals into directional movement. The understanding of the functions and regulation of the vehicle and navigator provides new insights into the cell biology of growth cone guidance.

  5. Nutrient/serum starvation derived TRIP-Br3 down-regulation accelerates apoptosis by destabilizing XIAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soonduck; Jeong, Dongjun; Yang, Young; Kim, Keun-Il; Lim, Jong-Seok; Cheon, Chung-Il; Kim, Changjin; Kang, Young-Sook; Lee, Myeong-Sok

    2015-01-01

    TRIP-Br3 and TRIP-Br1 have shown to have important biological functions. However, the function of TRIP-Br3 in tumorigenesis is not well characterized compared to oncogenic TRIP-Br1. Here, we investigated the function of TRIP-Br3 in tumorigenesis by comparing with that of TRIP-Br1. Under nutrient/serum starvation, TRIP-Br3 expression was down-regulated slightly in cancer cells and significantly in normal cells. Unexpectedly, TRIP-Br1 expression was greatly up-regulated in cancer cells but not in normal cells. Moreover, TRIP-Br3 activated autophagy while TRIP-Br1 inactivated it under serum starvation. In spite of different expression and roles of TRIP-Br3 and TRIP-Br1, both of them alleviate cell death by directly binding to and stabilizing XIAP, a potent apoptosis inhibitor, through blocking its ubiquitination. Taken together, we propose that TRIP-Br3 primarily activates the autophagy and suppresses apoptosis in nutrient sufficient condition. However, the prolonged extreme stressful condition of nutrient starvation causes a dramatic decrease of TRIP-Br3, which in turn induces apoptosis by destabilizing XIAP. Up-regulated TRIP-Br1 in cancer cells compensates this effect and delays apoptosis. This can be explained by the competitive alternative binding of TRIP-Br3 and TRIP-Br1 to the BIR2 domain of XIAP. In an extended study, our immunohistochemical analysis revealed a markedly lower level of TRIP-Br3 protein in human carcinoma tissues compared to normal epithelial tissues, implying the role of TRIP-Br3 as a tumor suppressor rather than onco-protein. PMID:25691055

  6. Linking Geographic Information Systems and Trip Reduction: Success and Failure in a Pilot Application

    OpenAIRE

    Burns, Elizabeth K.

    1993-01-01

    Travel demand management policies are the focus of a national debate on ways to limit the growth of local highway congestion and improve urban air quality (Bae, 1993; Orski, 1989). One innovative approach, trip reduction programs, requires changes in individual travel behavior, usually in journey to work trips. While precise local goals and requirements vary, major trip reduction programs focus on large employers who must persuade drive-alone employees to increase vehicle occupancy, limit mil...

  7. Medical and pharmacy student concerns about participating on international service-learning trips

    OpenAIRE

    Chuang, Chih; Khatri, Siddique H.; Gill, Manpal S.; Trehan, Naveen; Masineni, Silpa; Chikkam, Vineela; Farah, Guillaume G.; Khan, Amber; Levine, Diane L.

    2015-01-01

    Background International Service Learning Trips (ISLT) provide health professional students the opportunity to provide healthcare, under the direction of trained faculty, to underserved populations in developing countries. Despite recent increases in international service learning trips, there is scant literature addressing concerns students have prior to attending such trips. This study focuses on identifying concerns before and after attending an ISLT and their impact on students. Methods A...

  8. Constraint Programming Formulation for the Elevator Trip Origin-Destination Matrix Estimation Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Kuusinen, Juha-Matti; Malapert, Arnaud

    2014-01-01

    We present a constraint programming formulation for the elevator trip origin-destination matrix estimation problem, and propose different approaches to solve the problem. An elevator trip consists of successive stops in one direction of travel with passengers inside the elevator. It can be defined as a directed network, where the nodes correspond to the stops on the trip, and the arcs to the possible origins and destinations of the passengers boarding and alighting at the stops. The goal is t...

  9. Does ignoring multidestination trips in the travel cost method cause a systematic bias?

    OpenAIRE

    Kuosmanen, Timo; Nillesen, Eleonora; Wesseler, Justus

    2004-01-01

    The present paper demonstrates that treating multidestination trips (MDT) as single‐destination trips does not involve any systematic upward or downward bias in consumer surplus (CS) estimates because the direct negative effect of a price increase (treating MDT as a single‐destination trip) is offset by a shift in the estimated demand curve. Still, ignoring MDT can greatly underestimate or overestimate the CS. In addition, we demonstrate that there is a sound theoretical basis for using prefe...

  10. Design of Thermo Mechanicaln Processing and Transformation Behaviour of Bulk Si-Mn Trip Steel

    OpenAIRE

    J. Zrnik; Mamuzić, I.; Lukaš, P.; Muransky, O.; Jenčuš, P.; Novy, Z.

    2006-01-01

    In the last decade, a lot of effort has been paid to optimising the thermomechanical processing of TRIP steels that stands for transformation induced plasticity. The precise characterization of the resulting multiphase microstructure of low alloyed TRIP steels is of great importance for the interpretation and optimisation of their mechanical properties. The results obtained in situ neutron diffraction laboratory experiment concerning the austenite to ferrite transformation in Si-Mn bulk TRIP ...

  11. Effect of Aluminum and Silicon on Transformation Induced Plasticity of the TRIP Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin LI; B.C. De Cooman; P. Wollants; Yanlin HE; Xiaodong ZHOU

    2004-01-01

    With the sublattice model, equilibrium compositions of ferrite (α) and austenite (γ) phases, as well as the volume percent of austenite (γ) at 780℃ in different TRIP steels were calculated. Concentration profiles of carbon, Mn, Al and Si in the steels were also estimated under the lattice fixed frame of reference so as to understand the complex mechanical behavior of TRIP steels after different isothermal bainitic transformation treatments. The effect of Si and Mn on transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) was discussed according to thermodynamic and kinetic analyses. It is recognized that Al also induces phase transformation in the steels but its TRIP effect is not as strong as that of Si.

  12. The E3 ubiquitin ligase activity of Trip12 is essential for mouse embryogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masashi Kajiro

    Full Text Available Protein ubiquitination is a post-translational protein modification that regulates many biological conditions. Trip12 is a HECT-type E3 ubiquitin ligase that ubiquitinates ARF and APP-BP1. However, the significance of Trip12 in vivo is largely unknown. Here we show that the ubiquitin ligase activity of Trip12 is indispensable for mouse embryogenesis. A homozygous mutation in Trip12 (Trip12(mt/mt that disrupts the ubiquitin ligase activity resulted in embryonic lethality in the middle stage of development. Trip12(mt/mt embryos exhibited growth arrest and increased expression of the negative cell cycle regulator p16. In contrast, Trip12(mt/mt ES cells were viable. They had decreased proliferation, but maintained both the undifferentiated state and the ability to differentiate. Trip12(mt/mt ES cells had increased levels of the BAF57 protein (a component of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex and altered gene expression patterns. These data suggest that Trip12 is involved in global gene expression and plays an important role in mouse development.

  13. Early Earthquakes of the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, James

    2004-11-01

    Robert Kovach's second book looks at the interplay of earthquake and volcanic events, archeology, and history in the Americas. Throughout history, major earthquakes have caused the deaths of millions of people and have damaged countless cities. Earthquakes undoubtedly damaged prehistoric cities in the Americas, and evidence of these events could be preserved in archeological records. Kovach asks, Did indigenous native cultures-Indians of the Pacific Northwest, Aztecs, Mayas, and Incas-document their natural history? Some events have been explicitly documented, for example, in Mayan codices, but many may have been recorded as myth and legend. Kovach's discussions of how early cultures dealt with fearful events such as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions are colorful, informative, and entertaining, and include, for example, a depiction of how the Maya would talk to maize plants in their fields during earthquakes to reassure them.

  14. Reducing Carbon Emissions from Shopping Trips: Evidence from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available With rising income and the emergence of modern shopping centers in urban China, shopping trips by private car becomes more and more common, leading to higher carbon emissions in the transport sector. Encouraging car owners to shift transport mode from private car to public transport could achieve significant emissions reductions. This study estimate carbon emissions savings by shifting from private cars to public transport for shopping trips in urban China, using Shenyang, one of the largest cities in China, as a case study. Our results show that the average carbon emissions per shopper is 426.9 g, and the carbon emissions on weekends is 13% higher than weekdays. Moreover, shoppers travelling by private car emitted five times more carbon emission than those by public transport. We also found that car ownership gradually increased as accessibility to public transport decreased, and that more car owners chose to travel by private cars than public transport in areas with limited access. This study, thus, highlights the potential for high-quality public transport to reduce the transport sector’s carbon emissions in urban China.

  15. Expanding the TRI Network for Doctoral Researchers in the Fields of Terrorism, Political Violence and Armed Conflict to the United States of America and Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex P. Schmid

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In September 2011, the Terrorism Research Initiative (TRI announced the creation of a post-graduate terrorism research network in the United Kingdom. The idea was to compile a list of post-graduates conducting research in the UK in the overlapping fields of terrorism, political violence, and armed conflict. While much research is conducted in these three overlapping fields, those involved in research are often unsure what is going on outside their own university department. They also wonder how their own work relates to current research developments elsewhere. To address these concerns, TRI has been inviting UK researchers to complete a profile form

  16. Diagrams of supercooled austenite transformations of low-carbon and medium-carbon TRIP-steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Grajcar

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the paper is to determine the influence of cooling conditions on a structure and a shape of CCT-diagrams of TRIP-aided steels.Design/methodology/approach: The diagrams of undeformed supercooled austenite transformations for low-carbon and medium-carbon steels were determined. The specimens were austenitized at a temperature of 1100°C and cooled from a temperature of 900°C with a rate in a range from 1 to 300°Cs-1. The dilatometric tests were carried out by the use of the DIL805A/D dilatometer with a LVDT-type measuring head.Findings: It was found that obtained CCT-diagrams of low-carbon and medium-carbon steels are favourable for manufacturing TRIP-type steels with multiphase structures. The steels are characterized by large ferritic and bainitic fields and a right-displaced pearlitic range. However, a ferrite fraction obtained after cooling with an optimum rate from a temperature of 900°C is low. Increasing the fraction of the α phase requires two-stage cooling after austenitizing.Research limitations/implications: To obtain the optimum ferrite fraction, it is necessary to modify a cooling course in a range of γ→α transformation. It should result in an effective utilization of the time for the transformation of austenite into the fine-grained ferrite.Practical implications: The obtained diagrams of supercooled austenite transformations can be useful in a determination of a cooling course from a finishing rolling temperature for sheets with a multiphase structure.Originality/value: The diagrams of the undeformed supercooled austenite for the low-carbon and medium-carbon steels containing Nb and Ti microadditions were obtained.

  17. Geoparks in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Geopark is a territory delimited part of a holistic concept of protection, education and sustainable development, based on geological sites of particular importance, rarity or aesthetic geological sites. A Geopark achieves its goals through three main areas: geoconservation, education and geotourism. The first network of Geoparks born in Europe in 2000, and from 2004 UNESCO is promoting the creation of a Global Geoparks Network (Global Geoparks Network, GGN ). Currently, there are 64 Global Geoparks in 19 countries, and the movement is in full development. In Latin America there is hardly Araripe Geopark in Brazil. Presented in this work, projects and studies related to the development of Geoparks in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Peru and Venezuela. We understand that Colombia, Cuba, Ecuador, Mexico and Nicaragua have projects in this line, but the details are not yet readily available. The authors invite geoscientists and professionals in related fields to join a movement for the creation of the Latin American Network of Geoparks, intended as a framework for the conservation, sustainable use and disclosure of our national geological heritage

  18. Analysis on Judging Standard of Abuse of IP Rights in Field of International Trade: in Context of US Cases, Legislation and TRIPS%国际贸易中知识产权滥用的概念及判定标准分析——以美国判例、立法及TRIPS为背景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高华

    2011-01-01

    How to define the standard of the abuse of IP rights has been a very controversial question by now. The judging standards for the abuse of IP rights of US related cases and legislation are uncertain, and nowadays it trends to mix the standards of anti-trust laws. TRIPS agreements have provided clear provisions to the abuse of IP rights in the region of the international trade, from which we can deduce three criterions of intellectual property abuse. On these basis, this paper poses that the abuse of IP rights in the international trade should be an improper behavior of owner of IP rights who exceeded the permit or limitation of law while he exercised his rights which restricted or prevented the free and fair competition and harmed interests of others and public interests, and further the paper proposes four key criterions.%知识产权滥用的判定标准一直是一个极具争议的问题。美国相关判例及立法对于知识产权滥用的判定标准也是非常不确定的,目前在分析知识产权滥用时朝着融合反托拉斯法的标准上发展。TRIPS协议则对于国际贸易领域知识产权滥用做出了规定,我们可以合理地推导出它对于滥用的三项判定标准。在此基础上,本文提出国际贸易中的知识产权滥用应该是指在国际贸易中,拥有市场优势地位的知识产权人在行使其权利时故意超越法律所允许的范围或者正当的界限,限制或妨碍自由公平竞争,损害他人以及社会公共利益的不正当行为,为此提出了作为判定标维确四币柏南亚件

  19. 50 CFR 660.332 - Open access daily trip limit (DTL) fishery for sablefish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Open access daily trip limit (DTL) fishery... COAST STATES West Coast Groundfish-Open Access Fisheries § 660.332 Open access daily trip limit (DTL) fishery for sablefish. (a) Open access DTL fisheries both north and south of 36° N. lat. Open...

  20. 50 CFR 660.232 - Limited entry daily trip limit (DTL) fishery for sablefish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Limited entry daily trip limit (DTL... limit (DTL) fishery for sablefish. (a) Limited entry DTL fisheries both north and south of 36° N. lat... restrictions and limits of the limited entry daily and/or weekly trip limit (DTL) fishery for...

  1. Horizontal single-trip gravel pack and selective simulation system for deep water extended reach wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pineda, Francisco [BJ Services Company, Houston, TX (United States); Vilela, Alvaro; Montanha, Roberto; Acosta, Marco; Farias, Rodrigo [BJ Services do Brasil Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Most of the reservoirs located in the deep water and ultra-deep water offshore South America are described as unconsolidated sandstone that require sand control on both producers and water injection wells. Horizontal Open Hole Gravel Pack completions are the preferred method of development. If completing heavy oil reservoirs, there is a necessity of longer horizontal open hole sections. Low fracture gradients may limit the length of gravel pack in the open hole section because of the pressure increase during the Beta wave proppant deposition phase. This system allows the gravel pack assembly to be installed and the gravel pack to be pumped during the alpha and beta wave deposition phases without the limitation of high pressures that could fracture the well. The benefits of the Horizontal Single-Trip Gravel Pack and Selective Stimulation System (HSTSSS) using the differential valve include the ability to complete longer horizontal intervals, valuable rig-time savings and, efficient mechanical diversion of the stimulation fluid. This paper outlines the application of the HSTSSS system using a differential valve to complete a horizontal well in offshore deep waters. The need for a differential valve is primarily in horizontal gravel packing operations when normal circulating rates and pressures around the open hole would exceed formation break down pressure. The valve is intended to be easily spaced out and run in the wash pipe. At a predetermined differential pressure the valve opens and the return flow path distance around the bottom of the tailpipe is shortened, thus reducing back pressure preventing filter cake damage without slowing the pump rate. In addition the said valve has to close to allow the selective stimulation to take place. Economic considerations along with completion efficiencies are especially important on deep water, subsea completions. The utilization of differential valves allows completion of extended-reach open hole wells and/or low fracture

  2. OECD/NRC Boiling Water Reactor Turbine Trip Benchmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coddington, P

    2001-11-01

    The meeting was opened by Dr. Paul Coddington from PSI, the Chairman of the Organising and Program Committee of the Workshop. He chaired the Introductory Session 1. The deputy director of the PSI Nuclear Energy Department, Dr. Konstantin Foskolos, welcomed the participants on the behalf of PSI and gave an overview of the nuclear research performed at PSI. The participants introduced themselves and the organisations they represented. 26 participants representing 15 organisations from 8 countries attended the 2nd Workshop. The actual number of participants having submitted results and presentations for the Second Workshop was larger than the number of attendees. The list of participants is provided in Annex 1. Some participants (denoted by stars) had to cancel their trip but they submitted presentations. The agenda, provided as Annex 2, was reviewed and adopted after minor changes. (author)

  3. How travellers’ schedule their trips under uncertain travel times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Katrine

    Travel times play an important role when people decide where, when and how much to travel. But travel times are not always predictable from the traveller’s point of view: They may vary from day to day due to demand fluctuations, weather conditions, accidents and other unforeseen events that cause...... road capacity to decrease. We refer to this uncertainty as travel time variability (TTV). TTV is likely to affect how travellers schedule their trips, since it affects their probability of arriving late at their destination. We would like to account for TTV in traffic models and cost-benefit analyses......, but in practice there are limits to the kinds of behaviour that can be accommodated in such applications. For that reason, we are not solely interested in explaining travellers’ behaviour, but also in whether this behaviour can be approximated by behavioural models that are simple enough to be applied in traffic...

  4. Vehicle Routing Problem with Backhaul, Multiple Trips and Time Window

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Oscar Ong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Transportation planning is one of the important components to increase efficiency and effectiveness in the supply chain system. Good planning will give a saving in total cost of the supply chain. This paper develops the new VRP variants’, VRP with backhauls, multiple trips, and time window (VRPBMTTW along with its problem solving techniques by using Ant Colony Optimization (ACO and Sequential Insertion as initial solution algorithm. ACO is modified by adding the decoding process in order to determine the number of vehicles, total duration time, and range of duration time regardless of checking capacity constraint and time window. This algorithm is tested by using set of random data and verified as well as analyzed its parameter changing’s. The computational results for hypothetical data with 50% backhaul and mix time windows are reported.

  5. Microprocessor tester for the treat upgrade reactor trip system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The upgrading of the Transient Reactor Test (TREAT) Facility at ANL-Idaho has been designed to provide additional experimental capabilities for the study of core disruptive accident (CDA) phenomena. In addition, a programmable Automated Reactor Control System (ARCS) will permit high-power transients up to 11,000 MW having a controlled reactor period of from 15 to 0.1 sec. These modifications to the core neutronics will improve simulation of LMFBR accident conditions. Finally, a sophisticated, multiply-redundant safety system, the Reactor Trip System (RTS), will provide safe operation for both steady state and transient production operating modes. To insure that this complex safety system is functioning properly, a Dedicated Microprocessor Tester (DMT) has been implemented to perform a thorough checkout of the RTS prior to all TREAT operations

  6. Microstructure Evolution during Friction Stir Spot Welding of TRIP Steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomholt, Trine Colding; Pantleon, Karen; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the feasibility of friction stir spot welding of TRIP steel is investigated. In addition to manufacturing successful welds, the present study aims at a fundamental understanding of the mechanisms occurring at the (sub)micron scale during friction stir spot welding. As one of the main...... parameters to control friction stir welding, the influence of the rotational speed of the tool was investigated. Three different rotational speeds (500 rpm, 1000 rpm and 1500 rpm, respectively) were applied. The microstructure of the welded samples was investigated with reflected light microscopy, scanning...... electron microscopy, and electron backscatter diffraction. Microhardness measurements and lap-shear tensile tests completed the investigations of the welded samples and allow evaluation of the quality of the welds....

  7. Multiple Objects Tracking Using CAMShift Algorithm and Implementation of Trip Wire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirish Halbe

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we represent Security application which is developed using concepts of Video Analytics. User can draw Trip wire on video stream with help of Mouse Callback events. Using this application user can restrict any area of total video scene. Direction selection for tripping is also a choice of a user. If any undesired moving object cross this drawn trip wire then motion of this moving object is getting detected and also tracked. If object crosses trip wire in the same direction as that of user selected then Alarm Indication will appear on that moving object. OpenCV library functions are used for motion detection and motion tracking. CAMShift algorithm is implemented for tracking. An experimental result shows Motion detection, Motion Tracking and drawn trip wire on video.

  8. An integrative conceptual framework for analyzing customer satisfaction with shopping trip experiences in grocery retailing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Jensen, Birger Boutrup; Bech-Larsen, Tino;

    2012-01-01

    Grocery retailers aim to satisfy customers, and because grocery shopping trips are frequently recurring, they must do socontinuously. Surprisingly, little research has addressed satisfaction with individual grocery shopping trips. This article therefore develops a conceptual framework for analyzing...... customer satisfaction with individual grocery shopping trip experiences within a overall ‘disconfirmation of expectations model’ of customer satisfaction. The contribution of the framework is twofold. First, by focusing on satisfaction with individual grocery shopping trips, previous research...... on satisfaction in the retailing literature. Second, the framework synthesizes and integrates multiple central concepts from different research streams into a common framework for analyzing shopping trip satisfaction. Propositions are derived regarding the relationships among the different concepts...

  9. Pulsed-laser atom probe studies of a precipitation hardened maraging TRIP steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dmitrieva, O., E-mail: o.dmitrieva@mpie.de [Max-Planck-Institute for Iron Research, Max-Planck-Str. 1, 40237 Duesseldorf (Germany); Choi, P., E-mail: p.choi@mpie.de [Max-Planck-Institute for Iron Research, Max-Planck-Str. 1, 40237 Duesseldorf (Germany); Gerstl, S.S.A. [Imago Scientific Instruments, Madison, WI 53711 (United States); Ponge, D.; Raabe, D. [Max-Planck-Institute for Iron Research, Max-Planck-Str. 1, 40237 Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2011-05-15

    A precipitation hardened maraging TRIP steel was analyzed using a pulsed laser atom probe. The laser pulse energy was varied from 0.3 to 1.9 nJ to study its effect on the measured chemical compositions and spatial resolution. Compositional analyses using proximity histograms did not show any significant variations in the average matrix and precipitate compositions. The only remarkable change in the atom probe data was a decrease in the ++/+ charge state ratios of the elements. The values of the evaporation field used for the reconstructions exhibit a linear dependence on the laser pulse energy. The adjustment of the evaporation fields used in the reconstructions for different laser pulse energies was based on the correlation of the obtained cluster shapes to the TEM observations. No influence of laser pulse energy on chemical composition of the precipitates and on the chemical sharpness of their interfaces was detected. -- Research highlights: {yields} Changing the laser pulse energy in pulsed-laser atom probe could induce some changes in the analysis results of complex steels. {yields} Decreases in the evaporation fields and the ++/+ charge state ratios were detected with raising laser energy. {yields} Chemical composition of the intermetallic precipitates and the interface sharpness were not influenced by changing the laser energy.

  10. Methods for analysis of passenger trip performance in a complex networked transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Danyi

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of the Air Transportation System (ATS) is to provide safe and efficient transportation service of passengers and cargo. The on-time performance of a passenger's trip is a critical performance measurement of the Quality of Service (QOS) provided by any Air Transportation System. QOS has been correlated with airline profitability, productivity, customer loyalty and customer satisfaction (Heskett et al. 1994). Btatu and Barnhart have shown that official government and airline on-time performance metrics (i.e. flight-centric measures of air transportation) fail to accurately reflect the passenger experience (Btatu and Barnhart, 2005). Flight-based metrics do not include the trip delays accrued by passengers who were re-booked due to cancelled flights or missed connections. Also, flight-based metrics do not quantify the magnitude of the delay (only the likelihood) and thus fails to provide the consumer with a useful assessment of the impact of a delay. Passenger-centric metrics have not been developed because of the unavailability of airline proprietary data, which is also protected by anti-trust collusion concerns and civil liberty privacy restrictions. Moveover, the growth of the ATS is trending out of the historical range. The objectives of this research were to (1) estimate ATS-wide passenger trip delay using publicly accessible flight data, and (2) investigate passenger trip dynamics out of the range of historical data by building a passenger flow simulation model to predict impact on passenger trip time given anticipated changes in the future. The first objective enables researchers to conduct historical analysis on passenger on-time performance without proprietary itinerary data, and the second objective enables researchers to conduct experiments outside the range of historic data. The estimated passenger trip delay was for 1,030 routes between the 35 busiest airports in the United States in 2006. The major findings of this research are listed as

  11. Prevent Child Abuse America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... call the police . Crisis and support contacts For Child Abuse Reporting Numbers in your State please visit: Child ... suspected child abuse and neglect. Parent Resources Prevent Child Abuse America (800) CHILDREN A resource for tips, referrals, ...

  12. America in the Eyes of America Watchers:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Huiyun; He, Kai

    2015-01-01

    almost half of the survey participants thought that America would remain the global hegemon in the next ten years. Meanwhile, a large majority was also optimistic that China is a rising great power, especially in the economic sense, in the world. More than half of the respondents saw Asian military...... issues, such as the South China Sea issue, as the most difficult problem between China and the US....

  13. Immigrant America: A Portrait

    OpenAIRE

    Rumbaut, RG; Portes, A.

    2014-01-01

    This revised, updated, and expanded fourth edition of Immigrant America: A Portrait provides readers with a comprehensive and current overview of immigration to the United States in a single volume. Updated with the latest available data, Immigrant America explores the economic, political, spatial, and linguistic aspects of immigration; the role of religion in the acculturation and social integration of foreign minorities; and the adaptation process for the second generation. This revised ed...

  14. Fiscal 1998 engineer interexchange project (coal mine technology field). Preliminary survey on the international interexchange project in America; 1998 nendo gijutsusha koryu jigyo (tanko gijutsu bun'ya) kokusai koryu jigyo. Jizen chosa (Beikoku)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    As a part of the fiscal 1998 international interexchange project in a coal mine technology field, the survey was made in America. Geological engineering problem has large effect on the protection and productivity of underground coal mines. Promotion of long wall mining has contributed to reduction of disasters, however, recently deaths due to roof collapse and wall collapse are on the increase. A roof evaluation technique was developed for adequate selection of mining methods and support design, and its standardization and diffusion are in promotion. Integration and improvement advanced in facility technology because of worldwide integration by acquisition of coal mine facility manufacturers. Introduction of high-power high-capacity facilities is increasing with introduction of large long wall working faces, and development of rear transport system technology and labor saving by remote control are also in promotion according to such trend. As automation and labor saving technology of mining facilities, the automated direction detection and control system by laser and gyroscope is under development. (NEDO)

  15. Science Editing in America: An Overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Barbara Gastel

    2003-01-01

    @@ In America, science editing appears to be an increasingly recognized field. In what settings do American science editors work, and what kinds of work do they do ? What is their educational background? What style manuals and other resources do they use? What organizations serve them? What topics and issues do they find of professional interest?

  16. The study on the threshold strain of microvoid formation in TRIP steels during tensile deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Wurong; Guo Bimeng; Ji Yurong; He Changwei [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Wei Xicheng, E-mail: wxc1028@staff.shu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China)

    2012-06-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The tensile mechanical behaviors of TRIP steels were studied under high rate deformation conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The threshold strain of microvoid formation was examined quantitatively. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effects of retained austenite of TRIP on suppressing microvoid formed during tensile process have been discussed. - Abstract: Transformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) steels exhibit a better combination of strength and ductility properties than conventional high strength low alloy (HSLA) steels, and therefore receive considerable attention in the automotive industry. In this work, the tensile mechanical behaviors of TRIP-aided steels were studied under the condition of the quasi-static and high deformed rates. The deformed specimens were observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) along the tensile axis. The threshold strain of microvoid formation was examined quantitatively according to the evolution of deformation. The results showed that: the yield and tensile strengths of TRIP steels increase with the strain rate, whereas their elongations decrease. However, the threshold strain for TRIP steels at high strain rate is larger than that at low strain rate. Comparing with the deformed microstructure and microvoids formed in the necking zone of dual phase (DP) steel, the progressive deformation-induced transformation of retained austenite in TRIP steels remarkably increases the threshold strain of microvoid formation and furthermore postpones its growth and coalescence.

  17. Biaxial fatigue behavior of a powder metallurgical TRIP steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ackermann

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Multiaxial fatigue behavior is an important topic in critical structural components. In the present study the biaxial-planar fatigue behavior of a powder metallurgical TRIP steel (Transformation Induced Plasticity was studied by taking into account martensitic phase transformation and crack growth behavior. Biaxial cyclic deformation tests were carried out on a servo hydraulic biaxial tension-compression test rig using cruciform specimens. Different states of strain were studied by varying the strain ratio between the axial strain amplitudes in the range of -1 (shear loading to 1 (equibiaxial loading. The investigated loading conditions were proportional due to fixed directions of principal strains. The studied TRIP steel exhibits martensitic phase transformation from -austenite via ε-martensite into α‘- martensite which causes pronounced cyclic hardening. The α‘-martensite formation increased with increasing plastic strain amplitude. Shear loading promoted martensite formation and caused the highest α‘-martensite volume fractions at fatigue failure in comparison to uniaxial and other biaxial states of strain. Moreover, the fatigue lives of shear tests were higher than those of uniaxial and other biaxial tests. The von Mises equivalent strain hypothesis was found to be appropriate for uniaxial and biaxial fatigue, but too conservative for shear fatigue, according to literature for torsional fatigue. The COD strain amplitude which is based on crack opening displacement gave a better correlation of the investigated fatigue lives, especially those for shear loading. Different types of major cracks were observed on the sample surfaces after biaxial cyclic deformation by using electron monitoring in an electron beam universal system and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Specimens with strain ratios of 1, 0.5, -0.1 and -0.5 showed mode I major cracks (perpendicular to the axis of maximum principal strain. Major cracks after shear fatigue

  18. Mechanical properties and microstructure of TRIP steels produced using TSCR process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yinghui Zhang; Yanli Ma; Yonglin Kang; Hao Yu

    2006-01-01

    C-Si-Mn TRIP steels were produced using the thin slab casting and rolling (TSCR) process under simulation in laboratory. The results of tensile tests show that the yield strength, tensile strength, and the total elongation of the experimental TRIP steels are 430 MPa, 610 MPa, and 28.4%, respectively. Optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were employed to identify the microstructures of the TRIP steels. The final microstructures consist of ferrite, bainite, and retained austenite. The results of quantitative color metallography show that the fraction of the retained austenite is about 5.8%.

  19. Analysis of a single primary coolant pump trip scenario in a PHWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper addresses the analysis of a single primary coolant pump (PCP) trip scenario in a 220 MWe Indian pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR). The analysis is carried out using a lumped parameter model. The time dependent mass, momentum and energy for conservation equations for the primary system are solved using finite difference scheme. The predictions of the model for the time required to reach the over-pressure trip value was in good agreement with the plant data. Parametric studies are carried out to study the influences of the isolation of the failed branch and a delay in the trip of the diagonally opposite PCP. (author). 2 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab

  20. Research on Public Transit Network Hierarchy Based on Residential Transit Trip Distance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Jian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To the problem of being lack of transit network hierarchy theory, a research on public transit network hierarchy optimization based on residential transit trip distance is conducted. Firstly, the hierarchy standard of transit network is given, in addition, both simulating electron cloud model and Rayleigh distribution model are used to fit the residential transit trip distance. Secondly, from the view of balance between supply and demand, the hierarchy step of transit network based on residential transit trip distance is proposed. Then, models of transit’s supply turnover and demand turnover are developed. Finally, the method and models are applied into transit network optimization of Baoding, Hebei, China.

  1. Thermal Stability of Retained Austenite in TRIP Steel After Different Treatments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Wen; LI Lin; Bruno C De Cooman; Patrick Wollants; YANG Chun-xia

    2008-01-01

    Thermal decomposition of retained austenite in TRIP steel was investigated by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The decomposition curve was abnormal, and the decomposition temperature and the activation energy were measured by the Kissinger method, which were all higher than those in quenched steel. The thermal decomposition data of samples soaked in liquid nitrogen after TRIP treatment were all similar to those without additional low temperature treatment. It indicated that there is a high thermal stability in retained austenite of the TRIP steel at low temperature, which was also proved by XRD analysis.

  2. TRIP: a novel double stranded RNA binding protein which interacts with the leucine rich repeat of flightless I.

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, S A; Brown, E C; Kingsman, A J; Kingsman, S M

    1998-01-01

    A northwestern screen of a CHO-K1 cell line cDNA library with radiolabelled HIV-1 TAR RNA identified a novel TAR RNA interacting protein, TRIP. The human trip cDNA was also cloned and its expression is induced by phorbol esters. The N-terminus of TRIP shows high homology to the coiled coil domain of FLAP, a protein which binds the leucine-rich repeat (LRR) of Flightless I (FLI) and the interaction of TRIP with the FLI LRR has been confirmed in vitro . TRIP does not bind single stranded DNA or...

  3. Trip report: a visit to the Swedish reindeer industry, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The State of Alaska indicated recently that it will become more strict in enforcing inspection requirements for reindeer meat that is mixed with meat from domestic animals (e.g., In sausage production). Therefore. we wanted to observe how reindeer are slaughtered to meet Swedish meat inspection requirements. Additionally, by following the processing and marketing of reindeer in Sweden, we hoped to discover alternative products that do not require blending reindeer with beef or pork. The Chernobyl tragedy further affected our decision to visit Sweden in two ways It gave us the opportunity to review the Impacts of widespread, Intense radioactive contamination on reindeer and the reindeer industry: and it created a shortage or reindeer for human consumption in Sweden which In turn appeared to open a market for Alaska reindeer products. Between 13 and 23 November 1986, we traveled to Sweden to meet suppliers and processors in the Swedish reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) industry. Wholesale and retail marketing of reindeer were reviewed in Stockholm; corralling, slaughter, and processing of reindeer were observed in Swedish Lapland. The specific objectives of this trip were as follows: 1) to observe reindeer slaughter facilities and techniques used in Sweden; 2) to trace the marketing of reindeer from Sami herders to retail outlets; 3) to assess radioactive contamination of reindeer and their ranges and observe how the problem is being handled; 4) to observe as many reindeer husbandry techniques as possible; and 5) to explore the possibility of establishing a market for Alaskan reindeer meat in Sweden

  4. The issue of accelerator beam trips for efficient ADS operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of accelerator-driven systems (ADSs) is motivated by the potential of these machines to reduce the volume and the radiotoxicity of accumulated nuclear waste, more particularly that of minor actinides currently generated by the operation of existing pressurized water reactors. The reduction of both volume and radiotoxicity of nuclear waste is achieved by transmutation and fission of minor actinides into less-active isotopes or shorter-lived by-products. Various technical challenges exist regarding designing reliable and efficient ADSs. The key points are very much linked to the design of the spallation module, the assurance that reactivity remains below criticality under any circumstances, and the accelerator reliability. This paper addresses the latter two challenges imposed on the accelerator in order to assure safe and reliable ADS operation. It discusses the possibility of performing online absolute reactivity measurements and the limits in the number of allowable accelerator beam trips, which might impede plant integrity and/or plant efficiency. (authors)

  5. Collective human mobility pattern from taxi trips in urban area

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Chengbin

    2012-04-18

    We analyze the passengers\\' traffic pattern for 1.58 million taxi trips of Shanghai, China. By employing the non-negative matrix factorization and optimization methods, we find that, people travel on workdays mainly for three purposes: commuting between home and workplace, traveling from workplace to workplace, and others such as leisure activities. Therefore, traffic flow in one area or between any pair of locations can be approximated by a linear combination of three basis flows, corresponding to the three purposes respectively. We name the coefficients in the linear combination as traffic powers, each of which indicates the strength of each basis flow. The traffic powers on different days are typically different even for the same location, due to the uncertainty of the human motion. Therefore, we provide a probability distribution function for the relative deviation of the traffic power. This distribution function is in terms of a series of functions for normalized binomial distributions. It can be well explained by statistical theories and is verified by empirical data. These findings are applicable in predicting the road traffic, tracing the traffic pattern and diagnosing the traffic related abnormal events. These results can also be used to infer land uses of urban area quite parsimoniously. 2012 Peng et al.

  6. Collective human mobility pattern from taxi trips in urban area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengbin Peng

    Full Text Available We analyze the passengers' traffic pattern for 1.58 million taxi trips of Shanghai, China. By employing the non-negative matrix factorization and optimization methods, we find that, people travel on workdays mainly for three purposes: commuting between home and workplace, traveling from workplace to workplace, and others such as leisure activities. Therefore, traffic flow in one area or between any pair of locations can be approximated by a linear combination of three basis flows, corresponding to the three purposes respectively. We name the coefficients in the linear combination as traffic powers, each of which indicates the strength of each basis flow. The traffic powers on different days are typically different even for the same location, due to the uncertainty of the human motion. Therefore, we provide a probability distribution function for the relative deviation of the traffic power. This distribution function is in terms of a series of functions for normalized binomial distributions. It can be well explained by statistical theories and is verified by empirical data. These findings are applicable in predicting the road traffic, tracing the traffic pattern and diagnosing the traffic related abnormal events. These results can also be used to infer land uses of urban area quite parsimoniously.

  7. Skip the trip: air travelers' behavioral responses to pandemic influenza.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eli P Fenichel

    Full Text Available Theory suggests that human behavior has implications for disease spread. We examine the hypothesis that individuals engage in voluntary defensive behavior during an epidemic. We estimate the number of passengers missing previously purchased flights as a function of concern for swine flu or A/H1N1 influenza using 1.7 million detailed flight records, Google Trends, and the World Health Organization's FluNet data. We estimate that concern over "swine flu," as measured by Google Trends, accounted for 0.34% of missed flights during the epidemic. The Google Trends data correlates strongly with media attention, but poorly (at times negatively with reported cases in FluNet. Passengers show no response to reported cases. Passengers skipping their purchased trips forwent at least $50 M in travel related benefits. Responding to actual cases would have cut this estimate in half. Thus, people appear to respond to an epidemic by voluntarily engaging in self-protection behavior, but this behavior may not be responsive to objective measures of risk. Clearer risk communication could substantially reduce epidemic costs. People undertaking costly risk reduction behavior, for example, forgoing nonrefundable flights, suggests they may also make less costly behavior adjustments to avoid infection. Accounting for defensive behaviors may be important for forecasting epidemics, but linking behavior with epidemics likely requires consideration of risk communication.

  8. Variation of the Earth's magnetic field strength in South America during the last two millennia: New results from historical buildings of Buenos Aires and re-evaluation of regional data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goguitchaichvili, Avto; Morales, Juan; Schavelzon, Daniel; Vásquez, Carlos; Gogorza, Claudia S. G.; Loponte, Daniel; Rapalini, Augusto

    2015-08-01

    The causes of the systematic decay of the Earth's Magnetic Field strength since eighteen century have been a matter of debate during the last decade. It is also well known that such variations may have completely different expressions under an area characterized with strong magnetic anomalies, such as the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly. To fully understand these atypical phenomena, it is crucial to retrieve the past evolution of Earth's magnetic field beyond the observatory records. We report on detailed rock-magnetic and archeointensity investigations from some well-studied historical buildings of Buenos Aires city, located at the heart of the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly. Samples consist of bricks, tiles, fireplaces and pottery, which are considered as highly suitable materials for archaeointensity studies. The dating is ascertained by historical documents complemented by archeological constraints. Eighteen out of 26 analyzed samples yield reliable absolute intensity determinations. The site-mean archaeointensity values obtained in this study range from 28.5 to 43.5 μT, with corresponding virtual axial dipole moments (VADMs) ranging from 5.3 to 8.04 × 1022 Am2. Most determinations obtained in the present study are in remarkable agreement with the values predicted by the time varying field model CALS10k.1b (Korte et al., 2011). For the older periods the recently available SHA.DIF.14 model (Pavon-Carrasco et al., 2014) seems to have greater resolution. South American archaeointensity database now includes absolute intensities from 400 to 1930 AD based on 63 selected archaeointensity determinations. The data set reveals several distinct periods of quite large fluctuations of intensity. However, most data are concentrated into a relatively narrow interval from AD 1250 to AD 1450. At the beginning of the record, values between 400 AD and 830 AD match well with ARCH3k.1 model. Some general features may be detected: the time intervals from about AD 400 to 950 and

  9. Trip Length Distribution Under Multiplicative Spatial Models of Supply and Demand: Theory and Sensitivity Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Veneziano, Daniele

    2011-01-01

    We propose new probabilistic models for the spatial distribution of supply and demand and use the models to determine how the trip length distribution is affected by the relative shortage or excess of supply, the spatial clustering of supply and demand, and the degree of attraction or repulsion between supply and demand at different spatial scales. The models have a multiplicative structure and in certain cases possess scale invariance properties. Using detailed population data in metropolitan US regions validates the demand model. The trip length distribution, evaluated under destination choice models of the intervening opportunities type, has quasi-analytic form.We take advantage of this feature to study the sensitivity of the trip length distribution to parameters of the demand, supply and destination choice models. We find that trip length is affected in important but different ways by the spatial density of potential destinations, the dependence among their attractiveness levels, and the correlation betw...

  10. A system for trip analysis of PWR reactors using neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents the basic concepts and the general description of a computational system developed for trip analysis in PWR nuclear power plants which is based on neural networks and artificial intelligence concepts. (author)

  11. Health Effect of Forest Bathing Trip on Elderly Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Bing Bing; Yang, Zhou Xin; Mao, Gen Xiang; Lyu, Yuan Dong; Wen, Xiao Lin; Xu, Wei Hong; Lyu, Xiao Ling; Cao, Yong Bao; Wang, Guo Fu

    2016-03-01

    Forest bathing trip is a short, leisurely visit to forest. In this study we determined the health effects of forest bathing trip on elderly patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The patients were randomly divided into two groups. One group was sent to forest, and the other was sent to an urban area as control. Flow cytometry, ELISA, and profile of mood states (POMS) evaluation were performed. In the forest group, we found a significant decrease of perforin and granzyme B expressions, accompanied by decreased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and stress hormones. Meanwhile, the scores in the negative subscales of POMS decreased after forest bathing trip. These results indicate that forest bathing trip has health effect on elderly COPD patients by reducing inflammation and stress level.

  12. 49 CFR 236.560 - Contact element, mechanical trip type; location with respect to rail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Rules and Instructions; Locomotives § 236.560 Contact element, mechanical trip type; location with respect to...

  13. Pre-trip tourism information search by smartphones and use of alternative information channels: A conceptual model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaang-Iuan Ho

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study developed a comprehensive model of how smartphone users search for pre-trip tourism information. Important dimensions and relationships in tourism information search (TIS behavior were studied in 21 subjects. The data collection process included semi-structured in-depth interviewing data and field observation data. The analysis revealed 10 activities characteristic of TIS behavior: internal searches, mobile searches, saving information in the smartphones, preliminary collaborative TIS, barriers to TIS, bringing mobile search to an end, summarizing information, PC Internet search, advanced collaborative TIS, and searches via editorial communications. Such data collection was not performed in isolation. Further, 20 propositions have been developed for future testing. The results suggest that pre-trip TIS appears to consist in a diversity of search patterns with the usage of multiple information sources; in addition, it is no longer individual but collaborative behavior in the context of Web 2.0. Finally, the theoretical and practical implications of the research work are discussed, and directions for future work are suggested.

  14. Mechanical and Transformation Behaviors of a C-Mn-Si-Al-Cr TRIP Steel under Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaodong WANG; Baoxu HUANG; Yonghua RONG; Li WANG

    2006-01-01

    Transformation induced plasticity(TRIP)steels combine high strength and excellent ductility, making them suited for application in crash-relevant parts in the automotive industry. However, the high Si contents in the conventional TRIP steel will generate surface defects on the hot rolled strip, which is difficult to process in continuous galvanizing lines. In order to solve the above problem the TRIP steel with the addition of Al replacing majority of Si was designed. In the present paper, the volume fraction of various phases in a C-Mn-Si-Al-Cr TRIP steel was determined by metallographic examination and X-ray diffraction analysis, and the multi-phase microstructures were characterized using an atomic force microscope based on their height difference. Tensile tests were performed at differenttemperatures ranging from -40℃ to 90℃. The results show that transition temperature Mσs in the present TRIP steel cannot be determined due to its lower volume fraction of retained austenite, different from the conventional TRIP steel. While the yield stress and tensile strength at different temperatures are higher than those of the conventional TRIP steel, which is attributed to the addition of Cr. In order to evaluate the effect of martensitic transformation on the total elongation, the sample without retained austenite obtainedby quenching in liquid nitrogen was carried out under tensile test.The results indicate that the elongation of the original sample containing 9% retained austenite is about 20%higher than that of the sample quenched in liquid nitrogen, which demonstrates that the retained austenite plays an important role in improving the elongation of the TRIP steel.

  15. Patterns of energy acquisition by penguins: benefits of alternating short and long foraging trips.

    OpenAIRE

    Ropert-Coudert, Y.; Wilson, Rory P.; Daunt, F; Kato, A

    2004-01-01

    In some seabirds, foraging trips have been defined as either long or short, with the length of time spent traveling to the foraging area apparently a critical feature in determining foraging trip length. Using logger technology, together with complimentary data from published studies, we investigated traveling and foraging times in 18 free-living Adélie Penguins Pygoscelis adeliae, which were foraging for chicks. Most deep, foraging dives were distributed around the center of the foraging tri...

  16. Does Ignoring Multi-Destination Trips in the Travel Cost Method Cause a Systematic Downward Bias?

    OpenAIRE

    Kuosmanen, T.K.; Nillesen, E.E.M.; Wesseler, J.H.H.

    2003-01-01

    In theory, treating the multi-destination trips (MDTs) as single-destination trips (SDT) does not necessarily lead to biased results, because negative effect of price increase may be offset by the shift of the estimated demand curve. However, in our empirical application of the TCM zonal model to the valuation of the economic benefits of the Bellenden Kerr National Park in Australia we find (statistically significant) evidence that ignoring the MDTs leads to a dramatic overestimation of the c...

  17. Non-Work Activity Scheduling Effects in the Timing of Work Trips

    OpenAIRE

    Picado, Rosella

    1999-01-01

    This dissertation examines the effect of work and non-work scheduling flexibility on the timing of work trips. It explores whether increasing activity scheduling flexibility, whether due to work or non-work factors, results in non-peak travel and hence shorter travel times. It examines in detail work scheduling flexibility, non-work scheduling flexibility, and travel time characteristics. An examination of trip timing choices using data from the 1990 Bay Area Travel Survey showed tha...

  18. Identifying future research opportunities in online consumer reviews : the case study of TripAdvisor

    OpenAIRE

    Whitehead, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to identify future research opportunities for using online consumer reviews websites such as TripAdvisor.com as a case study. The literature review covers the internet and growth of eTourism, virtual communities, virtual community typologies, and the importance of TripAdvisor.com for travel research, electronic word–of–mouth (eWOM), social networking and the impact of online travel reviews on consumers. Propositions and future research opportunities are then raised....

  19. Phasenumwandlung und lokale mechanische Eigenschaften von TRIP Stahl beim simulierten und realen Widerstandspunktschweißprozess

    OpenAIRE

    Brauser, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    TRIP Stähle realisieren durch eine unter mechanischer Beanspruchung hervorgerufene Pha-senumwandlung von metastabilen Austenit in Martensit (TRIP-Effekt) hohe Festigkeiten bei gleichzeitig guten Verformungseigenschaften. Während der Verarbeitung dieser Werkstoffe mittels Widerstandspunktschweißen können unter den prozessspezifischen extremen Aufheiz- und Abkühlraten Modifikationen des Austenitanteils hervorgerufen werden die als Folge lokal zu einer Änderung der mechanisch-technologischen Eig...

  20. TRIP钢无缝管的开发及其成形性分析%Development and formability analysis of TRIP seamless steel tube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张自成; 朱伏先

    2014-01-01

    本文首次将趋于成熟的相变诱发塑性钢(TRIP钢)生产技术应用到钢管的生产领域,以冷拔钢管为原料,分别利用两阶段热处理和连续热处理两种方式成功开发出具有铁素体、贝氏体、残余奥氏体和少量马氏体组织的薄壁TRIP钢无缝管,并利用环形拉伸以及冷弯等试验手段对其成形性能进行了试验研究。研究结果表明,TRIP钢无缝管具有较好的冷成形性能,可以在内高压成形等领域推广应用。另外,课题组开发的连续热处理设备完全可以用来生产TRIP钢管,为未来工业生产提供了重要参考。%In the present study,the production technology of transformation induced plastici-ty(TRIP)steel was firstly introduced in the steel tube manufacture field. The TRIP steel tubes with a microstructure of ferrite,bainite,retained austenite and a little martensite were success-fully fabricated with both of the two-stage heat treatment technique and continuous heat treat-ment technique using a cold drawn steel tube. The ring tensile test and cold bending process were carried out to study the formability of the newly developed TRIP seamless steel tube. The results showed that the TRIP seamless steel tubes have a good cold formability,and they are available to be used in the tube hydroforming process. In addition,the equipment of continuous heat treatment developed in the current study can be used to produce TRIP steel tube and it may serve as an important reference for the industrial production of TRIP steel tube.

  1. Wake structures of two side by side spheres in a tripped boundary layer flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canli Eyüb

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Two independent spheres were placed in a side by side arrangement and flow structure in the wake region of the spheres was investigated with a Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV system when the spheres were in a boundary layer over a flat plate as a special case. Reynolds number was 5000 based on the sphere diameter which was 42.5 mm. Boundary layer was tripped 8mm away from the leading edge of the flat plate with a 5 mm trip wire. The thickness of the hydrodynamically developed boundary layer was determined as 63mm which was larger than the sphere diameter of D=42.5mm. Wake region of the spheres was examined from point of flow physics for the different sphere locations in the ranges of 0≤G/D ≤1.5 and 0≤S/D ≤1.5 where G and S were the distance between the spheres and the distance between the bottom point of the spheres and the flat plate surface, respectively. Depending on the different sphere locations, instantaneous and time averaged vorticity data, scalar values of time-averaged velocity components and their root mean square (rms values and time averaged vorticity data are presented in the study for the evaluation of wake region of the spheres. It is demonstrated that the gap between the two spheres and the interaction between the gap and the boundary layer greatly affects flow pattern, especially when spheres are located near to the flat plate surface, i.e. S/D=0.1 for 0≤G/D ≤1.5. Different distances between the spheres resulted in various flow patterns as the spheres were approached to the flat plate. The distance S/D=0.1 for all gap values has the strongest effect on the wake structures. Beyond G/D=1.0, the sphere wakes tend to be similar to single sphere case. The instantaneous vorticity fields of the side by side arrangements comprised wavy structures in higher level comparing to an individual sphere case. The gap flow intensifies the occurrence of small scale eddies in the wake region. The submersion rate of the spheres

  2. AB TEMPORAL TRIP GENERATION MODELLING FOR PRIMARY ACTIVITIES: A CASE STUDY OF FAST GROWING METROPOLITAN CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhimaji K. Katti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Transportation planning for any city evolves on the basis of complex interplay between urban activity, transport and land use system to result in varied travel patterns. Travel pattern can be defined at micro level to include individual journey departure and arrival time, journey duration and distances to make way for temporal trip generation and distribution from specific area. Trip generation is the first step of four stages of travel forecasting analysis mostly followed all over the world. Traditionally, it is focused on the prediction of aggregate trip generation by a household rather than the choice of individual activity participation. However, spatial and temporal activity domains are equally important in forecasting process and strategic urban transportation planning. The present paper attempts to develop Activity Based (AB Temporal Trip Generation Models (ABTGM for primary activities to cover work and educational trips considering fast growing Surat city of Gujarat, India as study area. Home interview surveys are carried to provide household and socioeconomic characteristics and the activity travel diary information to focus on the activity based tours rather the trips.

  3. Spatial interaction models from Irish commuting data: variations in trip length by occupation and gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Kelly, Morton E.; Niedzielski, Michael A.; Gleeson, Justin

    2012-10-01

    Core and peripheral contrasts in journey-to-work trip length can be interpreted as imputing the relative value of origin and destination accessibility (yielding theoretical proxies for rent and wages). Because the main variables are shown to be critically dependent on spatial structure, they may be interpreted as showing the shadow prices due to comparative location. There is also a unifying connection between these results and the existing literature on many dimensions: rent gradients, accessibility, and emissivity. In an empirical example, the advantages of a panoramic view of national commuting statistics are shown, using an Irish data set. Variations in the rates of participation in trip making by location, occupation, and gender are examined. Places that emit more trips than would be expected from their relative location are identified. Further, examining ways in which such emissivity is sensitive to a change in trip length highlights the regions where trips could possibly be adjusted to produce a shorter average trip length or which might be especially sensitive to reduction in employment. A careful reinterpretation of one of the key outputs from a calibrated spatial interaction model is shown to be consistent with the declining rent gradient expected from Alonso's theory of land use.

  4. Round-Trip Voronoi Diagrams and Doubling Density in Geographic Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Dickerson, Matthew T; Dickerson, Thomas D

    2010-01-01

    The round-trip distance function on a geographic network (such as a road network, flight network, or utility distribution grid) defines the "distance" from a single vertex to a pair of vertices as the minimum length tour visiting all three vertices and ending at the starting vertex. Given a geographic network and a subset of its vertices called "sites" (for example a road network with a list of grocery stores), a two-site round-trip Voronoi diagram labels each vertex in the network with the pair of sites that minimizes the round-trip distance from that vertex. Alternatively, given a geographic network and two sets of sites of different types (for example grocery stores and coffee shops), a two-color round-trip Voronoi diagram labels each vertex with the pair of sites of different types minimizing the round-trip distance. In this paper, we prove several new properties of two-site and two-color round-trip Voronoi diagrams in a geographic network, including a relationship between the "doubling density" of sites ...

  5. An implicit algorithm to verify creep and TRIP behavior of steel using uniaxial experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, Michael; Boehm, Michael; Boekenheide, Simone; Lammers, Daniel; Linke, Tobias [Bremen Univ. (Germany). Zentrum fuer Technomathematik

    2012-05-15

    Creep is a complex material feature occurring in mechanical structures under moderate stresses and relatively high temperatures. Transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) is a macroscopic phenomenon of steel behavior. If phase transformations occur under deviatoric stress, a permanent inelastic strain is obtained even if the yield stress is not reached. Thus, creep and TRIP do not have a yield stress like plasticity and visco-plasticity. Sometimes, during heat treatment of steel, creep and TRIP appear together. In order to determine creep or TRIP behavior it is necessary to verify concrete material laws and to determine corresponding material parameters. For this reason, often uniaxial experiments with small probes are performed in special devices. It is the main purpose of this study, to develop a procedure for the verification of possible laws for creep and TRIP and for determining material parameters, using experimental data. Therefore, an implicit algorithm in two variants will be developed: strain-driven and stress-driven. These algorithms can also be applied to simulations of (spatially homogenous) uniaxial experiments. Based on these algorithms, an optimization scheme will be developed for finding material parameters which realize a best approximation. Finally, the developed procedure will be applied for the investigation of creep and TRIP during heating of the bearing steel 100Cr6 (SAE 52100). (orig.)

  6. The European Ultrasonic Planetary Core Drill: Preliminary Results from Field Trials at the Haughton Mars Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worrall, K.; Timoney, R.; Li, X.; Harkness, P.; Lucas, M.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents the findings of a recent field trip by the Ultrasonic Planetary Core Drill team to the Mars analog site at the Haughton Mars Project. Results of this trip are compared to results obtained drilling permafrost simulant in the lab.

  7. Boys & Girls Clubs of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National BGC Week Join Our Cause Donate Now Boys & Girls Clubs of America and the UPS Foundation ... the Dangers Faced When Behind-the-Wheel MORE» Boys & Girls Clubs of America Names Jocelyn Woods National ...

  8. America's Children and the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Protection Agency Search Search America's Children and the Environment Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us America's Children and the Environment is an EPA report that presents key information ...

  9. Economic integration in the Americas

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    This pioneering study shows that economic integration in the Americas is not simply a matter of removing trade barriers. Economic Integration in the Americas addresses the pervasive effects of economic integration on the economy as a whole.

  10. Americas at Odds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Despite lingering disputes,the United States keeps a firm grip on Latin America During his presidential campaign,Evo Morales said his election would be a "nightmare" for the United States.The Bolivian president honored his words. On September 10, Morales declared U.S.

  11. Ecodesign in Central America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crul, M.R.M.

    2003-01-01

    This PhD thesis describes and analyses the change process started by the Ecodesign project in Central America, executed between 1998 and 2002. The project started using the concept and praxis developed in Europe. Nine ecodesign projects were performed in industry, and ecodesign was introduced to cou

  12. Literacy in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornberger, Nancy H.

    1991-01-01

    Literacy in South America must be understood in terms of the linguistic diversity there, where only 2 of 14 nations and territories are monolingual. Oral traditions, standardization of indigenous languages, nonstandard varieties of colonial languages, bilingual education and mother tongue literacy, literacy teaching, and politics are discussed.…

  13. Still Teaching for America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronholz, June

    2013-01-01

    In this article, June Kronholz talks to co-chief executives of Teach For America (TFA), Elisa Villanueva Beard and Matt Kramer about how TFA has managed to keep its forward momentum for almost 24 years. Four primary reasons are discussed: (1) Common Vision, Regional Innovation; (2) Data-Driven Improvement; (3) Global Reach; and (4) Stoking the…

  14. Two Visions of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capaldi, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    Since the seventeenth century, there have been two narratives about modernity in general and America in particular. The author uses the term "narrative" to include (a) facts, (b) arguments, and most important, (c) a larger vision of how one sees the world and chooses to engage the world. The first and originalist narrative is the Lockean Liberty…

  15. Only "In America"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Maria Eugenia

    2011-01-01

    As the daughter of an interracial couple growing up in a middle-class town on Long Island in the 1970s, Soledad O'Brien learned not to let inappropriate or racist comments throw her. Now as the anchorwoman of CNN's "In America" documentary unit, she says she asks those uncomfortable questions about race all the time. She shines spotlight on…

  16. An Idea Called America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartoonian, Michael; Van Scotter, Richard; White, William E.

    2007-01-01

    America evolved out of the principles of the eighteenth-century Enlightenment, suggesting that individuals could govern themselves and that people were "endowed" with "unalienable rights" such as life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. To secure these principles, Americans would continue to work on forming a more perfect Union, by…

  17. PERSPECTIVE: The tripping points of sea level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Alan D.

    2009-12-01

    When President Nixon created the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 1970 he said the environment must be perceived as a single, interrelated system. We are nowhere close to achieving this vision. Jim Titus and his colleagues [1] highlight one example of where one set of regulations or permits may be in conflict with another and where regulations were crafted in the absence of understanding the cumulative impact of global warming. The issue here is how to deal with the impacts of climate change on sea level and the latter's impact on wetland polices, clean water regulations, and ecosystem services. The Titus paper could also be called `The tripping points of sea level rise'. Titus and his colleagues have looked at the impact of such sea level rise on the east coast of the United States. Adaptive responses include costly large- scale investment in shore protection (e.g. dikes, sand replenishment) and/or ecosystem migration (retreat), where coastal ecosystems move inland. Shore protection is limited by available funds, while ecosystem migrations are limited by available land use. The driving factor is the high probability of sea level rise due to climate change. Estimating sea level rise is difficult because of local land and coastal dynamics including rising or falling land areas. It is estimated that sea level could rise between 8 inches and 2 feet by the end of this century [2]. The extensive data analysis done by Titus et al of current land use is important because, as they observe, `property owners and land use agencies have generally not decided how they will respond to sea level rise, nor have they prepared maps delineating where shore protection and retreat are likely'. This is the first of two `tripping points', namely the need for adaptive planning for a pending environmental challenge that will create economic and environment conflict among land owners, federal and state agencies, and businesses. One way to address this gap in adaptive management

  18. Lateinamerika oder -amerikas? Latin America or Americas?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Belén García Timón

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Anhand interdisziplinärer und empirischer Studien wird Lateinamerika als Bühne für die Entwicklung transkultureller Phänomene präsentiert. Geschlechterverhältnisse in unterschiedlichen Kontexten stehen im Mittelpunkt der Untersuchung. Begriffe wie Macht, Rasse oder Raum werden mit dem Ziel, weg von der bisherigen Vorstellung von homogenen kulturellen Einheiten zu kommen, revidiert.Latin America is presented as a stage for the development of transcultural phenomena through the use of interdisciplinary and empirical studies. Gender relations in different contexts lie at the heart of this study. Terms such as power, race, or space are revised with the goal of moving away from current perceptions of homogenous cultural unities.

  19. Formation Conditions of Panhandle-Hugoton Gas Field in North America and Puguang Gas Field in Sichuan Basin of China: Contrast and Revelation%潘汉得——胡果顿与普光气田形成条件对比及启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐思煌; 曹婷婷; W.L.Watney

    2012-01-01

    Panhandle-Hugoton gas field in North America and Puguang gas field in Sichuan basin of China are all giant marine carbonate gas fields in the world. It is suggested from comparison and analysis of the geological setting, pool-forming condition and process of these two gas fields that Panhandle-Hugoton and Puguang gas fields are all characterized by multiple source rocks, good reservoir rocks with mid- dle-high porosity and permeability, and the gas pools suffered multistage reformation and stabilization controlled by late tectonization, and gypsum and salt cap rocks. The most difference between them is the development degree of their cap rocks. The thickness and continuity of regional gypsum and salt cap rock in Panhandle-Hugoton gas field are clearly superior to those in Puguang gas field, showing that the seal- ing and preserving condition are the key factors for the formation of giant gas field under the geologic conditions of sufficient gas source and good reservoir. It is predicted that other giant gas fields the same as or even larger than Puguang could be found in the areas where both reef -flat reservoirs in Feixianguan formation and gypsum and salt cap rocks in Jialingjiang formation are developed, such as Wanzhou and Da- zhu areas, in South China.%分析了北美潘汉得—胡果顿气田和我国普光气田的地质背景、成藏条件与成藏过程指出,二者均发育多套烃源岩,储集层物性均较好,盖层岩类均为膏盐岩,经后期多期变动与调整而定型于晚期。但二者间最显著的差异在于盖层的发育程度:前者的膏盐岩直接盖层分布范围广、厚度巨大、断层不发育,明显优于普光气田。说明在气源充足、储集层发育良好的地质条件下,盖层及保存条件是形成大气田的最关键因素。据此预测,在中国南方飞仙关组礁滩优质储集层和嘉陵江组膏盐岩盖层发育重叠区,如万州和大竹地区,有望发现更大规模的天然气田。

  20. Addressing legal and political barriers to global pharmaceutical access: options for remedying the impact of the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) and the imposition of TRIPS-plus standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Kohler, Jillian Clare; Forman, Lisa; Lipkus, Nathaniel

    2008-07-01

    Despite myriad programs aimed at increasing access to essential medicines in the developing world, the global drug gap persists. This paper focuses on the major legal and political constraints preventing implementation of coordinated global policy solutions - particularly, the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) and bilateral and regional free trade agreements. We argue that several policy and research routes should be taken to mitigate the restrictive impact of TRIPS and TRIPS-plus rules, including greater use of TRIPS flexibilities, advancement of human rights, and an ethical framework for essential medicines distribution, and a broader campaign that debates the legitimacy of TRIPS and TRIPS-plus standards themselves. PMID:18634618

  1. Trip-Induced Transition Measurements in a Hypersonic Boundary Layer Using Molecular Tagging Velocimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathel, Brett F.; Danehy, Paul M.; Jones, Stephen B.; Johansen, Craig T.; Goyne, Christopher P.

    2013-01-01

    Measurements of mean streamwise velocity, fluctuating streamwise velocity, and instantaneous streamwise velocity profiles in a hypersonic boundary layer were obtained over a 10-degree half-angle wedge model. A laser-induced fluorescence-based molecular tagging velocimetry technique was used to make the measurements. The nominal edge Mach number was 4.2. Velocity profiles were measured both in an untripped boundary layer and in the wake of a 4-mm diameter cylindrical tripping element centered 75.4 mm downstream of the sharp leading edge. Three different trip heights were investigated: k = 0.53 mm, k = 1.0 mm and k = 2.0 mm. The laminar boundary layer thickness at the position of the measurements was approximately 1 mm, though the exact thickness was dependent on Reynolds number and wall temperature. All of the measurements were made starting from a streamwise location approximately 18 mm downstream of the tripping element. This measurement region continued approximately 30 mm in the streamwise direction. Additionally, measurements were made at several spanwise locations. An analysis of flow features show how the magnitude, spatial location, and spatial growth of streamwise velocity instabilities are affected by parameters such as the ratio of trip height to boundary layer thickness and roughness Reynolds number. The fluctuating component of streamwise velocity measured along the centerline of the model increased from approximately 75 m/s with no trip to +/-225 m/s with a 0.53-mm trip, and to +/-240 m/s with a 1-mm trip, while holding the freestream Reynolds number constant. These measurements were performed in the 31-inch Mach 10 Air Tunnel at the NASA Langley Research Center.

  2. Report on the safety related occurrences and reactor trips July 1, 1980 - December 31, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a systematically arranged report on all reported safety related occurrences and reactor trips in Swedish nuclear power plants in operation during July 1 to December 31, 1981 inclusive. The facilities involved are Barsebaeck 1 and 2, Oskarhamn 1 and 2, Ringhals 1, 2 and 3 and Forsmark 1 and 2. During this period of 6 months 88 safety related occurrences and 51 reactor trips have been reported to the Nuclear Power Inspectorate. As earlier experiences have shown it is to the greatest extent conventional components such as valves and pumps which bring about the safety related occurrences or occurrences leading to outages or power reductions. However, the component errors discovered in the safety related systems have not affected the function of their redundant system and other diverse systems have not been involved. Therefore the reactor safety has been satisfactory. The total number of reactor trips are normal. The average value for these 6 months is 2,3 trips/unit if one looks at the 6 units in commercial operation. As can be expected, Ringhals 3 and Forsmark 1 have had significantly more reactor trips. These units have been in the start up phase during this period, which includes different transient and trip tests. Forsmark 2, beeing in its hot functional test period, has not yet been the subject of many of these tests. This is reflected in very few incidents and reactor trips. The fact that even small deviations from prescribed operation result in an automatic and safe shut down of the reactor, does not always imply a conflict with operational availability. The greatest outages are caused by occurrences without safety significance. (author)

  3. Driving in America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘世一

    2005-01-01

    Mitsuaki recently arrived in the United States to enter university. He wants to do well in his studies and adjust to the new culture. But Mitsuaki has a problem. It's not his roommates. It's not his school fees. It's not even his English ability. Mitsuaki's problem is that he doesn't have a car. And in America, that really makes him a foreigner. Mitsuaki has already discovered a basic fact of American culture : Driving is a way of life.

  4. Electricity in Latin America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breeze, P.

    1998-12-01

    The report provides an overview of the Latin American power market; analyses the power generation, transmission and distribution capabilities of 20 countries in central and south America; includes detailed comparative data on current capacity, shortfall and growth; investigates the existing network infrastructures and projected demand; examines the opportunities for independent power producers resulting from deregulation; assesses indigenous and imported fuel resources; and discusses the broad financial opportunities and restraints.

  5. Making America Great Again?

    OpenAIRE

    Leth, Aksel N.; Lykke, Lærke G.; Dyrbye, Zachary R.; Jordahn, Sally E.; Egholm, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    This study aims at uncovering the discourses in Donald Trump’s announcement speech and their relation to his campaign slogan Make America Great Again. Through a thorough analysis of his speech, we have identified thematic categories and used critical discourse studies (CDS), to denaturalise the discourses he produces and reproduces in a socio-cultural and socio-political context. Our method of Critical Discourse Analysis is based on Fairclough, complemented by Wodak, Richardson and van Dijk, ...

  6. Getting out and about in older adults: the nature of daily trips and their association with objectively assessed physical activity

    OpenAIRE

    Sharp Debbie J; Coulson Jo C; Hillsdon Melvyn; Fox Kenneth R; Davis Mark G; Stathi Afroditi; Thompson Janice L

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background A key public health objective is increasing health-enhancing physical activity (PA) for older adults (OAs). Daily trip frequency is independently associated with objectively assessed PA volumes (OAs). Little is known about correlates and these trips' transport mode, and how these elements relate to PA. Purpose: to describe the frequency, purpose, and travel mode of daily trips in OAs, and their association with participant characteristics and objectively-assessed PA. Metho...

  7. Personal and trip characteristics associated with safety equipment use by injured adult bicyclists: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teschke Kay

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to estimate use of helmets, lights, and visible clothing among cyclists and to examine trip and personal characteristics associated with their use. Methods Using data from a study of transportation infrastructure and injuries to 690 adult cyclists in Toronto and Vancouver, Canada, we examined the proportion who used bike lights, conspicuous clothing on the torso, and helmets on their injury trip. Multiple logistic regression was used to examine associations between personal and trip characteristics and each type of safety equipment. Results Bike lights were the least frequently used (20% of all trips although they were used on 77% of trips at night. Conspicuous clothing (white, yellow, orange, red was worn on 33% of trips. Helmets were used on 69% of trips, 76% in Vancouver where adult helmet use is required by law and 59% in Toronto where it is not. Factors positively associated with bike light use included night, dawn and dusk trips, poor weather conditions, weekday trips, male sex, and helmet use. Factors positively associated with conspicuous clothing use included good weather conditions, older age, and more frequent cycling. Factors positively associated with helmet use included bike light use, longer trip distances, hybrid bike type, not using alcohol in the 6 hours prior to the trip, female sex, older age, higher income, and higher education. Conclusions In two of Canada’s largest cities, helmets were the most widely used safety equipment. Measures to increase use of visibility aids on both daytime and night-time cycling trips may help prevent crashes.

  8. Design and Optimization of an Austenitic TRIP Steel for Blast and Fragment Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Zechariah Daniel

    In light of the pervasive nature of terrorist attacks, there is a pressing need for the design and optimization of next generation materials for blast and fragment protection applications. Sadhukhan used computational tools and a systems-based approach to design TRIP-120---a fully austenitic transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) steel. Current work more completely evaluates the mechanical properties of the prototype, optimizes the processing for high performance in tension and shear, and builds models for more predictive power of the mechanical behavior and austenite stability. Under quasi-static and dynamic tension and shear, the design exhibits high strength and high uniform ductility as a result of a strain hardening effect that arises with martensitic transformation. Significantly more martensitic transformation occurred under quasi-static loading conditions (69% in tension and 52% in shear) compared to dynamic loading conditions (13% tension and 5% in shear). Nonetheless, significant transformation occurs at high-strain rates which increases strain hardening, delays the onset of necking instability, and increases total energy absorption under adiabatic conditions. Although TRIP-120 effectively utilizes a TRIP effect to delay necking instability, a common trend of abrupt failure with limited fracture ductility was observed in tension and shear at all strain rates. Further characterization of the structure of TRIP-120 showed that an undesired grain boundary cellular reaction (η phase formation) consumed the fine dispersion of the metastable gamma' phase and limited the fracture ductility. A warm working procedure was added to the processing of TRIP-120 in order to eliminate the grain boundary cellular reaction from the structure. By eliminating η formation at the grain boundaries, warm-worked TRIP-120 exhibits a drastic improvement in the mechanical properties in tension and shear. In quasi-static tension, the optimized warm-worked TRIP-120 with an Mssigma

  9. Agriculture, Rio Sao Francisco, Brazil, South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    The large field patterns in this view of the Rio Sao Francisco basin, Brazil, South America, (11.5S, 43.5W) indicate a commercial agriculture venture; family subsistence farms are much smaller and laid out in different patterns. Land clearing in Brazil has increased at an alarming rate in recent years and preliminary estimates suggest a 25 to 30% increase in deforestation since 1984. The long term impact on the ecological processes are still unknown.

  10. Leveling the Field Is Not Enough: Promoting Culturally Responsive Pedagogy in Teach for America through the Evaluation of Intercultural Competence, Colorblindness, White Racial Identity Attitudes, and the Belief That Culture Matters in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Amber K.

    2012-01-01

    This research study examined constructs and beliefs essential to culturally responsive teachers for the purpose of understanding corps members' needs and promoting culturally responsive pedagogy (CRP) in the Colorado region of Teach for America (TFA). This study employed a transformative, sequential mixed methods design with a theoretical…

  11. Report on safety related occurrences and reactor trips July 1, 1979 - December 31, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a report on all reported safety related occurrences and reactor trips in Swedish nuclear power plants in operation during July 1 to December 31, 1979 inclusive. The facilities involved are Barsebaeck 1 and 2, Oskarshamn 1 and 2 and Ringhals 1 and 2. During this period of 6 months 76 safety related occurrences and 27 reactor trips have been reported to the Nuclear Power Inspectorate. It is to the greatest extent conventional components such as valves and pumps which bring about the safety related occurrences or occurrences leading to outages or power reductions. However, the component errors discovered in the safety related systems have not affected the function of their redundant system and other diverse systems have not been involved. Therefore the reactor safety has been satisfactory. The total number of reactor trips are normal. The average value for these 6 months is 4.5 trips/unit. Approximetely one half of the reactor trips happened at zero or very low power operation. The fact that even small deviations from prescribed operation result in an automatic and safe shut down of the reactor, does not always imply a conflict with operational availability. The greatest outages are caused by occurrences without safety significance. (author)

  12. Active dorsiflexing prostheses may reduce trip-related fall risk in people with transtibial amputation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noah J. Rosenblatt, PhD

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available People with amputation are at increased risk of falling compared with age-matched, nondisabled individuals. This may partly reflect amputation-related changes to minimum toe clearance (MTC that could increase the incidence of trips and fall risk. This study determined the contribution of an active dorsiflexing prosthesis to MTC. We hypothesized that regardless of speed or incline the active dorsiflexion qualities of the ProprioFoot would significantly increase MTC and decrease the likelihood of tripping. Eight people with transtibial amputation walked on a treadmill with their current foot at two grades and three velocities, then repeated the protocol after 4 wk of accommodation with the ProprioFoot. A mixed-model, repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to compare MTC. Curves representing the likelihood of tripping were derived from the MTC distributions and a multiple regression was used to determine the relative contributions of hip, knee, and ankle angles to MTC. Regardless of condition, MTC was approximately 70% larger with the ProprioFoot (p < 0.001 and the likelihood of tripping was reduced. Regression analysis revealed that MTC with the ProprioFoot was sensitive to all three angles, with sensitivity of hip and ankle being greater. Overall, the ProprioFoot may increase user safety by decreasing the likelihood of tripping and thus the pursuant likelihood of a fall.

  13. Improving Confidence in Competencies for International Medical Trips Using a Curriculum with Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birckhead, Brandon J; Mullikin, Trey C; Zubair, Adeel S; Alniemi, Dema; Franz, Walter B; Bachman, John W

    2015-01-01

    Many incoming medical and undergraduate students seek out international medical mission trips to supplement their education and training. However, few have the necessary skills to perform simple clinical tasks such as taking vital signs or conducting an initial patient interview. We conducted a small pilot study to assess the impact of simulation exercises on teaching incoming first-year medical students and undergraduate students basic clinical skills and teamwork. Our study population consisted of nine incoming medical students and 11 undergraduate students who participated in a training session involving simulated tasks prior to taking a medical mission trip to Nicaragua. Participants completed a survey before and after the simulation and at the end of the trip. All 20 indicated the simulation was effective in teaching clinical and team-building skills. In addition, the simulation exercise improved participants' confidence in their ability to perform certain clinical tasks and work as a team prior to the mission trip. We concluded that simulation is effective for incoming medical and undergraduate students and can be used prior to global health trips to increase their confidence in performing tasks required for a successful experience. PMID:26720942

  14. Effects of RCP trip when recovering HPSI during LOCA in a Westinghouse PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montero-Mayorga, Javier, E-mail: fj.montero@alumnos.upm.es; Queral, César; Rivas-Lewicky, Julio; González-Cadelo, Juan

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • If HPSI is recovered during SBLOCA and RCPs are tripped core damage can be reached. • If the RCPs are tripped once the accumulators have injected the damage can be avoided. • If only 2 out of 3 RCPs are tripped the damage can be also avoided. • Improvements are proposed to the EOPs in order to avoid possible damage. - Abstract: Current Westinghouse Emergency Operating Procedures (EOPs) indicate initially that the operator must keep the reactor coolant pumps (RCPs) running during a Small Break Loss of Coolant Accident (SBLOCA) if there is unavailability of high pressure safety injection (HPSI) system in order to cool the core by forced convection. However, the crew must follow different EOPs along the transient depending on its evolution. In these EOPs there are several conditions which indicate the necessity of tripping one or more RCPs when HPSI is recovered. In this paper the occurrence of a SBLOCA with unavailability of HPSI has been analyzed with a model of Almaraz Nuclear Power Plant (Westinghouse 3 Loop) for TRACE code V5.0 patch 1. Two different approaches have been considered: the first one, taking into account Optimal Recovery Guidelines (ORGs) and in the second approach, the transition to Function Restoration Guidelines (FRGs) due to inadequate core cooling (ICC) conditions is considered. Results of this paper lead to the implementation of an improvement in current EOPs regarding how many RCPs should be tripped during SBLOCA sequences.

  15. TRIPS, the Doha Declaration and increasing access to medicines: policy options for Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torpey K

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There are acute disparities in pharmaceutical access between developing and industrialized countries. Developing countries make up approximately 80% of the world's population but only represent approximately 20% of global pharmaceutical consumption. Among the many barriers to drug access are the potential consequences of the Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS Agreement. Many developing countries have recently modified their patent laws to conform to the TRIPS standards, given the 2005 deadline for developing countries. Safeguards to protect public health have been incorporated into the TRIPS Agreement; however, in practice governments may be reluctant to exercise such rights given concern about the international trade and political ramifications. The Doha Declaration and the recent Decision on the Implementation of Paragraph 6 of the Doha Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and Public Health may provide more freedom for developing countries in using these safeguards. This paper focuses on Ghana, a developing country that recently changed its patent laws to conform to TRIPS standards. We examine Ghana's patent law changes in the context of the Doha Declaration and assess their meaning for access to drugs of its population. We discuss new and existing barriers, as well as possible solutions, to provide policy-makers with lessons learned from the Ghanaian experience.

  16. Eliciting management action: Using THERP to highlight human factors deficiencies for trip reduction programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods and criteria for performing human factors evaluations of plant systems and procedures are well developed and available. For a design review to produce a positive impact on operations, however, it is not enough to simply document deficiences and solutions. The results must be presented to management in a clear and compelling form that will direct attention to the heart of a problem and present proposed solutions in terms of explicit, quantified cost/benefits. A proactive program of trip reduction provides an excellent opportunity to accomplish human factors-related upgrades. As an evaluative context, trip reduction imposes a uniform goodness criterion on all situations: the probability of inadvertent plant trip. This in turn means that findings can be compared in terms of a common quantitative reference point: the cost of an inadvertent shutdown. To interpret human factors deficiencies in terms of trip probabilities, the Technique for Human Error Rate Prediction (THERP) can be used. THERP provides an accessible compilation of human reliability data for generic, discrete task elements. Sequences of such values are combined in standard event trees to determine the probability of failure (e.g., trip) for a given evolution. THERP is widely accepted as one of the best available alternatives for assessing human reliability

  17. THE TRIPS AGREEMENT, INTERNATIONAL TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER AND DEVELOPMENT: SOME LESSONS FROM STRENGTHENING IPR PROTECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shugurov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the impact of the TRIPS Agreement provisions on further development of international technology transfer (ITT mainly to developing countries. The authors review the critical specificity of ITT connected with the adoption of TRIPS. Much attention is paid to an analysis of what is most discussed among international experts in the area of the issues on the dual results of stronger intellectual property rights (IPRs concerning various groups of developing countries. Their study also examines a number of problems with implementation of the TRIPS provisions, conducive to ITT, in the context of the TRIPS-plus era as a new stage in strengthening IPR protection. Bearing in mind the fragmentation of the international regime of IPR protection because of the adoption of numerous regional free trade agreements, the authors outline the possible position of advanced developing and least developed countries with respect to using TRIPS potentials for development of ITT under reasonable and just terms, with the aim of overall prosperity.

  18. Measuring the relationship between sportfishing trip expenditures and anglers’ species preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, James M.; Melstrom, Richard T.

    2016-01-01

    We examined the relationship between fishing trip expenditures and anglers’ species preferences from a survey of Oklahoma resident anglers conducted in 2014. Understanding patterns in fishing trip expenditures is important because a significant share of state wildlife agency revenue comes from taxes on purchases of fishing equipment. Presently, there is little research that addresses the question of how spending levels vary within groups of sportspersons, including anglers. We used regression analysis to identify a relationship between trip spending and several preference variables, and included controls for other characteristics of fishing trips, such as location, party size, and duration. We received 780 surveys for a response rate of 26%, but only 506 were useable due to missing data or nonfishing responses. Average trip expenditures were approximately US$140, regardless of species preferences, but anglers who preferred to fish for trout and black bass tended to spend more than those who preferred to fish for catfish and panfish. These results were even more pronounced when location was considered, those who last fished at lakes spending more than those who fished at rivers or ponds. The results underscore the differences in spending among anglers with different preferred species and fishing locations.

  19. TRIP: a novel double stranded RNA binding protein which interacts with the leucine rich repeat of flightless I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, S A; Brown, E C; Kingsman, A J; Kingsman, S M

    1998-08-01

    A northwestern screen of a CHO-K1 cell line cDNA library with radiolabelled HIV-1 TAR RNA identified a novel TAR RNA interacting protein, TRIP. The human trip cDNA was also cloned and its expression is induced by phorbol esters. The N-terminus of TRIP shows high homology to the coiled coil domain of FLAP, a protein which binds the leucine-rich repeat (LRR) of Flightless I (FLI) and the interaction of TRIP with the FLI LRR has been confirmed in vitro . TRIP does not bind single stranded DNA or RNA significantly and binds double stranded DNA weakly. In contrast, TRIP binds double stranded RNA with high affinity and two molecules of TRIP bind the TAR stem. The RNA binding domain has been identified and encompasses a lysine-rich motif. A TRIP-GFP fusion is localised in the cytoplasm and excluded from the nucleus. FLI has a C-terminal gelsolin-like domain which binds actin and therefore the association of TRIP with the FLI LRR may provide a link between the actin cytoskeleton and RNA in mammalian cells. PMID:9671805

  20. Traveling to reach destination, or for the sake of it: a typology of trips after French national travel survey data

    OpenAIRE

    PAPON, Francis

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the primary utility of travel (PUT) after data from the French National Travel Survey (FNTS) 2007-2008, to know how 'primary' actual trips are, or more exactly to what extent they yield each of three types of utility : utility of reaching a destination, utility of activities performed during the trip, and utility of the trip itself. For that, a twelve-fold typology of trips is created (PUT type). The paper provides one dimension statistics of all PUT...

  1. Getting out and about in older adults: the nature of daily trips and their association with objectively assessed physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharp Debbie J

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A key public health objective is increasing health-enhancing physical activity (PA for older adults (OAs. Daily trip frequency is independently associated with objectively assessed PA volumes (OAs. Little is known about correlates and these trips' transport mode, and how these elements relate to PA. Purpose: to describe the frequency, purpose, and travel mode of daily trips in OAs, and their association with participant characteristics and objectively-assessed PA. Methods Participants (n = 214, aged 78.1 SD 5.7 years, completed a seven-day trips log recording daily-trip frequency, purpose and transport mode. Concurrently participants wore an accelerometer which provided mean daily steps (steps·d-1, and minutes of moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA·d-1. Participants' physical function (PF was estimated and demographic, height and weight data obtained. Results Trip frequency was associated with gender, age, physical function, walking-aid use, educational attainment, number of amenities within walking distance and cars in the household. Participants reported 9.6 (SD 4.2 trips per week (trips·wk-1. Most trips (61% were by car (driver 44%, passenger 17%, 30% walking or cycling (active and 9% public transport/other. Driving trips·wk-1 were more common in participants who were males (5.3 SD 3.6, well-educated (5.0 SD 4.3, high functioning (5.1 SD 4.6, younger (5.6 SD 4.9, affluent area residents (5.1 SD 4.2 and accessing > one car (7.2 SD 4.7. Active trips·wk-1 were more frequent in participants who were males (3.4 SD 3.6, normal weight (3.2 SD 3.4, not requiring walking aids (3.5 SD 3.3, well-educated (3.7 SD 0.7, from less deprived neighbourhoods (3.9 SD 3.9 and with ≥ 8 amenities nearby (4.4 SD 3.8. Public transport, and active trip frequency, were significantly associated with steps·d-1 (p -1 (p Conclusions Daily trips are associated with objectively-measured PA as indicated by daily MVPA and steps. Public transport and

  2. The Mediterranean fruit fly in Central America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various methods of controlling the medfly are available and include the use of insecticides, bait sprays and the sterile insect technique (SIT). Each of these control strategies may be used alone or in sequence. With regard to the application of the SIT, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture through its Insect and Pest Control Section and Entomology Laboratory is in an excellent position to assist in containing the medfly in Central America. For the past 12 years, the laboratory has participated in all phases of medfly control by sterile insect releases in various climates. This involvement has included planning of medfly campaigns, development of pre-release techniques (bait spraying, trapping, etc.) and shipment and release of sterilized medflies. Small-scale field tests utilizing the SIT have been carried out by nine countries: Italy (Procida, Capri), Spain, Cyprus, Israel, Tunisia, Peru, Panama, Costa Rica and Nicaragua. Other field projects presently being counselled and serviced are located in Argentina, Venezuela and the Canary Islands. The research and development that are still needed to effectively stabilize and gain control of the medfly situation in Central America include: The development and use of effective quarantine procedures in various countries; Development of effective conventional medfly control procedures under the conditions found in Central America; Development of methods to determine the geographic origin of medflies introduced into new areas; Medfly mass production (viz. all aspects of rearing Central American strains); Assessing the performance (competitiveness, etc.) of various strains; Logistics, including the development of systems for releasing pre-adult stages; Genetic rearing methods: developmental research in this area is particularly promising since the preferential production of males would allow considerable savings in the rearing costs of medflies for release; Development of adequate surveillance

  3. Chinese Studies Librarianship in North America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Karen T. Wei

    2004-01-01

    Although American libraries had begun collecting Chinese language materials in the 19th century, notably the United States Library of Congress in 1869, Yale in 1878, Harvard in 1879, and Berkeley in 1896, East Asian studies librarianship in North America, including China studies librarianship, was not fully developed until the 1960s. There was no formal organization that represented the interest of Chinese studies librarians because there were few of them and most of them were China scholars rather than trained librarians. More than 100 years later, the number of Chinese studies librarians in North America has increased considerably,primarily in response to the demand in the field of China studies and more recently to the needs of immigrant population and the general public who has an interest in China.This paper traces the history and growth of Chinese studies librarianship in North America, documents the development of the professional organization that represents Chinese studies librarians, and examines the training programs that prepare them for their jobs. It also attempts to propose an international exchange forum aiming to bring together Chinese studies librarians in North America and librarians in China in sharing their experience and expertise to achieve the ultimate goal of serving the users.

  4. Astroparticles in Latin America: current status and outlook

    OpenAIRE

    Sidelnik, Iván

    2014-01-01

    The successful installation and operation of the Pierre Auger Observatory in Argentina has been a milestone in Astroparticle research in Latin America, generating new regional research opportunities in the field. In this context, the LAGO project, begun in 2005 with the aim of studying the high-energy component of gamma ray bursts (GRBs). This observatory consists of different arrays of water-Cherenkov detectors installed in high altitude mountains throughout Latin America. Recently, it has d...

  5. Effect of Controlled Cooling After Hot Rolling on Mechanical Properties of Hot Rolled TRIP Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Di; LI Zhuang; L(U) Hui-sheng

    2008-01-01

    A three-step cooling pattern on the runout table (ROT) was conducted for the hot rolled TRIP steel. Microstructural evolution during thermomechanical controlled processing (TMCP) was investigated. Proeessing condition of controlled cooling on a ROT in the laboratory rolling mill was discussed. The results indicated that the microstructure containing polygonal ferrite, granular bainite and a significant amount of the stable retained austenite can be obtained through three-step cooling on the ROT after hot rolling. TMCP led to ferrite grain refinement. Controlled cooling after hot rolling resulted in the stability of the remaining austenite and a satisfactory TRIP effect. Excellent mechanical properties were obtained through TMCP for the hot rolled TRIP steel.

  6. Determining the Characteristics of Trips Generated on Southern Bali using Category Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Suweda

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Southern Bali, a tourism center of Indonesia, has been rapidly developed. Unfortunately, the development is not followed simultaneously by the development of adequate transportation network, as a result, traffic congestion are inevitably occurred along every urban road in the district. Therefore integrated development and regional transport planning therefore, is urgently required. In this study, trip generation is determined using Category Analysis. It is Figured out from the household based interview that Denpasar Barat zones are found to have the largest trip generation while Pecatu zones are found to be the smallest. Most of the household trips generated use private vehicles (94.95% and the rest uses public transport. This also indicates that public transport services in Southern Bali still need to be developed.

  7. Method and apparatus for optimizing a train trip using signal information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Ajith Kuttannair; Daum, Wolfgang; Otsubo, Tom; Hershey, John Erik; Hess, Gerald James

    2014-06-10

    A system is provided for operating a railway network including a first railway vehicle during a trip along track segments. The system includes a first element for determining travel parameters of the first railway vehicle, a second element for determining travel parameters of a second railway vehicle relative to the track segments to be traversed by the first vehicle during the trip, a processor for receiving information from the first and the second elements and for determining a relationship between occupation of a track segment by the second vehicle and later occupation of the same track segment by the first vehicle and an algorithm embodied within the processor having access to the information to create a trip plan that determines a speed trajectory for the first vehicle. The speed trajectory is responsive to the relationship and further in accordance with one or more operational criteria for the first vehicle.

  8. TripNet: A Method for Constructing Phylogenetic Networks from Triplets

    CERN Document Server

    Tusserkani, Ruzbeh; Poormohammadi, Hadi; Azadi, Azin

    2011-01-01

    We present TripNet, a method for constructing phylogenetic networks from triplets. We will present the motivations behind our approach and its theoretical and empirical justification. To demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of TripNet, we performed two simulations and also applied the method to five published data sets: Kreitman's data, a set of triplets from real yeast data obtained from the Fungal Biodiversity Center in Utrecht, a collection of 110 highly recombinant Salmonella multi-locus sequence typing sequences, and nrDNA ITS and cpDNA JSA sequence data of New Zealand alpine buttercups of Ranunculus sect. Pseudadonis. Finally, we compare our results with those already obtained by other authors using alternative methods. TripNet, data sets, and supplementary files are freely available for download at (www.bioinf.cs.ipm.ir/softwares/tripnet).

  9. Influence of DC Supply Systems on Unplanned Reactor Trips in Nuclear Power Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李君利; 童节娟; 茆定远

    2001-01-01

    Operational experience has shown that some components in nuclearpower plants are so important that their failures, which would be a single failure, may cause the entire plant to shutdown. Such shutdowns have often occurred in the past in commercial nuclear power plants. Nuclear power plant authorities try to avoid such unplanned plant shutdowns because of the large economic loss. Unfortunately, it is difficult to identify all the important components from the numerous components in each complex nuclear power plant system. FMEA and FTA methods, which are often applied to probabilistic risk assessments, are used in this paper to identify the key components that may cause unplanned reactor trips. As an example, the 48 V DC power supply system in a typical Chinese nuclear power plant, which is a major cause of many unplanned reactor trips, was analyzed to show how to identify these key components and the causes for nuclear power plant trips.

  10. Round-Trip System Available to Measure Path Length Variation in Korea VLBI System for Geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hongjong; Kondo, Tetsuro; Lee, Jinoo; Kim, Tuhwan; Kim, Myungho; Kim, Suchul; Park, Jinsik; Ju, Hyunhee

    2010-01-01

    The construction project of Korea Geodetic VLBI officially started in October 2008. The construction of all systems will be completed by the end of 2011. The project was named Korea VLBI system for Geodesy (KVG), and its main purpose is to maintain the Korea Geodetic Datum. In case of the KVG system, an observation room with an H-maser frequency standard is located in a building separated from the antenna by several tens of meters. Therefore KVG system will adopt a so-called round-trip system to transmit reference signals to the antenna with reduction of the effect of path length variations. KVG s round-trip system is designed not only to use either metal or optical fiber cables, but also to measure path length variations directly. We present this unique round trip system for KVG.

  11. Revealing daily travel patterns and city structure with taxi trip data

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Xi; Gong, Yongxi; Liu, Yu

    2013-01-01

    Detecting regional spatial structures based on spatial interactions is crucial in applications ranging from urban planning to traffic control. In the big data era, various movement trajectories are available for studying spatial structures. This research uses large scale Shanghai taxi trip data extracted from GPS-enabled taxi trajectories to reveal traffic flow patterns and urban structure of the city. Using the network science methods, 15 temporally stable regions reflecting the scope of people's daily travels are found using community detection method on the network built from short trips, which represent residents' daily intra-urban travels and exhibit a clear pattern. In each region, taxi traffic flows are dominated by a few 'hubs' and 'hubs' in suburbs impact more trips than 'hubs' in urban areas. Land use conditions in urban regions are different from those in suburban areas. Additionally, 'hubs' in urban area associate with office buildings and commercial areas more, whereas residential land use is mor...

  12. Furuncular myiasis of the foot caused by the tumbu fly, Cordylobia anthropophaga: report in a medical student returning from a medical mission trip to Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palmieri JR

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available James R Palmieri,1 Dwayne North,1 Arben Santo2 1Department of Microbiology, Infectious and Emerging Diseases-Edward Via College of Osteopathic Medicine–Virginia Campus, Blacksburg, Virginia, USA; 2Department of Pathology-Edward Via College of Osteopathic Medicine–Virginia Campus, Blacksburg, Virginia, USA Abstract: Cutaneous myiasis in humans is a temporary parasitic infestation of the skin by fly larvae or maggots of a variety of Dipteran families. In the United States, autochthonous cases of myiasis are infrequently seen. Most cases of cutaneous myiasis are acquired when traveling to tropical areas of Africa, Central America or South America. This case report involves a 26-year-old male medical student who visited Tanzania on a medical mission trip. Three weeks following his return to the United States he developed a furuncular lesion on the side of the fifth digit on his right foot, which contained the larva of the tumbu fly, Cordylobia anthropophaga. Keywords: Cordylobia anthropophaga, furuncular myiasis, phenylacetaldehyde, phenylacetic acid, Tanzania, tumbu fly

  13. Fluorescence Visualization of Hypersonic Flow Past Triangular and Rectangular Boundary-layer Trips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danehy, Paul M.; Garcia, A. P.; Borg, Stephen E.; Dyakonov, Artem A.; Berry, Scott A.; Inman, Jennifer A.; Alderfer, David W.

    2007-01-01

    Planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) flow visualization has been used to investigate the hypersonic flow of air over surface protrusions that are sized to force laminar-to-turbulent boundary layer transition. These trips were selected to simulate protruding Space Shuttle Orbiter heat shield gap-filler material. Experiments were performed in the NASA Langley Research Center 31-Inch Mach 10 Air Wind Tunnel, which is an electrically-heated, blowdown facility. Two-mm high by 8-mm wide triangular and rectangular trips were attached to a flat plate and were oriented at an angle of 45 degrees with respect to the oncoming flow. Upstream of these trips, nitric oxide (NO) was seeded into the boundary layer. PLIF visualization of this NO allowed observation of both laminar and turbulent boundary layer flow downstream of the trips for varying flow conditions as the flat plate angle of attack was varied. By varying the angle of attack, the Mach number above the boundary layer was varied between 4.2 and 9.8, according to analytical oblique-shock calculations. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations of the flowfield with a laminar boundary layer were also performed to better understand the flow environment. The PLIF images of the tripped boundary layer flow were compared to a case with no trip for which the flow remained laminar over the entire angle-of-attack range studied. Qualitative agreement is found between the present observed transition measurements and a previous experimental roughness-induced transition database determined by other means, which is used by the shuttle return-to-flight program.

  14. Surface Selective Oxidation of Sn-Added CMnSi TRIP Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Lawrence; Seo, Eun Jung; Jung, Geun Su; Suh, Dong Woo; De Cooman, Bruno C.

    2016-04-01

    The influence of the addition of Sn on the selective oxidation and the reactive wetting of CMnSi transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) steels was studied by means of galvanizing simulator tests. A reference TRIP steel and TRIP steels containing Sn in the range of 0.05 to 1 wt pct were intercritically annealed at 1093 K (820 °C) in an N2+ 5 pct H2 gas atmosphere with a dew point of -60 °C. The thin-film oxides formed on the surface of the Sn-added CMnSi TRIP steel were investigated using transmission electron microscopy and 3-dimensional atom probe tomography. The addition of Sn (≥0.05 wt pct) changed the morphology of the xMnO·SiO2 surface oxides from a continuous film morphology to a lens-shaped island morphology. It also suppressed the formation of the Mn-rich oxides of MnO and 2MnO·SiO2. The changes in the morphology and chemistry of the surface oxides were clearly related to the surface segregation of Sn, which appeared to result in a decrease of the oxygen permeability at the surface. The formation of lens-shaped oxides improved the wettability of the CMnSi TRIP steel surface by the molten Zn. The improved wetting effect was attributed to an increased area fraction of the surface where the oxide layer was thinner. This enabled a direct, unhindered reaction between Fe and the Al in the liquid Zn and the formation of the inhibition layer in the initial stages of the hot dipping. The addition of a small amount of Sn was also found to decrease significantly the density of Zn-coating defects on CMnSi TRIP steel.

  15. A neural networks based ``trip`` analysis system for PWR-type reactors; Um sistema de analise de ``trip`` em reatores PWR usando redes neuronais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Antonio Carlos Pinto Dias

    1993-12-31

    The analysis short after automatic shutdown (trip) of a PWR-type nuclear reactor takes a considerable amount of time, not only because of the great number of variables involved in transients, but also the various equipment that compose a reactor of this kind. On the other hand, the transients`inter-relationship, intended to the detection of the type of the accident is an arduous task, since some of these accidents (like loss of FEEDWATER and station BLACKOUT, for example), generate transients similar in behavior (as cold leg temperature and steam generators mixture levels, for example). Also, the sequence-of-events analysis is not always sufficient for correctly pin point the causes of the trip. (author) 11 refs., 39 figs.

  16. TRIP-Br2 promotes oncogenesis in nude mice and is frequently overexpressed in multiple human tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peh Bee

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Members of the TRIP-Br/SERTAD family of mammalian transcriptional coregulators have recently been implicated in E2F-mediated cell cycle progression and tumorigenesis. We, herein, focus on the detailed functional characterization of the least understood member of the TRIP-Br/SERTAD protein family, TRIP-Br2 (SERTAD2. Methods Oncogenic potential of TRIP-Br2 was demonstrated by (1 inoculation of NIH3T3 fibroblasts, which were engineered to stably overexpress ectopic TRIP-Br2, into athymic nude mice for tumor induction and (2 comprehensive immunohistochemical high-throughput screening of TRIP-Br2 protein expression in multiple human tumor cell lines and human tumor tissue microarrays (TMAs. Clinicopathologic analysis was conducted to assess the potential of TRIP-Br2 as a novel prognostic marker of human cancer. RNA interference of TRIP-Br2 expression in HCT-116 colorectal carcinoma cells was performed to determine the potential of TRIP-Br2 as a novel chemotherapeutic drug target. Results Overexpression of TRIP-Br2 is sufficient to transform murine fibroblasts and promotes tumorigenesis in nude mice. The transformed phenotype is characterized by deregulation of the E2F/DP-transcriptional pathway through upregulation of the key E2F-responsive genes CYCLIN E, CYCLIN A2, CDC6 and DHFR. TRIP-Br2 is frequently overexpressed in both cancer cell lines and multiple human tumors. Clinicopathologic correlation indicates that overexpression of TRIP-Br2 in hepatocellular carcinoma is associated with a worse clinical outcome by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Small interfering RNA-mediated (siRNA knockdown of TRIP-Br2 was sufficient to inhibit cell-autonomous growth of HCT-116 cells in vitro. Conclusion This study identifies TRIP-Br2 as a bona-fide protooncogene and supports the potential for TRIP-Br2 as a novel prognostic marker and a chemotherapeutic drug target in human cancer.

  17. Fire and Water Make Steam - Redefining the Role of Competition Law in TRIPS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen

    that the weakness of the competition rules in TRIPS may be counterproductive towards the broader goals of IPR protection. From a development point of view it is pointed out that an effective and well function market is necessary in order for developing countries to reap any benefits arising out of IPR protection....... To innovation it is submitted that IPR protection e.g. of interfaces or in markets characterised by network effects may involve risks of monopolisation which require access to effective rules of competition law. The paper finally recommends concrete changes to TRIPS in the form of mandatory rules which prevent...

  18. Review and evaluation of models that produce trip tables from ground counts

    OpenAIRE

    Sivanandan, R.; Narayanan, Arvind; Lei, Peng

    1996-01-01

    This research effort was motivated by the desires of planning agencies to seek alternative methods of deriving current or base year Origin-Destination (O-D) trip tables without adopting conventional O-D surveys that are expensive, time consuming and labor intensive. This study had two objectives: (t) to conduct a review of existing approaches and models that produce trip tables from ground counts, and to select a few models for testing and evaluation, and (2) to perform a detailed testing of ...

  19. Development of a Hiking Trip for a Company Called Finlandia Natur

    OpenAIRE

    Marti Cardenas, Judit

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to create a nature-based hiking tourism product for Finlandia Natur, the commissioner, which aims to expand their product range and thus attract new customers by developing a hiking trip program for its nature-based products. The research tasks of this thesis were the following: How was the program for a nature-based hiking trip developed, and why had the product to be tested? The first section of this thesis defines nature-based tourism and its different forms,...

  20. Research on Retained Austenite for Advanced Aluminum-containing Hot-rolled TRIP Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guoyi TANG; Fangyu CHEN; Pinghe LI; Sunbing ZHOU

    2005-01-01

    A new type of hot-rolled transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) steel with 2.3%Al was developed to replace conventional Si-bearing TRIP steel to improve surface quality of the steel sheet. The relationship between retained austenite volume fraction and hot-rolling processing was researched by Gleeble-2000 thermo-dynamic test for the Al-bearing steel. The experimental result showed that aluminum played an important role on retaining austenite and the volume fraction increased from 4.4% to 7.5% as coiling temperature increased from 350℃ to 450℃, while coiling temperature had a stronger effect on retaining austenite than finishing rolling temperature.

  1. EFFECTS OF CARBON CONTENT AND ROLLING PROCESSING ON RETAINED AUSTENITE FOR HOT-ROLLED TRIP STEELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y. Chen; X. Chen; Z.X. Yuan; B.F. Xu; A.M. Guo; P.H. Li; S.K. Pu

    2002-01-01

    The effects of finishing rolling temperature and coiling temperature on retained austen-ire were studied for hot-rolled transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) steels withdifferent carbon content. The experimental results showed that an appropriate volumefraction of retained austenite from 6% to 11% could be obtained according to the dif-ferent carbon content less than 0.20% by controlled finishing rolling and coiling forthe hot-rolled TRIP steels. It can be concluded that carbon content has a significanteffect on the fraction of retained austenite and coiling processing plays stronger roleon retaining austenite than fishing rolling processing.

  2. Effect of Silicon and Manganese on Mechanical Properties of Low-Carbon Plain TRIP Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhuang; WU Di; HU Rong

    2005-01-01

    A great deal of stabilized retained austenite can be obtained by means of austempering immediately after intercritical annealing in the low-carbon plain steel sheets which only contain alloying elements of silicon and manganese. Transformation from retained austenite to martensite may be induced by strain at a temperature ranging from 50 ℃ to 400 ℃ during tension testing. Transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) may occur. Alloying of silicon improves the stability of retained austenite. Mechanical properties of the present TRIP steels containing manganese increase with increasing silicon amount when the amount of silicon is less than two percent.

  3. Value creation through online travel reviews on TripAdvisor: case of hotels in Helsinki

    OpenAIRE

    Sjöblom, Sini

    2013-01-01

    The use of online travel reviews as a part of consumers' tourism planning processes is a growing phenomenon. Consumers' especially use other travelers' reviews while choosing accommodation for their trip. TripAdvisor is one of the largest tourism related websites on Internet and it contains reviews of hotels around the world. In this thesis the ways in which the hotels in Helsinki are using these reviews in their value creation processes, if they are used at all, are analyzed. Also based on t...

  4. Co-ordinated emergency control of generator-tripping and SMES based on Hamiltonian system theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiangnan Peng [China Power Investment Corp., Beijing (China); Yuanzhang Sun [Tsinghua Univ., Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Beijing (China); Wang, H.F. [Bath Univ., Dept. of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Bath (United Kingdom)

    2005-07-01

    This paper presents a novel scheme for the co-ordinated emergency control of generator-tripping control and Super-conducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES). The mathematical foundation of the scheme is based on the proposal of a new Lyapunov function of power systems transient stability analysis derived according to the Hamiltonian systems theory, which is used to quantitatively estimate the necessary control capacity to maintain power system transient stability via the co-ordination of generator-tripping and SMES control in system contingency. Simulation results to test the scheme are presented in the paper. (Author)

  5. Diseño de redes neuronales con aprendizaje combinado de retropropagación y búsqueda aleatoria progresiva aplicado a la determinación de austenita retenida en aceros TRIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capdevila, C.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available At the beginning of the decade of the nineties, the industrial interest for TRIP steels leads to a significant increase of the investigation and application in this field. In this work, the flexibility of neural networks for the modelling of complex properties is used to tackle the problem of determining the retained austenite content in TRIP-steel. Applying a combination of two learning algorithms (backpropagation and creeping-random-search for the neural network, a model has been created that enables the prediction of retained austenite in low-Si / low-Al multiphase steels as a function of processing parameters.

    A partir de los años noventa, el interés que los aceros TRIP despiertan en la industria ha producido un incremento considerable de su estudio y aplicación. En este trabajo, aprovechando la flexibilidad que las redes neuronales proporcionan para la modelización de propiedades complejas, se ha abordado el problema de la determinación de la austenita retenida en los aceros TRIP. Una combinación de dos algoritmos de aprendizaje (retropropagación y búsqueda aleatoria progresiva de la red neuronal ha permitido crear un modelo que predice la cantidad de austenita retenida en aceros multifase con bajo contenido en aluminio y silicio en función de los parámetros de procesado.

  6. Timekeeping in the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, J. M.; Lombardi, M. A.

    2015-10-01

    Time and its measurement belong to the most fundamental core of physics, and many scientific and technological advances are directly or indirectly related to time measurements. Timekeeping is essential to everyday life, and thus is the most measured physical quantity in modern societies. Time can also be measured with less uncertainty and more resolution than any other physical quantity. The measurement of time is of the utmost importance for many applications, including: global navigation satellite systems, communications networks, electric power generation, astronomy, electronic commerce, and national defense and security. This paper discusses how time is kept, coordinated, and disseminated in the Americas.

  7. Chinese Food in America

    OpenAIRE

    Jou, Diana T.

    2011-01-01

    How did Chinese food get to look like this? With more than 41,000 Chinese restaurants in America - 3 times the number of McDonald’s restaurants - Chinese food is one of the most accepted and misunderstood cuisines in the United States. From large cities to small towns, locals can always count on an order of orange chicken in a takeout box, with a few fortune cookies thrown in the bag. But what Americans view as Chinese food is far from a traditional Chinese meal, wh...

  8. Eating in America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康海燕

    2007-01-01

    Americans are too busy to cook at home.They often eat outside.Eating culture is one of the important parts in America.There are many kinds of restaurants.Some are open for breakfast. Others are open twenty-four hours a day. A number of restaurants call themselves"family restaurants".They serve no alcohol~* and have fairly restricted~* menus.They serve steaks,hamburgers and sandwiches.Besides these,there are some special restaurants.They serve only or mainly steaks,seafood,etc.

  9. Mosques in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Khalidi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The following article derived from an exhibit catalogue put together by Public Affairs Germany in the U.S. Embassy in Berlin and the U.S. Consulates in Frankfurt and Düsseldorf and accompanied Dr. Omar Khalidi’s photo exhibit “Mosques in America.” There are over 2,000 mosques in the United States, mostly housed in buildings originally built for other purposes. American mosques built in the last few decades, however, in the period in which Islam has begun to feel at home in the United States, are almost universally architect-designed.

  10. Knight Capital Americas LLC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Austin, Robert D.; Meister, Darren

    2015-01-01

    $450 million dollars in less than an hour. Although it was ultimately saved from bankruptcy when it was acquired two days later, the terms of acquisition were very unfavourable to the company's shareholders. How did this happen? Could it have been prevented? What should the staff, the chief executive......It took 19 years to build Knight Capital Americas LLC into the largest market maker on the New York Stock Exchange, but on August 1, 2012, it took only 45 minutes for the firm to be wiped out by an information technology (IT) problem: a change in the company's software caused it to lose more than...

  11. Let's Go to America!

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

      The United States and China have signed an agreement to facilitate Chinese group leisure travel to the United States. This agreement provides the necessary framework to permit group leisure travel from China to the United States. U.S. companies can now enter into business relationships with Chinese travel agencies to organize and market travel packages for group leisure travel to the United States. It also attracts more and more Chinese to go to America, as more and more convenience and comforts are coming up during the travel.……

  12. Let's Go to America!

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The United States and China have signed an agreement to facilitate Chinese group leisure travel to the United States. This agreement provides the necessary framework to permit group leisure travel from China to the United States. U.S. companies can now enter into business relationships with Chinese travel agencies to organize and market travel packages for group leisure travel to the United States. It also attracts more and more Chinese to go to America, as more and more convenience and comforts are coming up during the travel.

  13. Field camp: Using traditional methods to train the next generation of petroleum geologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puckette, J.O.; Suneson, N.H.

    2009-01-01

    The summer field camp experience provides many students with their best opportunity to learn the scientific process by making observations and collecting, recording, evaluating, and interpreting geologic data. Field school projects enhance student professional development by requiring cooperation and interpersonal interaction, report writing to communicate interpretations, and the development of project management skills to achieve a common goal. The field school setting provides students with the opportunity to observe geologic features and their spatial distribution, size, and shape that will impact the student's future careers as geoscientists. The Les Huston Geology Field Camp (a.k.a. Oklahoma Geology Camp) near Ca??on City, Colorado, focuses on time-tested traditional methods of geological mapping and fieldwork to accomplish these goals. The curriculum consists of an introduction to field techniques (pacing, orienteering, measuring strike and dip, and using a Jacob's staff), sketching outcrops, section measuring (one illustrating facies changes), three mapping exercises (of increasing complexity), and a field geophysics project. Accurate rock and contact descriptions are emphasized, and attitudes and contacts are mapped in the field. Mapping is done on topographic maps at 1:12,000 and 1:6000 scales; air photos are provided. Global positioning system (GPS)-assisted mapping is allowed, but we insist that locations be recorded in the field and confirmed using visual observations. The course includes field trips to the Cripple Creek and Leadville mining districts, Floris-sant/Guffey volcano area, Pikes Peak batholith, and the Denver Basin. Each field trip is designed to emphasize aspects of geology that are not stressed in the field exercises. Students are strongly encouraged to accurately describe geologic features and gather evidence to support their interpretations of the geologic history. Concise reports are a part of each major exercise. Students are grouped

  14. From the One-Hour Field Trip to a Nature Preschool: Partnering with Environmental Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailie, Patti Ensel

    2010-01-01

    Nature education is an important part of early childhood education. As young children develop, the natural world offers concrete and authentic learning experiences. Activities focused on nature support learning in all developmental domains. Children develop physically through hiking in natural terrain, climbing hills and trees, balancing on logs,…

  15. Le Vieux Carre: A Field Trip to a New Orleans Parish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howat, Craig

    2007-01-01

    The popular reality television show "Amazing Race" involves participants searching for clues and completing tasks as they progress on a journey all over the world. Inspired by the show, the author incorporated some of the tasks from "Amazing Race" with geocaching, a game in which participants use a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver to seek…

  16. Situated learning in the mobile age: mobile devices on a field trip to the sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa D.I. Pfeiffer

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on learning about fish biodiversity via mobile devices in a situated learning scenario. Mobile devices do not only facilitate relating the presented information to the real world in a direct way; they also allow the provision of dynamic representations on demand. This study asks whether mobile devices are suited to support knowledge acquisition in a situated learning scenario and whether providing dynamic content is an additional benefit of mobile devices in combination with a real-world experience. The study was conducted during a regular university course at the Mediterranean Sea. Students had to acquire knowledge on 18 Mediterranean fish species by using either static (n = 16 or dynamic learning materials (n = 17. An initial classroom activity was followed by a real-world experience with mobile devices (snorkelling activity. Learning outcomes were measured before and after snorkelling. A 2×2 mixed ANOVA revealed that students performed better after than before the mobile learning experience, whereas no main effect for learning material could be found. However, an interaction between both factors indicated that the knowledge gain in the dynamic group exceeded the knowledge gain in the static group. These results indicate that mobile devices are helpful to unfold the potential of dynamic visualisations for learning biodiversity in a situated learning scenario.

  17. Developing a Second Life Virtual Field Trip for University Students: An Action Research Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Shane; Andrews, Lynda; Luck, Edwina

    2012-01-01

    Background: Integrating 3D virtual world technologies into educational subjects continues to draw the attention of educators and researchers alike. The focus of this study is the use of a virtual world, Second Life, in higher education teaching. In particular, it explores the potential of using a virtual world experience as a learning component…

  18. Situated learning in the mobile age: mobile devices on a field trip to the sea

    OpenAIRE

    Pfeiffer, Vanessa D.I.; Gemballa, Sven; Jarodzka, Halszka; Scheiter, Katharina; Gerjets, Peter

    2009-01-01

    This study focuses on learning about fish biodiversity via mobile devices in a situated learning scenario. Mobile devices do not only facilitate relating the presented information to the real world in a direct way; they also allow the provision of dynamic representations on demand. This study asks whether mobile devices are suited to support knowledge acquisition in a situated learning scenario and whether providing dynamic content is an additional benefit of mobile devices in combination wit...

  19. Sixth International Limnogeology Congress: field trip guidebook, Reno, Nevada, June 15-19, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Limnogeology is the study of modern lakes and lake deposits in the geologic record. Limnogeologists have been active since the 1800s, but interest in Limnogeology became prevalent in the early 1990s when it became clear that lake deposits contain continental environmental and climate records. A society that is focused on Limnogeology would allow greater communication and access to research on these important subjects and contribute to providing sound science used to understand rapid global changes in our modern world; thus the International Association of Limnogeology was founded in 1995 at the first International Limnogeology Congress (ILIC) held in Copenhagen, Denmark.

  20. Use of Mobile Technologies as Support Tools for Geography Field Trips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medzini, Arnon; Meishar-Tal, Hagit; Sneh, Yael

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, cellular phones and tablets have become increasingly more prevalent and popular. Due to their great mobility, light weight and ability to serve as a platform for various applications, these devices are ideal candidates for supporting out-of-classroom learning. Geography teachers in the twenty-first century must become familiar…

  1. Giant Otter Project In Peru: Field Trip And Activity Report - 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Groenendijk J.

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available An update on the project "Status, habitat, behaviour, and conservation of Giant Otters in Peru" of the Frankfurt Zoological Society - Help for Threatened Wildlife (FZS is provided.

  2. Situated Learning in the Mobile Age: Mobile Devices on a Field Trip to the Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Vanessa D. I.; Gemballa, Sven; Jarodzka, Halszka; Scheiter, Katharina; Gerjets, Peter

    2009-01-01

    This study focuses on learning about fish biodiversity via mobile devices in a situated learning scenario. Mobile devices do not only facilitate relating the presented information to the real world in a direct way; they also allow the provision of dynamic representations on demand. This study asks whether mobile devices are suited to support…

  3. Thyroid hormone receptor interacting protein 13 (TRIP13) AAA-ATPase is a novel mitotic checkpoint-silencing protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kexi; Sturt-Gillespie, Brianne; Hittle, James C; Macdonald, Dawn; Chan, Gordon K; Yen, Tim J; Liu, Song-Tao

    2014-08-22

    The mitotic checkpoint (or spindle assembly checkpoint) is a fail-safe mechanism to prevent chromosome missegregation by delaying anaphase onset in the presence of defective kinetochore-microtubule attachment. The target of the checkpoint is the E3 ubiquitin ligase anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome. Once all chromosomes are properly attached and bioriented at the metaphase plate, the checkpoint needs to be silenced. Previously, we and others have reported that TRIP13 AAA-ATPase binds to the mitotic checkpoint-silencing protein p31(comet). Here we show that endogenous TRIP13 localizes to kinetochores. TRIP13 knockdown delays metaphase-to-anaphase transition. The delay is caused by prolonged presence of the effector for the checkpoint, the mitotic checkpoint complex, and its association and inhibition of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome. These results suggest that TRIP13 is a novel mitotic checkpoint-silencing protein. The ATPase activity of TRIP13 is essential for its checkpoint function, and interference with TRIP13 abolished p31(comet)-mediated mitotic checkpoint silencing. TRIP13 overexpression is a hallmark of cancer cells showing chromosomal instability, particularly in certain breast cancers with poor prognosis. We suggest that premature mitotic checkpoint silencing triggered by TRIP13 overexpression may promote cancer development.

  4. Readings from Asia: Questioning America Again

    OpenAIRE

    Yerim Kim

    2013-01-01

    Chang Sei-jin. Sangsangdoen America: 1945 nyǒn 8wol ihu Hangukui neisǒn seosanǔn ǒtteoke mandǔleogǒtnǔnga 상상된 아메리카: 1945년 8월 이후 한국의 네이션 서사는 어떻게 만들어졌는가 [Imagined America: How national narratives of Korea have been constructed since August 1945]. Seoul: Purǔn Yeoksa, 2012.Research on U.S.–South Korean relations has continued steadily over the decades, especially in the fields of history and literature, resulting in many notable studies. However, the general tendency of this scholarship has been...

  5. Gravity and geoid model for South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blitzkow, Denizar; Oliveira Cancoro de Matos, Ana Cristina; do Nascimento Guimarães, Gabriel; Pacino, María Cristina; Andrés Lauría, Eduardo; Nunes, Marcelo; Castro Junior, Carlos Alberto Correia e.; Flores, Fredy; Orihuela Guevara, Nuris; Alvarez, Ruber; Napoleon Hernandez, José

    2016-04-01

    In the last 20 years, South America Gravity Studies (SAGS) project has undertaken an ongoing effort in establishing the fundamental gravity network (FGN); terrestrial, river and airborne relative gravity densifications; absolute gravity surveys and geoid (quasi-geoid) model computation for South America. The old FGN is being replaced progressively by new absolute measurements in different countries. In recent years, Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, Paraguay and Venezuela organizations participated with relative gravity surveys. Taking advantage of the large amount of data available, GEOID2015 model was developed for 15°N and 57°S latitude and 30 ° W and 95°W longitude based on EIGEN-6C4 until degree and order 200 as a reference field. The ocean area was completed with mean free air gravity anomalies derived from DTU10 model. The short wavelength component was estimated using FFT. The global gravity field models EIGEN-6C4, DIR_R5 were used for comparison with the new model. The new geoid model has been evaluated against 1,319 GPS/BM, in which 592 are located in Brazil and the reminder in other countries. The preliminary RMS difference between GPS/BM and GEOID2015 throughout South America and in Brazil is 46 cm and 17 cm, respectively. New activities are carrying out with the support of the IGC (Geographic and Cartographic Institute) under the coordination of EPUSP/LTG and CENEGEO (Centro de Estudos de Geodesia). The new project aims to establish new gravity points with the A-10 absolute gravimeter in South America. Recent such surveys occurred in São Paulo state, Argentina and Venezuela.

  6. Effect of Microstructure in TRIP Steel on Its Tensile Behavior at High Strain Rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The relationships between microstructure of 0.195C-1.6Si-1.58Mn TRIP steel and its dynamic mechanical properties at high strain rate were investigated. The effect of microstructures on dynamic properties was discussed and the comparison with its static mechanical properties was also presented. The specimens of TRIP steel via three heat treatment techniques exhibit different morphological structures, responsible for their dynamic mechanical performances. The dynamic tensile testing was performed on self-made pneumatic tensile impact tester. The results showed that the size, volume fraction, morphology and distribution of retained austenite all affect the final mechanical properties at high strain rate. Among them, the second phase (retained austenite+bainite) with net structure severely decreases the elongation of TRIP steel in spite of the fact that it enhances strength because it restrains ferrite deformation. In order to obtain the excellent combination of strength and elongation, rational matching of morphology, size and volume fraction of several phases in TRIP steel can be obtained via proper heat treatment techniques.

  7. The influence of drawing speed on properties of TRIP steel wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Suliga

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this paper is to determine the influence of drawing speed of TRIP steel wires on their properties.Design/methodology/approach: The heat treatment of steel containing 0.09 % carbon, 1.57 % manganese and 0.9 % silicon allows to obtain TRIP type structure. The wires were drawn with different drawing speed. After drawing mechanical properties of wires were determined by the tensile test. In this work also FEM modelling was done.Findings: The analysis of changes of mechanical properties after particular drawings stages was carried out. The increase of drawing speed cause the increase of strength properties and decreasing of plasticity properties of wires. It was shown that increase of drawing speed causes increase of: temperature, non-dilatation strain and internal stresses.Research limitations/implications: Continuation of the investigations with the use of scanning and transmission electron microscopy makes it possible to explain the changes properties of drawn wires by analyses of structure of drawn wires.Practical implications: TRIP steel wires, which have good mechanical properties and are dependent on drawing speed, can be used for production of connecting elements.Originality/value: For the first time there was shown the influence of drawing speed on properties of TRIP steel wires.

  8. 78 FR 53486 - Addition of Round-Trip Mailer Product to the Competitive Product List

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ... Commission to add a product called ``Round-Trip Mailer'' to the competitive product list. DATES: Effective..., instructional document, or advertisement that conforms to the exceptions or suspensions in the Private Express.... The changes in price and class set forth therein shall be effective September 30, 2013, assuming...

  9. Learning by Doing: A City Trip Combining TBLLT, Blended Learning and Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Leen; Grisez, Viviane

    2014-01-01

    For several years, the University of MONS (UMONS) has been organising a trip to a Flemish city, either Leuven, Ghent, or Antwerp, for the students on the Masters programmes at the Faculty of Engineering who attend Dutch courses. This project has been combining blended learning and task-based learning for several years, but for the most recent…

  10. To the End of the World and Back: A Primer for International Study Trips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Terry L.; King, James; Reina, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Global engagement is a move by many colleges and universities to broaden the perspectives of their students. Often, this is manifest in the form of short or longer-term study abroad trips. There is considerable excitement associated with traveling abroad on the part of both the students and the faculty sponsors, but one thing that must be…

  11. Report on safety related occurrences and reactor trips July 1, 1977 - December 31, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a systematically arranged report on all reported safety related occurrences and reactor trips in Swedish nuclear power plants in operation during July 1 to December 31, 1977 inclusive. The facilities involved are Barsebaeck 1 and 2, Oskarshamn 1 and 2 and Ringhals 1 and 2. During this period of 6 months 48 safety related occurrences and 49 reactor trips have been reported to the Nuclear Power Inspectorate. Included is also one incident June 21 in Barsebaeck 2 which was not included in the last compilation of occurrences. As earlier experiences have shown it is to the greatest extent the conventional components which bring about the safety related occurrences or occurrences leading to outages or power reductions. However, the component errors discovered in the safety related systems have not affected the function of their redundant systems and other diverse systems have not been involved. Therefore the reactor safety has been satisfactory. The total number of reactor trips have increased nearly 30% since the last period. Those occurred during power operation however, were less. More than 50% of the reactor trips happened in the shutdown condition. The fact that even small deviations from prescribed operation result in automatic and safe shut down of the reactor, does not always imply a conflict with operational availability. The greatest outages are caused by occurrences withou02068NRM 0000169 450

  12. A Land-use Approach for Capturing Future Trip Generating Poles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraklis Stamos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the usage of a particular urban or regional area have immediate effects on transportation, such as the development of a new multimodal terminal within a city, or the creation of a business park in its outskirts. Thus far, this correlation has been under-researched at a national level in Greece. As a result, its effects on trip generation and passenger flows has been underestimated at the planning level, leading to the implementation of projects that are neither viable nor sustainable. This paper proposes that land use changes ought to be considered in tandem with transport-related changes at the planning stage. To this effect, we present a three-step methodology for an integrated approach to capturing future trip generation: the identification of future trip-generating poles within the study area; the development of scenarios related to the probability of these changes occurring and their potential magnitude; an estimation of future trends in passenger flows. The methodology is applied to the Metropolitan area of Thessaloniki, Greece. Using data obtained from development plans, national statistical services and research projects’ and studies’ findings, we estimate future trip-generation subsequent to land use change. Data is processed and evaluated by a local experts’ group, representing various key-disciplines of the area’s planning stakeholders.

  13. The Impact of Immersion Trips on Development of Compassion among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, Thomas G.; Lackey, Katy; Hwang, Jeong Yeon

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the possible enhancement of compassion in college students as a result of participating in community-based learning immersion trips. In two separate experiments, a total of 123 college students were given a series of questionnaires immediately before and after university-sponsored immersion experiences to…

  14. River Trip Optimization Scheduling Based on Artificial Intelligence Simulation and the Bee-Swarm Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan Wenting

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The study on the impacts of human activities on natural resources is of critical importance in constructing effective management strategies in rafting trips. The Camping Schedule Intelligent Generator (CSIG, the computer program developed in the study, which successfully models the complex, dynamic human-environment interactions in the rafting river. This generator includes two parts: artificial intelligence simulation and BSGA-based Optimization. It employs artificial intelligence in creating an individual-based modeling system. With the help of BSGA, this simulation system successfully models the recreatinal rafting behavior and captures the decision making of rafting trips as they responsively seek to optimize their functions. After modeling, the paper applys CSIG to the Colorado River, which is a famous rafting river and find that: the numbers of short motor-trips (6-8 day and long-oar trips (15-18 day are obviously larger than the other two. Finally, the study analyzes the sensitivity of the model and finds that when the water velocity varies in the actual range.

  15. Recovery from a trip in young and older adults : mechanics and control of the support limb

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijnappels, M.A.G.M.

    2004-01-01

    Falls and fall-related injuries are the cause of serious medical and social problems, especially in the growing elderly population. Tripping over an obstacle is one of the major causes for falls in the elderly. This thesis was aimed to obtain insight in the requirements for a successful recovery re

  16. An aroid collecting trip to Sarawak and a key to the genera of Araceae in Sarawak

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogner, J.; Boyce, P.C.

    1995-01-01

    The main aim of the trip was to find an enigmatic aroid that was first collected as a sterile plant by the Australian plant enthusiast Dr. A. Dearden in 1990. The true identity of this Nephthytis-like plant, as we called it in the meantime, remained unclear and we thought that it was probably a new

  17. 75 FR 29678 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Reductions to Trip...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-27

    ..., continuation of the status quo trip limit will result reaching each of the respective common pool sub-ACLs... Amendment 16 and Framework Adjustment 44 (FW 44) to the NE Multispecies Fishery Management Plan (FMP) and is... under the authority of the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act...

  18. A robust and high-performance queue management controller for large round trip time networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshnevisan, Ladan; Salmasi, Farzad R.

    2016-05-01

    Congestion management for transmission control protocol is of utmost importance to prevent packet loss within a network. This necessitates strategies for active queue management. The most applied active queue management strategies have their inherent disadvantages which lead to suboptimal performance and even instability in the case of large round trip time and/or external disturbance. This paper presents an internal model control robust queue management scheme with two degrees of freedom in order to restrict the undesired effects of large and small round trip time and parameter variations in the queue management. Conventional approaches such as proportional integral and random early detection procedures lead to unstable behaviour due to large delay. Moreover, internal model control-Smith scheme suffers from large oscillations due to the large round trip time. On the other hand, other schemes such as internal model control-proportional integral and derivative show excessive sluggish performance for small round trip time values. To overcome these shortcomings, we introduce a system entailing two individual controllers for queue management and disturbance rejection, simultaneously. Simulation results based on Matlab/Simulink and also Network Simulator 2 (NS2) demonstrate the effectiveness of the procedure and verify the analytical approach.

  19. 78 FR 54194 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Trip Limit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-03

    ... fishing year on July 16, 2013 (77 FR 42478), recent analysis shows that the common pool would likely... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 648 RIN 0648-XC823 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Trip Limit Adjustments for the Common Pool...

  20. 76 FR 53832 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Trip Limit Decrease...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... limit for GOM cod is 500 lb (226.8 kg) per day-at-sea (DAS), up to 2,000 lb (907.2 kg) per trip (76 FR... (76 FR 30035; May 24, 2011). As of August 11, 2011, based on the best available catch information... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 648 RIN 0648-XA652 Fisheries of...

  1. Co-Leading Wilderness Trips with a Member of the Opposite Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millette, Margot; Porter, Tom

    2001-01-01

    A study found that male and female co-leaders of wilderness camping trips were very aware of stereotypes of male and female leadership roles. Sometimes leaders deliberately performed stereotypical tasks and roles of the opposite sex, but tasks and roles generally resulted from preferences, necessity, or participant expectations. The D-R model of…

  2. Management of Official Overseas Trips of Staff in Agri-scientific Research Institutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lizhen; CHEN; Yu; ZHENG; Haiyan; LUO; Qingqun; YAO

    2014-01-01

    Taking Tropical Crops Genetic Resources Institute( TCGRI) of Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences( CATAS) as an example,this paper discussed current situation of management of official overseas trips of staff in agric-scientific research institutions,analyzed existing problems,and finally came up with pertinent recommendations.

  3. Fire and Water Make Steam - Redefining the Role of Competition Law in TRIPS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen

    2011-01-01

    The paper points out the relevance of competition law to international issues of Intellectual Property Law (IPR) and demonstrates how competition law internationally has come to function as an indispensable instrument to balance IPR. The perspective is international and focused on TRIPS. The rule...

  4. Modeling of the Austenite-Martensite Transformation in Stainless and TRIP Steels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geijselaers, H.J.M.; Hilkhuijsen, P.; Bor, T.C.; Perdahcioglu, E.S.; Boogaard, van den A.H.; Zhang, S.-H.; Liu, X.-H.; Gheng, M.; Li, J.

    2013-01-01

    The transformation of austenite to martensite is a dominant factor in the description of the constitutive behavior during forming of TRIP assisted steels. To predict this transformation different models are currently available. In this paper the transformation is regarded as a stress induced process

  5. Effect of Ti additions on micro-alloyed Nb TRIP steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Jaehyuk; Lee, Seok-Jae; De Cooman, B.C. [Materials Design Laboratory, Graduate Institute of Ferrous Technology, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sungil [Technical Research Laboratories, POSCO, Gwangyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-15

    In the present study, the influence of Ti-additions on the mechanical properties of Nb-microalloyed TRIP steel is investigated. Ti micro-alloying additions to multi-phase Nb TRIP steel result in a substantial increase of the yield strength and a reduction of strain hardening. The increase of the yield strength can be attributed mainly to grain refinement with a relatively small contribution of precipitation hardening. Based on general principles and well-known models of alloying strengthening, metallurgical reasons for the observed mechanical behavior of the steel can be formulated. The contribution of precipitation hardening is relatively small as Ti-addition result in the formation of coarse (Nb,Ti)(C,N) particles. The addition of Ti to a Nb-microalloyed TRIP steel leads to a pronounced enhancement of precipitation kinetics of (Nb,Ti)(C,N), thereby increasing their phase fraction. The precipitates coarsen and tend to form groups of aggregates of particles rather than single isolated particles with increasing intercritical annealing time. In addition, Ti-addition to Nb-microalloyed TRIP steel has a direct influence on the chemical composition of the precipitates, which become Ti-rich. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. Design of Thermo Mechanicaln Processing and Transformation Behaviour of Bulk Si-Mn Trip Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zrnik, J.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, a lot of effort has been paid to optimising the thermomechanical processing of TRIP steels that stands for transformation induced plasticity. The precise characterization of the resulting multiphase microstructure of low alloyed TRIP steels is of great importance for the interpretation and optimisation of their mechanical properties. The results obtained in situ neutron diffraction laboratory experiment concerning the austenite to ferrite transformation in Si-Mn bulk TRIP steel specimens, displaying the transformation induced plasticity (TRIP, are presented. The advancement of ferrite formation during transformation in conditioned austenite is investigated at different transformation temperatures and has been monitored using neutron diffraction method. The relevant information on transformation proceeding is extracted from neutron diffraction spectra. The integrated intensities of austenite and ferrite neutron diffraction profiles developed during the transformation are then assumed as a measure of the phase volume fractions of both phases in dependence on transformation temperature and austenite conditioning. According to the yielding information on ferrite volume fractions from isothermal transformation kinetics data the thermo mechanical processing of bulk specimen was designed in order to support austenite stabilization through bainitic transformation. The volume fractions of retained austenite resulting at alternating transformation conditions were measured by neutron and X-ray diffraction respectively. The stability of retained austenite in bulk specimens during room temperature mechanical testing was characterized by in situ neutron diffraction experiments as well.

  7. TripSense: A Trust-Based Vehicular Platoon Crowdsensing Scheme with Privacy Preservation in VANETs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hao; Lu, Rongxing; Huang, Cheng; Zhang, Zonghua

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a trust-based vehicular platoon crowdsensing scheme, named TripSense, in VANET. The proposed TripSense scheme introduces a trust-based system to evaluate vehicles' sensing abilities and then selects the more capable vehicles in order to improve sensing results accuracy. In addition, the sensing tasks are accomplished by platoon member vehicles and preprocessed by platoon head vehicles before the data are uploaded to server. Hence, it is less time-consuming and more efficient compared with the way where the data are submitted by individual platoon member vehicles. Hence it is more suitable in ephemeral networks like VANET. Moreover, our proposed TripSense scheme integrates unlinkable pseudo-ID techniques to achieve PM vehicle identity privacy, and employs a privacy-preserving sensing vehicle selection scheme without involving the PM vehicle's trust score to keep its location privacy. Detailed security analysis shows that our proposed TripSense scheme not only achieves desirable privacy requirements but also resists against attacks launched by adversaries. In addition, extensive simulations are conducted to show the correctness and effectiveness of our proposed scheme. PMID:27258287

  8. TripSense: A Trust-Based Vehicular Platoon Crowdsensing Scheme with Privacy Preservation in VANETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Hu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a trust-based vehicular platoon crowdsensing scheme, named TripSense, in VANET. The proposed TripSense scheme introduces a trust-based system to evaluate vehicles’ sensing abilities and then selects the more capable vehicles in order to improve sensing results accuracy. In addition, the sensing tasks are accomplished by platoon member vehicles and preprocessed by platoon head vehicles before the data are uploaded to server. Hence, it is less time-consuming and more efficient compared with the way where the data are submitted by individual platoon member vehicles. Hence it is more suitable in ephemeral networks like VANET. Moreover, our proposed TripSense scheme integrates unlinkable pseudo-ID techniques to achieve PM vehicle identity privacy, and employs a privacy-preserving sensing vehicle selection scheme without involving the PM vehicle’s trust score to keep its location privacy. Detailed security analysis shows that our proposed TripSense scheme not only achieves desirable privacy requirements but also resists against attacks launched by adversaries. In addition, extensive simulations are conducted to show the correctness and effectiveness of our proposed scheme.

  9. A Provenance-Aware Linked Data Application for Trip Management and Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Garijo Verdejo, Daniel; Villazón-Terrazas, B.; Corcho, Oscar

    2011-01-01

    We present El Viajero, an application1 for exploiting, man- aging and organizing Linked Data in the domain of news and blogs about travelling. El Viajero makes use of several heterogeneous datasets to help users to plan future trips, and relies on the Open Provenance Model2 for modeling the provenance information of the resources.

  10. How does a modal shift from short car trips to cycling affect road safety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepers, J P; Heinen, E

    2013-01-01

    Governments aim to promote a shift from car to bicycle, but concerns about road safety seem to represent an important argument against this encouragement. This study examines the road safety impact of a modal shift from short car trips to cycling in Dutch municipalities. The road safety effect is estimated using Accident Prediction Models (APMs) that account for the non-linearity of risk. APMs are developed utilizing Negative Binomial regression. This study is the first to develop APMs using crash and mobility data from municipalities, and utilizing these models to estimate the effects of changing modal splits of current car and bicycle use to modal splits that actually exist in these municipalities. The results suggest that, under conditions such as in Dutch municipalities, transferring short trips made by cars to bicycles does not change the number of fatalities, but increases the number of serious road injuries. The neutral effect on fatalities, despite the high fatality risk for cyclists, can be explained by there being fewer cars on the road to pose a risk to others, the shorter length of bicycle trips compared to the car trips they replace, and the "safety in numbers" phenomenon. The rise in the number of serious road injuries is due wholly to the high number of cycling crashes with no other vehicle involved. The effect of a modal shift is dependent on the age of the population in which the shift is concentrated, and can be influenced by measures affecting cyclists' injury risk.

  11. Education in America. Opposing Viewpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozic, Charles P., Ed.

    This book, part of a series about differing viewpoints on education in America, examines how education can be improved for this and future generations of America's youth. The following papers and their authors are included: "Public Education Needs Extensive Reform" (John Taylor Gatto); "Public Education Does Not Need Extensive Reform" (Gerald…

  12. Locking in on Latin America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MICHAEL; RICE

    2006-01-01

    China cautious as it sets up generous investment in Latin America The United States is keeping a watchful eye as China bolsters political and economic ties with Latin America. The situation has U.S. political analysts trying to determine just how China s emerging influence

  13. South America Geologic Map (geo6ag)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — South America is part of Region 6 (Central and South America) for the World Energy Assessment. The geologic map of South America was digitized so that we could use...

  14. HUWE1 and TRIP12 collaborate in degradation of ubiquitin-fusion proteins and misframed ubiquitin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esben G Poulsen

    Full Text Available In eukaryotic cells an uncleavable ubiquitin moiety conjugated to the N-terminus of a protein signals the degradation of the fusion protein via the proteasome-dependent ubiquitin fusion degradation (UFD pathway. In yeast the molecular mechanism of the UFD pathway has been well characterized. Recently the human E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase TRIP12 was connected with the UFD pathway, but little is otherwise known about this system in mammalian cells. In the present work, we utilized high-throughput imaging on cells transfected with a targeted siRNA library to identify components involved in degradation of the UFD substrate Ub(G76V-YFP. The most significant hits from the screen were the E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase HUWE1, as well as PSMD7 and PSMD14 that encode proteasome subunits. Accordingly, knock down of HUWE1 led to an increase in the steady state level and a retarded degradation of the UFD substrate. Knock down of HUWE1 also led to a stabilization of the physiological UFD substrate UBB(+1. Precipitation experiments revealed that HUWE1 is associated with both the Ub(G76V-YFP substrate and the 26S proteasome, indicating that it functions late in the UFD pathway. Double knock down of HUWE1 and TRIP12 resulted in an additive stabilization of the substrate, suggesting that HUWE1 and TRIP12 function in parallel during UFD. However, even when both HUWE1 and TRIP12 are downregulated, ubiquitylation of the UFD substrate was still apparent, revealing functional redundancy between HUWE1, TRIP12 and yet other ubiquitin-protein ligases.

  15. With the help of a foreign ally: biopharmaceutical innovation in India after TRIPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeli, Federica

    2014-05-01

    This article investigates the implications of the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS), which reached full-fledged implementation in 2005, for the patenting activity of Indian biopharmaceutical companies. The Indian biopharmaceutical industry is well-known for its generic producers, whose business models capitalize on the opportunity to reverse-engineer patented compounds and produce them at low costs through process innovation. By strengthening intellectual property rights, TRIPS determined a major regulative change, which presents the characteristics of an institutional shock. The examination of the patenting and alliance activity of 123 Indian biopharmaceutical firms between 1999 and 2009 reveals two important insights. First, the innovation outcome of Indian biopharmaceuticals has sharply increased during the transition to TRIPS-compliant regulation, suggesting that Indian companies have been capable and willing to transit from an imitation-based to an innovation-based business model. Second, those biopharmaceutical firms holding cross-border alliances to foreign partners have proved significantly more successful at enhancing their innovative capability. This research delivers a multifold contribution to the policy debate surrounding the enforcement of TRIPS in emerging economies. First, it suggests that such regulatory change may have encouraged biopharmaceutical innovation in India, despite the sceptical voices who did not foresee any benefits because of inherent inertia of the industry. Second, by arguing and testing the advantages of foreign partnerships, this research highlights that the much feared return of pharmaceutical foreign companies to India could instead favour adaptation to institutional change. Implications for Indian public health are particularly critical. The impact of TRIPS on drug pricing and on the capability--and willingness--of Indian biopharmaceuticals to invest in local health conditions are two

  16. Clinical and immunological effects of a forest trip in children with asthma and atopic dermatitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Chul Seo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Asthma and atopic dermatitis are common allergic diseases, and their prevalence has increased in urban children. Recently, it is becoming understood that forest environment has favorable health effects in patients with chronic diseases. To investigate favorable clinical and immunologic effects of forest, we examined changes in clinical symptoms, indirect airway inflammatory marker, and serum chemokines before and after a short-term forest trip. The forest trips were performed with 21 children with asthma and 27 children with atopic dermatitis. All participating children were living in air polluted urban inner-city. We measured spirometry and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO in children with asthma and measured scoring atopic dermatitis (SCORAD index and Thymus and Activation-Regulated Chemokine (TARC/CCL17 and Macrophage-Derived Chemokine (MDC/CCL22 levels in children with atopic dermatitis before and after the forest trip. Indoor air pollutants such as indoor mold, particulate matter 10 (PM10 and total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs of each child's home and the accommodations within forest were measured. A significant increase in forced vital capacity (FVC and a significant decrease in FeNO were observed after the forest trip in children with asthma. SCORAD indices and MDC/CCL22 levels were significantly decreased after the forest trip in children with atopic dermatitis. Airborne mold and PM10 levels in indoor were significantly lower in the forest accommodations than those of children's homes; however, TVOC levels were not different between the two measured sites. Short-term exposure to forest environment may have clinical and immunological effects in children with allergic diseases who were living in the urban community.

  17. Field Marks of a Celebration: Roger Tory Peterson's Centennial Birthday

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, J.; Robbins, C.S.

    2008-01-01

    A red letter day in my life was April 27, 1934, the day I first met Roger. A birding friend, Elisha Atkins, had invited Clinton Reynolds and me to dinner to meet a famous ornithologist. We would all be going on a field trip to Newburyport on the Massachusetts coast the next day. The dinner conversation revolved about a new field guide that Mr. Peterson had just completed and that would be available in a few days. I couldn?t wait to see it! I had been birding since 1930, keying out live birds with Chapman?s Handbook of Birds of Eastern North America (1912) and Hoffman?s Guide to the Birds of New England and Eastern New York (1904). Both books had extensive keys based on color, size, bill shape and season, and pictures of heads or feet of some species. Positive bird identification was a long and tedious process. The field trip the next day with Roger was memorable, not for finding any rare or unusual birds, but for learning how to identify birds to species at a single good glance. I recall asking Roger if he could find a ring-billed gull among a group of gulls resting on a roof beside the Merrimac River. He immediately said, ?No there aren?t any ring-bills there; they would be immediately apparent by their slimmer shape.? There was no need to check the foot color on each bird. While it is easy to say that Roger revolutionized field guides, I truly believe there are few people worldwide under the age of 90 who can really appreciate the difference between the old way of keying out birds and the instant recognition promoted by the Peterson system. Today we take for granted that amateurs can identify birds accurately. Monitoring bird populations by Breeding Bird Surveys, atlas studies, Breeding Bird Censuses, migration banding, and many other studies relies on it. None of these would be possible if we were still keying out live birds using books designed to identify dead birds in the hand.

  18. China-Latin America Relations: Main Themes, Main Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Steen Fryba; Silva Ramos Becard, Danielly

    2016-01-01

    The article discusses the research field of China-Latin American relations and suggests a broad and encompassing approach to the topic. It discusses the main themes and problem areas that analysts mostly emphasize in analyses of China-Latin America relations.......The article discusses the research field of China-Latin American relations and suggests a broad and encompassing approach to the topic. It discusses the main themes and problem areas that analysts mostly emphasize in analyses of China-Latin America relations....

  19. Impact of travel mode shift and trip distance on active and non-active transportation in the São Paulo Metropolitan Area in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Hérick de Sá

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Transport and urban planning policies to reduce individual motorized trips and the number of long trips might produce important health benefits, both by increasing population levels of active transportation and reducing the non-active and the total time of daily trips.

  20. O neoliberalismo na America Latina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ibarra

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Neoliberalism in Latin America. Neoliberalism and globalization had decisive influence in shaping public policies both internal and foreign in Latin America. Less state, trade and market freedoms, social goals subordinated to economic criteria, are part and parcel of the neoliberal utopia. Price stability was erected as the main social objective; import substitution resulted replaced by exports as the main source of growth. The neoliberal net results as applied to Latin America are: less growth, deindustrialization, income concentration and precarious employments. Therefore, countries public policies should try to gain autonomy to use jointly markets and public intervention in a constructive and innovative fashion.

  1. PyTRiP - a toolbox and GUI for the proton/ion therapy planning system TRiP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toftegaard, J.; Petersen, J. B.; Bassler, N.

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: Only very few treatment planning systems (TPS) are capable of handling heavy ions. Commercial heavy ion TPS are costly and normally restrict the possibility to implement new functionalities. PyTRiP provides Python bindings and a platform-independent graphical user interface (GUI) for the heavy ion treatment program TRiP, and adds seamless support of DICOM files. We aim to provide a front-end for TRiP which does not require any special computer skills. Methods: PyTRiP is written in Python combined with C for fast computing. Routines for DICOM file import/export to TRiPs native file format are implemented. The GUI comes as an executable with all its dependencies including PyTRiP making it easy to install on Windows, Mac and Linux. Results: PyTRiP is a comprehensive toolbox for handling TRiP. Treatment plans are handled using an object oriented structure. Bindings to TRiP (which only runs on Linux, either locally or on a remote server) are performed through a single function call. GUI users can intuitively create treatment plans without much knowledge about the TRiP user interface. Advanced users still have full access to all TRiP functionality. The user interface comes with a comprehensive plotting tool, which can visualize 2D contours, volume histograms, as well as dose- and linear energy transfer (LET) distributions. Conclusion: We developed a powerful toolbox for ion therapy research using TRiP as backend. The corresponding GUI allows to easily and intuitively create, calculate and visualize treatment plans. TRiP is thereby more accessible and simpler to use.

  2. PyTRiP - a toolbox and GUI for the proton/ion therapy planning system TRiP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Only very few treatment planning systems (TPS) are capable of handling heavy ions. Commercial heavy ion TPS are costly and normally restrict the possibility to implement new functionalities. PyTRiP provides Python bindings and a platform-independent graphical user interface (GUI) for the heavy ion treatment program TRiP, and adds seamless support of DICOM files. We aim to provide a front-end for TRiP which does not require any special computer skills. Methods: PyTRiP is written in Python combined with C for fast computing. Routines for DICOM file import/export to TRiPs native file format are implemented. The GUI comes as an executable with all its dependencies including PyTRiP making it easy to install on Windows, Mac and Linux. Results: PyTRiP is a comprehensive toolbox for handling TRiP. Treatment plans are handled using an object oriented structure. Bindings to TRiP (which only runs on Linux, either locally or on a remote server) are performed through a single function call. GUI users can intuitively create treatment plans without much knowledge about the TRiP user interface. Advanced users still have full access to all TRiP functionality. The user interface comes with a comprehensive plotting tool, which can visualize 2D contours, volume histograms, as well as dose- and linear energy transfer (LET) distributions. Conclusion: We developed a powerful toolbox for ion therapy research using TRiP as backend. The corresponding GUI allows to easily and intuitively create, calculate and visualize treatment plans. TRiP is thereby more accessible and simpler to use.

  3. North America and South America (NA-SA) neuropathy project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasnoor, Mamatha; Nascimento, Osvaldo J M; Trivedi, Jaya; Wolfe, Gil I; Nations, Sharon; Herbelin, Laura; de Freitas, M G; Quintanilha, Giseli; Khan, Saud; Dimachkie, Mazen; Barohn, Richard

    2013-08-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is a common neurological disorder. There may be important differences and similarities in the diagnosis of peripheral neuropathy between North America (NA) and South America (SA). Neuromuscular databases were searched for neuropathy diagnosis at two North American sites, University of Kansas Medical Center and University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, and one South American site, Federal Fluminense University in Brazil. All patients were included into one of the six major categories: immune-mediated, diabetic, hereditary, infectious/inflammatory, systemic/metabolic/toxic (not diabetic) and cryptogenic. A comparison of the number of patients in each category was made between North America and South America databases. Total number of cases in North America was 1090 and in South America was 1034 [immune-mediated: NA 215 (19.7%), SA 191 (18%); diabetic: NA 148 (13.5%), SA 236 (23%); hereditary: NA 292 (26.7%), SA 103 (10%); infectious/inflammatory: NA 53 (4.8%), SA 141 (14%); systemic/metabolic/toxic: NA 71 (6.5%), SA 124 (12%); cryptogenic: NA 311 (28.5%), SA 239 (23%)]. Some specific neuropathy comparisons were hereditary neuropathies [Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) cases] in NA 246/292 (84.2%) and SA 60/103 (58%); familial amyloid neuropathy in SA 31/103 (30%) and none in NA. Among infectious neuropathies, cases of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) neuropathy in SA were 36/141(25%), Chagas disease in SA were 13/141(9%) and none for either in NA; cases of neuropathy due to leprosy in NA were 26/53 (49%) and in SA were 39/141(28%). South American tertiary care centers are more likely to see patients with infectious, diabetic and hereditary disorders such as familial amyloid neuropathies. North American tertiary centers are more likely to see patients with CMT. Immune neuropathies and cryptogenic neuropathies were seen equally in North America and South America.

  4. Assessment of geometrical orientation of martensitic particles in TRIP steel by Fourier and wavelet transformation image analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwamoto, T. [Graduate School of Engineering, Hiroshima Univ., Kagamiyama, Hiroschima (Japan); Tsuta, T. [Faculty of Health Science, Hiroshima International Univ., Hiroshima (Japan)

    2003-07-01

    Due to strain-induced martensitic transformation, TRIP steel possesses favorable mechanical properties such as high strength, ductility and toughness. From SEM observations, it was clarified that the martensitic particles orient geometrically against the loading axis in the micro region. It is necessary to evaluate their orientations in TRIP steel to describe in detail deformation behavior of TRIP steel. Here, in order to discuss the geometrical orientation distribution of the micrograph, the Fourier and Wavelet transformation image analysis (FTIA and WTIA) are used. Then, the dependence of their orientation on plastic strain, temperature and stress state will be investigated by the FTIA and WTIA. (orig.)

  5. A Round Trip from Medicinal Chemistry to Predictive Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangiatordi, Giuseppe Felice; Carotti, Angelo; Novellino, Ettore; Nicolotti, Orazio

    2016-01-01

    Predictive toxicology is a new emerging multifaceted research field aimed at protecting human health and environment from risks posed by chemicals. Such issue is of extreme public relevance and requires a multidisciplinary approach where the experience in medicinal chemistry is of utmost importance. Herein, we will survey some basic recommendations to gather good data and then will review three recent case studies to show how strategies of ligand- and structure-based molecular design, widely applied in medicinal chemistry, can be adapted to meet the more restrictive scientific and regulatory goals of predictive toxicology. In particular, we will report: Docking-based classification models to predict the estrogenic potentials of chemicals. Predicting the bioconcentration factor using biokinetics descriptors. Modeling oral sub-chronic toxicity using a customized k-nearest neighbors (k-NN) approach. PMID:27311477

  6. African Ethnobotany in the Americas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egleé L. Zent

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Review of African Ethnobotany in the Americas. Edited by Robert Voeks and John Rashford. 2013. Springer. Pp. 429, 105 illustrations, 69 color illustrations. $49.95 (paperback. ISBN 978‐1461408352.

  7. Heart Failure Society of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Site Terms and Conditions Copyright © 2016 Heart Failure Society of America. All Rights Reserved 2016 Board Review ... Membership Membership Information Membership in the Heart Failure Society is open to all health care professionals with ...

  8. ScaleUp America Communities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Small Business Administration — SBA’s new ScaleUp America Initiative is designed to help small firms with high potential “scale up” and grow their businesses so that they will provide more jobs...

  9. Road Rage Rampant in America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159883.html Road Rage Rampant in America 8 of 10 drivers ... of 10 drivers demonstrated significant anger, aggression or road rage in the past year, the study found. ...

  10. African Ethnobotany in the Americas

    OpenAIRE

    Zent, Egleé L

    2013-01-01

    Review of African Ethnobotany in the Americas. Edited by Robert Voeks and John Rashford. 2013. Springer. Pp. 429, 105 illustrations, 69 color illustrations. $49.95 (paperback). ISBN 978‐1461408352.

  11. Huntington's Disease Society of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Andrews HDSA Researcher Spotlight- Dr. Amber Southwell Advocacy Huntington’s Disease Parity Act Affordable Care Act Social Security ... 08.30.16 HD Support & Care Network and Huntington’s Disease Society of America Partner for Stronger HD ...

  12. Learning Disabilities Association of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... purchases to benefit LDA. Shop Now October is Learning Disabilities Awareness Month Learning Disabilities Association of America ( ... children's health and reduce toxic exposures. Learn More Learning Disabilities: A Multidisciplinary Journal Committed to the study ...

  13. Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enabled to enjoy the full interactive experience. Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America Find a Doctor Find a ... Local Chapters News Events Search: What are Crohn's & Colitis? What is Crohn's Disease What is Ulcerative Colitis ...

  14. Educational Research in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Abdeljalil Akkari; Soledad Perez

    1998-01-01

    The present paper consists of four primary sections. First, we describe the historical context of educational research in Latin America. In the second section, we focus on various theoretical frameworks that are applied to educational research in the region. We identify the main institutions involved in this research in the third section. Finally, in conclusion we offer suggestions that we consider to be of greatest priority for the future of educational research in Latin America.

  15. Inflation Targeting in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Vittorio Corbo; Klaus Schmidt-Hebbel

    2002-01-01

    This paper analyzes Latin America’s recent experience with the use of inflation targeting (IT) while the region has made substantial progress toward eradicating high inflation. The paper assesses the implementation and results of inflation targeting in Latin America from a broad perspective. It starts by reviewing the issues relevant for the choice of exchange-rate regimes and monetary frameworks, documenting the evolution of exchange rate and monetary regimes in Latin America during the last...

  16. Characteristics of Retained Austenite in TRIP Steels with Bainitie Ferrite Matrix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Mingya; ZHU Fuxian; DUAN Zhengtao; MA Shieheng

    2011-01-01

    Heat treatment process for producing cold rolled transformation induced plasticity-aided (TRIP-aided) steels with bainitic ferrite matrix was adopted.Characteristics of retained austenite (RA) in such TRIP steels were investigated.SEM and OM determination results showed that the stable austenite retained at room temperature were mainly located between laths and some of them inside the coarse ferrite.The grains were uniformly distributed in heat treated steel matrix and the regularly dispersed RA represented to be triangular morphology.XRD analysis indicated that RA content in matrix was not less than 10%,and TEM testified that RA inside the matrix were formed at the prior austenite boundaries and represented to be single or twin crystals.The ductile fracture originated from the boundaries of martensite islands from RA and ferrite.The cracks propagated along grain boundaries and some passed through the large ferrite grains and induced transgranular fracture.

  17. Influence of Hot Rolling Conditions on the Mechanical Properties of Hot Rolled TRIP Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhuang; WU Di

    2008-01-01

    Influence of hot rolling conditions on the mechanical properties of hot rolled TRIP steel was investigated.Thermomechanical control processing(TMCP)was conducted by using a laboratory hot rolling mill,in which three different kinds of finish rolling temperatures were applied.The results show that polygonal ferrite,granular bainite and larger amount of stabilized retained anstenite can be obtained by controlled rolling processes.The finer ferrite grain size is produced through the deformation induced transformation during deformation rather than after deformation,which affects the mechanical properties of hot rolled TRIP steel.Mechanical properties increase with decreasing finish rolling temperature due to the stabilization of retained austenite.Ultimate tensile strength(UTS),total elongation(TEL)and the product of ultimate tensile strength and total elongation(UTS×TEL)reaches optimal values(791 MPa,36% and 28 476 MPa%,respectively)whenthe specimen was hot rolled for 50% reduction at finish rolling temperature of 700℃.

  18. TRIP12 and UBR5 Suppress Spreading of Chromatin Ubiquitylation at Damaged Chromosomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudjónsson, Thorkell; Altmeyer, Matthias Florian; Savic, Velibor;

    2012-01-01

     a pathway that ubiquitylates histones after DNA breakage. We find that RNF168 can be saturated by increasing amounts of DSBs. Depletion of TRIP12 and UBR5 allows accumulation of RNF168 to supraphysiological levels, followed by massive spreading of ubiquitin conjugates and hyperaccumulation of ubiquitin......-regulated genome caretakers such as 53BP1 and BRCA1. Thus, regulatory and proteolytic ubiquitylations are wired in a self-limiting circuit that promotes histone ubiquitylation near the DNA lesions but at the same time counteracts its excessive spreading to undamaged chromosomes. We provide evidence......Histone ubiquitylation is a prominent response to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), but how these modifications are confined to DNA lesions is not understood. Here, we show that TRIP12 and UBR5, two HECT domain ubiquitin E3 ligases, control accumulation of RNF168, a rate-limiting component of...

  19. ON THE TENSILE MECHANICAL PROPERTY OF Si-Mn TRIP STEELS AT HIGH STRAIN RATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    X.C. Wei; L. Li; R.Y. Fu; W. Shi

    2002-01-01

    Tensile mechanical properties of 1.6Si-1.58Mn-0.195C TRIP (transformation-inducedplasticity) steels under high strain rate and effects of DP (dual-phase) treatments werestudied and compared to the quasi-static tensile behavior. The results show that theincreasing of strain rate leads to increasing in their strengths and decreasing in theuniform elongation remarkably. Because the stable retained austenite in TRIP steelcan transform to martensite during tensile testing and the material exhibits excellentcharacteristic of transformation induced plasticity, the plastic deformation behavior isevidently improved and the combination of strength and elongation is superior to thatof dual-phase steel, although its strength is smaller than that of DP steel. However,DP treated steel shown lower elongation under dynamic tension in spite of higherstrength. A model was proposed to explain the excellent elongation rate of TRIPsteel compared with DP steel on the basis of SEM analysis and the strength of thecomponents in microstructure.

  20. Effects of Holding Temperature for Austempering on Mechanical Properties of Si-Mn TRIP Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhuang; WU Di

    2004-01-01

    A new type of high strength steel containing a significant amount of stable retained austenite was obtained by austempering immediately after intercritical annealing. This sort of low carbon steel only contains alloying elements of silicon and manganese rather than nickel and chromium. Its mechanical properties were enhanced considerably due to strain-induced martensite transformation and transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) of retained austenite when it was strained at temperatures between Ms and Md, because retained austenite was moderately stabilized due to carbon enrichment by austempering. Austempering was carried out at different temperatures and 400 ℃ was found to be optimal. Tensile strength, total elongation and strength-ductility balance reached the maximum values and the product of tensile strength and total elongation exceeded 30 135 MPa % when the TRIP steel was held at 400 ℃ and strained at 350 ℃.