WorldWideScience

Sample records for america country update

  1. The United States of America country update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, John W.; Bloomquist, R. Gordon; Boyd, Tonya L.; Renner, Joel

    2005-01-01

    Geothermal energy is used for electric power generation and direct utilization in the United States. The present installed capacity (gross) for electric power generation is 2,534 MWe with about 2,000 MWe net delivering power to the grid producing approximately 17,840 GWh per year for a 80.4% gross capacity factor. Geothermal electric power plants are located in California, Nevada, Utah and Hawaii. The two largest concentrations of plants are at The Geysers in northern California and the Imperial Valley in southern California. The latest development at The Geysers, starting in 1998, is injecting recycled wastewater from two communities into the reservoir, which presently has recovered about 100 MWe of power generation. The second pipeline from the Santa Rosa area has just come on line. The direct utilization of geothermal energy includes the heating of pools and spas, greenhouses and aquaculture facilities, space heating and district heating, snow melting, agricultural drying, industrial applications and groundsource heat pumps. The installed capacity is 7,817 MWt and the annual energy use is about 31,200 TJ or 8,680 GWh. The largest application is ground-source (geothermal) heat pumps (69% of the energy use), and the next largest direct-uses are in space heating and agricultural drying. Direct utilization (without heat pumps) is increasing at about 2.6% per year; whereas electric power plant development is almost static, with only about 70 MWe added since 2000 (there were errors in the WGC2000 tabulation). A new 185-MWe plant being proposed for the Imperial Valley and about 100 MWe for Glass Mountain in northern California could be online by 2007-2008. Several new plants are proposed for Nevada totaling about 100 MWe and projects have been proposed in Idaho, New Mexico, Oregon and Utah. The total planned in the next 10 years is 632 MWe. The energy savings from electric power generation, direct-uses and ground-source heat pumps amounts to almost nine million tonnes of equivalent fuel oil per years and reduces air pollution by almost eight million tonnes of carbon annually (compared to fuel oil).

  2. Rebuild America Partner Update, January--February 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    Rebuild America Partner Update, the bimonthly newsletter about the Rebuild America community, covers partnership activities, industry trends, and program news. Rebuild America is a network of community partnerships--made up of local governments and businesses--that save money by saving energy. These voluntary partnerships, working with the US Department of Energy, choose the best ways to improve the energy efficiency of commercial, government and apartment buildings. Rebuild America supports them with business and technical tools and customized assistance. By the year 2003, 250 Rebuild America partnerships will be involved in over 2 billion square feet of building renovations, which will save $650 million every year in energy costs, generate $3 billion in private community investment, create 26,000 new private sector jobs, and reduce air pollution by 1.6 million tons of carbon dioxide a year.

  3. Renewable Energy Country Profiles. Latin America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-06-15

    The IRENA Renewable Energy Country Profiles combine elements of IRENA analysis with the latest information available from a vast array of sources in order to give a brief yet comprehensive and up-to-date picture of the situation of renewable energy that includes energy supply, electrical capacity, energy access, policies, targets, investment climate, projects and endowment in renewable energy resources. Because of the different timelines of these sources, data presented here refer to years between 2009 and 2012. Data availability also differs from country to country, which makes comparison with a wider regional group possible only for the year for which figures are available for all the members of the group; while this may not be the most recent year, the differences between countries, regions and the world remain striking. The current country profiles are just a starting point; they will be extended upon with new indicators to make them more informative, and maintained as a live product on the IRENA website as a key source of information on renewable energy.

  4. Country Queers: Queer Youth and the Politics of Rural America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greteman, Adam J.

    2012-01-01

    Exploring the lives of rural lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth and their identity work, Mary Gray's "Out in the Country: Youth, Media, and Queer Visibility in Rural America" offers one of the first ethnographic studies of queer rural life in the United States and their use of new media. Throughout, Gray provides various case…

  5. Improving precipitation simulation from updated surface characteristics in South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Gabriel; Silva, Maria Elisa Siqueira; Moraes, Elisabete Caria; Chiquetto, Júlio Barboza; da Silva Cardozo, Francielle

    2016-04-01

    Land use and land cover maps and their physical-chemical and biological properties are important variables in the numerical modeling of Earth systems. In this context, the main objective of this study is to analyze the improvements resulting from the land use and land cover map update in numerical simulations performed using the Regional Climate Model system version 4 (RegCM4), as well as the seasonal variations of physical parameters used by the Biosphere Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (BATS). In general, the update of the South America 2007 land use and land cover map, used by the BATS, improved the simulation of precipitation by 10 %, increasing the mean temporal correlation coefficient, compared to observed data, from 0.84 to 0.92 (significant at p < 0.05, Student's t test). Correspondingly, the simulations performed with adjustments in maximum fractional vegetation cover, in visible and shortwave infrared reflectance, and in the leaf area index, showed a good agreement for maximum and minimum temperature, with values closer to observed data. The changes in physical parameters and land use updating in BATS/RegCM4 reduced overestimation of simulated precipitation from 19 to 7 % (significant at p < 0.05, Student's t test). Regarding evapotranspiration and precipitation, the most significant differences due to land use updating were located (1) in the Amazon deforestation arc; (2) around the Brazil-Bolivia border (in the Brazilian Pantanal wetlands); (3) in the Northeast region of Brazil; (4) in northwestern Paraguay; and (5) in the River Plate Basin, in Argentina. Moreover, the main precipitation differences between sensitivity and control experiments occurred during the rainy months in central-north South America (October to March). These were associated with a displacement in the South Atlantic convergence zone (SACZ) positioning, presenting a spatial pattern of alternated areas with higher and lower precipitation rates. These important differences occur due to the

  6. Rebuild America partner update, November--December 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    This issue of the update includes articles on retrofitting Duke University facilities, energy efficiency updates to buildings in Portland, Oregon, Salisbury, North Carolina, Hawaii, Roanoke-Chowan, Virginia, and energy savings centered designs for lighting systems.

  7. Building America Research Benchmark Definition, Updated December 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendron, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Engebrecht, Cheryn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2010-01-01

    To track progress toward aggressive multi-year, whole-house energy savings goals of 40%–70% and on-site power production of up to 30%, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Residential Buildings Program and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed the Building America (BA) Research Benchmark in consultation with the Building America industry teams.

  8. Building America Research Benchmark Definition: Updated December 19, 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendron, R.

    2008-12-01

    To track progress toward aggressive multi-year whole-house energy savings goals of 40-70% and onsite power production of up to 30%, DOE's Residential Buildings Program and NREL developed the Building America Research Benchmark in consultation with the Building America industry teams.

  9. Building America Research Benchmark Definition: Updated December 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendron, R.; Engebrecht, C.

    2010-01-01

    The Benchmark represents typical construction at a fixed point in time so it can be used as the basis for Building America's multi-year energy savings goals without chasing a 'moving target.'

  10. Building America Research Benchmark Definition: Updated August 15, 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendron, R.

    2007-09-01

    To track progress toward aggressive multi-year whole-house energy savings goals of 40-70% and onsite power production of up to 30%, DOE's Residential Buildings Program and NREL developed the Building America Research Benchmark in consultation with the Building America industry teams. The Benchmark is generally consistent with mid-1990s standard practice, as reflected in the Home Energy Rating System (HERS) Technical Guidelines (RESNET 2002), with additional definitions that allow the analyst to evaluate all residential end-uses, an extension of the traditional HERS rating approach that focuses on space conditioning and hot water. Unlike the reference homes used for HERS, EnergyStar, and most energy codes, the Benchmark represents typical construction at a fixed point in time so it can be used as the basis for Building America's multi-year energy savings goals without the complication of chasing a 'moving target'.

  11. Building America Research Benchmark Definition: Updated December 20, 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendron, R.

    2008-01-01

    To track progress toward aggressive multi-year whole-house energy savings goals of 40-70% and onsite power production of up to 30%, DOE's Residential Buildings Program and NREL developed the Building America Research Benchmark in consultation with the Building America industry teams. The Benchmark is generally consistent with mid-1990s standard practice, as reflected in the Home Energy Rating System (HERS) Technical Guidelines (RESNET 2002), with additional definitions that allow the analyst to evaluate all residential end-uses, an extension of the traditional HERS rating approach that focuses on space conditioning and hot water. Unlike the reference homes used for HERS, EnergyStar, and most energy codes, the Benchmark represents typical construction at a fixed point in time so it can be used as the basis for Building America's multi-year energy savings goals without the complication of chasing a 'moving target'.

  12. Building America Research Benchmark Definition, Updated December 15, 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendron, R.

    2007-01-01

    To track progress toward aggressive multi-year whole-house energy savings goals of 40-70% and onsite power production of up to 30%, DOE's Residential Buildings Program and NREL developed the Building America Research Benchmark in consultation with the Building America industry teams. The Benchmark is generally consistent with mid-1990s standard practice, as reflected in the Home Energy Rating System (HERS) Technical Guidelines (RESNET 2002), with additional definitions that allow the analyst to evaluate all residential end-uses, an extension of the traditional HERS rating approach that focuses on space conditioning and hot water. Unlike the reference homes used for HERS, EnergyStar, and most energy codes, the Benchmark represents typical construction at a fixed point in time so it can be used as the basis for Building America's multi-year energy savings goals without the complication of chasing a ''moving target''.

  13. Building America Research Benchmark Definition, Updated December 19, 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendron, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2008-12-19

    To track progress toward aggressive multi-year whole-house energy savings goals of 40-70% and onsite power production of up to 30%, DOE's Residential Buildings Program and NREL developed the Building America Research Benchmark in consultation with the Bui

  14. Microfinance in Latin America and the Caribbean: 2008 Data Update

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio Navajas; Paola A. Pedroza; Peter Bate

    2008-01-01

    This note summarizes the results of a recently completed IDB survey of microfinance in the region. The survey includes information on microfinance activities in 25 countries as well as an initial review of effective interest rates charged to microfinance clients.

  15. Updating the geographical distribution and frequency of Aedes albopictus in Brazil with remarks regarding its range in the Americas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Gomes Carvalho/

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The geographical distribution of Aedes albopictus in Brazil was updated according to the data recorded across the country over the last eight years. Countrywide house indexes (HI for Ae. albopictus in urban and suburban areas were described for the first time using a sample of Brazilian municipalities. This mosquito is currently present in at least 59% of the Brazilian municipalities and in 24 of the 27 federal units (i.e., 26 states and the Federal District. In 34 Brazilian municipalities, the HI values for Ae. albopictus were higher than those recorded for Ae. aegypti, reaching figures as high as HI = 7.72 in the Southeast Region. Remarks regarding the current range of this mosquito species in the Americas are also presented. Nineteen American countries are currently infested and few mainland American countries have not confirmed the occurrence of Ae. albopictus. The large distribution and high frequency of Ae. albopictus in the Americas may become a critical factor in the spread of arboviruses like chikungunya in the new world.

  16. Interconnected power systems of the countries of America Central (SIEPAC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation shows the project SIEPAC (Sistema de interconexion electrica de los paises de Centro America) describes the current transmission system, and planned SIEPAC transmission system, also describes the objectives: implementation of an central american electrical market named Mercado Electrico Regional that contributes to sustaintable development of the region. Also describes the power transmission lines, the structure of line transmission and its market to be covered. Financing of the project from lending institutions is explained

  17. 77 FR 17353 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; New Designated Country (Armenia) and Other Trade Agreements Updates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ... Federal Acquisition Regulation; New Designated Country (Armenia) and Other Trade Agreements Updates... paragraph (a)(4) the word ``Aruba,'' and adding the words ``Armenia, Aruba,'' in its place. 52.222-19 Child... ``Designated country'' the word ``Aruba,'' and adding the words ``Armenia, Aruba,'' in its place....

  18. Cross-country causes and consequences of the crisis: an update

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew K. Rose; Mark M. Spiegel

    2011-01-01

    We update Rose and Spiegel (2010a, b) and search for simple quantitative models of macroeconomic and financial indicators of the "Great Recession" of 2008-09. We use a cross-country approach and examine a number of potential causes that have been found to be successful indicators of crisis intensity by other scholars. We check a number of different indicators of crisis intensity, and a variety of different country samples. While countries with higher income and looser credit market regulation...

  19. Middle income countries? An alternative development taxonomy of Latin America and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TEZANOS VÁZQUEZ, Sergio

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Although it is not asy to classify countries according to their levels of development –mainly because the concept of “human development” is complex and multidimensional –, the most widespread classification is just the simplest one, based on income per capita levels. According to this classification, most of the Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC countries are located in the world middle-income strata. This paper proposes an alternative “development taxonomy” for LAC middle-income countries. Using a cluster analysis we identify and characterize three groups of countries in relation to 10 main “development gaps”: the most advanced countries (Mexico, Chile, Argentina, Venezuela, Uruguay and Brasil, the middle-development countries (Panama, Costa Rica, Colombia, Jamaica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Peru, Belize, El Salvador, Paraguay and Guyana and those countries with the greatest development challenges (Guatemala, Bolivia, Honduras and Nicaragua.

  20. Country nuclear fuel cycle profile: United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power reactors in operation in the USA in 2002 comprised 69 PWRs and 34 BWRs, their total capacity amounting to 98.1 GW(e). It is estimated that they accounted for 20% of the country's electricity generation in 2002. No new reactors are planned in the near term. Both domestic and foreign suppliers provide the US nuclear power plant operating organizations with all types of fuel cycle services. The USA decided for an open nuclear fuel cycle. In 2002, two uranium in situ leach plants were operational in the USA. The total production capacity was 1150 t U/a. Converdyn operates the only commercial UF6 conversion plant in the USA. The plant is located in Metropolis, Illinois, and has a capacity of 14,000 t U/a. USEC Inc. operates a uranium enrichment plant at Paducah, Kentucky, with a capacity of 11,300 t SWU/a. Four LWR fuel fabrication plants were in operation in 2002: Global Nuclear Fuels (Wilmington, North Carolina, 1100 t U/a (BWR)), Westinghouse Nuclear Fuel (Columbia, South Carolina, 1250 t U/a (PWR)), Framatome ANP (Lynchburg, Virginia, 400 t U/a (PWR)), Framatome ANP (Richland, Washington, 700 t U/a (PWR and BWR)), for a total of 3450 t U/a (LWR). An estimated 47 100 t HM from commercial spent fuel was in inventory at the end of 2002 at both wet and dry storage facilities. No commercial reprocessing plants are in operation. US nuclear power plant operating organizations employ the open fuel cycle

  1. Bovine brucellosis in Argentina and bordering countries: update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aznar, M N; Samartino, L E; Humblet, M-F; Saegerman, C

    2014-04-01

    Bovine brucellosis is a zoonotic disease spread worldwide. The infection in cattle is predominantly caused by Brucella abortus and is usually detected in pregnant females through abortions. The disease is endemic in Argentina; however, infection in humans is underestimated and often not reported. The prevalence of bovine brucellosis in countries bordering Argentina is quite variable: 0.04% in Uruguay, 10.20% in the north and 0.06% in the south of Brazil, 0.2% in Chile, 3.15% in Paraguay and 2.27% in Bolivia. In 1999, the Argentine National Control and Eradication Program was implemented. Its strategies include identification of vaccinated animals, compulsory vaccination with B. abortus S19 of 100% of 3- to 8-month-old females, negative serological tests before animal movements and categorization of farms in terms of their brucellosis status. The epidemiological surveillance in milk is performed through the milk ring test and the indirect ELISA. The result of a national brucellosis survey performed in 2004 indicates that 12.4% (95% CI: 10.89-14.0) of Argentine beef farms are seropositive to Brucella and that the apparent prevalence in cattle is 2.10% (95% CI: 1.90-2.40). The official serological diagnostic tests are as follows: buffered plate antigen test, as screening, serum agglutination test, 2-mercaptoethanol and fluorescence polarization assay, competitive ELISA, as confirmatory tests, and complement fixation test, as definitive test. Santa Fe and a district in Córdoba have 'Outstanding Plans'. Tierra del Fuego is a 'Zone free from bovine brucellosis'. One question arising when studying the Argentine situation is why the disease remains endemic if good regulations exist to control and eradicate it. In future, some different aspects might be evaluated to understand it, and further studies should be performed to prioritize, select and refine control strategies. PMID:23046031

  2. Activities of technical cooperation in the countries of Latin America: the case of Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activities of technical cooperation in the region of Latin America, have been promoted by the own countries, and by the International Atomic Energy Agency, since 1957. In Costa Rica from 1969, the Commission of Atomic Energy of Costa Rica, has developed an intense work in the promotion of the pacific uses of nuclear energy, as well as, the coordination and canalization of the international technical cooperation, toward the national executing institutions. (author)

  3. Why do countries pursue bilateral trade agreements: a case study of North America

    OpenAIRE

    Michael A. Kouparitsas

    1997-01-01

    Current trade theory argues that countries pursue bilateral trade agreements to escape from a terms-of-trade driven prisoners' dilemma. This paper offers an empirical test of the theory. Using simulation results from a quantitative trade model of North America I show that the non-cooperative and cooperative payoffs implicit in the CFTA and NAFTA take on the two essential elements of a prisoners' dilemma. First, my results suggest that irrespective of county size unilateral liberalization make...

  4. Attributable risks for acute myocardial infarction in four countries of Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    M. Ciruzzi; Schargrodsky, H; P. Pramparo; E. Rivas Estany; L. Rodriguez Naude; R. De la Noval Garcia; S. Gaxiola Cazarez; MEANEY, E.; Nass, A.; B. Finizola; Castillo, L.

    2003-01-01

    This multicenter case control study investigated, in four countries of America, the proportions of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) attributable to cholesterol, smoking, hypertension, body mass index, diabetes and family history of coronary heart disease (attributable risks, AR). AR were estimated using information from 1060 cases of AMI and 1071 controls from Argentina, 323 cases of AMI and 314 controls from Cuba, 200 cases of AMI and 200 controls from Mexico and 266 cases of AMI and 264 co...

  5. Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Luxembourg 2010 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Luxembourg for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  6. Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Czech Republic 2010 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Czech Republic for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  7. Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Denmark 2011 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-08-12

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Denmark for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  8. Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Belgium 2010 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-08-12

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Belgium for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  9. Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Portugal 2011 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-08-12

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Portugal for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  10. Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Canada 2010 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Canada for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  11. Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - United Kingdom 2010 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in United Kingdom for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  12. Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Poland 2011 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-08-12

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Poland for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  13. Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - New Zealand 2010 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in New Zealand for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  14. Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Greece 2010 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Greece for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  15. Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Spain 2011 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-08-12

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Spain for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  16. Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Norway 2011 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-08-12

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Norway for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  17. Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Slovak Republic 2011 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-08-12

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Slovak Republic for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  18. Dominican Republic : Country Fiduciary Assessment, Volume 3, Country Procurement Assessment Report - Update

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2005-01-01

    The Dominican Republic has made significant strides in deepening democracy during the past decade including the implementation of an important electoral reform. This fiduciary assessment was prepared by the Bank and the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) as a tool for their coordinated policy dialogue on governance with the country, and as a key input for their respective assistance strategies. Consequently, the report also provides important contributions to both institutions' analytical ...

  19. Development and enhancement of agricultural biotechnology in some countries in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, B R; Pasternak, J J; Downer, R G; Dumbroff, E B; Winter, K A

    1991-03-01

    A number of research institutions and both local and international agencles in Latin America are using biotechnology as part of an effort to enhance agricultural productivity. However, it is very much an open question as to whether all of these various organizations can provide the best means of realizing this goal. Latin American countries vary dramatically in their knowledge base and current use of modern biotechnology. Thus, while some countries lack the ability to develop, or possibly even implement, many aspects of modern biotechnology, others are quite advanced in this regard. This review provides a somewhat selective overview of current research in the area of agricultural biotechnology in Mexico, Costa Rica and Ecuador, with emphasis on how the existing agencies and institutions have responded to the challenge of biotechnology. In addition, general strategies for the development of agricultural biotechnology in these countries are presented and discussed. PMID:24424928

  20. Clinical practice guidelines for the management of candidiasis: 2009 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pappas, P.G.; Kauffman, C.A.; Andes, D.; Benjamin Jr., D.K.; Calandra, T.; Edwards, J.E.; Filler, S.G.; Fisher, J.F.; Kullberg, B.J.; Ostrosky-Zeichner, L.; Reboli, A.C.; Rex, J.H.; Walsh, T.J.; Sobel, J.D.

    2009-01-01

    Guidelines for the management of patients with invasive candidiasis and mucosal candidiasis were prepared by an Expert Panel of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. These updated guidelines replace the previous guidelines published in the 15 January 2004 issue of Clinical Infectious Diseases

  1. Elemental analysis of wines from South America and their classification according to country

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentlin, Fabrina R.S.; Pozebon, Dirce, E-mail: dircepoz@iq.ufrgs.b [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Pulgati, Fernando H. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Matematica; Dresslerc, Valderi L. [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), RS (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2011-07-01

    Major, minor and trace elements in wines from wine-producing countries in South America (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Uruguay) were determined. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) combined with pneumatic and/or ultrasonic nebulization were used. The concentrations of 45 elements (Al, Ag, As, Ba, Be, Bi, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cu, Dy, Er, Eu, Fe, Gd, Ho, K, La, Li, Lu, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Nd, Ni, P, Pb, Pr, Rb, Sb, Sn, Se, Sm, Sr, Tb, Ti, Tl, Tm, U, V, Yb, and Zn) in 53 red wines were determined. By means of multivariate analysis, the wines could be discriminated according to the country of origin, regardless of the type of grape. The discriminant elements were Tl, U, Li, Rb, and Mg. (author)

  2. Elemental analysis of wines from South America and their classification according to country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Major, minor and trace elements in wines from wine-producing countries in South America (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Uruguay) were determined. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) combined with pneumatic and/or ultrasonic nebulization were used. The concentrations of 45 elements (Al, Ag, As, Ba, Be, Bi, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cu, Dy, Er, Eu, Fe, Gd, Ho, K, La, Li, Lu, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Nd, Ni, P, Pb, Pr, Rb, Sb, Sn, Se, Sm, Sr, Tb, Ti, Tl, Tm, U, V, Yb, and Zn) in 53 red wines were determined. By means of multivariate analysis, the wines could be discriminated according to the country of origin, regardless of the type of grape. The discriminant elements were Tl, U, Li, Rb, and Mg. (author)

  3. The potential economic value of a cutaneous leishmaniasis vaccine in seven endemic countries in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, Kristina M; Hotez, Peter J; Kruchten, Stephanie D; Kamhawi, Shaden; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Valenzuela, Jesus G; Lee, Bruce Y

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and its associated complications, including mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL) and diffuse CL (DCL) have emerged as important neglected tropical diseases in Latin America, especially in areas associated with human migration, conflict, and recent deforestation. Because of the limitations of current chemotherapeutic approaches to CL, MCL, and DCL, several prototype vaccines are in different states of product and clinical development. We constructed and utilized a Markov decision analytic computer model to evaluate the potential economic value of a preventative CL vaccine in seven countries in Latin America: Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, and Venezuela. The results indicated that even a vaccine with a relatively short duration of protection and modest efficacy could be recommended for use in targeted locations, as it could prevent a substantial number of cases at low-cost and potentially even result in cost savings. If the population in the seven countries were vaccinated using a vaccine that provides at least 10 years of protection, an estimated 41,000-144,784 CL cases could be averted, each at a cost less than the cost of current recommended treatments. Further, even a vaccine providing as little as five years duration of protection with as little as 50% efficacy remains cost-effective compared with chemotherapy; additional scenarios resembling epidemic settings such as the one that occurred in Chaparral, Colombia in 2004 demonstrate important economic benefits. PMID:23176979

  4. [The pharmaceutical industry and the sustainability of healthcare systems in developed countries and in Latin America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iñesta, Antonio; Oteo, Luis Angel

    2011-06-01

    The global economic crisis and its impact on public finances in most developed countries are giving rise to cost-containment policies in healthcare systems. Prevailing legislation on medication requires the safety, quality, and efficacy of these products. A few countries include efficiency criteria, primarily for new medication that they wish to include in public financing. The appropriate use of generic and "biosimilar medication" is very important for maintaining the financial equilibrium of the Health Services. The problem in Latin America is that not all multisource products are bioequivalent and not all countries have the resources to conduct bioequivalence studies in vivo. The European Medicines Agency in 2005 adopted guidelines on "biosimilar medicines" and thirteen of them were subsequently approved for general release. Benchmarking of this model by other countries would be important. The influence of the pharmaceutical industry on political and administrative areas is enormous and control is necessary. The pharmaceutical companies claim that they act with corporate social responsibility, therefore, they must ensure this responsibility toward society. PMID:21709969

  5. On the Way to 2020: Data for Vocational Education and Training Policies. Country Statistical Overviews. Update 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedefop - European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This report provides an updated statistical overview of vocational education and training (VET) and lifelong learning in European countries. These country statistical snapshots illustrate progress on indicators selected for their policy relevance and contribution to Europe 2020 objectives. The indicators take 2010 as the baseline year and present…

  6. IEA Bioenergy task 40. Country report for the Netherlands. Update 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Short-term objectives of the IEA Bioenergy Task 40 'Sustainable International Bio-energy Trade: Securing Supply and Demand' are amongst other objectives to present an overview of development of biomass markets in various parts of the world and to identify existing barriers hampering development of a (global) commodity market (e.g. policy framework, ecology, economics). As in most countries biomass is a relatively new (though quickly growing) commodity, relatively little information is available on e.g. the traded volumes and prices of various biomass streams, policies and regulations on biomass use and trade, and existing and perceived barriers. This country report aims to provide an overview of these issues for the Netherlands, and also sets the first step to make an inventory of barriers as perceived by various Dutch stakeholders. The information gathered in this report is to a large extent based on existing statistics and reports from Dutch institutions. The literature data is complemented by additional information obtained from stakeholders, such as utilities, biomass traders, the port of Rotterdam, policy makers and custom institutions. In some cases, the data source was left anonymous because of the confidential nature of the data concerned. This report was first published in 2005. In this updated 2006 version, additional data has been collected for the year 2005, mainly concerning the import of biomass and renewable electricity. Also the policy section has been updated (situation September 2006), and some information on the use of biofuels has been added.

  7. Cost of dengue cases in eight countries in the Americas and Asia: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suaya, Jose A; Shepard, Donald S; Siqueira, João B; Martelli, Celina T; Lum, Lucy C S; Tan, Lian Huat; Kongsin, Sukhontha; Jiamton, Sukhum; Garrido, Fàtima; Montoya, Romeo; Armien, Blas; Huy, Rekol; Castillo, Leticia; Caram, Mariana; Sah, Binod K; Sughayyar, Rana; Tyo, Karen R; Halstead, Scott B

    2009-05-01

    Despite the growing worldwide burden of dengue fever, the global economic impact of dengue illness is poorly documented. Using a common protocol, we present the first multicountry estimates of the direct and indirect costs of dengue cases in eight American and Asian countries. We conducted prospective studies of the cost of dengue in five countries in the Americas (Brazil, El Salvador, Guatemala, Panama, and Venezuela) and three countries in Asia (Cambodia, Malaysia, and Thailand). All studies followed the same core protocol with interviews and medical record reviews. The study populations were patients treated in ambulatory and hospital settings with a clinical diagnosis of dengue. Most studies were performed in 2005. Costs are in 2005 international dollars (I$). We studied 1,695 patients (48% pediatric and 52% adult); none died. The average illness lasted 11.9 days for ambulatory patients and 11.0 days for hospitalized patients. Among hospitalized patients, students lost 5.6 days of school, whereas those working lost 9.9 work days per average dengue episode. Overall mean costs were I$514 and I$1,394 for an ambulatory and hospitalized case, respectively. With an annual average of 574,000 cases reported, the aggregate annual economic cost of dengue for the eight study countries is at least I$587 million. Preliminary adjustment for under-reporting could raise this total to $1.8 billion, and incorporating costs of dengue surveillance and vector control would raise the amount further. Dengue imposes substantial costs on both the health sector and the overall economy. PMID:19407136

  8. Regulating the Sustainability of Forest Management in the Americas: Cross-Country Comparisons of Forest Legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Monges Zalazar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on theoretical underpinnings and an empirical review of forest laws and regulations of selected countries throughout the Americas, we examine key components of natural forest management and how they are addressed in the legal frameworks of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Paraguay, Uruguay, and the U.S. We consider forest policy directives in terms of legislative, planning, operational, environmental/ecological, social, and economic aspects and classify them by the type of policy obligation: (1 non-discretionary laws or rules; or (2 discretionary, voluntary directives; and, further, by the type of policy approach: (1 a specific technology or practice required or recommended; (2 a process or system requirement or recommendation; or (3 a performance or outcome based requirement or recommendation. Protection of at-risk species and riparian buffers are required in all countries and include specific prescriptions in most; forest management planning and secure, legal land title or tenancy are commonly required; and mandatory processes to protect soil and water quality are customary. Less common requirements include forest monitoring and social and economic aspects, and, when in place, they are usually voluntary. Implications for improved policies to achieve sustainable forest management (SFM are discussed.

  9. A Taxonomic Update of Small Mammal Plague Reservoirs in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonvicino, Cibele R; Oliveira, João A; Cordeiro-Estrela, Pedro; D'andrea, Paulo S; Almeida, Alzira M P

    2015-10-01

    Plague is a disease of epidemic potential that may emerge with discontinuous outbreaks. In South America, 50 wild rodent species have been identified as plague reservoirs, in addition to one lagomorph and two marsupials. To review the nomenclature of plague reservoirs, we examined specimens collected in plague foci, carried out new surveys in Brazilian plague regions, and re-evaluated the nomenclature of South American reservoirs on the basis of the current literature. Five of the 15 species involved with plague in Argentina, three of 10 species involved with plague in Bolivia, three of the seven species involved with plague in Peru, five of the nine species involved with plague in Ecuador, and six of the nine species involved with plague in Brazil have undergone taxonomic changes. In the last 20 years, plague cases were recorded in Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, and Peru. These four countries have a high rodent species richness in plague foci, a fact that may be decisive for the maintenance of plague in the wild. PMID:26393822

  10. How three countries in the Americas are fortifying dietary salt reduction: a north and south perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legowski, Barbara; Legetic, Branka

    2011-09-01

    A chronic disease/risk factor prevention framework with three policy environments--communications, physical and economic--was used to organize population level interventions that address the "over consumption of dietary salt", a key risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. The framework was then used to map the population based strategies to reduce dietary salt consumption being applied in three countries in the Americas--Argentina, Canada and Chile--each with a history of multi-sector approaches to deal with the risk factors for chronic disease, offering a north versus south perspective. Results show that in all three countries policy instruments are concentrated in the communications environment, e.g., media and education campaigns and/or regulations for standardized information on the salt or sodium content of packaged food products. Notable gaps are the requirement for nutrient information on meals and food items prepared by food establishments and restrictions on advertising and marketing of foods to children. In the physical environment, referring to the sodium levels in commercially prepared foods and meals available on the market, voluntary reformulation of food products is underway at this time in the three countries. Argentina and Chile began with bread and have gradually added other food categories; Canada at the outset is addressing all food categories where products have added salt. Argentina alone is at this point actively approaching regulations to limit the salt content of food, preferring this over ongoing monitoring of voluntary targets. No government in the three counties has yet considered action in the economic environment, a complex area where the research on and initiatives to limit or disadvantage energy-dense food products to address obesity may also capture foods that are highly salted. In the meantime, with recent research estimating substantially higher gains in population health from government legislation to limit salt in foods

  11. Folate and vitamin B12 status in Latin America and the Caribbean: An update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The current magnitude of folate and vitamin B12 deficiency in Latin America and the Caribbean is uncertain. Objective: To summarize data on plasma or serum vitamin B12 and folate concentrations in Latin America and the Caribbean reported since 1990, a period that covers the era before an...

  12. A Comparison between America and Other Countries in Offshore Aquaculture Management:a Literature Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>In America offshore aquaculture is gaining momentum in recent years,and expects to grow faster in the near future.The White House has clearly expressed its support;statistics show that the aquaculture has huge potential and can contribute a lot to employment and help reducing the trade deficit;the offshore aquaculture act which is designed to promote American offshore aquaculture industry has been proposed to the Congress for action.However,there are still some long standing obstacles hindering its development such as competing uses, wasted pollutants,lacking of fishing food,escapees,GMOs,lengthy permission procedures etc.Ironically,to some of these issues,debates have been there for decades without consensus.While the proposed National Offshore Aquaculture Act 2005 may provide major principles for the solution to these problems,it is also useful to draw experiences from some other countries that have longer history and more advanced skills in the industry.Their technology and institutional design are prone to the development of their aquaculture industries.Mainly this paper,as a literature review,examines the practices of Norway,Canada and Australia, and compares their actions with the real problems in U.S.,and what has been proposed by National Offshore Aquaculture Act 2005.This paper aims to check what other nations have done with these problems,draw useful experiences from them,analyze what the Offshore Aquaculture Act has achieved,and recommend what the related federal agencies should do in the next step.

  13. Household Saving in Developing Countries - Inequality, Demographics and All That: How Different are Latin America and South East Asia?

    OpenAIRE

    Székely, Miguel; Attanasio, Orazio P.

    2000-01-01

    East Asia and Latin America have diverged in several dimensions in the past three decades. This paper compares household saving behavior in two countries in each region (Mexico, Peru, Thailand and Taiwan). We make four contributions. First, we provide the first comparisons of savings in these two regions at the micro level using synthetic cohort techniques. Second, rather than focusing only on total household saving, as is common in the literature, we disaggregate the population into educatio...

  14. [The report of the Commission on Macroeconomics and Health: its relevance to the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-09-01

    The Commission on Macroeconomics and Health (CMH) was established by the Director-General of the World Health Organization (WHO) to evaluate the role of health in economic development. On 20 December 2001 the CMH submitted its report to the WHO Director-General. Entitled Macroeconomics and Health: Investing in Health for Economic Development, the CMH report affirms that in order to reduce poverty; and achieve economic development, it is essential to improve the health of the poor; to accomplish this, it is necessary to expand the access that the poor have to essential health services. The Commission believes that more financial resources are needed, that the health expenditures of less-developed and low-income countries are insufficient for the challenges that these countries face, and that high-income countries must increase their financial assistance in order to help solve the main health problems of less-developed and low-income countries. This piece summarizes a report that was prepared by the Program on Public Policy and Health of the Division of Health and Human Development of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO). The PAHO document analyzes the importance of the CMH report for the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean, focusing on some of the central arguments put forth in the CMH report as they relate to achieving better health conditions in the Americas. These arguments have been organized around three major themes in the CMH report: a) the relationships between health and economic growth, b) the principal health problems that affect the poor in low-income and low-middle-income#10; countries, and c) the gap between the funding needed to address the principal problems that affect these countries and the actual spending levels. #10; PMID:12396642

  15. Attributable risks for acute myocardial infarction in four countries of Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ciruzzi

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This multicenter case control study investigated, in four countries of America, the proportions of acute myocardial infarction (AMI attributable to cholesterol, smoking, hypertension, body mass index, diabetes and family history of coronary heart disease (attributable risks, AR. AR were estimated using information from 1060 cases of AMI and 1071 controls from Argentina, 323 cases of AMI and 314 controls from Cuba, 200 cases of AMI and 200 controls from Mexico and 266 cases of AMI and 264 controls from Venezuela. AR were obtained from the prevalence of coronary risk factors in the cases and the corresponding Odds Ratio (OR derived through appropriate multivariate models. The AR for AMI observed for hypercholesterolaemia were the following: Venezuela 27%, Mexico 3%, Cuba 30% and Argentina 36%; for diabetes: Venezuela 10%, Mexico 15%, Cuba 5% and Argentina 7% and for body mass index: Venezuela 12%, Mexico 3%, Cuba 19% and Argentina 17%. The same risk factor may have a different attributable risk in different populations. Together, hypercholesterolaemia, hypertension, smoking, diabetes, body mass index and family history of coronary heart disease accounted for 76% of all cases of AMI in Venezuela, 70% in Mexico, 81% in Cuba and 79% in Argentina. The knowledge of attributable risks could have important implications for public health strategies, especially in those countries with limited health care resources.Este estudio caso-control y multicéntrico, investigó en cuatro países de América, la proporción de casos de infarto agudo de miocardio (IAM atribuidos al colesterol, tabaquismo, hipertensión, índice de masa corporal e historia familiar de enfermedad coronaria (riesgo atribuible, RA. Los RA fueron estimados a partir de la información de 1060 casos de IAM y 1071 controles de Argentina, 323 casos de IAM y 314 controles de Cuba, 200 casos de IAM y 200 controles de México y 266 casos de IAM y 264 controles de Venezuela. Los RA fueron

  16. Do minimum wages in Latin America and the Caribbean matter ? Evidence from 19 countries

    OpenAIRE

    Kristensen, Nicolai; Cunningham, Wendy

    2006-01-01

    Despite the existence of minimum wage legislation in most Latin American countries, there is little empirical evidence demonstrating its impact on the distribution of wages. In this study the authors analyze cross-country data for 19 Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) countries to gain an understanding of if and how minimum wages affect wage distributions in LAC countries. Although there is no single minimum wage institution in the LAC region, the authors find regional trends. Minimum wages a...

  17. The impact of gender inequality in education and employment on economic growth in developing Countries: Updates and extensions

    OpenAIRE

    Klasen, Stephan; Lamanna, Francesca

    2008-01-01

    Using cross-country and panel regressions, we investigate to what extent gender gaps in education and employment (proxied using gender gaps in labor force participation) reduce economic growth. Using most recent data and investigating a long time period (1960-2000), we update the results of previous studies on education gaps on growth and extend the analysis to employment gaps using panel data. We find that gender gaps in education and employment significantly reduce economic growth. The comb...

  18. A Study of Public Library Users in Some Countries of Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara, Alvaro Agudo

    This user survey was part of a three-part diagnostic study that sought to obtain information on how public libraries operate in Latin America (Argentina, Colombia, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Panama, and Venezuela) and the Caribbean (Barbados, Grenada, Jamaica, and Surinam) and the social role performed by this type of service in the region.…

  19. Corporate Governance of State-Owned Enterprises in Latin America : Current Trends and Country Cases

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this report is to provide a descriptive analysis of the current practices and trends of corporate governance of State-owned Enterprises (SOEs) in several Latin-American countries. It provides practitioners of SOE corporate governance with a stocktaking of current practices and trends in several Latin American countries, as well as international experiences and good pr...

  20. Do Minimum Wages in Latin America and the Caribbean Matter? Evidence from 19 Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Nicolai; Cunningham, Wendy

    Despite the existence of minimum wage legislation in most Latin American countries, there is little empirical evidence demonstrating its impact on the distribution of wages. In this study, cross-country data for 19 Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) countries is analyzed to gain an understanding...... of if and how minimum wages affect wage distributions in LAC countries. Although there is no single minimum wage institution in the LAC region, we find regional trends. Minimum wages affect the wage distribution in both the formal and, especially, the informal sector, both at the minimum wage and at multiples...... of the minimum. The minimum does not uniformly benefit low-wage workers: in countries where the minimum wage is relatively low compared to mean wages, the minimum wage affects the more disadvantaged segments of the labor force, namely informal sector workers, women, young and older workers, and the low skilled...

  1. Molecular Diversity of Rabies Viruses Associated with Bats in Mexico and Other Countries of the Americas

    OpenAIRE

    Velasco-Villa, Andrés; Orciari, Lillian A.; Juárez-Islas, Víctor; Gómez-Sierra, Mauricio; Padilla-Medina, Irma; Flisser, Ana; Souza, Valeria; Castillo, Amanda; Franka, Richard; Escalante-Mañe, Maribel; Sauri-González, Isaias; Rupprecht, Charles E.

    2006-01-01

    Bat rabies and its transmission to humans and other species in Mexico were investigated. Eighty-nine samples obtained from rabid livestock, cats, dogs, and humans in Mexico were studied by antigenic typing and partial sequence analysis. Samples were further compared with enzootic rabies associated with different species of bats in the Americas. Patterns of nucleotide variation allowed the definition of at least 20 monophyletic clusters associated with 9 or more different bat species. Several ...

  2. Bibliometric analysis of regional Latin America's scientific output in Public Health through SCImago Journal & Country Rank.

    OpenAIRE

    Zacca-González, Grisel; Chinchilla-Rodríguez, Zaida; Vargas-Quesada, Benjamín; Moya-Anegón, Félix

    2014-01-01

    Background: In the greater framework of the essential functions of Public Health, our focus is on a systematic, objective, external evaluation of Latin American scientific output, to compare its publications in the area of Public Health with those of other major geographic zones. We aim to describe the regional distribution of output in Public Health, and the level of visibility and specialization, for Latin America; it can then be characterized and compared in the international context. ...

  3. The Potential Economic Value of a Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Vaccine in Seven Endemic Countries in the Americas

    OpenAIRE

    Bacon, Kristina M.; Hotez, Peter J.; Kruchten, Stephanie D.; Kamhawi, Shaden; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Bruce Y Lee

    2012-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and its associated complications, including mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL) and diffuse CL (DCL) have emerged as important neglected tropical diseases in Latin America, especially in areas associated with human migration, conflict, and recent deforestation. Because of the limitations of current chemotherapeutic approaches to CL, MCL, and DCL, several prototype vaccines are in different states of product and clinical development. We constructed and utilized a Mar...

  4. Molecular Diversity of Rabies Viruses Associated with Bats in Mexico and Other Countries of the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco-Villa, Andrés; Orciari, Lillian A.; Juárez-Islas, Víctor; Gómez-Sierra, Mauricio; Padilla-Medina, Irma; Flisser, Ana; Souza, Valeria; Castillo, Amanda; Franka, Richard; Escalante-Mañe, Maribel; Sauri-González, Isaias; Rupprecht, Charles E.

    2006-01-01

    Bat rabies and its transmission to humans and other species in Mexico were investigated. Eighty-nine samples obtained from rabid livestock, cats, dogs, and humans in Mexico were studied by antigenic typing and partial sequence analysis. Samples were further compared with enzootic rabies associated with different species of bats in the Americas. Patterns of nucleotide variation allowed the definition of at least 20 monophyletic clusters associated with 9 or more different bat species. Several lineages associated with distinctive antigenic patterns were found in rabies viruses related to rabies in vampire bats in Mexico. Vampire bat rabies virus lineages associated with antigenic variant 3 are widely spread from Mexico to South America, suggesting these lineages as the most likely ancestors of vampire bat rabies and the ones that have been moved by vampire bat populations throughout the Americas. Rabies viruses related to Lasiurus cinereus, Histiotus montanus, and some other not yet identified species of the genus Lasiurus were found circulating in Mexico. Long-range dissemination patterns of rabies are not necessarily associated with migratory bat species, as in the case of rabies in Desmodus rotundus and Histiotus montanus. Human rabies was associated with vampire bat transmission in most cases, and in one case, rabies transmission from free-tailed bats was inferred. The occurrence of rabies spillover from bats to domestic animals was also demonstrated. Genetic typing of rabies viruses allowed us to distinguish trends of disease dissemination and to address, in a preliminary fashion, aspects of the complex evolution of rabies viruses in different host-reservoir species. PMID:16672396

  5. Molecular diversity of rabies viruses associated with bats in Mexico and other countries of the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco-Villa, Andrés; Orciari, Lillian A; Juárez-Islas, Víctor; Gómez-Sierra, Mauricio; Padilla-Medina, Irma; Flisser, Ana; Souza, Valeria; Castillo, Amanda; Franka, Richard; Escalante-Mañe, Maribel; Sauri-González, Isaias; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2006-05-01

    Bat rabies and its transmission to humans and other species in Mexico were investigated. Eighty-nine samples obtained from rabid livestock, cats, dogs, and humans in Mexico were studied by antigenic typing and partial sequence analysis. Samples were further compared with enzootic rabies associated with different species of bats in the Americas. Patterns of nucleotide variation allowed the definition of at least 20 monophyletic clusters associated with 9 or more different bat species. Several lineages associated with distinctive antigenic patterns were found in rabies viruses related to rabies in vampire bats in Mexico. Vampire bat rabies virus lineages associated with antigenic variant 3 are widely spread from Mexico to South America, suggesting these lineages as the most likely ancestors of vampire bat rabies and the ones that have been moved by vampire bat populations throughout the Americas. Rabies viruses related to Lasiurus cinereus, Histiotus montanus, and some other not yet identified species of the genus Lasiurus were found circulating in Mexico. Long-range dissemination patterns of rabies are not necessarily associated with migratory bat species, as in the case of rabies in Desmodus rotundus and Histiotus montanus. Human rabies was associated with vampire bat transmission in most cases, and in one case, rabies transmission from free-tailed bats was inferred. The occurrence of rabies spillover from bats to domestic animals was also demonstrated. Genetic typing of rabies viruses allowed us to distinguish trends of disease dissemination and to address, in a preliminary fashion, aspects of the complex evolution of rabies viruses in different host-reservoir species. PMID:16672396

  6. One century of arsenic exposure in Latin America: a review of history and occurrence from 14 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundschuh, Jochen; Litter, Marta I; Parvez, Faruque; Román-Ross, Gabriela; Nicolli, Hugo B; Jean, Jiin-Shuh; Liu, Chen-Wuing; López, Dina; Armienta, María A; Guilherme, Luiz R G; Cuevas, Alina Gomez; Cornejo, Lorena; Cumbal, Luis; Toujaguez, Regla

    2012-07-01

    The global impact on public health of elevated arsenic (As) in water supplies is highlighted by an increasing number of countries worldwide reporting high As concentrations in drinking water. In Latin America, the problem of As contamination in water is known in 14 out of 20 countries: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Peru and Uruguay. Considering the 10 μg/L limit for As in drinking water established by international and several national agencies, the number of exposed people is estimated to be about 14 million. Health effects of As exposure were identified for the first time already in the 1910s in Bellville (Córdoba province, Argentina). Nevertheless, contamination of As in waters has been detected in 10 Latin American countries only within the last 10 to 15 years. Arsenic is mobilized predominantly from young volcanic rocks and their weathering products. In alluvial aquifers, which are water sources frequently used for water supply, desorption of As from metal oxyhydroxides at high pH (>8) is the predominant mobility control; redox conditions are moderate reducing to oxidizing and As(V) is the predominant species. In the Andes, the Middle American cordillera and the Transmexican Volcanic Belt, oxidation of sulfide minerals is the primary As mobilization process. Rivers that originate in the Andean mountains, transport As to more densely populated areas in the lowlands (e.g. Rímac river in Peru, Pilcomayo river in Bolivia/Argentina/Paraguay). In many parts of Latin America, As often occurs together with F and B; in the Chaco-Pampean plain As is found additionally with V, Mo and U whereas in areas with sulfide ore deposits As often occurs together with heavy metals. These co-occurrences and the anthropogenic activities in mining areas that enhance the mobilization of As and other pollutants make more dramatic the environmental problem. PMID:21959248

  7. 77 FR 12935 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; New Designated Country (Armenia) and Other Trade Agreements Updates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... published a notice in the Federal Register (76 FR 58856) waiving the Buy American Act and other... RIN 9000-AM16 Federal Acquisition Regulation; New Designated Country (Armenia) and Other Trade... final rule amending the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) to add Armenia as a designated country,...

  8. Country Waste Profile Report for United States of America. Reporting Year: 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  9. Country Waste Profile Report for United States of America. Reporting Year: 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  10. Country Waste Profile Report for United States of America. Reporting Year: 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  11. Country Waste Profile Report for United States of America. Reporting Year: 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  12. Country Waste Profile Report for United States of America. Reporting Year: 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  13. IAEA survey of paediatric computed tomography practice in 40 countries in Asia, Europe, Latin America and Africa: procedures and protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To survey procedures and protocols in paediatric computed tomography (CT) in 40 less resourced countries. Under a project of the International Atomic Energy Agency, 146 CT facilities in 40 countries of Africa, Asia, Europe and Latin America responded to an electronic survey of CT technology, exposure parameters, CT protocols and doses. Modern MDCT systems are available in 77 % of the facilities surveyed with dedicated paediatric CT protocols available in 94 %. However, protocols for some age groups were unavailable in around 50 % of the facilities surveyed. Indication-based protocols were used in 57 % of facilities. Estimates of radiation dose using CTDI or DLP from standard CT protocols demonstrated wide variation up to a factor of 100. CTDIvol values for the head and chest were between two and five times those for an adult at some sites. Sedation and use of shielding were frequently reported; immobilisation was not. Records of exposure factors were kept at 49 % of sites. There is significant potential for improvement in CT practice and protocol use for children in less resourced countries. Dose estimates for young children varied widely. This survey provides critical baseline data for ongoing quality improvement efforts by the IAEA. (orig.)

  14. Animal Leptospirosis in Latin America and the Caribbean Countries: Reported Outbreaks and Literature Review (2002–2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrakovsky, Jessica; Bianchi, Alejandra; Fisun, Helen; Nájera-Aguilar, Patricia; Pereira, Martha Maria

    2014-01-01

    Leptospirosis is a worldwide zoonotic disease whose transmission is linked through multiple factors in the animal-human-ecosystem interface. The data on leptospirosis reported to the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) for Latin America and Caribbean (LAC) countries/sovereign territories from 2005–2011 were mapped, showing a wide distribution of outbreaks in the region. Tropical terrestrial biomes are the predominate ecosystems showing reports of outbreaks. Climatic and ecological factors were relevant to the occurrence of epidemic outbreaks. The available scientific information from 2002–2014 was summarized to obtain a general overview and identify key issues related to the One Health approach. The primary serological test used for diagnosis and for conducting surveys was the microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Reports regarding the isolation and typing of leptospires were scattered and limited to data from a few countries, but their results revealed considerable biodiversity at the species and serovar levels. A total of six out of 11 currently named pathogenic species were found in the region. There was also high diversity of animal species showing evidence of infection by leptospires, including rodents, pets, livestock and wild animals. Prevention and control measures for leptospirosis should consider issues of animal and human health in the context of ecosystems, the territorial land borders of countries and trade. PMID:25325360

  15. Unions and Economic Performance in Developing Countries: Case Studies from Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Rios-Avila, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the economic impact of unions on productivity in the manufacturing sector across six Latin American countries: Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Mexico, Panama, and Uruguay. Using an augmented Cobb-Douglas production function, the paper finds that unions have positive, but mostly small, effects on productivity, with the exception of Argentina, with a large negative effect, and Bolivia, with no effect. An analysis on profitability shows that, in most cases, the positive productivi...

  16. [National health research systems in Latin America: a 14-country review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alger, Jackeline; Becerra-Posada, Francisco; Kennedy, Andrew; Martinelli, Elena; Cuervo, Luis Gabriel

    2009-11-01

    This article discusses the main features of the national health research systems (NHRS) of Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, El Salvador, Honduras, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, and Venezuela, based on documents prepared by their country experts who participated in the First Latin American Conference on Research and Innovation for Health held in April 2008, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The review also includes sources cited in the reports, published scientific papers, and expert opinion, as well as regional secondary sources. Six countries reported having formal entities for health research governance and management: Brazil and Costa Rica's entities are led by their ministries of health; while Argentina, Cuba, Ecuador, and Venezuela have entities shared by their ministries of health and ministries of science and technology. Brazil and Ecuador each reported having a comprehensive national policy devoted specifically to health science, technology, and innovation. Argentina, Brazil, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, and Venezuela reported having established health research priorities. In conclusion, encouraging progress has been made, despite the structural and functional heterogeneity of the study countries' NHRS and their disparate levels of development. Instituting good NHRS governance/management is of utmost importance to how efficiently ministries of health, other government players, and society-at-large can tackle health research. PMID:20107697

  17. Consuming the world's energy: Update series. Energy efficiency trends in oil countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of Energy Detente addresses energy efficiency in selected oil producing countries over time and compare the varying effects of important crude oil price changes. As economies around the world heighten their benefits from conservation and efficient use of energy, oil producers will be crucial examples not only for their own sakes, but for consuming countries dependent upon their exports. In this sense, their potential for leadership and vision seems greater than ever. Specifically, 6 oil-exporting countries are featured: Australia, Kuwait, Indonesia, Nigeria, the United Kingdom, and Venezuela. This issue also presents the following: (1) the ED Refining Netback Data Series for the US Gulf and West Coasts, Rotterdam, and Singapore as of February 21, 1992; and (2) the ED Fuel Price/Tax Series for countries of the Eastern Hemisphere, February, 1992 edition

  18. Climate change policy initiatives. 1995/96 update. Volume II: selected non-iea countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This IEA study details in a standard format the actions that twenty non-IEA countries are taking under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. It provides information on the development of their national strategies to address greenhouse gas emissions, along with detailed data regarding such emissions from energy sources. The book summarises the positions of these countries in the international negotiations on the Convention, their efforts regarding emissions of CO2 and other greenhouse gases, and their present and planned policies relevant to emissions from the energy sector. Key data on each country's energy production and use are given, along with tables showing recent trends (through 1993) in energy demand and energy-related CO2 emissions. Most country profiles also include information on relevant national studies. (author)

  19. Lessons learned in evaluating the Familias Fuertes program in three countries in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orpinas, Pamela; Ambrose, Ashley; Maddaleno, Matilde; Vulanovic, Lauren; Mejia, Martha; Butrón, Betzabé; Gutierrez, Gonzalo Sosa; Soriano, Ismael

    2014-12-01

    This report describes 1) the evaluation of the Familias Fuertes primary prevention program in three countries (Bolivia, Colombia, and Ecuador) and 2) the effect of program participation on parenting practices. Familias Fuertes was implemented in Bolivia (10 groups, 96 parents), Colombia (12 groups, 173 parents), and Ecuador (five groups, 42 parents) to prevent the initiation and reduce the prevalence of health-compromising behaviors among adolescents by strengthening family relationships and enhancing parenting skills. The program consists of seven group sessions (for 6-12 families) designed for parents/caregivers and their 10-14-year-old child. Parents/caregivers answered a survey before the first session and at the completion of the program. The survey measured two important mediating constructs: "positive parenting" and "parental hostility." The Pan American Health Organization provided training for facilitators. After the program, parents/caregivers from all three countries reported significantly higher mean scores for "positive parenting" and significantly lower mean scores for "parental hostility" than at the pre-test. "Positive parenting" practices paired with low "parental hostility" are fundamental to strengthening the relationship between parents/caregivers and the children and reducing adolescents' health-compromising behaviors. More research is needed to examine the long-term impact of the program on adolescent behaviors. PMID:25711749

  20. 77 FR 14303 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; New Designated Country (Armenia) and Other Trade Agreements Updates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION 48 CFR Parts 22, 25, and 52 RIN 9000-AM16 Federal Acquisition Regulation; New Designated Country (Armenia) and Other...

  1. Literacy and Access to the Written Culture by Youth and Adults Excluded from the School System: A Cross-Country Field Study in Nine Countries in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Rosa-Maria

    2008-01-01

    The title of this article refers to a field study carried out in 2006-2007 in nine countries in Latin America and the Caribbean. The article summarizes the basic concepts, aims, methodology and findings of the study. In conclusion, the author points out a number of important policy changes that are called for in this domain. While the study itself…

  2. Educational Policies and Globalization: Elements for Some Criticism on the International Organizations' Proposals for Latin America and the Caribbean Islands Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filho, Domingos Leite Lima

    2009-01-01

    The present work analyses the role of the international organizations in the orientation of educational reforms and reforms of professional formation/training taking place, in particular, in Latin America countries and in the Caribbean Islands from the beginning of the 1990's on. This article is organized into four sections: in the first one, we…

  3. Institutional Research in Emerging Countries of Southern Africa, Latin America, and the Middle East and North Africa: Global Frameworks and Local Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Lis; Saavedra, F. Mauricio; Romano, Jeanine

    2013-01-01

    This chapter presents a synthesis of the conceptualization and practice of institutional research (IR) in higher education (HE) in emerging countries across Southern Africa, Latin America and the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) regions. The chapter contextualizes the growing need for IR in these regions, identifies problems and challenges…

  4. Consideration of probabilistic safety objectives in OECD/NEA member countries: Short overview and update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almost every member country of the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) uses probabilistic safety criteria (PSC), in one way or another, for the safety assessment of nuclear power plants. The choice of the PSC, their applicability, and whether or not these PSC are used in a formal and/or legal way, is dependent on the political and regulatory situation. The spectrum of utilization includes the use as design requirements and the use as a regulatory and licensing tool be the authorities. The paper summarises the various PSC applied to the assessment of nuclear power plant in the OECD member countries and presents in more detail the use of PSC on the public health level in the Netherlands, United Kingdom and USA. 10 refs, 1 fig., 6 tabs

  5. The very great recession : Economic outlook updated for the major developed countries in 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Timbeau, Xavier

    2012-01-01

    The growth outlook for the developed countries, in Europe in particular, has deteriorated dramatically in recent weeks. The "voluntary and negotiated" devaluation of Greek sovereign debt securities, which is really nothing but a sovereign default, the wave of budget cuts being announced even as the budget bills are still debated, the inability of the European Union to mobilize its forces in the crisis - all these factors render the forecasts made two months ago obsolete. For many European cou...

  6. International Development Partnerships and Diffusion of Renewable Energy Technologies in Developing Countries: Cases in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platonova, Inna

    Access to energy is vital for sustainable development and poverty alleviation, yet billions of people in developing countries continue to suffer from constant exposure to open fires and dangerous fuels, such as kerosene. Renewable energy technologies are being acknowledged as suitable solutions for remote rural communities in much of the developing world and international development non-governmental organizations (NGOs) increasingly play important roles in the diffusion of these technologies via development partnerships. While these partnerships are widely promoted, many questions related to their functioning and effectiveness remain open. To advance the theory and practice, this interdisciplinary exploratory research provides in-depth insights into the nature of international NGO-driven development partnerships in rural renewable energy and their effectiveness based on the case studies in Talamanca, Costa Rica and Cajamarca, Peru. The analysis of the nature of development partnerships shows that partnerships in the case studies differ in structure, size and diversity of actors due to differentiation in the implementation strategies, technological complexities, institutional and contextual factors. A multi-theoretical approach is presented to explain the multiple drivers of the studied development partnerships. The research highlights partnership constraints related to the provision of rural renewable energy, the organizational type and institutional environments. Based on the case studies this research puts forward theoretical propositions regarding the factors that affect the effectiveness of the partnerships. In terms of the partnership dynamics dimension, several key factors of success are confirmed from the existing literature, namely shared values and goals, complementary expertise and capacities, confidence and trust, clear roles and responsibilities, effective communication. Additional factors identified are personality match and continuity of staff. In

  7. Economic development and occupational health in Latin America: new directions for public health in less developed countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaels, D; Barrera, C; Gacharná, M G

    1985-05-01

    Occupational Health is increasingly recognized as an area of importance in Latin American public health. In the agricultural sector of the region, the concentration of arable land into large holdings devoted to the production of export crops has resulted in the formation of a large migrant work force and greatly increased use of pesticides. The manufacturing sector of Latin America has grown rapidly in size and importance. Throughout the continent, increasing numbers of workers are employed in high-hazard industrial jobs. Limited studies of occupational disease in agriculture, mining, and manufacturing suggest that there is a high prevalence of work-related illness in the populations at risk. Trade unions are generally weak, and the high rate of unemployment and underemployment render occupational health a low priority for many workers. Engineering controls and personal protective equipment are unknown or inadequate in many industries, and there is a shortage of trained occupational health professionals in the region. Steps are being taken by many Latin American governments to begin to address this problem. Needed are: increased worker and professional training; a uniform set of exposure standards; control of multinational marketing and usage of hazardous substances; the development of technical equipment appropriate for local use and increased research on occupational exposure in populations in less developed countries. PMID:3985242

  8. Effectiveness of Behavior Change Communications for Reducing Transmission Risks Among People Living with HIV in 6 Countries in Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Lung; Nieto-Andrade, Benjamin; DiVincenzo, Allison; Rivas, Jorge; Firestone, Rebecca; Wheeler, Jennifer; Lungo, Sussy

    2015-07-01

    This first region-wide study (N = 2,818) aims to estimate prevalence of HIV-related risks (sexual behavior, HIV disclosure, number of sex partners, violence) and factors associated with these risks as well as evaluate a behavior change communications program targeted to PLHIV in 6 countries in Central America. After 2 years, the program achieved moderate coverage, with 21 % of the sample reporting exposure to interpersonal communications (IPC) and 52 % to mass media program components. The odds of condom use, HIV disclosure, and participation in a self-help group increased by 1.4-1.8 times with exposure to mass media. Exposure to IPC increased odds of condom use by 2.7 and participation in self-help groups by 4.4 times. In addition, being in HIV care or taking ART was associated with condom use and HIV-status disclosure. About 30 % experienced physical or sexual violence, and those who did were 4 times less likely to use condoms. Findings suggest that behavioral interventions for PLHIV can reduce HIV-transmission risks and increase access to care. PMID:25284460

  9. Ukraine, a transit country in a cul-de-sac? Updated review after the 2010 elections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study highlights Ukraine's role in the landscape of gas transit, while considering and analyzing the existing information on fields that are larger than the gas issue, i.e. Ukrainian politics and economy and, above all, the country's energy policy. A first part is dedicated to the economic and political background introducing the main elements of the current Ukrainian situation; the second part is devoted to energy and each one of its variants (mix, oil, coal and gas). The third part develops the January 2009 Russian-Ukrainian conflict; and the fourth part concentrates on EU policy towards Ukraine, with four scenarios in which governance and the gas transport network are the key elements. An additional chapter (introduction) discusses about the modifications induced by the election (in 2010) of a new president, especially on the energy aspects and the normalization of the Russian-Ukrainian relations

  10. A Decomposition of the Labour Market Participation of Married Women in Three Countries: Australia, Canada and the United States of America

    OpenAIRE

    Vera Brusentsev

    2000-01-01

    This study examines cross-national variation in the labour force participation of married women in Australia, Canada and the United States of America (USA), three countries of similar socio-economic development, in order to assess the observed differences in their labour market behaviour. While cross-national variation in labour force participation may be explained by a number of factors, a decomposition of the variation in cross-national labour market participation rates is explored in this ...

  11. Anxiety and depression during pregnancy in Central America: a cross-sectional study among pregnant women in the developing country Nicaragua

    OpenAIRE

    Verbeek, T.; Arjadi, R.; Vendrik, J. J.; Burger, H.; Berger, M.Y.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Around the world, maternal psychopathology during pregnancy is associated with a range of negative consequences for mother and child. Nevertheless, in Central America the magnitude of this public health problem is still unknown. The objective of this first explorative study was to investigate the prevalence and severity of anxiety and depression during pregnancy in the Central American developing country Nicaragua, as well as the availability of mental health care and to compare w...

  12. Energy integration experiences at the Europe, at the Nordic countries and at the Central America: considerations relevant to the South America integration process; Experiencias de integracao energetica na Europa, nos paises nordicos e na America Central: consideracoes relevantes ao processo de integracao Sul-Americana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Adriana Fiorotti; Andreza, Fernanda Marques Pereira; Soares, Jeferson Borghetti; Pinheiro, Maria Fernanda Bacile; Oliveira, Ricardo Gorini de [Empresa de Pesquisa Energetica (EPE), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], Emails: adriana.campos@epe.gov.br, fernanda.andreza@epe.gov.br; jeferson.soares@epe.gov.br, maria.pinheiro, ricardo.gorini@epe.gov.br

    2010-07-01

    In view of institutional/contractual regulatory problems at the South America, some experiences of energy integration at the electrical sectors and natural gas (Nordic countries. European Union and Central America), identifying related vantages and advantageous. Besides, there is an attempt of characterization of the process step of energy integration, and the fitting of regions in these steps, observing that the process of energy integration in the South America it is found in a initial step yet if it is considered the used methodology by the Colombian enterprise Interconexion Electrica S.A.E.S.P. - ISA (2007)

  13. World oil prices: prospects and implications for energy policy-makers in Latin America's oil-deficit countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullen, J.W.

    1978-01-01

    This study considers two broad topics: future prices for world crude oil and energy policy in Latin American oil-deficit countries. Chapter I identifies and explains the pattern of world crude oil prices in the post-war era. Chapter II provides an analysis of the structure of today's world crude oil market from the point of view of price formation. Chapter III discusses the current pattern of energy policies in the industrialized, oil-importing countries. Again, the emphasis is on price formation. Chapter IV focuses on the price forecast. It opens with an estimate of the maximum level of the long-run incremental cost of supplying world oil over the next two decades. Chapter V deals with the range of options open to policy-makers in Latin America's oil-deficit countries as they confront the expected price of world crude oil. It closes with a discussion of the security of oil imports in Latin America's oil-deficit countries.

  14. Trends in the co-occurrence of tobacco and cannabis use in 15-year-olds from 2002 to 2010 in 28 countries of Europe and North America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hublet, Anne; Bendtsen, Pernille; de Looze, Margreet E;

    2015-01-01

    cannabis use among 15-year-olds in Europe and North America between 2002 and 2010. METHODS: Twenty-eight countries were included and merged into six regions based on their welfare systems. Adolescents (n = 142 796) were divided in four 'user groups': 'no-users', 'tobacco and cannabis users', 'tobacco......-only users' and 'cannabis-only users'. Prevalence rates are reported by study-wave and region. Logistic regressions with study wave as independent variable were used to study trends in the user groups and regions. Interaction effects between time and gender were considered. RESULTS: Overall, tobacco use, and...

  15. Antenatal syphilis screening using point-of-care testing in low- and middle-income countries in Asia and Latin America: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Kuznik

    Full Text Available Untreated syphilis in pregnancy is associated with adverse clinical outcomes to the infant. In low- and middle-income countries in Asia and Latin America, 20%-30% of women are not tested for syphilis during pregnancy. We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of increasing the coverage for antenatal syphilis screening in 11 Asian and 20 Latin American countries, using a point-of-care immunochromatographic strip (ICS test.The decision analytical cost-effectiveness models reported incremental costs per disability-adjusted life years (DALYs averted from the perspectives of the national health care payer. Clinical outcomes were stillbirths, neonatal deaths, and congenital syphilis. DALYs were computed using WHO disability weights. Costs included the ICS test, three injections of benzathine penicillin, and nurse wages. Country-specific inputs included the antenatal prevalence of syphilis and the proportion of women in the antenatal care setting that are screened for syphilis infection as reported in the 2014 WHO baseline report on global sexually transmitted infection surveillance. Country-specific data on the annual number of live births, proportion of women with at least one antenatal care visit, and per capita gross national income were also included in the model.The incremental cost/DALY averted of syphilis screening is US$53 (range: US$10-US$332; Prob<1*per capita GDP=99.71% in Asia and US$60 (range: US$5-US$225; Prob<1*per capita GDP=99.77% in Latin America. Universal screening may reduce the annual number of stillbirths by 20,344 and 4,270, neonatal deaths by 8,201 and 1,721, cases of congenital syphilis by 10,952 and 2,298, and avert 925,039 and 197,454 DALYs in the aggregate Asian and Latin American panel, respectively.Antenatal syphilis screening is highly cost-effective in all the 11 Asian and 20 Latin American countries assessed. Our findings support the decision to expand syphilis screening in countries with currently low screening rates or

  16. Disparities in suicide mortality trends between United States of America and 25 European countries: retrospective analysis of WHO mortality database

    OpenAIRE

    Guillaume Fond; Pierre-Michel Llorca; Mohamed Boucekine; Xavier Zendjidjian; Lore Brunel; Christophe Lancon; Pascal Auquier; Laurent Boyer

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to examine changes in temporal trends in suicide mortality in 26 Western countries by retrospective trend analysis of the WHO mortality database on causes of deaths. From 1990 to 2010, there was a median reduction in suicide mortality of 22.7%, ranging from a 46% reduction in Estonia to a 26.2% increase in Romania. Suicide mortality decreased by ≥20% in 15 countries, and the reduction tended to be greater in countries with higher mortality in 1990. In most of the central Eur...

  17. World oil prices: prospects and implications for energy policy-making in Latin America's oil-deficit countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullen, J.W.

    1978-01-01

    This study considers two broad topics: future prices for world crude oil and energy policy in Latin American oil-deficit countries. Chapter 1 identifies and explains the pattern of world crude oil prices in the post-war era and it considers the relative importance of three factors in explaining changes in world crude oil prices during this period: the pressure of increasing demand on the supply cost of world crude oil, the organization of the world oil industry, and energy policies in the industrialized, oil-deficit countries. Chapter 2 provides an analysis of the structure of today's world crude oil market from the point of view of price formation. Chapter 3 discusses the current pattern of energy policies in the industrialized, oil-importing countries, again, with emphasis on price formation. Chapter 4 focuses on the price forecast. Chapter 5 deals with the range of options open to policy-makers in Latin America's oil deficit countries as they confront the expected price of world crude oil. (JMT)

  18. Disparities in suicide mortality trends between United States of America and 25 European countries: retrospective analysis of WHO mortality database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fond, Guillaume; Llorca, Pierre-Michel; Boucekine, Mohamed; Zendjidjian, Xavier; Brunel, Lore; Lancon, Christophe; Auquier, Pascal; Boyer, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to examine changes in temporal trends in suicide mortality in 26 Western countries by retrospective trend analysis of the WHO mortality database on causes of deaths. From 1990 to 2010, there was a median reduction in suicide mortality of 22.7%, ranging from a 46% reduction in Estonia to a 26.2% increase in Romania. Suicide mortality decreased by ≥ 20% in 15 countries, and the reduction tended to be greater in countries with higher mortality in 1990. In most of the central European countries mortality strongly declined. The median changes in the age groups were -25.3% (range -62.9% to 72.6%) in people aged 15-24 years, -36.9% (-60.5% to 32.4%) in 25-34 years, -3.6% (-57.1% to 92%) in 35-54 years, -12.2% (-37% to 65,7%) in 55-74 years and -16.1% (-54.5% to 166.7%) in ≥ 75 years. Suicide prevention programs in youths and in the elderly seem to be effective (at least in females for the elderly) and efforts should be pursued in this way. However, suicide mortality of the people aged 35-54 years has increased in half of the studied countries between 1990 and 2010. Public policies should further orientate their efforts toward this population. PMID:26883796

  19. Immigrant America: A Portrait

    OpenAIRE

    Rumbaut, RG; Portes, A.

    2014-01-01

    This revised, updated, and expanded fourth edition of Immigrant America: A Portrait provides readers with a comprehensive and current overview of immigration to the United States in a single volume. Updated with the latest available data, Immigrant America explores the economic, political, spatial, and linguistic aspects of immigration; the role of religion in the acculturation and social integration of foreign minorities; and the adaptation process for the second generation. This revised ed...

  20. Systematic Review of Breast Cancer Biology in Developing Countries (Part 1): Africa, the Middle East, Eastern Europe, Mexico, the Caribbean and South America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhikoo, Riyaz, E-mail: riyazbhikoo@gmail.com; Srinivasa, Sanket; Yu, Tzu-Chieh [Department of Surgery, South Auckland Clinical School, University of Auckland, Auckland 1640 (New Zealand); Moss, David [Department of Surgery, Middlemore Hospital, Auckland 1640 (New Zealand); Hill, Andrew G [Department of Surgery, South Auckland Clinical School, University of Auckland, Auckland 1640 (New Zealand)

    2011-05-13

    There has been no systematic appraisal of ethnicity-based variations in breast cancer (BC) biology amongst women from developing countries. A qualitative systematic review was conducted of breast cancer size, stage, grade, histological type, extra-mammary involvement, hormone receptor status as well as patient demographics. This review includes patients from Africa, the Middle East, Eastern Europe, Mexico, the Caribbean and South America. BC in these regions present at an earlier age with large aggressive tumours. Distant metastases are frequently present at the time of diagnosis. African women have a higher frequency of triple negative tumours. Over half of Middle Eastern women have lymph node involvement at the time of diagnosis. Despite experiencing a lower incidence compared to the Ashkenazi Jewish population, Palestinian women have poorer five-year survival outcomes. The majority of women from Mexico and South America have stage two or three disease whilst over sixty percent of women from Eastern Europe have either stage one or stage two disease. The biological characteristics of BC in the Caribbean cannot be fully assessed due to a paucity of data from the region. BC amongst the developing world is characterised by an early peak age of onset with aggressive biological characteristics. Strategies that improve breast cancer awareness, address amenable risk factors and improve early detection are essential.

  1. Worldwide burden of COPD in high- and low-income countries. Part II. Burden of chronic obstructive lung disease in Latin America: the PLATINO study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menezes, A.M.B.; Perez-Padilla, R.; Hallal, P.C.; Jardim, J.R.; Muino, A.; Lopez, M.V.; Valdivia, G.; Pertuze, J.; de Oca, M.M.; Talamo, C. [Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Pelotas (Brazil)

    2008-07-15

    The objective of the paper is to describe the burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Latin America. Five Latin American cities were investigated, namely, Sao Paulo, Brazil; Mexico City, Mexico; Montevideo, Uruguay; Santiago, Chile; Caracas, Venezuela. This is a multi Centre study. Post-bronchodilator spirometry was used and the main outcome measure was FEV1/FVC < 0.7 (fixed ratio criterion). Global Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stages were also analysed. The combined population aged {>=} 40 years in the five countries included in the study was approximately 85.3 million. Of these, it was estimated that 12.2 million have airflow obstruction, which corresponds to our prevalence estimate of 14.3%. The proportion of subjects in Stages II-IV of the GOLD classification was 5.6%. Risk factors presenting the highest actiological fractions for COPD were age, current smoking, indoor exposure to coal and exposure to dust in the workplace. Smoking, the modifiable factor with the strongest aetiological fraction for COPD, affects 29.2% of adults aged {>=} 40 years in these cities, corresponding to approximately 25 million smokers in this age group. Prevention of smoking and exposure to pollutants, such as coal and dust, are the interventions most likely to succeed against COPD in Latin America.

  2. Systematic Review of Breast Cancer Biology in Developing Countries (Part 1): Africa, the Middle East, Eastern Europe, Mexico, the Caribbean and South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There has been no systematic appraisal of ethnicity-based variations in breast cancer (BC) biology amongst women from developing countries. A qualitative systematic review was conducted of breast cancer size, stage, grade, histological type, extra-mammary involvement, hormone receptor status as well as patient demographics. This review includes patients from Africa, the Middle East, Eastern Europe, Mexico, the Caribbean and South America. BC in these regions present at an earlier age with large aggressive tumours. Distant metastases are frequently present at the time of diagnosis. African women have a higher frequency of triple negative tumours. Over half of Middle Eastern women have lymph node involvement at the time of diagnosis. Despite experiencing a lower incidence compared to the Ashkenazi Jewish population, Palestinian women have poorer five-year survival outcomes. The majority of women from Mexico and South America have stage two or three disease whilst over sixty percent of women from Eastern Europe have either stage one or stage two disease. The biological characteristics of BC in the Caribbean cannot be fully assessed due to a paucity of data from the region. BC amongst the developing world is characterised by an early peak age of onset with aggressive biological characteristics. Strategies that improve breast cancer awareness, address amenable risk factors and improve early detection are essential

  3. Social factors associated with the knowledge about HIV of the immigrants from China, Latin America, the Maghreb and Senegal in the Basque Country (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Álvarez, Elena; Lanborena, Nerea; Bacigalupe, Amaia; Martin, Unai

    2013-02-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the social factors that explain the differences in knowledge with regards to HIV/AIDS among immigrants in the Basque Country (Spain). We conducted a cross-sectional study based on information obtained in the Basque Health Survey for 754 immigrants from: 86 China, 368 Latin America, 237 the Maghreb and 74 Senegal. Odds ratios (95% CI) were calculated from logistic regression models to measure the degree of association between inadequate knowledge regarding transmission, prevention and places where HIV testing is offered, and the independent variables. We found that this inadequate knowledge is associated with place of birth, sex, a lower level of education, immigration status, difficulties in understanding Spanish, and not receiving advice about AIDS in primary care. These findings indicate that initiatives must be developed to promote equity in the provision of healthcare through clinical guidelines, including details of the specific needs of different groups of immigrants and considering gender issues. PMID:22382441

  4. Understanding Differences in Growth Performance in Latin America and Developing Countries between the Asian and Global Financial Crises

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Alvarez; Jose De Gregorio

    2014-01-01

    Latin American performance during the global financial crisis was unprecedented. Many developing and emerging countries successfully weathered the worst crisis since the Great Depression. Was it good luck? Was it good policies? In this paper we compare growth during the Asian and global financial crises and find that a looser monetary policy played an important role in mitigating crisis. We also find that higher private credit, more financial openness, less trade openness, and greater exchang...

  5. Lack of Antimicrobial Resistance in Yersinia pestis Isolates from 17 Countries in the Americas, Africa, and Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Urich, Sandra K.; Chalcraft, Linda; Schriefer, Martin E.; Yockey, Brook M.; Petersen, Jeannine M

    2012-01-01

    Yersinia pestis is the causative agent of plague, a fulminant disease that is often fatal without antimicrobial treatment. Plasmid (IncA/C)-mediated multidrug resistance in Y. pestis was reported in 1995 in Madagascar and has generated considerable public health concern, most recently because of the identification of IncA/C multidrug-resistant plasmids in other zoonotic pathogens. Here, we demonstrate no resistance in 392 Y. pestis isolates from 17 countries to eight antimicrobials used for t...

  6. Lack of antimicrobial resistance in Yersinia pestis isolates from 17 countries in the Americas, Africa, and Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urich, Sandra K; Chalcraft, Linda; Schriefer, Martin E; Yockey, Brook M; Petersen, Jeannine M

    2012-01-01

    Yersinia pestis is the causative agent of plague, a fulminant disease that is often fatal without antimicrobial treatment. Plasmid (IncA/C)-mediated multidrug resistance in Y. pestis was reported in 1995 in Madagascar and has generated considerable public health concern, most recently because of the identification of IncA/C multidrug-resistant plasmids in other zoonotic pathogens. Here, we demonstrate no resistance in 392 Y. pestis isolates from 17 countries to eight antimicrobials used for treatment or prophylaxis of plague. PMID:22024826

  7. Update on the mapping of prevalence and intensity of infection for soil-transmitted helminth infections in Latin America and the Caribbean: a call for action.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Idalí Saboyá

    Full Text Available It is estimated that in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC at least 13.9 million preschool age and 35.4 million school age children are at risk of infections by soil-transmitted helminths (STH: Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworms (Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale. Although infections caused by this group of parasites are associated with chronic deleterious effects on nutrition and growth, iron and vitamin A status and cognitive development in children, few countries in the LAC Region have implemented nationwide surveys on prevalence and intensity of infection. The aim of this study was to identify gaps on the mapping of prevalence and intensity of STH infections based on data published between 2000 and 2010 in LAC, and to call for including mapping as part of action plans against these infections. A total of 335 published data points for STH prevalence were found for 18 countries (11.9% data points for preschool age children, 56.7% for school age children and 31.3% for children from 1 to 14 years of age. We found that 62.7% of data points showed prevalence levels above 20%. Data on the intensity of infection were found for seven countries. The analysis also highlights that there is still an important lack of data on prevalence and intensity of infection to determine the burden of disease based on epidemiological surveys, particularly among preschool age children. This situation is a challenge for LAC given that adequate planning of interventions such as deworming requires information on prevalence to determine the frequency of needed anthelmintic drug administration and to conduct monitoring and evaluation of progress in drug coverage.

  8. Research within the coordinated programme on investigation of maintenance of nuclear instrumentation in developing countries. Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The situation in Peru with regard to the maintenance and repair of instruments used in nuclear medicine is presented. On the basis of responses to questionnaires it appears that 56 instruments for nuclear medicine are in use in the country, almost exclusively in the capital Lima. The average age of the instruments is 9.5 years. They are in use about 16.4% of the possible time. The development of nuclear medicine in Peru is in its initial stages and difficulties encountered arise both from the lack of training and experience in nuclear medicine on the part of the medical personnel as well as lack of experience of the technicians responsible for instrument maintenance. Practically no preventive maintenance ever takes place; action is only taken when an instrument breaks down. Various suggestions are made in order to attempt an improvement of the situation

  9. Are recommendations from carcinoma of the cervix Patterns of Care studies (PCS) in the United States of America (USA) applicable to centers in developing countries?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To compare patient demographics, treatment resources, practice patterns, and outcome results for squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix (SCC) between the 1978 and 1983 Patterns of Care studies (PCS) in the United States of America (USA) and a nonacademic center within a developing country. Methods and Materials: Patient details (race, age, stage, and number per year), treatment used, and treatment outcome were retrieved from the charts of the 1160 cases registered at this center with SCC of the cervix between 1976 and 1985. Demographic variables and Kaplan-Meier survival estimates were calculated and compared with results from published PCS reviews. Results: There is a significant difference in the racial group presentation of cervix cancer at this center compared with the PCS reviews (p < 0.005), and median ages are significantly lower at this center (t = p < 0.001). The proportion of patients with Stage III or more was significantly higher at this center than the PCS centers (24 vs. 47%, p < 0.001). There were also vast differences in facility resources. Fewer cases at this center underwent intracavitary insertions than at PCS centers. Mean Point A doses were significantly reduced for this center compared with the PCS reviews. Kaplan-Meier estimates were similar for Stage I and II in PCS centers and this center, but were inferior for this center in Stage III patients (p < 0.05 for OS and p < 0.01 for LC). Late morbidity rates were similar for both PCS centers and this center. Conclusion: PCS recommendations may be applicable to nonacademic centers within developing countries, if the latter use staging techniques that are consistent with the PCS staging guidelines

  10. Increasing prevalence of extended-spectrum-betalactamase among Gram-negative bacilli in Latin America: 2008 update from the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Virginia Villegas

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This analysis of the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART evaluated the susceptibility patterns of Enterobacteriaceae in Latin America in 2008, with emphasis on susceptibility trends of E. coli and K. pneumoniae. METHODS: Clinical isolates were recovered from intra-abdominal infections (IAI from 23 centers in 10 Latin American countries. Isolates were sent to a central laboratory for confirmation of identification, antimicrobial susceptibility and ESBL testing, following the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI guidelines. RESULTS: Of 1,003 Gram-negative bacilli collected from intra-abdominal infections, E. coli and K. pneumoniae were the most commonly isolated organisms, and 26.8% of E. coli and 37.7% of K. pneumoniae were ESBL positive. Ertapenem and imipenem were the most consistently active agents tested; 99% of ESBLpositive E. coli isolates were susceptible to ertapenem and 100% to imipenem as well, and 91% of ESBL-positive K. pneumoniae were susceptible to ertapenem and 98% to imipenem. Quinolones and cephalosporins were less active, achieving 1.5% to 76% inhibition against ESBL-producing E. coli and 3.5% to 61% inhibition against K. pneumoniae. CONCLUSIONS: Local and unit-specific surveillance data is particularly important for selection of empiric therapy and in community-acquired infections as they can help the clinician with antibiotic selection by providing guidance regarding the likely pathogens and their resistance profiles. Our data also confirm the increasing frequency with which ESBL-producing organisms are found in the community setting, with 31.4% of communityacquired and 24.9% of hospital-acquired infections found to produce ESBLs. Imipenem and ertapenem are the most active agents tested for ESBL-positive E. coli and K. pneumoniae.

  11. World review: Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article gives information on contracts announced (and to whom) throughout Latin America in all aspects of the petroleum, natural gas and petrochemicals industries. Countries specifically mentioned are Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico, Trinidad and Venezuela. The future for the oil industry in Latin America is viewed as 'highly prospective'

  12. Population Migration in Rural America: January 1980-January 1993. Quick Bibliography Series: QB 93-35. Updates QB 91-40.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Patricia La Caille

    This bibliography contains 137 entries related to population migration in rural America. The entries were derived from the AGRICOLA database produced by the National Agricultural Library and include journal articles, government reports, conference papers, extension bulletins, and books. Entries cover such topics as demography, economic growth,…

  13. Implementation of HPV testing in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeronimo, Jose; Holme, Francesca; Slavkovsky, Rose; Camel, Claudia

    2016-03-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the leading killers among women in Latin America, a region where most countries have not been successful in implementing population-level cytology-based screening programs. This disease is caused by persistent infection with oncogenic HPV; in recent years, more HPV tests have become available and prices have dropped significantly, making it possible for countries to adopt these technologies. Pilot programs that took place in Nicaragua, Mexico, and Argentina showed a high level of efficacy in detecting precancerous cervical lesions and good feasibility and acceptance of self-sampling. El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua are beginning to institutionalize HPV testing at the population level. The experience from the different countries has created rich information about the barriers and requirements for implementing HPV screening at large scale in these resource-constrained countries. There are several challenges for implementation, including a need to update screening guidelines, strengthen treatment capacity, and develop a comprehensive quality assurance plan for the HPV testing. At the same time, there are several opportunities in Latin America that make the process more feasible and faster than in other regions of the world: most Latin American countries already have screening programs funded by their national governments, several countries in the region are already implementing HPV testing, and there is a regional pooled procurement mechanism that could facilitate the purchase of HPV tests at an accessible price. We envision that most countries in the region will include HPV testing in their national program within the next three to five years. PMID:26699418

  14. Anxiety and depression during pregnancy in Central America : a cross-sectional study among pregnant women in the developing country Nicaragua

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, T.; Arjadi, R.; Vendrik, J. J.; Burger, H.; Berger, M. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Around the world, maternal psychopathology during pregnancy is associated with a range of negative consequences for mother and child. Nevertheless, in Central America the magnitude of this public health problem is still unknown. The objective of this first explorative study was to invest

  15. Coming to America: Does Immigrant's Home Country Economic Status Impact the Probability of Self-Employment in the U.S.?

    OpenAIRE

    Oyelere, Ruth Uwaifo; Belton, Willie

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of home country economic status on immigrant self-employment probability in the U.S. We estimate a probability model and find that, consistent across race, immigrants from developed countries are more likely to be self-employed in the U.S than are immigrants from developing countries. This result is unexpected given previous research which suggests that immigrants from countries with high levels of self-employment tend to be more involved in self-employment in t...

  16. A mechanism for the promotion of technical co-operation among the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean in the field of the peaceful use of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day after day, in hospitals, industry, agricultural enterprises and universities all over the world, advantage is being taken of the peaceful uses of nuclear technology. In recent years, the Agency's regional technical co-operation projects have acquired considerable importance in Latin America and the Caribbean, particularly in such areas of common interest as nuclear information, radiation protection, human health, agriculture, hydrology, industry, and the maintenance and repair of nuclear instruments used for research purposes and related studies, to cite but a few examples. As a result, a group of Latin American countries decided to join forces to carry out specific technical co-operation projects aimed at raising the level of nuclear applications in the region. This effort culminated in the decision, made in 1984, to establish, under the auspices of the Agency, a regional co-operation programme called ARCAL. This document describes the ARCAL programme, participating countries and main results achieved

  17. The impact of the biotechnology in the sustainable development of the agriculture in the Latin America and Caribbean region: The Andean countries as model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In accordance with the premise that the base of the sustainable agricultural development is based on the conviction that it is possible to increase the agricultural production without affecting the natural resources non-renewable, the author makes a conceptual mark of the technological revolution in Latin America, he makes an analysis of the environment and the paper of the different organisms of the state inside this field

  18. Prevalence and Social Determinants of Smoking in 15 Countries from North Africa, Central and Western Asia, Latin America and Caribbean: Secondary Data Analyses of Demographic and Health Surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrashekhar T Sreeramareddy

    Full Text Available Article 20 of the World Health Organisation Framework Convention on Tobacco Control calls for a cross-country surveillance of tobacco use through population-based surveys. We aimed to provide country-level prevalence estimates for current smoking and current smokeless tobacco use and to assess social determinants of smoking.Data from Demographic and Health Surveys done between 2005 and 2012, among men and women from nine North African, Central and West Asian countries and six Latin American and Caribbean countries were analyzed. Weighted country-level prevalence rates were estimated for 'current smoking' and 'current use of smokeless tobacco (SLT products' among men and women. In each country, social determinants of smoking among men and women were assessed by binary logistic regression analyses by including men's and women's sampling weights to account for the complex survey design.Prevalence of smoking among men was higher than 40% in Armenia (63.1%, Moldova (51.1%, Ukraine (52%, Azerbaijan (49.8 %, Kyrgyz Republic (44.3 % and Albania (42.52% but the prevalence of smoking among women was less than 10% in most countries except Ukraine (14.81% and Jordan (17.96%. The prevalence of smokeless tobacco use among men and women was less than 5% in all countries except among men in the Kyrgyz Republic (10.6 %. Smoking was associated with older age, lower education and poverty among men and higher education and higher wealth among women. Smoking among both men and women was associated with unskilled work, living in urban areas and being single.Smoking among men was very high in Central and West Asian countries. Social pattern of smoking among women that was different from men in education and wealth should be considered while formulating tobacco control policies in some Central and West Asian countries.

  19. Geographic distribution of human Blastocystis subtypes in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Juan David; Sánchez, Angie; Hernández, Carolina; Flórez, Carolina; Bernal, María Consuelo; Giraldo, Julio Cesar; Reyes, Patricia; López, Myriam Consuelo; García, Lineth; Cooper, Philip J; Vicuña, Yosselin; Mongi, Florencia; Casero, Rodolfo D

    2016-07-01

    Blastocystis is a cosmopolitan enteric protist colonizing probably more than 1 billion people. This protozoan exhibits genetic diversity and is subdivided into subtypes (STs). The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of Blastocystis STs in symptomatic and asymptomatic human samples from different countries of South America. A total of 346 fecal samples were genotyped by SSU rDNA showing ST1 (28.3%), ST2 (22.2%), ST3 (36.7%), ST4 (2%), ST5 (2.3%), ST6 (2%), ST7 (2.3%), ST8 (0.6%), ST12 (0.9%) and a novel ST (2.7%). These findings update the epidemiology of Blastocystis in South America and expand our knowledge of the phylogeographic differences exhibited by this stramenopile. PMID:27034056

  20. The design and effectiveness of active labor market programs in OECD countries: a review of recent evidence for Latin America and the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Finn, Dan

    2012-01-01

    From the 1990s governments in many countries with extensive social protection systems have sought to realign their labor market policies by shifting their policy focus from “passive” income support payments towards more “active” programs. Such “active” measures include a diverse range of interventions and programs aimed at improving the functioning of the labor market, notably by matching the unemployed and other disadvantaged groups to jobs or, by enhancing their employability and skills to ...

  1. 2013 Building America Research Planning Meeting Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzger, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hunt, S. [Confluence Communications, Missoula, MT (united States)

    2014-02-01

    The Building America Research Planning Meeting was held October 28-30, 2013, in Washington, DC. This meeting provides one opportunity each year for the research teams, national laboratories and Department of Energy (DOE) managers to meet in person to share the most pertinent information and collaboration updates. This report documents the presentations, highlights key program updates, and outlines next steps for the program.

  2. Country-level correlates of cervical cancer mortality in Latin America and the Caribbean Determinantes a nivel país de la mortalidad por cáncer cervicouterino en Latinoamérica y el Caribe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Pereira-Scalabrino

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify country-level correlates of geographical variations in cervical cancer (CC mortality in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: CC mortality rates for LAC countries (n=26 were examined in relation to country-specific socio-economic indicators (n=58 and Human Papilloma Virus (HPV prevalence using linear regression models. RESULTS: High mortality at ages OBJETIVO: Identificar variables a nivel de país que expliquen las variaciones geográficas en la mortalidad por cáncer cervicouterino (CaCu en América Latina y el Caribe (AL. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: Se examinaron las tasas de mortalidad por CaCu de cada país (n=26 mediante modelos de regresión lineal en relación con indicadores socioeconómicos (n=58 y prevalencia del virus del papiloma humano (VPH. RESULTADOS: Alta mortalidad en menores de cinco años, bajo gasto total en salud per-cápita y baja proporción de población con acceso a saneamiento básico son los mejores predictores de mortalidad por CaCu (R² =77%. En los países (n=10 con estimaciones de prevalencia de VPH, estos indicadores socioeconómicos y la prevalencia de VPH de alto riesgo explicaron el 98% de la variabilidad de CaCu en AL. CONCLUSIÓN: Las mejoras en el nivel socioeconómico en AL están asociadas con reducciones en la mortalidad por CaCu, a pesar de la ausencia de programas organizados de tamizaje e inmunización contra VPH.

  3. Lynch syndrome in South America: past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccaro, Carlos A; Sarroca, Carlos; Rossi, Benedito; Lopez-Kostner, Francisco; Dominguez, Mev; Calo, Natalia Causada; Cutait, Raul; Valle, Adriana Della; Nuñez, Lina; Neffa, Florencia; Alvarez, Karin; Gonzalez, Maria Laura; Kalfayan, Pablo; Lynch, Henry T; Church, James

    2016-07-01

    After decades of unawareness about Lynch syndrome, the medical community in South America is increasingly interested and informed. The visits and support of mentors like H. T. Lynch had been crucial to this awakening. Several countries have at least one registry with skilled personnel in genetic counseling and research. However, this only represents a very restricted resource for the region. According to the GETH, there are 27 hereditary cancer care centers in South America (21 in Brazil, 3 in Argentina, 1 in Uruguay, 1 in Chile and 1 in Peru). These registries differ in fundamental aspects of function, capabilities and funding, but are able to conduct high quality clinical, research and educational activities due to the dedication and personal effort of their members, and organizational support. More support from the governments as well as the participation of the community would boost the initiatives of people leading these groups. Meantime, the collaboration among the South American registries and the involvement of registries and leaders from developed countries will allow to maximize the efficiency in caring for affected patients and their families. The aim of this article is to describe how the knowledge of LS began to be spread in South America, how the first registries were organized and to summarize the current state of progress. In addition, we will provide an update of the clinical and molecular findings in the region. PMID:27007491

  4. ERAWATCH Country Reports 2012: Lithuania

    OpenAIRE

    PALIOKAITE Agne

    2014-01-01

    This analytical country report is one of a series of annual ERAWATCH reports produced for EU Member States and Countries Associated to the Seventh Framework Programme for Research of the European Union (FP7). The main objective of the ERAWATCH Annual Country Reports is to characterise and assess the performance of national research systems and related policies in a structured manner that is comparable across countries. The Country Report 2012 builds on and updates the 2011 edition. The re...

  5. Convergence Patterns in Latin America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quiroga, Paola Andrea Barrientos

    Literature on convergence among Latin American countries is still scarce compared to other regions. Moreover, almost none of the research connects convergence to the economic history of Latin America and the usual finding is one speed of convergence. In this paper I analyze 32 countries and 108...

  6. Evolution of the Earthquake Catalog in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, W.; Camacho, E. I.; Marroquín, G.; Molina, E.; Talavera, E.; Benito, M. B.; Lindholm, C.

    2013-05-01

    Central America (CA) is known as a seismically active region in which several historic destructive earthquakes have occurred. This fact has promoved the development of seismic hazard studies that provide necessary estimates for decision making and risk assessment efforts, requiring a complete and standardized seismic catalog. With this aim, several authors have contributed to the study of the historical seismicity of Central America (e.g. Grases, Feldaman; White y Harlow, 1993; White et al. 2004; Ambraseys y Adams, 2001; Peraldo y Montero, 1999), who complied historical data. A first catalogue was developed by Rojas (1993) that comprises the 1522 to 1993 period. This information was integrated in 2007, together with data from the International Seismological Centre (CASC) and the national catalogs of CA countries in a new regional catalogue. Since 2007 a continuous effort has been done in order to complete and update this CA earthquake catalog. In particular, two workshops were held in 2008 and 2011 in the Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (Spain), joining experts from the different CA countries who worked each one in its own catalogue covering the entire region and the border with northwestern Colombia and southern Mexico. These national catalogues were later integrated in a common regional catalogue in SEISAN format. At this aim it was necessary to solve some problems, like to avoid duplicity of events, specially close to the boundaries, to consider the different scales of magnitude adopted by different countries, to take into account the completeness by the different national networks, etc. Some solutions were adopted for obtaining a homogenized catalogue to Mw, containing historical and instrumental events with Mw > 3.5 from 1522 up to 2011. The catalogue updated to December 2007 was the basis for the first regional hazard study carried out by Benito et al., (2011) as part of the collaborative RESIS II project under coordination of NORSAR. The ones updated to

  7. Latin America: emerging nuclear market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The need for nuclear power in Latin American countries is surveyed. It is concluded that Latin America offers the greatest external market for all exporters of nuclear reactors and associated services in the near future. Mexico, Venezuela, Ecuador, and Bolivia are the only countries with fossil-fuel reserves adequate to meet their requirements in the next 20 to 30 years. Nuclear power is a necessity to maintain or improve the standard of living in the countries of Brazil, Argentina, Chile, and Peru

  8. Asthma in Hispanics. An 8-year update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosser, Franziska J; Forno, Erick; Cooper, Philip J; Celedón, Juan C

    2014-06-01

    This review provides an update on asthma in Hispanics, a diverse group tracing their ancestry to countries previously under Spanish rule. A marked variability in the prevalence and morbidity from asthma remains among Hispanic subgroups in the United States and Hispanic America. In the United States, Puerto Ricans and Mexican Americans have high and low burdens of asthma, respectively (the "Hispanic Paradox"). This wide divergence in asthma morbidity among Hispanic subgroups is multifactorial, likely reflecting the effects of known (secondhand tobacco smoke, air pollution, psychosocial stress, obesity, inadequate treatment) and potential (genetic variants, urbanization, vitamin D insufficiency, and eradication of parasitic infections) risk factors. Barriers to adequate asthma management in Hispanics include economic and educational disadvantages, lack of health insurance, and no access to or poor adherence with controller medications such as inhaled corticosteroids. Although considerable progress has been made in our understanding of asthma in Hispanic subgroups, many questions remain. Studies of asthma in Hispanic America should focus on environmental or lifestyle factors that are more relevant to asthma in this region (e.g., urbanization, air pollution, parasitism, and stress). In the United States, research studies should focus on risk factors that are known to or may diverge among Hispanic subgroups, including but not limited to epigenetic variation, prematurity, vitamin D level, diet, and stress. Clinical trials of culturally appropriate interventions that address multiple aspects of asthma management in Hispanic subgroups should be prioritized for funding. Ensuring high-quality healthcare for all remains a pillar of eliminating asthma disparities. PMID:24881937

  9. Building America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brad Oberg

    2010-12-31

    IBACOS researched the constructability and viability issues of using high performance windows as one component of a larger approach to building houses that achieve the Building America 70% energy savings target.

  10. United States of America, country report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Digital Instrumentation and control (l and C) implementation in nuclear power plants continues to be a source of discussion and debate in the I and C community in the USA. Although there is great interest in digital I and C, the progress toward implementation of digital I and C for critical applications in nuclear power plants have been slow in the United States. This is due to a number of factors, including licensing difficulties. However, the learning curve of the nuclear industry in the area of digital I and C has been steep over the last ten years as evidenced by the number of meetings, technical papers, and conferences that include digital I and C in their agenda. For example, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has held numerous technical meetings in this area. In addition, digital I and C has been the topic in other forums such as the following: 1. 44th Annual Conference of the Power Industries Division of the Instrumentation, Systems, and Automation (ISA) Society, Orlando, Florida, July 2001. 2. Conference on Nuclear Plant Instrumentation, Control and Human-Machine Interface Technologies for Nuclear Power Plants (NPIC and HMIT Conference), Washington, D.C., November 2000. 3. NPIC and HMIT Conference, Penn State University, Pennsylvania, May 1996. 4. National Research Council Report 'Digital I and C Systems in Nuclear Power Plants Safety and Reliability Issues', 1997. In addition, the interest in digital I and C equipment for nuclear power plants is evident in an increasing number of suppliers who have developed, validated, and applied for NRC approval to provide digital I and C equipment to nuclear power plants. Although the number of suppliers of digital I and C equipment for important applications in nuclear power plants is still small; over the last five years, the choices of digital I and C equipment and suppliers have increased

  11. 美国多元文化公民教育及对我国公民教育的启示%M ulticultural Citizenship Education in America and Implication for National Minority Education in our Country

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文丽; 王鉴

    2016-01-01

    复杂的多元文化社会背景给美国的发展带来诸多困境。贫困移民子女的教育成为公民教育的重点,消除种族偏见成为公民教育的核心目标。重构美国多元文化公民教育,应通过改善各族群关系,消除民族偏见与歧视,让所有学生,不分性别、种族、民族及语言背景都有权利获取有效的知识和技能、形成正确的态度和价值观,从而参与到跨文化的个人、社会、公民活动中去,构建公平、公正的民主社会,构建一个从民族主义到国家主义再到世界主义的全球公民教育体系。中国作为多民族多文化的国家,在教育的理念与方法上,也要扩大公民教育的内涵。从民族成员到国家公民再到全球公民,我国的公民教育也要从目标、内容与方法方面进行深入的改革以适应全球化时代中国作为世界主义国家的需求。%Complex multicultural society background has brought many difficultiesto thedevelopment of America . The education for children from poor immigrant families has become the focus of the citizenship educationwith eliminating racial prejudice asitscore objective . To reconstruct the multicultural citizenship education in America , the relationship between different races should beimproved , and ethnic prejudice and discrimination must be eliminated .Meanwhile ,students of different gender ,from diverse races ,and with diverse ethnic and language backgrounds should be helped to acquireknowledge , values and skills . So that they canparticipate actively in individual , social and civic activities to construct a democratic society of justice and fair , and to build a system of citizenship education evolving from nationalism to globalism . China , as a multinational and multicultural country , should also expand the connotation of citizenship educationin terms of its education ideas and methods . Citizenship education in our country should also be reformed

  12. About Updating

    OpenAIRE

    Smets, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Survey of several forms of updating, with a practical illustrative example. We study several updating (conditioning) schemes that emerge naturally from a common scenarion to provide some insights into their meaning. Updating is a subtle operation and there is no single method, no single 'good' rule. The choice of the appropriate rule must always be given due consideration. Planchet (1989) presents a mathematical survey of many rules. We focus on the practical meaning of these rules. After sum...

  13. Building America Research-to-Market Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werling, Eric [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-11-01

    This report presents the Building America Research-to-Market Plan (Plan), including the integrated Building America Technology-to-Market Roadmaps (Roadmaps) that will guide Building America’s research, development, and deployment (RD&D) activities over the coming years. The Plan and Roadmaps will be updated as necessary to adapt to research findings and evolving stakeholder needs, and they will reflect input from DOE and stakeholders.

  14. Haematopoietic cell transplants in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, R P; Seber, A; Bonfim, C; Pasquini, M

    2016-07-01

    Haematopoietic cell transplants are done by more than 1500 transplant centres in 75 countries, mostly for life-threatening haematological disorders. However, transplant technology and access are not uniformly distributed worldwide. Most transplants are done predominately in Europe, North America and some Asian countries. We review transplant activity in Latin America, a geographic region with a population of >600 million persons living in countries with diverse economic and social development levels. These data indicate a 20-40-fold lower frequency of transplants in Latin America compared with Europe and North America. We show that although economics, infrastructure and expertise are important limitations, other variables also operate. Changes in several of these variables may substantially increase transplant activity in Latin America. PMID:26999468

  15. 2013 Building America Research Planning Meeting Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzger, C. E.; Hunt, S.

    2014-02-01

    The Building America (BA) Research Planning Meeting was held October 28-30, 2013, in Washington, DC. This meeting provides one opportunity each year for the research teams, national laboratories and Department of Energy (DOE) managers to meet in person to share the most pertinent information and collaboration updates. This report documents the presentations, highlights key program updates, and outlines next steps for the program.

  16. America plans nuclear reprisal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The demand for uranium to be used in the world's nuclear power stations is barely increasing, but the supply is rocketing up. Much of it is coming from the countries of the former Soviet Union and some of it is so cheap that republics such as Russia, the Ukraine and Kazakhstan are being accused of dumping it. The strain is being felt in the uranium-producing countries of southern Africa, Australia and North America. Companies involved in various stages of the nuclear fuel cycle claim that unfairly priced imports form the former Soviet Union are damaging them and they have been busily lobbying authorities in the US and Europe for weeks. US uranium-producing firms, backed by the country's Oil, Chemical and Atomic Worker's Union, have asked the Department of Commerce to impose anti-dumping duties on deliveries of uranium and enriched uranium from the former Soviet republics to the US. (Author)

  17. ERAWATCH Country Reports 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimpe, Christoph

    This analytical country report is one of a series of annual ERAWATCH reports produced for EU Member States and Countries Associated to the Seventh Framework Programme for Research of the European Union (FP7). The main objective of the ERAWATCH Annual Country Reports is to characterise and assess...... the performance of national research systems and related policies in a structured manner that is comparable across countries. The Country Report 2012 builds on and updates the 2011 edition. The report identifies the structural challenges of the national research and innovation system and assesses the match...... originally produced in December 2012, focusing on policy developments over the previous twelve months. The reports were produced by independent experts under direct contract with IPTS. The analytical framework and the structure of the reports have been developed by the Institute for Prospective Technological...

  18. Nuclear governance in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Layla Dawood

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article provides an outlook of the regional relations concerning nuclear technology in Latin America. For that purpose, we initially discuss the historic relationship of the Latin American countries with the set of rules, norms, principles and organizations involved in nuclear governance. The article provides an analysis of the connection between the multilateral institutional framework and the bilateral arrangements aimed at curbing the proliferation of nuclear weapons in the region. The current state of nuclear cooperation among the countries of the region is also mapped. In addition, the article assesses the peaceful use of nuclear technology in the region and the potential expansion of the use of nuclear energy by the Latin American countries. Considerations on the trends for nuclear cooperation among the countries of Latin America are also offered.

  19. SOUTH AMERICA: INDUSTRIAL ROUNDWOOD SUPPLY POTENTIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronalds W. Gonzalez

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available South America has substantial potential to expand its forest plantations and raw material supply. From 1997 to 2005, South America had a high annual growth rate in the production of industrial roundwood, with Brazil and Chile being the most important countries. In the same period, Asia had the only negative regional production growth rate in the world, and China became the largest round wood importer in the world. This paper summarizes the status of production, consumption, imports, and exports of industrial roundwood and forest products in South America. Produc-tion and exports from South America have continually increased at annual growth rates exceeding the forestry sector in general and the U.S. in particular. Based on timber growing investments to date, a strong timber production and forest products manufacturing sector has developed in the Southern Cone countries of Chile, Brazil, Argentina, and Uruguay, and is increasing in other countries in Latin America. There will be continued opportunities for forest plantations and new manufacturing facilities throughout South America, tempered somewhat by perceived country financial and political risks. These opportunities will allow South America to increase its share of world production and increase imports to North America and to Asia.

  20. Music Therapy in South America

    OpenAIRE

    Lia Rejane Mendes Barcellos

    2001-01-01

    Music is one of the most important and strongest types of cultural expression in South America. With diverse roots in the myriad of cultures of the many countries which shape our continent, music contributes to the South American identity. Distinct sounds, rhythms, styles and instruments compose a musical tissue, in which it is possible to recognize the special colors of a specific country or the printed image of the sonorous "language" from a special region.

  1. Illiterate America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozol, Jonathan

    Intended for those involved in American social service and educational communities, this book addresses the widespread problem of illiteracy in the United States and the social consequences of this problem. Following an introduction, the chapters in the first section of the book discuss the growing crisis of illiterate America, specifically, the…

  2. Circular Updates

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Circular Updates are periodic sequentially numbered instructions to debriefing staff and observers informing them of changes or additions to scientific and specimen...

  3. Cybersecurity Update

    CERN Document Server

    Heagerty, Denise

    2008-01-01

    An update on recent security issues and vulnerabilities affecting Windows, Linux and Mac platforms. This talk is based on contributions and input from a range of colleagues both within and outside CERN. It covers clients, servers and control systems.

  4. Email Updates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/listserv.html Email Updates To use the sharing features on this ... view your email history or unsubscribe. Prevent MedlinePlus emails from being marked as "spam" or "junk" To ...

  5. Website updates

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Updates to Website: (Please add new items at the top of this description with the date of the website change) May 9, 2012: Uploaded experimental data in matlab...

  6. Energy market integration in South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article is a summary of presentations made during the 1997 Winter Meeting panel session on Power and Natural Gas in Latin America: Towards an Integrated Market. Reregulation and demand for energy resources to support economic growth are driving international natural gas and electricity exchange initiatives. Panelists focused on the gas and electric power industry in Latin America in terms of the: transport of gas or transmission of electricity; energy market integration in the southern cone of South America; and issues on gas use for electricity generation in South America countries. Countries such as Argentina, Bolivia, and Peru will export natural gas to Brazil, Uruguay, Paraguay and Chile, an the energy matrices of these countries will change

  7. Latin America`s emerging non-proliferation consensus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redick, J.R.

    1994-03-01

    Latin America`s incorporation into the international nuclear non-proliferation regime is well advanced. The 1967 Tlatelolco Treaty, which established a regional nuclear-weapon-free zone (NWFZ), is nearing completion. A signal event occurred January 18, when Argentina and Chile deposited instruments of ratification to the treaty, leaving Brazil and Cuba the only major countries in Latin America that are not yet contracting parties. And after more than two decades of concern about the nuclear programs and policies in Argentina and Brazil, there is room for great optimism that Brazil may now be moving quickly on important non-proliferation issues. Even Cuba, the {open_quotes}bad boy of the neighborhood{close_quotes} in the eyes of many, which held aloof from the Tlatelolco process for three decades, has stated its willingness to join the zone in the future.

  8. Heart failure in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, John E A; Huffman, Mark; Shah, Sanjiv J

    2013-05-01

    Heart failure is a major health problem that affects patients and healthcare systems worldwide. Within the continent of North America, differences in economic development, genetic susceptibility, cultural practices, and trends in risk factors and treatment all contribute to both inter-continental and within-continent differences in heart failure. The United States and Canada represent industrialized countries with similar culture, geography, and advanced economies and infrastructure. During the epidemiologic transition from rural to industrial in countries such as the United States and Canada, nutritional deficiencies and infectious diseases made way for degenerative diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, cancer, overweight/obesity, and diabetes. This in turn has resulted in an increase in heart failure incidence in these countries, especially as overall life expectancy increases. Mexico, on the other hand, has a less developed economy and infrastructure, and has a wide distribution in the level of urbanization as it becomes more industrialized. Mexico is under a period of epidemiologic transition and the etiology and incidence of heart failure is rapidly changing. Ethnic differences within the populations of the United States and Canada highlight the changing demographics of each country as well as potential disparities in heart failure care. Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction makes up approximately half of all hospital admissions throughout North America; however, important differences in demographics and etiology exist between countries. Similarly, acute heart failure etiology, severity, and management differ between countries in North America. The overall economic burden of heart failure continues to be large and growing worldwide, with each country managing this burden differently. Understanding the inter-and within-continental differences may help improve understanding of the heart failure epidemic, and may aid healthcare systems in delivering

  9. Is the web a promising tool for data collection in developing countries? An analysis of the sample bias of 10 web and face-to-face surveys from Africa, Asia, and South America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Tijdens; S. Steinmetz

    2015-01-01

    Whereas the sample composition biases of web surveys have been discussed extensively for developed countries, studies for developing countries are scarce. This article helps to fill that gap by comparing similar non-probability-based web surveys (WEB) and probability-based face-to-face (F2F) surveys

  10. Little People of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... information. Our Sponsors Welcome to Little People of America Little People of America (LPA) is a nonprofit organization that provides support ... survey can be seen here. © Little People of America 250 El Camino Real Suite 218, Tustin, CA ...

  11. Update '98.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mock, Karen R.

    1998-01-01

    Updates cases and issues previously discussed in this regular column on human rights in Canada, including racism and anti-Semitism, laws on hate crimes, hate sites on the World Wide Web, the use of the "free speech" defense by hate groups, and legal challenges to antiracist groups by individuals criticized by them. (DSK)

  12. WIMS Library updating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the end of 1990 the WIMS Library Update Project (WLUP) has been initiated at the International Atomic Energy Agency. The project was organized as an international research project, coordinated at the J. Stefan Institute. Up to now, 22 laboratories from 19 countries joined the project. Phase 1 of the project, which included WIMS input optimization for five experimental benchmark lattices, has been completed. The work presented in this paper describes also the results of Phase 2 of the Project, in which the cross sections based on ENDF/B-IV evaluated nuclear data library have been processed. (author)

  13. Country Nuclear Power Profiles - 2009 Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Country Nuclear Power Profiles compiles background information on the status and development of nuclear power programs in Member States. It consists of organizational and industrial aspects of nuclear power programs and provides information about the relevant legislative, regulatory, and international framework in each country. Its descriptive and statistical overview of the overall economic, energy, and electricity situation in each country, and its nuclear power framework is intended to serve as an integrated source of key background information about nuclear power programs in the world. The preparation of Country Nuclear Power Profiles (CNPP) was initiated in 1990s. It responded to a need for a database and a technical publication containing a description of the energy and economic situation, the energy and the electricity sector, and the primary organizations involved in nuclear power in IAEA Member States. This is the 2009 edition issued on CD-ROM and Web pages. It updates the country information for 44 countries. The CNPP is updated based on information voluntarily provided by participating IAEA Member States. Participants include the 30 countries that have operating nuclear power plants, as well as 14 countries having past or planned nuclear power programmes (Bangladesh, Egypt, Ghana, Indonesia, the Islamic Republic of Iran, Italy, Kazakhstan, Nigeria, Philippines, Poland, Thailand, Tunisia, Turkey and Vietnam). For the 2009 edition, 26 countries provided updated or new profiles. For the other countries, the IAEA updated the profile statistical tables on nuclear power, energy development, and economic indicators based on information from IAEA and World Bank databases

  14. First Record of Transversotrema Witenberg, 1944 (Digenea) from the Americas, with Comments on the Taxonomy of Transversotrema patialense (Soparkar, 1924) Crusz and Sathananthan, 1960, and an Updated List of Its Hosts and Geographic Distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Womble, Matthew R; Cox-Gardiner, Stephanie J; Cribb, Thomas H; Bullard, Stephen A

    2015-12-01

    Specimens of Transversotrema patialense (sensu lato) ( Soparkar, 1924 ) Crusz and Sathananthan, 1960 (Digenea: Transversotrematidae) infected the skin (epidermal spaces beneath scales near pectoral fins) of 4 of 126 (prevalence 3%; mean intensity 1.8) zebrafish ( Danio rerio (Hamilton, 1822) [Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae]) purchased in 2009 and cultured by a California (USA) fish supplier. These fish were sold as "laboratory-reared" and "specific pathogen free," purportedly raised in a recirculating aquaculture system that included zebrafish only. We herein describe the morphological features of this transversotrematid using light and scanning electron microscopy, provide a comprehensive list of hosts (snails and fishes) and geographic locality records for specimens reported as T. patialense, which is perhaps a species complex, and provide a brief historical synopsis of the taxonomic and life history research that has been conducted on this fluke. No species of Transversotrema previously had been reported from the Americas; however, this discovery is not surprising given that: (1) a suitable intermediate host (red-rimmed melania, Melanoides tuberculata (Müller, 1774) [Cerithioidea: Thiaridae]) has been established in California and elsewhere in North America, (2) the zebrafish is a susceptible definitive host, and (3) T. patialense reportedly matures on a broad ecological and phylogenetic spectrum of freshwater fishes. To our knowledge, this is the northern-most geographic locality record for a species of this genus. We suspect this case study represents an example of a parasite that may now be established in North America by the fortuitous co-occurrence of a susceptible, exotic snail host (the red-rimmed melania) and a susceptible, widely distributed, exotic fish host (the zebrafish). PMID:26335181

  15. Nuclear governance in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Layla Dawood; Mônica Herz

    2013-01-01

    The article provides an outlook of the regional relations concerning nuclear technology in Latin America. For that purpose, we initially discuss the historic relationship of the Latin American countries with the set of rules, norms, principles and organizations involved in nuclear governance. The article provides an analysis of the connection between the multilateral institutional framework and the bilateral arrangements aimed at curbing the proliferation of nuclear weapons in the region. The...

  16. MICROSCALE CHEMISTRY IN LATIN AMERICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge G. Ibáñez

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A brief account of the development of Microscale Chemistry in Latin America is here presented. The US National Microscale Chemistry Center (Merrimack College, Massachusetts was instrumental in the initiationof several centers. Its Mexican counterpart, the Mexican Microscale Chemistry Center (CMQM, has been a key player in this process. Other participating countries include Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Cuba,Guatemala, Perú and Uruguay.

  17. Heart Failure in North America

    OpenAIRE

    Blair, John E.A.; Huffman, Mark; Shah, Sanjiv J.

    2013-01-01

    Heart failure is a major health problem that affects patients and healthcare systems worldwide. Within the continent of North America, differences in economic development, genetic susceptibility, cultural practices, and trends in risk factors and treatment all contribute to both inter-continental and within-continent differences in heart failure. The United States and Canada represent industrialized countries with similar culture, geography, and advanced economies and infrastructure. During t...

  18. From upstream to downstream: Megatrends and latest developments in Latin America`s hydrocarbons sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Kang; Pezeshki, S.; McMahon, J.

    1995-08-01

    In recent years, Latin America`s hydrocarbons sector has been characterized by reorganization, revitalization, regional cooperation, environmental awakening, and steady expansion. The pattern of these changes, which appear to be the megatrends of the region`s hydrocarbons sector development, will continue during the rest of the 1990s. To further study the current situation and future prospects of Latin America`s hydrocarbons sector, we critically summarize in this short article the key issues in the region`s oil and gas development. These megatrends in Latin America`s hydrocarbons sector development will impact not only the future energy demand and supply in the region, but also global oil flows in the North American market and across the Pacific Ocean. Each country is individually discussed; pipelines to be constructed are discussed also.

  19. SOUTH AMERICA: INDUSTRIAL ROUNDWOOD SUPPLY POTENTIAL

    OpenAIRE

    Ronalds W. Gonzalez; Daniel Saloni; Sudipta Dasmohapatra; Frederick Cubbage

    2008-01-01

    South America has substantial potential to expand its forest plantations and raw material supply. From 1997 to 2005, South America had a high annual growth rate in the production of industrial roundwood, with Brazil and Chile being the most important countries. In the same period, Asia had the only negative regional production growth rate in the world, and China became the largest round wood importer in the world. This paper summarizes the status of production, consumption, imports, and exp...

  20. America`s energy supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinmetz, C.P.

    1998-04-01

    The gist of the paper is to demonstrate that the economical utilization of the country`s energy supply requires generating electric power wherever hydraulic or fuel energy is available, and collecting the power electrically, just as it is distributed electrically. In the first section a short review of the country`s energy supply in fuel and water power is given, and it is shown that the total potential hydraulic energy of the country is about equal to the total utilized fuel energy. In the second section it is shown that the modern synchronous station is necessary for large hydraulic powers, but the solution of the problem of the economic development of the far more numerous smaller water powers is the adoption of the induction generator. However, the simplicity of the induction generator station results from the relegation of all the functions of excitation, regulation, and control to the main synchronous station. The economic advantage of the induction generator station is that its simplicity permits elimination of most of the hydraulic development by using, instead of one large synchronous station, a number of induction generator stations and collecting their power electrically. The third section considers the characteristics of the induction generator and the induction-generator station, and its method of operation, and discusses the condition of ``dropping out of step of the induction generator`` and its avoidance. In the appendix the corresponding problem is pointed out with reference to fuel power, showing that many millions of kilowatts of potential power are wasted by burning fuel and thereby degrading its energy, that could be recovered by interposing simple steam turbine induction generators between the boiler and the steam heating systems, and collecting their power electrically.

  1. Geographical inequalities in mortality in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curto de Casas, S I

    1993-05-01

    This paper is an attempt to synthesize several models of health and levels of affluence in Latin America. An analysis is accomplished wherein various countries and regions of Latin America are classified for health purposes as either products of a poverty model or a wealth model. Variables utilized include: mortality rates in preschool children and infants; elderly mortality; life expectancy; and overall causes of death. All three of the general models can be found in different parts of Latin America. More developed countries and regions tend to approximate the wealth model where chronic and degenerative diseases dominate. Still, while life expectations are shorter in countries and regions with lower levels of development, some elderly are afflicted by chronic and degenerative diseases. PMID:8511622

  2. Botswana country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-09-01

    This study was carried out in Botswana, Tanzania and Zambia as part of the project `Climate Change Mitigation in Southern Africa` funded by the Danish International Development Agency (Danida). The project was conducted parallel to the UNEP/GEF project `Economics of Greenhouse Gas Limitations` which involved 8 other developing countries and 2 regional projects in Latin America and the SADC region. The limitation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is a complex issue, intimately connected with economic development at local, national, regional and global levels. Key economic sectors such as energy, agriculture, industry and forestry all produce GHGs, and are likely to be affected directly and indirectly by any mitigation policy. The UNEP Greenhouse Gas Abatement Costing Studies, initiated in 1991, attempted to address these complex issues, developing a methodological framework and testing it through practical application in ten countries. (EHS) 28 refs.

  3. Enterprise Surveys : Grenada Country Profile 2010

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank; International Finance Corporation

    2011-01-01

    The Country Profile for Grenada is based on data from the Enterprise Surveys conducted by the World Bank. The benchmarks include the averages for the group of countries in Latin America & Caribbean and the Grenada income group. The enterprise surveys focus on the many factors that shape the decisions of firms to invest. These factors can be accommodating or constraining and play an importa...

  4. Enterprise Surveys : Guatemala Country Profile 2009

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank; International Finance Corporation

    2011-01-01

    The Country Profile for Guatemala is based on data from the Enterprise Surveys conducted by the World Bank. The benchmarks include the averages for the group of countries in Latin America & Caribbean and the Guatemala income group. The enterprise surveys focus on the many factors that shape the decisions of firms to invest. These factors can be accommodating or constraining and play an imp...

  5. Enterprise Surveys : Mexico Country Profile 2010

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank; International Finance Corporation

    2011-01-01

    The Country Profile for Mexico is based on data from the Enterprise Surveys conducted by the World Bank. The benchmarks include the averages for the group of countries in Latin America & Caribbean and the Mexico income group. The enterprise surveys focus on the many factors that shape the decisions of firms to invest. These factors can be accommodating or constraining and play an important...

  6. Wind Powering America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the June 1999 Windpower Conference, the Secretary of Energy launched the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's Wind Powering America (WPA) initiative. The goals of the initiative are to meet 5% of the nation's energy needs with wind energy by 2020 (i.e., 80,000 megawatts installed), to double the number of states that have more than 20 megawatts (MW) of wind capacity to 16 by 2005 and triple it to 24 by 2010, and to increase wind's contribution to Federal electricity use to 5% by 2010. To achieve the Federal government's goal, DOE would take the leadership position and work with its Federal partners. Subsequently, the Secretary accelerated the DOE 5% commitment to 2005. Achieving the 80,000 MW goal would result in approximately$60 billion investment and$1.5 billion of economic development in our rural areas (where the wind resources are the greatest). The purpose of this paper is to provide an update on DOE's strategy for achieving its goals and the activities it has undertaken since the initiative was announced

  7. Equity in Tertiary Education in Central America : An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Bashir, Sajitha; Luque, Javier

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the evolution in socio-economic and ethnic disparities in tertiary education attainment, participation, and completion and labor market outcomes in the six countries of Central America. There is evidence of differential progress, with Costa Rica, a middle-income country, and Nicaragua, a low-income country, having improved participation of low-income students in tertiar...

  8. Nutritional situation in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-01

    PAHO member countries maintain food and nutrition surveillance systems. The prevalence of malnutrition among children aged 0-4 in Latin American and Caribbean countries ranges from 0.8% in Chile to 38.5% in Guatemala. It is 2.9% in the US. Low height-for-age is most common among children aged 0-4 in Guatemala (57.9%), Bolivia (38.3%), Peru (35.2%), and Ecuador (34%). The interval between observations of malnutrition prevalence ranged from 22 years in Honduras to 3-4 years in Nicaragua and Panama. Overall, there was a downward trend in malnutrition rates in the Americas. Yet, malnutrition is increasing in Guatemala and Panama. Breast feeding, good weaning practices, appropriate feeding during disease episodes, nutrition education, and programs for immunization and control of diarrhea and respiratory diseases account for the downward trend. Anemia rates among pregnant women (=or 11 g Hb/dl) vary from 13% in Asuncion, Paraguay, to 61% in Misiones, Argentina. Those for preschoolers range from 22% to 45% in Brazil and 27% to 53% in Peru. The prevalence of goiter is more than 50% in Merida, Venezuela, and Chameza, Colombia. It differs greatly in different areas within the same country. Most countries have laws requiring iodination of all salt for human consumption, yet violations are common. Certain areas of the countries in the Americas have vitamin A deficiency rates ranging from 5% to 48.8%. Some countries have enacted laws for sugar enrichment with retinol palmitate to reduce vitamin A deficiency. During the 1970s, deaths from chronic diseases related to nutrition increased 105% in South America, 56% in Central America, Mexico, and Panama, and 21% in the Caribbean. Prevalence of obesity among children aged 0-6 varies from 2.2% in Nicaragua and Brazil to 10.7% in Chile. Adult obesity is most common in Uruguay (about 50%). It is more common among females than males. The highest rates among 20-29 year olds are in Chile, Costa Rica, Cuba, and Peru. The US adult obesity

  9. Problems of nuclear power in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problems of nuclear power in developing countries are different in nature but not less severe than in industrialized countries. So far, only five developing countries with market economies (Argentina, India, Korea, Pakistan, Taiwan) have nuclear power plants in operation with a combined net output of 2.2 GWe. Nuclear projects with a total capacity of 15 GWe are under construction in these and four other developing countries in Asia and Latin America (Brazil, Iran, Mexico, Philippines). It is expected that most of the future nuclear power installed in developing countries of Asia, Africa and Latin America will be in these countries which have overcome some of the problems of nuclear power. (orig./RW)

  10. Country Nuclear Power Profiles - 2007 Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preparation of Country Nuclear Power Profiles (CNPP) was initiated within the framework of the IAEA's programme on assessment and feedback of nuclear power plant performance. It responded to a need for a database and a technical publication containing a description of the energy and economic situation, the energy and the electricity sector, and the primary organizations involved in nuclear power in IAEA Member States. It covers background information on the status and development of nuclear power programmes in countries having nuclear plants in operation and/or plants under construction. This is the 2007 edition issued on CD-ROM and Web pages. It updates the country information, in general, to the end of 2006 for 39 countries. The CNPP is updated based on information voluntarily provided by participating IAEA Member States. Participants include the 30 countries that have operating nuclear power plants, as well as nine countries having past or planned nuclear power programmes (Bangladesh, Egypt, Indonesia, the Islamic Republic of Iran, Italy, Kazakhstan, Poland, Turkey, and Vietnam). For the 2007 edition, 21 countries provided information to the IAEA to update their profiles. For the 18 other countries, the IAEA updated the profile statistical tables on nuclear power, energy development, and economic indicators based on information from IAEA and World Bank databases. These 18 countries are Argentina, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, China, Egypt, Finland, Indonesia, Japan, Mexico, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Switzerland, and Ukraine. Overall, the CNPP reviews the organizational and industrial aspects of nuclear power programmes in participating countries, and provides information about the relevant legislative, regulatory and international frameworks in each country. It compiles the current issues in the new environment within which the electricity and nuclear sector operates, i.e. energy policy, and privatization and deregulation in

  11. Legislation on renewable energy sources in Central America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the development of renewable energy in Central America and the cooperation given by the European Comission in the promotion of renewable energy sources. Also discuss the current situation in energy demand in Central America and possible solutions linked to legislation that promotes the inversion of the private sector. The legal framework in each country of Central America is presented and its impact in the increasing of generation of energy through tax reductions, trading and prices

  12. Correlations of mutations in katG, oxyR-ahpC and inhA genes and in vitro susceptibility in Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical strains segregated by spoligotype families from tuberculosis prevalent countries in South America

    OpenAIRE

    Suffys Philip N; Ritacco Viviana; Telles Maria A; Palaci Moises; Espinoza Roger C; Cafrune Patricia I; Rostirolla Diana C; Arnold Liane S; Silva Márcia SN; Ribeiro Marta O; Dalla Costa Elis R; Lopes Maria L; Campelo Creuza L; Miranda Silvana S; Kremer Kristin

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Mutations associated with resistance to rifampin or streptomycin have been reported for W/Beijing and Latin American Mediterranean (LAM) strain families of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. A few studies with limited sample sizes have separately evaluated mutations in katG, ahpC and inhA genes that are associated with isoniazid (INH) resistance. Increasing prevalence of INH resistance, especially in high tuberculosis (TB) prevalent countries is worsening the burden of TB control...

  13. Chao Mung Den Dat My (Welcome to America).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Los Angeles County Commission on Human Relations, CA.

    The purpose of this booklet is to introduce Southeast Asian refugees to some American attitudes and social styles. The complete English text is repeated in Khmer (Cambodian language) and Vietnamese. Topics discussed include: America as a very young country; America as a mixture of different people; that urban life is complex, fast-paced, and…

  14. Adolescent Literacies in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Lesley; Lopez, Dina; Mein, Erika; Valdiviezo, Laura A.

    2011-01-01

    In 2000, approximately 36 million youth and adults living in Latin America and the Caribbean were reported to be unable to read or write basic texts. Of these, 20 million were women. According to official statistics, some countries in Central America (Guatemala, Nicaragua, El Salvador, and Honduras) have a youth and adult literacy rate of 80% or…

  15. Pinta: Latin America's Forgotten Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, Lola V

    2015-11-01

    Pinta is a neglected, chronic skin disease that was first described in the sixteenth century in Mexico. The World Health Organization lists 15 countries in Latin America where pinta was previously endemic. However, the current prevalence of pinta is unknown due to the lack of surveillance data. The etiological agent of pinta, Treponema carateum, cannot be distinguished morphologically or serologically from the not-yet-cultivable Treponema pallidum subspecies that cause venereal syphilis, yaws, and bejel. Although genomic sequencing has enabled the development of molecular techniques to differentiate the T. pallidum subspecies, comparable information is not available for T. carateum. Because of the influx of migrants and refugees from Latin America, U.S. physicians should consider pinta in the differential diagnosis of skin diseases in children and adolescents who come from areas where pinta was previously endemic and have a positive reaction in serological tests for syphilis. All stages of pinta are treatable with a single intramuscular injection of penicillin. PMID:26304920

  16. Cohabitation in Latin America: a comparative perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Sussai Soares, Maira Covre

    2014-01-01

    The coexistence of marriage and cohabitation is an intriguing feature of Latin American nuptiality. Historically common among lower social classes in Central America and the Caribbean, the incidence of cohabitation is also increasing among higher educated groups and southern Latin American countries. This study uses census and survey data to investigate the characteristics of Latin American cohabitation.First, the countries’ socioeconomic characteristics, related to the incidence of cohabitat...

  17. Experiences with PES in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Southgate, Doug

    2007-01-01

    This presentation covers a general overview of the history and characteristics of PES work in Latin America. It highlights examples in Costa Rica, Mexico and the South American countries of Ecuador, Colombia, Bolivia. More specifically it discusses the role of water PES and watershed protection in these areas, and how this is different from PES work in other countries. Also included in this presentation is a brief discussion of the role of ecotourism in relation to PES and rural development.

  18. Yellow fever: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monath, T P

    2001-08-01

    Yellow fever, the original viral haemorrhagic fever, was one of the most feared lethal diseases before the development of an effective vaccine. Today the disease still affects as many as 200,000 persons annually in tropical regions of Africa and South America, and poses a significant hazard to unvaccinated travellers to these areas. Yellow fever is transmitted in a cycle involving monkeys and mosquitoes, but human beings can also serve as the viraemic host for mosquito infection. Recent increases in the density and distribution of the urban mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti, as well as the rise in air travel increase the risk of introduction and spread of yellow fever to North and Central America, the Caribbean and Asia. Here I review the clinical features of the disease, its pathogenesis and pathophysiology. The disease mechanisms are poorly understood and have not been the subject of modern clinical research. Since there is no specific treatment, and management of patients with the disease is extremely problematic, the emphasis is on preventative vaccination. As a zoonosis, yellow fever cannot be eradicated, but reduction of the human disease burden is achievable through routine childhood vaccination in endemic countries, with a low cost for the benefits obtained. The biological characteristics, safety, and efficacy of live attenuated, yellow fever 17D vaccine are reviewed. New applications of yellow fever 17D virus as a vector for foreign genes hold considerable promise as a means of developing new vaccines against other viruses, and possibly against cancers. PMID:11871403

  19. Italy update on academic institutional repositories

    OpenAIRE

    Mornati, Susanna

    2005-01-01

    At the CNI-JISC-SURF conference “Making the strategic case for institutional repositories” (http://www.surf.nl/en/bijeenkomsten/index2.php?oid=6), an invitational leadership meeting held in Amsterdam on the 10-11th May 2005, 13 countries presented their updates. This is the Italy update, which reports on the Italian situation of institutional repositories through a questionnaire that was compiled by several contributors.

  20. Correlation of uranium geology between South America and Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acting upon the recommendation of an Advisory Group Meeting held in 1980, the IAEA organized a Working Group on the Correlation of the Uranium Geology between South America and Africa because of the tremendous geological potential for uranium and the interest showed by the Member States of the regions concerned. The report of this Working Group is now presented. The aim of this report is to provide the nuclear industry and, in particular, the countries of the region with a broad but updated outline of current development in the uranium geology and the uranium potential of Africa and South America. The scope is such that it will provide, for those not directly involved in uranium exploration in the area, a general technical summary on the regional geology and tectonics of these two continents in order that the geodynamic setting of their uranium occurrences may be correlated. With respect to the area to be covered and bearing in mind the purpose of this study, the Working Group surveyed the most relevant parts of western Gondwanaland, of which the two continents form a part. The area covered by the report extends from north of the West African Craton and the Guiana Shield to the southern end of South America and Africa; from the Amazonian Province in western Brazil and western Argentina to the central part of the West African Craton, Congo-Kasai Craton. The Andean Chain in South America and the Atlas Mountains in North Africa, which were formed by continental accretion in recent geological time and post-dated the split and drift of the two land masses, were not considered. Some of the inner portions of those cratons distant from the coastlines and for which the correlation features do not apply have also been omitted. However, certain areas of important uranium mineralization outside the main study area have been described in order to offer comparative models for future exploration elsewhere. The subject of the report is discussed under six headings: cratonic areas

  1. Lupus Foundation of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You. Learn More About the Lupus Foundation of America We are devoted to solving the mystery of ... Support for Lupus Research The Lupus Foundation of America applauds the U.S. Senate Appropriations Committee for voting ...

  2. Sarcoma Foundation of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mission The mission of the Sarcoma Foundation of America (SFA) is to advocate for sarcoma patients by ... behalf of everyone at the Sarcoma Foundation of America (SFA),THANK YOU! The Celebration of Life drew ...

  3. America's Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About the Forum | Publications | Data Sources | Help Search America's Children: Key National Indicators of Well-Being, 2015 ... Care Quality List of Tables List of Figures America's Children at a Glance Forum Agencies Data Source ...

  4. America's Blood Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or less. Please donate now! Full Stoplight Report America's Blood Centers is... FEATURED TODAY Support the Foundation ... purchase will be donated to the Foundation for America's Blood Centers! Simply Click Here! "We Are" This ...

  5. Updating systematic reviews: an international survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantelle Garritty

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Systematic reviews (SRs should be up to date to maintain their importance in informing healthcare policy and practice. However, little guidance is available about when and how to update SRs. Moreover, the updating policies and practices of organizations that commission or produce SRs are unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The objective was to describe the updating practices and policies of agencies that sponsor or conduct SRs. An Internet-based survey was administered to a purposive non-random sample of 195 healthcare organizations within the international SR community. Survey results were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The completed response rate was 58% (n = 114 from across 26 countries with 70% (75/107 of participants identified as producers of SRs. Among responders, 79% (84/107 characterized the importance of updating as high or very-high and 57% (60/106 of organizations reported to have a formal policy for updating. However, only 29% (35/106 of organizations made reference to a written policy document. Several groups (62/105; 59% reported updating practices as irregular, and over half (53/103 of organizational respondents estimated that more than 50% of their respective SRs were likely out of date. Authors of the original SR (42/106; 40% were most often deemed responsible for ensuring SRs were current. Barriers to updating included resource constraints, reviewer motivation, lack of academic credit, and limited publishing formats. Most respondents (70/100; 70% indicated that they supported centralization of updating efforts across institutions or agencies. Furthermore, 84% (83/99 of respondents indicated they favoured the development of a central registry of SRs, analogous to efforts within the clinical trials community. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Most organizations that sponsor and/or carry out SRs consider updating important. Despite this recognition, updating practices are not regular, and many organizations lack

  6. Country Nuclear Power Profiles - 2013 Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Country Nuclear Power Profiles compile background information on the status and development of nuclear power programmes in Member States. The CNPP summarizes organizational and industrial aspects of nuclear power programs and provides information about the relevant legislative, regulatory, and international framework in each country. Its descriptive and statistical overview of the overall economic, energy, and electricity situation in each country and its nuclear power framework is intended to serve as an integrated source of key background information about nuclear power programs in the world. This 2013 edition, issued on CD-ROM and Web pages, contains updated country information for 51 countries

  7. America after 3PM: Topline Data. Participants and Non-Participants Combined

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afterschool Alliance, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In 2004, the Afterschool Alliance and the JCPenney Afterschool Fund commissioned the most in-depth study ever to examine how America's kids spend their after school hours--"America After 3PM". In spring 2009, the Afterschool Alliance and the JCPenney Afterschool Fund again worked with RTi to update the study to determine how things have changed…

  8. Lawsuit Updates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Keda Elevator Company Infringes "KODAK" Trademark Right Ruling No. Suzhongminchuzi 0213/2005 The US Eastman Kodak began to use the "KODAK" as a trademark on camera in 1888, and it has, so far, registered nearly 1,700 "KODAK" trademarks in more than 150 countries and regions. From early 2005, the Keda Elevator Company (Keda for short) began to use the "KODAK" word only or together with "KEDA" in a top-down arrangement, on its lift and elevator products, its corporate signboard, its employees' name cards, ...

  9. Correlations of mutations in katG, oxyR-ahpC and inhA genes and in vitro susceptibility in Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical strains segregated by spoligotype families from tuberculosis prevalent countries in South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suffys Philip N

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mutations associated with resistance to rifampin or streptomycin have been reported for W/Beijing and Latin American Mediterranean (LAM strain families of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. A few studies with limited sample sizes have separately evaluated mutations in katG, ahpC and inhA genes that are associated with isoniazid (INH resistance. Increasing prevalence of INH resistance, especially in high tuberculosis (TB prevalent countries is worsening the burden of TB control programs, since similar transmission rates are noted for INH susceptible and resistant M. tuberculosis strains. Results We, therefore, conducted a comprehensive evaluation of INH resistant M. tuberculosis strains (n = 224 from three South American countries with high burden of drug resistant TB to characterize mutations in katG, ahpC and inhA gene loci and correlate with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC levels and spoligotype strain family. Mutations in katG were observed in 181 (80.8% of the isolates of which 178 (98.3% was contributed by the katG S315T mutation. Additional mutations seen included oxyR-ahpC; inhA regulatory region and inhA structural gene. The S315T katG mutation was significantly more likely to be associated with MIC for INH ≥2 μg/mL. The S315T katG mutation was also more frequent in Haarlem family strains than LAM (n = 81 and T strain families. Conclusion Our data suggests that genetic screening for the S315T katG mutation may provide rapid information for anti-TB regimen selection, epidemiological monitoring of INH resistance and, possibly, to track transmission of INH resistant strains.

  10. Technical assistance in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As in the other regions, nuclear technology development in Latin America reflects mainly the degree of technological development already existing in each country. It is quite significant that in nearly all countries in Latin America the medical profession has been the first to show interest in using nuclear techniques. As a result, a country such as Uruguay has become a source of recruitment for technical assistance experts in nuclear medicine to other developing countries, while at the same time it continues to receive assistance for new sophisticated techniques from the IAEA. Part of this assistance, in turn, comes from the neighbouring countries, Argentina and Brazil. For example, an expert from Uruguay is currently assigned under an Agency programme to Costa Rica, El Salvador and Guatemala, and experts from Argentina and Brazil have been sent to Uruguay. This is an example of 'horizontal' development, meaning mutual assistance between developing countries under programmes supported by the United Nations Agencies, which is now being emphasized by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Still in the field of nuclear medicine, another significant model is provided by Bolivia. With assistance from the IAEA, and thanks to the availability of a good professional infrastructure in that country, a net of nuclear medicine services has been started, consisting of a well-developed nuclear medicine centre in La Paz and regional centres in Cochabamba, Sucre and Santa Cruz. Because of its great variations in altitude, Bolivia is in the position of being able to conduct research on the adaptation of man to diverse environmental conditions. The Agency has contributed, and continues to do so, to these programmes by sending experts, providing for training abroad of Bolivian doctors under its fellowship programmes, and providing basic equipment for all four centres. Independently of the cases described above, the IAEA has implemented or is implementing a considerable

  11. Energy sector developments in Central America and the Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy sector developments in Central America and the Caribbean were discussed. Central America is composed of six small countries whose total population is 32 million. The Caribbean population is 20.5 million. Central America is generally poor in hydrocarbon reserves but the geological prospects in several of the countries are encouraging. The oil and petroleum products supply and demand picture, the main characteristics of the hydrocarbon market, structure of the oil industry, hydrocarbon market reforms, pricing issues and recent trend towards reforms in the electric power industry in Central America were discussed. An overview of the Inter-American Development Bank's (IDB) effort to provide technical assistance and loans to strengthen the energy sector development in Central America and the Caribbean was also given. 17 refs., 2 tabs., 23 figs

  12. Geoparks in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Geopark is a territory delimited part of a holistic concept of protection, education and sustainable development, based on geological sites of particular importance, rarity or aesthetic geological sites. A Geopark achieves its goals through three main areas: geoconservation, education and geotourism. The first network of Geoparks born in Europe in 2000, and from 2004 UNESCO is promoting the creation of a Global Geoparks Network (Global Geoparks Network, GGN ). Currently, there are 64 Global Geoparks in 19 countries, and the movement is in full development. In Latin America there is hardly Araripe Geopark in Brazil. Presented in this work, projects and studies related to the development of Geoparks in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Peru and Venezuela. We understand that Colombia, Cuba, Ecuador, Mexico and Nicaragua have projects in this line, but the details are not yet readily available. The authors invite geoscientists and professionals in related fields to join a movement for the creation of the Latin American Network of Geoparks, intended as a framework for the conservation, sustainable use and disclosure of our national geological heritage

  13. Country Nuclear Power Profiles - 2010 Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Country Nuclear Power Profiles compiles background information on the status and development of nuclear power programs in Member States. It consists of organizational and industrial aspects of nuclear power programs and provides information about the relevant legislative, regulatory, and international framework in each country. Its descriptive and statistical overview of the overall economic, energy, and electricity situation in each country, and its nuclear power framework is intended to serve as an integrated source of key background information about nuclear power programs in the world. The preparation of Country Nuclear Power Profiles (CNPP) was initiated in 1990s. It responded to a need for a database and a technical publication containing a description of the energy and economic situation, the energy and the electricity sector, and the primary organizations involved in nuclear power in IAEA Member States. This is the 2010 edition issued on CD-ROM and Web pages. It updates the country information for 48 countries. The CNPP is updated based on information voluntarily provided by participating IAEA Member States. Participants include the 29 countries that have operating nuclear power plants, as well as 19 countries having past or planned nuclear power programmes (Bangladesh, Belarus, Chile, Egypt, Ghana, Indonesia, the Islamic Republic of Iran, Italy, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Lithuania, Morocco, Nigeria, Philippines, Poland, Thailand, Tunisia, Turkey and Vietnam). For the 2010 edition, 24 countries provided updated or new profiles. For the other countries, the IAEA updated the profile statistical tables on nuclear power, energy development, and economic indicators based on information from IAEA and World Bank databases. The CNPP reports have been prepared by each Member State in accordance with the IAEA format. The IAEA is not responsible for the content of these reports

  14. Country Nuclear Power Profiles - 2011 Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Country Nuclear Power Profiles compiles background information on the status and development of nuclear power programs in Member States. It consists of organizational and industrial aspects of nuclear power programs and provides information about the relevant legislative, regulatory, and international framework in each country. Its descriptive and statistical overview of the overall economic, energy, and electricity situation in each country, and its nuclear power framework is intended to serve as an integrated source of key background information about nuclear power programs in the world. The preparation of Country Nuclear Power Profiles (CNPP) was initiated in 1990s. It responded to a need for a database and a technical publication containing a description of the energy and economic situation, the energy and the electricity sector, and the primary organizations involved in nuclear power in IAEA Member States. This is the 2011 edition issued on CD-ROM and Web pages. It updates the country information for 50 countries. The CNPP is updated based on information voluntarily provided by participating IAEA Member States. Participants include the 29 countries that have operating nuclear power plants, as well as 21 countries having past or planned nuclear power programmes (Bangladesh, Belarus, Chile, Egypt, Ghana, Indonesia, the Islamic Republic of Iran, Italy, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kuwait, Lithuania, Morocco, Nigeria, Philippines, Poland, Syrian Arab Republic, Thailand, Tunisia, Turkey and Vietnam). For the 2011 edition, 23 countries provided updated or new profiles. For the other countries, the IAEA updated the profile statistical tables on nuclear power, energy development, and economic indicators based on information from IAEA and World Bank databases.

  15. Privatization of oil companies in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three linked articles explore the current movement towards privatization in the various countries of South America. While the progress away from state control varies from country to country, the first article argues that the movement will offer economic benefits to the Latin American petroleum industry as a whole, despite the political difficulties which must be overcome. In the second article, public distaste for the nationalization of the Venezuelan oil industry back in 1943, petroleum engineers, economists, private sector representatives and oil industry employees all oppose wholesale privatization, favouring national and private investment within Venezuela. The last author argues for an efficient regulatory framework to oversee privatization schemes. (UK)

  16. 拉丁美洲高等教育評鑑及認可制度:論區域主義對單一國家之影響 The Evaluation and Accreditation Systems of Higher Education in Latin America: The Influence of Regionalism on an Individual Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    莊小萍 Hsiao-Ping Chuang

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available 拉丁美洲國家之高等教育因學生與機構數擴張、國際化與跨國教育發展、市場化趨勢、政府經費縮減效應、績效責任的要求等驅力所造成的衝擊,逐漸重視評鑑及認可機制的建置與運用。為了促進高教品質和競爭力,拉丁美洲各國除自行發展評鑑及認可制度,更以區域合作之方案或網絡為策略,試圖強化其高教品質機制的發展。本文旨在探究拉丁美洲高等教育區域性評鑑方案及組織之發展, 並探討區域評鑑計畫對單一國家之衝擊與影響。本研究採文件分析法,研究目的包括:一、了解區域主義之重要內涵,及其在拉丁美洲高等教育領域之實踐;二、探討拉丁美洲高等教育評鑑與認可制度之發展,並解析區域性方案或組織之內涵;三、探究區域評鑑方案對阿根廷大學評鑑及認可制度發展之影響。本研究發現拉丁美洲國家與區域層級之高教評鑑與認可組織乃同時發展並且相輔相成; 為了方便區域採認的學位認可制度呈現大幅度的進展,但欲達到全面性流通的目標仍有待努力。 In order to deal with the increasing numbers of institutions and students, the development of transnational education, the trend of marketization, the decreasing support from government funding, and the demand for accountability, most colleges in Latin America have gradually set mechanisms for evaluation and accreditation. These countries have not only established individual organizations and systems for evaluation and accreditation, but also endeavored to integrate them into regional networks for quality enhancement. This paper is aimed to explore the development of the quality assurance system of higher education in Latin America and the influence of regionalism on an individual country. The purposes of the research are (1 to probe into the implementation of regionalism in higher education of

  17. Natural gas in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite having proven reserves equal to that of North America, natural gas has traditionally played a minor role in the energy policies of Latin American countries, being considered secondary to oil. There has, therefore, been a neglect of the sector with a resultant lack of an adequate infrastructure throughout the region, perhaps with the exception of Argentina. However, with a massive increase in energy demand, growing concerns with environmental matters and a need to reduce the massive pollution levels in major cities in the region, natural gas is forecast to play a much greater role in Latin America's energy profile, with final consumption forecast to rise at 5.4% per annum for the next 15 years. This book assesses both the development of the use of natural gas in the power industrial sector and proposals for its growth into the residential, commercial and transport sectors. It analyses the significant investment required and the governments' need to turn to the private sector for investment and innovation. Natural Gas in Latin America analyses the possibilities and pitfalls of investing in the sector and describes the key trends and issues. It analyses all aspects of the gas industry from exploration and production to transportation and distribution to end users. (Author)

  18. Manganese Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Sousa Galito

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cheickna Bounajim Cissé wrote an article in Mars 2013 in the Journal Les Afriques N. º 237, suggesting a new acronym, MANGANESE, for the nine African countries: Morocco, Angola, Namibia, Ghana, Algeria, Nigeria, Egypt, South Africa and Ethiopia. According to Cissé, this group of African nations will be the fastest growing states in the region over the next few years. The purpose of this article is to test the pertinence of the acronym, discuss the credibility and reliability of the future prospects of these countries by comparing selected socioeconomic and sociopolitical indicators based on the latest global rankings and trends. Likewise, the potential of Cissé's claim will be assessed, especially in relationship to drug trafficking and terrorism that may put their recent sustainability in danger now and in the future.

  19. Progress and remaining challenges for cancer control in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser-Weippl, Kathrin; Chavarri-Guerra, Yanin; Villarreal-Garza, Cynthia; Bychkovsky, Brittany L; Debiasi, Marcio; Liedke, Pedro E R; Soto-Perez-de-Celis, Enrique; Dizon, Don; Cazap, Eduardo; de Lima Lopes, Gilberto; Touya, Diego; Nunes, Joāo Soares; St Louis, Jessica; Vail, Caroline; Bukowski, Alexandra; Ramos-Elias, Pier; Unger-Saldaña, Karla; Brandao, Denise Froes; Ferreyra, Mayra E; Luciani, Silvana; Nogueira-Rodrigues, Angelica; de Carvalho Calabrich, Aknar Freire; Del Carmen, Marcela G; Rauh-Hain, Jose Alejandro; Schmeler, Kathleen; Sala, Raúl; Goss, Paul E

    2015-10-01

    Cancer is one of the leading causes of mortality worldwide, and an increasing threat in low-income and middle-income countries. Our findings in the 2013 Commission in The Lancet Oncology showed several discrepancies between the cancer landscape in Latin America and more developed countries. We reported that funding for health care was a small percentage of national gross domestic product and the percentage of health-care funds diverted to cancer care was even lower. Funds, insurance coverage, doctors, health-care workers, resources, and equipment were also very inequitably distributed between and within countries. We reported that a scarcity of cancer registries hampered the design of credible cancer plans, including initiatives for primary prevention. When we were commissioned by The Lancet Oncology to write an update to our report, we were sceptical that we would uncover much change. To our surprise and gratification much progress has been made in this short time. We are pleased to highlight structural reforms in health-care systems, new programmes for disenfranchised populations, expansion of cancer registries and cancer plans, and implementation of policies to improve primary cancer prevention. PMID:26522157

  20. Atomic energy in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most countries in Latin America, including all those on the mainland, are Members of the Agency. Interest in the possibilities of nuclear energy has led to considerable activity, much of it in direct collaboration with the IAEA. Member States in the region are: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela. Of these, Argentina, Brazil, Colombia and Venezuela are operating, and Mexico and Uruguay are constructing, research reactors, while Chile and Peru are studying proposals. Argentina, Brazil, Mexico and Uruguay have all agreed to accept Agency safeguards for reactors. The possibility of future needs for nuclear power is under examination by several countries, in some cases being related to desalination of water. All atomic work in Latin America is devoted to peaceful uses, and note-worthy progress has been made with proposals for a treaty which would make the whole region a militarily de-nuclearized zone. It is proposed that when this comes into effect the Agency will be asked to apply the controls developed in its safeguards system, and to carry out the inspections necessary to establish that work in progress is solely for peaceful purposes

  1. Cancer epidemiology in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is estimated that there were over 10 million new cancer cases in 2000, 5.4 million of them occurring in the developing countries (Parkin et al, 2001). The marked geographical variation in cancer occurrence results in differing therapeutic priorities: North America has more new cancer cases than South-Central Asia, but there are more deaths from cancer in South-Central Asia, reflecting a different pattern of cancer rather than differences in prognosis. Prediction of future trends is difficult, but the impact of population increase and ageing will be significant, with an expected 63% increase in the population of the less developed countries in 50 years. Four sites of cancer namely breast, cervix, colorectal and nasopharyngeal carcinoma are reviewed, looking at their present and possible future importance in the context of developing countries and their aetiology

  2. Update on rabies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan C Jackson

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Alan C JacksonDepartments of Internal Medicine (Neurology and Medical Microbiology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, CanadaAbstract: Human rabies is almost invariably fatal, and globally it remains an important public health problem. Our knowledge of rabies pathogenesis has been learned mainly from studies performed in experimental animal models, and a number of unresolved issues remain. In contrast with the neural pathway of spread, there is still no credible evidence that hematogenous spread of rabies virus to the central nervous system plays a significant role in rabies pathogenesis. Although neuronal dysfunction has been thought to explain the neurological disease in rabies, recent evidence indicates that structural changes involving neuronal processes may explain the severe clinical disease and fatal outcome. Endemic dog rabies results in an ongoing risk to humans in many resource-limited and resource-poor countries, whereas rabies in wildlife is important in North America and Europe. In human cases in North America, transmission from bats is most common, but there is usually no history of a bat bite and there may be no history of contact with bats. Physicians may not recognize typical features of rabies in North America and Europe. Laboratory diagnostic evaluation for rabies includes rabies serology plus skin biopsy, cerebrospinal fluid, and saliva specimens for rabies virus antigen and/or RNA detection. Methods of postexposure rabies prophylaxis, including wound cleansing and administration of rabies vaccine and human rabies immune globulin, are highly effective after recognized exposure. Although there have been rare survivors of human rabies, no effective therapy is presently available. Therapeutic coma (midazolam and phenobarbital, ketamine, and antiviral therapies (known as the “Milwaukee protocol” were given to a rabies survivor, but this therapy was likely not directly responsible for the favorable outcome. New therapeutic

  3. Technological Change and Technical Efficiency for Diary Farms in Three Countries of South America Cambio Tecnológico y Eficiencia Técnica en Predios Lecheros de Tres Países de Sudamérica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris E Bravo-Ureta

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The progressive liberalization of agricultural markets, along with the threat that imported products can pose to local producers, reveals the importance of productivity growth as a mechanism to improve competitiveness. Technical efficiency measurement is the most studied component of productivity because it can help to generate valuable information for policy formulation and farm level decisions focused on the improvement of farm performance. This study uses unbalanced panel data sets for dairy farms from Argentina, Chile and Uruguay, to estimate stochastic production frontier models. These frontiers are then used to estimate economies of size, technological change and technical efficiency. All estimations are based on the Battese and Coelli (1992 model, which is widely used in empirical productivity studies. The models for all three countries exhibit increasing returns to scale, which suggests that the dairy farms in the samples are operating at a sub-optimal size. The average annual rate of technological change for Argentina was 0.9%, for Chile 2.6% and for Uruguay 6.9%, while average technical efficiency was 87.0%, 84.9% and 81.1%, respectively.La liberalización progresiva de los mercados agrícolas, junto a la amenaza que implica para productores nacionales la competencia de productos importados, dejan en claro la relevancia del incremento en la productividad como un elemento para mejorar la competitividad. La medición de la eficiencia técnica es uno de los componentes de la productividad más estudiados, debido a que proporciona información valiosa al momento de formular políticas y tomar decisiones destinadas a mejorar la administración predial. Este trabajo utiliza datos de panel desbalanceados de predios lecheros provenientes de Argentina, Chile y Uruguay, para estimar fronteras estocásticas de producción. Luego estas fronteras se usaron para analizar economías de tamaño, tasas de cambio tecnológico y eficiencia técnica. En

  4. Ebola Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, Louise C

    2016-01-01

    The Ebola virus disease first appeared in 1976 in the Sudan and the Democratic Republic of Congo. The most recent outbreak occurred in West Africa in March 2014 and quickly spread in surrounding countries. Ebola spreads through direct contact with the body fluids of an infected individual. The incubation period for Ebola is 2 to 21 days. Individuals are infectious when symptomatic. Identifying individuals at high risk for Ebola in the United States includes early recognition of symptoms and a history of travel to an Ebola-affected area. Multiple diagnostic tests exist and should include a complete blood count and a comprehensive metabolic profile. Standard, contact, and droplet precautions are advised when taking care of patients with Ebola. Appropriate personal protective equipment as recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention should be worn. No vaccine or antiviral drug has been approved, but vaccine trials are under way. Occupational health nurses play a key role in educating employees about this disease. PMID:26419541

  5. Enterprise Surveys : Chile Country Profile 2010

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank; International Finance Corporation

    2011-01-01

    The Country Profile for Chile is based on data from the Enterprise Surveys conducted by the World Bank. The benchmarks include the averages for the group of countries in Latin America & Caribbean and the Chile income group. The enterprise surveys focus on the many factors that shape the decisions of firms to invest. These factors can be accommodating or constraining and play an important r...

  6. The Reality and Future of Latin America: An Educational Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Oscar

    1993-01-01

    Third World countries have lacked the resources to invest in economic and academic development. The source lies in gross inequities between industrialized and developing countries. Globalization of markets has not benefited Latin America. Militarism, corruption, poverty, and social injustice can only be eradicated by incorporating strong…

  7. Reading Comprehension in Latin America: Difficulties and Possible Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lions, Séverin; Peña, Marcela

    2016-01-01

    Reading comprehension (RC) is below the international standard in many countries of Latin America (LA). Here we review factors that might be associated with failure in RC of the first language in LA. Then we present interventions reporting beneficial impact on RC in typically developing students from English-speaking countries and discuss their…

  8. La industria farmacéutica y la sostenibilidad de los sistemas de salud en países desarrollados y América Latina The pharmaceutical industry and the sustainability of healthcare systems in developed countries and in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Iñesta

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available La crisis económica y su impacto en las finanzas públicas en la mayoría de los países desarrollados, están originando políticas de contención del gasto en los servicios de salud. Las leyes actuales del medicamento exigen calidad, seguridad y eficacia de estos productos. Algunos países incluyen criterios de eficiencia para los nuevos medicamentos que desean ser incluidos en la financiación pública. El consumo apropiado de genéricos y "medicamentos biosimilares" es muy importante para mantener el equilibrio financiero de los servicios de salud. El problema en América Latina es que no todos los productos multifuentes son bioequivalentes y no todos los países tienen los recursos necesarios para realizar los estudios de bioequivalencia in vivo. La Agencia Europea del Medicamento en 2005 aprobó la directriz sobre "medicamentos biosimilares" y después se han autorizado trece de ellos para su comercialización. El referenciamiento de este modelo por otros países seria importante. La influencia de la industria farmacéutica sobre las áreas políticas y administrativas es necesario controlarla. Las compañías farmacéuticas afirman que actúan con responsabilidad social corporativa, por ello, se debería garantizar el cumplimiento de la misma con la sociedad.The global economic crisis and its impact on public finances in most developed countries are giving rise to cost-containment policies in healthcare systems. Prevailing legislation on medication requires the safety, quality, and efficacy of these products. A few countries include efficiency criteria, primarily for new medication that they wish to include in public financing. The appropriate use of generic and "biosimilar medication" is very important for maintaining the financial equilibrium of the Health Services. The problem in Latin America is that not all multisource products are bioequivalent and not all countries have the resources to conduct bioequivalence studies in vivo. The

  9. 2011 Residential Energy Efficiency Technical Update Meeting Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2011-11-01

    This report provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy Building America program's Summer 2011 Residential Energy Efficiency Technical Update Meeting. This meeting was held on August 9-11, 2011, in Denver, Colorado, and brought together more than 290 professionals representing organizations with a vested interest in energy efficiency improvements in residential buildings.

  10. Renewables global status report - 2009 Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    from conventional sources (including gas, coal, oil, and nuclear). Renewable energy industries boomed during most of 2008. Global solar PV production increased by 90 percent to 6.9 GW in 2008. China usurped Japan to become the new world leader in PV cell production and also experienced huge growth in its wind power industry, with many new companies producing wind turbines and components. Globally, the wind industry continued to push turbine sizes higher, with models of 3 MW or larger becoming more widespread. The concentrating solar power (CSP) industry saw many entrants and new manufacturing facilities. The ethanol and bio-diesel industries similarly expanded, particularly in North America and Latin America, and the cellulosic ethanol industry was in the process of booming, with 300 million liters per year of capacity under construction. Although the clean energy sector initially weathered the financial crisis in late 2008 better than many other sectors, renewable investment did experience a downturn after September 2008. However, projects continued to progress and many economic stimulus bills included components for supporting renewable energy. At the same time, development assistance for renewables in developing countries expanded greatly, reaching about $2 billion in 2008. By early 2009, policy targets existed in at least 73 countries, and at least 64 countries had policies to promote renewable power generation, including 45 countries and 18 states/provinces/territories with feed-in tariffs (many of these recently updated). The number of countries/states/ provinces with renewable portfolio standards increased to 49. Policy targets for renewable energy were added, supplemented, revised, or clarified in a large number of countries in 2008. Many forms of policy support for renewables were added, supplemented, or extended in a number of countries during 2008. For example, new solar PV subsidy programs were adopted in Australia, China, Japan, Luxembourg, the Netherlands

  11. Clear Skies : Cambodia Economic Update, October 2014

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2014-01-01

    This issue of the Cambodia economic update covers the following selected issues: 1) making the most of the Cambodian rise sector; and 2) creating opportunities for firms as reflected in findings from the investment climate assessment. For FY2014 economic growth held up well despite domestic uncertainty and instability in neighboring countries. Real growth is estimated to reach 7.2 percent,...

  12. The Tlatelolco treaty: An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America, known as the Tlatelolco Treaty, is the first - and up until now the only agreement - establishing a nuclear-weapon-free zone in an important, densely populated region of the earth. The Tlatelolco Treaty, which actually antedates the NPT, marked the culmination of a process undertaken as an act of sovereign will by the governments of the Latin American countries. It was opened for signature on 14 February 1967 and entered into force on 25 April 1969. The author gives a review of the Treaty and its history

  13. The gender wage gap in four countries

    OpenAIRE

    Daly, Anne; Kawaguchi, Akira; Meng, Xin; Mumford, Karen

    2006-01-01

    In a series of studies written during the 1980s Bob Gregory and his co-authors compared the gender wage gap in Australia with that found in other countries. They found it was not the difference in human capital endowments that explained different gender wage gaps but rather the rewards for these endowments. They concluded that country-specific factors, especially the institutional environment, were important in explaining the gender wage gap. This study updates Gregory's work by comparing the...

  14. Natural gas integration in South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The South America Gas Trade study, a project of the Canadian Energy Research Institute, was discussed. The ongoing study involves an examination of natural gas reserves, exploration, and development in the onshore and offshore basins in South America. An analysis of various pipeline options is also part of the project, using the South America Natural Gas (SANG) model. The forces driving natural gas development, (distribution of gas reserves, fuel substitution in the residential sector, focus on energy efficiency and cost control, potential export revenue growth, fuel substitution in electric power generation, development of co-generation capacity, and the impact of natural gas utilization on crude oil demand) and the legal, fiscal and regulatory regimes which govern the development of natural gas in each South American country were reviewed. figs

  15. Schooling in Capitalist America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, David K.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The symposium transcript presents and discusses commentaries on "Schooling in Capitalist America," by Sam Bowles and Herbert Gintis. The transcript serves three functions: (1) it offers a comprehensive account of the role of schools in America; (2) critiques efforts to reform schools; and (3) suggests alternative visions of how school reform…

  16. Smart power and foreign policy of the People's Republic of China: the case of Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Villegas Mendoza

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the most relevant aspects of the academic debate on smart power, in order to apply this concept to analyze the foreign policy of the Republic of China on Latin America and the Caribbean, but especially to Central America; where the dispute between China and Taiwan for international recognition is evident. It is argued that the smart power of China to Central America is expressed in the attractiveness of having privileged access to the Chinese market and its funding programs and official development assistance. While this country has a large presence in Latin America and the Caribbean, in Central America such influence is counteracted in the light of the close relationship that all Central American countries except Costa Rica, maintain with Taiwan. Based on the development of China as a world power, it is expected that this condition changed, so that this country would increase its influence in Central America.

  17. Special Education in Arab Countries: Current Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadidi, Muna S.; Al Khateeb, Jamal M.

    2015-01-01

    Arab countries have undertaken various measures to develop special education programmes and services over the last three decades; nevertheless, major challenges remain regarding the expansion of these programmes and services and improving their quality. "This article provides an update on disability and special education in Arab…

  18. Philippines : Country Water Resources Assistance Strategy 2003

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    The Water Resources Sector Strategy (WRSS) supports implementation of the Bank's 1993 Water Resources Management Policy, using the experience updated internationally, with water resources and management. This country Water Resources Assistance Strategy (CWRAS) identifies the Philippines principal water resource challenges, the current situation, how the Bank is assisting at present, and wh...

  19. Innovative activity in NAFTA and EU countries: an analysis of structural change in patent granted trends

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez, Mario; Rodríguez, José Carlos

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes innovative activity in North America and European Union (EU) countries by means of the number of patents granted from 1965 to 2005. Making use of the database released by the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), we search for presence of a structural change patent granted series. It is argued that patent activity in North America and EU countries has followed a different pathway, affecting firms’ innovative capabilities and competitiveness. In North America, th...

  20. Biomedical laboratory science education: standardising teaching content in resource-limited countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Arneson

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a worldwide shortage of qualified laboratory personnel to provide adequate testing for the detection and monitoring of diseases. In an effort to increase laboratory capacity in developing countries, new skills have been introduced into laboratory services. Curriculum revision with a focus on good laboratory practice is an important aspect of supplying entry-level graduates with the competencies needed to meet the current needs.Objectives: Gaps in application and problem-solving competencies of newly graduated laboratory personnel were discovered in Ethiopia, Tanzania and Kenya. New medical laboratory teaching content was developed in Ethiopia, Tanzania and Kenya using national instructors, tutors, and experts and consulting medical laboratory educators from the United States of America (USA.Method: Workshops were held in Ethiopia to create standardised biomedical laboratory science (BMLS lessons based on recently-revised course objectives with an emphasis on application of skills. In Tanzania, course-module teaching guides with objectives were developed based on established competency outcomes and tasks. In Kenya, example interactive presentations and lesson plans were developed by the USA medical laboratory educators prior to the workshop to serve as resources and templates for the development of lessons within the country itself.Results: The new teaching materials were implemented and faculty, students and other stakeholders reported successful outcomes.Conclusions: These approaches to updating curricula may be helpful as biomedical laboratory schools in other countries address gaps in the competencies of entry-level graduates.

  1. Shark fisheries in Central America a review and update.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rodrigo Rojas M.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available La demanda por derivados del tiburón, especialmente aletas y cartílago, ha llevado a una expansión de las pesquerías y del comercio a través de la región. El incremento en el esfuerzo pesquero, las escasas referencias biológicas y la falta de manejo, son factores claves que impactan negativamente esta pesquería. Con el fin de contar con información sobre el estado de las poblaciones, zonas de pesca y crianza, aspectos socioeconómicos y medidas necesarias para la conservación, se llevó a cabo esta investigación. Se identificaron 24 especies de importancia comercial, siendo las más importantes: Carcharhinus falciformis y Nasolamia velox (Guatemala, C. falciformis (Nicaragua, C. falciformis y Mustelus dorsalis (Costa Rica, C. obscurus (El Salvador, C. limbatus (Panamá. Los productos comerciales incluyen carne, aleta, aceite, cartílago y piel. Las aletas son el producto de mayor valor (i.e. aletas caudales secas se venden desde $150 a $400/kg en Costa Rica y son exportadas a Hong Kong, Taiwan, Japón y Estados Unidos.

  2. First report on the state of the world's animal genetic resources: Views on biotechnologies as expressed in country reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    percentage. No ET (embryo transfer) is used, and limited molecular characterization has been carried out, mainly as part of international development projects. Priorities were expressed in capacity building and training on AI and ET in the context of performance and genetic evaluations of livestock, and also in molecular techniques for the characterization of local animal genetic resources. Major constraints to reach priorities are financial resources and the lack of skilled human resources to undertake in-country training. Eastern Europe was represented by seven country reports. AI is widely used for several species, mainly cattle, and often connected to national AI programmes and activities of breeders associations. ET is used in a limited number of cases, or it is in national plans. The Near East was represented by only one country report. AI is mostly used in cattle, no ET is used, and work is in progress regarding regulation on the use of GMOs (genetically modified organisms). Priorities were expressed on creation of ET facilities, training in new biotechnological methods and establishment of gene banks. Major constraints are funding and the lack of skilled human resources. Two countries in Asia reported that AI is used but no ET facilities exist. Priorities were expressed in training, expanding the national gene pool, and updating existing regulations for conservation AnGR. China reported use of AI and ET, and microsatellite DNA technology. No specific priorities were mentioned but the country is implementing plans for a centre for AnGR germplasm. As a result of a regional meeting on country report preparation, national and regional priorities, ten countries of Central America and the Caribbean, and Mexico identified AI as means of diffusion of genetic improvement, and some mentioned ET as rarely used but of interest. Emphasis, both as needs and actions was put on molecular characterization and cryoconservation of local breeds, especially criollo cattle, sheep and

  3. Global evolution of Equidae and Gomphotheriidae from South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, José L; Alberdi, María T

    2014-08-01

    The contemporary South American mammalian communities were determined by the emergence of the Isthmus of Panama and by the profound climatic oscillations during the Pleistocene. Horses and gomphotheres were 2 very conspicuous groups of immigrant mammals from North America that arrived in South America during the Pleistocene. The present study compiles updated data on the phylogeny, systematics and ecology of both groups in South America. The horses in South America are represented by 2 genera, Hippidion and Equus, as are the gomphotheres, represented by Cuvieronius and Stegomastodon. Both genera of horses include small (Hippidion devillei, H. saldiasi, E. andium and E. insulatus) and large forms (Equus neogeus and H. principale), which dispersed into South America using 2 different routes. The possible model for this dispersion indicates that the small forms used the Andes corridor, while larger horses dispersed through the eastern route and through some coastal areas. In the case of gomphotheres, Cuvieronius and Stegomastodon reached South America in 2 independent dispersal events, and Cuvieronius dispersed across the Andean corridor, while large Stegomastodon spread along the eastern route. Horses and gomphotheres present values of δ(13) C from woodlands to C4 grasslands. Hippidion present lower values of δ(13) C than Equus in the late Pleistocene, whereas the gomphotheres diverge from value of δ(18) O, reflecting that Cuvieronius inhabited the Andean corridor and Stegomastodon dispersed through eastern plains. The gomphothere and horse species recorded in South America became extinct around the time that humans arrived. PMID:25236414

  4. Super Debt: Managing America's Balance of Payments

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Benjamin J

    2005-01-01

    The second Bush Administration will face many demanding challenges in foreign economic policy – the Doha Round of multilateral trade talks, regional and bilateral trade negotiations, poor-country debt problems, rising energy prices, the competitive threat of China, and more. But most demanding of all will be the critical issue of America's balance of payments. Persistent external deficits have led to an unprecedented growth of foreign debt for the United States, now in excess of $3 trillion...

  5. Friedman versus Keynes in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Westphalen, Jürgen

    1982-01-01

    In a number of Latin American countries, the influence of John Maynard Keynes and his Latin American proponent Raúl Prebisch, was forced during the seventies to give way to the liberal-monetarist principles of Milton Friedman. What advantages and disadvantages have ensued from this change of course? Do Friedman's theories point a way out of Latin America's present economic and social problems?

  6. Irrigation Water Management in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Aureo S. de Oliveira; Ricardo Trezza; Eduardo Holzapfel; Ignacio Lorite; Vital Pedro S Paz

    2009-01-01

    Latin American countries show a great potential for expanding their irrigated areas. Irrigation is important for strengthening local and regional economy and for enhancing food security. The present paper aimed at providing a brief review on key aspects of irrigation management in Latin America. Poor irrigation management can have great impact on crop production and on environment while good management reduces the waste of soil and water and help farmers maximizing their profits. It was found...

  7. Report on China's Latin America Policy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    The Latin America Research Group,CICIR

    2004-01-01

    @@ Latin America is the only underdeveloped region in the Western Hemisphere, and China is the largest developing country in the Eastern Hemisphere. Across the vast Pacific Ocean, the Chinese and the Latin American people have a history of nearly 500 years of exchanges. Starting from the 1980s, both China and the Latin American states adopted the reform and opening-up strategies for development,which led to profound political, economic, and social transformations in the two areas.

  8. Country Nuclear Power Profiles - 2012 Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Country Nuclear Power Profiles compile background information on the status and development of nuclear power programmes in Member States. The CNPP's main objectives are to consolidate information about the nuclear power infrastructures in participating countries, and to present factors related to the effective planning, decision making and implementation of nuclear power programmes that together lead to safe and economical operations of nuclear power plants. The CNPP summarizes organizational and industrial aspects of nuclear power programs and provides information about the relevant legislative, regulatory, and international framework in each country. Its descriptive and statistical overview of the overall economic, energy, and electricity situation in each country and its nuclear power framework is intended to serve as an integrated source of key background information about nuclear power programs in the world. Topics such as reactor safety, nuclear fuel cycle, radioactive waste management and research programmes are for the most part not discussed in detail. Statistical data about nuclear plant operations, population, energy and electricity use are drawn from the PRIS, EEDB, World Development Indicators (WDI) of the World Bank and the national contributions. This publication is updated and the scope of coverage expanded annually. This is the 2012 edition, issued on CD-ROM and Web pages. It contains updated country information for 51 countries. The CNPP is updated based on information voluntarily provided by participating IAEA Member States. Participants include the 29 countries that have operating nuclear power plants, as well as 22 countries with past or planned nuclear power. Each of the 51 profiles in this publication is self-standing, and contains information officially provided by the respective national authorities. For the 2012 edition, 20 countries provided updated or new profiles. These are Argentina, Armenia, Bangladesh, Chile, Germany, Ghana

  9. The History of Dengue Outbreaks in the Americas

    OpenAIRE

    Brathwaite Dick, Olivia; San Martín, José L.; Montoya, Romeo H.; del Diego, Jorge; Zambrano, Betzana; Dayan, Gustavo H.

    2012-01-01

    Dengue is a viral disease usually transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Dengue outbreaks in the Americas reported in medical literature and to the Pan American Health Organization are described. The outbreak history from 1600 to 2010 was categorized into four phases: Introduction of dengue in the Americas (1600–1946); Continental plan for the eradication of the Ae. aegypti (1947–1970) marked by a successful eradication of the mosquito in 18 continental countries by 1962; Ae. aegypti reinfe...

  10. Social Movements in Southeast Asia and Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iqra Anugrah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Three recent works – Social Activism in Southeast Asia, Social Movements in Latin America: Neoliberalism and Popular Resistance, and Southeast Asia and the Civil Society Gaze: Scoping a Contested Concept in Cambodia and Vietnam – provide a timely update on the contemporary landscape of social movements in Southeast Asia and Latin America. These works are also relevant for broader theoretical discussions on social movements and provide a basis for future inter-regional comparative studies.

  11. Developing nanotechnology in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article investigates the development of nanotechnology in Latin America with a particular focus on Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Uruguay. Based on data for nanotechnology research publications and patents and suggesting a framework for analyzing the development of R and D networks, we identify three potential strategies of nanotechnology research collaboration. Then, we seek to identify the balance of emphasis upon each of the three strategies by mapping the current research profile of those four countries. In general, we find that they are implementing policies and programs to develop nanotechnologies but differ in their collaboration strategies, institutional involvement, and level of development. On the other hand, we find that they coincide in having a modest industry participation in research and a low level of commercialization of nanotechnologies.

  12. Critical Review of East Asia – South America Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Hamanaka, Shintaro; Tafgar, Aiken

    2013-01-01

    There is a general consensus that trade between East Asia and South America is becoming increasingly important. However, we know little about the actual dynamic development of this inter-regional trade. This paper examines whether the trend of East Asia–South America trade is a general phenomena or a country- and commodity-specific issue, and whether the increase in trade values has a solid basis in terms of commodity diversification and/or price and quantity effects. While South America has ...

  13. Venezuela - Country Note on Climate Change Aspects in Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2009-01-01

    This country note briefly summarizes information relevant to both climate change and agriculture in Venezuela, with focus on policy developments (including action plans and programs) and institutional make-up. Like most countries in Latin America, Venezuela has submitted one national communication to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) with a second one under...

  14. Fermilab-Latin America collaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fermilab's program of collaboration with Latin America was initiated by then-Director Leon Lederman about 1980. His goal was to aid Latin American physics, and particularly its particle physics; this latter aim is in keeping with the Laboratory's particle physics mission. The reasons for collaboration between institutions in the US and Latin America are many, including geographic and cultural, together with the existence of many talented scientists and many centers of excellence in the region. There are also broader reasons; for example, it has been stated frequently that physics is the basis of much technology, and advanced technology is a necessity for a country's development. There is nothing unique about Fermilab's program; other US institutions can carry out similar activities, and some have carried out individual items in the past. On the Latin American side, such collaboration enables institutions there to carry out forefront physics research, and also to have the advantages of particle physics spin-offs, both in expertise in related technologies and in scientist training. In addition to particle physics, collaboration is possible in many other related areas. Although particle physics is frequently viewed as open-quotes big scienceclose quotes, all of the large research groups in the field are composed of many small university groups, each of which contributes to the experiment, the analysis and the physics. Fermilab is an international laboratory, open to all users; a research proposal is accepted on scientific merit and technical competence, not on the country of origin of the scientists making the proposal. Currently, of Fermilab's approximately 1400 users, about 30% are from non-US institutions. It should be noted here that Fermilab's funds, which come from the US government, are for particle physics only; however, there is some flexibility in interpretation of this

  15. Prevent Child Abuse America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... call the police . Crisis and support contacts For Child Abuse Reporting Numbers in your State please visit: Child ... suspected child abuse and neglect. Parent Resources Prevent Child Abuse America (800) CHILDREN A resource for tips, referrals, ...

  16. Donate Life America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us News You Have the Power to Donate Life. Register as an Organ, Eye and Tissue Donor ... reach 30K milestone, thanks to increased donations Donate Life America Announces 2015 James S. Wolf, M.D., Courage ...

  17. America in the Eyes of America Watchers:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Huiyun; He, Kai

    2015-01-01

    almost half of the survey participants thought that America would remain the global hegemon in the next ten years. Meanwhile, a large majority was also optimistic that China is a rising great power, especially in the economic sense, in the world. More than half of the respondents saw Asian military...... issues, such as the South China Sea issue, as the most difficult problem between China and the US....

  18. A Guide to Country-level Information about Equity, Poverty, and Health Available from Multi-Country Research Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, Dara; Gwatkin, Davidson R; Fragueiro, Dianne; Pande, Rohini

    1999-01-01

    This guide introduces inter-country programs concerned with poverty, equity, and health. The guide consists of two sections: Section one provides information about fourteen multi-country programs: Initiative on equity in Health and Health Care; Global Health Equity Initiative; Comparative Study of the Health of Poor and Non-Poor Population Groups; Equity in Health in Latin America and th...

  19. Moving Objects Updating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jidong; Meng, Xiaofeng

    In moving objects applications, large numbers of locations can be sampled by sensors or GPS periodically, then sent from moving clients to the server and stored in a database. Therefore, continuously maintaining in a database the current locations of moving objects by using a tracking technique becomes very important. The key issue is minimizing the number of updates, while providing precise locations for query results. In this chapter, we will introduce some underlying location update methods. Then, we describe two location update strategies in detail, which can improve the performance. One is the proactive location update strategy, which predicts the movement of moving objects to lower the update frequency; the other is the group location update strategy, which groups the objects to minimize the total number of objects reporting their locations.

  20. Introduction - Latin America and nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the second time in its history, the International Atomic Energy Agency is holding its General Conference in Latin America. The first was in Mexico City in September 1972; this September the Conference meets in Rio de Janeiro (in each case, the arrangement has been possible because of the very generous hospitality of the Host Government). Therefore, it is an appropriate occasion to devote a section of the IAEA Bulletin to nuclear energy in Latin America. The vast Latin American region presents many special opportunities for the introduction of nuclear science and technology. The first mission that the IAEA sent out, as far back as 1957, was to Latin America to promote co-operation in using radioisotope techniques. Today, these techniques are widely used by hospitals and medical research institutions throughout the region. Besides their medical applications, isotope techniques are also proving to be very useful in studying soils and irrigation, improving crops and livestock, and controlling insect pests. They also help make prudent use of the underground water resources in the region which, despite its bountiful rivers and tropical forests, includes many large arid areas. The major applications of nuclear technology have come only recently to Latin America, firstly in Argentina, where a 319 MW(e) nuclear power plant began operating at Atucha in 1974. It will soon be followed by the first Brazilian nuclear power plant - a 600 MW(e) light water plant at Angra dos Reis nearing completion. Argentina is building a second power plant at Embalse, and Brazil is planning two 1200 MW(e) plants at Angra and six more 1200 MW(e) units by 1990. Mexico is building its first nuclear plant at Laguna Verde, while other countries such as Chile and Colombia are planning the introduction of nuclear power. After a relatively slow start it, therefore, seems that nuclear power will go ahead fast in the Latin American region in the 1980's and 1990's. This is not surprising. Despite

  1. Biomass energy in Central America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this paper is to introduce the concept of biomass to energy issues and opportunities in Central America. In this region, made up of seven countries (Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama), the biomass sector has the potential to play a crucial role in alleviating the environmental and development predicaments faced by all economies of the region. This paper assesses the available biomass resources at the regional and country levels and gives an overview of the current utilization of biomass fuels. It also describes the overall context in which the biomass-to-energy initiatives are immersed. At the regional level, biomass energy consumption accounts for more than 50% of total energy consumption. In regard to the utilization of biomass for energy purposes, it is clear that Central America faces a critical juncture at two levels, both mainly in rural areas: in the productive sector and at the household level. The absence of sustainable development policies and practices has jeopardized the availability of biomass fuels, particularly wood. Firewood is an important source of energy for rural industries such as coffee processing, which is one of the largest productive activities in the region. This paper comments on some of the most successful technological innovations already in place in the region, for instance, the rapid development of co-generation projects by the sugar cane industry, especially in El Salvador and Guatemala, the substitution of coffee husks for firewood in coffee processing plants in Costa Rica and El Salvador and the sustainable use of pine forests for co-generation in Honduras. Only one out of every two inhabitants in Central America now has access to electricity from the public grid. Biomass fuels, mainly firewood but also, to a lesser extent, other crop residues such as corn stalks, are the main source of energy for cooking and heating by most of the population. (It is foreseen that by the end

  2. Spondylitis Association of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Newsletter Keeping you informed of spondylitis news and research updates, upcoming programs and events, breaking news, new educational materials and resources, and more! Sign up today for our free monthly eSUN and receive it ...

  3. Direct Spanish Investments in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Arahuetes García

    1995-11-01

    Full Text Available In the period 1981-1992, the international flow of direct investments witnessed significant changes which affected their magnitude, geographical orientation, sectorial distribution, forms of investment and sources of financing. This happened in such a way that traditional distribution among industrialized and developing countries was modified as was the capacity for attraction of the different areas in development. In this sense, the main contrast could be seen in the growing importance of East and South East Asia and the decline of Latin American countries which traditionally have been the largest receivers of direct investments within the group of developing countries. The expansive phase of direct investments begun in 1986 threatened to exclude Latin American countries but the establishment of a new framework for the treatment of the problem of external debt -the Brady Plan-, the change in the context of theinternational economy in 1990 and the stability and economic growth of the countries of the region favoured, without a doubt, the recovery of the capacity for attraction for new flows of direct investments regarding Latin American countries.In this way, Latin America registered once again a growing participation in the international flow of direct investments. The evolution of direct Spanish investment in Latin America followed a path similar to that of wider international flows and, after the intense absorption of the first years of the Eighties, the rest of the decade registered a discreet attraction for investors which only began to change course from 1989 onwards with the reestablishment of the new phase of the economic cycle in the countries of the region.

  4. Science Teacher Education in South America: The Case of Argentina, Colombia and Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cofré, Hernán; González-Weil, Corina; Vergara, Claudia; Santibáñez, David; Ahumada, Germán; Furman, Melina; Podesta, María E.; Camacho, Johanna; Gallego, Rómulo; Pérez, Royman

    2015-01-01

    In this review, the main characteristics of science teacher education in three countries in South America, namely Argentina, Chile and Colombia, are examined. Although reforms toward constructivist and inquiry-based teaching in science instruction have been made in each of the three reviewed countries, each country demonstrates limitations in the…

  5. Efficiency Analysis of Microfinance Institutions in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    M Kabir Hassan; Benito Sanchez

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates technical and scales efficiencies of microfinance institutions (MFI) in three regions: Latin America countries, Middle East and North Africa (MENA) countries, and South Asia countries, and compares efficiencies across regions and across type of MFIs. We find that technical efficiency is higher for formal MFIs (banks and credit unions) than non-formal MFIs (nonprofit organizations and non-financial institutions). Furthermore, South Asian MFIs have higher technical effic...

  6. The Mediterranean fruit fly in Central America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various methods of controlling the medfly are available and include the use of insecticides, bait sprays and the sterile insect technique (SIT). Each of these control strategies may be used alone or in sequence. With regard to the application of the SIT, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture through its Insect and Pest Control Section and Entomology Laboratory is in an excellent position to assist in containing the medfly in Central America. For the past 12 years, the laboratory has participated in all phases of medfly control by sterile insect releases in various climates. This involvement has included planning of medfly campaigns, development of pre-release techniques (bait spraying, trapping, etc.) and shipment and release of sterilized medflies. Small-scale field tests utilizing the SIT have been carried out by nine countries: Italy (Procida, Capri), Spain, Cyprus, Israel, Tunisia, Peru, Panama, Costa Rica and Nicaragua. Other field projects presently being counselled and serviced are located in Argentina, Venezuela and the Canary Islands. The research and development that are still needed to effectively stabilize and gain control of the medfly situation in Central America include: The development and use of effective quarantine procedures in various countries; Development of effective conventional medfly control procedures under the conditions found in Central America; Development of methods to determine the geographic origin of medflies introduced into new areas; Medfly mass production (viz. all aspects of rearing Central American strains); Assessing the performance (competitiveness, etc.) of various strains; Logistics, including the development of systems for releasing pre-adult stages; Genetic rearing methods: developmental research in this area is particularly promising since the preferential production of males would allow considerable savings in the rearing costs of medflies for release; Development of adequate surveillance

  7. Peritoneal dialysis in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, K S; Prabhu, M V; Sinoj, K A; Subhramanyam, S V; Sridhar, G

    2009-01-01

    Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is acknowledged worldwide as a well-accepted form of renal replacement therapy (RRT) for end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Ideally, PD should be the preferred modality of RRT for ESRD in developing countries due to its many inherent advantages. Some of these are cost savings (especially if PD fluids are manufactured locally or in a neighboring country), superior rehabilitation and quality of life (QOL), home-based therapy even in rural settings, avoidance of hospital based treatment and the need for expensive machinery, and freedom from serious infections (hepatitis B and C). However, this is not the ground reality, due to certain preconceived notions of the health care givers and governmental agencies in these countries. With an inexplicable stagnation or decline of PD numbers in the developed world, the future of PD will depend on its popularization in Latin America and in Asia especially countries such as China and India, with a combined population of 2.5 billion and the two fastest growing economies worldwide. A holistic approach to tackle the issues in the developing countries, which may vary from region to region, is critical in popularizing PD and establishing PD as the first-choice RRT for ESRD. At our center, we have been pursuing a 'PD first' policy and promoting PD as the therapy of choice for various situations in the management of renal failure. We use certain novel strategies, which we hope can help PD centers in other developing countries working under similar constraints. The success of a PD program depends on a multitude of factors that are interlinked and inseparable. Each program needs to identify its strengths, special circumstances, and deficiencies, and then to strategize accordingly. Ultimately, teamwork is the 'mantra' for a successful outcome, the patient being central to all endeavors. A belief and a passion for PD are the fountainhead and cornerstone on which to build a quality PD program. PMID:19494625

  8. Culture and Entrepreneurship: The Case of Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fernández-Serrano

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to contribute to an increased knowledge of the cultural values and the entrepreneurial activity that are present in countries with different levels of development. Within the group of developing countries, we focus our analysis on the case of Latin America. The study uses data from the Schwartz Value Survey (SVS to measure cultural values, and Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM for information regarding entrepreneurship. The results show that cultural variables, together with the rate of entrepreneurial activity, clearly distinguish developing countries from developed ones. Higher entrepreneurial activity is found in countries with lower levels of development; however, the cultural value dimensions of Autonomy and Egalitarianism are associated with higher development levels. In the specific case of Latin America, the results reveal the existence of two groups of countries. Firstly, Bolivia, Peru and Venezuela have higher rates of entrepreneurship and, at the same time, a greater prevalence of some cultural values (notably Embeddedness, but also Hierarchy. In contrast, another group of countries in the region—Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica and Mexico—is characterized by the presence of opposing cultural values (Autonomy and Egalitarianism, more in line with those corresponding to developed countries. The paper concludes with a discussion of the results, including some interesting implications, from both academic and policy perspectives. In the case of Latin America, a certain combination of cultural values (Embeddedness and Egalitarianism may be leading to higher start-up rates. Thus, promoting these values could contribute to entrepreneurship and economic development.

  9. Uranium resources and geology of North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since about the mid seventies, the International Atomic Energy Agency has held meetings on the geology and uranium resources of different geographic regions of the world. As a continuation of this series the Technical Committee Meeting on Uranium Resources and Geology of North America was held between 1-3 September 1987 in Saskatoon, Canada. The meeting took place in the University of Saskatchewan, hosted by the Department of Geological Sciences in cooperation with the Department of Energy, Mines and Resources Canada. Thirty-six technical papers were presented to a group of over 85 participants from seven countries. These papers provided an excellent coverage of uranium occurrences and deposits and their geological framework in Canada and the USA, with analogies from other parts of the world. North America, the region dealt with in this meeting, is of eminent significance for the world's uranium production and the nuclear industry. Total WOCA U-resources according to the classification developed by the IAEA and the Nuclear Energy Agency of OECD are periodically collected by these two organisations for their report on Uranium Resources, Production and Demand. Currently total WOCA known U resources recoverable at costs of less than $130/kg U or $50/lb U3O8) amount to 3.5 million t U, of which about 25% are located in North America, while the remainder is equally divided among Africa, Australia and the rest of WOCA (Asia, Europe, South America). Refs, figs and tabs

  10. Automatisches Software-Update

    OpenAIRE

    Clauß, Matthias; Fischer, Günther

    2003-01-01

    Vorgestellt wird ein neuer Dienst zum eigenverantwortlichen Software-Update von PC-Systemen, die unter Linux Red Hat 7.3 betrieben werden. Grundlage des Dienstes bildet das Verfahren YARU (Yum based Automatic RPM Update) als Bestandteil der im URZ eingesetzten Admin-Technologie für Linux-Rechner.

  11. Livestock Update. January 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Greiner, Scott P.; McCann, Mark A.; Smith, Jason

    2015-01-01

    This issue of Livestock Update includes articles on dates to remember, herd management, selection for marbling in a cowherd, 2014 Culpeper Senior BCIA Bull Sale results, 2015 Stocker Cattle Summit to focus on forage management for optimal animal gain, sheep update, and the 48th Virginia Pork Industry Conference.

  12. Livestock Update. September 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Greiner, Scott Patrick; McCann, Mark A.; Saville, Joi; Neil, Scott J.; Harmon, Deidre D.; Callan, Peter; Estienne, Mark Joseph, 1960-; Wiegert, Jeffrey; Clark, Sherrie

    2014-01-01

    This LIVESTOCK UPDATE contains timely subject matter on beef cattle, horses, poultry, sheep, swine, and related junior work. This issue includes: Dates to Remember; September Herd Management Advisor; Time for Fall Nutrition Tune-Up; BVD's Role in Shipping Fever Pneumonia; Sheep Field Day & Ram Lamb Sale; 2014 Virginia Tech Sheep Management Basics Workshop; Sheep Update; and Swine Production in Virginia.

  13. Energy demand and life quality in America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Being considered an intermediate growth among projections of technological development expressive or of development restricted by ecological considerations, in the next 50 years, the demand of primary energy in the countries of the American continent arrived to value sufficiently high to allow to consent at levels of quality of life but next to those enjoyed at the moment in developed countries. There will be an expansion substantial of electric power demand that rots to require the installation, in countries of Latin America and Caribbean, of power plants with total capacity of the order of 400 GW until half-filled of century. The resource to the nuclear source was accentuated starting from the decade of 2020 and an enormous challenge for the governments of the region it will be the one of driving the construction of about 2.300 MW/year nuclear power plants between 2020 and 2050. (Author)

  14. Country classification: opportunities, risks, harm and parental mediation

    OpenAIRE

    Helsper, Ellen J.; Kalmus, Veronika; Hasebrink, Uwe; Ságvári, Bence; Haan, Jos

    2013-01-01

    This report updates and deepens the understanding of cross-national differences among the countries surveyed in EU Kids Online. Where the previous classification was based simply on the percentage of children in each country who used the internet daily, and who had encountered one or more risks, this report examines the range and type of online opportunities, risks and harm experienced by the children in each country. It also takes into account the ways in which parents mediate or regulate th...

  15. Patent Statistics and IPR Laws Update Online

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Patent Statistics Beginning from No.2 of 2005 of China Patents & Trademarks, the Statistics on Patent Applications & Grants in China, previously published under the column of Statistics, will be updated online, including the monthly Statistics on Patent Applications by Patent Category, the Patent Grants by Patent Category, the Domestic Patent Applications by Province, and the Overseas Patent Applications by Country, and their yearly statistics at www.cpt.cn or www.cpahkltd.com/cn/ Publications/staten.htm...

  16. Solar America Cities Awards: Solar America Initiative Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-03-01

    This fact sheet provides an overview of the Solar America Cities activities within the Solar America Initiative and lists the 25 cities that have received financial awards from the U.S. Department of Energy.

  17. Taking Action for America: A CEO Plan for Jobs and Economic Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Business Roundtable, 2012

    2012-01-01

    America faces many challenges in working together to restore the promise of economic growth and security for the country, U.S. families and the American worker. The challenges are both real and serious. Despite hopeful signs of economic recovery, America remains mired in the deepest jobs crisis since the 1930s. One out of every 12 Americans who…

  18. Influence on Local Enterprise Cultural Development Caused by Culture Differences of Euro-America and Japanese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成立

    2015-01-01

    Economic globalization is necessary,which results in worldwide economic freedom and development,and promote the contact along countries,regions with enterprises.Culture differences of Euro-America and Japanese provide a train of thought for local enterprises improvement.Therefore,we analyzed excellent ideas of Euro-America and Japanese culture to build better adaptive local enterprise culture.

  19. Natural Resources in Latin America and the Caribbean : Beyond Booms and Busts?

    OpenAIRE

    Sinnott, Emily; Nash, John; de la Torre, Augusto

    2011-01-01

    Throughout, the history of the Latin America and Caribbean (LAC) region, natural resource wealth has been critical for its economies. Production of precious metals, sugar, rubber, grains, coffee, copper, and oil have at various periods of history made countries in Latin America-and their colonial powers-some of the most prosperous in the world. In some ways, these commodities may have chan...

  20. Strategic Interest Orientation of China and Latin America,and Advantages and Disadvantages to Realize It

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ For China and Latin America, the 21th century is a century inwhich great progress could be achieved. As the economic globalization sweeps its way across the world, interdependency between countries will be enhanced, and relations between China and Latin America tend to be even closer.

  1. Human Rights and Curricular Policy in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, David F.

    2007-01-01

    Human rights have become increasingly salient for nations, organizations, and individuals since the end of World War II (Lauren 2003). Discussions of human rights now are common in formal education, including in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). A variety of indicators suggest that countries in Latin America have integrated human rights into…

  2. North America natural gas supply trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper explores (a) how much natural gas is used in North America, (b) where these supplies of gas come from, and (c) the prognosis for long-term gas supply availability in North America. Natural gas use is growing at 2.6% per year in the US and supplies in the US and Canada are growing 1.4 and 5%, respectively. More basins holding natural gas resources are proving up and developing new reserves using the latest technology and efficiency improvements which ensures longer, more reliable, flexible gas supplies for growing markets throughout the country. As more natural gas and MTBE are used in motor vehicles, (1) pollution problems from motor vehicles will decrease, (2) less oil needs to be imported, (3) more gas production leads to domestic energy jobs being created in the US in more geographic regions, and (4) the domestic economy will benefit

  3. Intercultural otherness philosophy in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro B. Márquez-Fernández

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Intercultural philosophy in Latin America takes it that the only way to achieve the liberation from the rationality and thinking of the hegemonic colonial culture, present in their countries from the “discovery” of America until now, would be through the recognition of the other in its identity and origin. This philosophy of ‘decolonization’ stresses that it is there where intersubjectivity comes ontologically into being where the authentic origins of their cultures in their ancestral practices emerge. Therefore, the emergence of the other is the dialectical result of a fenomenological consciousness that becomes aware of the existence of being as otherness; that is, a being that is there for another. This liberty makes possible an encounter without the kind of alienations that take place when a culture boasts of its superiority upon another. The intercultural discourse of Latin-American philosophy emphasizes the evolvement of being with others in favor of liberation for all.

  4. Economic Integration and Trade Competitiveness in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Rajagopal

    2004-01-01

    There are large differences in gross domestic products by sectors among Latin American countries, and the majority of these differences are due to the value of industrial and service sectors. The structural reforms in countries of Latin America has broadly focused in the five major areas comprising international trade, financial markets, labor markets, and the generation and use of public resources. Consequently the financial development has improved, especially the depth of financial interme...

  5. Latin America wind market assessment. Forecast 2013-2022

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-10-15

    Wind Power Activities by Country: Developers/Owners, Wind Plant Sizes, Wind Turbines Deployed, Commissioning Dates, Market Share, and Capacity Forecasts Latin American markets are a subject of intense interest from the global wind industry. Wind plant construction across Latin America is modest compared to the more established markets like the United States, Europe, and China, but it is an emerging market that is taking off at a rapid pace. The region has become the hottest alternative growth market for the wind energy industry at a time when growth rates in other markets are flat due to a variety of policy and macroeconomic challenges. Globalization is driving sustainable economic growth in most Latin American countries, resulting in greater energy demand. Wind is increasingly viewed as a valuable and essential answer to increasing electricity generation across most markets in Latin America. Strong wind resources, coupled with today's sophisticated wind turbines, are providing cost-effective generation that is competitive with fossil fuel generation. Most Latin American countries also rely heavily on hydroelectricity, which balances well with variable wind generation. Navigant Research forecasts that if most wind plants under construction with planned commissioning go online as scheduled, annual wind power installations in Latin America will grow from nearly 2.2 GW in 2013 to 4.3 GW by 2022. This Navigant Research report provides a comprehensive view of the wind energy market dynamics at play in Latin America. It offers a country-by-country analysis, outlining the key energy policies and development opportunities and barriers and identifying which companies own operational wind plants and which wind turbine vendors supplied those projects. Market forecasts for wind power installations, capacity, and market share in Latin America, segmented by country and company, extend through 2022. The report also offers an especially close analysis of Brazil and Mexico

  6. Training centres in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Early 1958 the Brazilian representative on the Board of Governors of the International Atomic Energy Agency - supported by the Governors from Argentina and Guatemala -proposed that a study should be made of the possibility of setting up one or more atomic energy training centres in Latin America. On the Board's recommendation, the Director General of the Agency appointed a fact-finding team to make anon-the-spot study. In drafting this report the team was invited to consider the following points: (a) The need for establishing one or more regional training centres; (b) Existing facilities that are being or could be used for training, together with technical data concerning them; (c) The general scientific technological and industrial conditions of the countries visited insofar as they have a bearing on their training needs and capabilities. The authors of the report conclude that 'a training centre in radio-botany should provide vitally needed knowledge and vitally needed specialists to all the agricultural installations in Latin America. A training centre like this might provide an excellent model upon which to base training centres in other areas'. The report recommends that: 1. The Agency should meet the requests of Latin American universities by, for example, supplying equipment and sending experts; 2. At least one specialized training centre should be established as soon as possible. Taking as an example the field of radio-botany, such a centre would provide trained specialists in radio-botany to agricultural institutions throughout Latin America and also provide basic research results vital to agriculture. The cost of new facilities might be of the order of $7 500 000, with an annual budget of approximately $650 000. Staff required: 40 scientists and 175 employees; 3. Whenever it appears feasible to gather necessary staff of high creative ability and established productivity and when funds can be made available for facilities, equipment and operating costs, at

  7. Boys & Girls Clubs of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Group Teams Up With Boys & Girls Clubs of America to Support Young Alumni Through New Program Engaging ... million national partnership MORE» Boys & Girls Clubs of America Inducts Top Entertainers, Athletes and Business Leaders into ...

  8. Economic integration in the Americas

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    This pioneering study shows that economic integration in the Americas is not simply a matter of removing trade barriers. Economic Integration in the Americas addresses the pervasive effects of economic integration on the economy as a whole.

  9. America's Children and the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Protection Agency Search Search America's Children and the Environment Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us America's Children and the Environment is an EPA report that presents key information ...

  10. Marketing in the Emerging Markets of Latin America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marinov, Marin Alexandrov

    . Addressing a broad variety of historical, political, economic, social, cultural and legal issues, the book offers unique insights into the enormous opportunities and challenges the region presents for implementing effective marketing strategies. Macro marketing issues such as regional integration, foreign......Marketing in the Emerging Markets of Latin America provides a much needed analysis of business and marketing in Latin America. The book highlights the diverse characteristics of the Latin American business and marketing environment as well as the dynamic nature of regional and country markets...... trade and direct investment are considered within the context of specific countries, as are the micro aspects of a company's marketing activities. The book is an extremely valuable resource for academics, practitioners and anyone interested in doing business in or with Latin America....

  11. Energy security in South America and Southern Africa: synthesis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In developing countries, the ability to provide adequate and reliable energy supplies is a key to sustainable economic development. The aim of this report is to study the energy supply security in both Southern Africa and South America and how these regions can participate in the international effort to combat climate change. This report showed that South Africa's energy sector mostly relies on carbon intensive coal while Brazil is mainly supplied by hydroelectricity. It was found that in both countries energy needs will increase significantly due to rising demand both internally and at a regional scale. However it was also shown that both Southern Africa and South America have important hydro, solar and wind renewable resources which could enhance their electricity security while minimizing their environmental impacts. This study demonstrated that Southern Africa and South America can enhance their electricity security through the use of renewable energies but that technology and financing is needed to develop the sector.

  12. Two Visions of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capaldi, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    Since the seventeenth century, there have been two narratives about modernity in general and America in particular. The author uses the term "narrative" to include (a) facts, (b) arguments, and most important, (c) a larger vision of how one sees the world and chooses to engage the world. The first and originalist narrative is the Lockean Liberty…

  13. Only "In America"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Maria Eugenia

    2011-01-01

    As the daughter of an interracial couple growing up in a middle-class town on Long Island in the 1970s, Soledad O'Brien learned not to let inappropriate or racist comments throw her. Now as the anchorwoman of CNN's "In America" documentary unit, she says she asks those uncomfortable questions about race all the time. She shines spotlight on…

  14. Still Teaching for America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronholz, June

    2013-01-01

    In this article, June Kronholz talks to co-chief executives of Teach For America (TFA), Elisa Villanueva Beard and Matt Kramer about how TFA has managed to keep its forward momentum for almost 24 years. Four primary reasons are discussed: (1) Common Vision, Regional Innovation; (2) Data-Driven Improvement; (3) Global Reach; and (4) Stoking the…

  15. An Idea Called America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartoonian, Michael; Van Scotter, Richard; White, William E.

    2007-01-01

    America evolved out of the principles of the eighteenth-century Enlightenment, suggesting that individuals could govern themselves and that people were "endowed" with "unalienable rights" such as life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. To secure these principles, Americans would continue to work on forming a more perfect Union, by…

  16. Strengthening America's Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, Rose; Kumpfer, Karol

    2000-01-01

    Improving parenting practices and the family environment is the most effective, enduring strategy for combating juvenile delinquency. Describes the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention's Strengthening America's Families Initiative. Highlights several family-focused prevention programs identified as exemplary, explaining how they…

  17. Americas at Odds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Despite lingering disputes,the United States keeps a firm grip on Latin America During his presidential campaign,Evo Morales said his election would be a "nightmare" for the United States.The Bolivian president honored his words. On September 10, Morales declared U.S.

  18. Vaccination Week in the Americas: An Opportunity to Integrate Other Health Services With Immunization

    OpenAIRE

    Ropero-Álvarez, Alba Maria; Kurtis, Hannah J; Danovaro-Holliday, M. Carolina; Ruiz-Matus, Cuauhtémoc; Tambini, Gina

    2012-01-01

    Vaccination Week in the Americas (VWA) is an initiative of the countries and territories of the Americas that works to advance equity and access to vaccination. The initiative focuses on reaching populations with limited access to regular health services and promotes solidarity among countries. As the Expanded Program on Immunization is one of the world’s best-established health programs, integrating other interventions with immunization services has been highly promoted. Using data available...

  19. China's Competitive Threat to Latin America: An Analysis for 1990-2002.

    OpenAIRE

    Lall, Sanjaya; Weiss, John

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores China's competitive threat to Latin America in trade in manufactured goods. The direct threat to exports to third country markets appears small: Latin America and the Caribbean's (LAC's) trade structure is largely complementary to that of China. In bilateral trade, several LAC countries are increasing primary and resource-based exports to China. However, the pattern of trade, with LAC specializing increasingly in resource-based products and China in manufactured goods, see...

  20. Lateinamerika oder -amerikas? Latin America or Americas?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Belén García Timón

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Anhand interdisziplinärer und empirischer Studien wird Lateinamerika als Bühne für die Entwicklung transkultureller Phänomene präsentiert. Geschlechterverhältnisse in unterschiedlichen Kontexten stehen im Mittelpunkt der Untersuchung. Begriffe wie Macht, Rasse oder Raum werden mit dem Ziel, weg von der bisherigen Vorstellung von homogenen kulturellen Einheiten zu kommen, revidiert.Latin America is presented as a stage for the development of transcultural phenomena through the use of interdisciplinary and empirical studies. Gender relations in different contexts lie at the heart of this study. Terms such as power, race, or space are revised with the goal of moving away from current perceptions of homogenous cultural unities.

  1. Tlatelolco regime and nonproliferation in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The regime established by the Treaty of Tlatelolco supports peace and security in the Latin American region and global nonproliferation efforts. Circumstances leading to the creation of the nuclear-weapon-free zone include careful preparations and negotiations, individual leadership, existence of certain shared cultural and legal traditions of Latin American countries, and the temporary stimulus of the Cuban missile crisis. The lack of overt superpower pressure on Latin America, compared with more turbulent regions, has permitted continued progress toward full realization of the zone. Tlatelolco's negotiating process, as well as the substance of the Treaty, deserve careful consideration relative to other areas. The Treaty enjoys wide international approval, but full support by certain Latin American States (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Cuba) has been negatively affected by the failure of the US Senate to ratify Tlatelolco's Protocol I. Nuclear programs of Argentina, Brazil, and Mexico are expanding rapidly and these nations are forming linkages with West European countries, rather than the United States. The May 1980 Argentine-Brazilian nuclear agreement foresees significant cooperation between the two nation's nuclear energy commissions and more coordinated resistance to the nuclear supplier countries. Argentine-Brazilian nuclear convergence and the response accorded to it by the United States will have significant implications for the future of the Tlatelolco regime and nonproliferation in Latin America. 52 references

  2. Innovation and productivity in services: Empirical evidence from Latin America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crespi, G.A.; Tacsir, E.; Vargas, F.

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses and compares the determinants of innovation in the service industry and its impact on labour productivity at the firm level in three countries of Latin America (Chile, Colombia, and Uruguay). The main findings show that, similar to what is observed in the manufacturing industry,

  3. Teach for America and the Politics of Progressive Neoliberalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahann, Randall; Reagan, Emilie Mitescu

    2011-01-01

    Teach for America (TFA), a non-profit organization designed to recruit recent college graduates to commit two years to teach in understaffed urban and rural schools across the country, has been heralded by private organizations and state agencies as a poster child for alternative pathways to teaching. However, at the same time, TFA has also been…

  4. Remittances as a Development Tool in Central America: Empowering Microfinance

    OpenAIRE

    Inter-American Development Bank (IDB)

    2003-01-01

    Presents the interest of the Multilateral Investment Fund (MIF) of the Inter-American Development Bank, to increase the impact of remittances on developing countries of Latin America and the Caribbean, through the promotion of innovative projects and dissemination more comprehensive information on this market in the region.

  5. ESD: Power, Politics, and Policy: "Tragic Optimism" from Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Gaudiano, Edgar J.

    2016-01-01

    In light of the challenging developmental issues confronting the countries of Latin America, this response article analyzes the power and resistance of education for sustainable development from both theoretical and policy perspectives. Of particular concern are the neo-productivist strategies driving the latest stage of capitalist development.…

  6. HIV/AIDS in Latin America : The Challenges Ahead

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Abreu, Anabela; Noguer, Isabel; Cowgill, Karen

    2003-01-01

    Information on HIV/AIDS epidemics in Latin America is disperse and lacks comprehensiveness. Sound and timely policies can limit the current and future impact of the epidemics but good policies are built on a strong epidemiological base and according to the countries' needs. The aim of this study was to assemble all the information available on the epidemiological pattern of the epidemics i...

  7. Results in the Latin America and Caribbean Region

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2013-01-01

    A focus on development results is at the heart of the Latin America and Caribbean Region s approach to delivering programs and policy advice with partners in middle-income and low income countries alike. Through knowledge, convening activities, and financial services we strive to help people across the region create better opportunities and build a better future for themselves, their famil...

  8. Latin America Today: An Atlas of Reproducible Pages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    World Eagle, Inc., Wellesley, MA.

    A profile of Latin America (defined as consisting of the countries of Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Columbia, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, and Venezuela) emerges from this collection of black and white illustrative maps, tables, and…

  9. Managing Temporary Capital Inflows: Lessons from Asia and Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Helmut Reisen

    1995-01-01

    As witnessed by Mexico and Argentina in 1995 and by the Southern Cone countries of Latin America in the early 1980s, the macroeconomic adjustment to a sudden reversal of foreign capital flows can be extremely painful. There are at least four major reasons why governments and central banks should care about the sustainability of the capital flows

  10. School Readiness Research in Latin America: Findings and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, Katherine; Rolla, Andrea; Romero-Contreras, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Educational results in Latin America (LA) are well below those of developed countries. One factor that influences how well children do at school is school readiness. In this article, we review studies conducted in LA on the readiness skills of preschool children. We begin by discussing contextual factors that affect what is expected of children…

  11. Country Nuclear Power Profiles - 2015 Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Country Nuclear Power Profiles compile background information on the status and development of nuclear power programmes in Member States. The publication summarizes organizational and industrial aspects of nuclear power programmes and provides information about the relevant legislative, regulatory and international framework in each State. Its descriptive and statistical overview of the overall economic, energy and electricity situation in each State and its nuclear power framework is intended to serve as an integrated source of key background information about nuclear power programmes throughout the world. This 2015 edition, issued on CD-ROM, contains updated country information for 51 States

  12. Can Latin America fill the U.S. polyolefin deficit?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strategic issues for the North American polyolefin industry were discussed with reference to oil and gas price forecasts, oil capacity increases, and high density polyethylene production and ethylene integration costs. The overall polyolefin trade balance in North America was also explored. It was cautioned that unless a significant amount of new capacity is built in the United States, it is anticipated that by 2008, the United States will become a net importer of polyolefin resins. Currently exported product will be used increasingly in the domestic market to meet demand growth. This shift from being a net exporter of resins can be attributed to the high cost of feedstocks and the lack of investment in new capacity throughout the region. In contrast, there have been several proposals for new capacity in Latin America in the past several years. Since there is already an important level of commerce and trade between North and South America, countries with access to the Caribbean basin, are logistically well situated to serve the North American market. The availability of low cost feedstocks in countries such as Trinidad, Venezuela and Bolivia add to the attractiveness of the region for the development of new petrochemical capacity. This paper examined the status of the different proposed projects in Latin America and analyzed the potential opportunities that exist for North American producers to collaborate in those projects. The general trade balance of the continent was reviewed in order to verify if the traditional seclusion of America's polyolefin market can be maintained in the future. It was concluded that even if all projects in Latin America are launched, the Americas will still be in a net deficit position. Under the right circumstances, the Middle East will be the global supplier of commodity polyolefins that could extend to the Americas. It was emphasized that companies should be prepared for feedstock advantaged investments, alliances, acquisitions and

  13. National Pediatric Program Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book of the National Pediatric Program Update, issued by the Argentina Society of Pediatrics, describes important issues, including: effective treatment of addictions (drugs); defects of the neural tube; and the use of radiation imaging in diagnosis.

  14. Livestock Update. August 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Greiner, Scott Patrick; McCann, Mark A.; Neil, Scott J.; Harmon, Deidre D.; Whittier, W. Dee

    2013-01-01

    Includes articles on August herd management, phosphorus supplementation of beef cattle, 2013 across-breed EPD table, Applied Reproduction in Beef Cattle event, sheep breeding season tips, and a sheep update.

  15. Cuanto vale Estudiar un Postgrado en America Latina? (How Much do Post-Graduate Studies Cost in Latin America?).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco Arbelaez, Augusto

    This study, conducted by the Panamerican Association of Educational Credit Institutions (APICE), examined the cost of graduate education in nine Latin American countries. The study was intended to promote graduate and educational exchange within the region, as opposed to exchanges between Latin America and the United States or Europe. Institutions…

  16. Gastroenterology in developing countries: Issues and advances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kate L Mandeville; Justus Krabshuis; Nimzing Gwamzhi Ladep; Chris JJ Mulder; Eamonn MM Quigley; Shahid A Khan

    2009-01-01

    Developing countries shoulder a considerable burden of gastroenterological disease. Infectious diseases in particular cause enormous morbidity and mortality. Diseases which afflict both western and developing countries are often seen in more florid forms in poorer countries. Innovative techniques continuously improve and update gastroenterological practice. However, advances in diagnosis and treatment which are commonplace in the West, have yet to reach many developing countries. Clinical guidelines, based on these advances and collated in resource-rich environments, lose their relevance outside these settings. In this two-part review, we first highlight the global burden of gastroenterological disease in three major areas: diarrhoeal diseases, hepatitis B, and Helicobacter pylori. Recent progress in their management is explored, with consideration of future solutions. The second part of the review focuses on the delivery of clinical services in developing countries. Inadequate numbers of healthcare workers hamper efforts to combat gastroenterological disease. Reasons for this shortage are examined, along with possibilities for increased specialist training. Endoscopy services, the mainstay of gastroenterology in the West, are in their infancy in many developing countries. The challenges faced by those setting up a service are illustrated by the example of a Nigerian endoscopy unit. Finally, we highlight the limited scope of many clinical guidelines produced in western countries. Guidelines which take account of resource limitations in the form of "cascades" are advocated in order to make these guidelines truly global. Recognition of the different working conditions facing practitioners worldwide is an important step towards narrowing the gap between gastroenterology in rich and poor countries.

  17. Osteoporosis in Latin America: panel expert review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Clark

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Latin American region is undergoing a demographic and epidemiological transition, which is leading to an increase in chronic and degenerative diseases. Osteoporosis (OP and fragility fractures (FF are emerging as main causes of disease burden with great impact on health institutions. Purpose. This review article provides an updated overview of trends in the epidemiology and economic impact of OP and FF, as well as in diagnosis and available treatments in Latin America, including calcium, vitamin D and prevention programs. Methods. Expert panel. Conclusions. According to this review, there is a lack of epidemiological and economic information in the region. It is desirable to obtain information regarding quality of life in OP and FF as well as to highlight prevention as a tool to reduce FF.

  18. Inference and update

    OpenAIRE

    Velázquez-Quesada, F.R.

    2008-01-01

    We look at two fundamental logical processes, often intertwined in planning and problem solving: inference and update. Inference is an internal process with which we draw new conclusions, uncovering what is implicit in the information we already have. Update, on the other hand, is produced by external communication, usually in the form of announcements and in general in the form of observations, giving us information that might have been not available (even implicitly) to us before. Both proc...

  19. Livestock Update. October 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Greiner, Scott Patrick; McCann, Mark A.; Groover, Gordon Eugene, 1956-; Callan, Peter; Wiegert, Jeffrey; Estienne, Mark Joseph, 1960-

    2014-01-01

    This LIVESTOCK UPDATE contains timely subject matter on beef cattle, horses, poultry, sheep, swine, and related junior work. This issue includes: Dates to Remember; November Herd Management Advisor; Evaluate Nutrition Needs and Plan for Winter; 2014 Culpeper Senior Bull Sale; Tax and Financial Management in Profitable Years; Sheep Management Tips- Late Fall; Sheep Update; and Methods for Improving Pre-Weaning Survival Rates of Piglets.

  20. The world energy outlook: Latin America's role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latin America's role in helping to provide the world's energy supplies is discussed. The following topics are discussed: crude oi lprice assumptions, world oil supply by region, OECD gas consumption by sectors, world primary energy shares, final world energy demand, world total primary energy demand, Latin American primary energy demand, and fuel shares of electricity output. It was concluded that the world's energy use will remain carbon based, world enregy consumption will significantly increase with the non-OECD share increasing to over 50%, and the rising importance of non-OECD countries means that no solution to the world's energy or environmental problems can be achieved without their participation

  1. Managing FDI country risks in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Jérôme Komlan Akoli; Elie Chrysostome; Hamadoun Sidibé

    2005-01-01

    Foreign direct investment has always been an important concern for international organizations and for governments as well. Despite the failure of various structural adjustment and development aid programs, foreign capital is still a key element in the success of several development programs. Unfortunately, during the last decade, the level of foreign direct investments has not increased that much in several developing countries due to, among others, country risks. The concept of country risk...

  2. New England Wind Forum: A Wind Powering America Project - Newsletter #6 - September 2010, (NEWF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grace, R.; Gifford, J.; Leeds, T.; Bauer, S.

    2010-09-01

    Wind Powering America program launched the New England Wind Forum (NEWF) in 2005 to provide a single comprehensive source of up-to-date, Web-based information on a broad array of wind energy issues pertaining to New England. The NEWF newsletter provides New England stakeholders with updates on wind energy development in the region.

  3. Making America Great Again?

    OpenAIRE

    Leth, Aksel N.; Lykke, Lærke G.; Dyrbye, Zachary R.; Jordahn, Sally E.; Egholm, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    This study aims at uncovering the discourses in Donald Trump’s announcement speech and their relation to his campaign slogan Make America Great Again. Through a thorough analysis of his speech, we have identified thematic categories and used critical discourse studies (CDS), to denaturalise the discourses he produces and reproduces in a socio-cultural and socio-political context. Our method of Critical Discourse Analysis is based on Fairclough, complemented by Wodak, Richardson and van Dijk, ...

  4. Build America Bonds

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Ang; Vineer Bhansali; Yuhang Xing

    2010-01-01

    Build America Bonds (BABs) are a new form of municipal financing introduced in 2009. Investors in BAB municipal bonds receive interest payments that are taxable, but issuers receive a subsidy from the U.S. Treasury. The BAB program has succeeded in lowering the cost of funding for state and local governments with BAB issuers obtaining finance 54 basis points lower, on average, compared to issuing regular municipal bonds. For institutional investors, BAB issue yields are 116 basis points highe...

  5. The key issues facing the electricity systems of developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report covers a common project designed to investigate the major issues and possible future direction in the electricity systems of developing countries in AFRICA, ASIA and LATIN AMERICA. Individual centres each had responsibility for preparing a detailed report on the experiences and issues in their own country plus a regional report, in less detail, to cover neighbouring countries. In this disaggregated way, a picture of the whole of the developing world (with the exception of the Middle East, the problems of which are in some ways distinct from those of other developing countries) has been built up. 30 Refs.; 14 Figs.; 33 Tabs

  6. Criminalization of HIV transmission or exposure in eight Latin American countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Tamil

    2010-10-01

    While the prosecution of HIV transmission or exposure has been widely documented in Western Europe and North America, Latin America has not figured in this trend. In this article, based on an oral abstract presentation at AIDS 2010, Tamil Kendall reviews HIV-specific legislation and instances of prosecution in eight countries in the region, and discusses how civil society might respond. PMID:21413623

  7. Rickettsioses in Latin America, Caribbean, Spain and Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo B. Labruna

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Data on genus and infectious by Rickettsia were retrospectively compiled from the critical review literature regarding all countries in Latin America, Caribbean islands, Portugal and Spain. We considered all Rickettsia records reported for human and/or animal hosts, and/or invertebrate hosts considered being the vector. In a few cases, when no direct detection of a given Rickettsia group or species was available for a given country, the serologic method was considered. A total of 13 Rickettsia species have been recorded in Latin America and the Caribbean. The species with the largest number of country confirmed records were Rickettsia felis (9 countries, R. prowazekii (7 countries, R. typhi (6 countries, R. rickettsii (6 countries, R. amblyommii (5 countries, and R. parkeri (4 countries. The rickettsial records for the Caribbean islands (West Indies were grouped in only one geographical area. Both R. bellii, R. akari, and Candidatus ‘R. andeane’ have been recorded in only 2 countries each, whereas R. massiliae, R. rhipicephali, R.monteiroi, and R. africae have each been recorded in a single country (in this case, R. africae has been recorded in nine Caribbean Islands. For El Salvador, Honduras, and Nicaragua, no specific Rickettsia has been reported so far, but there have been serological evidence of human or/and animal infection. The following countries remain without any rickettsial records: Belize, Venezuela, Guyana, Surinam, and Paraguay. In addition, except for a few islands, many Caribbean islands remain without records. A total of 12 Rickettsia species have been reported in Spain and Portugal: R. conorii, R. helvetica, R. monacensis, R. felis, R. slovaca, R. raoultii, R. sibirica, R. aeschlimannii, R. rioja, R. massiliae, R. typhi, and R. prowazekii. Amongst these Rickettsia species reported in Spain and Portugal, only R. prowazekii, R. typhi, R. felis, and R. massiliae have also been reported in Latin America. This study summarizes

  8. Electronic immunization registries in Latin America: progress and lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danovaro-Holliday, M Carolina; Ortiz, Claudia; Cochi, Shea; Ruiz-Matus, Cuauhtémoc

    2014-01-01

    Most of the current vaccination coverage monitoring in Latin America relies on aggregated data. Improved monitoring has been shown to result in better coverage. Taking advantage of current information and communication technologies, the use of electronic immunization registries (EIRs) can facilitate coverage monitoring in terms of particularity (at the level of the individual), timeliness, and accuracy. Countries in Latin America are rapidly developing and implementing national EIRs to improve the monitoring of immunization coverage. These countries are using a variety of approaches toward system conception and development; integration with larger health information systems; different modalities for data collection, entry, and transmission; and other key features. Some countries are exploring linkages with mHealth (mobile health) for data collection and for automated recall/reminders. Evaluating EIRs and sharing experiences are important to streamlining and improving national EIR development, implementation, and use, and to ensuring its sustainability. PMID:25211576

  9. Rotavirus vaccine introduction in the Americas: progress and lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Lucia Helena; Danovaro-Holliday, M Carolina; Matus, Cuauhtemoc Ruiz; Andrus, Jon Kim

    2008-04-01

    In Latin America and the Caribbean, rotavirus causes approximately 15,000 deaths, 75,000 hospitalizations, 2 million clinic visits and 10 million cases of rotavirus diarrhea annually. Two safe vaccines are available that are effective in preventing severe illness. To date, seven countries in Latin America (Brazil, Ecuador, El Salvador, Panama, Mexico, Nicaragua and Venezuela) have introduced the vaccine. For successful rotavirus vaccine introduction, the lessons learned re-emphasize the critical need for countries to have precise plans that will ensure technical, programmatic and financial sustainability of vaccine introduction. Of these lessons learned, programmatic feasibility and financial sustainability were particularly challenging for countries that were the first to introduce a rotavirus vaccine. PMID:18393604

  10. Religious Diversity and Islam in America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Uddin Khan

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Diversity is the essence and spirit of America or the West both as a place and a people. Islam also allows for diversity within its concept of unity and oneness of God. Muslims, therefore, have no problem co-existing in peace with the Jews, Christians and the followers of other religions. Problems arise (a when secular values or principles disturb the working balance of the otherwise mutually exclusive religious diversity and harmony in America; (b when one follows opportunist policies, practices double standards, and is moved by mere worldly or political interests; and (c when war against the Zionist-and-neoconservative-manufactured terrorism turns into war against Islam. Such misleading and mischievous tendencies or policies prevent peace from prevailing, which ultimately tarnish the image of religions in the eyes of their followers and those of the rest making a mockery of the idea of religious diversity even in the so-called most democratic country called the United States of America!

  11. [International migration in the Americas: intraregional migration grows].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlotnik, H

    1992-01-01

    The principal destinations for intraregional migrants in South America in recent decades have been Argentina, Brazil, and Venezuela, while in North America the U.S. has exerted a growing attraction since 1965. Intraregional migration in Latin America has been irregular and difficult to quantify, and reliable statistics on migratory flows are nonexistent. Census data indicate that most migration to Argentina and Brazil occurred before 1960, while most migration to Venezuela occurred during the 1970s. Between 1960 and 1980, the proportion of migrants from other Latin American countries showed a tendency to increase, despite decreases in the overall level of immigration. The effect of the economic crisis of the 1980s on immigration from Latin American countries will become more apparent as census data for the 1990s become available. Selectivity according to country of origin is an important characteristic of intraregional migration in South America. The U.S. has, however, been the principal destination of Latin American migrants for the past three decades. Between 1965 and 1991 the U.S. granted resident status to more than 7.4 million persons of Latin American and Caribbean origin, and they constituted 47% of immigrants during those years. The great majority of the Latin American immigrants in the U.S. are Mexican. The 3.5 million Mexicans admitted to the U.S. as immigrants between 1965 and 1991 accounted for 22% of all immigrants during this period. PMID:12158068

  12. Economic aspects for South America energy integration; Aspectos economicos para a integracao energetica da America do Sul

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vela, Jorge Alberto Alcala; Cardozo, Fernando Simoes [ELETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Expansion of the internal market and external, production on a large scale and more dynamic economic growth would be the consequences of a regional integration in South America. However, due to the specific characteristics of South America this process did not occur. Many attempts were made through the years with the creation of institutions that tried to promote the integration of different forms of South America. This article analyses the current economic conditions in which this initiative is to achieve an energy integration, which seems feasible given the provision expresses the presidents of South American countries before a possible rationing of energy. Through analysis of the results it may be concluded that there is a growing demand for energy in all countries, which should be resolved first in order not to cut the development of South America. The main economic aspects which affect the process of integrating energy are the commercial structures of energy, the energy complementarities, the degree of development of infrastructure for interconnection, the industrial structure and conformation electric business. However, an immediate solution would be to boost bilateral integration energy projects and construction of transmission lines that interconnect the regional stations for the supply of electric energy. Moreover, as the conditions are not improved political and economic and there is no compatible models between technical institutions and legal and administrative, will not be achieved significant progress in the process of regional energy integration of South America. (author)

  13. Handbook of nuclear countries 1994/1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kappell, V.

    1996-12-01

    The third edition of the Handbook covers 86 countries which are reviewed in separate chapters. Depending on the completeness of information available, the review of nuclear activities of a given country covers both peaceful and military uses of atomic energy, as well as the corresponding international trade and cooperations. An appendix reproduces a self-assessment by the Turkish Government, as well as the Treaty of Tlatelolco, the nuclear weapons ban treaty for the countries of Latin America. (orig.) [Deutsch] In dieser 3. Ausgabe des Handbuches werden 86 Laender erfasst, wobei die nunklearen Aktivitaeten jedes Landes in einem eigenen Abschnitt dargestellt werden. Je nach Umfang der verfuegbaren Fakten wird sowohl ueber die friedliche als auch die militaerische Nutzung der Kernenergie und ueber den internationalen Handel und die internationale Zusammenarbeit berichtet. Im Anhang wird eine Eigendarstellung der tuerkischen Regierung wiedergegeben, sowie der Vertrag von TLATELOLCO zum Verbot nuklearer Waffen in Latein-Amerika. (orig.)

  14. IAI Training in Climate and Health in the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aron, J. L.

    2007-05-01

    The Inter-American Institute for Global Change Research (IAI) has addressed training in climate and health in the Americas in two major ways. First, IAI supports students to engage in research training. A multi-country health activity funded by IAI was the collaborative research network (CRN) on Diagnostics and Prediction of Human Health Impacts in the Tropical Americas, which focused principally on the effect of El Nino/Southern Oscillation and other aspects of climate variability on mosquito-borne diseases malaria and dengue. The CRN involved students in Brazil, Mexico, Venezuela, Colombia and Jamaica. The CRN was also linked to other climate and health projects that used a similar approach. Second, IAI organizes training institutes to expand the network of global change research scientists and facilitate the transfer of global change research into practice. The IAI Training Institute on Climate and Health in the Americas was held on November 7 - 18, 2005 at the University of the West Indies in Kingston, Jamaica, engaging participants from the CRN and other programs in the Americas. The Training Institute's central objective was to help strengthen local and regional capacity to address the impacts of climate variability and climate change on human health in the populations of the Americas, particularly Latin America and the Caribbean. The Training Institute had three core components: Science; Applications; and Proposal Development for Seed Grants. Recommendations for future Training Institutes included incorporating new technologies and communicating with policy-makers to develop more proactive societal strategies to manage risks.

  15. Collaborative studies target volcanic hazards in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluth, Gregg J. S.; Rose, William I.

    Central America is the second-most consistently active volcanic zone on Earth, after Indonesia. Centuries of volcanic activity have produced a spectacular landscape of collapsed calderas, debris flows, and thick blankets of pyroclastic materials. Volcanic activity dominates the history, culture, and daily life of Central American countries.January 2002 marked the third consecutive year in which a diverse group of volcanologists and geophysicists conducted focused field studies in Central America. This type of multi-institutional collaboration reflects the growing involvement of a number of U.S. and non-U.S. universities, and of other organizations, in Guatemala and El Salvador (Table 1).

  16. Constitutions around the world : A View from Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Cordeiro, Jose Luis

    2008-01-01

    This paper gives a global summary of the number of constitutions and the number of articles in each constitution for many representative countries around the world. Several works have already been written comparing different legal systems and different constitutional traditions around the world; the purpose of this paper is just to compare the numbers of constitutions and articles in the diverse regions of the world, namely: North America, Latin America, Europe, Oceania, Middle East...

  17. Interstitial brachytherapy dosimetry update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In March 2004, the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) published an update to the AAPM Task Group No. 43 Report (TG-43) which was initially published in 1995. This update was pursued primarily due to the marked increase in permanent implantation of low-energy photon-emitting brachytherapy sources in the United States over the past decade, and clinical rationale for the need of accurate dosimetry in the implementation of interstitial brachytherapy. Additionally, there were substantial improvements in the brachytherapy dosimetry formalism, accuracy of related parameters and methods for determining these parameters. With salient background, these improvements are discussed in the context of radiation dosimetry. As an example, the impact of this update on the administered dose is assessed for the model 200 103Pd brachytherapy source. (authors)

  18. Measuring Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Brian Sturgess

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the quality of official national accounting data investigated for 17 Latin American countries. Chile, which became an OECD member in 2010, stands out as a producer of the most reliable economic data and can be compared favourably with the USA and many European countries. The most significant data problems are the use of old standards of national income accounting, the use of outdated base years and the degree to which the shadow economy is underrecorded. In Argentina there ...

  19. Geological-uraniferous favourability of South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The South American continent includes several metallogenic provinces some of which have excellent uranium possibilities. Basically, two types of lithological complex have contributed to this favourability: the large Precambrian shields covering about 5,500,000 km2 and the crystalline Hercynian nesocratons with about 300,000 km2 as source rocks. Only in Argentina and Brazil has continuous uranium exploration in South America been carried out, with moderate budgets, during the last twenty-five years. In the rest of South America the search for uranium has been performed intermittently and with limited resources. However, during recent years interest has increased and more continuous operation has been recorded in some countries (Bolivia, Colombia, Chile, Peru). It can be estimated that only 20% of the favourable areas have been explored fairly intensively in Argentina and Brazil, the two most advanced uraniferous countries. Nevertheless, the uranium possibilities of South America are proved by the resources of 250,000 t U already defined (in Argentina and Brazil) for the category of production cost below US $130/kg U. The speculative uranium potential of the continent was estimated by the International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project as between 770,000 and 1,500,000 t U. Within the South American geostructural framework, five main uraniferous geological areas have been defined on the basis of the geotectonic evolution of the continent, the succession of sedimentary and magmatic processes, and the participation in them of the endogenous and exogenous phases of the uranium geochemical cycle. In this paper the principal uranium metallogenic models occurring in the above five main areas are studied together with the uranium potential of each area. The possibility of uranium recovery from these sources in relation to the respective costs of production is briefly discussed

  20. Yellow fever vaccination in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Outbreaks of yellow fever in recent years in the Americas have prompted concern about the possible urbanization of jungle fever. Vaccination, using the 17D strain of yellow fever virus, provides an effective, practical method of large scale protection against the disease. Because yellow fever can reappear in certain areas after a 2-year dormancy period, some countries maintain routine vaccination programs in areas where jungle yellow fever is endemic. The size of the endemic area (approximately half of South America), transportation and communication difficulties, and the inability to ensure a reliable cold chain are problems facing these programs. In addition, the problem of reaching dispersed and isolated populations has been addressed by the use of mobile teams, radio monitoring, and educational methods. During yellow fever outbreaks, many countries institute massive vaccination campaigns, targeted at temporary workers and migrants. Because epidemics in South America may involve extensive areas, these campaigns may not effectively address the problem. The ped-o-jet injector method, used in Brazil and Colombia, should be used in outbreak situations, as it is effective for large-scale vaccination. Vaccine by needle, suggested for maintenance programs, should be administered to those above 1 year of age. An efficient monitoring method to avoid revaccination, and to assess immunity, should be developed. The 17D strain produces seroconversion in 95% of recipients, and most is prepared in Brazil and Colombia. But, problems with storage methods, instability in seed lots, and difficulties in large-scale production were identified in 1981 by the Pan American Health Organization and WHO. The group recommended modernization of current production techniques and further research to develop a vaccine that could be produced in cell cultures. Brazil and Colombia have acted on these recommendations, modernizing vaccine production and researching thermostabilizing media for

  1. 2011 Residential Energy Efficiency Technical Update Meeting Summary Report: Denver, Colorado - August 9-11, 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-11-01

    This report provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy Building America program's Summer 2011 Residential Energy Efficiency Technical Update Meeting. This meeting was held on August 9-11, 2011, in Denver, Colorado, and brought together more than 290 professionals representing organizations with a vested interest in energy efficiency improvements in residential buildings.

  2. Statistical Handbook: 1999 updates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication consists of a series of tables containing the updated figures for: Crown land sales, drilling activity, established oil and natural gas reserves, crude oil, synthetic oil and bitumen and natural gas production, net cash expenditures of the petroleum industry, value of producers' sales, average crude oil and natural gas prices, Canadian demand for motor gasoline, diesel and heavy fuel oil, yields of refined petroleum products in Canada, and Canadian exports of energy materials. The data provided covers varying periods, in all cases updated to include data for 1999

  3. Update of European bioethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rendtorff, Jacob Dahl

    2015-01-01

    principles of autonomy, dignity, integrity and vulnerability are proposed as the most important ethical principles for respect for the human person in biomedical and biotechnological development. This approach to bioethics and biolaw is presented here in a short updated version that integrates the earlier......This paper presents an update of the research on European bioethics undertaken by the author together with Professor Peter Kemp since the 1990s, on Basic ethical principles in European bioethics and biolaw. In this European approach to basic ethical principles in bioethics and biolaw, the...... research in a presentation of the present understanding of the basic ethical principles in bioethics and biolaw....

  4. Energy policies of IEA countries. 1993 review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy policies in Member countries's and the international energy situation are highlighted in this 1993 edition. It reviews recent trends and developments in energy demand, conservation and efficiency, supply of primary fuels, environment, technology and R and D. This year's Review also gives an overview of significant developments in key policy areas since the IEA's creation, on the occasion of its 20th anniversary. Member countries' energy policies are reviewed in depth on a four-year cycle. In-depth reviews of the energy policies of Austria, Denmark, Germany, Greece, the United Kingdom and the United States were conducted in 1993. Energy policy developments and supply and demand trends for the other 17 countries are updated from the previous in-depth reviews and summarized in this volume. (authors). figs., tabs

  5. Bank regulation and supervision around the world : a crisis update

    OpenAIRE

    Čihák, Martin; Demirgüç-Kunt, Aslı; Pería, María Soledad Martinez; Mohseni-Cheraghlou, Amin

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the latest update of the World Bank Bank Regulation and Supervision Survey, and explores two questions. First, were there significant differences in regulation and supervision between crisis and non-crisis countries? Second, what aspects of regulation and supervision changed significantly during the crisis period? The paper finds significant differences between crisis and ...

  6. Let's Go to America!

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

      The United States and China have signed an agreement to facilitate Chinese group leisure travel to the United States. This agreement provides the necessary framework to permit group leisure travel from China to the United States. U.S. companies can now enter into business relationships with Chinese travel agencies to organize and market travel packages for group leisure travel to the United States. It also attracts more and more Chinese to go to America, as more and more convenience and comforts are coming up during the travel.……

  7. Let's Go to America!

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The United States and China have signed an agreement to facilitate Chinese group leisure travel to the United States. This agreement provides the necessary framework to permit group leisure travel from China to the United States. U.S. companies can now enter into business relationships with Chinese travel agencies to organize and market travel packages for group leisure travel to the United States. It also attracts more and more Chinese to go to America, as more and more convenience and comforts are coming up during the travel.

  8. Knight Capital Americas LLC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Austin, Robert D.; Meister, Darren

    2015-01-01

    It took 19 years to build Knight Capital Americas LLC into the largest market maker on the New York Stock Exchange, but on August 1, 2012, it took only 45 minutes for the firm to be wiped out by an information technology (IT) problem: a change in the company's software caused it to lose more than...... officer, other managers and the board of directors have done differently? What lessons does this story hold for how firms should be managed and governed? And what does it say about our ability to manage risk in large modern corporations operating in increasingly fast-moving and complex global markets?...

  9. Mosques in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Khalidi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The following article derived from an exhibit catalogue put together by Public Affairs Germany in the U.S. Embassy in Berlin and the U.S. Consulates in Frankfurt and Düsseldorf and accompanied Dr. Omar Khalidi’s photo exhibit “Mosques in America.” There are over 2,000 mosques in the United States, mostly housed in buildings originally built for other purposes. American mosques built in the last few decades, however, in the period in which Islam has begun to feel at home in the United States, are almost universally architect-designed.

  10. Chinese Food in America

    OpenAIRE

    Jou, Diana T.

    2011-01-01

    How did Chinese food get to look like this? With more than 41,000 Chinese restaurants in America - 3 times the number of McDonald’s restaurants - Chinese food is one of the most accepted and misunderstood cuisines in the United States. From large cities to small towns, locals can always count on an order of orange chicken in a takeout box, with a few fortune cookies thrown in the bag. But what Americans view as Chinese food is far from a traditional Chinese meal, wh...

  11. Eating in America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康海燕

    2007-01-01

    Americans are too busy to cook at home.They often eat outside.Eating culture is one of the important parts in America.There are many kinds of restaurants.Some are open for breakfast. Others are open twenty-four hours a day. A number of restaurants call themselves"family restaurants".They serve no alcohol~* and have fairly restricted~* menus.They serve steaks,hamburgers and sandwiches.Besides these,there are some special restaurants.They serve only or mainly steaks,seafood,etc.

  12. Timekeeping in the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, J. M.; Lombardi, M. A.

    2015-10-01

    Time and its measurement belong to the most fundamental core of physics, and many scientific and technological advances are directly or indirectly related to time measurements. Timekeeping is essential to everyday life, and thus is the most measured physical quantity in modern societies. Time can also be measured with less uncertainty and more resolution than any other physical quantity. The measurement of time is of the utmost importance for many applications, including: global navigation satellite systems, communications networks, electric power generation, astronomy, electronic commerce, and national defense and security. This paper discusses how time is kept, coordinated, and disseminated in the Americas.

  13. Manual for Reducing Educational Unit Costs in Latin American Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centro Multinacional de Investigacion Educativa, San Jose (Costa Rica).

    Designed for educational administrators, this manual provides suggestions for reducing educational unit costs in Latin America without reducing the quality of the education. Chapter one defines unit cost concepts and compares the costs of the Latin American countries. Chapter two deals with the different policies which could affect the principal…

  14. HIV/AIDS in Latin American Countries : The Challenges Ahead

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia Abreu, Anabela; Noguer, Isabel; Cowgill, Karen

    2003-01-01

    HIV/AIDS in Latin America falls within the framework of a low endemic setting. In the majority of the countries, the epidemic is still concentrated in high-risk populations: men who have sex with men (MSM), injecting drug users (IDUs), commercial sex workers (CSWs), prisoners, and people with sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The exceptions are Honduras and southeastern Brazil, where...

  15. Update on World Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Social Education, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Summarizes a wealth of statistical information concerning the economic development and debt for a number of developing nations. Includes statistics on the gross national product growth of Cote d'lvoire, Guatemala, Malaysia, Korea, Colombia, and Nigeria, as well as, the gross domestic product growth and debt service for Latin America, Africa, and…

  16. The first safe country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaela Puggioni

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Dublin II Regulation makes the first safe country of refuge solelyresponsible for refugees and asylum seekers. In the case of Italy, thefirst responsible country has not been acting responsibly.

  17. The Future of Nuclear Energy: Facts and Fiction: An update using 2009/2010 Data

    CERN Document Server

    Dittmar, Michael

    2011-01-01

    An update of our 2009 study, "The Future of Nuclear Energy, Facts and Fiction" using the 2009 and the available 2010 data, including a critical look at the just published 2009 edition of the Red Book, is presented. Since January 2009, eight reactors with a capacity of 4.9 GWe have been connected to the electric grid and four older reactors, with a combined capacity of 2.64 GWe have been terminated. Furthermore, 27 reactor constructions, dominated by China (18) and Russia (4), have been initiated. The nuclear fission produced electric energy in 2009 followed the slow decline, observed since 2007, with a total production of 2560 TWhe, 41 TWhe (1.6%) less than in 2008 and roughly 100 TWhe less than in the record year 2006. The preliminary data from the first 10 months of 2010 in the OECD countries indicate that nuclear power production in North-America remained at the 2009 levels, while one observes a recovery in Europe with an increase of 2.5% and a strong rise of 5% in the OECD Asia-Pacific area compared to th...

  18. New England Wind Forum: A Wind Powering America Project, Newsletter #5 -- January 2010, Wind and Hydropower Technologies Program (WHTP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grace, R. C.; Gifford, J.

    2010-01-01

    Wind Powering America program launched the New England Wind Forum (NEWF) in 2005 to provide a single comprehensive source of up-to-date, Web-based information on a broad array of wind energy issues pertaining to New England. The NEWF newsletter provides New England stakeholders with updates on wind energy development in the region. In addition to regional updates, Issue #5 offers an interview with Angus King, former governor of Maine and co-founder of Independence Wind.

  19. Natural gas as an integrating element for Latin America - An opportunity for Venezuela?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Cruz, Diego

    2010-09-15

    Summary This paper offers an analysis of the natural gas situation in Latin America, from Mexico to Argentina, including countries of the Caribbean; analyzes the attitude of potential buyers of this energy source and the possibilities of each country receiving natural gas from Venezuela based on its reserves and production, highlighting the most outstanding projects being undertaken in some of those countries; makes recommendations in the area of energy, with emphasis on natural gas; and, lastly, presents an epilog describing Venezuela's role in an integration process in Latin America.

  20. Update of telephone exchange

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    As part of the upgrade of telephone services, the CERN switching centre will be updated on Wednesday 14 June between 8.00 p.m. and midnight. Telephone services may be disrupted and possibly even interrupted during this operation. We apologise in advance for any inconvenience this may cause. CERN TELECOM Service

  1. Update of telephone exchange

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    As part of the upgrade of telephone services, the CERN switching centre will be updated on Monday 3 July between 8.00 p.m. and 3.00 a.m. Telephone services may be disrupted and possibly even interrupted during this operation. We apologise in advance for any inconvenience this may cause. CERN TELECOM Service

  2. Update of telephone exchange

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    As part of the upgrade of telephone services, the CERN switching centre will be updated on between Monday 23 October 8.00 p.m. and Tuesday 24 October 2.00 a.m. Telephone services may be disrupted and possibly even interrupted during this operation. We apologise in advance for any inconvenience this may cause. CERN TELECOM Service

  3. Update of telephone exchange

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    As part of the upgrade of telephone services, the CERN switching centre will be updated on Monday 3 July between 8.00 p.m. and 3.00 a.m. Telephone services may be disrupted and possibly even interrupted during this operation.We apologise in advance for any inconvenience this may cause. CERN TELECOM Service

  4. Updating: Learning versus Supposing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiaying; Crupi, Vincenzo; Tentori, Katya; Fitelson, Branden; Osherson, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Bayesian orthodoxy posits a tight relationship between conditional probability and updating. Namely, the probability of an event "A" after learning "B" should equal the conditional probability of "A" given "B" prior to learning "B". We examine whether ordinary judgment conforms to the orthodox view. In three experiments we found substantial…

  5. Updated opal opacities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reexamination of astrophysical opacities has eliminated gross discrepancies between a variety of observations and theoretical calculations; thus allowing for more detailed tests of stellar models. A number of such studies indicate that model results are sensitive to modest changes in the opacity. Consequently, it is desirable to update available opacity databases with recent improvements in physics, refinements of element abundance, and other such factors affecting the results. Updated OPAL Rosseland mean opacities are presented. The new results have incorporated improvements in the physics and numerical procedures as well as corrections. The main opacity changes are increases of as much as 20% for Population I stars due to the explicit inclusion of 19 metals (compared to 12 metals in the earlier calculations) with the other modifications introducing opacity changes smaller than 10%. In addition, the temperature and density range covered by the updated opacity tables has been extended. As before, the tables allow accurate interpolation in density and temperature as well as hydrogen, helium, carbon, oxygen, and metal mass fractions. Although a specific metal composition is emphasized, opacity tables for different metal distributions can be made readily available. The updated opacities are compared to other work. copyright 1996 The American Astronomical Society

  6. North Sea update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article deals with the offshore activity in the North Sea bringing together a special update feature for the petroleum industries in the United Kingdom, Norway, Denmark and the Netherlands. The total capital expenditure required for the period from 1995 to 1998 for the North Sea area which includes exploration, development projects and well abandoning, are discussed and presented. 20 figs., 5 tabs

  7. Livestock Update. August 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Greiner, Scott Patrick; McCann, Mark A.; Saville, Joi; Neil, Scott J.; Harmon, Deidre D.; Callan, Peter; Estienne, Mark Joseph, 1960-; Wiegert, Jeffrey; Clark, Sherrie

    2014-01-01

    This LIVESTOCK UPDATE contains timely subject matter on beef cattle, horses, poultry, sheep, swine, and related junior work. This issue includes: Dates to Remember; August Herd Management Advisor; Weaning Nutrition and Management; Breeding Season Management - Ewes and Rams; 2014 Small Ruminant Field Day; Heat Stress and Small-Scale and Niche Market Pork Production in Virginia,

  8. Memory Updating and Mental Arithmetic

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Cheng-Ching; Yang, Tsung-Han; Lin, Chia-Yuan; Yen, Nai-Shing

    2016-01-01

    Is domain-general memory updating ability predictive of calculation skills or are such skills better predicted by the capacity for updating specifically numerical information? Here, we used multidigit mental multiplication (MMM) as a measure for calculating skill as this operation requires the accurate maintenance and updating of information in addition to skills needed for arithmetic more generally. In Experiment 1, we found that only individual differences with regard to a task updating num...

  9. [FREQUENTLY USED VEGETABLE OILS IN SOUTH AMERICA: FEATURES AND PROPERTIES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán Agüero, Samuel; Torres García, Jairo; Sanhueza Catalán, Julio

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, the consumption of vegetable oils has increased in our society, being an important part of the diet worldwide. South America is a major producer of an important variety of vegetable oils. The composition of vegetable oils is not standard as it varies greatly in the amount of saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, and particularly in the amounts of omega-6 and omega-3, which are associated with the source either plant species, seed, plant or fruit, providing different nutritional benefits. The purpose of this article is to review and update the data and evidence about the consumption of oils produced and commercialized in South America, such as soybean oil, corn, palm, sunflower, canola and olive oils, and also to determine health effects from studies related with the topic. PMID:26262691

  10. Update on global immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Carol J

    2007-10-01

    The international community recognizes that investing in the health development of poor and disadvantaged countries is central to reducing poverty. Immunization is one strategy in the global effort to reduce infant mortality, improve maternal health, and combat infectious disease. In this day of global interdependence, all countries are vulnerable to uncontrolled spread of disease through epidemics. Achieving the Millennium Development Goals will not only help developing countries, but it will also contribute to improving health and security for all. PMID:17990623

  11. [Health system reforms in South America: an opportunity for UNASUR].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes-Temporão, José; Faria, Mariana

    2014-01-01

    Health systems in South America still support segmentation, privatization and fragmentation. Health reforms of the structural adjustment programs in the 1980s and 1990s in South America followed different purposes and strategies ranging from privatization, commodification and state intervention for the implementation of a national public health service with universal access as a right of the citizens. Since the 2000s, many countries have expanded social policies, reduced poverty and social inequalities, and improved access to healthcare. This article proposes to discuss the health systems in South America from historical and political backgrounds, and the progress from the reforms in the last three decades. It also presents the three paradigmatic models of reform and their evolution, as well as the contrasts between universal coverage and universal systems. Finally, it presents current strengths and weaknesses of the twelve South American health systems as well as current opportunities and challenges in health for UNASUR. PMID:25597728

  12. SMEs, Competition and Entry - A developing country perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Camilla

    The paper develops a simple model for a developing country with a dual economic structure. The model is a further theoretical extension and empirical work to an earlier published book chapter on the same topic. The abstract was updated after presentation at the conference in Gold Coast, Australia...

  13. Meetings of Experts on Book Development in Latin America (Bogota, 9-15 September 1969). Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    The meeting of experts on book development in Latin America examined the present situation in the region and drew up a programme of action to promote book production and distribution. Experts from 23 Latin American countries participated. One of their major recommendations was that a Book Development Centre for Latin America be established at…

  14. Republic of Colombia. Country Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canak, W L

    1985-03-01

    This discussion of Colombia covers population growth, age distribution, regions and cities, households and families, housing and construction, ethnicity and religion, labor force and income, education, communications and transportation, and sources of information. Colombia's 1985 population is estimated at 28.7 million, making it the largest country in South America after Brazil. Colombia's growth in the last 5 years has averaged 2% annually, compared with an average of 2.3% a year for Latin America as a region. Colombia's moderate growth has been accompanied by shifts in population distribution and composition. In particular a massive internal migration has increased the urban population from roughly 1/3 in th 1950s to 2/3 at this time. Improved housing, education, and access to public health facilities have accompanied this rural to urban migration. At this time Colombia is holding its own economically and anticipates economic growth based on recovery in the US and Europe as well as on its own coal exports. Colombia's fertility rate, at 3.9 children/women in 1980-81, is the lowest in tropical South America but higher than the total fertility rate in the more temperate South American countries. Compared with other South American nations, Colombia's crude birthrate of 29-31 births/1000 population is low. Reflecting the impact of urban migration and the widescale effectiveness of family planning programs initiated in the 1960s and 1970s, median age has increased from 17 years in 1970 to almost 21 years in 1985. About 37% of the population is aged 14 or under at this time. The population aged 65 and older is only 3.8% and by 2000 will constitute only 4.5% of the population. From 1951-82 the urban population grew at 4.4% annually, exceeding the national average of 2.6% and the rural growth rate of less than 1%. Since 1982 the urban growth rate has been about 3% annually. In 1964 the average completed family size was 6.8 children. By 1980 it was 3.9 children. A steady

  15. Renewable energy in North America: Moving toward a richer mix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobey, Cathy

    2010-09-15

    A follow-up to our January study with Economist Intelligence Unit, Renewable energy in North America. The update will further our call to action for a concerted group effort by energy suppliers, corporate consumers and government. 1. Introduction - State of the industry, progress made to replace carbon-based fossil fuels with alternative energy - Barriers - Pressure from public and government 2. Recent progress - Examine existing government incentive programs - International commitments - Examine the role of energy suppliers, corporate consumers and government 3. Call to Action - Creating an environment that encourages both supply and demand of renewable energy.

  16. Climate change - reducing emissions/VCR update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the December 1997 Kyoto Conference serving as background, this presentation examined the problem of carbon dioxide emissions by the petroleum, natural gas, and oil sands industries, and by the electric utilities. Global warming, greenhouse gas emissions and climate change are seen as being among the most serious problems facing the oil and natural gas industries. Since the heavy oil industry is more energy intensive than either the petroleum or natural gas industries, the heavy oil industry faces an even more serious problem. The author also reviewed and updated Canadian achievements in reducing green house gas emissions under the Voluntary Change Registry Program, established following the 1992 Rio de Janeiro Environmental Summit. The expectation at this meeting was that at the Kyoto Conference Canada's negotiating position will be similar to that of the United States, i.e. reducing emissions to 1990 levels between 2008 and 2012, but not so as to adversely affect the economy. It is widely expected that the Kyoto Conference will call for legally binding emission targets for the countries of the developed world, including the countries of the former Soviet Union. Developing countries, including China, will be exempt, on the grounds that their economies are too feeble to withstand the cost of implementing emission control measures at this time. Developing countries apparently agree to install new technologies that reduce emissions, but expect the developing countries to foot the bill

  17. Anaglyph, South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    This anaglyph (stereoscopic view) of South America was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). It is best viewed at or near full resolution with anaglyph glasses. For this broad view the resolution of the data was first reduced to 30 arcseconds (about 928 meters north-south but variable east-west), matching the best previously existing global digital topographic data set called GTOPO30. The data were then resampled to a Mercator projection with approximately square pixels (about one kilometer, or 0.6 miles, on each side). Even at this decreased resolution the variety of landforms comprising the South American continent is readily apparent.Topographic relief in South America is dominated by the Andes Mountains, which extend all along the Pacific Coast. These mountains are created primarily by the convergence of the Nazca and South American tectonic plates. The Nazca Plate, which underlies the eastern Pacific Ocean, slides under western South America resulting in crustal thickening, uplift, and volcanism. Another zone of plate convergence occurs along the northwestern coast of South America where the Caribbean Plate also slides under the South American Plate and forms the northeastern extension of the Andes Mountains.East of the Andes, much of northern South America drains into the Amazon River, the world's largest river in terms of both watershed area and flow volume. Topographic relief is very low in much of the Amazon Basin but SRTM data provide an excellent detailed look at the basin's three-dimensional drainage pattern, including the geologic structural trough (syncline) that hosts the eastern river channel.North of the Amazon, the Guiana Highlands commonly stand in sharp contrast to the surrounding lowlands, indeed hosting the world's tallest waterfall, Angel Falls (979 meters or 3212 feet). Folded and fractured bedrock structures are distinctive in the topographic pattern.South of the Amazon, the Brazilian Highlands show a mix of

  18. Education in America. Opposing Viewpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozic, Charles P., Ed.

    This book, part of a series about differing viewpoints on education in America, examines how education can be improved for this and future generations of America's youth. The following papers and their authors are included: "Public Education Needs Extensive Reform" (John Taylor Gatto); "Public Education Does Not Need Extensive Reform" (Gerald…

  19. Locking in on Latin America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MICHAEL; RICE

    2006-01-01

    China cautious as it sets up generous investment in Latin America The United States is keeping a watchful eye as China bolsters political and economic ties with Latin America. The situation has U.S. political analysts trying to determine just how China s emerging influence

  20. South America Geologic Map (geo6ag)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — South America is part of Region 6 (Central and South America) for the World Energy Assessment. The geologic map of South America was digitized so that we could use...

  1. The Ecological Footprint of Industrialized countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Frassoldati

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To compare the carbon footprint of different nations and the per capita for each country allows us to visualize a problem often underestimated by our systems of production and consumption, which is based on inequality. There is a need to work on this problem because in sharing the liability and the global consequences, the effects that cannot continue, reveals a series of possibilities. It would require 3-6 planets equal to Earth in order to sustain a lifestyle like that of an inhabitant of North America in order to supporst all inhabitants on Earth.

  2. Cardiovascular Research Publications from Latin America between 1999 and 2008. A Bibliometric Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardiovascular research publications seem to be increasing in Latin America overall. To analyze trends in cardiovascular publications and their citations from countries in Latin America between 1999 and 2008, and to compare them with those from the rest of the countries. We retrieved references of cardiovascular publications between 1999 and 2008 and their five-year post-publication citations from the Web of Knowledge database. For countries in Latin America, we calculated the total number of publications and their citation indices (total citations divided by number of publications) by year. We analyzed trends on publications and citation indices over time using Poisson regression models. The analysis was repeated for Latin America as a region, and compared with that for the rest of the countries grouped according to economic development. Brazil (n = 6,132) had the highest number of publications in1999-2008, followed by Argentina (n = 1,686), Mexico (n = 1,368) and Chile (n = 874). Most countries showed an increase in publications over time, leaded by Guatemala (36.5% annually [95%CI: 16.7%-59.7%]), Colombia (22.1% [16.3%-28.2%]), Costa Rica (18.1% [8.1%-28.9%]) and Brazil (17.9% [16.9%-19.1%]). However, trends on citation indices varied widely (from -33.8% to 28.4%). From 1999 to 2008, cardiovascular publications of Latin America increased by 12.9% (12.1%-13.5%) annually. However, the citation indices of Latin America increased 1.5% (1.3%-1.7%) annually, a lower increase than those of all other country groups analyzed. Although the number of cardiovascular publications of Latin America increased from 1999 to 2008, trends on citation indices suggest they may have had a relatively low impact on the research field, stressing the importance of considering quality and dissemination on local research policies

  3. Cardiovascular Research Publications from Latin America between 1999 and 2008. A Bibliometric Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colantonio, Lisandro D., E-mail: Lisandro.Colantonio@fulbrightmail.org [Department of Epidemiology - University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Public Health, Birmingham (United States); Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Baldridge, Abigail S.; Huffman, Mark D. [Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago (United States); Bloomfield, Gerald S. [Duke University Medical Center - Duke Clinical Research Institute and Duke Global Health Institute, Durham (United States); Prabhakaran, Dorairaj [Centre for Chronic Disease Control, New Delhi (India)

    2015-01-15

    Cardiovascular research publications seem to be increasing in Latin America overall. To analyze trends in cardiovascular publications and their citations from countries in Latin America between 1999 and 2008, and to compare them with those from the rest of the countries. We retrieved references of cardiovascular publications between 1999 and 2008 and their five-year post-publication citations from the Web of Knowledge database. For countries in Latin America, we calculated the total number of publications and their citation indices (total citations divided by number of publications) by year. We analyzed trends on publications and citation indices over time using Poisson regression models. The analysis was repeated for Latin America as a region, and compared with that for the rest of the countries grouped according to economic development. Brazil (n = 6,132) had the highest number of publications in1999-2008, followed by Argentina (n = 1,686), Mexico (n = 1,368) and Chile (n = 874). Most countries showed an increase in publications over time, leaded by Guatemala (36.5% annually [95%CI: 16.7%-59.7%]), Colombia (22.1% [16.3%-28.2%]), Costa Rica (18.1% [8.1%-28.9%]) and Brazil (17.9% [16.9%-19.1%]). However, trends on citation indices varied widely (from -33.8% to 28.4%). From 1999 to 2008, cardiovascular publications of Latin America increased by 12.9% (12.1%-13.5%) annually. However, the citation indices of Latin America increased 1.5% (1.3%-1.7%) annually, a lower increase than those of all other country groups analyzed. Although the number of cardiovascular publications of Latin America increased from 1999 to 2008, trends on citation indices suggest they may have had a relatively low impact on the research field, stressing the importance of considering quality and dissemination on local research policies.

  4. Fermilab and Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As Director of Fermilab, starting in 1979, I began a series of meetings with scientists in Latin America. The motivation was to stir collaboration in the field of high energy particle physics, the central focus of Fermilab. In the next 13 years, these Pan American Symposia stirred much discussion of the use of modern physics, created several groups to do collaborative research at Fermilab, and often centralized facilities and, today, still provides the possibility for much more productive North-South collaboration in research and education. In 1992, I handed these activities over to the AAAS, as President. This would, I hoped, broaden areas of collaboration. Such collaboration is unfortunately very sensitive to political events. In a rational world, it would be the rewards, cultural and economic, of collaboration that would modulate political relations. We are not there yet

  5. Comparative resource allocations to human resource development in Asia, Europe, and Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Knight, P. T.; Wasty, S. S.

    1991-01-01

    This study compiles statistics for selected Latin American countries and two reference groupsof countries in East Asia and northern and southern Europe. The authors emphasize the need to increase attention to and expenditure on education and health systems in many developing countries, especially in Latin America, to improve the coverage and quality of the services they provide. This paper notes that wider access to secondary education and greater emphasis on the quality of higher education t...

  6. Legal aspects of nuclear technology transfer in connection with Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper concerns technology and technology transfers which are becoming increasingly important for developing countries, especially those in South America. The author also points out that developed countries have not implemented the United Nations resolutions concerning dissemination of knowledge on advanced technologies. He stresses that if South American States wish to obtain assistance with nuclear technology from developed countries they should sign and ratify the Non-Proliferation Treaty and the Tlatelolco Treaty. (NEA)

  7. Capacity building in renewable energy technologies in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fridleifsson, Ingvar

    2010-09-15

    The renewable energy sources are expected to provide 20-40% of the world primary energy in 2050, depending on scenarios. A key element in the mitigation of climate change is capacity building in renewable energy technologies in the developing countries, where the main energy use growth is expected. An innovative training programme for geothermal energy professionals developed in Iceland is an example of how this can be done effectively. In 1979-2009, 424 scientists/engineers from 44 developing countries have completed the 6 month courses. In many countries in Africa, Asia, C-America, and E-Europe, UNU-GTP Fellows are among the leading geothermal specialists.

  8. The economic geography of human capital in Twentieth-century Latin America in an international comparative perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Camps, Enriqueta; Engerman, Stanley

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present results for educational achievement in the different economic regions of Latin America (Big countries: Mexico and Brazil; Southern Cone; Andean countries; Central America; and others) during the twentieth century. The variables we use to measure education are average years of education, literacy, average years in primary school, average years in secondary school, and average years in university. To attain a broader perspective on the relationship of education with hum...

  9. AN UPDATED REVIEW ON ANTHELMINTIC MEDICINAL PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Kumar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants are part and parcel of human society to combat diseases, from the dawn of civilization. There exists a plethora of knowledge, information and benefits of herbal drugs in our ancient literature of Ayurvedic (Traditional Indian Medicine, Siddha, Unani and Chinese medicine. According to the World Health Organization, 2003 about 80 % of the population of developing countries being unable to afford pharmaceutical drugs rely on traditional medicines, mainly plant based, to sustain their primary health care needs. Herbal medicines are in great demand in the developed as well as developing countries for primary healthcare because of their wide biological and medicinal activities, higher safety margins and lesser costs. In this review we have enlisted the updated anthelmintic medicinal plants which are used as good alternatives for the traditional allopathic anthelmintic agents.

  10. Reproductive performance of dairy cattle in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The review describes the commonly practised systems of milk production in sample countries within the five major topographical/climatological subregions of Latin America, viz. Central America, the Caribbean, the South American subtropics, the Andes and the Temperate Zone. The state of development and importance of the dairy industry to the economy of each country are discussed. Production and reproduction indices are quoted, as are the genetic make-up of the dairy herds, husbandry practices and the quality of livestock management. It is clear that there is an enormous capacity for improvement in the efficiency of milk production systems in the Latin American region as a whole; to achieve this improvement, there is an urgent need to pursue on-farm based research aimed at identifying constraints to the performance of dairy cattle and the implementation of low cost management/nutritional/health control measures. (author)

  11. Sensors, Update 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltes, Henry; Göpel, Wolfgang; Hesse, Joachim

    2001-10-01

    Sensors Update ensures that you stay at the cutting edge of the field. Built upon the series Sensors, it presents an overview of highlights in the field. Coverage includes current developments in materials, design, production, and applications of sensors, signal detection and processing, as well as new sensing principles. Each volume is divided into three sections. Sensor Technology, reviews highlights in applied and basic research, Sensor Applications, covers new or improved applications of sensors, Sensor Markets, provides a survey of suppliers and market trends for a particular area. With this unique combination of information in each volume, Sensors Update will be of value for scientists and engineers in industry and at universities, to sensors developers, distributors, and users.

  12. Sensors, Update 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltes, Henry; Fedder, Gary K.; Korvink, Jan G.

    2002-04-01

    Sensors Update ensures that you stay at the cutting edge of the field. Built upon the series Sensors, it presents an overview of highlights in the field. Coverage includes current developments in materials, design, production, and applications of sensors, signal detection and processing, as well as new sensing principles. Each volume is divided into three sections. Sensor Technology, reviews highlights in applied and basic research, Sensor Applications, covers new or improved applications of sensors, Sensor Markets, provides a survey of suppliers and market trends for a particular area. With this unique combination of information in each volume, Sensors Update will be of value for scientists and engineers in industry and at universities, to sensors developers, distributors, and users.

  13. Sensors, Update 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltes, Henry; Fedder, Gary K.; Korvink, Jan G.

    2003-03-01

    Sensors Update ensures that you stay at the cutting edge of the field, presenting the current highlights of sensor and related microelectromechanical systems technology. Coverage includes most recent developments in materials, design, production, and applications of sensors, signal detection and processing, as well as new sensing principles based on micro- and nanotechnology. Each volume is divided into three sections: Sensor Technology reviews highlights in applied and basic research, Sensor Applications covers new or improved applications of sensors and Sensor Markets provides a survey of suppliers and market trends for a particular area. With this unique combination of information in each volume, Sensors Update is of must-have value for scientists and engineers in industry and at universities, to sensors developers, distributors, and users.

  14. Sensors, Update 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltes, Henry; Göpel, Wolfgang; Hesse, Joachim

    1996-10-01

    Sensors Update ensures that you stay at the cutting edge of the field. Built upon the series Sensors, it presents an overview of highlights in the field. Coverage includes current developments in materials, design, production, and applications of sensors, signal detection and processing, as well as new sensing principles. Furthermore, the sensor market as well as peripheral aspects such as standards are covered. Each volume is divided into four sections. Sensor Technology, reviews highlights in applied and basic research, Sensor Applications, covers new or improved applications of sensors, Sensor Markets, provides a survey of suppliers and market trends for a particular area. With this unique combination of information in each volume, Sensors Update will be of value for scientists and engineers in industry and at universities, to sensors developers, distributors, and users.

  15. Sensors, Update 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltes, Henry; Göpel, Wolfgang; Hesse, Joachim

    2001-02-01

    Sensors Update ensures that you stay at the cutting edge of the field. Built upon the series Sensors, it presents an overview of highlights in the field. Coverage includes current developments in materials, design, production, and applications of sensors, signal detection and processing, as well as new sensing principles. Each volume is divided into three sections: Sensor Technology reviews highlights in applied and basic research, while Sensor Applications covers new or improved applications of sensors, and Sensor Markets provides a survey of suppliers and market trends for a particular area. With this unique combination of information in each volume, Sensors Update will be invaluable to scientists and engineers in industry and at universities, to sensors developers, distributors, and users.

  16. Sensors, Update 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltes, Henry; Fedder, Gary K.; Korvink, Jan G.

    2003-04-01

    Sensors Update ensures that you stay at the cutting edge of the field. Built upon the series Sensors, it presents an overview of highlights in the field. Coverage includes current developments in materials, design, production, and applications of sensors, signal detection and processing, as well as new sensing principles. Each volume is divided into three sections. Sensor Technology, reviews highlights in applied and basic research, Sensor Applications, covers new or improved applications of sensors, Sensor Markets, provides a survey of suppliers and market trends for a particular area. With this unique combination of information in each volume, Sensors Update will be of value for scientists and engineers in industry and at universities, to sensors developers, distributors, and users.

  17. Sensors, Update 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltes, Henry; Göpel, Wolfgang; Hesse, Joachim

    1996-12-01

    Sensors Update ensures that you stay at the cutting edge of the field. Built upon the series Sensors, it presents an overview of highlights in the field. Treatments include current developments in materials, design, production, and applications of sensors, signal detection and processing, as well as new sensing principles. Furthermore, the sensor market as well as peripheral aspects such as standards are covered. Each volume is divided into four sections. Sensor Technology, reviews highlights in applied and basic research, Sensor Applications, covers new or improved applications of sensors, Sensor Markets, provides an overview of suppliers and market trends for a particular section, and Sensor Standards, reviews recent legislation and requirements for sensors. With this unique combination of information in each volume, Sensors Update will be of value for scientists and engineers in industry and at universities, to sensors developers, distributors, and users.

  18. Changes in Latin America: consequences for human development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisbrot, Mark

    2007-01-01

    This article looks at Latin America's political shift over the last several years. The author argues that these changes have largely been misunderstood and underestimated in the United States for a number of reasons. First, Latin America's unprecedented growth failure over the past 25 years is a major cause of these political changes and has not been well-understood. Second, the collapse of the International Monetary Fund's influence in Latin America, and in middle-income countries, is an epoch-making change. Third, the availability of alternative sources of finance, especially from the reserves of the Venezuelan government, has become very important. Finally, the increasing assertion of national control over natural resources is an important part of the new relationship between Latin America and the United States. For these and other reasons, the relationship between Latin America and the United States has undergone a fundamental and possibly irreversible change, and one that opens the way to new and mostly more successful economic policies. PMID:17844930

  19. Updating Choquet Beliefs.

    OpenAIRE

    Jurgen Eichberger; Simon Grant; David Kelsey

    2006-01-01

    We apply Pires’s coherence property between unconditional and conditional preferences that admit a CEU representation. In conjunction with consequentialism (only those outcomes on states which are still possible can matter for conditional preference) this implies that the conditional preference may be obtained from the unconditional preference by taking the Full Bayesian Update of the capacity. Attitudes towards sequential versus simultaneous resolution of uncertainty for a simple bet are ana...

  20. Annual Pension Fund Update

    CERN Multimedia

    Pension Fund

    2011-01-01

    All members and beneficiaries of the Pension Fund are invited to attend the Annual Pension Fund Update to be held in the CERN Council Chamber on Tuesday 20 September 2011 from 10-00 to 12-00 a.m. Copies of the 2010 Financial Statements are available from departmental secretariats. Coffee and croissants will be served prior to the meeting as of 9-30 a.m.

  1. Journal Update : issue 1

    OpenAIRE

    Malta Medical Journal Club

    2014-01-01

    Contents: Letter from the editors - Thomas Borg Barthet and Dale Brincat; Message for Journal Update - Gilbert Gravino and Gianluca Gonzi; Anemia, an independent predictive factor for amputation and mortality in patients hospitalized for peripheral artery disease - Thomas Borg Barthet; Peripheral blood lymphocyte telomere length as a predictor of response to immunosuppressive therapy in childhood aplastic anaemia - Thomas Borg Barthet; Influenza vaccination of pregnant women and pro...

  2. How Documentalists Update SIMBAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buga, M.; Bot, C.; Brouty, M.; Bruneau, C.; Brunet, C.; Cambresy, L.; Eisele, A.; Genova, F.; Lesteven, S.; Loup, C.; Neuville, M.; Oberto, A.; Ochsenbein, F.; Perret, E.; Siebert, A.; Son, E.; Vannier, P.; Vollmer, B.; Vonflie, P.; Wenger, M.; Woelfel, F.

    2015-04-01

    The Strasbourg astronomical Data Center (CDS) was created in 1972 and has had a major role in astronomy for more than forty years. CDS develops a service called SIMBAD that provides basic data, cross-identifications, bibliography, and measurements for astronomical objects outside the solar system. It brings to the scientific community an added value to content which is updated daily by a team of documentalists working together in close collaboration with astronomers and IT specialists. We explain how the CDS staff updates SIMBAD with object citations in the main astronomical journals, as well as with astronomical data and measurements. We also explain how the identification is made between the objects found in the literature and those already existing in SIMBAD. We show the steps followed by the documentalist team to update the database using different tools developed at CDS, like the sky visualizer Aladin, and the large catalogues and survey database VizieR. As a direct result of this teamwork, SIMBAD integrates almost 10.000 bibliographic references per year. The service receives more than 400.000 queries per day.

  3. Sovereign Debt in Latin America, 1820-1913

    OpenAIRE

    Gerardo della Paolera; Taylor, Alan M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines sovereign lending to Latin America and the Caribbean from 1820 to 1913. We examine four waves of capital flows where defaults were followed by a return to market access. In spite of extended default, countries kept promising high returns that attracted international investors again and again: financial autarky thus gave way to eras of high integration to global markets as measured by sovereign risk pricing. We discuss imperfections of the sovereign debt institutional conte...

  4. Innovation and productivity in services: Empirical evidence from Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Crespi, G.A.; Tacsir, E.; Vargas, F

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses and compares the determinants of innovation in the service industry and its impact on labour productivity at the firm level in three countries of Latin America (Chile, Colombia, and Uruguay). The main findings show that, similar to what is observed in the manufacturing industry, service firms that invest the most in innovation activities are more likely to introduce changes or improvements in their production process and/or product mix, and those firms that innovate have h...

  5. OWNERSHIP STRUCTURE AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE IN LATIN AMERICA

    OpenAIRE

    FERNANDO LEFORT

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of corporate governance practices in Latin American countries, surveying the available empirical literature, reviewing the reports on the subject prepared by multinational organizations, and providing new data for ownership and control structures of companies in different Latin American economies. Like in other emerging economies corporate governance in Latin America is conditioned by the high level of ownership concentration and the profusion of industrial and...

  6. Electric systems expansion in Latin America: the financier restriction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of this paper is to discuss the financing problems in the electric supply industries of the Latin America Countries in the long-run. The paper examines the economics aspects of the investments in the power sector, shows how the financial structure has degenerated and concludes with a discussion about the role of the new financial alternatives to increase the electricity generation. (author)

  7. Obesity trends and determinant factors in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Kain Juliana; Vio Fernando; Albala Cecilia

    2003-01-01

    Obesity rates have increased markedly in Latin America, especially during the last 10-15 years, becoming a public health problem in most countries. Prevalence of obesity among preschool children remains low, while among schoolchildren it has increased considerably. Prevalence is high in the adult population, especially among women with less schooling. In developed populations, obesity occurs more frequently among the poor; the opposite occurs in less developed societies, where in households u...

  8. Integrated Water Resources Management in Latin America and the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Inter-American Development Bank (IDB)

    1998-01-01

    This technical study contains the strategy of the Inter-American Development Bank for its involvement in integrated water resources management in Latin America and the Caribbean. The strategy was developed through an iterative step by step procedure in consultation with country water resource officials, Bank staff, nongovernmental organizations, and international lending and technical assistance organizations. The first part of the study is an overview of water resource management in Latin Am...

  9. Towards a Geography of Unmarried Cohabitation in the Americas

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Lopez-Gay; Albert Esteve; Julián López-Colás; Iñaki Permanyer; Anna Turu; Sheela Kennedy; Benoît Laplante; Ron Lesthaeghe

    2014-01-01

    Background: As the incidence of cohabitation has been rising in many parts of the world, efforts to determine the forces driving the cohabitation boom have also been intensifying. But most of the analyses of this issue conducted so far were carried out at a national level, and did not account for regional heterogeneity within countries. Objective: This paper presents the geography of unmarried cohabitation in the Americas. We offer a large-scale, cross-national perspective, together with s...

  10. Human rights and the right to abortion in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandra Zúñiga-Fajuri

    2014-01-01

    The scope of this study is to question the fact that in some countries in Latin America (Chile, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Honduras and the Dominican Republic) abortion is still forbidden in all situations. Even after all the debate on this thorny issue, the theory of human rights is not often used in the defense of abortion. This is clearly related to the pervasive, albeit unspoken belief that, due to their condition, pregnant women inherently lose their full human rights and should surrender a...

  11. Lower inflation in Latin America: Economic recovery begins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-11-30

    Throughout the 1980s, Latin American countries struggled with economic stagnation compounded by hyperinflation. A report by the Inter-American Development Bank finds marked improvement in the economies of Latin America, based upon its analysis of 1991 statistics. This issue taps two recent studies of the region, and its own Fuel Price/Tax Series, to track the trends for a view of a brighter future.

  12. Social Protection Systems in Latin America and the Caribbean: Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Robles Farías

    2015-01-01

    Chile has a long history of implementing social policies. It was one of the first countries in Latin America to expand free health care coverage and education, incorporating cash and in-kind transfers to promote access to social services and offer diverse protection mechanisms for its most vulnerable population groups. That said, its current social protection model is the result of a series of efforts, institutions and policies that have been consolidated over time.(?)

  13. Mexico and Latin America: Their Progress in Globalizing Information Services

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, Jesús

    1998-01-01

    Information development in Latin America has evolved, despite the costly economic, social and political adjustments carried out in most countries in the last two decades. New open market policies and technological developments has helped the region to increase their links with the rest of the world. Libraries can now use faster and more reliable telephone services and can acquire computer and network technology with less import barriers. Information demand is assumed to be greater in quali...

  14. EERE-Supported International Activities in Latin America (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-05-01

    The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) is involved in a variety of international initiatives, partnerships, and events that promote greater understanding and use of renewable energy (RE) and energy efficiency (EE) worldwide. In support of the Energy and Climate Partnership of the Americas (ECPA), EERE is working with several Latin American countries to advance EE and RE deployment for economic growth, energy security, poverty relief, and disaster recovery goals. This fact sheet highlights those activities.

  15. Lost Decades? : economic performance in post-independence Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Prados de la Escosura, Leandro

    2009-01-01

    In this paper the economic performance of post-independence Latin America is assessed in comparative perspective. The release from the colonial fiscal burden was partly offset by higher costs of self-government, while the opening of independent Latin American countries to the international economy represented a handmaiden of growth. Regional disparities increased after independence, so generalisations about the region's long-run behaviour are not straightforward. However, on average, per capi...

  16. Country Presentation Uganda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Like Many African countries, Uganda is not Immune to the problem of illicit trafficking of Nuclear and Radioactive materials. This has been worsened by the porosity of the Ugandan Borders. There is control on the few Entry points and much of the border line does not have adequate control on what enters and leaves the country. Uganda is also used as a transit route with the neighboring countries like Sudan, Democratic Republic of Congo, Kenya,Tanzania.

  17. The buffalo in Southern South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zava

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The number of buffaloes in the American continent is growing at the explosive rate of 12.7 % a year, well above all other continents. Within this context the different situations of the southern part of South America are described, those countries that two hundred years ago were part of the River Plate Viceroyship and the Chile General Command, both of them part of the Spanish empire. The first steps of buffaloes in Paraguay, Bolivia and Uruguay. The expansion of buffaloes in Argentina and their recent start up in Chile. The production systems in the region are described, principally Argentina and Paraguay. The major changes and expansion of agriculture in Argentina are displacing cattle production from the North towards the Tropics, where buffalo has proven to be very superior in productivity compared to cattle production thanks to its very good adaptation to the local conditions. In Paraguay, a totally subtropical country, something very similar is happening. Paraguay has consolidated its sales of buffalo hides and beef. Argentina is well on its way to having a very efficient buffalo beef marketing competing with cattle of the highest quality. Buffalo milk production is still not mature in these countries, although there are several projects underway in Uruguay, Bolivia and Argentina.

  18. Environmental Chemistry Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-08-01

    Human Health Effects of the Chernobyl DisasterIncreased Incidence of Thyroid CancerThe release of radioactivity from the famous explosion at the fission nuclear power reactor at Chernobyl eight years ago has resulted in a substantial increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer in children in the immediate area but no great increase in the incidence of childhood leukemia, tumors, or genetic defects. In the region of the Belarus republic closest to Chernobyl, the childhood thyroid cancer rate has reached over 100 cases per million children, compared to less than 3 per million in most countries. More than 500 children in Belarus and Ukraine have been diagnosed with this disease. The likely cause of the cancers is radioactivity from the isotope 131-I and perhaps 133-I released during the explosion (1). Lead PollutionAnalysis of snow in the Greenland ice sheet indicates rather high levels of lead pollution in air from 500 BC to AD 300 and AD 1000-1500. The earliest lead pollution was associated with mining in Greece and then mining by the Romans, especially in Spain. The later pollution was due mainly to lead and silver smelting in Germany (2). Detrimental Effect of Lead upon IQ in AustraliaStudies of children in Port Pirie, Australia have produced further evidence of the detrimental effect of lead upon IQ. The cumulative exposure to lead of the children from birth to age seven years was determined by analyzing for the element in their baby teeth (3). Ozone Hole PhenomenaThe AntarcticThe Antarctic ozone hole appeared earlier than usual in 1994; it was as large and as severe as the holes in 1992 and 1993. The region of severe depletion covered about 24 million square kilometers, which is approximately the size of North America (4). The Role of Nitric AcidOur knowledge of the role of nitric acid in the formation of ozone holes over polar areas has recently been improved by a joint publication from researchers in Scotland and the United States. Using data obtained by

  19. New challenges to electrical interconnection systems in Central America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electrical interconnection between Central America countries is a project of regional integration, whose purpose is to optimize the advantage of interconnecting of six electrical systems of their respective countries. This require the establishment of legal procedures to operate the high voltage transmission grid from Guatemala to Panama. The mid and long term planning of the interconnected electrical grid, is a new challenge for the electrical companies, considering that as up to now, they have been satisfying small markets. The possibility to use nuclear energy to satisfy a bigger market is now feasible and deserves to be considered since the beginning of the interconnection project. (author)

  20. Reading Comprehension in Latin America: Difficulties and Possible Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lions, Séverin; Peña, Marcela

    2016-06-01

    Reading comprehension (RC) is below the international standard in many countries of Latin America (LA). Here we review factors that might be associated with failure in RC of the first language in LA. Then we present interventions reporting beneficial impact on RC in typically developing students from English-speaking countries and discuss their possible applicability in LA. We conclude that research-based pedagogical interventions are currently available to promote RC at school and may be suitable to implement in LA in order to improve RC. PMID:27254828

  1. The Admission and Academic Placement of Students from Selected Arab Countries. A Workshop Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molek, Frank J., Ed.

    A group of 25 members of the higher education community of North America visited the Middle East for the purpose of improving admissions criteria and academic placement of Arab students. Group findings and the consensus of recommendations are reported. Countries studied were: Egypt, Kuwait, Jordan, and Saudi Arabia. Examined were each country's…

  2. Leadership and management principles in libraries in developing countries

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Learn leadership skills from achievements at special libraries in Asia, Africa, Eastern Europe, and Central America! Leadership and Management Principles in Libraries in Developing Countries is a compilation of success stories epitomizing management and leadership strategies from developing nations around the globe. This book focuses on library administrators from Asia, Africa, Eastern Europe, and Central America who have significantly transformed their library services in spite of limited funds and a lack of resources. You'll learn about their achievements, their techniques, and t

  3. Pesticide use in Latin America: Trends and environmental implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current demand for pesticides in Latin America exceeds US $2000 million in value. Up to 1990, the consumption is expected to rise annually by 7 to 12%. Use of pesticides has been fully accepted in Latin America as a readily available means of pest control. Nevertheless, even today pests are responsible for the loss of 25 to 40% of potential harvests. In banana cultivation, the cost of pesticides accounts for 30 to 35% of production costs. Latin America is in the process of changing over from persistent organochlorines to pesticides which are more sophisticated, more expensive and less persistent. The countries in the region are looking for ecologically acceptable permanent methods of pest control. Integrated pest management will reduce the risks of pesticide use by changing the systems of application. All Latin American countries have legislation on pesticide handling and use. These laws have been or are being harmonized with the International Code of Conduct on the Distribution and Use of Pesticides published by FAO. The Latin American pesticide industry is dependent on the supply of intermediate compounds and raw materials from developed countries. In addition, it has to deal with high production costs and a lack of research and development. It is far from utilizing the full installed capacity, and only an increase in commercial exchange in the region would make its position less unfavourable. (author). 28 refs, 3 figs, 8 tabs

  4. Update on markets for forestry offsets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This guide is an update of the book 'Guidebook to Markets and Commercialization of CDM forestry projects'. The document provides information on the development of CMD methodologies, projects registered and markets since the publication of the first version. In addition it introduces the emerging non-Kyoto markets, it presents a classification of the existing developments, it describes each market including the buyer's preferences and it discusses the use of standards and quality criteria and transaction costs. We focus on markets for offsets from developing countries, rather than domestic offsets in developed countries. Section 1 is an introduction to the topic and an overview of the most recent developments. Sections 2 and 3 look at recent experiences and market developments for CDM reforestation projects. These sections are meant to be an update of the above mentioned guidebook and thus refrain from an exhaustive description. Section 4 assesses non-Kyoto markets for carbon offsets from forestry projects. It includes a description of the various market schemes and types of buyers. The section attempts to provide the project developer with useful information for developing a project following buyer' requirements. Finally, section 5 puts the assessment of opportunities for forestry in the broader context of the larger carbon markets. The report then concludes with a comparison of advantages and disadvantages of the CDM and non-Kyoto schemes from the project developer's point of view

  5. CHINESE FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENTS IN LATIN AMERICA AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON CHINESE-BRAZILIAN ECONOMIC RELATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Marta Czarnecka-Gallas

    2012-01-01

    For many decades Chinese foreign direct investments in Latin America were not a subject of academic research or political debate. However, thanks to China’s fast economic growth, huge saving rate and national reserves, the country plays a more and more important role not only in global trade, being the world’s biggest exporter, but also in international investment scene by increasing the number and volume of its overseas businesses. Chinese FDIs in Latin America, although not as controversial...

  6. Complementarities and Continuities in the Political Economy of Labor Markets in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Ben Ross; Karcher, Sebastian

    2010-01-01

    In a comparative institutional or ‘variety of capitalism’ perspective, the distinctive traits of labour markets in Latin America differ in most respects from labour markets in developed countries. Moreover, there are strong economic complementarities among five core features of labour markets in Latin America: low skill levels, high labour regulation, short job tenure, a large informal sector, and small, politicized unions that lack plant level representation. While numerous and strong, econo...

  7. Archaeology in Latin America, by Gustavo G. Politis and Benjamin Alberti, editors, 1999, Routledge, London

    OpenAIRE

    David L. Browman

    2001-01-01

    The two editors argue in their preface to the volume that the particular sociopolitical context of Latin America has led to a regionalism not seen in North America or Europe, resulting in a unique variety of archaeology. They particularly conceive "Latin American archaeology" in this case to he only that archaeology done by individuals who are citizens of the countries of the region, and they ex­clude from consideratio...

  8. Nuclear options in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An account is given of the Treaty of Tlatelolco, 1967, providing for the designation of Latin America as a Nuclear Weapon-Free Zone (NWFZ); additional protocols attached to the Treaty are available for signature by States outside the region. The Treaty is administered by the Organisation for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America (OPANAL). Reference is made to its latest meeting, held in May 1983. The present paper also discusses the following: Non-Proliferation Treaty (with references to safeguards agreements concluded between each State and the IAEA); nuclear suppliers' group; peaceful nuclear explosions; nuclear energy programmes in Latin America. (U.K.)

  9. Helioclimatology of the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurtaev, B. S.; Yakubov, M.; Shermatov, E.

    2013-05-01

    During the last 4 billion years, the Earth's climate has changed many times. There have been periods of warming and there have been ice ages. These large-scale climatic changes are shaped by factors like the tilt of the Earth's axis and tectonic plate movement. These major changes were driven by cyclical changes in the Earth's orbit, which altered the distribution of solar energy between the seasons and across the Earth. Milankovitch cycles explain well changes in climate over periods hundreds of thousands of years and are related to ice age cycles, but these cycles cannot explain the current rapid warming. The Sun is the most driving force for causing climate change. Much of the Sun energy evaporates water and causes atmospheric convection. Solar radiation, general circulation of atmosphere, geographical location of continents, oceans and the largest forms of a relief are the primary factors influencing on climate of lands. The purpose of this study is to identify contribution of the Sun on climate variability in the two continents, North and South America during instrumental records of air temperature. There were compared air temperatures of different weather stations in dependence from solar activity during the period 1878-1996. The high correlation between averaged temperature and solar activity was found for many weather stations of Americas. Air temperature in dependence from solar activity over the period 1878-1996 can be described by following equations: In Buenos Aires: T° = 0,04W+ 15,05, r-0,9; Caracas, Venezuela: T° = 0,03W + 18,88, r-0,73; Cordoba, Argentina: T° = 0,03W + 16,16, r-0,93; New York, Central Park: T° = 0,04W + 9,86, r-0,82; Toronto, T = 0,03W+ 6,66, r-0,81; Santiago Pudahuel, T= 0,019W + 13, 01, r - 0, 91; Rio de Janeiro:T°= 0,02W + 21,95, r= 0,88; Mexico over 1923-1986, T°= 0,021W+ 14,05, r-0,78; Miami over 1902-1996, T = 0,012W + 12,87 r-0,75; In our study, we used stations with reasonably long, consistently measured time records

  10. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Luxembourg 2010 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Luxembourg for responding to an oil supply crisis. In 2007, the IEA published ''Oil Supply Security: Emergency Response of IEA Countries''. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew this full publication, the IEA will provide updates to the country chapters as these become available following the specific country's review. The aim of series of publications is to provide an overview of the IEA oil emergency response system and a detailed look at the specific systems in each IEA country for responding to an oil supply crisis. The 2007 publication represented the findings of a five year review cycle of the emergency response mechanisms in IEA member countries. Since the 2007 publication, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies.

  11. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Belgium 2010 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    In 2007, the IEA published ''Oil Supply Security: Emergency Response of IEA Countries''. This publication provides an overview of the IEA oil emergency response system and a detailed look at the specific systems in each IEA country for responding to an oil supply crisis. This publication represented the findings of a five year review cycle of the emergency response mechanisms in IEA member countries. Since the 2007 publication, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew this publication, the IEA will make available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  12. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Czech Republic 2010 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in the Czech Republic for responding to an oil supply crisis. In 2007, the IEA published ''Oil Supply Security: Emergency Response of IEA Countries''. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew this full publication, the IEA will provide updates to the country chapters as these become available following the specific country's review. The aim of series of publications is to provide an overview of the IEA oil emergency response system and a detailed look at the specific systems in each IEA country for responding to an oil supply crisis. The 2007 publication represented the findings of a five year review cycle of the emergency response mechanisms in IEA member countries. Since the 2007 publication, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies.

  13. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Denmark 2011 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    In 2007, the IEA published ''Oil Supply Security: Emergency Response of IEA Countries''. This publication provides an overview of the IEA oil emergency response system and a detailed look at the specific systems in each IEA country for responding to an oil supply crisis. This publication represented the findings of a five year review cycle of the emergency response mechanisms in IEA member countries. Since the 2007 publication, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew this publication, the IEA will make available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  14. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Finland 2012 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    In 2007, the IEA published ''Oil Supply Security: Emergency Response of IEA Countries''. This publication provides an overview of the IEA oil emergency response system and a detailed look at the specific systems in each IEA country for responding to an oil supply crisis. This publication represented the findings of a five year review cycle of the emergency response mechanisms in IEA member countries. Since the 2007 publication, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew this publication, the IEA will make available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  15. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: New Zealand 2010 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in New Zealand for responding to an oil supply crisis. In 2007, the IEA published ''Oil Supply Security: Emergency Response of IEA Countries''. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew this full publication, the IEA will provide updates to the country chapters as these become available following the specific country's review. The aim of series of publications is to provide an overview of the IEA oil emergency response system and a detailed look at the specific systems in each IEA country for responding to an oil supply crisis. The 2007 publication represented the findings of a five year review cycle of the emergency response mechanisms in IEA member countries. Since the 2007 publication, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies.

  16. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: France 2012 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    In 2007, the IEA published ''Oil Supply Security: Emergency Response of IEA Countries''. This publication provides an overview of the IEA oil emergency response system and a detailed look at the specific systems in each IEA country for responding to an oil supply crisis. This publication represented the findings of a five year review cycle of the emergency response mechanisms in IEA member countries. Since the 2007 publication, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew this publication, the IEA will make available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  17. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: United Kingdom 2010 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in the United Kingdom for responding to an oil supply crisis. In 2007, the IEA published ''Oil Supply Security: Emergency Response of IEA Countries''. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew this full publication, the IEA will provide updates to the country chapters as these become available following the specific country's review. The aim of series of publications is to provide an overview of the IEA oil emergency response system and a detailed look at the specific systems in each IEA country for responding to an oil supply crisis. The 2007 publication represented the findings of a five year review cycle of the emergency response mechanisms in IEA member countries. Since the 2007 publication, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies.

  18. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Poland 2011 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    In 2007, the IEA published ''Oil Supply Security: Emergency Response of IEA Countries''. This publication provides an overview of the IEA oil emergency response system and a detailed look at the specific systems in each IEA country for responding to an oil supply crisis. This publication represented the findings of a five year review cycle of the emergency response mechanisms in IEA member countries. Since the 2007 publication, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew this publication, the IEA will make available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  19. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Hungary 2012 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-06

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Hungary for responding to an oil supply crisis. In 2007, the IEA published ''Oil Supply Security: Emergency Response of IEA Countries''. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew this full publication, the IEA will provide updates to the country chapters as these become available following the specific country's review. The aim of series of publications is to provide an overview of the IEA oil emergency response system and a detailed look at the specific systems in each IEA country for responding to an oil supply crisis. The 2007 publication represented the findings of a five year review cycle of the emergency response mechanisms in IEA member countries. Since the 2007 publication, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies.

  20. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Australia 2011 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    In 2007, the IEA published ''Oil Supply Security: Emergency Response of IEA Countries''. This publication provides an overview of the IEA oil emergency response system and a detailed look at the specific systems in each IEA country for responding to an oil supply crisis. This publication represented the findings of a five year review cycle of the emergency response mechanisms in IEA member countries. Since the 2007 publication, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew this publication, the IEA will make available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  1. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Portugal 2011 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    In 2007, the IEA published ''Oil Supply Security: Emergency Response of IEA Countries''. This publication provides an overview of the IEA oil emergency response system and a detailed look at the specific systems in each IEA country for responding to an oil supply crisis. This publication represented the findings of a five year review cycle of the emergency response mechanisms in IEA member countries. Since the 2007 publication, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew this publication, the IEA will make available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  2. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Spain 2011 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    In 2007, the IEA published ''Oil Supply Security: Emergency Response of IEA Countries''. This publication provides an overview of the IEA oil emergency response system and a detailed look at the specific systems in each IEA country for responding to an oil supply crisis. This publication represented the findings of a five year review cycle of the emergency response mechanisms in IEA member countries. Since the 2007 publication, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew this publication, the IEA will make available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  3. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Canada 2010 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Canada for responding to an oil supply crisis. In 2007, the IEA published ''Oil Supply Security: Emergency Response of IEA Countries''. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew this full publication, the IEA will provide updates to the country chapters as these become available following the specific country's review. The aim of series of publications is to provide an overview of the IEA oil emergency response system and a detailed look at the specific systems in each IEA country for responding to an oil supply crisis. The 2007 publication represented the findings of a five year review cycle of the emergency response mechanisms in IEA member countries. Since the 2007 publication, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies.

  4. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Greece 2010 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Greece for responding to an oil supply crisis. In 2007, the IEA published ''Oil Supply Security: Emergency Response of IEA Countries''. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew this full publication, the IEA will provide updates to the country chapters as these become available following the specific country's review. The aim of series of publications is to provide an overview of the IEA oil emergency response system and a detailed look at the specific systems in each IEA country for responding to an oil supply crisis. The 2007 publication represented the findings of a five year review cycle of the emergency response mechanisms in IEA member countries. Since the 2007 publication, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies.

  5. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Italy 2010 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Italy for responding to an oil supply crisis. In 2007, the IEA published ''Oil Supply Security: Emergency Response of IEA Countries''. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew this full publication, the IEA will provide updates to the country chapters as these become available following the specific country's review. The aim of series of publications is to provide an overview of the IEA oil emergency response system and a detailed look at the specific systems in each IEA country for responding to an oil supply crisis. The 2007 publication represented the findings of a five year review cycle of the emergency response mechanisms in IEA member countries. Since the 2007 publication, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies.

  6. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Norway 2011 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    In 2007, the IEA published ''Oil Supply Security: Emergency Response of IEA Countries''. This publication provides an overview of the IEA oil emergency response system and a detailed look at the specific systems in each IEA country for responding to an oil supply crisis. This publication represented the findings of a five year review cycle of the emergency response mechanisms in IEA member countries. Since the 2007 publication, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew this publication, the IEA will make available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  7. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Korea 2011 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in the Republic of Korea for responding to an oil supply crisis. In 2007, the IEA published ''Oil Supply Security: Emergency Response of IEA Countries''. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew this full publication, the IEA will provide updates to the country chapters as these become available following the specific country's review. The aim of series of publications is to provide an overview of the IEA oil emergency response system and a detailed look at the specific systems in each IEA country for responding to an oil supply crisis. The 2007 publication represented the findings of a five year review cycle of the emergency response mechanisms in IEA member countries. Since the 2007 publication, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies.

  8. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Slovak Republic 2011 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    In 2007, the IEA published ''Oil Supply Security: Emergency Response of IEA Countries''. This publication provides an overview of the IEA oil emergency response system and a detailed look at the specific systems in each IEA country for responding to an oil supply crisis. This publication represented the findings of a five year review cycle of the emergency response mechanisms in IEA member countries. Since the 2007 publication, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew this publication, the IEA will make available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  9. Petroleum industry in Latin America: volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This first volume of a three-volume series, provided an overview of major economic trends, and energy reserves (i.e. crude oil, natural gas and electricity) in Latin America. Established crude oil reserves were estimated at 125 billion barrels, with Mexico and Venezuela accounting for over 90 percent of the total. Established natural gas reserves were estimated at 249 Tcf, roughly one half of it being in Venezuela. It was noted that since natural gas exploration was still in its infancy in the region, this figure was very likely an underestimate of available resources. The current physical and market characteristics of the petroleum sector in each of the seven Latin American countries were examined in detail, as were the legal, regulatory, fiscal and political environments. Latin American efforts at integration were examined, with emphasis on regional trade agreements and energy integration. The central conclusion of the study was that Latin America appeared poised for a period of sustained economic development, with the energy sector occupying center stage. tabs., figs., refs

  10. Landfills in Latin America: Colombian case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The management and disposal of domestic solid waste are critical issues in urban areas of Latin America. In Colombia, in general, the final destination of this waste is its deposition in landfills. This review aims to provide basic information on general conditions of these sites in major cities of the country. Although existing landfills have diversity of operational problems, those most frequently include an inadequate treatment of the leachates, the emission of unpleasant odors and poor management of solid waste coverage. Although it is necessary to improve the operation and maintenance of landfills, it is also urgent to increase the commitment of Health and Environmental Agencies on programs that reduce waste production and promote the sustainable use of those wastes with economic value.

  11. Pakistan : Country Development Landscape

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2014-01-01

    This Country Development Landscape (CDL) is an analytical input for the preparation of the World Bank Group (WBG) Country Partnership Strategy (CPS). It assesses the countryapos;s most recent performance, and benchmarks it to regional peers and global comparators; identifies the most critical development constraints and challenges; summarizes the Governmentapos;s vision for the future and ...

  12. Country Profiles, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzuki, Ariffin Bin; Peng, J. Y.

    A profile of Malaysia is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: location and description of the country; population (size, growth patterns, age structure, urban/rural distribution, ethnic and religious composition, migration,…

  13. Country Profiles, Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, Thomas E., Jr.

    A profile of Sierra Leone is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: location and description of the country; population (size, growth patterns, age structure, urban/rural distribution, ethnic and religious composition, migration,…

  14. Myth of the Interregional Trade Relationship between East Asia and South America

    OpenAIRE

    Hamanaka, Shintaro; Tafgar, Aiken

    2012-01-01

    There seems to be a general consensus that trade between East Asia and South America has been increasingly important. However, we know little about the actual dynamic development of this interregional trade. This paper examines whether the trend of East Asia-South America trade is a general phenomenon or a country-specific/product-specific issue and whether the increase in trade values has a solid basis in terms of product diversification and/or price/quantity effects. While South America has...

  15. Directory of cyclotrons used for radionuclide production in Member States [2006 update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present directory of cyclotron facilities used for the production of radionuclides in Member States is an update of the one compiled by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in late 2001 and published in 2002. This directory was prepared through information collected by questionnaires that the IAEA sent to known institutions operating cyclotrons for radionuclide production. Technical as well as administrative data supplied to the IAEA as of November 2005 were taken into account. The directory is considered to include most of the cyclotrons of the world that are used at least partially for radionuclide production. There are 262 entries for cyclotrons operating in 39 Member States of the IAEA. This is an increase of 7% over the 246 reported in the 2002 cyclotron directory. This can be compared to the 350 or so cyclotrons believed to be presently operating in the world, which are involved in some aspects of radionuclide production. The increase has been in the number of cyclotrons in developed countries, but even more so in the developing countries. The increase in number during the last four years was driven by several factors, i.e. advent of advances in medical imaging, introduction of compact, user friendly medical cyclotron, and a recent decision that costs for 15O-oxygen position emission tomography (PET) studies in Japan and 18F-FDG PET studies in Germany and the United States of America are eligible for reimbursement by government or health insurance companies. There is no doubt that the fastest growing segment of the market is in the commercial distribution of FDG to local hospitals. The IAEA is promoting cyclotron technology as applied to nuclear medicine. Requests for cyclotron technology is steadily increasing; many developing Member States are interested in this technology. There is need to stimulate, build and maintain consulting capability in interested developing Member States. There are good reasons to believe that the number of cyclotron

  16. Heart Failure Society of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Site Terms and Conditions Copyright © 2016 Heart Failure Society of America. All Rights Reserved 2016 Board Review ... Membership Membership Information Membership in the Heart Failure Society is open to all health care professionals with ...

  17. [Italian emigration to the Americas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerase, F P

    1987-01-01

    The author reviews the literature on structural conditions and other factors involved in Italian migration to the Americas. The actual migratory experience and the effects of migration on the areas of origin are also discussed. PMID:12268612

  18. ScaleUp America Communities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Small Business Administration — SBA’s new ScaleUp America Initiative is designed to help small firms with high potential “scale up” and grow their businesses so that they will provide more jobs...

  19. Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the full interactive experience. Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America Find a Doctor Find a support group Log ... Findings about IBD at Crohn’s & Colitis Foundation of America’s Advances in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases Clinical and Research ...

  20. African Ethnobotany in the Americas

    OpenAIRE

    Zent, Egleé L

    2013-01-01

    Review of African Ethnobotany in the Americas. Edited by Robert Voeks and John Rashford. 2013. Springer. Pp. 429, 105 illustrations, 69 color illustrations. $49.95 (paperback). ISBN 978‐1461408352.

  1. African Ethnobotany in the Americas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egleé L. Zent

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Review of African Ethnobotany in the Americas. Edited by Robert Voeks and John Rashford. 2013. Springer. Pp. 429, 105 illustrations, 69 color illustrations. $49.95 (paperback. ISBN 978‐1461408352.

  2. Las Migraciones en el Proceso de Integracion de las Americas: Seminario Internacional (Migration in the Integration Process in the Americas: International Seminar). Conference report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglund, S

    1993-01-01

    This conference report of the Centro de Estudios Migratorios Latinoamericanos and the Center for Migration Studies pertains to meetings held in August 1992. Summary information on migration movements in Latin America is presented by region and subject. The topic of integration in the Americas was presented by Mr. Lelio Marmora. Other topics and presenters include the new Colombian Migration Policy (Mr. Carlos Adolfo Arenas), the integration policies in Central America (Mr. Pilar Norza of Costa Rica, Raimundo Alvarado of El Salvador, and Luis Armando Gusman of Nicaragua), the Andean Pact agreements (representatives of each country), US immigration policy (Charles B. Keely), the Mexican integration with Latin America and immigration to the US (Jorge Bustamante), migration to Bolivia and Argentina and Chile, and transnationalism in the Caribbean (Professor Andre Corten). Migration policy needs to be tailored specifically to the situation in Latin America, and greater attention needs to be devoted to labor migrants' rights and working conditions. There are still fundamental differences among countries in policies regarding the free circulation of persons across borders. There is a division among those who support migration and those who are realists. National sovereignty issues are solvable because of a common national past and a relatively homogenous population. Another opinion is that Latin America is more diverse than commonly recognized. Capital is protected more in international agreements than is migrant labor. Regional integration for the US does mean immigration from Mexico. The US sees Mexican migration as a policy problem, and Mexico sees migration as a labor opportunity. PMID:12346329

  3. International Association for Promoting Geoethics (IAPG): an update on activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Capua, Giuseppe; Bobrowsky, Peter; Kieffer, Susan; Peppoloni, Silvia; Tinti, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    The International Association for Promoting Geoethics (IAPG: http://www.geoethics.org) was founded on August 2012 to unite global geoscientists to raise the awareness of the scientific community regarding the importance of the ethical, social and cultural implications of geoscience research, education, and practice. IAPG is an international, multidisciplinary and scientific platform for discussion on ethical problems and dilemmas in Earth Sciences, promoting geoethical themes through scientific publications and conferences, strengthening the research base on geoethics, and focusing on case-studies as models for the development of effective and operative strategies. IAPG is legally recognized as a not-for-profit organization. It is a non-governmental, non-political, non-party institution, at all times free from racial, gender, religious or national prejudices. Its network continues to grow with more than 900 members in 103 countries, including 20 national sections. IAPG operates exclusively through donations and personal funds of its members. The results achieved since inception have been recognized by numerous international organizations. In particular, IAPG has obtained the status of affiliated organization by the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS), American Geosciences Institute (AGI), Geological Society of America (GSA), and the Geological Society of London (GSL). IAPG has enlarged its official relationships also through agreements on collaboration with other organizations, such as the American Geophysical Union (AGU), EuroGeoSurveys (EGS), European Federation of Geologists (EFG), Association of Environmental & Engineering Geologists (AEG), International Geoscience Education Organisation (IGEO), African Association of Women in Geosciences (AAWG), and others. IAPG considers publications as an indispensable activity to strengthen geoethics from a scientific point of view, so members are active in the publication of articles and editing of books on

  4. Educational Research in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Abdeljalil Akkari; Soledad Perez

    1998-01-01

    The present paper consists of four primary sections. First, we describe the historical context of educational research in Latin America. In the second section, we focus on various theoretical frameworks that are applied to educational research in the region. We identify the main institutions involved in this research in the third section. Finally, in conclusion we offer suggestions that we consider to be of greatest priority for the future of educational research in Latin America.

  5. Inflation Targeting in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Vittorio Corbo; Klaus Schmidt-Hebbel

    2002-01-01

    This paper analyzes Latin America’s recent experience with the use of inflation targeting (IT) while the region has made substantial progress toward eradicating high inflation. The paper assesses the implementation and results of inflation targeting in Latin America from a broad perspective. It starts by reviewing the issues relevant for the choice of exchange-rate regimes and monetary frameworks, documenting the evolution of exchange rate and monetary regimes in Latin America during the last...

  6. Flight to America

    OpenAIRE

    Güneli Gün

    2011-01-01

    Güneli Gün’s memoir piece truly combines the excitement of the young traveler with the humor of the mature narrator. Born in Izmir, Turkey, she breaks her engagement to a young but conservative Turkish architect and overcomes her father’s concerns to eventually study at Hollins College, Virginia. Addressing topics such as breaking out of a traditional society, being torn between the home country and the imagined new home, and finding comfort in the arts, “Flight to America” compellingly refle...

  7. Shipment security update - 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the 2002 RERTR, NAC reported on the interim measures taken by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission to enhance the security afforded to shipments of spent nuclear fuel. Since that time, there have been a number of additional actions focused on shipment security including training programs sponsored by the U.S. Department of Transportation and the Electric Power Research Council, investigation by the Government Accounting Office, and individual measures taken by shippers and transportation agents. The paper will present a status update regarding this dynamic set of events and provide an objective assessment of the cost, schedule and technical implications of the changing security landscape. (author)

  8. Fossil Energy Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fossil Energy Update (FEU) provides abstracting and indexing coverage of current scientific and technical reports, journal articles, conference papers and proceedings, books, patents, theses, and monographs from all sources on fossil energy. All information announced in FEU, plus additional backup information, is included in the energy information data base of the Department of Energy's Technical Information Center. The subject matter covered by FEU includes coal, petroleum, natural gas, oil shale, hydrogen production, hydrocarbon and alcohol fuels, electric power engineering, magnetohydrodynamic generators, fuel cells, combustion systems, and combustion chemistry

  9. Drivers of animal welfare policy in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas, S M; Gallo, C; Galindo, F

    2014-04-01

    Owing to its large size and ethnic, social, cultural and economic diversity, the Americas' production volume is set to make the region one of the world's leading providers of animal foodstuffs. Animal husbandry, transport and slaughter conditions vary from country to country in response to their differing climatic and geographic characteristics. This article examines the main drivers of animal welfare in the Americas, including the standards of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), legislation, codes of practice and advances in education, training, research and development. It recognises the important roles played by all the various stakeholders in changing perceptions of animal welfare by raising public awareness and promoting communication and cooperation as drivers of overall change in the Americas. Regional and international organisations, public and private-sector bodies, academia and non-governmental organisations have launched a number of initiatives with encouraging results. In 2009, the OIE established the Chile-Uruguay Collaborating Centre for Animal Welfare Research, which is now the OIE Collaborating Centre for Animal Welfare and Livestock Production Systems and has recently incorporated Mexico. The Collaborating Centre works closely with official OIE Delegates and the Focal Points for Animal Welfare of national Veterinary Services. The OIE Regional Animal Welfare Strategy for the Americas was adopted in 2012, under the coordination of the OIE Regional Representation for the Americas, as a guide for developing future policies based on a regional approach. The way to achieve cultural change for improving animal welfare, operator safety and the sector's profitability is through training and knowledge transfer. The results demonstrate that the joint efforts of all institutions and the active role of the Collaborating Centre have been most effective, as have the continuing education programmes implemented by universities. PMID:25000778

  10. Radiological Society of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Workshop Clinical Trials Methodology Workshop Introduction to Academic Radiology Faculty Skills Update CORE Advanced Course in Grant ... Journals RSNA/AAPM Physics Modules RadioGraphics ABR Diagnostic Radiology Core Exam Study Guide Meetings & Workshops Track My ...

  11. Effective Comparison of Global Financial Crisis (2007 on Inflation of OPEC Countries and Selected Countries of G8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazdan Naghdi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study has attempted to examine and compare the effects of 2007 financial crisis on inflation in OPEC countries and selected countries of G8, based on a panel data regression model during 2000-2010. It should be noted that the selected countries of G8 group are 5 industrial countries member of this group, including: America, Italy, Britain, France and Japan, that crisis has been seen faster in them than other countries. Growth economic variables (real sector of the economy, oil price and stock price index (i.e. financial market have been considered as affected shared variables of the financial crisis in both countries group. According to the obtained results, the only affected variable by the crisis in OPEC countries, is oil price which has positive and significant effect on inflation in the above mentioned countries so that one percent increase in oil price lead to about 0.08 percent increase on inflation, on the other hand, according to survey results there is no relationship between output and inflation in OPEC countries, so it reflects weak manufacturing structure sector (real sector of the economy in these countries

  12. Cigeomag March 2013 - A better understanding of the project of industrial centre of geological storage: Interview with Gerald Ouzounian, ANDRA international manager; Cooperation, the IGD-TP European platform by Philippe Lalieux, its chairman; Country focus, Europe, North America, Asia: current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A first article of this publication comments how other countries address the issue of radioactive wastes: contrasted situations for low and medium-activity wastes, leader position of Europe in the case of high-activity wastes, options of used fuel management adapted to the conditions met by each country, underground laboratories to experiment various storage concepts. In an interview, the ANDRA international manager evokes the main international actors, their roles, the place of ANDRA within the different international bodies and its relationship with other countries outside these bodies. The role of the ANDRA, its position within the Cigeo project, the difference between the NEA and the IAEA, the stakes of geological storage, the European legal framework are briefly evoked by experts. An article comments the international cooperation and agreements of the ANDRA in the field of research and knowledge development. The IGD-TP (Implementing Geological Disposal for radioactive waste - Technological Platform) which gathers researches on deep storage in Europe is presented by its chairman. A brief overview of deep storage activities in different countries (Sweden, Finland, Belgium, USA, and Canada) is proposed

  13. HOW DOES FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT AFFECT GROWTH IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES? AN EMPIRICAL INVESTIGATION

    OpenAIRE

    E. M. Ekanayake; John R. Ledgerwood

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effects of foreign direct investment on the economic growth of developing countries. The study uses annual data on a group of 85 developing countries covering Asia, Africa, and Latin America and the Caribbean for the period 1980-2007. We explore the hypothesis that foreign direct investment can promote growth in developing countries. We test this hypothesis using panel data series for foreign direct investment, while accounting for regional differences in Asian, Africa...

  14. Trade and Political Relations Between the Czech Republic and Latin American Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Rýcová, Zuzana

    2012-01-01

    Main objective of the thesis is to evaluate trade and political relations between the Czech Republic and selected countries in Latin America (selected countries will be those with strongest ties to the Czech Republic). Hypothesis: Trade and political relations between Czech Republic and Latin American Countries are well developing in the course of the time. Latin-American region provides a great potential for future cooperation. Emphasis will be targeted on the assessment of business conditio...

  15. Nuclear technology review 2005 update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The year 2004 marked the 50th anniversary of civilian nuclear power generation. While the current outlook for nuclear energy remains mixed, there is clearly a sense of rising expectations. Both the OECD International Energy Agency and the IAEA adjusted their medium-term projections for nuclear power upwards. The IAEA now projects 423 - 592 GW(e) of nuclear power installed worldwide in 2030, compared to 366 GW(e) at the end of 2004. This is driven by nuclear power's performance record, by growing energy needs around the world coupled with rising oil and natural gas prices, by new environmental constraints including entry-into-force of the Kyoto Protocol, by concerns about energy supply security in a number of countries, and by ambitious expansion plans in several key countries. National research on advanced reactor designs continues on all reactor categories - water cooled, gas cooled, liquid metal cooled, and hybrid systems. Five members of the US-initiated Generation IV International Forum (GIF) signed a framework agreement on international collaboration in research and development on Generation IV nuclear energy systems in February 2005. The IAEA's International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO) grew to 23 members. It completed a series of case studies testing its assessment methodology and the final report on the updated INPRO methodology was published in December. The realization of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, ITER, came closer with the announcement on 28 June 2005 by the ITER parties. The aim of ITER is to demonstrate the scientific and technological feasibility of fusion energy by constructing a functional fusion power plant. Nuclear technology developments are rapid and cover many fields of application. Not all can be covered in this update review, but certain key areas and trends are covered where these are seen to be of significant interest to IAEA Member States, and which are of relevance to and have

  16. Corruption and concession renegotiations. Evidence from the water and transport sectors in Latin America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guasch, J. Luis [World Bank (United States); University of California, San Diego (United States); Straub, Stephane [Toulouse School of Economics, ARQADE (France); University of Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    2009-06-15

    Numerous renegotiations have plagued water and transport concession contracts in Latin America. Using a panel dataset of over 300 concession contracts from Latin America between 1989 and 2000, we show that country-level corruption is a significant determinant of these renegotiations and that the effect of corruption varies depending on the type of renegotiations considered. While a more corrupt environment clearly leads to more firm-led renegotiations, it significantly reduces the incidence of government-led ones. The paper then discusses and tests the likely channels through which these different effects of corruption arise, looking in particular at the interactions between country-level corruption and relevant microeconomic institutions. (author)

  17. Gaps of maritime health research in Latin America – a literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Olaf Chresten

    Background So far the maritime health and safety research for seafarers and fishermen mainly comes from the industrial developed countries with sparse contributions from the developing countries. The aim was to give an overview of the peer reviewed research in Latin America to point out the needs...... for research in this part of the world. Materials and Methods PubMed, Google Scholar, SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online, Pan American Journal of Public Health, Medicina Maritima and other relevant journals in Latin America in the Spanish and English languages were searched. Results 57 peer...

  18. Public opinion: Country comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Debbie

    2015-11-01

    Climate change awareness, risk perception and policy support vary between and within countries. National-scale comparisons can help to explain this variability and be used to develop targeted interventions.

  19. Denmark country note 2016

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloksgaard, Lotte; Rostgaard, Tine

    2016-01-01

    and care policy; recent policy developments; information on take-up of leave; recent publications and current research projects. The review also includes definitions of the main types of leave policies; and cross-country comparisons. These comparative overviews cover: each main type of leave; total...... leave available; the relationship between leave and ECEC entitlements; policy changes and developments since the previous review; publications since the previous review; and ongoing research in participating countries. The 2016 review includes one new country: Korea. Altogether, it covers 39 countries......The LP&R network produces an annual review of leave policies and related research, starting in 2004. The review covers Maternity, Paternity and Parental leaves; leave to care for sick children and other employment-related measures to support working parents; and early childhood education and care...

  20. Skewness preference across countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Zaremba

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Prospect theory implies that assets with positively skewed returns should be traded at premium to assets with negative skewness. We hypothesize that in the integrated financial markets this concept should also hold for the entire country equity portfolios. This article examines the linkages between the country-level expected returns and past skewness. We evidence a robust negative relationship between skewness and future returns. The phenomenon is most significant within large, liquid, developed, and open stock markets. Additional sorts on skewness can improve performance of both cross-country value and momentum strategies. The study is based on the sorting and cross-sectional tests conducted within a sample of 78 country equity markets for years 1999-2014.

  1. Wind Powering America's Wind for Schools Project: Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, I.; Newcomb, C.

    2012-06-01

    This report provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy, Wind Powering America, Wind for Schools project. It outlines teacher-training activities and curriculum development; discusses the affiliate program that allows school districts and states to replicate the program; and contains reports that provide an update on activities and progress in the 11 states in which the Wind for Schools project operates.

  2. A comparison of substance dependence treatment information system in America, England, and Iran

    OpenAIRE

    AJAMI, Sima; Mellat-Karkevandi, Zahra; Saghaeiannejad-Isfahani, Sakineh; Salehi, Mehrdad; Jahanbakhsh, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    Context: Addiction, as a social problem, is a phenomenon that causes structural changes in cultural, social, political, and economic system in society. Prevention of this problem means decrease of risk factors and increase of protective factors; and recognition of these factors is possible with the help of update, accurate, and complete information in information systems. Aims: The aim of this study was to compare substance dependence treatment information system (SDTIS) in America, England, ...

  3. Central Wind Forecasting Programs in North America by Regional Transmission Organizations and Electric Utilities: Revised Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, J.; Porter, K.

    2011-03-01

    The report and accompanying table addresses the implementation of central wind power forecasting by electric utilities and regional transmission organizations in North America. The first part of the table focuses on electric utilities and regional transmission organizations that have central wind power forecasting in place; the second part focuses on electric utilities and regional transmission organizations that plan to adopt central wind power forecasting in 2010. This is an update of the December 2009 report, NREL/SR-550-46763.

  4. Working Memory Updating Latency Reflects the Cost of Switching between Maintenance and Updating Modes of Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Yoav; Oberauer, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Updating and maintenance of information are 2 conflicting demands on working memory (WM). We examined the time required to update WM (updating latency) as a function of the sequence of updated and not-updated items within a list. Participants held a list of items in WM and updated a variable subset of them in each trial. Four experiments that vary…

  5. Assistance to nuclear safety regulatory bodies in the central and eastern European countries and the former Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The regulatory bodies of the former Eastern Bloc countries are striving towards the adoption of internationally recognized regulatory practices. This paper provides some background and an update on the assistance being provided to them by the western regulatory community. (author)

  6. Diagnostics for Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Ruth McNerney

    2015-01-01

    Improving the availability of high quality diagnostic tests for infectious diseases is a global priority. Lack of access by people living in low income countries may deprive them of life saving treatment and reduces opportunities to prevent onward transmission and spread of the disease. Diagnostic laboratories are often poorly resourced in developing countries, and sparsely distributed. Improved access may be achieved by using tests that do not require laboratory support, including rapid test...

  7. DEVELOPING COUNTRIES. TRANSITION ECONOMIES

    OpenAIRE

    Dumitru FILIPEANU

    2016-01-01

    According to the modern theories of economic development – the take-off, backwardness, convergence and balanced growth hypothesis - the new industrialized states from Asia seem to have noticed the advantages of backwardness from which low income countries benefited, namely the possibility to take advantage of the latest technological discoveries of advanced countries, thus achieving a faster growth than the latter which operated closer to the technological border. The assimilation of appropri...

  8. Mauritius country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manraj, D.D. [Central Statistical Office (Mauritius)

    1998-10-01

    Mauritius has no known oil, gas or coal reserves but is only endowed with limited renewable energy resources namely hydropower and bagasse. Bagasse represents about one third of the country`s energy requirements and meets almost all of the sugar industries energy demand. Projects identified for mitigation options are: Energy Sector - Renewable Sources (Solar, Wind, Biomass); Transport Sector - Fuel switching and Mass transit transport; Manufacturing Sector - Increase efficiency of energy use in the manufacturing process. (EG)

  9. Uzbekistan Country Gender Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank (ADB)

    2014-01-01

    In 2011, Uzbekistan celebrated 20 years of independence. The transition has not been smooth for any country in the Commonwealth of Independent States, and Uzbekistan, too, has experienced both positive and negative developments in gender equality. The status of women and men in Uzbekistan is very much shaped by the fact that the country has undergone significant and rapid change in recent years. Uzbekistan is still being transformed from a state-controlled, largely agricultural economy to a m...

  10. The developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ambiguous definitions and groupings e.g. which countries are taken to be ''developing countries'' are first considered. Although the different definitions may suit a particular purpose it makes comparing statistical data almost impossible. Grouping by commercial energy typology is shown. Statistics on estimated world population growth by country and total world energy consumption (with percentage of electricity supplied by nuclear energy) are listed. Although diverse, the developing countries have broad common energy characteristics and consumption patterns which are discussed. Past, present and future prospects of nuclear power development are reviewed. A nuclear power capacity projection for 2000 is presented. The interest in small and medium sized power reactors (SMPR) from developing countries is considered. Available SMPRs are listed. The launching conditions of a nuclear power programme in developing countries is examined, with emphasis on the importance of having a nuclear energy programme integrated into an energy master plan. The introduction of nuclear power into Argentina and Brazil is reported. It is concluded that nuclear energy will gradually increase its share in the provision of energy. (U.K.)

  11. Adjustment or updating of models

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D J Ewins

    2000-06-01

    In this paper, first a review of the terminology used in the model adjustment or updating is presented. This is followed by an outline of the major updating algorithms cuurently available, together with a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of each, and the current state-of-the-art of this important application and part of optimum design technology.

  12. Updates Technologies of Media Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Whether as status notifications in news feeds or interactive prompts in online video services, updates punctuate the background routines of media by bringing a variety of changes to the attention of users. In this dissertation I argue that updates rationalize media change by making previously obscure actions of users and movements of technologies…

  13. Diabetic retinopathy: An update

    OpenAIRE

    Singh Ramandeep; Ramasamy Kim; Abraham Chandran; Gupta Vishali; Gupta Amod

    2008-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a major cause of avoidable blindness in both the developing and the developed countries. Significant technological advances have taken place to improve the diagnostic accuracy of diabetic retinopathy. In the last three decades, the treatment strategies have been revised to include, besides laser photocoagulation, early surgical interventions and pharmacotherapies.

  14. A review of the non-metallic Osmia (Melanosmia) found in North America, with additional notes on palearctic Melanosmia (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Molly Rightmyer; Terry Griswold; Michael Arduser

    2010-01-01

    Abstract We review the six species of non-metallic Osmia (Melanosmia) found in North America, including the description of two new species found in Canada and the northern United States: Osmia (Melanosmia) aquilonaria sp. n., and Osmia (Melanosmia) nearctica sp. n., respectively belonging to the inermis and xanthomelana species groups. We additionally provide keys to the non-metallic Melanosmia found in North America, and update keys to the palearctic Melanosmia based on study of the type spe...

  15. The Effect of Trade Openness on Deforestation: Empirical Analysis for 142 Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Tetsuya, Tsurumi; Shunsuke, Managi

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the effect of trade openness on deforestation. Previous studies do not find a clear effect of trade openness on deforestation. We use updated data on the annual rate of deforestation for 142 countries from 1990 to 2003, treat trade and income as endogenous, and take into consideration an adjustment process by applying a dynamic model. We find that an increase in trade openness increases deforestation for non-OECD countries while slowing down deforestation for OECD countrie...

  16. Economic and welfare impacts of climate change on developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact of global climate change on developing countries is analyzed using CGE-multimarket models for three archetype economies representing the poor cereal importing nations of Africa, Asia, and Latin America. The objective is to compare the effects of climate change on the macroeconomic performance, sectoral resource allocation, and household welfare across continents. Simulations help identify those underlying structural features of economies which are the primary determinants of differential impacts; these are suggestive of policy instruments to countervail undesirable effects. Results show that all these countries will potentially suffer income and production losses. However, Africa, with its low substitution possibilities between imported and domestic foods, fares worst in terms of income losses and the drop in consumption of low income households. Countervailing policies to mitigate negative effects should focus on integration in the international market and the production of food crops in Africa, and on the production of export crops in Latin America and Asia. 46 refs

  17. Update of RIPL Discrete Levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first update of the Reference Input Parameter Library Phase II (RIPL-2) Discrete Level Scheme Library (DLSL) was performed in October 2005 by T. Belgya under a Contract Agreement with the IAEA. The second update followed in 2007 with the setup of easy-to-use programs which can use the original ENSDF files to create the DLSL in the format that was defined in RIPL-2. There is a description which serves as a guide to any user who wants to run the program(s). The results of the update were also reported. The current work represents a new update of the database, addressing and amending the problems which have occurred and were reported during the last 5 years. The updated version of RIPL- 2, RIPL-3 was published in December 2009. The purpose of this report is to document the changes in the new DLSL.

  18. Middle East and North Africa Economic Update, April 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Ianchovichina, Elena; Mottaghi, Lili; Carey, Kevin; Spivak, Nadia; Farazi, Subika; Silwal, Ani

    2010-01-01

    This edition of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) regional economic update concerns the region recovering from the financial crisis along with the global economy. Growth in 2010 is expected to be 4.4 percent region-wide, driven by domestic absorption as well as a positive contribution from external demand. The recovery from the crisis differs by country depending on initial condition...

  19. Transfusion and risk of infection in Canada: Update 2006

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    In Canada and other developed countries, many steps are taken to minimize the risk of infection from transfusion of blood or blood products (1). However, the infection risk can never be zero because these are biological products taken from living donors who are never 'germ free' (2). This is in contrast to drugs that can be manufactured de novo under sterile conditions in a laboratory. The present note provides an update on transfusion infection risks in Canada. It replaces the 2005 note (3) ...

  20. Transfusion and risk of infection in Canada: Update 2012

    OpenAIRE

    MacDonald, Noni E; O’Brien, Sheila F.; Delage, Gilles

    2012-01-01

    Although multiple critical steps are taken to minimize the risk of infection from transfusion of blood or blood products in developed countries, this risk can never be entirely eliminated. In Canada, the risks of noninfectious transfusion reactions, such as transfusion-related acute lung injury and major allergic or anaphylactic reactions, are greater than that of infection. This updated practice point provides an overview of transfusion infection risks in Canada. Infectious agents, systemic ...

  1. Anaglyph, North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    This anaglyph (stereoscopic view) of North America was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). It is best viewed at or near full resolution with anaglyph glasses. For this broad view the resolution of the data was first reduced to 30 arcseconds (about 928 meters north-south and 736 meters east-west in central North America), matching the best previously existing global digital topographic data set called GTOPO30. The data were then resampled to a Mercator projection with approximately square pixels (about one kilometer, or 0.6 miles, on each side). Even at this decreased resolution the variety of landforms comprising the North American continent is readily apparent.Active tectonics (structural deformation of the Earth's crust) along and near the Pacific North American plate boundary creates the great topographic relief seen along the Pacific coast. Earth's crustal plates converge in southern Mexico and in the northwest United States, melting the crust and producing volcanic cones. Along the California coast, the plates are sliding laterally past each other, producing a pattern of slices within the San Andreas fault system. And, where the plates are diverging, the crust appears torn apart as one huge tear along the Gulf of California (northwest Mexico), and as the several fractures comprising the Basin and Range province (in and around Nevada).Across the Great Plains, erosional patterns dominate, with stream channels surrounding and penetrating the remnants of older smooth slopes east of the Rocky Mountains. This same erosion process is exposing the bedrock structural patterns of the Black Hills in South Dakota and the Ozark Mountains in Arkansas. Lateral erosion and sediment deposition by the Mississippi River has produced the flatlands of the lower Mississippi Valley and the Mississippi Delta.To the north, evidence of the glaciers of the last ice age is widely found, particularly east of the Canadian Rocky Mountains and around the

  2. Country nuclear power profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preparation of Country Nuclear Power Profiles was initiated within the framework of the IAEA's programme for nuclear power plant performance assessment and feedback. It responded to a need for a database and a technical document containing a description of the energy and economic situation and the primary organizations involved in nuclear power in IAEA Member States. The task was included in the IAEA's programmes for 1993/1994 and 1995/1996. In March 1993, the IAEA organized a Technical Committee meeting to discuss the establishment of country data ''profiles'', to define the information to be included in the profiles and to review the information already available in the IAEA. Two expert meetings were convened in November 1994 to provide guidance to the IAEA on the establishment of the country nuclear profiles, on the structure and content of the profiles, and on the preparation of the publication and the electronic database. In June 1995, an Advisory Group meeting provided the IAEA with comprehensive guidance on the establishment and dissemination of an information package on industrial and organizational aspects of nuclear power to be included in the profiles. The group of experts recommended that the profiles focus on the overall economic, energy and electricity situation in the country and on its nuclear power industrial structure and organizational framework. In its first release, the compilation would cover all countries with operating power plants by the end of 1995. It was also recommended to further promote information exchange on the lessons learned from the countries engaged in nuclear programmes. For the preparation of this publication, the IAEA received contributions from the 29 countries operating nuclear power plants and Italy. A database has been implemented and the profiles are supporting programmatic needs within the IAEA; it is expected that the database will be publicly accessible in the future

  3. Update on infection control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-12-01

    Infection control is a dynamic and ever-changing subject and all dental staff should be kept aware of the most up-to-date procedures required to prevent the transmission of infection and should understand why these procedures are necessary. Regular monitoring and updating of all procedures in the light of new scientific evidence is necessary and all new staff must be trained in infection control procedures prior to working in the surgery. A practitioner who is routinely following an appropriate infection control policy, including the use of techniques and products of proven efficacy (perhaps through accreditation), is better placed to refute allegations arising in the course of civil litigation, health and safety at work prosecution, complaints and disciplinary procedures, or investigations by the GDC. PMID:16892574

  4. Neurocritical care update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Yasuhiro

    2016-01-01

    This update comprises six important topics under neurocritical care that require reevaluation. For post-cardiac arrest brain injury, the evaluation of the injury and its corresponding therapy, including temperature modulation, is required. Analgosedation for target temperature management is an essential strategy to prevent shivering and minimizes endogenous stress induced by catecholamine surges. For severe traumatic brain injury, the diverse effects of therapeutic hypothermia depend on the complicated pathophysiology of the condition. Continuous electroencephalogram monitoring is an essential tool for detecting nonconvulsive status epilepticus in the intensive care unit (ICU). Neurocritical care, including advanced hemodynamic monitoring, is a fundamental approach for delayed cerebral ischemia following subarachnoid hemorrhage. We must be mindful of the high percentage of ICU patients who may develop sepsis-associated brain dysfunction. PMID:27239312

  5. Sustainability of biofuels in Latin America: Risks and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several Latin American countries are setting up biofuel programmes to establish alternative markets for agricultural commodities. This is mainly triggered by the current success of Brazilian bioethanol production for the domestic market and for export. Furthermore, the global biofuel market is expected to increase due to ambitious biofuel programmes in the EU and in the USA. Colombia, Venezuela, Costa Rica and Guatemala are focusing on bioethanol production from sugarcane whereas biofuel production in Argentina is based on soy biodiesel. Recent developments of the biofuel sector take place extremely rapid especially in Argentina, which became one of the five largest biodiesel producers in the world in 2008. Till date no specific biofuel sustainability certification systems have been implemented in Latin American, as well as on global level. This fact and the predominant use of food crops for biofuel production raise concerns about the sustainability of biofuel production related to environmental and social aspects. This paper provides an overview of the hotspots of conflicts in biofuel production in Latin America. It investigates presently available sustainability tools and initiatives to ensure sustainable biofuel production in Latin America. Finally, it provides an outlook on how to integrate sustainability in the Latin American biofuel sector. - Research Highlights: → This study investigates risks and opportunities of biofuels in Latin America. → Latin American countries are setting up programmes to promote biofuel development. → Strong biofuel sectors provide opportunities for economic development. → Potential negative impact includes deforestation and effects on food security. → Sustainability initiatives exist to minimise negative impact.

  6. Recent Rates of Forest Harvest and Conversion in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masek, Jeffrey G.; Cohen, Warren B.; Leckie, Donald; Wulder, Michael A.; Vargas, Rodrigo; de Jong, Ben; Healey, Sean; Law, Beverly; Birdsey, Richard; Houghton, R. A.; Mildrexler, David; Goward, Samuel; Smith, W. Brad

    2011-01-01

    Incorporating ecological disturbance into biogeochemical models is critical for estimating current and future carbon stocks and fluxes. In particular, anthropogenic disturbances, such as forest conversion and wood harvest, strongly affect forest carbon dynamics within North America. This paper summarizes recent (2000.2008) rates of extraction, including both conversion and harvest, derived from national forest inventories for North America (the United States, Canada, and Mexico). During the 2000s, 6.1 million ha/yr were affected by harvest, another 1.0 million ha/yr were converted to other land uses through gross deforestation, and 0.4 million ha/yr were degraded. Thus about 1.0% of North America fs forests experienced some form of anthropogenic disturbance each year. However, due to harvest recovery, afforestation, and reforestation, the total forest area on the continent has been roughly stable during the decade. On average, about 110 m3 of roundwood volume was extracted per hectare harvested across the continent. Patterns of extraction vary among the three countries, with U.S. and Canadian activity dominated by partial and clear ]cut harvest, respectively, and activity in Mexico dominated by conversion (deforestation) for agriculture. Temporal trends in harvest and clearing may be affected by economic variables, technology, and forest policy decisions. While overall rates of extraction appear fairly stable in all three countries since the 1980s, harvest within the United States has shifted toward the southern United States and away from the Pacific Northwest.

  7. Recent rates of forest harvest and conversion in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masek, Jeffrey G.; Cohen, Warren B.; Leckie, Donald; Wulder, Michael A.; Vargas, Rodrigo; de Jong, Ben; Healey, Sean; Law, Beverly; Birdsey, Richard; Houghton, R. A.; Mildrexler, David; Goward, Samuel; Smith, W. Brad

    2011-12-01

    Incorporating ecological disturbance into biogeochemical models is critical for estimating current and future carbon stocks and fluxes. In particular, anthropogenic disturbances, such as forest conversion and wood harvest, strongly affect forest carbon dynamics within North America. This paper summarizes recent (2000-2008) rates of extraction, including both conversion and harvest, derived from national forest inventories for North America (the United States, Canada, and Mexico). During the 2000s, 6.1 million ha/yr were affected by harvest, another 1.0 million ha/yr were converted to other land uses through gross deforestation, and 0.4 million ha/yr were degraded. Thus about 1.0% of North America's forests experienced some form of anthropogenic disturbance each year. However, due to harvest recovery, afforestation, and reforestation, the total forest area on the continent has been roughly stable during the decade. On average, about 110 m3 of roundwood volume was extracted per hectare harvested across the continent. Patterns of extraction vary among the three countries, with U.S. and Canadian activity dominated by partial and clear-cut harvest, respectively, and activity in Mexico dominated by conversion (deforestation) for agriculture. Temporal trends in harvest and clearing may be affected by economic variables, technology, and forest policy decisions. While overall rates of extraction appear fairly stable in all three countries since the 1980s, harvest within the United States has shifted toward the southern United States and away from the Pacific Northwest.

  8. Remittances in Central America: Whose Money is it Anyway?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Luis Rocha

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In opposition to optimistic visions that present remittances as an opportunity for developing countries, this paper shows they are part and parcel of a process of economic imperialism, whereby their use and final destinations are strictly conditioned. In order to go beyond a conception of remittances as epiphenomenon, and in order to trace the role they play, this paper focuses on the transnational strategies of capital. It finds that remittances enable an increase in foreign investment and import production by facilitating the rise of a new class of consumers in Central America. Remittances create and feed a purchasing power that would not exist in their absence. Factories, fast food restaurants, communications companies, banks, travel agencies, and supermarkets are opening new branches throughout Central America in order to benefit from transnational savings that would otherwise be used differently. In this way, remittances are conditioned and co-opted by transnational capital’s strategies to sustain an ever growing market, with Central America more generally – and once again – potentially at risk of becoming characterized by enclave economies and chronic commercial deficits. The remittance-based economic model furthermore cannot be sustainable in the long run unless Central American countries keep exporting workers ad infinitum, something that is obviously not possible.

  9. Nuclear fuel cycle. International overview. Updating of volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is presented the updating of the vol.I of the 'Nuclear fuel cycle - International overview' series which informs about the nuclear fuel cycle in the main countries that supply and /or use nuclear energy. It intends to serve the managerial staff since it gives a global view of the fuel cycle as well as its extent in each of the countries focalized. Information about Japan, Federal Republic of Germany, United Kingdon, France and Canada are presented. At first a summary about the situation of each country is presented and then all data for each country is presented in a tree - graphyic type, using an analysis and synthesis method, developed at the Nuclear Information Center, Brazil. (E.G.)

  10. ADAS Update and Maintainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Leela R.

    2010-01-01

    Since 2000, both the National Weather Service Melbourne (NWS MLB) and the Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) have used a local data integration system (LOIS) as part of their forecast and warning operations. The original LOIS was developed by the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) in 1998 (Manobianco and Case 1998) and has undergone subsequent improvements. Each has benefited from three-dimensional (3-D) analyses that are delivered to forecasters every 15 minutes across the peninsula of Florida. The intent is to generate products that enhance short-range weather forecasts issued in support of NWS MLB and SMG operational requirements within East Central Florida. The current LDIS uses the Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Data Analysis System (AD AS) package as its core, which integrates a wide variety of national, regional, and local observational data sets. It assimilates all available real-time data within its domain and is run at a finer spatial and temporal resolution than current national or regional-scale analysis packages. As such, it provides local forecasters with a more comprehensive understanding of evolving fine-scale weather features. Over the years, the LDIS has become problematic to maintain since it depends on AMU-developed shell scripts that were written for an earlier version of the ADAS software. The goals of this task were to update the NWS MLB/SMG LDIS with the latest version of ADAS, incorporate new sources of observational data, and upgrade and modify the AMU-developed shell scripts written to govern the system. In addition, the previously developed ADAS graphical user interface (GUI) was updated. Operationally, these upgrades will result in more accurate depictions of the current local environment to help with short-range weather forecasting applications, while also offering an improved initialization for local versions of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model used by both groups.

  11. Oil sands development update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A detailed review and update of oil sands development in Alberta are provided covering every aspect of the production and economic aspects of the industry. It is pointed out that at present oil sands account for 28 per cent of Canadian crude oil production, expected to reach 50 per cent by 2005. Based on recent announcements, a total of 26 billion dollars worth of projects are in progress or planned; 20 billion dollars worth of this development is in the Athabasca area, the remainder in Cold Lake and other areas. The current update envisages up to 1,800,000 barrels per day by 2008, creating 47,000 new jobs and total government revenues through direct and indirect taxes of 118 billion dollars. Provinces other than Alberta also benefit from these development, since 60 per cent of all employment and income created by oil sands production is in other parts of Canada. Up to 60 per cent of the expansion is for goods and services and of this, 50 to 55 per cent will be purchased from Canadian sources. The remaining 40 per cent of the new investment is for engineering and construction of which 95 per cent is Canadian content. Aboriginal workforce by common consent of existing operators matches regional representation (about 13 per cent), and new developers are expected to match these standards. Planned or ongoing development in environmental protection through improved technologies and optimization, energy efficiency and improved tailings management, and active support of flexibility mechanisms such as emission credits trading, joint implementation and carbon sinks are very high on the industry's agenda. The importance of offsets are discussed extensively along with key considerations for international negotiations, as well as further research of other options such as sequestration, environmentally benign disposal of waste, and enhanced voluntary action

  12. The Historical Origins of Poverty in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharyya, Sambit

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter I explore the causal relationships between historical factors (for eg., geography, disease, colonial history, and technology) and poverty in developing countries. I start with a review of the existing theories. This is followed by a novel unified framework in order to causally relate these historical factors in explaining the process of development in Western Europe and the New World colonies. The final section applies this framework to explain why Africa, Latin America, and R...

  13. Trade Openness and Inflation in Latin American Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Rajagopal

    2007-01-01

    In the pre-reforms period the trade policy in Latin America had involved very high levels of protection and government intervention. The recent trade liberalization policies of the Latin American countries have sought to reverse the protectionist policies and open the scope for foreign direct investment and joint ventures in the public and private sector industries. This paper discusses the impact of trade openness policy on tariff structure, export competitiveness, inflation and economic gro...

  14. Diffusion of Original and Counterfeit Products in a Developing Country

    OpenAIRE

    Franses, Philip Hans; Lede, Madesta

    2010-01-01

    textabstractWe study the diffusion of original and counterfeit products in three distinct categories in a developing country. The focus is on when their diffusion processes peak, how sales of original and counterfeit products are related and how marketing efforts can influence this process. Using a unique data set for Suriname (South America) on televisions, mobile phones and DVDs, we can support various predictions from theory and give recommendations for marketing management.

  15. Epistemological and ethical assessment of obesity bias in industrialized countries

    OpenAIRE

    Azétsop Jacquineau; Joy Tisha R

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Bernard Lonergan's cognitive theory challenges us to raise questions about both the cognitive process through which obesity is perceived as a behaviour change issue and the objectivity of such a moral judgment. Lonergan's theory provides the theoretical tools to affirm that anti-fat discrimination, in the United States of America and in many industrialized countries, is the result of both a group bias that resists insights into the good of other groups and a general bias of anti-inte...

  16. Human behaviour can trigger large carnivore attacks in developed countries

    OpenAIRE

    Vincenzo Penteriani; María del Mar Delgado; Francesco Pinchera; Javier Naves; Alberto Fernández-Gil; Ilpo Kojola; Sauli Härkönen; Harri Norberg; Jens Frank; José María Fedriani; Veronica Sahlén; Ole-Gunnar Støen; Swenson, Jon E; Petter Wabakken; Mario Pellegrini

    2016-01-01

    The media and scientific literature are increasingly reporting an escalation of large carnivore attacks on humans in North America and Europe. Although rare compared to human fatalities by other wildlife, the media often overplay large carnivore attacks on humans, causing increased fear and negative attitudes towards coexisting with and conserving these species. Although large carnivore populations are generally increasing in developed countries, increased numbers are not solely responsible f...

  17. CDM Country Guides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the Integrated Capacity Strengthening for the Clean Development Mechanism (ICS-CDM) programme, IGES presents the CDM Country Guides, a series of manuals on CDM project development for Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Thailand. These guidebooks aim at facilitating CDM project developments in Asia by providing essential information to both project developers and potential investors. Chapter 1, Introduction, is a summary of issues that developers and investors in CDM projects should be aware of. Includes tips for readers to effectively use the guidebook to find specific information. Chapter 2, Country Profile, comprises a profile that provides a broad picture of the country, including social, economic, and political information, as well as an overview of the country's energy situation, which is important for project development and investment. Chapter 3, The CDM Project Cycle, gives an explanation of the general CDM project cycle, which includes identifying a project, issuance of carbon credits, requirements, and stakeholders for each process. Chapter 4, Possible CDM Projects in the Country, is an overview of the country's potential resources and sectoral or project type categories that hold potential for CDM projects. Chapter 5, Government Authorities, gives a comprehensive picture of the CDM-related institutional framework and its inter-organisational relationships. Chapter 6, CDM Project Approval Procedures and Requirements Steps, informs about obtaining project approval and its requirements (e.g., country-specific provisions on additionality, sustainable development criteria, and environmental impact assessment) in the host country. Chapter 7, Laws and Regulations, is an overview of basic investment-related laws, environmental and property law, and sector-specific regulations relevant to CDM project activities. Chapter 8, Fiscal and Financing Issues, gives practical information on the financial market in the host country (both

  18. CDM Country Guides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Under the Integrated Capacity Strengthening for the Clean Development Mechanism (ICS-CDM) programme, IGES presents the CDM Country Guides, a series of manuals on CDM project development for Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Thailand. These guidebooks aim at facilitating CDM project developments in Asia by providing essential information to both project developers and potential investors. Chapter 1, Introduction, is a summary of issues that developers and investors in CDM projects should be aware of. Includes tips for readers to effectively use the guidebook to find specific information. Chapter 2, Country Profile, comprises a profile that provides a broad picture of the country, including social, economic, and political information, as well as an overview of the country's energy situation, which is important for project development and investment. Chapter 3, The CDM Project Cycle, gives an explanation of the general CDM project cycle, which includes identifying a project, issuance of carbon credits, requirements, and stakeholders for each process. Chapter 4, Possible CDM Projects in the Country, is an overview of the country's potential resources and sectoral or project type categories that hold potential for CDM projects. Chapter 5, Government Authorities, gives a comprehensive picture of the CDM-related institutional framework and its inter-organisational relationships. Chapter 6, CDM Project Approval Procedures and Requirements Steps, informs about obtaining project approval and its requirements (e.g., country-specific provisions on additionality, sustainable development criteria, and environmental impact assessment) in the host country. Chapter 7, Laws and Regulations, is an overview of basic investment-related laws, environmental and property law, and sector-specific regulations relevant to CDM project activities. Chapter 8, Fiscal and Financing Issues, gives practical information on the financial market in the host country

  19. Surveillance, response systems, and evidence updates on emerging zoonoses: the role of one health

    OpenAIRE

    Asokan, G.V.; Kasimanickam, Ramanathan K.; Asokan, Vanitha

    2013-01-01

    Globally, emerging zoonotic diseases are increasing. Existing surveillance systems for zoonoses have substantial gaps, especially in developing countries, and the systems in place in the developed world require improvements. Resources and updates on evidence-based practice (EBP) for zoonoses are sparser in the veterinary literature as compared to the medical literature. Evidence updates for emerging zoonoses are either absent or rudimentary in both human and veterinary medicine. A ‘one-health...

  20. Quinoa trade in Andean countries: opportunities and challenges for family

    OpenAIRE

    Baudoin, Andrea; Lacroix, Pierril; Didier BAZILE; Chia, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Quinoa’s revival has roused much interest in Andean as well as in European and North American countries. This Andean product, formerly denigrated and destined only for self-consumption, has made its way into the diet of the urban populations of Andean countries and has now spread to the United States of America, Europe and other parts of the world. In the Andes, farmgate prices have gone up and the quinoa sector has become attractive to investors. A wide range of products based on this Chenop...