WorldWideScience

Sample records for america field trip

  1. A Biomes Field Trip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, William H.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes a field trip designed to give students opportunities to experience relevant data leading to concepts in biogeography. Suggests that teachers (including college instructors) adapt the areas studied and procedures used to their own locations. Includes a suggested field trip handout. (JN)

  2. Field Trips--Vicariously?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendered, Norman C.

    1975-01-01

    Cost and scheduling problems often prevent industrial arts teachers from taking their students on field trips. Moreover, study findings indicate that the highly valued industrial visit proves less effective than flexible, inexpensive, custom-tailored slide-tape presentations. Slide-tape preparation procedures are outlined, and recommendations are…

  3. Mobile Collector for Field Trips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Terrenghi

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Current e-Learning is based on learning management systems that provide certain standard services - course authoring and delivery, tutoring, administration and collaboration facilities. Rapid development of mobile technologies opens a new area of m-Learning to enhance the current educational opportunities. Field trips are a relevant part of the curriculum, but for various reasons it is often difficult to organize them. The aim of the RAFT project is development of a system that would enable virtual field trips. One mobile learning application prototype created in this project, called Mobile Collector, enables data gathering and annotation in the field, together with real time collaboration. The application supports learner-centred education in real world context.

  4. Fellows in the Middle: Fabulous Field Trips

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Mary Lou

    2008-05-01

    Montclair State University's NSF GK-12 Program focuses on grades 7 and 8 in five urban public school districts in northern New Jersey. Each year four fieldtrips are taken by the students, middle school teachers, and graduate student Fellows. Many interdisciplinary hands-on lessons are written for use before, during and after each trip with this year's theme of Earth history. The Sterling Hill Mine trip evoked lessons on geology, economics, crystal structure, density, and pH. A virtual trip (webcam link) to scientists in the rainforest of Panama prompted critical thinking, categorizing layers and animals, and construction of model food webs. In the field trip to the NJ School of Conservation the students will build model aquifers, measure tree heights, and measure stream flow to compare to their Hackensack River. Finally the students will travel to MSU for a Math/Science Day with research talks, lab tours, hands-on activities, and a poster session. In January 2008 seventeen teachers, Fellows, and grant personnel took a field trip to China to set up collaborations with researchers and schools in Beijing and Xi'an, including the Beijing Ancient Observatory. All field trips are fabulous! Next year (IYA) our theme will be planetary science and will feature field trips to the Newark Museum's Dreyfuss Planetarium, BCC Buehler Challenger & Science Center, and star parties. We look forward to invigorating middle school science and mathematics with exciting astronomy. Funded by NSF #0638708

  5. Field Trip - Conservation of Carnivores in Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Amanda

    2017-04-01

    Field trips are a key component of our curriculum at ISWB. Classroom teaching is invaluable but field trips provide pupils with a tangible connection to pertinent issues of conservation. ISWB realises the importance of out of the classroom learning in field trips and to this end our students have an opportunity to partake in a number of 3-5 day field trips per academic year. In 2016, several Year 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 students visited the AfriCat Foundation on Okonjima in central Namibia for 4 days to learn about the conservation of the predator population in Namibia. The trips were very successful and another trip this year to AfriCat North close to Etosha National Park, where the students will work closely with the local farming communities, is planned. AfriCat provides Environmental Education programmes for the youth of Namibia giving them a greater understanding of the importance of wildlife conservation. Their main objective is promoting predator and environmental awareness amongst the youth of Namibia. AfriCat Environmental Education Programme is based on 1997 UNESCO-UNEP Environmental Education objectives. "Attitudes: To raise concern about problems, values, personal responsibility and willingness to participate/act. In the end, we conserve only what we love. We will love only what we understand. We will understand only what we are taught."

  6. Field Trips as Valuable Learning Experiences in Geography Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakowka, Amy Richmond

    2012-01-01

    Field trips have been acknowledged as valuable learning experiences in geography. This article uses Kolb's (1984) experiential learning model to discuss how students learn and how field trips can help enhance learning. Using Kolb's experiential learning theory as a guide in the design of field trips helps ensure that field trips contribute to…

  7. Hunton Group core workshop and field trip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, K.S. [ed.

    1993-12-31

    The Late Ordovician-Silurian-Devonian Hunton Group is a moderately thick sequence of shallow-marine carbonates deposited on the south edge of the North American craton. This rock unit is a major target for petroleum exploration and reservoir development in the southern Midcontinent. The workshop described here was held to display cores, outcrop samples, and other reservoir-characterization studies of the Hunton Group and equivalent strata throughout the region. A field trip was organized to complement the workshop by allowing examination of excellent outcrops of the Hunton Group of the Arbuckle Mountains.

  8. Elementary school children's science learning from school field trips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Marilyn Petty

    This research examines the impact of classroom anchoring activities on elementary school students' science learning from a school field trip. Although there is prior research demonstrating that students can learn science from school field trips, most of this research is descriptive in nature and does not examine the conditions that enhance or facilitate such learning. The current study draws upon research in psychology and education to create an intervention that is designed to enhance what students learn from school science field trips. The intervention comprises of a set of "anchoring" activities that include: (1) Orientation to context, (2) Discussion to activate prior knowledge and generate questions, (3) Use of field notebooks during the field trip to record observations and answer questions generated prior to field trip, (4) Post-visit discussion of what was learned. The effects of the intervention are examined by comparing two groups of students: an intervention group which receives anchoring classroom activities related to their field trip and an equivalent control group which visits the same field trip site for the same duration but does not receive any anchoring classroom activities. Learning of target concepts in both groups was compared using objective pre and posttests. Additionally, a subset of students in each group were interviewed to obtain more detailed descriptive data on what children learned through their field trip.

  9. Collecting Planarians: A Good Choice for a Field Trip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Heeyoung

    2001-01-01

    Describes a field trip to collect planarians as successful in generating interest in the sciences. This activity is suitable for all grade levels as a field trip or biology lab. Planarians can be easily collected from streams across the United States. Once in the classroom, planaria are easily fed and cared for. (SAH)

  10. Influence of Field Trip on the Development of Students Interest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    West African Journal of Industrial and Academic Research ... The study investigated the influence of field trip on the development of students' interest towards studying fine and applied arts. ... Result of the study showed that; field trip increased students' interest towards studying fine and applied art theory and practicals.

  11. Strategies for Planning an Overseas Field Trip for Young Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubball, Harry; Robertson, Scott

    2004-01-01

    Overseas field trips, when they are well planned, offer numerous benefits to young athletes. They contribute to player development, and fuel the team's energy and commitment to success. Field trips are enjoyable and exciting breaks from the regular routine of training and competing. The authors recommend strategies for positive results based on…

  12. Immersive, interactive virtual field trips promote learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, G.; Mead, C.; Buxner, S.; Taylor, W.; Semken, S. C.; Anbar, A. D.; Sundstrom, J.

    2016-12-01

    We are assessing the educational effectiveness of a new type of immersive virtual field trip (iVFT) that we are developing, grounded in active, inquiry-based learning, and accessible via web browsers. To this end, we collected data from five high school AP biology classes (n = 153) that were assigned an iVFT lesson focused on life and environment during the Ediacaran time period, 550 million years ago. Students explore a series of fossil beds using high resolution imagery and video acquired during a field expedition to the Nilpena site in the Flinders Ranges, South Australia. They first encounter an immersive spherical image, which orients them to the area. Then, they identify fossils in the iVFT, using a dichotomous key. Finally, they explore an interactive simulation of this ancient ecosystem. The average time spent on the experience was approximately two hours. The learning objective is for students to be able to describe the Ediacaran ecosystem preserved in the rocks at Nilpena. To assess this outcome, we administered identical pre- and post-lesson quizzes to students. Results showed a statistically significant improvement on the six-item quiz with a normalized gain of 0.96 (pre-lesson mean: 2.4, post-lesson mean: 5.9, p lesson scores are close to what would be expected from guessing, so these results represent a substantial growth in understanding. These findings encourage the use of iVFT-based learning experiences in education (an evolving suite is publicly available at http://vft.asu.edu). In the future, we will explore in more detail which aspects of the experience provide greatest educational benefit, and the effectiveness in teaching scientific reasoning skills in addition to content knowledge. To answer these questions, we will supplement content-based questions with mixed-methods data including interviews.

  13. WIPP site and vicinity geological field trip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaturvedi, L.

    1980-10-01

    The Environmental Evaluation Group is conducting an assessment of the radiological health risks to people from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. As a part of this work, EEG is making an effort to improve the understanding of those geological issues concerning the WIPP site which may affect the radiological consequences of the proposed repository. One of the important geological issues to be resolved is the timing and the nature of the dissolution processes which may have affected the WIPP site. EEG organized a two-day conference of geological scientists, on January 17-18, 1980. On the basis of the January conference and the June field trip, EEG has formed the following conclusions: (1) it has not been clearly established that the site or the surrounding area has been attacked by deep dissolution to render it unsuitable for the nuclear waste pilot repository; (2) the existence of an isolated breccia pipe at the site unaccompanied by a deep dissolution wedge, is a very remote possibility; (3) more specific information about the origin and the nature of the brine reservoirs is needed. An important question that should be resolved is whether each encounter with artesian brine represents a separate pocket or whether these occurrences are interconnected; (4) Anderson has postulated a major tectonic fault or a fracture system at the Basin margin along the San Simon Swale; (5) the area in the northern part of the WIPP site, identified from geophysical and bore hole data as the disturbed zone, should be further investigated to cleary understand the nature and significance of this structural anomaly; and (6) a major drawback encountered during the discussions of geological issues related to the WIPP site is the absence of published material that brings together all the known information related to a particular issue

  14. Astronaut Neil Armstrong studies rock samples during geological field trip

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Neil Armstrong, commander of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission, studies rock samples during a geological field trip to the Quitman Mountains area near the Fort Quitman ruins in far west Texas.

  15. Field trip guidebook for the post-meeting field trip: The Central Appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, John F.; Loch, James D.; Ganis, G. Robert; Repetski, John E.; Mitchell, Charles E.; Blackmer, Gale C.; Brezinski, David K.; Goldman, Daniel; Orndorff, Randall C.; Sell, Bryan K.

    2015-01-01

    The lower Paleozoic rocks to be examined on this trip through the central Appalachians represent an extreme range of depositional environments. The lithofacies we will examine range from pelagic radiolarian chert and interbedded mudstone that originated on the deep floor of the Iapetus Ocean, through mud cracked supratidal dolomitic laminites that formed during episodes of emergence of the long-lived Laurentian carbonate platform, to meandering fluvial conglomerate and interstratified overbank mudstone packages deposited in the latest stages of infilling of the Taconic foredeep. In many ways this field trip is about contrasts. The Upper Cambrian (Furongian) and Lower Ordovician deposits of the Sauk megasequence record deposition controlled primarily by eustatic sea level sea level fluctuations that influenced deposition along the passive, southern (Appalachian) margin of the paleocontinent of Laurentia. The only tectonic influence apparent in these passive margin deposits is the expected thickening of the carbonate stack toward the platform margin as compared to the thinner (and typically shallower) facies that formed farther in toward the paleoshoreline. Carbonates overwhelmingly dominate the passive margin succession. Clastic influx was minimal and consisted largely of eastward transport of clean cratonic sands across the platform from the adjacent inner detrital belt to the west during higher order (2nd and 3rd order) regressions.In contrast, Middle and Upper Ordovician deposits of the Tippecanoe megasequence record the strong influence of tectonics, specifically Iapetus closure. The first signal of this tectonic transformation was the arrival of arc-related ash beds that abound in the active margin carbonates. Subsequent intensification of Taconic orogenesis resulted in the foundering of the carbonate platform under the onslaught of fine siliciclastics arriving from offshore tectonic sources to the east, creating a deep marine flysch basin where graptolitic

  16. Field trips as an intervention to enhance pharmacy students' positive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To determine whether students' experience of field trips influenced their perceptions regarding a management module as part of their training as future pharmacists. Methods. A mixed-method sequential exploratory research design was used. Data were gathered through written narratives and focus group interviews, ...

  17. Astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin study rock samples during field trip

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Neil Armstrong, commander of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission, and Astronaut Edwin Aldrin, Lunar module pilot for Apollo 11, study rock samples during a geological field trip to the Quitman Mountains area near the Fort Quitman ruins in far west Texas.

  18. Using GIS for planning field trips: In-situ assessment of Geopoints for field trips with mobile devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, Sarah; Kisser, Thomas; Ditter, Raimund

    2016-04-01

    Up to now no application is existing for collecting data via mobile devices using a geographical information system referring to the evaluation of Geopoints. Classified in different geographical topics a Geopark can be rated for suitability of Geopoints for field trips. The systematically acquisition of the suitability of Geopoints is necessary, especially when doing field trips with lower grade students who see a physical-geographic phenomenon for the first time. For this reason, the development of such an application is an invention for easy handling evaluations of Geopoints on the basis of commonly valid criteria like esthetic attraction, interestingness, and pithiness (Streifinger 2010). Collecting data provides the opportunity of receiving information of particularly suitable Geopoints out of the sight from students, tourists and others. One solution for collecting data in a simple and intuitive form is Survey123 for ArcGIS (http://survey123.esri.com/#/). You can create surveys using an ArcGIS Online organizational account and download your own survey or surveys "that may have been shared with you" (https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/survey-123-for-arcgis/id993015031?mt=8) on your mobile device. "Once a form is downloaded, you will be able to start collecting data."(https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/survey-123-for-arcgis/id993015031?mt=8) Free of cost and use while disconnected the application can easily be used via mobile device on field trips. On a 3-day field trip which is held three times per year in the Geopark Bergstraße-Odenwald Survey123 is being used to evaluate the suitability of different Geopoints for different topics (geology, soils, vegetation, climate). With every field trip about 25 students take part in the survey and evaluate each Geopoint at the route. So, over the time, the docents know exactly which Geopoints suites perfect for teaching geology for example, and why it suites that good. The field trip is organized in an innovative way. Before

  19. Factors affecting elementary principals' and teachers' decisions to support outdoor field trips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspar, Michael Joseph

    Outdoor field trips are recommended in science education reform, yet they are not frequently taken. Barriers may prevent elementary public school teachers from participating in outdoor field trips (Mirka, 1973; Falk & Balling, 1979; Ham, 1988; Orion, 1993). To determine what would increase students' attendance at a nature preserve, factors that may affect elementary private and public school principals' and teachers' decisions to support field trips were identified and compared. Private school principals supported field trips. They believed field trips were safe, and easy to arrange, and that the field trips helped students experience culture in the community. Experienced public school principals who were supportive and believed field trips should be required believed field trips fit into the teacher's lesson plan and were taken for enrichment. Public school principals who were less experienced with field trips believed field trips should be extracurricular. They believed that field trips served as a reward, and that they needed more information. They did not support field trips. Private school teachers believed that field trips did not have overly demanding administrative concerns. They believed field trips were safe, easy to arrange, and were supported by their administrator. Public school teachers who supported field trips and believed field trips should be required were white, female, experienced, and older. They believed that field trips were safe, easy to arrange, enjoyable, and that they had enough help to conduct trips. Public school teachers who may not support trips had administrative concerns, and they did not believe field trips met the needs of students. These were male, white or non-white, young or middle-aged, and less experienced. They may believe field trips are a waste of time and money. They believed they had a nonsupportive administrator. Money for transportation was a barrier for older public school teachers and principals. No improvement on

  20. Understanding Social Learning Behaviors via a Virtual Field Trip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Bai

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This is a multidisciplinary study investigating how a virtual rather than face-to-face field trip can be conducted in a real-world setting and how students respond to such a social learning opportunity. Our participants followed a story of a stroke patient at her virtual home and in a virtual hospital via a teaching vignette. They were then given a new case and got on a virtual trip via a multiuser virtual environment. They played the roles of patients, relatives, doctors, or nurses, experiencing the emotional, physical, or social impacts those stakeholders may go through. Our study finds the overall participation of the Virtual Group is 50% more than the Text Group. Although the Virtual Group generates much more nodes in total, they focused much less on knowledge sharing and comparing than the Text Group (46 vs. 67, but more on other higher-level aspects of social interactions, such as knowledge discovery (57 vs. 42, co-construction (66 vs. 39, testing and modification (58 vs. 24 and application of newly constructed meaning (60 vs. 16. Analysis of students’ virtual field activities and in-depth discussions of important issues implied are included to help understand social learning behaviors during a virtual field trip. Sustainability of such systems is discussed.

  1. Spreading Geodiversity awareness in schools through field trips and ICT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magagna, Alessandra; Giardino, Marco; Ferrero, Elena

    2014-05-01

    Geodiversity, unlike Biodiversity, is not a topic included in the Italian schools curriculum. Nevertheless, Geomorphology is taught at all levels, and it seems to be the right tool for introducing the students to the concepts related to Geodiversity. In this context, a research on the use of field trips and Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) is being carried out for spreading the value of Geodiversity in Secondary Schools. Relevant international literature states that field trips are effective didactic tools for Earth Science education, because they stimulate an active learning process and allow students to appreciate the geological complexity of an area. On the other side, ICT allow students to get knowledge about the variety of landforms of their own territory by staying indoor, using virtual field trips and free software like Google Earth, Google Maps, Bing etc. In order to connect the two strategies, an innovative educational project is proposed here; it involves both the indoor and the outdoor activities, by enhancing a critical approach to the complexity of geological processes. As a starting point, a multimedia product on 20 Italian geological tours, designed for analyzing Geodiversity at a regional scale, has been tested with teachers and students, in order to understand its effectiveness by using it solely indoor. In a second phase, teachers and students have been proposed to compare and integrate indoor and outdoor activities to approach Geodiversity directly at a local scale, by means of targeted field trips. For achieving this goal, during the field trips, students used their mobile devices (smartphone and tablet) equipped with free and/or open source applications (Epicollect, Trimble Outdoor Navigator). These tools allow to track field trips, to gather data (geomorphological observations and related photographs), and to elaborate them in the laboratory; a process useful for reasoning on concepts such as spatial and temporal scales and for

  2. Factors that influence learning during a scientific field trip in a natural environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orion, Nir; Hofstein, Avi

    This study deals with the educational effectiveness of field trips. The main purpose was to obtain insight concerning factors that might influence the ability of students to learn during a scientific field trip in a natural environment. The research was conducted in the context of a 1-day geologic field trip by 296 students in Grades 9 through 11 in high schools in Israel. The study combined qualitative and quantitative research methods. Data were collected from three different sources (student, teacher, and outside observer) in three stages (before, after, and during the field trip). Using observations and questionnaires we investigated: a) the nature of student learning during the field trip, b) student attitudes toward the field trip, and c) changes in student knowledge and attitudes after the field trip. Our findings suggest that the educational effectiveness of a field trip is controlled by two major factors: the field trip quality and the Novelty space (or Familiarity Index). The educational quality of a field trip is determined by its structure, learning materials, and teaching method, and the ability to direct learning to a concrete interaction with the environment. The novelty space consists of three prefield variables: cognitive, psychological, and geographic. The learning performance of students whose Novelty Space was reduced before the field trip was significantly higher than that of students whose Novelty Space had not been so reduced. Thus, the former group gained significantly higher achievement and attitude levels. It is suggested that a field trip should occur early in the concrete part of the curriculum, and should be preceded by a relatively short preparatory unit that focuses on increasing familiarity with the learning setting of the field trip, thereby limiting the Novelty Space factors.Received: 23 March 1993; Revised: 24 January 1994;

  3. A Virtual Field Trip to the Gemini Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, R. Scott; Michaud, P. D.

    2010-01-01

    Live from Gemini (LfG) is a virtual field trip using video conferencing technology to connect primary, secondary and post-secondary students with scientists and educators at the Gemini Observatory. As a pilot project, LfG is rapidly becoming one of the observatory's most often-requested educational programs for learners of all ages. The program aligns exceptionally well with national science (and technology) standards, as well as existing school curricula. This combination makes it easy for teachers to justify participation in the program, especially as the necessary video conferencing technology becomes ever more ubiquitous in classrooms and technology learning centers around the world. In developing and testing this pilot project, a programmatic approach and philosophy evolved that includes post-field-trip educational materials, multi-disciplinary subject matter (astronomy, geology, mathematics, meteorology, engineering and even language - the program is offered in Spanish from Gemini South in Chile), and the establishment of a personal connection and rapport with students. The presenters work to create a comfortable interaction despite the perceived technological barriers. The authors’ experiences with the LfG pilot project convince us that this model is viable for almost any astronomical observatory and should be considered by any dynamic, technology- and education-oriented facility.

  4. Effective Lesson Planning: Field Trips in the Science Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, C. R.

    2010-10-01

    Science field trips can positively impact and motivate students. However, if a field trip is not executed properly, with appropriate preparation and follow-up reinforcement, it can result in a loss of valuable educational time and promote misconceptions in the students. This study was undertaken to determine if a classroom lesson before an out-of-the-classroom activity would affect learner gain more or less than a lesson after the activity. The study was based on the immersive theater movie ``Earth's Wild Ride'' coupled with a teacher-led Power Point lesson. The participants in the study were students in a sixth grade physical science class. The order of lessons showed no detectable effect on final learner outcomes. Based on pre- and post-testing, improvement in mean learning gain came from the teacher-led lesson independent of the movie. The visit to the immersive theater, however, had significant positive effects that did not show up in the quantitative results of the testing.

  5. Field trips and their effect on student achievement in and attitudes toward science: A comparison of a physical versus a virtual field trip to the Indian River Lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Lesley Cochran

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of physical and virtual field trips on students' achievement in estuarine ecology and their attitudes toward science. The study also assessed the effect of students' learning styles, the interaction between group membership and learning styles, and the effect of group membership on students' ability to answer questions at different levels of Bloom's (1956) taxonomy. Working with a convenient sample of 67 freshmen and sophomore non-science majors, students were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups (physical, n = 32 and virtual, n = 35). Prior to treatment, students' learning styles were determined, students were pre-assessed on the two targeted measures, and all students attended four consecutive, in-class, 75-minute lectures on estuarine ecology and the Indian River Lagoon (IRL). Pre-assessed data indicated no significant differences between the groups on the two dependent measures. On the weekend following the lecture series, the physical field trip group engaged in a set of predetermined activities at the IRL for 2 hours in the morning. Later that afternoon, the virtual field trip group participated in a 2-hour virtual trip to the IRL that exactly matched the physical field trip activities. This virtual trip incorporated the CD-ROM The Living Lagoon: An Electronic Field Trip. Following each trip, students were post-assessed using the same pre-assessment instruments. MANCOVA results indicated no significant differences on all research factors (i.e., group membership, learning style, and group-learning style interaction). Data analysis also revealed that there was no significant effect of group membership on students' ability to answer questions at different levels of Bloom's taxonomy. These findings imply that educators can integrate virtual field trips that are structured in the same manner as their corresponding physical field trips without significantly impacting student achievement or attitudes.

  6. Teachers as Secondary Players: Involvement in Field Trips to Natural Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alon, Nirit Lavie; Tal, Tali

    2017-08-01

    This study focused on field trips to natural environments where the teacher plays a secondary role alongside a professional guide. We investigated teachers' and field trip guides' views of the teacher's role, the teacher's actual function on the field trip, and the relationship between them. We observed field trips, interviewed teachers and guides, and administered questionnaires. We found different levels of teacher involvement, ranging from mainly supervising and giving technical help, to high involvement especially in the cognitive domain and sometimes in the social domain. Analysis of students' self-reported outcomes showed that the more students believe their teachers are involved, the higher the self-reported learning outcomes.

  7. Geologic field-trip guide to Long Valley Caldera, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildreth, Wes; Fierstein, Judy

    2017-07-26

    This guide to the geology of Long Valley Caldera is presented in four parts: (1) An overview of the volcanic geology; (2) a chronological summary of the principal geologic events; (3) a road log with directions and descriptions for 38 field-trip stops; and (4) a summary of the geophysical unrest since 1978 and discussion of its causes. The sequence of stops is arranged as a four-day excursion for the quadrennial General Assembly of the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth’s Interior (IAVCEI), centered in Portland, Oregon, in August 2017. Most stops, however, are written freestanding, with directions that allow each one to be visited independently, in any order selected.

  8. Wolves Are Beautiful and Proud: Science Learning from a School Field Trip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Marilyn Petty; Samarapungavan, Ala

    2008-01-01

    This research examines the impact of related classroom activities on fourth grade students' science learning from a school field trip. The current study draws upon research in psychology and education to create an intervention that is designed to enhance what students learn from school science field trips. The intervention comprises a set of…

  9. Current Practices for Providing School Field Trip Meals: Perspectives of School Nutrition Managers and Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneed, Jeannie; Vaterlaus Patten, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The Healthy, Hunger Free Kids Act of 2010 extended the requirements for a school food safety program to wherever food is stored, prepared, or served, including meals for field trips. The purpose of this study was to determine what foods are used for field trip meals, how those foods are transported and stored, and what standard…

  10. Student Self-Reported Learning Outcomes of Field Trips: The Pedagogical Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alon, Nirit Lavie; Tal, Tali

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we used the classification and regression trees (CART) method to draw relationships between student self-reported learning outcomes in 26 field trips to natural environments and various characteristics of the field trip that include variables associated with preparation and pedagogy. We wished to examine the extent to which the…

  11. Field trip guide to selected outcrops, Arbuckle Mountains, Oklahoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-11-17

    The Arbuckle Mountains, named for Brigadier General Matthew Arbuckle, are located in south-central Oklahoma. The formations that comprise the Arbuckle Mountains have been extensively studied for hydrocarbon source rock and reservoir rock characteristics that can be applied to the subsurface in the adjacent Anadarko and Ardmore basins. Numerous reports and guidebooks have been written concerning the Arbuckle Mountains. A few important general publications are provided in the list of selected references. The purpose of this handout is to provide general information on the geology of the Arbuckle Mountains and specific information on the four field trip stops, adapted from the literature. The four stops were at: (1) Sooner Rock and Sand Quarry; (2) Woodford Shale; (3) Hunton Anticline and Hunton Quarry; and (4) Tar Sands of Sulfur Area. As part of this report, two papers are included for more detail: Paleomagnetic dating of basinal fluid migration, base-metal mineralization, and hydrocarbon maturation in the Arbuckle Mountains, Oklahoma and Laminated black shale-bedded chert cyclicity in the Woodford Formation, southern Oklahoma.

  12. Field-trip guides to selected volcanoes and volcanic landscapes of the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2017-06-23

    The North American Cordillera is home to a greater diversity of volcanic provinces than any comparably sized region in the world. The interplay between changing plate-margin interactions, tectonic complexity, intra-crustal magma differentiation, and mantle melting have resulted in a wealth of volcanic landscapes.  Field trips in this guide book collection (published as USGS Scientific Investigations Report 2017–5022) visit many of these landscapes, including (1) active subduction-related arc volcanoes in the Cascade Range; (2) flood basalts of the Columbia Plateau; (3) bimodal volcanism of the Snake River Plain-Yellowstone volcanic system; (4) some of the world’s largest known ignimbrites from southern Utah, central Colorado, and northern Nevada; (5) extension-related volcanism in the Rio Grande Rift and Basin and Range Province; and (6) the eastern Sierra Nevada featuring Long Valley Caldera and the iconic Bishop Tuff.  Some of the field trips focus on volcanic eruptive and emplacement processes, calling attention to the fact that the western United States provides opportunities to examine a wide range of volcanological phenomena at many scales.The 2017 Scientific Assembly of the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth’s Interior (IAVCEI) in Portland, Oregon, was the impetus to update field guides for many of the volcanoes in the Cascades Arc, as well as publish new guides for numerous volcanic provinces and features of the North American Cordillera. This collection of guidebooks summarizes decades of advances in understanding of magmatic and tectonic processes of volcanic western North America. These field guides are intended for future generations of scientists and the general public as introductions to these fascinating areas; the hope is that the general public will be enticed toward further exploration and that scientists will pursue further field-based research.

  13. Forest Field Trips among High School Science Teachers in the Southern Piedmont

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Shannon M.; Munsell, John F.; Seiler, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Students benefit in many ways by taking field trips to forests. Improved academic performance, increased participation in outdoor recreation, and a better grasp of natural resources management are some of the advantages. However, trips are not easy for teachers to organize and lead. Declining budgets, on-campus schedules, and standards of learning…

  14. Field trip report: Observations made at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada. Special report No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, C.A.

    1993-03-01

    A field trip was made to the Yucca Mountain area on December 5-9, 1992 by Jerry Frazier, Don Livingston, Christine Schluter, Russell Harmon, and Carol Hill. Forty-three separate stops were made and 275 lbs. of rocks were collected during the five days of the field trip. Key localities visited were the Bare Mountains, Yucca Mountain, Calico Hills, Busted Butte, Harper Valley, Red Cliff Gulch, Wahmonie Hills, Crater Flat, and Lathrop Wells Cone. This report only describes field observations made by Carol Hill. Drawings are used rather than photographs because cameras were not permitted on the Nevada Test Site during this trip

  15. Linking Immersive Virtual Field Trips with an Adaptive Learning Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, G.; Taylor, W.; Anbar, A. D.; Semken, S. C.; Buxner, S.; Mead, C.; El-Moujaber, E.; Summons, R. E.; Oliver, C.

    2016-12-01

    The use of virtual environments in science education has been constrained by the difficulty of guiding a learner's actions within the those environments. In this work, we demonstrate how advances in education software technology allow educators to create interactive learning experiences that respond and adapt intelligently to learner input within the virtual environment. This innovative technology provides a far greater capacity for delivering authentic inquiry-driven educational experiences in unique settings from around the world. Our immersive virtual field trips (iVFT) bring students virtually to geologically significant but inaccessible environments, where they learn through authentic practices of scientific inquiry. In one recent example, students explore the fossil beds in Nilpena, South Australia to learn about the Ediacaran fauna. Students interactively engage in 360° recreations of the environment, uncover the nature of the historical ecosystem by identifying fossils with a dichotomous key, explore actual fossil beds in high resolution imagery, and reconstruct what an ecosystem might have looked like millions of years ago in an interactive simulation. With the new capacity to connect actions within the iVFT to an intelligent tutoring system, these learning experiences can be tracked, guided, and tailored individually to the immediate actions of the student. This new capacity also has great potential for learning designers to take a data-driven approach to lesson improvement and for education researchers to study learning in virtual environments. Thus, we expect iVFT will be fertile ground for novel research. Such iVFT are currently in use in several introductory classes offered online at Arizona State University in anthropology, introductory biology, and astrobiology, reaching thousands of students to date. Drawing from these experiences, we are designing a curriculum for historical geology that will be built around iVFT-based exploration of Earth

  16. A Way to Change Learning: Field Trips as a University Pedagogical Resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érika Vásquez Salazar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article represents the systematization of different experiences related to educational field trips in higher education taking place between 2005 and 2012 within the Primary Education Division (DEB at Universidad Nacional, Costa Rica. Field trips were used as an educational resource to develop attitudes and aptitudes in students from various education majors. The author proposes pedagogical field trips as a possible strategy to promote innovation in higher education and achieve a positive change in teaching and learning processes. Field trips are presented as a tool that allows students to complete their coursework in a more significant and participative manner being in contact with the educational reality and to become humanized and to reinvent themselves as persons and future teachers.

  17. SafeTrip-21 : Federal ITS field tests to transform the traveler experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    SafeTrip-21 popularized transportation technology by making traffic and transit data available to the public : via websites, smartphone apps, and other electronic media. Federal ITS field tests were carried out between : November 2008 and November 20...

  18. Field trip guide to the Valles Caldera and its geothermal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, F.E.; Bolivar, S.L.

    1983-12-01

    This field trip guide has been compiled from extensive field trips led at Los Alamos National Laboratory during the past six years. The original version of this guide was designed to augment a workshop on the Valles Caldera for the Continental Scientific Drilling Program (CSDP). This workshop was held at Los Alamos, New Mexico, 5-7 October 1982. More stops were added to this guide to display the volcanic and geothermal features at the Valles Caldera. The trip covers about 90 miles (one way) and takes two days to complete; however, those who wish to compress the trip into one day are advised to use the designated stops listed in the Introduction. Valles Caldera and vicinity comprise both one of the most exciting geothermal areas in the United States and one of the best preserved Quaternary caldera complexes in the world.

  19. Exploring the use of Virtual Field Trips with elementary school teachers: A collaborative action research approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jeffrey Lance

    This research examines how elementary school teachers, when supported, use Virtual Field Trips (VFTs) to address the curricula in meaningful ways. I conducted a qualitative study with six teachers, in a collaborative action research context over a six month period. The teachers, five males and one female, all taught either grade five or six and utilized Virtual Field Trips within a variety of curricula areas including science, social studies, music and language arts. In addition, the thesis examines resulting integration of technology into the regular classroom program as a product of the utilization of Virtual Field Trips. The process of collaborative action research was applied as a means of personal and professional growth both for the participants and the researcher/facilitator. By the end of the research study, all participants had learned to integrate Virtual Field Trips into their classroom program, albeit with different levels of success and in different curricula areas. The development of attitudes, skills and knowledge for students and teachers alike was fostered through the participation in Virtual Field Trips. A common concern regarding the utilization of Virtual Field Trips was the time spent locating an appropriate site that met curricula expectations. Participation in the collaborative action research process allowed each teacher to grow professionally, personally and socially. Each participant strongly encouraged the utilization of a long term project with a common area of exploration as a means for positive professional development. Implications and recommendations for future research on the utilization of Virtual Field Trips, as well as the viability of collaborative action research to facilitate teacher development are presented.

  20. Collaborative Research: Bringing Problem Solving in the Field into the Classroom: Developing and Assessing Virtual Field Trips for Teaching Sedimentary and Introductory Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, P.; Caldwell, M.

    2012-12-01

    Coastal Florida offers a unique setting for the facilitation of learning about a variety of modern sedimentary environments. Despite the conflicting concept of "virtual" and "actual" field trip, and the uncertainties associated with the implementation and effectiveness, virtual trips provide likely the only way to reach a large diversified student population and eliminate travel time and expenses. In addition, with rapidly improving web and visualization technology, field trips can be simulated virtually. It is therefore essential to systematically develop and assess the educational effectiveness of virtual field trips. This project is developing, implementing, and assessing a series of virtual field trips for teaching undergraduate sedimentary geology at a large four-year research university and introductory geology at a large two-year community college. The virtual field trip is based on a four-day actual field trip for a senior level sedimentary geology class. Two versions of the virtual field trip, one for advanced class and one for introductory class, are being produced. The educational outcome of the virtual field trip will be compared to that from actual field trip. This presentation summarizes Year 1 achievements of the three-year project. The filming, editing, and initial production of the virtual field trip have been completed. Formative assessments were conducted by the Coalition for Science Literacy at the University of South Florida. Once tested and refined, the virtual field trips will be disseminated through broadly used web portals and workshops at regional and national meetings.

  1. Bridging contexts and interpretations: Mobile blogging on art museum field trips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palmyre Pierroux

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study of art museum field trips by high school students, we investigate the ways in which features of different social and mobile technologies, specifically blogs and mobile phones, are able to bridge and support meaning making in young people’s encounters with contemporary art. Empirical material is presented from Gidder, a web-based learning environment with a mobile blogging feature. Through close examination of students’ use of contextual resources and the writing and editing of blog entries, this study contributes a deeper understanding of the ways in which digital technologies may be designed for pedagogical use on museum field trips.

  2. Bridging contexts and interpretations: Mobile blogging on art museum field trips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palmyre Pierroux

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study of art museum field trips by high school students, we investigate the ways in which features of different social and mobile technologies, specifically blogs and mobile phones, are able to bridge and support meaning making in young people’s encounters with contemporary art. Empirical material is presented from Gidder, a web-based learning environment with a mobile blogging feature. Through close examination of students’ use of contextual resources and the writing and editing of blog entries, this study contributes a deeper understanding of the ways in which digital technologies may be designed for pedagogical use on museum field trips.

  3. Field Trip as an Effective Method of Teaching Apiculture/Beekeeping among University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ja’afar-Furo, M. R.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Various methods of teaching beekeeping in the very few institutions of higher learning that offer such courses have been studied. This survey attempted to review the numerous methods of instructions applied in achieving better learning outcomes on apiculture in tertiary institutions. Secondary information were mainly used to source for data for the survey. However, interview schedules were conducted to solicit for primary data from the students on their perception on best methodology for learning the subject. Descriptive statistics and percentage score were used to analyse the involvement of institutions in instructing learners, and capture learners’ perception on most preferred teaching methods of the course, respectively. Although findings indicated that a classroom lectures method, a combination of lecture and demonstration methods, field trip method, laboratory method, project methods, among others, existed as pedagogies used for ensuring that learners have had thorough understanding of the subject matter, majority of learners opted for the field trip method of teaching apiculture as the most preferred way of stimulating students toward enhanced learning outcomes. Based on the findings of the study, it’s concluded that a combination of field trip and lecture methods of instruction is the most effective way of teaching beekeeping in tertiary schools. Therefore, institutions and organisations of public and private origins that intend to improve on the knowledge of apiculture among youths and all, should capture field trip and lecture methods in their curricula of learning as the most preferred way of instruction.

  4. FieldTrip: Open source software for advanced analysis of MEG, EEG, and invasive electrophysiological data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostenveld, R.; Fries, P.; Maris, E.G.G.; Schoffelen, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes FieldTrip, an open source software package that we developed for the analysis of MEG, EEG, and other electrophysiological data. The software is implemented as a MATLAB toolbox and includes a complete set of consistent and user-friendly high-level functions that allow

  5. Student Self-Reported Learning Outcomes of Field Trips: The pedagogical impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavie Alon, Nirit; Tal, Tali

    2015-05-01

    In this study, we used the classification and regression trees (CART) method to draw relationships between student self-reported learning outcomes in 26 field trips to natural environments and various characteristics of the field trip that include variables associated with preparation and pedagogy. We wished to examine the extent to which the preparation for the field trip, its connection to the school curriculum, and the pedagogies used, affect students' self-reported outcomes in three domains: cognitive, affective, and behavioral; and the extent the students' socioeconomic group and the guide's affiliation affect students' reported learning outcomes. Given that most of the field trips were guide-centered, the most important variable that affected the three domains of outcomes was the guide's storytelling. Other variables that showed relationships with self-reported outcomes were physical activity and making connections to everyday life-all of which we defined as pedagogical variables. We found no significant differences in student self-reported outcomes with respect to their socioeconomic group and the guide's organizational affiliation.

  6. The Role of Science Museum Field Trips in the Primary Teacher Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morentin, Maite; Guisasola, Jenaro

    2015-01-01

    School visits and field trips to museums and science centres are considered a powerful learning resource given their recreational and educational potential, but visits need to be integrated into classroom programming to optimize learning. In this study, we have attempted to design and build bridges between what a school needs and what a museum can…

  7. Designing Mobile Learning Environments to Support Teacher-Led Field Trips within Informal Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Donald S.

    2016-01-01

    Mobile devices have become increasingly more visible within classrooms and informal learning spaces. The purpose of this dissertation is to examine the impact of mobile learning (m-learning) tools to support student learning during teacher-led field trips. Specifically, the research questions for this study are: (a) What conditions affect student…

  8. Utilizing Geo-Referenced Mobile Game Technology for Universally Accessible Virtual Geology Field Trips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursztyn, Natalie; Pederson, Joel; Shelton, Brett; Walker, Andrew; Campbell, Todd

    2015-01-01

    Declining interest and low persistence is well documented among undergraduate students in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math in the United States. For geoscience, field trips are important attractors to students, however with high enrollment courses and increasing costs they are becoming rare. We propose in this concept paper that the…

  9. Geologic field-trip guide to Medicine Lake Volcano, northern California, including Lava Beds National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly-Nolan, Julie M.; Grove, Timothy L.

    2017-08-17

    Medicine Lake volcano is among the very best places in the United States to see and walk on a variety of well-exposed young lava flows that range in composition from basalt to rhyolite. This field-trip guide to the volcano and to Lava Beds National Monument, which occupies part of the north flank, directs visitors to a wide range of lava flow compositions and volcanic phenomena, many of them well exposed and Holocene in age. The writing of the guide was prompted by a field trip to the California Cascades Arc organized in conjunction with the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth’s Interior (IAVCEI) quadrennial meeting in Portland, Oregon, in August of 2017. This report is one of a group of three guides describing the three major volcanic centers of the southern Cascades Volcanic Arc. The guides describing the Mount Shasta and Lassen Volcanic Center parts of the trip share an introduction, written as an overview to the IAVCEI field trip. However, this guide to Medicine Lake volcano has descriptions of many more stops than are included in the 2017 field trip. The 23 stops described here feature a range of compositions and volcanic phenomena. Many other stops are possible and some have been previously described, but these 23 have been selected to highlight the variety of volcanic phenomena at this rear-arc center, the range of compositions, and for the practical reason that they are readily accessible. Open ground cracks, various vent features, tuffs, lava-tube caves, evidence for glaciation, and lava flows that contain inclusions and show visible evidence of compositional zonation are described and visited along the route.

  10. Predicting Individual Trip Destinations With Artificial Potential Fields.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zonta, A.; Smit, S.K.; Haasdijk, Evert

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a method to model the intended destination of a subject in real time, based on a trace of position information and prior knowledge of possible destinations. In contrast to most work in this field, it does so without the need for prior analysis of habitual travel patterns. The

  11. A field trip guidebook to the type localities of Marland Billings' 1935 Paleozoic bedrock stratigraphy near Littleton, New Hampshire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Douglas W.; Rankin, Mary B.

    2014-01-01

    Marland Billings' classic paper published in 1937 in the Geological Society of America Bulletin established a succession of six stratigraphic units in rocks of low metamorphic grade near Littleton, New Hampshire. The two youngest units are fossiliferous in the area, with ages established at the time as “middle” Silurian and Early Devonian. Billings and students mapped the same stratigraphic section in adjacent areas of progressively higher regional metamorphic grade. This work laid the foundation upon which a major part of subsequent work in New England has been directly or indirectly built. This guidebook was written for a field trip held in March 2013 to visit roadcuts that are as close as possible in March to the type localities or areas of Billings’ six-fold stratigraphic succession. Ten stops are in rocks of chlorite grade of Acadian(?) metamorphism; the final stop visits amphibolite of the Ammonoosuc Volcanics. Fieldwork by the authors over the past 20 years confirms Billings’ broad conclusions.

  12. Overview for geologic field-trip guides to volcanoes of the Cascades Arc in northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muffler, L. J. Patrick; Donnelly-Nolan, Julie M.; Grove, Timothy L.; Clynne, Michael A.; Christiansen, Robert L.; Calvert, Andrew T.; Ryan-Davis, Juliet

    2017-08-15

    The California Cascades field trip is a loop beginning and ending in Portland, Oregon. The route of day 1 goes eastward across the Cascades just south of Mount Hood, travels south along the east side of the Cascades for an overview of the central Oregon volcanoes (including Three Sisters and Newberry Volcano), and ends at Klamath Falls, Oregon. Day 2 and much of day 3 focus on Medicine Lake Volcano. The latter part of day 3 consists of a drive south across the Pit River into the Hat Creek Valley and then clockwise around Lassen Volcanic Center to the town of Chester, California. Day 4 goes from south to north across Lassen Volcanic Center, ending at Burney, California. Day 5 and the first part of day 6 follow a clockwise route around Mount Shasta. The trip returns to Portland on the latter part of day 6, west of the Cascades through the Klamath Mountains and the Willamette Valley. Each of the three sections of this guidebook addresses one of the major volcanic regions: Lassen Volcanic Center (a volcanic field that spans the volcanic arc), Mount Shasta (a fore-arc stratocone), and Medicine Lake Volcano (a rear-arc, shield-shaped edifice). Each section of the guide provides (1) an overview of the extensive field and laboratory studies, (2) an introduction to the literature, and (3) directions to the most important and accessible field localities. The field-trip sections contain far more stops than can possibly be visited in the actual 6-day 2017 IAVCEI excursion from Portland. We have included extra stops in order to provide a field-trip guide that will have lasting utility for those who may have more time or may want to emphasize one particular volcanic area.

  13. Development of field programmable gate array-based reactor trip functions using systems engineering approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Jae Cheon; Ahmed, Ibrahim [Nuclear Power Plant Engineering, KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    Design engineering process for field programmable gate array (FPGA)-based reactor trip functions are developed in this work. The process discussed in this work is based on the systems engineering approach. The overall design process is effectively implemented by combining with design and implementation processes. It transforms its overall development process from traditional V-model to Y-model. This approach gives the benefit of concurrent engineering of design work with software implementation. As a result, it reduces development time and effort. The design engineering process consisted of five activities, which are performed and discussed: needs/systems analysis; requirement analysis; functional analysis; design synthesis; and design verification and validation. Those activities are used to develop FPGA-based reactor bistable trip functions that trigger reactor trip when the process input value exceeds the setpoint. To implement design synthesis effectively, a model-based design technique is implied. The finite-state machine with data path structural modeling technique together with very high speed integrated circuit hardware description language and the Aldec Active-HDL tool are used to design, model, and verify the reactor bistable trip functions for nuclear power plants.

  14. Viability of seeds in food products proposed for field trips in Galapagos

    OpenAIRE

    Jaramillo, Patricia; Bassantes, Joselyn; Tye, Alan

    2005-01-01

    Seeds of 14 plant species extracted from food products proposed for field trips in Galapagos were tested for viability. Strawberry Fragaria ananasa and Blackberry Rubus glaucus jams (Snob and Gustadina brands) contained no viable seeds. Schullo brand granola contained inviable Sesame Sesamum indicum seed, but Sesame in granolas prepared in Galapagos was viable. Sesame seed in bread was viable but Flax Linum usitatissimum seed in bread was not. Brown Rice Oryza sativa and Sunflower...

  15. Leveraging Field Trips in Higher Education for Local Engagement and Impact: An Example from Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riker, J.; Watson, M.; Liu, E. J.; Chigna, G.; Purvis, M.; Naismith, A.

    2016-12-01

    For over ten years, the University of Bristol (U.K.) has run a field trip for masters students in Natural Hazards in the volcanically active areas of southern Guatemala, home to more than 13 million people. This trip has obvious benefits to its participants - it serves as an immersive and formative experience for students studying volcanic hazard, as well as a springboard for the work of the researchers who lead it. Over the years, it has helped to build strong collaborative ties between academic researchers at Bristol and Guatemala's geologic survey (INSIVUMEH) and emergency management agency (CONRED), facilitating the sharing of data, expertise, and monitoring equipment. The students' regular presence has also enabled infrastructure improvements at Fuego Volcano Observatory, which is itself hosted and partly staffed by the residents of Panimache, a small village just a few miles from the volcano's summit. This field trip does raise challenges, however - an influx of foreign students can draw questions from community members for whom the benefits are indirect (i.e., local job creation or infrastructure improvement) or intangible (i.e., incremental contributions to the body of knowledge regarding volcanic hazard). In this presentation, we'll share stories of our experiences of effective community collaboration in Guatemala. In the spirit of discussion, we would also like to explore the opportunities that exist to better utilise this trip, along with the energy and expertise of its participants, to maximise the positive impact on (and resilience of) local communities, particularly those in the small and largely indigenous villages that populate Fuego Volcano's flanks.

  16. Field-trip guide to a volcanic transect of the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, Dennis; Wolff, John; Harpp, Karen

    2017-08-01

    The Pacific Northwest region of the United States provides world-class and historically important examples of a wide variety of volcanic features. This guide is designed to give a broad overview of the region’s diverse volcanism rather than focusing on the results of detailed studies; the reader should consult the reference list for more detailed information on each of the sites, and we have done our best to recognize previous field trip leaders who have written the pioneering guides. This trip derives from one offered as a component of the joint University of Idaho- Washington State University volcanology class taught from 1995 through 2014, and it borrows in theme from the classic field guide of Johnston and Donnelly-Nolan (1981). For readers interested in using this field guide as an educational tool, we have included an appendix with supplemental references to resources that provide useful background information on relevant topics, as well as a few suggestions for field-based exercises that could be useful when bringing students to these locations in the future. The 4-day trip begins with an examination of lava flow structures of the Columbia River Basalt, enormous lava fields that were emplaced during one of the largest eruptive episodes in Earth’s recent history. On the second day, the trip turns to the High Lava Plains, a bimodal volcanic province that transgressed from southeast to northwest from the Miocene through the Holocene, at the northern margin of the Basin and Range Province. This volcanic field provides excellent examples of welded ignimbrite, silicic lavas and domes, monogenetic basaltic lava fields, and hydrovolcanic features. The third day is devoted to a circumnavigation of Crater Lake, the result of one of the world’s best-documented caldera-forming eruptions. The caldera walls also expose the anatomy of Mount Mazama, a stratovolcano of the Cascade Range. The last day is spent at Newberry Volcano, a back-arc shield volcano topped by a

  17. Field-trip guide to Mount Hood, Oregon, highlighting eruptive history and hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, William E.; Gardner, Cynthia A.

    2017-06-22

    This guidebook describes stops of interest for a geological field trip around Mount Hood volcano. It was developed for the 2017 International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth’s Interior (IAVCEI) Scientific Assembly in Portland, Oregon. The intent of this guidebook and accompanying contributions is to provide an overview of Mount Hood, including its chief geologic processes, magmatic system, eruptive history, local tectonics, and hazards, by visiting a variety of readily accessible localities. We also describe coeval, largely monogenetic, volcanoes in the region. Accompanying the field-trip guidebook are separately authored contributions that discuss in detail the Mount Hood magmatic system and its products and behavior (Kent and Koleszar, this volume); Mount Hood earthquakes and their relation to regional tectonics and the volcanic system (Thelen and Moran, this volume); and young surface faults cutting the broader Mount Hood area whose extent has come to light after acquisition of regional light detection and ranging coverage (Madin and others, this volume).The trip makes an approximately 175-mile (280-kilometer) clockwise loop around Mount Hood, starting and ending in Portland. The route heads east on Interstate 84 through the Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area. The guidebook points out only a few conspicuous features of note in the gorge, but many other guides to the gorge are available. The route continues south on the Mount Hood National Scenic Byway on Oregon Route 35 following Hood River, and returns to Portland on U.S. Highway 26 following Sandy River. The route traverses rocks as old as the early Miocene Eagle Creek Formation and overlying Columbia River Basalt Group of middle Miocene age, but chiefly lava flows and clastic products of arc volcanism of late Miocene to Holocene age.

  18. TRIPping Constructivism

    OpenAIRE

    Zarakol, Ayse

    2016-01-01

    The Teaching, Research, and International Policy (TRIP) surveys have become the authoritative source for making sense of the discipline of inter- national relations (IR) as a global field of practice. At relatively regular intervals they provide snap-shots of the discipline based on the self-reporting of IR schol- ars from 20 countries around the world. The TRIP project also includes assessments from “a new journal article database that includes every article published in the field’s 12 leadi...

  19. Immersive Virtual Reality Field Trips in the Geosciences: Integrating Geodetic Data in Undergraduate Geoscience Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Femina, P. C.; Klippel, A.; Zhao, J.; Walgruen, J. O.; Stubbs, C.; Jackson, K. L.; Wetzel, R.

    2017-12-01

    High-quality geodetic data and data products, including GPS-GNSS, InSAR, LiDAR, and Structure from Motion (SfM) are opening the doors to visualizing, quantifying, and modeling geologic, tectonic, geomorphic, and geodynamic processes. The integration of these data sets with other geophysical, geochemical and geologic data is providing opportunities for the development of immersive Virtual Reality (iVR) field trips in the geosciences. iVR fieldtrips increase accessibility in the geosciences, by providing experiences that allow for: 1) exploration of field locations that might not be tenable for introductory or majors courses; 2) accessibility to outcrops for students with physical disabilities; and 3) the development of online geosciences courses. We have developed a workflow for producing iVR fieldtrips and tools to make quantitative observations (e.g., distance, area, and volume) within the iVR environment. We use a combination of terrestrial LiDAR and SfM data, 360° photos and videos, and other geophysical, geochemical and geologic data to develop realistic experiences for students to be exposed to the geosciences from sedimentary geology to physical volcanology. We present two of our iVR field trips: 1) Inside the Volcano: Exploring monogenetic volcanism at Thrihnukagigar Iceland; and 2) Changes in Depositional Environment in a Sedimentary Sequence: The Reedsville and Bald Eagle Formations, Pennsylvania. The Thrihnukagigar experience provides the opportunity to investigate monogenetic volcanism through the exploration of the upper 125 m of a fissure-cinder cone eruptive system. Students start at the plate boundary scale, then zoom into a single volcano where they can view the 3D geometry from either terrestrial LiDAR or SfM point clouds, view geochemical data and petrologic thins sections of rock samples, and a presentation of data collection and analysis, results and interpretation. Our sedimentary geology experience is based on a field lab from our

  20. Geologic field-trip guide to Mount Shasta Volcano, northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Robert L.; Calvert, Andrew T.; Grove, Timothy L.

    2017-08-18

    The southern part of the Cascades Arc formed in two distinct, extended periods of activity: “High Cascades” volcanoes erupted during about the past 6 million years and were built on a wider platform of Tertiary volcanoes and shallow plutons as old as about 30 Ma, generally called the “Western Cascades.” For the most part, the Shasta segment (for example, Hildreth, 2007; segment 4 of Guffanti and Weaver, 1988) of the arc forms a distinct, fairly narrow axis of short-lived small- to moderate-sized High Cascades volcanoes that erupted lavas, mainly of basaltic-andesite or low-silica-andesite compositions. Western Cascades rocks crop out only sparsely in the Shasta segment; almost all of the following descriptions are of High Cascades features except for a few unusual localities where older, Western Cascades rocks are exposed to view along the route of the field trip.The High Cascades arc axis in this segment of the arc is mainly a relatively narrow band of either monogenetic or short-lived shield volcanoes. The belt generally averages about 15 km wide and traverses the length of the Shasta segment, roughly 100 km between about the Klamath River drainage on the north, near the Oregon-California border, and the McCloud River drainage on the south (fig. 1). Superposed across this axis are two major long-lived stratovolcanoes and the large rear-arc Medicine Lake volcano. One of the stratovolcanoes, the Rainbow Mountain volcano of about 1.5–0.8 Ma, straddles the arc near the midpoint of the Shasta segment. The other, Mount Shasta itself, which ranges from about 700 ka to 0 ka, lies distinctly west of the High Cascades axis. It is notable that Mount Shasta and Medicine Lake volcanoes, although volcanologically and petrologically quite different, span about the same range of ages and bracket the High Cascades axis on the west and east, respectively.The field trip begins near the southern end of the Shasta segment, where the Lassen Volcanic Center field trip leaves

  1. Flow field and thermal characteristics in a model of a tangentially fired furnace under different conditions of burner tripping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, M. A.; Ben-Mansour, R.; Antar, M. A.

    2005-08-01

    Tangentially fired furnaces are vortex-combustion units and are widely used in steam generators of industrial plants. The present study provides a numerical investigation of the problem of turbulent reacting flows in a model furnace of a tangentially fired boiler. The importance of this problem is mainly due to its relation to large boiler furnaces used in thermal power plants. In the present work, calculation of the flow field, temperature and species concentration-contour maps in a tangentially-fired model furnace are provided. The safety of these furnaces requires that the burner be tripped (its fuel is cut off) if the flame is extinguished. Therefore, the present work provides an investigation of the influence of number of tripped burners on the characteristics of the flow and thermal fields. The details of the flow, thermal and combustion fields are obtained from the solution of the conservation equations of mass, momentum and energy and transport equations for scalar variables in addition to the equations of the turbulence model. Available experimental measurements were used for validating the calculation procedure. The results show that the vortex created due to pressure gradient at the furnace center only influenced by tripping at least two burners. However, the temperature distributions are significantly distorted by tripping any of the burners. Regions of very high temperature close to the furnace walls appear as a result of tripping the fuel in one or two of the burners. Calculated heat flux along the furnace walls are presented.

  2. FieldTrip: Open Source Software for Advanced Analysis of MEG, EEG, and Invasive Electrophysiological Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Oostenveld

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes FieldTrip, an open source software package that we developed for the analysis of MEG, EEG, and other electrophysiological data. The software is implemented as a MATLAB toolbox and includes a complete set of consistent and user-friendly high-level functions that allow experimental neuroscientists to analyze experimental data. It includes algorithms for simple and advanced analysis, such as time-frequency analysis using multitapers, source reconstruction using dipoles, distributed sources and beamformers, connectivity analysis, and nonparametric statistical permutation tests at the channel and source level. The implementation as toolbox allows the user to perform elaborate and structured analyses of large data sets using the MATLAB command line and batch scripting. Furthermore, users and developers can easily extend the functionality and implement new algorithms. The modular design facilitates the reuse in other software packages.

  3. Field Trip 5: HYDROGEOLOGY OF BEER AND WINE IN THE YAKIMA VALLEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Last, George V.; Bachmann, Matthew P.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.

    2011-05-05

    The climate and geology of eastern Washington are ideally suited to the production of hops and wine grapes. Nearly all of Washington’s hop and wine-grape production is located in the lower Yakima River Basin , which is one of the most intensively irrigated areas in the United States. Most of this irrigation water has been supplied by surface water reservoirs and canal systems drawing from the Yakima River. However, increasing demands for water has spurred the increased use of groundwater resources. This field trip guide explores many aspects of the geology and hydrogeology in the lower Yakima River Basin, particularly as they relate to water resources that support the local beer and wine industries.

  4. Field-trip guide to the geologic highlights of Newberry Volcano, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Robert A.; Donnelly-Nolan, Julie M.

    2017-08-09

    Newberry Volcano and its surrounding lavas cover about 3,000 square kilometers (km2) in central Oregon. This massive, shield-shaped, composite volcano is located in the rear of the Cascades Volcanic Arc, ~60 km east of the Cascade Range crest. The volcano overlaps the northwestern corner of the Basin and Range tectonic province, known locally as the High Lava Plains, and is strongly influenced by the east-west extensional environment. Lava compositions range from basalt to rhyolite. Eruptions began about half a million years ago and built a broad composite edifice that has generated more than one caldera collapse event. At the center of the volcano is the 6- by 8-km caldera, created ~75,000 years ago when a major explosive eruption of compositionally zoned tephra led to caldera collapse, leaving the massive shield shape visible today. The volcano hosts Newberry National Volcanic Monument, which encompasses the caldera and much of the northwest rift zone where mafic eruptions occurred about 7,000 years ago. These young lava flows erupted after the volcano was mantled by the informally named Mazama ash, a blanket of volcanic ash generated by the eruption that created Crater Lake about 7,700 years ago. This field trip guide takes the visitor to a variety of easily accessible geologic sites in Newberry National Volcanic Monument, including the youngest and most spectacular lava flows. The selected sites offer an overview of the geologic story of Newberry Volcano and feature a broad range of lava compositions. Newberry’s most recent eruption took place about 1,300 years ago in the center of the caldera and produced tephra and lava of rhyolitic composition. A significant mafic eruptive event occurred about 7,000 years ago along the northwest rift zone. This event produced lavas ranging in composition from basalt to andesite, which erupted over a distance of 35 km from south of the caldera to Lava Butte where erupted lava flowed west to temporarily block the Deschutes

  5. The Search for Braddock's Caldera-Guidebook for Colorado Scientific Society Fall 2008 Field Trip, Never Summer Mountains, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, James C.; Larson, Ed; Farmer, Lang; Kellogg, Karl S.

    2008-01-01

    The report contains the illustrated guidebook that was used for the fall field trip of the Colorado Scientific Society on September 6-7, 2008. It summarizes new information about the Tertiary geologic history of the northern Front Range and the Never Summer Mountains, particularly the late Oligocene volcanic and intrusive rocks designated the Braddock Peak complex. Minor modifications were made in response to technical reviews by D.J. Lidke and C.A. Ruleman (U.S. Geological Survey) regarding clarity and consistency, and text editing by M.A. Kidd. However, the text remains essentially similar to the guidebook that was circulated to the participants on the Colorado Scientific Society 2008 field trip. Several notes were added following the trip (as indicated) to address developments since the guidebook was written.

  6. Overview for geologic field-trip guides to Mount Mazama, Crater Lake Caldera, and Newberry Volcano, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, Charles R.; Donnelly-Nolan, Julie M.; Jensen, Robert A.; Wright, Heather M.

    2017-08-16

    These field-trip guides were written for the occasion of the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth’s Interior (IAVCEI) quadrennial scientific assembly in Portland, Oregon, in August 2017. The guide to Mount Mazama and Crater Lake caldera is an updated and expanded version of the guide (Bacon, 1989) for part of an earlier IAVCEI trip to the southern Cascade Range. The guide to Newberry Volcano describes the stops included in the 2017 field trip. Crater Lake and Newberry are the two best-preserved and most recent calderas in the Cascades Volcanic Arc. Although located in different settings in the arc, with Crater Lake on the arc axis and Newberry in the rear-arc, both volcanoes are located at the intersection of the arc and the northwest corner region of the extensional Basin and Range Province.

  7. Determining Virtual Environment "Fit": The Relationship between Navigation Style in a Virtual Field Trip, Student Self-Reported Desire to Visit the Field Trip Site in the Real World, and the Purposes of Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutwiler, M. Shane; Lin, Ming-Chao; Chang, Chun-Yen

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a follow-up analysis of the data reported in Lin et al. ("Learn Media Technol." doi: 10.1080/17439884.2011.629660 , 2011), we investigated the relationship between student use of a virtual field trip (VFT) system and the probability of students reporting wanting to visit the national park site upon which the VFT was modeled,…

  8. A Field Trip to the Archaean in Search of Darwin’s Warm Little Pond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Damer

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Charles Darwin’s original intuition that life began in a “warm little pond” has for the last three decades been eclipsed by a focus on marine hydrothermal vents as a venue for abiogenesis. However, thermodynamic barriers to polymerization of key molecular building blocks and the difficulty of forming stable membranous compartments in seawater suggest that Darwin’s original insight should be reconsidered. I will introduce the terrestrial origin of life hypothesis, which combines field observations and laboratory results to provide a novel and testable model in which life begins as protocells assembling in inland fresh water hydrothermal fields. Hydrothermal fields are associated with volcanic landmasses resembling Hawaii and Iceland today and could plausibly have existed on similar land masses rising out of Earth’s first oceans. I will report on a field trip to the living and ancient stromatolite fossil localities of Western Australia, which provided key insights into how life may have emerged in Archaean, fluctuating fresh water hydrothermal pools, geological evidence for which has recently been discovered. Laboratory experimentation and fieldwork are providing mounting evidence that such sites have properties that are conducive to polymerization reactions and generation of membrane-bounded protocells. I will build on the previously developed coupled phases scenario, unifying the chemical and geological frameworks and proposing that a hydrogel of stable, communally supported protocells will emerge as a candidate Woese progenote, the distant common ancestor of microbial communities so abundant in the earliest fossil record.

  9. Contributing to Sustainability Education of East Asian University Students through a Field Trip Experience: A Social-Ecological Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Kyung Yoon

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the effects of a field trip environmental education program with a social-ecological perspective on the experience and learning of university students from China, Japan, South Korea and Vietnam. The students visited Jeju Island, the Saemangeum Sea Dike, the Demilitarized Zone and Seoul, South Korea. Their experiences and learning about social-ecological interactions were analyzed using the new environmental paradigm test, an evaluation questionnaire, group presentations and individual reports. Across demographic characteristics, the participants believed the program fairly presented the concept of social-ecological systems. Some developed new ideas of social-ecological systems through interpreting, transforming and contextualizing their field trip experience based on prior knowledge bases; others compared the sites to case studies. They preferred the sites where social-ecological issues were clearly presented by well-preserved landscapes, successful environmental management or environmental conflict. The results show the need for an advanced multi-dimensional methodology to evaluate students’ learning through constructive processes. The program design of this study from planning to field trip and evaluation, the field site design in which regional site resources were organized in a social-ecological context and the analysis of participants’ learning and experiences could contribute to attempts to couple the social-ecological perspective with the practice of sustainability and environmental education in field trip design.

  10. A brave new world: considering the pedagogic potential of Virtual World Field Trips (VWFTs in initial teacher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitzsimons Sabrina

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In its broadest and historical sense, place-based education refers to education that occurs outside of the physical boundaries of a school building (Dewey 1910; Sobel 1996; Theobald 1997; Woodhouse and Knapp 2000. Place-based education, colloquially referred to as the ‘field trip’, is predominantly considered a pedagogic tool of the sciences. It involves a physical movement from the school-based location to a place of interest, for example, a geography field trip to an ecological landscape or science visit to a local museum. This paper considers the use of virtual world field trips (VWFTs within the context of a pre-service Teacher Education programme. The paper presents data from one undergraduate module offered on a programme of initial teacher education. The paper identifies three significant elements of virtual world field trips: place, people and content. First, the virtual world can provide access to places not possible in the offline context as a result of geographic, economic or religious factors. Second, exposure to and dialogue with a variety of world views can challenge students’ assumptions, facilitate reflection and provide an opportunity for oneto-one teaching encounters. Third, from a teacher educator perspective, engagement in virtual world field trips can provide a space for teachers to model teaching methodologies and model creative learning techniques, thus providing student teachers with an insight into different approaches to teaching.

  11. An Elementary School Environmental Education Field Trip: Long-Term Effects on Ecological and Environmental Knowledge and Attitude Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, James; Knapp, Doug; Benton, Gregory M.

    2007-01-01

    Using phenomenological analysis, the authors examined the long-term effects of an environmental education school field trip on fourth grade elementary students who visited Great Smoky Mountains National Park. The authors' findings suggest that one year after the experience, many students remembered what they had seen and heard and had developed a…

  12. A Brave New World: Considering the Pedagogic Potential of Virtual World Field Trips (VWFTs) in Initial Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimons, Sabrina; Farren, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    In its broadest and historical sense, place-based education refers to education that occurs outside of the physical boundaries of a school building (Dewey 1910; Sobel 1996; Theobald 1997; Woodhouse and Knapp 2000). Place-based education, colloquially referred to as the "field trip", is predominantly considered a pedagogic tool of the…

  13. Bridging the Field Trip Gap: Integrating Web-Based Video as a Teaching and Learning Partner in Interior Design Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehl, Amy

    2013-01-01

    This study utilizes web-based video as a strategy to transfer knowledge about the interior design industry in a format that interests the current generation of students. The model of instruction developed is based upon online video as an engaging, economical, and time-saving alternative to a field trip, guest speaker, or video teleconference.…

  14. Geologic field-trip guide to the volcanic and hydrothermal landscape of the Yellowstone Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan Morzel, Lisa Ann; Shanks, W. C. Pat; Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Farrell, Jamie M.; Robinson, Joel E.

    2017-11-20

    Yellowstone National Park, a nearly 9,000 km2 (~3,468 mi2) area, was preserved in 1872 as the world’s first national park for its unique, extraordinary, and magnificent natural features. Rimmed by a crescent of older mountainous terrain, Yellowstone National Park has at its core the Quaternary Yellowstone Plateau, an undulating landscape shaped by forces of late Cenozoic explosive and effusive volcanism, on-going tectonism, glaciation, and hydrothermal activity. The Yellowstone Caldera is the centerpiece of the Yellowstone Plateau. The Yellowstone Plateau lies at the most northeastern front of the 17-Ma Yellowstone hot spot track, one of the few places on Earth where time-transgressive processes on continental crust can be observed in the volcanic and tectonic (faulting and uplift) record at the rate and direction predicted by plate motion. Over six days, this field trip presents an intensive overview into volcanism, tectonism, and hydrothermal activity on the Yellowstone Plateau (fig. 1). Field stops are linked directly to conceptual models related to monitoring of the various volcanic, geochemical, hydrothermal, and tectonic aspects of the greater Yellowstone system. Recent interest in young and possible future volcanism at Yellowstone as well as new discoveries and synthesis of previous studies, (for example, tomographic, deformation, gas, aeromagnetic, bathymetric, and seismic surveys), provide a framework in which to discuss volcanic, hydrothermal, and seismic activity in this dynamic region.

  15. A brave new world: considering the pedagogic potential of Virtual World Field Trips (VWFTs) in initial teacher education

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzsimons Sabrina; Farren Margaret

    2016-01-01

    In its broadest and historical sense, place-based education refers to education that occurs outside of the physical boundaries of a school building (Dewey 1910; Sobel 1996; Theobald 1997; Woodhouse and Knapp 2000). Place-based education, colloquially referred to as the ‘field trip’, is predominantly considered a pedagogic tool of the sciences. It involves a physical movement from the school-based location to a place of interest, for example, a geography field trip to an ecological landscape o...

  16. Science field trips to nuclear power plants - A low capital cost program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, E.N.; Gabel, C.; Sayles, C.

    1991-01-01

    School science field trips to nuclear power plants can be quite rewarding to both students and teachers if the right material is used from a perspective different from the textbooks. One does not need a large, expensive facility to have a program useful to students that addresses adult issues understandably. San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station hosted ∼110 visits (simulator tours) averaging 2,700 visitors in each of calendar years 1989 and 1990 after averaging 75 visits in each of the five preceding years. Most audiences were from middle schools located within a 50-mile radius. The station does not have a separate visitor's center; a classroom is reserved at the station's training and education center. The advantage is using real working laboratories; the disadvantage is not having the more traditional displays and interactive models. Therefore, the instructor emphasizes showing the integrated engineering applications of chemistry, physics, and geology - rather than repeating material that is more easily taught in the school's classroom. Generic issues are emphasized rather than the design details of the plant systems

  17. Virtual field trips as physically active lessons for children: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Emma; Shelton, Nicola; Dunsmuir, Sandra; Duke-Williams, Oliver; Stamatakis, Emmanuel

    2015-04-11

    The modern classroom is an inherently sedentary environment. Virtual Field Trips (VFTs) using interactive whiteboards to explore virtual scenes are a potential method of converting sedentary class-time into physically active teaching. This pilot aimed to assess the effects of a developed VFT on physical activity and learning in primary-school children. Participants (n = 85) were randomly assigned to a) a 30-minute physically active London 2012 Olympics-themed VFT, or b) a 30-minute sedentary version of the same VFT. Activity was measured using GT1M Actigraphs, content recall was assessed with a quiz and user evaluations were gained from teacher and pupil questionnaires. Pupils in the active VFT displayed significantly less sedentary time (p < 0.001), and significantly more light (p < 0.001), moderate (p = 0.01) and vigorous physical activity (p < 0.001) than sedentary VFT pupils. No differences in content recall were found between intervention groups: suggesting that adding physical activity into classroom teaching may not compromise attainment. High acceptability was found in teachers and active VFT students rated their session significantly higher than sedentary pupils (p < 0.002). This one-day pilot provides early evidence of the ability of VFTs to convert sedentary academic time into active time. Longitudinal research is needed to assess prolonged effects of active VFTs in reducing sedentary time.

  18. Clinical guidelines for Western clinicians engaged in primary care medical service trips in Latin America and the Caribbean: an integrative literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dainton, Christopher; Chu, Charlene H; Lin, Henry; Loh, Lawrence

    2016-04-01

    Participation in primary care-focused medical service trips (MSTs) by North American providers is increasingly common, with many of these being conducted in Latin America. The literature has yet to comprehensively explore the nature of MST practice, including the use of evidence-based clinical guidelines. This integrative review presents an analysis of guidelines employed in MSTs in Latin America. MEDLINE and LILACs were searched using the terms 'medical brigades', 'Latin America', 'primary health care' and related terms. The search was limited to articles published between 2000 and 2015 in any language. Qualitative or quantitative articles were subsequently included if they described management protocols in the context of patient care on an MST occurring in Latin America. Additional publications were identified by searching the citations of articles reviewed in full. Themes were extracted to an Excel file, and objective instruments were used to evaluate article quality (Mixed Methods Assessment Tool) and the quality of guidelines (Appraisal of Guidelines for Research & Evaluation II). Of 391 abstracts screened, eight met inclusion criteria. All described MSTs operating in rural settings in Central America. Five were qualitative descriptive, including two travel reports, an ethics thesis paper, and a description of a dermatologic MST. Four described subjective clinician experiences while describing non-evidence-based treatment suggestions or practices. Only one described evidence-supported primary care interventions. Three studies were quantitative descriptive, including two epidemiological articles, one of which used case definitions for select diagnoses. One described the application of American Family Physician guidelines to the description of UTI prevalence on a MST. Article scores in MMAT quality domains were variable, and only one article achieved a positive overall AGREE II score for guideline quality. Existing literature demonstrates minimal development or

  19. International short-term medical service trips: guidelines from the literature and perspectives from the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapin, Erica; Doocy, Shannon

    2010-01-01

    The increasing interest in practising medicine overseas has outpaced research conducted to evaluate its effectiveness and the development of guidelines from evidence-based best practices. Short-term medical teams regularly travel to provide medical care, yet there is little research on the impact or practices of these missions. This study assessed current practices and challenges of short-term medical service teams, using questionnaire-based interviews of 40 participants in recent medical service trips. Study results and a review of recommendations in peer-reviewed journals were used to develop guidelines for international short-term medical trips in relation to mission, collaboration, education and capacity building, provider qualifications, appropriate donations, and cultural sensitivity and understanding. Guidelines that inform models, approaches, best practices and minimum standards for short-term medical service trips should be adopted so that improved and sustainable outcomes can be consistently achieved.

  20. iVFTs - immersive virtual field trips for interactive learning about Earth's environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, G.; Anbar, A. D.; Semken, S. C.; Summons, R. E.; Oliver, C.; Buxner, S.

    2014-12-01

    Innovations in immersive interactive technologies are changing the way students explore Earth and its environment. State-of-the-art hardware has given developers the tools needed to capture high-resolution spherical content, 360° panoramic video, giga-pixel imagery, and unique viewpoints via unmanned aerial vehicles as they explore remote and physically challenging regions of our planet. Advanced software enables integration of these data into seamless, dynamic, immersive, interactive, content-rich, and learner-driven virtual field explorations, experienced online via HTML5. These surpass conventional online exercises that use 2-D static imagery and enable the student to engage in these virtual environments that are more like games than like lectures. Grounded in the active learning of exploration, inquiry, and application of knowledge as it is acquired, users interact non-linearly in conjunction with an intelligent tutoring system (ITS). The integration of this system allows the educational experience to be adapted to each individual student as they interact within the program. Such explorations, which we term "immersive virtual field trips" (iVFTs), are being integrated into cyber-learning allowing science teachers to take students to scientifically significant but inaccessible environments. Our team and collaborators are producing a diverse suite of freely accessible, iVFTs to teach key concepts in geology, astrobiology, ecology, and anthropology. Topics include Early Life, Biodiversity, Impact craters, Photosynthesis, Geologic Time, Stratigraphy, Tectonics, Volcanism, Surface Processes, The Rise of Oxygen, Origin of Water, Early Civilizations, Early Multicellular Organisms, and Bioarcheology. These diverse topics allow students to experience field sites all over the world, including, Grand Canyon (USA), Flinders Ranges (Australia), Shark Bay (Australia), Rainforests (Panama), Teotihuacan (Mexico), Upheaval Dome (USA), Pilbara (Australia), Mid-Atlantic Ridge

  1. Urban Environmental Excursions: Designing field trips to demonstrate sustainable connections between natural and engineered systems in urban environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemke, L. D.

    2012-12-01

    Field trips are a proven and effective instructional tool to connect students with the world around them. In most communities, opportunities abound to allow students to make connections between concepts introduced in classroom or lab activities and the urban environment that surrounds them. Potential destinations include solid and liquid waste disposal sites, brownfield redevelopment sites, hazardous waste sites, industrial complexes, or sites with ongoing environmental restoration efforts. Each of these locations presents opportunities to explore sustainable aspects of anthropogenic activities in relation to the natural systems that they seek to modify or exploit. Early planning is essential, however, because it can sometimes take several months lead time to arrange for a large group tour of industrial or municipal sites. Several practices may be employed to design effective learning experiences for students when visiting such sites. These include: 1) choose local sites to keep trips relevant and practical; 2) balance sites of environmental concern with those where significant progress is being made in environmental restoration or stewardship; 3) connect sites with a pertinent theme (e.g., air quality, water quality, economic development, environmental justice, etc.); 4) develop a sense of location among student participants by providing a map showing the relationship between campus and the field sites; 5) prepare a guidebook containing one-page descriptions of each stop along with a list of questions to stimulate discussion and promote active engagement among all participants; 6) employ expert guides to maximize students' access to authoritative information; 7) tie each field experience to your curriculum; and 8) model active learning by asking genuine questions and engaging in open discussions with experts and student participants. In this presentation, urban field trip design will be illustrated with examples from trips run in conjunction with freshman

  2. Educating the Public about Meteorites and Impacts through Virtual Field Trips and Classroom Experience Boxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashcraft, Teresa; Hines, R.; Minitti, M.; Taylor, W.; Morris, M. A.; Wadhwa, M.

    2014-01-01

    With specimens representing over 2,000 individual meteorites, the Center for Meteorite Studies (CMS) at Arizona State University (ASU) is home to the world's largest university-based meteorite collection. As part of our mission to provide educational opportunities that expand awareness and understanding of the science of meteoritics, CMS continues to develop new ways to engage the public in meteorite and space science, including the opening of a new Meteorite Gallery, and expansion of online resources through upgrades to the CMS website, meteorites.asu.edu. In 2008, CMS was the recipient of a philanthropic grant to improve online education tools and develop loanable modules for educators. These modules focus on the origin of meteorites, and contain actual meteorite specimens, media resources, a user guide, and lesson plans, as well as a series of engaging activities that utilize hands-on materials geared to help students develop logical thinking, analytical skills, and proficiency in STEM disciplines. In 2010, in partnership with the ASU NASA Astrobiology Institute team, CMS obtained a NASA EPOESS grant to develop Virtual Field Trips (VFTs) complemented by loanable “Experience Boxes” containing lesson plans, media, and hands-on objects related to the VFT sites. One VFT-Box pair focuses on the record of the oldest multicellular organisms on Earth. The second VFT-Box pair focuses on the Upheaval Dome (UD) structure, a meteorite impact crater in Utah’s Canyonlands National Park. UD is widely accepted as the deeply eroded remnant of a ~5 kilometer impact crater (e.g. Kriens et al., 1999). The alternate hypothesis that the Dome was formed by the upwelling of salt from a deposit underlying the region (e.g. Jackson et al., 1998) makes UD an ideal site to learn not only about specific scientific principles present in the Next Generation Science Standards, but also the process of scientific inquiry. The VFTs are located on an interactive website dedicated to VFTs, vft

  3. Enhancing Geologic Education in Grades 5-12: Creating Virtual Field Trips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitek, J. D.; Gamache, K. R.; Giardino, J. R.; Schroeder, C. E.

    2011-12-01

    New tools of technology enhance and facilitate the ability to bring the "field experience" into the classroom as part of the effort necessary to turn students onto the geosciences. The real key is high-speed computers and high-definition cameras with which to capture visual images. Still and movie data are easily obtained as are large and small-scale images from space, available through "Google Earth°". GPS information provides accurate location data to enhance mapping efforts. One no longer needs to rely on commercial ventures to show students any aspect of the "real" world. The virtual world is a viable replacement. The new cost-effective tools mean everyone can be a producer of information critical to understanding Earth. During the last four summers (2008-2011), Texas teachers have participated in G-Camp, an effort to instill geologic and geomorphic knowledge such that the information will make its way into classrooms. Teachers have acquired thousands of images and developed concepts that are being used to enhance their ability to promote geology in their classrooms. Texas will soon require four years of science at the high-school level, and we believe that geology or Earth science needs to be elevated to the required level of biology, chemistry and physics. Teachers need to be trained and methodology developed that is exciting to students. After all, everyone on Earth needs to be aware of the hazardous nature of geologic events not just to pass an exam, but for a lifetime. We use a video, which is a composite of our ventures, to show how data collected during these trips can be used in the classroom. . Social media, Facebook°, blogs, and email facilitate sharing information such that everyone can learn from each other about the best way to do things. New tools of technology are taking their place in every classroom to take advantage of the skills students bring to the learning environment. Besides many of these approaches are common to video gaming, and

  4. Grand Canyon as a universally accessible virtual field trip for intro Geoscience classes using geo-referenced mobile game technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursztyn, N.; Pederson, J. L.; Shelton, B.

    2012-12-01

    There is a well-documented and nationally reported trend of declining interest, poor preparedness, and lack of diversity within U.S. students pursuing geoscience and other STEM disciplines. We suggest that a primary contributing factor to this problem is that introductory geoscience courses simply fail to inspire (i.e. they are boring). Our experience leads us to believe that the hands-on, contextualized learning of field excursions are often the most impactful component of lower division geoscience classes. However, field trips are becoming increasingly more difficult to run due to logistics and liability, high-enrollments, decreasing financial and administrative support, and exclusivity of the physically disabled. Recent research suggests that virtual field trips can be used to simulate this contextualized physical learning through the use of mobile devices - technology that exists in most students' hands already. Our overarching goal is to enhance interest in introductory geoscience courses by providing the kinetic and physical learning experience of field trips through geo-referenced educational mobile games and test the hypothesis that these experiences can be effectively simulated through virtual field trips. We are doing this by developing "serious" games for mobile devices that deliver introductory geology material in a fun and interactive manner. Our new teaching strategy will enhance undergraduate student learning in the geosciences, be accessible to students of diverse backgrounds and physical abilities, and be easily incorporated into higher education programs and curricula at institutions globally. Our prototype involves students virtually navigating downstream along a scaled down Colorado River through Grand Canyon - physically moving around their campus quad, football field or other real location, using their smart phone or a tablet. As students reach the next designated location, a photo or video in Grand Canyon appears along with a geological

  5. Students’ Digital Photography Behaviors during a Multiday Environmental Science Field Trip and Their Recollections of Photographed Science Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor R. Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking photographs to document the experiences of an educational field trip is becoming a common activity for teachers and students alike. Considering the regular creation of photographic artifacts, our goal in this paper is to explore students’ picture taking behavior and their recollections of science content associated with their photographs. In this study, we partnered with a class of fifth-grade students in the United States and provided each student with a digital camera to document their experiences during an environmental science field trip at a national park. We report the frequency of photography behaviors according to which activities were most often documented by the students and specifically that students tended to document more of their experiences when they were in outdoor, natural spaces rather than inside of visitor centers or museums. Also, through an analysis of students’ comments about the science content captured in their photographs we observe that students’ comments about photographs of the outdoors tended to show greater depth and complexity than those that were taken in indoor, museum-like spaces.

  6. Field trip guide to selected studies of the Southwest Mineral and Environmental Investigations Project in southeastern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houser, B.B.; Gettings, M.E.; Bultman, M.W.; Gray, Floyd; Caruthers, K.R.; Hirschberg, D.M.

    1999-01-01

    The Southwest Mineral and Environmental Investigations Project is designed to address issues raised by rapid urban development in the basins of the southwestern U.S. These issues require objective geoscientific data that can be used by land managers and stakeholders to develop informed land and water use strategies. The project integrates new and existing geologic, geophysical, and geochemical data, and imagery to provide three-dimensional visualizations of the basins of southeastern Arizona. Emphasis is on developing better knowledge of the aquifer systems of both the basins and the ranges, on acquiring background and baseline information, and on determining the distribution of metals related to mineralization and the fate of these metals in surface and subsurface environments. The products of the project will be used in resolving issues of water quality and quantity, in understanding environmental impacts such as riparian ecosystem maintenace, and in evaluating mineral resources beneath and within the basins. The field trip highlights three topics and areas (figs. 1 and 2): (1) geology and geophysics of the upper San Pedro and upper Santa Cruz basins (M.E. Gettings, M. W. Bultman, and B.B. Houser), (2) geology, geophysics, and mineral resource potential of the San Rafael basin (M.W. Bultman), and (3) hydrology and aqueous geochemistry of the Red Mountain and Sonoita Creek drainage system (Floyd Gray). The trip guide, which begins and ends in Tucson, Arizona, also includes commentary on the cultural and mining history of the area.

  7. Bringing Grand Canyon to the College Campus: Assessment of Student Learning in the Geosciences Through Virtual Field Trip Games for Mobile Smart-Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursztyn, N.; Walker, A.; Shelton, B.; Pederson, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    Geoscience educators have long considered field trips to be the most effective way of attracting students into the discipline. A solution for bringing student-driven, engaging, kinesthetic field experiences to a broader audience lies in ongoing advances in mobile-communication technology. This NSF-TUES funded project developed three virtual field trip experiences for smartphones and tablets (on geologic time, geologic structures, and hydrologic processes), and then tested their performance in terms of student interest in geoscience as well as gains in learning. The virtual field trips utilize the GPS capabilities of smartphones and tablets, requiring the students to navigate outdoors in the real world while following a map on their smart device. This research, involving 873 students at five different college campuses, used analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and multiple regression for statistical methods. Gains in learning across all participants are minor, and not statistically different between intervention and control groups. Predictors of gains in content comprehension for all three modules are the students' initial interest in the subject and their base level knowledge. For the Geologic Time and Structures modules, being a STEM major is an important predictor of student success. Most pertinent for this research, for Geologic Time and Hydrologic Processes, gains in student learning can be predicted by having completed those particular virtual field trips. Gender and race had no statistical impact, indicating that the virtual field trip modules have broad reach across student demographics. In related research, these modules have been shown to increase student interest in the geosciences more definitively than the learning gains here. Thus, future work should focus on improving the educational impact of mobile-device field trips, as their eventual incorporation into curricula is inevitable.

  8. The Effects of In-Nature and Virtual-Nature Field Trip Experiences On Proenvironmental Attitudes and Behaviors, And Environmental Knowledge Of Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferderbar, Catherine A.

    To develop sustainable solutions to remediate the complex ecological problems of earth's soil, water, and air degradation requires the talents and skills of knowledgeable, motivated people (UNESCO, 1977; UNESCO, 2010). Researchers historically emphasized that time spent in outdoor, nature activities (Wells & Lekies, 2006), particularly with an adult mentor (Chawla & Cushing, 2007), promotes environmental knowledge and nature-relatedness, precursors to environmental literacy. Research has also demonstrated that technology is integral to the lives of youth, who spend 7:38 hours daily (Rideout, et al., 2010), engaged in electronics. Educators would benefit from knowing if in-nature and virtual-nature field trip experiences provide comparable levels of knowledge and connectedness, to nurture student proenvironmentalism. To investigate field trip phenomena, the researcher studied the impact of virtual-nature and in-nature experiences during which students analyzed water quality along Midwestern rivers. The quasi-experimental, mixed method convergent parallel design with a purposeful sample (n=131) of middle school students from two Midwestern K-8 schools, utilized scientist participant observer field records and narrative response, written assessment aligned to field trip content to evaluate knowledge acquisition. To gain insight into student environmental dispositions, participant observers recorded student comments and behaviors throughout field trips. A survey, administered Pre-Treatment, Post-Treatment 1 and Post-Treatment 2, focused on family water-related behaviors and student perceptions of the need for local government water protection. The findings demonstrated both field trips increased content knowledge significantly, with large effect size. Content knowledge gain from one experience transferred to and was augmented by the second experience. Skill gain (technical and observational) varied by type of field trip and did not transfer. Technical skill was often

  9. Integrating geoscience and Native American experiences through a multi-state geoscience field trip for high school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelso, P. R.; Brown, L. M.; Spencer, M.; Sabatine, S.; Goetz, E. R.

    2012-12-01

    experiences led by Lake Superior State University professors, K-12 earth science teachers, local science experts (most with tribal affiliation), and local Native American leaders. Student selection is based on an application that includes academic background and performance, a personal essay, and teacher and counselor references. All of the students invited to be part of the GRANITE program participated in the summer field excursion. The GRANITE summer field trip was structured to address over 50% of Michigan's high school geology standards. Each student's geoscience knowledge and interest is assessed through questionnaires administered pre- and post the summer field experience. Also, student feedback is gathered during the GRANITE field trip and more than six months post field trip. Students recorded field observations and discussion in their field books which they used to produce powerpoint slides summarizing and reflecting upon what they did and learned each day. Students' post field excursion, content-oriented scores increased each of the three years of the program. In addition to geosciences content growth, all of the students responded affirmatively that GRANITE "increased my understanding of how geoscientists study the Earth "and "increased my knowledge of the importance of geoscience to our society."

  10. Surface electric fields for North America during historical geomagnetic storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lisa H.; Homeier, Nichole; Gannon, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    To better understand the impact of geomagnetic disturbances on the electric grid, we recreate surface electric fields from two historical geomagnetic storms—the 1989 “Quebec” storm and the 2003 “Halloween” storms. Using the Spherical Elementary Current Systems method, we interpolate sparsely distributed magnetometer data across North America. We find good agreement between the measured and interpolated data, with larger RMS deviations at higher latitudes corresponding to larger magnetic field variations. The interpolated magnetic field data are combined with surface impedances for 25 unique physiographic regions from the United States Geological Survey and literature to estimate the horizontal, orthogonal surface electric fields in 1 min time steps. The induced horizontal electric field strongly depends on the local surface impedance, resulting in surprisingly strong electric field amplitudes along the Atlantic and Gulf Coast. The relative peak electric field amplitude of each physiographic region, normalized to the value in the Interior Plains region, varies by a factor of 2 for different input magnetic field time series. The order of peak electric field amplitudes (largest to smallest), however, does not depend much on the input. These results suggest that regions at lower magnetic latitudes with high ground resistivities are also at risk from the effect of geomagnetically induced currents. The historical electric field time series are useful for estimating the flow of the induced currents through long transmission lines to study power flow and grid stability during geomagnetic disturbances.

  11. Late Devonian (Frasnian) bivalves from the Nocedo Formation: the results of Wilhelm Kegel’s 1927 field trip to northern Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amler, M.R.W.

    2010-01-01

    During a field trip to the Peña-Corada Unit of the southernmost Esla region of the Cantabrian Mountains in 1927, the German stratigrapher Wilhelm Kegel sampled brachiopods and bivalves from a section in the Laoz valley near La Ercina. The stratigraphic position is believed to be part of the Nocedo

  12. Enhancing University Courses and Field Schools through Cross-cultural Exchange: Joint US-Bangladeshi Trips to the Ganges-Brahmaputra and Mississippi Deltas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckler, M. S.; Goodbred, S. L., Jr.; Lowes, S.; Gilligan, J. M.; Ackerly, B.; Ahmed, K. M.; Akhter, S. H.; Sousa, D.; Wilson, C.; Datta, D. K.; Roy, K.; Mondal, D. R.

    2014-12-01

    As part of an NSF PIRE grant, we have led four field trips for undergraduate, MS and PhD students to large deltaic systems. Three trips took US students to the Ganges-Brahmaputra (GB) delta in Bangladesh and one brought Bangladeshi faculty and students to the Mississippi (Miss.) delta in the US. An essential component in the learning process and overall experience of each trip was that ~2/5 of the participants were students and professors from Bangladesh. In all cases, the involvement of a substantial international cohort greatly broadened perspectives on the topics being covered. For example, in GBD the local geologic and cultural knowledge of the Bangladeshis deepened the learning and engagement of the US students, an outcome that was almost universally noted in student reviews. The trips received similar feedback from Bangladeshi participants, as they had an enthusiastic and engaged audience of peers from the US. Even for the Miss. delta trip, the Bangladeshis added a unique perspective from a nation that faces similar environmental issues. These overwhelmingly positive contributions have been experienced in several different contexts. Three trips were associated with US courses and run over Spring Break. One matched sustainable development undergrads at Columbia U. with geology undergrads from Dhaka U., and two others matched a mixed group of graduate and undergrad students from Vanderbilt U. with cohorts from Bangladesh. The fourth trip was a stand-alone Field School for PhD students from 14 US universities and mostly MS students from 4 Bangladeshi universities. The focus of each trip ranged from broader surveys of tectonic, fluvial and coastal processes to investigations of geology and people affected by tropical storms. Of particular interest was the success of mixing undergrad and graduate students in the Vanderbilt course, which centered on the intersection of social sciences, physical sciences, and engineering. In this case, undergrads engaged in a

  13. Bringing Adam Smith's Pin Factory to Life: Field Trips and Discussions as Forms of Experiential Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galizzi, Monica

    2014-01-01

    Educators are often aware of the need to implement a variety of teaching techniques to reach out to students with different learning styles. I describe an attempt to target multimodal learners by bringing classical economic texts and concepts to life through discussions, field visits and role playing exercises. In my Labor Economics class I…

  14. The Field Trip as Part of Spatial (Architectural) Design Art Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batic, Janja

    2011-01-01

    Spatial (architectural) design is one of five fields introduced to pupils as part of art education. In planning architectural design tasks, one should take into consideration the particularities of the architectural design process and enable pupils to experience space and relationships within space through their own movement. Furthermore, pupils…

  15. Interaction between Gaming and Multistage Guiding Strategies on Students' Field Trip Mobile Learning Performance and Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Hung; Liu, Guan-Zhi; Hwang, Gwo-Jen

    2016-01-01

    In this study, an integrated gaming and multistage guiding approach was proposed for conducting in-field mobile learning activities. A mobile learning system was developed based on the proposed approach. To investigate the interaction between the gaming and guiding strategies on students' learning performance and motivation, a 2 × 2 experiment was…

  16. The good field trip: How elementary students from diverse socio-economic backgrounds learn science, art, and technology at a museum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martell, Sandra Toro

    The Good Field Trip is a study that uses an ethnographic approach to answer the question of what learning looks like during a field trip to a museum. The study uses the Contextual Model of Learning (Falk & Dierking, 2000) to investigate elementary students' personal, physical, and sociocultural contexts of learning as well as how time affects students' thoughts and feelings about the experience. The author accompanied a group of eight students on a three and a half day camp-like experience to a museum that promotes environmental stewardship and the integration of art, science, and technology use and learning. The author videotaped the students' conversations and experiences and interviewed students before, during, and after the trip. Analyses of the videotapes were supplemented with student documents, including comic books, journal notes, and reflective essays about the trip. Findings include that not all experiences are marked as science, art, and technology; technology use does not occur; art is presented in a more formalized manner than science, which is composed of observation and the acquisition of knowledge about plants and animals; and conversations and activities resemble traditional modes of learning in school settings.

  17. Virtual Field Trips: Using Google Maps to Support Online Learning and Teaching of the History of Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluke, Christopher J.

    I report on a pilot study on the use of Google Maps to provide virtual field trips as a component of a wholly online graduate course on the history of astronomy. The Astronomical Tourist Web site (http://astronomy.swin.edu.au/sao/tourist), themed around the role that specific locations on Earth have contributed to the development of astronomical knowledge, was created using the Google Maps application programming interface. Students used this Web site as a component of their assessment and to help motivate and support online discussions. The site also aims to help build a stronger online community among geographically distributed students as they share in the creation of an Internet resource that will be used and enhanced by others over time. I describe the structure of the Web site and how it was integrated into student essays, and I provide a summary of student responses to this new learning and teaching approach. This project is an example of how Web 2.0 applications can be used to build new learning environments.

  18. ICARUS trip

    CERN Multimedia

    Caraban Gonzalez, Noemi

    2017-01-01

    It’s lived in two different countries and is about to make its way to a third. It’s the largest machine of its kind, designed to find extremely elusive particles and tell us more about them. Its pioneering technology is the blueprint for some of the most advanced science experiments in the world. And this summer, it will travel across the Atlantic Ocean to its new home (and its new mission) at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. It’s called ICARUS, and you can follow its journey over land and sea with the help of an interactive map at IcarusTrip.fnal.gov (link is external), or on Facebook (link is external), Twitter (link is external) and Instagram (link is external) using the hashtag #IcarusTrip.

  19. Comparison of the effectiveness of real and virtual field trips in biology and ecology classes in lower secondary school based on the example of the Maribor island natural educational trail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhek, Miro

    The present doctoral thesis presents a case study within the scope of which real and virtual field trips have been compared. The emphasis of the study was on determining the levels of knowledge gain effectiveness in the fields of biology and ecology in the final triad (third) of lower secondary school education. The analysis included students completing various tasks along the Maribor Island natural education trail, which had been digitized and inserted into Geopedia. The study was conducted in autumn of 2011 and included 464 students (enrolled in grades from 6 to 9) from 11 lower secondary schools located in the Maribor area. The results have generally shown minute differences between the levels of knowledge acquisition effectiveness between both field trips. During the real field trip, the majority of the students included in the study achieved better results particularly at tasks where they were able to benefit from first-hand experience. During the virtual field trip, individual students were more successful at tasks where they were allowed to access a computer in order to obtain additional information. Within the scope of the study, we had also surveyed lower secondary and secondary school teachers on the frequency of including field trips in the curriculum, on the obstacles that the teachers faced with regard to including field work in it, and on their views on real and virtual field trips. The survey included a total of 386 teachers, the majority whom were teaching the subjects of biology, geography, and natural science. The results have shown that the surveyed teachers regard field trips as a very important educational method that particularly encourages experience-based learning in nature. The views of the teachers on virtual field trips were generally positive, but only when regarded and applied as a supplemental teaching tool and not as a substitute for real field trips.

  20. Creating Meaningful Learning for Children's Nursing Students: Can Museum Field Trips Offer Added Value?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Zoe; Ashbrooke, Lorna; Price, Jayne

    2018-01-02

    Children's nurses require a wide range of skills and knowledge to enable them to provide the best care for children and families, thus nurse educators must continually strive to ensure they create appropriate and meaningful learning for students in their journey to become children's nurses. Museum visits have been utilized previously within nurse education, but no evidence as to any added value of such visits on the learning of children's nursing students has been reported. This article highlights an innovative teaching strategy that was introduced to a group of year 1 children's nursing students-a field visit to the Museum of Childhood in London-and demonstrates the potential value to their learning. Students worked together in small groups within the museum exploring topics relevant to children's nursing. They had an opportunity to reflect and research further and then worked together to present their learning to their peers. Subsequent evaluation of both the visit and the presentation helped unravel the extent of student learning and highlighted that a range of different learning had taken place. Not without its challenges, the museum visit seemed to provide a meaningful learning experience for students, and suggestions for improving the learning for future similar groups have been explored.

  1. WIPP site and vicinity geological field trip. A report of a field trip to the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant project in Southeastern New Mexico, June 16 to 18, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaturvedi, L

    1980-10-01

    The Environmental Evaluation Group is conducting an assessment of the radiological health risks to people from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. As a part of this work, EEG is making an effort to improve the understanding of those geological issues concerning the WIPP site which may affect the radiological consequences of the proposed repository. One of the important geological issues to be resolved is the timing and the nature of the dissolution processes which may have affected the WIPP site. EEG organized a two-day conference of geological scientists, on January 17-18, 1980. On the basis of the January conference and the June field trip, EEG has formed the following conclusions: (1) it has not been clearly established that the site or the surrounding area has been attacked by deep dissolution to render it unsuitable for the nuclear waste pilot repository; (2) the existence of an isolated breccia pipe at the site unaccompanied by a deep dissolution wedge, is a very remote possibility; (3) more specific information about the origin and the nature of the brine reservoirs is needed. An important question that should be resolved is whether each encounter with artesian brine represents a separate pocket or whether these occurrences are interconnected; (4) Anderson has postulated a major tectonic fault or a fracture system at the Basin margin along the San Simon Swale; (5) the area in the northern part of the WIPP site, identified from geophysical and bore hole data as the disturbed zone, should be further investigated to cleary understand the nature and significance of this structural anomaly; and (6) a major drawback encountered during the discussions of geological issues related to the WIPP site is the absence of published material that brings together all the known information related to a particular issue.

  2. Geologic field trip guide to Mount Mazama and Crater Lake Caldera, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, Charles R.; Wright, Heather M.

    2017-08-08

    geologic research at Crater Lake have been incorporated not only in scientific investigations elsewhere, but also in the practical evaluation of local hazards (Bacon and others, 1997b) and geothermal resources (Bacon and Nathenson, 1996). The 1:24,000-scale geologic map of Mount Mazama and Crater Lake caldera (Bacon, 2008) is unusual because it portrays bedrock (outcrop), surficial, and lake floor geology. Caldera wall geology is depicted in detail on the accompanying geologic panoramas, and bedrock geology is shown in a 1:50,000-scale geologic map. This field guide supersedes earlier geology guides of Crater Lake (Bacon, 1987, 1989).

  3. Petrographic description of calcite/opal samples collected on field trip of December 5-9, 1992. Special report No. 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, C.A.; Schluter, C.M.

    1993-06-01

    This study is part of the research program of the Yucca Mountain Project intended to provide the State of Nevada with a detailed analysis and assessment of the water-deposited minerals of Yucca Mountain and adjacent regions. Forty-three separate stops were made and 203 samples were collected during the five days of the field trip. This report describes petrographic observations made on the calcite/opal samples

  4. Field-trip guide to Columbia River flood basalts, associated rhyolites, and diverse post-plume volcanism in eastern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferns, Mark L.; Streck, Martin J.; McClaughry, Jason D.

    2017-08-09

    The Miocene Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG) is the youngest and best preserved continental flood basalt province on Earth, linked in space and time with a compositionally diverse succession of volcanic rocks that partially record the apparent emergence and passage of the Yellowstone plume head through eastern Oregon during the late Cenozoic. This compositionally diverse suite of volcanic rocks are considered part of the La Grande-Owyhee eruptive axis (LOEA), an approximately 300-kilometer-long (185 mile), north-northwest-trending, middle Miocene to Pliocene volcanic belt located along the eastern margin of the Columbia River flood basalt province. Volcanic rocks erupted from and preserved within the LOEA form an important regional stratigraphic link between the (1) flood basalt-dominated Columbia Plateau on the north, (2) bimodal basalt-rhyolite vent complexes of the Owyhee Plateau on the south, (3) bimodal basalt-rhyolite and time-transgressive rhyolitic volcanic fields of the Snake River Plain-Yellowstone Plateau, and (4) the High Lava Plains of central Oregon.This field-trip guide describes a 4-day geologic excursion that will explore the stratigraphic and geochemical relationships among mafic rocks of the Columbia River Basalt Group and coeval and compositionally diverse volcanic rocks associated with the early “Yellowstone track” and High Lava Plains in eastern Oregon. Beginning in Portland, the Day 1 log traverses the Columbia River gorge eastward to Baker City, focusing on prominent outcrops that reveal a distal succession of laterally extensive, large-volume tholeiitic flood lavas of the Grande Ronde, Wanapum, and Saddle Mountains Basalt formations of the CRBG. These “great flows” are typical of the well-studied flood basalt-dominated Columbia Plateau, where interbedded silicic and calc-alkaline lavas are conspicuously absent. The latter part of Day 1 will highlight exposures of middle to late Miocene silicic ash-flow tuffs, rhyolite domes, and

  5. How do we support informal educators teaching for climate literacy? Lessons from design-based research to improve climate science field trips through educator experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, L. B.; Steiner, M.; Crowley, K. J.

    2012-12-01

    Climate literacy is an important and timely aspect of students' and educators' scientific understanding. Climate science is a challenging topic to understand and communicate, given that factors affecting change in climate are spatially and temporally distant from one another, and include layers of understanding biotic, abiotic, and anthropogenic factors. Some learning scientists describe complex processes such as these "constraint-based interactions" and consider them to be among the more difficult for learners to grasp. An additional challenge for climate education is the politicized nature of the issue of climate change among U.S. adults. Our goal is to create a climate literacy program that bridges informal and formal learning for middle school students by integrating tools and ideas from pre-field trip classroom activities into deep investigations on the floor of the natural history museum. In this presentation, we address the challenges and successes of an in-progress climate literacy project sponsored by NASA from the perspective of educator learning. A group of experienced natural history docents were asked to participate in an iteratively designed field trip program for climate education. The project challenged educators with both new content and a new pedagogical structure: using real NASA satellite data to visualize and explore earth's climate, while implementing student-centered, participatory learning on the floor of the museum. By engaging in an iterative, design-based research process of prototyping field trips at the Carnegie Museum of Natural History, we collected observational and interview data from seven dedicated informal educators who were asked to change both the content and the format of their interactions with middle school field trip students. These docents have a wide variety of experiences and opinions around climate science, data, and student-centered teaching and learning pedagogies. Over the course of one semester of iteratively

  6. Field-trip guide to Mount St. Helens, Washington - An overview of the eruptive history and petrology, tephra deposits, 1980 pyroclastic density current deposits, and the crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallister, John S.; Clynne, Michael A.; Wright, Heather M.; Van Eaton, Alexa R.; Vallance, James W.; Sherrod, David R.; Kokelaar, B. Peter

    2017-08-02

    This field trip will provide an introduction to several fascinating features of Mount St. Helens. The trip begins with a rigorous hike of about 15 km from the Johnston Ridge Observatory (9 km north-northeast of the crater vent), across the 1980 Pumice Plain, to Windy Ridge (3.6 km northeast of the crater vent) to examine features that document the dynamics and progressive emplacement of pyroclastic flows. The next day, we examine classic tephra outcrops of the past 3,900 years and observe changes in thickness and character of these deposits as we traverse their respective lobes. We examine clasts in the deposits and discuss how the petrology and geochemistry of Mount St. Helens deposits reveal the evolution of the magmatic system through time. We also investigate the stratigraphy of the 1980 blast deposit and review the chronology of this iconic eruption as we travel through the remains of the blown-down forest. The third day is another rigorous hike, about 13 km round trip, climbing from the base of Windy Ridge (elevation 1,240 m) to the front of the Crater Glacier (elevation 1,700 m). En route we examine basaltic andesite and basalt lava flows emplaced between 1,800 and 1,700 years before present, a heterolithologic flow deposit produced as the 1980 blast and debris avalanche interacted, debris-avalanche hummocks that are stranded on the north flank and in the crater mouth, and shattered dacite lava domes that were emplaced between 3,900 and 2,600 years before present. These domes underlie the northern part of the volcano. In addition, within the crater we traverse well-preserved pyroclastic-flow deposits that were emplaced on the crater floor during the summer of 1980, and a beautiful natural section through the 1980 deposits in the upper canyon of the Loowit River.Before plunging into the field-trip log, we provide an overview of Mount St. Helens geology, geochemistry, petrology, and volcanology as background. The volcano has been referred to as a

  7. Field-trip guide to the vents, dikes, stratigraphy, and structure of the Columbia River Basalt Group, eastern Oregon and southeastern Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Victor E; Reidel, Stephen P.; Ross, Martin E.; Brown, Richard J.; Self, Stephen

    2017-06-22

    The Columbia River Basalt Group covers an area of more than 210,000 km2 with an estimated volume of 210,000 km3. As the youngest continental flood-basalt province on Earth (16.7–5.5 Ma), it is well preserved, with a coherent and detailed stratigraphy exposed in the deep canyonlands of eastern Oregon and southeastern Washington. The Columbia River flood-basalt province is often cited as a model for the study of similar provinces worldwide.This field-trip guide explores the main source region of the Columbia River Basalt Group and is written for trip participants attending the 2017 International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth’s Interior (IAVCEI) Scientific Assembly in Portland, Oregon, USA. The first part of the guide provides an overview of the geologic features common in the Columbia River flood-basalt province and the stratigraphic terminology used in the Columbia River Basalt Group. The accompanying road log examines the stratigraphic evolution, eruption history, and structure of the province through a field examination of the lavas, dikes, and pyroclastic rocks of the Columbia River Basalt Group.

  8. PENGARUH METODE FIELD TRIP DENGAN PEMANFAATAN RUMPON BUATAN TERHADAP KETERAMPILAN PROSES SAINS DAN SIKAP ILMIAH DI SMP SATU ATAP PULAU TUNDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ika Rifqiawati

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui pengaruh field trip dengan pemanfaatan rumpon buatan terhadap keterampilan proses sains (KPS dan sikap ilmiah siswa di SMP Satu Atap Pulau Tunda, Kecamatan Tirtayasa, Kabupaten Serang. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian weak experiment, karena tidak adanya kelas kontrol. Sampel penelitian adalah siswa kelas X SMP Satu Atap Pulau Tunda yang dipilih secara purposive sampling, karena kelas X hanya ada satu kelas saja. Data diperoleh dari soal KPS, lembar observasi KPS dan sikap ilmiah selama pembelajaran, dan lembar wawancara. Hasil uji T menunjukkan nilai signifikansi 0.00 < 0.05, menunjukkan bahwa terdapat pengaruh metode field trip dengan pemanfaatan rumpon buatan terhadap keterampilan proses sains (KPS dan sikap ilmiah siswa di SMP Satu Atap Pulau Tunda. Aspek KPS yang memiliki persentase tinggi yaitu menggunakan alat dan bahan, dan interpretasi. Sikap ilmiah yang tertinggi yaitu rasa ingin tahu. Saran dari hasil penelitian ini agar KPS dan sikap ilmiah siswa dapat ditingkatkan lagi yaitu dengan cara kepala sekolah serta pemerintah daerah  berperan serta untuk memberikan  pelatihan bagi guru terkait model pembelajaran, KPS, dan sikap ilmiah.

  9. Has the implementation of the TRIPS Agreement in Latin America and the Caribbean produced intellectual property legislation that favours public health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Maria Auxiliadora; Bermudez, Jorge Antonio Zepeda; Chaves, Gabriela Costa; Velásquez, Germán

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The World Trade Organization's Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) Agreement establishes minimum standards for intellectual property rights, including patent protection for pharmaceuticals; therefore, it may make it difficult for developing countries to gain access to medicines, especially those countries that are the least developed. This study aims to determine whether implementation of the TRIPS Agreement in Latin American and Caribbean countries has generated patent legislation that is sensitive to public health needs. METHODS: Legislation in 11 Latin American and Caribbean countries was analysed. The variables considered in the analysis were: the term of patents issued, patentable subject matter, transition periods (that is, time until legislation was enacted), reversal of the burden of proof of patent infringement, exhaustion of rights, compulsory licensing and the early working exception (which allows a country to complete all procedures necessary to register a generic product before the original patent expires). FINDINGS: By 2000, all of the countries studied had reformed their legislation to conform to the agreement. Brazil and Argentina used the transition period until 2005 to grant patents in the pharmaceutical industry. All countries, except Panama, made use of the safeguards and flexibilities available through the agreement by including mechanisms for compulsory licensing in their legislation. Argentina; Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela (countries that represented the Andean community); the Dominican Republic; and Panama included mechanisms to allow parallel importation. Mexico did not. Brazil only permits parallel importation after a compulsory licence has been issued. The early working exception is included in legislation in Brazil and the Dominican Republic. CONCLUSION: The countries in this study did not incorporate all of the mechanisms allowed for by the Agreement and are not adequately using the

  10. Has the implementation of the TRIPS Agreement in Latin America and the Caribbean produced intellectual property legislation that favours public health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Maria Auxiliadora; Bermudez, Jorge Antonio Zepeda; Chaves, Gabriela Costa; Velásquez, Germán

    2004-11-01

    The World Trade Organization's Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) Agreement establishes minimum standards for intellectual property rights, including patent protection for pharmaceuticals; therefore, it may make it difficult for developing countries to gain access to medicines, especially those countries that are the least developed. This study aims to determine whether implementation of the TRIPS Agreement in Latin American and Caribbean countries has generated patent legislation that is sensitive to public health needs. Legislation in 11 Latin American and Caribbean countries was analysed. The variables considered in the analysis were: the term of patents issued, patentable subject matter, transition periods (that is, time until legislation was enacted), reversal of the burden of proof of patent infringement, exhaustion of rights, compulsory licensing and the early working exception (which allows a country to complete all procedures necessary to register a generic product before the original patent expires). By 2000, all of the countries studied had reformed their legislation to conform to the agreement. Brazil and Argentina used the transition period until 2005 to grant patents in the pharmaceutical industry. All countries, except Panama, made use of the safeguards and flexibilities available through the agreement by including mechanisms for compulsory licensing in their legislation. Argentina; Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela (countries that represented the Andean community); the Dominican Republic; and Panama included mechanisms to allow parallel importation. Mexico did not. Brazil only permits parallel importation after a compulsory licence has been issued. The early working exception is included in legislation in Brazil and the Dominican Republic. The countries in this study did not incorporate all of the mechanisms allowed for by the Agreement and are not adequately using the provisions that enable World Trade

  11. Healthy Ride Trip Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — A dataset that shows trips taken using the Healthy Ride system by quarter. The dataset includes bike number, membership type, trip start and end timestamp, and...

  12. Field-trip guide to mafic volcanism of the Cascade Range in Central Oregon—A volcanic, tectonic, hydrologic, and geomorphic journey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deligne, Natalia I.; Mckay, Daniele; Conrey, Richard M.; Grant, Gordon E.; Johnson, Emily R.; O'Connor, Jim; Sweeney, Kristin

    2017-08-16

    The Cascade Range in central Oregon has been shaped by tectonics, volcanism, and hydrology, as well as geomorphic forces that include glaciations. As a result of the rich interplay between these forces, mafic volcanism here can have surprising manifestations, which include relatively large tephra footprints and extensive lava flows, as well as water shortages, transportation and agricultural disruption, and forest fires. Although the focus of this multidisciplinary field trip will be on mafic volcanism, we will also look at the hydrology, geomorphology, and ecology of the area, and we will examine how these elements both influence and are influenced by mafic volcanism. We will see mafic volcanic rocks at the Sand Mountain volcanic field and in the Santiam Pass area, at McKenzie Pass, and in the southern Bend region. In addition, this field trip will occur during a total solar eclipse, the first one visible in the United States in more than 25 years (and the first seen in the conterminous United States in more than 37 years).The Cascade Range is the result of subduction of the Juan de Fuca plate underneath the North American plate. This north-south-trending volcanic mountain range is immediately downwind of the Pacific Ocean, a huge source of moisture. As moisture is blown eastward from the Pacific on prevailing winds, it encounters the Cascade Range in Oregon, and the resulting orographic lift and corresponding rain shadow is one of the strongest precipitation gradients in the conterminous United States. We will see how the products of the volcanoes in the central Oregon Cascades have had a profound influence on groundwater flow and, thus, on the distribution of Pacific moisture. We will also see the influence that mafic volcanism has had on landscape evolution, vegetation development, and general hydrology.

  13. Trip Roller Clutch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranish, John M.

    1993-01-01

    Bidirectional roller-locking mechanism offers advantages of efficiency and controllability. Trip roller clutch contains back-to-back roller-locking, overrunning clutches released (tripped) with small magnetic forces. Designed to operate with lubricant. Unlike other friction-based devices, trip roller clutch remains cool during operation.

  14. Field Studies on Lyme Disease in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Piesman

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary tick vector of Borrelia burgdorferi in eastern and central North America is Ixodes dammini; in western North America, Ixodes pacificus. Searching for the appropriate vector is the first step in determining whether a region is endemic and enzootic for the spirochete B burgdorferi, the etiological agent of Lyme disease, followed by examination of the ticks (questing or already attached to hosts and wildlife for the spirochete. Questing ticks can be collected through a variety of methods. The two major animal hosts for I dammini are the white-footed mouse Peromyscus leucopus and the white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus. Sampling strategies should consider habitat and season. All three life stages of the vector tick should be located, indicating a self-sustaining population. Although B burgdorferi can be detected in many ways, there is no substitute for isolating the spirochete in Barbour-Stoenner-Kelly II medium for definitive proof of the presence of the Lyme disease spirochete.

  15. Environmental education: a fast-growing field in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, D W

    1989-01-01

    Private conservation organizations have become more prevalent throughout Latin America in the last decade. They range from well organized and financed, internationally-recognized organizations, to small volunteer groups. They are committed to preserving the natural resources and cover national park management, the protection of wildlife, reforestation, environmental contamination and other issues. Also in Latin America environmental education has become an important part of the resource conservation programs. One of the most advanced and successful programs is in Ecuador and is called Natura. It has produced many educational materials including slide programs, television spots and programs, booklets, a complete primary school curriculum, posters, radio programs and a profile of Ecuador's environment. Their programs have been successful because they analyze their target audience and tailor the program to their needs and desires. They also follow up with evaluation questionnaires and testing for each program. It has been difficult for organizations such as these to implement programs in rural areas. There are some groups developing environmental education programs in rural areas through alliances with development assistance organizations. There are essential for the protection of wild areas where human needs must be balanced with longterm ecological priorities.

  16. Field-trip guide to subaqueous volcaniclastic facies in the Ancestral Cascades arc in southern Washington State—The Ohanapecosh Formation and Wildcat Creek beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutzeler, Martin; McPhie, Jocelyn

    2017-06-27

    Partly situated in the idyllic Mount Rainier National Park, this field trip visits exceptional examples of Oligocene subaqueous volcaniclastic successions in continental basins adjacent to the Ancestral Cascades arc. The >800-m-thick Ohanapecosh Formation (32–26 Ma) and the >300-m-thick Wildcat Creek (27 Ma) beds record similar sedimentation processes from various volcanic sources. Both show evidence of below-wave-base deposition, and voluminous accumulation of volcaniclastic facies from subaqueous density currents and suspension settling. Eruption-fed facies include deposits from pyroclastic flows that crossed the shoreline, from tephra fallout over water, and from probable Surtseyan eruptions, whereas re-sedimented facies comprise subaqueous density currents and debris flow deposits.

  17. Arsenic associated with historical gold mining in the Sierra Nevada foothills: Case study and field trip guide for Empire Mine State Historic Park, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpers, Charles N.; Myers, Perry A; Millsap, Daniel; Regnier, Tamsen B; Bowell, Robert J.; Alpers, Charles N.; Jamieson, Heather E.; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Majzlan, Juraj

    2014-01-01

    The Empire Mine, together with other mines in the Grass Valley mining district, produced at least 21.3 million troy ounces (663 tonnes) of gold (Au) during the 1850s through the 1950s, making it the most productive hardrock Au mining district in California history (Clark 1970). The Empire Mine State Historic Park (Empire Mine SHP or EMSHP), established in 1975, provides the public with an opportunity to see many well-preserved features of the historic mining and mineral processing operations (CDPR 2014a).A legacy of Au mining at Empire Mine and elsewhere is contamination of mine wastes and associated soils, surface waters, and groundwaters with arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), and other metals. At EMSHP, As has been the principal contaminant of concern and the focus of extensive remediation efforts over the past several years by the State of California, Department of Parks and Recreation (DPR) and Newmont USA, Ltd. In addition, the site is the main focus of a multidisciplinary research project on As bioavailability and bioaccessibility led by the California Department of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC) and funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (USEPA’s) Brownfields Program.This chapter was prepared as a guide for a field trip to EMSHP held on June 14, 2014, in conjunction with a short course on “Environmental Geochemistry, Mineralogy, and Microbiology of Arsenic” held in Nevada City, California on June 15–16, 2014. This guide contains background information on geological setting, mining history, and environmental history at EMSHP and other historical Au mining districts in the Sierra Nevada, followed by descriptions of the field trip stops.

  18. Geology of the Right Stepover region between the Rodgers Creek, Healdsburg, and Maacama faults, northern San Francisco Bay region: a contribution to Northern California Geological Society Field Trip Guide, June 6-8, 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Robert J.; Sarna-Wojcicki, Andrei

    2003-01-01

    This Open file report was written as part of a two-day field trip on June 7 and 8, 2003, conducted for the Northern California Geological Society. The first day of this field trip (June 7) was led by McLaughlin and Sarna-Wojcicki in the area of the right- step between the Rodgers Creek- Healdsburg fault zone and the Maacama fault. The second day of the trip (June 8), was led by David Wagner of the California Geological Survey and students having recently completed MS theses at San Jose State University (James Allen) and San Francisco State University (Carrie Randolph-Loar), as well as a student from San Francisco State University whose MS thesis was in progress in June 2003 (Eric Ford). The second day covered the Rodgers Creek fault zone and related faults of the Petaluma Valley area (the Tolay and Petaluma Valley fault zones).

  19. Field-trip guide for exploring pyroclastic density current deposits from the May 18, 1980, eruption of Mount St. Helens, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Brittany D.; Pollock, Nicholas; Sarocchi, Damiano; Dufek, Josef; Clynne, Michael A.

    2017-07-05

    Pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) are one of the most dangerous phenomena associated with explosive volcanism. To help constrain damage potential, a combination of field studies, laboratory experiments, and numerical modeling are used to establish conditions that influence PDC dynamics and depositional processes, including runout distance. The objective of this field trip is to explore field relations that may constrain PDCs at the time of emplacement.The PDC deposits from the May 18, 1980, eruption of Mount St. Helens are well exposed along the steep flanks (10–30° slopes) and across the pumice plain (5–12° slopes) as far as 8 km north of the volcano. The pumice plain deposits represent deposition from a series of concentrated PDCs and are primarily thick (3–12 m), massive, and poorly sorted. In contrast, the steep east-flank deposits are stratified to cross-stratified, suggesting deposition from PDCs where turbulence strongly influenced transport and depositional processes.The PDCs that descended the west flank were largely nondepositional; they maintained a higher flow energy and carrying capacity than PDCs funneled through the main breach, as evidenced by the higher concentration of large blocks in their deposits. The PDC from the west flank collided with PDCs funneled through the breach at various points along the pumice plain. Evidence for flow collision will be explored and debated throughout the field trip.Evidence for substrate erosion and entrainment is found (1) along the steep eastern flank of the volcano, which has a higher degree of rough, irregular topography relative to the west flanks where PDCs were likely nonerosive, (2) where PDCs encountered debris-avalanche hummocks across the pumice plain, and (3) where PDCs eroded and entrained material deposited by PDCs produced during earlier phases of the eruption. Two features interpreted as large-scale (tens of meters wide) levees and a large (~200 m wide) channel scour-and-fill feature

  20. Trade, TRIPS, and pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard D; Correa, Carlos; Oh, Cecilia

    2009-02-21

    The World Trade Organization's Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) set global minimum standards for the protection of intellectual property, substantially increasing and expanding intellectual-property rights, and generated clear gains for the pharmaceutical industry and the developed world. The question of whether TRIPS generates gains for developing countries, in the form of increased exports, is addressed in this paper through consideration of the importance of pharmaceuticals in health-care trade, outlining the essential requirements, implications, and issues related to TRIPS, and TRIPS-plus, in which increased restrictions are imposed as part of bilateral free-trade agreements. TRIPS has not generated substantial gains for developing countries, but has further increased pharmaceutical trade in developed countries. The unequal trade between developed and developing countries (ie, exporting and importing high-value patented drugs, respectively) raises the issue of access to medicines, which is exacerbated by TRIPS-plus provisions, although many countries have not even enacted provision for TRIPS flexibilities. Therefore this paper focuses on options that are available to the health community for negotiation to their advantage under TRIPS, and within the presence of TRIPS-plus.

  1. Central America Field Epidemiology Training Program (CA FETP): a pathway to sustainable public health capacity development

    OpenAIRE

    L?pez, Augusto; C?ceres, Victor M

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The Central America Field Epidemiology Training Program (CA FETP) is a public health capacity-building training programme aimed at developing high-caliber field epidemiologists at various levels of the public health system. It began in 2000 as part of the effort to rebuild public health infrastructure in six Central American and Caribbean countries following the devastation of Hurricanes Mitch and Georges in late 1998. Since then, the CA FETP has evolved from one regional training pr...

  2. Maps showing geology, oil and gas fields, and geological provinces of South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, C. J.; Viger, R.J.; Anderson, C.P.

    1999-01-01

    This digitally compiled map includes geology, geologic provinces, and oil and gas fields of South America. The map is part of a worldwide series on CD-ROM by World Energy Project released of the U.S. Geological Survey . The goal of the project is to assess the undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and gas resources of the world and report these results by the year 2000. For data management purposes the world is divided into eight energy regions corresponding approximately to the economic regions of the world as defined by the U.S. Department of State. South America (Region 6) includes Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Columbia, Ecuador, Falkland Islands, French Guiana, Guyuna, Netherlands, Netherlands Antilles, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay, and Venezuela.

  3. Storm-time total electron content and its response to penetration electric fields over South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M. de Siqueira

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work the response of the ionosphere due to the severe magnetic storm of 7–10 November 2004 is investigated by analyzing GPS Total Electron Content (TEC maps constructed for the South America sector. In order to verify the disturbed zonal electric fields in South America during the superstorm, ionospheric vertical drift data obtained from modeling results are used in the analysis. The vertical drifts were inferred from ΔH magnetometer data (Jicamarca-Piura following the methodology presented by Anderson et al. (2004. Also used were vertical drifts measured by the Jicamarca ISR. Data from a digisonde located at São Luís, Brazil (2.33° S, 44.2° W, dip latitude 0.25° are presented to complement the Jicamarca equatorial data. Penetration electric fields were observed by the comparison between the equatorial vertical drifts and the Interplanetary Electric Field (IEF. The TEC maps obtained from GPS data reflect the ionospheric response over the South America low-latitude and equatorial region. They reveal unexpected plasma distributions and TEC levels during the main phase of the superstorm on 7 November, which is coincident with the local post-sunset hours. At this time an increase in the pre-reversal enhancement was expected to develop the Equatorial Ionization Anomaly (EIA but we observed the absence of EIA. The results also reveal well known characteristics of the plasma distributions on 8, 9, and 10 November. The emphasized features are the expansion and intensification of EIA due to prompt penetration electric fields on 9 November and the inhibition of EIA during post-sunset hours on 7, 8, and 10 November. One important result is that the TEC maps provided a bi-dimensional view of the ionospheric changes offering a spatial description of the electrodynamics involved, which is an advantage over TEC measured by isolated GPS receivers.

  4. Assessment of MFLL column CO2 measurements obtained during the ACT-America field campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, B.; Browell, E. V.; Kooi, S. A.; Dobler, J. T.; Campbell, J.; Fan, T. F.; Pal, S.; O'Dell, C. W.; Obland, M. D.; Erxleben, W. H.; McGregor, D.; Kochanov, R. V.; DiGangi, J. P.; Davis, K. J.; Choi, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Accurate observations of atmospheric CO2 with airborne and space-based lidar systems such as those used during the Atmospheric Carbon and Transport - America (ACT-America) field campaigns and proposed for the NASA ASCENDS mission would improve our knowledge of CO2 distributions and variations on both regional and global scales, reduce the uncertainties in atmospheric CO2 transport and fluxes, and increase confidence in predictions of future climate changes. To reach these scientific goals, atmospheric column CO2 (XCO2) measurements of the Harris Corporation's Multifunctional Fiber Laser Lidar (MFLL) obtained during the first two ACT-America flight campaigns have been thoroughly investigated by the ACT-America lidar measurement group. MFLL is an intensity-modulated continuous-wave lidar operating in the 1.57-mm CO2 absorption band. Atmospheric XCO2 amounts are retrieved based on the integrated path differential absorption of the lidar signals at online and offline wavelengths between the aircraft and the ground. NASA Langley Research Center and Harris have been collaborating in the development and evaluation of this CO2 lidar approach for a number of years. To gain insights into the lidar performance, the measurement group has collected all possible lidar measurements with corresponding in-situ atmospheric profile information from the first two ACT-America field campaigns, including the data from several flight legs dedicated to lidar calibration. Initially large differences (-1 to 2 %) were found between lidar measured CO2 optical depths and those derived from in-situ observations and spectroscopy from HITRAN2008. When an improved spectroscopic model (Pre-HITRAN2016) was applied, the large systematic errors were much more consistent leading to the development of an empirical linear correction of measured optical depth based on the calibration flight data. This correction accounts for remaining uncertainties in spectroscopic models, environmental conditions, such as

  5. Guam Commercial Purchases (Trip Ticket)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — DAWR collects Trip Ticket or purchase invoice data from vendors that buy fish directly from the fishermen. Similar to the trip ticket system in Saipan, this is a...

  6. Science Activities for School Trips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quint, Walter C.

    1980-01-01

    Describes ways in which physics-learning activity packets can be used by high school students participating in trips organized by other departments. Provides an example of physics activities incorporated into an airplane trip to Disney World. (CS)

  7. Central America Field Epidemiology Training Program (CA FETP): a pathway to sustainable public health capacity development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Augusto; Cáceres, Victor M

    2008-12-16

    The Central America Field Epidemiology Training Program (CA FETP) is a public health capacity-building training programme aimed at developing high-caliber field epidemiologists at various levels of the public health system. It began in 2000 as part of the effort to rebuild public health infrastructure in six Central American and Caribbean countries following the devastation of Hurricanes Mitch and Georges in late 1998. Since then, the CA FETP has evolved from one regional training programme managed by CDC to several national FETPs with each country assuming ownership of its domestic programme. The curriculum is competency-based, and is divided into a three-tiered training pyramid that corresponds to the needs at the local, district and central levels of the health system. Trainees at each tier spend about 20% of their time in the classroom and 80% in the field implementing what they have learned while being mentored by graduates of the programme. FETP trainees have responded to multiple natural disasters and conducted hundreds of investigations including surveillance evaluations, outbreak responses and planned studies. Also graduates of the CA FETP are assuming influential positions in their respective ministries. As countries meet the challenge of institutionalizing their programmes, the CA FETP concept will increasingly be recognized as a model for sustainable public health capacity development.

  8. Central America Field Epidemiology Training Program (CA FETP: a pathway to sustainable public health capacity development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cáceres Victor M

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Central America Field Epidemiology Training Program (CA FETP is a public health capacity-building training programme aimed at developing high-caliber field epidemiologists at various levels of the public health system. It began in 2000 as part of the effort to rebuild public health infrastructure in six Central American and Caribbean countries following the devastation of Hurricanes Mitch and Georges in late 1998. Since then, the CA FETP has evolved from one regional training programme managed by CDC to several national FETPs with each country assuming ownership of its domestic programme. The curriculum is competency-based, and is divided into a three-tiered training pyramid that corresponds to the needs at the local, district and central levels of the health system. Trainees at each tier spend about 20% of their time in the classroom and 80% in the field implementing what they have learned while being mentored by graduates of the programme. FETP trainees have responded to multiple natural disasters and conducted hundreds of investigations including surveillance evaluations, outbreak responses and planned studies. Also graduates of the CA FETP are assuming influential positions in their respective ministries. As countries meet the challenge of institutionalizing their programmes, the CA FETP concept will increasingly be recognized as a model for sustainable public health capacity development.

  9. Test plan : Branson TRIP travel time/data accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-01

    The Branson Travel and Recreational Information Program (TRIP) in Branson, Missouri, and the I-40 Traveler and Tourist Information System (TTIS) in the I-40 corridor of Northern Arizona are two Field Operational Tests (FOTs) of Traveler Information S...

  10. Geology of the Devonian Marcellus Shale--Valley and Ridge province, Virginia and West Virginia--a field trip guidebook for the American Association of Petroleum Geologists Eastern Section Meeting, September 28-29, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enomoto, Catherine B.; Coleman, James L.; Haynes, John T.; Whitmeyer, Steven J.; McDowell, Ronald R.; Lewis, J. Eric; Spear, Tyler P.; Swezey, Christopher S.

    2012-01-01

    Detailed and reconnaissance field mapping and the results of geochemical and mineralogical analyses of outcrop samples indicate that the Devonian shales of the Broadtop Synclinorium from central Virginia to southern Pennsylvania have an organic content sufficiently high and a thermal maturity sufficiently moderate to be considered for a shale gas play. The organically rich Middle Devonian Marcellus Shale is present throughout most of the synclinorium, being absent only where it has been eroded from the crests of anticlines. Geochemical analyses of outcrop and well samples indicate that hydrocarbons have been generated and expelled from the kerogen originally in place in the shale. The mineralogical characteristics of the Marcellus Shale samples from the Broadtop Synclinorium are slightly different from the averages of samples from New York, Pennsylvania, northeast Ohio, and northern West Virginia. The Middle Devonian shale interval is moderately to heavily fractured in all areas, but in some areas substantial fault shearing has removed a regular "cleat" system of fractures. Conventional anticlinal gas fields in the study area that are productive from the Lower Devonian Oriskany Sandstone suggest that a continuous shale gas system may be in place within the Marcellus Shale interval at least in a portion of the synclinorium. Third-order intraformational deformation is evident within the Marcellus shale exposures. Correlations between outcrops and geophysical logs from exploration wells nearby will be examined by field trip attendees.

  11. News Teaching: The epiSTEMe project: KS3 maths and science improvement Field trip: Pupils learn physics in a stately home Conference: ShowPhysics welcomes fun in Europe Student numbers: Physics numbers increase in UK Tournament: Physics tournament travels to Singapore Particle physics: Hadron Collider sets new record Astronomy: Take your classroom into space Forthcoming Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    Teaching: The epiSTEMe project: KS3 maths and science improvement Field trip: Pupils learn physics in a stately home Conference: ShowPhysics welcomes fun in Europe Student numbers: Physics numbers increase in UK Tournament: Physics tournament travels to Singapore Particle physics: Hadron Collider sets new record Astronomy: Take your classroom into space Forthcoming Events

  12. Guidelines for Setting Up an Extended Field Trip to Florida and the Florida Keys: An Interactive Experiential Training Field Biology Program Consisting of Pretrip Instruction, Search Image Training, Field Exercises, and Observations of Tropical Habitats and Coral Reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Claude D.; And Others

    The importance of experiential aspects of biological study is addressed using multi-dimensional classroom and field classroom approaches to student learning. This document includes a guide to setting up this style of field experience. Several teaching innovations are employed to introduce undergraduate students to the literature, techniques, and…

  13. Contextual influences on trip generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    This study examines the ways in which urban context affects vehicle trip generation rates across a variety of land uses. An establishment intercept travel survey was administered at 78 establishments in the Portland, Oregon region during the summer o...

  14. Make My Trip Count 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Make My Trip Count (MMTC) commuter survey, conducted in September and October 2015 by GBA, the Pittsburgh 2030 District, and 10 other regional transportation...

  15. CNMI Commercial Purchases (Trip Ticket)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), Division of Fish and Wildlife (DFW) collects 'Trip Ticket' or purchase invoice data from vendors that buy fish...

  16. Trip Report of Field Search for Exercise Desert Rock Documentation Conducted by Representatives of The Adjutant General 18 June 1978 to 14 July 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-08-04

    2 Army Field Forces Doard Number 2 2 Army Field Forces Board Number 3 2 Army Field Forces Board Nutbor 4 2 A" Liaison Orficur, Sandia Base, Neav ...FORD WILLIAM 0 CCIE58572 AF %_COCCCOO2gC FOX RICt-ARC K CCE74191C ti P _COCCCOOe62 FCX RICh-ARC K CC’,74191C N’ ICOCCCOOE63 FRASER CONALU M CCC33...eC44 N v cocoCCS0G~8 FRASER Mi~AL1 M CCC33044N .~ It OCCCOOS07_.- FRtSER CIONALE 14 CCIC39912 rhP vCCCCCOO0O-1 UFRASER CONALC_4 M CC7C3992 N viP

  17. Psychobiography Training in Psychology in North America: Mapping the Field and Charting a Course

    OpenAIRE

    Ponterotto, Joseph G.; Reynolds, Jason D.; Morel, Samantha; Cheung, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Psychobiography holds an important position in the history of psychology, yet little is known about the status of psychobiographical training and dissertation research in psychology departments. This brief report identified psychobiography courses throughout North America and content analyzed a sample of 65 psychobiography dissertations to discern the theories and methods that have most commonly anchored this research. Results identified few psychology courses specifically in psychobiography,...

  18. The return trip effect: why the return trip often seems to take less time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Ven, Niels; van Rijswijk, Leon; Roy, Michael M

    2011-10-01

    Three studies confirm the existence of the return trip effect: The return trip often seems shorter than the initial trip, even though the distance traveled and the actual time spent traveling are identical. A pretest shows that people indeed experience a return trip effect regularly, and the effect was found on a bus trip (Study 1), a bicycle trip (Study 2), and when participants watched a video of someone else traveling (Study 3). The return trip effect also existed when another, equidistant route was taken on the return trip, showing that it is not familiarity with the route that causes this effect. Rather, it seems that a violation of expectations causes this effect.

  19. Evaluation of simple geochemical indicators of aeolian sand provenance: Late Quaternary dune fields of North America revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, Daniel R.

    2017-09-01

    Dune fields of Quaternary age occupy large areas of the world's arid and semiarid regions. Despite this, there has been surprisingly little work done on understanding dune sediment provenance, in part because many techniques are time-consuming, prone to operator error, experimental, highly specialized, expensive, or require sophisticated instrumentation. Provenance of dune sand using K/Rb and K/Ba values in K-feldspar in aeolian sands of the arid and semiarid regions of North America is tested here. Results indicate that K/Rb and K/Ba can distinguish different river sands that are sediment sources for dunes and dune fields themselves have distinctive K/Rb and K/Ba compositions. Over the Basin and Range and Great Plains regions of North America, the hypothesized sediment sources of dune fields are reviewed and assessed using K/Rb and K/Ba values in dune sands and in hypothesized source sediments. In some cases, the origins of dunes assessed in this manner are consistent with previous studies and in others, dune fields are found to have a more complex origin than previously thought. Use of K/Rb and K/Ba for provenance studies is a robust method that is inexpensive, rapid, and highly reproducible. It exploits one of the most common minerals found in dune sand, K-feldspar. The method avoids the problem of using simple concentrations of key elements that may be subject to interpretative bias due to changes in mineralogical maturity of Quaternary dune fields that occur over time.

  20. High intensity radiated field external environments for civil aircraft operating in the United States of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-12-01

    NAWCAD Patuxent River, Maryland, was tasked by the FAA to determine the High Intensity Radiated Field (HIRF) levels for civil aircraft operating in the U.S. The electromagnetic field survey will apply to civil aircraft seeking FAA certification under...

  1. Learning from a Bike Trip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren, Mike

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a bike trip which marks the culmination of a unit reviewing map-reading capabilities. In seventh grade, students develop various map skills, including cardinal and intermediate directions, how to measure distance on a map using a scale of miles, how to interpret the legend of a map, and how to locate places…

  2. Trip generation studies for special generators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    This research examines the effects of town centers and senior housing developments on : surrounding roadways and nearby transit. The Institute of Transportation Engineers (ITE) : Trip Generation Manual, which determines number of trips produced or at...

  3. Trip generation characteristics of special generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Special generators are introduced in the sequential four-step modeling procedure to represent certain types of facilities whose trip generation characteristics are not fully captured by the standard trip generation module. They are also used in the t...

  4. Trip generation and data analysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Through the Trip Generation and Data Analysis Study, the District of Columbia Department of : Transportation (DDOT) is undertaking research to better understand multimodal urban trip generation : at mixed-use sites in the District. The study is helpi...

  5. Transforming an Exposure trip to Botanical Expedition: Introducing Ecological Research thru Exposure Trip in an Eco-tourism Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo C. Lunar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available – Fieldtrips can be considered as one of the three avenues through which science can be taught - through formal classroom teaching, practical work and field trips. An exposure trip at Bangkong Kahoy Valley Field Study Center was arranged for a class of BS Biology and BS Education students enrolled in Ecology Course. This approach purposefully transformed the usual exposure trip from being a casual site visit into a focused and productive learning experience. This transformation from exposure trip to a botanical expedition has exceeded the initial activity goals. Rather than a day off from learning, the time spent at the study center has been a meaningful opportunity to engage students in an active ecological research project while delivering valuable science content. Employing the descriptive survey design, the learning gains of the students were assessed and students were directed to do a guided reflection writing using the ORID Model of Focused Conversation. The learning gains and reflections of the students confirmed that students can collaboratively develop focused research questions, make meaning from a variety of sources, carry out a vegetation analysis and conduct surveys on socio-economic status, plant resource utilization and ecotourism assessment of the host community. As students prepared for their trip and synthesized their learning afterward, they were able to come up with very impressive and scientifically sound research outputs.

  6. Trip internalization in multi-use developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Internal trip capture refers to how the number trips to and from a development are reduced by the proximity of : complementary land uses within the development (e.g., residential to retail). Internal trips occur within the : development and do not en...

  7. One-trip drum operating instruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruff, D.T.

    1994-01-01

    The one trip system is a bagless transfer system for egress of waste from gloveboxes into 55 gallon one-trip drums. The contents of this document give an overview of the assembly, loading, and handling of the one-trip drum for use in the WRAP-1 plant

  8. Psychobiography Training in Psychology in North America: Mapping the Field and Charting a Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph G. Ponterotto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Psychobiography holds an important position in the history of psychology, yet little is known about the status of psychobiographical training and dissertation research in psychology departments. This brief report identified psychobiography courses throughout North America and content analyzed a sample of 65 psychobiography dissertations to discern the theories and methods that have most commonly anchored this research. Results identified few psychology courses specifically in psychobiography, with a larger number of courses incorporating psychobiographical and/or narrative elements. With regard to psychobiography dissertations, the majority focused on artists, pioneering psychologists, and political leaders. Theories undergirding psychobiographical studies were most frequently psychoanalytic and psychodynamic. Methodologically, a majority of the dissertations were anchored in constructivist (discovery-oriented qualitative procedures, with a minority incorporating mixed methods designs. The authors highlight the value of psychobiographical training to psychology students and present avenues and models for incorporating psychobiography into psychology curriculums.

  9. Psychobiography Training in Psychology in North America: Mapping the Field and Charting a Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponterotto, Joseph G; Reynolds, Jason D; Morel, Samantha; Cheung, Linda

    2015-08-01

    Psychobiography holds an important position in the history of psychology, yet little is known about the status of psychobiographical training and dissertation research in psychology departments. This brief report identified psychobiography courses throughout North America and content analyzed a sample of 65 psychobiography dissertations to discern the theories and methods that have most commonly anchored this research. Results identified few psychology courses specifically in psychobiography, with a larger number of courses incorporating psychobiographical and/or narrative elements. With regard to psychobiography dissertations, the majority focused on artists, pioneering psychologists, and political leaders. Theories undergirding psychobiographical studies were most frequently psychoanalytic and psychodynamic. Methodologically, a majority of the dissertations were anchored in constructivist (discovery-oriented) qualitative procedures, with a minority incorporating mixed methods designs. The authors highlight the value of psychobiographical training to psychology students and present avenues and models for incorporating psychobiography into psychology curriculums.

  10. Psychobiography Training in Psychology in North America: Mapping the Field and Charting a Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponterotto, Joseph G.; Reynolds, Jason D.; Morel, Samantha; Cheung, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Psychobiography holds an important position in the history of psychology, yet little is known about the status of psychobiographical training and dissertation research in psychology departments. This brief report identified psychobiography courses throughout North America and content analyzed a sample of 65 psychobiography dissertations to discern the theories and methods that have most commonly anchored this research. Results identified few psychology courses specifically in psychobiography, with a larger number of courses incorporating psychobiographical and/or narrative elements. With regard to psychobiography dissertations, the majority focused on artists, pioneering psychologists, and political leaders. Theories undergirding psychobiographical studies were most frequently psychoanalytic and psychodynamic. Methodologically, a majority of the dissertations were anchored in constructivist (discovery-oriented) qualitative procedures, with a minority incorporating mixed methods designs. The authors highlight the value of psychobiographical training to psychology students and present avenues and models for incorporating psychobiography into psychology curriculums. PMID:27247670

  11. The silica road: Field trip notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Soto

    2016-09-01

    This paper present some keynotes distributed to the symposium attendants. It consists on: 1 a brief geological framework of the Montsant Massif, located at the southern margin of the Catalan Central Depression. It includes the definition of their Palaeozoic to Cenozoic depositional sequence and the localization of some points of interests with panoramic views and source areas where Tertiary chert nodules were available. They represent a significant focus for the raw materials procurement of several Paleolithic occupations since Lower Pleistocene. 2 A general presentation of the Middle Palaeolithic site of the Abric Romaní site, including a brief reference of the three research phases initiated at the beginning of 20th Century, the description of its 50 meters stratigraphic sequence, where 27 archaeological levels have been identified dating since 110 to 39 ka BP, and some of the main traits of the archaeological assemblages recovered.

  12. Geology Field Trips as Performance Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Callan

    2009-01-01

    One of the most important goals the author has for students in his introductory-level physical geology course is to give them the conceptual skills for solving geologic problems on their own. He wants students to leave his course as individuals who can use their knowledge of geologic processes and logic to figure out the extended geologic history…

  13. On a Field Trip with Bourdieu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    for exploring the strength and limits of state authority—also beyond the national territory. More- over, I claim that sovereign state interaction—diplomacy—has developed into a metafield. If we are to understand emerging challenges to state authority, from private companies to international organizations...... and global media, we need to study everyday activities, which both reproduce and challenge the sovereign state system as a meaningful reality. I illustrate this idea of competing articulations of political authority by focusing on the EU’s new diplomatic service, which chal- lenges the very idea of national...

  14. Simulated field trip on ski area development

    Science.gov (United States)

    John J. Lindsay; Hubertus J. Mittmann

    1979-01-01

    Not too long ago winter sports facilities were small and simple. As more people participated in winter sports and technology advanced, the impact on the land in-creased not only from the standpoint of actual facilities needed for winter recreation but also from associated facilities. In many instances winter sports areas developed into full fledged tourist oriented...

  15. Gulf of Aqaba Field Trip - Datasets

    KAUST Repository

    Hanafy, Sherif M.

    2013-11-01

    OBJECTIVE: In this work we use geophysical methods to locate and characterize active faults in alluvial sediments. INTRODUCTION: Since only subtle material and velocity contrasts are expected across the faults, we used seismic refraction tomography and 2D resistivity imaging to locate the fault. One seismic profile and one 2D resistivity profile are collected at an alluvial fan on the Gulf of Aqaba coast in Saudi Arabia. The collected data are inverted to generate the traveltime tomogram and the electric resistivity tomogram (ERT). A low velocity anomaly is shown on the traveltime tomogram indicates the colluvial wedge associated with the fault. The location of the fault is shown on the ERT as a vertical high resistivity anomaly. Two data sets were collected at the study site to map the subsurface structure along a profile across the known normal fault described above. The first data set is a seismic refraction data set and the second is a 2D resistivity imaging data set. A total of 120 common shot gathers were collected (MatLab and DPik format). Each shot gather has 120 traces at equal shot and receiver intervals of 2.5 m. The total length of the profile is 297.5 m . Data were recorded using a 1 ms sampling interval for a total recording time of 0.3 s. A 200 lb weight drop was used as the seismic source, with 10 to 15 stacks at each shot location. One 2D resistivity profile is acquired at the same location and parallel to the seismic profile. The acquisition parameters of the resistivity profile are: No. of nodes: 64, Node interval: 5 m, Configuration Array: Schlumberger-Wenner, Total profile length: 315 m, Both seismic and resistivity profiles share the same starting point at the western end of the profile.

  16. Statistical scaling, Shannon entropy, and Generalized space-time q-entropy of rainfall fields in tropical South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poveda, Germán; Salas, Hernán D

    2015-07-01

    We study diverse scaling and information theory characteristics of Mesoscale Convective Systems (MCSs) as seen by the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) over continental and oceanic regions of tropical South America, and 2-D radar rainfall fields from Amazonia. The bi-dimensional Fourier spectra of MCSs exhibit inverse power laws with respect to the spatial scale, whose scaling exponents, β, capture the type of spatial correlation of rainfall among the study regions, including those over the Andes of Colombia as well as over oceanic and Amazonian regions. The moment-scaling analysis evidences that the structure function deviates from simple scaling at order q > 1.0, thus signaling the multi-scaling nature of rainfall fields within MCSs in tropical South America, with departures from simple scaling associated with the physical characteristics of MCSs over the different study regions. Entropy is estimated for a large set of radar rainfall fields during the distinctive atmospheric regimes (Easterly and Westerly events) in this part of Amazonia. Results evidence that there are significant differences in the dynamics of rainfall among regimes. No clear-cut relationship is found between entropy and the first two statistical moments, but power fits in space and time, S(γ) ∼ γ(-η) for skewness and, S(κ) ∼ κ(-ϵ) for kurtosis. The exponents η and ϵ are statistically different between Easterly and Westerly events, although the significance of fits is less when L-moments are used to estimate skewness and kurtosis. Interesting differences are identified between the time and space generalized q-entropy functions of Amazonian rainfall fields. In both cases, the functions are a continuous set of power laws (analogous to the structure function in turbulence), S(T, q) ∼ T(β), and, S(λ, q) ∼ λ(β), covering a broad range of temporal and spatial scales. Both time and space generalized q-entropy functions exhibit linear growth in the

  17. Identifying Walking Trips Using GPS Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Gi-Hyoug; Rodríguez, Daniel A; Evenson, Kelly R

    2011-02-01

    this study developed and tested algorithms to identify outdoor walking trips from portable global positioning system (GPS) units in free-living conditions. the study included a calibration and a validation phase. For the calibration phase, we determined the best algorithm from 35 person-days of data. Measures of agreement regarding the daily number and duration of diary-reported and GPS-identified trips were used. In the validation phase, the best algorithm was applied to an additional and separate 136 person-days of diary and GPS data. the preferred algorithm in the calibration phase resulted in 90% of trips identified from the GPS data being found in the diary, whereas 81% of trips reported in the diary being found in the GPS data. The preferred algorithm used 1) a maximum 3-min gap between points to define a trip, 2) at least 5 min or more of continuous GPS points, 3) a speed range between 2 and 8.0 km·h, 4) at least 30 m of displacement between the start and end points of a trip, and 5) merged walking trips when the time gap between trips was less than 3 min. With the validation data, substantial agreement between the GPS and the diary was achieved, with 86% of trips identified from the GPS data found in the diary and 77% of trips reported in the diary found in the GPS data. the algorithm identified free-living walking trips of more than 5 min in duration. The ability to identify outdoor walking trips from GPS data can be improved by reducing recording intervals used in the GPS units and monitoring participant compliance. Further research is desirable to determine whether concurrent wearing of an accelerometer may improve the ability to detect walking more accurately.

  18. TRIP RATES FOR CONDOMINIUM CONSTRUCTION PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wirach Hirun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of large scale condominium construction projects had dramatically increased in Bangkok. Many projects had occurred in either densely populated areas or in central business districts, where traffic conditions were usually highly congested. To prevent traffic problems, a traffic impact study must be prepared and submitted for review by concerned public authorities. Unit trip generation rates were important data in traffic impact analysis. Without accurate unit trip generation rates, public agencies could not obtain accurate information on the traffic that will be generated. This study aimed to study trip rates and the factors affecting them for condominium construction project in Bangkok. The data were collected from 30 condominium construction sites located in 15 districts of Bangkok. The analysis used the linear regression method and was divided into three cases: 1 trip rates for all vehicles, 2 trip rates for classified vehicles, and 3 trip rates for all types of condominium. All case analyses considered weekdays, Saturday, and Sunday. The results found that trip rates related to the number of dwellings in the condominium. The trip rates for all vehicle types on weekdays, Saturday, and Sunday were 10.636, 4.647, and 9.294 vehicles per 100 dwelling units per day respectively. The trip rates for six-wheeled and ten-wheeled trucks on weekdays, Saturday, and Sunday were 2.046, 0.975, and 0.575 vehicles per 100 dwelling units per day respectively. The trip rate for four-wheeled trucks and passenger cars on weekdays was 1.960. Regarding condominium types, the trip rate for low rise condominiums for all vehicle types on weekdays was 5.315 while the trip rates for high rise condominiums for weekdays, Saturday, and Sunday were 3.965, 2.667, and 1.261 respectively.

  19. Procedural Aspects of Compulsory Licensing Under TRIPS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wested, Jakob; Minssen, Timo

    2017-01-01

    and discussion addressed the framework and context for CL provided by the TRIPS convention. Both the specific requirements enshrined in TRIPS art 31 and the broader objectives and principles enshrined in TRIPS, e.g. transfer and dissemination of technology (art 7), protection of public health (art 8......In 2013, Indian authorities granted a compulsory license to NATCO Pharmaceuticals for a patented pharmaceutical product sold by Bayer. This decision raised several complex issues regarding the grant a CL and their consistency with the principles and objectives of TRIPS. Furthermore, in January 2017...

  20. Description of two smallest field crickets from South America, Laureopsis nauta Jaiswara gen. nov., sp. nov. and Perugryllus estiron Jaiswara gen. nov., sp. nov. (Orthoptera, Grylloidea, Gryllidae, Gryllinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswara, Ranjana; Desutter-Grandcolas, Laure

    2017-11-20

    Gryllinae are one of the most diverse and widely distributed cricket groups. However, in South America they are known only from 10 genera. We update this list by describing two new genera and species of field crickets i.e. Laureopsis nauta Jaiswara gen. nov., sp. nov. and Perugryllus estiron Jaiswara gen. nov., sp. nov. from Peru.

  1. Plasmodium falciparum field isolates from South America use an atypical red blood cell invasion pathway associated with invasion ligand polymorphisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Lopez-Perez

    Full Text Available Studies of Plasmodium falciparum invasion pathways in field isolates have been limited. Red blood cell (RBC invasion is a complex process involving two invasion protein families; Erythrocyte Binding-Like (EBL and the Reticulocyte Binding-Like (PfRh proteins, which are polymorphic and not fully characterized in field isolates. To determine the various P. falciparum invasion pathways used by parasite isolates from South America, we studied the invasion phenotypes in three regions: Colombia, Peru and Brazil. Additionally, polymorphisms in three members of the EBL (EBA-181, EBA-175 and EBL-1 and five members of the PfRh (PfRh1, PfRh2a, PfRh2b, PfRh4, PfRh5 families were determined. We found that most P. falciparum field isolates from Colombia and Peru invade RBCs through an atypical invasion pathway phenotypically characterized as resistant to all enzyme treatments (NrTrCr. Moreover, the invasion pathways and the ligand polymorphisms differed substantially among the Colombian and Brazilian isolates while the Peruvian isolates represent an amalgam of those present in the Colombian and Brazilian field isolates. The NrTrCr invasion profile was associated with the presence of the PfRh2a pepC variant, the PfRh5 variant 1 and EBA-181 RVNKN variant. The ebl and Pfrh expression levels in a field isolate displaying the NrTrCr profile also pointed to PfRh2a, PfRh5 and EBA-181 as being possibly the major players in this invasion pathway. Notably, our studies demonstrate the uniqueness of the Peruvian P. falciparum field isolates in terms of their invasion profiles and ligand polymorphisms, and present a unique opportunity for studying the ability of P. falciparum parasites to expand their invasion repertoire after being reintroduced to human populations. The present study is directly relevant to asexual blood stage vaccine design focused on invasion pathway proteins, suggesting that regional invasion variants and global geographical variation are likely to

  2. Multiproxy summer and winter surface air temperature field reconstructions for southern South America covering the past centuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neukom, R.; Grosjean, M.; Wanner, H. [University of Bern, Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research (OCCR), Bern (Switzerland); University of Bern, Institute of Geography, Climatology and Meteorology, Bern (Switzerland); Luterbacher, J. [Justus Liebig University of Giessen, Department of Geography, Climatology, Climate Dynamics and Climate Change, Giessen (Germany); Villalba, R.; Morales, M.; Srur, A. [CONICET, Instituto Argentino de Nivologia, Glaciologia y Ciencias Ambientales (IANIGLA), Mendoza (Argentina); Kuettel, M. [University of Bern, Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research (OCCR), Bern (Switzerland); University of Bern, Institute of Geography, Climatology and Meteorology, Bern (Switzerland); University of Washington, Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Seattle (United States); Frank, D. [Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL, Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Jones, P.D. [University of East Anglia, Climatic Research Unit, School of Environmental Sciences, Norwich (United Kingdom); Aravena, J.-C. [Centro de Estudios Cuaternarios de Fuego Patagonia y Antartica (CEQUA), Punta Arenas (Chile); Black, D.E. [Stony Brook University, School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, Stony Brook (United States); Christie, D.A.; Urrutia, R. [Universidad Austral de Chile Valdivia, Laboratorio de Dendrocronologia, Facultad de Ciencias Forestales y Recursos Naturales, Valdivia (Chile); D' Arrigo, R. [Earth Institute at Columbia University, Tree-Ring Laboratory, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Palisades, NY (United States); Lara, A. [Universidad Austral de Chile Valdivia, Laboratorio de Dendrocronologia, Facultad de Ciencias Forestales y Recursos Naturales, Valdivia (Chile); Nucleo Cientifico Milenio FORECOS, Fundacion FORECOS, Valdivia (Chile); Soliz-Gamboa, C. [Utrecht Univ., Inst. of Environmental Biology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Gunten, L. von [Univ. of Bern (Switzerland); Univ. of Massachusetts, Climate System Research Center, Amherst (United States)

    2011-07-15

    We statistically reconstruct austral summer (winter) surface air temperature fields back to ad 900 (1706) using 22 (20) annually resolved predictors from natural and human archives from southern South America (SSA). This represents the first regional-scale climate field reconstruction for parts of the Southern Hemisphere at this high temporal resolution. We apply three different reconstruction techniques: multivariate principal component regression, composite plus scaling, and regularized expectation maximization. There is generally good agreement between the results of the three methods on interannual and decadal timescales. The field reconstructions allow us to describe differences and similarities in the temperature evolution of different sub-regions of SSA. The reconstructed SSA mean summer temperatures between 900 and 1350 are mostly above the 1901-1995 climatology. After 1350, we reconstruct a sharp transition to colder conditions, which last until approximately 1700. The summers in the eighteenth century are relatively warm with a subsequent cold relapse peaking around 1850. In the twentieth century, summer temperatures reach conditions similar to earlier warm periods. The winter temperatures in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries were mostly below the twentieth century average. The uncertainties of our reconstructions are generally largest in the eastern lowlands of SSA, where the coverage with proxy data is poorest. Verifications with independent summer temperature proxies and instrumental measurements suggest that the interannual and multi-decadal variations of SSA temperatures are well captured by our reconstructions. This new dataset can be used for data/model comparison and data assimilation as well as for detection and attribution studies at sub-continental scales. (orig.)

  3. Predictive Trip Detection for Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Drew J.; Jiang, Jin

    2016-08-01

    This paper investigates the use of a Kalman filter (KF) to predict, within the shutdown system (SDS) of a nuclear power plant (NPP), whether safety parameter measurements have reached a trip set-point. In addition, least squares (LS) estimation compensates for prediction error due to system-model mismatch. The motivation behind predictive shutdown is to reduce the amount of time between the occurrence of a fault or failure and the time of trip detection, referred to as time-to-trip. These reductions in time-to-trip can ultimately lead to increases in safety and productivity margins. The proposed predictive SDS differs from conventional SDSs in that it compares point-predictions of the measurements, rather than sensor measurements, against trip set-points. The predictive SDS is validated through simulation and experiments for the steam generator water level safety parameter. Performance of the proposed predictive SDS is compared against benchmark conventional SDS with respect to time-to-trip. In addition, this paper analyzes: prediction uncertainty, as well as; the conditions under which it is possible to achieve reduced time-to-trip. Simulation results demonstrate that on average the predictive SDS reduces time-to-trip by an amount of time equal to the length of the prediction horizon and that the distribution of times-to-trip is approximately Gaussian. Experimental results reveal that a reduced time-to-trip can be achieved in a real-world system with unknown system-model mismatch and that the predictive SDS can be implemented with a scan time of under 100ms. Thus, this paper is a proof of concept for KF/LS-based predictive trip detection.

  4. Tiny Revolutions: Lessons From a Marriage, a Funeral, and a Trip Around the World!

    OpenAIRE

    Downs, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    During the final stages of my mom's battle with Alzheimer's Disease, I realized the best way to care for her was by honoring her dream and taking the round-the-world trip she couldn't take herself -- even if that meant traveling to far-flung places while she was dying. This is the story of one year spent backpacking to 18 countries around South America, Africa and Asia. My trip was made mostly solo, and it involved quitting my journalism career and leaving my newlywed husband during the firs...

  5. A low-cost repellent for malaria vectors in the Americas: results of two field trials in Guatemala and Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sihuincha Moisés

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cost of mosquito repellents in Latin America has discouraged their wider use among the poor. To address this problem, a low-cost repellent was developed that reduces the level of expensive repellent actives by combining them with inexpensive fixatives that appear to slow repellent evaporation. The chosen actives were a mixture of para-menthane-diol (PMD and lemongrass oil (LG. Methods To test the efficacy of the repellent, field trials were staged in Guatemala and Peru. Repellent efficacy was determined by human-landing catches on volunteers who wore the experimental repellents, control, or 15% DEET. The studies were conducted using a balanced Latin Square design with volunteers, treatments, and locations rotated each night. Results In Guatemala, collections were performed for two hours, commencing three hours after repellent application. The repellent provided >98% protection for five hours after application, with a biting pressure of >100 landings per person/hour. The 15% DEET control provided lower protection at 92% (p 46 landings per person/hour. The 20% DEET control provided significantly lower protection at 64% (p Conclusion In both locations, the PMD/LG repellent provided excellent protection up to six hours after application against a wide range of disease vectors including Anopheles darlingi. The addition of fixatives to the repellent extended its longevity while enhancing efficacy and significantly reducing its cost to malaria-endemic communities.

  6. A low-cost repellent for malaria vectors in the Americas: results of two field trials in Guatemala and Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Sarah J; Darling, Samuel T; Sihuincha, Moisés; Padilla, Norma; Devine, Gregor J

    2007-08-01

    The cost of mosquito repellents in Latin America has discouraged their wider use among the poor. To address this problem, a low-cost repellent was developed that reduces the level of expensive repellent actives by combining them with inexpensive fixatives that appear to slow repellent evaporation. The chosen actives were a mixture of para-menthane-diol (PMD) and lemongrass oil (LG). To test the efficacy of the repellent, field trials were staged in Guatemala and Peru. Repellent efficacy was determined by human-landing catches on volunteers who wore the experimental repellents, control, or 15% DEET. The studies were conducted using a balanced Latin Square design with volunteers, treatments, and locations rotated each night. In Guatemala, collections were performed for two hours, commencing three hours after repellent application. The repellent provided >98% protection for five hours after application, with a biting pressure of >100 landings per person/hour. The 15% DEET control provided lower protection at 92% (p 46 landings per person/hour. The 20% DEET control provided significantly lower protection at 64% (p < 0.0001). In both locations, the PMD/LG repellent provided excellent protection up to six hours after application against a wide range of disease vectors including Anopheles darlingi. The addition of fixatives to the repellent extended its longevity while enhancing efficacy and significantly reducing its cost to malaria-endemic communities.

  7. Long-term photometric observations of pre-main sequence objects in the field of North America/Pelican Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poljančić, Beljan I.; Jurdana-Šepić, R.; Semkov, E. H.; Ibryamov, S.; Peneva, S. P.; Tsvetkov, M. K.

    2014-08-01

    To broaden the search and study stars in the early evolutionary phase, we investigated a sample of 17 pre-main sequence objects previously detected as either Hα emission-line pre-main sequence stars or T Tauri variables located in the field of the North America/Pelican Nebula complex. Johnson-Cousins B, V, Rc, Ic magnitudes and mean color indices for the program stars are determined from more than 12 400 measurements from archive photographic plates and from CCD data collected at 7 observatories covering the period of almost 60 years from 1954 up to 2013. We complemented previously rare insights on the photometry of the program stars and presented their photometric history, which for almost all program stars is the first long term photometric monitoring on a timescale of 6 decades. Eight program stars are found to be classical T Tauri stars of variability type II, while 6 program stars are weak-line T Tauri stars of variability type I. For the first time, periodicity is found for three stars: V1716 Cyg indicates a 4.15 day period, V2051 Cyg indicates a 384 day period, and V521 Cyg a period of 503 days. Full Tables 4 and 5 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/568/A49

  8. Multimodal Trip Planner System final evaluation report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    This evaluation of the Multimodal Trip Planning System (MMTPS) is the culmination of a multi-year project evaluating the development and deployment of a multimodal trip planner in the Chicagoland area between 2004 and 2010. The report includes an ove...

  9. Hyperspectral Remote Sensing and Ecological Modeling Research and Education at Mid America Remote Sensing Center (MARC): Field and Laboratory Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Haluk

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to establish a new hyperspectral remote sensing laboratory at the Mid-America Remote sensing Center (MARC), dedicated to in situ and laboratory measurements of environmental samples and to the manipulation, analysis, and storage of remotely sensed data for environmental monitoring and research in ecological modeling using hyperspectral remote sensing at MARC, one of three research facilities of the Center of Reservoir Research at Murray State University (MSU), a Kentucky Commonwealth Center of Excellence. The equipment purchased, a FieldSpec FR portable spectroradiometer and peripherals, and ENVI hyperspectral data processing software, allowed MARC to provide hands-on experience, education, and training for the students of the Department of Geosciences in quantitative remote sensing using hyperspectral data, Geographic Information System (GIS), digital image processing (DIP), computer, geological and geophysical mapping; to provide field support to the researchers and students collecting in situ and laboratory measurements of environmental data; to create a spectral library of the cover types and to establish a World Wide Web server to provide the spectral library to other academic, state and Federal institutions. Much of the research will soon be published in scientific journals. A World Wide Web page has been created at the web site of MARC. Results of this project are grouped in two categories, education and research accomplishments. The Principal Investigator (PI) modified remote sensing and DIP courses to introduce students to ii situ field spectra and laboratory remote sensing studies for environmental monitoring in the region by using the new equipment in the courses. The PI collected in situ measurements using the spectroradiometer for the ER-2 mission to Puerto Rico project for the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) Airborne Simulator (MAS). Currently MARC is mapping water quality in Kentucky Lake and

  10. Large Pelagic Logbook Trip Survey (Vessels)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains catch and effort for fishing trips that are taken by vessels with a Federal permit issued for the swordfish and sharks under the Highly...

  11. Trip generation data collection in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    There is currently limited data on urban, multimodal trip generation at the individual site level. This lack of : data limits the ability of transportation agencies to assess development impacts on the transportation system : in urban and multimodal ...

  12. Pre-Trip Notification Database (PTNS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The PTNS contains pre-trip notification data from vessels participating in the Northeast Multispecies groundfish fishery from 2010 to present and the Longfin squid...

  13. Trip electrical circuit of the gyrotion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, J.O.

    1987-09-01

    The electron cyclotron resonance heating system of INPE/LAP is shown and the trip electrical circuit of the gyrotron is described, together with its fundamental aspects. The trip electrical circuit consists basically of a series regulator circuit which regulates the output voltage level and controls the pulse width time. Besides that, a protection circuit for both tubes, regulator and gyrotron, against faults in the system. (author) [pt

  14. Arizona Geology Trip - February 25-28, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Gretchen A.; Ross, Amy J.

    2008-01-01

    A variety of hardware developers, crew, mission planners, and headquarters personnel traveled to Gila Bend, Arizona, in February 2008 for a CxP Lunar Surface Systems Team geology experience. Participating in this field trip were the CxP Space Suit System (EC5) leads: Thomas (PLSS) and Ross (PGS), who presented the activities and findings learned from being in the field during this KC. As for the design of a new spacesuit system, this allowed the engineers to understand the demands this type of activity will have on NASA's hardware, systems, and planning efforts. The engineers also experienced the methods and tools required for lunar surface activity.

  15. Changes in Arctic and Boreal ecosystems of North America: Integrating Recent Results from the Field, Remote Sensing and Ecosystem Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, S. J.; Rogers, B. M.; Mack, M. C.; Goulden, M.; Pastick, N. J.; Berner, L. T.; Fisher, J.

    2017-12-01

    The Arctic and boreal forest biomes have global significance in terms of climate feedbacks associated with land surface interactions with the atmosphere. Changes in Arctic tundra and boreal forest ecosystem productivity and fire disturbance feedbacks have been well documented in recent years, but findings are often only locally relevant and are sometimes inconsistent among research teams. Part of these inconsistencies lie in utilization of different data sets and time periods considered. Integrated approaches are thus needed to adequately address changes in these ecosystems in order to assess consistency and variability of change, as well as ecosystem vulnerability and resiliency across spatial and temporal scales. Ultimately this can best be accomplished via multiple lines of evidence including remote sensing, field measurements and various types of data-constrained models. We will discuss some recent results integrating multiple lines of evidence for directional ecosystem change in the Arctic and boreal forest biomes of North America. There is increasing evidence for widespread spatial and temporal variability in Arctic and boreal ecosystem productivity changes that are strongly influenced by cycles of changing fire disturbance severity and its longer-term implications (i.e legacy effects). Integrated, multi-approach research, like that currently underway as part of the NASA-led Arctic Boreal Vulnerability Experiment (above.nasa.gov), is an effective way to capture the complex mechanisms that drive patterns and directionality of ecosystem structure and function, and ultimately determine feedbacks to environmental change, particularly in the context of global climate change. Additional ongoing ABoVE research will improve our understanding of the consequences of environmental changes underway, as well as increase our confidence in making projections of the ecosystem responses, vulnerability and resilience to change. ABoVE will also build a lasting legacy of

  16. Freud's antipathy to America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, S L

    1991-01-01

    Freud first saw this in America's attitude toward the use of cocaine. It was freely and legally used and even promoted by American physicians as beneficial in many medical conditions. Freud was first swept along by America's prococaine enthusiasm. He narrowly missed destroying his own medical reputation by his continuing close connection and advocacy of cocaine. Freud made his only visit to America in 1909. Despite the success of his visit and the congeniality of Americans toward him, he was already programmed toward a negative response. He allowed minor everyday inconveniences and cultural differences to spoil the trip for him. The chronic intestinal distress that had bothered him previously now was labelled as his "American dyspepsia." He developed additional reasons for disliking America. They accepted his three key dissenters, Adler, Jung, and Rank. He even believed that these three men achieved greater notoriety and popularity in America than he did. In fact, the Freudian psychoanalytic movement became much larger and more powerful in America than did the followings of any or all of his defectors. Freud did not like the shortcuts and lack of mastery of the basics of psychoanalysis that he believed happened in America. Some of this was true, but it was mainly exaggerated in Freud's mind. The gold of psychoanalysis was never transformed into a practical but deficient psychoanalytic alloy as Freud feared it might. There was a genuine disagreement about whether a psychoanalyst should have to become a medical doctor or not. It was a complicated issue in America because of laws that said that doing psychoanalysis was practicing medicine. Freud viewed the American stand against recognizing lay analysts as more evidence of American's being a rebellious son. Economic factors also played a significant factor in Freud's dislike of America. Freud was initially enthusiastic about President Wilson and his plans for peace. He found after World War I that all of his savings

  17. 41 CFR 301-71.106 - Who must sign a trip-by-trip authorization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 71-AGENCY TRAVEL ACCOUNTABILITY REQUIREMENTS Travel Authorization § 301-71.106 Who must sign a trip-by-trip authorization? The... acceptance of the payment. Travel expenses related to attendance at a conference A senior agency official...

  18. Short Trips and a Traverse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Dr. Cameron joined the Arctic Institute of North America in 1956 to participate in IGY-related activities in Antarctica. He served as Chief Glaciologist at Wilkes Station, on the coast of East Antarctica. This was a joint Navy-civilian operation consisting of 17 Navy personnel and 10 scientists. Specifically, his glaciological team consisted of two colleagues with whom he had worked before - Olav Loken in Norway in the summer of 1953, and John Molholm in Greenland in the summer of 1954. This team spent much of its time at a remote station established 80 kilometers (50 miles) inland, where they conducted both meteorological and glaciological studies. One of the glaciological studies entailed digging a 35-meter (approx.115-foot) vertical pit to study snow densification and stratigraphy. The assignment for the Navy Seabees was to first establish a joint US-NZ base at Cape Hallett and then go along the coast of East Antarctica and set up Wilkes Station.

  19. The use of fair-weather cases from the ACT-America Summer 2016 field campaign to better constrain regional biogenic CO2 surface fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudet, B. J.; Davis, K. J.; DiGangi, J. P.; Feng, S.; Hoffman, K.; Jacobson, A. R.; Lauvaux, T.; McGill, M. J.; Miles, N.; Pal, S.; Pauly, R.; Richardson, S.

    2017-12-01

    The Atmospheric Carbon and Transport - America (ACT-America) study is a multi-year NASA-funded project designed to increase our understanding of regional-scale greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes over North America through aircraft, satellite, and tower-based observations. This is being accomplished through a series of field campaigns that cover three focus regions (Mid-Atlantic, Gulf Coast, and Midwest), and all four seasons (summer, winter, fall, and spring), as well as a variety of meteorological conditions. While constraints on GHG fluxes can be derived on the global scale (through remote-site concentration measurements and global flux inversion models) and the local scale (through eddy-covariance flux tower measurements), observational constraints on the intermediate scales are not as readily available. Biogenic CO2 fluxes are particularly challenging because of their strong seasonal and diurnal cycles and large spatial variability. During the summer 2016 ACT field campaign, fair weather days were targeted for special flight patterns designed to estimate surface fluxes at scales on the order of 105 km2 using a modified mass-balance approach. For some onshore flow cases in the Gulf Coast, atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) flight transects were performed both inland and offshore when it could be reasonably inferred that the homogeneous Gulf air provided the background GHG field for the inland transect. On other days, two-day flight sequences were performed, where the second-day location of the flight patterns was designed to encompass the air mass that was sampled on the first day. With these flight patterns, the average regional flux can be estimated from the ABL CO2 concentration change. Direct measurements of ABL depth from both aircraft profiles and high-resolution airborne lidar will be used, while winds and free-tropospheric CO2 can be determined from model output and in situ aircraft observations. Here we will present examples of this flux estimation for both Gulf

  20. Analysis of Peach Bottom turbine trip tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, H.S.; Lu, M.S.; Hsu, C.J.; Shier, W.G.; Diamond, D.J.; Levine, M.M.; Odar, F.

    1979-01-01

    Current interest in the analysis of turbine trip transients has been generated by the recent tests performed at the Peach Bottom (Unit 2) reactor. Three tests, simulating turbine trip transients, were performed at different initial power and coolant flow conditions. The data from these tests provide considerable information to aid qualification of computer codes that are currently used in BWR design analysis. The results are presented of an analysis of a turbine trip transient using the RELAP-3B and the BNL-TWIGL computer codes. Specific results are provided comparing the calculated reactor power and system pressures with the test data. Excellent agreement for all three test transients is evident from the comparisons

  1. Finite element modelling of TRIP steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papatriantafillou, I.; Aravas, N.; Haidemenopoulos, G.N. [Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Univ. of Thessaly, Volos (Greece)

    2004-11-01

    A constitutive model that describes the mechanical behaviour of steels exhibiting ''Transformation Induced Plasticity'' (TRIP) during martensitic transformation is presented. Multiphase TRIP steels are considered as composite materials with a ferritic matrix containing bainite and retained austenite, which gradually transforms into martensite. The effective properties and overall behaviour of TRIP steels are determined by using homogenization techniques for non-linear composites. The developed constitutive model considers the different hardening behaviour of the individual phases and estimates the apportionment of plastic strain and stress between the individual phases of the composite. A methodology for the numerical integration of the resulting elastoplastic constitutive equations in the context of the finite element method is developed and the constitutive model is implemented in a general-purpose finite element program. The prediction of the model in uniaxial tension agrees well with the experimental data. The problem of necking of a bar in uniaxial tension is studied in detail. (orig.)

  2. NEWS: A trip to CERN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, A. D.

    2000-07-01

    the canteen. Over lunch we mixed with physicists of many different nationalities and backgrounds. Figure 1 Figure 1. In the afternoon we visited Microcosm, the CERN visitors centre, and the LEP control room and also the SPS. Here the students learned new applications for much of the physics of standing waves and resonance that they had been taught in the classroom. Later that night, we visited a bowling alley where momentum and collision theory were put into practice. The following morning we returned to CERN and visited the large magnet testing facility. Here again physics was brought to life. We saw superconducting magnets being assembled and tested and the students gained a real appreciation of the problems and principles involved. The afternoon was rounded off by a visit to a science museum in Geneva - well worth a visit, as some of us still use some of the apparatus on display. Friday was our last full day so we visited Chamonix in the northern Alps. In the morning, we ascended the Aiguille de Midi - by cable car. Twenty minutes and 3842 m later we emerged into 50 km h-1 winds and -10 °C temperature, not counting the -10 °C wind chill factor. A crisp packet provided an unusual demonstration of the effects of air pressure (figure 2). Figure 2 Figure 2. The views from the summit were very spectacular though a few people experienced mild altitude sickness. That afternoon the party went to the Mer de Glace. Being inside a 3 million year-old structure moving down a mountain at 3 cm per day was an interesting experience, as was a tot of whisky with 3 million year-old water. Once again the local scenery was very photogenic and the click and whirr of cameras was a constant background noise. Saturday morning saw an early start for the long drive home. Most students - and some staff - took the opportunity to catch up on their sleep. Thanks are due to many people without whom the trip would never have taken place. Anne Craige, Stuart Williams

  3. The Compensation Act 2006 and School Trips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter-Jones, John

    2006-01-01

    The Compensation Act 2006 received its Royal Assent on 25 July 2006. The Act allows the courts to have regard to the social utility of "desirable activities", including school trips, in considering negligence claims. The article reviews the law of negligence as it affects teachers of the very young and considers the possible impact of…

  4. The SMS-GPS-Trip-Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinau, Kristian Hegner; Harder, Henrik; Weber, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a new method for collecting travel behavior data, based on a combination of GPS tracking and SMS technology, coined the SMS–GPS-Trip method. The state-of-the-art method for collecting data for activity based traffic models is a combination of travel diaries and GPS tracking...

  5. School Trips: Are They Worth the Effort?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Even the most basic of school trips will require booking places, arranging transport, writing to parents, collecting payments, planning activities, producing worksheets and, of course, endless risk assessments. It always leaves teachers wondering: "is it really worth all this effort?" Robert Johnston believes that every teacher should…

  6. Injuries from slips and trips in construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipscomb, Hester J; Glazner, Judith E; Bondy, Jessica; Guarini, Kenneth; Lezotte, Dennis

    2006-05-01

    Construction injuries preceded by a slip or trip were documented using data from the building of the Denver International Airport (Denver, Colorado, USA), the largest construction project in the world at the time. Slips and trips occurred at a rate of 5/200,000 h worked accounting for 18% of all injuries and 25% of workers' compensation payments, or more than $10 million. Slips contributed to the vast majority (85%) of same-level falls and over 30% of falls from height, as well as a significant number of musculoskeletal injures sustained after slipping or tripping but without falling. The injury burden would have been under-recognized in analyses of most coded compensation records. In contrast to other types of injuries, the most common contributing factors were environmental in nature including conditions of walking and working surfaces, terrain and weather. Due to the very dynamic nature of construction work, reducing slips and trips will require a focus on environmental and organizational solutions that evolve as the site changes and the construction project evolves.

  7. Trip generation studies for special generators : final report, December 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    This research examines the effects of town centers and senior housing developments on surrounding roadways and nearby transit. The Institute of Transportation Engineers (ITE) Trip Generation Manual, which determines number of trips produced or attrac...

  8. Solving touristic trip planning problem by using taboo search approach

    OpenAIRE

    Kadri Sylejmani; Agni Dika

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce an algorithm that automatically plans a touristic trip by considering some hard and soft constrains. Opening and closing hours of POIs, trip duration and trip allocated budget represent the hard constraints, while the satisfaction factors of the POIs and travelling distance in the trip are considered as soft constraints. We use the soft constraints to evaluate the generated solution of the algorithm. The algorithm is developed by utilizing the taboo search method a...

  9. COMPARATIVE STUDY: SCHOOL TRIP AND SCIENTIFIC EDUCATIONAL ACADEMIC TRIP IN THE NORTH-WEST OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BIANCA SORINA RĂCĂŞAN

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study proposes a comparative approach of two forms of non-formal educational activities: the school trip and the scientific educational academic trip with their similarities and differences regarding both tourist and pedagogical levels. In order to acquire this goal the following objectives have been set: analysing a geographical-tourist itinerary, analysing the involved tourist services, analysing the trip planner for the specified itinerary, analysing certain teaching activities, differentiated based on the level of study (pre-university/superior, analysing students and undergraduates’ worksheets after they have been completed according to the requirements. Consequently a series of similarities have appeared between the school trip and the academic trip, especially related to the theme, purpose, evaluation form, participants’ involvement degree, structure and integrated tourist elements (from attractions to services. On the other hand, the main differences that were highlighted, starting with educational level, age difference, and participants’ number have had repercussions on the quantitative and qualitative particularities of the tasks and last but not least, on the evaluation product (students’ portfolios and undergraduates’ trip notebooks.

  10. A Contingent Trip Model for Estimating Rail-trail Demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter J. Betz; John C. Bergstrom; J. Michael Bowker

    2003-01-01

    The authors develop a contingent trip model to estimate the recreation demand for and value of a potential rail-trail site in north-east Georgia. The contingent trip model is an alternative to travel cost modelling useful for ex ante evaluation of proposed recreation resources or management alternatives. The authors estimate the empirical demand for trips using a...

  11. Austenite stability in TRIP steels studied by synchrotron radiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blondé, R.

    2014-01-01

    TRIP steel is a material providing great mechanical properties. Such steels show a good balance between high-strength and ductility, not only as a result of the fine microstructure, but also because of the well-known TRIP effect. The Transformation Induced-Plasticity (TRIP) phenomenon is the

  12. Development of RPS trip logic based on PLD technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jong Gyun; Lee, Dong Young [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-15

    The majority of instrumentation and control (I and C) systems in today's nuclear power plants (NPPs) are based on analog technology. Thus, most existing I and C systems now face obsolescence problems. Existing NPPs have difficulty in repairing and replacing devices and boards during maintenance because manufacturers no longer produce the analog devices and boards used in the implemented I and C systems. Therefore, existing NPPs are replacing the obsolete analog I and C systems with advanced digital systems. New NPPs are also adopting digital I and C systems because the economic efficiencies and usability of the systems are higher than the analog I and C systems. Digital I and C systems are based on two technologies: a microprocessor based system in which software programs manage the required functions and a programmable logic device (PLD) based system in which programmable logic devices, such as field programmable gate arrays, manage the required functions. PLD based systems provide higher levels of performance compared with microprocessor based systems because PLD systems can process the data in parallel while microprocessor based systems process the data sequentially. In this research, a bistable trip logic in a reactor protection system (RPS) was developed using very high speed integrated circuits hardware description language (VHDL), which is a hardware description language used in electronic design to describe the behavior of the digital system. Functional verifications were also performed in order to verify that the bistable trip logic was designed correctly and satisfied the required specifications. For the functional verification, a random testing technique was adopted to generate test inputs for the bistable trip logic.

  13. A Trip to the Statler Hilton Hotel. The Special Education Curriculum Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Muriel

    A program designed for high school level work-study classes for students of limited mental ability presents specific curriculum methods and materials to teach information regarding positions available in the hotel industry. A field trip tour of the Boston Statler Hilton Hotel if the focal activity of the unit, and is accompanied by a history of…

  14. Spatio-Temporal Variability of Atmospheric CO2 as Observed from In-Situ Measurements over North America during NASA Field Campaigns (2004-2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yonghoon; Vay, Stephanie A.; Woo, Jung-Hun; Choi, Kichul; Diskin, Glenn S.; Sachse, G. W.; Vadrevu, Krishna P.; Czech, E.

    2009-01-01

    Regional-scale measurements were made over the eastern United States (Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment - North America (INTEX-NA), summer 2004); Mexico (Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO), March 2006); the eastern North Pacific and Alaska (INTEX-B May 2006); and the Canadian Arctic (Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS), spring and summer 2008). For these field campaigns, instrumentation for the in situ measurement of CO2 was integrated on the NASA DC-8 research aircraft providing high-resolution (1 second) data traceable to the WMO CO2 mole fraction scale. These observations provide unique and definitive data sets via their intermediate-scale coverage and frequent vertical profiles (0.1 - 12 km) for examining the variability CO2 exhibits above the Earth s surface. A bottom-up anthropogenic CO2 emissions inventory (1deg 1deg) and processing methodology has also been developed for North America in support of these airborne science missions. In this presentation, the spatio-temporal distributions of CO2 and CO column values derived from the campaign measurements will be examined in conjunction with the emissions inventory and transport histories to aid in the interpretation of the CO2 observations.

  15. Analysis of electric vehicle's trip cost allowing late arrival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Jun-Qiang; Liu, Wei-Yi; Zhao, Lin

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, we use a car-following model to study each electric vehicle's trip cost and the total trip cost allowing late arrival. The numerical result show that the electricity cost has great effects on each commuter's trip cost and the total trip costs and that these effects are dependent on each commuter's time headway at the origin, but the electricity cost has no prominent impacts on the minimum value of total trip cost under each commuter's different time headway at the origin.

  16. Your private trips with Carlson Wagonlit Travel

    CERN Multimedia

    Carlson Wagonlit Travel

    2015-01-01

    Your Carlson Wagonlit Travel agency at CERN (building 62) also organizes private trips!     Do not hesitate to contact the “Tourism” team, at your disposal from Monday to Friday from 8:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. Phone: 72763. E-mail: cern@carlsonwagonlit.ch. Since 1 January 2015, everyone working at CERN benefits from lower booking fees.

  17. TRIPs Agreement, Important Multilateral WTO Treaty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana-Maria Florescu

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at presenting the content and the frame of the TRIPs. Agreement. It starts by introducing the reader to the terms that defined the world economical climate by the time of the Agreement negociation. Also, it explains the need of having an Agreement on intellectual property rights with impact on the business world. Moreover, the article reviews the main provisions of the Agreement and the most important intellectual property rights.

  18. Tourism and fashion: factors affecting trip length

    OpenAIRE

    Calderón García, María Haydeé; G. Gallarza, Martina; Fayos Gardó, Teresa; O'Sullivan, P.

    2016-01-01

    Tourism and shopping are closely related, and the influence of fashion shopping on a tourist's decision to travel is especially significant. The concept of cognitive and hedonic involvement enables us to relate the importance given to shopping by consumers of fashion products and of tourism services. This research analyses whether tourist involvement in fashion shopping has an impact on the length of their stay in a destination. In addition, it examines whether trip length is conditioned by t...

  19. Installation of a second trip system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bessada, E.

    1997-01-01

    Since its first criticality in 1957, the NRU reactor has been operating safely and efficiently supporting the CANDU reactor's research and development programs and producing radioisotopes for medical use. To ensure that the reactor continues to operate safely and effectively, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) commissioned a team in 1989 to conduct a systematic review and assessment of the reactor condition. The outcome of the study indicated that the overall condition of the reactor is good and that it is being operated safely. The study also produced recommendations as to where safety can be improved. These recommendations are the basis of the upgrade program currently being implemented in the reactor. The Second Trip System (STS) is part of the upgrade program. It is a stand alone seismically qualified trip system that operates independently from the existing first trip system (FST) to shutdown the reactor. This paper discusses the design, installation and the inactive commissioning of the system, and the process used to ensure that the system can be retrofitted to the reactor without affecting its safety or its operational requirements. (author)

  20. Development of trip coverage analysis methodology - CATHENA trip coverage analysis model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jong Ho; Ohn, M. Y.; Cho, C. H.; Huh, J. Y.; Na, Y. H.; Lee, S. Y.; Kim, B. G.; Kim, H. H.; Kim, S. W.; Bae, C. J.; Kim, T. M.; Kim, S. R.; Han, B. S.; Moon, B. J.; Oh, M. T. [Korea Power Engineering Co., Yongin (Korea)

    2001-05-01

    This report describes the CATHENA model for trip coverage analysis. This model is prepared based on the Wolsong 2 design data and consist of primary heat transport system, shutdown system, steam and feedwater system, reactor regulating system, heat transport pressure and inventory control system, and steam generator level and pressure control system. The new features and modified parts from the Wolsong 2 CATHENA LOCA Model required for trip coverage analysis is described. this model is tested by simulation of steady state at 100 % FP and at several low powers. Also, the cases of power rundown and power runup are tested. 17 refs., 124 figs., 19 tabs. (Author)

  1. Plasmodium falciparum field isolates from South America use an atypical red blood cell invasion pathway associated with invasion ligand polymorphisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez-Perez, Mary; Villasis, Elizabeth; Machado, Ricardo L D

    2012-01-01

    members of the PfRh (PfRh1, PfRh2a, PfRh2b, PfRh4, PfRh5) families were determined. We found that most P. falciparum field isolates from Colombia and Peru invade RBCs through an atypical invasion pathway phenotypically characterized as resistant to all enzyme treatments (NrTrCr). Moreover, the invasion...... blood stage vaccine design focused on invasion pathway proteins, suggesting that regional invasion variants and global geographical variation are likely to preclude a simple one size fits all type of vaccine....

  2. Predictors of trips to food destinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerr Jacqueline

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Food environment studies have focused on ethnic and income disparities in food access. Few studies have investigated distance travelled for food and did not aim to inform the geographic scales at which to study the relationship between food environments and obesity. Further, studies have not considered neighborhood design as a predictor of food purchasing behavior. Methods Atlanta residents (N = 4800 who completed a travel diary and reported purchasing or consuming food at one of five food locations were included in the analyses. A total of 11,995 food-related trips were reported. Using mixed modeling to adjust for clustering of trips by participants and households, person-level variables (e.g. demographics, neighborhood-level urban form measures, created in GIS, and trip characteristics (e.g. time of day, origin and destination were investigated as correlates of distance travelled for food and frequency of grocery store and fast food outlet trips. Results Mean travel distance for food ranged from 4.5 miles for coffee shops to 6.3 miles for superstores. Type of store, urban form, type of tour, day of the week and ethnicity were all significantly related to distance travelled for food. Origin and destination environment, type of tour, day of week, age, gender, income, ethnicity, vehicle access and obesity status were all significantly related to visiting a grocery store. Home neighborhood environment, day of week, type of tour, gender, income, education level, age, and obesity status were all significantly related to likelihood of visiting a fastfood outlet. Conclusions The present study demonstrated that people travel sizeable distances for food and this distance is related to urban. Results suggest that researchers need to employ different methods to characterize food environments than have been used to assess urban form in studies of physical activity. Food is most often purchased while traveling from locations other

  3. Building America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brad Oberg

    2010-12-31

    IBACOS researched the constructability and viability issues of using high performance windows as one component of a larger approach to building houses that achieve the Building America 70% energy savings target.

  4. Age related intrinsic limitations in preventing a trip and regaining balance after a trip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dieen, J.H.; Pijnappels, M.A.G.M.; Bobbert, M.F.

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature to determine directions for prevention of falls among the elderly by establishing causal factors for falls resulting from a trip. The literature on risk factors for falls is briefly reviewed, but the main emphasis is on experimental studies to complement

  5. Baja California: Field Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, John; Stewart, Jack

    1974-01-01

    Describes how to plan and execute an extended field trip which provides first hand observation of biological and cultural systems. Socialization of the participants was achieved through common planning and goal achievement. (BR)

  6. Coal geology of the Paleocene-Eocene Calvert Bluff Formation (Wilcox Group) and the Eocene Manning Formation (Jackson Group) in east-central Texas; field trip guidebook for the Society for Organic Petrology, Twelfth Annual Meeting, The Woodlands, Texas, August 30, 1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, Peter D.; Crowley, Sharon S.

    1995-01-01

    The Jackson and Wilcox Groups of eastern Texas (fig. 1) are the major lignite producing intervals in the Gulf Region. Within these groups, the major lignite-producing formations are the Paleocene-Eocene Calvert Bluff Formation (Wilcox) and the Eocene Manning Formation (Jackson). According to the Keystone Coal Industry Manual (Maclean Hunter Publishing Company, 1994), the Gulf Coast basin produces about 57 million short tons of lignite annually. The state of Texas ranks number 6 in coal production in the United States. Most of the lignite is used for electric power generation in mine-mouth power plant facilities. In recent years, particular interest has been given to lignite quality and the distribution and concentration of about a dozen trace elements that have been identified as potential hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. As pointed out by Oman and Finkelman (1994), Gulf Coast lignite deposits have elevated concentrations of many of the HAPs elements (Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Hg, Mn, Se, U) on a as-received gm/mmBtu basis when compared to other United States coal deposits used for fuel in thermo-electric power plants. Although regulations have not yet been established for acceptable emissions of the HAPs elements during coal burning, considerable research effort has been given to the characterization of these elements in coal feed stocks. The general purpose of the present field trip and of the accompanying collection of papers is to investigate how various aspects of east Texas lignite geology might collectively influence the quality of the lignite fuel. We hope that this collection of papers will help future researchers understand the complex, multifaceted interrelations of coal geology, petrology, palynology and coal quality, and that this introduction to the geology of the lignite deposits of east Texas might serve as a stimulus for new ideas to be applied to other coal basins in the U.S. and abroad.

  7. Beyond the Field Trip: Teaching Tourism through Tours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelner, Shaul; Sanders, George

    2009-01-01

    A course in the sociology of tourism offers an opportunity to examine a world-transforming force that is penetrating more and more aspects of social life. It also offers an opportunity to create a learning environment that uses the object of study as the medium of study. This article examines how instructors can use tourism to teach the sociology…

  8. Using Online Field Trips and Tours in Social Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risinger, C. Frederick

    2010-01-01

    While not focusing directly on art, music, or literature, classroom teachers, students, and supervisors can find many virtual tours of museum offices, and agencies that do have art content. The use of virtual tours can be extremely effective--whether used as an entire classroom experience (such as the teacher guiding students through a tour using…

  9. Electronic Field Trip: Journalism's New Frontier Involves Live, Interactive Broadcast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMar, Jason

    1998-01-01

    Describes the "Newseum," a recently opened museum in Arlington, Virginia, dedicated to journalism and freedom of speech. Lists its highlights: free admission, an interactive newsroom, a 126-foot video wall, a news history gallery, a domed theater with a 20-by-40-foot high-definition video screen, and "The Freedom Wall." (PA)

  10. Take Geology Field Trips Right to the Schoolyard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curriculum Review, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a sample activity to introduce students to geologic processes while opening up and expanding their curiosity about the world around them. This exercise is targeted towards younger students, but could serve as a short introductory activity for further schoolyard mapping activities for older students. In this activity, students…

  11. Assessment of vehicle trip production rates in Ilorin (Nigeria) | Jimoh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Occupation, age, gender, income lev-el, vehicle ownership, trip length and fare structure affected the total trip generation, with an average production rate of 3.5, in the range of 2.79 - 4.29. The lower rate was characteristic of school children (5 - 15 years), while the highest rate was attributed to affluent and elderly persons ...

  12. Gezocht: de beste roofmijt voor Californische trips in roos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arkesteijn, M.; Pijnakker, J.

    2012-01-01

    De Californische trips, Frankliniella occidentalis, is een van de belangrijkste plagen in de glastuinbouw. De introductie van deze trips dateert van 1984. Het plaaginsect vormt nu een struikelblok voor de verdere uitbreiding van geïntegreerde bestrijding. In roos kan een klein aantal van deze

  13. LAS GIRAS: UNA PRÁCTICA PEDAGÓGICA EN EL REPERTORIO PROBLEMAS ECOLÓGICOS, ESCUELA DE ESTUDIOS GENERALES, EN LA UNIVERSIDAD DE COSTA RICA (THE FIELD TRIP STUDY: A PEDAGOGICAL PRACTICE IN THE REPERTOIRE OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS, SCHOOL OF GENERAL STUDIES, AT UNIVERSITY OF COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiménez Morales Ana Patricia

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:Durante el primer semestre del 2007, se realizó un estudio para evaluar la opinión de los estudiantes del Repertorio de Problemas Ecológicos, de la Escuela de Estudios Generales de la Universidad de Costa Rica, 155 estudiantes fueron entrevistados después de participar en una gira de estudio como una actividad del curso.El objetivo de la investigación fue indagar la importancia de las giras al campo como apoyo a su formación profesional, así como promotora de un cambio de concepción de mundo en su relación con el ambiente. Además, era de interés evaluar la presencia del curso en el ámbito universitario debido a que es un curso de repertorio dirigido a estudiante de carreras diferentes a las ciencias básicas. Como resultado de la investigación se obtuvo que la mayoría de los entrevistados (70.97% ve la gira importante en su formación profesional, pues les permite una educación integral. Además, esta práctica le permitió al 65.8% de los participantes cambiar su concepción de mundo en relación con el ambiente y a un 19.35% reafirmar sus creencias, permitiéndoles observar personalmente lo que ya conocían en forma teórica. A nivel U niversitario se comprobó que el curso tiene una presencia importante, los estudiantes que participaron como informantes pertenecían a 44 carreras de 12 facultades distintas.Abstract:During the first term of 2007 a study to evaluate the opinion of the students of the Repertoire of Ecological Problems, of the School of General Studies of the University of Costa Rica was carried out, 155 students were interviewed after participating in a study field trip. The objective of the research was to investigate the relevance of this practice in its professional development, as well as promotional of a change of world conception in its relation with the environment. In addition, it was of interest to evaluate the presence of the course in the university scope because it is a course of repertoire

  14. User oriented trajectory search for trip recommendation

    KAUST Repository

    Shang, Shuo

    2012-01-01

    Trajectory sharing and searching have received significant attentions in recent years. In this paper, we propose and investigate a novel problem called User Oriented Trajectory Search (UOTS) for trip recommendation. In contrast to conventional trajectory search by locations (spatial domain only), we consider both spatial and textual domains in the new UOTS query. Given a trajectory data set, the query input contains a set of intended places given by the traveler and a set of textual attributes describing the traveler\\'s preference. If a trajectory is connecting/close to the specified query locations, and the textual attributes of the trajectory are similar to the traveler\\'e preference, it will be recommended to the traveler for reference. This type of queries can bring significant benefits to travelers in many popular applications such as trip planning and recommendation. There are two challenges in the UOTS problem, (i) how to constrain the searching range in two domains and (ii) how to schedule multiple query sources effectively. To overcome the challenges and answer the UOTS query efficiently, a novel collaborative searching approach is developed. Conceptually, the UOTS query processing is conducted in the spatial and textual domains alternately. A pair of upper and lower bounds are devised to constrain the searching range in two domains. In the meantime, a heuristic searching strategy based on priority ranking is adopted for scheduling the multiple query sources, which can further reduce the searching range and enhance the query efficiency notably. Furthermore, the devised collaborative searching approach can be extended to situations where the query locations are ordered. The performance of the proposed UOTS query is verified by extensive experiments based on real and synthetic trajectory data in road networks. © 2012 ACM.

  15. HOW DO YOUNG PEOPLE SELECT INFORMATION TO PLAN A TRIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana ŢUGULEA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research is to reveal the young tourists preferences in the process of planning a trip. Sources of information used, the utility of Internet/travel agencies in planning travel trip activities, preferred means of transportation and types of accommodation are investigated. As research methods, there used both qualitative and quantitative methods: focus group and survey. Internet is more used by young tourists in planning trips than travel agencies are. Internet is considered more useful in the documentation stage and when buying airline tickets. Young tourists are more influenced by friends when planning a trip. Young tourists prefer cars and planes as means of transportation for a trip and hotels and guesthouses as accommodation when traveling.

  16. Breaking away to South America

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2011-01-01

    In December 2010, Peter Dreesen of CERN’s Technology Department (TE) returned from a long trip to South America. In four months he traversed the entire Andean range, from the equator to a latitude of 55 degrees south—on a bicycle!   Peter Dreesen on the Salar de Uyuni Lake, Bolivia. 11 000 kilometres is one long bike ride! And yet, that’s what Peter Dreesen did, travelling from Quito, Ecuador to Ushuaia, Argentina. Peter, an engineer in the TE Department, is no novice: the year before, he cycled from Paris to Peking, a distance of 13 500 kilometres, in just over four months. His latest voyage began last August, when he loaded his bicycle and boarded a plane for South America. In the saddle. After a week of acclimatisation at three thousand metres altitude, Peter left Quito on 6 August 2010. He arrived in Ushuaia (el fin del mundo, the end of the world, as it’s known in South America) on 12 December 2010. He recounts: “It was a bizarre sensation...

  17. Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, P. Sarita, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This serial issue features 6 members of the Indiana University System faculty who have focused their research on Latin America, past and present. The first article, "A Literature of Their Own," highlights Darlene Sadlier's research on Brazilian women's fiction and poetry that has led to an interest in the interplay of Brazilian and…

  18. Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Gerald Michael

    1986-01-01

    Notes the problematical elements of diversity within Latin America, establishes priorities for the social studies curriculum, and reviews what should be taught about its geography, resources, people, religion, customs, economics, politics, history, and international relationships. Lists Latin American Studies programs and published instructional…

  19. Illiterate America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozol, Jonathan

    Intended for those involved in American social service and educational communities, this book addresses the widespread problem of illiteracy in the United States and the social consequences of this problem. Following an introduction, the chapters in the first section of the book discuss the growing crisis of illiterate America, specifically, the…

  20. Textbook America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, Walter

    1980-01-01

    Focuses on how political attitudes have been influenced by American history textbooks at various times throughout history. Excerpts from traditional and revisionist textbooks are presented, with emphasis on "America Revised" by Frances FitzGerald. Journal available from Harper's Magazine Co., 2 Park Ave., New York, NY 10016. (DB)

  1. Student perspectives on their school trips to zoos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Susan Kay

    This dissertation aimed to explore students' perspectives on their school trips to informal education sites. In particular, what did students think they learned, what did they want to do, what was fun or boring, and how did their trip relate to classroom activities? The two case studies presented here explore these ideas with 11-12-year olds in New Zealand and their class trips to zoos, in contrasting situations: one is a class in which the teacher thoughtfully and explicitly linked the trip to classroom learning both before and after the trip; the other classroom teacher did not. These differences impacted how students thought about their learning and how they valued the trip. Despite the differences, students had similarities in some of their perspectives, particularly in their focus on social interactions with peers and their desire to see the animals at the zoos. This study concludes with recommendations for informal and classroom educators, especially to find out what students are interested in, give them choices, and connect trips to classroom activities.

  2. Expert system for the CPCS-initiated trip analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Sedo; Im, Inyoung; Kuh, Jungeui

    1991-01-01

    In Yonggwang nuclear units 3 and 4, the core protection calculator system (CPCS) performs various protection logics against many transients and certain accidents. The CPCS is a real-time computer system calculating the departure from nucleate boiling ratio (DNBR), and local power density, and other protection logics. It takes process variables such as neutron flux, hot-leg temperature, cold-leg temperature, control element assembly positions, and reactor coolant pump shaft speed. Since the CPCS protection logics are quite complex, it is difficult for an operator to tell immediately which parameter is the major cause of the reactor trip. Thus, whenever the reactor trip signal is generated, the process input variables and calculated results, including selected intermediate variables, are frozen in the specified computer memory for later analysis. These frozen variables are called the trip buffer. Analysis of the trip buffer requires an expert in the CPCS and related documents containing algorithms and a data base for algorithms. The Trip Buffer Analysis Program (TBAP) is an expert system that pinpoints the causes of the CPCS initiated reactor trip, thus relieving the operator from the burden of analyzing the trip buffer

  3. Advanced transportation concept for round-trip space travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Chen-Wan L.

    1988-01-01

    A departure from the conventional concept of round-trip space travel is introduced. It is shown that a substantial reduction in the initial load required of the Shuttle or other launch vehicle can be achieved by staging the ascent orbit and leaving fuel for the return trip at each stage of the orbit. Examples of round trips from a low-inclination LEO to a high-inclination LEO and from an LEO to a GEO are used to show the merits of the new concept. Potential problem areas and research needed for the development of an efficient space transportation network are discussed.

  4. United States: Ukraine Technical Exchange II trip report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moak, D.J.; Wendling, M.A.

    1995-02-01

    May 15--21, 1994, the first technical conference was held at Hanford between Ukraine-Chornobyl, Westinghouse Hanford, and SAIC, to exchange technical information and experience gained in cleanup and stabilization of radioactive contamination at Hanford and Chornobyl. Protocol was signed for a second exchange and technology demonstration program in Kiev and near Chornobyl power plants. Technical Exchange No. 2 was held from August 28--September 9, 1994, with 3 focus areas: field demonstration of DOE-Hanford technologies and application to cleanup of contaminated lands resulting from 1986 Chornobyl accident; application of other US DOE-technologies; and observation/evaluation of Ukraine-developed technologies for potential application in USA. Three radiological mapping systems were demonstrated near Chornobyl: man-carried Ultrasonic Ranging and Data System, a mobile radiological data system, and NOMAD field gamma spectroscopy system. The Ukraine-Chornobyl team hosted technical presentations, discussions and field trips for 4.5 days, providing insight on the Chornobyl problem and allowing the US team to present overviews on DOE technologies that may be applicable to the Chornobyl situation. It is concluded that Ukrainian scientists have tremendous talent and expended considerable energy in attempting to tackle such a problem, but economic and cultural conditions with Ukraine have prevented them from acquiring the resources to implement basic aspects of characterization and remediation activities. Most of their publications are in Russian only. Their translation, plus resources to carry out proposals for bench scale and field demonstration projects, could benefit the DOE complex and other nuclear programs. The considerable cultural and economic change occurring in Ukraine, is providing opportunities for private industries to assist in the changes and for DOE, others to apply cleanup technologies, and it is essential that close institutional relations be established

  5. Western North America dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, A.; Becker, T. W.; Humphreys, G.; Gérault, M.

    2009-12-01

    Basal shear tractions, as generated by mantle convection, are likely to affect the stress field over western North America, and hence, influence the deformation of the North American lithosphere. Earlier studies (Humphreys & Coblentz (2007)) have argued for the importance of shear tractions beneath the continent, but at a reduced amplitude from those predicted by Becker & O'Connell (2001). However, these tractions did not take into account the existence of lateral viscosity variations (LVVs) beneath North America, resulting from strong cratonic root and weak plate margin. We evaluate the tractions and the resulting stresses over North America by incorporating LVVs in a global, high resolution, finite element convection code, CitcomS. Since our ultimate goal is to match observables, such as plate motions and geoid, in addition to stresses, we perform a global inversion for both radial and lateral viscosity variations and choose the viscosity structures that yield a good fit simultaneously to both the global geoid and plate motions. We evaluate the tractions and corresponding stress field from those models. We also attempt to incorporate the effects of gravitational potential energy (GPE) in our convection model. The combined stress field from GPE and tractions are compared to stress observations, such as the World Stress Map.

  6. Human round trip to Mars: Six months and radiation safe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazareth, O.W.; Schmidt, E.; Ludewig, H.; Powell, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    We describe a different type of round trip to Mars, using a combination of spacecraft. Compared to typical proposals, this flight is relatively fast and relatively safe from biological radiation dosage. Our study is concerned with the trip from Earth orbit to Mars orbit. Four spacecraft are required for the round trip. The crew spends most of their time on board a comparatively large, well shielded spacecraft (LC) which is in free (non-powered) orbit about the sun. The crew travels from Earth orbit to the LC while on board a comparatively small, powered spacecraft (SC). At Mars, the procedure is reversed and the crew returns on a second LC. In addition, a cargo craft, with no crew, is sent to Mars prior to the crew leaving Earth orbit. The trip time is about six months and the radiation dose equivalent is within guidelines recommended by the National Commission on Radiation Protection and Measurements.

  7. American Samoa Longline Fishery Trip Expenditure (2006 to present)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a time-series dataset for trip expenditure data for the American Samoa-based longline fleet from August 2006 to present. The dataset includes 10 variable...

  8. ITE Trip Generation Modification Factors for Louisiana : Research Project Capsule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    Using data from studies conducted in the United States over the last 50-60 years, the Institute of Transportation Engineers (ITE) has published trip generation rates for different land uses. Over time, observations from new studies have been incorpor...

  9. Senior travelers' trip chaining behavior : survey results and data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    The research team conducted a survey of travel and activity scheduling behavior to better understand senior : citizens trip chaining behavior in the Chicago metropolitan areas most populous counties. The team used an : internet-based, prompted ...

  10. Hawaii Longline Fishery Trip Expenditure (2004 to present)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a time-series dataset of trip expenditure data for the Hawaii-based longline fleet for the period August 2004 to present. The data collection includes 10...

  11. Regional warehouse trip production analysis : Chicago metro area, September, 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    This research report provides primary research data and analysis on heavy truck trip generation and characteristics from regional : distribution centers (RDC) and similar facilities in an effort to facilitate future public policy making regarding roa...

  12. Hybrid intelligent monironing systems for thermal power plant trips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsoum, Nader; Ismail, Firas Basim

    2012-11-01

    Steam boiler is one of the main equipment in thermal power plants. If the steam boiler trips it may lead to entire shutdown of the plant, which is economically burdensome. Early boiler trips monitoring is crucial to maintain normal and safe operational conditions. In the present work two artificial intelligent monitoring systems specialized in boiler trips have been proposed and coded within the MATLAB environment. The training and validation of the two systems has been performed using real operational data captured from the plant control system of selected power plant. An integrated plant data preparation framework for seven boiler trips with related operational variables has been proposed for IMSs data analysis. The first IMS represents the use of pure Artificial Neural Network system for boiler trip detection. All seven boiler trips under consideration have been detected by IMSs before or at the same time of the plant control system. The second IMS represents the use of Genetic Algorithms and Artificial Neural Networks as a hybrid intelligent system. A slightly lower root mean square error was observed in the second system which reveals that the hybrid intelligent system performed better than the pure neural network system. Also, the optimal selection of the most influencing variables performed successfully by the hybrid intelligent system.

  13. Language Travel or Language Tourism: Have Educational Trips Changed So Much?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laborda, Jesus Garcia

    2007-01-01

    This article points out the changes in organization, students and language learning that language trips, as contrasted with educational trips (of which language trips are a subgroup) have gone through in the last years. The article emphasizes the need to differentiate between language trips and language tourism based on issues of additional…

  14. Modelling of transformations in TRIP steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsamas, A.I.; Haidemenopoulos, G.N.; Aravas, N. [Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Univ. of Thessaly, Volos (Greece)

    2004-11-01

    Industrial processing of low-alloy Transformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) steels involves various stages of heat-treating, such as Intercritical Annealing (IA) and Bainitic Isothermal Treatment (BIT), in order to produce a dispersion of retained austenite ({gamma}{sub R}) particles and bainite ({alpha}{sub B}) in a ferritic matrix ({alpha}). Retained austenite then transforms to martensite ({alpha}') during forming processes undergone by the steel. In the present work an effort was made to model these stages of processing, i.e. IA, BIT and the {gamma}{sub R}{yields}{alpha}' strain-induced transformation. Simulation of heat-treatment stages was implemented using computational kinetics methods. Investigation of the strain-induced {gamma}{sub R}{yields}{alpha}' transformation kinetics was performed by means of a simple analytical model. Simulation of IA and comparison with available experimental data showed that the amount of austenite ({gamma}) forming during IA reaches the values predicted by thermodynamic equilibrium only at high annealing temperatures (>825 C). It was also observed that kinetic and thermodynamic predictions set a lower and an upper limit, respectively, within which the actual amount of austenite experimentally observed is contained. Results from the simulation of the BIT indicated considerable carbon enrichment, and thus stabilization of {gamma}{sub R}, in agreement with recent experimental observations. As regards the strain-induced {gamma}{sub R}{yields}{alpha}' transformation, the analytical model employed in the present work was fitted to available experimental results, showing reasonably good adaptation to the kinetic behaviour of the microstructure during plastic deformation. (orig.)

  15. User Oriented Trajectory Search for Trip Recommendation

    KAUST Repository

    Ding, Ruogu

    2012-07-08

    Trajectory sharing and searching have received significant attention in recent years. In this thesis, we propose and investigate the methods to find and recommend the best trajectory to the traveler, and mainly focus on a novel technique named User Oriented Trajectory Search (UOTS) query processing. In contrast to conventional trajectory search by locations (spatial domain only), we consider both spatial and textual domains in the new UOTS query. Given a trajectory data set, the query input contains a set of intended places given by the traveler and a set of textual attributes describing the traveler’s preference. If a trajectory is connecting/close to the specified query locations, and the textual attributes of the trajectory are similar to the traveler’s preference, it will be recommended to the traveler. This type of queries can enable many popular applications such as trip planning and recommendation. There are two challenges in UOTS query processing, (i) how to constrain the searching range in two domains and (ii) how to schedule multiple query sources effectively. To overcome the challenges and answer the UOTS query efficiently, a novel collaborative searching approach is developed. Conceptually, the UOTS query processing is conducted in the spatial and textual domains alternately. A pair of upper and lower bounds are devised to constrain the searching range in two domains. In the meantime, a heuristic searching strategy based on priority ranking is adopted for scheduling the multiple query sources, which can further reduce the searching range and enhance the query efficiency notably. Furthermore, the devised collaborative searching approach can be extended to situations where the query locations are ordered. Extensive experiments are conducted on both real and synthetic trajectory data in road networks. Our approach is verified to be effective in reducing both CPU time and disk I/O time.

  16. The return trip is felt shorter only postdictively: A psychophysiological study of the return trip effect [corrected].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryosuke Ozawa

    Full Text Available The return trip often seems shorter than the outward trip even when the distance and actual time are identical. To date, studies on the return trip effect have failed to confirm its existence in a situation that is ecologically valid in terms of environment and duration. In addition, physiological influences as part of fundamental timing mechanisms in daily activities have not been investigated in the time perception literature. The present study compared round-trip and non-round-trip conditions in an ecological situation. Time estimation in real time and postdictive estimation were used to clarify the situations where the return trip effect occurs. Autonomic nervous system activity was evaluated from the electrocardiogram using the Lorenz plot to demonstrate the relationship between time perception and physiological indices. The results suggest that the return trip effect is caused only postdictively. Electrocardiographic analysis revealed that the two experimental conditions induced different responses in the autonomic nervous system, particularly in sympathetic nervous function, and that parasympathetic function correlated with postdictive timing. To account for the main findings, the discrepancy between the two time estimates is discussed in the light of timing strategies, i.e., prospective and retrospective timing, which reflect different emphasis on attention and memory processes. Also each timing method, i.e., the verbal estimation, production or comparative judgment, has different characteristics such as the quantification of duration in time units or knowledge of the target duration, which may be responsible for the discrepancy. The relationship between postdictive time estimation and the parasympathetic nervous system is also discussed.

  17. Vanpool trip planning based on evolutionary multiple objective optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ming; Yang, Disheng; Feng, Shibing; Liu, Hengchang

    2017-08-01

    Carpool and vanpool draw a lot of researchers’ attention, which is the emphasis of this paper. A concrete vanpool operation definition is given, based on the given definition, this paper tackles vanpool operation optimization using user experience decline index(UEDI). This paper is focused on making each user having identical UEDI and the system having minimum sum of all users’ UEDI. Three contributions are made, the first contribution is a vanpool operation scheme diagram, each component of the scheme is explained in detail. The second contribution is getting all customer’s UEDI as a set, standard deviation and sum of all users’ UEDI set are used as objectives in multiple objective optimization to decide trip start address, trip start time and trip destination address. The third contribution is a trip planning algorithm, which tries to minimize the sum of all users’ UEDI. Geographical distribution of the charging stations and utilization rate of the charging stations are considered in the trip planning process.

  18. Hybrid Intelligent Warning System for Boiler tube Leak Trips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Deshvin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Repeated boiler tube leak trips in coal fired power plants can increase operating cost significantly. An early detection and diagnosis of boiler trips is essential for continuous safe operations in the plant. In this study two artificial intelligent monitoring systems specialized in boiler tube leak trips have been proposed. The first intelligent warning system (IWS-1 represents the use of pure artificial neural network system whereas the second intelligent warning system (IWS-2 represents merging of genetic algorithms and artificial neural networks as a hybrid intelligent system. The Extreme Learning Machine (ELM methodology was also adopted in IWS-1 and compared with traditional training algorithms. Genetic algorithm (GA was adopted in IWS-2 to optimize the ANN topology and the boiler parameters. An integrated data preparation framework was established for 3 real cases of boiler tube leak trip based on a thermal power plant in Malaysia. Both the IWSs were developed using MATLAB coding for training and validation. The hybrid IWS-2 performed better than IWS-1.The developed system was validated to be able to predict trips before the plant monitoring system. The proposed artificial intelligent system could be adopted as a reliable monitoring system of the thermal power plant boilers.

  19. Appraisal of boundary layer trips for landing gear testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Philip; Feltham, Graham; Ekmekci, Alis

    2013-11-01

    Dynamic similarity during scaled model testing is difficult to maintain. Forced boundary layer transition via a surface protuberance is a common method used to address this issue, however few guidelines exist for the effective tripping of complex geometries, such as aircraft landing gears. To address this shortcoming, preliminary wind tunnel tests were performed at Re = 500,000. Surface transition visualisation and pressure measurements show that zigzag type trips of a given size and location are effective at promoting transition, thus preventing the formation of laminar separation bubbles and increasing the effective Reynolds number from the critical regime to the supercritical regime. Extension of these experiments to include three additional tripping methods (wires, roughness strips, CADCUT dots) in a range of sizes, at Reynolds number of 200,000 and below, have been performed in a recirculating water channel. Analysis of surface pressure measurements and time resolved PIV for each trip device, size and location has established a set of recommendations for successful use of tripping for future, low Reynolds number landing gear testing.

  20. The Escaramujo Project: Instrumentation Courses During a Road Trip Across the Americas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izraelevitch, Federico [Fermilab

    2016-11-25

    The Escaramujo Project was a series of eight hands-on laboratory courses on High Energy Physics and Astroparticle Instrumentation, in Latinamerican Institutions. The Physicist Federico Izraelevitch traveled on a van with his wife and dogs from Chicago to Buenos Aires teaching the courses. The sessions took place at Institutions in Mexico, Guatemala, Costa Rica, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia at an advanced undergraduate and graduate level. During these workshops, each group built a modern cosmic ray detector based on plastic scintillator and silicon photomultipliers, designed specifically for this project. After the courses, a functional detector remained at each institution to be used by the faculty to facilitate the training of future students and to support and enable local research activities. The five-days workshops covered topics such as elementary particle and cosmic ray Physics, radiation detection and instrumentation, low-level light sensing with solid state devices, front-end analog electronics and object-oriented data analysis (C++ and ROOT). Throughout this initiative, about a hundred of talented and highly motivated young students were reached. With the detector as a common thread, they were able to understand the designing principles and the underlying Physics involved in it, build the device, start it up, characterize it, take data and analyze it, mimicking the stages of a real elementary particle Physics experiment. Besides the aims to awaken vocations in science, technology and engineering, The Escaramujo Project was an effort to strengthen the integration of Latinamerican academic institutions into the international scientific community.

  1. Microstructure Evolution during Friction Stir Spot Welding of TRIP steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomholt, Trine Colding

    and thereby reduced weight of the vehicles. One of the limitations for the wide application of TRIP steel is associated with joining, since so far no method has succeeded in joining TRIP steel, without comprising the steel properties. In this study, the potential of joining TRIP steel with Friction Stir Spot...... Welding (FSSW) is investigated. The aim of the study is to assess whether high quality welds can be produced and, in particular, to obtain an understanding of the microstructural changes during welding. The microstructure of the welded samples was investigated by means of reflected light microscopy......, scanning electron microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction. Microhardness measurements and lab-shear tests completed the investigations of the welded samples and allow evaluation of the quality of the welds as seen from a practical point of view. Selected samples were also investigated by X...

  2. Microstructure characterization of Friction Stir Spot Welded TRIP steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomholt, Trine Colding; Adachi, Yoshitaka; Peterson, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    Transformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) steels have not yet been successfully joined by any welding technique. It is desirable to search for a suitable welding technique that opens up for full usability of TRIP steels. In this study, the potential of joining TRIP steel with Friction Stir Spot...... Welding (FSSW) is investigated. The aim of the study is to investigate whether acceptable welds can be produced, and additionally, to obtain an understanding of the microstructural changes during welding. The microstructure was investigated with a combination of microscopical techniques with the aim...... of identifying the transformations occurring during welding. Reflected light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and electron backscatter diffraction were among the methods applied for detailed investigations. The microstructure adjacent to the welds can generally be subdivided in two thermo...

  3. Mode, load, and specific climate impact from passenger trips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borken-Kleefeld, Jens; Fuglestvedt, Jan; Berntsen, Terje

    2013-07-16

    The climate impact from a long-distance trip can easily vary by a factor of 10 per passenger depending on mode choice, vehicle efficiency, and occupancy. In this paper we compare the specific climate impact of long-distance car travel with coach, train, or air trips. We account for both, CO2 emissions and short-lived climate forcers. This particularly affects the ranking of aircraft's climate impact relative to other modes. We calculate the specific impact for the Global Warming Potential and the Global Temperature Change Potential, considering time horizons between 20 and 100 years, and compare with results accounting only for CO2 emissions. The car's fuel efficiency and occupancy are central whether the impact from a trip is as high as from air travel or as low as from train travel. These results can be used for carbon-offsetting schemes, mode choice and transportation planning for climate mitigation.

  4. Texture developed during deformation of Transformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhargava, M; Asim, T; Sushil, M; Shanta, C

    2015-01-01

    Automotive industry is currently focusing on using advanced high strength steels (AHSS) due to its high strength and formability for closure applications. Transformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) steel is promising material for this application among other AHSS. The present work is focused on the microstructure development during deformation of TRIP steel sheets. To mimic complex strain path condition during forming of automotive body, Limit Dome Height (LDH) tests were conducted and samples were deformed in servo hydraulic press to find the different strain path. FEM Simulations were done to predict different strain path diagrams and compared with experimental results. There is a significant difference between experimental and simulation results as the existing material models are not applicable for TRIP steels. Micro texture studies were performed on the samples using EBSD and X-RD techniques. It was observed that austenite is transformed to martensite and texture developed during deformation had strong impact on limit strain and strain path. (paper)

  5. Are short daily trips compensated by higher leisure mobility?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næss, Petter

    2006-01-01

    Studies in several cities have shown that inner-city residents travel shorter distances and use cars less for local transport than suburbanites do. However, according to some authors, a low daily amount of travel is likely to be compensated through more extensive leisure mobility at weekends...... and on holidays. On the basis of a study of residential location and travel in the Copenhagen metropolitan area, this paper addresses the phenomenon of compensatory travel. For travel within ‘weekend trip distance’ from the residence, inner-city living appears to have a certain compensatory effect in the form...... of a higher frequency of medium-distance leisure trips. Probably, this reflects a shortage of nature in the immediate surroundings of the dwelling as well as less leisure time tied to gardening and house maintenance. These compensatory trips imply a slight reduction of the transport-reducing effect of inner...

  6. WTO ministerial conference adopts declaration on TRIPS and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Richard

    2002-03-01

    In November 2001, the 4th Ministerial Conference of the World Trade Organization adopted a Ministerial Declaration on public health and the WTO's Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (the "TRIPS Agreement"). The declaration represents a modest advance in addressing concerns that strict patent laws, and threats of trade sanctions, will be a barrier to most of the world's people with HIV/AIDS accessing affordable medicines. The full significance of the declaration remains to be seen, as it depends on what political impact it has at the WTO and on its member countries, and what legal impact it will have in the interpretation of the TRIPS Agreement.

  7. The development of cause analysis system for CPCS trip using the rule-base deduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hee Seok; Kim, Dong Hoon; Seo, Ho Joon; Koo, In Soo; Park, Suk Joon

    1992-01-01

    The Core Protection Calculator System(CPCS) was developed to initiate a Reactor Trip under the circumstance of certain transients by Combustion Engineering Company. The major function of the CPCS is to generate contact outputs for the Departure from Nucleate Boiling Ratio(DNBR) Trip and Local Power Density(LPD) Trip. But in CPCS the trip causes can not be identified, only trip status is displayed. It may take much time and efforts for plant operator to analyse the trip causes of CPCS. So, the Cause Analysis System for CPCS(CASCPCS) has been developed using the rule-base deduction method to aid the operators in Nuclear Power Plant

  8. China-Latin America Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Steen Fryba; Silva Ramos Becard, Danielly

    2016-01-01

    The article discusses the research field of China-Latin American relations and suggests a broad and encompassing approach to the topic. It discusses the main themes and problem areas that analysts mostly emphasize in analyses of China-Latin America relations....

  9. Social Capital and International Migration from Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Douglas S.; Aysa-Lastra, María

    2011-01-01

    We combine data from the Latin American Migration Project and the Mexican Migration Project to estimate models predicting the likelihood of taking of first and later trips to the United States from five nations: Mexico, the Dominican Republic, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, and Peru. The models test specific hypotheses about the effects of social capital on international migration and how these effects vary with respect to contextual factors. Our findings confirm the ubiquity of migrant networks and the universality of social capital effects throughout Latin America. They also reveal how the sizes of these effects are not uniform across settings. Social capital operates more powerfully on first as opposed to later trips and interacts with the cost of migration. In addition, effects are somewhat different when considering individual social capital (measuring strong ties) and community social capital (measuring weak ties). On first trips, the effect of strong ties in promoting migration increases with distance whereas the effect of weak ties decreases with distance. On later trips, the direction of effects for both individual and community social capital is negative for long distances but positive for short distances. PMID:21915379

  10. Social Capital and International Migration from Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas S. Massey

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We combine data from the Latin American Migration Project and the Mexican Migration Project to estimate models predicting the likelihood of taking of first and later trips to the United States from five nations: Mexico, the Dominican Republic, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, and Peru. The models test specific hypotheses about the effects of social capital on international migration and how these effects vary with respect to contextual factors. Our findings confirm the ubiquity of migrant networks and the universality of social capital effects throughout Latin America. They also reveal how the sizes of these effects are not uniform across settings. Social capital operates more powerfully on first as opposed to later trips and interacts with the cost of migration. In addition, effects are somewhat different when considering individual social capital (measuring strong ties and community social capital (measuring weak ties. On first trips, the effect of strong ties in promoting migration increases with distance whereas the effect of weak ties decreases with distance. On later trips, the direction of effects for both individual and community social capital is negative for long distances but positive for short distances.

  11. America's challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, G N

    1968-01-01

    As government increasingly recognizes its own obligations to support and provide family planning as a health and social measure, serious questions are raised as to the proper role for Planned Parenthood World Federation as a private organization. Federal programs both at home and abroad tend to make private fundraising more difficult, whatever the role of this organization may be. Contrary to common impression, experience thus far indicates that the existence of governmental programs does not decrease demands on Planned Parenthood as a private agency. A wide gap also exists between public acceptance, which has been realized, and public conviction, which still has not been accepted. Only those who feel distress at the vision of an all-encompassing megalopolis, only those with concern for the qualify of life in the crowd, and only those who see finite limits of resources recognize that the US must someday plan a halt to population growth. As the gap between the developed and the underdeveloped world widens, economists point out that the US, with less than 6% of the world's population, already consumes some 50% of the world's available raw materials. Business and government leaders are beginning to understand the rate at which an industrial and affluent society consumes the world's substance and threatens the environment. If the assumption is correct that the population explosion constitutes a major threat to life on earth, then America's own attitudes and actions at home, as well as abroad and in the developing countries, are vital. In the next few years Planned Parenthood faces the task of converting the tide of public acceptance into one of conviction and effective action on a giant scale both at home and abroad. In its effort, Planned Parenthood has continued to expand its own service functions. It now has 157 local affiliates with an additional 30 in the organizational stage. In 1967 Planned Parenthood affiliates operated 470 family planning centers, 71 more than

  12. Un Viaje al Aeropuerto (A Trip to the Airport).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This illustrated, bilingual Spanish-English intermediate reader describes a class trip to an airport, in which the class tours the airport, and learns about airport activities, the parts of an airplane, and other related topics. Each page of the text is illustrated with a drawing. The narrative is followed by a list of 24 suggested learning…

  13. The Euler-Mascheroni Constant and The Car Talk Trip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Frank H.; Page, Breeanna S.

    2018-01-01

    This paper uses the lens of a calculus student to examine different solutions to a weekly puzzler from the radio show "Car Talk," hosted by Tom and Ray Magliozzi. The puzzler describes an automobile that is traveling 75 miles per hour and is 75 miles from its destination. The trip is completed by traveling 1 mile at 75 miles per hour, 1…

  14. 49 CFR 236.586 - Daily or after trip test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Daily or after trip test. 236.586 Section 236.586 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... device is within specified limits. [49 FR 3387, Jan. 26, 1984] ...

  15. Journal of South African Trip: January 14-March 1, 1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Carl R.

    1987-01-01

    Provides a personal account, dictated en route, of Carl Rogers' experiences during his trip to South Africa. Documents extensive commitment to people and to a process leading to peace. Journal ends with conviction that violence can be avoided and that no group really wants violence. (Author)

  16. The Scope of Gene Patent Protection and the TRIPS Agreement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Tine

    2007-01-01

    The Scope of Gene Patent Protection and the TRIPS Agreement - An Exclusively Nondiscriminatory Approach?   Gene patenting in Europe has provoked much debate both before and since the adoption of Directive 98/44/EC on the legal protection of biotechnological inventions. Some of the major points of...

  17. Evidence Based Prevention of Occupational Slips, Trips and Falls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Olaf Chresten

    2009-01-01

    It is estimated that about one third of the compensated occupational injuries and half of the most serious occupational injuries in merchant seafaring are related to slips, trips and falls (STF)-events. Among the elderly, STF is the risk factor that causes the largest number of inpatient days...

  18. Retained austenite stability investigation in TRIP steel using neutron diffraction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zrník, J.; Muránsky, Ondrej; Lukáš, Petr; Nový, Z.; Šittner, Petr; Horňák, P.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 437, č. 1 (2006), s. 114-119 ISSN 0921-5093 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505; CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : TRIP steel * austenite conditioning * neutron diffraction Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.490, year: 2006

  19. INTERNET TRAFFIC AND PACKET ROUND TRIP DELAY SELF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key words: Self Similarity, LRD, Internet Traffic,. Internet Packet Round Trip ... Internet. Current data networks typically use packet switching as a means of dynamically allocating network resources on a demand basis. Packet switching had been widely used .... the distribution of income within the population( 4]. Figure lea) ...

  20. Foreign trips in search of medical care: outright blatant profligacy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and higher budgetary allocations to the Nigerian health sector is necessary to restore confidence in this sector. If most of the treatment Nigerians go to seek abroad can be gotten in Nigeria, a lot of foreign exchange would be saved for productive ventures like Agriculture. Key words: Foreing trips, medical care, capital flight ...

  1. Roofwantsen tegen trips in chrysant: Orius majusculus en Orius niger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, van der A.; Staaij, van der M.

    2011-01-01

    Referaat Roofwantsen, Orius spp. kunnen behalve tripsnimfen ook volwassen trips eten. Omdat Orius niger volgens verschillende auteurs niet gevoelig zou zijn voor korte daglengte, waarbij sommige Orius soorten stoppen met eileg, werden deze roofwantsen buiten verzameld en in kweek genomen. Het kweken

  2. Sense of place in outdoor-pursuits trip groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharon L. Todd; Anderson B. Young; Lynn S. Anderson; Timothy S. O' Connell; Mary Breunig

    2009-01-01

    Studies have revealed that sense of community and group cohesion increase significantly over time in outdoor-pursuits trip groups. This study sought to understand similar development of sense of place. Do people simultaneously become more attached to or dependent on the natural environment as they grow closer to each other? Results from a study of college students...

  3. CNMI, American Samoa, and Guam Small Boat Fishery Trip Expenditure (2009 to present)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a time-series dataset of trip expenditure data including actual fishing trip expenses, input usage, and input prices, for boat-based reef fish, bottomfish,...

  4. Improved trip generation data for Texas using workplace and special generator surveys : workshop materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Workshop Objectives: : Present Texas Trip Generation Manual : How developed : How it can be used, built upon : Provide examples and discuss : Present Generic WP Attraction Rates : Review Trip Attractions and Advanced Models

  5. Design and implementation of STD32-BUS based reactor protection trip unit on FPGA imbaby

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, I.; Elnokity, O.A.; Refai, M.K.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a way to design and implement the Trip Unit of a Reactor Protection System (RPS) using a Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA). Instead of the traditional embedded Microprocessor based interface design method, a proposed tailor made FPGA based circuit is built to substitute the Trip Unit (TL1) existing in Egypt's 2' ' Research reactor ETRR-2. The existing embedded system is built around the STD32 field Computer Bus which used in industrial and process control applications. It is modular, rugged, reliable, and easy-to-use and is able to support a large mix of I/O cards and to easily change its configuration in the future. Therefore, the state machine of this bus is extracted from its timing diagrams and implemented in VHDL to interface the designed TU circuit. The proposed designed circuit implemented using ALTERA EPF10K10LC84-3 chip replaces the Single Board Computer which have the embedded SAY program of the TU providing the same integrated HAV and SAV functions implemented in FPGA Chip housed in an printed circuit board, which uses the same shape and specifications of STD32 boards. H/W implementation of both TU and STD32 Bus in VHDL addresses the issues of safety and reusability

  6. A Novel Trip Coverage Index for Transit Accessibility Assessment Using Mobile Phone Data

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Zhengyi; Wang, Dianhai; Chen, Xiqun

    2017-01-01

    Transit accessibility is an important measure on the service performance of transit systems. To assess whether the public transit service is well accessible for trips of specific origins, destinations, and origin-destination (OD) pairs, a novel measure, the Trip Coverage Index (TCI), is proposed in this paper. TCI considers both the transit trip coverage and spatial distribution of individual travel demands. Massive trips between cellular base stations are estimated by using over four-million...

  7. Trip Generations at “Polyclinic” Land Use Type in Johor Bahru, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Ishtiaque; Abdulrahman, Suleiman; Hainin, Mohd Rosli; Hassan, Sitti Asmah

    2014-01-01

    Transportation planners need to estimate the trip generations of different land use types in the travel demand forecasting process. The Trip Generation Manual of Malaysia, similar to the Trip Generation Manual of the Institute of Transportation Engineers, USA, provides the trip generation rate at “Polyclinics” as a function of the Gross Floor Area. However, the data for this rate have no line of best fit resulting in the lack of confidence in the prediction. This study considered ten location...

  8. Does ignoring multidestination trips in the travel cost method cause a systematic bias?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuosmanen, T.K.; Nillesen, E.E.M.; Wesseler, J.H.H.

    2004-01-01

    The present paper demonstrates that treating multidestination trips (MDT) as single-destination trips does not involve any systematic upward or downward bias in consumer surplus (CS) estimates because the direct negative effect of a price increase (treating MDT as a single-destination trip) is

  9. Examining the Role of Trip Length in Commuter Decisions to Use Public Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Traveler trip length has for years been used as a fundamental indicator of the best mix of transit modes and user perceptions of travel cost for transit versus auto. This study examines traveler trip lengths across transit modes, work trip duration f...

  10. Questionnaire-based person trip visualization and its integration to quantitative measurements in Myanmar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimijiama, S.; Nagai, M.

    2016-06-01

    With telecommunication development in Myanmar, person trip survey is supposed to shift from conversational questionnaire to GPS survey. Integration of both historical questionnaire data to GPS survey and visualizing them are very important to evaluate chronological trip changes with socio-economic and environmental events. The objectives of this paper are to: (a) visualize questionnaire-based person trip data, (b) compare the errors between questionnaire and GPS data sets with respect to sex and age and (c) assess the trip behaviour in time-series. Totally, 345 individual respondents were selected through random stratification to assess person trip using a questionnaire and GPS survey for each. Conversion of trip information such as a destination from the questionnaires was conducted by using GIS. The results show that errors between the two data sets in the number of trips, total trip distance and total trip duration are 25.5%, 33.2% and 37.2%, respectively. The smaller errors are found among working-age females mainly employed with the project-related activities generated by foreign investment. The trip distant was yearly increased. The study concluded that visualization of questionnaire-based person trip data and integrating them to current quantitative measurements are very useful to explore historical trip changes and understand impacts from socio-economic events.

  11. Nuevos atrayentes de trips ayudan a los agricultores en el control de plagas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, van R.W.H.M.; Kogel, de W.J.; Teulon, D.

    2007-01-01

    Los trips constituyen una plaga importante que afecta a muchos cultivos diferentes. El año pasado se probaron con éxito, en situaciones prácticas, aromas atrayentes de trips de las flores y trips de la cebolla. El producto, que estará a disposición de los cultivadores en junio, resultó efectivo en

  12. THE NETWORK OF CITY PUBLIC TRANSPORT AS THE BASE FOR TRIP LENGTH DISTRIBUTION DETERMINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Horbachov

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The up-to-date methods of modelling the demand for public transport services require an objective estimation and improvement. Such an improvement can be achieved by taking into account the trip length distribution during trip matrix calculation that requires determining the reasons of regularities occurance in city population trip lengths.

  13. [A trip through the history of obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balke, H; Nocito, Antonio

    2013-01-16

    The origins of obesity can be traced back at least 25 000 years. In the Stone Age, in the Middle Ages, and in the 17th century overweight indicated prosperity,power, and fertility, but already Hippocrates described obesity as a disease in the Antique. The first academic papers dealing with adiposity were published in the times of the Industrial Revolution.In the 19th century a pharmaceutical treatment boom against overweight emerged- people had to deal with quackery and dangerous remedies like amphetamines that flooded the market.Bariatric surgery was introduced in the 20th century- to days gold standard is the RYGB operation. Dealing with morbid obesity and its comorbidities is nowadays one of the serious problems in the field of public health.

  14. Field Guide to Layered Rocks. Earth Science Curriculum Project Pamphlet Series PS-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Tom

    Presented is the study of sequences of rock layers as the basis for historical geology. Also considered is the influence of rock layers on the appearance of the landscape. Specific relevant laws of geology are presented. Preparation for a field trip is discussed. An example field trip is discussed and field techniques and projects are reviewed.…

  15. Making a report of a short trip in an ophiolitic complex with Google Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubret, Marianne

    2017-04-01

    Plate tectonics is taught in French secondary school (lower and upper-sixth). According to the curriculum, the comprehension of plate-tectonic processes and concepts should be based on field data. For example, the Alpine's ocean history is studied to understand how mountain ranges are formed. In this context, Corsica is a great open-air laboratory, but unfortunately, the traffic conditions are very difficult in the island and despite the short distances, it's almost impossible for teachers to take their students to the remarkable geologic spots. The «défilé de l'Inzecca» is one of them: there you can see a part of the alpine's ophiolitic complex. The aim of this activity is to elaborate a « KMZ folder » in Google Earth as a report of a short trip thanks to the students' data field; it is also the occasion to enrich the Google Earth KMZ folder already available for our teaching.

  16. Impacts of Local Soil Moisture Anomalies on the Atmospheric Circulation and on Remote Surface Meteorological Fields During Boreal Summer: A Comprehensive Analysis over North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, Randal D.; Chang, Yehui; Wang, Hailan; Schubert, Siegfried D.

    2016-01-01

    We perform a series of stationary wave model (SWM) experiments in which the boreal summer atmosphere is forced, over a number of locations in the continental U.S., with an idealized diabatic heating anomaly that mimics the atmospheric heating associated with a dry land surface. For localized heating within a large portion of the continental interior, regardless of the specific location of this heating, the spatial pattern of the forced atmospheric circulation anomaly (in terms of 250-mb eddy streamfunction) is largely the same: a high anomaly forms over west central North America and a low anomaly forms to the east. In supplemental atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) experiments, we find similar results; imposing soil moisture dryness in the AGCM in different locations within the US interior tends to produce the aforementioned pattern, along with an associated near-surface warming and precipitation deficit in the center of the continent. The SWM-based and AGCM-based patterns generally agree with composites generated using reanalysis and precipitation gauge data. The AGCM experiments also suggest that dry anomalies imposed in the lower Mississippi Valley have remote surface impacts of particularly large spatial extent, and a region along the eastern half of the US-Canada border is particularly sensitive to dry anomalies in a number of remote areas. Overall, the SWM and AGCM experiments support the idea of a positive feedback loop operating over the continent: dry surface conditions in many interior locations lead to changes in atmospheric circulation that act to enhance further the overall dryness of the continental interior.

  17. Harvesting Collective Trend Observations from Large Scale Study Trips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Kaare; Ovesen, Nis

    2014-01-01

    To enhance industrial design students’ decoding and understanding of the technological possibilities and the diversity of needs and preferences in different cultures it is not unusual to arrange study trips where such students acquire a broader view to strengthen their professional skills and app...... numbers of students to the annual Milan Design Week and the Milan fair ‘I Saloni’ in Italy. The present paper describes and evaluates the method, the theory behind it, the practical execution of the trend registration, the results from the activities and future perspectives....... and approach, hence linking the design education and the design culture of the surrounding world. To improve the professional learning it is useful, though, to facilitate and organize the trips in a way that involves systematic data collection and reporting. This paper presents a method for facilitating study...

  18. Customer satisfaction with individual shopping trip experiences in grocery retailing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Grunert, Klaus G; Jensen, Birger Boutrup

    Grocery retailers from Aldi to Wal-Mart strive to satisfy their customers. Grocery shopping is a frequently recurring activity that can provide both utilitarian and hedonic value to customers. Utilitarian value is derived from accomplishing the need that stimulated a particular shopping trip......, whereas hedonic value reflects the potential entertainment and emotional worth associated with the shopping trip. Recognising this duality, in addition to enabling customers to satisfy utilitarian needs related to product-acquisition, grocery retailers increasingly try to offer customers pleasurable...... encounters with that retailer. There are relatively few studies of satisfaction within the grocery retail sector. However, because grocery shopping is a frequently recurring activity that is often routine and task-oriented in nature, and thus dominated by utilitarian rather than hedonic concerns, different...

  19. Analysis of reactor trips originating in balance of plant systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stetson, F.T.; Gallagher, D.W.; Le, P.T.; Ebert, M.W.

    1990-09-01

    This report documents the results of an analysis of balance-of-plant (BOP) related reactor trips at commercial US nuclear power plants of a 5-year period, from January 1, 1984, through December 31, 1988. The study was performed for the Plant Systems Branch, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The objectives of the study were: to improve the level of understanding of BOP-related challenges to safety systems by identifying and categorizing such events; to prepare a computerized data base of BOP-related reactor trip events and use the data base to identify trends and patterns in the population of these events; to investigate the risk implications of BOP events that challenge safety systems; and to provide recommendations on how to address BOP-related concerns in regulatory context. 18 refs., 2 figs., 27 tabs

  20. Fermilab and Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lederman, Leon M.

    2006-01-01

    As Director of Fermilab, starting in 1979, I began a series of meetings with scientists in Latin America. The motivation was to stir collaboration in the field of high energy particle physics, the central focus of Fermilab. In the next 13 years, these Pan American Symposia stirred much discussion of the use of modern physics, created several groups to do collaborative research at Fermilab, and often centralized facilities and, today, still provides the possibility for much more productive North-South collaboration in research and education. In 1992, I handed these activities over to the AAAS, as President. This would, I hoped, broaden areas of collaboration. Such collaboration is unfortunately very sensitive to political events. In a rational world, it would be the rewards, cultural and economic, of collaboration that would modulate political relations. We are not there yet

  1. Babcock and Wilcox Owners' Group program: Trip reduction and transient response improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connor, W.T.; Mercado, A.L.; Ganthner, R.W.

    1989-01-01

    In 1985, the average trip frequency for the industry was 4.3 trips per plant per year while Babcock ampersand Wilcox (B ampersand W)-designed plants had 4.5 trips. In early 1986, the B ampersand W Owners' Group (B ampersand WOG) established goals to reduce trip frequency and improve posttrip transient response. Through the recommendations of the B ampersand WOG Trip Reduction and Transient Response Improvement Program (TR/TRIP) and other utility initiatives, the trip frequency for the B ampersand WOG plants has been on a progressive downward trend and has been consistently below the industry average since 1986. The successful results in trip reduction for the B ampersand WOG plants are shown. The B ampersand WOG has implemented several programs that have resulted in fewer trips per plant. This success can be attributed to the following: (1) a comprehensive program to evaluate each trip and transient for root-cause determination, define corrective actions, share information, and peer reviews; (2) a broad program to review systems and components that contribute to trips and transients, identify specific recommendations to correct deficiencies, utility commitment to implementation, conduct internal monitoring and indirectly exert peer pressure; (3) an awareness of the goals at all levels in the organization coupled with strong executive-level involvement; and (4) timely implementation of recommendations

  2. Thermal and mechanical stability of retained austenite in aluminum-containing multiphase TRIP steels

    CERN Document Server

    Zwaag, S; Kruijver, S O; Sietsma, J

    2002-01-01

    Stability of retained austenite is the key issue to understand transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) effect. In this work, both thermal stability and mechanical stability are investigated by thermo-magnetic as well as in situ conventional X-ray diffraction and micro synchrotron radiation diffraction measurements. The thermal stability in a 0.20C-1.52Mn-0.25Si-0.96Al (wt%) TRIP steel is studied in the temperature range between 5 and 300 K under a constant magnetic field of 5T. It is found that almost all austenite transforms thermally to martensite upon cooling to 5K and M sub s and M sub f temperatures are analyzed to be 355 and 115 K. Transformation kinetics on the fraction versus temperature relation are well described by a model based on thermodynamics. From the in situ conventional X-ray and synchrotron diffraction measurements in a 0.17C-1.46Mn-0.26Si-1.81Al (wt%) steel, the volume fraction of retained austenite is found to decrease as the strain increases according to Ludwigson and Berger relation. T...

  3. Medial septum lesions disrupt exploratory trip organization: evidence for septohippocampal involvement in dead reckoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Megan M; Horn, Katharine L; Kusman, Kelly J; Wallace, Douglas G

    2007-02-28

    Rats organize their open field behavior into a series of exploratory trips focused around a central location or home base. In addition, differences in movement kinematics have been used to fractionate the exploratory trip into tour (i.e., sequences of linear movement or progressions punctuated by stops) and homeward (i.e., single progression direct to the home base) segments. The observation of these characteristics independent of environmental familiarity and visual cue availability has suggested a role for self-movement information or dead reckoning in organizing exploratory behavior. Although previous work has implicated a role for the septohippocampal system in dead reckoning based navigation, as of yet, no studies have investigated the contribution of the medial septum to dead reckoning. First, the present study examined the organization of exploratory behavior under dark and light conditions in control rats and rats receiving either electrolytic or sham medial septum lesions. Medial septum lesions produced a significant increase in homeward segment path circuity and variability of temporal pacing of linear speeds. Second, as an independent assessment of the effectiveness of the medial septum lesions, rats were trained to locate a hidden platform in the standard water maze procedure. Consistent with previous research, medial septum lesions attenuated learning the location of the hidden platform. These results demonstrate a role for the medial septum in organizing exploratory behavior and provide further support for the role of the septohippocampal system in dead reckoning based navigation.

  4. Strain Rate Effect on Tensile Flow Behavior and Anisotropy of a Medium-Manganese TRIP Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alturk, Rakan; Hector, Louis G.; Matthew Enloe, C.; Abu-Farha, Fadi; Brown, Tyson W.

    2018-04-01

    The dependence of the plastic anisotropy on the nominal strain rate for a medium-manganese (10 wt.% Mn) transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) steel with initial austenite volume fraction of 66% (balance ferrite) has been investigated. The material exhibited yield point elongation, propagative instabilities during hardening, and austenite transformation to α'-martensite either directly or through ɛ-martensite. Uniaxial strain rates within the range of 0.005-500 s-1 along the 0°, 45°, and 90° orientations were selected based upon their relevance to automotive applications. The plastic anisotropy (r) and normal anisotropy (r n) indices corresponding to each direction and strain rate were determined using strain fields obtained from stereo digital image correlation systems that enabled both quasistatic and dynamic measurements. The results provide evidence of significant, orientation-dependent strain rate effects on both the flow stress and the evolution of r and r n with strain. This has implications not only for material performance during forming but also for the development of future strain-rate-dependent anisotropic yield criteria. Since tensile data alone for the subject medium-manganese TRIP steel do not satisfactorily determine the microstructural mechanisms responsible for the macroscopic-scale behavior observed on tensile testing, additional tests that must supplement the mechanical test results presented herein are discussed.

  5. Mission trip to Panama: a glimpse at global poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Cynthia; Chertok, Rachel

    2008-03-01

    Panama is a beautiful country with many disparities. It was estimated in 1995 that 40% of the population lived in poverty. Deaths from cardiovascular disease increased by 2% annually from 1990 to 1994, with hypertension being the leading cause of death for persons aged 60 years or more. I had the opportunity to travel briefly in Panama on a mission trip and found elevated blood pressure to be a major symptom of the clinic participants.

  6. Stability and constitutive modelling in multiphase TRIP steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haidemenopoulos, G.N.; Katsamas, A.I.; Aravas, N. [Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Univ. of Thessaly, Volos (Greece)

    2006-09-15

    Multiphase TRIP steels are a relatively new class of steels exhibiting excellent combinations of strength and cold formability, a fact that renders them particularly attractive for automotive applications. The present work reports models regarding the prediction of the stability of retained austenite, the optimisation of the heat-treatment stages necessary for austenite stabilization in the microstructure, as well as the mechanical behaviour of these steels under deformation. Austenite stability against mechanically-induced transformation to martensite depends on chemical composition, austenite particle size, strength of the matrix and stress state. The stability of retained austenite is characterized by the M{sub s}{sigma} temperature, which can be expressed as a function of the aforementioned parameters by an appropriate model presented in this work. Besides stability, the mechanical behaviour of TRIP steels also depends on the amount of retained austenite present in the microstructure. This amount is determined by the combinations of temperature and temporal duration of the heat-treatment stages undergone by the steel. Maximum amounts of retained austenite require optimisation of the heat-treatment conditions. A physical model is presented in this work, which is based on the interactions between bainite and austenite during the heat-treatment of multiphase TRIP steels, and which allows for the selection of treatment conditions leading to the maximization of retained austenite in the final microstructure. Finally, a constitutive micromechanical model is presented, which describes the mechanical behaviour of multiphase TRIP steels under deformation, taking into account the different plastic behaviour of the individual phases, as well as the evolution of the microstructure itself during plastic deformation. This constitutive micromechanical model is subsequently used for the calculation of forming limit diagrams (FLD) for these complex steels, an issue of great

  7. Trips and the Life Sciences - Perspectives on Limitations to Patentability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wested, Jakob; Minssen, Timo

    2017-01-01

    This report is based on the material and input that was presented and discussed at the webinar with the title: “Perspectives on limitations to patentability”. The Webinar and the theme where introduced by Prof. Timo Minssen. Then Prof. Nari Lee gave a presentation introducing some of the context...... and Minssen, Timo, Trips and the Life Sciences - Perspectives on Limitations to Patentability (June 15, 2017). Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2986751...

  8. An Evaluation of the TRIPS Computer System (Extended Technical Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-08

    Kernels 4 transpose (ct), convolution (conv), vector- add ( vadd ), matrix multiply (matrix) VersaBench 3 of 10 bit and stream (fmradio, 802.11a, 8b10b...more extensively hand-optimized four scientific kernels on TRIPS: matrix transpose (ct), convolution (conv), vector add ( vadd ), and matrix multiply...matrix); further, we hand-scheduled matrix and vadd . The most complex benchmarks come from SPEC2000 and include 10 integer and 8 floating-point bench

  9. Marketing a destination: Case of CreateTrips and Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Tiainen, Johanna; Korvenpää, Emmi

    2015-01-01

    This thesis concentrates on Finnish people travelling to Mexico. Firstly, the writers conduct a quantitative research, a questionnaire, that studies Finnish people’s thoughts and presumptions about Mexico. Secondly, they create mobile travel guides of four different destinations. The questionnaire concentrates on the people’s point of view, asking what people think about Mexico, on what kind of trip would they go it they travel there, how long it would last and so on. The questionnaire also h...

  10. Effect of diamond trip geometries on boundary layer transition for hypersonic inlet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H. Y.; Ni, H. L.; Zhang, Z. M.; Yi, M. R.

    2016-10-01

    In order to grasp the effect of diamond trip geometries on boundary layer transition of hypersonic inlet, an experiment at Mach number 6 in a hypersonic wind tunnel was performed for a hypersonic inlet. The heat transfers at the inlet wall were measured through the infrared thermography. The transition region was judged by the comparison of heat transfer between experiment and computation. Ten diamond forced transition trips were designed according to Modern Design of Experiments. The experimental results shown that the effect order of trip geometries on transition region were the trip height, distance between diamond elements and diagonal length of diamond element from the largest to the smallest. Transition region moved forward to the model tip with increasing trip height or trip length, or with decreasing distance between diamond elements, or with increasing diagonal length of element. The optimized configuration was obtained for diamond forced-transition trip when the optimization object was transition region.

  11. Development of methods for the field evaluation of Oobius agrili (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) in North America, a newly introduced egg parasitoid of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian J. Duan; Leah S. Bauer; Michael D. Ulyshen; Juli R. Gould; Roy. Van Driesche

    2011-01-01

    A field study was conducted in forested plots near Lansing, Michigan in 2008 and 2009 to evaluate the newly introduced egg parasitoid Oobius agrili Zhang and Huang (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) for control of the invasive emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). To measure parasitism by

  12. Researching the weather impact on trip generation in European cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Dragana D.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and changes in weather conditions have the impact on the transport system. Changes in weather conditions cause changes in the transport supply, as well as in transport demand. The first researches about weather impact on transport demand in the cities were carried out at the end of the nineties and have been intensified in the last ten years. Most of the researches about weather impact on trip generation were carried out in the countries of Northern Europe. In recent years, researches are also conducted in European countries that have climate conditions and population habits significantly different from northern European countries. This paper presents an overview of the areas in which weather impact on the trip generation was investigated. The most important conclusions of the conducted research are presented and the weather components that have the greatest influence on the trip generation are indicated. Understanding the weather impact on the transport demand is necessary for the implementation of transportation planning procedures in the upcoming climate change conditions.

  13. SnapVideo: Personalized Video Generation for a Sightseeing Trip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Luming; Jing, Peiguang; Su, Yuting; Zhang, Chao; Shaoz, Ling

    2017-11-01

    Leisure tourism is an indispensable activity in urban people's life. Due to the popularity of intelligent mobile devices, a large number of photos and videos are recorded during a trip. Therefore, the ability to vividly and interestingly display these media data is a useful technique. In this paper, we propose SnapVideo, a new method that intelligently converts a personal album describing of a trip into a comprehensive, aesthetically pleasing, and coherent video clip. The proposed framework contains three main components. The scenic spot identification model first personalizes the video clips based on multiple prespecified audience classes. We then search for some auxiliary related videos from YouTube 1 according to the selected photos. To comprehensively describe a scenery, the view generation module clusters the crawled video frames into a number of views. Finally, a probabilistic model is developed to fit the frames from multiple views into an aesthetically pleasing and coherent video clip, which optimally captures the semantics of a sightseeing trip. Extensive user studies demonstrated the competitiveness of our method from an aesthetic point of view. Moreover, quantitative analysis reflects that semantically important spots are well preserved in the final video clip. 1 https://www.youtube.com/.

  14. First Trip Abroad: Expectations, Experiences and Stories of Transnational Romanians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Croitoru Alin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes transnational Romanians’ stories about their first trip abroad. The concept of physical mobility is seen in a broader framework for understanding transnational and cosmopolitan behaviours as well as international migration. In order to distinguish between different types of travelling for the first trip abroad the article is constructed keeping in mind the structural changes and constraints regarding physical mobility for Romanian citizens. During the process of transition from a communist country to the status of EU member, Romanian citizens’ stories about travelling abroad for the first time fundamentally changed. Labour migrants, asylum seekers, business travellers, students or tourists left the countries with different expectations and faced different problems at destination. Their attitudes toward origin and destination framed their images about the first trip abroad. Using a qualitative approach and samples of Romanians who live in Denmark, Germany, Italy, Romania, Spain and the United Kingdom, the analysis emphasizes certain differences between different types of travelling for the first time abroad and reconstructs how Romanians started their transnational careers

  15. Togetherness in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Jan Knippers

    1984-01-01

    There is a growing unacknowledged reality to the oneness of America. Latin America is increasingly sharing not only the blessings of U.S.-style modernization, but its demons as well. Also, many problems that have long plagued Latin America, e.g., indebtedness and militarism, are becoming more apparent in the United States. (RM)

  16. Stories From the Field: The Use of Information and Communication Technologies to Address the Health Needs of Underserved Populations in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faba, Gladys; Julian, Soroya; Mejía, Felipe; Cabieses, Báltica; D'Agostino, Marcelo; Cortinois, Andrea A

    2015-01-01

    Background As their availability grew exponentially in the last 20 years, the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) in health has been widely espoused, with many emphasizing their potential to decrease health inequities. Nonetheless, there is scarce availability of information regarding ICT as tools to further equity in health, specifically in Latin American and Caribbean settings. Objective Our aim was to identify initiatives that used ICT to address the health needs of underserved populations in Latin America and Caribbean. Among these projects, explore the rationale behind the selection of ICT as a key component, probe perceptions regarding contributions to health equity, and describe the challenges faced during implementation. Methods We conducted an exploratory qualitative study. Interviews were completed via Skype or face-to-face meetings using a semistructured interview guide. Following participant consent, interviews were audio recorded and verbatim transcriptions were developed. All transcriptions were coded using ATLASti7 software. The text was analyzed for patterns, shared themes, and diverging opinions. Emerging findings were reviewed by all interviewers and shared with participants for feedback. Results We interviewed representatives from eight organizations in six Latin American and Caribbean countries that prominently employed ICT in health communication, advocacy, or surveillance projects. ICT expanded project's geographic coverage, increased their reach into marginalized or hard-to-reach groups, and allowed real-time data collection. Perceptions of contributions to health equity resided mainly in the provision of health information and linkage to health services to members of groups experiencing greater morbidity because of poverty, remote place of residence, lack of relevant public programs, and/or stigma and discrimination, and in more timely responses by authorities to the health needs of these groups as a result of the

  17. Parks, Trees, and Environmental Justice: Field Notes from Washington, DC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Geoffrey L.; Whitmer, Ali; Grove, J. Morgan

    2013-01-01

    Students enrolled in a graduate seminar benefited in multiple ways from an intensive 3-day field trip to Washington, DC. Constructed around the theme of environmental justice, the trip gave students a chance to learn about street tree distribution, park quality, and racial segregation "up close." Working with personnel from the United…

  18. Soaring antiretroviral prices, TRIPS and TRIPS flexibilities: a burning issue for antiretroviral treatment scale-up in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsi, Fabienne; d'almeida, Cristina

    2010-05-01

    The achievement of significant reductions in the price of antiretroviral drugs constitutes one of the main economic pillars of antiretroviral treatment scale-up in developing countries. Today this economic pillar is threatened. The prohibitive prices of newer first-line and second-line regimens have created a watershed in relation to the prices of earlier first-line treatments. These price increases are closely related to the World Trade Organization's Agreement on the trade-related aspects of intellectual property rights (TRIPS) that imposes an important barrier to generic competition. Intellectual property flexibilities foreseen by the TRIPS agreement allow the manufacture and supply of affordable generic versions of new generations of antiretroviral under certain conditions. However, the capacity to supply a specified list of generics under such conditions is tight and the utilization of such flexibilities in their current form remains complex and unattractive. The TRIPS agreement currently constitutes a significant barrier to providing access to new antiretroviral at affordable prices in developing countries. If the debate on initiatives for increased flexibility of intellectual property rights does not become more extensive or obtain the overwhelming support of the international community, serious consequences are to be expected in terms of the fight against AIDS in most of the developing countries.

  19. Observing Trip Chain Characteristics of Round-Trip Carsharing Users in China: A Case Study Based on GPS Data in Hangzhou City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Hui

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Carsharing as a means to provide individuals with access to automobiles to complete a personal trip has grown significantly in recent years in China. However, there are few case studies based on operational data to show the role carsharing systems play in citizens’ daily trips. In this study, vehicle GPS data of a round-trip carsharing system in Hangzhou, China was used to describe the trip chain characteristics of users. For clearer delineation of carshare usage, the car use time length of all observations chosen in the study was within 24 h or less. Through data preprocessing, a large pool (26,085 of valid behavior samples was obtained, and several trip chaining attributes were selected to describe the characteristics. The pool of observations was then classified into five clusters, with each cluster having significant differences in one or two trip chain characteristics. The cluster results reflected that different use patterns exist. By a comparative analysis with trip survey data in Hangzhou, differences in trip chain characteristics exist between carsharing and private cars, but in some cases, shared vehicles can be a substitute for private cars to satisfy motorized travel. The proposed method could facilitate companies in formulating a flexible pricing strategy and determining target customers. In addition, traffic administration agencies could have a deeper understanding of the position and function of various carsharing modes in an urban transportation system.

  20. Optimizing the service area and trip selection of an electric automated taxi system used for the last mile of train trips

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liang, X.; Homem de Almeida Correia, G.; van Arem, B.

    2016-01-01

    We propose two integer programming models for optimizing an automated taxi (AT) system for last mile of train trips. Model S1: trip reservations are accepted or rejected by the operator according to the profit maximization; model S2: any reservation on a selected zone by the model must be

  1. Spatial Repellency and the Field Evaluation of a Push-Pull Strategy for the Control of Malaria Vectors in Northern Belize, Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-18

    Oepartn:Rmt <:f Preventive Medicine and Bi001¢trii;s, Uniformed Seni~ Uuiven:ity of ·the Health Sdetleffi, 4301 fo0«s Bridge Rood , &the>du. MD 20814...the human mosquito biting rate under semi-field conditions. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 26:287-94 83. Kline DL. 2006. Traps and trapping techniques for...Entomology in Malaria Part II: Methods and Techniques . Geneva: World Health Organization 159. WHO. 2003. Insect Vectors and Human Health, World Health

  2. How combined trip purposes are associated with transport choice for short distance trips. Results from a cross-sectional study in the Netherlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eline Scheepers

    Full Text Available One way to increase physical activity is to stimulate a shift from car use to walking or cycling. In single-purpose trips, purpose was found to be an important predictor of transport choice. However, as far as known, no studies have been conducted to see how trips with combined purposes affect this decision. This study was designed to provide insight into associations between combined purposes and transport choice.An online questionnaire (N = 3,663 was used to collect data concerning transport choice for four primary purposes: shopping, going to public natural spaces, sports, and commuting. Per combination of primary trip purpose and transport choice, participants were asked to give examples of secondary purposes that they combine with the primary purpose. Logistic regression analyses were used to model the odds of both cycling and walking versus car use.Primary trip purposes combined with commuting, shopping, visiting private contacts or medical care were more likely to be made by car than by cycling or walking. Combinations with visiting catering facilities, trips to social infrastructure facilities, recreational outings, trips to facilities for the provision of daily requirements or private contacts during the trip were more likely to be made by walking and/or cycling than by car.Combined trip purposes were found to be associated with transport choice. When stimulating active transport focus should be on the combined-trip purposes which were more likely to be made by car, namely trips combined with commuting, other shopping, visiting private contacts or medical care.

  3. Elia Kazan's America America: A Message for America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molofsky, Merle

    2018-03-26

    Elia Kazan's 1963 film, America America is a tribute to the immigrant experience of his own forebears, and has relevance to the refugee crisis of today. In stark black and white cinematography, the film provides insight into the refugee-immigrant experience, personified in Stavros, a young man longing for freedom, obsessed with an idealized America. His hope and innocence cannot safeguard him. His memories of his happy childhood and loving family create idealizing transferences to a world of others who manipulate and betray him as he undertakes his quest. Eventually he too learns to manipulate and betray, unconsciously identifying with the aggressor. History will offer ethical challenges, the black and white cinematography mirroring the black and white perception of good and bad, the shades of grey evoking a maturation of understanding.

  4. Neural network design with combined backpropagation and creeping random search learning algorithms applied to the determination of retained austenite in TRIP steels; Diseno de redes neuronales con aprendizaje combinado de retropropagacion y busqueda aleatoria progresiva aplicado a la determinacion de austenita retenida en aceros TRIP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toda-Caraballo, I.; Garcia-Mateo, C.; Capdevila, C.

    2010-07-01

    At the beginning of the decade of the nineties, the industrial interest for TRIP steels leads to a significant increase of the investigation and application in this field. In this work, the flexibility of neural networks for the modelling of complex properties is used to tackle the problem of determining the retained austenite content in TRIP-steel. Applying a combination of two learning algorithms (backpropagation and creeping-random-search) for the neural network, a model has been created that enables the prediction of retained austenite in low-Si / low-Al multiphase steels as a function of processing parameters. (Author). 34 refs.

  5. Trombay programmable logic controller - 32 (TPLC-32) based reactor trip logic system (RTLS) for absolute trips (ATs) and conditional trips (CTs) of Dhruva research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramkumar, N.; Punekar, P.A.; Patel, N.V.

    2016-01-01

    The Control and Instrumentation (C and I) Systems of Dhruva Research Reactor were designed in late seventies and are facing not only obsolescence but have limited diagnostic features. Since the expected life of C and I systems is typically twenty years, it was considered appropriate to upgrade some of the major systems including Reactor Trip Logic System (RTLS). The RTLS for ATs and CTs for Dhruva is first PLC based (TPLC-32) Safety Class IA system to be deployed in any Indian Nuclear Reactor. The entire cycle involved conceptualization of system, making system requirement specifications, detailing the concept, design, fabrication, creation of test setup, system testing, validation of system performance, preparation of various documents for the regulatory safety clearances, installation and commissioning of the systems. The paper provides an insight on system design of RTLS for ATs and CTs, its important and innovative features, the testing carried on the system and installation and commissioning experience

  6. Multiscale mechanics of TRIP-assisted multiphase steels: II. Micromechanical modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lani, F.; Furnemont, Q.; Van Rompaey, T.; Delannay, F.; Jacques, P.J.; Pardoen, T.

    2007-01-01

    The stress and strain partitioning between the different phases of transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP)-aided multiphase steels is evaluated using a mean field homogenization approach. The change of the austenite volume fraction under straining is predicted using a micromechanics-based criterion for the martensitic transformation adapted to the case of small, isolated, transforming austenite grains. The parameters of the model are identified from the mechanical response and transformation kinetics measured under uniaxial tension for two steels differing essentially by the austenite stability. The model is validated by comparing the predictions with tests performed under different loading conditions: pure shear, intermediate biaxial and equibiaxial. An analysis of the effect of the austenite stability on strength and ductility provides guidelines for optimizing properties according to the stress state

  7. Study of nuclear power plant stability. Trip criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beato Castro, D.; Iturbe Uriarte, R.; Wilhelmi Ayza, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    The influence that nuclear power plants and high voltage power systems have on each other when confronted by disturbances in the offsite network may lead, due to dynamic effects, to plant trip. It is therefore necessary to study the disturbances in the network and the effects on plant equipment by means of dynamic simulations which evaluate the unit protection system and the auxiliary services so as to obtain maximum unit availability without jeopardizing its safety. These studies can be conducted since there are models and software tools capable of simulating dynamic behaviour of the electric system, including the excitation systems and specific speed governors obtainment of valid. (author)

  8. Activity time budget during foraging trips of emperor penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Shinichi; Sato, Katsufumi; Ponganis, Paul J

    2012-01-01

    We developed an automated method using depth and one axis of body acceleration data recorded by animal-borne data loggers to identify activities of penguins over long-term deployments. Using this technique, we evaluated the activity time budget of emperor penguins (n = 10) both in water and on sea ice during foraging trips in chick-rearing season. During the foraging trips, emperor penguins alternated dive bouts (4.8 ± 4.5 h) and rest periods on sea ice (2.5 ± 2.3 h). After recorder deployment and release near the colony, the birds spent 17.9 ± 8.4% of their time traveling until they reached the ice edge. Once at the ice edge, they stayed there more than 4 hours before the first dive. After the first dive, the mean proportions of time spent on the ice and in water were 30.8 ± 7.4% and 69.2 ± 7.4%, respectively. When in the water, they spent 67.9 ± 3.1% of time making dives deeper than 5 m. Dive activity had no typical diurnal pattern for individual birds. While in the water between dives, the birds had short resting periods (1.2 ± 1.7 min) and periods of swimming at depths shallower than 5 m (0.25 ± 0.38 min). When the birds were on the ice, they primarily used time for resting (90.3 ± 4.1% of time) and spent only 9.7 ± 4.1% of time traveling. Thus, it appears that, during foraging trips at sea, emperor penguins traveled during dives >5 m depth, and that sea ice was primarily used for resting. Sea ice probably provides refuge from natural predators such as leopard seals. We also suggest that 24 hours of sunlight and the cycling of dive bouts with short rest periods on sea ice allow emperor penguins to dive continuously throughout the day during foraging trips to sea.

  9. Highly Scalable Trip Grouping for Large Scale Collective Transportation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gidofalvi, Gyozo; Pedersen, Torben Bach; Risch, Tore

    2008-01-01

    Transportation-related problems, like road congestion, parking, and pollution, are increasing in most cities. In order to reduce traffic, recent work has proposed methods for vehicle sharing, for example for sharing cabs by grouping "closeby" cab requests and thus minimizing transportation cost...... and utilizing cab space. However, the methods published so far do not scale to large data volumes, which is necessary to facilitate large-scale collective transportation systems, e.g., ride-sharing systems for large cities. This paper presents highly scalable trip grouping algorithms, which generalize previous...

  10. WTO approves TRIPS amendment on importing under compulsory licensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herget, Greg

    2006-04-01

    On 6 December 2005, the World Trade Organization (WTO) amended the Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) agreement to allow WTO member states to produce, under compulsory licences, lower-cost generic pharmaceutical products for export to countries that lack domestic production capacity to make such products. The amendment makes permanent the previous decision of 30 August 2003, which has not yet proven to be an effective mechanism to encourage the supply of more affordable medicines and other pharmaceutical products to countries in need.

  11. Activity time budget during foraging trips of emperor penguins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichi Watanabe

    Full Text Available We developed an automated method using depth and one axis of body acceleration data recorded by animal-borne data loggers to identify activities of penguins over long-term deployments. Using this technique, we evaluated the activity time budget of emperor penguins (n = 10 both in water and on sea ice during foraging trips in chick-rearing season. During the foraging trips, emperor penguins alternated dive bouts (4.8 ± 4.5 h and rest periods on sea ice (2.5 ± 2.3 h. After recorder deployment and release near the colony, the birds spent 17.9 ± 8.4% of their time traveling until they reached the ice edge. Once at the ice edge, they stayed there more than 4 hours before the first dive. After the first dive, the mean proportions of time spent on the ice and in water were 30.8 ± 7.4% and 69.2 ± 7.4%, respectively. When in the water, they spent 67.9 ± 3.1% of time making dives deeper than 5 m. Dive activity had no typical diurnal pattern for individual birds. While in the water between dives, the birds had short resting periods (1.2 ± 1.7 min and periods of swimming at depths shallower than 5 m (0.25 ± 0.38 min. When the birds were on the ice, they primarily used time for resting (90.3 ± 4.1% of time and spent only 9.7 ± 4.1% of time traveling. Thus, it appears that, during foraging trips at sea, emperor penguins traveled during dives >5 m depth, and that sea ice was primarily used for resting. Sea ice probably provides refuge from natural predators such as leopard seals. We also suggest that 24 hours of sunlight and the cycling of dive bouts with short rest periods on sea ice allow emperor penguins to dive continuously throughout the day during foraging trips to sea.

  12. Trip optimization system and method for a train

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ajith Kuttannair; Shaffer, Glenn Robert; Houpt, Paul Kenneth; Movsichoff, Bernardo Adrian; Chan, David So Keung

    2017-08-15

    A system for operating a train having one or more locomotive consists with each locomotive consist comprising one or more locomotives, the system including a locator element to determine a location of the train, a track characterization element to provide information about a track, a sensor for measuring an operating condition of the locomotive consist, a processor operable to receive information from the locator element, the track characterizing element, and the sensor, and an algorithm embodied within the processor having access to the information to create a trip plan that optimizes performance of the locomotive consist in accordance with one or more operational criteria for the train.

  13. Out-of-plane trunk movements and trunk muscle activity after a trip during walking

    OpenAIRE

    van der Burg, J.C.E.; Pijnappels, M.A.G.M.; van Dieen, J.H.

    2005-01-01

    Tripping during gait occurs frequently. A successful balance recovery implies that the forward body rotation is sufficiently reduced. In view of this, adequate control of the trunk momentum is important, as the trunk has a high inertia. The aim of this study was to establish out-of-plane trunk movements after a trip and to determine trunk muscle responses. Ten male volunteers repeatedly walked over a platform in which 21 obstacles were hidden. Each subject was tripped over one of these obstac...

  14. Trip time prediction in mass transit companies. A machine learning approach

    OpenAIRE

    João M. Moreira; Alípio Jorge; Jorge Freire de Sousa; Carlos Soares

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we discuss how trip time prediction can be useful foroperational optimization in mass transit companies and which machine learningtechniques can be used to improve results. Firstly, we analyze which departmentsneed trip time prediction and when. Secondly, we review related work and thirdlywe present the analysis of trip time over a particular path. We proceed by presentingexperimental results conducted on real data with the forecasting techniques wefound most adequate, and concl...

  15. Tripping Elicits Earlier and Larger Deviations in Linear Head Acceleration Compared to Slipping

    OpenAIRE

    Arena, Sara L.; Davis, Julian L.; Grant, J. Wallace; Madigan, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    Slipping and tripping contribute to a large number of falls and fall-related injuries. While the vestibular system is known to contribute to balance and fall prevention, it is unclear whether it contributes to detecting slip or trip onset. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of slipping and tripping on head acceleration during walking. This information would help determine whether individuals with vestibular dysfunction are likely to be at a greater risk of fal...

  16. A Novel Trip Coverage Index for Transit Accessibility Assessment Using Mobile Phone Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengyi Cai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Transit accessibility is an important measure on the service performance of transit systems. To assess whether the public transit service is well accessible for trips of specific origins, destinations, and origin-destination (OD pairs, a novel measure, the Trip Coverage Index (TCI, is proposed in this paper. TCI considers both the transit trip coverage and spatial distribution of individual travel demands. Massive trips between cellular base stations are estimated by using over four-million mobile phone users. An easy-to-implement method is also developed to extract the transit information and driving routes for millions of requests. Then the trip coverage of each OD pair is calculated. For demonstrative purposes, TCI is applied to the transit network of Hangzhou, China. The results show that TCI represents the better transit trip coverage and provides a more powerful assessment tool of transit quality of service. Since the calculation is based on trips of all modes, but not only the transit trips, TCI offers an overall accessibility for the transit system performance. It enables decision makers to assess transit accessibility in a finer-grained manner on the individual trip level and can be well transformed to measure transit services of other cities.

  17. The E3 ubiquitin ligase activity of Trip12 is essential for mouse embryogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masashi Kajiro

    Full Text Available Protein ubiquitination is a post-translational protein modification that regulates many biological conditions. Trip12 is a HECT-type E3 ubiquitin ligase that ubiquitinates ARF and APP-BP1. However, the significance of Trip12 in vivo is largely unknown. Here we show that the ubiquitin ligase activity of Trip12 is indispensable for mouse embryogenesis. A homozygous mutation in Trip12 (Trip12(mt/mt that disrupts the ubiquitin ligase activity resulted in embryonic lethality in the middle stage of development. Trip12(mt/mt embryos exhibited growth arrest and increased expression of the negative cell cycle regulator p16. In contrast, Trip12(mt/mt ES cells were viable. They had decreased proliferation, but maintained both the undifferentiated state and the ability to differentiate. Trip12(mt/mt ES cells had increased levels of the BAF57 protein (a component of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex and altered gene expression patterns. These data suggest that Trip12 is involved in global gene expression and plays an important role in mouse development.

  18. Early Earthquakes of the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, James

    2004-11-01

    Robert Kovach's second book looks at the interplay of earthquake and volcanic events, archeology, and history in the Americas. Throughout history, major earthquakes have caused the deaths of millions of people and have damaged countless cities. Earthquakes undoubtedly damaged prehistoric cities in the Americas, and evidence of these events could be preserved in archeological records. Kovach asks, Did indigenous native cultures-Indians of the Pacific Northwest, Aztecs, Mayas, and Incas-document their natural history? Some events have been explicitly documented, for example, in Mayan codices, but many may have been recorded as myth and legend. Kovach's discussions of how early cultures dealt with fearful events such as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions are colorful, informative, and entertaining, and include, for example, a depiction of how the Maya would talk to maize plants in their fields during earthquakes to reassure them.

  19. Reducing Carbon Emissions from Shopping Trips: Evidence from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available With rising income and the emergence of modern shopping centers in urban China, shopping trips by private car becomes more and more common, leading to higher carbon emissions in the transport sector. Encouraging car owners to shift transport mode from private car to public transport could achieve significant emissions reductions. This study estimate carbon emissions savings by shifting from private cars to public transport for shopping trips in urban China, using Shenyang, one of the largest cities in China, as a case study. Our results show that the average carbon emissions per shopper is 426.9 g, and the carbon emissions on weekends is 13% higher than weekdays. Moreover, shoppers travelling by private car emitted five times more carbon emission than those by public transport. We also found that car ownership gradually increased as accessibility to public transport decreased, and that more car owners chose to travel by private cars than public transport in areas with limited access. This study, thus, highlights the potential for high-quality public transport to reduce the transport sector’s carbon emissions in urban China.

  20. Pure intelligent monitoring system for steam economizer trips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basim Ismail Firas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Steam economizer represents one of the main equipment in the power plant. Some steam economizer's behavior lead to failure and shutdown in the entire power plant. This will lead to increase in operating and maintenance cost. By detecting the cause in the early stages maintain normal and safe operational conditions of power plant. However, these methodologies are hard to be achieved due to certain boundaries such as system learning ability and the weakness of the system beyond its domain of expertise. The best solution for these problems, an intelligent modeling system specialized in steam economizer trips have been proposed and coded within MATLAB environment to be as a potential solution to insure a fault detection and diagnosis system (FDD. An integrated plant data preparation framework for 10 trips was studied as framework variables. The most influential operational variables have been trained and validated by adopting Artificial Neural Network (ANN. The Extreme Learning Machine (ELM neural network methodology has been proposed as a major computational intelligent tool in the system. It is shown that ANN can be implemented for monitoring any process faults in thermal power plants. Better speed of learning algorithms by using the Extreme Learning Machine has been approved as well.

  1. Transforming the radiological interpretation process: the SCAR TRIP initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriole, Katherine P.; Morin, Richard L.; Arenson, Ronald L.; Carrino, John A.; Erickson, Bradley J.; Horii, Steven C.; Piraino, David W.; Reiner, Bruce I.; Seibert, James A.; Siegel, Eliot L.

    2004-04-01

    The Society for Computer Applications in Radiology (SCAR) Transforming the Radiological Interpretation Process (TRIP) Initiative aims to spearhead research, education, and discovery of innovative solutions to address the problem of information and image data overload. The initiative will foster inter-disciplinary research on technological, environmental and human factors to better manage and exploit the massive amounts of data. TRIP will focus on the following basic objectives: improving the efficiency of interpretation of large data sets, improving the timeliness and effectiveness of communication, and decreasing medical errors. The ultimate goal of the initiative is to improve the quality and safety of patient care. Interdisciplinary research into several broad areas will be necessary to make progress in managing the ever-increasing volume of data. The six concepts involved include: human perception, image processing and computer-aided detection (CAD), visualization, navigation and usability, databases and integration, and evaluation and validation of methods and performance. The result of this transformation will affect several key processes in radiology, including image interpretation; communication of imaging results; workflow and efficiency within the health care enterprise; diagnostic accuracy and a reduction in medical errors; and, ultimately, the overall quality of care.

  2. Geoparks in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mantesso-Neto, V.; Mansur, K.; López, R.; Schilling, M.; Ramos, V.

    2010-01-01

    A Geopark is a territory delimited part of a holistic concept of protection, education and sustainable development, based on geological sites of particular importance, rarity or aesthetic geological sites. A Geopark achieves its goals through three main areas: geoconservation, education and geotourism. The first network of Geoparks born in Europe in 2000, and from 2004 UNESCO is promoting the creation of a Global Geoparks Network (Global Geoparks Network, GGN ). Currently, there are 64 Global Geoparks in 19 countries, and the movement is in full development. In Latin America there is hardly Araripe Geopark in Brazil. Presented in this work, projects and studies related to the development of Geoparks in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Peru and Venezuela. We understand that Colombia, Cuba, Ecuador, Mexico and Nicaragua have projects in this line, but the details are not yet readily available. The authors invite geoscientists and professionals in related fields to join a movement for the creation of the Latin American Network of Geoparks, intended as a framework for the conservation, sustainable use and disclosure of our national geological heritage

  3. World review: Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    The article gives information on contracts announced (and to whom) throughout Latin America in all aspects of the petroleum, natural gas and petrochemicals industries. Countries specifically mentioned are Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico, Trinidad and Venezuela. The future for the oil industry in Latin America is viewed as 'highly prospective'

  4. America in the Eyes of America Watchers:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Huiyun; He, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Based on an original survey conducted in the summer of 2012 in Beijing, we examine how China's America watchers—IR scholars who work on US-China relations—have viewed China's power status in the international system, US-China relations and some specific US policies in Asia. Our survey shows that ...

  5. To use or not to use? An empirical study of pre-trip public transport information for business and leisure trips and comparison with car travel

    OpenAIRE

    Farag, S.; Lyons, G.

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative study provides more insight into the relative strength of various factors affecting the use and non-use of pre-trip Public Transport (PT) information for business and leisure trips. It also illuminates comparing car with public transport and its consequences for mode choice. The factors affecting PT information use most strongly are travel behaviour and sociodemographics, but travel attitudes, information factors, and social surrounding also play a role. Public transport use...

  6. Technical evaluation of the proposed deletion of a reactor trip on a turbine trip below 50-percent power for the Beaver Valley nuclear power plant, Unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeves, W.E.

    1979-12-01

    This report documents the technical evaluation of the Duquesne Light Company's proposed license amendment for the deletion of a reactor trip on a turbine trip below 50% power for the Beaver Valley nuclear power plant, Unit 1. This report is supplied as part of the Selected Electrical, Instrumentation, and Control Systems Issues Program being conducted for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory

  7. America's Children and the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Protection Agency Search Search America's Children and the Environment (ACE) Contact Us Share ACE presents key information ... of updates to ACE . America's Children and the Environment (ACE) America's Children and the Environment (ACE) is ...

  8. The AAA+ ATPase TRIP13 remodels HORMA domains through N-terminal engagement and unfolding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Qiaozhen; Kim, Dong Hyun; Dereli, Ihsan; Rosenberg, Scott C.; Hagemann, Goetz; Herzog, Franz; Tóth, Attila; Cleveland, Don W.; Corbett, Kevin D.

    2017-06-28

    Proteins of the conserved HORMA domain family, including the spindle assembly checkpoint protein MAD2 and the meiotic HORMADs, assemble into signaling complexes by binding short peptides termed “closure motifs”. The AAA+ ATPase TRIP13 regulates both MAD2 and meiotic HORMADs by disassembling these HORMA domain–closure motif complexes, but its mechanisms of substrate recognition and remodeling are unknown. Here, we combine X-ray crystallography and crosslinking mass spectrometry to outline how TRIP13 recognizes MAD2 with the help of the adapter protein p31comet. We show that p31comet binding to the TRIP13 N-terminal domain positions the disordered MAD2 N-terminus for engagement by the TRIP13 “pore loops”, which then unfold MAD2 in the presence of ATP. N-terminal truncation of MAD2 renders it refractory to TRIP13 action in vitro, and in cells causes spindle assembly checkpoint defects consistent with loss of TRIP13 function. Similar truncation of HORMAD1 in mouse spermatocytes compromises its TRIP13-mediated removal from meiotic chromosomes, highlighting a conserved mechanism for recognition and disassembly of HORMA domain–closure motif complexes by TRIP13.

  9. Trip generation studies for special generators : research summary , December 17, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-17

    The Institute of Transportation Engineers (ITE) Trip Generation, 7th ed., which determines the number of : trips produced or attracted by different developments, does not include town centers as a type of land use. It : has also been argued that the ...

  10. Cultural Immersion Trip to Southeast Asia: A Study of Cross-Cultural Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustambekov, Elzotbek; Mohan, Ramesh

    2017-01-01

    The primary purpose of this article is to demonstrate the execution of a successful short-term study trip to Southeast Asia and its influence on a student's cultural intelligence. This article discusses an academic component of an international study trip that was developed for sophomores at a private university in the New England region of the…

  11. 50 CFR 660.332 - Open access daily trip limit (DTL) fishery for sablefish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Open access daily trip limit (DTL) fishery... COAST STATES West Coast Groundfish-Open Access Fisheries § 660.332 Open access daily trip limit (DTL) fishery for sablefish. (a) Open access DTL fisheries both north and south of 36° N. lat. Open access...

  12. Exchanging car trips by cycling in the Netherlands : a first estimation of the health benefits.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempen, E.E.M.M. Swart, W. Wendel-Vos, G.C.W. Steinberger, P.E. Knol, A.B. Stipdonk, H.L. & Reurings, M.C.B.

    2010-01-01

    As commissioned by the Dutch Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment, the authors assessed the possible health benefits of the substitution of short-distance car trips with short-distance cycling trips. To this end they used existing methods for Health Impact Assessment and

  13. Biologische bestrijding van spint en trips in anjer : selectieproef met 6 soorten roofmijten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholte-Wassink, G.M.; Berg, van den D.

    2005-01-01

    In de anjerteelt zijn de anjerspintmijt (Tetranychus cinnabarinus) en de californische trips (Frankliniella occi-dentalis) de twee belangrijkste plagen. Vanwege de gewasopbouw van anjer en de levenswijze van spint en trips zijn deze plagen met een bespuiting moeilijk te bestrijden. De ervaring tot

  14. Microstructure Evolution during Friction Stir Spot Welding of TRIP Steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomholt, Trine Colding; Pantleon, Karen; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the feasibility of friction stir spot welding of TRIP steel is investigated. In addition to manufacturing successful welds, the present study aims at a fundamental understanding of the mechanisms occurring at the (sub)micron scale during friction stir spot welding. As one of the main...... parameters to control friction stir welding, the influence of the rotational speed of the tool was investigated. Three different rotational speeds (500 rpm, 1000 rpm and 1500 rpm, respectively) were applied. The microstructure of the welded samples was investigated with reflected light microscopy, scanning...... electron microscopy, and electron backscatter diffraction. Microhardness measurements and lap-shear tensile tests completed the investigations of the welded samples and allow evaluation of the quality of the welds....

  15. ANO-2 turbine trip transient test analysis using MMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, P.K.; Divakaruni, S.M.

    1984-01-01

    The data from the turbine trip transient tests conducted at the Arkansas Nuclear One-Unit 2 was used as one of the benchmark cases for validating the Modular Modeling System (MMS) Code, developed by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The data was used first to validate the modules in stand-alone simulation tests and then in a Nuclear Steam Supply system integral tests. This paper presents the results from the MMS simulation effort and compares the code generated results with the plant data as well as RETRAN results. In general, MMS simulation results compare very well with the plant data. The code calculations for the hot and cold leg temperatures, primary system pressure and the pressurizer level are very good compared to RETRAN; however, MMS results for steam generator level compare reasonably well only with RETRAN calculations

  16. Vehicle Routing Problem with Backhaul, Multiple Trips and Time Window

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Oscar Ong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Transportation planning is one of the important components to increase efficiency and effectiveness in the supply chain system. Good planning will give a saving in total cost of the supply chain. This paper develops the new VRP variants’, VRP with backhauls, multiple trips, and time window (VRPBMTTW along with its problem solving techniques by using Ant Colony Optimization (ACO and Sequential Insertion as initial solution algorithm. ACO is modified by adding the decoding process in order to determine the number of vehicles, total duration time, and range of duration time regardless of checking capacity constraint and time window. This algorithm is tested by using set of random data and verified as well as analyzed its parameter changing’s. The computational results for hypothetical data with 50% backhaul and mix time windows are reported.

  17. Probabilistic assessment and design of overpower trips in CANDU reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, C.M.; Laratta, F.A.R.

    1983-01-01

    The data used for the design and operation of the Neutron Overpower (NOP) trip systems in CANDU reactors are subject to errors and uncertainty in their values, for which a suitable allowance must be made. The final NOP setpoints thus depend on the size of this error allowance in relation to the magnitudes of the various types of errors expected. This report outlines a new probabilistic assessment procedure for determining the NOP error allowance needed to meet a specified level of confidence. The procedure is relatively simple and computationally inexpensive, yet provides a comprehensive and reasonably rigorous assessment of the statistical risk of the NOP errors. Margins of about 11 percent have been found sufficient to meet regulatory requirements with the new procedure, compared with 18 to 20 percent previously. A further extension of the procedure, to probabilistic optimization of the core reference power shape, is also outlined

  18. How travellers’ schedule their trips under uncertain travel times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Katrine

    Travel times play an important role when people decide where, when and how much to travel. But travel times are not always predictable from the traveller’s point of view: They may vary from day to day due to demand fluctuations, weather conditions, accidents and other unforeseen events that cause...... road capacity to decrease. We refer to this uncertainty as travel time variability (TTV). TTV is likely to affect how travellers schedule their trips, since it affects their probability of arriving late at their destination. We would like to account for TTV in traffic models and cost-benefit analyses......, but in practice there are limits to the kinds of behaviour that can be accommodated in such applications. For that reason, we are not solely interested in explaining travellers’ behaviour, but also in whether this behaviour can be approximated by behavioural models that are simple enough to be applied in traffic...

  19. Evidence Based Prevention of Occupational Slips, Trips and Falls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Olaf Chresten

    2009-01-01

    It is estimated that about one third of the compensated occupational injuries and half of the most serious occupational injuries in merchant seafaring are related to slips, trips and falls (STF)-events. Among the elderly, STF is the risk factor that causes the largest number of inpatient days...... at hospitals. It is the argued that prevention of STF is insufficient and that the reason is insufficient evidence on incidence rates, the causes and the health impact of STF related injuries. Practical knowledge of the best practice and what works is also needed. Here the issue is evidence based...... on epidemiological data. STF in the injury model is considered not as an injury, but as a pre-event of an injury and in most cases a near miss without injury. The registration of whether a STF-event preceded an injury or not is important near miss information for prevention in injury registers. The quality...

  20. Recommendations for Planning and Managing International Short-term Pharmacy Service Trips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kalin L; Alsharif, Naser Z; Rovers, John; Connor, Sharon; White, Nicole D; Hogue, Michael D

    2017-03-25

    International pharmacy service trips by schools and colleges of pharmacy allow students to provide health care to medically underserved areas. A literature review (2000-2016) in databases and Internet searches with specific keywords or terms was performed to assess current practices to establish and maintain successful pharmacy service trips. Educational documents such as syllabi were obtained from pharmacy programs and examined. A preliminary draft was developed and authors worked on sections of interest and expertise. Considerations and current recommendations are provided for the key aspects of the home institution and the host country requirements for pharmacy service trips based on findings from a literature search and the authors' collective, extensive experience. Evaluation of the trip and ethical considerations are also discussed. This article serves as a resource for schools and colleges of pharmacy that are interested in the development of new pharmacy service trips and provides key considerations for continuous quality improvement of current or future activities.

  1. An integrative conceptual framework for analyzing customer satisfaction with shopping trip experiences in grocery retailing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Jensen, Birger Boutrup; Bech-Larsen, Tino

    2012-01-01

    Grocery retailers aim to satisfy customers, and because grocery shopping trips are frequently recurring, they must do socontinuously. Surprisingly, little research has addressed satisfaction with individual grocery shopping trips. This article therefore develops a conceptual framework for analyzing...... customer satisfaction with individual grocery shopping trip experiences within a overall ‘disconfirmation of expectations model’ of customer satisfaction. The contribution of the framework is twofold. First, by focusing on satisfaction with individual grocery shopping trips, previous research...... on satisfaction is extended to a context marked by frequently recurring, often tedious and routine activities. Understanding what causes satisfaction/dissatisfaction with individual shopping trips is required to explain overall, cumulative satisfaction with a retailer, which has been the focus of prior research...

  2. Horizontal single-trip gravel pack and selective simulation system for deep water extended reach wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pineda, Francisco [BJ Services Company, Houston, TX (United States); Vilela, Alvaro; Montanha, Roberto; Acosta, Marco; Farias, Rodrigo [BJ Services do Brasil Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Most of the reservoirs located in the deep water and ultra-deep water offshore South America are described as unconsolidated sandstone that require sand control on both producers and water injection wells. Horizontal Open Hole Gravel Pack completions are the preferred method of development. If completing heavy oil reservoirs, there is a necessity of longer horizontal open hole sections. Low fracture gradients may limit the length of gravel pack in the open hole section because of the pressure increase during the Beta wave proppant deposition phase. This system allows the gravel pack assembly to be installed and the gravel pack to be pumped during the alpha and beta wave deposition phases without the limitation of high pressures that could fracture the well. The benefits of the Horizontal Single-Trip Gravel Pack and Selective Stimulation System (HSTSSS) using the differential valve include the ability to complete longer horizontal intervals, valuable rig-time savings and, efficient mechanical diversion of the stimulation fluid. This paper outlines the application of the HSTSSS system using a differential valve to complete a horizontal well in offshore deep waters. The need for a differential valve is primarily in horizontal gravel packing operations when normal circulating rates and pressures around the open hole would exceed formation break down pressure. The valve is intended to be easily spaced out and run in the wash pipe. At a predetermined differential pressure the valve opens and the return flow path distance around the bottom of the tailpipe is shortened, thus reducing back pressure preventing filter cake damage without slowing the pump rate. In addition the said valve has to close to allow the selective stimulation to take place. Economic considerations along with completion efficiencies are especially important on deep water, subsea completions. The utilization of differential valves allows completion of extended-reach open hole wells and/or low fracture

  3. Impacts of energy consumption and emissions on the trip cost without late arrival at the equilibrium state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tie-Qiao; Wang, Tao; Chen, Liang; Shang, Hua-Yan

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, we apply a car-following model, fuel consumption model, emission model and electricity consumption model to explore the influences of energy consumption and emissions on each commuter's trip costs without late arrival at the equilibrium state. The numerical results show that the energy consumption and emissions have significant impacts on each commuter's trip cost without late arrival at the equilibrium state. The fuel cost and emission cost prominently enhance each commuter's trip cost and the trip cost increases with the number of vehicles, which shows that considering the fuel cost and emission cost in the trip cost will destroy the equilibrium state. However, the electricity cost slightly enhances each commuter's trip cost, but the trip cost is still approximately a constant, which indicates that considering the electricity cost in the trip cost does not destroy the equilibrium state.

  4. Establishment of Local Trip Generation Rates or Equations for Mixed-Use Developments in Kansas : Technical Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Currently, the trip generation rates and equations contained in the Institute of Transportation Engineers (ITE) Trip Generation Manual, 8th Edition are based on the information collected at single-use, free-standing sites and cannot be directly appli...

  5. Paralyzed Veterans of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Connected Twitter @PVA1946 Facebook @Paralyzed Veterans of America Instagram @PVA1946 National Veterans Wheelchair Games App Download Now ... 838-7782 CONNECT WITH US Facebook Twitter YouTube Instagram Flickr STAY INFORMED WITH NEWS & UPDATES Enter your ...

  6. Prevent Child Abuse America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... call the police . Crisis and support contacts For Child Abuse Reporting Numbers in your State please visit: Child ... suspected child abuse and neglect. Parent Resources Prevent Child Abuse America (800) CHILDREN A resource for tips, referrals, ...

  7. Woody plants of North America [product review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Don C. Bragg; Hope A. Bragg

    2001-01-01

    The authors review a 2-CD set created to aid in identifying woody plants. The product is intended to supplement (rather than replace) field instruction for identifying 470 of the most common native and introduced trees and shrubs in North America.

  8. Seeking Relevance: American Political Science and America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maranto, Robert; Woessner, Matthew C.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors talk about the relevance of American political science and America. Political science has enormous strengths in its highly talented practitioners and sophisticated methods. However, its disconnection from its host society, while not so severe as for fields like English and sociology, nonetheless poses an existential…

  9. The Present Status of Global Mission Trips in Plastic Surgery Residency Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Trung; Bentz, Mike; Brzezienski, Mark; Gosman, Amanda; Ingraham, John; Wong, Michael S; Verheyden, Charles

    2015-06-01

    The present status of global mission trips of all of the academic Plastic Surgery programs was surveyed. We aimed to provide information and guidelines for other interested programs on creating a global health elective in compliance with American Board of Plastic Surgery (ABPS) and Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education Residency Review Committee (ACGME/RRC) requirements. A free-response survey was sent to all of the Plastic Surgery Residency program directors inquiring about their present policy on international mission trips for residents and faculty. Questions included time spent in mission, cases performed, sponsoring organizations, and whether cases are being counted in their resident Plastic Surgery Operative Logs (PSOL). Thirty-one programs responded, with 23 programs presently sponsoring international mission trips. Thirteen programs support residents going on nonprogram-sponsored trips where the majority of these programs partner with outside organizations. Many programs do not count cases performed on mission trips as part of ACGME index case requirement. Application templates for international rotations to comply with ABPS and ACGME/RRC requirements were created to facilitate the participation of interested programs. Many Plastic Surgery Residency programs are sponsoring international mission trips for their residents; however, there is a lack of uniformity and administrative support in pursuing these humanitarian efforts. The creation of a dynamic centralized database will help interested programs and residents seek out the global health experience they desire and ensure standardization of the educational experience they obtain during these trips.

  10. Evaluation of the root cause for MSR high level trip in Maanshan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, L.-Y.; Ferng, Y.-M.; Jange, S.J.; Ko, C.M.

    2004-01-01

    Reactor trip due to Moisture Separator Reheater (MSR) high water level has been a long time issue for Maanshan nuclear power plant. The operating experience shows that there are five reactor trips due to MSR high water level. Four out of the five reactor trips are generated when Combined Intermediate valve (CIV) no. 1 is closed during CIV closure test. The fifth reactor trip occurs when the reactor power is increasing from 99% to 100%. An extensive root cause analysis has been performed by Taipower Company. It is concluded that the water accumulated in the cross under leg between the exhaust of high pressure turbine and the inlet of MSR was the water source contributing to the MSR high level trip. Although, Maanshan does not have similar trip after the root cause analysis, it is interested to evaluate the proposed root cause from thermal hydraulic point of view. It is also hoped that some useful guidelines can be established. This paper includes a description of the scenario of reactor trips, a summary of the root cause analysis done by Taipower Company, an examination of possible mechanisms, an identification of key parameters and a presentation of major findings. In addition, the applicability of RELAP5/MOD3 under this condition is discussed. (author)

  11. Transcription regulator TRIP-Br2 mediates ER stress-induced brown adipocytes dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Guifen; Whang Kong, Hyerim; Gil, Victoria; Liew, Chong Wee

    2017-01-09

    In contrast to white adipose tissue, brown adipose tissue (BAT) is known to play critical roles for both basal and inducible energy expenditure. Obesity is associated with reduction of BAT function; however, it is not well understood how obesity promotes BAT dysfunction, especially at the molecular level. Here we show that the transcription regulator TRIP-Br2 mediates ER stress-induced inhibition of lipolysis and thermogenesis in BAT. Using in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo approaches, we demonstrate that obesity-induced inflammation upregulates brown adipocytes TRIP-Br2 expression via the ER stress pathway and amelioration of ER stress in mice completely abolishes high fat diet-induced upregulation of TRIP-Br2 in BAT. We find that increased TRIP-Br2 significantly inhibits brown adipocytes thermogenesis. Finally, we show that ablation of TRIP-Br2 ameliorates ER stress-induced inhibition on lipolysis, fatty acid oxidation, oxidative metabolism, and thermogenesis in brown adipocytes. Taken together, our current study demonstrates a role for TRIP-Br2 in ER stress-induced BAT dysfunction, and inhibiting TRIP-Br2 could be a potential approach for counteracting obesity-induced BAT dysfunction.

  12. Flat Plate Boundary Layer Stimulation Using Trip Wires and Hama Strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peguero, Charles; Henoch, Charles; Hrubes, James; Fredette, Albert; Roberts, Raymond; Huyer, Stephen

    2017-11-01

    Water tunnel experiments on a flat plate at zero angle of attack were performed to investigate the effect of single roughness elements, i.e., trip wires and Hama strips, on the transition to turbulence. Boundary layer trips are traditionally used in scale model testing to force a boundary layer to transition from laminar to turbulent flow at a single location to aid in scaling of flow characteristics. Several investigations of trip wire effects exist in the literature, but there is a dearth of information regarding the influence of Hama strips on the flat plate boundary layer. The intent of this investigation is to better understand the effects of boundary layer trips, particularly Hama strips, and to investigate the pressure-induced drag of both styles of boundary layer trips. Untripped and tripped boundary layers along a flat plate at a range of flow speeds were characterized with multiple diagnostic measurements in the NUWC/Newport 12-inch water tunnel. A wide range of Hama strip and wire trip thicknesses were used. Measurements included dye flow visualization, direct skin friction and parasitic drag force, boundary layer profiles using LDV, wall shear stress fluctuations using hot film anemometry, and streamwise pressure gradients. Test results will be compared to the CFD and boundary layer model results as well as the existing body of work. Conclusions, resulting in guidance for application of Hama strips in model scale experiments and non-dimensional predictions of pressure drag will be presented.

  13. Method for evoking a trip-like response using a treadmill-based perturbation during locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessoms, Pinata H; Wyatt, Marilynn; Grabiner, Mark; Collins, John-David; Kingsbury, Trevor; Thesing, Nancy; Kaufman, Kenton

    2014-01-03

    Because trip-related falls account for a significant proportion of falls by patients with amputations and older adults, the ability to repeatedly and reliably simulate a trip or evoke a trip-like response in a laboratory setting has potential utility as a tool to assess trip-related fall risk and as a training tool to reduce fall risk. This paper describes a treadmill-based method for delivering postural perturbations during locomotion to evoke a trip-like response and serve as a surrogate for an overground trip. Subjects walked at a normalized velocity in a Computer Assisted Rehabilitation Environment (CAREN). During single-limb stance, the treadmill belt speed was rapidly changed, thereby requiring the subject to perform a compensatory stepping response to avoid falling. Peak trunk flexion angle and peak trunk flexion velocity during the initial compensatory step following the perturbation were smaller for responses associated with recoveries compared to those associated with falls. These key fall prediction variables were consistent with the outcomes observed for laboratory-induced trips of older adults. This perturbation technique also demonstrated that this method of repeated but randomly delivered perturbations can evoke consistent, within-subject responses. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Biaxial fatigue behavior of a powder metallurgical TRIP steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ackermann

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Multiaxial fatigue behavior is an important topic in critical structural components. In the present study the biaxial-planar fatigue behavior of a powder metallurgical TRIP steel (Transformation Induced Plasticity was studied by taking into account martensitic phase transformation and crack growth behavior. Biaxial cyclic deformation tests were carried out on a servo hydraulic biaxial tension-compression test rig using cruciform specimens. Different states of strain were studied by varying the strain ratio between the axial strain amplitudes in the range of -1 (shear loading to 1 (equibiaxial loading. The investigated loading conditions were proportional due to fixed directions of principal strains. The studied TRIP steel exhibits martensitic phase transformation from -austenite via ε-martensite into α‘- martensite which causes pronounced cyclic hardening. The α‘-martensite formation increased with increasing plastic strain amplitude. Shear loading promoted martensite formation and caused the highest α‘-martensite volume fractions at fatigue failure in comparison to uniaxial and other biaxial states of strain. Moreover, the fatigue lives of shear tests were higher than those of uniaxial and other biaxial tests. The von Mises equivalent strain hypothesis was found to be appropriate for uniaxial and biaxial fatigue, but too conservative for shear fatigue, according to literature for torsional fatigue. The COD strain amplitude which is based on crack opening displacement gave a better correlation of the investigated fatigue lives, especially those for shear loading. Different types of major cracks were observed on the sample surfaces after biaxial cyclic deformation by using electron monitoring in an electron beam universal system and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Specimens with strain ratios of 1, 0.5, -0.1 and -0.5 showed mode I major cracks (perpendicular to the axis of maximum principal strain. Major cracks after shear fatigue

  15. Multi-Destination and Multi-Purpose Trip Effects in the Analysis of the Demand for Trips to a Remote Recreational Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Espiñeira, Roberto; Amoako-Tuffour, Joe

    2009-06-01

    One of the basic assumptions of the travel cost method for recreational demand analysis is that the travel cost is always incurred for a single purpose recreational trip. Several studies have skirted around the issue with simplifying assumptions and dropping observations considered as nonconventional holiday-makers or as nontraditional visitors from the sample. The effect of such simplifications on the benefit estimates remains conjectural. Given the remoteness of notable recreational parks, multi-destination or multi-purpose trips are not uncommon. This article examines the consequences of allocating travel costs to a recreational site when some trips were taken for purposes other than recreation and/or included visits to other recreational sites. Using a multi-purpose weighting approach on data from Gros Morne National Park, Canada, we conclude that a proper correction for multi-destination or multi-purpose trip is more of what is needed to avoid potential biases in the estimated effects of the price (travel-cost) variable and of the income variable in the trip generation equation.

  16. TRIP-Br2 promotes oncogenesis in nude mice and is frequently overexpressed in multiple human tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Jit Kong; Gunaratnam, Lakshman; Zang, Zhi Jiang; Yang, Christopher M; Sun, Xiaoming; Nasr, Susan L; Sim, Khe Guan; Peh, Bee Keow; Rashid, Suhaimi Bin Abdul; Bonventre, Joseph V; Salto-Tellez, Manuel; Hsu, Stephen I

    2009-01-20

    Members of the TRIP-Br/SERTAD family of mammalian transcriptional coregulators have recently been implicated in E2F-mediated cell cycle progression and tumorigenesis. We, herein, focus on the detailed functional characterization of the least understood member of the TRIP-Br/SERTAD protein family, TRIP-Br2 (SERTAD2). Oncogenic potential of TRIP-Br2 was demonstrated by (1) inoculation of NIH3T3 fibroblasts, which were engineered to stably overexpress ectopic TRIP-Br2, into athymic nude mice for tumor induction and (2) comprehensive immunohistochemical high-throughput screening of TRIP-Br2 protein expression in multiple human tumor cell lines and human tumor tissue microarrays (TMAs). Clinicopathologic analysis was conducted to assess the potential of TRIP-Br2 as a novel prognostic marker of human cancer. RNA interference of TRIP-Br2 expression in HCT-116 colorectal carcinoma cells was performed to determine the potential of TRIP-Br2 as a novel chemotherapeutic drug target. Overexpression of TRIP-Br2 is sufficient to transform murine fibroblasts and promotes tumorigenesis in nude mice. The transformed phenotype is characterized by deregulation of the E2F/DP-transcriptional pathway through upregulation of the key E2F-responsive genes CYCLIN E, CYCLIN A2, CDC6 and DHFR. TRIP-Br2 is frequently overexpressed in both cancer cell lines and multiple human tumors. Clinicopathologic correlation indicates that overexpression of TRIP-Br2 in hepatocellular carcinoma is associated with a worse clinical outcome by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Small interfering RNA-mediated (siRNA) knockdown of TRIP-Br2 was sufficient to inhibit cell-autonomous growth of HCT-116 cells in vitro. This study identifies TRIP-Br2 as a bona-fide protooncogene and supports the potential for TRIP-Br2 as a novel prognostic marker and a chemotherapeutic drug target in human cancer.

  17. Scaling up the mining of semantically-enriched trajectories: TripBuilder at the world level

    OpenAIRE

    Brilhante, Igo; Macedo, Jose Antonio; Nardini, Franco Maria; Perego, Raffaele; Renso, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    TripBuilder is an unsupervised system helping tourists to build their own personalized sightseeing tour [1,3,2]. Given a target touristic city, the time available for the visit, and the tourist's profile, TripBuilder provides a time-budgeted tour that maximizes tourist's interests and takes into account both the time needed to enjoy the at- tractions and to move from one Point of Interest (PoI) to the next one. The knowledge base feeding the sightseeing tour generation algorithm of TripBuilde...

  18. Short-term service trips and the interprofessional team: a perspective from Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderWielen, Lynn M; Halder, Gabriela E; Enurah, Alexander S; Pearson, Catherine; Stevens, Michael P; Crossman, Steven H

    2015-03-01

    Short-term service trips from the USA annually spend over $250 million dollars to provide healthcare to individuals in developing nations. These trips often uniquely define goals as related to changes in the host population and overlook the valuable benefits potentially incurred by the trip volunteers. The Honduras Outreach Medical Brigada Relief Effort utilizes an interprofessional team approach to develop the dual goals of improving health and quality of life in host communities and improving interprofessional teamwork values and skills among participants. This article outlines details of this program, describes on-going evaluation work and discusses the interprofessional implications from this project.

  19. Building America Performance Analysis Procedures: Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendron, R.; Anderson, R.; Judkoff, R.; Christensen, C.; Eastment, M.; Norton, P.; Reeves, P.; Hancock, E.

    2004-06-01

    To measure progress toward multi-year Building America research goals, cost and performance trade-offs are evaluated through a series of controlled field and laboratory experiments supported by energy analysis techniques that use test data to''calibrate'' energy simulation models. This report summarizes the guidelines for reporting such analytical results using the Building America Research Benchmark (Version 3.1) in studies that also include consideration of current Regional and Builder Standard Practice. Version 3.1 of the Benchmark is generally consistent with the 1999 Home Energy Rating System (HERS) Reference Home, with additions that allow evaluation of all home energy uses.

  20. Profile of technical co-operation activities in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz Ribadeneira, F.; Villarreal, E.

    1990-01-01

    The Agency's technical assistance and co-operation programmes operate in Latin America under two modalities: national projects and regional activities. This report presents an overview of projects being executed in a variety of nuclear and related fields

  1. Medical assessment of the health effects of short leisure trips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, Masahiro; Makino, Hiroaki; Kobayashi, Hidetoshi; Nagasawa, Shingo; Kitamura, Kazuyuki; Morimoto, Kanehisa

    2004-12-01

    Using responses to questionnaires and results of saliva samples from 40 women, the authors assessed the effects on health of participation in a short leisure trip (2 nights, 3 d) to Kyushu Island in Japan. They addressed transportation, sightseeing, and group activities during the tour, which might differ from participants' usual activities. Levels of the salivary endocrinological stress markers cortisol and chromogranin A (CgA) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In each of the groups with characteristics considered healthy and related to lifestyle, patterns of behavior, perceived stressors, and stress reactions, a decrease in the cortisol levels and an increase in the CgA levels were apparent during the tour. The baseline for stress hormone changes was the levels on awakening on Day 1 (i.e., immediately before the tour). These findings suggest that even short periods of travel can bring about a reduction in di-stress and acquisition of eu-stress, experienced as feeling uplifted or fulfilled.

  2. Skip the trip: air travelers' behavioral responses to pandemic influenza.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eli P Fenichel

    Full Text Available Theory suggests that human behavior has implications for disease spread. We examine the hypothesis that individuals engage in voluntary defensive behavior during an epidemic. We estimate the number of passengers missing previously purchased flights as a function of concern for swine flu or A/H1N1 influenza using 1.7 million detailed flight records, Google Trends, and the World Health Organization's FluNet data. We estimate that concern over "swine flu," as measured by Google Trends, accounted for 0.34% of missed flights during the epidemic. The Google Trends data correlates strongly with media attention, but poorly (at times negatively with reported cases in FluNet. Passengers show no response to reported cases. Passengers skipping their purchased trips forwent at least $50 M in travel related benefits. Responding to actual cases would have cut this estimate in half. Thus, people appear to respond to an epidemic by voluntarily engaging in self-protection behavior, but this behavior may not be responsive to objective measures of risk. Clearer risk communication could substantially reduce epidemic costs. People undertaking costly risk reduction behavior, for example, forgoing nonrefundable flights, suggests they may also make less costly behavior adjustments to avoid infection. Accounting for defensive behaviors may be important for forecasting epidemics, but linking behavior with epidemics likely requires consideration of risk communication.

  3. Public Transport Service Provisions and Policy Implications for Columbarium Trips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.Y. Szeto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Grave-sweeping is one of the popular special events in Asian cities, especially in Chinese societies, in which families express filial piety to their ancestors during two traditional grave-sweeping festivals in a year. The extraordinary high travel demand is often attracted to columbaria within a relative short period around the festivals, and induces severe impacts to the local traffic. It is challenging for the government and private operators to formulate a public transport service setting to satisfactorily cater all the visitors' travel demand. This paper aims to propose an optimization framework to identify the optimal provisions of public transport services for columbarium trips to achieve consumer surplus or profit maximization. Numerical studies are carried out using the travel demand data collected from a selected columbarium, to examine the effects of different public transport service settings to the policy objectives in various cases. The model results show that the current situation is neither consumer surplus nor profit optimum. Improvement schemes are suggested in relation to allow various fares during different visit periods and provide multiple public transport feeder services to serve the visitors during the high travel demand period.

  4. Collective human mobility pattern from taxi trips in urban area

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Chengbin

    2012-04-18

    We analyze the passengers\\' traffic pattern for 1.58 million taxi trips of Shanghai, China. By employing the non-negative matrix factorization and optimization methods, we find that, people travel on workdays mainly for three purposes: commuting between home and workplace, traveling from workplace to workplace, and others such as leisure activities. Therefore, traffic flow in one area or between any pair of locations can be approximated by a linear combination of three basis flows, corresponding to the three purposes respectively. We name the coefficients in the linear combination as traffic powers, each of which indicates the strength of each basis flow. The traffic powers on different days are typically different even for the same location, due to the uncertainty of the human motion. Therefore, we provide a probability distribution function for the relative deviation of the traffic power. This distribution function is in terms of a series of functions for normalized binomial distributions. It can be well explained by statistical theories and is verified by empirical data. These findings are applicable in predicting the road traffic, tracing the traffic pattern and diagnosing the traffic related abnormal events. These results can also be used to infer land uses of urban area quite parsimoniously. 2012 Peng et al.

  5. Prediction of Intrinsically Caused Tripping Events in Individuals With Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Bohlen, Peter; Lewek, Michael D; Huang, He

    2017-08-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of predicting intrinsically caused trips (ICTs) in individuals with stroke. Gait kinematics collected from 12 individuals with chronic stroke, who demonstrated ICTs in treadmill walking, were analyzed. A prediction algorithm based on the outlier principle was employed. Sequential forward selection (SFS) and minimum-redundancy-maximum-relevance (mRMR) were used separately to identify the precursors for accurate ICT prediction. The results showed that it was feasible to predict ICTs around 50-260 ms before ICTs occurred in the swing phase by monitoring lower limb kinematics during the preceding stance phase. Both SFS and mRMR were effective in identifying the precursors of ICTs. For 9 out of the 12 subjects, the paretic lower limb's shank orientation in the sagittal plane and the vertical velocity of the paretic foot's center of gravity were important in predicting ICTs accurately; the averaged area under receiver operating characteristic curve achieved 0.95 and above. For the other three subjects, kinematics of the less affected limb or proximal joints in the paretic side were identified as the precursors to an ICT, potentially due to the variations of neuromotor deficits among stroke survivors. Although additional engineering efforts are still needed to address the challenges in making our design clinically practical, the outcome of this study may lead to further proactive engineering mechanisms for ICT avoidance and therefore reduce the risk of falls in individuals with stroke.

  6. Sensitivity analyses of the peach bottom turbine trip 2 experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bousbia Salah, A.; D'Auria, F.

    2003-01-01

    In the light of the sustained development in computer technology, the possibilities for code calculations in predicting more realistic transient scenarios in nuclear power plants have been enlarged substantially. Therefore, it becomes feasible to perform 'Best-estimate' simulations through the incorporation of three-dimensional modeling of reactor core into system codes. This method is particularly suited for complex transients that involve strong feedback effects between thermal-hydraulics and kinetics as well as to transient involving local asymmetric effects. The Peach bottom turbine trip test is characterized by a prompt core power excursion followed by a self limiting power behavior. To emphasize and understand the feedback mechanisms involved during this transient, a series of sensitivity analyses were carried out. This should allow the characterization of discrepancies between measured and calculated trends and assess the impact of the thermal-hydraulic and kinetic response of the used models. On the whole, the data comparison revealed a close dependency of the power excursion with the core feedback mechanisms. Thus for a better best estimate simulation of the transient, both of the thermal-hydraulic and the kinetic models should be made more accurate. (author)

  7. Trip report: a visit to the Swedish reindeer industry, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dau, J.; Dieterich, R.A.; Thomas, W.C.; Davis, L.T.

    1987-01-01

    The State of Alaska indicated recently that it will become more strict in enforcing inspection requirements for reindeer meat that is mixed with meat from domestic animals (e.g., In sausage production). Therefore. we wanted to observe how reindeer are slaughtered to meet Swedish meat inspection requirements. Additionally, by following the processing and marketing of reindeer in Sweden, we hoped to discover alternative products that do not require blending reindeer with beef or pork. The Chernobyl tragedy further affected our decision to visit Sweden in two ways It gave us the opportunity to review the Impacts of widespread, Intense radioactive contamination on reindeer and the reindeer industry: and it created a shortage or reindeer for human consumption in Sweden which In turn appeared to open a market for Alaska reindeer products. Between 13 and 23 November 1986, we traveled to Sweden to meet suppliers and processors in the Swedish reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) industry. Wholesale and retail marketing of reindeer were reviewed in Stockholm; corralling, slaughter, and processing of reindeer were observed in Swedish Lapland. The specific objectives of this trip were as follows: 1) to observe reindeer slaughter facilities and techniques used in Sweden; 2) to trace the marketing of reindeer from Sami herders to retail outlets; 3) to assess radioactive contamination of reindeer and their ranges and observe how the problem is being handled; 4) to observe as many reindeer husbandry techniques as possible; and 5) to explore the possibility of establishing a market for Alaskan reindeer meat in Sweden

  8. Pre-trip tourism information search by smartphones and use of alternative information channels: A conceptual model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaang-Iuan Ho

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study developed a comprehensive model of how smartphone users search for pre-trip tourism information. Important dimensions and relationships in tourism information search (TIS behavior were studied in 21 subjects. The data collection process included semi-structured in-depth interviewing data and field observation data. The analysis revealed 10 activities characteristic of TIS behavior: internal searches, mobile searches, saving information in the smartphones, preliminary collaborative TIS, barriers to TIS, bringing mobile search to an end, summarizing information, PC Internet search, advanced collaborative TIS, and searches via editorial communications. Such data collection was not performed in isolation. Further, 20 propositions have been developed for future testing. The results suggest that pre-trip TIS appears to consist in a diversity of search patterns with the usage of multiple information sources; in addition, it is no longer individual but collaborative behavior in the context of Web 2.0. Finally, the theoretical and practical implications of the research work are discussed, and directions for future work are suggested.

  9. Survey on how fluctuating petrol prices are affecting Malaysian large city dwellers in changing their trip patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohani, M. M.; Pahazri, N.

    2018-04-01

    Rising fuel prices shocks have a significant impact on the way of life of most Malaysians. Due to the rising of oil prices, the costs of travel for private vehicle users are therefore increasing. The study was conducted based on the objective of studying the impact of rising fuel prices on three types of trip patterns of Malaysians who are living in the city areas. The three types of trip patterns are, workplaces trip, leisure trip and personal purposes trip during the weekdays. This study was conducted by distributing questionnaires to respondents of private vehicle users in selected city such as Johor Bahru, Kuala Lumpur, Putrajaya, Melaka, Perak, Selangor and Kelantan. This study, found that the trip patterns of those who were using their own vehicles had changed after the rising of fuel prices. The changes showed that many private vehicle users were taking steps to save money on petrol by adjusting their trips.

  10. Reflections on a Medical Service Trip: Did we do the right thing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Franco

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Medical service trips have a long and distinguished history. In the United States,interest in medical outreach trips has grown substantially, as medical schools andnon-governmental organizations support numerous overseas endeavors at an estimatedcost of 250 million dollars a year. Although providing care to those in need is arewarding experience, the question that needs to be answered is whether these tripsdo more harm than good. We describe our experience during a medical service trip toEnsenada, Mexico. We treated over 500 people for numerous problems, but due to thelack of services were not able to monitor or ensure follow-up. Did we do more harmby providing medications that can have serious side effects? Recommendations havebeen developed to help short-term international medical service trips provide the bestoverall experience for the participants and the best care for the patients.

  11. Enabling cost-effective multimodal trip planners through open transit data : [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Electronic navigation systems are now common : and widely used -- via Internet services, handheld : devices, and devices in vehicles -- to guide drivers : using instructions and maps. Next generation : systems will plan trips by other modes, includin...

  12. Enabling cost-effective multimodal trip planners through open transit data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    This study examined whether multimodal trip planners can be developed using opensource software and open data sources. OpenStreetMap (OSM), maintained by the nonprofit OpenStreetMap Foundation, is an open, freely available international reposit...

  13. Human round trip to Mars: Six months and radiation safe. Revision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazareth, O.W.; Schmidt, E.; Ludewig, H.; Powell, J.R.

    1991-12-31

    We describe a different type of round trip to Mars, using a combination of spacecraft. Compared to typical proposals, this flight is relatively fast and relatively safe from biological radiation dosage. Our study is concerned with the trip from Earth orbit to Mars orbit. Four spacecraft are required for the round trip. The crew spends most of their time on board a comparatively large, well shielded spacecraft (LC) which is in free (non-powered) orbit about the sun. The crew travels from Earth orbit to the LC while on board a comparatively small, powered spacecraft (SC). At Mars, the procedure is reversed and the crew returns on a second LC. In addition, a cargo craft, with no crew, is sent to Mars prior to the crew leaving Earth orbit. The trip time is about six months and the radiation dose equivalent is within guidelines recommended by the National Commission on Radiation Protection and Measurements.

  14. Health Effect of Forest Bathing Trip on Elderly Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Bing Bing; Yang, Zhou Xin; Mao, Gen Xiang; Lyu, Yuan Dong; Wen, Xiao Lin; Xu, Wei Hong; Lyu, Xiao Ling; Cao, Yong Bao; Wang, Guo Fu

    2016-03-01

    Forest bathing trip is a short, leisurely visit to forest. In this study we determined the health effects of forest bathing trip on elderly patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The patients were randomly divided into two groups. One group was sent to forest, and the other was sent to an urban area as control. Flow cytometry, ELISA, and profile of mood states (POMS) evaluation were performed. In the forest group, we found a significant decrease of perforin and granzyme B expressions, accompanied by decreased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and stress hormones. Meanwhile, the scores in the negative subscales of POMS decreased after forest bathing trip. These results indicate that forest bathing trip has health effect on elderly COPD patients by reducing inflammation and stress level. Copyright © 2016 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  15. HARMONISASI PRINSIP-PRINSIP TRIPS AGREEMENT DALAM HAK KEKAYAAN INTELEKTUAL DENGAN KEPENTINGAN NASIONAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    tri setiady

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The research aims to find a legal politics of harmonization the Intellectual Property Rights (IPR of Indonesia with WTO/TRIPs agreement. Based on the juridical approach of secondary data, it was concluded that there is a harmonization between legal arrangements of IPR with the WTO/TRIPs agreement. The reason given by the government is because Indonesia has ratified the WTO/TRIPs agreement, and it is 'full complience' and 'non-reservation', and due to the insistence of developed countries of IPR owners against Indonesia and the needs of national IPRs. There is no courage to create legal politics of our own IPR, which is derived from the philosophy of Pancasila, 1945 Constitution and national interests. Fear of the threat of developed countries must be resisted and overcome by intelligence. Keywords: Trips Agreement, Intellectual Property Rights , National Interest 

  16. Improved trip generation data for Texas using work place and special generator survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Travel estimates from models and manuals developed from trip attraction rates having high variances due to few : survey observations can reduce confidence and accuracy in estimates. This project compiled and analyzed data from : more than a decade of...

  17. ON PROBABILITY FUNCTION OF TRIP ROUTE CHOICE IN PASSENGER TRANSPORT SYSTEM OF CITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Nefedof

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The results of statistical processing of experimental research data in Kharkiv, aimed at determining the relation between the passenger trip choice probability and the actual vehicles waiting time at bus terminals are presented.

  18. Multi-modal trip planning system : Northeastern Illinois Regional Transportation Authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This report evaluates the Multi-Modal Trip Planner System (MMTPS) implemented by the Northeastern Illinois Regional Transportation Authority (RTA) against the specific functional objectives enumerated by the Federal Transit Administration (FTA) in it...

  19. Inheemse roofmijten tegen spint, trips en weekhuidmijten: Goede resultaten nieuwe roofmijten in alchemilla en delphinium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenburg, J.; Linden, van der A.

    2012-01-01

    Spint, trips en weekhuidmijten. Hardnekkige plagen waarmee ook zomerbloementelers worstelen. Reden voor Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw om onderzoek te doen naar de mogelijkheden van natuurlijke vijanden in deze gewassen. En wat blijkt? Inheemse roofmijten kunnen een belangrijke rol spelen in de

  20. Passive control of cavitating flow around an axisymmetric projectile by using a trip bar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Huang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Quasi-periodical evolutions such as shedding and collapsing of unsteady cloud cavitating flow, induce strong pressure fluctuations, what may deteriorate maneuvering stability and corrode surfaces of underwater vehicles. This paper analyzed effects on cavitation stability of a trip bar arranged on high-speed underwater projectile. Small scale water tank experiment and large eddy simulation using the open source software OpenFOAM were used, and the results agree well with each other. Results also indicate that trip bar can obstruct downstream re-entrant jet and pressure wave propagation caused by collapse, resulting in a relatively stable sheet cavity between trip bar and shoulder of projectiles. Keywords: Unsteady cavitating flow, Trip bar, Re-entrant jet, Passive flow control

  1. 0-6760 : improved trip generation data for Texas using workplace and special generator surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Trip generation rates play an important role in : transportation planning, which can help in : making informed decisions about future : transportation investment and design. However, : sometimes the rates are derived from small : sample sizes or may ...

  2. SmartTrips Ithaca : encouraging sustainable transportation options through a personalized educational campaign : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    SmartTrips Ithaca is a neighborhood-based personalized educational campaign that encouraged residents : of downtown Ithaca to try out sustainable modes of transportation such as walking, biking, transit, and : carsharing through incentives and commun...

  3. Online transit trip planner for small agencies using Google Transit : final deployment package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Google Transit is a public transportation trip planner that enables travelers to obtain information regarding available transit services between a : given origin and given destination. While transit agencies can publish their service information onto...

  4. Wake structures of two side by side spheres in a tripped boundary layer flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canli Eyüb

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Two independent spheres were placed in a side by side arrangement and flow structure in the wake region of the spheres was investigated with a Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV system when the spheres were in a boundary layer over a flat plate as a special case. Reynolds number was 5000 based on the sphere diameter which was 42.5 mm. Boundary layer was tripped 8mm away from the leading edge of the flat plate with a 5 mm trip wire. The thickness of the hydrodynamically developed boundary layer was determined as 63mm which was larger than the sphere diameter of D=42.5mm. Wake region of the spheres was examined from point of flow physics for the different sphere locations in the ranges of 0≤G/D ≤1.5 and 0≤S/D ≤1.5 where G and S were the distance between the spheres and the distance between the bottom point of the spheres and the flat plate surface, respectively. Depending on the different sphere locations, instantaneous and time averaged vorticity data, scalar values of time-averaged velocity components and their root mean square (rms values and time averaged vorticity data are presented in the study for the evaluation of wake region of the spheres. It is demonstrated that the gap between the two spheres and the interaction between the gap and the boundary layer greatly affects flow pattern, especially when spheres are located near to the flat plate surface, i.e. S/D=0.1 for 0≤G/D ≤1.5. Different distances between the spheres resulted in various flow patterns as the spheres were approached to the flat plate. The distance S/D=0.1 for all gap values has the strongest effect on the wake structures. Beyond G/D=1.0, the sphere wakes tend to be similar to single sphere case. The instantaneous vorticity fields of the side by side arrangements comprised wavy structures in higher level comparing to an individual sphere case. The gap flow intensifies the occurrence of small scale eddies in the wake region. The submersion rate of the spheres

  5. Promoting physical activity and reducing climate change: opportunities to replace short car trips with active transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maibach, Edward; Steg, Linda; Anable, Jillian

    2009-10-01

    Automobile use is a significant contributor to climate change, local air pollution, pedestrian injuries and deaths, declines in physical activity and obesity. A significant proportion of car use is for short trips that can relatively easily be taken with active transportation options--walking or cycling--or with public transportation. In this commentary, we review a number of immediate, practical opportunities to implement policies and programs that reduce short car trips and increase active transportation.

  6. Investigation of retained austenite stability in Mn-Si TRIP steel in tensile deformation condition

    OpenAIRE

    O. Muránsky; P. Horňak; P. Lukáš; J. Zrník; P. Šittner

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to contribute to a better understanding of the role of the key factors governing the formation of multiphase TRIP aided steel.Design/methodology/approach: The present work reports the results of in-situ neutron diffraction experiments focused on monitoring the phase evolution in three TRIP steel samples subjected to different thermomechanical processing and mechanical loading to evaluate the stability of retained austenite.Findings: In-situ neutron diffractio...

  7. Dohoda TRIPS a patentová ochrana léčiv

    OpenAIRE

    Zahálka, Adam

    2013-01-01

    The TRIPS Agreement and Patent Protection of Pharmaceuticals The purpose of my thesis is to analyse the global system of pharmaceutical patent protection under the TRIPS agreement and to answer the question whether the specific character of these products and the need for their general availability is adequately addressed at present and, if possible, what are the changes needed in order to do so. The thesis is composed of four chapters. Chapter One describes the philosophical background behin...

  8. Analysis of 'human element related trip case book in Korean NPPs' using organizational factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. Y.; Kim, Y. I.; Lee, Y. S.; Kim, C. S.; Jung, C. H.; Jung, W. D.

    2002-01-01

    There have been no studies appling organizational factors to data analysis in Korean NPPs. In this paper, data in 'human element related trip case book in Korean NPPs' are analyzed and categorized by the 20 organizational factors of NRC-BNL according to the cause of reactor trip. These inform us how organizational factors affected on the safety of Korean NPPs. Consequently important organizational factor are identified through which it is known that NPP organization would have a tendency

  9. Readings from Asia: Questioning America Again

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yerim Kim

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Chang Sei-jin. Sangsangdoen America: 1945 nyǒn 8wol ihu Hangukui neisǒn seosanǔn ǒtteoke mandǔleogǒtnǔnga 상상된 아메리카: 1945년 8월 이후 한국의 네이션 서사는 어떻게 만들어졌는가 [Imagined America: How national narratives of Korea have been constructed since August 1945]. Seoul: Purǔn Yeoksa, 2012.Research on U.S.–South Korean relations has continued steadily over the decades, especially in the fields of history and literature, resulting in many notable studies. However, the general tendency of this scholarship has been to introduce and analyze the United States as a discrete entity. While this perspective is useful in some regards, it is also necessary to investigate how this entity was felt, perceived, and constructed by those on the receiving end. By shifting the focus from “what America was in South Korea” to “how America was imagined in South Korea,” Sei-Jin Chang’s Imagined America: How National Narratives of Korea Have Been Constructed since August 1945 provides an insightful approach to this issue of complexity.

  10. Joseph Lister and his 1876 tour of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkow, Ira

    2013-06-01

    To explore the events and people that shaped Joseph Lister's 1876 tour of America and how the journey became a landmark episode in the history of surgery. In a little known chapter in American medical history, Joseph Lister toured the United States in 1876 in an attempt to convince physicians that they should accept his ideas about surgical antisepsis. His 2 month-long visit, which included a transcontinental railroad trip across the North American continent, sparked controversy as doctors struggled to understand the relationship between bacteria and disease. An analysis of the published medical and lay literature and unpublished documents pertaining to Lister and antisepsis for the 15-year period, from 1865 to 1880. Joseph Lister's 1876 tour of America proved a turning point in the slow process of accepting the principles of antisepsis by the nation's doctors. This visit laid the foundation for the blossoming of medical care in America and the remarkable advances that followed. Among the most debated topics in the American medical world of 1876 was whether to accept Joseph Lister's principles of surgical antisepsis. He was invited to address the issue and gave a series of lectures in Philadelphia, Boston, and New York. The presentations marked the beginning of a significant change in American physicians' awareness of the correlation between wounds, germs, and pus. Lister's visit is a crucial milestone in the history of medicine.

  11. Elastic tripping analysis of corroded stiffeners in stiffened plate with irregular surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahbarranji, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Tripping of stiffeners is one of the buckling modes of stiffened panels which could rapidly lead to its catastrophic failure. Loss of thickness in the web and flange of stiffeners due to corrosion reduces elastic buckling strength. It is common practice to assume a uniform thickness reduction for corroded surfaces. To estimate the remaining strength of a corroded structure, a much higher level of accuracy is required since corroded surfaces are irregular. Finite element method is employed to analyze elastic tripping stress of corroded stiffeners with irregular surfaces. Comparing the results with elastic tripping stress of un-corroded stiffener, a reduction factor is introduced. It is found that for flat-bars and angle-bars the reduction factor increases by increasing corrosion loss; however, for tee-bars remains almost unchanged. Surface roughness has no significant effect on reduction of tripping Euler stress of angle-bars and flat-bars; however, it has an effect on reduction of tripping Euler stress of small flat-bars. For high values of corrosion loss, reduction of tripping Euler stress is higher in flat-bars than angle-bars. Corrosion at the mid-length or ends of flat-bars is more detrimental than full length. Corrosion at the ends of angle-bars is more detrimental than full length and mid-length.

  12. Elastic tripping analysis of corroded stiffeners in stiffened plate with irregular surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahbarranji, Ahmad [AmirKabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    Tripping of stiffeners is one of the buckling modes of stiffened panels which could rapidly lead to its catastrophic failure. Loss of thickness in the web and flange of stiffeners due to corrosion reduces elastic buckling strength. It is common practice to assume a uniform thickness reduction for corroded surfaces. To estimate the remaining strength of a corroded structure, a much higher level of accuracy is required since corroded surfaces are irregular. Finite element method is employed to analyze elastic tripping stress of corroded stiffeners with irregular surfaces. Comparing the results with elastic tripping stress of un-corroded stiffener, a reduction factor is introduced. It is found that for flat-bars and angle-bars the reduction factor increases by increasing corrosion loss; however, for tee-bars remains almost unchanged. Surface roughness has no significant effect on reduction of tripping Euler stress of angle-bars and flat-bars; however, it has an effect on reduction of tripping Euler stress of small flat-bars. For high values of corrosion loss, reduction of tripping Euler stress is higher in flat-bars than angle-bars. Corrosion at the mid-length or ends of flat-bars is more detrimental than full length. Corrosion at the ends of angle-bars is more detrimental than full length and mid-length.

  13. Study on the Strain Hardening Behaviors of TWIP/TRIP Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, T. T.; Dan, W. J.; Zhang, W. G.

    2017-10-01

    Due to the complex coupling of twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP), transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP), and dislocation glide in TWIP/TRIP steels, it is difficult as well as essential to build a comprehensive strain hardening model to describe the interactions between different deformation mechanisms ( i.e., deformation twinning, martensitic transformation, and dislocation glide) and the resulted strain hardening behaviors. To address this issue, a micromechanical model is established in this paper to predict the deformation process of TWIP/TRIP steels considering both TWIP and TRIP effects. In the proposed model, the generation of deformation twinning and martensitic transformation is controlled by the stacking fault energy (SFE) of the material. In the thermodynamic calculation of SFE, deformation temperature, chemical compositions, microstrain, and temperature rise during deformation are taken into account. Varied by experimental results, the developed model can predict the stress-strain response and strain hardening behaviors of TWIP/TRIP steels precisely. In addition, the improved strength and enhanced strain hardening in Fe-Mn-C TWIP/TRIP steels due to the increased carbon content is also analyzed, which consists with literature.

  14. Unveiling E-Bike Potential for Commuting Trips from GPS Traces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel J. Lopez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Common goals of sustainable mobility approaches are to reduce the need for travel, to facilitate modal shifts, to decrease trip distances and to improve energy efficiency in the transportation systems. Among these issues, modal shift plays an important role for the adoption of vehicles with fewer or zero emissions. Nowadays, the electric bike (e-bike is becoming a valid alternative to cars in urban areas. However, to promote modal shift, a better understanding of the mobility behaviour of e-bike users is required. In this paper, we investigate the mobility habits of e-bikers using GPS data collected in Belgium from 2014 to 2015. By analysing more than 10,000 trips, we provide insights about e-bike trip features such as: distance, duration and speed. In addition, we offer a deep look into which routes are preferred by bike owners in terms of their physical characteristics and how weather influences e-bike usage. Results show that trips with higher travel distances are performed during working days and are correlated with higher average speeds. Usage patterns extracted from our data set also indicate that e-bikes are preferred for commuting (home-work and business (work related trips rather than for recreational trips.

  15. A jeep trip with young adult cancer survivors: lessons to be learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elad, P; Yagil, Y; Cohen, L; Meller, I

    2003-04-01

    The paper describes major areas of concern and preferred coping mechanisms among 17 young survivors of childhood cancer who participated in an 8-day adventure jeep trip in Greece. The paper also deals with various aspects of "adventure therapeutic activity." The participants were videotaped and interviewed during and after the trip. The data gathered were studied through a process of content analysis. Survivors' main areas of concern included: coping with uncertainty, dependency versus autonomy, social exclusion, separation processes, body image, intimacy, sexuality and fertility, and occupation. Preferred coping styles included use of humor, religious beliefs, cognitive reframing, and use of imagination. The trip provided the young adults with an opportunity for physical challenges, and they reported improvements in self-confidence, independence, and social contacts. The trip served as a catalyst for further group activities and group support. An adventure trip seems to be a suitable therapeutic milieu for young adult cancer survivors, where they can profit from a nurturing setting in which rehabilitation-promoting resources are available. It still remains to be seen which components of such an activity are more health promoting, what contraindications there could be, if any, for participation in such a trip, and what role health professionals should play in this kind of activity.

  16. Design Improvement for the Reactor Trip Switchgear System for APR1400 Design Certification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Han Gyu; Choi, Woong Seock; Sohn, Se Do [KEPCO Engineering and Construction Co., Deajeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The Reactor Trip Switchgear System (RTSS) performs the function to open the Reactor Trip Circuit Breaker (RTCB) when the RTSS receives trip signals from the Plant Protection System (PPS). The RTSS for Shin-Hanul Nuclear Power Plant Units 1 and 2 (SHN 1 and 2) receives the reactor trip signals from four independent PPS divisions and performs the function to interrupt power from the Motor Generator Set (MG Set) to the Digital Rod Control System (DRCS). The RTSS for SHN 1 and 2 consists of four Reactor Trip Switchgears (RTSGs) which form the selective 2-out-of-4 logic. The RTSS design for APR 1400 DC has been changed from selective 2-out-of-4 to full 2-out-of-4 logic by configuring two independent sets of RTSS for diversity. The RTSS with the full 2-out-of-4 logic decreases the chances of generating an inadvertent reactor trip by a failure during maintenance or testing. We expect this design change to contribute to enhancing the plant availability. After all, the quantitative reliability analysis will be necessary to visualize the degree of the plant availability enhancement from the design change described in this paper.

  17. Public Opinion in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Alan D.

    The purposes of this book are to summarize and analyze the nature of public opinion in contemporary America and to examine the implications of that nature for the possibility of a functioning democracy. Material in the four sections covers the following topics: "The Study of Public Opinion: Political Theory and Methodology"--opinions and…

  18. America's "Private" Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrilli, Michael J.; Scull, Janie

    2010-01-01

    In this report, the authors identify public schools whose doors are effectively closed to poor children. These institutions--generally found in wealthy urban enclaves or well-heeled suburbs--educate many of the children of America's elite while proudly waving the "public school" flag. But they hardly embody the "common school" ideal. In fact, by…

  19. Western Europe's America Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovits, Andrei S.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses Europe's anti-Americanism stance. He observes that Europe's aversion to America has become greater, louder, and more determined, and that it has unified Western Europeans more than any other political emotion (with the exception of a common hostility toward Israel). The author contends that the many disastrous…

  20. Knight Capital Americas LLC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Austin, Robert D.; Meister, Darren

    2015-01-01

    It took 19 years to build Knight Capital Americas LLC into the largest market maker on the New York Stock Exchange, but on August 1, 2012, it took only 45 minutes for the firm to be wiped out by an information technology (IT) problem: a change in the company's software caused it to lose more than...

  1. Language in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postman, Neil, Ed.; And Others

    The essays published in this collection were written in response to the basic question, "To what extent is the language of politics/advertising/psychotherapy/education/bureaucracy/etc. facilitating or impeding our chances of survival?" The general topic here is the contemporary use of language and the semantic environment in America, especially in…

  2. North America [Chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald L. Trosper; Fred Clark; Patrica Gerez-Fernandez; Frank Lake; Deborah McGregor; Charles M. Peters; Silvia Purata; Teresa Ryan; Alan Thomson; Alan E. Watson; Stephen Wyatt

    2012-01-01

    The colonial history of North America presents a contrast between Mexico and the two predominantly English-speaking countries, the United States and Canada. In Mexico, indigenous and other local communities own considerable forested lands, a consequence of the Mexican Revolution of the early twentieth century. In the United States, forest land is now primarily in...

  3. PERSPECTIVE: The tripping points of sea level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Alan D.

    2009-12-01

    When President Nixon created the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 1970 he said the environment must be perceived as a single, interrelated system. We are nowhere close to achieving this vision. Jim Titus and his colleagues [1] highlight one example of where one set of regulations or permits may be in conflict with another and where regulations were crafted in the absence of understanding the cumulative impact of global warming. The issue here is how to deal with the impacts of climate change on sea level and the latter's impact on wetland polices, clean water regulations, and ecosystem services. The Titus paper could also be called `The tripping points of sea level rise'. Titus and his colleagues have looked at the impact of such sea level rise on the east coast of the United States. Adaptive responses include costly large- scale investment in shore protection (e.g. dikes, sand replenishment) and/or ecosystem migration (retreat), where coastal ecosystems move inland. Shore protection is limited by available funds, while ecosystem migrations are limited by available land use. The driving factor is the high probability of sea level rise due to climate change. Estimating sea level rise is difficult because of local land and coastal dynamics including rising or falling land areas. It is estimated that sea level could rise between 8 inches and 2 feet by the end of this century [2]. The extensive data analysis done by Titus et al of current land use is important because, as they observe, `property owners and land use agencies have generally not decided how they will respond to sea level rise, nor have they prepared maps delineating where shore protection and retreat are likely'. This is the first of two `tripping points', namely the need for adaptive planning for a pending environmental challenge that will create economic and environment conflict among land owners, federal and state agencies, and businesses. One way to address this gap in adaptive management

  4. Principles of TRIP Steel Optimization for Passive Damping Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraley, George Jay

    Globally many historic structures of cultural significance which do not have systems to mitigate seismic damage are located in areas with heavy seismic activity. Efforts have been undertaken to develop strategies to retrofit such structures, however any intervention must be limited in size for aesthetic reasons. To contribute to this effort, ArcelorMittal aims to create steel-based solutions for passive energy dissipation through plastic deformation during cyclic loading. High-strength TRansformation-Induced Plasticity (TRIP) steels are proposed as an excellent candidate material for this application, due to the extreme combination of high strength and large ductility they are well-known to exhibit. To evaluate high-strength TRIP steels for passive damping applications, isothermal, fully-reversed, displacement-controlled Ultra-Low Cycle Fatigue (ULCF) experiments (Nf room temperature. The higher austenite stability condition (Ms sigma = -8 °C) was found to have approximately twice the fatigue life and a lower rate of cyclic hardening at fixed displacement amplitudes for low to intermediate levels of plastic strain range (2-10%) compared to the lower stability austenite condition (Mssigma = 27 °C). However, at higher levels of plastic straining (10-16% strain range) the fatigue lives and strain hardening behavior converged for the two stabilities, indicating a likely exhaustion of transformation during the first few cycles. ULCF life behavior for the high-stability austenite condition compared favorably with literature values for structural stainless steel 316, despite having a yield strength approximately four times larger. For a similar number of cycles to failure the high stability condition dissipated 2.4 times more energy than stainless steel 316 upon initial cycling. The stress-strain hysteresis curves and fatigue life data generated can be input into computational models of passive damping devices for initial concurrent material/device design iterations

  5. Antifungal pharmacodynamics: Latin America's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Javier M; Rodriguez, Carlos A; Agudelo, Maria; Zuluaga, Andres F; Vesga, Omar

    The current increment of invasive fungal infections and the availability of new broad-spectrum antifungal agents has increased the use of these agents by non-expert practitioners, without an impact on mortality. To improve efficacy while minimizing prescription errors and to reduce the high monetary cost to the health systems, the principles of pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) are necessary. A systematic review of the PD of antifungals agents was performed aiming at the practicing physician without expertise in this field. The initial section of this review focuses on the general concepts of antimicrobial PD. In vitro studies, fungal susceptibility and antifungal serum concentrations are related with different doses and dosing schedules, determining the PD indices and the magnitude required to obtain a specific outcome. Herein the PD of the most used antifungal drug classes in Latin America (polyenes, azoles, and echinocandins) is discussed. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Infectologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  6. Antifungal pharmacodynamics: Latin America's perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier M. Gonzalez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The current increment of invasive fungal infections and the availability of new broad-spectrum antifungal agents has increased the use of these agents by non-expert practitioners, without an impact on mortality. To improve efficacy while minimizing prescription errors and to reduce the high monetary cost to the health systems, the principles of pharmacokinetics (PK and pharmacodynamics (PD are necessary. A systematic review of the PD of antifungals agents was performed aiming at the practicing physician without expertise in this field. The initial section of this review focuses on the general concepts of antimicrobial PD. In vitro studies, fungal susceptibility and antifungal serum concentrations are related with different doses and dosing schedules, determining the PD indices and the magnitude required to obtain a specific outcome. Herein the PD of the most used antifungal drug classes in Latin America (polyenes, azoles, and echinocandins is discussed.

  7. Using OpenTripPlanner to determine lowest cost home-work-home trips as an input to UrbanSim

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Waldeck, L

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available for the provision of infrastructure and social facilities. The model is currently based on two open source projects, UrbanSim and Open Trip Planner. The paper describes the modifications that had to be introduced to apply the software in the South African context...

  8. Transfemoral amputee recovery strategies following trips to their sound and prosthesis sides throughout swing phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirota, Camila; Simon, Ann M; Kuiken, Todd A

    2015-09-09

    Recovering from trips is challenging for transfemoral amputees, and attempts often result in falls. Better understanding of the effects of the sensory-motor deficits brought by amputation and the functional limitations of prosthetic devices could help guide therapy and fall prevention mechanisms in prostheses. However, how transfemoral amputees attempt to recover from trips on the sound and prosthesis sides throughout swing phase is poorly understood. We tripped eight able-bodied subjects and eight unilateral transfemoral amputees wearing their prescribed prostheses. The protocol consisted of six repetitions of 6 and 4 points throughout swing phase, respectively. We compared recovery strategies in able-bodied, sound side and prosthesis side limbs. The number of kinematic recovery strategies used, when they were used throughout swing phase, and kinematic characteristics (tripped limb joint angles, bilateral trochanter height and time from foot arrest to foot strike) of each strategy were compared across limb groups. Non-parametric statistical tests with corrections for post-hoc tests were used. Amputees used the same recovery strategies as able-bodied subjects on both sound and prosthesis sides, although not all subjects used all strategies. Compared to able-bodied subjects, amputees used delayed-lowering strategies less often from 30-60 % of swing phase on the sound side, and from 45-60 % of swing phase on the prosthesis side. Within-strategy kinematic differences occurred across limbs; however, these differences were not consistent across all strategies. Amputee-specific recovery strategies-that are not used by control subjects-occurred following trips on both the sound and prosthesis sides in mid- to late swing. Collectively, these results suggest that sensory input from the distal tripped leg is not necessary to trigger able-bodied trip recovery strategies. In addition, the differences between sound and prosthesis side recoveries indicate that the ability of the

  9. La comunicación para la salud como disciplina en las universidades estadounidenses Health communication as a field of study in universities in the United States of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Alcalay

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the state of development of communications related to health in universities of the United States of America. This specialty is essential for people's well-being, and it involves interpersonal, organizational, and mass communications. In the United States, communications for health promotion is an area of applied communications with social relevance and generally performed in interdisciplinary settings. A number of universities in the United States offer communications master's degree programs with an emphasis on health. However, so far, the only program with a formal graduate degree in health and communications is one jointly offered by the Emerson University Department of Communications and the Tufts School of Medicine. Developing and including this specialization in the schools of communications in Latin America is crucial to improving the quality of life of the peoples of the continent.

  10. Field camp: Using traditional methods to train the next generation of petroleum geologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puckette, J.O.; Suneson, N.H.

    2009-01-01

    The summer field camp experience provides many students with their best opportunity to learn the scientific process by making observations and collecting, recording, evaluating, and interpreting geologic data. Field school projects enhance student professional development by requiring cooperation and interpersonal interaction, report writing to communicate interpretations, and the development of project management skills to achieve a common goal. The field school setting provides students with the opportunity to observe geologic features and their spatial distribution, size, and shape that will impact the student's future careers as geoscientists. The Les Huston Geology Field Camp (a.k.a. Oklahoma Geology Camp) near Ca??on City, Colorado, focuses on time-tested traditional methods of geological mapping and fieldwork to accomplish these goals. The curriculum consists of an introduction to field techniques (pacing, orienteering, measuring strike and dip, and using a Jacob's staff), sketching outcrops, section measuring (one illustrating facies changes), three mapping exercises (of increasing complexity), and a field geophysics project. Accurate rock and contact descriptions are emphasized, and attitudes and contacts are mapped in the field. Mapping is done on topographic maps at 1:12,000 and 1:6000 scales; air photos are provided. Global positioning system (GPS)-assisted mapping is allowed, but we insist that locations be recorded in the field and confirmed using visual observations. The course includes field trips to the Cripple Creek and Leadville mining districts, Floris-sant/Guffey volcano area, Pikes Peak batholith, and the Denver Basin. Each field trip is designed to emphasize aspects of geology that are not stressed in the field exercises. Students are strongly encouraged to accurately describe geologic features and gather evidence to support their interpretations of the geologic history. Concise reports are a part of each major exercise. Students are grouped

  11. Experimental studies on the tripping behavior of narrow T-stiffened flat plates subjected to hydrostatic pressure and underwater shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budweg, H. L.; Shin, Y. S.

    1987-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the static and dynamic responses of a specific stiffened flat plate design. The air-backed rectangular flat plates of 6061-T6 aluminum with an externally machined longitudinal narrow-flanged T-stiffener and clamped boundary conditions were subjected to static loading by water hydropump pressure and shock loading from an eight pound TNT charge detonated underwater. The dynamic test plate was instrumented to measure transient strains and free field pressure. The static test plate was instrumented to measure transient strains, plate deflection, and pressure. Emphasis was placed upon forcing static and dynamic stiffener tripping, obtaining relevant strain and pressure data, and studying the associated plate-stiffener behavior.

  12. Trip-Induced Transition Measurements in a Hypersonic Boundary Layer Using Molecular Tagging Velocimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathel, Brett F.; Danehy, Paul M.; Jones, Stephen B.; Johansen, Craig T.; Goyne, Christopher P.

    2013-01-01

    Measurements of mean streamwise velocity, fluctuating streamwise velocity, and instantaneous streamwise velocity profiles in a hypersonic boundary layer were obtained over a 10-degree half-angle wedge model. A laser-induced fluorescence-based molecular tagging velocimetry technique was used to make the measurements. The nominal edge Mach number was 4.2. Velocity profiles were measured both in an untripped boundary layer and in the wake of a 4-mm diameter cylindrical tripping element centered 75.4 mm downstream of the sharp leading edge. Three different trip heights were investigated: k = 0.53 mm, k = 1.0 mm and k = 2.0 mm. The laminar boundary layer thickness at the position of the measurements was approximately 1 mm, though the exact thickness was dependent on Reynolds number and wall temperature. All of the measurements were made starting from a streamwise location approximately 18 mm downstream of the tripping element. This measurement region continued approximately 30 mm in the streamwise direction. Additionally, measurements were made at several spanwise locations. An analysis of flow features show how the magnitude, spatial location, and spatial growth of streamwise velocity instabilities are affected by parameters such as the ratio of trip height to boundary layer thickness and roughness Reynolds number. The fluctuating component of streamwise velocity measured along the centerline of the model increased from approximately 75 m/s with no trip to +/-225 m/s with a 0.53-mm trip, and to +/-240 m/s with a 1-mm trip, while holding the freestream Reynolds number constant. These measurements were performed in the 31-inch Mach 10 Air Tunnel at the NASA Langley Research Center.

  13. Medical and pharmacy student concerns about participating on international service-learning trips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Chih; Khatri, Siddique H; Gill, Manpal S; Trehan, Naveen; Masineni, Silpa; Chikkam, Vineela; Farah, Guillaume G; Khan, Amber; Levine, Diane L

    2015-12-23

    International Service Learning Trips (ISLT) provide health professional students the opportunity to provide healthcare, under the direction of trained faculty, to underserved populations in developing countries. Despite recent increases in international service learning trips, there is scant literature addressing concerns students have prior to attending such trips. This study focuses on identifying concerns before and after attending an ISLT and their impact on students. A survey comprised of closed and open-ended questions was developed to elucidate student concerns prior to attending an ISLT and experiences which might influence concerns. A five-point Likert-scale (extremely concerned = 1, minimally concerned = 5) was used to rate apprehension and satisfaction. Paired t-test was used to compare pre- and post-trip concerns; Chi-Square test was used to compare groups. Thirty-five students (27 medical, 8 pharmacy) attended ISLTs in December 2013. All completed pre and post-trip surveys. Significant decreases were seen in concerns related to cultural barriers (4.14 vs 4.46, P = .047), disease/epidemics (3.34 vs 4.60, P Language and group dynamics remained concerns post-trip. On open-ended questions, students described benefits of attending an ISLT. Students had multiple concerns prior to attending an ISLT. Most decreased upon return. Addressing concerns has the potential to decrease student apprehension. The results of this study highlight the benefits of providing ISLTs and supporting development of a curriculum incorporating trip-related concerns.

  14. Quantification of a single exploratory trip reveals hippocampal formation mediated dead reckoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Douglas G; Hines, Dustin J; Whishaw, Ian Q

    2002-01-30

    A rat's proclivity to explore a novel environment presents a behaviorally rich paradigm to investigate the role of the hippocampus in spatial navigation. Here we describe a novel technique of behavioral analysis that is derived from a single exploratory trip. An exploratory trip was defined as a rat's departure from the home base that ended when the rat returned to the home base. The behavior observed on a single exploratory trip by a control animal is highly organized into outward and homeward segments. An outward segment is characterized by a slow circuitous progression from the home base marked by several stops. A homeward segment is characterized by a rapid direct return to the home base. The velocity attribute of the exploratory trip was quantified by estimating the point of inflection associated with the trip's cumulative moment-to-moment velocity distribution. The heading direction and variance of the homeward trip segment was analyzed with circular statistics. A comparison of the exploratory behavior of control animals and animals with damage to the fimbria-fornix indicated that the velocity and heading direction of the homeward portion of the trip depends upon the hippocampal formation. While control and fimbria-fornix rats had similar outward segments, the return paths of the fimbria-fornix rats were significantly slower, more circuitous, and more variable compared with that of the control rats. This result was also independent of testing in light or dark conditions. The lack of dependence on allothetic cues suggests that rats employ dead reckoning navigational strategies to initiate the homeward portion of exploratory movements. Methods to quantify exploratory behavior in terms of velocity and angular components provide an assessment of control behavior and the assessment of the behavior of rats with hippocampal formation damage that is easy to implement.

  15. Factors affecting trip generation of motorcyclist for the purpose of non-mandatory activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anggraini, Renni; Sugiarto, Sugiarto; Pramanda, Heru

    2017-11-01

    The inadequate facilities and limited access to public transport reflect many people using private vehicles, in particular, motorcycle. The motorcycle is most widely used in Indonesia, recently, including Aceh Province. As a result, the number of motorcycle ownership is increasing significantly. The increasing number of motorcycles leads to complex traffic problems. Several factors tend to affect the trip generation of the motorcyclist, i.e., the social demographics of individuals and families, accessibility, etc. This study aims to analyze the characteristics of motorcyclists for non-mandatory activities, i.e. activities other than to work and school. It also aims to determine the dominant factors that affect their trips through trip generation models. The required data consist of primary data and secondary data. Primary data consists of a home interview survey that collects individual's daily trips. It is conducted by distributing the questionnaires to 400 families residing in Lhokseumawe City. Modeling the trip generation of the motorcyclist is done by multiple linear regression analysis. Parameters calibration uses OLS (Ordinary Least Square) method. The results showed that the dominant variables that affect the trip generation of motorcyclist for non-mandatory activities are license ownership, housewife, school-age children, middle-income household, and lower education level. It can be concluded that some factors affecting trip generation to non-work activities were female motorcyclists from the middle-income household with lower education level. As their status is mostly as the housewife, escorting children to non-school activities seems to the mother's task, instead of the father. It is clear that, most female ride motorcycle for doing household tasks. However, it should be noted that the use of the motorcycle in long-term does not suit for sustainable transportation.

  16. AN INTEGRATED MODELING FRAMEWORK FOR ENVIRONMENTALLY EFFICIENT CAR OWNERSHIP AND TRIP BALANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao FENG

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban transport emissions generated by automobile trips are greatly responsible for atmospheric pollution in both developed and developing countries. To match the long-term target of sustainable development, it seems to be important to specify the feasible level of car ownership and travel demand from environmental considerations. This research intends to propose an integrated modeling framework for optimal construction of a comprehensive transportation system by taking into consideration environmental constraints. The modeling system is actually a combination of multiple essential models and illustrated by using a bi-level programming approach. In the upper level, the maximization of both total car ownership and total number of trips by private and public travel modes is set as the objective function and as the constraints, the total emission levels at all the zones are set to not exceed the relating environmental capacities. Maximizing the total trips by private and public travel modes allows policy makers to take into account trip balance to meet both the mobility levels required by travelers and the environmentally friendly transportation system goals. The lower level problem is a combined trip distribution and assignment model incorporating traveler's route choice behavior. A logit-type aggregate modal split model is established to connect the two level problems. In terms of the solution method for the integrated model, a genetic algorithm is applied. A case study is conducted using road network data and person-trip (PT data collected in Dalian city, China. The analysis results showed that the amount of environmentally efficient car ownership and number of trips by different travel modes could be obtained simultaneously when considering the zonal control of environmental capacity within the framework of the proposed integrated model. The observed car ownership in zones could be increased or decreased towards the macroscopic optimization

  17. A field trip guide to the petrology of Quaternary volcanism on the Yellowstone Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, Jorge A.; Stelten, Mark; Bindeman, Ilya N.; Cooper, Kari

    2017-12-19

    The Yellowstone Plateau is one of the largest manifestations of silicic volcanism on Earth, and marks the youngest focus of magmatism associated with the Yellowstone Hot Spot. The earliest products of Yellowstone Hot Spot volcanism are from ~17 million years ago, but may be as old as ~32 Ma, and include contemporaneous eruption of voluminous mafic and silicic magmas, which are mostly located in the region of northwestern Nevada and southeastern Oregon. Since 17 Ma, the main locus of Yellowstone Hot Spot volcanism has migrated northeastward producing numerous silicic caldera complexes that generally remain active for ~2–4 million years, with the present-day focus being the Yellowstone Plateau. Northeastward migration of volcanism associated with the Yellowstone Hot Spot resulted in the formation of the Snake River Plain, a low relief physiographic feature extending ~750 kilometers from northern Nevada to eastern Idaho. Most of the silicic volcanic centers along the Snake River Plain have been inundated by younger basalt volcanism, but many of their ignimbrites and lava flows are exposed in the extended regions at the margins of the Snake River Plain. 

  18. Calderas Bottom-to-Top: An Online Seminar and Field Trip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcock, Jack; Longpré, Marc-Antoine; de Moor, J. Maarten; Ross, Jake; Zimmerer, Matt

    2010-01-01

    Caldera-related processes have deep implications in Earth science and are important to the general public. To the geologist, calderas are surface manifestations of large magma reservoirs and the source of some of the largest eruptions on Earth. For society, these volcanoes represent not only an extreme volcanic hazard but also a potential source of abundant geothermal energy and metal ore deposits. During February-April 2009, an innovative, online course entitled “Calderas: Bottom-to-top” was offered across several universities to students interested in investigating caldera-forming processes associated with “supervolcanoes.” Supervolcanoes have the ability to spew hundreds to thousands of cubic kilometers of material from large magma chambers pooled in the Earth's crust. A caldera-forming eruption results from overpressurization of the chamber and leads to formation of large depressions, tens of kilometers in diameter.

  19. Field trip on the Kellogg Forest of Michigan State University near Augusta, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan W. Wright; Walter Lemmien

    1966-01-01

    When the Kellogg Forest was established in 1932, 90 percent of the farmland in the locality was idle. The original tree cover had been oak-hickory on the upland areas and basswood, white ash, American elm, and black cherry on the lower, more fertile areas. Agricultural activities had begun between 1830 and 1850. Since then, continued cropping had resulted in severe...

  20. Mysterious Mycorrhizae? A Field Trip & Classroom Experiment to Demystify the Symbioses Formed between Plants & Fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nancy C.; Chaudhary, V. Bala; Hoeksema, Jason D.; Moore, John C.; Pringle, Anne; Umbanhowar, James A.; Wilson, Gail W. T.

    2009-01-01

    Biology curricula cover fungi in units on bacteria, protists, and primitive plants, but fungi are more closely related to animals than to bacteria or plants. Like animals, fungi are heterotrophs and cannot create their own food; but, like plants, fungi have cell walls, and are for the most part immobile. Most species of fungi have a filamentous…

  1. Field "Work" vs "Feel" Trip: Approaches to Out-of-Class Experiences in Geography Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Lou

    2016-01-01

    Fieldwork is viewed as integral to geography teaching and acclaimed benefits often include holistic, student-driven learning, where all the senses are engaged and the impacts are more than cognitive. While these benefits are often assumed, in this paper, I argue that geography fieldwork in schools is often teacher-led and focused on the…

  2. Developing a Second Life Virtual Field Trip for University Students: An Action Research Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Shane; Andrews, Lynda; Luck, Edwina

    2012-01-01

    Background: Integrating 3D virtual world technologies into educational subjects continues to draw the attention of educators and researchers alike. The focus of this study is the use of a virtual world, Second Life, in higher education teaching. In particular, it explores the potential of using a virtual world experience as a learning component…

  3. Sixth International Limnogeology Congress: field trip guidebook, Reno, Nevada, June 15-19, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Limnogeology is the study of modern lakes and lake deposits in the geologic record. Limnogeologists have been active since the 1800s, but interest in Limnogeology became prevalent in the early 1990s when it became clear that lake deposits contain continental environmental and climate records. A society that is focused on Limnogeology would allow greater communication and access to research on these important subjects and contribute to providing sound science used to understand rapid global changes in our modern world; thus the International Association of Limnogeology was founded in 1995 at the first International Limnogeology Congress (ILIC) held in Copenhagen, Denmark.

  4. Applying Wireless Information Technology in Field Trips--A Hong Kong Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Koon Keung Teddy

    2004-01-01

    In 2002, the Honk Kong government launched a pilot scheme "e-school bag" promoting the use of wireless technology in ten primary and ten secondary schools for classroom teaching and learning. In 2003, a secondary school successfully received a grant from the Quality Education Fund (QEF) to implement a wireless network for outdoor field…

  5. Midcontinent microcosm: Geology of the Atkins lake - Marengo falls area (Field trip 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørnerud, Marcia; Cannon, William F.

    2011-01-01

    Archean and Proterozoic rocks exposed over about 16km2 between Atkins Lake and Coffee Lake in southeastern Bayfield County (Fig. 1) chronicle almost all of the major Precambrian geologic events in the history of the southern Superior Craton. The oldest rocks are part of a locally gneissic quartz monzonite complex, the Puritan Batholith, with an igneous Rb-Sr age of 2710+140 Ma (Sims et al., 1977). At the regional scale, this complex is part of one of the youngest Archean granite-greenstone belts in the Superior Province, and it intrudes greenstones of the Neoarchean Ramsay Formation. In the Atkins Lake – Marengo River area, the Puritan Batholith is nonconformably overlain by the Paleoproterozoic (ca. 2200 Ma) Bad River Dolomite. The Bad River Dolomite is in turn separated by an unconformity from rocks of the ca. 1875 Ma Menominee Group (Palms Formation and Ironwood Iron-formation), which locally contain mafic volcanic rocks and diabase sills (Cannon et al., 2008). These Paleoproterozoic rocks provide insight into climate and biogeochemical cycles during the transition to an oxidizing atmosphere (Bekker et al., 2006) and have deformational fabrics (folds, strong cleavage, local mylonite zones) that record the ca. 1850 Ma Penokean Orogeny. The youngest rocks in the area are Mesoproterozoic basaltic lava flows (Siemens Creek Volcanics, ca. 1110 Ma) and a layered mafic complex (the Mineral Lake Intrusion, also ca. 1100 Ma), both related to the Mid-continent Rift. All of the stratified units show static contact metamorphic textures near their contacts with the Mineral Lake Intrusion. Thus the area constitutes a microcosm of the regional bedrock geology, and the cross-cutting relationships among the units provide clear constraints on the relative timing of different phases of deformation and magmatism (Cannon etal., 2008, Bjørnerud, 2010a).

  6. China's Population Program at the Grassroots Level: Report on a Field Trip, Summer 1972.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pi-chao

    The goals of the Caltech Population Program are to increase understanding of the interrelationships between population growth and socioeconomic and cultural patterns throughout the world and to communicate this understanding. This series of occasional papers is one step in the process of communicating research results. The papers deal primarily…

  7. Measuring Critical Thinking: Results from an Art Museum Field Trip Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisida, Brian; Bowen, Daniel H.; Greene, Jay P.

    2016-01-01

    Research shows that participation in school-based arts education has declined over the past decade. A problem for the arts' role in education has been a lack of rigorous scholarship that demonstrates educational benefits. A component of this problem has been a lack of available data. In this study, we use original data collected through a…

  8. Architecture with landscape methods : Doctoral thesis proposal and SANAA Rolex Learning Center Lausanne Sample Field Trip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jauslin, D.

    2010-01-01

    Contemporary architecture has been strongly influenced by the concept of landscape in recent times. A new mindset evolves that changes the core of the architectural discipline: the organization and composition of architectural space as a landscape. The scope of this thesis is to investigate and

  9. Mosquitoes of Middle America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-09-30

    adeloupe, 1964-1966. S Cova Garcia, Pablo, Division de Endemias Rurales, Ministerio de Sanidad y Asistencia Social , Mara- cay, Venezuela...Central America. Diaz Najerra , Alfonso, Laboratorio de En tomologia, Instituto de Salubridad y Enfermedades Trop- icales.— Mosquitoes of Mexico , loan of...Saneamiento Ambiental. Minister io de Sanidad y Asistencia Social , Caracas , Venezuela. — Organization of topotypic survey of mosquitoes in Vene zuela

  10. Cholera in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The cholera epidemic 1st hit South America in January 1991 in the coastal town of Chancay, Peru. In 2 weeks, it spread over 2000 km of the Pacific coast. By the end of the 1st month, it had already reached the mountains and tropical forests. By August 1991, cholera cases were reported in order of appearances in Ecuador, Colombia, Chile, Brazil, the US, Mexico, Guatemala, Bolivia, and El Salvador. Health authorities still do not know how it was introduced into South America. The case fatality rate has remained at a low of 1%, probably due to the prompt actions of health authorities in informing the public of the epidemic and what preventive cautions should be taken. This epidemic is part of the 7th pandemic which originated in Celebes, Indonesia in 1961. Cholera can spread relatively unchecked in Latin America because sewage in urban areas is not treated even though they do have sewage collection systems. The untreated wastewater enters rivers and the ocean. Consumption of raw seafood is not unusual and has been responsible for cholera infection in some cases. In fact, many countries placed import restrictions on marine products from Peru following the outbreak at a loss of $US10-$US40 million. Municipal sewage treatment facilities, especially stabilization ponds, would prevent the spread of cholera and other pathogens. In rural areas, pit latrines located away from wells can effectively dispose of human wastes. Most water supplies in Latin America are not disinfected. Disinfection drinking water with adequate levels of chlorine would effectively destroy V. cholera. If this is not possible, boiling the water for 2-3 minutes would destroy the pathogen. Any cases of cholera must be reported to PAHO. PAHO has responded to the outbreak by forming a Cholera Task Force and arranged transport of oral rehydration salts, intravenous fluids, antibiotics, and other essential medical supplies.

  11. Bioeconomy in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasson, Albert; Malpica, Carlos

    2018-01-25

    This article provides the authors' view on how Latin America has embraced bioeconomy principles in the last two decades with different levels of socio-economic impact. Examples of biodiversity resource valorization in medicine, eco-intensification of agriculture, biotechnology applications in mature sectors such as mining, food and beverage production, bio-refineries and ecosystem services are provided. The importance of participatory and social innovation initiatives is highlighted. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Sensitivity Analysis of Dousing Spray Trip on Radioactive Release in Pressure Tube Rupture Accident with Both End Fitting Failures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, M. S.; Kang, H. S; Kim, S. R. [NESS, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    We analyzed the sensitivity analysis of dousing spray trip conditions on radioactive release. In terms of conservativeness, the set 1 trip would be more appropriate in RR analysis than set 2 trip, which is the general condition of RR analysis. Radioactive releases from the containment building is related to containment air pressure, which increases by the coolant discharge from loss of coolant accident and the actuation conditions of dousing spray and so on. In LOCA analysis, the dousing spray trip conditions are set for the analysis objectives; for peak pressure (PP), for pressure signal (PS), for radioactive release (RR) and etc. In RR analysis, we would determine the dousing spray trip condition to increase radioactive release to the public for conservatism. Therefore, we carried out the sensitivity analysis of dousing spray trip condition on radioactive release from containment building using GOTHIC and SMART program for CANDU.

  13. Agriculture, Rio Sao Francisco, Brazil, South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    The large field patterns in this view of the Rio Sao Francisco basin, Brazil, South America, (11.5S, 43.5W) indicate a commercial agriculture venture; family subsistence farms are much smaller and laid out in different patterns. Land clearing in Brazil has increased at an alarming rate in recent years and preliminary estimates suggest a 25 to 30% increase in deforestation since 1984. The long term impact on the ecological processes are still unknown.

  14. Personal and trip characteristics associated with safety equipment use by injured adult bicyclists: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teschke Kay

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to estimate use of helmets, lights, and visible clothing among cyclists and to examine trip and personal characteristics associated with their use. Methods Using data from a study of transportation infrastructure and injuries to 690 adult cyclists in Toronto and Vancouver, Canada, we examined the proportion who used bike lights, conspicuous clothing on the torso, and helmets on their injury trip. Multiple logistic regression was used to examine associations between personal and trip characteristics and each type of safety equipment. Results Bike lights were the least frequently used (20% of all trips although they were used on 77% of trips at night. Conspicuous clothing (white, yellow, orange, red was worn on 33% of trips. Helmets were used on 69% of trips, 76% in Vancouver where adult helmet use is required by law and 59% in Toronto where it is not. Factors positively associated with bike light use included night, dawn and dusk trips, poor weather conditions, weekday trips, male sex, and helmet use. Factors positively associated with conspicuous clothing use included good weather conditions, older age, and more frequent cycling. Factors positively associated with helmet use included bike light use, longer trip distances, hybrid bike type, not using alcohol in the 6 hours prior to the trip, female sex, older age, higher income, and higher education. Conclusions In two of Canada’s largest cities, helmets were the most widely used safety equipment. Measures to increase use of visibility aids on both daytime and night-time cycling trips may help prevent crashes.

  15. Computation method for available response time due to tripping at minimum foot clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagano, H; Begg, R; Sparrow, W A

    2013-01-01

    Falls prevention is important for older individuals to maintain healthy lifestyles and is an essential challenge in sustaining the socioeconomic structure of many advanced nations. Tripping has been recognized as the largest cause of falls and accordingly, understanding tripping-induced anterior balance loss is necessary in reducing the overall frequency of falls among older adults. Hazardous anterior balance loss due to tripping can be attributed to the mid-swing phase event, minimum foot clearance (MFC). The mechanism of tripping-induced anterior balance loss can be described as anterior movement of the center of mass (CoM) passing the frontal boundary of the supporting base between the swing and stance toes. The first aim of the current study was to establish a computational method for determining available response time (ART) to anterior balance loss due to tripping at MFC, in other words, the time taken for CoM to reach the anterior boundary and therefore, the time limit for balance recovery. Kinematic information of CoM and both toes in addition to simulated impact force due to tripping at MFC were used to estimate ART. The second aim was to apply correlation analysis to a range of gait parameters to identify the factors influencing ART. ART for balance loss in the forward direction due to tripping was on average. 0.11s for both the dominant and non-dominant limbs' simulated tripping at MFC. Correlation analysis revealed five factors at MFC that prolong ART including: 1) greater fore-aft distance from CoM to stance toe, 2) greater sideway distance from CoM to swing toe, 3) longer distance from CoM to the frontal boundary of the supporting base, 4) slower CoM forward velocity and 5) slower horizontal toe velocity. The established ART computation method can be utilized to examine the effects of ageing and various gait tasks on the likelihood of tripping-induced anterior balance loss and associated falls.

  16. Power Trip Set-points of Reactor Protection System for New Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byeonghee; Yang, Soohyung

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the trip set-point related to the reactor power considering the reactivity induced accident (RIA) of new research reactor. The possible scenarios of reactivity induced accidents were simulated and the effects of trip set-point on the critical heat flux ratio (CHFR) were calculated. The proper trip set-points which meet the acceptance criterion and guarantee sufficient margins from normal operation were then determined. The three different trip set-points related to the reactor power are determined based on the RIA of new research reactor during FP condition, over 0.1%FP and under 0.1%FP. Under various reactivity insertion rates, the CHFR are calculated and checked whether they meet the acceptance criterion. For RIA at FP condition, the acceptance criterion can be satisfied even if high power set-point is only used for reactor trip. Since the design of the reactor is still progressing and need a safety margin for possible design changes, 18 MW is recommended as a high power set-point. For RIA at 0.1%FP, high power setpoint of 18 MW and high log rate of 10%pp/s works well and acceptance criterion is satisfied. For under 0.1% FP operations, the application of high log rate is necessary for satisfying the acceptance criterion. Considering possible decrease of CHFR margin due to design changes, the high log rate is suggested to be 8%pp/s. Suggested trip set-points have been identified based on preliminary design data for new research reactor; therefore, these trip set-points will be re-established by considering design progress of the reactor. The reactor protection system (RPS) of new research reactor is designed for safe shutdown of the reactor and preventing the release of radioactive material to environment. The trip set point of RPS is essential for reactor safety, therefore should be determined to mitigate the consequences from accidents. At the same time, the trip set-point should secure margins from normal operational condition to avoid

  17. TRIP13 is a protein-remodeling AAA+ ATPase that catalyzes MAD2 conformation switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Qiaozhen; Rosenberg, Scott C; Moeller, Arne; Speir, Jeffrey A; Su, Tiffany Y; Corbett, Kevin D

    2015-04-28

    The AAA+ family ATPase TRIP13 is a key regulator of meiotic recombination and the spindle assembly checkpoint, acting on signaling proteins of the conserved HORMA domain family. Here we present the structure of the Caenorhabditis elegans TRIP13 ortholog PCH-2, revealing a new family of AAA+ ATPase protein remodelers. PCH-2 possesses a substrate-recognition domain related to those of the protein remodelers NSF and p97, while its overall hexameric architecture and likely structural mechanism bear close similarities to the bacterial protein unfoldase ClpX. We find that TRIP13, aided by the adapter protein p31(comet), converts the HORMA-family spindle checkpoint protein MAD2 from a signaling-active 'closed' conformer to an inactive 'open' conformer. We propose that TRIP13 and p31(comet) collaborate to inactivate the spindle assembly checkpoint through MAD2 conformational conversion and disassembly of mitotic checkpoint complexes. A parallel HORMA protein disassembly activity likely underlies TRIP13's critical regulatory functions in meiotic chromosome structure and recombination.

  18. TRIP13 is a protein-remodeling AAA+ ATPase that catalyzes MAD2 conformation switching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Qiaozhen [Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, San Diego Branch, La Jolla, United States; Rosenberg, Scott C. [Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, San Diego Branch, La Jolla, United States; Moeller, Arne [National Resource for Automated Molecular Microscopy, Department of Integrative Structural and Computational Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, United States; Speir, Jeffrey A. [National Resource for Automated Molecular Microscopy, Department of Integrative Structural and Computational Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, United States; Su, Tiffany Y. [Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, San Diego Branch, La Jolla, United States; Corbett, Kevin D. [Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, San Diego Branch, La Jolla, United States; Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, United States

    2015-04-28

    The AAA+ family ATPase TRIP13 is a key regulator of meiotic recombination and the spindle assembly checkpoint, acting on signaling proteins of the conserved HORMA domain family. Here we present the structure of the Caenorhabditis elegans TRIP13 ortholog PCH-2, revealing a new family of AAA+ ATPase protein remodelers. PCH-2 possesses a substrate-recognition domain related to those of the protein remodelers NSF and p97, while its overall hexameric architecture and likely structural mechanism bear close similarities to the bacterial protein unfoldase ClpX. We find that TRIP13, aided by the adapter protein p31(comet), converts the HORMA-family spindle checkpoint protein MAD2 from a signaling-active ‘closed’ conformer to an inactive ‘open’ conformer. We propose that TRIP13 and p31(comet) collaborate to inactivate the spindle assembly checkpoint through MAD2 conformational conversion and disassembly of mitotic checkpoint complexes. A parallel HORMA protein disassembly activity likely underlies TRIP13's critical regulatory functions in meiotic chromosome structure and recombination.

  19. Report on safety related occurrences and reactor trips July 1, 1979 - December 31, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, S.; Andermo, L.

    1980-01-01

    This is a report on all reported safety related occurrences and reactor trips in Swedish nuclear power plants in operation during July 1 to December 31, 1979 inclusive. The facilities involved are Barsebaeck 1 and 2, Oskarshamn 1 and 2 and Ringhals 1 and 2. During this period of 6 months 76 safety related occurrences and 27 reactor trips have been reported to the Nuclear Power Inspectorate. It is to the greatest extent conventional components such as valves and pumps which bring about the safety related occurrences or occurrences leading to outages or power reductions. However, the component errors discovered in the safety related systems have not affected the function of their redundant system and other diverse systems have not been involved. Therefore the reactor safety has been satisfactory. The total number of reactor trips are normal. The average value for these 6 months is 4.5 trips/unit. Approximetely one half of the reactor trips happened at zero or very low power operation. The fact that even small deviations from prescribed operation result in an automatic and safe shut down of the reactor, does not always imply a conflict with operational availability. The greatest outages are caused by occurrences without safety significance. (author)

  20. Methods for analysis of passenger trip performance in a complex networked transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Danyi

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of the Air Transportation System (ATS) is to provide safe and efficient transportation service of passengers and cargo. The on-time performance of a passenger's trip is a critical performance measurement of the Quality of Service (QOS) provided by any Air Transportation System. QOS has been correlated with airline profitability, productivity, customer loyalty and customer satisfaction (Heskett et al. 1994). Btatu and Barnhart have shown that official government and airline on-time performance metrics (i.e. flight-centric measures of air transportation) fail to accurately reflect the passenger experience (Btatu and Barnhart, 2005). Flight-based metrics do not include the trip delays accrued by passengers who were re-booked due to cancelled flights or missed connections. Also, flight-based metrics do not quantify the magnitude of the delay (only the likelihood) and thus fails to provide the consumer with a useful assessment of the impact of a delay. Passenger-centric metrics have not been developed because of the unavailability of airline proprietary data, which is also protected by anti-trust collusion concerns and civil liberty privacy restrictions. Moveover, the growth of the ATS is trending out of the historical range. The objectives of this research were to (1) estimate ATS-wide passenger trip delay using publicly accessible flight data, and (2) investigate passenger trip dynamics out of the range of historical data by building a passenger flow simulation model to predict impact on passenger trip time given anticipated changes in the future. The first objective enables researchers to conduct historical analysis on passenger on-time performance without proprietary itinerary data, and the second objective enables researchers to conduct experiments outside the range of historic data. The estimated passenger trip delay was for 1,030 routes between the 35 busiest airports in the United States in 2006. The major findings of this research are listed as

  1. Additive Benefits of Twice Forest Bathing Trips in Elderly Patients with Chronic Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Gen Xiang; Cao, Yong Bao; Yang, Yan; Chen, Zhuo Mei; Dong, Jian Hua; Chen, Sha Sha; Wu, Qing; Lyu, Xiao Ling; Jia, Bing Bing; Yan, Jing; Wang, Guo Fu

    2018-02-01

    Chronic heart failure (CHF), a clinical syndrome resulting from the consequences of various cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), is increasingly becoming a global cause of morbidity and mortality. We had earlier demonstrated that a 4-day forest bathing trip can provide an adjunctive therapeutic influence on patients with CHF. To further investigate the duration of the impact and the optimal frequency of forest bathing trips in patients with CHF, we recruited those subjects who had experienced the first forest bathing trip again after 4 weeks and randomly categorized them into two groups, namely, the urban control group (city) and the forest bathing group (forest). After a second 4-day forest bathing trip, we observed a steady decline in the brain natriuretic peptide levels, a biomarker of heart failure, and an attenuated inflammatory response as well as oxidative stress. Thus, this exploratory study demonstrated the additive benefits of twice forest bathing trips in elderly patients with CHF, which could further pave the way for analyzing the effects of such interventions in CVDs. Copyright © 2018 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  2. Seismic damage sensing of bridge structures with TRIP reinforcement steel bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Yukio; Unjoh, Shigeki

    2001-07-01

    Intelligent reinforced concrete structures with transformation-induced-plasticity (TRIP) steel rebars that have self-diagnosis function are proposed. TRIP steel is special steel with Fe-Cr based formulation. It undergoes a permanent change in crystal structure in proportion to peak strain. This changes from non-magnetic to magnetic steel. By using the TRIP steel rebars, the seismic damage level of reinforced concrete structures can be easily recognized by measuring the residual magnetic level of the TRIP rebars, that is directly related to the peak strain during a seismic event. This information will be most helpful for repairing the damaged structures. In this paper, the feasibility of the proposed intelligent reinforced concrete structure for seismic damage sensing is experimentally studied. The relation among the damage level, peak strain of rebars, and residual magnetic level of rebars of reinforced concrete beams implemented with TRIP steel bars was experimentally studied. As the result of this study, this intelligent structure can diagnose accumulated strain/damage anticipated during seismic event.

  3. Active dorsiflexing prostheses may reduce trip-related fall risk in people with transtibial amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblatt, Noah J; Bauer, Angela; Rotter, David; Grabiner, Mark D

    2014-01-01

    People with amputation are at increased risk of falling compared with age-matched, nondisabled individuals. This may partly reflect amputation-related changes to minimum toe clearance (MTC) that could increase the incidence of trips and fall risk. This study determined the contribution of an active dorsiflexing prosthesis to MTC. We hypothesized that regardless of speed or incline the active dorsiflexion qualities of the ProprioFoot would significantly increase MTC and decrease the likelihood of tripping. Eight people with transtibial amputation walked on a treadmill with their current foot at two grades and three velocities, then repeated the protocol after 4 wk of accommodation with the ProprioFoot. A mixed-model, repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to compare MTC. Curves representing the likelihood of tripping were derived from the MTC distributions and a multiple regression was used to determine the relative contributions of hip, knee, and ankle angles to MTC. Regardless of condition, MTC was approximately 70% larger with the ProprioFoot (p < 0.001) and the likelihood of tripping was reduced. Regression analysis revealed that MTC with the ProprioFoot was sensitive to all three angles, with sensitivity of hip and ankle being greater. Overall, the ProprioFoot may increase user safety by decreasing the likelihood of tripping and thus the pursuant likelihood of a fall.

  4. Development of a cause analysis system for a CPCS trip by using the rule-base deduction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Je-Yun; Koo, In-Soo; Sohn, Chang-Ho; Kim, Jung-Seon; Cho, Gi-Ho; Park, Hee-Seok

    2009-07-01

    A Core Protection Calculator System (CPCS) was developed to initiate a Reactor Trip under the circumstance of certain transients by a Combustion Engineering Company. The major function of the Core Protection Calculator System is to generate contact outputs for the Departure from Nucleate Boiling Ratio (DNBR) Trip and a Local Power Density (LPD) Trip. But in a Core Protection Calculator System, a trip cause cannot be identified, thus only trip signals are transferred to the Plant Protection System (PPS) and only the trip status is displayed. It could take a considerable amount of time and effort for a plant operator to analyze the trip causes of a Core Protection Calculator System. So, a Cause Analysis System for a Core Protection Calculator System (CASCPCS) has been developed by using the rule-base deduction method to assist operators in a Nuclear Power Plant. CASCPCS consists of three major parts. Inference engine has a role of controlling the searching knowledge base, executing the rules and tracking the inference process by using the depth-first searching method. Knowledge base consists of four major parts: rules, data base constants, trip buffer variables and causes. And a user interface is implemented by using menu-driven and window display techniques. The advantage of CASCPCS is that it saves time and effort to diagnose the trip causes of a Core Protection Calculator System, it increases a plant's availability and reliability, and it makes it easy to manage CASCPCS because of using only a cursor control.

  5. Getting out and about in older adults: the nature of daily trips and their association with objectively assessed physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharp Debbie J

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A key public health objective is increasing health-enhancing physical activity (PA for older adults (OAs. Daily trip frequency is independently associated with objectively assessed PA volumes (OAs. Little is known about correlates and these trips' transport mode, and how these elements relate to PA. Purpose: to describe the frequency, purpose, and travel mode of daily trips in OAs, and their association with participant characteristics and objectively-assessed PA. Methods Participants (n = 214, aged 78.1 SD 5.7 years, completed a seven-day trips log recording daily-trip frequency, purpose and transport mode. Concurrently participants wore an accelerometer which provided mean daily steps (steps·d-1, and minutes of moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA·d-1. Participants' physical function (PF was estimated and demographic, height and weight data obtained. Results Trip frequency was associated with gender, age, physical function, walking-aid use, educational attainment, number of amenities within walking distance and cars in the household. Participants reported 9.6 (SD 4.2 trips per week (trips·wk-1. Most trips (61% were by car (driver 44%, passenger 17%, 30% walking or cycling (active and 9% public transport/other. Driving trips·wk-1 were more common in participants who were males (5.3 SD 3.6, well-educated (5.0 SD 4.3, high functioning (5.1 SD 4.6, younger (5.6 SD 4.9, affluent area residents (5.1 SD 4.2 and accessing > one car (7.2 SD 4.7. Active trips·wk-1 were more frequent in participants who were males (3.4 SD 3.6, normal weight (3.2 SD 3.4, not requiring walking aids (3.5 SD 3.3, well-educated (3.7 SD 0.7, from less deprived neighbourhoods (3.9 SD 3.9 and with ≥ 8 amenities nearby (4.4 SD 3.8. Public transport, and active trip frequency, were significantly associated with steps·d-1 (p -1 (p Conclusions Daily trips are associated with objectively-measured PA as indicated by daily MVPA and steps. Public transport and

  6. The Mediterranean fruit fly in Central America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vail, V.; Moore, I.; Nadel, D.

    1976-01-01

    Various methods of controlling the medfly are available and include the use of insecticides, bait sprays and the sterile insect technique (SIT). Each of these control strategies may be used alone or in sequence. With regard to the application of the SIT, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture through its Insect and Pest Control Section and Entomology Laboratory is in an excellent position to assist in containing the medfly in Central America. For the past 12 years, the laboratory has participated in all phases of medfly control by sterile insect releases in various climates. This involvement has included planning of medfly campaigns, development of pre-release techniques (bait spraying, trapping, etc.) and shipment and release of sterilized medflies. Small-scale field tests utilizing the SIT have been carried out by nine countries: Italy (Procida, Capri), Spain, Cyprus, Israel, Tunisia, Peru, Panama, Costa Rica and Nicaragua. Other field projects presently being counselled and serviced are located in Argentina, Venezuela and the Canary Islands. The research and development that are still needed to effectively stabilize and gain control of the medfly situation in Central America include: The development and use of effective quarantine procedures in various countries; Development of effective conventional medfly control procedures under the conditions found in Central America; Development of methods to determine the geographic origin of medflies introduced into new areas; Medfly mass production (viz. all aspects of rearing Central American strains); Assessing the performance (competitiveness, etc.) of various strains; Logistics, including the development of systems for releasing pre-adult stages; Genetic rearing methods: developmental research in this area is particularly promising since the preferential production of males would allow considerable savings in the rearing costs of medflies for release; Development of adequate surveillance

  7. Training centres in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1959-01-01

    Early 1958 the Brazilian representative on the Board of Governors of the International Atomic Energy Agency - supported by the Governors from Argentina and Guatemala -proposed that a study should be made of the possibility of setting up one or more atomic energy training centres in Latin America. On the Board's recommendation, the Director General of the Agency appointed a fact-finding team to make anon-the-spot study. In drafting this report the team was invited to consider the following points: (a) The need for establishing one or more regional training centres; (b) Existing facilities that are being or could be used for training, together with technical data concerning them; (c) The general scientific technological and industrial conditions of the countries visited insofar as they have a bearing on their training needs and capabilities. The authors of the report conclude that 'a training centre in radio-botany should provide vitally needed knowledge and vitally needed specialists to all the agricultural installations in Latin America. A training centre like this might provide an excellent model upon which to base training centres in other areas'. The report recommends that: 1. The Agency should meet the requests of Latin American universities by, for example, supplying equipment and sending experts; 2. At least one specialized training centre should be established as soon as possible. Taking as an example the field of radio-botany, such a centre would provide trained specialists in radio-botany to agricultural institutions throughout Latin America and also provide basic research results vital to agriculture. The cost of new facilities might be of the order of $7 500 000, with an annual budget of approximately $650 000. Staff required: 40 scientists and 175 employees; 3. Whenever it appears feasible to gather necessary staff of high creative ability and established productivity and when funds can be made available for facilities, equipment and operating costs, at

  8. Profession of neuropsychology in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos; Stevens, Lillian; Morlett Paredes, Alejandra; Ardila, Alfredo; Rivera, Diego

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze characteristics of individuals working in the profession of neuropsychology in Latin America in order to understand their background, professional training, current work situation, assessment and diagnostic procedures used, rehabilitation techniques employed, population targeted, teaching responsibilities, and research activities. A total of 808 professionals working in neuropsychology from 17 countries in Latin America completed an online survey between July 2013 and January 2014. The majority of participants were female and the mean age was 36.76 years (range 21-74 years). The majority of professionals working in neuropsychology in Latin America have a background in psychology, with some additional specialized training and supervised clinical practice. Over half work in private practice, universities, or private clinics and are quite satisfied with their work. Those who identify themselves as clinicians primarily work with individuals with learning problems, ADHD, mental retardation, TBI, dementia, and stroke. The majority respondents cite the top barrier in the use of neuropsychological instruments to be the lack of normative data for their countries. The top perceived barriers to the field include: lack of academic training programs, lack of clinical training opportunities, lack of willingness to collaborate between professionals, and lack of access to neuropsychological instruments. There is a need in Latin America to increase regulation, improve graduate curriculums, enhance existing clinical training, develop professional certification programs, validate existing neuropsychological tests, and create new, culturally-relevant instruments.

  9. Building America System Performance Test Practices: Part 1 -- Photovoltaic Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barker, G.; Norton, P.

    2003-05-01

    The report outlines the short-term field testing used by Building America staff and includes a report on the results of an example test of a PV system with battery storage on a home in Tucson, Arizona. This report is not intended as a general recommended test procedure for wide distribution. It is intended to document current practices in Building America to inform program stakeholders and stimulate further discussion. Building America staff intend to apply this procedure until relevant standards for testing PV modules are completed.

  10. Fermilab-Latin America collaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubinstein, R.

    1994-01-01

    Fermilab's program of collaboration with Latin America was initiated by then-Director Leon Lederman about 1980. His goal was to aid Latin American physics, and particularly its particle physics; this latter aim is in keeping with the Laboratory's particle physics mission. The reasons for collaboration between institutions in the US and Latin America are many, including geographic and cultural, together with the existence of many talented scientists and many centers of excellence in the region. There are also broader reasons; for example, it has been stated frequently that physics is the basis of much technology, and advanced technology is a necessity for a country's development. There is nothing unique about Fermilab's program; other US institutions can carry out similar activities, and some have carried out individual items in the past. On the Latin American side, such collaboration enables institutions there to carry out forefront physics research, and also to have the advantages of particle physics spin-offs, both in expertise in related technologies and in scientist training. In addition to particle physics, collaboration is possible in many other related areas. Although particle physics is frequently viewed as open-quotes big scienceclose quotes, all of the large research groups in the field are composed of many small university groups, each of which contributes to the experiment, the analysis and the physics. Fermilab is an international laboratory, open to all users; a research proposal is accepted on scientific merit and technical competence, not on the country of origin of the scientists making the proposal. Currently, of Fermilab's approximately 1400 users, about 30% are from non-US institutions. It should be noted here that Fermilab's funds, which come from the US government, are for particle physics only; however, there is some flexibility in interpretation of this

  11. Accounting for Laminar Run & Trip Drag in Supersonic Cruise Performance Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodsell, Aga M.; Kennelly, Robert A.

    1999-01-01

    An improved laminar run and trip drag correction methodology for supersonic cruise performance testing was derived. This method required more careful analysis of the flow visualization images which revealed delayed transition particularly on the inboard upper surface, even for the largest trip disks. In addition, a new code was developed to estimate the laminar run correction. Once the data were corrected for laminar run, the correct approach to the analysis of the trip drag became evident. Although the data originally appeared confusing, the corrected data are consistent with previous results. Furthermore, the modified approach, which was described in this presentation, extends prior historical work by taking into account the delayed transition caused by the blunt leading edges.

  12. Thinking of serving nursing abroad: how technology assists nurses on mission trips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rachel M

    2015-06-01

    Advances in technology have assisted in the proliferation of short-term, faith-based international medical mission trips. Many of these mission trips include health care not only to local citizens but also building schools and churches and sharing the Gospel of Jesus Christ. Included in this article are my own personal experiences in short-term, faith-based medical missions. A step-by-step guide is offered to help prepare inexperienced mission participants gain insight into short-term mission trips. Advanced planning, fundraising, collaboration, and being open to change are key elements to successful participation in these life-changing missions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Round-Trip System Available to Measure Path Length Variation in Korea VLBI System for Geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hongjong; Kondo, Tetsuro; Lee, Jinoo; Kim, Tuhwan; Kim, Myungho; Kim, Suchul; Park, Jinsik; Ju, Hyunhee

    2010-01-01

    The construction project of Korea Geodetic VLBI officially started in October 2008. The construction of all systems will be completed by the end of 2011. The project was named Korea VLBI system for Geodesy (KVG), and its main purpose is to maintain the Korea Geodetic Datum. In case of the KVG system, an observation room with an H-maser frequency standard is located in a building separated from the antenna by several tens of meters. Therefore KVG system will adopt a so-called round-trip system to transmit reference signals to the antenna with reduction of the effect of path length variations. KVG s round-trip system is designed not only to use either metal or optical fiber cables, but also to measure path length variations directly. We present this unique round trip system for KVG.

  14. Flow protection trip limits operational charge-discharge facility -- C Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Wormer, F.W.

    1958-09-19

    Because of wide variations in the venturi throat pressure, well beyond the panellit gage trip range, that occur during the sequence of operational charge-discharge, the panellit gage cannot be included in the scram safety circuit during the period of time that charge- discharge operations are being performed. In its stead, the function of the panellit gage is replaced in an overlapping manner by a tube inlet pressure monitor that is equipped with high and low pressure trip mechanisms that may be included in the scram safety circuit during the time that the panellit gage must be by-passed. The tube inlet pressure monitor is then used to provide the protection from unstable flow that is normally obtained with the panellit gage. This memorandum describes the manner in which the tube inlet pressure monitor trip points are to be determined and used.

  15. [Essential medicines and the TRIPS Agreement: collision between the right to health and intellectual property rights].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard Soto, Raúl

    2015-03-01

    The strengthening of pharmaceutical patent protection globally puts strains on access to essential medicines. According to the present paper, this process has led to the collision of the intellectual property rights adopted in the World Trade Organization (WTO) Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) Agreement and the right to health stated in the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR). Several controversies disputed in the WTO illustrate the confrontation between countries with a powerful pharmaceutical industry and the interests of developing countries. It is concluded that the TRIPS-plus rules subscribed to by developing countries in free trade agreements which give the pharmaceutical patent holder more rights than those stipulated in the original TRIPS Agreement are incompatible with the obligations to provide access to essential medicines under the right to health of the ICESCR.

  16. Fire and Water Make Steam - Redefining the Role of Competition Law in TRIPS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen

    The paper points out the relevance of competition law to international issues of Intellectual Property Law (IPR) and demonstrates how competition law internationally has come to function as an indispensable instrument to balance IPR. The perspective is international and focused on TRIPS. The rules...... in TRIPS which define the obligations of member states to protect rightholders are detailed, comprehensive, and aimed at a high level of protection. The few rules in the Treaty which deals with competition law and the role of competition as a balancing instrument to IPR are weak and imprecise....... To innovation it is submitted that IPR protection e.g. of interfaces or in markets characterised by network effects may involve risks of monopolisation which require access to effective rules of competition law. The paper finally recommends concrete changes to TRIPS in the form of mandatory rules which prevent...

  17. Fire and Water Make Steam - Redefining the Role of Competition Law in TRIPS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen

    2011-01-01

    The paper points out the relevance of competition law to international issues of Intellectual Property Law (IPR) and demonstrates how competition law internationally has come to function as an indispensable instrument to balance IPR. The perspective is international and focused on TRIPS. The rules...... in TRIPS which define the obligations of member states to protect rightholders are detailed, comprehensive, and aimed at a high level of protection. The few rules in the Treaty which deals with competition law and the role of competition as a balancing instrument to IPR are weak and imprecise....... To innovation it is submitted that IPR protection e.g. of interfaces or in markets characterised by network effects may involve risks of monopolisation which require access to effective rules of competition law. The paper finally recommends concrete changes to TRIPS in the form of mandatory rules which prevent...

  18. A neural networks based ``trip`` analysis system for PWR-type reactors; Um sistema de analise de ``trip`` em reatores PWR usando redes neuronais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Antonio Carlos Pinto Dias

    1993-12-31

    The analysis short after automatic shutdown (trip) of a PWR-type nuclear reactor takes a considerable amount of time, not only because of the great number of variables involved in transients, but also the various equipment that compose a reactor of this kind. On the other hand, the transients`inter-relationship, intended to the detection of the type of the accident is an arduous task, since some of these accidents (like loss of FEEDWATER and station BLACKOUT, for example), generate transients similar in behavior (as cold leg temperature and steam generators mixture levels, for example). Also, the sequence-of-events analysis is not always sufficient for correctly pin point the causes of the trip. (author) 11 refs., 39 figs.

  19. A National Survey of U.S. Dental Students' Experiences with International Service Trips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, R Frederick; Wong, Chloe A; Woodmansey, Karl F; Rowland, Brianna; Horne, Steven O; Seymour, Brittany

    2018-04-01

    Globalization, along with the increasing prevalence of non-communicable diseases, their risk factors, and poor oral health, demands global approaches to oral health care. Trained health care workers' providing volunteer services abroad is one model used for improving access to dental services for some communities. Currently, little is known about U.S. dental student involvement in international clinical service volunteerism. The aim of this exploratory study was to capture national survey data from predoctoral dental students about their interest in and experience with global health service trips. The survey sought to assess students' past experiences and current and future interest in programs providing dental and/or medical services in order to lay the foundation for further research. A 12-question web-based survey was distributed in May 2017 to 22,930 students enrolled in U.S. dental schools. A total of 1,555 students responded, for a response rate of 7%. Respondents were evenly distributed across the four academic years. Approximately 22% (n=342) of the respondents had already participated in a service trip experience, 83% reported interest in a service trip while in school, and 92% were interested after graduation. Reported motivations for international trips included the desire to care for the underserved and to obtain a more global view of health and disease. Concerns were expressed regarding costs and time constraints. This study provided preliminary, exploratory data on dental student engagement with international service trips. Both interest and participation in international service trips among responding students were high, reflecting current trends in both dentistry and medicine. Dental education may have an opportunity to guide student engagement in more sustainable and ethical volunteering in the U.S. and abroad.

  20. Diseño de redes neuronales con aprendizaje combinado de retropropagación y búsqueda aleatoria progresiva aplicado a la determinación de austenita retenida en aceros TRIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capdevila, C.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available At the beginning of the decade of the nineties, the industrial interest for TRIP steels leads to a significant increase of the investigation and application in this field. In this work, the flexibility of neural networks for the modelling of complex properties is used to tackle the problem of determining the retained austenite content in TRIP-steel. Applying a combination of two learning algorithms (backpropagation and creeping-random-search for the neural network, a model has been created that enables the prediction of retained austenite in low-Si / low-Al multiphase steels as a function of processing parameters.

    A partir de los años noventa, el interés que los aceros TRIP despiertan en la industria ha producido un incremento considerable de su estudio y aplicación. En este trabajo, aprovechando la flexibilidad que las redes neuronales proporcionan para la modelización de propiedades complejas, se ha abordado el problema de la determinación de la austenita retenida en los aceros TRIP. Una combinación de dos algoritmos de aprendizaje (retropropagación y búsqueda aleatoria progresiva de la red neuronal ha permitido crear un modelo que predice la cantidad de austenita retenida en aceros multifase con bajo contenido en aluminio y silicio en función de los parámetros de procesado.

  1. North America: Chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Mark D.; Beaubien, Elisabeth G.; Crimmins, Theresa M.; Weltzin, Jake F.; Edited by Schwartz, Mark D.

    2013-01-01

    Plant phenological observations and networks in North America have been largely local and regional in extent until recent decades. In the USA, cloned plant monitoring networks were the exception to this pattern, with data collection spanning the late 1950s until approximately the early 1990s. Animal observation networks, especially for birds have been more extensive. The USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN), established in the mid-2000s is a recent effort to operate a comprehensive national-scale network in the United States. In Canada, PlantWatch, as part of Nature Watch, is the current national-scale plant phenology program.

  2. North America pipeline map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2005-01-01

    This map presents details of pipelines currently in place throughout North America. Fifty-nine natural gas pipelines are presented, as well as 16 oil pipelines. The map also identifies six proposed natural gas pipelines. Major cities, roads and highways are included as well as state and provincial boundaries. The National Petroleum Reserve is identified, as well as the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. The following companies placed advertisements on the map with details of the services they provide relating to pipeline management and construction: Ferus Gas Industries Trust; Proline; SulfaTreat Direct Oxidation; and TransGas. 1 map

  3. Mosques in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Khalidi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The following article derived from an exhibit catalogue put together by Public Affairs Germany in the U.S. Embassy in Berlin and the U.S. Consulates in Frankfurt and Düsseldorf and accompanied Dr. Omar Khalidi’s photo exhibit “Mosques in America.” There are over 2,000 mosques in the United States, mostly housed in buildings originally built for other purposes. American mosques built in the last few decades, however, in the period in which Islam has begun to feel at home in the United States, are almost universally architect-designed.

  4. Timekeeping in the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, J. M.; Lombardi, M. A.

    2015-10-01

    Time and its measurement belong to the most fundamental core of physics, and many scientific and technological advances are directly or indirectly related to time measurements. Timekeeping is essential to everyday life, and thus is the most measured physical quantity in modern societies. Time can also be measured with less uncertainty and more resolution than any other physical quantity. The measurement of time is of the utmost importance for many applications, including: global navigation satellite systems, communications networks, electric power generation, astronomy, electronic commerce, and national defense and security. This paper discusses how time is kept, coordinated, and disseminated in the Americas.

  5. TRIP-Br2 promotes oncogenesis in nude mice and is frequently overexpressed in multiple human tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peh Bee

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Members of the TRIP-Br/SERTAD family of mammalian transcriptional coregulators have recently been implicated in E2F-mediated cell cycle progression and tumorigenesis. We, herein, focus on the detailed functional characterization of the least understood member of the TRIP-Br/SERTAD protein family, TRIP-Br2 (SERTAD2. Methods Oncogenic potential of TRIP-Br2 was demonstrated by (1 inoculation of NIH3T3 fibroblasts, which were engineered to stably overexpress ectopic TRIP-Br2, into athymic nude mice for tumor induction and (2 comprehensive immunohistochemical high-throughput screening of TRIP-Br2 protein expression in multiple human tumor cell lines and human tumor tissue microarrays (TMAs. Clinicopathologic analysis was conducted to assess the potential of TRIP-Br2 as a novel prognostic marker of human cancer. RNA interference of TRIP-Br2 expression in HCT-116 colorectal carcinoma cells was performed to determine the potential of TRIP-Br2 as a novel chemotherapeutic drug target. Results Overexpression of TRIP-Br2 is sufficient to transform murine fibroblasts and promotes tumorigenesis in nude mice. The transformed phenotype is characterized by deregulation of the E2F/DP-transcriptional pathway through upregulation of the key E2F-responsive genes CYCLIN E, CYCLIN A2, CDC6 and DHFR. TRIP-Br2 is frequently overexpressed in both cancer cell lines and multiple human tumors. Clinicopathologic correlation indicates that overexpression of TRIP-Br2 in hepatocellular carcinoma is associated with a worse clinical outcome by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Small interfering RNA-mediated (siRNA knockdown of TRIP-Br2 was sufficient to inhibit cell-autonomous growth of HCT-116 cells in vitro. Conclusion This study identifies TRIP-Br2 as a bona-fide protooncogene and supports the potential for TRIP-Br2 as a novel prognostic marker and a chemotherapeutic drug target in human cancer.

  6. Round-Trip Solar Electric Propulsion Missions for Mars Sample Return

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Zachary J.; Sturm, Erick J.; Kowalkowski, Theresa D.; Lock, Robert E.; Woolley, Ryan C.; Nicholas, Austin K.

    2014-01-01

    Mars Sample Return (MSR) missions could benefit from the high specific impulse of Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) to achieve lower launch masses than with chemical propulsion. SEP presents formulation challenges due to the coupled nature of launch vehicle performance, propulsion system, power system, and mission timeline. This paper describes a SEP orbiter-sizing tool, which models spacecraft mass & timeline in conjunction with low thrust round-trip Earth-Mars trajectories, and presents selected concept designs. A variety of system designs are possible for SEP MSR orbiters, with large dry mass allocations, similar round-trip durations to chemical orbiters, and reduced design variability between opportunities.

  7. Modelling mode choice in short trips - shifting from car to bicycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halldórsdóttir, Katrín; Christensen, Linda; Jensen, Thomas Christian

    2011-01-01

    -economic variables of a representative sample of the population. The investigated sample includes 11,072 observations. The model considers five alternatives (i.e., car driver, car passenger, public transport, walk and obviously bike), for which level of service variables are calculated through assignment procedures...... relevance of the cost for short trips. Expectedly, the selection of bicycle as mode for short trips is positively related to owning a bicycle and negatively linked to owning one or more cars. Urban density has also positive correlation with the selection of sustainable transport modes....

  8. Push-off reactions in recovery after tripping discriminate young subjects, older non-fallers and older fallers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijnappels, M.A.G.M.; Bobbert, M.F.; van Dieen, J.H.

    2005-01-01

    Tripping is a major cause for falls, especially in the elderly. This study investigated whether falls in the elderly can be attributed to inadequate push-off reactions by the support limb in the recovery after a trip. Twelve young (20-34 years) and eleven older (65-72 years) men and women walked

  9. A comparison of estimates of statewide pleasure trip volume and expenditures derived from telephone versus mail surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dae-Kwan Kim; Daniel M. Spotts; Donald F. Holecek

    1998-01-01

    This paper compares estimates of pleasure trip volume and expenditures derived from a regional telephone survey to those derived from the TravelScope mail panel survey. Significantly different estimates emerged, suggesting that survey-based estimates of pleasure trip volume and expenditures, at least in the case of the two surveys examined, appear to be affected by...

  10. A mechanism for the promotion of technical co-operation among the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean in the field of the peaceful use of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-03-01

    Day after day, in hospitals, industry, agricultural enterprises and universities all over the world, advantage is being taken of the peaceful uses of nuclear technology. In recent years, the Agency's regional technical co-operation projects have acquired considerable importance in Latin America and the Caribbean, particularly in such areas of common interest as nuclear information, radiation protection, human health, agriculture, hydrology, industry, and the maintenance and repair of nuclear instruments used for research purposes and related studies, to cite but a few examples. As a result, a group of Latin American countries decided to join forces to carry out specific technical co-operation projects aimed at raising the level of nuclear applications in the region. This effort culminated in the decision, made in 1984, to establish, under the auspices of the Agency, a regional co-operation programme called ARCAL. This document describes the ARCAL programme, participating countries and main results achieved

  11. Anaglyph, South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    This anaglyph (stereoscopic view) of South America was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). It is best viewed at or near full resolution with anaglyph glasses. For this broad view the resolution of the data was first reduced to 30 arcseconds (about 928 meters north-south but variable east-west), matching the best previously existing global digital topographic data set called GTOPO30. The data were then resampled to a Mercator projection with approximately square pixels (about one kilometer, or 0.6 miles, on each side). Even at this decreased resolution the variety of landforms comprising the South American continent is readily apparent.Topographic relief in South America is dominated by the Andes Mountains, which extend all along the Pacific Coast. These mountains are created primarily by the convergence of the Nazca and South American tectonic plates. The Nazca Plate, which underlies the eastern Pacific Ocean, slides under western South America resulting in crustal thickening, uplift, and volcanism. Another zone of plate convergence occurs along the northwestern coast of South America where the Caribbean Plate also slides under the South American Plate and forms the northeastern extension of the Andes Mountains.East of the Andes, much of northern South America drains into the Amazon River, the world's largest river in terms of both watershed area and flow volume. Topographic relief is very low in much of the Amazon Basin but SRTM data provide an excellent detailed look at the basin's three-dimensional drainage pattern, including the geologic structural trough (syncline) that hosts the eastern river channel.North of the Amazon, the Guiana Highlands commonly stand in sharp contrast to the surrounding lowlands, indeed hosting the world's tallest waterfall, Angel Falls (979 meters or 3212 feet). Folded and fractured bedrock structures are distinctive in the topographic pattern.South of the Amazon, the Brazilian Highlands show a mix of

  12. TripSense: A Trust-Based Vehicular Platoon Crowdsensing Scheme with Privacy Preservation in VANETs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hao; Lu, Rongxing; Huang, Cheng; Zhang, Zonghua

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we propose a trust-based vehicular platoon crowdsensing scheme, named TripSense, in VANET. The proposed TripSense scheme introduces a trust-based system to evaluate vehicles' sensing abilities and then selects the more capable vehicles in order to improve sensing results accuracy. In addition, the sensing tasks are accomplished by platoon member vehicles and preprocessed by platoon head vehicles before the data are uploaded to server. Hence, it is less time-consuming and more efficient compared with the way where the data are submitted by individual platoon member vehicles. Hence it is more suitable in ephemeral networks like VANET. Moreover, our proposed TripSense scheme integrates unlinkable pseudo-ID techniques to achieve PM vehicle identity privacy, and employs a privacy-preserving sensing vehicle selection scheme without involving the PM vehicle's trust score to keep its location privacy. Detailed security analysis shows that our proposed TripSense scheme not only achieves desirable privacy requirements but also resists against attacks launched by adversaries. In addition, extensive simulations are conducted to show the correctness and effectiveness of our proposed scheme.

  13. TripSense: A Trust-Based Vehicular Platoon Crowdsensing Scheme with Privacy Preservation in VANETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Hu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a trust-based vehicular platoon crowdsensing scheme, named TripSense, in VANET. The proposed TripSense scheme introduces a trust-based system to evaluate vehicles’ sensing abilities and then selects the more capable vehicles in order to improve sensing results accuracy. In addition, the sensing tasks are accomplished by platoon member vehicles and preprocessed by platoon head vehicles before the data are uploaded to server. Hence, it is less time-consuming and more efficient compared with the way where the data are submitted by individual platoon member vehicles. Hence it is more suitable in ephemeral networks like VANET. Moreover, our proposed TripSense scheme integrates unlinkable pseudo-ID techniques to achieve PM vehicle identity privacy, and employs a privacy-preserving sensing vehicle selection scheme without involving the PM vehicle’s trust score to keep its location privacy. Detailed security analysis shows that our proposed TripSense scheme not only achieves desirable privacy requirements but also resists against attacks launched by adversaries. In addition, extensive simulations are conducted to show the correctness and effectiveness of our proposed scheme.

  14. Report on safety related occurrences and reactor trips July 1, 1977 - December 31, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andermo, L.; Sundman, B.

    1974-04-01

    This is a systematically arranged report on all reported safety related occurrences and reactor trips in Swedish nuclear power plants in operation during July 1 to December 31, 1977 inclusive. The facilities involved are Barsebaeck 1 and 2, Oskarshamn 1 and 2 and Ringhals 1 and 2. During this period of 6 months 48 safety related occurrences and 49 reactor trips have been reported to the Nuclear Power Inspectorate. Included is also one incident June 21 in Barsebaeck 2 which was not included in the last compilation of occurrences. As earlier experiences have shown it is to the greatest extent the conventional components which bring about the safety related occurrences or occurrences leading to outages or power reductions. However, the component errors discovered in the safety related systems have not affected the function of their redundant systems and other diverse systems have not been involved. Therefore the reactor safety has been satisfactory. The total number of reactor trips have increased nearly 30% since the last period. Those occurred during power operation however, were less. More than 50% of the reactor trips happened in the shutdown condition. The fact that even small deviations from prescribed operation result in automatic and safe shut down of the reactor, does not always imply a conflict with operational availability. The greatest outages are caused by occurrences withou02068NRM 0000169 450

  15. EMG modulation in anticipation of a possible trip during walking in young and older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijnappels, M.A.G.M.; Bobbert, M.F.; van Dieen, J.H.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated whether changes in lower limb muscle activity occured in anticipation of a possible perturbation in 11 young (mean age 27 years) and 11 older (mean age 68 years) adults. Altered muscle activity could affect tripping responses and consequently the ecological validity of

  16. Fire and Water Make Steam - Redefining the Role of Competition Law in TRIPS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen

    2011-01-01

    . To innovation it is submitted that IPR protection e.g. of interfaces or in markets characterised by network effects may involve risks of monopolisation which require access to effective rules of competition law. The paper finally recommends concrete changes to TRIPS in the form of mandatory rules which prevent...

  17. Contribution of the support limb in control of angular momentum after tripping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijnappels, M.A.G.M.; Bobbert, M.F.; van Dieen, J.H.

    2004-01-01

    Tripping over an obstacle can result in a fall when the forward angular momentum, obtained from impact with the obstacle, is not arrested. Angular momentum can be restrained by proper placement of the recovery limb, anteriorly of the body, but possibly also by a reaction in the contralateral support

  18. 49 CFR 236.531 - Trip arm; height and distance from rail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Trip arm; height and distance from rail. 236.531 Section 236.531 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... line to gage side of the nearest running rail, in accordance with specifications of the carrier. [49 FR...

  19. 49 CFR 236.560 - Contact element, mechanical trip type; location with respect to rail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contact element, mechanical trip type; location with respect to rail. 236.560 Section 236.560 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to..., in accordance with specifications of the carrier. [49 FR 3387, Jan. 26, 1984] ...

  20. An aroid collecting trip to Sarawak and a key to the genera of Araceae in Sarawak

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogner, J.; Boyce, P.C.

    1995-01-01

    The main aim of the trip was to find an enigmatic aroid that was first collected as a sterile plant by the Australian plant enthusiast Dr. A. Dearden in 1990. The true identity of this Nephthytis-like plant, as we called it in the meantime, remained unclear and we thought that it was probably a new

  1. To the End of the World and Back: A Primer for International Study Trips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Terry L.; King, James; Reina, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Global engagement is a move by many colleges and universities to broaden the perspectives of their students. Often, this is manifest in the form of short or longer-term study abroad trips. There is considerable excitement associated with traveling abroad on the part of both the students and the faculty sponsors, but one thing that must be…

  2. Texas trip generation manual : 1st edition-volume 1 : user's guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this Manual is to provide a summary of Texas trip generation data for various : Land Use Codes (LUCs) and time periods, for data obtained from workplace and special : generator (WSG) surveys performed as part of the Texas Travel Survey...

  3. Control of support limb muscles in recovery after tripping in young and older subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijnappels, M.A.G.M.; Bobbert, M.F.; van Dieen, J.H.

    2005-01-01

    Older people fall more often after tripping than young people due to a slower development of mechanical responses. This might be due to age-related changes in muscle properties, but also to changes in motor control. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether (a) timing and sequencing

  4. Effect of processing conditions on structure development and mechanical response of Si-Mn 'TRIP' steel

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zrník, J.; Muránsky, Ondrej; Stejskal, O.; Lukáš, Petr; Horňák, P.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 483, - (2008), s. 71-75 ISSN 0921-5093 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : TRIP steel * austenite conditioning * transformation Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.806, year: 2008

  5. Design of Thermo Mechanicaln Processing and Transformation Behaviour of Bulk Si-Mn Trip Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zrnik, J.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, a lot of effort has been paid to optimising the thermomechanical processing of TRIP steels that stands for transformation induced plasticity. The precise characterization of the resulting multiphase microstructure of low alloyed TRIP steels is of great importance for the interpretation and optimisation of their mechanical properties. The results obtained in situ neutron diffraction laboratory experiment concerning the austenite to ferrite transformation in Si-Mn bulk TRIP steel specimens, displaying the transformation induced plasticity (TRIP, are presented. The advancement of ferrite formation during transformation in conditioned austenite is investigated at different transformation temperatures and has been monitored using neutron diffraction method. The relevant information on transformation proceeding is extracted from neutron diffraction spectra. The integrated intensities of austenite and ferrite neutron diffraction profiles developed during the transformation are then assumed as a measure of the phase volume fractions of both phases in dependence on transformation temperature and austenite conditioning. According to the yielding information on ferrite volume fractions from isothermal transformation kinetics data the thermo mechanical processing of bulk specimen was designed in order to support austenite stabilization through bainitic transformation. The volume fractions of retained austenite resulting at alternating transformation conditions were measured by neutron and X-ray diffraction respectively. The stability of retained austenite in bulk specimens during room temperature mechanical testing was characterized by in situ neutron diffraction experiments as well.

  6. Promoting physical activity and reducing climate change : Opportunities to replace short car trips with active transportation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maibach, E.; Steg, L.; Anable, J.

    2009-01-01

    Automobile use is a significant contributor to climate change, local air pollution, pedestrian injuries and deaths, declines in physical activity and obesity. A significant proportion of car use is for short trips that can relatively easily be taken with active transportation options - walking or

  7. Inter-Trip Characteristics Model for Ado-Ekiti Township, Southwest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    area from the business area. A number of retail shops, shopping complex and churches among others are located within the residential areas. Figure 1.0 below shows the geographical location of Ado-. Research Objective. The main objective of this research is to determine the trip pattern of the commuters from Ado-Ekiti ...

  8. A Land-use Approach for Capturing Future Trip Generating Poles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraklis Stamos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the usage of a particular urban or regional area have immediate effects on transportation, such as the development of a new multimodal terminal within a city, or the creation of a business park in its outskirts. Thus far, this correlation has been under-researched at a national level in Greece. As a result, its effects on trip generation and passenger flows has been underestimated at the planning level, leading to the implementation of projects that are neither viable nor sustainable. This paper proposes that land use changes ought to be considered in tandem with transport-related changes at the planning stage. To this effect, we present a three-step methodology for an integrated approach to capturing future trip generation: the identification of future trip-generating poles within the study area; the development of scenarios related to the probability of these changes occurring and their potential magnitude; an estimation of future trends in passenger flows. The methodology is applied to the Metropolitan area of Thessaloniki, Greece. Using data obtained from development plans, national statistical services and research projects’ and studies’ findings, we estimate future trip-generation subsequent to land use change. Data is processed and evaluated by a local experts’ group, representing various key-disciplines of the area’s planning stakeholders.

  9. 78 FR 54194 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Trip Limit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-03

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 648 RIN 0648-XC823 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Trip Limit Adjustments for the Common Pool Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA...

  10. 76 FR 53832 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Trip Limit Decrease...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 648 RIN 0648-XA652 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Trip Limit Decrease for the Common Pool Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA...

  11. In-situ neutron diffraction analysis of phase transformation kinetics in TRIP steel

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zrnik, J.; Muránsky, Ondrej; Lukáš, Petr; Šittner, Petr; Nový, Z.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 502, - (2005), s. 339-344 ISSN 0255-5476 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505; CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : TRIP steel * thermomechanical treatment * austenite transformation Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.399, year: 2005

  12. Modeling of the Austenite-Martensite Transformation in Stainless and TRIP Steels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geijselaers, Hubertus J.M.; Hilkhuijsen, P.; Bor, Teunis Cornelis; Perdahcioglu, Emin Semih; van den Boogaard, Antonius H.; Zhang, S.-H.; Liu, X.-H.; Gheng, M.; Li, J.

    2013-01-01

    The transformation of austenite to martensite is a dominant factor in the description of the constitutive behavior during forming of TRIP assisted steels. To predict this transformation different models are currently available. In this paper the transformation is regarded as a stress induced process

  13. Internet traffic and packet round trip delay self-similarity | Abdulkadir ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Statistical analysis was carried out on the Internet traffic data grabbed at Internet Service Provider gateway. The analysis reveals the "bursty" nature, which was explained through SelfSimilarity and Long Range Dependence(LRD). In this work, it has been shown that the Internet traffic and Packet Round Trip Delay visuaiized ...

  14. Out-of-plane trunk movements and trunk muscle activity after a trip during walking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Burg, J.C.E.; Pijnappels, M.A.G.M.; van Dieen, J.H.

    2005-01-01

    Tripping during gait occurs frequently. A successful balance recovery implies that the forward body rotation is sufficiently reduced. In view of this, adequate control of the trunk momentum is important, as the trunk has a high inertia. The aim of this study was to establish out-of-plane trunk

  15. How early reactions in the support limb contribute to balance recovery after tripping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijnappels, M.A.G.M.; Bobbert, M.F.; van Dieen, J.H.

    2005-01-01

    Tripping causes a forward angular momentum that has to be arrested to prevent a fall. The support limb, contralateral to the obstructed swing limb, can contribute to an adequate recovery by providing time and clearance for proper positioning of the recovery limb, and by restraining the angular

  16. Gait Characteristics Associated with Trip-Induced Falls on Level and Sloped Irregular Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Merryweather

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Same level falls continue to contribute to an alarming number of slip/trip/fall injuries in the mining workforce. The objective of this study was to investigate how walking on different surface types and transverse slopes influences gait parameters that may be associated with a trip event. Gait analysis was performed for ten subjects on two orientations (level and sloped on smooth, hard surface (control and irregular (gravel, larger rocks surfaces. Walking on irregular surfaces significantly increased toe clearance compared to walking on the smooth surface. There was a significant (p < 0.05 decrease in cadence (steps/min, stride length (m, and speed (m/s from control to gravel to larger rocks. Significant changes in external rotation and increased knee flexion while walking on irregular surfaces were observed. Toe and heel clearance requirements increased on irregular surfaces, which may provide an explanation for trip-induced falls; however, the gait alterations observed in the experienced workers used as subjects would likely improve stability and recovery from a trip.

  17. Mobility and Gender Aspects of Hospital Trips of the Urban Elderly in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Accessibility to health care facilities is one characteristic that have the potential to impact the health and well-being of the elderly. Using data from a multistage sample survey of 378 elderly, this study examines intra- urban mobility and gender differences in hospital trips of elderly in the city of Ilesa, South-western, Nigeria.

  18. Learning by Doing: A City Trip Combining TBLLT, Blended Learning and Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Leen; Grisez, Viviane

    2014-01-01

    For several years, the University of MONS (UMONS) has been organising a trip to a Flemish city, either Leuven, Ghent, or Antwerp, for the students on the Masters programmes at the Faculty of Engineering who attend Dutch courses. This project has been combining blended learning and task-based learning for several years, but for the most recent…

  19. Mining bike-sharing travel behavior data: An investigation into trip chains and transition activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Ying; Brussel, M.J.G.; Thomas, Tom; van Maarseveen, M.F.A.M.

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to explore the travel behavior of bike-sharing users in Zhongshan, China. To this end, we use 5 months of trip data, which included origin and destination locations, and pickup and return time of each used bike in the system. To get a complete picture of the behavior, we

  20. Central America's shrinking forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This news brief reports that 66% of deforestation in Central America has happened in the past 40 years, based on World Conservation Union (WCU) data. Deforestation is expected to continue. The population of Central America and Mexico grew by 28% between 1977 and 1987. Growth is decreasing but remains high at 2.5% in all countries of the region except Panama. 29 million was the regional population in 1990; the projection is for 63 million by 2025. Population is migrating to urban centers. Forests declined by 13% and croplands increased from 4% to 13% of total land area and pasture land from 2% to 37%. There was an increase in unproductive land from 145 to 24%, i.e., 50% of El Salvador's land had soil degradation as does 30% of Guatemala's. In addition to deforestation and soil degradation, there has been soil erosion leading to sedimentation buildup near dam sites and in rivers, which diminishes hydroelectric power capability. Silting also affects groundwater resources, which impact on a safe drinking water supply. Population growth results in increased demand for fuelwood, urban land, and agricultural land. New techniques practiced widely are needed in order to meet the region's needs or demands. Slowing population growth buys time for adjusting to the necessary changes needed for sustaining the region's population. WCU urges conservation organizations to raise awareness about the role population plays in environmental degradation, and to support efforts to reduce birth rates. Women's status needs to be improved through income-generating projects, for instance, and cooperation is needed between conservation groups and organizations involved with improving maternal and child health.