WorldWideScience

Sample records for america country update

  1. The United States of America country update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, John W.; Bloomquist, R. Gordon; Boyd, Tonya L.; Renner, Joel

    2005-01-01

    Geothermal energy is used for electric power generation and direct utilization in the United States. The present installed capacity (gross) for electric power generation is 2,534 MWe with about 2,000 MWe net delivering power to the grid producing approximately 17,840 GWh per year for a 80.4% gross capacity factor. Geothermal electric power plants are located in California, Nevada, Utah and Hawaii. The two largest concentrations of plants are at The Geysers in northern California and the Imperial Valley in southern California. The latest development at The Geysers, starting in 1998, is injecting recycled wastewater from two communities into the reservoir, which presently has recovered about 100 MWe of power generation. The second pipeline from the Santa Rosa area has just come on line. The direct utilization of geothermal energy includes the heating of pools and spas, greenhouses and aquaculture facilities, space heating and district heating, snow melting, agricultural drying, industrial applications and groundsource heat pumps. The installed capacity is 7,817 MWt and the annual energy use is about 31,200 TJ or 8,680 GWh. The largest application is ground-source (geothermal) heat pumps (69% of the energy use), and the next largest direct-uses are in space heating and agricultural drying. Direct utilization (without heat pumps) is increasing at about 2.6% per year; whereas electric power plant development is almost static, with only about 70 MWe added since 2000 (there were errors in the WGC2000 tabulation). A new 185-MWe plant being proposed for the Imperial Valley and about 100 MWe for Glass Mountain in northern California could be online by 2007-2008. Several new plants are proposed for Nevada totaling about 100 MWe and projects have been proposed in Idaho, New Mexico, Oregon and Utah. The total planned in the next 10 years is 632 MWe. The energy savings from electric power generation, direct-uses and ground-source heat pumps amounts to almost nine million tonnes of equivalent fuel oil per years and reduces air pollution by almost eight million tonnes of carbon annually (compared to fuel oil).

  2. Rebuild America Partner Update, January--February 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    Rebuild America Partner Update, the bimonthly newsletter about the Rebuild America community, covers partnership activities, industry trends, and program news. Rebuild America is a network of community partnerships--made up of local governments and businesses--that save money by saving energy. These voluntary partnerships, working with the US Department of Energy, choose the best ways to improve the energy efficiency of commercial, government and apartment buildings. Rebuild America supports them with business and technical tools and customized assistance. By the year 2003, 250 Rebuild America partnerships will be involved in over 2 billion square feet of building renovations, which will save $650 million every year in energy costs, generate $3 billion in private community investment, create 26,000 new private sector jobs, and reduce air pollution by 1.6 million tons of carbon dioxide a year.

  3. Renewable Energy Country Profiles. Latin America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-06-15

    The IRENA Renewable Energy Country Profiles combine elements of IRENA analysis with the latest information available from a vast array of sources in order to give a brief yet comprehensive and up-to-date picture of the situation of renewable energy that includes energy supply, electrical capacity, energy access, policies, targets, investment climate, projects and endowment in renewable energy resources. Because of the different timelines of these sources, data presented here refer to years between 2009 and 2012. Data availability also differs from country to country, which makes comparison with a wider regional group possible only for the year for which figures are available for all the members of the group; while this may not be the most recent year, the differences between countries, regions and the world remain striking. The current country profiles are just a starting point; they will be extended upon with new indicators to make them more informative, and maintained as a live product on the IRENA website as a key source of information on renewable energy.

  4. Country Queers: Queer Youth and the Politics of Rural America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greteman, Adam J.

    2012-01-01

    Exploring the lives of rural lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth and their identity work, Mary Gray's "Out in the Country: Youth, Media, and Queer Visibility in Rural America" offers one of the first ethnographic studies of queer rural life in the United States and their use of new media. Throughout, Gray provides various case…

  5. Improving precipitation simulation from updated surface characteristics in South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Gabriel; Silva, Maria Elisa Siqueira; Moraes, Elisabete Caria; Chiquetto, Júlio Barboza; da Silva Cardozo, Francielle

    2016-04-01

    Land use and land cover maps and their physical-chemical and biological properties are important variables in the numerical modeling of Earth systems. In this context, the main objective of this study is to analyze the improvements resulting from the land use and land cover map update in numerical simulations performed using the Regional Climate Model system version 4 (RegCM4), as well as the seasonal variations of physical parameters used by the Biosphere Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (BATS). In general, the update of the South America 2007 land use and land cover map, used by the BATS, improved the simulation of precipitation by 10 %, increasing the mean temporal correlation coefficient, compared to observed data, from 0.84 to 0.92 (significant at p agriculture and the replacement of agricultural areas for pasture, scrubland, and deciduous forest.

  6. Improving precipitation simulation from updated surface characteristics in South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Gabriel; Silva, Maria Elisa Siqueira; Moraes, Elisabete Caria; Chiquetto, Júlio Barboza; da Silva Cardozo, Francielle

    2016-04-01

    Land use and land cover maps and their physical-chemical and biological properties are important variables in the numerical modeling of Earth systems. In this context, the main objective of this study is to analyze the improvements resulting from the land use and land cover map update in numerical simulations performed using the Regional Climate Model system version 4 (RegCM4), as well as the seasonal variations of physical parameters used by the Biosphere Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (BATS). In general, the update of the South America 2007 land use and land cover map, used by the BATS, improved the simulation of precipitation by 10 %, increasing the mean temporal correlation coefficient, compared to observed data, from 0.84 to 0.92 (significant at p Plate Basin, in Argentina. Moreover, the main precipitation differences between sensitivity and control experiments occurred during the rainy months in central-north South America (October to March). These were associated with a displacement in the South Atlantic convergence zone (SACZ) positioning, presenting a spatial pattern of alternated areas with higher and lower precipitation rates. These important differences occur due to the replacement of tropical rainforest for pasture and agriculture and the replacement of agricultural areas for pasture, scrubland, and deciduous forest.

  7. The current situation of meningococcal disease in Latin America and updated Global Meningococcal Initiative (GMI) recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáfadi, Marco Aurélio P; O'Ryan, Miguel; Valenzuela Bravo, Maria Teresa; Brandileone, Maria Cristina C; Gorla, Maria Cecília O; de Lemos, Ana Paula S; Moreno, Gabriela; Vazquez, Julio A; López, Eduardo L; Taha, Muhamed-Kheir; Borrow, Ray

    2015-11-27

    The Global Meningococcal Initiative (GMI) was established in 2009 and comprises an international team of scientists, clinicians, and public health officials with expertise in meningococcal disease (MD). Its primary goal is to promote global prevention of MD through education, research, international cooperation, and developing recommendations that include decreasing the burden of severe disease. The group held its first roundtable meeting with experts from Latin American countries in 2011, and subsequently proposed several recommendations to reduce the regional burden of MD. A second roundtable meeting was convened with Latin American representatives in June 2013 to reassess MD epidemiology, vaccination strategies, and unmet needs in the region, as well as to update the earlier recommendations. Special emphasis was placed on the emergence and spread of serogroup W disease in Argentina and Chile, and the control measures put in place in Chile were a particular focus of discussions. The impact of routine meningococcal vaccination programs, notably in Brazil, was also evaluated. There have been considerable improvements in MD surveillance systems and diagnostic techniques in some countries (e.g., Brazil and Chile), but the lack of adequate infrastructure, trained personnel, and equipment/reagents remains a major barrier to progress in resource-poor countries. The Pan American Health Organization's Revolving Fund is likely to play an important role in improving access to meningococcal vaccines in Latin America. Additional innovative approaches are needed to redress the imbalance in expertise and resources between countries, and thereby improve the control of MD. In Latin America, the GMI recommends establishment of a detailed and comprehensive national/regional surveillance system, standardization of laboratory procedures, adoption of a uniform MD case definition, maintaining laboratory-based surveillance, replacement of polysaccharide vaccines with conjugate

  8. The current situation of meningococcal disease in Latin America and updated Global Meningococcal Initiative (GMI) recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáfadi, Marco Aurélio P; O'Ryan, Miguel; Valenzuela Bravo, Maria Teresa; Brandileone, Maria Cristina C; Gorla, Maria Cecília O; de Lemos, Ana Paula S; Moreno, Gabriela; Vazquez, Julio A; López, Eduardo L; Taha, Muhamed-Kheir; Borrow, Ray

    2015-11-27

    The Global Meningococcal Initiative (GMI) was established in 2009 and comprises an international team of scientists, clinicians, and public health officials with expertise in meningococcal disease (MD). Its primary goal is to promote global prevention of MD through education, research, international cooperation, and developing recommendations that include decreasing the burden of severe disease. The group held its first roundtable meeting with experts from Latin American countries in 2011, and subsequently proposed several recommendations to reduce the regional burden of MD. A second roundtable meeting was convened with Latin American representatives in June 2013 to reassess MD epidemiology, vaccination strategies, and unmet needs in the region, as well as to update the earlier recommendations. Special emphasis was placed on the emergence and spread of serogroup W disease in Argentina and Chile, and the control measures put in place in Chile were a particular focus of discussions. The impact of routine meningococcal vaccination programs, notably in Brazil, was also evaluated. There have been considerable improvements in MD surveillance systems and diagnostic techniques in some countries (e.g., Brazil and Chile), but the lack of adequate infrastructure, trained personnel, and equipment/reagents remains a major barrier to progress in resource-poor countries. The Pan American Health Organization's Revolving Fund is likely to play an important role in improving access to meningococcal vaccines in Latin America. Additional innovative approaches are needed to redress the imbalance in expertise and resources between countries, and thereby improve the control of MD. In Latin America, the GMI recommends establishment of a detailed and comprehensive national/regional surveillance system, standardization of laboratory procedures, adoption of a uniform MD case definition, maintaining laboratory-based surveillance, replacement of polysaccharide vaccines with conjugate

  9. Rebuild America partner update, November--December 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    This issue of the update includes articles on retrofitting Duke University facilities, energy efficiency updates to buildings in Portland, Oregon, Salisbury, North Carolina, Hawaii, Roanoke-Chowan, Virginia, and energy savings centered designs for lighting systems.

  10. Building America Research Benchmark Definition: Updated December 19, 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendron, R.

    2008-12-01

    To track progress toward aggressive multi-year whole-house energy savings goals of 40-70% and onsite power production of up to 30%, DOE's Residential Buildings Program and NREL developed the Building America Research Benchmark in consultation with the Building America industry teams.

  11. Building America Research Benchmark Definition, Updated December 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendron, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Engebrecht, Cheryn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2010-01-01

    To track progress toward aggressive multi-year, whole-house energy savings goals of 40%–70% and on-site power production of up to 30%, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Residential Buildings Program and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed the Building America (BA) Research Benchmark in consultation with the Building America industry teams.

  12. Building America Research Benchmark Definition: Updated December 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendron, R.; Engebrecht, C.

    2010-01-01

    The Benchmark represents typical construction at a fixed point in time so it can be used as the basis for Building America's multi-year energy savings goals without chasing a 'moving target.'

  13. Building America Research Benchmark Definition: Updated December 20, 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendron, R.

    2008-01-01

    To track progress toward aggressive multi-year whole-house energy savings goals of 40-70% and onsite power production of up to 30%, DOE's Residential Buildings Program and NREL developed the Building America Research Benchmark in consultation with the Building America industry teams. The Benchmark is generally consistent with mid-1990s standard practice, as reflected in the Home Energy Rating System (HERS) Technical Guidelines (RESNET 2002), with additional definitions that allow the analyst to evaluate all residential end-uses, an extension of the traditional HERS rating approach that focuses on space conditioning and hot water. Unlike the reference homes used for HERS, EnergyStar, and most energy codes, the Benchmark represents typical construction at a fixed point in time so it can be used as the basis for Building America's multi-year energy savings goals without the complication of chasing a 'moving target'.

  14. Building America Research Benchmark Definition, Updated December 15, 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendron, R.

    2007-01-01

    To track progress toward aggressive multi-year whole-house energy savings goals of 40-70% and onsite power production of up to 30%, DOE's Residential Buildings Program and NREL developed the Building America Research Benchmark in consultation with the Building America industry teams. The Benchmark is generally consistent with mid-1990s standard practice, as reflected in the Home Energy Rating System (HERS) Technical Guidelines (RESNET 2002), with additional definitions that allow the analyst to evaluate all residential end-uses, an extension of the traditional HERS rating approach that focuses on space conditioning and hot water. Unlike the reference homes used for HERS, EnergyStar, and most energy codes, the Benchmark represents typical construction at a fixed point in time so it can be used as the basis for Building America's multi-year energy savings goals without the complication of chasing a ''moving target''.

  15. Building America Research Benchmark Definition: Updated August 15, 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendron, R.

    2007-09-01

    To track progress toward aggressive multi-year whole-house energy savings goals of 40-70% and onsite power production of up to 30%, DOE's Residential Buildings Program and NREL developed the Building America Research Benchmark in consultation with the Building America industry teams. The Benchmark is generally consistent with mid-1990s standard practice, as reflected in the Home Energy Rating System (HERS) Technical Guidelines (RESNET 2002), with additional definitions that allow the analyst to evaluate all residential end-uses, an extension of the traditional HERS rating approach that focuses on space conditioning and hot water. Unlike the reference homes used for HERS, EnergyStar, and most energy codes, the Benchmark represents typical construction at a fixed point in time so it can be used as the basis for Building America's multi-year energy savings goals without the complication of chasing a 'moving target'.

  16. Building America Research Benchmark Definition, Updated December 19, 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendron, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2008-12-19

    To track progress toward aggressive multi-year whole-house energy savings goals of 40-70% and onsite power production of up to 30%, DOE's Residential Buildings Program and NREL developed the Building America Research Benchmark in consultation with the Bui

  17. Microfinance in Latin America and the Caribbean: 2008 Data Update

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio Navajas; Paola A. Pedroza; Peter Bate

    2008-01-01

    This note summarizes the results of a recently completed IDB survey of microfinance in the region. The survey includes information on microfinance activities in 25 countries as well as an initial review of effective interest rates charged to microfinance clients.

  18. Updating the geographical distribution and frequency of Aedes albopictus in Brazil with remarks regarding its range in the Americas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Gomes Carvalho/

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The geographical distribution of Aedes albopictus in Brazil was updated according to the data recorded across the country over the last eight years. Countrywide house indexes (HI for Ae. albopictus in urban and suburban areas were described for the first time using a sample of Brazilian municipalities. This mosquito is currently present in at least 59% of the Brazilian municipalities and in 24 of the 27 federal units (i.e., 26 states and the Federal District. In 34 Brazilian municipalities, the HI values for Ae. albopictus were higher than those recorded for Ae. aegypti, reaching figures as high as HI = 7.72 in the Southeast Region. Remarks regarding the current range of this mosquito species in the Americas are also presented. Nineteen American countries are currently infested and few mainland American countries have not confirmed the occurrence of Ae. albopictus. The large distribution and high frequency of Ae. albopictus in the Americas may become a critical factor in the spread of arboviruses like chikungunya in the new world.

  19. 7 CFR 319.56-26 - Melon and watermelon from certain countries in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Melon and watermelon from certain countries in South... and Vegetables § 319.56-26 Melon and watermelon from certain countries in South America. (a..., MS, NM, PR, SC, TX, VI”. (b) Cantaloupe, netted melon, vegetable melon, winter melon, and...

  20. Do Minimum Wages in Latin America and the Caribbean Matter? Evidence from 19 Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Nicolai; Cunningham, Wendy

    Despite the existence of minimum wage legislation in most Latin American countries, there is little empirical evidence demonstrating its impact on the distribution of wages. In this study, cross-country data for 19 Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) countries is analyzed to gain an understanding ...... of the regional study "The Role of Minimum Wages in Latin America: Poverty Alleviation, Income Inequality, Employment, and Wages"....

  1. The FDI-Growth Nexus in Latin America : The Role of Source Countries and Local Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prüfer, P.; Tondl, G.

    2008-01-01

    Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) has surged in Latin America (LA) since the mid 1990s. European and North American FDI is of capital importance. We investigate the FDI-growth nexus in LA allowing for different source countries, regional hetero- geneity, interaction terms with FDI, and more than 20 gr

  2. An update on maternal mortality in low-resource countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabero-Roura, Luis; Rushwan, Hamid

    2014-05-01

    Maternal mortality constitutes a major problem in the context of women's health. All regions experienced a decline in maternal mortality ratio (MMR) between 1990 and 2010. Among those women who do not die, 300 million are currently living with health problems and disabilities caused by complications of pregnancy and childbirth. MMR in sub-Saharan Africa remains high, at more than 450 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births. It is currently accepted that in many areas the Millennium Development Goals will not have been achieved by 2015 and in some countries, if current trends continue, they will not be reached until after 2040. Maternal mortality is much more than just a health problem. It involves lack of respect for women's basic human rights and failure to show the disadvantages and risks to which they are exposed.

  3. Bovine brucellosis in Argentina and bordering countries: update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aznar, M N; Samartino, L E; Humblet, M-F; Saegerman, C

    2014-04-01

    Bovine brucellosis is a zoonotic disease spread worldwide. The infection in cattle is predominantly caused by Brucella abortus and is usually detected in pregnant females through abortions. The disease is endemic in Argentina; however, infection in humans is underestimated and often not reported. The prevalence of bovine brucellosis in countries bordering Argentina is quite variable: 0.04% in Uruguay, 10.20% in the north and 0.06% in the south of Brazil, 0.2% in Chile, 3.15% in Paraguay and 2.27% in Bolivia. In 1999, the Argentine National Control and Eradication Program was implemented. Its strategies include identification of vaccinated animals, compulsory vaccination with B. abortus S19 of 100% of 3- to 8-month-old females, negative serological tests before animal movements and categorization of farms in terms of their brucellosis status. The epidemiological surveillance in milk is performed through the milk ring test and the indirect ELISA. The result of a national brucellosis survey performed in 2004 indicates that 12.4% (95% CI: 10.89-14.0) of Argentine beef farms are seropositive to Brucella and that the apparent prevalence in cattle is 2.10% (95% CI: 1.90-2.40). The official serological diagnostic tests are as follows: buffered plate antigen test, as screening, serum agglutination test, 2-mercaptoethanol and fluorescence polarization assay, competitive ELISA, as confirmatory tests, and complement fixation test, as definitive test. Santa Fe and a district in Córdoba have 'Outstanding Plans'. Tierra del Fuego is a 'Zone free from bovine brucellosis'. One question arising when studying the Argentine situation is why the disease remains endemic if good regulations exist to control and eradicate it. In future, some different aspects might be evaluated to understand it, and further studies should be performed to prioritize, select and refine control strategies. PMID:23046031

  4. Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Portugal 2011 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-08-12

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Portugal for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  5. Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Spain 2011 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-08-12

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Spain for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  6. Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Greece 2010 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Greece for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  7. Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Belgium 2010 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-08-12

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Belgium for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  8. Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Czech Republic 2010 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Czech Republic for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  9. Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Slovak Republic 2011 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-08-12

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Slovak Republic for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  10. Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Italy 2010 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Italy for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  11. Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Canada 2010 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Canada for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  12. Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - New Zealand 2010 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in New Zealand for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  13. Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Poland 2011 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-08-12

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Poland for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  14. Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Denmark 2011 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-08-12

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Denmark for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  15. Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - United Kingdom 2010 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in United Kingdom for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  16. Activities of technical cooperation in the countries of Latin America: the case of Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activities of technical cooperation in the region of Latin America, have been promoted by the own countries, and by the International Atomic Energy Agency, since 1957. In Costa Rica from 1969, the Commission of Atomic Energy of Costa Rica, has developed an intense work in the promotion of the pacific uses of nuclear energy, as well as, the coordination and canalization of the international technical cooperation, toward the national executing institutions. (author)

  17. Delegation of China-Latin America Friendship Association Visits Four Latin American Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>Cheng Siwei,former Vice Chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress and President of the China -Latin America Friendship Association (CLAFA),led a CLAFA delegation on a visit to four Central and South American countries from October 25 to November 11,2009 during which they met national leaders and other influential persons in the fields of foreign and cul-

  18. Dominican Republic : Country Fiduciary Assessment, Volume 3, Country Procurement Assessment Report - Update

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2005-01-01

    The Dominican Republic has made significant strides in deepening democracy during the past decade including the implementation of an important electoral reform. This fiduciary assessment was prepared by the Bank and the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) as a tool for their coordinated policy dialogue on governance with the country, and as a key input for their respective assistance strategies. Consequently, the report also provides important contributions to both institutions' analytical ...

  19. Updated determination of stress parameters for nine well-recorded earthquakes in eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boore, D.M.

    2012-01-01

    Stress parameters (????) are determined for nine relatively wellrecorded earthquakes in eastern North America for ten attenuation models. This is an update of a previous study by Boore et al. (2010). New to this paper are observations from the 2010 Val des Bois earthquake, additional observations for the 1988 Saguenay and 2005 Riviere du Loup earthquakes, and consideration of six attenuation models in addition to the four used in the previous study. As in that study, it is clear that ???? depends strongly on the rate of geometrical spreading (as well as other model parameters). The observations necessary to determine conclusively which attenuation model best fits the data are still lacking. At this time, a simple 1/R model seems to give as good an overall fit to the data as more complex models.

  20. Clinical practice guidelines for the management of candidiasis: 2009 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pappas, P.G.; Kauffman, C.A.; Andes, D.; Benjamin Jr., D.K.; Calandra, T.; Edwards, J.E.; Filler, S.G.; Fisher, J.F.; Kullberg, B.J.; Ostrosky-Zeichner, L.; Reboli, A.C.; Rex, J.H.; Walsh, T.J.; Sobel, J.D.

    2009-01-01

    Guidelines for the management of patients with invasive candidiasis and mucosal candidiasis were prepared by an Expert Panel of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. These updated guidelines replace the previous guidelines published in the 15 January 2004 issue of Clinical Infectious Diseases

  1. Elemental analysis of wines from South America and their classification according to country

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentlin, Fabrina R.S.; Pozebon, Dirce, E-mail: dircepoz@iq.ufrgs.b [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Pulgati, Fernando H. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Matematica; Dresslerc, Valderi L. [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), RS (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2011-07-01

    Major, minor and trace elements in wines from wine-producing countries in South America (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Uruguay) were determined. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) combined with pneumatic and/or ultrasonic nebulization were used. The concentrations of 45 elements (Al, Ag, As, Ba, Be, Bi, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cu, Dy, Er, Eu, Fe, Gd, Ho, K, La, Li, Lu, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Nd, Ni, P, Pb, Pr, Rb, Sb, Sn, Se, Sm, Sr, Tb, Ti, Tl, Tm, U, V, Yb, and Zn) in 53 red wines were determined. By means of multivariate analysis, the wines could be discriminated according to the country of origin, regardless of the type of grape. The discriminant elements were Tl, U, Li, Rb, and Mg. (author)

  2. Elemental analysis of wines from South America and their classification according to country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Major, minor and trace elements in wines from wine-producing countries in South America (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Uruguay) were determined. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) combined with pneumatic and/or ultrasonic nebulization were used. The concentrations of 45 elements (Al, Ag, As, Ba, Be, Bi, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cu, Dy, Er, Eu, Fe, Gd, Ho, K, La, Li, Lu, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Nd, Ni, P, Pb, Pr, Rb, Sb, Sn, Se, Sm, Sr, Tb, Ti, Tl, Tm, U, V, Yb, and Zn) in 53 red wines were determined. By means of multivariate analysis, the wines could be discriminated according to the country of origin, regardless of the type of grape. The discriminant elements were Tl, U, Li, Rb, and Mg. (author)

  3. The potential economic value of a cutaneous leishmaniasis vaccine in seven endemic countries in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, Kristina M; Hotez, Peter J; Kruchten, Stephanie D; Kamhawi, Shaden; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Valenzuela, Jesus G; Lee, Bruce Y

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and its associated complications, including mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL) and diffuse CL (DCL) have emerged as important neglected tropical diseases in Latin America, especially in areas associated with human migration, conflict, and recent deforestation. Because of the limitations of current chemotherapeutic approaches to CL, MCL, and DCL, several prototype vaccines are in different states of product and clinical development. We constructed and utilized a Markov decision analytic computer model to evaluate the potential economic value of a preventative CL vaccine in seven countries in Latin America: Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, and Venezuela. The results indicated that even a vaccine with a relatively short duration of protection and modest efficacy could be recommended for use in targeted locations, as it could prevent a substantial number of cases at low-cost and potentially even result in cost savings. If the population in the seven countries were vaccinated using a vaccine that provides at least 10 years of protection, an estimated 41,000-144,784 CL cases could be averted, each at a cost less than the cost of current recommended treatments. Further, even a vaccine providing as little as five years duration of protection with as little as 50% efficacy remains cost-effective compared with chemotherapy; additional scenarios resembling epidemic settings such as the one that occurred in Chaparral, Colombia in 2004 demonstrate important economic benefits.

  4. [The pharmaceutical industry and the sustainability of healthcare systems in developed countries and in Latin America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iñesta, Antonio; Oteo, Luis Angel

    2011-06-01

    The global economic crisis and its impact on public finances in most developed countries are giving rise to cost-containment policies in healthcare systems. Prevailing legislation on medication requires the safety, quality, and efficacy of these products. A few countries include efficiency criteria, primarily for new medication that they wish to include in public financing. The appropriate use of generic and "biosimilar medication" is very important for maintaining the financial equilibrium of the Health Services. The problem in Latin America is that not all multisource products are bioequivalent and not all countries have the resources to conduct bioequivalence studies in vivo. The European Medicines Agency in 2005 adopted guidelines on "biosimilar medicines" and thirteen of them were subsequently approved for general release. Benchmarking of this model by other countries would be important. The influence of the pharmaceutical industry on political and administrative areas is enormous and control is necessary. The pharmaceutical companies claim that they act with corporate social responsibility, therefore, they must ensure this responsibility toward society. PMID:21709969

  5. On the Way to 2020: Data for Vocational Education and Training Policies. Country Statistical Overviews. Update 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedefop - European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This report provides an updated statistical overview of vocational education and training (VET) and lifelong learning in European countries. These country statistical snapshots illustrate progress on indicators selected for their policy relevance and contribution to Europe 2020 objectives. The indicators take 2010 as the baseline year and present…

  6. Epidemiology and 'developing countries': writing pesticides, poverty and political engagement in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisbois, Ben W

    2014-08-01

    The growth of the field of global health has prompted renewed interest in discursive aspects of North-South biomedical encounters, but analysis of the role of disciplinary identities and writing conventions remains scarce. In this article, I examine ways of framing pesticide problems in 88 peer-reviewed epidemiology papers produced by Northerners and their collaborators studying pesticide-related health impacts in Latin America. I identify prominent geographic frames in which truncated and selective histories of Latin America are used to justify research projects in specific research sites, which nevertheless function rhetorically as generic 'developing country' settings. These frames legitimize health sector interventions as solutions to pesticide-related health problems, largely avoiding more politically charged possibilities. In contrast, some epidemiologists appear to be actively pushing the bounds of epidemiology's traditional journal article genre by engaging with considerations of political power, especially that of the international pesticide industry. I therefore employ a finer-grained analysis to a subsample of 20 papers to explore how the writing conventions of epidemiology interact with portrayals of poverty and pesticides in Latin America. Through analysis of a minor scientific controversy, authorial presence in epidemiology articles, and variance of framing strategies across genres, I show how the tension between 'objectivity' and 'advocacy' observed in Northern epidemiology and public health is expressed in North-South interaction. I end by discussing implications for postcolonial and socially engaged approaches to science and technology studies, as well as their relevance to the actual practice of global health research. In particular, the complicated interaction of the conflicted traditions of Northern epidemiology with Latin American settings on paper hints at a far more complex interaction in the form of public health programming involving

  7. Regulating the Sustainability of Forest Management in the Americas: Cross-Country Comparisons of Forest Legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Monges Zalazar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on theoretical underpinnings and an empirical review of forest laws and regulations of selected countries throughout the Americas, we examine key components of natural forest management and how they are addressed in the legal frameworks of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Paraguay, Uruguay, and the U.S. We consider forest policy directives in terms of legislative, planning, operational, environmental/ecological, social, and economic aspects and classify them by the type of policy obligation: (1 non-discretionary laws or rules; or (2 discretionary, voluntary directives; and, further, by the type of policy approach: (1 a specific technology or practice required or recommended; (2 a process or system requirement or recommendation; or (3 a performance or outcome based requirement or recommendation. Protection of at-risk species and riparian buffers are required in all countries and include specific prescriptions in most; forest management planning and secure, legal land title or tenancy are commonly required; and mandatory processes to protect soil and water quality are customary. Less common requirements include forest monitoring and social and economic aspects, and, when in place, they are usually voluntary. Implications for improved policies to achieve sustainable forest management (SFM are discussed.

  8. How three countries in the Americas are fortifying dietary salt reduction: a north and south perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legowski, Barbara; Legetic, Branka

    2011-09-01

    A chronic disease/risk factor prevention framework with three policy environments--communications, physical and economic--was used to organize population level interventions that address the "over consumption of dietary salt", a key risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. The framework was then used to map the population based strategies to reduce dietary salt consumption being applied in three countries in the Americas--Argentina, Canada and Chile--each with a history of multi-sector approaches to deal with the risk factors for chronic disease, offering a north versus south perspective. Results show that in all three countries policy instruments are concentrated in the communications environment, e.g., media and education campaigns and/or regulations for standardized information on the salt or sodium content of packaged food products. Notable gaps are the requirement for nutrient information on meals and food items prepared by food establishments and restrictions on advertising and marketing of foods to children. In the physical environment, referring to the sodium levels in commercially prepared foods and meals available on the market, voluntary reformulation of food products is underway at this time in the three countries. Argentina and Chile began with bread and have gradually added other food categories; Canada at the outset is addressing all food categories where products have added salt. Argentina alone is at this point actively approaching regulations to limit the salt content of food, preferring this over ongoing monitoring of voluntary targets. No government in the three counties has yet considered action in the economic environment, a complex area where the research on and initiatives to limit or disadvantage energy-dense food products to address obesity may also capture foods that are highly salted. In the meantime, with recent research estimating substantially higher gains in population health from government legislation to limit salt in foods

  9. Folate and vitamin B12 status in Latin America and the Caribbean: An update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The current magnitude of folate and vitamin B12 deficiency in Latin America and the Caribbean is uncertain. Objective: To summarize data on plasma or serum vitamin B12 and folate concentrations in Latin America and the Caribbean reported since 1990, a period that covers the era before an...

  10. A Comparison between America and Other Countries in Offshore Aquaculture Management:a Literature Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>In America offshore aquaculture is gaining momentum in recent years,and expects to grow faster in the near future.The White House has clearly expressed its support;statistics show that the aquaculture has huge potential and can contribute a lot to employment and help reducing the trade deficit;the offshore aquaculture act which is designed to promote American offshore aquaculture industry has been proposed to the Congress for action.However,there are still some long standing obstacles hindering its development such as competing uses, wasted pollutants,lacking of fishing food,escapees,GMOs,lengthy permission procedures etc.Ironically,to some of these issues,debates have been there for decades without consensus.While the proposed National Offshore Aquaculture Act 2005 may provide major principles for the solution to these problems,it is also useful to draw experiences from some other countries that have longer history and more advanced skills in the industry.Their technology and institutional design are prone to the development of their aquaculture industries.Mainly this paper,as a literature review,examines the practices of Norway,Canada and Australia, and compares their actions with the real problems in U.S.,and what has been proposed by National Offshore Aquaculture Act 2005.This paper aims to check what other nations have done with these problems,draw useful experiences from them,analyze what the Offshore Aquaculture Act has achieved,and recommend what the related federal agencies should do in the next step.

  11. Household Saving in Developing Countries - Inequality, Demographics and All That: How Different are Latin America and South East Asia?

    OpenAIRE

    Székely, Miguel; Orazio P. Attanasio

    2000-01-01

    East Asia and Latin America have diverged in several dimensions in the past three decades. This paper compares household saving behavior in two countries in each region (Mexico, Peru, Thailand and Taiwan). We make four contributions. First, we provide the first comparisons of savings in these two regions at the micro level using synthetic cohort techniques. Second, rather than focusing only on total household saving, as is common in the literature, we disaggregate the population into educatio...

  12. [The report of the Commission on Macroeconomics and Health: its relevance to the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-09-01

    The Commission on Macroeconomics and Health (CMH) was established by the Director-General of the World Health Organization (WHO) to evaluate the role of health in economic development. On 20 December 2001 the CMH submitted its report to the WHO Director-General. Entitled Macroeconomics and Health: Investing in Health for Economic Development, the CMH report affirms that in order to reduce poverty; and achieve economic development, it is essential to improve the health of the poor; to accomplish this, it is necessary to expand the access that the poor have to essential health services. The Commission believes that more financial resources are needed, that the health expenditures of less-developed and low-income countries are insufficient for the challenges that these countries face, and that high-income countries must increase their financial assistance in order to help solve the main health problems of less-developed and low-income countries. This piece summarizes a report that was prepared by the Program on Public Policy and Health of the Division of Health and Human Development of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO). The PAHO document analyzes the importance of the CMH report for the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean, focusing on some of the central arguments put forth in the CMH report as they relate to achieving better health conditions in the Americas. These arguments have been organized around three major themes in the CMH report: a) the relationships between health and economic growth, b) the principal health problems that affect the poor in low-income and low-middle-income#10; countries, and c) the gap between the funding needed to address the principal problems that affect these countries and the actual spending levels. #10; PMID:12396642

  13. The impact of gender inequality in education and employment on economic growth in developing Countries: Updates and extensions

    OpenAIRE

    Klasen, Stephan; Lamanna, Francesca

    2008-01-01

    Using cross-country and panel regressions, we investigate to what extent gender gaps in education and employment (proxied using gender gaps in labor force participation) reduce economic growth. Using most recent data and investigating a long time period (1960-2000), we update the results of previous studies on education gaps on growth and extend the analysis to employment gaps using panel data. We find that gender gaps in education and employment significantly reduce economic growth. The comb...

  14. Do minimum wages in Latin America and the Caribbean matter ? Evidence from 19 countries

    OpenAIRE

    Kristensen, Nicolai; Cunningham, Wendy

    2006-01-01

    Despite the existence of minimum wage legislation in most Latin American countries, there is little empirical evidence demonstrating its impact on the distribution of wages. In this study the authors analyze cross-country data for 19 Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) countries to gain an understanding of if and how minimum wages affect wage distributions in LAC countries. Although there is no single minimum wage institution in the LAC region, the authors find regional trends. Minimum wages a...

  15. A Study of Public Library Users in Some Countries of Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara, Alvaro Agudo

    This user survey was part of a three-part diagnostic study that sought to obtain information on how public libraries operate in Latin America (Argentina, Colombia, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Panama, and Venezuela) and the Caribbean (Barbados, Grenada, Jamaica, and Surinam) and the social role performed by this type of service in the region.…

  16. Corporate Governance of State-Owned Enterprises in Latin America : Current Trends and Country Cases

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this report is to provide a descriptive analysis of the current practices and trends of corporate governance of State-owned Enterprises (SOEs) in several Latin-American countries. It provides practitioners of SOE corporate governance with a stocktaking of current practices and trends in several Latin American countries, as well as international experiences and good pr...

  17. The Potential Economic Value of a Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Vaccine in Seven Endemic Countries in the Americas

    OpenAIRE

    Bacon, Kristina M.; Hotez, Peter J.; Kruchten, Stephanie D.; Kamhawi, Shaden; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Bruce Y Lee

    2012-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and its associated complications, including mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL) and diffuse CL (DCL) have emerged as important neglected tropical diseases in Latin America, especially in areas associated with human migration, conflict, and recent deforestation. Because of the limitations of current chemotherapeutic approaches to CL, MCL, and DCL, several prototype vaccines are in different states of product and clinical development. We constructed and utilized a Mar...

  18. Molecular Diversity of Rabies Viruses Associated with Bats in Mexico and Other Countries of the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco-Villa, Andrés; Orciari, Lillian A.; Juárez-Islas, Víctor; Gómez-Sierra, Mauricio; Padilla-Medina, Irma; Flisser, Ana; Souza, Valeria; Castillo, Amanda; Franka, Richard; Escalante-Mañe, Maribel; Sauri-González, Isaias; Rupprecht, Charles E.

    2006-01-01

    Bat rabies and its transmission to humans and other species in Mexico were investigated. Eighty-nine samples obtained from rabid livestock, cats, dogs, and humans in Mexico were studied by antigenic typing and partial sequence analysis. Samples were further compared with enzootic rabies associated with different species of bats in the Americas. Patterns of nucleotide variation allowed the definition of at least 20 monophyletic clusters associated with 9 or more different bat species. Several lineages associated with distinctive antigenic patterns were found in rabies viruses related to rabies in vampire bats in Mexico. Vampire bat rabies virus lineages associated with antigenic variant 3 are widely spread from Mexico to South America, suggesting these lineages as the most likely ancestors of vampire bat rabies and the ones that have been moved by vampire bat populations throughout the Americas. Rabies viruses related to Lasiurus cinereus, Histiotus montanus, and some other not yet identified species of the genus Lasiurus were found circulating in Mexico. Long-range dissemination patterns of rabies are not necessarily associated with migratory bat species, as in the case of rabies in Desmodus rotundus and Histiotus montanus. Human rabies was associated with vampire bat transmission in most cases, and in one case, rabies transmission from free-tailed bats was inferred. The occurrence of rabies spillover from bats to domestic animals was also demonstrated. Genetic typing of rabies viruses allowed us to distinguish trends of disease dissemination and to address, in a preliminary fashion, aspects of the complex evolution of rabies viruses in different host-reservoir species. PMID:16672396

  19. One century of arsenic exposure in Latin America: a review of history and occurrence from 14 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundschuh, Jochen; Litter, Marta I; Parvez, Faruque; Román-Ross, Gabriela; Nicolli, Hugo B; Jean, Jiin-Shuh; Liu, Chen-Wuing; López, Dina; Armienta, María A; Guilherme, Luiz R G; Cuevas, Alina Gomez; Cornejo, Lorena; Cumbal, Luis; Toujaguez, Regla

    2012-07-01

    The global impact on public health of elevated arsenic (As) in water supplies is highlighted by an increasing number of countries worldwide reporting high As concentrations in drinking water. In Latin America, the problem of As contamination in water is known in 14 out of 20 countries: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Peru and Uruguay. Considering the 10 μg/L limit for As in drinking water established by international and several national agencies, the number of exposed people is estimated to be about 14 million. Health effects of As exposure were identified for the first time already in the 1910s in Bellville (Córdoba province, Argentina). Nevertheless, contamination of As in waters has been detected in 10 Latin American countries only within the last 10 to 15 years. Arsenic is mobilized predominantly from young volcanic rocks and their weathering products. In alluvial aquifers, which are water sources frequently used for water supply, desorption of As from metal oxyhydroxides at high pH (>8) is the predominant mobility control; redox conditions are moderate reducing to oxidizing and As(V) is the predominant species. In the Andes, the Middle American cordillera and the Transmexican Volcanic Belt, oxidation of sulfide minerals is the primary As mobilization process. Rivers that originate in the Andean mountains, transport As to more densely populated areas in the lowlands (e.g. Rímac river in Peru, Pilcomayo river in Bolivia/Argentina/Paraguay). In many parts of Latin America, As often occurs together with F and B; in the Chaco-Pampean plain As is found additionally with V, Mo and U whereas in areas with sulfide ore deposits As often occurs together with heavy metals. These co-occurrences and the anthropogenic activities in mining areas that enhance the mobilization of As and other pollutants make more dramatic the environmental problem. PMID:21959248

  20. One century of arsenic exposure in Latin America: a review of history and occurrence from 14 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundschuh, Jochen; Litter, Marta I; Parvez, Faruque; Román-Ross, Gabriela; Nicolli, Hugo B; Jean, Jiin-Shuh; Liu, Chen-Wuing; López, Dina; Armienta, María A; Guilherme, Luiz R G; Cuevas, Alina Gomez; Cornejo, Lorena; Cumbal, Luis; Toujaguez, Regla

    2012-07-01

    The global impact on public health of elevated arsenic (As) in water supplies is highlighted by an increasing number of countries worldwide reporting high As concentrations in drinking water. In Latin America, the problem of As contamination in water is known in 14 out of 20 countries: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Peru and Uruguay. Considering the 10 μg/L limit for As in drinking water established by international and several national agencies, the number of exposed people is estimated to be about 14 million. Health effects of As exposure were identified for the first time already in the 1910s in Bellville (Córdoba province, Argentina). Nevertheless, contamination of As in waters has been detected in 10 Latin American countries only within the last 10 to 15 years. Arsenic is mobilized predominantly from young volcanic rocks and their weathering products. In alluvial aquifers, which are water sources frequently used for water supply, desorption of As from metal oxyhydroxides at high pH (>8) is the predominant mobility control; redox conditions are moderate reducing to oxidizing and As(V) is the predominant species. In the Andes, the Middle American cordillera and the Transmexican Volcanic Belt, oxidation of sulfide minerals is the primary As mobilization process. Rivers that originate in the Andean mountains, transport As to more densely populated areas in the lowlands (e.g. Rímac river in Peru, Pilcomayo river in Bolivia/Argentina/Paraguay). In many parts of Latin America, As often occurs together with F and B; in the Chaco-Pampean plain As is found additionally with V, Mo and U whereas in areas with sulfide ore deposits As often occurs together with heavy metals. These co-occurrences and the anthropogenic activities in mining areas that enhance the mobilization of As and other pollutants make more dramatic the environmental problem.

  1. Food Leftover Practices among Consumers in Selected Countries in Europe, South and North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadri Koppel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Foodborne illnesses may be related to many food production factors with home practices of consumers playing an important role in food safety. Consumer behavior for handling food leftovers has been studied, however little work on comparisons among countries has been published. The objective of this study was to investigate home food leftover practices of people from North American, South American, and European countries. Surveys were conducted with approximately 100 or more consumers in Argentina, Colombia, the United States, Estonia, Italy, Russia, and Spain. The participants responded to questions related to the length of time different types of food leftovers; such as meat, fresh salads, or restaurant dishes would be kept refrigerated or would be left at room temperature before refrigeration. Researchers also investigated how consumers would determine if the food was still safe for consumption. Potentially risky behaviors were observed in all seven countries. For instance, 55.8% of Estonians, 25% of Russians and 25.8% of Argentinean participants left food out at room temperature for several hours before storing in the refrigerator. Furthermore, 25%–29% of Colombian, Estonian, and Spanish consumers would look, smell, and taste leftovers to determine its probable safety. Correct handling of leftovers is an important aspect of consumer food safety. Although the surveys cannot be representative of all consumers in each country, they do provide an initial overview of comparative practices for handling leftovers among different countries. This provides government and educators with information on potential universal and unique consumer food safety issues related to handling leftover foods among various countries.

  2. Compulsory education at the secondary level in Latin America. Convergences and divergences in five Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Consuelo Ruiz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the analysis of different ways in which Latin American countries have faced the reform processes in the last 20 years. For this purpose, the ways how Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay and Uruguay have extended compulsory education are taken as analyzer. Firstly, we contextualize the socio demographic situation of the studied countries. Secondly, we make a brief review of the schooling processes in these countries and their outstanding historical trends related to the extension of compulsory education. Thirdly, we describe the secondary education organization in the context of national reforms of the last twenty years. Finally, we analyze the ways of secondary level admission and graduation in each country and some educational indicators with the aim of visualizing some decisive aspects in compulsory secondary education.Received: 07/10/2013 / Accepted: 29/11/2013How to reference this articleRuiz, M. C., Schoo, S. (2014. La obligatoriedad de la educación secundaria en América Latina. Convergencias y divergencias en cinco países. Foro de Educación, 12(16, pp. 71-98. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.14516/fde.2014.012.016.003

  3. Consuming the world's energy: Update series. Energy efficiency trends in oil countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of Energy Detente addresses energy efficiency in selected oil producing countries over time and compare the varying effects of important crude oil price changes. As economies around the world heighten their benefits from conservation and efficient use of energy, oil producers will be crucial examples not only for their own sakes, but for consuming countries dependent upon their exports. In this sense, their potential for leadership and vision seems greater than ever. Specifically, 6 oil-exporting countries are featured: Australia, Kuwait, Indonesia, Nigeria, the United Kingdom, and Venezuela. This issue also presents the following: (1) the ED Refining Netback Data Series for the US Gulf and West Coasts, Rotterdam, and Singapore as of February 21, 1992; and (2) the ED Fuel Price/Tax Series for countries of the Eastern Hemisphere, February, 1992 edition

  4. Unions and Economic Performance in Developing Countries: Case Studies from Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Rios-Avila, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the economic impact of unions on productivity in the manufacturing sector across six Latin American countries: Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Mexico, Panama, and Uruguay. Using an augmented Cobb-Douglas production function, the paper finds that unions have positive, but mostly small, effects on productivity, with the exception of Argentina, with a large negative effect, and Bolivia, with no effect. An analysis on profitability shows that, in most cases, the positive productivi...

  5. [National health research systems in Latin America: a 14-country review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alger, Jackeline; Becerra-Posada, Francisco; Kennedy, Andrew; Martinelli, Elena; Cuervo, Luis Gabriel

    2009-11-01

    This article discusses the main features of the national health research systems (NHRS) of Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, El Salvador, Honduras, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, and Venezuela, based on documents prepared by their country experts who participated in the First Latin American Conference on Research and Innovation for Health held in April 2008, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The review also includes sources cited in the reports, published scientific papers, and expert opinion, as well as regional secondary sources. Six countries reported having formal entities for health research governance and management: Brazil and Costa Rica's entities are led by their ministries of health; while Argentina, Cuba, Ecuador, and Venezuela have entities shared by their ministries of health and ministries of science and technology. Brazil and Ecuador each reported having a comprehensive national policy devoted specifically to health science, technology, and innovation. Argentina, Brazil, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, and Venezuela reported having established health research priorities. In conclusion, encouraging progress has been made, despite the structural and functional heterogeneity of the study countries' NHRS and their disparate levels of development. Instituting good NHRS governance/management is of utmost importance to how efficiently ministries of health, other government players, and society-at-large can tackle health research. PMID:20107697

  6. Chagas infection transmission control: situation of transfusional transmission in Brazil and other countries of Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helio Moraes-Souza

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available The transmission of the transfusion-associated Chagas disease is an important mechanism of its dissemination in several Latin American countries. The transmission risk depends on five factors: prevalence of infection in blood donors, degree of serological coverage, sensibility of used tests, safety of obtained results and infection risk. The Southern Cone Iniciative set off by the Pan-American Health Organization, in 1991, is contributing to the implementation of blood law in each endemic country, and to reduce the risk of transfusional transmission of this horrible disease. Despite the clear improvement of Brasilian hemotherapy after 1980 (with the creation of the Blood National Program - Pró-Sangue and the significant reduction of the chagasic infection among its blood donors; socio-economic, politic and cultural unlevels, prevent it from reaching the necessary universality and security. In order to assure both, the Brazilian Ministry of Health decided to restructure its blood system. In May, 1998, a great program was launched, to reach a specific goal: Blood - 100% with quality safety in all its process until 2003. It was divided in 12 projects, intends to guarantee the quality and self sufficiency in blood and hemoderivates.

  7. Revising Social Contracts: Social Spending in Latin America, East Asia, and the Former Socialist Countries, 1980-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Haggard

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the determinants of social spending in Latin America, Eastern Europe, and East Asia during the 1980s and 1990s. We hypothesize that pronounced and enduring differences in welfare legacies and fiscal constraints affected the way countries of the three regions responded to more contemporary challenges of economic crisis, integration into global markets, and transitions from autocracy to democratic rule. Latin American countries, which inherited the most severe fiscal constraints, were least able to protect social spending during economic downturns. East Asian countries and, to a lesser extent, those of Eastern Europe, were less likely to reduce social spending in the face of downturns and somewhat more likely to increase during democratic transitionsEste trabajo examina los determinantes del gasto social en América Latina, Europa Oriental y el Este Asiático durante los años 80 y los 90. Presumimos que las diferencias duraderas y significativas en las herencias del estado de bienestar y las restricciones fiscales afectaron la manera en la cual los países en las tres regiones respondieron a los desafíos de las crisis económicas más contemporáneos, la integración en los mercados globales y las transiciones a la democracia. Los países latinoamericanos, que heredaron las restricciones fiscales más severas, fueron los que menos pudieron proteger el gasto social durante momentos de apremio económico. Los países del Este Asiático, y en un grado menor, los de Europa Oriental, fueron menos proclives a reducir el gasto social en vistas a los apremios económicos e inclusive se vieron más inclinados a aumentarlo durante las transiciones democráticas

  8. Literacy and Access to the Written Culture by Youth and Adults Excluded from the School System: A Cross-Country Field Study in Nine Countries in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Rosa-Maria

    2008-01-01

    The title of this article refers to a field study carried out in 2006-2007 in nine countries in Latin America and the Caribbean. The article summarizes the basic concepts, aims, methodology and findings of the study. In conclusion, the author points out a number of important policy changes that are called for in this domain. While the study itself…

  9. Institutional Research in Emerging Countries of Southern Africa, Latin America, and the Middle East and North Africa: Global Frameworks and Local Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Lis; Saavedra, F. Mauricio; Romano, Jeanine

    2013-01-01

    This chapter presents a synthesis of the conceptualization and practice of institutional research (IR) in higher education (HE) in emerging countries across Southern Africa, Latin America and the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) regions. The chapter contextualizes the growing need for IR in these regions, identifies problems and challenges…

  10. Educational Policies and Globalization: Elements for Some Criticism on the International Organizations' Proposals for Latin America and the Caribbean Islands Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filho, Domingos Leite Lima

    2009-01-01

    The present work analyses the role of the international organizations in the orientation of educational reforms and reforms of professional formation/training taking place, in particular, in Latin America countries and in the Caribbean Islands from the beginning of the 1990's on. This article is organized into four sections: in the first one, we…

  11. Access to medicines for acute illness in middle income countries in Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cristina Martins Emmerick

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE : To analyze the main predictors of access to medicines for persons who experienced acute health conditions. METHODS : This was a cross-sectional analytic study, based on data from household surveys. We examined the predictors of: (1 seeking care for acute illness in the formal health care system and (2 obtaining all medicines sought for the acute condition. RESULTS : The significant predictors of seeking health care for acute illnesses were urban geographic location, head of household with secondary school education or above, age under 15, severity of illness perceived by the respondent, and having health insurance. The most important predictor of obtaining full access to medicines was seeking care in the formal health care system. People who sought care in the formal system were three times more likely to receive all the medicines sought (OR 3.0, 95%CI 2.3;4.0. For those who sought care in the formal health system, the strongest predictors of full access to medicines were seeking care in the private sector, having secondary school education or above, and positive perceptions of quality of health care and medicines in public sector health facilities. For patients who did not seek care in the formal health system, full access to medicines was more likely in Honduras or Nicaragua than in Guatemala. Urban geographic location, higher economic status, and male gender were also significant predictors. CONCLUSIONS : A substantial part of the population in these three countries sought and obtained medicines outside of the formal health care system, which may compromise quality of care and pose a risk to patients. Determinants of full access to medicines inside and outside the formal health care system differ, and thus may require different strategies to improve access to medicines.

  12. International Development Partnerships and Diffusion of Renewable Energy Technologies in Developing Countries: Cases in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platonova, Inna

    Access to energy is vital for sustainable development and poverty alleviation, yet billions of people in developing countries continue to suffer from constant exposure to open fires and dangerous fuels, such as kerosene. Renewable energy technologies are being acknowledged as suitable solutions for remote rural communities in much of the developing world and international development non-governmental organizations (NGOs) increasingly play important roles in the diffusion of these technologies via development partnerships. While these partnerships are widely promoted, many questions related to their functioning and effectiveness remain open. To advance the theory and practice, this interdisciplinary exploratory research provides in-depth insights into the nature of international NGO-driven development partnerships in rural renewable energy and their effectiveness based on the case studies in Talamanca, Costa Rica and Cajamarca, Peru. The analysis of the nature of development partnerships shows that partnerships in the case studies differ in structure, size and diversity of actors due to differentiation in the implementation strategies, technological complexities, institutional and contextual factors. A multi-theoretical approach is presented to explain the multiple drivers of the studied development partnerships. The research highlights partnership constraints related to the provision of rural renewable energy, the organizational type and institutional environments. Based on the case studies this research puts forward theoretical propositions regarding the factors that affect the effectiveness of the partnerships. In terms of the partnership dynamics dimension, several key factors of success are confirmed from the existing literature, namely shared values and goals, complementary expertise and capacities, confidence and trust, clear roles and responsibilities, effective communication. Additional factors identified are personality match and continuity of staff. In

  13. Ukraine, a transit country in a cul-de-sac? Updated review after the 2010 elections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study highlights Ukraine's role in the landscape of gas transit, while considering and analyzing the existing information on fields that are larger than the gas issue, i.e. Ukrainian politics and economy and, above all, the country's energy policy. A first part is dedicated to the economic and political background introducing the main elements of the current Ukrainian situation; the second part is devoted to energy and each one of its variants (mix, oil, coal and gas). The third part develops the January 2009 Russian-Ukrainian conflict; and the fourth part concentrates on EU policy towards Ukraine, with four scenarios in which governance and the gas transport network are the key elements. An additional chapter (introduction) discusses about the modifications induced by the election (in 2010) of a new president, especially on the energy aspects and the normalization of the Russian-Ukrainian relations

  14. Economic development and occupational health in Latin America: new directions for public health in less developed countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaels, D; Barrera, C; Gacharná, M G

    1985-05-01

    Occupational Health is increasingly recognized as an area of importance in Latin American public health. In the agricultural sector of the region, the concentration of arable land into large holdings devoted to the production of export crops has resulted in the formation of a large migrant work force and greatly increased use of pesticides. The manufacturing sector of Latin America has grown rapidly in size and importance. Throughout the continent, increasing numbers of workers are employed in high-hazard industrial jobs. Limited studies of occupational disease in agriculture, mining, and manufacturing suggest that there is a high prevalence of work-related illness in the populations at risk. Trade unions are generally weak, and the high rate of unemployment and underemployment render occupational health a low priority for many workers. Engineering controls and personal protective equipment are unknown or inadequate in many industries, and there is a shortage of trained occupational health professionals in the region. Steps are being taken by many Latin American governments to begin to address this problem. Needed are: increased worker and professional training; a uniform set of exposure standards; control of multinational marketing and usage of hazardous substances; the development of technical equipment appropriate for local use and increased research on occupational exposure in populations in less developed countries. PMID:3985242

  15. Innovative community-based ecosystem management for dengue and Chagas disease prevention in low and middle income countries in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelman, Jacobo

    2015-02-01

    In 2009, the WHO Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) and the International Development Research Centre (IDRC) launched a call for innovative community-based ecosystem management research projects for dengue and Chagas disease prevention in low and middle income countries in Latin America and the Caribbean. Eight research institutions were selected. The outputs of these projects led to a better understanding of the interaction between ecological, biological, social and economic (eco-bio-social) determinants of dengue and Chagas disease in Latin America and the Caribbean. Both diseases are considered highly relevant in the regional health agendas.

  16. Update on asthma control in five European countries: results of a 2008 survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Demoly

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The 2006 European National Health and Wellness Survey (NHWS showed that a large proportion of asthmatics had uncontrolled asthma. The current analysis estimated the prevalence of asthma and asthma control (Asthma Control TestTM (ACT; QualityMetric Inc., Lincoln, RI, USA in five European countries using the 2008 NHWS. Health-related quality of life (HRQoL, using the Short Form-12 (SF-12 health survey, and work productivity/activity impairment were assessed. Of 3,619 respondents aged 18 yrs, the prevalence of self-reported physician diagnosis of asthma was 6.1% (15 million people; 56.6% of treated asthmatics were not well-controlled (NWC; ACT score 19. Individual components of the ACT showed that, compared with at least well-controlled patients (ALWC; ACT score 20, NWC patients had activity limitations at least some of the time (40.8% versus 1.5%, p<0.001, were breathless 3 times per week (72.5% versus 5.4%, p<0.001, suffered sleep difficulties due to asthma at least once per week (60.3% versus 4.6%, p<0.001 and required rescue medication 2–3 times per week (77.4% versus 15.9%, p<0.001. NWC patients had also received more healthcare contact in the past 6 months, including hospitalisation (17.4% versus 9.9%, p<0.001. The SF-12 physical and mental summary scores were 7.46 and 4.73 points higher, respectively, for ALWC patients compared with NWC patients (p<0.001. ALWC patients reported less absenteeism (5.5% versus 12.2% and work impairment (15.4% versus 30.0% than NWC patients (both p<0.001. The proportion of asthmatics with NWC asthma has not improved since 2006. ALWC asthma is associated with a significant positive impact on healthcare resource use, HRQoL and work productivity.

  17. A Decomposition of the Labour Market Participation of Married Women in Three Countries: Australia, Canada and the United States of America

    OpenAIRE

    Vera Brusentsev

    2000-01-01

    This study examines cross-national variation in the labour force participation of married women in Australia, Canada and the United States of America (USA), three countries of similar socio-economic development, in order to assess the observed differences in their labour market behaviour. While cross-national variation in labour force participation may be explained by a number of factors, a decomposition of the variation in cross-national labour market participation rates is explored in this ...

  18. Literacy and Access to the Written Culture by Youth and Adults Excluded from the School System . A cross-country field study in nine countries in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Rosa-Maria

    2008-11-01

    LITERACY AND ACCESS TO THE WRITTEN CULTURE BY YOUTH AND ADULTS EXCLUDED FROM THE SCHOOL SYSTEM - The title of this article refers to a field study carried out in 2006-2007 in nine countries in Latin America and the Caribbean. The article summarizes the basic concepts, aims, methodology and findings of the study. In conclusion, the author points out a number of important policy changes that are called for in this domain. While the study itself was carried out in a particular region, the findings have implications for a wider international audience.

  19. Antenatal syphilis screening using point-of-care testing in low- and middle-income countries in Asia and Latin America: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Kuznik

    Full Text Available Untreated syphilis in pregnancy is associated with adverse clinical outcomes to the infant. In low- and middle-income countries in Asia and Latin America, 20%-30% of women are not tested for syphilis during pregnancy. We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of increasing the coverage for antenatal syphilis screening in 11 Asian and 20 Latin American countries, using a point-of-care immunochromatographic strip (ICS test.The decision analytical cost-effectiveness models reported incremental costs per disability-adjusted life years (DALYs averted from the perspectives of the national health care payer. Clinical outcomes were stillbirths, neonatal deaths, and congenital syphilis. DALYs were computed using WHO disability weights. Costs included the ICS test, three injections of benzathine penicillin, and nurse wages. Country-specific inputs included the antenatal prevalence of syphilis and the proportion of women in the antenatal care setting that are screened for syphilis infection as reported in the 2014 WHO baseline report on global sexually transmitted infection surveillance. Country-specific data on the annual number of live births, proportion of women with at least one antenatal care visit, and per capita gross national income were also included in the model.The incremental cost/DALY averted of syphilis screening is US$53 (range: US$10-US$332; Prob<1*per capita GDP=99.71% in Asia and US$60 (range: US$5-US$225; Prob<1*per capita GDP=99.77% in Latin America. Universal screening may reduce the annual number of stillbirths by 20,344 and 4,270, neonatal deaths by 8,201 and 1,721, cases of congenital syphilis by 10,952 and 2,298, and avert 925,039 and 197,454 DALYs in the aggregate Asian and Latin American panel, respectively.Antenatal syphilis screening is highly cost-effective in all the 11 Asian and 20 Latin American countries assessed. Our findings support the decision to expand syphilis screening in countries with currently low screening rates or

  20. An update to "The cost-effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination : Comparative analyses for five European countries and transferability in Europe"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jit, Mark; Mangen, Marie-Josee J.; Melliez, Hugues; Yazdanpanah, Yazdan; Bilcke, Joke; Salo, Heini; Edmunds, W. John; Beutels, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    A cost-effectiveness analysis of rotavirus vaccination in Belgium, England and Wales, Finland, France and the Netherlands published in 2009 was updated based on recent studies on rotavirus burden of disease and vaccine efficacy. All the qualitative conclusions in the previous study were found to rem

  1. An update to "The cost-effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination: comparative analyses for five European countries and transferability in Europe".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jit, Mark; Mangen, Marie-Josée J; Melliez, Hugues; Yazdanpanah, Yazdan; Bilcke, Joke; Salo, Heini; Edmunds, W John; Beutels, Philippe

    2010-11-01

    A cost-effectiveness analysis of rotavirus vaccination in Belgium, England and Wales, Finland, France and the Netherlands published in 2009 was updated based on recent studies on rotavirus burden of disease and vaccine efficacy. All the qualitative conclusions in the previous study were found to remain valid. Vaccination remains cost-effective in Finland only when using plausible tender prices.

  2. The association between adult drug abuse and childhood maltreatment in students attending seven universities in five countries in Latin America and one country in the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Longman-Mills

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio busca identificar la relación entre el maltrato durante la infancia y el abuso de drogas entre estudiantes de siete Universidad en cinco países de Latin America y uno país del Caribe. Este es un estudio hecho en varios países utilizando un diseño de corte para colectar los datos del abuso de drogas y un levantamiento retrospectivo sobre el maltrato en la infancia. La muestra fue constituida de 2.283 estudiantes universitarios, de los cuales 82,6% informaran maltrato en la infancia, y 33,5% informaran ter niveles elevados de distress psicológicos. Los datos indicaran una relación significante (p<0.05 entre el maltrato en la infancia y el abuso de drogas en la vida adulta. A pesar de la técnica amuéstrale no permitir generalización para la población de estudiantes universitarios, el presente estudio identifico que la exposición al maltrato durante la infancia es un precursor potencial para el abuso de drogas durante la vida adulta. Por lo tanto, estrategias para reducir el consume de drogas entre las respectivas universidades poden mejorar su efectividad si incorporan políticas e intervenciones que llevan en consideración el aspecto del maltrato en la infancia.

  3. Space education in developing countries in the information era, regional reality and new educational material tendencies: example, South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sausen, Tania Maria

    The initial activities on space education began right after World War II, in the early 1950s, when USA and USSR started the Space Race. At that time, Space education was only and exclusively available to researchers and technicians working directly in space programs. This new area was restricted only to post-graduate programs (basically master and doctoral degree) or to very specific training programs dedicated for beginners. In South America, at that time there was no kind of activity on space education, simply because there was no activity in space research. In the beginning of the 1970s, Brazil, through INPE, had created masteral and doctoral courses on several space areas such as remote sensing and meteorology. Only in the mid-1980s did Brazil, after a UN request, create its specialisation course on remote sensing dedicated to Latin American professionals. At the same period, the Agustin Codazzi Institute (Bogota, Colombia) began to offer specialisation courses in remote sensing. In South America, educational space programs are currently being created for elementary and high schools and universities, but the author personally estimates that 90% of these educational programs still make use of traditional educational materials — such as books, tutorials, maps and graphics. There is little educational material that uses multimedia resources, advanced computing or communication methods and, basically, these are the materials that are best suited to conduct instructions in remote sensing, GIS, meteorology and astronomy.

  4. Immigrant America: A Portrait

    OpenAIRE

    Rumbaut, RG; Portes, A.

    2014-01-01

    This revised, updated, and expanded fourth edition of Immigrant America: A Portrait provides readers with a comprehensive and current overview of immigration to the United States in a single volume. Updated with the latest available data, Immigrant America explores the economic, political, spatial, and linguistic aspects of immigration; the role of religion in the acculturation and social integration of foreign minorities; and the adaptation process for the second generation. This revised ed...

  5. Decreases in weekly alcohol use in Europe and North America: evidence from 28 countries from 2002 to 2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Looze, M.E.; Raaijmakers, Q.A.W.; ter Bogt, T.F.M.; Bendtsen, Pernille; Farhat, Tilda; Ferreira, Mafalda; Godeau, Emmanuelle; Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Molcho, Michal; Pfoertner, Timo-Kolja; Simons-Morton, Bruce; Vollebergh, W.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study examined trends in adolescent weekly alcohol use between 2002 and 2010 in 28 European and North American countries. Methods: Analyses were based on data from 11-, 13- and 15-year-old adolescents who participated in the Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) study in 2

  6. Decreases in adolescent weekly alcohol use in Europe and North America: evidence from 28 countries from 2002 to 2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Looze, M.E. de; Raaijmakers, Q.A.W.; Bogt, T.F.M. ter; Bendtsen, P.; Farhat, T.; Ferreira, M.; Godeau, E.; Kuntsche, E.N.

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study examined trends in adolescent weekly alcohol use between 2002 and 2010 in 28 European and North American countries. Methods: Analyses were based on data from 11-, 13- and 15-year-old adolescents who participated in the Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) study in 2

  7. Worldwide burden of COPD in high- and low-income countries. Part II. Burden of chronic obstructive lung disease in Latin America: the PLATINO study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menezes, A.M.B.; Perez-Padilla, R.; Hallal, P.C.; Jardim, J.R.; Muino, A.; Lopez, M.V.; Valdivia, G.; Pertuze, J.; de Oca, M.M.; Talamo, C. [Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Pelotas (Brazil)

    2008-07-15

    The objective of the paper is to describe the burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Latin America. Five Latin American cities were investigated, namely, Sao Paulo, Brazil; Mexico City, Mexico; Montevideo, Uruguay; Santiago, Chile; Caracas, Venezuela. This is a multi Centre study. Post-bronchodilator spirometry was used and the main outcome measure was FEV1/FVC < 0.7 (fixed ratio criterion). Global Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stages were also analysed. The combined population aged {>=} 40 years in the five countries included in the study was approximately 85.3 million. Of these, it was estimated that 12.2 million have airflow obstruction, which corresponds to our prevalence estimate of 14.3%. The proportion of subjects in Stages II-IV of the GOLD classification was 5.6%. Risk factors presenting the highest actiological fractions for COPD were age, current smoking, indoor exposure to coal and exposure to dust in the workplace. Smoking, the modifiable factor with the strongest aetiological fraction for COPD, affects 29.2% of adults aged {>=} 40 years in these cities, corresponding to approximately 25 million smokers in this age group. Prevention of smoking and exposure to pollutants, such as coal and dust, are the interventions most likely to succeed against COPD in Latin America.

  8. Systematic Review of Breast Cancer Biology in Developing Countries (Part 1): Africa, the Middle East, Eastern Europe, Mexico, the Caribbean and South America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhikoo, Riyaz, E-mail: riyazbhikoo@gmail.com; Srinivasa, Sanket; Yu, Tzu-Chieh [Department of Surgery, South Auckland Clinical School, University of Auckland, Auckland 1640 (New Zealand); Moss, David [Department of Surgery, Middlemore Hospital, Auckland 1640 (New Zealand); Hill, Andrew G [Department of Surgery, South Auckland Clinical School, University of Auckland, Auckland 1640 (New Zealand)

    2011-05-13

    There has been no systematic appraisal of ethnicity-based variations in breast cancer (BC) biology amongst women from developing countries. A qualitative systematic review was conducted of breast cancer size, stage, grade, histological type, extra-mammary involvement, hormone receptor status as well as patient demographics. This review includes patients from Africa, the Middle East, Eastern Europe, Mexico, the Caribbean and South America. BC in these regions present at an earlier age with large aggressive tumours. Distant metastases are frequently present at the time of diagnosis. African women have a higher frequency of triple negative tumours. Over half of Middle Eastern women have lymph node involvement at the time of diagnosis. Despite experiencing a lower incidence compared to the Ashkenazi Jewish population, Palestinian women have poorer five-year survival outcomes. The majority of women from Mexico and South America have stage two or three disease whilst over sixty percent of women from Eastern Europe have either stage one or stage two disease. The biological characteristics of BC in the Caribbean cannot be fully assessed due to a paucity of data from the region. BC amongst the developing world is characterised by an early peak age of onset with aggressive biological characteristics. Strategies that improve breast cancer awareness, address amenable risk factors and improve early detection are essential.

  9. Systematic Review of Breast Cancer Biology in Developing Countries (Part 1: Africa, the Middle East, Eastern Europe, Mexico, the Caribbean and South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew G Hill

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available There has been no systematic appraisal of ethnicity-based variations in breast cancer (BC biology amongst women from developing countries. A qualitative systematic review was conducted of breast cancer size, stage, grade, histological type, extra-mammary involvement, hormone receptor status as well as patient demographics. This review includes patients from Africa, the Middle East, Eastern Europe, Mexico, the Caribbean and South America. BC in these regions present at an earlier age with large aggressive tumours. Distant metastases are frequently present at the time of diagnosis. African women have a higher frequency of triple negative tumours. Over half of Middle Eastern women have lymph node involvement at the time of diagnosis. Despite experiencing a lower incidence compared to the Ashkenazi Jewish population, Palestinian women have poorer five-year survival outcomes. The majority of women from Mexico and South America have stage two or three disease whilst over sixty percent of women from Eastern Europe have either stage one or stage two disease. The biological characteristics of BC in the Caribbean cannot be fully assessed due to a paucity of data from the region. BC amongst the developing world is characterised by an early peak age of onset with aggressive biological characteristics. Strategies that improve breast cancer awareness, address amenable risk factors and improve early detection are essential.

  10. Systematic Review of Breast Cancer Biology in Developing Countries (Part 1): Africa, the Middle East, Eastern Europe, Mexico, the Caribbean and South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There has been no systematic appraisal of ethnicity-based variations in breast cancer (BC) biology amongst women from developing countries. A qualitative systematic review was conducted of breast cancer size, stage, grade, histological type, extra-mammary involvement, hormone receptor status as well as patient demographics. This review includes patients from Africa, the Middle East, Eastern Europe, Mexico, the Caribbean and South America. BC in these regions present at an earlier age with large aggressive tumours. Distant metastases are frequently present at the time of diagnosis. African women have a higher frequency of triple negative tumours. Over half of Middle Eastern women have lymph node involvement at the time of diagnosis. Despite experiencing a lower incidence compared to the Ashkenazi Jewish population, Palestinian women have poorer five-year survival outcomes. The majority of women from Mexico and South America have stage two or three disease whilst over sixty percent of women from Eastern Europe have either stage one or stage two disease. The biological characteristics of BC in the Caribbean cannot be fully assessed due to a paucity of data from the region. BC amongst the developing world is characterised by an early peak age of onset with aggressive biological characteristics. Strategies that improve breast cancer awareness, address amenable risk factors and improve early detection are essential

  11. THE BRITISH WORLD AND ITS ROLE IN THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN NEW ZEALAND AND THE SOUTHERN CONE COUNTRIES OF SOUTH AMERICA, 1820-1914

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Twohill

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This research article traces the little-known relationship between New Zealand and the Southern Cone countries of South America that existed between 1820 and the First World War. While New Zealanders were found throughout Latin America in many occupations, undoubtedly because of the established British presence in the region, the links with the Southern Cone were particularly extensive. The basis of the relationship, which promised then to be on-going, was the movement of ships, goods, people, animals, plants, know-how, technology and capital across the Pacific, rather than any inter-state relationship.Este trabajo de investigación se refiere a las poco conocidas relaciones existentes entre Nueva Zelanda y los países del Cono Sur americano entre 1820 y la Primera Guerra Mundial. Aunque encontramos muchos neozelandeses trabajando en las más diversas ocupaciones en toda América Latina, lo que sin duda fue posible gracias a la presencia británica ya establecida, los lazos que se dieron en el Cono Sur fueron intensos. La base de la relación, que en ese entonces parecía ser permanente, fue el movimiento tanto de barcos, mercaderías, personas, animales, plantas, know-how, y tecnología, como de capitales que cruzaban el Pacífico de un lado al otro, más que relaciones entre países propiamente tales.

  12. Update on the mapping of prevalence and intensity of infection for soil-transmitted helminth infections in Latin America and the Caribbean: a call for action.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Idalí Saboyá

    Full Text Available It is estimated that in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC at least 13.9 million preschool age and 35.4 million school age children are at risk of infections by soil-transmitted helminths (STH: Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworms (Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale. Although infections caused by this group of parasites are associated with chronic deleterious effects on nutrition and growth, iron and vitamin A status and cognitive development in children, few countries in the LAC Region have implemented nationwide surveys on prevalence and intensity of infection. The aim of this study was to identify gaps on the mapping of prevalence and intensity of STH infections based on data published between 2000 and 2010 in LAC, and to call for including mapping as part of action plans against these infections. A total of 335 published data points for STH prevalence were found for 18 countries (11.9% data points for preschool age children, 56.7% for school age children and 31.3% for children from 1 to 14 years of age. We found that 62.7% of data points showed prevalence levels above 20%. Data on the intensity of infection were found for seven countries. The analysis also highlights that there is still an important lack of data on prevalence and intensity of infection to determine the burden of disease based on epidemiological surveys, particularly among preschool age children. This situation is a challenge for LAC given that adequate planning of interventions such as deworming requires information on prevalence to determine the frequency of needed anthelmintic drug administration and to conduct monitoring and evaluation of progress in drug coverage.

  13. Gender Associated with the Intention to Choose a Medical Specialty in Medical Students: A Cross-Sectional Study in 11 Countries in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayta-Tristán, Percy; Pereyra-Elías, Reneé; Montenegro-Idrogo, Juan José; Inga-Berrospi, Fiorella; Ancalli, Felix; Bonilla-Escobar, Francisco; Diaz-Velez, Cristian; Gutierrez-Quezada, Erick; Gomez-Alhach, Jennifer; Muñoz-Medina, Carlos E.; Sanchez-Pozo, Adriana; Vidal, Milisen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The selection of a medical specialty has been associated with multiple factors, such as personal preferences, academic exposure, motivational factors and sociodemographic factors, such as gender. The number of women in the medical field has increased in recent years. In Latin America, we have not found any studies that explore this relationship. Objective To determine whether there is an association between gender and the intention to choose a medical specialty in medical students from 11 countries in Latin America. Methods Secondary analysis of the Collaborative Working Group for the Research of Human Resources for Health (Red-LIRHUS) data; a multi-country project of students in their first year and fifth year of study, from 63 medical schools in 11 Latin American countries. All students who referred intention to choose a certain medical specialty were considered as participants. Results Of the 11073 surveyed students, 9235 indicated the name of a specific specialty. The specialties chosen most often in the fifth year were General Surgery (13.0%), Pediatrics (11.0%), Internal Medicine (10.3%) and Obstetrics/Gynecology (9.0%). For women, the top choices were Pediatrics (15.8%), Obstetrics/Gynecology (11.0%), Cardiology (8.7%), General Surgery (8.6%), and Oncology (6.4%). In the adjusted analysis, the female gender was associated with the choice of Obstetrics/Gynecology (RP: 2.75; IC95%: 2.24–3.39); Pediatric Surgery (RP: 2.19; IC95%: 1.19–4.00), Dermatology (RP: 1.91; IC95%:1.24–2.93), Pediatrics (RP: 1.83; IC95%: 1.56–2.17), and Oncology (RP: 1.37; IC95%: 1.10–1.71). Conclusions There is an association between the female gender and the intention to choose Obstetrics/Gynecology, Pediatrics, Pediatric Surgery, Dermatology, and Oncology. We recommend conducting studies that consider other factors that can influence the choice of a medical specialty. PMID:27519055

  14. Research within the coordinated programme on investigation of maintenance of nuclear instrumentation in developing countries. Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The situation in Peru with regard to the maintenance and repair of instruments used in nuclear medicine is presented. On the basis of responses to questionnaires it appears that 56 instruments for nuclear medicine are in use in the country, almost exclusively in the capital Lima. The average age of the instruments is 9.5 years. They are in use about 16.4% of the possible time. The development of nuclear medicine in Peru is in its initial stages and difficulties encountered arise both from the lack of training and experience in nuclear medicine on the part of the medical personnel as well as lack of experience of the technicians responsible for instrument maintenance. Practically no preventive maintenance ever takes place; action is only taken when an instrument breaks down. Various suggestions are made in order to attempt an improvement of the situation

  15. Are recommendations from carcinoma of the cervix Patterns of Care studies (PCS) in the United States of America (USA) applicable to centers in developing countries?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To compare patient demographics, treatment resources, practice patterns, and outcome results for squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix (SCC) between the 1978 and 1983 Patterns of Care studies (PCS) in the United States of America (USA) and a nonacademic center within a developing country. Methods and Materials: Patient details (race, age, stage, and number per year), treatment used, and treatment outcome were retrieved from the charts of the 1160 cases registered at this center with SCC of the cervix between 1976 and 1985. Demographic variables and Kaplan-Meier survival estimates were calculated and compared with results from published PCS reviews. Results: There is a significant difference in the racial group presentation of cervix cancer at this center compared with the PCS reviews (p < 0.005), and median ages are significantly lower at this center (t = p < 0.001). The proportion of patients with Stage III or more was significantly higher at this center than the PCS centers (24 vs. 47%, p < 0.001). There were also vast differences in facility resources. Fewer cases at this center underwent intracavitary insertions than at PCS centers. Mean Point A doses were significantly reduced for this center compared with the PCS reviews. Kaplan-Meier estimates were similar for Stage I and II in PCS centers and this center, but were inferior for this center in Stage III patients (p < 0.05 for OS and p < 0.01 for LC). Late morbidity rates were similar for both PCS centers and this center. Conclusion: PCS recommendations may be applicable to nonacademic centers within developing countries, if the latter use staging techniques that are consistent with the PCS staging guidelines

  16. Five new species of Trigonopeltastes Burmeister and Schaum from Central America with new country records for other New World Trichiini (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Cetoniinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew B. T.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Five new species of Trigonopeltastes Burmeister and Schaum, 1840 are described: Trigonopeltastes arborfloricola sp. n. from Nicaragua, Trigonopeltastes formidulosus sp. n. from Costa Rica, Trigonopeltastes henryi sp. n. from Costa Rica, Trigonopeltastes mombachoensis sp. n. from Nicaragua, and Trigonopeltastes warneri sp. n. from Belize and Guatemala. An updated key to species of Trigonopeltastes is presented. Trigonopeltastes nigrinus Bates, 1889 and Trigonopeltastes carus Bates, 1889 are placed in synonymy with Trigonopeltastes geometricus Schaum, 1841, syn. n.. The males of Trigonopeltastes aurovelutinus Curoe, 2011 and Trigonopeltastes simplex Bates, 1889 are described for the first time. New country records are given for the following: Giesbertiolus ornatus Howden, 1988: Costa Rica; Paragnorimus sambucus Howden, 1970: Guatemala; Trichiotinus bibens (Fabricius, 1775): Canada; Trigonopeltastes archimedes Schaum, 1841: Guatemala and Costa Rica; Trigonopeltastes frontalis Bates, 1889: Belize, Guatemala, and Honduras; Trigonopeltastes glabellus Howden, 1988: Guatemala; Trigonopeltastes geometricus Schaum, 1841: Honduras; Trigonopeltastes sallaei sallaei Bates, 1889: Guatemala and Honduras; Trigonopeltastes simplex Bates, 1889: Mexico; Trigonopeltastes variabilis Howden, 1968: Honduras. PMID:27667956

  17. Increasing prevalence of extended-spectrum-betalactamase among Gram-negative bacilli in Latin America: 2008 update from the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Virginia Villegas

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This analysis of the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART evaluated the susceptibility patterns of Enterobacteriaceae in Latin America in 2008, with emphasis on susceptibility trends of E. coli and K. pneumoniae. METHODS: Clinical isolates were recovered from intra-abdominal infections (IAI from 23 centers in 10 Latin American countries. Isolates were sent to a central laboratory for confirmation of identification, antimicrobial susceptibility and ESBL testing, following the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI guidelines. RESULTS: Of 1,003 Gram-negative bacilli collected from intra-abdominal infections, E. coli and K. pneumoniae were the most commonly isolated organisms, and 26.8% of E. coli and 37.7% of K. pneumoniae were ESBL positive. Ertapenem and imipenem were the most consistently active agents tested; 99% of ESBLpositive E. coli isolates were susceptible to ertapenem and 100% to imipenem as well, and 91% of ESBL-positive K. pneumoniae were susceptible to ertapenem and 98% to imipenem. Quinolones and cephalosporins were less active, achieving 1.5% to 76% inhibition against ESBL-producing E. coli and 3.5% to 61% inhibition against K. pneumoniae. CONCLUSIONS: Local and unit-specific surveillance data is particularly important for selection of empiric therapy and in community-acquired infections as they can help the clinician with antibiotic selection by providing guidance regarding the likely pathogens and their resistance profiles. Our data also confirm the increasing frequency with which ESBL-producing organisms are found in the community setting, with 31.4% of communityacquired and 24.9% of hospital-acquired infections found to produce ESBLs. Imipenem and ertapenem are the most active agents tested for ESBL-positive E. coli and K. pneumoniae.

  18. Population Migration in Rural America: January 1980-January 1993. Quick Bibliography Series: QB 93-35. Updates QB 91-40.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Patricia La Caille

    This bibliography contains 137 entries related to population migration in rural America. The entries were derived from the AGRICOLA database produced by the National Agricultural Library and include journal articles, government reports, conference papers, extension bulletins, and books. Entries cover such topics as demography, economic growth,…

  19. Anxiety and depression during pregnancy in Central America : a cross-sectional study among pregnant women in the developing country Nicaragua

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, T.; Arjadi, R.; Vendrik, J. J.; Burger, H.; Berger, M. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Around the world, maternal psychopathology during pregnancy is associated with a range of negative consequences for mother and child. Nevertheless, in Central America the magnitude of this public health problem is still unknown. The objective of this first explorative study was to invest

  20. Coming to America: Does Immigrant's Home Country Economic Status Impact the Probability of Self-Employment in the U.S.?

    OpenAIRE

    Oyelere, Ruth Uwaifo; Belton, Willie

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of home country economic status on immigrant self-employment probability in the U.S. We estimate a probability model and find that, consistent across race, immigrants from developed countries are more likely to be self-employed in the U.S than are immigrants from developing countries. This result is unexpected given previous research which suggests that immigrants from countries with high levels of self-employment tend to be more involved in self-employment in t...

  1. The impact of the biotechnology in the sustainable development of the agriculture in the Latin America and Caribbean region: The Andean countries as model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In accordance with the premise that the base of the sustainable agricultural development is based on the conviction that it is possible to increase the agricultural production without affecting the natural resources non-renewable, the author makes a conceptual mark of the technological revolution in Latin America, he makes an analysis of the environment and the paper of the different organisms of the state inside this field

  2. Prevalence and Social Determinants of Smoking in 15 Countries from North Africa, Central and Western Asia, Latin America and Caribbean: Secondary Data Analyses of Demographic and Health Surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrashekhar T Sreeramareddy

    Full Text Available Article 20 of the World Health Organisation Framework Convention on Tobacco Control calls for a cross-country surveillance of tobacco use through population-based surveys. We aimed to provide country-level prevalence estimates for current smoking and current smokeless tobacco use and to assess social determinants of smoking.Data from Demographic and Health Surveys done between 2005 and 2012, among men and women from nine North African, Central and West Asian countries and six Latin American and Caribbean countries were analyzed. Weighted country-level prevalence rates were estimated for 'current smoking' and 'current use of smokeless tobacco (SLT products' among men and women. In each country, social determinants of smoking among men and women were assessed by binary logistic regression analyses by including men's and women's sampling weights to account for the complex survey design.Prevalence of smoking among men was higher than 40% in Armenia (63.1%, Moldova (51.1%, Ukraine (52%, Azerbaijan (49.8 %, Kyrgyz Republic (44.3 % and Albania (42.52% but the prevalence of smoking among women was less than 10% in most countries except Ukraine (14.81% and Jordan (17.96%. The prevalence of smokeless tobacco use among men and women was less than 5% in all countries except among men in the Kyrgyz Republic (10.6 %. Smoking was associated with older age, lower education and poverty among men and higher education and higher wealth among women. Smoking among both men and women was associated with unskilled work, living in urban areas and being single.Smoking among men was very high in Central and West Asian countries. Social pattern of smoking among women that was different from men in education and wealth should be considered while formulating tobacco control policies in some Central and West Asian countries.

  3. Five new species of Trigonopeltastes Burmeister and Schaum from Central America with new country records for other New World Trichiini (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Cetoniinae)

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew B. T. Smith

    2016-01-01

    Five new species of Trigonopeltastes Burmeister and Schaum, 1840 are described: Trigonopeltastes arborfloricola sp. n. from Nicaragua, T. formidulosus sp. n. from Costa Rica, T. henryi sp. n. from Costa Rica, T. mombachoensis sp. n. from Nicaragua, and T. warneri sp. n. from Belize and Guatemala. An updated key to species of Trigonopeltastes is presented. Trigonopeltastes nigrinus Bates, 1889 and Trigonopeltastes carus Bates, 1889 are placed in synonymy with Trigonopeltastes geometricus Schau...

  4. An Updated Interpretation to the Position of the Kula-Farallon Ridge Against North America During the Late Cretaceous: Isotopic Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Garcia, J. C.; Herrero-Bervera, E.

    2007-05-01

    The initial break-up of the Pacific plate about 85 Ma ago into the Izanagi, Pacific, Kula and Farallon plates proposed by Woods and Davies [1982], has been documented by Engebretson et al., [1985] based on the absolute movement of the plates with respect to fixed Hot Spots (Hawaii and Yellowstone). Due to the lack of data from the oceanic crust that has already been subducted at the trench, in their corresponding reconstruction at 80 Ma ago, the uncertainty exists as to whether the crest was abutting against North America in southern Guatemala or north of Vancouver, an uncertainty of about 4500 km. Isotopic ages of crystalline rocks along the Pacific coast of Mexico from the state of Jalisco and the state of Oaxaca, a stripe 1,100 Km long, indicate a systematic decrease in Rb/Sr mineral ages, from 80 Ma in Jalisco to 11 Ma in Oaxaca, apparently related to the migration of the Chortis block (Honduras and Nicaragua) being detached from Mexico and transported by the Farallon plate toward the southeast. These results agree with previous published results. At Puerto Vallarta, Jalisco, the biotite mineral age obtained is 80 Ma, soon after the fragmentation of the Pacific plate proposed by Woods and Davies [1982]. This change in tectonic regime from a subduction zone to a transform margin is documented in that part of Mexico by a magmatic hiatus lasting roughly 25 Ma that initiates about 80 Ma ago, as well [Pantoja-Alor, 1983]. These data suggest that the Kula-Farallon ridge had to be located somewhere north of Puerto Vallarta, at the time of fragmentation of the Pacific plate 85 Ma ago. The counterclockwise paleomagnetic rotations reported from both the Pacific coast of Mexico and Honduras support these conclusions. On the other hand, the analyses of paleomagnetic data and field geology from British Columbia [Umhoefer, 1987] indicates a large displacement of that region along the Pacific margin of North America, of the order of 2,400 Km, from the present- day position of

  5. Geographic distribution of human Blastocystis subtypes in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Juan David; Sánchez, Angie; Hernández, Carolina; Flórez, Carolina; Bernal, María Consuelo; Giraldo, Julio Cesar; Reyes, Patricia; López, Myriam Consuelo; García, Lineth; Cooper, Philip J; Vicuña, Yosselin; Mongi, Florencia; Casero, Rodolfo D

    2016-07-01

    Blastocystis is a cosmopolitan enteric protist colonizing probably more than 1 billion people. This protozoan exhibits genetic diversity and is subdivided into subtypes (STs). The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of Blastocystis STs in symptomatic and asymptomatic human samples from different countries of South America. A total of 346 fecal samples were genotyped by SSU rDNA showing ST1 (28.3%), ST2 (22.2%), ST3 (36.7%), ST4 (2%), ST5 (2.3%), ST6 (2%), ST7 (2.3%), ST8 (0.6%), ST12 (0.9%) and a novel ST (2.7%). These findings update the epidemiology of Blastocystis in South America and expand our knowledge of the phylogeographic differences exhibited by this stramenopile. PMID:27034056

  6. The design and effectiveness of active labor market programs in OECD countries: a review of recent evidence for Latin America and the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Finn, Dan

    2012-01-01

    From the 1990s governments in many countries with extensive social protection systems have sought to realign their labor market policies by shifting their policy focus from “passive” income support payments towards more “active” programs. Such “active” measures include a diverse range of interventions and programs aimed at improving the functioning of the labor market, notably by matching the unemployed and other disadvantaged groups to jobs or, by enhancing their employability and skills to ...

  7. 2013 Building America Research Planning Meeting Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzger, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hunt, S. [Confluence Communications, Missoula, MT (united States)

    2014-02-01

    The Building America Research Planning Meeting was held October 28-30, 2013, in Washington, DC. This meeting provides one opportunity each year for the research teams, national laboratories and Department of Energy (DOE) managers to meet in person to share the most pertinent information and collaboration updates. This report documents the presentations, highlights key program updates, and outlines next steps for the program.

  8. Country-level correlates of cervical cancer mortality in Latin America and the Caribbean Determinantes a nivel país de la mortalidad por cáncer cervicouterino en Latinoamérica y el Caribe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Pereira-Scalabrino

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify country-level correlates of geographical variations in cervical cancer (CC mortality in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: CC mortality rates for LAC countries (n=26 were examined in relation to country-specific socio-economic indicators (n=58 and Human Papilloma Virus (HPV prevalence using linear regression models. RESULTS: High mortality at ages OBJETIVO: Identificar variables a nivel de país que expliquen las variaciones geográficas en la mortalidad por cáncer cervicouterino (CaCu en América Latina y el Caribe (AL. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: Se examinaron las tasas de mortalidad por CaCu de cada país (n=26 mediante modelos de regresión lineal en relación con indicadores socioeconómicos (n=58 y prevalencia del virus del papiloma humano (VPH. RESULTADOS: Alta mortalidad en menores de cinco años, bajo gasto total en salud per-cápita y baja proporción de población con acceso a saneamiento básico son los mejores predictores de mortalidad por CaCu (R² =77%. En los países (n=10 con estimaciones de prevalencia de VPH, estos indicadores socioeconómicos y la prevalencia de VPH de alto riesgo explicaron el 98% de la variabilidad de CaCu en AL. CONCLUSIÓN: Las mejoras en el nivel socioeconómico en AL están asociadas con reducciones en la mortalidad por CaCu, a pesar de la ausencia de programas organizados de tamizaje e inmunización contra VPH.

  9. Lynch syndrome in South America: past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccaro, Carlos A; Sarroca, Carlos; Rossi, Benedito; Lopez-Kostner, Francisco; Dominguez, Mev; Calo, Natalia Causada; Cutait, Raul; Valle, Adriana Della; Nuñez, Lina; Neffa, Florencia; Alvarez, Karin; Gonzalez, Maria Laura; Kalfayan, Pablo; Lynch, Henry T; Church, James

    2016-07-01

    After decades of unawareness about Lynch syndrome, the medical community in South America is increasingly interested and informed. The visits and support of mentors like H. T. Lynch had been crucial to this awakening. Several countries have at least one registry with skilled personnel in genetic counseling and research. However, this only represents a very restricted resource for the region. According to the GETH, there are 27 hereditary cancer care centers in South America (21 in Brazil, 3 in Argentina, 1 in Uruguay, 1 in Chile and 1 in Peru). These registries differ in fundamental aspects of function, capabilities and funding, but are able to conduct high quality clinical, research and educational activities due to the dedication and personal effort of their members, and organizational support. More support from the governments as well as the participation of the community would boost the initiatives of people leading these groups. Meantime, the collaboration among the South American registries and the involvement of registries and leaders from developed countries will allow to maximize the efficiency in caring for affected patients and their families. The aim of this article is to describe how the knowledge of LS began to be spread in South America, how the first registries were organized and to summarize the current state of progress. In addition, we will provide an update of the clinical and molecular findings in the region. PMID:27007491

  10. ERAWATCH Country Reports 2012: Lithuania

    OpenAIRE

    PALIOKAITE Agne

    2014-01-01

    This analytical country report is one of a series of annual ERAWATCH reports produced for EU Member States and Countries Associated to the Seventh Framework Programme for Research of the European Union (FP7). The main objective of the ERAWATCH Annual Country Reports is to characterise and assess the performance of national research systems and related policies in a structured manner that is comparable across countries. The Country Report 2012 builds on and updates the 2011 edition. The re...

  11. Convergence Patterns in Latin America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quiroga, Paola Andrea Barrientos

    Literature on convergence among Latin American countries is still scarce compared to other regions. Moreover, almost none of the research connects convergence to the economic history of Latin America and the usual finding is one speed of convergence. In this paper I analyze 32 countries and 108...

  12. Evolution of the Earthquake Catalog in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, W.; Camacho, E. I.; Marroquín, G.; Molina, E.; Talavera, E.; Benito, M. B.; Lindholm, C.

    2013-05-01

    Central America (CA) is known as a seismically active region in which several historic destructive earthquakes have occurred. This fact has promoved the development of seismic hazard studies that provide necessary estimates for decision making and risk assessment efforts, requiring a complete and standardized seismic catalog. With this aim, several authors have contributed to the study of the historical seismicity of Central America (e.g. Grases, Feldaman; White y Harlow, 1993; White et al. 2004; Ambraseys y Adams, 2001; Peraldo y Montero, 1999), who complied historical data. A first catalogue was developed by Rojas (1993) that comprises the 1522 to 1993 period. This information was integrated in 2007, together with data from the International Seismological Centre (CASC) and the national catalogs of CA countries in a new regional catalogue. Since 2007 a continuous effort has been done in order to complete and update this CA earthquake catalog. In particular, two workshops were held in 2008 and 2011 in the Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (Spain), joining experts from the different CA countries who worked each one in its own catalogue covering the entire region and the border with northwestern Colombia and southern Mexico. These national catalogues were later integrated in a common regional catalogue in SEISAN format. At this aim it was necessary to solve some problems, like to avoid duplicity of events, specially close to the boundaries, to consider the different scales of magnitude adopted by different countries, to take into account the completeness by the different national networks, etc. Some solutions were adopted for obtaining a homogenized catalogue to Mw, containing historical and instrumental events with Mw > 3.5 from 1522 up to 2011. The catalogue updated to December 2007 was the basis for the first regional hazard study carried out by Benito et al., (2011) as part of the collaborative RESIS II project under coordination of NORSAR. The ones updated to

  13. Latin America: emerging nuclear market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The need for nuclear power in Latin American countries is surveyed. It is concluded that Latin America offers the greatest external market for all exporters of nuclear reactors and associated services in the near future. Mexico, Venezuela, Ecuador, and Bolivia are the only countries with fossil-fuel reserves adequate to meet their requirements in the next 20 to 30 years. Nuclear power is a necessity to maintain or improve the standard of living in the countries of Brazil, Argentina, Chile, and Peru

  14. Electricity in Latin America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breeze, P.

    1998-12-01

    The report provides an overview of the Latin American power market; analyses the power generation, transmission and distribution capabilities of 20 countries in central and south America; includes detailed comparative data on current capacity, shortfall and growth; investigates the existing network infrastructures and projected demand; examines the opportunities for independent power producers resulting from deregulation; assesses indigenous and imported fuel resources; and discusses the broad financial opportunities and restraints.

  15. [Travellers to South America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloveras, Susana Cristina

    2011-12-01

    The geography, tourist attractions and the multiple sites of historical and cultural interest make South America as an important destination chosen by travelers. The continent has a wide climatic variation from north to south, making exposure to risk different between the tropics and the temperate or cold regions. In the countries of tropical South America, the greatest risk is associated with the possibility of acquiring vector-borne diseases, like yellow fever, dengue, malaria and leishmaniasis. The risk of acquiring traveler's diarrhea and food-borne illness is similar across the continent, with some variations according to country and to visit urban or rural areas. Rabies, pertussis and diphtheria have appeared as epidemics in several countries and other diseases such as rickettsiosis, hantavirosis and viral encephalitis have expanded their distribution. The geographic and epidemiological diversity of South America, promotes a challenge for travel medicine specialists because during the pre-travel advice they have to take in account the kind of trip, traveller's medical history, exposure to risk and the dynamics of endemic emerging and reemerging diseases in the region.

  16. O neoliberalismo na America Latina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ibarra

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Neoliberalism in Latin America. Neoliberalism and globalization had decisive influence in shaping public policies both internal and foreign in Latin America. Less state, trade and market freedoms, social goals subordinated to economic criteria, are part and parcel of the neoliberal utopia. Price stability was erected as the main social objective; import substitution resulted replaced by exports as the main source of growth. The neoliberal net results as applied to Latin America are: less growth, deindustrialization, income concentration and precarious employments. Therefore, countries public policies should try to gain autonomy to use jointly markets and public intervention in a constructive and innovative fashion.

  17. Building America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brad Oberg

    2010-12-31

    IBACOS researched the constructability and viability issues of using high performance windows as one component of a larger approach to building houses that achieve the Building America 70% energy savings target.

  18. M ulticultural Citizenship Education in America and Implication for National Minority Education in our Country%美国多元文化公民教育及对我国公民教育的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文丽; 王鉴

    2016-01-01

    Complex multicultural society background has brought many difficultiesto thedevelopment of America . The education for children from poor immigrant families has become the focus of the citizenship educationwith eliminating racial prejudice asitscore objective . To reconstruct the multicultural citizenship education in America , the relationship between different races should beimproved , and ethnic prejudice and discrimination must be eliminated .Meanwhile ,students of different gender ,from diverse races ,and with diverse ethnic and language backgrounds should be helped to acquireknowledge , values and skills . So that they canparticipate actively in individual , social and civic activities to construct a democratic society of justice and fair , and to build a system of citizenship education evolving from nationalism to globalism . China , as a multinational and multicultural country , should also expand the connotation of citizenship educationin terms of its education ideas and methods . Citizenship education in our country should also be reformed fromitsobjectives ,contents and methodsto fit the needs of China in the context of globalization .%复杂的多元文化社会背景给美国的发展带来诸多困境。贫困移民子女的教育成为公民教育的重点,消除种族偏见成为公民教育的核心目标。重构美国多元文化公民教育,应通过改善各族群关系,消除民族偏见与歧视,让所有学生,不分性别、种族、民族及语言背景都有权利获取有效的知识和技能、形成正确的态度和价值观,从而参与到跨文化的个人、社会、公民活动中去,构建公平、公正的民主社会,构建一个从民族主义到国家主义再到世界主义的全球公民教育体系。中国作为多民族多文化的国家,在教育的理念与方法上,也要扩大公民教育的内涵。从民族成员到国家公民再到全球公民,我国的公民教育也要从目标、内容

  19. Building America Research-to-Market Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werling, Eric [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-11-01

    This report presents the Building America Research-to-Market Plan (Plan), including the integrated Building America Technology-to-Market Roadmaps (Roadmaps) that will guide Building America’s research, development, and deployment (RD&D) activities over the coming years. The Plan and Roadmaps will be updated as necessary to adapt to research findings and evolving stakeholder needs, and they will reflect input from DOE and stakeholders.

  20. 2013 Building America Research Planning Meeting Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzger, C. E.; Hunt, S.

    2014-02-01

    The Building America (BA) Research Planning Meeting was held October 28-30, 2013, in Washington, DC. This meeting provides one opportunity each year for the research teams, national laboratories and Department of Energy (DOE) managers to meet in person to share the most pertinent information and collaboration updates. This report documents the presentations, highlights key program updates, and outlines next steps for the program.

  1. Haematopoietic cell transplants in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, R P; Seber, A; Bonfim, C; Pasquini, M

    2016-07-01

    Haematopoietic cell transplants are done by more than 1500 transplant centres in 75 countries, mostly for life-threatening haematological disorders. However, transplant technology and access are not uniformly distributed worldwide. Most transplants are done predominately in Europe, North America and some Asian countries. We review transplant activity in Latin America, a geographic region with a population of >600 million persons living in countries with diverse economic and social development levels. These data indicate a 20-40-fold lower frequency of transplants in Latin America compared with Europe and North America. We show that although economics, infrastructure and expertise are important limitations, other variables also operate. Changes in several of these variables may substantially increase transplant activity in Latin America. PMID:26999468

  2. Nuclear governance in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Layla Dawood

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article provides an outlook of the regional relations concerning nuclear technology in Latin America. For that purpose, we initially discuss the historic relationship of the Latin American countries with the set of rules, norms, principles and organizations involved in nuclear governance. The article provides an analysis of the connection between the multilateral institutional framework and the bilateral arrangements aimed at curbing the proliferation of nuclear weapons in the region. The current state of nuclear cooperation among the countries of the region is also mapped. In addition, the article assesses the peaceful use of nuclear technology in the region and the potential expansion of the use of nuclear energy by the Latin American countries. Considerations on the trends for nuclear cooperation among the countries of Latin America are also offered.

  3. SOUTH AMERICA: INDUSTRIAL ROUNDWOOD SUPPLY POTENTIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronalds W. Gonzalez

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available South America has substantial potential to expand its forest plantations and raw material supply. From 1997 to 2005, South America had a high annual growth rate in the production of industrial roundwood, with Brazil and Chile being the most important countries. In the same period, Asia had the only negative regional production growth rate in the world, and China became the largest round wood importer in the world. This paper summarizes the status of production, consumption, imports, and exports of industrial roundwood and forest products in South America. Produc-tion and exports from South America have continually increased at annual growth rates exceeding the forestry sector in general and the U.S. in particular. Based on timber growing investments to date, a strong timber production and forest products manufacturing sector has developed in the Southern Cone countries of Chile, Brazil, Argentina, and Uruguay, and is increasing in other countries in Latin America. There will be continued opportunities for forest plantations and new manufacturing facilities throughout South America, tempered somewhat by perceived country financial and political risks. These opportunities will allow South America to increase its share of world production and increase imports to North America and to Asia.

  4. Music Therapy in South America

    OpenAIRE

    Lia Rejane Mendes Barcellos

    2001-01-01

    Music is one of the most important and strongest types of cultural expression in South America. With diverse roots in the myriad of cultures of the many countries which shape our continent, music contributes to the South American identity. Distinct sounds, rhythms, styles and instruments compose a musical tissue, in which it is possible to recognize the special colors of a specific country or the printed image of the sonorous "language" from a special region.

  5. Illiterate America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozol, Jonathan

    Intended for those involved in American social service and educational communities, this book addresses the widespread problem of illiteracy in the United States and the social consequences of this problem. Following an introduction, the chapters in the first section of the book discuss the growing crisis of illiterate America, specifically, the…

  6. Cybersecurity Update

    CERN Document Server

    Heagerty, Denise

    2008-01-01

    An update on recent security issues and vulnerabilities affecting Windows, Linux and Mac platforms. This talk is based on contributions and input from a range of colleagues both within and outside CERN. It covers clients, servers and control systems.

  7. Website updates

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Updates to Website: (Please add new items at the top of this description with the date of the website change) May 9, 2012: Uploaded experimental data in matlab...

  8. Circular Updates

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Circular Updates are periodic sequentially numbered instructions to debriefing staff and observers informing them of changes or additions to scientific and specimen...

  9. Language Politics in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopalan, Kanavillil

    2005-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to take stock of the politics of language as it has been playing out in Latin America, ever since the countries in this region were colonized by European powers, mainly Spain and Portugal. Linguistic imperialism is by no means a new phenomenon in this part of the world. In more recent times, the relentless advance of…

  10. ERAWATCH Country Reports 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimpe, Christoph

    the performance of national research systems and related policies in a structured manner that is comparable across countries. The Country Report 2012 builds on and updates the 2011 edition. The report identifies the structural challenges of the national research and innovation system and assesses the match...... originally produced in December 2012, focusing on policy developments over the previous twelve months. The reports were produced by independent experts under direct contract with IPTS. The analytical framework and the structure of the reports have been developed by the Institute for Prospective Technological...

  11. Energy market integration in South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article is a summary of presentations made during the 1997 Winter Meeting panel session on Power and Natural Gas in Latin America: Towards an Integrated Market. Reregulation and demand for energy resources to support economic growth are driving international natural gas and electricity exchange initiatives. Panelists focused on the gas and electric power industry in Latin America in terms of the: transport of gas or transmission of electricity; energy market integration in the southern cone of South America; and issues on gas use for electricity generation in South America countries. Countries such as Argentina, Bolivia, and Peru will export natural gas to Brazil, Uruguay, Paraguay and Chile, an the energy matrices of these countries will change

  12. America's Nomads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Diana

    1981-01-01

    Examines economic, housing, nutrition, and health conditions faced by migrant workers in the United States. Reveals migrant workers to be living in conditions similar to the poor in underdeveloped, third world countries. (DA)

  13. Update '98.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mock, Karen R.

    1998-01-01

    Updates cases and issues previously discussed in this regular column on human rights in Canada, including racism and anti-Semitism, laws on hate crimes, hate sites on the World Wide Web, the use of the "free speech" defense by hate groups, and legal challenges to antiracist groups by individuals criticized by them. (DSK)

  14. Latin America`s emerging non-proliferation consensus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redick, J.R.

    1994-03-01

    Latin America`s incorporation into the international nuclear non-proliferation regime is well advanced. The 1967 Tlatelolco Treaty, which established a regional nuclear-weapon-free zone (NWFZ), is nearing completion. A signal event occurred January 18, when Argentina and Chile deposited instruments of ratification to the treaty, leaving Brazil and Cuba the only major countries in Latin America that are not yet contracting parties. And after more than two decades of concern about the nuclear programs and policies in Argentina and Brazil, there is room for great optimism that Brazil may now be moving quickly on important non-proliferation issues. Even Cuba, the {open_quotes}bad boy of the neighborhood{close_quotes} in the eyes of many, which held aloof from the Tlatelolco process for three decades, has stated its willingness to join the zone in the future.

  15. Is the web a promising tool for data collection in developing countries? An analysis of the sample bias of 10 web and face-to-face surveys from Africa, Asia, and South America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Tijdens; S. Steinmetz

    2015-01-01

    Whereas the sample composition biases of web surveys have been discussed extensively for developed countries, studies for developing countries are scarce. This article helps to fill that gap by comparing similar non-probability-based web surveys (WEB) and probability-based face-to-face (F2F) surveys

  16. First Record of Transversotrema Witenberg, 1944 (Digenea) from the Americas, with Comments on the Taxonomy of Transversotrema patialense (Soparkar, 1924) Crusz and Sathananthan, 1960, and an Updated List of Its Hosts and Geographic Distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Womble, Matthew R; Cox-Gardiner, Stephanie J; Cribb, Thomas H; Bullard, Stephen A

    2015-12-01

    Specimens of Transversotrema patialense (sensu lato) ( Soparkar, 1924 ) Crusz and Sathananthan, 1960 (Digenea: Transversotrematidae) infected the skin (epidermal spaces beneath scales near pectoral fins) of 4 of 126 (prevalence 3%; mean intensity 1.8) zebrafish ( Danio rerio (Hamilton, 1822) [Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae]) purchased in 2009 and cultured by a California (USA) fish supplier. These fish were sold as "laboratory-reared" and "specific pathogen free," purportedly raised in a recirculating aquaculture system that included zebrafish only. We herein describe the morphological features of this transversotrematid using light and scanning electron microscopy, provide a comprehensive list of hosts (snails and fishes) and geographic locality records for specimens reported as T. patialense, which is perhaps a species complex, and provide a brief historical synopsis of the taxonomic and life history research that has been conducted on this fluke. No species of Transversotrema previously had been reported from the Americas; however, this discovery is not surprising given that: (1) a suitable intermediate host (red-rimmed melania, Melanoides tuberculata (Müller, 1774) [Cerithioidea: Thiaridae]) has been established in California and elsewhere in North America, (2) the zebrafish is a susceptible definitive host, and (3) T. patialense reportedly matures on a broad ecological and phylogenetic spectrum of freshwater fishes. To our knowledge, this is the northern-most geographic locality record for a species of this genus. We suspect this case study represents an example of a parasite that may now be established in North America by the fortuitous co-occurrence of a susceptible, exotic snail host (the red-rimmed melania) and a susceptible, widely distributed, exotic fish host (the zebrafish). PMID:26335181

  17. Country Nuclear Power Profiles - 2009 Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Country Nuclear Power Profiles compiles background information on the status and development of nuclear power programs in Member States. It consists of organizational and industrial aspects of nuclear power programs and provides information about the relevant legislative, regulatory, and international framework in each country. Its descriptive and statistical overview of the overall economic, energy, and electricity situation in each country, and its nuclear power framework is intended to serve as an integrated source of key background information about nuclear power programs in the world. The preparation of Country Nuclear Power Profiles (CNPP) was initiated in 1990s. It responded to a need for a database and a technical publication containing a description of the energy and economic situation, the energy and the electricity sector, and the primary organizations involved in nuclear power in IAEA Member States. This is the 2009 edition issued on CD-ROM and Web pages. It updates the country information for 44 countries. The CNPP is updated based on information voluntarily provided by participating IAEA Member States. Participants include the 30 countries that have operating nuclear power plants, as well as 14 countries having past or planned nuclear power programmes (Bangladesh, Egypt, Ghana, Indonesia, the Islamic Republic of Iran, Italy, Kazakhstan, Nigeria, Philippines, Poland, Thailand, Tunisia, Turkey and Vietnam). For the 2009 edition, 26 countries provided updated or new profiles. For the other countries, the IAEA updated the profile statistical tables on nuclear power, energy development, and economic indicators based on information from IAEA and World Bank databases

  18. Musculoskeletal evaluation in severe haemophilia A patients from Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozelo, M C; Villaça, P R; Pérez-Bianco, R; Candela, M; Garcia-Chavez, J; Moreno-Rodriguez, B; Rodrigues, M B; Rodriguez-Grecco, I; Solano, M H; Chumpitaz, G; Morales-Gana, M M; Ruiz-Sáez, A

    2014-01-01

    There is a paucity of literature on haemophilia treatment in Latin American countries, a region characterized by rapidly improving systems of care, but with substantial disparities in treatment between countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the musculoskeletal status of haemophilia patients from Latin America and to examine the relationship between musculoskeletal status and treatment practices across countries. The Committee of Latin America on the Therapeutics of Inhibitor Groups conducted a survey of its member country representatives on key aspects of haemophilia treatment in 10 countries. Musculoskeletal status of patients was obtained during routine comprehensive evaluations between March 2009 and March 2011. Eligible patients had severe haemophilia A (factor VIII Latin America, the musculoskeletal status of patients with severe haemophilia without inhibitors has improved significantly in association with the provision of long-term prophylaxis. As more countries in Latin America institute this practice, further improvements are anticipated.

  19. Demographic tensions in Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-08-01

    This discussion of Central America focuses on the rapid growth of its population, its stagnating economy, and those countries that are socioeconomically advanced. Between 1950-85 the population of Central America tripled, from 9.1 million to 26. 4 million, due to marked mortality declines and the absence of off-setting fertility declines. The distribution of Central Americas's growing populations sets its population growth apart from that of other developing regions. Currently, almost half of all Central Americans live in cities. Although the average growth rate for Central American countries has fallen and is expected to drop further, the decline does not counterbalance the effect of the absolute rise in population numbers. The average annual growth rate of more than 3% annually in the 1960s fell to about 2.6% in recent years, but this decline is due primarily to socioeconomically advanced Costa Rica and Panama. Central America's age structure further complicates the population crisis. About 43% of Central Americans are under the age of 15. When the increasingly larger young population group enters it reproductive years, the potential for future growth (albeit the falling rate of population increase) is unparalleled. UN population projections show the region's population at 40 million by the year 2000. The 1973 oil crisis began a downward spiral for the buoyant post World War II Central American economy. Between 1950-79, real per capita income growth in Central America doubled, with Central American economies growing an average of 5.3% annually. By the early 1980s, overseas markets of the trade-dependent countries of Central America had dried up due to protectionism abroad and slumping basic commodity prices. These and other factors plunged Central America into its current economic malaise of falling real per capita income, rising unemployment, curtailed export led economic growth, and a rising cost of living. In general, economic growth in Central America

  20. MICROSCALE CHEMISTRY IN LATIN AMERICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge G. Ibáñez

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A brief account of the development of Microscale Chemistry in Latin America is here presented. The US National Microscale Chemistry Center (Merrimack College, Massachusetts was instrumental in the initiationof several centers. Its Mexican counterpart, the Mexican Microscale Chemistry Center (CMQM, has been a key player in this process. Other participating countries include Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Cuba,Guatemala, Perú and Uruguay.

  1. America`s energy supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinmetz, C.P.

    1998-04-01

    The gist of the paper is to demonstrate that the economical utilization of the country`s energy supply requires generating electric power wherever hydraulic or fuel energy is available, and collecting the power electrically, just as it is distributed electrically. In the first section a short review of the country`s energy supply in fuel and water power is given, and it is shown that the total potential hydraulic energy of the country is about equal to the total utilized fuel energy. In the second section it is shown that the modern synchronous station is necessary for large hydraulic powers, but the solution of the problem of the economic development of the far more numerous smaller water powers is the adoption of the induction generator. However, the simplicity of the induction generator station results from the relegation of all the functions of excitation, regulation, and control to the main synchronous station. The economic advantage of the induction generator station is that its simplicity permits elimination of most of the hydraulic development by using, instead of one large synchronous station, a number of induction generator stations and collecting their power electrically. The third section considers the characteristics of the induction generator and the induction-generator station, and its method of operation, and discusses the condition of ``dropping out of step of the induction generator`` and its avoidance. In the appendix the corresponding problem is pointed out with reference to fuel power, showing that many millions of kilowatts of potential power are wasted by burning fuel and thereby degrading its energy, that could be recovered by interposing simple steam turbine induction generators between the boiler and the steam heating systems, and collecting their power electrically.

  2. From upstream to downstream: Megatrends and latest developments in Latin America`s hydrocarbons sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Kang; Pezeshki, S.; McMahon, J.

    1995-08-01

    In recent years, Latin America`s hydrocarbons sector has been characterized by reorganization, revitalization, regional cooperation, environmental awakening, and steady expansion. The pattern of these changes, which appear to be the megatrends of the region`s hydrocarbons sector development, will continue during the rest of the 1990s. To further study the current situation and future prospects of Latin America`s hydrocarbons sector, we critically summarize in this short article the key issues in the region`s oil and gas development. These megatrends in Latin America`s hydrocarbons sector development will impact not only the future energy demand and supply in the region, but also global oil flows in the North American market and across the Pacific Ocean. Each country is individually discussed; pipelines to be constructed are discussed also.

  3. Country Outposts

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCollum, Sean

    2010-01-01

    Being an LGBT youth in America has never been a Gay Pride Parade, no matter the community setting. But most rural schools prove an especially unhappy and dispiriting place for kids whose sexuality or gender expression does not fit within community expectations. Those are the findings of researchers for the Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education…

  4. [Inequities in cardiovascular diseases in Latin America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Nancy L; Diez Roux, Ana V

    2013-01-01

    In high-income countries, social inequalities in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk are well-documented. Although Latin America has a rich history of theory and conceptual discussion regarding social inequalities in health, empirical research has been more limited. In this commentary we summarize recent empirical work on social inequalities in CVD risk in Latin America, and highlight key research needs as well as implications for prevention. Although much remains unknown about the social patterning of CVD in Latin America, the limited studies to date indicate that inequalities in CVD risk vary across populations and markers of socioeconomic position, as well as disease risk marker. The strongest social inequalities are seen among women, and in urban areas, with regards to obesity, diabetes, and diet. Few studies, though, have been conducted in some parts of Latin America, including the countries of Central America and northern South America. Vital registration systems and nationally-representative risk factor surveys can be important sources of data, as long as information on socioeconomic indicators is collected. Longitudinal studies will also be important for investigating factors driving social inequalities. As policies and prevention strategies are put into place to reduce CVD in Latin America, they must also address factors generating social inequalities in CVD risk.

  5. Botswana country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-09-01

    This study was carried out in Botswana, Tanzania and Zambia as part of the project `Climate Change Mitigation in Southern Africa` funded by the Danish International Development Agency (Danida). The project was conducted parallel to the UNEP/GEF project `Economics of Greenhouse Gas Limitations` which involved 8 other developing countries and 2 regional projects in Latin America and the SADC region. The limitation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is a complex issue, intimately connected with economic development at local, national, regional and global levels. Key economic sectors such as energy, agriculture, industry and forestry all produce GHGs, and are likely to be affected directly and indirectly by any mitigation policy. The UNEP Greenhouse Gas Abatement Costing Studies, initiated in 1991, attempted to address these complex issues, developing a methodological framework and testing it through practical application in ten countries. (EHS) 28 refs.

  6. Enterprise Surveys : Grenada Country Profile 2010

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank; International Finance Corporation

    2011-01-01

    The Country Profile for Grenada is based on data from the Enterprise Surveys conducted by the World Bank. The benchmarks include the averages for the group of countries in Latin America & Caribbean and the Grenada income group. The enterprise surveys focus on the many factors that shape the decisions of firms to invest. These factors can be accommodating or constraining and play an importa...

  7. Enterprise Surveys : Guatemala Country Profile 2009

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank; International Finance Corporation

    2011-01-01

    The Country Profile for Guatemala is based on data from the Enterprise Surveys conducted by the World Bank. The benchmarks include the averages for the group of countries in Latin America & Caribbean and the Guatemala income group. The enterprise surveys focus on the many factors that shape the decisions of firms to invest. These factors can be accommodating or constraining and play an imp...

  8. Enterprise Surveys : Mexico Country Profile 2010

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank; International Finance Corporation

    2011-01-01

    The Country Profile for Mexico is based on data from the Enterprise Surveys conducted by the World Bank. The benchmarks include the averages for the group of countries in Latin America & Caribbean and the Mexico income group. The enterprise surveys focus on the many factors that shape the decisions of firms to invest. These factors can be accommodating or constraining and play an important...

  9. Inspection of Home Education in European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blok, Henk; Karsten, Sjoerd

    2011-01-01

    In many European countries and in North America, home education is a viable alternative for education at school. Parents who want to home school their child are legally allowed to do so, although some countries impose rather strict conditions. This article concentrates on the way authorities supervise or inspect the quality of home education. A…

  10. Temporal Trends in Late Preterm and Early Term Birth Rates in 6 High-Income Countries in North America and Europe and Association With Clinician-Initiated Obstetric Interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richards, Jennifer L.; Kramer, Michael S.; Deb-Rinker, Paromita;

    2016-01-01

    high-income countries and assess association with use of clinician-initiated obstetric interventions. Design: Retrospective analysis of singleton live births from 2006 to the latest available year (ranging from 2010 to 2015) in Canada, Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden, and the United States. Exposures......: Use of clinician-initiated obstetric intervention (either labor induction or prelabor cesarean delivery) during delivery. Main Outcomes and Measures: Annual country-specific late preterm (34-36 weeks) and early term (37-38 weeks) birth rates. Results: The study population included 2 415 432 Canadian...

  11. Country Nuclear Power Profiles - 2007 Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preparation of Country Nuclear Power Profiles (CNPP) was initiated within the framework of the IAEA's programme on assessment and feedback of nuclear power plant performance. It responded to a need for a database and a technical publication containing a description of the energy and economic situation, the energy and the electricity sector, and the primary organizations involved in nuclear power in IAEA Member States. It covers background information on the status and development of nuclear power programmes in countries having nuclear plants in operation and/or plants under construction. This is the 2007 edition issued on CD-ROM and Web pages. It updates the country information, in general, to the end of 2006 for 39 countries. The CNPP is updated based on information voluntarily provided by participating IAEA Member States. Participants include the 30 countries that have operating nuclear power plants, as well as nine countries having past or planned nuclear power programmes (Bangladesh, Egypt, Indonesia, the Islamic Republic of Iran, Italy, Kazakhstan, Poland, Turkey, and Vietnam). For the 2007 edition, 21 countries provided information to the IAEA to update their profiles. For the 18 other countries, the IAEA updated the profile statistical tables on nuclear power, energy development, and economic indicators based on information from IAEA and World Bank databases. These 18 countries are Argentina, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, China, Egypt, Finland, Indonesia, Japan, Mexico, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Switzerland, and Ukraine. Overall, the CNPP reviews the organizational and industrial aspects of nuclear power programmes in participating countries, and provides information about the relevant legislative, regulatory and international frameworks in each country. It compiles the current issues in the new environment within which the electricity and nuclear sector operates, i.e. energy policy, and privatization and deregulation in

  12. Nutritional situation in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-01

    PAHO member countries maintain food and nutrition surveillance systems. The prevalence of malnutrition among children aged 0-4 in Latin American and Caribbean countries ranges from 0.8% in Chile to 38.5% in Guatemala. It is 2.9% in the US. Low height-for-age is most common among children aged 0-4 in Guatemala (57.9%), Bolivia (38.3%), Peru (35.2%), and Ecuador (34%). The interval between observations of malnutrition prevalence ranged from 22 years in Honduras to 3-4 years in Nicaragua and Panama. Overall, there was a downward trend in malnutrition rates in the Americas. Yet, malnutrition is increasing in Guatemala and Panama. Breast feeding, good weaning practices, appropriate feeding during disease episodes, nutrition education, and programs for immunization and control of diarrhea and respiratory diseases account for the downward trend. Anemia rates among pregnant women (=or 11 g Hb/dl) vary from 13% in Asuncion, Paraguay, to 61% in Misiones, Argentina. Those for preschoolers range from 22% to 45% in Brazil and 27% to 53% in Peru. The prevalence of goiter is more than 50% in Merida, Venezuela, and Chameza, Colombia. It differs greatly in different areas within the same country. Most countries have laws requiring iodination of all salt for human consumption, yet violations are common. Certain areas of the countries in the Americas have vitamin A deficiency rates ranging from 5% to 48.8%. Some countries have enacted laws for sugar enrichment with retinol palmitate to reduce vitamin A deficiency. During the 1970s, deaths from chronic diseases related to nutrition increased 105% in South America, 56% in Central America, Mexico, and Panama, and 21% in the Caribbean. Prevalence of obesity among children aged 0-6 varies from 2.2% in Nicaragua and Brazil to 10.7% in Chile. Adult obesity is most common in Uruguay (about 50%). It is more common among females than males. The highest rates among 20-29 year olds are in Chile, Costa Rica, Cuba, and Peru. The US adult obesity

  13. Mineral Facilities of Latin America and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Rachel; Eros, Mike; Quintana-Velazquez, Meliany

    2006-01-01

    This data set consists of records for over 900 mineral facilities in Latin America and Canada. The mineral facilities include mines, plants, smelters, or refineries of aluminum, cement, coal, copper, diamond, gold, iron and steel, nickel, platinum-group metals, salt, and silver, among others. Records include attributes such as commodity, country, location, company name, facility type and capacity if applicable, and generalized coordinates. The data were compiled from multiple sources, including the 2003 and 2004 USGS Minerals Yearbooks (Latin America and Candada volume), data to be published in the 2005 Minerals Yearbook Latin America and Canada Volume, minerals statistics and information from the USGS minerals information Web site (minerals.usgs.gov/minerals), and data collected by USGS minerals information country specialists. Data reflect the most recent published table of industry structure for each country. Other sources include statistical publications of individual countries, annual reports and press releases of operating companies,and trade journals. Due to the sensitivity of some energy commodity data, the quality of these data should be evaluated on a country-by-country basis. Additional information and explanation is available from the country specialists.

  14. Updating systematic reviews: an international survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantelle Garritty

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Systematic reviews (SRs should be up to date to maintain their importance in informing healthcare policy and practice. However, little guidance is available about when and how to update SRs. Moreover, the updating policies and practices of organizations that commission or produce SRs are unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The objective was to describe the updating practices and policies of agencies that sponsor or conduct SRs. An Internet-based survey was administered to a purposive non-random sample of 195 healthcare organizations within the international SR community. Survey results were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The completed response rate was 58% (n = 114 from across 26 countries with 70% (75/107 of participants identified as producers of SRs. Among responders, 79% (84/107 characterized the importance of updating as high or very-high and 57% (60/106 of organizations reported to have a formal policy for updating. However, only 29% (35/106 of organizations made reference to a written policy document. Several groups (62/105; 59% reported updating practices as irregular, and over half (53/103 of organizational respondents estimated that more than 50% of their respective SRs were likely out of date. Authors of the original SR (42/106; 40% were most often deemed responsible for ensuring SRs were current. Barriers to updating included resource constraints, reviewer motivation, lack of academic credit, and limited publishing formats. Most respondents (70/100; 70% indicated that they supported centralization of updating efforts across institutions or agencies. Furthermore, 84% (83/99 of respondents indicated they favoured the development of a central registry of SRs, analogous to efforts within the clinical trials community. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Most organizations that sponsor and/or carry out SRs consider updating important. Despite this recognition, updating practices are not regular, and many organizations lack

  15. Yellow fever: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monath, T P

    2001-08-01

    Yellow fever, the original viral haemorrhagic fever, was one of the most feared lethal diseases before the development of an effective vaccine. Today the disease still affects as many as 200,000 persons annually in tropical regions of Africa and South America, and poses a significant hazard to unvaccinated travellers to these areas. Yellow fever is transmitted in a cycle involving monkeys and mosquitoes, but human beings can also serve as the viraemic host for mosquito infection. Recent increases in the density and distribution of the urban mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti, as well as the rise in air travel increase the risk of introduction and spread of yellow fever to North and Central America, the Caribbean and Asia. Here I review the clinical features of the disease, its pathogenesis and pathophysiology. The disease mechanisms are poorly understood and have not been the subject of modern clinical research. Since there is no specific treatment, and management of patients with the disease is extremely problematic, the emphasis is on preventative vaccination. As a zoonosis, yellow fever cannot be eradicated, but reduction of the human disease burden is achievable through routine childhood vaccination in endemic countries, with a low cost for the benefits obtained. The biological characteristics, safety, and efficacy of live attenuated, yellow fever 17D vaccine are reviewed. New applications of yellow fever 17D virus as a vector for foreign genes hold considerable promise as a means of developing new vaccines against other viruses, and possibly against cancers. PMID:11871403

  16. Country News.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Population Education Newsletter and Forum, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Reports on the progress of population education programs in various countries in Asia and the Pacific region. Describes current developments in Bangladesh, China, India, Malaysia, Maldives, and Viet Nam. (TW)

  17. Legislation on renewable energy sources in Central America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the development of renewable energy in Central America and the cooperation given by the European Comission in the promotion of renewable energy sources. Also discuss the current situation in energy demand in Central America and possible solutions linked to legislation that promotes the inversion of the private sector. The legal framework in each country of Central America is presented and its impact in the increasing of generation of energy through tax reductions, trading and prices

  18. Leading countries in mental health research in Latin America and the Caribbean Os países líderes em pesquisa em saúde mental na América Latina e Caribe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Razzouk

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The prevalence and burden of mental disorders have been growing in Latin-American and the Caribbean countries and research is an important tool for changing this scenario. The objective of this paper is to describe the development of mental health research in Latin American and the Caribbean countries from 1995 to 2005. METHOD: The indicators of productivity were based on the ISI Essential Science Indicators database. We compared the number of papers and citations, as well as the number of citations per paper between 1995 and 2005 for each country ranked in the Essential Science Indicators. RESULT: Eleven Latin-American countries were ranked in the ISI database and six of them demonstrated a higher level of development in mental health research: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, and Venezuela. Mexico produced the largest number of papers, while Brazil showed a larger number of citations per paper. CONCLUSION: Mental health research is still incipient in Latin American and the Caribbean countries, and many challenges remain to be overcome. Also, it is necessary to establish the research priorities, to allocate more funding, and to improve researchers training in research method and design.OBJETIVO: A prevalência e a carga dos transtornos mentais vêm crescendo nos países latino-americanos e a pesquisa tem sido considerada uma importante ferramenta para alterar este cenário. Este estudo descreve o desenvolvimento da pesquisa em saúde mental nos países latino-americanos e Caribe no período de 1995 a 2005. MÉTODO: Foram utilizados os indicadores de produtividade baseados no banco de dados "Essential Science Indicators" do ISI. Foram comparados o número total de artigos e citações e também o número de citações por artigo para cada um dos países classificados no Essential Science Indicators. RESULTADOS: Foram encontrados 11 países latino-americanos e Caribe no ISI, e seis destes apresentaram um maior

  19. Adolescent Literacies in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Lesley; Lopez, Dina; Mein, Erika; Valdiviezo, Laura A.

    2011-01-01

    In 2000, approximately 36 million youth and adults living in Latin America and the Caribbean were reported to be unable to read or write basic texts. Of these, 20 million were women. According to official statistics, some countries in Central America (Guatemala, Nicaragua, El Salvador, and Honduras) have a youth and adult literacy rate of 80% or…

  20. Chao Mung Den Dat My (Welcome to America).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Los Angeles County Commission on Human Relations, CA.

    The purpose of this booklet is to introduce Southeast Asian refugees to some American attitudes and social styles. The complete English text is repeated in Khmer (Cambodian language) and Vietnamese. Topics discussed include: America as a very young country; America as a mixture of different people; that urban life is complex, fast-paced, and…

  1. The role of family relations, spirituality and entertainment in moderating peer influence and drug use among students of eight universities from five countries in Latin America and three from the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Alonso Caravaca Morera

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudio multicéntrico que analiza el papel de las relaciones familiares, la espiritualidad y la diversión-fiestas como moderadores de la relación entre la influencia de pares y el uso de drogas entre estudiantes de ocho universidades de cinco países de America Latina y tres del Caribe. La muestra fue composta de 2198 estudiantes de Facultades de Ciencias Sociales y de Ciencias de la Salud. El Uso de drogas fue la variable dependiente y la influencia de pares (número de alumnos usando drogas la independiente. Los resultados indicaron que las relaciones familiares problemáticas, participar de muchas fiestas y tener muchos amigos utilizando drogas aumentó la oportunidad de los estudiantes de la muestra a utilizaren drogas ilícitas. La única interacción estadísticamente significante para el uso de drogas lícitas e ilícitas fue la diversión/fiestas/amigos usando drogas. El uso de drogas lícitas presenta grande variabilidad entre las universidades de la muestra, potencialmente influenciada por aspectos culturales/religiosos.

  2. Pinta: Latin America's Forgotten Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, Lola V

    2015-11-01

    Pinta is a neglected, chronic skin disease that was first described in the sixteenth century in Mexico. The World Health Organization lists 15 countries in Latin America where pinta was previously endemic. However, the current prevalence of pinta is unknown due to the lack of surveillance data. The etiological agent of pinta, Treponema carateum, cannot be distinguished morphologically or serologically from the not-yet-cultivable Treponema pallidum subspecies that cause venereal syphilis, yaws, and bejel. Although genomic sequencing has enabled the development of molecular techniques to differentiate the T. pallidum subspecies, comparable information is not available for T. carateum. Because of the influx of migrants and refugees from Latin America, U.S. physicians should consider pinta in the differential diagnosis of skin diseases in children and adolescents who come from areas where pinta was previously endemic and have a positive reaction in serological tests for syphilis. All stages of pinta are treatable with a single intramuscular injection of penicillin. PMID:26304920

  3. Cohabitation in Latin America: a comparative perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Sussai Soares, Maira Covre

    2014-01-01

    The coexistence of marriage and cohabitation is an intriguing feature of Latin American nuptiality. Historically common among lower social classes in Central America and the Caribbean, the incidence of cohabitation is also increasing among higher educated groups and southern Latin American countries. This study uses census and survey data to investigate the characteristics of Latin American cohabitation.First, the countries’ socioeconomic characteristics, related to the incidence of cohabitat...

  4. Country Nuclear Power Profiles - 2013 Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Country Nuclear Power Profiles compile background information on the status and development of nuclear power programmes in Member States. The CNPP summarizes organizational and industrial aspects of nuclear power programs and provides information about the relevant legislative, regulatory, and international framework in each country. Its descriptive and statistical overview of the overall economic, energy, and electricity situation in each country and its nuclear power framework is intended to serve as an integrated source of key background information about nuclear power programs in the world. This 2013 edition, issued on CD-ROM and Web pages, contains updated country information for 51 countries

  5. Regular database update logics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruit, Paul; Wieringa, Roel; Meyer, John-Jules

    2001-01-01

    We study regular first-order update logic (FUL), which is a variant of regular dynamic logic in which updates to function symbols as well as to predicate symbols are possible. We fi1rst study FUL without making assumptions about atomic updates. Second, we look at relational algebra update logic (RAU

  6. Lawsuit Updates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Keda Elevator Company Infringes "KODAK" Trademark Right Ruling No. Suzhongminchuzi 0213/2005 The US Eastman Kodak began to use the "KODAK" as a trademark on camera in 1888, and it has, so far, registered nearly 1,700 "KODAK" trademarks in more than 150 countries and regions. From early 2005, the Keda Elevator Company (Keda for short) began to use the "KODAK" word only or together with "KEDA" in a top-down arrangement, on its lift and elevator products, its corporate signboard, its employees' name cards, ...

  7. Brucellosis update in Libya and regional prospective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mohamed O; Abouzeed, Yousef M; Bennour, Emad M; van Velkinburgh, Jennifer C

    2015-02-01

    Brucellosis is a global bacterial zoonosis responsible for high morbidity in humans and significant livestock economic losses. While brucellosis remains a public health concern worldwide, its global geographic distribution is variable, largely due to different management schemes; however, paucity of information renders the status of brucellosis unclear and incomplete in many countries, especially those with low income and under-developed infrastructure. This short article summarizes and discusses recent important updates on brucellosis from the North African countries, with a particular brief emphasis on the current status and recent updates in Libya.

  8. Latin America: Intercultural Experiential Learning Aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT. Language Research Center.

    This learning aid is intended to help Americans become more effective in understanding and communicating with Latin Americans. The book consists of the following: (1) a map of Latin America, with area and population statistics for the various countries; (2) a brief description of the land, the people, the economy, diet, religion, government,…

  9. Country Nuclear Power Profiles - 2010 Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Country Nuclear Power Profiles compiles background information on the status and development of nuclear power programs in Member States. It consists of organizational and industrial aspects of nuclear power programs and provides information about the relevant legislative, regulatory, and international framework in each country. Its descriptive and statistical overview of the overall economic, energy, and electricity situation in each country, and its nuclear power framework is intended to serve as an integrated source of key background information about nuclear power programs in the world. The preparation of Country Nuclear Power Profiles (CNPP) was initiated in 1990s. It responded to a need for a database and a technical publication containing a description of the energy and economic situation, the energy and the electricity sector, and the primary organizations involved in nuclear power in IAEA Member States. This is the 2010 edition issued on CD-ROM and Web pages. It updates the country information for 48 countries. The CNPP is updated based on information voluntarily provided by participating IAEA Member States. Participants include the 29 countries that have operating nuclear power plants, as well as 19 countries having past or planned nuclear power programmes (Bangladesh, Belarus, Chile, Egypt, Ghana, Indonesia, the Islamic Republic of Iran, Italy, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Lithuania, Morocco, Nigeria, Philippines, Poland, Thailand, Tunisia, Turkey and Vietnam). For the 2010 edition, 24 countries provided updated or new profiles. For the other countries, the IAEA updated the profile statistical tables on nuclear power, energy development, and economic indicators based on information from IAEA and World Bank databases. The CNPP reports have been prepared by each Member State in accordance with the IAEA format. The IAEA is not responsible for the content of these reports

  10. Country Nuclear Power Profiles - 2011 Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Country Nuclear Power Profiles compiles background information on the status and development of nuclear power programs in Member States. It consists of organizational and industrial aspects of nuclear power programs and provides information about the relevant legislative, regulatory, and international framework in each country. Its descriptive and statistical overview of the overall economic, energy, and electricity situation in each country, and its nuclear power framework is intended to serve as an integrated source of key background information about nuclear power programs in the world. The preparation of Country Nuclear Power Profiles (CNPP) was initiated in 1990s. It responded to a need for a database and a technical publication containing a description of the energy and economic situation, the energy and the electricity sector, and the primary organizations involved in nuclear power in IAEA Member States. This is the 2011 edition issued on CD-ROM and Web pages. It updates the country information for 50 countries. The CNPP is updated based on information voluntarily provided by participating IAEA Member States. Participants include the 29 countries that have operating nuclear power plants, as well as 21 countries having past or planned nuclear power programmes (Bangladesh, Belarus, Chile, Egypt, Ghana, Indonesia, the Islamic Republic of Iran, Italy, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kuwait, Lithuania, Morocco, Nigeria, Philippines, Poland, Syrian Arab Republic, Thailand, Tunisia, Turkey and Vietnam). For the 2011 edition, 23 countries provided updated or new profiles. For the other countries, the IAEA updated the profile statistical tables on nuclear power, energy development, and economic indicators based on information from IAEA and World Bank databases.

  11. Private hospitals in Latin America - An investor's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleaton-Jones, Ioan P

    2015-01-01

    Private hospitals are expanding in Latin America, but the industry is less developed in this region than in some other emerging markets. Groups of hospitals are emerging in countries such as Brazil, Mexico, Colombia and Peru. However, they haven't reached the size of hospital groups in Malaysia, India and South Africa. They also remain domestically focused, while companies from the aforementioned three emerging markets outside Latin America have expanded to multiple other countries and have listed on stock exchanges to access more capital to finance their expansion. It is very likely that these trends seen in other emerging markets will manifest in Latin America as it continues to develop.

  12. Geoparks in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Geopark is a territory delimited part of a holistic concept of protection, education and sustainable development, based on geological sites of particular importance, rarity or aesthetic geological sites. A Geopark achieves its goals through three main areas: geoconservation, education and geotourism. The first network of Geoparks born in Europe in 2000, and from 2004 UNESCO is promoting the creation of a Global Geoparks Network (Global Geoparks Network, GGN ). Currently, there are 64 Global Geoparks in 19 countries, and the movement is in full development. In Latin America there is hardly Araripe Geopark in Brazil. Presented in this work, projects and studies related to the development of Geoparks in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Peru and Venezuela. We understand that Colombia, Cuba, Ecuador, Mexico and Nicaragua have projects in this line, but the details are not yet readily available. The authors invite geoscientists and professionals in related fields to join a movement for the creation of the Latin American Network of Geoparks, intended as a framework for the conservation, sustainable use and disclosure of our national geological heritage

  13. Manganese Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Sousa Galito

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cheickna Bounajim Cissé wrote an article in Mars 2013 in the Journal Les Afriques N. º 237, suggesting a new acronym, MANGANESE, for the nine African countries: Morocco, Angola, Namibia, Ghana, Algeria, Nigeria, Egypt, South Africa and Ethiopia. According to Cissé, this group of African nations will be the fastest growing states in the region over the next few years. The purpose of this article is to test the pertinence of the acronym, discuss the credibility and reliability of the future prospects of these countries by comparing selected socioeconomic and sociopolitical indicators based on the latest global rankings and trends. Likewise, the potential of Cissé's claim will be assessed, especially in relationship to drug trafficking and terrorism that may put their recent sustainability in danger now and in the future.

  14. Natural gas in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite having proven reserves equal to that of North America, natural gas has traditionally played a minor role in the energy policies of Latin American countries, being considered secondary to oil. There has, therefore, been a neglect of the sector with a resultant lack of an adequate infrastructure throughout the region, perhaps with the exception of Argentina. However, with a massive increase in energy demand, growing concerns with environmental matters and a need to reduce the massive pollution levels in major cities in the region, natural gas is forecast to play a much greater role in Latin America's energy profile, with final consumption forecast to rise at 5.4% per annum for the next 15 years. This book assesses both the development of the use of natural gas in the power industrial sector and proposals for its growth into the residential, commercial and transport sectors. It analyses the significant investment required and the governments' need to turn to the private sector for investment and innovation. Natural Gas in Latin America analyses the possibilities and pitfalls of investing in the sector and describes the key trends and issues. It analyses all aspects of the gas industry from exploration and production to transportation and distribution to end users. (Author)

  15. Update on rabies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan C Jackson

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Alan C JacksonDepartments of Internal Medicine (Neurology and Medical Microbiology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, CanadaAbstract: Human rabies is almost invariably fatal, and globally it remains an important public health problem. Our knowledge of rabies pathogenesis has been learned mainly from studies performed in experimental animal models, and a number of unresolved issues remain. In contrast with the neural pathway of spread, there is still no credible evidence that hematogenous spread of rabies virus to the central nervous system plays a significant role in rabies pathogenesis. Although neuronal dysfunction has been thought to explain the neurological disease in rabies, recent evidence indicates that structural changes involving neuronal processes may explain the severe clinical disease and fatal outcome. Endemic dog rabies results in an ongoing risk to humans in many resource-limited and resource-poor countries, whereas rabies in wildlife is important in North America and Europe. In human cases in North America, transmission from bats is most common, but there is usually no history of a bat bite and there may be no history of contact with bats. Physicians may not recognize typical features of rabies in North America and Europe. Laboratory diagnostic evaluation for rabies includes rabies serology plus skin biopsy, cerebrospinal fluid, and saliva specimens for rabies virus antigen and/or RNA detection. Methods of postexposure rabies prophylaxis, including wound cleansing and administration of rabies vaccine and human rabies immune globulin, are highly effective after recognized exposure. Although there have been rare survivors of human rabies, no effective therapy is presently available. Therapeutic coma (midazolam and phenobarbital, ketamine, and antiviral therapies (known as the “Milwaukee protocol” were given to a rabies survivor, but this therapy was likely not directly responsible for the favorable outcome. New therapeutic

  16. [An overview of telehealth initiatives in Latin America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Alaneir de Fátima; D'Agostino, Marcelo; Bouskela, Maurício Simon; Fernandéz, Andrés; Messina, Luiz Ary; Alves, Humberto José

    2014-01-01

    This article aimed to systematize the views on telehealth in Latin America and to present the experience of building an instrument for monitoring the development of telehealth initiatives based on the reality of this region. A group was structured to coordinate telehealth efforts in Latin America, with members appointed by the ministries of health of 16 countries. Five thematic groups were also set up. Based on international experiences and focusing on the reality of telehealth in the continent, an instrument was created to monitor the development of telehealth in Latin America. Several countries have national telehealth projects: Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Panama. Others are in the process of development and early deployment: Bolivia, Costa Rica, Cuba, El Salvador, Guatemala, Peru, Venezuela. The instrument described in the article, which is still being tested, proposes a characterization of countries according to their telehealth development stage: nonexistent, nascent, intermediate, advanced, and exemplary. Currently, important telehealth initiatives are already underway in Latin America.

  17. Progress and remaining challenges for cancer control in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser-Weippl, Kathrin; Chavarri-Guerra, Yanin; Villarreal-Garza, Cynthia; Bychkovsky, Brittany L; Debiasi, Marcio; Liedke, Pedro E R; Soto-Perez-de-Celis, Enrique; Dizon, Don; Cazap, Eduardo; de Lima Lopes, Gilberto; Touya, Diego; Nunes, Joāo Soares; St Louis, Jessica; Vail, Caroline; Bukowski, Alexandra; Ramos-Elias, Pier; Unger-Saldaña, Karla; Brandao, Denise Froes; Ferreyra, Mayra E; Luciani, Silvana; Nogueira-Rodrigues, Angelica; de Carvalho Calabrich, Aknar Freire; Del Carmen, Marcela G; Rauh-Hain, Jose Alejandro; Schmeler, Kathleen; Sala, Raúl; Goss, Paul E

    2015-10-01

    Cancer is one of the leading causes of mortality worldwide, and an increasing threat in low-income and middle-income countries. Our findings in the 2013 Commission in The Lancet Oncology showed several discrepancies between the cancer landscape in Latin America and more developed countries. We reported that funding for health care was a small percentage of national gross domestic product and the percentage of health-care funds diverted to cancer care was even lower. Funds, insurance coverage, doctors, health-care workers, resources, and equipment were also very inequitably distributed between and within countries. We reported that a scarcity of cancer registries hampered the design of credible cancer plans, including initiatives for primary prevention. When we were commissioned by The Lancet Oncology to write an update to our report, we were sceptical that we would uncover much change. To our surprise and gratification much progress has been made in this short time. We are pleased to highlight structural reforms in health-care systems, new programmes for disenfranchised populations, expansion of cancer registries and cancer plans, and implementation of policies to improve primary cancer prevention. PMID:26522157

  18. Why Schools in America Should Not Be Like Schools in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Barbara S. S.

    2014-01-01

    America is not Singapore and Singapore cannot be America. So why are we often comparing ourselves to high-performing countries based on international exams? Despite the educational crisis many U.S. schools are facing, Americans should be cautious not to mimic another country's model within our diverse classrooms. We are largely grounded on…

  19. Updated site compilation of the Latin American Pollen Database

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.G.A. Flantua; H. Hooghiemstra; E.C. Grimm; H. Behling; M.B Bush; C. González-Arrango; W.D. Gosling; M.-P. Ledru; S. Lozano-Garciá; A. Maldonado; A.R. Prieto; V. Rull; J.H. van Boxel

    2015-01-01

    The updated inventory of the Latin American Pollen Database (LAPD) offers a wide range of new insights. This paper presents a systematic compilation of palynological research in Latin America. A comprehensive inventory of publications in peer-reviewed and grey literature shows a major expansion of s

  20. 2011 Residential Energy Efficiency Technical Update Meeting Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2011-11-01

    This report provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy Building America program's Summer 2011 Residential Energy Efficiency Technical Update Meeting. This meeting was held on August 9-11, 2011, in Denver, Colorado, and brought together more than 290 professionals representing organizations with a vested interest in energy efficiency improvements in residential buildings.

  1. Renewables global status report - 2009 Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    from conventional sources (including gas, coal, oil, and nuclear). Renewable energy industries boomed during most of 2008. Global solar PV production increased by 90 percent to 6.9 GW in 2008. China usurped Japan to become the new world leader in PV cell production and also experienced huge growth in its wind power industry, with many new companies producing wind turbines and components. Globally, the wind industry continued to push turbine sizes higher, with models of 3 MW or larger becoming more widespread. The concentrating solar power (CSP) industry saw many entrants and new manufacturing facilities. The ethanol and bio-diesel industries similarly expanded, particularly in North America and Latin America, and the cellulosic ethanol industry was in the process of booming, with 300 million liters per year of capacity under construction. Although the clean energy sector initially weathered the financial crisis in late 2008 better than many other sectors, renewable investment did experience a downturn after September 2008. However, projects continued to progress and many economic stimulus bills included components for supporting renewable energy. At the same time, development assistance for renewables in developing countries expanded greatly, reaching about $2 billion in 2008. By early 2009, policy targets existed in at least 73 countries, and at least 64 countries had policies to promote renewable power generation, including 45 countries and 18 states/provinces/territories with feed-in tariffs (many of these recently updated). The number of countries/states/ provinces with renewable portfolio standards increased to 49. Policy targets for renewable energy were added, supplemented, revised, or clarified in a large number of countries in 2008. Many forms of policy support for renewables were added, supplemented, or extended in a number of countries during 2008. For example, new solar PV subsidy programs were adopted in Australia, China, Japan, Luxembourg, the Netherlands

  2. Atomic energy in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most countries in Latin America, including all those on the mainland, are Members of the Agency. Interest in the possibilities of nuclear energy has led to considerable activity, much of it in direct collaboration with the IAEA. Member States in the region are: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela. Of these, Argentina, Brazil, Colombia and Venezuela are operating, and Mexico and Uruguay are constructing, research reactors, while Chile and Peru are studying proposals. Argentina, Brazil, Mexico and Uruguay have all agreed to accept Agency safeguards for reactors. The possibility of future needs for nuclear power is under examination by several countries, in some cases being related to desalination of water. All atomic work in Latin America is devoted to peaceful uses, and note-worthy progress has been made with proposals for a treaty which would make the whole region a militarily de-nuclearized zone. It is proposed that when this comes into effect the Agency will be asked to apply the controls developed in its safeguards system, and to carry out the inspections necessary to establish that work in progress is solely for peaceful purposes

  3. Measles update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-08-01

    Beginning May 19, 1998, and lasting through the middle of June, a follow-up vaccination campaign which used measles-mumps-rubella vaccine targeted 2,223,210 children, 1-4 years of age, in Venezuela. The vaccinations were performed at day care centers, health posts, and orphanages; door-to-door vaccination was conducted in rural areas. The measles epidemic began in 1992, with 22,321 confirmed cases of measles and 77 deaths; it lasted until early 1994, when there were 16,561 cases and 47 deaths. In 1994, the country launched a "catch-up" vaccination campaign which targeted all children between 9 months and 14 years of age; 98% coverage was reached. Between 1994 and 1996, when routine immunization services were used, the average coverage was 75%. Since the catch-up campaign, the number of confirmed measles cases decreased from 172 in 1995, to 89 in 1996, and to 27 in 1997. As of July 18, 1998, (epidemiological week 28), 452 suspected cases of measles were reported; none were confirmed. Another follow-up campaign will be conducted. In Bolivia, the measles outbreak began May 21, 1998, in areas bordering Argentina. The municipality of Yacuiba, in the department of Tarija, is primarily affected. The municipality, especially the localities of Yacuiba and Pocitos, borders the province of Salta in Argentina, and people cross the border often to shop. As of July 24, 1998, there were 49 suspected measles cases: 22 in Pocitos; 24 in Yacuiba; and 3 in El Palmar. 28 had serum samples taken, and 18 tested positive. The population group most affected were those between 1-4 years of age. A follow-up measles vaccination campaign, which targeted all children under 6 years of age regardless of their vaccination history, was conducted from June 1 to 21, 1998, in Salvador Masa (Argentina), in Pocitos, and in Yacuiba. As of August 10, 1998, in Argentina, 1874 confirmed measles cases and 11 deaths (6 under the age of 1 year) were reported. The first cases appeared in August 1997, in the

  4. Cancer epidemiology in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is estimated that there were over 10 million new cancer cases in 2000, 5.4 million of them occurring in the developing countries (Parkin et al, 2001). The marked geographical variation in cancer occurrence results in differing therapeutic priorities: North America has more new cancer cases than South-Central Asia, but there are more deaths from cancer in South-Central Asia, reflecting a different pattern of cancer rather than differences in prognosis. Prediction of future trends is difficult, but the impact of population increase and ageing will be significant, with an expected 63% increase in the population of the less developed countries in 50 years. Four sites of cancer namely breast, cervix, colorectal and nasopharyngeal carcinoma are reviewed, looking at their present and possible future importance in the context of developing countries and their aetiology

  5. The Tlatelolco treaty: An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America, known as the Tlatelolco Treaty, is the first - and up until now the only agreement - establishing a nuclear-weapon-free zone in an important, densely populated region of the earth. The Tlatelolco Treaty, which actually antedates the NPT, marked the culmination of a process undertaken as an act of sovereign will by the governments of the Latin American countries. It was opened for signature on 14 February 1967 and entered into force on 25 April 1969. The author gives a review of the Treaty and its history

  6. La industria farmacéutica y la sostenibilidad de los sistemas de salud en países desarrollados y América Latina The pharmaceutical industry and the sustainability of healthcare systems in developed countries and in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Iñesta

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available La crisis económica y su impacto en las finanzas públicas en la mayoría de los países desarrollados, están originando políticas de contención del gasto en los servicios de salud. Las leyes actuales del medicamento exigen calidad, seguridad y eficacia de estos productos. Algunos países incluyen criterios de eficiencia para los nuevos medicamentos que desean ser incluidos en la financiación pública. El consumo apropiado de genéricos y "medicamentos biosimilares" es muy importante para mantener el equilibrio financiero de los servicios de salud. El problema en América Latina es que no todos los productos multifuentes son bioequivalentes y no todos los países tienen los recursos necesarios para realizar los estudios de bioequivalencia in vivo. La Agencia Europea del Medicamento en 2005 aprobó la directriz sobre "medicamentos biosimilares" y después se han autorizado trece de ellos para su comercialización. El referenciamiento de este modelo por otros países seria importante. La influencia de la industria farmacéutica sobre las áreas políticas y administrativas es necesario controlarla. Las compañías farmacéuticas afirman que actúan con responsabilidad social corporativa, por ello, se debería garantizar el cumplimiento de la misma con la sociedad.The global economic crisis and its impact on public finances in most developed countries are giving rise to cost-containment policies in healthcare systems. Prevailing legislation on medication requires the safety, quality, and efficacy of these products. A few countries include efficiency criteria, primarily for new medication that they wish to include in public financing. The appropriate use of generic and "biosimilar medication" is very important for maintaining the financial equilibrium of the Health Services. The problem in Latin America is that not all multisource products are bioequivalent and not all countries have the resources to conduct bioequivalence studies in vivo. The

  7. Enterprise Surveys : Chile Country Profile 2010

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank; International Finance Corporation

    2011-01-01

    The Country Profile for Chile is based on data from the Enterprise Surveys conducted by the World Bank. The benchmarks include the averages for the group of countries in Latin America & Caribbean and the Chile income group. The enterprise surveys focus on the many factors that shape the decisions of firms to invest. These factors can be accommodating or constraining and play an important r...

  8. [Vitamin A deficiency and actions for its prevention and control in Latin America and the Caribbean, 1994].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, J O; Dary, O

    1994-12-01

    Since the 1970s, the prevalence of protein-energy malnutrition has declined in the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean. However, micronutrient deficiencies, especially of iodine, iron, and vitamin A, have not diminished to the same extent. Based on clinical criteria, vitamin A deficiency continues to be a public health problem in Brazil, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, and Nicaragua. This deficiency is also common in poor communities in Bolivia, in some parts of Mexico and Peru, and among indigenous groups in Panama. Trends in general health and nutrition indicators in Colombia, Cuba, Guyana, Paraguay, and Venezuela suggest the need to update information on vitamin A deficiency in those countries. At the close of the 1980s, increasing interest was manifested in reducing vitamin A deficiency in the Region of the Americas; this interest has led to epidemiologic studies, national and regional meetings, and the implementation of plans and interventions at the local, national, and regional levels. In the medium and long term, a permanent solution to the problem of vitamin A deficiency can be attained through sustained economic and social development, accompanied by specific actions to diversify diets in order to increase consumption of foods rich in vitamin A, fortification of popular foods, and nutritional education. In the short term, temporary measures--such as periodic administration of vitamin A supplements to high-risk groups--can be applied. PMID:7848540

  9. Reading Comprehension in Latin America: Difficulties and Possible Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lions, Séverin; Peña, Marcela

    2016-01-01

    Reading comprehension (RC) is below the international standard in many countries of Latin America (LA). Here we review factors that might be associated with failure in RC of the first language in LA. Then we present interventions reporting beneficial impact on RC in typically developing students from English-speaking countries and discuss their…

  10. The Reality and Future of Latin America: An Educational Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Oscar

    1993-01-01

    Third World countries have lacked the resources to invest in economic and academic development. The source lies in gross inequities between industrialized and developing countries. Globalization of markets has not benefited Latin America. Militarism, corruption, poverty, and social injustice can only be eradicated by incorporating strong…

  11. Philippines : Country Water Resources Assistance Strategy 2003

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    The Water Resources Sector Strategy (WRSS) supports implementation of the Bank's 1993 Water Resources Management Policy, using the experience updated internationally, with water resources and management. This country Water Resources Assistance Strategy (CWRAS) identifies the Philippines principal water resource challenges, the current situation, how the Bank is assisting at present, and wh...

  12. Special Education in Arab Countries: Current Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadidi, Muna S.; Al Khateeb, Jamal M.

    2015-01-01

    Arab countries have undertaken various measures to develop special education programmes and services over the last three decades; nevertheless, major challenges remain regarding the expansion of these programmes and services and improving their quality. "This article provides an update on disability and special education in Arab…

  13. Shark fisheries in Central America a review and update.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rodrigo Rojas M.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available La demanda por derivados del tiburón, especialmente aletas y cartílago, ha llevado a una expansión de las pesquerías y del comercio a través de la región. El incremento en el esfuerzo pesquero, las escasas referencias biológicas y la falta de manejo, son factores claves que impactan negativamente esta pesquería. Con el fin de contar con información sobre el estado de las poblaciones, zonas de pesca y crianza, aspectos socioeconómicos y medidas necesarias para la conservación, se llevó a cabo esta investigación. Se identificaron 24 especies de importancia comercial, siendo las más importantes: Carcharhinus falciformis y Nasolamia velox (Guatemala, C. falciformis (Nicaragua, C. falciformis y Mustelus dorsalis (Costa Rica, C. obscurus (El Salvador, C. limbatus (Panamá. Los productos comerciales incluyen carne, aleta, aceite, cartílago y piel. Las aletas son el producto de mayor valor (i.e. aletas caudales secas se venden desde $150 a $400/kg en Costa Rica y son exportadas a Hong Kong, Taiwan, Japón y Estados Unidos.

  14. Biotype Q in North America and whitefly control update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitefly control is still a major issue. We will discuss a rotation project that was published this year and our future plans to extend this work to additional rotation research in order to better manage resistance. This is extremely critical in light of the demands on the industry to reduce the use...

  15. What China should Learn from the Developed Countries about Agricultural Support Policy---Based on the Examples from America, Japan and EU%发达国家农业支持政策的经验及启示--以美国、日本、欧盟为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张虎

    2015-01-01

    Agriculture is a basic industry of a nation and is vital for every country in the world. Every country values the production and development of agriculture, so it introduces various policies of supporting and protecting agriculture. However, fundamental realities and comprehensive national strength of every country are different. Therefore, agricultural supporting policies are different. For America, it introduces agricultural product price subsidy, ecological subsidy and trade subsidy policies, for the sake of safeguarding the status of the biggest agricultural product exporter, while EU improves the price subsidy policy, introduces a price subsidy policy for single farm and also increases content of supporting rural development to avoid from WTO rules, and Japan also builds a trade barrier to protect domestic agriculture. All of these are agricultural supporting policies of developed countries. On the basis of summarizing implement course and achievements of agricultural policies in developed countries, this paper proposes specific policy advice. As a developing country with a large population and a vast territory, Chinese should establish an agricultural supporting policy suitable for the national conditions of China and optimize this system constantly in line with environmental changes at home and abroad.%农业是一个国家的基础产业,对于每个国家来说都至关重要,每个国家都很重视农业的生产和发展,因此也都出台了各种支持和保护农业的政策。但是各个国家的基本国情和综合国力是不一样的,因此出台的农业支持政策也不同。对于美国来说,它为了保障世界最大农产品出口国的地位,出台了农产品价格补贴、生态补贴和贸易补贴政策;对于欧盟,则对价格补贴政策做了一些改进,它为了规避WTO规则,出台了单一农场价格补贴政策,另外还增加了支持农村发展的内容;而日本永远都在高筑贸易壁垒

  16. Smart power and foreign policy of the People's Republic of China: the case of Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Villegas Mendoza

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the most relevant aspects of the academic debate on smart power, in order to apply this concept to analyze the foreign policy of the Republic of China on Latin America and the Caribbean, but especially to Central America; where the dispute between China and Taiwan for international recognition is evident. It is argued that the smart power of China to Central America is expressed in the attractiveness of having privileged access to the Chinese market and its funding programs and official development assistance. While this country has a large presence in Latin America and the Caribbean, in Central America such influence is counteracted in the light of the close relationship that all Central American countries except Costa Rica, maintain with Taiwan. Based on the development of China as a world power, it is expected that this condition changed, so that this country would increase its influence in Central America.

  17. Biomedical laboratory science education: standardising teaching content in resource-limited countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Arneson

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a worldwide shortage of qualified laboratory personnel to provide adequate testing for the detection and monitoring of diseases. In an effort to increase laboratory capacity in developing countries, new skills have been introduced into laboratory services. Curriculum revision with a focus on good laboratory practice is an important aspect of supplying entry-level graduates with the competencies needed to meet the current needs.Objectives: Gaps in application and problem-solving competencies of newly graduated laboratory personnel were discovered in Ethiopia, Tanzania and Kenya. New medical laboratory teaching content was developed in Ethiopia, Tanzania and Kenya using national instructors, tutors, and experts and consulting medical laboratory educators from the United States of America (USA.Method: Workshops were held in Ethiopia to create standardised biomedical laboratory science (BMLS lessons based on recently-revised course objectives with an emphasis on application of skills. In Tanzania, course-module teaching guides with objectives were developed based on established competency outcomes and tasks. In Kenya, example interactive presentations and lesson plans were developed by the USA medical laboratory educators prior to the workshop to serve as resources and templates for the development of lessons within the country itself.Results: The new teaching materials were implemented and faculty, students and other stakeholders reported successful outcomes.Conclusions: These approaches to updating curricula may be helpful as biomedical laboratory schools in other countries address gaps in the competencies of entry-level graduates.

  18. First report on the state of the world's animal genetic resources: Views on biotechnologies as expressed in country reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    percentage. No ET (embryo transfer) is used, and limited molecular characterization has been carried out, mainly as part of international development projects. Priorities were expressed in capacity building and training on AI and ET in the context of performance and genetic evaluations of livestock, and also in molecular techniques for the characterization of local animal genetic resources. Major constraints to reach priorities are financial resources and the lack of skilled human resources to undertake in-country training. Eastern Europe was represented by seven country reports. AI is widely used for several species, mainly cattle, and often connected to national AI programmes and activities of breeders associations. ET is used in a limited number of cases, or it is in national plans. The Near East was represented by only one country report. AI is mostly used in cattle, no ET is used, and work is in progress regarding regulation on the use of GMOs (genetically modified organisms). Priorities were expressed on creation of ET facilities, training in new biotechnological methods and establishment of gene banks. Major constraints are funding and the lack of skilled human resources. Two countries in Asia reported that AI is used but no ET facilities exist. Priorities were expressed in training, expanding the national gene pool, and updating existing regulations for conservation AnGR. China reported use of AI and ET, and microsatellite DNA technology. No specific priorities were mentioned but the country is implementing plans for a centre for AnGR germplasm. As a result of a regional meeting on country report preparation, national and regional priorities, ten countries of Central America and the Caribbean, and Mexico identified AI as means of diffusion of genetic improvement, and some mentioned ET as rarely used but of interest. Emphasis, both as needs and actions was put on molecular characterization and cryoconservation of local breeds, especially criollo cattle, sheep and

  19. Global evolution of Equidae and Gomphotheriidae from South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, José L; Alberdi, María T

    2014-08-01

    The contemporary South American mammalian communities were determined by the emergence of the Isthmus of Panama and by the profound climatic oscillations during the Pleistocene. Horses and gomphotheres were 2 very conspicuous groups of immigrant mammals from North America that arrived in South America during the Pleistocene. The present study compiles updated data on the phylogeny, systematics and ecology of both groups in South America. The horses in South America are represented by 2 genera, Hippidion and Equus, as are the gomphotheres, represented by Cuvieronius and Stegomastodon. Both genera of horses include small (Hippidion devillei, H. saldiasi, E. andium and E. insulatus) and large forms (Equus neogeus and H. principale), which dispersed into South America using 2 different routes. The possible model for this dispersion indicates that the small forms used the Andes corridor, while larger horses dispersed through the eastern route and through some coastal areas. In the case of gomphotheres, Cuvieronius and Stegomastodon reached South America in 2 independent dispersal events, and Cuvieronius dispersed across the Andean corridor, while large Stegomastodon spread along the eastern route. Horses and gomphotheres present values of δ(13) C from woodlands to C4 grasslands. Hippidion present lower values of δ(13) C than Equus in the late Pleistocene, whereas the gomphotheres diverge from value of δ(18) O, reflecting that Cuvieronius inhabited the Andean corridor and Stegomastodon dispersed through eastern plains. The gomphothere and horse species recorded in South America became extinct around the time that humans arrived.

  20. Report on China's Latin America Policy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    The Latin America Research Group,CICIR

    2004-01-01

    @@ Latin America is the only underdeveloped region in the Western Hemisphere, and China is the largest developing country in the Eastern Hemisphere. Across the vast Pacific Ocean, the Chinese and the Latin American people have a history of nearly 500 years of exchanges. Starting from the 1980s, both China and the Latin American states adopted the reform and opening-up strategies for development,which led to profound political, economic, and social transformations in the two areas.

  1. Friedman versus Keynes in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Westphalen, Jürgen

    1982-01-01

    In a number of Latin American countries, the influence of John Maynard Keynes and his Latin American proponent Raúl Prebisch, was forced during the seventies to give way to the liberal-monetarist principles of Milton Friedman. What advantages and disadvantages have ensued from this change of course? Do Friedman's theories point a way out of Latin America's present economic and social problems?

  2. Moving Objects Updating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jidong; Meng, Xiaofeng

    In moving objects applications, large numbers of locations can be sampled by sensors or GPS periodically, then sent from moving clients to the server and stored in a database. Therefore, continuously maintaining in a database the current locations of moving objects by using a tracking technique becomes very important. The key issue is minimizing the number of updates, while providing precise locations for query results. In this chapter, we will introduce some underlying location update methods. Then, we describe two location update strategies in detail, which can improve the performance. One is the proactive location update strategy, which predicts the movement of moving objects to lower the update frequency; the other is the group location update strategy, which groups the objects to minimize the total number of objects reporting their locations.

  3. Social Movements in Southeast Asia and Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iqra Anugrah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Three recent works – Social Activism in Southeast Asia, Social Movements in Latin America: Neoliberalism and Popular Resistance, and Southeast Asia and the Civil Society Gaze: Scoping a Contested Concept in Cambodia and Vietnam – provide a timely update on the contemporary landscape of social movements in Southeast Asia and Latin America. These works are also relevant for broader theoretical discussions on social movements and provide a basis for future inter-regional comparative studies.

  4. The History of Dengue Outbreaks in the Americas

    OpenAIRE

    Brathwaite Dick, Olivia; San Martín, José L.; Montoya, Romeo H.; del Diego, Jorge; Zambrano, Betzana; Dayan, Gustavo H.

    2012-01-01

    Dengue is a viral disease usually transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Dengue outbreaks in the Americas reported in medical literature and to the Pan American Health Organization are described. The outbreak history from 1600 to 2010 was categorized into four phases: Introduction of dengue in the Americas (1600–1946); Continental plan for the eradication of the Ae. aegypti (1947–1970) marked by a successful eradication of the mosquito in 18 continental countries by 1962; Ae. aegypti reinfe...

  5. Prevent Child Abuse America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... call the police . Crisis and support contacts For Child Abuse Reporting Numbers in your State please visit: Child ... suspected child abuse and neglect. Parent Resources Prevent Child Abuse America (800) CHILDREN A resource for tips, referrals, ...

  6. America in the Eyes of America Watchers:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Huiyun; He, Kai

    2015-01-01

    almost half of the survey participants thought that America would remain the global hegemon in the next ten years. Meanwhile, a large majority was also optimistic that China is a rising great power, especially in the economic sense, in the world. More than half of the respondents saw Asian military...... issues, such as the South China Sea issue, as the most difficult problem between China and the US....

  7. Pertussis in Latin America: epidemiology and control strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falleiros Arlant, Luiza Helena; de Colsa, Agustín; Flores, Dario; Brea, José; Avila Aguero, Maria L; Hozbor, Daniela Flavia

    2014-10-01

    Pertussis is a serious respiratory disease in infants that can also affect children and adults. Vaccination against pertussis was introduced in the 1950s and in the 1990s a resurgence of pertussis was observed worldwide. The aim of this work is to summarize the recent data concerning pertussis disease in different countries of Latin America. In this geographic region, pertussis is nationally notifiable and cases should be reported to the appropriate health department/Ministry. Though the surveillance systems are not the same among Latin America countries, over recent decades an increasing number of cases have been detected. Most of these cases correspond to patients younger than 6 months old who received fewer than three doses of vaccine. However, cases in adolescent and adults have also been detected. For this situation, which is not peculiar to Latin America countries, several explanations have been proposed.

  8. Biomass energy in Central America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this paper is to introduce the concept of biomass to energy issues and opportunities in Central America. In this region, made up of seven countries (Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama), the biomass sector has the potential to play a crucial role in alleviating the environmental and development predicaments faced by all economies of the region. This paper assesses the available biomass resources at the regional and country levels and gives an overview of the current utilization of biomass fuels. It also describes the overall context in which the biomass-to-energy initiatives are immersed. At the regional level, biomass energy consumption accounts for more than 50% of total energy consumption. In regard to the utilization of biomass for energy purposes, it is clear that Central America faces a critical juncture at two levels, both mainly in rural areas: in the productive sector and at the household level. The absence of sustainable development policies and practices has jeopardized the availability of biomass fuels, particularly wood. Firewood is an important source of energy for rural industries such as coffee processing, which is one of the largest productive activities in the region. This paper comments on some of the most successful technological innovations already in place in the region, for instance, the rapid development of co-generation projects by the sugar cane industry, especially in El Salvador and Guatemala, the substitution of coffee husks for firewood in coffee processing plants in Costa Rica and El Salvador and the sustainable use of pine forests for co-generation in Honduras. Only one out of every two inhabitants in Central America now has access to electricity from the public grid. Biomass fuels, mainly firewood but also, to a lesser extent, other crop residues such as corn stalks, are the main source of energy for cooking and heating by most of the population. (It is foreseen that by the end

  9. Livestock Update. January 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Greiner, Scott P.; McCann, Mark A.; Smith, Jason

    2015-01-01

    This issue of Livestock Update includes articles on dates to remember, herd management, selection for marbling in a cowherd, 2014 Culpeper Senior BCIA Bull Sale results, 2015 Stocker Cattle Summit to focus on forage management for optimal animal gain, sheep update, and the 48th Virginia Pork Industry Conference.

  10. Latin America and the Caribbean: A Survey of Distance Education 1991. New Papers on Higher Education: Studies and Research 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carty, Joan

    Country profiles compiled through a survey of distance education in Latin America and the Caribbean form the contents of this document. Seventeen countries were surveyed in Latin America: Argentina; Bolivia; Brazil; Chile; Colombia; Costa Rica; Ecuador; French Guiana; Guatemala; Guyana; Honduras; Mexico; Nicaragua; Panama; Peru; Uruguay; and…

  11. Direct Spanish Investments in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Arahuetes García

    1995-11-01

    Full Text Available In the period 1981-1992, the international flow of direct investments witnessed significant changes which affected their magnitude, geographical orientation, sectorial distribution, forms of investment and sources of financing. This happened in such a way that traditional distribution among industrialized and developing countries was modified as was the capacity for attraction of the different areas in development. In this sense, the main contrast could be seen in the growing importance of East and South East Asia and the decline of Latin American countries which traditionally have been the largest receivers of direct investments within the group of developing countries. The expansive phase of direct investments begun in 1986 threatened to exclude Latin American countries but the establishment of a new framework for the treatment of the problem of external debt -the Brady Plan-, the change in the context of theinternational economy in 1990 and the stability and economic growth of the countries of the region favoured, without a doubt, the recovery of the capacity for attraction for new flows of direct investments regarding Latin American countries.In this way, Latin America registered once again a growing participation in the international flow of direct investments. The evolution of direct Spanish investment in Latin America followed a path similar to that of wider international flows and, after the intense absorption of the first years of the Eighties, the rest of the decade registered a discreet attraction for investors which only began to change course from 1989 onwards with the reestablishment of the new phase of the economic cycle in the countries of the region.

  12. Contextualizing the trauma experience of women immigrants from Central America, South America, and Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltman, Stacey; Hurtado de Mendoza, Alejandra; Gonzales, Felisa A; Serrano, Adriana; Guarnaccia, Peter J

    2011-12-01

    Trauma has been understudied among Latina immigrants from Central and South America. This study examined the types and context of trauma exposure experienced by immigrant women from Central America, South America, and Mexico living in the United States. Twenty-eight women seeking care in primary care or social service settings completed life history interviews. The majority of the women reported some type of trauma exposure in their countries of origin, during immigration, and/or in the United States. In the interviews, we identified types of trauma important to the experience of these immigrants that are not queried by trauma assessments typically used in the United States. We also identified factors that are likely to amplify the impact of trauma exposure. The study highlights the importance of utilizing a contextualized approach when assessing trauma exposure among immigrant women.

  13. Patent Statistics and IPR Laws Update Online

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Patent Statistics Beginning from No.2 of 2005 of China Patents & Trademarks, the Statistics on Patent Applications & Grants in China, previously published under the column of Statistics, will be updated online, including the monthly Statistics on Patent Applications by Patent Category, the Patent Grants by Patent Category, the Domestic Patent Applications by Province, and the Overseas Patent Applications by Country, and their yearly statistics at www.cpt.cn or www.cpahkltd.com/cn/ Publications/staten.htm...

  14. Efficiency Analysis of Microfinance Institutions in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    M Kabir Hassan; Benito Sanchez

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates technical and scales efficiencies of microfinance institutions (MFI) in three regions: Latin America countries, Middle East and North Africa (MENA) countries, and South Asia countries, and compares efficiencies across regions and across type of MFIs. We find that technical efficiency is higher for formal MFIs (banks and credit unions) than non-formal MFIs (nonprofit organizations and non-financial institutions). Furthermore, South Asian MFIs have higher technical effic...

  15. Peritoneal dialysis in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, K S; Prabhu, M V; Sinoj, K A; Subhramanyam, S V; Sridhar, G

    2009-01-01

    Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is acknowledged worldwide as a well-accepted form of renal replacement therapy (RRT) for end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Ideally, PD should be the preferred modality of RRT for ESRD in developing countries due to its many inherent advantages. Some of these are cost savings (especially if PD fluids are manufactured locally or in a neighboring country), superior rehabilitation and quality of life (QOL), home-based therapy even in rural settings, avoidance of hospital based treatment and the need for expensive machinery, and freedom from serious infections (hepatitis B and C). However, this is not the ground reality, due to certain preconceived notions of the health care givers and governmental agencies in these countries. With an inexplicable stagnation or decline of PD numbers in the developed world, the future of PD will depend on its popularization in Latin America and in Asia especially countries such as China and India, with a combined population of 2.5 billion and the two fastest growing economies worldwide. A holistic approach to tackle the issues in the developing countries, which may vary from region to region, is critical in popularizing PD and establishing PD as the first-choice RRT for ESRD. At our center, we have been pursuing a 'PD first' policy and promoting PD as the therapy of choice for various situations in the management of renal failure. We use certain novel strategies, which we hope can help PD centers in other developing countries working under similar constraints. The success of a PD program depends on a multitude of factors that are interlinked and inseparable. Each program needs to identify its strengths, special circumstances, and deficiencies, and then to strategize accordingly. Ultimately, teamwork is the 'mantra' for a successful outcome, the patient being central to all endeavors. A belief and a passion for PD are the fountainhead and cornerstone on which to build a quality PD program. PMID:19494625

  16. Science Teacher Education in South America: The Case of Argentina, Colombia and Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cofré, Hernán; González-Weil, Corina; Vergara, Claudia; Santibáñez, David; Ahumada, Germán; Furman, Melina; Podesta, María E.; Camacho, Johanna; Gallego, Rómulo; Pérez, Royman

    2015-01-01

    In this review, the main characteristics of science teacher education in three countries in South America, namely Argentina, Chile and Colombia, are examined. Although reforms toward constructivist and inquiry-based teaching in science instruction have been made in each of the three reviewed countries, each country demonstrates limitations in the…

  17. The Mediterranean fruit fly in Central America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various methods of controlling the medfly are available and include the use of insecticides, bait sprays and the sterile insect technique (SIT). Each of these control strategies may be used alone or in sequence. With regard to the application of the SIT, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture through its Insect and Pest Control Section and Entomology Laboratory is in an excellent position to assist in containing the medfly in Central America. For the past 12 years, the laboratory has participated in all phases of medfly control by sterile insect releases in various climates. This involvement has included planning of medfly campaigns, development of pre-release techniques (bait spraying, trapping, etc.) and shipment and release of sterilized medflies. Small-scale field tests utilizing the SIT have been carried out by nine countries: Italy (Procida, Capri), Spain, Cyprus, Israel, Tunisia, Peru, Panama, Costa Rica and Nicaragua. Other field projects presently being counselled and serviced are located in Argentina, Venezuela and the Canary Islands. The research and development that are still needed to effectively stabilize and gain control of the medfly situation in Central America include: The development and use of effective quarantine procedures in various countries; Development of effective conventional medfly control procedures under the conditions found in Central America; Development of methods to determine the geographic origin of medflies introduced into new areas; Medfly mass production (viz. all aspects of rearing Central American strains); Assessing the performance (competitiveness, etc.) of various strains; Logistics, including the development of systems for releasing pre-adult stages; Genetic rearing methods: developmental research in this area is particularly promising since the preferential production of males would allow considerable savings in the rearing costs of medflies for release; Development of adequate surveillance

  18. Culture and Entrepreneurship: The Case of Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fernández-Serrano

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to contribute to an increased knowledge of the cultural values and the entrepreneurial activity that are present in countries with different levels of development. Within the group of developing countries, we focus our analysis on the case of Latin America. The study uses data from the Schwartz Value Survey (SVS to measure cultural values, and Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM for information regarding entrepreneurship. The results show that cultural variables, together with the rate of entrepreneurial activity, clearly distinguish developing countries from developed ones. Higher entrepreneurial activity is found in countries with lower levels of development; however, the cultural value dimensions of Autonomy and Egalitarianism are associated with higher development levels. In the specific case of Latin America, the results reveal the existence of two groups of countries. Firstly, Bolivia, Peru and Venezuela have higher rates of entrepreneurship and, at the same time, a greater prevalence of some cultural values (notably Embeddedness, but also Hierarchy. In contrast, another group of countries in the region—Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica and Mexico—is characterized by the presence of opposing cultural values (Autonomy and Egalitarianism, more in line with those corresponding to developed countries. The paper concludes with a discussion of the results, including some interesting implications, from both academic and policy perspectives. In the case of Latin America, a certain combination of cultural values (Embeddedness and Egalitarianism may be leading to higher start-up rates. Thus, promoting these values could contribute to entrepreneurship and economic development.

  19. Uranium resources and geology of North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since about the mid seventies, the International Atomic Energy Agency has held meetings on the geology and uranium resources of different geographic regions of the world. As a continuation of this series the Technical Committee Meeting on Uranium Resources and Geology of North America was held between 1-3 September 1987 in Saskatoon, Canada. The meeting took place in the University of Saskatchewan, hosted by the Department of Geological Sciences in cooperation with the Department of Energy, Mines and Resources Canada. Thirty-six technical papers were presented to a group of over 85 participants from seven countries. These papers provided an excellent coverage of uranium occurrences and deposits and their geological framework in Canada and the USA, with analogies from other parts of the world. North America, the region dealt with in this meeting, is of eminent significance for the world's uranium production and the nuclear industry. Total WOCA U-resources according to the classification developed by the IAEA and the Nuclear Energy Agency of OECD are periodically collected by these two organisations for their report on Uranium Resources, Production and Demand. Currently total WOCA known U resources recoverable at costs of less than $130/kg U or $50/lb U3O8) amount to 3.5 million t U, of which about 25% are located in North America, while the remainder is equally divided among Africa, Australia and the rest of WOCA (Asia, Europe, South America). Refs, figs and tabs

  20. Country classification: opportunities, risks, harm and parental mediation

    OpenAIRE

    Helsper, Ellen J.; Kalmus, Veronika; Hasebrink, Uwe; Ságvári, Bence; Haan, Jos

    2013-01-01

    This report updates and deepens the understanding of cross-national differences among the countries surveyed in EU Kids Online. Where the previous classification was based simply on the percentage of children in each country who used the internet daily, and who had encountered one or more risks, this report examines the range and type of online opportunities, risks and harm experienced by the children in each country. It also takes into account the ways in which parents mediate or regulate th...

  1. Multiple sclerosis care in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Victor M; Medina, Marco Tulio; Duron, Reyna M; Macias, Miguel Angel

    2014-05-01

    Before the advent of diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis (MS), it was reported that the prevalence of MS in Mexico was "one of the lowest in the world" (1.6/100,000).(1) The notion that MS was a rare neurologic disease among those living in the tropics of the Americas and Southern latitudes was widely accepted. The geopolitical boundaries of the region identified as Latin America (LA) extend from the southern border of United States with Mexico (32° North latitude) to the Argentinian and Chilean Patagonia in South America (56° South latitude). The largest Spanish-speaking island countries in the Caribbean-Cuba, Dominican Republic, and Puerto Rico-are also traditionally considered part of LA. The continental mass includes 17 countries with a population of more than 550 million. Due to centuries of racial intermixing, it is a heterogeneous and genetically complex population. The blended cultures of native Amerindians with white Caucasian Europeans and black Africans has resulted in the predominant ethnic Latin American Mestizo. The influence of African genetics is notable in many areas of the subcontinent and the Caribbean. A common observation across LA is the absence of identification of MS in non-mixed Amerindians(2); the reason for this phenomenon is unclear.

  2. Energy demand and life quality in America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Being considered an intermediate growth among projections of technological development expressive or of development restricted by ecological considerations, in the next 50 years, the demand of primary energy in the countries of the American continent arrived to value sufficiently high to allow to consent at levels of quality of life but next to those enjoyed at the moment in developed countries. There will be an expansion substantial of electric power demand that rots to require the installation, in countries of Latin America and Caribbean, of power plants with total capacity of the order of 400 GW until half-filled of century. The resource to the nuclear source was accentuated starting from the decade of 2020 and an enormous challenge for the governments of the region it will be the one of driving the construction of about 2.300 MW/year nuclear power plants between 2020 and 2050. (Author)

  3. ACS Updates Environmental Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Describes a new publication of a report prepared by the American Chemical Society's Committee on Environmental Improvement. This is a new version that updates a 1969 report and contains additional material and expanded recommendations. (GA)

  4. National Pediatric Program Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book of the National Pediatric Program Update, issued by the Argentina Society of Pediatrics, describes important issues, including: effective treatment of addictions (drugs); defects of the neural tube; and the use of radiation imaging in diagnosis.

  5. Strategic Interest Orientation of China and Latin America,and Advantages and Disadvantages to Realize It

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ For China and Latin America, the 21th century is a century inwhich great progress could be achieved. As the economic globalization sweeps its way across the world, interdependency between countries will be enhanced, and relations between China and Latin America tend to be even closer.

  6. Human Rights and Curricular Policy in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, David F.

    2007-01-01

    Human rights have become increasingly salient for nations, organizations, and individuals since the end of World War II (Lauren 2003). Discussions of human rights now are common in formal education, including in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). A variety of indicators suggest that countries in Latin America have integrated human rights into…

  7. Influence on Local Enterprise Cultural Development Caused by Culture Differences of Euro-America and Japanese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成立

    2015-01-01

    Economic globalization is necessary,which results in worldwide economic freedom and development,and promote the contact along countries,regions with enterprises.Culture differences of Euro-America and Japanese provide a train of thought for local enterprises improvement.Therefore,we analyzed excellent ideas of Euro-America and Japanese culture to build better adaptive local enterprise culture.

  8. Taking Action for America: A CEO Plan for Jobs and Economic Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Business Roundtable, 2012

    2012-01-01

    America faces many challenges in working together to restore the promise of economic growth and security for the country, U.S. families and the American worker. The challenges are both real and serious. Despite hopeful signs of economic recovery, America remains mired in the deepest jobs crisis since the 1930s. One out of every 12 Americans who…

  9. Intercultural otherness philosophy in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro B. Márquez-Fernández

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Intercultural philosophy in Latin America takes it that the only way to achieve the liberation from the rationality and thinking of the hegemonic colonial culture, present in their countries from the “discovery” of America until now, would be through the recognition of the other in its identity and origin. This philosophy of ‘decolonization’ stresses that it is there where intersubjectivity comes ontologically into being where the authentic origins of their cultures in their ancestral practices emerge. Therefore, the emergence of the other is the dialectical result of a fenomenological consciousness that becomes aware of the existence of being as otherness; that is, a being that is there for another. This liberty makes possible an encounter without the kind of alienations that take place when a culture boasts of its superiority upon another. The intercultural discourse of Latin-American philosophy emphasizes the evolvement of being with others in favor of liberation for all.

  10. Middle Class and Democracy in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Fierro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The consolidation of the middle class has been interpreted by modernization and postmodernization theories as a key factor for the functioning and stability of the democratic system. However, in Latin America the middle class has tended to be associated with two contradictory positions. On the one hand, it is emphasized that it plays a stabilizing and democratic role while, on the other hand, it is linked to supporting military coups. With the purpose of elucidate such a dilemma, the relationship that can be established between the socioeconomic status and the degree of support for democracy will be examined. In order to do this, an empirical analysis from Latinbarometer surveys databases will be conducted, covering seventeen countries in the region for the period from 1996 to 2011. It will be concluded that the middle class in Latin America does not have particularly more favorable attitudes toward democracy than other social segments.

  11. Latin America wind market assessment. Forecast 2013-2022

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-10-15

    Wind Power Activities by Country: Developers/Owners, Wind Plant Sizes, Wind Turbines Deployed, Commissioning Dates, Market Share, and Capacity Forecasts Latin American markets are a subject of intense interest from the global wind industry. Wind plant construction across Latin America is modest compared to the more established markets like the United States, Europe, and China, but it is an emerging market that is taking off at a rapid pace. The region has become the hottest alternative growth market for the wind energy industry at a time when growth rates in other markets are flat due to a variety of policy and macroeconomic challenges. Globalization is driving sustainable economic growth in most Latin American countries, resulting in greater energy demand. Wind is increasingly viewed as a valuable and essential answer to increasing electricity generation across most markets in Latin America. Strong wind resources, coupled with today's sophisticated wind turbines, are providing cost-effective generation that is competitive with fossil fuel generation. Most Latin American countries also rely heavily on hydroelectricity, which balances well with variable wind generation. Navigant Research forecasts that if most wind plants under construction with planned commissioning go online as scheduled, annual wind power installations in Latin America will grow from nearly 2.2 GW in 2013 to 4.3 GW by 2022. This Navigant Research report provides a comprehensive view of the wind energy market dynamics at play in Latin America. It offers a country-by-country analysis, outlining the key energy policies and development opportunities and barriers and identifying which companies own operational wind plants and which wind turbine vendors supplied those projects. Market forecasts for wind power installations, capacity, and market share in Latin America, segmented by country and company, extend through 2022. The report also offers an especially close analysis of Brazil and Mexico

  12. Boys & Girls Clubs of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National BGC Week Join Our Cause Donate Now Boys & Girls Clubs of America and the UPS Foundation ... the Dangers Faced When Behind-the-Wheel MORE» Boys & Girls Clubs of America Names Jocelyn Woods National ...

  13. America's Children and the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Protection Agency Search Search America's Children and the Environment Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us America's Children and the Environment is an EPA report that presents key information ...

  14. Economic integration in the Americas

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    This pioneering study shows that economic integration in the Americas is not simply a matter of removing trade barriers. Economic Integration in the Americas addresses the pervasive effects of economic integration on the economy as a whole.

  15. Gravity and geoid model for South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blitzkow, Denizar; Oliveira Cancoro de Matos, Ana Cristina; do Nascimento Guimarães, Gabriel; Pacino, María Cristina; Andrés Lauría, Eduardo; Nunes, Marcelo; Castro Junior, Carlos Alberto Correia e.; Flores, Fredy; Orihuela Guevara, Nuris; Alvarez, Ruber; Napoleon Hernandez, José

    2016-04-01

    In the last 20 years, South America Gravity Studies (SAGS) project has undertaken an ongoing effort in establishing the fundamental gravity network (FGN); terrestrial, river and airborne relative gravity densifications; absolute gravity surveys and geoid (quasi-geoid) model computation for South America. The old FGN is being replaced progressively by new absolute measurements in different countries. In recent years, Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, Paraguay and Venezuela organizations participated with relative gravity surveys. Taking advantage of the large amount of data available, GEOID2015 model was developed for 15°N and 57°S latitude and 30 ° W and 95°W longitude based on EIGEN-6C4 until degree and order 200 as a reference field. The ocean area was completed with mean free air gravity anomalies derived from DTU10 model. The short wavelength component was estimated using FFT. The global gravity field models EIGEN-6C4, DIR_R5 were used for comparison with the new model. The new geoid model has been evaluated against 1,319 GPS/BM, in which 592 are located in Brazil and the reminder in other countries. The preliminary RMS difference between GPS/BM and GEOID2015 throughout South America and in Brazil is 46 cm and 17 cm, respectively. New activities are carrying out with the support of the IGC (Geographic and Cartographic Institute) under the coordination of EPUSP/LTG and CENEGEO (Centro de Estudos de Geodesia). The new project aims to establish new gravity points with the A-10 absolute gravimeter in South America. Recent such surveys occurred in São Paulo state, Argentina and Venezuela.

  16. Americas at Odds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Despite lingering disputes,the United States keeps a firm grip on Latin America During his presidential campaign,Evo Morales said his election would be a "nightmare" for the United States.The Bolivian president honored his words. On September 10, Morales declared U.S.

  17. Ecodesign in Central America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crul, M.R.M.

    2003-01-01

    This PhD thesis describes and analyses the change process started by the Ecodesign project in Central America, executed between 1998 and 2002. The project started using the concept and praxis developed in Europe. Nine ecodesign projects were performed in industry, and ecodesign was introduced to cou

  18. Literacy in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornberger, Nancy H.

    1991-01-01

    Literacy in South America must be understood in terms of the linguistic diversity there, where only 2 of 14 nations and territories are monolingual. Oral traditions, standardization of indigenous languages, nonstandard varieties of colonial languages, bilingual education and mother tongue literacy, literacy teaching, and politics are discussed.…

  19. Still Teaching for America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronholz, June

    2013-01-01

    In this article, June Kronholz talks to co-chief executives of Teach For America (TFA), Elisa Villanueva Beard and Matt Kramer about how TFA has managed to keep its forward momentum for almost 24 years. Four primary reasons are discussed: (1) Common Vision, Regional Innovation; (2) Data-Driven Improvement; (3) Global Reach; and (4) Stoking the…

  20. Two Visions of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capaldi, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    Since the seventeenth century, there have been two narratives about modernity in general and America in particular. The author uses the term "narrative" to include (a) facts, (b) arguments, and most important, (c) a larger vision of how one sees the world and chooses to engage the world. The first and originalist narrative is the Lockean Liberty…

  1. Only "In America"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Maria Eugenia

    2011-01-01

    As the daughter of an interracial couple growing up in a middle-class town on Long Island in the 1970s, Soledad O'Brien learned not to let inappropriate or racist comments throw her. Now as the anchorwoman of CNN's "In America" documentary unit, she says she asks those uncomfortable questions about race all the time. She shines spotlight on…

  2. An Idea Called America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartoonian, Michael; Van Scotter, Richard; White, William E.

    2007-01-01

    America evolved out of the principles of the eighteenth-century Enlightenment, suggesting that individuals could govern themselves and that people were "endowed" with "unalienable rights" such as life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. To secure these principles, Americans would continue to work on forming a more perfect Union, by…

  3. Lateinamerika oder -amerikas? Latin America or Americas?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Belén García Timón

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Anhand interdisziplinärer und empirischer Studien wird Lateinamerika als Bühne für die Entwicklung transkultureller Phänomene präsentiert. Geschlechterverhältnisse in unterschiedlichen Kontexten stehen im Mittelpunkt der Untersuchung. Begriffe wie Macht, Rasse oder Raum werden mit dem Ziel, weg von der bisherigen Vorstellung von homogenen kulturellen Einheiten zu kommen, revidiert.Latin America is presented as a stage for the development of transcultural phenomena through the use of interdisciplinary and empirical studies. Gender relations in different contexts lie at the heart of this study. Terms such as power, race, or space are revised with the goal of moving away from current perceptions of homogenous cultural unities.

  4. Energy security in South America and Southern Africa: synthesis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In developing countries, the ability to provide adequate and reliable energy supplies is a key to sustainable economic development. The aim of this report is to study the energy supply security in both Southern Africa and South America and how these regions can participate in the international effort to combat climate change. This report showed that South Africa's energy sector mostly relies on carbon intensive coal while Brazil is mainly supplied by hydroelectricity. It was found that in both countries energy needs will increase significantly due to rising demand both internally and at a regional scale. However it was also shown that both Southern Africa and South America have important hydro, solar and wind renewable resources which could enhance their electricity security while minimizing their environmental impacts. This study demonstrated that Southern Africa and South America can enhance their electricity security through the use of renewable energies but that technology and financing is needed to develop the sector.

  5. Marketing in the Emerging Markets of Latin America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marinov, Marin Alexandrov

    Marketing in the Emerging Markets of Latin America provides a much needed analysis of business and marketing in Latin America. The book highlights the diverse characteristics of the Latin American business and marketing environment as well as the dynamic nature of regional and country markets....... Addressing a broad variety of historical, political, economic, social, cultural and legal issues, the book offers unique insights into the enormous opportunities and challenges the region presents for implementing effective marketing strategies. Macro marketing issues such as regional integration, foreign...... trade and direct investment are considered within the context of specific countries, as are the micro aspects of a company's marketing activities. The book is an extremely valuable resource for academics, practitioners and anyone interested in doing business in or with Latin America....

  6. China's Competitive Threat to Latin America: An Analysis for 1990-2002.

    OpenAIRE

    Lall, Sanjaya; Weiss, John

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores China's competitive threat to Latin America in trade in manufactured goods. The direct threat to exports to third country markets appears small: Latin America and the Caribbean's (LAC's) trade structure is largely complementary to that of China. In bilateral trade, several LAC countries are increasing primary and resource-based exports to China. However, the pattern of trade, with LAC specializing increasingly in resource-based products and China in manufactured goods, see...

  7. ESD: Power, Politics, and Policy: "Tragic Optimism" from Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Gaudiano, Edgar J.

    2016-01-01

    In light of the challenging developmental issues confronting the countries of Latin America, this response article analyzes the power and resistance of education for sustainable development from both theoretical and policy perspectives. Of particular concern are the neo-productivist strategies driving the latest stage of capitalist development.…

  8. School Readiness Research in Latin America: Findings and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, Katherine; Rolla, Andrea; Romero-Contreras, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Educational results in Latin America (LA) are well below those of developed countries. One factor that influences how well children do at school is school readiness. In this article, we review studies conducted in LA on the readiness skills of preschool children. We begin by discussing contextual factors that affect what is expected of children…

  9. The rise of free daily newspapers in Latin America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Piet

    2012-01-01

    Whereas most continents see circulation of newspapers drop, Latin America is one of the few areas in the world with rising newspaper circulation. A substantial part of this rise is caused by the introduction of free newspapers in a dozen countries on the continent. We map this development, discuss p

  10. Remittances as a Development Tool in Central America: Empowering Microfinance

    OpenAIRE

    Inter-American Development Bank (IDB)

    2003-01-01

    Presents the interest of the Multilateral Investment Fund (MIF) of the Inter-American Development Bank, to increase the impact of remittances on developing countries of Latin America and the Caribbean, through the promotion of innovative projects and dissemination more comprehensive information on this market in the region.

  11. HIV/AIDS in Latin America : The Challenges Ahead

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Abreu, Anabela; Noguer, Isabel; Cowgill, Karen

    2003-01-01

    Information on HIV/AIDS epidemics in Latin America is disperse and lacks comprehensiveness. Sound and timely policies can limit the current and future impact of the epidemics but good policies are built on a strong epidemiological base and according to the countries' needs. The aim of this study was to assemble all the information available on the epidemiological pattern of the epidemics i...

  12. Teach for America and the Politics of Progressive Neoliberalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahann, Randall; Reagan, Emilie Mitescu

    2011-01-01

    Teach for America (TFA), a non-profit organization designed to recruit recent college graduates to commit two years to teach in understaffed urban and rural schools across the country, has been heralded by private organizations and state agencies as a poster child for alternative pathways to teaching. However, at the same time, TFA has also been…

  13. Innovation and productivity in services: Empirical evidence from Latin America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crespi, G.A.; Tacsir, E.; Vargas, F.

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses and compares the determinants of innovation in the service industry and its impact on labour productivity at the firm level in three countries of Latin America (Chile, Colombia, and Uruguay). The main findings show that, similar to what is observed in the manufacturing industry,

  14. Can Latin America fill the U.S. polyolefin deficit?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strategic issues for the North American polyolefin industry were discussed with reference to oil and gas price forecasts, oil capacity increases, and high density polyethylene production and ethylene integration costs. The overall polyolefin trade balance in North America was also explored. It was cautioned that unless a significant amount of new capacity is built in the United States, it is anticipated that by 2008, the United States will become a net importer of polyolefin resins. Currently exported product will be used increasingly in the domestic market to meet demand growth. This shift from being a net exporter of resins can be attributed to the high cost of feedstocks and the lack of investment in new capacity throughout the region. In contrast, there have been several proposals for new capacity in Latin America in the past several years. Since there is already an important level of commerce and trade between North and South America, countries with access to the Caribbean basin, are logistically well situated to serve the North American market. The availability of low cost feedstocks in countries such as Trinidad, Venezuela and Bolivia add to the attractiveness of the region for the development of new petrochemical capacity. This paper examined the status of the different proposed projects in Latin America and analyzed the potential opportunities that exist for North American producers to collaborate in those projects. The general trade balance of the continent was reviewed in order to verify if the traditional seclusion of America's polyolefin market can be maintained in the future. It was concluded that even if all projects in Latin America are launched, the Americas will still be in a net deficit position. Under the right circumstances, the Middle East will be the global supplier of commodity polyolefins that could extend to the Americas. It was emphasized that companies should be prepared for feedstock advantaged investments, alliances, acquisitions and

  15. Gastroenterology in developing countries: Issues and advances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kate L Mandeville; Justus Krabshuis; Nimzing Gwamzhi Ladep; Chris JJ Mulder; Eamonn MM Quigley; Shahid A Khan

    2009-01-01

    Developing countries shoulder a considerable burden of gastroenterological disease. Infectious diseases in particular cause enormous morbidity and mortality. Diseases which afflict both western and developing countries are often seen in more florid forms in poorer countries. Innovative techniques continuously improve and update gastroenterological practice. However, advances in diagnosis and treatment which are commonplace in the West, have yet to reach many developing countries. Clinical guidelines, based on these advances and collated in resource-rich environments, lose their relevance outside these settings. In this two-part review, we first highlight the global burden of gastroenterological disease in three major areas: diarrhoeal diseases, hepatitis B, and Helicobacter pylori. Recent progress in their management is explored, with consideration of future solutions. The second part of the review focuses on the delivery of clinical services in developing countries. Inadequate numbers of healthcare workers hamper efforts to combat gastroenterological disease. Reasons for this shortage are examined, along with possibilities for increased specialist training. Endoscopy services, the mainstay of gastroenterology in the West, are in their infancy in many developing countries. The challenges faced by those setting up a service are illustrated by the example of a Nigerian endoscopy unit. Finally, we highlight the limited scope of many clinical guidelines produced in western countries. Guidelines which take account of resource limitations in the form of "cascades" are advocated in order to make these guidelines truly global. Recognition of the different working conditions facing practitioners worldwide is an important step towards narrowing the gap between gastroenterology in rich and poor countries.

  16. Re-emergence of cholera in the Americas: Risks, susceptibility, and ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu JP Poirier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The re-emergence of cholera in Haiti has established a new reservoir for the seventh cholera pandemic which threatens to spread to other countries in the Americas. Materials and Methods: Statistics from this new epidemic are compared to the 1991 Peru epidemic, which demonstrated the speed and complexity with which this disease can spread from country to country. Environmental factors implicated in the spread of Vibrio cholerae such as ocean currents and temperatures, as well as biotic factors from zooplankton to waterfowl pose a risk for many countries in the Americas. Results: The movement of people and goods from Hispaniola are mostly destined for North America, but occur to some degree throughout the Americas. These modes of transmission, and the probability of uncontrolled community spread beyond Hispaniola, however, are completely dependent upon risk factors within these countries such as water quality and availability of sanitation. Although North America has excellent coverage of these deterrents to the spread of infectious gastrointestinal diseases, many countries throughout Latin America and the Caribbean lack these basic services and infrastructures. Conclusions : In order to curb the immediate spread of cholera in Hispaniola, treatment availability should be expanded to all parts of the island and phase II epidemic management initiatives must be developed.

  17. Cuanto vale Estudiar un Postgrado en America Latina? (How Much do Post-Graduate Studies Cost in Latin America?).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco Arbelaez, Augusto

    This study, conducted by the Panamerican Association of Educational Credit Institutions (APICE), examined the cost of graduate education in nine Latin American countries. The study was intended to promote graduate and educational exchange within the region, as opposed to exchanges between Latin America and the United States or Europe. Institutions…

  18. New England Wind Forum: A Wind Powering America Project - Newsletter #6 - September 2010, (NEWF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grace, R.; Gifford, J.; Leeds, T.; Bauer, S.

    2010-09-01

    Wind Powering America program launched the New England Wind Forum (NEWF) in 2005 to provide a single comprehensive source of up-to-date, Web-based information on a broad array of wind energy issues pertaining to New England. The NEWF newsletter provides New England stakeholders with updates on wind energy development in the region.

  19. Driving in America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘世一

    2005-01-01

    Mitsuaki recently arrived in the United States to enter university. He wants to do well in his studies and adjust to the new culture. But Mitsuaki has a problem. It's not his roommates. It's not his school fees. It's not even his English ability. Mitsuaki's problem is that he doesn't have a car. And in America, that really makes him a foreigner. Mitsuaki has already discovered a basic fact of American culture : Driving is a way of life.

  20. Making America Great Again?

    OpenAIRE

    Leth, Aksel N.; Lykke, Lærke G.; Dyrbye, Zachary R.; Jordahn, Sally E.; Egholm, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    This study aims at uncovering the discourses in Donald Trump’s announcement speech and their relation to his campaign slogan Make America Great Again. Through a thorough analysis of his speech, we have identified thematic categories and used critical discourse studies (CDS), to denaturalise the discourses he produces and reproduces in a socio-cultural and socio-political context. Our method of Critical Discourse Analysis is based on Fairclough, complemented by Wodak, Richardson and van Dijk, ...

  1. The key issues facing the electricity systems of developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report covers a common project designed to investigate the major issues and possible future direction in the electricity systems of developing countries in AFRICA, ASIA and LATIN AMERICA. Individual centres each had responsibility for preparing a detailed report on the experiences and issues in their own country plus a regional report, in less detail, to cover neighbouring countries. In this disaggregated way, a picture of the whole of the developing world (with the exception of the Middle East, the problems of which are in some ways distinct from those of other developing countries) has been built up. 30 Refs.; 14 Figs.; 33 Tabs

  2. Update of European bioethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rendtorff, Jacob Dahl

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an update of the research on European bioethics undertaken by the author together with Professor Peter Kemp since the 1990s, on Basic ethical principles in European bioethics and biolaw. In this European approach to basic ethical principles in bioethics and biolaw...... research in a presentation of the present understanding of the basic ethical principles in bioethics and biolaw......., the principles of autonomy, dignity, integrity and vulnerability are proposed as the most important ethical principles for respect for the human person in biomedical and biotechnological development. This approach to bioethics and biolaw is presented here in a short updated version that integrates the earlier...

  3. Institutional Diversity of Bicameralism in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Reynoso

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper centers on the study of institutions in bicameral legislative systems in Latin America, paying attention to their variations and the potentially different results affecting the decision making system. It aims to identify the impact each institutional arrangement may have on the legislators' strategies and behavior and on various aspects of public policy development. For this purpose, various institutional characteristics are examined, such as: the rules of legislators' selection, the representation basis, chambers' size, election requirements, term duration, partial seat renewal, and the different modalities for treating legislative bills. The sample of countries for systematic comparison is composed of Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Paraguay and Uruguay. Secondarily, the following countries that formerly had bicameral systems were included: Ecuador, Nicaragua, Peru and Venezuela.

  4. Hepatitis B seroprevalence in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, T R; da Fonseca, J C; Rivera, L; Fay, O H; Tapia, R; Santos, J I; Urdeneta, E; Clemens, S A

    1999-12-01

    The seroprevalence of hepatitis B was investigated in over 12,000 subjects in six countries of Latin America: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, the Dominican Republic, Mexico, and Venezuela. Each study population was stratified according to age, gender, and socioeconomic status. Antibodies against hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) were measured in order to determine hepatitis B infection. The highest overall seroprevalence was found in the Dominican Republic (21.4%), followed by Brazil (7.9%), Venezuela (3.2%), Argentina (2.1%), Mexico (1.4%), and Chile (0.6%). In all the countries an increase in seroprevalence was found among persons 16 years old and older, suggesting sexual transmission as the major route of infection. In addition, comparatively high seroprevalence levels were seen at an early age in the Dominican Republic and Brazil, implicating a vertical route of transmission.

  5. Religious Diversity and Islam in America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Uddin Khan

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Diversity is the essence and spirit of America or the West both as a place and a people. Islam also allows for diversity within its concept of unity and oneness of God. Muslims, therefore, have no problem co-existing in peace with the Jews, Christians and the followers of other religions. Problems arise (a when secular values or principles disturb the working balance of the otherwise mutually exclusive religious diversity and harmony in America; (b when one follows opportunist policies, practices double standards, and is moved by mere worldly or political interests; and (c when war against the Zionist-and-neoconservative-manufactured terrorism turns into war against Islam. Such misleading and mischievous tendencies or policies prevent peace from prevailing, which ultimately tarnish the image of religions in the eyes of their followers and those of the rest making a mockery of the idea of religious diversity even in the so-called most democratic country called the United States of America!

  6. 2011 Residential Energy Efficiency Technical Update Meeting Summary Report: Denver, Colorado - August 9-11, 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-11-01

    This report provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy Building America program's Summer 2011 Residential Energy Efficiency Technical Update Meeting. This meeting was held on August 9-11, 2011, in Denver, Colorado, and brought together more than 290 professionals representing organizations with a vested interest in energy efficiency improvements in residential buildings.

  7. Citrus leprosis research update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrus leprosis is one of the oldest citrus diseases, but is also one of the most important emerging citrus diseases in South and Central America, and it is apparently spreading northward towards the U.S. Research in our labs and by others has shown that citrus leprosis disease is caused by a compl...

  8. Handbook of nuclear countries 1994/1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kappell, V.

    1996-12-01

    The third edition of the Handbook covers 86 countries which are reviewed in separate chapters. Depending on the completeness of information available, the review of nuclear activities of a given country covers both peaceful and military uses of atomic energy, as well as the corresponding international trade and cooperations. An appendix reproduces a self-assessment by the Turkish Government, as well as the Treaty of Tlatelolco, the nuclear weapons ban treaty for the countries of Latin America. (orig.) [Deutsch] In dieser 3. Ausgabe des Handbuches werden 86 Laender erfasst, wobei die nunklearen Aktivitaeten jedes Landes in einem eigenen Abschnitt dargestellt werden. Je nach Umfang der verfuegbaren Fakten wird sowohl ueber die friedliche als auch die militaerische Nutzung der Kernenergie und ueber den internationalen Handel und die internationale Zusammenarbeit berichtet. Im Anhang wird eine Eigendarstellung der tuerkischen Regierung wiedergegeben, sowie der Vertrag von TLATELOLCO zum Verbot nuklearer Waffen in Latein-Amerika. (orig.)

  9. [International migration in the Americas: intraregional migration grows].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlotnik, H

    1992-01-01

    The principal destinations for intraregional migrants in South America in recent decades have been Argentina, Brazil, and Venezuela, while in North America the U.S. has exerted a growing attraction since 1965. Intraregional migration in Latin America has been irregular and difficult to quantify, and reliable statistics on migratory flows are nonexistent. Census data indicate that most migration to Argentina and Brazil occurred before 1960, while most migration to Venezuela occurred during the 1970s. Between 1960 and 1980, the proportion of migrants from other Latin American countries showed a tendency to increase, despite decreases in the overall level of immigration. The effect of the economic crisis of the 1980s on immigration from Latin American countries will become more apparent as census data for the 1990s become available. Selectivity according to country of origin is an important characteristic of intraregional migration in South America. The U.S. has, however, been the principal destination of Latin American migrants for the past three decades. Between 1965 and 1991 the U.S. granted resident status to more than 7.4 million persons of Latin American and Caribbean origin, and they constituted 47% of immigrants during those years. The great majority of the Latin American immigrants in the U.S. are Mexican. The 3.5 million Mexicans admitted to the U.S. as immigrants between 1965 and 1991 accounted for 22% of all immigrants during this period. PMID:12158068

  10. Economic aspects for South America energy integration; Aspectos economicos para a integracao energetica da America do Sul

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vela, Jorge Alberto Alcala; Cardozo, Fernando Simoes [ELETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Expansion of the internal market and external, production on a large scale and more dynamic economic growth would be the consequences of a regional integration in South America. However, due to the specific characteristics of South America this process did not occur. Many attempts were made through the years with the creation of institutions that tried to promote the integration of different forms of South America. This article analyses the current economic conditions in which this initiative is to achieve an energy integration, which seems feasible given the provision expresses the presidents of South American countries before a possible rationing of energy. Through analysis of the results it may be concluded that there is a growing demand for energy in all countries, which should be resolved first in order not to cut the development of South America. The main economic aspects which affect the process of integrating energy are the commercial structures of energy, the energy complementarities, the degree of development of infrastructure for interconnection, the industrial structure and conformation electric business. However, an immediate solution would be to boost bilateral integration energy projects and construction of transmission lines that interconnect the regional stations for the supply of electric energy. Moreover, as the conditions are not improved political and economic and there is no compatible models between technical institutions and legal and administrative, will not be achieved significant progress in the process of regional energy integration of South America. (author)

  11. Update of telephone exchange

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    As part of the upgrade of telephone services, the CERN switching centre will be updated on Monday 3 July between 8.00 p.m. and 3.00 a.m. Telephone services may be disrupted and possibly even interrupted during this operation. We apologise in advance for any inconvenience this may cause. CERN TELECOM Service

  12. Update of telephone exchange

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    As part of the upgrade of telephone services, the CERN switching centre will be updated on Wednesday 14 June between 8.00 p.m. and midnight. Telephone services may be disrupted and possibly even interrupted during this operation. We apologise in advance for any inconvenience this may cause. CERN TELECOM Service

  13. Update of telephone exchange

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    As part of the upgrade of telephone services, the CERN switching centre will be updated on Monday 3 July between 8.00 p.m. and 3.00 a.m. Telephone services may be disrupted and possibly even interrupted during this operation.We apologise in advance for any inconvenience this may cause. CERN TELECOM Service

  14. Update of telephone exchange

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    As part of the upgrade of telephone services, the CERN switching centre will be updated on between Monday 23 October 8.00 p.m. and Tuesday 24 October 2.00 a.m. Telephone services may be disrupted and possibly even interrupted during this operation. We apologise in advance for any inconvenience this may cause. CERN TELECOM Service

  15. Dynamic update with probabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. van Benthem; J. Gerbrandy; B. Kooi

    2009-01-01

    Current dynamic-epistemic logics model different types of information change in multi-agent scenarios. We generalize these logics to a probabilistic setting, obtaining a calculus for multi-agent update with three natural slots: prior probability on states, occurrence probabilities in the relevant pr

  16. IAI Training in Climate and Health in the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aron, J. L.

    2007-05-01

    The Inter-American Institute for Global Change Research (IAI) has addressed training in climate and health in the Americas in two major ways. First, IAI supports students to engage in research training. A multi-country health activity funded by IAI was the collaborative research network (CRN) on Diagnostics and Prediction of Human Health Impacts in the Tropical Americas, which focused principally on the effect of El Nino/Southern Oscillation and other aspects of climate variability on mosquito-borne diseases malaria and dengue. The CRN involved students in Brazil, Mexico, Venezuela, Colombia and Jamaica. The CRN was also linked to other climate and health projects that used a similar approach. Second, IAI organizes training institutes to expand the network of global change research scientists and facilitate the transfer of global change research into practice. The IAI Training Institute on Climate and Health in the Americas was held on November 7 - 18, 2005 at the University of the West Indies in Kingston, Jamaica, engaging participants from the CRN and other programs in the Americas. The Training Institute's central objective was to help strengthen local and regional capacity to address the impacts of climate variability and climate change on human health in the populations of the Americas, particularly Latin America and the Caribbean. The Training Institute had three core components: Science; Applications; and Proposal Development for Seed Grants. Recommendations for future Training Institutes included incorporating new technologies and communicating with policy-makers to develop more proactive societal strategies to manage risks.

  17. Energy policies of IEA countries. 1993 review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy policies in Member countries's and the international energy situation are highlighted in this 1993 edition. It reviews recent trends and developments in energy demand, conservation and efficiency, supply of primary fuels, environment, technology and R and D. This year's Review also gives an overview of significant developments in key policy areas since the IEA's creation, on the occasion of its 20th anniversary. Member countries' energy policies are reviewed in depth on a four-year cycle. In-depth reviews of the energy policies of Austria, Denmark, Germany, Greece, the United Kingdom and the United States were conducted in 1993. Energy policy developments and supply and demand trends for the other 17 countries are updated from the previous in-depth reviews and summarized in this volume. (authors). figs., tabs

  18. Collaborative studies target volcanic hazards in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluth, Gregg J. S.; Rose, William I.

    Central America is the second-most consistently active volcanic zone on Earth, after Indonesia. Centuries of volcanic activity have produced a spectacular landscape of collapsed calderas, debris flows, and thick blankets of pyroclastic materials. Volcanic activity dominates the history, culture, and daily life of Central American countries.January 2002 marked the third consecutive year in which a diverse group of volcanologists and geophysicists conducted focused field studies in Central America. This type of multi-institutional collaboration reflects the growing involvement of a number of U.S. and non-U.S. universities, and of other organizations, in Guatemala and El Salvador (Table 1).

  19. Yellow fever vaccination in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Outbreaks of yellow fever in recent years in the Americas have prompted concern about the possible urbanization of jungle fever. Vaccination, using the 17D strain of yellow fever virus, provides an effective, practical method of large scale protection against the disease. Because yellow fever can reappear in certain areas after a 2-year dormancy period, some countries maintain routine vaccination programs in areas where jungle yellow fever is endemic. The size of the endemic area (approximately half of South America), transportation and communication difficulties, and the inability to ensure a reliable cold chain are problems facing these programs. In addition, the problem of reaching dispersed and isolated populations has been addressed by the use of mobile teams, radio monitoring, and educational methods. During yellow fever outbreaks, many countries institute massive vaccination campaigns, targeted at temporary workers and migrants. Because epidemics in South America may involve extensive areas, these campaigns may not effectively address the problem. The ped-o-jet injector method, used in Brazil and Colombia, should be used in outbreak situations, as it is effective for large-scale vaccination. Vaccine by needle, suggested for maintenance programs, should be administered to those above 1 year of age. An efficient monitoring method to avoid revaccination, and to assess immunity, should be developed. The 17D strain produces seroconversion in 95% of recipients, and most is prepared in Brazil and Colombia. But, problems with storage methods, instability in seed lots, and difficulties in large-scale production were identified in 1981 by the Pan American Health Organization and WHO. The group recommended modernization of current production techniques and further research to develop a vaccine that could be produced in cell cultures. Brazil and Colombia have acted on these recommendations, modernizing vaccine production and researching thermostabilizing media for

  20. Geological-uraniferous favourability of South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The South American continent includes several metallogenic provinces some of which have excellent uranium possibilities. Basically, two types of lithological complex have contributed to this favourability: the large Precambrian shields covering about 5,500,000 km2 and the crystalline Hercynian nesocratons with about 300,000 km2 as source rocks. Only in Argentina and Brazil has continuous uranium exploration in South America been carried out, with moderate budgets, during the last twenty-five years. In the rest of South America the search for uranium has been performed intermittently and with limited resources. However, during recent years interest has increased and more continuous operation has been recorded in some countries (Bolivia, Colombia, Chile, Peru). It can be estimated that only 20% of the favourable areas have been explored fairly intensively in Argentina and Brazil, the two most advanced uraniferous countries. Nevertheless, the uranium possibilities of South America are proved by the resources of 250,000 t U already defined (in Argentina and Brazil) for the category of production cost below US $130/kg U. The speculative uranium potential of the continent was estimated by the International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project as between 770,000 and 1,500,000 t U. Within the South American geostructural framework, five main uraniferous geological areas have been defined on the basis of the geotectonic evolution of the continent, the succession of sedimentary and magmatic processes, and the participation in them of the endogenous and exogenous phases of the uranium geochemical cycle. In this paper the principal uranium metallogenic models occurring in the above five main areas are studied together with the uranium potential of each area. The possibility of uranium recovery from these sources in relation to the respective costs of production is briefly discussed

  1. The Future of Nuclear Energy: Facts and Fiction: An update using 2009/2010 Data

    CERN Document Server

    Dittmar, Michael

    2011-01-01

    An update of our 2009 study, "The Future of Nuclear Energy, Facts and Fiction" using the 2009 and the available 2010 data, including a critical look at the just published 2009 edition of the Red Book, is presented. Since January 2009, eight reactors with a capacity of 4.9 GWe have been connected to the electric grid and four older reactors, with a combined capacity of 2.64 GWe have been terminated. Furthermore, 27 reactor constructions, dominated by China (18) and Russia (4), have been initiated. The nuclear fission produced electric energy in 2009 followed the slow decline, observed since 2007, with a total production of 2560 TWhe, 41 TWhe (1.6%) less than in 2008 and roughly 100 TWhe less than in the record year 2006. The preliminary data from the first 10 months of 2010 in the OECD countries indicate that nuclear power production in North-America remained at the 2009 levels, while one observes a recovery in Europe with an increase of 2.5% and a strong rise of 5% in the OECD Asia-Pacific area compared to th...

  2. Update on global immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Carol J

    2007-10-01

    The international community recognizes that investing in the health development of poor and disadvantaged countries is central to reducing poverty. Immunization is one strategy in the global effort to reduce infant mortality, improve maternal health, and combat infectious disease. In this day of global interdependence, all countries are vulnerable to uncontrolled spread of disease through epidemics. Achieving the Millennium Development Goals will not only help developing countries, but it will also contribute to improving health and security for all. PMID:17990623

  3. Timekeeping in the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, J. M.; Lombardi, M. A.

    2015-10-01

    Time and its measurement belong to the most fundamental core of physics, and many scientific and technological advances are directly or indirectly related to time measurements. Timekeeping is essential to everyday life, and thus is the most measured physical quantity in modern societies. Time can also be measured with less uncertainty and more resolution than any other physical quantity. The measurement of time is of the utmost importance for many applications, including: global navigation satellite systems, communications networks, electric power generation, astronomy, electronic commerce, and national defense and security. This paper discusses how time is kept, coordinated, and disseminated in the Americas.

  4. Chinese Food in America

    OpenAIRE

    Jou, Diana T.

    2011-01-01

    How did Chinese food get to look like this? With more than 41,000 Chinese restaurants in America - 3 times the number of McDonald’s restaurants - Chinese food is one of the most accepted and misunderstood cuisines in the United States. From large cities to small towns, locals can always count on an order of orange chicken in a takeout box, with a few fortune cookies thrown in the bag. But what Americans view as Chinese food is far from a traditional Chinese meal, wh...

  5. Eating in America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康海燕

    2007-01-01

    Americans are too busy to cook at home.They often eat outside.Eating culture is one of the important parts in America.There are many kinds of restaurants.Some are open for breakfast. Others are open twenty-four hours a day. A number of restaurants call themselves"family restaurants".They serve no alcohol~* and have fairly restricted~* menus.They serve steaks,hamburgers and sandwiches.Besides these,there are some special restaurants.They serve only or mainly steaks,seafood,etc.

  6. Mosques in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Khalidi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The following article derived from an exhibit catalogue put together by Public Affairs Germany in the U.S. Embassy in Berlin and the U.S. Consulates in Frankfurt and Düsseldorf and accompanied Dr. Omar Khalidi’s photo exhibit “Mosques in America.” There are over 2,000 mosques in the United States, mostly housed in buildings originally built for other purposes. American mosques built in the last few decades, however, in the period in which Islam has begun to feel at home in the United States, are almost universally architect-designed.

  7. Knight Capital Americas LLC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Austin, Robert D.; Meister, Darren

    2015-01-01

    $450 million dollars in less than an hour. Although it was ultimately saved from bankruptcy when it was acquired two days later, the terms of acquisition were very unfavourable to the company's shareholders. How did this happen? Could it have been prevented? What should the staff, the chief executive......It took 19 years to build Knight Capital Americas LLC into the largest market maker on the New York Stock Exchange, but on August 1, 2012, it took only 45 minutes for the firm to be wiped out by an information technology (IT) problem: a change in the company's software caused it to lose more than...

  8. Let's Go to America!

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

      The United States and China have signed an agreement to facilitate Chinese group leisure travel to the United States. This agreement provides the necessary framework to permit group leisure travel from China to the United States. U.S. companies can now enter into business relationships with Chinese travel agencies to organize and market travel packages for group leisure travel to the United States. It also attracts more and more Chinese to go to America, as more and more convenience and comforts are coming up during the travel.……

  9. Let's Go to America!

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The United States and China have signed an agreement to facilitate Chinese group leisure travel to the United States. This agreement provides the necessary framework to permit group leisure travel from China to the United States. U.S. companies can now enter into business relationships with Chinese travel agencies to organize and market travel packages for group leisure travel to the United States. It also attracts more and more Chinese to go to America, as more and more convenience and comforts are coming up during the travel.

  10. New England Wind Forum: A Wind Powering America Project, Newsletter #5 -- January 2010, Wind and Hydropower Technologies Program (WHTP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grace, R. C.; Gifford, J.

    2010-01-01

    Wind Powering America program launched the New England Wind Forum (NEWF) in 2005 to provide a single comprehensive source of up-to-date, Web-based information on a broad array of wind energy issues pertaining to New England. The NEWF newsletter provides New England stakeholders with updates on wind energy development in the region. In addition to regional updates, Issue #5 offers an interview with Angus King, former governor of Maine and co-founder of Independence Wind.

  11. The first safe country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaela Puggioni

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Dublin II Regulation makes the first safe country of refuge solelyresponsible for refugees and asylum seekers. In the case of Italy, thefirst responsible country has not been acting responsibly.

  12. HIV/AIDS in Latin American Countries : The Challenges Ahead

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia Abreu, Anabela; Noguer, Isabel; Cowgill, Karen

    2003-01-01

    HIV/AIDS in Latin America falls within the framework of a low endemic setting. In the majority of the countries, the epidemic is still concentrated in high-risk populations: men who have sex with men (MSM), injecting drug users (IDUs), commercial sex workers (CSWs), prisoners, and people with sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The exceptions are Honduras and southeastern Brazil, where...

  13. Manual for Reducing Educational Unit Costs in Latin American Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centro Multinacional de Investigacion Educativa, San Jose (Costa Rica).

    Designed for educational administrators, this manual provides suggestions for reducing educational unit costs in Latin America without reducing the quality of the education. Chapter one defines unit cost concepts and compares the costs of the Latin American countries. Chapter two deals with the different policies which could affect the principal…

  14. [FREQUENTLY USED VEGETABLE OILS IN SOUTH AMERICA: FEATURES AND PROPERTIES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán Agüero, Samuel; Torres García, Jairo; Sanhueza Catalán, Julio

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, the consumption of vegetable oils has increased in our society, being an important part of the diet worldwide. South America is a major producer of an important variety of vegetable oils. The composition of vegetable oils is not standard as it varies greatly in the amount of saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, and particularly in the amounts of omega-6 and omega-3, which are associated with the source either plant species, seed, plant or fruit, providing different nutritional benefits. The purpose of this article is to review and update the data and evidence about the consumption of oils produced and commercialized in South America, such as soybean oil, corn, palm, sunflower, canola and olive oils, and also to determine health effects from studies related with the topic. PMID:26262691

  15. Natural gas as an integrating element for Latin America - An opportunity for Venezuela?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Cruz, Diego

    2010-09-15

    Summary This paper offers an analysis of the natural gas situation in Latin America, from Mexico to Argentina, including countries of the Caribbean; analyzes the attitude of potential buyers of this energy source and the possibilities of each country receiving natural gas from Venezuela based on its reserves and production, highlighting the most outstanding projects being undertaken in some of those countries; makes recommendations in the area of energy, with emphasis on natural gas; and, lastly, presents an epilog describing Venezuela's role in an integration process in Latin America.

  16. Cultural differences and economic development of 31 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadler, Scott; Zemanek, James E

    2006-08-01

    To update and extend the empirical research of Hofstede, the influence of culture on 31 nations' economic development was examined and support for modernization theory provided. Per capita gross domestic product, literacy rates, the negative of the population growth rate, and life expectancy development data were collected from 31 countries. The pattern of correlations among measures provided partial support for Hofstede's 1980 findings.

  17. Renewable energy in North America: Moving toward a richer mix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobey, Cathy

    2010-09-15

    A follow-up to our January study with Economist Intelligence Unit, Renewable energy in North America. The update will further our call to action for a concerted group effort by energy suppliers, corporate consumers and government. 1. Introduction - State of the industry, progress made to replace carbon-based fossil fuels with alternative energy - Barriers - Pressure from public and government 2. Recent progress - Examine existing government incentive programs - International commitments - Examine the role of energy suppliers, corporate consumers and government 3. Call to Action - Creating an environment that encourages both supply and demand of renewable energy.

  18. Sensors, Update 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltes, Henry; Göpel, Wolfgang; Hesse, Joachim

    2001-10-01

    Sensors Update ensures that you stay at the cutting edge of the field. Built upon the series Sensors, it presents an overview of highlights in the field. Coverage includes current developments in materials, design, production, and applications of sensors, signal detection and processing, as well as new sensing principles. Each volume is divided into three sections. Sensor Technology, reviews highlights in applied and basic research, Sensor Applications, covers new or improved applications of sensors, Sensor Markets, provides a survey of suppliers and market trends for a particular area. With this unique combination of information in each volume, Sensors Update will be of value for scientists and engineers in industry and at universities, to sensors developers, distributors, and users.

  19. Sensors, Update 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltes, Henry; Fedder, Gary K.; Korvink, Jan G.

    2002-04-01

    Sensors Update ensures that you stay at the cutting edge of the field. Built upon the series Sensors, it presents an overview of highlights in the field. Coverage includes current developments in materials, design, production, and applications of sensors, signal detection and processing, as well as new sensing principles. Each volume is divided into three sections. Sensor Technology, reviews highlights in applied and basic research, Sensor Applications, covers new or improved applications of sensors, Sensor Markets, provides a survey of suppliers and market trends for a particular area. With this unique combination of information in each volume, Sensors Update will be of value for scientists and engineers in industry and at universities, to sensors developers, distributors, and users.

  20. Sensors, Update 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltes, Henry; Fedder, Gary K.; Korvink, Jan G.

    2003-03-01

    Sensors Update ensures that you stay at the cutting edge of the field, presenting the current highlights of sensor and related microelectromechanical systems technology. Coverage includes most recent developments in materials, design, production, and applications of sensors, signal detection and processing, as well as new sensing principles based on micro- and nanotechnology. Each volume is divided into three sections: Sensor Technology reviews highlights in applied and basic research, Sensor Applications covers new or improved applications of sensors and Sensor Markets provides a survey of suppliers and market trends for a particular area. With this unique combination of information in each volume, Sensors Update is of must-have value for scientists and engineers in industry and at universities, to sensors developers, distributors, and users.

  1. Sensors, Update 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltes, Henry; Göpel, Wolfgang; Hesse, Joachim

    1996-10-01

    Sensors Update ensures that you stay at the cutting edge of the field. Built upon the series Sensors, it presents an overview of highlights in the field. Coverage includes current developments in materials, design, production, and applications of sensors, signal detection and processing, as well as new sensing principles. Furthermore, the sensor market as well as peripheral aspects such as standards are covered. Each volume is divided into four sections. Sensor Technology, reviews highlights in applied and basic research, Sensor Applications, covers new or improved applications of sensors, Sensor Markets, provides a survey of suppliers and market trends for a particular area. With this unique combination of information in each volume, Sensors Update will be of value for scientists and engineers in industry and at universities, to sensors developers, distributors, and users.

  2. Sensors, Update 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltes, Henry; Göpel, Wolfgang; Hesse, Joachim

    2001-02-01

    Sensors Update ensures that you stay at the cutting edge of the field. Built upon the series Sensors, it presents an overview of highlights in the field. Coverage includes current developments in materials, design, production, and applications of sensors, signal detection and processing, as well as new sensing principles. Each volume is divided into three sections: Sensor Technology reviews highlights in applied and basic research, while Sensor Applications covers new or improved applications of sensors, and Sensor Markets provides a survey of suppliers and market trends for a particular area. With this unique combination of information in each volume, Sensors Update will be invaluable to scientists and engineers in industry and at universities, to sensors developers, distributors, and users.

  3. Sensors, Update 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltes, Henry; Fedder, Gary K.; Korvink, Jan G.

    2003-04-01

    Sensors Update ensures that you stay at the cutting edge of the field. Built upon the series Sensors, it presents an overview of highlights in the field. Coverage includes current developments in materials, design, production, and applications of sensors, signal detection and processing, as well as new sensing principles. Each volume is divided into three sections. Sensor Technology, reviews highlights in applied and basic research, Sensor Applications, covers new or improved applications of sensors, Sensor Markets, provides a survey of suppliers and market trends for a particular area. With this unique combination of information in each volume, Sensors Update will be of value for scientists and engineers in industry and at universities, to sensors developers, distributors, and users.

  4. Sensors, Update 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltes, Henry; Göpel, Wolfgang; Hesse, Joachim

    1996-12-01

    Sensors Update ensures that you stay at the cutting edge of the field. Built upon the series Sensors, it presents an overview of highlights in the field. Treatments include current developments in materials, design, production, and applications of sensors, signal detection and processing, as well as new sensing principles. Furthermore, the sensor market as well as peripheral aspects such as standards are covered. Each volume is divided into four sections. Sensor Technology, reviews highlights in applied and basic research, Sensor Applications, covers new or improved applications of sensors, Sensor Markets, provides an overview of suppliers and market trends for a particular section, and Sensor Standards, reviews recent legislation and requirements for sensors. With this unique combination of information in each volume, Sensors Update will be of value for scientists and engineers in industry and at universities, to sensors developers, distributors, and users.

  5. Republic of Colombia. Country Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canak, W L

    1985-03-01

    This discussion of Colombia covers population growth, age distribution, regions and cities, households and families, housing and construction, ethnicity and religion, labor force and income, education, communications and transportation, and sources of information. Colombia's 1985 population is estimated at 28.7 million, making it the largest country in South America after Brazil. Colombia's growth in the last 5 years has averaged 2% annually, compared with an average of 2.3% a year for Latin America as a region. Colombia's moderate growth has been accompanied by shifts in population distribution and composition. In particular a massive internal migration has increased the urban population from roughly 1/3 in th 1950s to 2/3 at this time. Improved housing, education, and access to public health facilities have accompanied this rural to urban migration. At this time Colombia is holding its own economically and anticipates economic growth based on recovery in the US and Europe as well as on its own coal exports. Colombia's fertility rate, at 3.9 children/women in 1980-81, is the lowest in tropical South America but higher than the total fertility rate in the more temperate South American countries. Compared with other South American nations, Colombia's crude birthrate of 29-31 births/1000 population is low. Reflecting the impact of urban migration and the widescale effectiveness of family planning programs initiated in the 1960s and 1970s, median age has increased from 17 years in 1970 to almost 21 years in 1985. About 37% of the population is aged 14 or under at this time. The population aged 65 and older is only 3.8% and by 2000 will constitute only 4.5% of the population. From 1951-82 the urban population grew at 4.4% annually, exceeding the national average of 2.6% and the rural growth rate of less than 1%. Since 1982 the urban growth rate has been about 3% annually. In 1964 the average completed family size was 6.8 children. By 1980 it was 3.9 children. A steady

  6. AN UPDATED REVIEW ON ANTHELMINTIC MEDICINAL PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Kumar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants are part and parcel of human society to combat diseases, from the dawn of civilization. There exists a plethora of knowledge, information and benefits of herbal drugs in our ancient literature of Ayurvedic (Traditional Indian Medicine, Siddha, Unani and Chinese medicine. According to the World Health Organization, 2003 about 80 % of the population of developing countries being unable to afford pharmaceutical drugs rely on traditional medicines, mainly plant based, to sustain their primary health care needs. Herbal medicines are in great demand in the developed as well as developing countries for primary healthcare because of their wide biological and medicinal activities, higher safety margins and lesser costs. In this review we have enlisted the updated anthelmintic medicinal plants which are used as good alternatives for the traditional allopathic anthelmintic agents.

  7. Annual Pension Fund Update

    CERN Multimedia

    Pension Fund

    2011-01-01

    All members and beneficiaries of the Pension Fund are invited to attend the Annual Pension Fund Update to be held in the CERN Council Chamber on Tuesday 20 September 2011 from 10-00 to 12-00 a.m. Copies of the 2010 Financial Statements are available from departmental secretariats. Coffee and croissants will be served prior to the meeting as of 9-30 a.m.

  8. [Health system reforms in South America: an opportunity for UNASUR].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes-Temporão, José; Faria, Mariana

    2014-01-01

    Health systems in South America still support segmentation, privatization and fragmentation. Health reforms of the structural adjustment programs in the 1980s and 1990s in South America followed different purposes and strategies ranging from privatization, commodification and state intervention for the implementation of a national public health service with universal access as a right of the citizens. Since the 2000s, many countries have expanded social policies, reduced poverty and social inequalities, and improved access to healthcare. This article proposes to discuss the health systems in South America from historical and political backgrounds, and the progress from the reforms in the last three decades. It also presents the three paradigmatic models of reform and their evolution, as well as the contrasts between universal coverage and universal systems. Finally, it presents current strengths and weaknesses of the twelve South American health systems as well as current opportunities and challenges in health for UNASUR. PMID:25597728

  9. How Documentalists Update SIMBAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buga, M.; Bot, C.; Brouty, M.; Bruneau, C.; Brunet, C.; Cambresy, L.; Eisele, A.; Genova, F.; Lesteven, S.; Loup, C.; Neuville, M.; Oberto, A.; Ochsenbein, F.; Perret, E.; Siebert, A.; Son, E.; Vannier, P.; Vollmer, B.; Vonflie, P.; Wenger, M.; Woelfel, F.

    2015-04-01

    The Strasbourg astronomical Data Center (CDS) was created in 1972 and has had a major role in astronomy for more than forty years. CDS develops a service called SIMBAD that provides basic data, cross-identifications, bibliography, and measurements for astronomical objects outside the solar system. It brings to the scientific community an added value to content which is updated daily by a team of documentalists working together in close collaboration with astronomers and IT specialists. We explain how the CDS staff updates SIMBAD with object citations in the main astronomical journals, as well as with astronomical data and measurements. We also explain how the identification is made between the objects found in the literature and those already existing in SIMBAD. We show the steps followed by the documentalist team to update the database using different tools developed at CDS, like the sky visualizer Aladin, and the large catalogues and survey database VizieR. As a direct result of this teamwork, SIMBAD integrates almost 10.000 bibliographic references per year. The service receives more than 400.000 queries per day.

  10. Education in America. Opposing Viewpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozic, Charles P., Ed.

    This book, part of a series about differing viewpoints on education in America, examines how education can be improved for this and future generations of America's youth. The following papers and their authors are included: "Public Education Needs Extensive Reform" (John Taylor Gatto); "Public Education Does Not Need Extensive Reform" (Gerald…

  11. Locking in on Latin America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MICHAEL; RICE

    2006-01-01

    China cautious as it sets up generous investment in Latin America The United States is keeping a watchful eye as China bolsters political and economic ties with Latin America. The situation has U.S. political analysts trying to determine just how China s emerging influence

  12. South America Geologic Map (geo6ag)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — South America is part of Region 6 (Central and South America) for the World Energy Assessment. The geologic map of South America was digitized so that we could use...

  13. The Ecological Footprint of Industrialized countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Frassoldati

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To compare the carbon footprint of different nations and the per capita for each country allows us to visualize a problem often underestimated by our systems of production and consumption, which is based on inequality. There is a need to work on this problem because in sharing the liability and the global consequences, the effects that cannot continue, reveals a series of possibilities. It would require 3-6 planets equal to Earth in order to sustain a lifestyle like that of an inhabitant of North America in order to supporst all inhabitants on Earth.

  14. Fermilab and Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederman, Leon M.

    2006-09-01

    As Director of Fermilab, starting in 1979, I began a series of meetings with scientists in Latin America. The motivation was to stir collaboration in the field of high energy particle physics, the central focus of Fermilab. In the next 13 years, these Pan American Symposia stirred much discussion of the use of modern physics, created several groups to do collaborative research at Fermilab, and often centralized facilities and, today, still provides the possibility for much more productive North-South collaboration in research and education. In 1992, I handed these activities over to the AAAS, as President. This would, I hoped, broaden areas of collaboration. Such collaboration is unfortunately very sensitive to political events. In a rational world, it would be the rewards, cultural and economic, of collaboration that would modulate political relations. We are not there yet.

  15. Environmental Chemistry Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-08-01

    Human Health Effects of the Chernobyl DisasterIncreased Incidence of Thyroid CancerThe release of radioactivity from the famous explosion at the fission nuclear power reactor at Chernobyl eight years ago has resulted in a substantial increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer in children in the immediate area but no great increase in the incidence of childhood leukemia, tumors, or genetic defects. In the region of the Belarus republic closest to Chernobyl, the childhood thyroid cancer rate has reached over 100 cases per million children, compared to less than 3 per million in most countries. More than 500 children in Belarus and Ukraine have been diagnosed with this disease. The likely cause of the cancers is radioactivity from the isotope 131-I and perhaps 133-I released during the explosion (1). Lead PollutionAnalysis of snow in the Greenland ice sheet indicates rather high levels of lead pollution in air from 500 BC to AD 300 and AD 1000-1500. The earliest lead pollution was associated with mining in Greece and then mining by the Romans, especially in Spain. The later pollution was due mainly to lead and silver smelting in Germany (2). Detrimental Effect of Lead upon IQ in AustraliaStudies of children in Port Pirie, Australia have produced further evidence of the detrimental effect of lead upon IQ. The cumulative exposure to lead of the children from birth to age seven years was determined by analyzing for the element in their baby teeth (3). Ozone Hole PhenomenaThe AntarcticThe Antarctic ozone hole appeared earlier than usual in 1994; it was as large and as severe as the holes in 1992 and 1993. The region of severe depletion covered about 24 million square kilometers, which is approximately the size of North America (4). The Role of Nitric AcidOur knowledge of the role of nitric acid in the formation of ozone holes over polar areas has recently been improved by a joint publication from researchers in Scotland and the United States. Using data obtained by

  16. Cardiovascular Research Publications from Latin America between 1999 and 2008. A Bibliometric Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colantonio, Lisandro D., E-mail: Lisandro.Colantonio@fulbrightmail.org [Department of Epidemiology - University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Public Health, Birmingham (United States); Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Baldridge, Abigail S.; Huffman, Mark D. [Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago (United States); Bloomfield, Gerald S. [Duke University Medical Center - Duke Clinical Research Institute and Duke Global Health Institute, Durham (United States); Prabhakaran, Dorairaj [Centre for Chronic Disease Control, New Delhi (India)

    2015-01-15

    Cardiovascular research publications seem to be increasing in Latin America overall. To analyze trends in cardiovascular publications and their citations from countries in Latin America between 1999 and 2008, and to compare them with those from the rest of the countries. We retrieved references of cardiovascular publications between 1999 and 2008 and their five-year post-publication citations from the Web of Knowledge database. For countries in Latin America, we calculated the total number of publications and their citation indices (total citations divided by number of publications) by year. We analyzed trends on publications and citation indices over time using Poisson regression models. The analysis was repeated for Latin America as a region, and compared with that for the rest of the countries grouped according to economic development. Brazil (n = 6,132) had the highest number of publications in1999-2008, followed by Argentina (n = 1,686), Mexico (n = 1,368) and Chile (n = 874). Most countries showed an increase in publications over time, leaded by Guatemala (36.5% annually [95%CI: 16.7%-59.7%]), Colombia (22.1% [16.3%-28.2%]), Costa Rica (18.1% [8.1%-28.9%]) and Brazil (17.9% [16.9%-19.1%]). However, trends on citation indices varied widely (from -33.8% to 28.4%). From 1999 to 2008, cardiovascular publications of Latin America increased by 12.9% (12.1%-13.5%) annually. However, the citation indices of Latin America increased 1.5% (1.3%-1.7%) annually, a lower increase than those of all other country groups analyzed. Although the number of cardiovascular publications of Latin America increased from 1999 to 2008, trends on citation indices suggest they may have had a relatively low impact on the research field, stressing the importance of considering quality and dissemination on local research policies.

  17. Capacity building in renewable energy technologies in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fridleifsson, Ingvar

    2010-09-15

    The renewable energy sources are expected to provide 20-40% of the world primary energy in 2050, depending on scenarios. A key element in the mitigation of climate change is capacity building in renewable energy technologies in the developing countries, where the main energy use growth is expected. An innovative training programme for geothermal energy professionals developed in Iceland is an example of how this can be done effectively. In 1979-2009, 424 scientists/engineers from 44 developing countries have completed the 6 month courses. In many countries in Africa, Asia, C-America, and E-Europe, UNU-GTP Fellows are among the leading geothermal specialists.

  18. Update on markets for forestry offsets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This guide is an update of the book 'Guidebook to Markets and Commercialization of CDM forestry projects'. The document provides information on the development of CMD methodologies, projects registered and markets since the publication of the first version. In addition it introduces the emerging non-Kyoto markets, it presents a classification of the existing developments, it describes each market including the buyer's preferences and it discusses the use of standards and quality criteria and transaction costs. We focus on markets for offsets from developing countries, rather than domestic offsets in developed countries. Section 1 is an introduction to the topic and an overview of the most recent developments. Sections 2 and 3 look at recent experiences and market developments for CDM reforestation projects. These sections are meant to be an update of the above mentioned guidebook and thus refrain from an exhaustive description. Section 4 assesses non-Kyoto markets for carbon offsets from forestry projects. It includes a description of the various market schemes and types of buyers. The section attempts to provide the project developer with useful information for developing a project following buyer' requirements. Finally, section 5 puts the assessment of opportunities for forestry in the broader context of the larger carbon markets. The report then concludes with a comparison of advantages and disadvantages of the CDM and non-Kyoto schemes from the project developer's point of view

  19. Comparative resource allocations to human resource development in Asia, Europe, and Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Knight, P. T.; Wasty, S. S.

    1991-01-01

    This study compiles statistics for selected Latin American countries and two reference groupsof countries in East Asia and northern and southern Europe. The authors emphasize the need to increase attention to and expenditure on education and health systems in many developing countries, especially in Latin America, to improve the coverage and quality of the services they provide. This paper notes that wider access to secondary education and greater emphasis on the quality of higher education t...

  20. Legal aspects of nuclear technology transfer in connection with Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper concerns technology and technology transfers which are becoming increasingly important for developing countries, especially those in South America. The author also points out that developed countries have not implemented the United Nations resolutions concerning dissemination of knowledge on advanced technologies. He stresses that if South American States wish to obtain assistance with nuclear technology from developed countries they should sign and ratify the Non-Proliferation Treaty and the Tlatelolco Treaty. (NEA)

  1. Cervical cancer control in Latin America: A call to action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bychkovsky, Brittany L; Ferreyra, Mayra E; Strasser-Weippl, Kathrin; Herold, Christina I; de Lima Lopes, Gilberto; Dizon, Don S; Schmeler, Kathleen M; Del Carmen, Marcela; Randall, Tom C; Nogueira-Rodrigues, Angelica; de Carvalho Calabrich, Aknar Freire; St Louis, Jessica; Vail, Caroline M; Goss, Paul E

    2016-02-15

    Cervical cancer (CC) is second most common cause of cancer in Latin America and is a leading cause of cancer mortality among women. In 2015, an estimated 74,488 women will be diagnosed with CC in Latin America and 31,303 will die of the disease. CC mortality is projected to increase by 45% by 2030 despite human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and screening efforts. In this setting, the goal was of the current study was to examine CC control efforts in Latin America and identify deficiencies in these efforts that could be addressed to reduce CC incidence and mortality. The authors found that HPV vaccination has been introduced in the majority of Latin American countries, and there is now a need to monitor the success (or shortcomings) of these programs and to ensure that these programs are sustainable. This topic was also reviewed in light of emerging data demonstrating that visual inspection with acetic acid and HPV DNA testing without Papanicolaou tests have efficacy from a screening perspective and are good alternatives to cytology-based screening programs. Overall, there is a need to build capacity for CC control in Latin America and the best strategy will depend on the country/region and must be tailored to meet the needs of the population as well as available resources.

  2. The economic geography of human capital in Twentieth-century Latin America in an international comparative perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Camps, Enriqueta; Engerman, Stanley

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present results for educational achievement in the different economic regions of Latin America (Big countries: Mexico and Brazil; Southern Cone; Andean countries; Central America; and others) during the twentieth century. The variables we use to measure education are average years of education, literacy, average years in primary school, average years in secondary school, and average years in university. To attain a broader perspective on the relationship of education with hum...

  3. Job flexibility in Latin America: A comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Alejandro Ibarra Cisneros

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of studies about labor flexibility show a partial image of the situation of Latin America labor markets. They are limited to confirm, the existence of high degrees of rigidity and the necessity to conduct labor reforms to the margin of specific national circumstances. The design of a synthetic labor rigidity indicator using methodology considered by the oecd, through a factor analysis for countries of IberoAmerica, allows obtaining certain advances in relation to this debate. The results establish the high importance of the rigidity in the procedures of collective dismissal, over normative aspects related to fixed term contracts. Finally, it is establish the little relation between flexibility levels and results in terms of economic development, putting into question the assertions that try to extrapolate strategies of flexibilization like isolated measurement to facilitate the economic progress of a country.

  4. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Portugal 2011 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    In 2007, the IEA published ''Oil Supply Security: Emergency Response of IEA Countries''. This publication provides an overview of the IEA oil emergency response system and a detailed look at the specific systems in each IEA country for responding to an oil supply crisis. This publication represented the findings of a five year review cycle of the emergency response mechanisms in IEA member countries. Since the 2007 publication, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew this publication, the IEA will make available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  5. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Spain 2011 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    In 2007, the IEA published ''Oil Supply Security: Emergency Response of IEA Countries''. This publication provides an overview of the IEA oil emergency response system and a detailed look at the specific systems in each IEA country for responding to an oil supply crisis. This publication represented the findings of a five year review cycle of the emergency response mechanisms in IEA member countries. Since the 2007 publication, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew this publication, the IEA will make available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  6. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Greece 2010 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Greece for responding to an oil supply crisis. In 2007, the IEA published ''Oil Supply Security: Emergency Response of IEA Countries''. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew this full publication, the IEA will provide updates to the country chapters as these become available following the specific country's review. The aim of series of publications is to provide an overview of the IEA oil emergency response system and a detailed look at the specific systems in each IEA country for responding to an oil supply crisis. The 2007 publication represented the findings of a five year review cycle of the emergency response mechanisms in IEA member countries. Since the 2007 publication, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies.

  7. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Belgium 2010 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    In 2007, the IEA published ''Oil Supply Security: Emergency Response of IEA Countries''. This publication provides an overview of the IEA oil emergency response system and a detailed look at the specific systems in each IEA country for responding to an oil supply crisis. This publication represented the findings of a five year review cycle of the emergency response mechanisms in IEA member countries. Since the 2007 publication, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew this publication, the IEA will make available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  8. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Hungary 2012 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-06

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Hungary for responding to an oil supply crisis. In 2007, the IEA published ''Oil Supply Security: Emergency Response of IEA Countries''. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew this full publication, the IEA will provide updates to the country chapters as these become available following the specific country's review. The aim of series of publications is to provide an overview of the IEA oil emergency response system and a detailed look at the specific systems in each IEA country for responding to an oil supply crisis. The 2007 publication represented the findings of a five year review cycle of the emergency response mechanisms in IEA member countries. Since the 2007 publication, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies.

  9. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Slovak Republic 2011 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    In 2007, the IEA published ''Oil Supply Security: Emergency Response of IEA Countries''. This publication provides an overview of the IEA oil emergency response system and a detailed look at the specific systems in each IEA country for responding to an oil supply crisis. This publication represented the findings of a five year review cycle of the emergency response mechanisms in IEA member countries. Since the 2007 publication, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew this publication, the IEA will make available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  10. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Czech Republic 2010 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in the Czech Republic for responding to an oil supply crisis. In 2007, the IEA published ''Oil Supply Security: Emergency Response of IEA Countries''. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew this full publication, the IEA will provide updates to the country chapters as these become available following the specific country's review. The aim of series of publications is to provide an overview of the IEA oil emergency response system and a detailed look at the specific systems in each IEA country for responding to an oil supply crisis. The 2007 publication represented the findings of a five year review cycle of the emergency response mechanisms in IEA member countries. Since the 2007 publication, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies.

  11. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Italy 2010 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Italy for responding to an oil supply crisis. In 2007, the IEA published ''Oil Supply Security: Emergency Response of IEA Countries''. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew this full publication, the IEA will provide updates to the country chapters as these become available following the specific country's review. The aim of series of publications is to provide an overview of the IEA oil emergency response system and a detailed look at the specific systems in each IEA country for responding to an oil supply crisis. The 2007 publication represented the findings of a five year review cycle of the emergency response mechanisms in IEA member countries. Since the 2007 publication, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies.

  12. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Canada 2010 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Canada for responding to an oil supply crisis. In 2007, the IEA published ''Oil Supply Security: Emergency Response of IEA Countries''. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew this full publication, the IEA will provide updates to the country chapters as these become available following the specific country's review. The aim of series of publications is to provide an overview of the IEA oil emergency response system and a detailed look at the specific systems in each IEA country for responding to an oil supply crisis. The 2007 publication represented the findings of a five year review cycle of the emergency response mechanisms in IEA member countries. Since the 2007 publication, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies.

  13. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: New Zealand 2010 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in New Zealand for responding to an oil supply crisis. In 2007, the IEA published ''Oil Supply Security: Emergency Response of IEA Countries''. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew this full publication, the IEA will provide updates to the country chapters as these become available following the specific country's review. The aim of series of publications is to provide an overview of the IEA oil emergency response system and a detailed look at the specific systems in each IEA country for responding to an oil supply crisis. The 2007 publication represented the findings of a five year review cycle of the emergency response mechanisms in IEA member countries. Since the 2007 publication, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies.

  14. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Luxembourg 2010 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Luxembourg for responding to an oil supply crisis. In 2007, the IEA published ''Oil Supply Security: Emergency Response of IEA Countries''. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew this full publication, the IEA will provide updates to the country chapters as these become available following the specific country's review. The aim of series of publications is to provide an overview of the IEA oil emergency response system and a detailed look at the specific systems in each IEA country for responding to an oil supply crisis. The 2007 publication represented the findings of a five year review cycle of the emergency response mechanisms in IEA member countries. Since the 2007 publication, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies.

  15. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Poland 2011 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    In 2007, the IEA published ''Oil Supply Security: Emergency Response of IEA Countries''. This publication provides an overview of the IEA oil emergency response system and a detailed look at the specific systems in each IEA country for responding to an oil supply crisis. This publication represented the findings of a five year review cycle of the emergency response mechanisms in IEA member countries. Since the 2007 publication, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew this publication, the IEA will make available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  16. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Australia 2011 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    In 2007, the IEA published ''Oil Supply Security: Emergency Response of IEA Countries''. This publication provides an overview of the IEA oil emergency response system and a detailed look at the specific systems in each IEA country for responding to an oil supply crisis. This publication represented the findings of a five year review cycle of the emergency response mechanisms in IEA member countries. Since the 2007 publication, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew this publication, the IEA will make available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  17. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Korea 2011 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in the Republic of Korea for responding to an oil supply crisis. In 2007, the IEA published ''Oil Supply Security: Emergency Response of IEA Countries''. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew this full publication, the IEA will provide updates to the country chapters as these become available following the specific country's review. The aim of series of publications is to provide an overview of the IEA oil emergency response system and a detailed look at the specific systems in each IEA country for responding to an oil supply crisis. The 2007 publication represented the findings of a five year review cycle of the emergency response mechanisms in IEA member countries. Since the 2007 publication, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies.

  18. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Denmark 2011 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    In 2007, the IEA published ''Oil Supply Security: Emergency Response of IEA Countries''. This publication provides an overview of the IEA oil emergency response system and a detailed look at the specific systems in each IEA country for responding to an oil supply crisis. This publication represented the findings of a five year review cycle of the emergency response mechanisms in IEA member countries. Since the 2007 publication, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew this publication, the IEA will make available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  19. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: United Kingdom 2010 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in the United Kingdom for responding to an oil supply crisis. In 2007, the IEA published ''Oil Supply Security: Emergency Response of IEA Countries''. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew this full publication, the IEA will provide updates to the country chapters as these become available following the specific country's review. The aim of series of publications is to provide an overview of the IEA oil emergency response system and a detailed look at the specific systems in each IEA country for responding to an oil supply crisis. The 2007 publication represented the findings of a five year review cycle of the emergency response mechanisms in IEA member countries. Since the 2007 publication, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies.

  20. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Finland 2012 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    In 2007, the IEA published ''Oil Supply Security: Emergency Response of IEA Countries''. This publication provides an overview of the IEA oil emergency response system and a detailed look at the specific systems in each IEA country for responding to an oil supply crisis. This publication represented the findings of a five year review cycle of the emergency response mechanisms in IEA member countries. Since the 2007 publication, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew this publication, the IEA will make available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  1. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: France 2012 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    In 2007, the IEA published ''Oil Supply Security: Emergency Response of IEA Countries''. This publication provides an overview of the IEA oil emergency response system and a detailed look at the specific systems in each IEA country for responding to an oil supply crisis. This publication represented the findings of a five year review cycle of the emergency response mechanisms in IEA member countries. Since the 2007 publication, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew this publication, the IEA will make available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  2. Changes in Latin America: consequences for human development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisbrot, Mark

    2007-01-01

    This article looks at Latin America's political shift over the last several years. The author argues that these changes have largely been misunderstood and underestimated in the United States for a number of reasons. First, Latin America's unprecedented growth failure over the past 25 years is a major cause of these political changes and has not been well-understood. Second, the collapse of the International Monetary Fund's influence in Latin America, and in middle-income countries, is an epoch-making change. Third, the availability of alternative sources of finance, especially from the reserves of the Venezuelan government, has become very important. Finally, the increasing assertion of national control over natural resources is an important part of the new relationship between Latin America and the United States. For these and other reasons, the relationship between Latin America and the United States has undergone a fundamental and possibly irreversible change, and one that opens the way to new and mostly more successful economic policies. PMID:17844930

  3. The buffalo in Southern South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zava

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The number of buffaloes in the American continent is growing at the explosive rate of 12.7 % a year, well above all other continents. Within this context the different situations of the southern part of South America are described, those countries that two hundred years ago were part of the River Plate Viceroyship and the Chile General Command, both of them part of the Spanish empire. The first steps of buffaloes in Paraguay, Bolivia and Uruguay. The expansion of buffaloes in Argentina and their recent start up in Chile. The production systems in the region are described, principally Argentina and Paraguay. The major changes and expansion of agriculture in Argentina are displacing cattle production from the North towards the Tropics, where buffalo has proven to be very superior in productivity compared to cattle production thanks to its very good adaptation to the local conditions. In Paraguay, a totally subtropical country, something very similar is happening. Paraguay has consolidated its sales of buffalo hides and beef. Argentina is well on its way to having a very efficient buffalo beef marketing competing with cattle of the highest quality. Buffalo milk production is still not mature in these countries, although there are several projects underway in Uruguay, Bolivia and Argentina.

  4. Human rights and the right to abortion in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandra Zúñiga-Fajuri

    2014-01-01

    The scope of this study is to question the fact that in some countries in Latin America (Chile, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Honduras and the Dominican Republic) abortion is still forbidden in all situations. Even after all the debate on this thorny issue, the theory of human rights is not often used in the defense of abortion. This is clearly related to the pervasive, albeit unspoken belief that, due to their condition, pregnant women inherently lose their full human rights and should surrender a...

  5. Mexico and Latin America: Their Progress in Globalizing Information Services

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, Jesús

    1998-01-01

    Information development in Latin America has evolved, despite the costly economic, social and political adjustments carried out in most countries in the last two decades. New open market policies and technological developments has helped the region to increase their links with the rest of the world. Libraries can now use faster and more reliable telephone services and can acquire computer and network technology with less import barriers. Information demand is assumed to be greater in quali...

  6. Social Protection Systems in Latin America and the Caribbean: Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Robles Farías

    2015-01-01

    Chile has a long history of implementing social policies. It was one of the first countries in Latin America to expand free health care coverage and education, incorporating cash and in-kind transfers to promote access to social services and offer diverse protection mechanisms for its most vulnerable population groups. That said, its current social protection model is the result of a series of efforts, institutions and policies that have been consolidated over time.(?)

  7. Obesity trends and determinant factors in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Kain Juliana; Vio Fernando; Albala Cecilia

    2003-01-01

    Obesity rates have increased markedly in Latin America, especially during the last 10-15 years, becoming a public health problem in most countries. Prevalence of obesity among preschool children remains low, while among schoolchildren it has increased considerably. Prevalence is high in the adult population, especially among women with less schooling. In developed populations, obesity occurs more frequently among the poor; the opposite occurs in less developed societies, where in households u...

  8. Integrated Water Resources Management in Latin America and the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Inter-American Development Bank (IDB)

    1998-01-01

    This technical study contains the strategy of the Inter-American Development Bank for its involvement in integrated water resources management in Latin America and the Caribbean. The strategy was developed through an iterative step by step procedure in consultation with country water resource officials, Bank staff, nongovernmental organizations, and international lending and technical assistance organizations. The first part of the study is an overview of water resource management in Latin Am...

  9. Towards a Geography of Unmarried Cohabitation in the Americas

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Lopez-Gay; Albert Esteve; Julián López-Colás; Iñaki Permanyer; Anna Turu; Sheela Kennedy; Benoît Laplante; Ron Lesthaeghe

    2014-01-01

    Background: As the incidence of cohabitation has been rising in many parts of the world, efforts to determine the forces driving the cohabitation boom have also been intensifying. But most of the analyses of this issue conducted so far were carried out at a national level, and did not account for regional heterogeneity within countries. Objective: This paper presents the geography of unmarried cohabitation in the Americas. We offer a large-scale, cross-national perspective, together with s...

  10. Lower inflation in Latin America: Economic recovery begins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-11-30

    Throughout the 1980s, Latin American countries struggled with economic stagnation compounded by hyperinflation. A report by the Inter-American Development Bank finds marked improvement in the economies of Latin America, based upon its analysis of 1991 statistics. This issue taps two recent studies of the region, and its own Fuel Price/Tax Series, to track the trends for a view of a brighter future.

  11. Innovation and productivity in services: Empirical evidence from Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Crespi, G.A.; Tacsir, E.; Vargas, F

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses and compares the determinants of innovation in the service industry and its impact on labour productivity at the firm level in three countries of Latin America (Chile, Colombia, and Uruguay). The main findings show that, similar to what is observed in the manufacturing industry, service firms that invest the most in innovation activities are more likely to introduce changes or improvements in their production process and/or product mix, and those firms that innovate have h...

  12. OWNERSHIP STRUCTURE AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE IN LATIN AMERICA

    OpenAIRE

    FERNANDO LEFORT

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of corporate governance practices in Latin American countries, surveying the available empirical literature, reviewing the reports on the subject prepared by multinational organizations, and providing new data for ownership and control structures of companies in different Latin American economies. Like in other emerging economies corporate governance in Latin America is conditioned by the high level of ownership concentration and the profusion of industrial and...

  13. EERE-Supported International Activities in Latin America (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-05-01

    The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) is involved in a variety of international initiatives, partnerships, and events that promote greater understanding and use of renewable energy (RE) and energy efficiency (EE) worldwide. In support of the Energy and Climate Partnership of the Americas (ECPA), EERE is working with several Latin American countries to advance EE and RE deployment for economic growth, energy security, poverty relief, and disaster recovery goals. This fact sheet highlights those activities.

  14. Lost Decades? : economic performance in post-independence Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Prados de la Escosura, Leandro

    2009-01-01

    In this paper the economic performance of post-independence Latin America is assessed in comparative perspective. The release from the colonial fiscal burden was partly offset by higher costs of self-government, while the opening of independent Latin American countries to the international economy represented a handmaiden of growth. Regional disparities increased after independence, so generalisations about the region's long-run behaviour are not straightforward. However, on average, per capi...

  15. Reading Comprehension in Latin America: Difficulties and Possible Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lions, Séverin; Peña, Marcela

    2016-06-01

    Reading comprehension (RC) is below the international standard in many countries of Latin America (LA). Here we review factors that might be associated with failure in RC of the first language in LA. Then we present interventions reporting beneficial impact on RC in typically developing students from English-speaking countries and discuss their possible applicability in LA. We conclude that research-based pedagogical interventions are currently available to promote RC at school and may be suitable to implement in LA in order to improve RC. PMID:27254828

  16. Updates in pediatric endocrinology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamboj, Manmohan K

    2013-04-01

    There are rapid advances being made in the field of medicine! New research continues to investigate etiopathogenic mechanisms underlying many endocrine disorders, new tests to facilitate diagnosis, and newer treatment options. The discussion in this article focuses on a few of the important concerns in adolescent endocrinology and highlights some recent concepts that are important for the physicians taking care of these adolescents. This article also includes a brief update on diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2, obesity, and polycystic ovarian syndrome; new thoughts and controversies about vitamin D and current management of the common thyroid disorders; adrenal insufficiency; and concerns with disorders of puberty in adolescents.

  17. Context updates are hierarchical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Karl Ingason

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This squib studies the order in which elements are added to the shared context of interlocutors in a conversation. It focuses on context updates within one hierarchical structure and argues that structurally higher elements are entered into the context before lower elements, even if the structurally higher elements are pronounced after the lower elements. The crucial data are drawn from a comparison of relative clauses in two head-initial languages, English and Icelandic, and two head-final languages, Korean and Japanese. The findings have consequences for any theory of a dynamic semantics.

  18. Shipment security update - 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the 2002 RERTR, NAC reported on the interim measures taken by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission to enhance the security afforded to shipments of spent nuclear fuel. Since that time, there have been a number of additional actions focused on shipment security including training programs sponsored by the U.S. Department of Transportation and the Electric Power Research Council, investigation by the Government Accounting Office, and individual measures taken by shippers and transportation agents. The paper will present a status update regarding this dynamic set of events and provide an objective assessment of the cost, schedule and technical implications of the changing security landscape. (author)

  19. Lodging Update: Greater Boston

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Roginsky

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Pinnacle Advisory Group provides an update of lodging industry performance in New England and Boston for the first half of 2012. While the New England region outpaced the nation, the specific story varies from state to state. Only Massachusetts and Vermont achieved REVPAR performance better than the national average. A review of the Greater Boston lodging market reveals that a healthy local economy and strong convention calendar, combined with a number of one-time events and limited new supply, boosted the local market in 2012. The outlook for 2013 in Greater Boston remains positive, with expectations of a 4.7% growth in REVPAR.

  20. Leadership and management principles in libraries in developing countries

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Learn leadership skills from achievements at special libraries in Asia, Africa, Eastern Europe, and Central America! Leadership and Management Principles in Libraries in Developing Countries is a compilation of success stories epitomizing management and leadership strategies from developing nations around the globe. This book focuses on library administrators from Asia, Africa, Eastern Europe, and Central America who have significantly transformed their library services in spite of limited funds and a lack of resources. You'll learn about their achievements, their techniques, and t

  1. Directory of cyclotrons used for radionuclide production in Member States [2006 update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present directory of cyclotron facilities used for the production of radionuclides in Member States is an update of the one compiled by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in late 2001 and published in 2002. This directory was prepared through information collected by questionnaires that the IAEA sent to known institutions operating cyclotrons for radionuclide production. Technical as well as administrative data supplied to the IAEA as of November 2005 were taken into account. The directory is considered to include most of the cyclotrons of the world that are used at least partially for radionuclide production. There are 262 entries for cyclotrons operating in 39 Member States of the IAEA. This is an increase of 7% over the 246 reported in the 2002 cyclotron directory. This can be compared to the 350 or so cyclotrons believed to be presently operating in the world, which are involved in some aspects of radionuclide production. The increase has been in the number of cyclotrons in developed countries, but even more so in the developing countries. The increase in number during the last four years was driven by several factors, i.e. advent of advances in medical imaging, introduction of compact, user friendly medical cyclotron, and a recent decision that costs for 15O-oxygen position emission tomography (PET) studies in Japan and 18F-FDG PET studies in Germany and the United States of America are eligible for reimbursement by government or health insurance companies. There is no doubt that the fastest growing segment of the market is in the commercial distribution of FDG to local hospitals. The IAEA is promoting cyclotron technology as applied to nuclear medicine. Requests for cyclotron technology is steadily increasing; many developing Member States are interested in this technology. There is need to stimulate, build and maintain consulting capability in interested developing Member States. There are good reasons to believe that the number of cyclotron

  2. Pesticide use in Latin America: Trends and environmental implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current demand for pesticides in Latin America exceeds US $2000 million in value. Up to 1990, the consumption is expected to rise annually by 7 to 12%. Use of pesticides has been fully accepted in Latin America as a readily available means of pest control. Nevertheless, even today pests are responsible for the loss of 25 to 40% of potential harvests. In banana cultivation, the cost of pesticides accounts for 30 to 35% of production costs. Latin America is in the process of changing over from persistent organochlorines to pesticides which are more sophisticated, more expensive and less persistent. The countries in the region are looking for ecologically acceptable permanent methods of pest control. Integrated pest management will reduce the risks of pesticide use by changing the systems of application. All Latin American countries have legislation on pesticide handling and use. These laws have been or are being harmonized with the International Code of Conduct on the Distribution and Use of Pesticides published by FAO. The Latin American pesticide industry is dependent on the supply of intermediate compounds and raw materials from developed countries. In addition, it has to deal with high production costs and a lack of research and development. It is far from utilizing the full installed capacity, and only an increase in commercial exchange in the region would make its position less unfavourable. (author). 28 refs, 3 figs, 8 tabs

  3. North America and South America (NA-SA) neuropathy project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasnoor, Mamatha; Nascimento, Osvaldo J M; Trivedi, Jaya; Wolfe, Gil I; Nations, Sharon; Herbelin, Laura; de Freitas, M G; Quintanilha, Giseli; Khan, Saud; Dimachkie, Mazen; Barohn, Richard

    2013-08-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is a common neurological disorder. There may be important differences and similarities in the diagnosis of peripheral neuropathy between North America (NA) and South America (SA). Neuromuscular databases were searched for neuropathy diagnosis at two North American sites, University of Kansas Medical Center and University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, and one South American site, Federal Fluminense University in Brazil. All patients were included into one of the six major categories: immune-mediated, diabetic, hereditary, infectious/inflammatory, systemic/metabolic/toxic (not diabetic) and cryptogenic. A comparison of the number of patients in each category was made between North America and South America databases. Total number of cases in North America was 1090 and in South America was 1034 [immune-mediated: NA 215 (19.7%), SA 191 (18%); diabetic: NA 148 (13.5%), SA 236 (23%); hereditary: NA 292 (26.7%), SA 103 (10%); infectious/inflammatory: NA 53 (4.8%), SA 141 (14%); systemic/metabolic/toxic: NA 71 (6.5%), SA 124 (12%); cryptogenic: NA 311 (28.5%), SA 239 (23%)]. Some specific neuropathy comparisons were hereditary neuropathies [Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) cases] in NA 246/292 (84.2%) and SA 60/103 (58%); familial amyloid neuropathy in SA 31/103 (30%) and none in NA. Among infectious neuropathies, cases of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) neuropathy in SA were 36/141(25%), Chagas disease in SA were 13/141(9%) and none for either in NA; cases of neuropathy due to leprosy in NA were 26/53 (49%) and in SA were 39/141(28%). South American tertiary care centers are more likely to see patients with infectious, diabetic and hereditary disorders such as familial amyloid neuropathies. North American tertiary centers are more likely to see patients with CMT. Immune neuropathies and cryptogenic neuropathies were seen equally in North America and South America.

  4. International Association for Promoting Geoethics (IAPG): an update on activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Capua, Giuseppe; Bobrowsky, Peter; Kieffer, Susan; Peppoloni, Silvia; Tinti, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    The International Association for Promoting Geoethics (IAPG: http://www.geoethics.org) was founded on August 2012 to unite global geoscientists to raise the awareness of the scientific community regarding the importance of the ethical, social and cultural implications of geoscience research, education, and practice. IAPG is an international, multidisciplinary and scientific platform for discussion on ethical problems and dilemmas in Earth Sciences, promoting geoethical themes through scientific publications and conferences, strengthening the research base on geoethics, and focusing on case-studies as models for the development of effective and operative strategies. IAPG is legally recognized as a not-for-profit organization. It is a non-governmental, non-political, non-party institution, at all times free from racial, gender, religious or national prejudices. Its network continues to grow with more than 900 members in 103 countries, including 20 national sections. IAPG operates exclusively through donations and personal funds of its members. The results achieved since inception have been recognized by numerous international organizations. In particular, IAPG has obtained the status of affiliated organization by the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS), American Geosciences Institute (AGI), Geological Society of America (GSA), and the Geological Society of London (GSL). IAPG has enlarged its official relationships also through agreements on collaboration with other organizations, such as the American Geophysical Union (AGU), EuroGeoSurveys (EGS), European Federation of Geologists (EFG), Association of Environmental & Engineering Geologists (AEG), International Geoscience Education Organisation (IGEO), African Association of Women in Geosciences (AAWG), and others. IAPG considers publications as an indispensable activity to strengthen geoethics from a scientific point of view, so members are active in the publication of articles and editing of books on

  5. CHINESE FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENTS IN LATIN AMERICA AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON CHINESE-BRAZILIAN ECONOMIC RELATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Marta Czarnecka-Gallas

    2012-01-01

    For many decades Chinese foreign direct investments in Latin America were not a subject of academic research or political debate. However, thanks to China’s fast economic growth, huge saving rate and national reserves, the country plays a more and more important role not only in global trade, being the world’s biggest exporter, but also in international investment scene by increasing the number and volume of its overseas businesses. Chinese FDIs in Latin America, although not as controversial...

  6. Archaeology in Latin America, by Gustavo G. Politis and Benjamin Alberti, editors, 1999, Routledge, London

    OpenAIRE

    David L. Browman

    2001-01-01

    The two editors argue in their preface to the volume that the particular sociopolitical context of Latin America has led to a regionalism not seen in North America or Europe, resulting in a unique variety of archaeology. They particularly conceive "Latin American archaeology" in this case to he only that archaeology done by individuals who are citizens of the countries of the region, and they ex­clude from consideratio...

  7. Uganda Country Economic Memorandum

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank; Government of Uganda

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the Ugandan government is to make Uganda an upper - middle income country within thirty years. Economic diversification is a key component of that strategy. The country economic memorandum (CEM) report discusses how the emergence of oil and mineral production can contribute to Uganda’s effort to promote economic diversification as a means to achieve sustainable and shared ...

  8. Country Profiles, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzuki, Ariffin Bin; Peng, J. Y.

    A profile of Malaysia is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: location and description of the country; population (size, growth patterns, age structure, urban/rural distribution, ethnic and religious composition, migration,…

  9. Yaws in the Americas, 1950-1975.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, D R

    1977-10-01

    Yaws was introduced into the Americas by African slaves beginning in the 16th century and may have already been present before the arrival of Columbus. In the 1950s, programs for the eradication of yaws were undertaken in almost all American countries in which yaws was endemic. By mass treatment of cases and contacts with penicillin, the programs against yaws have dramatically reduced the incidence of reported cases throughout the Western Hemisphere from greater than 44,000 cases per year during 1950-1954 to 437 cases in 1975. In Brazil, efforts against yaws reduced the number of patients treated by 99% between 1965 and 1974. By 1975, yaws apparently remained a significant public health problem in only a few communities in Brazil, Columbia, Dominica, Ecuador, Haiti, Peru, St. Lucia, and St. Vincent, and possibly in Guiana and Surinam. It may be possible to eliminate infectious yaws entirely from the Western Hemisphere within the next few years. PMID:908852

  10. Denmark country note 2016

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloksgaard, Lotte; Rostgaard, Tine

    2016-01-01

    The LP&R network produces an annual review of leave policies and related research, starting in 2004. The review covers Maternity, Paternity and Parental leaves; leave to care for sick children and other employment-related measures to support working parents; and early childhood education and care......, Russian Federation, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, United States of America and Uruguay....

  11. Comparison of occupational noise legislation in the Americas: An overview and analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge P Arenas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The workplace contributes significantly to the total dose of daily noise to which a person is subjected. Therefore, millions of people around the world are exposed to potentially dangerous noise levels and consequently, there is an urgent, global need for legislation to adequately protect the auditory health of workers. Occupational noise legislation has been adopted in many of the countries with different degrees of comprehensiveness and varying levels of sophistication. This paper presents a global view of current legislation on occupational noise in the 22 countries that make up the Americas, that is, Latin America, Canada, and the United States. Upon analysis of the legislation, there are notable differences among countries in the defined values for permissible exposure limit (PEL and exchange rate. Of the countries that have regulations, the majority (81% use a PEL of 85 dBA. A PEL of 85 dBA and the 3-dB exchange rate are currently used by 32% of the nations in the Americas. Most nations limit impulsive noise exposure to a peak unweighted sound pressure level of 140 dB (or dBC, while a few use slightly lower limits. However, 27% of the countries in the region still have not established regulations with respect to permissible noise levels and exchange rates. This fact is leaving millions of workers in the Americas unprotected against occupational noise. Provide an overview and analysis of the current legislation on occupational noise in the 22 countries that make up the Americas. The information on legislation, regulations, and standards discussed in this paper were obtained directly from official government sources in each country, the International Labour Organization database, or through various colleagues in each country. (1 There are notable differences among countries in the defined values for PEL and exchange rate. (2 Of the countries that have regulations, the majority (81% use a PEL of 85 dBA. A PEL of 85 dBA and the 3-dB exchange

  12. Nuclear technology review 2005 update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The year 2004 marked the 50th anniversary of civilian nuclear power generation. While the current outlook for nuclear energy remains mixed, there is clearly a sense of rising expectations. Both the OECD International Energy Agency and the IAEA adjusted their medium-term projections for nuclear power upwards. The IAEA now projects 423 - 592 GW(e) of nuclear power installed worldwide in 2030, compared to 366 GW(e) at the end of 2004. This is driven by nuclear power's performance record, by growing energy needs around the world coupled with rising oil and natural gas prices, by new environmental constraints including entry-into-force of the Kyoto Protocol, by concerns about energy supply security in a number of countries, and by ambitious expansion plans in several key countries. National research on advanced reactor designs continues on all reactor categories - water cooled, gas cooled, liquid metal cooled, and hybrid systems. Five members of the US-initiated Generation IV International Forum (GIF) signed a framework agreement on international collaboration in research and development on Generation IV nuclear energy systems in February 2005. The IAEA's International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO) grew to 23 members. It completed a series of case studies testing its assessment methodology and the final report on the updated INPRO methodology was published in December. The realization of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, ITER, came closer with the announcement on 28 June 2005 by the ITER parties. The aim of ITER is to demonstrate the scientific and technological feasibility of fusion energy by constructing a functional fusion power plant. Nuclear technology developments are rapid and cover many fields of application. Not all can be covered in this update review, but certain key areas and trends are covered where these are seen to be of significant interest to IAEA Member States, and which are of relevance to and have

  13. Cooperation or Security - The Emergence of Space Programs in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godefroy, A. B.

    Traditionally, Latin America has been labeled a “Third World” region, yet when one examines its various space programs the handle hardly applies. Both Argentina and Brazil received superpower assistance during the early Cold War period to develop indigenous rocketry and space capabilities that continue to evolve today. More recently, other Latin American countries have also taken advantage of the many capabilities that space power provides. However, cooperation and development in Latin America continue to be influenced by politics and security issues, an inescapable aspect of the region's history. These factors combined have had a considerable impact on the emergence of space programs in Latin America.

  14. African Ethnobotany in the Americas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egleé L. Zent

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Review of African Ethnobotany in the Americas. Edited by Robert Voeks and John Rashford. 2013. Springer. Pp. 429, 105 illustrations, 69 color illustrations. $49.95 (paperback. ISBN 978‐1461408352.

  15. Heart Failure Society of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Site Terms and Conditions Copyright © 2016 Heart Failure Society of America. All Rights Reserved 2016 Board Review ... Membership Membership Information Membership in the Heart Failure Society is open to all health care professionals with ...

  16. ScaleUp America Communities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Small Business Administration — SBA’s new ScaleUp America Initiative is designed to help small firms with high potential “scale up” and grow their businesses so that they will provide more jobs...

  17. Road Rage Rampant in America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159883.html Road Rage Rampant in America 8 of 10 drivers ... of 10 drivers demonstrated significant anger, aggression or road rage in the past year, the study found. ...

  18. African Ethnobotany in the Americas

    OpenAIRE

    Zent, Egleé L

    2013-01-01

    Review of African Ethnobotany in the Americas. Edited by Robert Voeks and John Rashford. 2013. Springer. Pp. 429, 105 illustrations, 69 color illustrations. $49.95 (paperback). ISBN 978‐1461408352.

  19. Huntington's Disease Society of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Andrews HDSA Researcher Spotlight- Dr. Amber Southwell Advocacy Huntington’s Disease Parity Act Affordable Care Act Social Security ... 08.30.16 HD Support & Care Network and Huntington’s Disease Society of America Partner for Stronger HD ...

  20. Learning Disabilities Association of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... purchases to benefit LDA. Shop Now October is Learning Disabilities Awareness Month Learning Disabilities Association of America ( ... children's health and reduce toxic exposures. Learn More Learning Disabilities: A Multidisciplinary Journal Committed to the study ...

  1. Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enabled to enjoy the full interactive experience. Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America Find a Doctor Find a ... Local Chapters News Events Search: What are Crohn's & Colitis? What is Crohn's Disease What is Ulcerative Colitis ...

  2. Working Memory Updating Latency Reflects the Cost of Switching between Maintenance and Updating Modes of Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Yoav; Oberauer, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Updating and maintenance of information are 2 conflicting demands on working memory (WM). We examined the time required to update WM (updating latency) as a function of the sequence of updated and not-updated items within a list. Participants held a list of items in WM and updated a variable subset of them in each trial. Four experiments that vary…

  3. America's looming creativity crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida, Richard

    2004-10-01

    The strength of the American economy does not rest on its manufacturing prowess, its natural resources, or the size of its market. It turns on one factor--the country's openness to new ideas, which has allowed it to attract the brightest minds from around the world and harness their creative energies. But the United States is on the verge of losing that competitive edge. As the nation tightens its borders to students and scientists and subjects federal research funding to ideological and religious litmus tests, many other countries are stepping in to lure that creative capital away. Ireland, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Denmark, and others are spending more on research and development and shoring up their universities in an effort to attract the world's best--including Americans. If even a few of these nations draw away just a small percentage of the creative workers from the U.S., the effect on its economy will be enormous. In this article, the author introduces a quantitative measure of the migration of creative capital called the Global Creative-Class Index. It shows that, far from leading the world, the United States doesn't even rank in the top ten in the percentage of its workforce engaged in creative occupations. What's more, the baby boomers will soon retire. And data showing large drops in foreign student applications to U.S. universities and in the number of visas issued to knowledge workers, along with concomitant increases in immigration in other countries, suggest that the erosion of talent from the United States will only intensify. To defend the U.S. economy, the business community must take the lead in ensuring that global talent can move efficiently across borders, that education and research are funded at radically higher levels, and that we tap into the creative potential of more and more workers. Because wherever creativity goes, economic growth is sure to follow.

  4. Educational Research in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Abdeljalil Akkari; Soledad Perez

    1998-01-01

    The present paper consists of four primary sections. First, we describe the historical context of educational research in Latin America. In the second section, we focus on various theoretical frameworks that are applied to educational research in the region. We identify the main institutions involved in this research in the third section. Finally, in conclusion we offer suggestions that we consider to be of greatest priority for the future of educational research in Latin America.

  5. Inflation Targeting in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Vittorio Corbo; Klaus Schmidt-Hebbel

    2002-01-01

    This paper analyzes Latin America’s recent experience with the use of inflation targeting (IT) while the region has made substantial progress toward eradicating high inflation. The paper assesses the implementation and results of inflation targeting in Latin America from a broad perspective. It starts by reviewing the issues relevant for the choice of exchange-rate regimes and monetary frameworks, documenting the evolution of exchange rate and monetary regimes in Latin America during the last...

  6. Social Security privatization in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritzer, B E

    2000-01-01

    The new, partially privatized social security system adopted by Chile in 1981 has attracted attention in many parts of the world. Since then, a number of Latin American countries have implemented the Chilean model, with some variations: either with a single- or multi-tier system, or with a period of transition to take care of those in the labor force at the time of the change. The single-tier version consists of a privatized program with individual accounts in pension fund management companies. Multi-tier systems have a privatized component and retain some form of public program. This article describes each of the new programs in Latin America, their background, and similarities and differences among them. Much more information is available for Chile than for the other countries (in part because Chile has the oldest system), enough to be able to evaluate what, in most cases, is the most accurate information. That is often not the case for the other countries, especially when dealing with subjects such as transition costs and net rates of return (rates of return minus administrative fees). No country has copied the Chilean system exactly. Bolivia, El Salvador, and Mexico have closed their public systems and set up mandatory individual accounts. Argentina has a mixed public/private system with three tiers. In Colombia and Peru, workers have a choice between the public and private programs. Uruguay created a two-tier mixed system. Costa Rica has a voluntary program for individual accounts as a supplement to the pay-as-you-go program and has just passed a law setting up mandatory accounts containing employer contributions for severance pay. All of the countries continue to face unresolved issues, including: High rates of noncompliance--the percentage of enrollees who do not actively and regularly contribute to their accounts--which could lead to low benefits and greater costs to the governments that offer a guaranteed minimum benefit; Proportionately lower benefits for

  7. Memory Updating and Mental Arithmetic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Cheng-Ching; Yang, Tsung-Han; Lin, Chia-Yuan; Yen, Nai-Shing

    2016-01-01

    Is domain-general memory updating ability predictive of calculation skills or are such skills better predicted by the capacity for updating specifically numerical information? Here, we used multidigit mental multiplication (MMM) as a measure for calculating skill as this operation requires the accurate maintenance and updating of information in addition to skills needed for arithmetic more generally. In Experiment 1, we found that only individual differences with regard to a task updating numerical information following addition (MUcalc) could predict the performance of MMM, perhaps owing to common elements between the task and MMM. In Experiment 2, new updating tasks were designed to clarify this: a spatial updating task with no numbers, a numerical task with no calculation, and a word task. The results showed that both MUcalc and the spatial task were able to predict the performance of MMM but only with the more difficult problems, while other updating tasks did not predict performance. It is concluded that relevant processes involved in updating the contents of working memory support mental arithmetic in adults. PMID:26869971

  8. Adjustment or updating of models

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D J Ewins

    2000-06-01

    In this paper, first a review of the terminology used in the model adjustment or updating is presented. This is followed by an outline of the major updating algorithms cuurently available, together with a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of each, and the current state-of-the-art of this important application and part of optimum design technology.

  9. Memory updating and mental arithmetic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Ching eHan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Is domain-general memory updating ability predictive of calculation skills or are such skills better predicted by the capacity for updating specifically numerical information? Here, we used multidigit mental multiplication (MMM as a measure for calculating skill as this operation requires the accurate maintenance and updating of information in addition to skills needed for arithmetic more generally. In Experiment 1, we found that only individual differences with regard to a task updating numerical information following addition (MUcalc could predict the performance of MMM, perhaps owing to common elements between the task and MMM. In Experiment 2, new updating tasks were designed to clarify this: a spatial updating task with no numbers, a numerical task with no calculation, and a word task. The results showed that both MUcalc and the spatial task were able to predict the performance of MMM but only with the more difficult problems, while other updating tasks did not predict performance. It is concluded that relevant processes involved in updating the contents of working memory support mental arithmetic in adults.

  10. Updates Technologies of Media Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Whether as status notifications in news feeds or interactive prompts in online video services, updates punctuate the background routines of media by bringing a variety of changes to the attention of users. In this dissertation I argue that updates rationalize media change by making previously obscure actions of users and movements of technologies…

  11. Episodic fieldwork, updating, and sociability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whyte, M.

    2013-01-01

    on these relationships. I draw on Simmel's concept of sociability to explore the significance of the recurring updates that are so much a part of long-term and thus episodic fieldwork. Updating suggests participation, positionality, and transformation-as well as play and familiarity. The presumption of familiarity...

  12. Drivers of animal welfare policy in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas, S M; Gallo, C; Galindo, F

    2014-04-01

    Owing to its large size and ethnic, social, cultural and economic diversity, the Americas' production volume is set to make the region one of the world's leading providers of animal foodstuffs. Animal husbandry, transport and slaughter conditions vary from country to country in response to their differing climatic and geographic characteristics. This article examines the main drivers of animal welfare in the Americas, including the standards of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), legislation, codes of practice and advances in education, training, research and development. It recognises the important roles played by all the various stakeholders in changing perceptions of animal welfare by raising public awareness and promoting communication and cooperation as drivers of overall change in the Americas. Regional and international organisations, public and private-sector bodies, academia and non-governmental organisations have launched a number of initiatives with encouraging results. In 2009, the OIE established the Chile-Uruguay Collaborating Centre for Animal Welfare Research, which is now the OIE Collaborating Centre for Animal Welfare and Livestock Production Systems and has recently incorporated Mexico. The Collaborating Centre works closely with official OIE Delegates and the Focal Points for Animal Welfare of national Veterinary Services. The OIE Regional Animal Welfare Strategy for the Americas was adopted in 2012, under the coordination of the OIE Regional Representation for the Americas, as a guide for developing future policies based on a regional approach. The way to achieve cultural change for improving animal welfare, operator safety and the sector's profitability is through training and knowledge transfer. The results demonstrate that the joint efforts of all institutions and the active role of the Collaborating Centre have been most effective, as have the continuing education programmes implemented by universities.

  13. Cigeomag March 2013 - A better understanding of the project of industrial centre of geological storage: Interview with Gerald Ouzounian, ANDRA international manager; Cooperation, the IGD-TP European platform by Philippe Lalieux, its chairman; Country focus, Europe, North America, Asia: current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A first article of this publication comments how other countries address the issue of radioactive wastes: contrasted situations for low and medium-activity wastes, leader position of Europe in the case of high-activity wastes, options of used fuel management adapted to the conditions met by each country, underground laboratories to experiment various storage concepts. In an interview, the ANDRA international manager evokes the main international actors, their roles, the place of ANDRA within the different international bodies and its relationship with other countries outside these bodies. The role of the ANDRA, its position within the Cigeo project, the difference between the NEA and the IAEA, the stakes of geological storage, the European legal framework are briefly evoked by experts. An article comments the international cooperation and agreements of the ANDRA in the field of research and knowledge development. The IGD-TP (Implementing Geological Disposal for radioactive waste - Technological Platform) which gathers researches on deep storage in Europe is presented by its chairman. A brief overview of deep storage activities in different countries (Sweden, Finland, Belgium, USA, and Canada) is proposed

  14. An Update on Urbanization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU YUNYUN

    2010-01-01

    @@ China's urbanization was put under the spotlight after Chinese officials shared their views on the country's progress at a press conference on promoting the healthy development of urbanization held in the State Council Information Office on March 29.High-level government officials briefed the media about China's urbanization efforts while elaborating on problems within the current urban-rural two-tier system.

  15. Effective Comparison of Global Financial Crisis (2007 on Inflation of OPEC Countries and Selected Countries of G8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazdan Naghdi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study has attempted to examine and compare the effects of 2007 financial crisis on inflation in OPEC countries and selected countries of G8, based on a panel data regression model during 2000-2010. It should be noted that the selected countries of G8 group are 5 industrial countries member of this group, including: America, Italy, Britain, France and Japan, that crisis has been seen faster in them than other countries. Growth economic variables (real sector of the economy, oil price and stock price index (i.e. financial market have been considered as affected shared variables of the financial crisis in both countries group. According to the obtained results, the only affected variable by the crisis in OPEC countries, is oil price which has positive and significant effect on inflation in the above mentioned countries so that one percent increase in oil price lead to about 0.08 percent increase on inflation, on the other hand, according to survey results there is no relationship between output and inflation in OPEC countries, so it reflects weak manufacturing structure sector (real sector of the economy in these countries

  16. Neurocritical care update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Yasuhiro

    2016-01-01

    This update comprises six important topics under neurocritical care that require reevaluation. For post-cardiac arrest brain injury, the evaluation of the injury and its corresponding therapy, including temperature modulation, is required. Analgosedation for target temperature management is an essential strategy to prevent shivering and minimizes endogenous stress induced by catecholamine surges. For severe traumatic brain injury, the diverse effects of therapeutic hypothermia depend on the complicated pathophysiology of the condition. Continuous electroencephalogram monitoring is an essential tool for detecting nonconvulsive status epilepticus in the intensive care unit (ICU). Neurocritical care, including advanced hemodynamic monitoring, is a fundamental approach for delayed cerebral ischemia following subarachnoid hemorrhage. We must be mindful of the high percentage of ICU patients who may develop sepsis-associated brain dysfunction. PMID:27239312

  17. The United Mexican States: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkert, R; Aguirre, E J

    1988-09-01

    Although the popular North American opinion of Mexico is one that paints a picture of a poor, disadvantaged country, South America sees Mexico has a richer more prosperous nation. It is observed that only in the Latin American countries of Venezuela, Suriname and Trinidad and Tobago do consumers have higher incomes than Mexican consumers. Moreover, while millions of Mexicans migrate to the United States to seek a better standard of living, several thousand Central American refugees illegally migrate to Mexico in search of a better life. This better life includes an increased age of lie expectancy from 51 years in the 1950s to 64 years in the late 1970s. There have also been improvements in health care and school enrollments and in the low cost availability of education. Tourism and the prospect of the manufacturing of energy are significant, positive factors working in favor of an improved Mexican economy and a higher overall quality of life. However, Mexico faces serious problems such as a mounting foreign debt. Also rising is Mexico's population which has doubled since 1964 and which continues to grow at a rate of 1.9%. Economic programs and reforms and family development planning have been instituted in response to the countries' current recession and population growth and have begun to show positive results. PMID:12315795

  18. HOW DOES FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT AFFECT GROWTH IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES? AN EMPIRICAL INVESTIGATION

    OpenAIRE

    E. M. Ekanayake; John R. Ledgerwood

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effects of foreign direct investment on the economic growth of developing countries. The study uses annual data on a group of 85 developing countries covering Asia, Africa, and Latin America and the Caribbean for the period 1980-2007. We explore the hypothesis that foreign direct investment can promote growth in developing countries. We test this hypothesis using panel data series for foreign direct investment, while accounting for regional differences in Asian, Africa...

  19. Trade and Political Relations Between the Czech Republic and Latin American Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Rýcová, Zuzana

    2012-01-01

    Main objective of the thesis is to evaluate trade and political relations between the Czech Republic and selected countries in Latin America (selected countries will be those with strongest ties to the Czech Republic). Hypothesis: Trade and political relations between Czech Republic and Latin American Countries are well developing in the course of the time. Latin-American region provides a great potential for future cooperation. Emphasis will be targeted on the assessment of business conditio...

  20. A comparison of substance dependence treatment information system in America, England, and Iran

    OpenAIRE

    AJAMI, Sima; Mellat-Karkevandi, Zahra; Saghaeiannejad-Isfahani, Sakineh; Salehi, Mehrdad; Jahanbakhsh, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    Context: Addiction, as a social problem, is a phenomenon that causes structural changes in cultural, social, political, and economic system in society. Prevention of this problem means decrease of risk factors and increase of protective factors; and recognition of these factors is possible with the help of update, accurate, and complete information in information systems. Aims: The aim of this study was to compare substance dependence treatment information system (SDTIS) in America, England, ...

  1. Wind Powering America's Wind for Schools Project: Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, I.; Newcomb, C.

    2012-06-01

    This report provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy, Wind Powering America, Wind for Schools project. It outlines teacher-training activities and curriculum development; discusses the affiliate program that allows school districts and states to replicate the program; and contains reports that provide an update on activities and progress in the 11 states in which the Wind for Schools project operates.

  2. Central Wind Forecasting Programs in North America by Regional Transmission Organizations and Electric Utilities: Revised Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, J.; Porter, K.

    2011-03-01

    The report and accompanying table addresses the implementation of central wind power forecasting by electric utilities and regional transmission organizations in North America. The first part of the table focuses on electric utilities and regional transmission organizations that have central wind power forecasting in place; the second part focuses on electric utilities and regional transmission organizations that plan to adopt central wind power forecasting in 2010. This is an update of the December 2009 report, NREL/SR-550-46763.

  3. Oil sands development update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A detailed review and update of oil sands development in Alberta are provided covering every aspect of the production and economic aspects of the industry. It is pointed out that at present oil sands account for 28 per cent of Canadian crude oil production, expected to reach 50 per cent by 2005. Based on recent announcements, a total of 26 billion dollars worth of projects are in progress or planned; 20 billion dollars worth of this development is in the Athabasca area, the remainder in Cold Lake and other areas. The current update envisages up to 1,800,000 barrels per day by 2008, creating 47,000 new jobs and total government revenues through direct and indirect taxes of 118 billion dollars. Provinces other than Alberta also benefit from these development, since 60 per cent of all employment and income created by oil sands production is in other parts of Canada. Up to 60 per cent of the expansion is for goods and services and of this, 50 to 55 per cent will be purchased from Canadian sources. The remaining 40 per cent of the new investment is for engineering and construction of which 95 per cent is Canadian content. Aboriginal workforce by common consent of existing operators matches regional representation (about 13 per cent), and new developers are expected to match these standards. Planned or ongoing development in environmental protection through improved technologies and optimization, energy efficiency and improved tailings management, and active support of flexibility mechanisms such as emission credits trading, joint implementation and carbon sinks are very high on the industry's agenda. The importance of offsets are discussed extensively along with key considerations for international negotiations, as well as further research of other options such as sequestration, environmentally benign disposal of waste, and enhanced voluntary action

  4. Cross-Country Skiing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Guy E.

    1980-01-01

    The cross-country ski program offered at Clarkson College in New York is described, including a brief outline of the course, necessary equipment, and suggestions for developing a similar course at other campuses. (JMF)

  5. Skewness preference across countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Zaremba

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Prospect theory implies that assets with positively skewed returns should be traded at premium to assets with negative skewness. We hypothesize that in the integrated financial markets this concept should also hold for the entire country equity portfolios. This article examines the linkages between the country-level expected returns and past skewness. We evidence a robust negative relationship between skewness and future returns. The phenomenon is most significant within large, liquid, developed, and open stock markets. Additional sorts on skewness can improve performance of both cross-country value and momentum strategies. The study is based on the sorting and cross-sectional tests conducted within a sample of 78 country equity markets for years 1999-2014.

  6. Public opinion: Country comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Debbie

    2015-11-01

    Climate change awareness, risk perception and policy support vary between and within countries. National-scale comparisons can help to explain this variability and be used to develop targeted interventions.

  7. DEVELOPING COUNTRIES. TRANSITION ECONOMIES

    OpenAIRE

    Dumitru FILIPEANU

    2016-01-01

    According to the modern theories of economic development – the take-off, backwardness, convergence and balanced growth hypothesis - the new industrialized states from Asia seem to have noticed the advantages of backwardness from which low income countries benefited, namely the possibility to take advantage of the latest technological discoveries of advanced countries, thus achieving a faster growth than the latter which operated closer to the technological border. The assimilation of appropri...

  8. Mauritius country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manraj, D.D. [Central Statistical Office (Mauritius)

    1998-10-01

    Mauritius has no known oil, gas or coal reserves but is only endowed with limited renewable energy resources namely hydropower and bagasse. Bagasse represents about one third of the country`s energy requirements and meets almost all of the sugar industries energy demand. Projects identified for mitigation options are: Energy Sector - Renewable Sources (Solar, Wind, Biomass); Transport Sector - Fuel switching and Mass transit transport; Manufacturing Sector - Increase efficiency of energy use in the manufacturing process. (EG)

  9. Uzbekistan Country Gender Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank (ADB)

    2014-01-01

    In 2011, Uzbekistan celebrated 20 years of independence. The transition has not been smooth for any country in the Commonwealth of Independent States, and Uzbekistan, too, has experienced both positive and negative developments in gender equality. The status of women and men in Uzbekistan is very much shaped by the fact that the country has undergone significant and rapid change in recent years. Uzbekistan is still being transformed from a state-controlled, largely agricultural economy to a m...

  10. Corruption and concession renegotiations. Evidence from the water and transport sectors in Latin America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guasch, J. Luis [World Bank (United States); University of California, San Diego (United States); Straub, Stephane [Toulouse School of Economics, ARQADE (France); University of Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    2009-06-15

    Numerous renegotiations have plagued water and transport concession contracts in Latin America. Using a panel dataset of over 300 concession contracts from Latin America between 1989 and 2000, we show that country-level corruption is a significant determinant of these renegotiations and that the effect of corruption varies depending on the type of renegotiations considered. While a more corrupt environment clearly leads to more firm-led renegotiations, it significantly reduces the incidence of government-led ones. The paper then discusses and tests the likely channels through which these different effects of corruption arise, looking in particular at the interactions between country-level corruption and relevant microeconomic institutions. (author)

  11. The developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ambiguous definitions and groupings e.g. which countries are taken to be ''developing countries'' are first considered. Although the different definitions may suit a particular purpose it makes comparing statistical data almost impossible. Grouping by commercial energy typology is shown. Statistics on estimated world population growth by country and total world energy consumption (with percentage of electricity supplied by nuclear energy) are listed. Although diverse, the developing countries have broad common energy characteristics and consumption patterns which are discussed. Past, present and future prospects of nuclear power development are reviewed. A nuclear power capacity projection for 2000 is presented. The interest in small and medium sized power reactors (SMPR) from developing countries is considered. Available SMPRs are listed. The launching conditions of a nuclear power programme in developing countries is examined, with emphasis on the importance of having a nuclear energy programme integrated into an energy master plan. The introduction of nuclear power into Argentina and Brazil is reported. It is concluded that nuclear energy will gradually increase its share in the provision of energy. (U.K.)

  12. America's immigration "problem.".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassen, S

    1989-01-01

    Immigration has traditionally aroused strong passions in the US. Though Americans profess pride in their history as a nation of immigrants, each new wave of immigrants is met with strenuous opposition. Sassen points out that this opposition underestimates the US's capacity to absorb more people and fails to appreciate the political and economic forces that give rise to immigration. The outcry over rising illegal immigration culminated in the 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act. So far, the law's effectiveness has been limited. 1.8 million immigrants applied to regularize their status. However, there is growing evidence that the employer sanctions program is resulting in discrimination against minority workers who are US citizens, and in various abuses against undocumented workers. Meanwhile, illegal immigration continues to rise. The 1986 law, like earlier laws, is based o a faulty understanding of immigration causes. The US played a crucial role in the 1960s and 1970s in developing today's global economic system. This system contributed to the creation of pools of potential immigrants and to the formation of links between the industrialized and developing countries. In sum, foreign investment and promotion of export-oriented growth i the US in developing countries has served to increase immigration to the US. A workable US immigration policy would be based o the recognition that the US bears a certain amount of responsibility for international labor migrations. The precise features of a fair immigration policy will have to be elaborated. However, it is clear that US immigration policy will continue to be counterproductive as long as it places the responsibility for the formation of international migrations exclusively upon the migrants themselves. PMID:12316282

  13. Formacion Profesional del Maestro Especial en America Latina y el Caribe = Professional Education of the Special Teacher in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Babra, Marcia Gilbert

    The paper, in Spanish, with a lengthy English summary, analyzes the status of special education in Latin America and the Caribbean. Noting that many countries in the region lack a substantial system of special education, the paper proceeds to examine models for personnel training. Approaches for university-based teacher training as well as for…

  14. The Effect of Trade Openness on Deforestation: Empirical Analysis for 142 Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Tetsuya, Tsurumi; Shunsuke, Managi

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the effect of trade openness on deforestation. Previous studies do not find a clear effect of trade openness on deforestation. We use updated data on the annual rate of deforestation for 142 countries from 1990 to 2003, treat trade and income as endogenous, and take into consideration an adjustment process by applying a dynamic model. We find that an increase in trade openness increases deforestation for non-OECD countries while slowing down deforestation for OECD countrie...

  15. Surveillance, response systems, and evidence updates on emerging zoonoses: the role of one health

    OpenAIRE

    Asokan, G.V.; Kasimanickam, Ramanathan K.; Asokan, Vanitha

    2013-01-01

    Globally, emerging zoonotic diseases are increasing. Existing surveillance systems for zoonoses have substantial gaps, especially in developing countries, and the systems in place in the developed world require improvements. Resources and updates on evidence-based practice (EBP) for zoonoses are sparser in the veterinary literature as compared to the medical literature. Evidence updates for emerging zoonoses are either absent or rudimentary in both human and veterinary medicine. A ‘one-health...

  16. A review of the non-metallic Osmia (Melanosmia) found in North America, with additional notes on palearctic Melanosmia (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Molly Rightmyer; Terry Griswold; Michael Arduser

    2010-01-01

    Abstract We review the six species of non-metallic Osmia (Melanosmia) found in North America, including the description of two new species found in Canada and the northern United States: Osmia (Melanosmia) aquilonaria sp. n., and Osmia (Melanosmia) nearctica sp. n., respectively belonging to the inermis and xanthomelana species groups. We additionally provide keys to the non-metallic Melanosmia found in North America, and update keys to the palearctic Melanosmia based on study of the type spe...

  17. Update of CERN exchange network

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    An update of the CERN exchange network will be done next April. Disturbances or even interruptions of telephony services may occur from 4th to 24th April during evenings from 18:30 to 00:00 but will not exceed more than 4 consecutive hours (see tentative planning below). CERN divisions are invited to avoid any change requests (set-ups, move or removals) of telephones and fax machines from 4th to 25th April. Everything will be done to minimize potential inconveniences which may occur during this update. There will be no loss of telephone functionalities. CERN GSM portable phones won't be affected by this change. Should you need more details, please send us your questions by email to Standard.Telephone@cern.ch. DateChange typeAffected areas April 11 Update of switch in LHC 4 LHC 4 Point April 14 Update of switch in LHC 5 LHC 5 Point April 15 Update of switches in LHC 3 and LHC 2 Points LHC 3 and LHC 2 April 22 Update of switch N4 Meyrin Ouest April 23 Update of switch  N6 Prévessin Site Ap...

  18. Renewables global status report - 2006 Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This update covers major changes since mid-2005 when the Renewables 2005 Global Status Report was written. Background and further information is contained in the original report, available at www.ren21.net. Record investment in new renewable energy capacity occurred in 2005-$38 billion, up from $30 billion in 2004. Germany and China were the investment leaders, with about $7 billion each, followed by the United States, Spain, Japan, and India.Wind power registered the second highest added capacity, almost as much as large hydropower, with existing capacity growing 24 percent to reach 59 gigawatts (GW). Biomass power production saw 50-100 percent increases in annual production in several countries in 2004. High growth rates also occurred in bio-diesel (85 percent increase in annual production) and grid-connected solar PV (55 percent increase in existing capacity). Solar hot water existing capacity grew by 23 percent in China and reached record levels across Europe as well. And construction began in the United States and Spain on the world's first utility-scale solar thermal power plants in 20 years. Country leadership changed or broadened in several areas. Germany leapt ahead of Japan in grid-connected solar PV, adding 600 megawatts (MW) in one year to achieve a higher cumulative capacity. The United States was the leader in wind power additions for the first time since 1992, while at the same time India's existing capacity surpassed wind pioneer Denmark. Ten countries added over 300 MW of wind, up from five countries that did so in 2004. India passed Japan in total renewable power capacity. In ethanol, U.S. production caught up to Brazil, long the world's leading producer, and three new European Union (EU) countries became producers. In bio-diesel, nine new EU countries became producers. The renewables industry captured investors' attention, as the number of renewable energy companies or divisions with market valuations greater than $40 million

  19. Anaglyph, North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    This anaglyph (stereoscopic view) of North America was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). It is best viewed at or near full resolution with anaglyph glasses. For this broad view the resolution of the data was first reduced to 30 arcseconds (about 928 meters north-south and 736 meters east-west in central North America), matching the best previously existing global digital topographic data set called GTOPO30. The data were then resampled to a Mercator projection with approximately square pixels (about one kilometer, or 0.6 miles, on each side). Even at this decreased resolution the variety of landforms comprising the North American continent is readily apparent.Active tectonics (structural deformation of the Earth's crust) along and near the Pacific North American plate boundary creates the great topographic relief seen along the Pacific coast. Earth's crustal plates converge in southern Mexico and in the northwest United States, melting the crust and producing volcanic cones. Along the California coast, the plates are sliding laterally past each other, producing a pattern of slices within the San Andreas fault system. And, where the plates are diverging, the crust appears torn apart as one huge tear along the Gulf of California (northwest Mexico), and as the several fractures comprising the Basin and Range province (in and around Nevada).Across the Great Plains, erosional patterns dominate, with stream channels surrounding and penetrating the remnants of older smooth slopes east of the Rocky Mountains. This same erosion process is exposing the bedrock structural patterns of the Black Hills in South Dakota and the Ozark Mountains in Arkansas. Lateral erosion and sediment deposition by the Mississippi River has produced the flatlands of the lower Mississippi Valley and the Mississippi Delta.To the north, evidence of the glaciers of the last ice age is widely found, particularly east of the Canadian Rocky Mountains and around the

  20. Country nuclear power profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preparation of Country Nuclear Power Profiles was initiated within the framework of the IAEA's programme for nuclear power plant performance assessment and feedback. It responded to a need for a database and a technical document containing a description of the energy and economic situation and the primary organizations involved in nuclear power in IAEA Member States. The task was included in the IAEA's programmes for 1993/1994 and 1995/1996. In March 1993, the IAEA organized a Technical Committee meeting to discuss the establishment of country data ''profiles'', to define the information to be included in the profiles and to review the information already available in the IAEA. Two expert meetings were convened in November 1994 to provide guidance to the IAEA on the establishment of the country nuclear profiles, on the structure and content of the profiles, and on the preparation of the publication and the electronic database. In June 1995, an Advisory Group meeting provided the IAEA with comprehensive guidance on the establishment and dissemination of an information package on industrial and organizational aspects of nuclear power to be included in the profiles. The group of experts recommended that the profiles focus on the overall economic, energy and electricity situation in the country and on its nuclear power industrial structure and organizational framework. In its first release, the compilation would cover all countries with operating power plants by the end of 1995. It was also recommended to further promote information exchange on the lessons learned from the countries engaged in nuclear programmes. For the preparation of this publication, the IAEA received contributions from the 29 countries operating nuclear power plants and Italy. A database has been implemented and the profiles are supporting programmatic needs within the IAEA; it is expected that the database will be publicly accessible in the future

  1. Experiences and challenges in industrialized countries: control of iron deficiency in industrialized countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Usha; Yip, Ray

    2002-04-01

    This paper provides a synopsis of the experience in combating iron deficiency in industrialized countries and identifies the reasons for the considerable success and future challenges. Significant progress has been made over the last century in reducing and even eliminating iron deficiency in many industrialized countries. Current estimates are that the prevalence of iron deficiency has declined to children, compared with 30 to 70% in many developing countries. The reasons for this success cannot be attributed solely to a single approach but rather to a range of factors that have occurred over time as a result of both economic development and the implementation of specific policies. Several factors have contributed to improving both iron intakes and reducing iron losses; these include fortification, supplementation, dietary diversification and public health measures. For example, the decline in anemia in infants can be attributed to the introduction of iron-fortified formula and complementary foods in the 1960s to 1970s. Similarly, the enrichment and fortification of cereals with iron that began during World War II in North America and Europe is a result of effective public-private partnerships. Despite these successes, iron deficiency remains a public health concern in industrialized countries for selected subgroups such as women of reproductive age with excess menstrual losses and pregnant women who cannot meet increased requirements from the diet alone. Constant vigilance and innovative approaches for screening and combating this problem are thus still required even in developed countries.

  2. An update on crimean congo hemorrhagic fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suma B Appannanavar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF is one of the deadly hemorrhagic fevers that are endemic in Africa, Asia, Eastern Europe, and the Middle East. It is a tick-borne zoonotic viral disease caused by CCHF virus of genus Nairovirus (family Bunyaviridae. CCHF not only forms an important public health threat but has a significant effect on the healthcare personnel, especially in resource-poor countries. India was always a potentially endemic area until an outbreak hit parts of Gujarat, taking four lives including the treating medical team. The current review is an attempt to summarize the updated knowledge on the disease particularly in modern era, with special emphasis on nosocomial infections. The knowledge about the disease may help answer certain questions regarding entry of virus in India and future threat to community.

  3. CDM Country Guides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the Integrated Capacity Strengthening for the Clean Development Mechanism (ICS-CDM) programme, IGES presents the CDM Country Guides, a series of manuals on CDM project development for Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Thailand. These guidebooks aim at facilitating CDM project developments in Asia by providing essential information to both project developers and potential investors. Chapter 1, Introduction, is a summary of issues that developers and investors in CDM projects should be aware of. Includes tips for readers to effectively use the guidebook to find specific information. Chapter 2, Country Profile, comprises a profile that provides a broad picture of the country, including social, economic, and political information, as well as an overview of the country's energy situation, which is important for project development and investment. Chapter 3, The CDM Project Cycle, gives an explanation of the general CDM project cycle, which includes identifying a project, issuance of carbon credits, requirements, and stakeholders for each process. Chapter 4, Possible CDM Projects in the Country, is an overview of the country's potential resources and sectoral or project type categories that hold potential for CDM projects. Chapter 5, Government Authorities, gives a comprehensive picture of the CDM-related institutional framework and its inter-organisational relationships. Chapter 6, CDM Project Approval Procedures and Requirements Steps, informs about obtaining project approval and its requirements (e.g., country-specific provisions on additionality, sustainable development criteria, and environmental impact assessment) in the host country. Chapter 7, Laws and Regulations, is an overview of basic investment-related laws, environmental and property law, and sector-specific regulations relevant to CDM project activities. Chapter 8, Fiscal and Financing Issues, gives practical information on the financial market in the host country (both

  4. CDM Country Guides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Under the Integrated Capacity Strengthening for the Clean Development Mechanism (ICS-CDM) programme, IGES presents the CDM Country Guides, a series of manuals on CDM project development for Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Thailand. These guidebooks aim at facilitating CDM project developments in Asia by providing essential information to both project developers and potential investors. Chapter 1, Introduction, is a summary of issues that developers and investors in CDM projects should be aware of. Includes tips for readers to effectively use the guidebook to find specific information. Chapter 2, Country Profile, comprises a profile that provides a broad picture of the country, including social, economic, and political information, as well as an overview of the country's energy situation, which is important for project development and investment. Chapter 3, The CDM Project Cycle, gives an explanation of the general CDM project cycle, which includes identifying a project, issuance of carbon credits, requirements, and stakeholders for each process. Chapter 4, Possible CDM Projects in the Country, is an overview of the country's potential resources and sectoral or project type categories that hold potential for CDM projects. Chapter 5, Government Authorities, gives a comprehensive picture of the CDM-related institutional framework and its inter-organisational relationships. Chapter 6, CDM Project Approval Procedures and Requirements Steps, informs about obtaining project approval and its requirements (e.g., country-specific provisions on additionality, sustainable development criteria, and environmental impact assessment) in the host country. Chapter 7, Laws and Regulations, is an overview of basic investment-related laws, environmental and property law, and sector-specific regulations relevant to CDM project activities. Chapter 8, Fiscal and Financing Issues, gives practical information on the financial market in the host country

  5. Sustainability of biofuels in Latin America: Risks and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssen, Rainer, E-mail: rainer.janssen@wip-munich.de [WIP Renewable Energies, Sylvensteinstrasse 2, 81369 Munich (Germany); Rutz, Dominik Damian [WIP Renewable Energies, Sylvensteinstrasse 2, 81369 Munich (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    Several Latin American countries are setting up biofuel programmes to establish alternative markets for agricultural commodities. This is mainly triggered by the current success of Brazilian bioethanol production for the domestic market and for export. Furthermore, the global biofuel market is expected to increase due to ambitious biofuel programmes in the EU and in the USA. Colombia, Venezuela, Costa Rica and Guatemala are focusing on bioethanol production from sugarcane whereas biofuel production in Argentina is based on soy biodiesel. Recent developments of the biofuel sector take place extremely rapid especially in Argentina, which became one of the five largest biodiesel producers in the world in 2008. Till date no specific biofuel sustainability certification systems have been implemented in Latin American, as well as on global level. This fact and the predominant use of food crops for biofuel production raise concerns about the sustainability of biofuel production related to environmental and social aspects. This paper provides an overview of the hotspots of conflicts in biofuel production in Latin America. It investigates presently available sustainability tools and initiatives to ensure sustainable biofuel production in Latin America. Finally, it provides an outlook on how to integrate sustainability in the Latin American biofuel sector. - Research Highlights: > This study investigates risks and opportunities of biofuels in Latin America. > Latin American countries are setting up programmes to promote biofuel development. > Strong biofuel sectors provide opportunities for economic development. > Potential negative impact includes deforestation and effects on food security. > Sustainability initiatives exist to minimise negative impact.

  6. Recent Rates of Forest Harvest and Conversion in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masek, Jeffrey G.; Cohen, Warren B.; Leckie, Donald; Wulder, Michael A.; Vargas, Rodrigo; de Jong, Ben; Healey, Sean; Law, Beverly; Birdsey, Richard; Houghton, R. A.; Mildrexler, David; Goward, Samuel; Smith, W. Brad

    2011-01-01

    Incorporating ecological disturbance into biogeochemical models is critical for estimating current and future carbon stocks and fluxes. In particular, anthropogenic disturbances, such as forest conversion and wood harvest, strongly affect forest carbon dynamics within North America. This paper summarizes recent (2000.2008) rates of extraction, including both conversion and harvest, derived from national forest inventories for North America (the United States, Canada, and Mexico). During the 2000s, 6.1 million ha/yr were affected by harvest, another 1.0 million ha/yr were converted to other land uses through gross deforestation, and 0.4 million ha/yr were degraded. Thus about 1.0% of North America fs forests experienced some form of anthropogenic disturbance each year. However, due to harvest recovery, afforestation, and reforestation, the total forest area on the continent has been roughly stable during the decade. On average, about 110 m3 of roundwood volume was extracted per hectare harvested across the continent. Patterns of extraction vary among the three countries, with U.S. and Canadian activity dominated by partial and clear ]cut harvest, respectively, and activity in Mexico dominated by conversion (deforestation) for agriculture. Temporal trends in harvest and clearing may be affected by economic variables, technology, and forest policy decisions. While overall rates of extraction appear fairly stable in all three countries since the 1980s, harvest within the United States has shifted toward the southern United States and away from the Pacific Northwest.

  7. Remittances in Central America: Whose Money is it Anyway?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Luis Rocha

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In opposition to optimistic visions that present remittances as an opportunity for developing countries, this paper shows they are part and parcel of a process of economic imperialism, whereby their use and final destinations are strictly conditioned. In order to go beyond a conception of remittances as epiphenomenon, and in order to trace the role they play, this paper focuses on the transnational strategies of capital. It finds that remittances enable an increase in foreign investment and import production by facilitating the rise of a new class of consumers in Central America. Remittances create and feed a purchasing power that would not exist in their absence. Factories, fast food restaurants, communications companies, banks, travel agencies, and supermarkets are opening new branches throughout Central America in order to benefit from transnational savings that would otherwise be used differently. In this way, remittances are conditioned and co-opted by transnational capital’s strategies to sustain an ever growing market, with Central America more generally – and once again – potentially at risk of becoming characterized by enclave economies and chronic commercial deficits. The remittance-based economic model furthermore cannot be sustainable in the long run unless Central American countries keep exporting workers ad infinitum, something that is obviously not possible.

  8. Sustainability of biofuels in Latin America: Risks and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several Latin American countries are setting up biofuel programmes to establish alternative markets for agricultural commodities. This is mainly triggered by the current success of Brazilian bioethanol production for the domestic market and for export. Furthermore, the global biofuel market is expected to increase due to ambitious biofuel programmes in the EU and in the USA. Colombia, Venezuela, Costa Rica and Guatemala are focusing on bioethanol production from sugarcane whereas biofuel production in Argentina is based on soy biodiesel. Recent developments of the biofuel sector take place extremely rapid especially in Argentina, which became one of the five largest biodiesel producers in the world in 2008. Till date no specific biofuel sustainability certification systems have been implemented in Latin American, as well as on global level. This fact and the predominant use of food crops for biofuel production raise concerns about the sustainability of biofuel production related to environmental and social aspects. This paper provides an overview of the hotspots of conflicts in biofuel production in Latin America. It investigates presently available sustainability tools and initiatives to ensure sustainable biofuel production in Latin America. Finally, it provides an outlook on how to integrate sustainability in the Latin American biofuel sector. - Research Highlights: → This study investigates risks and opportunities of biofuels in Latin America. → Latin American countries are setting up programmes to promote biofuel development. → Strong biofuel sectors provide opportunities for economic development. → Potential negative impact includes deforestation and effects on food security. → Sustainability initiatives exist to minimise negative impact.

  9. Human behaviour can trigger large carnivore attacks in developed countries

    OpenAIRE

    Vincenzo Penteriani; María del Mar Delgado; Francesco Pinchera; Javier Naves; Alberto Fernández-Gil; Ilpo Kojola; Sauli Härkönen; Harri Norberg; Jens Frank; José María Fedriani; Veronica Sahlén; Ole-Gunnar Støen; Swenson, Jon E; Petter Wabakken; Mario Pellegrini

    2016-01-01

    The media and scientific literature are increasingly reporting an escalation of large carnivore attacks on humans in North America and Europe. Although rare compared to human fatalities by other wildlife, the media often overplay large carnivore attacks on humans, causing increased fear and negative attitudes towards coexisting with and conserving these species. Although large carnivore populations are generally increasing in developed countries, increased numbers are not solely responsible f...

  10. Quinoa trade in Andean countries: opportunities and challenges for family

    OpenAIRE

    Baudoin, Andrea; Lacroix, Pierril; Didier BAZILE; Chia, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Quinoa’s revival has roused much interest in Andean as well as in European and North American countries. This Andean product, formerly denigrated and destined only for self-consumption, has made its way into the diet of the urban populations of Andean countries and has now spread to the United States of America, Europe and other parts of the world. In the Andes, farmgate prices have gone up and the quinoa sector has become attractive to investors. A wide range of products based on this Chenop...

  11. Update on Babesiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edouard Vannier

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Human babesiosis is an emerging tick-borne infectious disease caused by intraerythrocytic protozoan species of the genus Babesia with many clinical features similar to those of malaria. Over the last 50 years, the epidemiology of human babesiosis has changed from a few isolated cases to the establishment of endemic areas in the northeastern and midwestern United States. Episodic cases are reported in Europe, Asia, Africa, and South America. The severity of infection ranges from asymptomatic infection to fulminant disease resulting in death, although the majority of healthy adults experience a mild-to-moderate illness. People over the age of 50 years and immunocompromised individuals are at the highest risk of severe disease, including those with malignancy, HIV, lacking a spleen, or receiving immunosuppressive drugs. Asymptomatic carriers present a blood safety risk when they donate blood. Definitive diagnosis of babesial infection generally is made by microscopic identification of the organism on thin blood smear, amplification of Babesia DNA using PCR, and detection of Babesia antibody in acute and convalescent sera. Specific antimicrobial therapy consists of atovaquone and azithromycin or clindamycin and quinine. Exchange transfusion is used in severe cases. The use of multiple prevention strategies is recommended and consists of personal, residential, and community approaches.

  12. Denmark country note

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloksgaard, Lotte; Rostgaard, Tine

    2014-01-01

    between leave policy and early childhood education and care policy; recent policy developments; information on take-up of leave; recent publications and current research projects. The review also includes definitions of the main types of leave policies; and cross-country comparisons. These comparative...... overviews cover: each main type of leave; total leave available; the relationship between leave and ECEC entitlements; policy changes and developments since the previous review; publications since the previous review; and ongoing research in participating countries. The 2014 review includes one new country......The LP&R network produces an annual review of leave policies and related research, starting in 2004 (for earlier reviews, go to Archive 2005-2013). The review covers Maternity, Paternity and Parental leaves; leave to care for sick children and other employment-related measures to support working...

  13. Update on Vascular Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ayesha; Kalaria, Raj N; Corbett, Anne; Ballard, Clive

    2016-09-01

    Vascular dementia (VaD) is a major contributor to the dementia syndrome and is described as having problems with reasoning, planning, judgment, and memory caused by impaired blood flow to the brain and damage to the blood vessels resulting from events such as stroke. There are a variety of etiologies that contribute to the development of vascular cognitive impairment and VaD, and these are often associated with other dementia-related pathologies such as Alzheimer disease. The diagnosis of VaD is difficult due to the number and types of lesions and their locations in the brain. Factors that increase the risk of vascular diseases such as stroke, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and smoking also raise the risk of VaD. Therefore, controlling these risk factors can help lower the chances of developing VaD. This update describes the subtypes of VaD, with details of their complex presentation, associated pathological lesions, and issues with diagnosis, prevention, and treatment. PMID:27502303

  14. Higgcision Updates 2014

    CERN Document Server

    Cheung, Kingman; Tseng, Po-Yan

    2014-01-01

    During the 2014 Summer Conferences, both ATLAS and CMS Collaborations of the LHC experiments have demonstrated tremendous efforts in treatment of data and processing more data such that most data on signal strengths have improved; especially the diphoton and fermionic modes of both experiments. Here in this note we perform an update to our previous model-independent Higgs precision analysis -- Higgcision. We found the followings: (i) the uncertainties on most couplings shrink about 10--20%, (ii) the nonstandard (e.g. invisible) decay branching ratio of the Higgs boson is constrained to be less than 18.5% if only the width is allowed to vary, (iii) the gauge-Higgs coupling C_v is constrained to be 0.95^{+0.11}_{-0.12}, in which the uncertainty is reduced by about 10%, and (iv) the standard model (SM) Higgs boson still provides the best fit to all the Higgs boson data, and compared to the previous results the SM Higgs boson now enjoys a higher p value than the last year.

  15. Advanced Stirling Convertor Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, J. Gary; Carroll, Cliff; Matejczyk, Dan; Penswick, L. B.; Soendker, E.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on the 88 We Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC) currently being developed under Phase II of a NASA NRA program for possible use in advanced high specific power radioisotope space power systems. An early developmental unit, the Frequency Test Bed (FTB) which was built and tested in Phase I demonstrated 36% efficiency. The ASC-1 currently being developed under Phase II, uses a high temperature heater head to allow for operation at 850 °C and is expected to have an efficiency approaching 40% (based on AC electrical out) at a temperature ratio of 3.1. The final lightweight ASC-2 convertor to be developed in Phase III is expected to have a mass of approximately 1 kg. The implementation of the ASC would allow for much higher specific power radioisotope power systems, requiring significantly less radioisotope fuel than current systems. The first run of the ASC-1 occurred in September 2005, and full temperature operation was achieved in early October 2005. Presented is an update on progress on the ASC program as well as the plans for future development. Also presented are efforts being performed to ensure the ASC has the required long life already demonstrated in free-piston Stirling cryocoolers.

  16. Dali server update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Liisa; Laakso, Laura M

    2016-07-01

    The Dali server (http://ekhidna2.biocenter.helsinki.fi/dali) is a network service for comparing protein structures in 3D. In favourable cases, comparing 3D structures may reveal biologically interesting similarities that are not detectable by comparing sequences. The Dali server has been running in various places for over 20 years and is used routinely by crystallographers on newly solved structures. The latest update of the server provides enhanced analytics for the study of sequence and structure conservation. The server performs three types of structure comparisons: (i) Protein Data Bank (PDB) search compares one query structure against those in the PDB and returns a list of similar structures; (ii) pairwise comparison compares one query structure against a list of structures specified by the user; and (iii) all against all structure comparison returns a structural similarity matrix, a dendrogram and a multidimensional scaling projection of a set of structures specified by the user. Structural superimpositions are visualized using the Java-free WebGL viewer PV. The structural alignment view is enhanced by sequence similarity searches against Uniprot. The combined structure-sequence alignment information is compressed to a stack of aligned sequence logos. In the stack, each structure is structurally aligned to the query protein and represented by a sequence logo. PMID:27131377

  17. Cultural differences and economic development of 31 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadler, Scott; Zemanek, James E

    2006-08-01

    To update and extend the empirical research of Hofstede, the influence of culture on 31 nations' economic development was examined and support for modernization theory provided. Per capita gross domestic product, literacy rates, the negative of the population growth rate, and life expectancy development data were collected from 31 countries. The pattern of correlations among measures provided partial support for Hofstede's 1980 findings. PMID:17037480

  18. Introduction of human papillomavirus vaccination in Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Bente Braad; Rebolj, Matejka; Valentiner-Branth, Palle;

    2012-01-01

    Cervical screening has helped decrease the incidence of cervical cancer, but the disease remains a burden for women. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination is now a promising tool for control of cervical cancer. Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Greenland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden......) are relatively wealthy with predominantly publicly paid health care systems. The aim of this paper was to provide an update of the current status of introduction of HPV vaccine into the childhood vaccination programs in this region....

  19. Employment protection legislation in central and east European countries

    OpenAIRE

    Tonin, Mirco

    2010-01-01

    This article presents updated indicators of employment protection legislation for several central and eastern European countries according to OECD methodology. Common patterns and outliers are identified and additional information is provided to interpret correctly the strictness of the regulatory environment. The aim is to provide some hard evidence for the debate regarding the interface between employment protection legislation and labour markets and welfare, based on the legislations apply...

  20. Tales From Two Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ooi, Can-Seng

    2006-01-01

    Place branding has become popular. Places brand themselves to attract tourists, talented foreign workers, investments and businesses. The brand accentuates the positive characteristics of the place; it frames the society and sells its cultures. In the context of tourism, this paper examines...... but their branding strategies are different, why? This paper situates their strategic differences in the local social, cultural and political context. Although country branding is externally directed, domestic politics and mechanisms of local control affect how the country can brand itself. Keywords: place branding...

  1. Country report Egypt 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 'Laenderberichte' (country reports), published at irregular intervals, give detailed information on the economic and social structure and development of the country discussed. Extensive tables with a highly specific classification contain data on population and economics, also for longer periods of time. The data appear in a detailed text part with maps, illustrations and tables. There are tables on: Territory and population, health services, social affairs, education and culture, employment, agriculture and forestry, fishery, manufacturing industry, civil engineering, inland trade, external trade, transportation, money and credits, investments, prices and wages, supply and consumption, total balance of national economy. (orig.)

  2. Cross-Country Trek

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    On August 8, 1998, Wu Qi and Yu Yan arrived at Beijing, the destination of a journey that had taken them more than three years. In travelling across 28 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities, by foot, bus and train, these two young women from Guangzhou had covered a distance of 120,000 kJlometers, the first continuous cross-country journey accomplished by women. On the eve of International Women’s Day (March 8th) of 1995, Wu Qi and Yu Yan quit their jobs and started out on their cross-country

  3. Algunos Animales de Latino America = Some Animals of Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kathryn F. B.

    Developed by the Latin American Culture Studies Project for educators of elementary level children, these materials are designed to teach students the Spanish and English names of animals found in Latin America. The lesson includes coloring sheets, duplicating masters, fact sheets, the card game Maymayguashi, and directions for preparation. (DB)

  4. Remember Native America! The Earthworks of Ancient America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balthazar, Richard

    In the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries prehistoric earthworks were to be seen throughout North America. Fascinated colonialist and European settlers attributed these mysterious mounds to mythic Eurocentric sources rather recognizing them as evidence of prehistoric Amerinds. By the end of the nineteenth century interest in the…

  5. Application of research and information to human resources policies: regional goals for the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandelli, Marcos; Rigoli, Felix

    2015-12-01

    Objective Report experiences involving the use of research and information systems to support national human resources policies through benchmarking between different countries, with comparisons over time and between similar countries or regions. Method In 2007, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) promoted a set of goals for all the countries in the Americas to improve the situation of health human resources, using a uniform methodology and research process carried out by Observatories of Human Resources. Results The analysis focused on the progress made in relation to the main challenges in the Southern Cone countries, with a special emphasis on Brazil, noting improvements in the distribution of professionals in the regions. Conclusion These experiences showed how research and the use of information systems can stimulate the expansion of good practices in the training, retention and development of the health workforce in the Americas.

  6. Application of research and information to human resources policies: regional goals for the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandelli, Marcos; Rigoli, Felix

    2015-12-01

    Objective Report experiences involving the use of research and information systems to support national human resources policies through benchmarking between different countries, with comparisons over time and between similar countries or regions. Method In 2007, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) promoted a set of goals for all the countries in the Americas to improve the situation of health human resources, using a uniform methodology and research process carried out by Observatories of Human Resources. Results The analysis focused on the progress made in relation to the main challenges in the Southern Cone countries, with a special emphasis on Brazil, noting improvements in the distribution of professionals in the regions. Conclusion These experiences showed how research and the use of information systems can stimulate the expansion of good practices in the training, retention and development of the health workforce in the Americas. PMID:26959168

  7. Energy demand and life quality in America; Demanda de energia y calidad de vida en las Americas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spitalnik, J. [ELETRONUCLEAR, 65, Rua da Candelaria- 10 andar, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)]. E-mail: jspitalnik@alternex.com.br

    2004-07-01

    Being considered an intermediate growth among projections of technological development expressive or of development restricted by ecological considerations, in the next 50 years, the demand of primary energy in the countries of the American continent arrived to value sufficiently high to allow to consent at levels of quality of life but next to those enjoyed at the moment in developed countries. There will be an expansion substantial of electric power demand that rots to require the installation, in countries of Latin America and Caribbean, of power plants with total capacity of the order of 400 GW until half-filled of century. The resource to the nuclear source was accentuated starting from the decade of 2020 and an enormous challenge for the governments of the region it will be the one of driving the construction of about 2.300 MW/year nuclear power plants between 2020 and 2050. (Author)

  8. Impact of EU agricultural policy on developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Ole; Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Matthews, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Despite substantial reforms, the EU’s Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is still criticised for its detrimental effects on developing countries. This paper provides updated evidence on the impact of the CAP on one developing country, Uganda. It goes beyond estimating macro-level economic effects...... by analysing the impacts on poverty. The policy simulation results show that eliminating EU agricultural support would have marginal but nonetheless positive impacts on the Ugandan economy and its poverty indicators. From the perspective of the EU’s commitment to policy coherence for development, this supports...... the view that further reducing EU Agricultural support would be positive for development....

  9. Impact of EU agricultural policy on developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Ole; Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Matthews, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Despite substantial reforms, the EU’s Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is still criticised for its detrimental effects on developing countries. This paper provides updated evidence on the impact of the CAP on one developing country, Uganda. It goes beyond estimating macro-level economic effects...... by analysing the impacts on poverty. The policy simulation results show that eliminating EU agricultural support would have marginal but nonetheless positive impacts on the Ugandan economy and its poverty indicators. From the perspective of the EU’s commitment to policy coherence for development, this supports...... the view that further reducing EU Agricultural support would be positive for development....

  10. Atomic spectrometry update : environmental analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Butler, Owen T.; Cairns, Warren R. L.; Cook, Jennifer M.; Davidson, Christine M.

    2012-01-01

    This is the 27th annual review published in Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry of the application of atomic spectrometry to the chemical analysis of environmental samples. This Update refers to papers published approximately between September 2010 and August 2011 and continues the series of Atomic Spectrometry Updates (ASUs) in Environmental Analysis1 that should be read in conjunction with other related ASU reviews in the series, namely: clinical and biological materials, foods and be...

  11. Communication technology update and fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Grant, August E

    2010-01-01

    New communication technologies are being introduced at an astonishing rate. Making sense of these technologies is increasingly difficult. Communication Technology Update and Fundamentals is the single best source for the latest developments, trends, and issues in communication technology. Featuring the fundamental framework along with the history and background of communication technologies, Communication Technology Update and Fundamentals, 12th edition helps you stay ahead of these ever-changing and emerging technologies.As always, every chapter ha

  12. Communication technology update and fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Grant, August E

    2008-01-01

    New communication technologies are being introduced at an astonishing rate. Making sense of these technologies is increasingly difficult. Communication Technology Update is the single best source for the latest developments, trends, and issues in communication technology. Now in its 11th edition, Communication Technology Update has become an indispensable information resource for business, government, and academia. As always, every chapter has been completely rewritten to reflect the latest developments and market statistics, and now covers mobile computing, dig

  13. Restoring America's Leadership through Scholarships for Undergraduates from Developing Countries: The Uniting Students in America (USA) Proposal. Joint Hearing before the Subcommittee on International Organizations, Human Rights, and Oversight of the Committee on Foreign Affairs and the Subcommittee on Higher Education, Lifelong Learning, and Competitiveness of the Committee on Education and Labor, House of Representatives, One Hundred Tenth Congress, Second Session (June 19, 2008). Serial Number 110-189 (Committee on Foreign Affairs). Serial Number 110-96 (Committee on the Education and Labor)

    Science.gov (United States)

    US House of Representatives, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This joint hearing follows a hearing focused on a report issued by the Subcommittee on International Organizations, Human Rights, and Oversight entitled, "The Decline in America's Reputation, Why?" based on a series of some 10 hearings. The report documented the dramatic decline in international approval for American leadership from historic…

  14. From Mexico to Brazil, from Ancient China to New Confucianism: Sinological Studies in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Pihler Ciglič

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a general framework of the beginnings and development of sinological studies in geographically, politically and culturally very diverse Latin America, and highlights current issues and trends therein. In the 21st century the fast- growing relationship between China and Latin America is reflected in the accelerated creation of diverse economic-political, academic and educational institutions, publications and in the organization of numerous international conferences and scientific symposia. The study analyses the development of Confucian Studies – first, through reviewing the most important translations and publications of the 20th century in connection with “the intellectual movement” in Latin America, and, second, through an illustrative commentary on the most renowned scientific articles and monographs. The study initially focuses on Mexico, the country with the longest sinological tradition in Latin America, where the Centro de Estudios de Asia y África at El Colegio de México is still regarded to be one of the most prominent Latin American centres for Asian and African Studies. The focus then shifts to Brazil, which seems, of all the countries in Latin America, to have the least well-established tradition in Chinese studies and Confucianism. The central premise of sinological and Confucian studies in these two countries is presented through the prism of major studies of two modern sinologists, Chen Yong (El Colegio de México and André Bueno (Universidade do Estado de Rio de Janeiro.

  15. Health outcomes among HIV-positive Latinos initiating antiretroviral therapy in North America versus Central and South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesar, Carina; Koethe, John R; Giganti, Mark J; Rebeiro, Peter; Althoff, Keri N; Napravnik, Sonia; Mayor, Angel; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Wolff, Marcelo; Padgett, Denis; Sierra-Madero, Juan; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Sterling, Timothy R; Willig, James; Levison, Julie; Kitahata, Mari; Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria C; Moore, Richard D; McGowan, Catherine; Shepherd, Bryan E; Cahn, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Latinos living with HIV in the Americas share a common ethnic and cultural heritage. In North America, Latinos have a relatively high rate of new HIV infections but lower rates of engagement at all stages of the care continuum, whereas in Latin America antiretroviral therapy (ART) services continue to expand to meet treatment needs. In this analysis, we compare HIV treatment outcomes between Latinos receiving ART in North America versus Latin America. Methods HIV-positive adults initiating ART at Caribbean, Central and South America Network for HIV (CCASAnet) sites were compared to Latino patients (based on country of origin or ethnic identity) starting treatment at North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design (NA-ACCORD) sites in the United States and Canada between 2000 and 2011. Cox proportional hazards models compared mortality, treatment interruption, antiretroviral regimen change, virologic failure and loss to follow-up between cohorts. Results The study included 8400 CCASAnet and 2786 NA-ACCORD patients initiating ART. CCASAnet patients were younger (median 35 vs. 37 years), more likely to be female (27% vs. 20%) and had lower nadir CD4 count (median 148 vs. 195 cells/µL, p<0.001 for all). In multivariable analyses, CCASAnet patients had a higher risk of mortality after ART initiation (adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) 1.61; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.32 to 1.96), particularly during the first year, but a lower hazard of treatment interruption (AHR: 0.46; 95% CI: 0.42 to 0.50), change to second-line ART (AHR: 0.56; 95% CI: 0.51 to 0.62) and virologic failure (AHR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.48 to 0.57). Conclusions HIV-positive Latinos initiating ART in Latin America have greater continuity of treatment but are at higher risk of death than Latinos in North America. Factors underlying these differences, such as HIV testing, linkage and access to care, warrant further investigation. PMID:26996992

  16. Health outcomes among HIV-positive Latinos initiating antiretroviral therapy in North America versus Central and South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Cesar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Latinos living with HIV in the Americas share a common ethnic and cultural heritage. In North America, Latinos have a relatively high rate of new HIV infections but lower rates of engagement at all stages of the care continuum, whereas in Latin America antiretroviral therapy (ART services continue to expand to meet treatment needs. In this analysis, we compare HIV treatment outcomes between Latinos receiving ART in North America versus Latin America. Methods: HIV-positive adults initiating ART at Caribbean, Central and South America Network for HIV (CCASAnet sites were compared to Latino patients (based on country of origin or ethnic identity starting treatment at North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design (NA-ACCORD sites in the United States and Canada between 2000 and 2011. Cox proportional hazards models compared mortality, treatment interruption, antiretroviral regimen change, virologic failure and loss to follow-up between cohorts. Results: The study included 8400 CCASAnet and 2786 NA-ACCORD patients initiating ART. CCASAnet patients were younger (median 35 vs. 37 years, more likely to be female (27% vs. 20% and had lower nadir CD4 count (median 148 vs. 195 cells/µL, p<0.001 for all. In multivariable analyses, CCASAnet patients had a higher risk of mortality after ART initiation (adjusted hazard ratio (AHR 1.61; 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.32 to 1.96, particularly during the first year, but a lower hazard of treatment interruption (AHR: 0.46; 95% CI: 0.42 to 0.50, change to second-line ART (AHR: 0.56; 95% CI: 0.51 to 0.62 and virologic failure (AHR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.48 to 0.57. Conclusions: HIV-positive Latinos initiating ART in Latin America have greater continuity of treatment but are at higher risk of death than Latinos in North America. Factors underlying these differences, such as HIV testing, linkage and access to care, warrant further investigation.

  17. Poultry welfare scenario in South America: norms and regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RBTR Silva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Animal welfare related issues have been intensely discussed in recent years as a consequence of changes in public attitudes and regulatory reforms that are taking place in many countries. A combination of public opinion pressure and trade policy has driven requirements for regulation and the World Trade Organization (WTO assigned the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE to develop guidelines that could be used as international standards. However, trade disputes related to animal welfare are not likely to be resolved under the auspices of OIE, and access to international markets may be questioned in a way that does not necessarily reflect attitudes to animal production in emerging economies, such as those in South America. This paper presents an overall view of basic welfare issues and points out specific items related to the present scenario of norms and regulations that are being implemented in South America, where the growing poultry industry is an important economic activity.

  18. Proceedings of the heavy oil Latin America congress 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This conference brought experts together to explore the challenges faced and opportunities available in the dynamic emerging market for heavy oil which Latin America offers. The conference was attended by over 700 delegates from around the world representing official and private agencies, Latin American governments, national oil companies and service companies in heavy oil producing countries. These participants were given the opportunity to learn about the entire value chain of Latin America's heavy oil industry, with emphasis on balancing challenging environmental and social issues with operational best practices, and they also the opportunity to share their knowledge and expertise with their peers. 17 of the 29 papers presented during this conference have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database.

  19. Central and South America GPS geodesy - CASA Uno

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, James N.; Dixon, Timothy H.

    1990-01-01

    In January 1988, scientists from over 25 organizations in 13 countries and territories cooperated in the largest GPS campaign in the world to date. A total of 43 GPS receivers collected approximately 590 station-days of data in American Samoa, Australia, Canada, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, New Zealand, Norway, Panama, Sweden, United States, West Germany, and Venezuela. The experiment was entitled CASA Uno. Scientific goals of the project include measurements of strain in the northern Andes, subduction rates for the Cocos and Nazca plates beneath Central and South America, and relative motion between the Caribbean plate and South America. A second set of measurements are planned in 1991 and should provide preliminary estimates of crustal deformation and plate motion rates in the region.

  20. Petitioning process for irradiated foods and animal feeds in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lack of sufficient regulatory approvals continues to delay the commercial application of food irradiation in several countries. Often, the regulatory approval process itself appears too challenging and approvals are not even requested. The objective of this paper is to review petition requirements so that researchers and companies in other countries will be able to prepare petitions requesting approval for the import and sale of irradiated foods into North America. (author)

  1. Asymmetric forest transition driven by the interaction of socioeconomic development and environmental heterogeneity in Central America

    OpenAIRE

    Redo, Daniel J.; Grau, H. Ricardo; Aide, T. Mitchell; Matthew L. Clark

    2012-01-01

    Forest transitions (FT) have been observed in many developed countries and more recently in the developing world. However, our knowledge of FT from tropical regions is mostly derived from case studies from within a particular country, making it difficult to generalize findings across larger regions. Here we overcome these difficulties by conducting a recent (2001–2010) satellite-based analysis of trends in forest cover across Central America, stratified by biomes, which we related to socioeco...

  2. Empirical Information and the Development of Educational Policies in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Santiago Cueto

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the links between empirical information and the development of educational policies in Latin America. The data presented in this paper comes from responses to a questionnaire sent to Vice Ministers of Education in six countries of the region: Argentina, Brazil, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru and Uruguay. The study's principal objectives were to describe what information was available and to understand how the information available in their countries proved useful in the design a...

  3. Street Gangs in Central America: Combating them with Intelligence Fusion Centers

    OpenAIRE

    Bruneau, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Street gangs – pandillas in Spanish – are a major security challenge in the three Northern Triangle countries of Central America – El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras.[1] They are also considered a threat in many US cities, with particular focus on the Mara Salvatrucha, MS-13. Domestic party politics in the three countries have resulted in the reliance of heavy hand (mano dura) responses to the gangs, which have mainly served to exacerbate the problem. The anomalous situation of ...

  4. Country programme review. Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document reviews the current nuclear program in Ethiopia, identifying the peaceful uses of nuclear technology in the country and possible future technical cooperation activities. Separate brief sections deal with food and agriculture; human health; water and geothermal resources; industrial applications and instrumentation; radiation protection; higher education; programming, coordination and development

  5. Radiotherapy in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Symposium presentations are divided into 6 chapters devoted to the following topics: radiation therapy for carcinoma of the cervix (6 papers), different approaches in radiation therapy (15 papers), hyperthermia (7 papers), chemical modifiers (7 papers), dosimetry and technology (5 papers), organization of radiation therapy in developing countries (5 papers). A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers

  6. CAPTURED Ghana Country Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sefa Dei, G.J.; Brouwers, J.H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    This report provides the findings of the Ghana Country Evaluation and is produced as part of the overall CAPTURED End Evaluation. After five years of support by the CAPTURED project the University of Development Studies has been able to achieve commendable results. It can be confirmed that the conte

  7. CAPTURED India Country Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Donoghue, R.; Brouwers, J.H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    This report provides the findings of the India Country Evaluation and is produced as part of the overall CAPTURED End Evaluation. After five years of support by the CAPTURED project the End Evaluation has assessed that results are commendable. I-AIM was able to design an approach in which health fol

  8. Touring the Low Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strien, van Kees

    1998-01-01

    Touring the Low Countries is an anthology of approximately forty travel documents by British tourists - journals, letters, and financial accounts - most of them published here for the first time.The United Provinces and the Spanish Netherlands, with all the variety of their contrasting cultural clim

  9. Senegal : Country Environmental Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2008-01-01

    The main objective of the Senegal Country Environmental Analysis (CEA) is to reinforce the ongoing dialogue on environmental issues between the World Bank and the Government of Senegal. The CEA also aims to support the ongoing Government implementation of a strategic results-based planning process at the Environment Ministry (MEPNBRLA). The main goal is to enable Senegal to have the necess...

  10. Population Education Country Programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Population Education in Asia and the Pacific Newsletter, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Highlights various population education programs in Afghanistan, China, India, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam. Also describes population education programs at primary and secondary levels in Thailand, curriculum and instructional materials development in this country, and teaching units and curriculum outlines developed from a workshop for…

  11. RIO Country Report 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimpe, Christoph; Mitchell, Jessica

    The 2015 series of RIO Country Reports analyse and assess the policy and the national research and innovation system developments in relation to national policy priorities and the EU policy agenda with special focus on ERA and Innovation Union. The executive summaries of these reports put forward...

  12. Country programme review. Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document reviews the current nuclear program in Guatemala, identifying the peaceful uses of nuclear technology in the country and possible future technical co-operation activities. Separate brief sections deal with food and agriculture; human health; radiation protection; industrial applications and hydrology; nuclear analytical techniques; nuclear instrumentation and nuclear information

  13. DEVELOPING COUNTRIES. TRANSITION ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru FILIPEANU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available According to the modern theories of economic development – the take-off, backwardness, convergence and balanced growth hypothesis - the new industrialized states from Asia seem to have noticed the advantages of backwardness from which low income countries benefited, namely the possibility to take advantage of the latest technological discoveries of advanced countries, thus achieving a faster growth than the latter which operated closer to the technological border. The assimilation of appropriate technologies, however, required the efficient mobilization and allocation of resources and the improvement of human and physical capital. While the Western countries were confronted with crises generated by inflationary shocks and movements of speculative capital, the relative isolation of countries whose economy was planned by the world economy sheltered them until 1990, unemployment being practically non-existent. Asia's exceptional economic success is not only due to borrowing Western practices, but also to the fact that Asian societies maintained certain traditional features of their own culture - such as a strong work ethic - and integrated them in the modern business environment.

  14. Country programme review. Mongolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document reviews the current nuclear program in Mongolia, identifying the peaceful uses of nuclear technology in the country and possible future technical co-operation activities. Separate brief sections deal with food and agriculture; mineral resources; nuclear chemistry, nuclear physics and instrumentation; human health; radiation protection; water resources and nuclear energy. 1 tab

  15. Assessing Latin America's Progress Toward Achieving Universal Health Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagstaff, Adam; Dmytraczenko, Tania; Almeida, Gisele; Buisman, Leander; Hoang-Vu Eozenou, Patrick; Bredenkamp, Caryn; Cercone, James A; Diaz, Yadira; Maceira, Daniel; Molina, Silvia; Paraje, Guillermo; Ruiz, Fernando; Sarti, Flavia; Scott, John; Valdivia, Martin; Werneck, Heitor

    2015-10-01

    Two commonly used metrics for assessing progress toward universal health coverage involve assessing citizens' rights to health care and counting the number of people who are in a financial protection scheme that safeguards them from high health care payments. On these metrics most countries in Latin America have already "reached" universal health coverage. Neither metric indicates, however, whether a country has achieved universal health coverage in the now commonly accepted sense of the term: that everyone--irrespective of their ability to pay--gets the health services they need without suffering undue financial hardship. We operationalized a framework proposed by the World Bank and the World Health Organization to monitor progress under this definition and then constructed an overall index of universal health coverage achievement. We applied the approach using data from 112 household surveys from 1990 to 2013 for all twenty Latin American countries. No country has achieved a perfect universal health coverage score, but some countries (including those with more integrated health systems) fare better than others. All countries except one improved in overall universal health coverage over the time period analyzed. PMID:26438747

  16. Country watch: Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauw, J

    1999-01-01

    The Association of Workers for Education, Health and Social Integration (TESIS) works with commercial sex workers to control HIV and sexually transmitted diseases in Nicaragua through free condom distribution and education. Education includes group work, individual counseling, and demonstrations of correct condom use. Condoms are also distributed to the motels frequented by commercial sex workers. When the Condom Social Marketing (CSM) project in Central America started, it sold condoms of the same quality as the ones offered by TESIS; thus the condom donors reduced their donations, and in turn, TESIS lost its normal quota for free condom distribution. Because of this situation, TESIS dealt with a condom promotion scheme at a lower cost for the poorest women. Condom quality did not deteriorate as products only came with simpler packaging. TESIS fills the gap which CSM missed. PMID:12295467

  17. Country watch: Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauw, J

    1999-01-01

    The Association of Workers for Education, Health and Social Integration (TESIS) works with commercial sex workers to control HIV and sexually transmitted diseases in Nicaragua through free condom distribution and education. Education includes group work, individual counseling, and demonstrations of correct condom use. Condoms are also distributed to the motels frequented by commercial sex workers. When the Condom Social Marketing (CSM) project in Central America started, it sold condoms of the same quality as the ones offered by TESIS; thus the condom donors reduced their donations, and in turn, TESIS lost its normal quota for free condom distribution. Because of this situation, TESIS dealt with a condom promotion scheme at a lower cost for the poorest women. Condom quality did not deteriorate as products only came with simpler packaging. TESIS fills the gap which CSM missed.

  18. Aquatic risk assessment of pesticides in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carriquiriborde, Pedro; Mirabella, Paula; Waichman, Andrea; Solomon, Keith; Van den Brink, Paul J; Maund, Steve

    2014-10-01

    Latin America is anticipated to be a major growth market for agriculture and production is increasing with use of technologies such as pesticides. Reports of contamination of aquatic ecosystems by pesticides in Latin America have raised concerns about potential for adverse ecological effects. In the registration process of pesticides, all countries require significant data packages on aquatic toxicology and environmental fate. However, there are usually no specific requirements to conduct an aquatic risk assessment. To address this issue, the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry organized a workshop that brought together scientists from academia, government, and industry to review and elaborate on aquatic risk assessment frameworks that can be implemented into regulation of pesticides in Latin America. The workshop concluded that the international framework for risk assessments (protection goals, effects, and exposure assessments, risk characterization, and risk mitigation) is broadly applicable in Latin America but needs further refinement for the use in the region. Some of the challenges associated with these refinements are discussed in the article. It was recognized that there is potential for data sharing both within and outside of the region where conditions are similar. However, there is a need for research to compare local species and environmental conditions to those in other jurisdictions to be able to evaluate the applicability of data used in other countries. Development should also focus on human resources as there is a need to build local capacity and capability, and scientific collaboration and exchange between stakeholders in industry, government, and academia is also important. The meeting also emphasized that, although establishing a regionally relevant risk assessment framework is important, this also needs to be accompanied by enforcement of developed regulations and good management practices to help protect aquatic habitats

  19. Student Discipline in Colonial America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, John R.

    The basis for the severe discipline imposed on school children in colonial America, especially in the Puritan colonies, was the belief in original sin. The child was regarded as being born in sin and thus depraved and prone to sin. The purpose of education was to enable children to read the Bible and thus change the behavior which otherwise would…

  20. Indigenous autonomy in the Americas

    OpenAIRE

    Xanthaki, A.

    2015-01-01

    The American continent has a long tradition of autonomous regimes, both territorial and non-territorial. Autonomous regimes of American indigenous communities in particular have not been the subject of intense discussion and comparison, partly because the task of discussing such autonomous regimes in the whole of the Americas represents a huge challenge.

  1. Brain Injury Association of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Only) 1-800-444-6443 Welcome to the Brain Injury Association of America (BIAA) Brain injury is not an event or an outcome. ... misunderstood, under-funded neurological disease. People who sustain brain injuries must have timely access to expert trauma ...

  2. Spina Bifida Association of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exceptional Parent, 1974

    1974-01-01

    The Statement of the Spina Bifida Association of America (SBAA) explains SB as a malformation of the central nervous system, reports the formation of SBAA in 1974, explains SBAA's emphasis on local chapter organization, and describes SBAA services, including a bimonthly publication, public education efforts, and research validation projects. (GW)

  3. America's Consumerocracy: No Safe Haven

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daily, Nancy Lee; Swain, Letitia Price; Huysman, Mary; Tarrant, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    Recently the authors completed a course designed to expand and deepen their knowledge about America's consumerocracy and the methods that give it the immense power it has. As a result of their reading and shared thinking in this course, Teaching Adolescents in a Consumer Society, they feel strongly motivated and better prepared to craft…

  4. Language Documentation in the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchetto, Bruna; Rice, Keren

    2014-01-01

    In the last decades, the documentation of endangered languages has advanced greatly in the Americas. In this paper we survey the role that international funding programs have played in advancing documentation in this part of the world, with a particular focus on the growth of documentation in Brazil, and we examine some of the major opportunities…

  5. Physical aspects of radiotherapy quality assurance: quality control protocol - Update of IAEA TECDOC-1151

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    practical ways for their implementation are suggested, and a comprehensive list of references. Spreadsheets for absorbed dose determination based upon the IAEA TRS 398 Code of Practice are also included for Co-60 gamma-rays and high-energy photons. Six major topics have been included, starting with mould room equipment, multileaf collimators, electronic portal imaging devices (EPID), CT in radiotherapy, dynamic wedges, and new measurement equipment not considered in the initial protocol. Each topic includes an introduction with the generalities of the technology and its impact in the improvement of radiotherapy treatments, a table summarizing recommended quality control procedures, their frequency and accepted tolerances with respect to reference values. QC procedures include beam dosimetry tests, dosimeter control tests and image control test for CT and EPID. Finally the appendixes provide detailed explanations and examples of the required procedures and setup to carry out the measurements, as well as illustrative samples to record the results of each process. The first draft of the document was developed by the group of experts and revised during a meeting in Buenos Aires, Argentina, in December 2008. A considerably amended version was prepared subsequently. This document served as basic guide for the implementation of an IAEA Regional Training Course on ''Physical aspects of the quality assurance in 3D conformal radiotherapy: Update of the TEC-DOC-1151'', which took place in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in March 2009. The course consisted on theoretical lectures and practical sessions during which the validity of the quality controls and the procedures proposed in the document were tested. 28 medical physicists from Latin American countries attended the course. Feedback was received from the participants and trainers of the course, which led to a final revision. This document is now ready for distribution among the Medical Physics Societies in Latin America, to have the protocol

  6. An Update on the Hazards and Risks of Forensic Anthropology, Part II: Field and Laboratory Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Lindsey G; Dabbs, Gretchen R; Spencer, Jessica R

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on potential hazards and risks to forensic anthropologists while working in the field and laboratory in North America. Much has changed since Galloway and Snodgrass published their seminal article addressing these issues. The increased number of forensic practitioners combined with new information about potential hazards calls for an updated review of these pathogens and chemicals. Discussion of pathogen hazards (Brucella, Borrelia burgdorferi, Yersinia pestis, Clostridium tetani and West Nile virus) includes important history, exposure routes, environmental survivability, early symptoms, treatments with corresponding morbidity and mortality rates, and decontamination measures. Additionally, data pertaining to the use of formaldehyde in the laboratory environment have resulted in updated safety regulations, and these are highlighted. These data should inform field and laboratory protocols. The hazards of working directly with human remains are discussed in a companion article, "An Update on the Hazards and Risks of Forensic Anthropology, Part I: Human Remains."

  7. Review on space weather in Latin America. 1. The beginning from space science research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denardini, Clezio Marcos; Dasso, Sergio; Gonzalez-Esparza, J. Americo

    2016-11-01

    The present work is the first of a three-part review on space weather in Latin America. It comprises the evolution of several Latin American institutions investing in space science since the 1960s, focusing on the solar-terrestrial interactions, which today is commonly called space weather. Despite recognizing advances in space research in all of Latin America, this review is restricted to the development observed in three countries in particular (Argentina, Brazil and Mexico), due to the fact that these countries have recently developed operational centers for monitoring space weather. The review starts with a brief summary of the first groups to start working with space science in Latin America. This first part of the review closes with the current status and the research interests of these groups, which are described in relation to the most significant works and challenges of the next decade in order to aid in the solving of space weather open issues.

  8. Gaps of maritime health research in Latin America – a literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Olaf Chresten; Andrioti, Despena; Canals, M. Luisa;

    Background So far the maritime health and safety research for seafarers and fishermen mainly comes from the industrial developed countries with sparse contributions from the developing countries. The aim was to give an overview of the peer reviewed research in Latin America to point out the needs...... to the tropic areas. More studies are needed on seafaring and fishing for the prevention of health risks among fishermen and seafarers in Latin America. Key words Maritime Health, Accidents, Latin America, Fishing, Seafaring......-sectional studies include especially ergonomic problems and environmental pollution. Studies on fatal accidents are absent in fishing and seafaring as well. Conclusions Most of the studies are concern with health problems, like in other parts of the world, while some health problems are specifically related...

  9. Country nuclear power profiles. 2001 ed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preparation of Country Nuclear Power Profiles was initiated within the framework of the IAEA's programme on assessment and feedback of nuclear power plant performance. It responded to a need for a database and a technical document containing a description of the economic situation, the energy and the electricity sector and the primary organizations involved in nuclear power in IAEA Member States. In 1998, the first edition of the Country Nuclear Power Profiles was published focusing on the overall economic, energy and electricity situation in the country and on its nuclear power industrial structure and organizational framework. The compilation was made based on contributions of 29 Member States with operating nuclear power plants by the end of 1995 and Italy. It also incorporated the 'Fact Sheets' on international, multilateral and bilateral agreements as collected by EXPO. The second edition, issued on CD-ROM only, covered the changes in the new environment of the electricity and the nuclear sector, i.e. the impact of privatization and deregulation on these sectors, be it that the situation differs from country to country. The third edition, issued as hard copy and CD-ROM, updates the country information, in general, to the end of 2000. This publication compiles background information on the status and development of nuclear power programmes in countries having operating nuclear plants and/or plants under construction as of 1 January 2001 and in countries actively engaged in planning such a programme. It presents historical information on energy supply and demand; reviews the organizational and industrial aspects of nuclear power programmes in participating countries for the same period; and provides information about the relevant legislative, regulatory, and international framework in each country. Topics such as reactor safety, the nuclear fuel cycle, radioactive waste management and research programmes are for the most part not discussed in detail

  10. Efficiency gaps help to explain why Latin America produces 1/5th the output per worker of the US

    OpenAIRE

    Caselli, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Why does the productivity of Latin America lag so far behind that of the United States? In new research, Francesco Caselli uses a development-accounting analysis to begin to explain these differences. By comparing the differences in income per worker between Latin American countries and the US to the differences that would exist if these countries differed only in their stocks of physical and human capital, he finds that Latin American countries only use their capital about half as efficientl...

  11. Environmental law in the regional integration of South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Lorena González Celis

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Environmental law has two main features: the regulation and control of the activities of raw material extraction and conservation of endemic ecosystems and special care. The harmonization of national environmental rights becomes an urgent task in the context of regional integration processes experienced by South America, as the ecosystems in the territory are of great importance and are vulnerable according to the type of development that poses. Currently, the Environmental Law is a subject that has not been intensively discussed between countries, but at international summits, countries have established this subject as a focus of global concern. Therefore, it is essential that this issue is placed on the political agenda to define what are the environmental guidelines in the context of regional integration in South America. This document provides the reader an approach to some of the challenges and difficulties faced by countries, when dealing in the South American political agenda, the issue of harmonization of environmental regulatory frameworks.

  12. Phylogeography and population dynamics of dengue viruses in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allicock, Orchid M; Lemey, Philippe; Tatem, Andrew J; Pybus, Oliver G; Bennett, Shannon N; Mueller, Brandi A; Suchard, Marc A; Foster, Jerome E; Rambaut, Andrew; Carrington, Christine V F

    2012-06-01

    Changes in Dengue virus (DENV) disease patterns in the Americas over recent decades have been attributed, at least in part, to repeated introduction of DENV strains from other regions, resulting in a shift from hypoendemicity to hyperendemicity. Using newly sequenced DENV-1 and DENV-3 envelope (E) gene isolates from 11 Caribbean countries, along with sequences available on GenBank, we sought to document the population genetic and spatiotemporal transmission histories of the four main invading DENV genotypes within the Americas and investigate factors that influence the rate and intensity of DENV transmission. For all genotypes, there was an initial invasion phase characterized by rapid increases in genetic diversity, which coincided with the first confirmed cases of each genotype in the region. Rapid geographic dispersal occurred upon each genotype's introduction, after which individual lineages were locally maintained, and gene flow was primarily observed among neighboring and nearby countries. There were, however, centers of viral diversity (Barbados, Puerto Rico, Colombia, Suriname, Venezuela, and Brazil) that were repeatedly involved in gene flow with more distant locations. For DENV-1 and DENV-2, we found that a "distance-informed" model, which posits that the intensity of virus movement between locations is inversely proportional to the distance between them, provided a better fit than a model assuming equal rates of movement between all pairs of countries. However, for DENV-3 and DENV-4, the more stochastic "equal rates" model was preferred. PMID:22319149

  13. Opportunities and challenges from the use of genomic selection for beef cattle breeding in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    The beef cattle production in Latin America in very important on a worldwide scale and for several regional countries. The region accounts for 29% of the world cattle population and beef production. Genomic selection allows the estimation of breeding values in animals for young animals from DNA samp...

  14. The "New Cooperativism" in Latin America: Worker-Recuperated Enterprises and Socialist Production Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrabure, Manuel; Vieta, Marcelo; Schugurensky, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    In the first decade of the 21st century, efforts to create alternatives to neoliberalism emerged in many parts of Latin America. Social movements across the region took to the streets, occupied abandoned factories, and started to create new democratic spaces, solidarity networks, and social economy initiatives. In one country after another,…

  15. Accessing International Climate Change Related Finance in Latin America and the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2013-01-01

    Financing projects and programs to mitigate impacts of, and adapt to, the climate change is a matter of necessity not choice. This green expenditure policy note looks at factors facilitating the access to international financial instruments for Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) countries that support mitigation of and adaptation to climate change. This policy note explores two question...

  16. Low-Skill Workers in Rural America Face Permanent Job Loss. Policy Brief Number 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasmeier, Amy; Salant, Priscilla

    2006-01-01

    Global economic competition and other factors have cost rural America 1.5 million jobs in the past six years. This brief analyzes job displacement figures from around the country between 1997 and 2003. The loss of rural jobs was particularly large in the manufacturing sector, and the rate of loss was higher in the rural Northeast than in the rest…

  17. Proceedings of the Seminar on Management Options for Low and Intermediate Level Wastes in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The solutions adopted for management problems on radioactive wastes of nuclear installations and contamined materials generated in hospitals, research centers, laboratories in the countries of Latin America are presented. The criteria of site selection for radioactive waste installation and the methods for treating and storage are evaluated. The results of inspections in installations which handle radioactive wastes are done. (M.C.K.)

  18. A Racio-Economic Analysis of Teach for America: Counterstories of TFA Teachers of Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapayese, Yvette V.; Aldana, Ursula S.; Lara, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses Teach for America (TFA), one of the alternative education programs of the U.S. Department of Education designed to address the achievement gap of students of color in the country. Topics explored in this research include issues of racism and race in the recruitment and support of its teacher corp; how TFA educators of color…

  19. Pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables from South America – A Nordic project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Karen; Johansen, K.; Holen, B.;

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the amount of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables from South America. A total of 724 samples of 46 different fruits and vegetables from eight South American countries were collected in 2007. In 19% of the samples no residues were found, 72% of samp...

  20. Land use patterns and related carbon losses following deforestation in South America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sy, De V.; Herold, M.; Achard, F.; Beuchle, R.; Clevers, J.G.P.W.; Lindquist, E.; Verchot, L.

    2015-01-01

    Land use change in South America, mainly deforestation, is a large source of anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Identifying and addressing the causes or drivers of anthropogenic forest change is considered crucial for global climate change mitigation. Few countries however, monitor deforesta