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Sample records for america caribbean celebrando

  1. Bibliography on open access in Latin America and the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Babini, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    Bibliography on open access in Latin America and the Caribbean. Selection mainly based on open access publications describing open access initiatives in Latin America and the Caribbean. Prepared for UNESCO-Latin America and the Caribbean Section of the UNESCO-GOAP Global Open Access Portal.

  2. WELFARE REGIMES IN LATIN AMERICA AND CARIBBEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melisa Campana-Alabarce

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a characterization of Latin American and Caribbean Welfare regimes in historiographical perspective. Firstly, it makes a review of the emergence conditions of Welfare States in Western Europe and its core features, with particular emphasis on its role as a method to regulate inequalities in industrial capitalism. Dialoguing with it, then stops in the specific configurations that welfare regimes have taken in Latin America during the course of the twentieth century. Finally, it provides a map of its contemporary features and the major challenges that the States of the region face in his capacity as right guarantors for the future.

  3. Energy sector developments in Central America and the Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy sector developments in Central America and the Caribbean were discussed. Central America is composed of six small countries whose total population is 32 million. The Caribbean population is 20.5 million. Central America is generally poor in hydrocarbon reserves but the geological prospects in several of the countries are encouraging. The oil and petroleum products supply and demand picture, the main characteristics of the hydrocarbon market, structure of the oil industry, hydrocarbon market reforms, pricing issues and recent trend towards reforms in the electric power industry in Central America were discussed. An overview of the Inter-American Development Bank's (IDB) effort to provide technical assistance and loans to strengthen the energy sector development in Central America and the Caribbean was also given. 17 refs., 2 tabs., 23 figs

  4. Adolescent Literacies in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Lesley; Lopez, Dina; Mein, Erika; Valdiviezo, Laura A.

    2011-01-01

    In 2000, approximately 36 million youth and adults living in Latin America and the Caribbean were reported to be unable to read or write basic texts. Of these, 20 million were women. According to official statistics, some countries in Central America (Guatemala, Nicaragua, El Salvador, and Honduras) have a youth and adult literacy rate of 80% or…

  5. Results in the Latin America and Caribbean Region

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2013-01-01

    A focus on development results is at the heart of the Latin America and Caribbean Region s approach to delivering programs and policy advice with partners in middle-income and low income countries alike. Through knowledge, convening activities, and financial services we strive to help people across the region create better opportunities and build a better future for themselves, their famil...

  6. Latin America and the Caribbean Refinery Sector Development Project - Clients

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2002-01-01

    This report summarizes two years of intense activity dedicated to the study of the issues confronted by the refining industry in Latin America and the Caribbean. Following the program for phasing out of lead from gasoline and convinced of the importance to progress with the harmonization of oil product's technical specifications, the organizations--OLADE, ARPEL, and the World Bank--decided...

  7. Saving in Latin America and the Caribbean; Performance and Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Grigoli; Alexander Herman; Klaus Schmidt-Hebbel

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes saving patterns and determinants in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), including key policy variables and regimes. The review of previous empirical studies on LAC saving reveals contradictions and omissions. This paper presents empirical results of an extensive search of determinants of private and public saving rates, adding previously neglected variables (including different measures of key external prices and macroeconomic policy regimes), in linear form and in inte...

  8. Integrated Water Resources Management in Latin America and the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Inter-American Development Bank (IDB)

    1998-01-01

    This technical study contains the strategy of the Inter-American Development Bank for its involvement in integrated water resources management in Latin America and the Caribbean. The strategy was developed through an iterative step by step procedure in consultation with country water resource officials, Bank staff, nongovernmental organizations, and international lending and technical assistance organizations. The first part of the study is an overview of water resource management in Latin Am...

  9. Rickettsioses in Latin America, Caribbean, Spain and Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo B. Labruna

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Data on genus and infectious by Rickettsia were retrospectively compiled from the critical review literature regarding all countries in Latin America, Caribbean islands, Portugal and Spain. We considered all Rickettsia records reported for human and/or animal hosts, and/or invertebrate hosts considered being the vector. In a few cases, when no direct detection of a given Rickettsia group or species was available for a given country, the serologic method was considered. A total of 13 Rickettsia species have been recorded in Latin America and the Caribbean. The species with the largest number of country confirmed records were Rickettsia felis (9 countries, R. prowazekii (7 countries, R. typhi (6 countries, R. rickettsii (6 countries, R. amblyommii (5 countries, and R. parkeri (4 countries. The rickettsial records for the Caribbean islands (West Indies were grouped in only one geographical area. Both R. bellii, R. akari, and Candidatus ‘R. andeane’ have been recorded in only 2 countries each, whereas R. massiliae, R. rhipicephali, R.monteiroi, and R. africae have each been recorded in a single country (in this case, R. africae has been recorded in nine Caribbean Islands. For El Salvador, Honduras, and Nicaragua, no specific Rickettsia has been reported so far, but there have been serological evidence of human or/and animal infection. The following countries remain without any rickettsial records: Belize, Venezuela, Guyana, Surinam, and Paraguay. In addition, except for a few islands, many Caribbean islands remain without records. A total of 12 Rickettsia species have been reported in Spain and Portugal: R. conorii, R. helvetica, R. monacensis, R. felis, R. slovaca, R. raoultii, R. sibirica, R. aeschlimannii, R. rioja, R. massiliae, R. typhi, and R. prowazekii. Amongst these Rickettsia species reported in Spain and Portugal, only R. prowazekii, R. typhi, R. felis, and R. massiliae have also been reported in Latin America. This study summarizes

  10. The Educational Gender Gap in Latin America and the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Duryea, Suzanne; Galiani, Sebastian; Ñopo, Hugo; Piras, Claudia

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyzes the evolution of gender differences in schooling attendance and attainment in Latin America and the Caribbean, for both adults who left the educational system and children in school. For individuals 21 years old and above the paper uses a cohort analysis of school attainment. The results indicate that the schooling gap has closed for the cohort born at the end of the 1960s. Since then, the gap has reversed such that within the cohort born in 1980, females have, on average,...

  11. Folate and vitamin B12 status in Latin America and the Caribbean: An update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The current magnitude of folate and vitamin B12 deficiency in Latin America and the Caribbean is uncertain. Objective: To summarize data on plasma or serum vitamin B12 and folate concentrations in Latin America and the Caribbean reported since 1990, a period that covers the era before an...

  12. The Landfill Gas-to-Energy Initiative for Latin America and the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Terraza, Horacio; Grajales, Francisco

    2006-01-01

    The objectives of the Landfill Gas-to-Energy (LFGTE) Initiative in Latin America and the Caribbean are to. 1) contribute to the maximization of methane emissions reductions and the development of carbon trading opportunities; 2) promote LFGTE investment in Latin America and the Caribbean to improve solid waste management practices in the region; 3) create awareness of LFGTE opportunities; ...

  13. Functional Patterns in International Organizations for University Cooperation in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Daniel A.; Lopez, Daniel C.; Andrade, Lorenzo I.; Lopez, Boris A.

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes the coverage, organizational patterns, problems and trends of international organizations for university cooperation in Latin America and the Caribbean. More than 30 international organizations for cooperation currently operating in Latin America and the Caribbean were identified. Two groups of institutions with more than 60%…

  14. Health expenditures in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindaraj, R; Chellaraj, G; Murray, C J

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study commissioned by the Latin American and Caribbean Technical Department of the World Bank to document and analyze health expenditures in Latin America and the Caribbean. In 1990, the countries of this region spent US$ 69 billion on health, with an average per capita health expenditure of US$ 162. On average, the countries spent 6.2% of their GDP on health, with the expenditures divided about equally between the public and private sectors. In both the public and private sectors, per capita health expenditures were positively and significantly correlated with per capita income. However, this relationship holds only for the public sector, when health expenditures are measured as a proportion of GDP. While several poorer countries were dependent on external assistance, with increasing income, the countries relied more on public expenditures to finance health care. Based on the limited time series data, it is evident that there was a considerable variation among countries regarding the proportion spent on capital investments, primary health care, and drugs, but not on salaries. Looking ahead, with increasing economic development, the proportion of GDP spent on health, along with public health expenditure as a proportion of total health expenditure, is likely to increase rapidly, while aid dependency is likely to decline. PMID:9015869

  15. India, Latin America, and the Caribbean during the Cold War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Ross

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this period, the key to the relationship between India and Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC was based in the political nature of this liaison: it was a "uni-multilateral" relationship, centered in India, where LAC countries operated as a group of autonomous entities (an "island chain" structure, and not as a unit of a supranational character with unified international conduct (an island structure. As we will see, faced with uniform and consistent Indian policies, LAC had national policies which make it impossible to discuss a regional policy towards India. The goal of this work is to form a general characterization of the bilateral policies during the period of the Cold War with the intent of identifying the key explanatory factors of the process. While this may be a limited objective, it addresses the non-existence of an academic debate surrounding the topic. We intend to contribute an analysis which in this phase is primarily descriptive.

  16. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources of South America and the Caribbean, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Kirschbaum, Mark A.; Pitman, Janet K.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2012-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 126 billion barrels of oil and 679 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas in 31 geologic provinces of South America and the Caribbean.

  17. IDB estimates of 2008 remittance flows to Latin America and the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Meins; Natasha Bajuk; Gregory Watson

    2008-01-01

    The IDB projects that remittances to Latin America and the Caribbean will grow by 1.5% in 2008, reaching 67.5 billion dollars. Despite a nominal increase, this will be the first year on record during which the real contribution of remittances to households will have decreased. Adjusted for inflation and exchange rate variations, the IDB estimates that remittances will have contributed 1.7 % less to the household incomes in Latin America and the Caribbean than in 2007.

  18. Occupational Safety and Health in Latin America and the Caribbean: Overview, Issues and Policy Recommendations.

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto F. Iunes

    2002-01-01

    This policy brief addresses safety and security in the workplace in Latin America and the Caribbean. Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) issues have received little attention in Latin America and the Caribbean due to the widespread, and culturally rooted, lack of awareness regarding the importance of a safe and healthy work environment, and to the weakness of the institutions responsible for the promotion and enforcement of better working conditions. Work-generated illnesses, injuries and de...

  19. Latin America and the Caribbean: Between the OAS and CELAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Segovia

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This essay aims at analysing the position of Latin America and the Caribbean in its totality as a global player, and the challenges facing CELAC – Community of Latin American and Caribbean Countries – as a mechanism of political partnership with its own views on the Organization of American States (OAS. Indeed, CELAC is to some extent presented as a hemispheric mechanism that rivals the OAS and which may eventually replace it, leaving the U.S. and Canada aside. In this regard, a comparison and an assessment of the implications involved will be made. It is therefore useful to pose the following question: Is CELAC the key to structuring an alternative movement to the OAS?Resumen:El motivo de este ensayo consiste en analizar la posición de América Latina y el Caribe en su conjunto como actor global frente al reto que supone la CELAC – Comunidad de Estados Latinoamericanos y Caribeños – como mecanismo de concertación política y su postura frente la OEA – Organización de Estados Americanos. En efecto, la CELAC se presenta para algunos como un nuevo mecanismo hemisférico que rivaliza con la OEA y que eventualmente podría sustituirla, dejando a un lado a los Estados Unidos y Canadá. En tal sentido, se pretende contrastar y valorar dicha apreciación. Es por ello que resulta útil plantearse la siguiente cuestión: ¿Es la CELAC la clave para estructurar un movimiento alternativo a la OEA?

  20. Natural Resources in Latin America and the Caribbean : Beyond Booms and Busts?

    OpenAIRE

    Sinnott, Emily; Nash, John; de la Torre, Augusto

    2011-01-01

    Throughout, the history of the Latin America and Caribbean (LAC) region, natural resource wealth has been critical for its economies. Production of precious metals, sugar, rubber, grains, coffee, copper, and oil have at various periods of history made countries in Latin America-and their colonial powers-some of the most prosperous in the world. In some ways, these commodities may have chan...

  1. Human Rights and Curricular Policy in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, David F.

    2007-01-01

    Human rights have become increasingly salient for nations, organizations, and individuals since the end of World War II (Lauren 2003). Discussions of human rights now are common in formal education, including in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). A variety of indicators suggest that countries in Latin America have integrated human rights into…

  2. Modern energy consumption and economic modernisation in Latin America and the Caribbean between 1890 and 1925

    OpenAIRE

    Rubio Varas, M. del Mar; Y????ez, C??sar; Folchi, Mauricio; Carreras, Albert

    2007-01-01

    In the absence of comparable macroeconomic indicators for most of the Latin American economies before the 1930s, the apparent consumption of energy is used in this paper as a proxy of the degree of modernisation of Latin America and the Caribbean. This paper presents an estimate of the apparent consumption per head of modern energies (coal, petroleum and hydroelectricity) for 30 countries of Latin American and the Caribbean for 1890 to 1925, multiplying the number of countries ...

  3. Bolivar: Crustal Structure of the Caribbean-South America plate boundary at 70W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedez, M. C.; Zelt, C. A.; Magnani, B. M.; Levander, A.

    2006-12-01

    The Caribbean-South America plate boundary is characterized by tectonic transpression with oblique convergence. The ~ 20 mm/yr eastward displacement of the Caribbean plate, with respect to a fixed South America causes the plate boundary to have a dominant right-lateral strike-slip component, accommodated by the San Sebastian-El Pilar fault system. To the west, relative plate motion is complicated by the northeastward tectonic escape of the Maracaibo block along the Bocono and Santa Marta strike-slip faults, and the shortening between North and South America. The convergence rate between the Maracaibo block and the Caribbean has been estimated to be ~ 2 mm/yr. The multidisciplinary BOLIVAR project seeks to understand the complex plate interaction of the Caribbean- South American diffuse plate boundary. We hypothesize that this may be a site of continental growth by island arc accretion of the Leeward Antilles onto South America. The active-seismic component of the project, completed in June 2004, concentrated along five main onshore-offshore profiles extending from the Caribbean basin to the front of the fold and thrust belts of Venezuela. Seismic refraction data were acquired as well as coincident multi-channel seismic (MCS) lines in the offshore sections. We present results from seismic reflection and wide-angle refraction data along a 450 km-long onshore- offshore north-south striking profile at 70 degrees west longitude. Refraction data were used to develop 2-D velocity models from independent and simultaneous traveltime inversion of first arrivals and PmP reflections from 40 Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBS) and about ~ 80 land recorders. A coincident MCS profile was processed and interpreted independently. Offshore western Venezuela the Caribbean plate is anomalously thick ~ 15 km. The velocity model from wide-angle data is well correlated with the structures interpreted in the reflection data; in particular in the upper and middle crust of the Southern

  4. Quality and accreditation in higher education: integration and internationalization of Latin America and the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge González González; Rocío Santamaría Ambriz

    2013-01-01

    The paper discusses the concepts of «quality» and «accreditation» in education with different meanings, and proposes comprehensive definitions that have been put into practice by the Union of Universities of Latin America and the Caribbean and the International Network of Evaluators through model «V» evaluation planningfor continuous improvement, integration and internationalization of higher education.

  5. Accessing International Climate Change Related Finance in Latin America and the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2013-01-01

    Financing projects and programs to mitigate impacts of, and adapt to, the climate change is a matter of necessity not choice. This green expenditure policy note looks at factors facilitating the access to international financial instruments for Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) countries that support mitigation of and adaptation to climate change. This policy note explores two question...

  6. Regional trends and controlling factors of fatal landslides in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda, S. A.; Petley, D. N.

    2015-08-01

    A new data set of landslides that caused loss of life in Latin America and the Caribbean in the 10-year period from 2004 and 2013 inclusive has been compiled, providing new insight into the impact of landslides in this key part of the world. This data set indicates that in the 10-year period a total of 11 631 people lost their lives across the region in 611 landslides. The geographical distribution of the landslides is highly heterogeneous, with areas of high incidence in parts of the Caribbean (most notably Haiti), Central America, Colombia, and southeast Brazil. There is significant interannual variation in the number of landslides, with the El Niño/La Niña cycle emerging as a key control. Our analysis suggests that on a continental scale the mapped factors that best explain the observed distribution are topography, annual precipitation and population density. On a national basis we have compared the occurrence of fatality-inducing landslide occurrence with the production of locally authored research articles, demonstrating that there is a landslide research deficit in Latin America and the Caribbean. Understanding better the mechanisms, distribution causes and triggers of landslides in Latin America and the Caribbean must be an essential first step towards managing the hazard.

  7. Airport Economics in Latin America and the Caribbean : Benchmarking, Regulation, and Pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Serebrisky, Tomas

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the findings of a first-ever, comprehensive study of how Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) region airports have evolved during a notable period of transition in airport ownership. It is an unbiased, positive analysis of what happened, rather than a normative analysis of what should be done to reform and to attract private sector participation to the airport sector. ...

  8. Sustainability, efficiency and equitability of water consumption and pollution in Latin America and the Caribbean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mekonnen, M.M.; Pahlow, M.; Aldaya, M.M.; Zarate, E.; Hoekstra, A.Y.

    2015-01-01

    This paper assesses the sustainability, efficiency and equity of water use in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) by means of a geographic Water Footprint Assessment (WFA). It aims to provide understanding of water use from both a production and consumption point of view. The study identifies prio

  9. A Study of Public Library Users in Some Countries of Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara, Alvaro Agudo

    This user survey was part of a three-part diagnostic study that sought to obtain information on how public libraries operate in Latin America (Argentina, Colombia, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Panama, and Venezuela) and the Caribbean (Barbados, Grenada, Jamaica, and Surinam) and the social role performed by this type of service in the region.…

  10. Governance of Multi-sectoral Interventions to Promote Healthy Living in Latin America and the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Bonilla-Chacín, María E.

    2013-01-01

    The Latin America and Caribbean (LAC) region has been experiencing a rapid demographic and epidemiological transition which has important health and economic consequences. Not only is the population aging rapidly, but it is also experiencing major changes in lifestyle. This has altered the disease and mortality profile, reflected in the increasing weight of Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs)...

  11. Social Implications of Climate Change in Latin America and the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Verner, Dorte

    2011-01-01

    Climate change is the defining development challenge of our time. More than a global environmental issue, climate change is also a threat to poverty reduction and economic growth and may unravel many of the development gains made in recent decades. Latin America and the Caribbean account for a relatively modest twelve percent of the world's greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, but communities a...

  12. Oil and gas developments in South America, Central America, Caribbean area, and Mexico in 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiman, W.D.

    1988-10-01

    Exploration activity in South America, Central America, the Caribbean area, and Mexico in 1987 showed significant increases in seismic acquisition in Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Mexico, Paraguay, and Peru, and a decrease in Chile and Venezuela. Exploratory drilling increased in most major producing countries but was accompanied by a decline in development drilling. Most of the increase could be attributed to private companies fulfilling obligations under risk contracts; however, state oil companies in Bolivia, Chile, and Colombia showed significant increased activity, with only Mexico showing a decrease. Colombia again had a dramatic increase in production (29% from 1986). Noteworthy discoveries were made in Bolivia (Villamontes-1); Brazil, in the Solimoes basin (1-RUC-1-AM); Chile (Rio Honda-1); Colombia, in the Llanos basin (Austral-1, La Reforma-1, Libertad Norte-1, Cravo Este-1, and Cano Yarumal-1), in the Upper Magdalena basin (Toldado-1 and Los Mangos-1); Ecuador (Frontera-1, a joint-exploration venture with Colombia); Mexico, in the Chiapas-Tabasco region (Guacho-1 and Iridi-1), in the Frontera Norte area (Huatempo-1); Peru, in the Madre de Dios basin (Armihuari-4X); Trinidad (West East Queen's Beach-1); and Venezuela (Musipan-1X). Brazil's upper Amazon (Solimoes basin) discovery, Colombia's Upper Magdalena basin discoveries Toldado-1 and Los Mangos-1, Mexico's Chiapas-Tabasco discoveries, Peru's confirmation of the giant Cashiriari discovery of 1986, and Venezuela's success in Monagas state were the highlights of 1987. 5 figs., 8 tabs.

  13. Managing weather and climate risks to agriculture in North America, Central America and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harlan D. Shannon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, numerous weather- and climate-related natural disasters have impacted North America, Central America, and the Caribbean, repeatedly demonstrating how vulnerable local agriculture is to extreme episodic events. Given this recent history, and expectations that the frequency and intensity of some episodic events will increase with climate change, it is becoming increasingly important for farmers to proactively manage weather and climate risks to agriculture to protect their livelihoods. Some farmers in this region already apply various strategies to help reduce weather and climate risks and uncertainties, including farming in multiple locations, diversifying crops and varieties, seeking alternative sources of income, and purchasing crop insurance. Such efforts often help farmers maintain a more stable income while also protecting and preserving the productivity of the land. Other farmers, however, have failed to implement basic risk management strategies despite the clear benefits. Reasons for these failures can be attributed to inadequate farmer education and training, a lack of tools to help facilitate the practical application of risk management concepts, and poor communications between the agrometeorological and farming communities. The agrometeorological community can help overcome these obstacles by building upon existing efforts that have successfully educated farmers about weather and climate risks to agriculture and have equipped farmers with the data, tools, and applications necessary to manage these risks. Farmer input is critical to preparing effective educational and training materials and developing user-friendly risk management tools. The agrometeorological community should solicit input from farmers regularly to ensure that farmers are obtaining the information necessary to effectively manage weather and climate risks to agriculture.

  14. Different lives: inequality in Latin America and the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Gasparini, Leonardo

    2003-01-01

    This chapter summarizes information on inequality in living standards in Latin American and Caribbean countries. To that aim we work with a sample of more than 50 household surveys from 20 LAC countries from 1989 to 2001, and we survey results from other authors. Although the core of the statistics are on household income inequality, the study also presents information by country/year on inequality in the distribution of earnings, hourly wages, hours, worked, employment, unemployment, child l...

  15. Measuring the Informal Economy in Latin America and the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Guillermo Javier Vuletin

    2008-01-01

    This paper estimates the size of the informal economy for 32 mainly Latin American and Caribbean countries in the early 2000s. Using a structural equation modeling approach, we find that a stringent tax system and regulatory environment, higher inflation, and dominance of the agriculture sector are key factors in determining the size of the informal economy. The results also confirm that a higher degree of informality reduces labor unionization, the number of contributors to social security s...

  16. Economic reform and progress in Latin America and the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Loayza, Norman; Palacios, Luisa

    1997-01-01

    In the late 1980s, after decades of poor economic management, many Latin American and Caribbean countries undertook structural reform that placed them on a path toward superior economic performance. The authors examine the experience in structural reform in five areas: governance (reforming public institutions), international trade, financial markets, labor markets, and the generation and use of public resources. To characterize the experience with structural reform in the region, they develo...

  17. Latin America and the Caribbean : A Time to Choose, Caribbean Development in the 21st Century

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2005-01-01

    This report seeks to discuss the critical constraints to sustainable, job-creating growth, and to present policy options for the region and country Governments to stimulate such growth. It analyzes growth performance in the Caribbean over the last four decades, and highlights key determinants of past and also future growth. Given the recent deterioration in government finances, the report then studies key areas of government expenditure. A discussion of the climate for private investment foll...

  18. Stigma toward mental illness in Latin America and the Caribbean: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Mascayano

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Stigma toward individuals with mental disorders has been studied extensively. In the case of Latin America and the Caribbean, the past decade has been marked by a significant increase in information on stigma toward mental illness, but these findings have yet to be applied to mental health services in Latin America. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review of studies relating to stigma toward mental illness in Latin America and the Caribbean. The authors specifically considered differences in this region as compared with manifestations reported in Western European countries. Methods: A systematic search of scientific papers was conducted in the PubMed, MEDLINE, EBSCO, SciELO, LILACS, Imbiomed, and Bireme databases. The search included articles published from 2002 to 2014. Results: Twenty-six studies from seven countries in Latin America and the Caribbean were evaluated and arranged into the following categories: public stigma, consumer stigma, family stigma, and multiple stigmas. Conclusion: We identified some results similar to those reported in high-income settings. However, some noteworthy findings concerning public and family stigma differed from those reported in Western European countries. Interventions designed to reduce mental illness-related stigma in this region may benefit from considering cultural dynamics exhibited by the Latino population.

  19. The Climate and Development Challenge for Latin America and the Caribbean: Options for Climate Resilient Low Carbon Development (Summary)

    OpenAIRE

    Inter-American Development Bank (IDB); World Wildlife Fund (WWF); Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC)

    2012-01-01

    This document is the executive summary of "The Climate and Development Challenge for Latin America and the Caribbean: Options for climate resilient low carbon development", a joint work with Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) and World Wildlife Fund (WWF), presented in Washington, DC, on June 5th, 2012. The full study will then be launched during the Rio+20 Conference on June 20th.

  20. Partnerships for Progress?: Evaluating the Environment for Public-Private Partnerships in Latin America and the Caribbean: Findings and methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU)

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a new benchmarking model and index that assesses the readiness of countries in Latin America and the Caribbean to participate in public-private partnerships in the infrastructure sector. The model was built by the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) and was supported fi nancially by the Multilateral Investment Fund (MIF) and the Program to Promote Public-Private Partnerships in Latin America and the Caribbean funded by the government of Spain.

  1. Abstracts of the Second energy conference of the Latin America and the Caribbean (ENERLAC'95)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Latin American Energy Organization (OLADE), with support from the Ministry of Energy and Mines of Ecuador, held the Second Energy Conference of Latin America and the Caribbean (ENERLAC 95) under the heading Energy Integration and Private-Sector Participation, essentially aimed at bringing together top public and private sector executives of latin america and the caribbean and entrepreneurs, investors, representatives of commercial banks and financial institutions to identify and concretize business opportunities and foster the energy integration of the region by identifying projects and investment opportunities in the sector. The present document is a reference work compiling the abstracts of the presentations that have been submitted and selected for ENERLAC 95. This publication provides a wide range of opinions and ideas about many energy sector topics

  2. Quality and accreditation in higher education: integration and internationalization of Latin America and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge González González

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the concepts of «quality» and «accreditation» in education with different meanings, and proposes comprehensive definitions that have been put into practice by the Union of Universities of Latin America and the Caribbean and the International Network of Evaluators through model «V» evaluation planningfor continuous improvement, integration and internationalization of higher education.

  3. An Analysis of the Relationship Between Income and Life Expectancy for Latin America and the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Karina Temporelli; Valentina Viego

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to determine the incidence of general living conditions on average longevity for Latin America and Caribbean countries during the period 1970-2005, based on panel data econometrics. The results suggest a positive but decreasing effect of income on life expectancy and a positive impact of workers’ education on the population’s average longevity. These findings indicate that to induce a permanent increase in life expectancy resources assigned to the health care system should be ...

  4. The Rise of Noncommunicable Diseases in Latin America and the Caribbean: Challenges for Public Health Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Anauati, María Victoria; Galiani, Sebastián; Weinschelbaum, Federico

    2015-01-01

    The health landscape in Latin America and the Caribbean is changing quickly. The region is undergoing a demographic and epidemiological transition in which health problems are highly concentrated on noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). In light of this, the region faces two main challenges: (1) develop cost-effective policies to prevent NCD risk factors, and (2) increase access to quality healthcare in a scenario in which a large share of the labor force is employed in the informal sector. This p...

  5. The rise of noncommunicable diseases in Latin America and the Caribbean: Challenges for public health policies.

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Victoria Anauati; Sebastian Galiani; Federico Weinschelbaum

    2015-01-01

    The health landscape in Latin America and the Caribbean is changing quickly. The region is undergoing a demographic and epidemiological transition in which health problems are highly concentrated on noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). In light of this, the region faces two main challenges: (1) develop cost-effective policies to prevent NCD risk factors, and (2) increase access to quality healthcare in a scenario in which a large share of the labor force is employed in the informal sector. This p...

  6. Obesity and Disability: Relation Among Older Adults Living in Latin America and the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Al Snih, Soham; Graham, James E.; Kuo, Yong-Fang; Goodwin, James S.; Markides, Kyriakos S.; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J.

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence and incidence of both obesity and disability are projected to increase in the coming decades. The authors examined the relation between obesity and disability in older adults from 6 Latin American cities participating in the Health, Well-Being and Aging in Latin America and the Caribbean (SABE) Study (1999–2000). The sample included 6,166 participants aged 65 years or more. Data on sociodemographic factors, smoking status, medical conditions, body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/h...

  7. Cetaceans and gillnet fisheries in Mexico, Central America and the Wider Caribbean: a preliminary review

    OpenAIRE

    Vidal, O.; Van Waerebeek, K.; Findley, L.T.

    1994-01-01

    This paper reviews published and unpublished information on the mortality of cetaceans in gillnets in Mexico, Central America and the wider Caribbean. Data on this incidental mortality are provided from only nine of the 36 nations in the area (Colombia, the Dominican Republic. French Guiana, Honduras, Mexico. Panama, Surinam, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela); the lack of mortality records from the other countries reflects poor or non-existent documentation. We surveyed those types of passi...

  8. Financial Regulation and its Significance for Microfinance in Latin America and the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Tor Jansson; Mark D. Wenner

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide a regional overview of financial regulations in Latin America and the Caribbean which have the potential of constituting important obstacles to microfinance. The study attempts to identify the regulations and restrictions which may be inappropriate or inadequate for microfinance while, at the same time, be satisfactory and effective for the great majority of financial institutions. As defined, these regulations would thus impose an unjustified differe...

  9. Sustainability and Outreach: A Comparative Study of MFIs in South Asia and Latin America & the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Sefa Kwami Awaworyi; Ana Marr

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that microfinance institutions (MFIs) in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) have different operational strategies to MFIs in South Asia (SA). Given the recent emphasis placed on the feasibility of MFIs to achieve the dual goals of outreach and sustainability concurrently, we examine and compare the relationship between sustainability and outreach of MFIs in LAC with MFIs in SA. Our results indicate that trade-offs exist between outreach and sustainability in both ...

  10. Preferences on Redistribution in Fragmented Labor Markets in Latin America and the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah Berens; Cologne Center for Comparative Politics at University of Cologne

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the extent to which labor market dualization polarizes preferences on redistribution between formal and informal sector workers in Latin America and the Caribbean. Differences in welfare state costs and benefits for these labor market groups are likely to fuel diverging incentives regarding welfare consumption. The article tests whether or not informal workers are driven mainly by economic self-interest to increase gains from public welfare goods. The study employed a ...

  11. Conflict Management and Consensus Building for Integrated Coastal Management in Latin America and the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Resource Analysis

    1999-01-01

    This paper provides a summary of conflict management issues and options in the challenging cultural, ecological, economic and social context of Latin America and the Caribbean. Dealing with conflicts is one of the greatest challenge facing integrated coastal management because most of these systems involve not only property rights, fishing rights, and use rights, but they also usually involve common property resources as well. This study argues that conflict management, starting with a carefu...

  12. Agricultural Insurance Revisited: New Developments and Perspectives in Latin America and the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Mark D. Wenner

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide Bank staff interested in agricultural yield insurance market development, public officials responsible for financial market policy formulation and supervision, and insurance industry practitioners in Latin America and the Caribbean with a basic primer on the topic, an overview of previous experiences, and a set of guidelines and recommendations on how to develop viable and sustainable agricultural yield insurance markets. The paper relies heavily on the...

  13. Ocean Data and Information Network for the Caribbean and South America Region (ODINCARSA)

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez, R.

    2005-01-01

    ODINCARSA was set up primarily as a mechanism for assessing the current and potential state of development of national data centers and to create the means for mutual capacity building in South America and the Caribbean. It further sought to develop a cooperation network for managing and exchanging oceanographic data and information within these regions. ODINCARSA is a network which is integrated by 19 IOC Member States: Argentina, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Brazil, Colombia, Chile, Cuba, Dom...

  14. Sustainability, Efficiency and Equitability of Water Consumption and Pollution in Latin America and the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Mesfin M. Mekonnen; Markus Pahlow; Aldaya, Maite M.; Erika Zarate; Arjen Y. Hoekstra

    2015-01-01

    This paper assesses the sustainability, efficiency and equity of water use in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) by means of a geographic Water Footprint Assessment (WFA). It aims to provide understanding of water use from both a production and consumption point of view. The study identifies priority basins and areas from the perspectives of blue water scarcity, water pollution and deforestation. Wheat, fodder crops and sugarcane are identified as priority products related to blue water sc...

  15. Opportunities for Small Geothermal Projects: Rural Power for Latin America, the Caribbean, and the Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vimmerstedt, L.

    1998-11-30

    The objective of this report is to provide information on small geothermal project (less than 5 MW) opportunities in Latin America, the Caribbean, and the Philippines. This overview of issues facing small geothermal projects is intended especially for those who are not already familiar with small geothermal opportunities. This is a summary of issues and opportunities and serves as a starting point in determining next steps to develop this market.

  16. The Prevalence and Impact of Skills Gaps on Latin America and the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Schwalje, Wes

    2011-01-01

    In Latin America and the Caribbean anecdotal evidence from business leaders, the press, and numerous government reports suggest many firms express a serious concern that they face internal employee skills deficiencies that limit performance, a phenomenon that has been labeled as a “skills gap”. This article explores the extent of national skills gaps; the importance of skills gaps relative to other business challenges; the industries facing the most severe skills gaps; and the prevalence of s...

  17. Results in the Latin America and Caribbean Region, 2015, Volume 6

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2015-01-01

    Latin America and the Caribbean (LCR) will be center stage in the global development debate as leaders from around the world convene in Lima, Peru for the annual meetings of the World Bank Group and International Monetary Fund. Critical progress in poverty reduction has been made in the region over the last decade. The region’s bottom 40 percent of the population saw growth eclipsing that ...

  18. Progress towards eliminating canine rabies: policies and perspectives from Latin America and the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Vigilato, Marco Antonio Natal; Clavijo, Alfonso; Knobl, Terezinha; Silva, Hugo Marcelo Tamayo; Cosivi, Ottorino; Schneider, Maria Cristina; Leanes, Luis Fernando; Belotto, Albino José; Espinal, Marcos Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Human rabies transmitted by dogs is considered a neglected disease that can be eliminated in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) by 2015. The aim of this paper is to discuss canine rabies policies and projections for LAC regarding current strategies for achieving this target and to critically review the political, economic and geographical factors related to the successful elimination of this deadly disease in the context of the difficulties and challenges of the region. The strong politica...

  19. Left Behind : Chronic Poverty in Latin America and the Caribbean, Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Vakis, Renos; Rigolini, Jamele; Lucchetti, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    By most measures, the 2000s were one of the most impressive decades for economic development in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). With the exception of 2009, the region s gross domestic product per capita grew consistently at an average rate of 2.5 percent between 2000 and 2012. During the same period, and despite being one of the most unequal regions in the world, inequalities reduced ...

  20. Handbook for the Preparation of Landfill Gas to Energy Projects in Latin America and the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Conestoga-Rovers & Associates

    2004-01-01

    This Handbook has been developed for the World Bank to facilitate the development of landfill gas (LFG) management and landfill gas to energy (LFGTE) projects in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). It is expected that the Handbook will be used by those who, own, operate, engineer and regulate landfill sites in LAC as a roadmap for the assessment of candidate projects and to initiate dev...

  1. Societal Benefits from Renewable Energy in Latin America and the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Walter Vergara; Paul Isbell; Rios, Ana R.; José Ramon Gómez; Leandro Alves

    2014-01-01

    Population growth and advances in quality of life in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) will require the region to rapidly increase its energy supply, even if major improvements in energy efficiency are attained. The region is characterized by a low-carbon power matrix and a potential to produce over 78 PWh from non-traditional renewable energy technologies (NRETs). However, bias toward fossil fuels and the perceived cost disadvantages prevent further market entry of renewable energy. Addi...

  2. Violence in Latin America and the Caribbean: A Framework for Action

    OpenAIRE

    Mayra Buvinic; Andrew Morrison; Michael Shifter

    1999-01-01

    Considering the high prevalence of domestic and social violence and their linkages, the focus of this analysis is the broader subject of violence rather than the narrower one of criminal violence. A violent act may or may not contravene existing legislation and consequently may or may not be labeled as "criminal" by the criminal justice system. What triggers violence in Latin America and the Caribbean? What can be done to curb violence, both within the home and outside it? What can be learned...

  3. Opportunities for Small Geothermal Projects: Rural Power for Latin America, the Caribbean, and the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this report is to provide information on small geothermal project (less than 5 MW) opportunities in Latin America, the Caribbean, and the Philippines. This overview of issues facing small geothermal projects is intended especially for those who are not already familiar with small geothermal opportunities. This is a summary of issues and opportunities and serves as a starting point in determining next steps to develop this market

  4. New Century, Old Disparities : Gender and Ethnic Earnings Gaps in Latin America and the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Ñopo, Hugo

    2012-01-01

    Despite sustained economic growth at the end of the 20th and the beginning of the 21st century, Latin America and the Caribbean still faces high inequality and weak indicators of well-being among certain population groups. Women, people of African ancestry, and indigenous peoples are often at the bottom of the income distribution. The share of female-headed households rose in the past 20 y...

  5. Smokefree Policies in Latin America and the Caribbean: Making Progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanton A. Glantz

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We reviewed the adoption and implementation of smokefree policies in all Latin American and the Caribbean (LAC countries. Significant progress has been achieved among LAC countries since the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC was adopted in 2005. Both national and sub-national legislation have provided effective mechanisms to increase the fraction of the population protected from secondhand tobacco smoke. Civil society has actively promoted these policies and played a main role in enacting them and monitoring their enforcement. The tobacco industry, while continuing to oppose the approval and regulation of the laws at legislative and executive levels, has gone a step further by litigating against them in the Courts. As in the US and elsewhere, this litigation has failed to stop the legislation.

  6. Cancer in indigenous people in Latin America and the Caribbean: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Suzanne P; Forman, David; Piñeros, Marion; Fernández, Sdenka M; de Oliveira Santos, Marceli; Bray, Freddie

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death in Latin America but there have been few assessments of the cancer burden for the 10% of the population who are indigenous. Evidence from other world regions suggests cancer survival is poorer for indigenous people than for others due to a greater incidence of case-fatal cancers, later stage at diagnosis, and less cancer treatment. A status report on the cancer profile of indigenous people in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) is therefore clearly warrant...

  7. Social Protection Systems in Latin America and the Caribbean: Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Robles Farías

    2015-01-01

    Chile has a long history of implementing social policies. It was one of the first countries in Latin America to expand free health care coverage and education, incorporating cash and in-kind transfers to promote access to social services and offer diverse protection mechanisms for its most vulnerable population groups. That said, its current social protection model is the result of a series of efforts, institutions and policies that have been consolidated over time.(?)

  8. The Changing Face of HIV in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Patricia J; Bayer, Angela; Cárcamo, César P

    2014-01-01

    Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) is a region with similarities and important disparities. In recent years LAC has witnessed achievements, with HIV prevalence rates relatively stable for LA and decreasing for the Caribbean. However average values hide differences. General population HIV prevalence in LAC is 0.4% in average. In the Caribbean there are fewer new HIV infections but HIV prevalence among adults exceeds 1% in several countries. It is estimated that 31% of adults living with HIV in LA and 52% of adults in the Caribbean are women. Unprotected sex is the main route of HIV transmission in LAC. Men who have sex with men and transgender women are the populations with the highest prevalence (10.6% and 17.7% respectively); however other key populations such as female sex workers (4.9%), drug users (range 1%-49.7% for intravenous drug users). Prisoners and indigenous populations are also important. LAC has the highest anti-retroviral treatment coverage of any low- and middle-income region in the world, but women and children are less likely than men to receive treatment. There is an important pending agenda to address the gaps in information, prevention and care for HIV in LAC. PMID:24824881

  9. Early dispersals of maize and other food plants into the Southern Caribbean and Northeastern South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagán-Jiménez, Jaime R.; Rodríguez-Ramos, Reniel; Reid, Basil A.; van den Bel, Martijn; Hofman, Corinne L.

    2015-09-01

    Grindstones from Eva 2 and St. John, two of the earliest sites in northeastern South America and the southern Caribbean respectively, were subjected to starch grain analysis. Results of this study revealed that these stone artifacts were utilized to process a variety of cultivars such as maize (Zea mays), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas), chili pepper (Capsicum spp.), achira (Canna spp.), legumes (Fabaceae), and yams (Dioscoreaceae), coupled with wild resources, most notably marunguey (Zamia spp.). Radiocarbon dates indicate that the use of plants identified at these two sites were much older than previously considered, going back to at least 7790 cal. BP at St. John and 5990 cal. BP at Eva 2. This new evidence showcases the importance of the Caribbean basin as an arena for early phytocultural dispersals. It also focuses attention on the role of navigation as a mechanism for crop diffusion in the Neotropics.

  10. Abortion opinion research in Latin America and the Caribbean: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yam, Eileen A; Dries-Daffner, Ingrid; García, Sandra G

    2006-12-01

    Abortion laws in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) are highly restrictive and may not reflect public opinion on the issue. This article synthesizes the survey literature on attitudes toward abortion in the region. We searched standard computer indexing services and polled colleagues at regional meetings to identify every methodologically sound quantitative study of abortion opinion in LAC published between 1985 and 2005. Of the 26 studies that met inclusion criteria, none was conducted in the Caribbean, 11 were conducted in Brazil, 11 in Mexico, 3 in Argentina, and 1 in Colombia. The majority of populations surveyed support abortion under a greater number of circumstances than are permitted in their respective countries, particularly in cases of rape and threat to life or health. Future abortion opinion surveys should ask about support for the legality of abortion rather than about abstract acceptance of abortion, and questions should be worded carefully to capture the complexities of the public's views on this issue. PMID:17209281

  11. Energy policy issues in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Sierra, G. (Latin American Energy Organisation OLADE, Quito (Ecuador))

    1994-10-01

    Whilst recognising that the reduction of poverty levels in developing countries takes precedence to the improvement and protection of the environment, the author comments that any efforts geared to fostering socioeconomic development will indirectly address the environment issue. The aims of a broad strategy and a more specific energy strategy geared at fostering sustainable development in Latin America are discussed. It is suggested that development of hydropower should continue, that the share of natural gas in the regional energy balance be increased and that efforts be put into increasing energy efficiency and improving utilization technologies. Promotion of energy projects that generate employment, promotion of projects for the use of biomass as an energy source, and implementation of a series of joint ventures are ideas advocated. Possibilities of cooperation between the Latin American Energy Organization (OLADE) and the Dutch government are aired.

  12. Energy and sustainable development in Latin America and the Caribbean: Approaches for the power policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy and sustainable development in Latin America and the Caribbean is a joint project of the Latin American Organization of Energia (OLADE), the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (Cepal) of the United Nations and the Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Technische Zusammennarbeit (GTZ). The intention of this project is the one to fortify the processes of formulation of power policies to harmonize economic growth, social fairness and protection of the environment in order to contribute to that the reforms that come undertaking the countries from the region prohang to the sustainable development. The made work it is come off that the sustainability of the power development raises a series of challenges to future. Concordant with the reactivation of the economic growth in the Nineties a low power productivity is still pronounced. To this they add one reduced to cover of satisfaction of the power necessities and the forest deterioration, jointly with the low quality of the power consumption and the impacts in the level of transmissions that will have the incorporation of polluting sources in the expansion of the regional power systems. On the other hand, the work shows a preoccupation with respect to the sustainability of the expansion of the power systems. At the present time the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean do not have a significant responsibility in the global environmental problems, since single they generate 5% of the world-wide CO2 transmissions whereas the developed countries contribute around 70%. Nevertheless, the new power developments based on the greater hydrocarbon consumption will be able to increase the contribution from the region to the deterioration of the atmosphere. At the same time, the expansion based on the hydroelectric generation also has some limitations although it contributes positively to the mitigation of the transmissions, which raises new challenges to the reform of the power sector

  13. Seismic hazard maps of Mexico, the Caribbean, and Central and South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, James G.; Shedlock, Kaye M.

    2004-10-01

    The growth of megacities in seismically active regions around the world often includes the construction of seismically unsafe buildings and infrastructures due to an insufficient knowledge of existing seismic hazard and/or economic constraints. Minimization of the loss of life, property damage, and social and economic disruption due to earthquakes depends on reliable estimates of seismic hazard. We have produced a suite of seismic hazard estimates for Mexico, the Caribbean, and Central and South America. One of the preliminary maps in this suite served as the basis for the Caribbean and Central and South America portion of the Global Seismic Hazard Map (GSHM) published in 1999, which depicted peak ground acceleration (pga) with a 10% chance of exceedance in 50 years for rock sites. Herein we present maps depicting pga and 0.2 and 1.0 s spectral accelerations (SA) with 50%, 10%, and 2% chances of exceedance in 50 years for rock sites. The seismicity catalog used in the generation of these maps adds 3 more years of data to those used to calculate the GSH Map. Different attenuation functions (consistent with those used to calculate the U.S. and Canadian maps) were used as well. These nine maps are designed to assist in global risk mitigation by providing a general seismic hazard framework and serving as a resource for any national or regional agency to help focus further detailed studies required for regional/local needs. The largest seismic hazard values in Mexico, the Caribbean, and Central and South America generally occur in areas that have been, or are likely to be, the sites of the largest plate boundary earthquakes. High hazard values occur in areas where shallow-to-intermediate seismicity occurs frequently.

  14. Seismic hazard maps of Mexico, the Caribbean, and Central and South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, J.G.; Shedlock, K.M.

    2004-01-01

    The growth of megacities in seismically active regions around the world often includes the construction of seismically unsafe buildings and infrastructures due to an insufficient knowledge of existing seismic hazard and/or economic constraints. Minimization of the loss of life, property damage, and social and economic disruption due to earthquakes depends on reliable estimates of seismic hazard. We have produced a suite of seismic hazard estimates for Mexico, the Caribbean, and Central and South America. One of the preliminary maps in this suite served as the basis for the Caribbean and Central and South America portion of the Global Seismic Hazard Map (GSHM) published in 1999, which depicted peak ground acceleration (pga) with a 10% chance of exceedance in 50 years for rock sites. Herein we present maps depicting pga and 0.2 and 1.0 s spectral accelerations (SA) with 50%, 10%, and 2% chances of exceedance in 50 years for rock sites. The seismicity catalog used in the generation of these maps adds 3 more years of data to those used to calculate the GSH Map. Different attenuation functions (consistent with those used to calculate the U.S. and Canadian maps) were used as well. These nine maps are designed to assist in global risk mitigation by providing a general seismic hazard framework and serving as a resource for any national or regional agency to help focus further detailed studies required for regional/local needs. The largest seismic hazard values in Mexico, the Caribbean, and Central and South America generally occur in areas that have been, or are likely to be, the sites of the largest plate boundary earthquakes. High hazard values occur in areas where shallow-to-intermediate seismicity occurs frequently. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of small hydropower plants in Latin America and the Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latin America and the Caribbean Region has a long-standing tradition of small hydropower plant development. In the 1890s the first plants were installed in the Region, and in the first half of this century pioneering efforts were made to develop the technology. The major reason was the technical modernization of agriculture (coffee, cacao, sugar, etc.) and small-scale mining, which led to increased energy demand in isolated areas when the electrification process was just beginning in the region. However, interest in small hydropower plants (SHP) waned because of technological improvements, enhanced efficiency, lower purchase prices and installation costs of gasoline engines, and the expansion of interconnected power systems

  16. The Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    The Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean, known as the Treaty of Tlatelolco, seeks to establish a nuclear-weapon-free zone (NWFZ) that will extend from the US-Mexican border to Antarctica`s territorial boundaries, including large areas of open ocean. Under the treaty, signatory states pledge not to test, use, produce, manufacture or acquire nuclear weapons; to use nuclear materials and facilities {open_quotes}exclusively for peaceful purposes;{close_quotes} and not to permit the stationing or development of nuclear weapons on their territories.

  17. The treaty for the prohibition of nuclear weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The text of the statement, made by Ambassador Carlos Portales Cifuentes, Director General for Foreign Policy of the Ministry of External Relations of Chile, during the VIII. Special Session of the General Conference of the Agency for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean (OPANAL) on the occasion of Chile's becoming a Contracting Party to the Tlatelolco Treaty, is being circulated for the information of all Member States of the Agency at the request of the Alternate to the Resident Representative of Chile

  18. Potential for Energy Storage in Combination with Renewable Energy in Latin America and the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Lenin Balza; Christiaan Gischler; Nils Janson; Sebastián J. Miller; Gianmarco Servetti

    2014-01-01

    Can energy storage (ES) increase the share of renewable energy (RE) in total generation in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC)? The rationale for using ES in combination with RE in the LAC region is that it can enable a larger scale deployment of cost-saving intermittent RE, with which the region is highly endowed, without threatening grid stability or the ability to meet electricity demand. To test this rationale, the paper considers three case studies that represent the key market types i...

  19. Logistics as a Competitiveness Factor for Small and Medium Enterprises in Latin America and the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Kirby; Nicolau Brosa

    2011-01-01

    The logistics industry is one of utmost relevance and principally serves as a motor of private sec-tor development and growth of the economic sectors of a country or region. A logistics industry that is efficient and accessible to everyone is a key element for companies in a country or region in general, and its small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in particular, to successfully compete in this new global context. Despite improvements in Latin America and the Caribbean in recent years, ...

  20. Celebrating 25 years of technical cooperation for promotion of nuclear science, technology in Latin America, Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The IAEA celebrates the 25th Anniversary of the Regional Agreement of Technical Cooperation for the Promotion of Nuclear Science and Technology in Latin America and the Caribbean (ARCAL) for the peaceful use of nuclear energy as well as its applications for development during the 53rd General Conference of the International Atomic Energy Agency, taking place this week. The Board of Country Representatives of ARCAL (BAR) is celebrating the 25th anniversary of the Regional Agreement of Technical Cooperation for the Promotion of Nuclear Science and Technology in Latin America and the Caribbean (ARCAL) from 14-18 September, during the 53rd General Conference of the IAEA in Vienna, Austria. Through sustainable horizontal technical and economic cooperation over the past 25 years, the IAEA Member States of Latin America and the Caribbean have expressed their solidarity and commitment to the establishment and improvement of technical capabilities in nuclear science and technology within the region, with the goal of promoting the use of diverse nuclear techniques and their applications for peaceful use in the region. Thanks to the ARCAL agreement, a mechanism for regular meetings and discussions has been established between professionals working in the nuclear field in Latin America and the Caribbean. ARCAL was established in 1984, thanks to the initiative of the Andean Group countries. At the moment, ARCAL has 19 Member States: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Dominican Republic, Uruguay and Venezuela. The main thematic areas covered by the technical cooperation projects sponsored by the IAEA through the ARCAL agreement are human health, agriculture and food security, physics and chemistry sciences, engineering and technology, hydrology, industrial applications, environment and nuclear security. During its 25 years, the ARCAL regional agreement has

  1. Resource Requirements to Fight HIV/AIDS in Latin America and the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Inter-American Development Bank (IDB)

    2004-01-01

    This report examines the resource needs for mounting a comprehensive HIV/AIDS program in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) and provides information on estimated changes in the cost of selected prevention, treatment and care interventions. In addition, it gives an estimate of the annual financing gap for HIV/AIDS programs in LAC. The report fills a gap in knowledge of region-specific cost estimates for HIV/AIDS, and provides a baseline for evaluating changes in the cost and priorities of H...

  2. ARCAL - Regional Strategic Profile for Latin America and the Caribbean (RSP) 2016-2021 [English version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This TECDOC presents the Regional Strategic Profile (RSP) for Latin America and the Caribbean for 2016–2021. This key document offers a programmatic reference of major importance for the preparation of project and programme proposals for future technical cooperation (TC) cycles. The RSP reflects an assessment of the situation in the region made by the States Parties to the Regional Cooperation Agreement for the Promotion of Nuclear Science and Technology in Latin America and the Caribbean (ARCAL). It identifies the most pressing needs that can be addressed through nuclear technology, in the areas of human health, food safety and agriculture, environment, and energy. It also covers radiation technology and radiation protection. The RSP was prepared by a working group of ARCAL National Coordinators, together with thematic experts from the region, Programme Management Officers and Technical Officers. The group reviewed the previous Profile for the period 2007–2013 to identify lessons learned, and assessed the current situation in the region regarding needs and priorities in the Latin American and Caribbean socioeconomic context. The new profile is expected to serve as a valuable tool to foster regional cooperation and promote cooperation among countries. As a flagship regional document, it makes visible the region’s needs and facilitates the establishment of partnerships with other development community organizations working in the region in complementary fields. The RSP identifies opportunities for cooperation, and for joining forces and creating synergies. The RSP for 2016–2021 was finalized in 2014, the year in which the ARCAL Regional Agreement turns 30, celebrating three decades of successful implementation of technical cooperation projects and fruitful cooperation between the ARCAL Regional Agreement and the IAEA. It is expected that the RSP will lead to the implementation of effective and efficient regional cooperation mechanisms that will ensure

  3. ARCAL - Regional Strategic Profile for Latin America and the Caribbean (RSP) 2016-2021 [Spanish version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This TECDOC presents the Regional Strategic Profile (RSP) for Latin America and the Caribbean for 2016–2021. This key document offers a programmatic reference of major importance for the preparation of project and programme proposals for future technical cooperation (TC) cycles. The RSP reflects an assessment of the situation in the region made by the States Parties to the Regional Cooperation Agreement for the Promotion of Nuclear Science and Technology in Latin America and the Caribbean (ARCAL). It identifies the most pressing needs that can be addressed through nuclear technology, in the areas of human health, food safety and agriculture, environment, and energy. It also covers radiation technology and radiation protection. The RSP was prepared by a working group of ARCAL National Coordinators, together with thematic experts from the region, Programme Management Officers and Technical Officers. The group reviewed the previous Profile for the period 2007–2013 to identify lessons learned, and assessed the current situation in the region regarding needs and priorities in the Latin American and Caribbean socioeconomic context. The new profile is expected to serve as a valuable tool to foster regional cooperation and promote cooperation among countries. As a flagship regional document, it makes visible the region’s needs and facilitates the establishment of partnerships with other development community organizations working in the region in complementary fields. The RSP identifies opportunities for cooperation, and for joining forces and creating synergies. The RSP for 2016–2021 was finalized in 2014, the year in which the ARCAL Regional Agreement turns 30, celebrating three decades of successful implementation of technical cooperation projects and fruitful cooperation between the ARCAL Regional Agreement and the IAEA. It is expected that the RSP will lead to the implementation of effective and efficient regional cooperation mechanisms that will ensure

  4. Preferences on Redistribution in Fragmented Labor Markets in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Berens

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the extent to which labor market dualization polarizes preferences on redistribution between formal and informal sector workers in Latin America and the Caribbean. Differences in welfare state costs and benefits for these labor market groups are likely to fuel diverging incentives regarding welfare consumption. The article tests whether or not informal workers are driven mainly by economic self-interest to increase gains from public welfare goods. The study employed a hierarchical model on pooled survey data from the Latin American Public Opinion Project (LAPOP 2008 and 2010 to analyze the risk exposure of formal and informal workers and, subsequently, their preferences on redistribution. The analysis reveals that while economic self-interest is an influential factor for formal workers, it is (unexpectedly much less so for informal workers. Also, an increased economically insecure environment, reflected by high unemployment rates, does not motivate informal workers to an exceptional degree to turn towards the state for redistribution, despite greater exposure to economic risk. Labor market dualization does not translate into polarization at the individual level regarding redistributive preferences in Latin America and the Caribbean.

  5. Islands of knowledge: science and agriculture in the history of Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Prieto, Leida

    2013-12-01

    This essay explores the participation of Latin America and the Caribbean in the construction and circulation of tropical agricultural science during the nineteenth century and the first half of the twentieth century. It uses the term "islands of knowledge" to underscore the idea that each producing region across the global tropics, including Latin America and the Caribbean, was instrumental in the creation, adoption, and application of scientific procedures. At the same time, it emphasizes the value of interchange and interconnection between these regions, as well as the many and heterogeneous local areas, for analyzing what it calls "global archipelago agricultural scientific knowledge." This focus challenges the traditional center/periphery hierarchy and opens it to a wider vision of science and practice in agriculture. This essay shows how writing in related areas of research--specifically, commodity histories, biological exchange studies, and knowledge exchange studies--introduces approaches and case studies that are useful for the history of tropical agricultural science. In particular, this work provides analytical frameworks for developing studies of exchanges across the Global South. PMID:24783495

  6. Evidence of left-lateral active motion at the North America-Caribbean plate boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, S. D.; Ellouz, N.; Corbeau, J.; Rolandone, F.; Mercier De Lepinay, B. F.; Meyer, B.; Momplaisir, R.; Granja, J. L.; Battani, A.; Burov, E. B.; Clouard, V.; Deschamps, R.; Gorini, C.; Hamon, Y.; LE Pourhiet, L.; Loget, N.; Lucazeau, F.; Pillot, D.; Poort, J.; Tankoo, K.; Cuevas, J. L.; Alcaide, J.; Poix, C. J.; Mitton, S.; Rodriguez, Y.; Schmitz, J.; Munoz Martin, A.

    2014-12-01

    The North America-Caribbean plate boundary is one of the least-known among large plate boundaries. Although it was identified early on as an example of a strike-slip fault in the north of Hispaniola, its structure and rate of motion remains poorly constrained. We present the first direct evidence for active sinistral strike-slip motion along this fault, based on swath seafloor mapping of the northern Haiti area. There is evidence for ~16.5 km of apparent strike-slip motion along the mapped segment of the Septentrional fault zone off Cap Haitien town which is terminated to the east onland Dominican republic and in the west to southern Cuban margin. By evaluating these new constraints within the context of geodetic models of global plate motions, we estimate an activity of the fault since 2 Ma with an angular velocity for the Caribbean plate relative to the North America predicted 6-12 mmyr-1 sinistral motion along the Septentrional fault zone. This transform fault was initiated around 20 million years ago in its western segment and since 2 Ma in its eastern segment in response to a regional reorganization of plate velocities and directions, which induced a change in configuration of plate boundaries.

  7. Phenotypic and genotypic heterogeneity among Streptococcus iniae isolates recovered from cultured and wild fish in North America, Central America and the Caribbean Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus iniae, the etiological agent of streptococcosis in fish, is an important pathogen of cultured and wild fish worldwide. During the last decade outbreaks of streptococcosis have occurred in a wide range of cultured and wild fish in the Americas and Caribbean islands. To gain a better und...

  8. Governance in State-Owned Enterprises Revisited : The Cases of Water and Electricity in Latin America and the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Andrés, Luis Alberto; Guasch, José Luis; López Azumendi, Sebastián

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the governance structure of state-owned enterprises in the water and electricity sectors of Latin America and the Caribbean. Through a unique dataset, the paper compares 44 leading state companies of the region based on an aggregate measure of corporate governance and six salient aspects of their design: board, chief executive officer, performance orientation, management...

  9. How to Protect and Promote the Nutrition of Mothers and Children in Latin America and the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    The study covered a wide range of topics, making data collection especially challenging. Key informants were sometimes new to their posts and were unable to provide details on specific programs, policies, or coverage rates. Few countries in Latin America and the Caribbean mainstream into their crisis and emergency plans protection of the nutritional status of mothers and children in the fi...

  10. The Politics of LGBT Rights in Latin America and the Caribbean: Research Agendas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Corrales

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available LGBT rights have expanded unevenly across Latin America and the Caribbean. Recent scholarship has been able to explain some of the reasons for this unevenness. But new and old questions remain unaddressed. This article suggests areas for further research. Resumen: Los derechos LGBT en la política de América Latina y el Caribe: Agendas para la investigación Los derechos LGBT han proliferado en América Latina y el Caribe de modo disparejo. Varios estudios académicos recientes han logrado explicar las razones de dicho crecimiento disparejo. Sin embargo, existen todavía preguntas sin responder al igual que nuevas preguntas por contestar. Este artículo sugiere algunas áreas que ameritan más investigación.

  11. Implementation of a Web-Based Spatial Carbon Calculator for Latin America and the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degagne, R. S.; Bachelet, D. M.; Grossman, D.; Lundin, M.; Ward, B. C.

    2013-12-01

    A multi-disciplinary team from the Conservation Biology Institute is creating a web-based tool for the InterAmerican Development Bank (IDB) to assess the impact of potential development projects on carbon stocks in Latin America and the Caribbean. Funded by the German Society for International Cooperation (GIZ), this interactive carbon calculator is an integrated component of the IDB Decision Support toolkit which is currently utilized by the IDB's Environmental Safeguards Group. It is deployed on the Data Basin (www.databasin.org) platform and provides a risk screening function to indicate the potential carbon impact of various types of projects, based on a user-delineated development footprint. The tool framework employs the best available geospatial carbon data to quantify above-ground carbon stocks and highlights potential below-ground and soil carbon hotspots in the proposed project area. Results are displayed in the web mapping interface, as well as summarized in PDF documents generated by the tool.

  12. Learning motivation and giftedness in sociocultural diverse Latin America and the Caribbean societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheyla Blumen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This theoretical review aims to integrate state-of-the-art learning motivation theoretical concepts within the context of gifted and talent development models for native children living in Latin America and the Caribbean sociocultural diverse societies. Motivation as a determinant factor and a promoter of gifted achievement is analyzed. Also the relation between motivation, outstanding performance and underachievement is discussed and tendencies found in social-emotional development of the gifted linked to motivation are explored. Final remarks are given on the significant role of motivation in the achievement of gifted and talented children living under diverse socio-cultural influences that bias their performance on standardized measures. Recommendations highlight the importance of further research, in order to reach a convergence of theoretical and practical elements needed to promote Latin American children's talent.

  13. Youth’s employment training from civil society organizations in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Girardo

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The study of Non Governmental Organizations (NGOs is undertaken in this article. They are understood as innovative agents for the design and implementation of specific vocational training programs for young people within the changes in the National vocational education and training policies that took place in Latin America an the Caribbean in the last decade, which are briefly described in this text. The importance of local space and decentralization policies, resulting from the reforms of the Latin American Estate, and the innovation in the management of local governments is the context in which NGOs develop and function. NGOs are part of the idea of a new public space created by the interaction between private and estate spheres. Selected Mexican NGOs operating in a local space and training young people, who otherwise have no other training opportunities are described: their general characteristics, their institutional profile, the population they serve, the approaches, strategies and instruments of their intervention.

  14. Middle income countries? An alternative development taxonomy of Latin America and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TEZANOS VÁZQUEZ, Sergio

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Although it is not asy to classify countries according to their levels of development –mainly because the concept of “human development” is complex and multidimensional –, the most widespread classification is just the simplest one, based on income per capita levels. According to this classification, most of the Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC countries are located in the world middle-income strata. This paper proposes an alternative “development taxonomy” for LAC middle-income countries. Using a cluster analysis we identify and characterize three groups of countries in relation to 10 main “development gaps”: the most advanced countries (Mexico, Chile, Argentina, Venezuela, Uruguay and Brasil, the middle-development countries (Panama, Costa Rica, Colombia, Jamaica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Peru, Belize, El Salvador, Paraguay and Guyana and those countries with the greatest development challenges (Guatemala, Bolivia, Honduras and Nicaragua.

  15. Short Term Patterns of Landslides Causing Death in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, S. A.; Petley, D. N.

    2015-12-01

    Among natural hazards, landslides represent a significant source of loss of life in mountainous terrains. Many regions of Latin America and the Caribbean are prone to landslide activity, due to strong topographic relief, high tectonic uplift rates, seismicity and/or climate. Further, vulnerable populations are often concentrated in deep valleys or mountain foothills susceptible to catastrophic landslides, with vulnerability further increased by dense urbanization and precarious settlements in some large cities. While historic extremely catastrophic events such as the 1999 Vargas flows in Venezuela or the 1970 Huascaran rock avalanche in Peru are commonly cited to characterize landslide hazards in this region, less known is the landslide activity in periods without such large disasters. This study assesses the occurrence of fatal landslides in Latin America and the Caribbean between 2004 and 2013. Over this time period we recorded 611 landslides that caused 11,631 deaths in 25 countries, mostly as a result of rainfall triggers. The countries with the highest number of fatal landslides are Brazil, Colombia, Mexico, Guatemala, Peru and Haiti. The highest death toll for a single event was ca.3000. The dataset has not captured a strong El Niño event or large earthquakes in landslide prone areas, thus the analysis is indicative of short term rather than long term spatial and temporal patterns. Results show that at continental scale, the spatial distribution of landslides in the 2004-2013 period correlates well with relief, precipitation and population density, while the temporal distribution reflects the regional annual rainfall patterns. In urban areas, the presence of informal settlements has a big impact on the number of fatalities, while at national level weaker correlations with gross income, human development and corruption indices can be found. This work was funded by the Durham International Fellowships for Research and Enterprise and Fondecyt project 1140317.

  16. Deformation of the Western Caribbean and Northwestern South America From GPS Geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFemina, Peter; Mora-Paez, Hector; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Fernandes, Rui; Mothes, Patricia

    2014-05-01

    We investigate the current kinematics of the western Caribbean and northwestern South America, two regions that are affected by ongoing collision of aseismic ridges and the motion of forearc slivers. We investigate these regions using a new PS derived surface velocity field spanning from Guatemala to Ecuador. The new velocity field and published earthquake slip vectors are inverted to solve for the Euler vectors of forearc blocks and interseismic elastic strain accumulation on block bounding faults using a block modeling approach. Along the western Caribbean margin, it has been demonstrated that the Cocos Ridge collision drives the Central American forearc block to the northwest. GPS network expansion in Panama and Colombia allows us to investigate the effect of ridge collision on the Panama region. In northwestern South America, the North Andes block (NAB) is a hypothesized tectonic block that migrates north-northeast relative to a stable South American reference frame. The motion of this block is thought to be derived by the collision of the Carnegie Ridge in southern Ecuador or by oblique convergence and high degrees of interplate coupling north of the ridge (i.e., strain partitioning). We test a suite of block models to investigate the tectonic nature of the Panama Region and North Andes block and the style of faulting in the upper plate accommodating block motion. Through the estimation of elastic strain accumulation on all block bounding faults, we improve the understanding of interseismic coupling along a convergent margin capable of producing M>8 earthquake and upper plate faults capable of M>6 earthquake.

  17. A Guide to NGO Directories: How To Find Over 20,000 Nongovernmental Organizations in Latin America and the Caribbean. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anson, Christina N., Comp.; Barry, Maria E.

    This guide provides information on 42 directories that list over 20,000 nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in Latin America and the Caribbean. Listings cover NGOs in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Caribbean Region, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico,…

  18. Neogene north American-Caribbean plate boundary across Northern Central America: Offset along the polochic fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkart, Burke

    1983-12-01

    The Polochic fault was a segment of the North American-Caribbean plate boundary across Central America in the Neogene. Its 130 km of left slip was previously determined by matching structures and stratigraphie outcrop patterns of northwest and central Guatemala across the fault. Additional support for the model and the youthfulness of the recorded offset comes from an essentially perfect match of major geomorphic features across the fault. A reconstruction process which eliminates 123 km of left slip brings together rivers and drainage divides that existed before the Polochic became active. With the reconstruction carried across the isthmus on an east-west fault the regional structural geology assumes the coherent pattern of a continuous orogenic belt whose geometry is compatible with the model of collisional tectonics centered on the Motagua "suture zone". Confined within this belt, narrowed to some 60 km by the reconstruction, lie the major Laramide thrusts, folds and tectonically emplaced serpentinites of Guatemala. Crystalline rocks of Guatemala re-join the Chiapas Massif and Paleozoic sedimentary rocks, exposed in the core of an almost-continuous anticlinorium, extend from southern Chiapas to Lake Izabal. The Polochic does not bend in eastern Guatemala but continues eastward to the Motagua fault where it dies. Westward drift of the northern block resulted in rifting which extended from eastern Guatemala into the Caribbean along the Cayman trough. The Honduras depression may represent an element of a triple junction along with the Polochic and Izabal-Cayman rift. The Polochic continues westward into the Pacific Ocean and offsets the Middle America trench. The Polochic has offset the Miocene volcanic belt of northern Central America, confirming the previous estimate of a Neogene time of movement. About 300 km of relative east-west Neogene displacement has been recorded on the Mid-Cayman rise, only 130 km of which can be accounted for across the Polochic. It is

  19. Mortality and loss to follow-up among HIV-infected persons on long-term antiretroviral therapy in Latin America and the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriela Carriquiry; Valeria Fink; John Robert Koethe; Mark Joseph Giganti; Karu Jayathilake; Meridith Blevins; Pedro Cahn; Beatriz Grinsztejn; Marcelo Wolff; Jean William Pape; Denis Padgett; Juan Sierra Madero; Eduardo Gotuzzo; Catherine Carey McGowan; Bryan Earl Shepherd

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Long-term survival of HIV patients after initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy (ART) has not been sufficiently described in Latin America and the Caribbean, as compared to other regions. The aim of this study was to describe the incidence of mortality, loss to follow-up (LTFU) and associated risk factors for patients enrolled in the Caribbean, Central and South America Network (CCASAnet). Methods: We assessed time from ART initiation (baseline) to death or LTFU between...

  20. Latin America and the Caribbean Social Science Virtual Libraries Network. (Open access to full-text social science publications from Latin America and the Caribbean: the case of CLACSO´s virtual libraries network)

    OpenAIRE

    Babini, Dominique

    2005-01-01

    Emerging trends in academic e-publishing and e-libraries in Latin America and the Caribbean are more related to particular problems in the region -reduced number of copies printed, inter-library loans nearly nonexistent among cities and countries due to postal costs, discontinuity in library collections- than to the dynamics of the international academic editorial business. This presentation describes how CLACSO, an academic network gathering 168 social science research institutions from 2...

  1. Quantifying the risk of deforestation in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manners, Rhys; Varela-Ortega, Consuelo

    2015-04-01

    Latin American and Caribbean countries have seen considerable deforestation due to a complex web of interconnected and interdependent causes, which include agricultural expansion, infrastructure development, social demographics and governmental policies and activity. It is necessary for successful and efficient policy development to understand how variability in these causes can potentially result in increased or decreased deforestation. The purpose of this study is to develop a tool that can quantify the risk, as in the threat or pressure, of potential deforestation, whilst identifying the key indicators that contribute to this risk. This tool will take the form of a composite index that will provide spatial and temporal trends of deforestation risk across Latin America and the Caribbean. The development of the Deforestation Risk Index (DRI) was based upon work performed in the EU project ROBIN1. Indicators of deforestation included in the index were identified based upon the multi-scalar approach adopted in ROBIN- nationally from principal component analysis and econometric modelling, provincially from extensive interviews with experts and farmers (subsistence and commercial) in Amazonian regions of Bolivia and Brazil, and locally from stakeholder workshops in Bolivia, Brazil and Mexico. The identification process was supported by an extensive literature review. In total, 11 indicators were identified and grouped into four components (biophysical, economic, governance and social) capable of explaining the risk of deforestation in Latin America and Caribbean countries. The DRI was calculated for 24 Latin American and Caribbean countries in the years 2000, 2005 and 2010 using national-level data collected from open access databases (FAOStat, WorldBank and UNDP). The DRI was subjected to two weighting schemes; the first based upon the opinions of experts from ROBIN (weighted biophysical and governance components heavily), and the second developed from the results of

  2. Twelve years of Fogarty-funded bioethics training in Latin America and the Caribbean: achievements and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenz, Carla; Heitman, Elizabeth; Luna, Florencia; Litewka, Sergio; Goodman, Kenneth W; Macklin, Ruth

    2014-04-01

    The landscape in research ethics has changed significantly in Latin America and the Caribbean over the past two decades. Research ethics has gone from being a largely foreign concept and unfamiliar practice to an integral and growing feature of regional health research systems. Four bioethics training programs have been funded by the Fogarty International Center (FIC) in this region in the past 12 years. Overall, they have contributed significantly to changing the face of research ethics through the creation of locally relevant training materials and courses (including distance learning), academic publications, workshops, and conferences in Spanish, and strengthening ethics review committees and national systems of governance. This paper outlines their achievements and challenges, and reflects on current regional needs and what the future may hold for research ethics and bioethics training in Latin America and the Caribbean. PMID:24782074

  3. Incentivizing Clean Technology in the Mining Sector in Latin America and the Caribbean: The Role of Public Mining Institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Malaika Masson; Martin Walter; Michael Priester

    2013-01-01

    How can LAC governments promote the use of clean and green technology in the mining sector and what are the supporting instruments, regulations, infrastructure and institutional aspects that are needed to reinforce this role within public supervisory mining agencies? This technical note explores opportunities for incentivizing cleaner technologies in mining in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) region. It focuses on two aspects: key conceptual notions related to clean technologies/process ...

  4. Increased number of cases of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection imported from the Caribbean and Central America to northern Italy, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossini, G; Gaibani, P; Vocale, C; Finarelli, A C; Landini, M P

    2016-07-01

    This report describes an increased number of cases of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection imported in northern Italy (Emilia-Romagna region) during the period May-September 2014, indicating that the recent spread of CHIKV and its establishment in the Caribbean and in central America, resulted in a high number of imported cases in Europe, thus representing a threat to public health. From May to September 2014, 14 imported cases of CHIKV infection were diagnosed; the patients were returning to Italy from Dominican Republic (n = 6), Haiti (n = 3), Guadeloupe (n = 2), Martinique (n = 1), Puerto Rico (n = 1) and Venezuela (n = 1). Phylogenetic analysis performed on the envelope protein (E1) gene sequences, obtained from plasma samples from two patients, indicated that the virus strain belongs to the Caribbean clade of the Asian genotype currently circulating in the Caribbean and Americas. The rise in the number of imported cases of CHIKV infection should increase healthcare professionals' awareness of the epidemiological situation and clinical presentation of CHIKV infection in order to enhance surveillance and early diagnosis in the forthcoming season of vector activity in Europe and North America. PMID:26751121

  5. Basement configuration of the northwestern South America - Caribbean margin from recent geophysical data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The oceanic nature of the crust in northern Colombia (underlying the lower Magdalena basins) has been postulated by different authors as a northern extension of the cretaceous, mafic and ultramafic rocks accreted to the western margin of northwest Colombia (in the western cordillera and Baudo range). Localized, small outcrops of oceanic affinity rocks seem to support this hypothesis. However, geophysical data do not support this northern extension, but clearly mark the boundary between the collision panama terrane with northern south America and the over thrusting of the latter on top of the obliquely convergent Caribbean plate. We produced maps to basement and Moho topography by integrated modeling of gravity, magnetic, seismic reflection surveys and well data from northwest Colombia and the southwestern Caribbean in areas with good seismic coverage, the basement under the lower Magdalena basins (LMB) is represented by o clear reflector. in areas where seismic data shows poor imaging or is absent, we use a bock stripping methodology to model first the sedimentary section, with known densities, composition and geometry controlled by oil wells and high quality seismic data, and then the deeper section. 2,50 gravity and magnetic modeling results in on initial Moho that con be extended to the entire region based on the control of available seismic refraction points. This controlled Moho provides the basis for basement modeling for the whole area and this sequence is iterated for several sections across the region. Our results indicate that the crust under northern Colombia is continental to thinned continental (transitional) in nature, with densities between 2,6 and 2,7 g/cm3. our model also requires a dense wedge of sediments (density 2,5 g/cm3) of the base of the modern fold belt, which may represent a fossil sedimentary wedge attachment to the continental margin. This wedge may have served as a backstop for the modern fold belt. The gravity modeling does not

  6. Risk Management in Agriculture for Food Security in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, A.; National Research CouncilScientific; Technological Research (Conicet)

    2013-05-01

    The Americas are extremely important as a unique contributor to Food Security. It provides from tropical to temperate crops. Not only they are able to feed their own population, but contribute significantly to the food supply of the population in developed, emergent and underdeveloped countries. This fact has given the region a unique responsibility to develop a regional risk-management strategy to manage food insecurity at a local, national, regional and global level. Although international agencies such as UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), Instituto Interamericano para la Cooperación en Agricultura (IICA) and the regional centres of the Consultative Group for International Agriculture Research (CGIAR) and the World Bank (WB), are engaged in actions for Risk Management in Agriculture for reducing Food Insecurity. However there is a need to build a framework and/or comprehensive regional strategy for the Americas. It would identify areas for promoting research projects where natural and social science work together for producing relevant scientific information and tools i.e. maps, indicators, models and scenarios, early warning systems, etc. to cooperate with both policy and decision makers in the public and private sectors. This would eventually lead to a comprehensive regional programme for reducing food insecurity. The purpose of International Council for Science-International Research and the International Research for Disaster Risk programme (ICSU-IRDR) and ICSU Regional Office for Latinamerica and the Caribbean (ICSU-ROLAC) is to promote the cooperation of the relevant scientific fields in both natural science and social science in a multi and trans-disciplinary approach on risk management to reduce food insecurity. Also both ICSU-IRDR and ICSU-ROLAC are building a case for the inclusion of the scientific community in the revision of the Hjogo Framework for Action for Disaster Reduction to be held in 2015 as risk management for reducing food

  7. The regional response to the greenhouse issue. Latin America and the Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increase in greenhouse gas emissions in Latin America and the Caribbean is not directly linked to energy consumption. It is estimated that about two thirds of the carbon compounds that are emitted annually in the Region and contribute to the greenhouse effect stem from the deforestation of 4 to 6 million hectares of forests destroyed annually by unplanned land settlement, migratory agriculture, and agribusiness. As a contribution to the debate on the global problem of increasing greenhouse effect, the present article tries to analyze the specific regional characteristics of the problem, their relation to the global issues, and the regional options for decreasing carbon compound emissions. The developing countries, will have to deal with the possibility of seeing their land converted into ecological disaster areas, where life cannot be sustained, within the next 20 years. Within this context, technology can do very little, since deforestation basically is not a technological problem since its solution rather involves the application of sustainable development models that require profound economic and social changes. (EG) 11 refs

  8. Medicinal Plants from Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean Used as Immunostimulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez-Vázquez, María del Carmen; Campos-Xolalpa, Nimsi

    2016-01-01

    A literature review was undertaken by analyzing distinguished books, undergraduate and postgraduate theses, and peer-reviewed scientific articles and by consulting worldwide accepted scientific databases, such as SCOPUS, Web of Science, SCIELO, Medline, and Google Scholar. Medicinal plants used as immunostimulants were classified into two categories: (1) plants with pharmacological studies and (2) plants without pharmacological research. Medicinal plants with pharmacological studies of their immunostimulatory properties were subclassified into four groups as follows: (a) plant extracts evaluated for in vitro effects, (b) plant extracts with documented in vivo effects, (c) active compounds tested on in vitro studies, and (d) active compounds assayed in animal models. Pharmacological studies have been conducted on 29 of the plants, including extracts and compounds, whereas 75 plants lack pharmacological studies regarding their immunostimulatory activity. Medicinal plants were experimentally studied in vitro (19 plants) and in vivo (8 plants). A total of 12 compounds isolated from medicinal plants used as immunostimulants have been tested using in vitro (11 compounds) and in vivo (2 compounds) assays. This review clearly indicates the need to perform scientific studies with medicinal flora from Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean, to obtain new immunostimulatory agents. PMID:27042188

  9. Nutrition and the commoditization of food systems in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewey, K G

    1989-01-01

    Commoditization of food systems, defined as the use of agricultural goods for sale rather than for home consumption, affects nutrition of rural families via economic, social and ecological mechanisms in addition to direct dietary effects. Broad-scale mechanisms include alterations in land tenure, increased stratification of wealth, widespread labor migration, urban bias, food price changes, disruption of traditional reciprocal social relations, and ecological changes accompanying commercial agriculture that may limit long-term food production. At the family level, the replacement of food with cash is often problematic as regards nutrition, due to low prices to producers, increased cash needs, the 'lumpiness' of earnings during the year, reduced decision-making power of women, and often decreased dietary diversity. Three case studies in Latin America and the Caribbean, from Peru, Jamaica, and Mexico, illustrate that commoditization tends to have a negative impact on nutrition in poor rural households. Although commoditization is theoretically advantageous on a national level by allowing the use of 'comparative advantage', in actuality its potential benefits are eroded by inequitable uses of foreign exchange. Commoditization is in essence a more efficient means by which to extract surplus value from small agricultural producers. While commoditization is a necessary component of economic growth, policies to safeguard health and nutrition and improve the status of women in development programs must be implemented within an overall strategy to meet basic needs of the population. PMID:2648596

  10. Medicinal Plants from Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean Used as Immunostimulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Castro, Angel Josabad; Juárez-Vázquez, María Del Carmen; Campos-Xolalpa, Nimsi

    2016-01-01

    A literature review was undertaken by analyzing distinguished books, undergraduate and postgraduate theses, and peer-reviewed scientific articles and by consulting worldwide accepted scientific databases, such as SCOPUS, Web of Science, SCIELO, Medline, and Google Scholar. Medicinal plants used as immunostimulants were classified into two categories: (1) plants with pharmacological studies and (2) plants without pharmacological research. Medicinal plants with pharmacological studies of their immunostimulatory properties were subclassified into four groups as follows: (a) plant extracts evaluated for in vitro effects, (b) plant extracts with documented in vivo effects, (c) active compounds tested on in vitro studies, and (d) active compounds assayed in animal models. Pharmacological studies have been conducted on 29 of the plants, including extracts and compounds, whereas 75 plants lack pharmacological studies regarding their immunostimulatory activity. Medicinal plants were experimentally studied in vitro (19 plants) and in vivo (8 plants). A total of 12 compounds isolated from medicinal plants used as immunostimulants have been tested using in vitro (11 compounds) and in vivo (2 compounds) assays. This review clearly indicates the need to perform scientific studies with medicinal flora from Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean, to obtain new immunostimulatory agents. PMID:27042188

  11. Sustainability, Efficiency and Equitability of Water Consumption and Pollution in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesfin M. Mekonnen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the sustainability, efficiency and equity of water use in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC by means of a geographic Water Footprint Assessment (WFA. It aims to provide understanding of water use from both a production and consumption point of view. The study identifies priority basins and areas from the perspectives of blue water scarcity, water pollution and deforestation. Wheat, fodder crops and sugarcane are identified as priority products related to blue water scarcity. The domestic sector is the priority sector regarding water pollution from nitrogen. Soybean and pasture are priority products related to deforestation. We estimate that consumptive water use in crop production could be reduced by 37% and nitrogen-related water pollution by 44% if water footprints were reduced to certain specified benchmark levels. The average WF per consumer in the region is 28% larger than the global average and varies greatly, from 912 m3/year per capita in Nicaragua to 3468 m3/year in Bolivia. Ironically, the LAC region shows significant levels of undernourishment, although there is abundant water and food production in the region and substantial use of land and water for producing export crops like soybean.

  12. Advanced practice nursing in Latin America and the Caribbean: regulation, education and practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zug, Keri Elizabeth; Cassiani, Silvia Helena De Bortoli; Pulcini, Joyce; Garcia, Alessandra Bassalobre; Aguirre-Boza, Francisca; Park, Jeongyoung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to identify the current state of advanced practice nursing regulation, education and practice in Latin America and the Caribbean and the perception of nursing leaders in the region toward an advanced practice nursing role in primary health care to support Universal Access to Health and Universal Health Coverage initiatives. Method: a descriptive cross-sectional design utilizing a web-based survey of 173 nursing leaders about their perceptions of the state of nursing practice and potential development of advanced practice nursing in their countries, including definition, work environment, regulation, education, nursing practice, nursing culture, and perceived receptiveness to an expanded role in primary health care. Result: the participants were largely familiar with the advanced practice nursing role, but most were unaware of or reported no current existing legislation for the advanced practice nursing role in their countries. Participants reported the need for increased faculty preparation and promotion of curricula reforms to emphasize primary health care programs to train advanced practice nurses. The vast majority of participants believed their countries' populations could benefit from an advanced practice nursing role in primary health care. Conclusion: strong legislative support and a solid educational framework are critical to the successful development of advanced practice nursing programs and practitioners to support Universal Access to Health and Universal Health Coverage initiatives. PMID:27508923

  13. The regional response to the greenhouse issue: Latin America and the Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increase in greenhouse gas emissions in Latin America and the Caribbean is not directly linked to energy consumption. It is estimated that about two-thirds of the carbon compounds that are emitted annually in the region and contribute to the greenhouse effect stem from the deforestation of 4 to 6 million hectares of forests destroyed annually by unplanned land settlement, migratory agriculture, and agribusiness. As a contribution to the debate on the global problem of the increasing greenhouse effect, the present article tries to analyze the specific regional characteristics of the problem, their relation to the global issue, and the regional options for decreasing carbon compound emissions. The developing countries, instead of waiting for the consequences of the 1- to 5-degree-Centrigrade increase in average temperature that is being forecast for the planet in the next 50 to 70 years, will have to deal with the possibility of seeing their land converted into ecological disaster areas where life cannot be sustained within the next 20 years. Within this context, technology can do very little, because deforestation basically is not a technological problem but rather has to do with the application of unsustainable development models that require profound economic and social changes

  14. Energy conservation and sustainable economic growth: The case of Latin America and the Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examines the causal relationships among energy consumption, economic growth and carbon dioxide emissions in twenty countries from Latin America and the Caribbean region. The methodology includes the use of Phillips and Perron (PP) tests, a cointegration model with vector error correction modeling (VECM) and vector autoregression (VAR) with Granger causality. The study concludes that of the twenty countries analyzed, only in four of them will it be possible to implement energy conservation polices without affecting their economic growth, four others are not able to consider an energy conservation policy with economic growth, and the other twelve should focus on their economic growth before adopting any conservation policies. Energy efficiency was found in this region, especially in the countries which have both cointegration and short-term equilibrium. - Highlights: → Only four countries could implement energy conservation polices without affecting economic growth. → Twelve nations should focus on their economic growth before designing any energy conservation policies. → Energy efficiency was found in the countries which have both cointegration and short-term equilibrium.

  15. Energy conservation and sustainable economic growth: The case of Latin America and the Caribbean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Ching-Chih, E-mail: chan5305@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Transportation and Communication Management Science, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, University Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Soruco Carballo, Claudia Fabiola, E-mail: claudita.s.c@gmail.com [Institute of International Management, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, University Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Department of Economics, Universidad Mayor de San Andres, 1995 Villazon ave., La Paz (Bolivia, Plurinational State of)

    2011-07-15

    This study examines the causal relationships among energy consumption, economic growth and carbon dioxide emissions in twenty countries from Latin America and the Caribbean region. The methodology includes the use of Phillips and Perron (PP) tests, a cointegration model with vector error correction modeling (VECM) and vector autoregression (VAR) with Granger causality. The study concludes that of the twenty countries analyzed, only in four of them will it be possible to implement energy conservation polices without affecting their economic growth, four others are not able to consider an energy conservation policy with economic growth, and the other twelve should focus on their economic growth before adopting any conservation policies. Energy efficiency was found in this region, especially in the countries which have both cointegration and short-term equilibrium. - Highlights: > Only four countries could implement energy conservation polices without affecting economic growth. > Twelve nations should focus on their economic growth before designing any energy conservation policies. > Energy efficiency was found in the countries which have both cointegration and short-term equilibrium.

  16. Mapping Vulnerability to Disasters in Latin America and the Caribbean, 1900-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard-Ford, Miriam C.; Phillips, Emily C.; Chirico, Peter G.

    2008-01-01

    The vulnerability of a population and its infrastructure to disastrous events is a factor of both the probability of a hazardous event occurring and the community's ability to cope with the resulting impacts. Therefore, the ability to accurately identify vulnerable populations and places in order to prepare for future hazards is of critical importance for disaster mitigation programs. This project created maps of higher spatial resolution of vulnerability to disaster in Latin America and the Caribbean from 1900 to 2007 by mapping disaster data by first-level administrative boundaries with the objective of identifying geographic trends in regional occurrences of disasters and vulnerable populations. The method of mapping by administrative level is an improvement on displaying and analyzing disasters at the country level and shows the relative intensity of vulnerability within and between countries in the region. Disaster mapping at the country level produces only a basic view of which countries experience various types of natural disasters. Through disaggregation, the data show which geographic areas of these countries, including populated areas, are historically most susceptible to different hazard types.

  17. Progress towards eliminating canine rabies: policies and perspectives from Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigilato, Marco Antonio Natal; Clavijo, Alfonso; Knobl, Terezinha; Silva, Hugo Marcelo Tamayo; Cosivi, Ottorino; Schneider, Maria Cristina; Leanes, Luis Fernando; Belotto, Albino José; Espinal, Marcos Antonio

    2013-08-01

    Human rabies transmitted by dogs is considered a neglected disease that can be eliminated in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) by 2015. The aim of this paper is to discuss canine rabies policies and projections for LAC regarding current strategies for achieving this target and to critically review the political, economic and geographical factors related to the successful elimination of this deadly disease in the context of the difficulties and challenges of the region. The strong political and technical commitment to control rabies in LAC in the 1980s, started with the regional programme coordinated by the Pan American Health Organization. National and subnational programmes involve a range of strategies including mass canine vaccination with more than 51 million doses of canine vaccine produced annually, pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis, improvements in disease diagnosis and intensive surveillance. Rabies incidence in LAC has dramatically declined over the last few decades, with laboratory confirmed dog rabies cases decreasing from approximately 25 000 in 1980 to less than 300 in 2010. Dog-transmitted human rabies cases also decreased from 350 to less than 10 during the same period. Several countries have been declared free of human cases of dog-transmitted rabies, and from the 35 countries in the Americas, there is now only notification of human rabies transmitted by dogs in seven countries (Bolivia, Peru, Honduras, Haiti, Dominican Republic, Guatemala and some states in north and northeast Brazil). Here, we emphasize the importance of the political commitment in the final progression towards disease elimination. The availability of strategies for rabies control, the experience of most countries in the region and the historical ties of solidarity between countries with the support of the scientific community are evidence to affirm that the elimination of dog-transmitted rabies can be achieved in the short term. The final efforts to confront the remaining

  18. Caribbean ,More than Myths

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alice Ou

    2008-01-01

    @@ Have you ever watched the movie of Pirates of the Caribbean?This Hollywood movie hit several headlines in its time and pushed a charming and mysterious Caribbean under limelight.The Latin America and the Caribbean area caught the world's eyesight,so from China.On February 27th,the fourth session of CASS (Chinese Academy of Social Sciences)International Forum focus on Latin America and the Caribbean affairs was heldin Beijing,China.

  19. Co-operation Agreement for the promotion of nuclear science and technology in Latin America and the Caribbean (ARCAL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document reproduces the text of the Co-operation Agreement for the Promotion of Nuclear Science and Technology in Latin America and the Caribbean (ARCAL) which was opened for signature on 25 September 1998 and shall come into force after deposit of the instrument of ratification by ten Member States. It shall remain in force for ten years, and may be extended by periods of five years if the Member States so agree. By 15 september 1999, there were 14 Signatories to the above Agreement

  20. Mobilizing Aid For Trade: Focus on Latin America and the Caribbean: Proceedings of the Regional Review Meeting

    OpenAIRE

    Inter-American Development Bank (IDB)

    2007-01-01

    This report was prepared by the Integration and Trade Sector (INT) as a contribution to the regional meeting on Mobilizing Aid for Trade: Latin America and the Caribbean, organized jointly by the IDB and the World Trade Organization (WTO) in collaboration with the World Bank, and hosted by the Government of Peru in Lima on September 13¿14, 2007. The meeting is the first of three regional meetings organized by the WTO to prepare for its November 2007 General Council meeting on aid for trade.

  1. Attributing human foodborne illness to food sources and water in Latin America and the Caribbean using data from outbreak investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pires, Sara Monteiro; Vieira, Antonio; Perez, Enrique; Wong, Danilo Lo Fo; Hald, Tine

    2012-01-01

    Foodborne pathogens are responsible for an increasing burden of disease worldwide. Knowledge on the contribution of different food sources and water for disease is essential to prioritize food safety interventions and implement appropriate control measures. Source attribution using outbreak data...... utilizes readily available data from outbreak surveillance to estimate the contribution of different sources to human disease. We developed a probabilistic model based on outbreak data that attributes human foodborne disease by various bacterial pathogens to sources in Latin America and the Caribbean (LA...... health impact of foodborne diseases....

  2. The treaty for the prohibition of nuclear weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean (Tlatelolco Treaty)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a letter of 28 January 1994, the Director General was informed that on 18 January 1994, the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin American and the Caribbean entered into force for the Argentine Republic

  3. Holocene relative sea-level changes from North America and the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Benjamin; Engelhart, Simon; Vacchi, Matteo; Khan, Nicole; Peltier, Dick; Roy, Keven

    2014-05-01

    Reconstructions of Holocene relative sea level (RSL) are important for identifying the ice equivalent meltwater contribution to sea-level change during deglaciation. Holocene RSL reconstructions from near, intermediate and far field regions enable the assessment of earth and ice parameters of Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) models. RSL reconstructions provide data for estimating rates of spatially variable and ongoing vertical land motion; a requirement for understanding the variation in modern and late Holocene sea level as recorded by instrumental and proxy records. Here we explain the methodology employed to reconstruct former sea levels, which follows the practice of the International Geoscience Programme (IGCP). We produce sea level index points from the Pacific and Atlantic coasts of North America and the Caribbean. Index points are defined as the most reliable observations of former sea levels. They consist of an estimate of X (age) and Y (the position of former RSL). Where a suite of index points are developed for a locality or region, they describe changes in RSL through time and estimate rates of change. A valid index point must meet the following four criteria; (1) location of the sample is known; (2) the altitude of the sample (and the error associated with measuring that altitude) is known; (3) the indicative meaning (the relationship between the sample and a tide level) is estimated; and (4) the age of the sample, which is commonly radiocarbon dated is calibrated to sidereal years using the latest calibration curves. In total databases have over 2000 sea-level index points from formerly ice covered, uplifting regions of Canada, to the region of forebulge collapse along the subsiding mid-Atlantic and mid-Pacific coastlines of the United States, to the tropical regions of the Caribbean. Recent analyses of these new published databases have led to a further refinement of the most recent of the ICE-NG (VMX) series of global models of GIA. The records

  4. The political and intellectual dimension of educational field in Latin America and the CaribbeanîA look from the production of international organizations [1981-1992

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matías Causa

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the political and intellectual aspects of education in Latin America and the Caribbean between 1981 and 1992. Through the analysis of political and pedagogic ideas the paper explores concepts, topics and issues that characterized the intellectual work of international organizations. The paper compares the UNESCO Project, "Main Education Project for Latin America and the Caribbean" [1981-1989] and the UNESCO/CEPAL Document, "Education and Awareness: axis transformation with equity", 1992

  5. Improvement of IDC/CTBTO Event Locations in Latin America and the Caribbean Using a Regional Seismic Travel Time Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Given, J. W.; Guendel, F.

    2013-05-01

    The International Data Centre is a vital element of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) verification mechanism. The fundamental mission of the International Data Centre (IDC) is to collect, process, and analyze monitoring data and to present results as event bulletins to Member States. For the IDC and in particular for waveform technologies, a key measure of the quality of its products is the accuracy by which every detected event is located. Accurate event location is crucial for purposes of an On Site Inspection (OSI), which would confirm the conduct of a nuclear test. Thus it is important for the IDC monitoring and data analysis to adopt new processing algorithms that improve the accuracy of event location. Among them the development of new algorithms to compute regional seismic travel times through 3-dimensional models have greatly increased IDC's location precision, the reduction of computational time, allowing forward and inverse modeling of large data sets. One of these algorithms has been the Regional Seismic Travel Time model (RSTT) of Myers et al., (2011). The RSTT model is nominally a global model; however, it currently covers only North America and Eurasia in sufficient detail. It is the intention CTBTO's Provisional Technical Secretariat and the IDC to extend the RSTT model to other regions of the earth, e.g. Latin America-Caribbean, Africa and Asia. This is particularly important for the IDC location procedure, as there are regions of the earth for which crustal models are not well constrained. For this purpose IDC has launched a RSTT initiative. In May 2012, a technical meeting was held in Vienna under the auspices of the CTBTO. The purpose of this meeting was to invite National Data Centre experts as well as network operators from Africa, Europe, the Middle East, Asia, Australia, Latin and North America to discuss the context under which a project to extend the RSTT model would be implemented. A total of 41 participants from 32 Member States

  6. [International financing for cooperation to develop health in Latin America and the Caribbean].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Los Ríos, Rebecca; Arósquipa, Carlos; Vigil-Oliver, William

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study is (a) to examine the ways in which Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) have benefited from increases in international development assistance for health (DAH) at the global level and whether the trend observed after the Millennium Summit has also applied to the Region; (b) to determine whether there are differences in the distribution of this assistance, based on the gross per capita income of each country; (c) to identify the possible effects of the 2008 international financial crisis on official bilateral assistance; and (d) to compare trends in public health expenditure in relation to DAH before and after the Millennium Summit. The study has found that DAH in LAC follows a very different pattern than in other regions of the world. The period from 1997 to 2008 was one of fluctuating stagnation, with average annual disbursements of US$ 1 200 million. Multilateral financial institutions accounted for 79% of the average disbursements in the upper-middle income countries between 2002 and 2008, while official bilateral assistance held the greatest share (61%) in the low- and lower-middle income countries. Bilateral assistance grew at an annual rate of 13% during this period, but in the year after the crisis, disbursements fell to US$ 20 million. Sixty-four percent of bilateral assistance came from the United States, Spain, and Canada, with 29% of it being directed to HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases. After the Millennium Summit DAH channeled to governments decreased 30% in the period 2001-2006, and its share of public health expenditure in the region was 0.3% for the same period, with an equally marginal proportion in relation to total health expenditure for 2008 (0.37%; US$ 2 per capita). The study concludes that after the Millennium Summit, DAH in LAC did not grow nor did it equal the trends prior to 2000, and public health expenditure followed its historical growth trend, without further increases in relation to the regional

  7. Characteristics of randomized trials published in Latin America and the Caribbean according to funding source.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovic Reveiz

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Few studies have assessed the nature and quality of randomized controlled trials (RCTs in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The aims of this systematic review are to evaluate the characteristics (including the risk of bias assessment of RCT conducted in LAC according to funding source. A review of RCTs published in 2010 in which the author's affiliation was from LAC was performed in PubMed and LILACS. Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias. The primary outcomes were risk of bias assessment and funding source. A total of 1,695 references were found in PubMed and LILACS databases, of which 526 were RCTs (N = 73.513 participants. English was the dominant publication language (93% and most of the RCTs were published in non-LAC journals (84.2%. Only five of the 19 identified countries accounted for nearly 95% of all RCTs conducted in the region (Brazil 70.9%, Mexico 10.1%, Argentina 5.9%, Colombia 3.8%, and Chile 3.4%. Few RCTs covered priority areas related with Millennium Development Goals like maternal health (6.7% or high priority infectious diseases (3.8%. Regarding children, 3.6% and 0.4% RCT evaluated nutrition and diarrhea interventions respectively but none pneumonia. As a comparison, aesthetic and sport related interventions account for 4.6% of all trials. A random sample of RCTs (n = 358 was assessed for funding source: exclusively public (33.8%; private (e.g. pharmaceutical company (15.3%; other (e.g. mixed, NGO (15.1%; no funding (35.8%. Overall assessments for risk of bias showed no statistically significant differences between RCTs and type of funding source. Statistically significant differences favoring private and others type of funding was found when assessing trial registration and conflict of interest reporting. CONCLUSION: Findings of this study could be used to provide more direction for future research to facilitate innovation, improve health

  8. The spectrum of BRCA1 and BRCA2 alleles in Latin America and the Caribbean: a clinical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutil, Julie; Golubeva, Volha A; Pacheco-Torres, Alba L; Diaz-Zabala, Hector J; Matta, Jaime L; Monteiro, Alvaro N

    2015-12-01

    Hereditary cancer predisposition gene testing allows the identification of individuals at high risk of cancer that may benefit from increased surveillance, chemoprevention, and prophylactic surgery. In order to implement clinical genetic strategies adapted to each population's needs and intrinsic genetic characteristic, this review aims to present the current status of knowledge about the spectrum of BRCA pathogenic variants in Latin American populations. We have conducted a comprehensive review of 33 studies published between 1994 and 2015 reporting the prevalence and/or spectrum of BRCA1 (OMIM 113705) and BRCA2 (OMIM 600185) variants. The combined sample size for these studies consisted of 4835 individuals from 13 countries in Latin America and the Caribbean, as well as in Hispanics in the United States. A total of 167 unique pathogenic variants have been reported in the existing literature. In unselected breast cancer cases, the prevalence ranged from 1.2 to 27.1%. Some countries presented a few recurrent pathogenic variants, while others were characterized by diverse, non-recurrent variants. The proportion of BRCA pathogenic variants shared between Hispanics in the United States and Latin American populations was estimated at 10.4%. Within Latin America and the Caribbean, 8.2% of the BRCA variants reported were present in more than one country. Countries with high prevalence of BRCA pathogenic variants may benefit from more aggressive testing strategies, while testing of recurrent variant panels might present a cost-effective solution for improving genetic testing in some, but not all, countries. PMID:26564481

  9. Formas De Produccion Agricola E Intervenciones Educativas En A. Latina Y El Caribe. [Methods of Agricultural Production and Educational Intervention in Latin America and in the Caribbean].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohor, S.

    This paper, one of a series of Unesco technical reports, discusses agricultural production in Latin America and the Caribbean and examines the role played by education in the region. Written in Spanish, the paper consists of four parts. Part I deals with the different types of agricultural production and examines the historic origins and…

  10. Regional Meeting of Experts on Environmental Education in Latin America and the Caribbean, Bogota, Colombia, 24-30 November 1976. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Environmental Education Section.

    This is the final report on the background and proceedings of the Regional Meeting on Environmental Education in Latin America and the Caribbean, convened jointly by UNESCO and the United Nations Environmental Program. The goal of this regional meeting was to examine the problems of the environment within the region, and to recommend lines for…

  11. International Flows of Remittances: Cost, Competition and Financial Access in Latin America and the Caribbean¿toward an Industry Scorecard

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Orozco

    2006-01-01

    This report analyzes current trends in money transfers, paying attention to the gradual decline in costs and some of the factors influencing the decline. The report also highlights the fact that both banking and nonbanking financial institutions, such as microfinance institutions, are increasingly becoming major payers of money in Latin America and the Caribbean.

  12. Educational Policies and Globalization: Elements for Some Criticism on the International Organizations' Proposals for Latin America and the Caribbean Islands Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filho, Domingos Leite Lima

    2009-01-01

    The present work analyses the role of the international organizations in the orientation of educational reforms and reforms of professional formation/training taking place, in particular, in Latin America countries and in the Caribbean Islands from the beginning of the 1990's on. This article is organized into four sections: in the first one, we…

  13. Poverty and Policy in Latin America and the Caribbean. World Bank Technical Paper No. 467.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodon, Quentin T.

    Although the progress toward poverty reduction remains sluggish, other dimensions of social welfare in the Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) region show signs of improvement. Adult literacy and school enrollment rates, life expectancy at birth, access to safe water, and nutrition indicators are improving. However, other factors demonstrate that…

  14. Unraveling The Complex Interaction Between The Southern Caribbean, Northwest South America And The Pacific Plates During The Cenozoic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villagomez, D.; Spikings, R.

    2013-05-01

    We have studied the prominent Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta Massif (the highest peak in the world whose local base is at sea level, ~5.75km) in Northern Colombia and we are interested in quantifying the thermal and tectonic history of the Northernmost Andes during the Cenozoic in order to understand the complex interaction between the Caribbean, the South American and the Pacific plates. In order to do so, apatite fission track data (by the LA-ICP-MS method) has been used, collected along several traverses and a single vertical profile within the massif. Our results show that the easternmost part of Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta exhumed at elevated rates (≥0.2 Km/My) during 65-58 Ma in response to the collision of the Caribbean Plateau with north-western South America. A second pulse of exhumation (≥0.32 Km/My) during 50-40 Ma was probably driven by the underthrusting of the Caribbean Plate beneath northern South America. More southern portions of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta (the Sierra Nevada Province) exhumed rapidly during 26-29 Ma (~0.7 Km/My), whereas farther north, the northwestermost corner of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta (the Santa Marta Province) exhumed at elevated rates during 30-25 Ma and 25-16 Ma. Our thermochronological data show that the highest exhumation rates within the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta progressed towards the northwest via the propagation of NW-verging thrusts. The late Oligocene-Miocene exhumation was mainly a consequence of compression originating at the Pacific margin of South America that also gave rise to uplift and exhumation in other regions of Eastern Colombia (e.g. in the Santander Massif). Major continental faults such as the left-lateral Santa Marta-Bucaramanga Fault have played an important role transferring the deformation, Exhumation of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta Massif is not recorded after ~16 Ma, which is unexpected, given the high elevation and high erosive power of the climate, implying that rock and

  15. STRECA project: A north-south collaboration initiative for strengthening radioactive waste management infrastructure in Central America and the Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presented project (STRECA) intends to expand the knowledge and experience gained in previous projects of collaboration between Latin American and European countries. During a first workshop held in Cuba in July 2004, a number of countries from Central America and the Caribbean met with representatives from France, Spain and Sweden to discuss these topics and propose possible way forward to further develop their internal expertise and promote multilateral co-operation. This paper presents the findings from this workshop and proposes a work program to fulfil some insufficiencies in the countries of the Sub region such as: regulatory framework, education and training of human resources, application of technologies, safety assessment tools, environmental monitoring capabilities, etc. (author)

  16. Vulnerability, poverty and socio-natural disasters in Central America and The Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Salas, J

    2007-01-01

    [EN] This paper analyses and quantifi es the relative level of risk in a geographical area that is vulnerable to natural phenomena and with a high proportion of its population in a situation of residential poverty. We deduce that the hazard in the area, composed of nine Central American and Caribbean countries, is signifi cantly higher than the world average. The fi rst aspect is covered in the sections Population at risk and Natural phenomena, which analyse the ‘st...

  17. Microfinance in Latin America and the Caribbean: How Large is the Market?

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio Navajas; Luis Tejerina

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, microfinance has greatly expanded the outreach of the financial system to millions of households in the Latin American and Caribbean region. The purpose of this report is to offer an updated snapshot of access to financial services in the region. The approach is two-fold. In the first part, the analysis hinges on information collected from microfinance institutions as of 2005. The second part presents information on access to financial services as found in national household ...

  18. Financial Inclusion in Latin America and the Caribbean: Review and Lessons

    OpenAIRE

    Bebczuk, Ricardo Néstor

    2008-01-01

    Our study critically surveys financial inclusion in Latin American and Caribbean countries, gauging access to both credit and deposit accounts by poor households. Our review confirms some pieces of conventional wisdom in this area, but challenges some others. Regarding the latter, we claim that (a) Limited financial inclusion does not simply follows from unfair discrimination against the poor, but to a great deal from a low demand for financial services and scarce access for the population at...

  19. Education for patients with rheumatoid arthritis in Latin America and the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Khoury, Vianna; Kourilovitch, Maria; Massardo, Loreto

    2015-01-01

    Patient education is highly recommended in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) to support patient management. The challenge is to adhere to the recommendations for providing health education to RA patients in Latin American and the Caribbean (LAC) countries taking into account factors such as patient health illiteracy, lack of rheumatologists, and lack of resources including access to disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs). As existing educational material in regional languages is not readily a...

  20. Do minimum wages in Latin America and the Caribbean matter ? Evidence from 19 countries

    OpenAIRE

    Kristensen, Nicolai; Cunningham, Wendy

    2006-01-01

    Despite the existence of minimum wage legislation in most Latin American countries, there is little empirical evidence demonstrating its impact on the distribution of wages. In this study the authors analyze cross-country data for 19 Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) countries to gain an understanding of if and how minimum wages affect wage distributions in LAC countries. Although there is no single minimum wage institution in the LAC region, the authors find regional trends. Minimum wages a...

  1. Education Management Information Systems (EMIS) in Latin America and the Caribbean: Lessons and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Cassidy

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides a review of the status of Education Management Information Systems (EMIS) in Latin American and the Caribbean. It includes a history of EMIS development efforts in the region; an outline of practical lessons learned from earlier EMIS development efforts; the identification of current and emerging challenges for developing EMIS; and the identification of promising examples of the use of better data and information to inform education policy and planning. The study was prepa...

  2. How Will the Food Price Shock Affect Inflation in Latin America and the Caribbean?

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Lora; Andrew Powell; Pilar Tavella

    2011-01-01

    There is widespread concern that recent increases in international food prices may have significant effects on domestic food prices and inflation. This note assesses the impact of the recent food price shock on food, non-food and consumer inflation in the countries of Latin American and the Caribbean (LAC). Vector Autoregressive Regressions (VARs) are estimated for each country to trace the effect of international food prices, the price of oil and the value of the US dollar on domestic prices...

  3. Innovation in Services: The Hard Case for Latin America and the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Ezequiel Tacsir

    2011-01-01

    Recent research conducted by the IDB shows that innovation positively affects productivity growth in the Latin American and Caribbean region, although the evidence comes almost exclusively from the manufacturing sector. The dearth of evidence regarding innovation in services is related, at least in part, to uncertainty with respect to how innovation in services actually works, how it can best be measured and whether or not old measurement tools (biased toward manufacturing and R&D) are really...

  4. Innovation and the New Service Economy in Latin America and the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Rubalcaba

    2013-01-01

    The service sector has become one of the most important economic activity in the world economy in both developed and developing economies. Services are crucial for further developing the Latin American and Caribbean countries, providing a strong economic dynamism and creating the source for job creation and welfare. Service innovation is incremental for ensuring strong and competitive growth of services in the region. Agriculture and manufacturing industries also need service innovation to be...

  5. BOLIVAR: the Caribbean-South America plate boundary between 60W and 71W as imaged by seismic reflection data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnani, M.; Mann, P.; Clark, S. A.; Escalona, A.; Zelt, C. A.; Christeson, G. L.; Levander, A.

    2007-12-01

    We present the results of ~6000km of marine multi-channel seismic (MCS) reflection data collected offshore Venezuela as part of the Broadband Ocean Land Investigation of Venezuela and the Antilles arc Region project (BOLIVAR). The imaged area spans almost 12 degrees of longitude and 5 degrees of latitude and encompasses the diffuse plate boundary between South America (SA) and the SE Caribbean plate (CAR). This plate boundary has been evolving for at least the past 55My when the volcanic island arc that borders the CAR plate started colliding obliquely with the SA continent: the collision front has migrated from west to east. BOLIVAR MCS data show that the crustal architecture of the present plate boundary is dominated by the eastward motion of the Caribbean plate with respect to SA and is characterized by a complex combination of convergent and strike-slip tectonics. To the north, the reflection data image the South Caribbean Deformed Belt (SCDB) and the structures related to the thrusting of the CAR plate under the Leeward Antilles volcanic arc region. The data show that the CAR underthrusting continues as far east as the southern edge of the Aves ridge and detailed stratigraphic dating of the Venezuela basin and trench deposits suggests that the collision began in the Paleogene. The amount of shortening along the SCDB decreases toward the east, in part due to the geometry of plate motion vectors and in part as a result of the NNE escape of the Maracaibo block in western Venezuela. South of the SCDB the MCS profiles cross the Leeward Antilles island arc and Cenozoic sedimentary basins, revealing a complex history of Paleogene-Neogene multiphase extension, compression, and tectonic inversion, as well as the influence of the tectonic activity along the right-lateral El Pilar - San Sebastian fault system. East of the Bonaire basin the MCS data image the southern end of the Aves Ridge abandoned volcanic island arc and the southwestern termination of the Grenada basin

  6. Causal Estimates of the Intangible Costs of Violence against Women in Latin America and the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Aguero, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Violence has a striking gender pattern. Men are more likely to be attacked by a stranger, while women experience violence mostly from their partners. This paper estimates the costs of violence against women in terms of intangible outcomes, such as women's reproductive health, labor supply, and the welfare of their children. The study uses a sample of nearly 83,000 women in seven countries from all income groups and all sub-regions in Latin American and the Caribbean. The sample, consisting of...

  7. Electron beam accelerators—trends in radiation processing technology for industrial and environmental applications in Latin America and the Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation processing technology for industrial and environmental applications has been developed and used worldwide. In Latin America and the Caribbean and particularly in Brazil there are 24 and 16 industrial electron beam accelerators (EBA) respectively with energy from 200 keV to 10 MeV, operating in private companies and governmental institutions to enhance the physical and chemical properties of materials. However, there are more than 1500 high-current electron beam accelerators in commercial use throughout the world. The major needs and end-use markets for these electron beam (EB) units are R and D, wire and electric cables, heat shrinkable tubes and films, PE foams, tires, components, semiconductors and multilayer packaging films. Nowadays, the emerging opportunities in Latin America and the Caribbean are paints, adhesives and coatings cure in order to eliminate VOCs and for less energy use than thermal process; disinfestations of seeds; and films and multilayer packaging irradiation. For low-energy EBA (from 150 keV to 300 keV). For mid-energy EBA (from 300 keV to 5 MeV), they are flue gas treatment (SO2 and NOX removal); composite and nanocomposite materials; biodegradable composites based on biorenewable resources; human tissue sterilization; carbon and silicon carbide fibers irradiation; irradiated grafting ion-exchange membranes for fuel cells application; electrocatalysts nanoparticles production; and natural polymers irradiation and biodegradable blends production. For high-energy EBA (from 5 MeV to 10 MeV), they are sterilization of medical, pharmaceutical and biological products; gemstone enhancement; treatment of industrial and domestic effluents and sludge; preservation and disinfestations of foods and agricultural products; soil disinfestations; lignocellulosic material irradiation as a pretreatment to produce ethanol biofuel; decontamination of pesticide packing; solid residues remediation; organic compounds removal from wastewater; and

  8. Electron beam accelerators—trends in radiation processing technology for industrial and environmental applications in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parejo Calvo, Wilson A.; Duarte, Celina L.; Machado, Luci Diva B.; Manzoli, Jose E.; Geraldo, Aurea Beatriz C.; Kodama, Yasko; Silva, Leonardo Gondim A.; Pino, Eddy S.; Somessari, Elizabeth S. R.; Silveira, Carlos G.; Rela, Paulo R.

    2012-08-01

    The radiation processing technology for industrial and environmental applications has been developed and used worldwide. In Latin America and the Caribbean and particularly in Brazil there are 24 and 16 industrial electron beam accelerators (EBA) respectively with energy from 200 keV to 10 MeV, operating in private companies and governmental institutions to enhance the physical and chemical properties of materials. However, there are more than 1500 high-current electron beam accelerators in commercial use throughout the world. The major needs and end-use markets for these electron beam (EB) units are R and D, wire and electric cables, heat shrinkable tubes and films, PE foams, tires, components, semiconductors and multilayer packaging films. Nowadays, the emerging opportunities in Latin America and the Caribbean are paints, adhesives and coatings cure in order to eliminate VOCs and for less energy use than thermal process; disinfestations of seeds; and films and multilayer packaging irradiation. For low-energy EBA (from 150 keV to 300 keV). For mid-energy EBA (from 300 keV to 5 MeV), they are flue gas treatment (SO2 and NOX removal); composite and nanocomposite materials; biodegradable composites based on biorenewable resources; human tissue sterilization; carbon and silicon carbide fibers irradiation; irradiated grafting ion-exchange membranes for fuel cells application; electrocatalysts nanoparticles production; and natural polymers irradiation and biodegradable blends production. For high-energy EBA (from 5 MeV to 10 MeV), they are sterilization of medical, pharmaceutical and biological products; gemstone enhancement; treatment of industrial and domestic effluents and sludge; preservation and disinfestations of foods and agricultural products; soil disinfestations; lignocellulosic material irradiation as a pretreatment to produce ethanol biofuel; decontamination of pesticide packing; solid residues remediation; organic compounds removal from wastewater; and

  9. Geothermal energy in the new competitive electric sector of Latin America and the Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this document is to analyze the problem of the allocation of risks in private or mixed geothermal projects, within the framework of the new competitive electric sector being structured in Latin America. (The author)

  10. Business Incubation as an Instrument of Innovation: The Experience of South America and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haven Allahar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the experience of business incubation as an innovative developmental instrument based on the recent experience of the South American countries of Brazil and Chile and the Caribbean island nation of Trinidad and Tobago. A qualitative research method was adopted involving a review of published reports, journal articles and relevant case studies; and face-to-face semi-structured interviews with incubator managerial staff. The major findings are that there are great similarities among the incubators studied in terms of their links to universities, services offered, and funding challenges, but there is growing acceptance of incubation as a potentially valid tool for promoting business development and innovation although most incubators are at the early stage. The paper is original because the case study application to incubation in Trinidad and Tobago is new with only one related article published, and this study therefore adds value to the body of research because business incubation has been under-researched in the study area. The research is limited to the extent that the case study focuses on a comparison of selected incubator features and did not include the views of clients. The practical implications of this study is that sponsors of incubators and managers need to obtain a deeper understanding of the incubation ecosystem especially with regard to innovation-based incubators, if successful innovative businesses are to emerge. The results of the study can also be generalized over the small island developing states of the Caribbean.

  11. Proliferation of weapons and armed violence in the private security sector in Latin America and the Caribbean: Challenges and opportunities for taking action

    OpenAIRE

    Rémi Bacouillard; Camilo Duplat Guerrero; Julián Bustamante

    2014-01-01

    The United Nations Regional Centre for Peace, Disarmament and Development in Latin America and the Caribbean (UNLIREC) has been monitoring various media in 19 countries and has documented more than 100 newspaper articles on cases of armed violence and the proliferation offirearms in the private security sector. The objective of this investigation is to analyze reported cases and systematize a typology regarding such cases, in order to prove the existence of problems in the private security se...

  12. Ocean Data and Information Network for the Caribbean and South America Regions (ODINCARSA): Report of Activities 2005-2006 and Proposed Work Plan 2007-2008.

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez Güingla, Rodney

    2007-01-01

    ODINCARSA was set up primarily as a mechanism for assessing the current and potential state of development of national data centers and to create the means for mutual capacity building in South America and the Caribbean. It further sought to develop a cooperation network for managing and exchanging oceanographic data and information within these regions. ODINCARSA is a network which is integrated by 19 IOC Member States: Argentina, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Brazil, Colombia, Chile, Cuba, ...

  13. Information and communication technology (ICT) and eHealth policy in Latin America and the Caribbean: a review of national policies and assessment of socioeconomic context

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Carolina Jimenez-Marroquin; Raisa Deber; Jadad, Alejandro R

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the availability of national information and communication technology (ICT) or eHealth policies produced by countries in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), and to determine the influence of a country's socioeconomic context on the existence of these policies. METHODS: Documents describing a national ICT or eHealth policy in any of the 33 countries belonging to the LAC region as listed by the United Nations were identified from three data sources: academic databases; ...

  14. Do Minimum Wages in Latin America and the Caribbean Matter? Evidence from 19 Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Nicolai; Cunningham, Wendy

    Despite the existence of minimum wage legislation in most Latin American countries, there is little empirical evidence demonstrating its impact on the distribution of wages. In this study, cross-country data for 19 Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) countries is analyzed to gain an understanding...... of if and how minimum wages affect wage distributions in LAC countries. Although there is no single minimum wage institution in the LAC region, we find regional trends. Minimum wages affect the wage distribution in both the formal and, especially, the informal sector, both at the minimum wage and at multiples...... of the minimum. The minimum does not uniformly benefit low-wage workers: in countries where the minimum wage is relatively low compared to mean wages, the minimum wage affects the more disadvantaged segments of the labor force, namely informal sector workers, women, young and older workers, and the low skilled...

  15. Building alliances for improving newborn health in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Petrie, Molly K; Mazia, Goldy; Serpa, Magdalena; Pooley, Bertha; Marshall, Margaret; Meléndez, Carlos; Vicuña, Marisol

    2014-07-01

    The regional Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) Neonatal Alliance and national neonatal alliances in Bolivia, El Salvador, and Peru were studied through in-depth interviews and a review of publications. Findings were analyzed to distill successful strategies, structures, and tools for improving neonatal health by working through alliances that can be replicated at the regional or national level. The studies found the following factors were the most critical for successful outcomes from alliance work: inclusion of the Ministry of Health as a leader or primary stakeholder; a committed, diverse, technically expert, and horizontal membership; the presence of champions for neonatal health at the national level; development of a shared work plan based on feasible objectives; the use of shared financing mechanisms; the use of informal and dynamic organizational structures; and a commitment to scientific evidence-based programming. The relationship between the regional and national alliances was found to be mutually beneficial. PMID:25211677

  16. Progress towards millennium development goal 1 in Latin America and the Caribbean: the importance of the choice of indicator for undernutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chessa K Lutter

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of using stunting versus underweight as the indicator of child undernutrition for determining whether countries in Latin America and the Caribbean are on track to meet the component of Millennium Development Goal (MDG 1 pertaining to the eradication of hunger, namely to reduce undernutrition by half between 1990 and 2015. METHODS: The prevalence of underweight and stunting among children less than 5 years of age was calculated for 13 countries in Latin America and the Caribbean by applying the WHO Child Growth Standards to nationally-representative, publicly available anthropometric data. The predicted trend (based on the trend in previous years and the target trend (based on MDG 1 for stunting and underweight were estimated using linear regression. FINDINGS: The choice of indicator affects the conclusions regarding which countries are on track to reach MDG 1. All countries are on track when underweight is used to assess progress towards the target prevalence, but only 6 of them are on track when stunting is used instead. Another two countries come within 2 percentage points of the target prevalence of stunting. CONCLUSION: Whether countries are determined to be on track to meet the nutritional component of MDG 1 or not depends on the choice of stunting versus underweight as the indicator. Unfortunately, underweight is the indicator officially used to monitor progress towards MDG 1. In Latin America and the Caribbean, the use of underweight for this purpose will fail to take account of the large remaining burden of stunting.

  17. Public Investment Management in Latin America and the Caribbean : Institutions under Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    Over recent decades many countries of the Latin America region have set up specialized processes and mechanisms for public investment management. Initially created as isolated systems, they are now being further integrated with enhanced budgeting processes and financial management systems. In this process, Ministries of Finance and planning entities have emerged as the two key agencies tak...

  18. Improving Governance and Management of Health Systems : Partnerships and Observatories in Latin America and the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Cortez, Rafael; Ferl, Katharina

    2012-01-01

    Public health observatories proactively investigate health issues to provide robust analytical evidence to policy makers. This type of organization has different characteristics from other public health institutions, such as information-gathering bodies, academic public health departments, or state employed public health practitioners. Governments in Latin America have also begun establish...

  19. [The report of the Commission on Macroeconomics and Health: its relevance to the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-09-01

    The Commission on Macroeconomics and Health (CMH) was established by the Director-General of the World Health Organization (WHO) to evaluate the role of health in economic development. On 20 December 2001 the CMH submitted its report to the WHO Director-General. Entitled Macroeconomics and Health: Investing in Health for Economic Development, the CMH report affirms that in order to reduce poverty; and achieve economic development, it is essential to improve the health of the poor; to accomplish this, it is necessary to expand the access that the poor have to essential health services. The Commission believes that more financial resources are needed, that the health expenditures of less-developed and low-income countries are insufficient for the challenges that these countries face, and that high-income countries must increase their financial assistance in order to help solve the main health problems of less-developed and low-income countries. This piece summarizes a report that was prepared by the Program on Public Policy and Health of the Division of Health and Human Development of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO). The PAHO document analyzes the importance of the CMH report for the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean, focusing on some of the central arguments put forth in the CMH report as they relate to achieving better health conditions in the Americas. These arguments have been organized around three major themes in the CMH report: a) the relationships between health and economic growth, b) the principal health problems that affect the poor in low-income and low-middle-income#10; countries, and c) the gap between the funding needed to address the principal problems that affect these countries and the actual spending levels. #10; PMID:12396642

  20. Latin America and the Caribbean: assessment of the advances in public health for the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Amal K; Rodriguez-Fernandez, Gisela

    2010-05-01

    To improve health and economy of the world population, the United Nations has set up eight international goals, known as Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), that 192 United Nations member states and at least 23 international organizations have agreed to achieve by the year 2015. The goals include: (1) eradicating extreme poverty and hunger; (2) achieving universal primary education; (3) promoting gender equality; (4) reducing child mortality; (5) improving maternal health; (6) combating HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases; (7) ensuring environmental sustainability; and (8) developing a global partnership for development. Having been in the midway from the 2015 deadline, the UN Secretary-General urges countries to engage constructively to review progress towards the MDGs. This paper aims to evaluate advances in public health, with special reference to gender inequalities in health, health sector reform, global burden of disease, neglected tropical diseases, vaccination, antibiotic use, sanitation and safe water, nutrition, tobacco and alcohol use, indicators of health, and disease prevention in Latin America and the Caribbean region (LAC). The paper also identifies areas of deficits for the achievement of MDGs in LAC. PMID:20623022

  1. High-resolution gridded population datasets for Latin America and the Caribbean in 2010, 2015, and 2020.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorichetta, Alessandro; Hornby, Graeme M; Stevens, Forrest R; Gaughan, Andrea E; Linard, Catherine; Tatem, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    The Latin America and the Caribbean region is one of the most urbanized regions in the world, with a total population of around 630 million that is expected to increase by 25% by 2050. In this context, detailed and contemporary datasets accurately describing the distribution of residential population in the region are required for measuring the impacts of population growth, monitoring changes, supporting environmental and health applications, and planning interventions. To support these needs, an open access archive of high-resolution gridded population datasets was created through disaggregation of the most recent official population count data available for 28 countries located in the region. These datasets are described here along with the approach and methods used to create and validate them. For each country, population distribution datasets, having a resolution of 3 arc seconds (approximately 100 m at the equator), were produced for the population count year, as well as for 2010, 2015, and 2020. All these products are available both through the WorldPop Project website and the WorldPop Dataverse Repository. PMID:26347245

  2. A Holocene Database of Relative Sea Levels for North America and the Caribbean: Implications for Geophysical Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhart, S. E.; Peltier, W. R.; Horton, B. P.; Khan, N. S.; Liu, S.; Vacchi, M.

    2011-12-01

    We have expanded the previously available quality-controlled database of relative sea-level (RSL) observations for the U.S. Atlantic coast with data from the Atlantic coast of Canada, the Pacific coast of North America and the Caribbean. The Holocene sea-level database for the U.S. Atlantic coast consisted of 836 sea-level indicators. The database documented a decreasing rate of relative sea-level (RSL) rise through time with no evidence of sea level being above present in the middle to late Holocene. The highest rates of rise were found in the mid-Atlantic region. We employed the database to constrain an ensemble of glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) models using two ice (ICE-5G and ICE-6G) and two mantle viscosity variation (VM5a and VM5b). We identified significant misfits between observations and predictions using ICE-5G with the VM5a viscosity profile. ICE-6G provides some improvement for the northern Atlantic region, but misfits remain elsewhere. Decreasing the upper mantle and transition zone viscosity from 0.5*1021 Pa s (VM5a) to 0.25*1021 Pa s (VM5b) removed significant discrepancies between observations and predictions along the mid-Atlantic coastline, although misfits remained in the southern Atlantic region. The addition of new data from areas more proximal and distal to Laurentide ice loading has allowed us to further investigate the VM5b mantle viscosity profile.

  3. Porphyry copper assessment of Central America and the Caribbean Basin: Chapter I in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Floyd; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Ludington, Stephen; Zürcher, Lukas; Nelson, Carl E.; Robinson, Gilpin R., Jr.; Miller, Robert J.; Moring, Barry C.

    2014-01-01

    Mineral resource assessments provide a synthesis of available information about distributions of mineral deposits in the Earth’s crust. The U.S. Geological Survey prepared a probabilistic mineral resource assessment of undiscovered resources in porphyry copper deposits in Central America and the Caribbean Basin in collaboration with geoscientists from academia and the minerals industry. The purpose of the study was to (1) delineate permissive areas (tracts) for undiscovered porphyry copper deposits within 1 kilometer of the surface at a scale of 1:1,000,000; (2) provide a database of known porphyry copper deposits and significant prospects; (3) estimate numbers of undiscovered deposits within the permissive tracts; and (4) provide probabilistic estimates of amounts of copper, molybdenum, gold, and silver that could be contained in undiscovered deposits. The assessment was done using a three-part mineral resource assessment based on established mineral deposit models. Permissive tracts were delineated based primarily on distributions of mapped igneous rocks related to magmatic arcs that formed in tectonic settings associated with convergent plate margins. Five permissive tracts were delineated: the Early Cretaceous through Eocene Santiago tract, the Late Cretaceous through Oligocene Chortis tract, the Paleocene through Oligocene Darién tract, the Miocene and Pliocene Cocos tract, and the Eocene to Holocene Lesser Antilles tract. These tracts range in size from about 3,000 to about 204,000 square kilometers.

  4. Analysis of renewable energy incentives in the Latin America and Caribbean region: The feed-in tariff case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renewable energy is becoming a priority for Latin America and Caribbean (LAC) countries because of energy challenges such as demand growth, high dependence on imported fossil fuels, and climate change. As of 2010, 12 LAC countries have implemented formal targets for renewable energy deployment. Some of the LAC countries, namely Argentina, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Honduras, and Nicaragua, are using feed-in tariffs (FITs) to promote renewables. FITs are long-term, guaranteed purchase agreements for green electricity at a price that can provide project developers a reasonable return on investment. FITs are increasingly popular because if designed well, they can mitigate investor risk in renewables. This article presents a low-risk FIT design and then uses this design to benchmark the existing LAC region FITs. - Highlights: ► 12 LAC countries have implemented formal targets for renewable energy deployment. ► Argentina, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Honduras, and Nicaragua, are using feed-in tariffs (FITs) to promote renewables. ► Low-risk FIT design of feed-in tariffs in the LAC region can be improved

  5. Latin America and the Caribbean: Assessment of the Advances in Public Health for the Achievement of the Millennium Development Goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal K. Mitra

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available To improve health and economy of the world population, the United Nations has set up eight international goals, known as Millennium Development Goals (MDGs, that 192 United Nations member states and at least 23 international organizations have agreed to achieve by the year 2015. The goals include: (1 eradicating extreme poverty and hunger; (2 achieving universal primary education; (3 promoting gender equality; (4 reducing child mortality; (5 improving maternal health; (6 combating HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases; (7 ensuring environmental sustainability; and (8 developing a global partnership for development. Having been in the midway from the 2015 deadline, the UN Secretary-General urges countries to engage constructively to review progress towards the MDGs. This paper aims to evaluate advances in public health, with special reference to gender inequalities in health, health sector reform, global burden of disease, neglected tropical diseases, vaccination, antibiotic use, sanitation and safe water, nutrition, tobacco and alcohol use, indicators of health, and disease prevention in Latin America and the Caribbean region (LAC. The paper also identifies areas of deficits for the achievement of MDGs in LAC.

  6. Animal Leptospirosis in Latin America and the Caribbean Countries: Reported Outbreaks and Literature Review (2002–2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrakovsky, Jessica; Bianchi, Alejandra; Fisun, Helen; Nájera-Aguilar, Patricia; Pereira, Martha Maria

    2014-01-01

    Leptospirosis is a worldwide zoonotic disease whose transmission is linked through multiple factors in the animal-human-ecosystem interface. The data on leptospirosis reported to the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) for Latin America and Caribbean (LAC) countries/sovereign territories from 2005–2011 were mapped, showing a wide distribution of outbreaks in the region. Tropical terrestrial biomes are the predominate ecosystems showing reports of outbreaks. Climatic and ecological factors were relevant to the occurrence of epidemic outbreaks. The available scientific information from 2002–2014 was summarized to obtain a general overview and identify key issues related to the One Health approach. The primary serological test used for diagnosis and for conducting surveys was the microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Reports regarding the isolation and typing of leptospires were scattered and limited to data from a few countries, but their results revealed considerable biodiversity at the species and serovar levels. A total of six out of 11 currently named pathogenic species were found in the region. There was also high diversity of animal species showing evidence of infection by leptospires, including rodents, pets, livestock and wild animals. Prevention and control measures for leptospirosis should consider issues of animal and human health in the context of ecosystems, the territorial land borders of countries and trade. PMID:25325360

  7. GDP and environment pressure: The role of energy in Latin America and the Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyzes the relationship between economic growth and energy consumption for a sample of 21 Latin American and Caribbean countries during the 1970–2007 period. The investigation is made on the bases of the Energy Environmental Kuznets Curve (EEKC) hypothesis, using a panel data analysis. Energy consumption at aggregate level is used as an indicator of human environmental pressure and GDP per capita as an indicator of economic activity. Based in a cointegration approach, our results does not support the existence of a stable long run relationship between the series, rejecting the validity of such hypothesis for the selected sample over the 1970–2007 period. - Highlights: ► We analyze the relationship between energy consumption and per capita GDP. ► The main objective is to study the environmental pressure of energy consumption. ► We use the theoretical framework of EKC hypothesis. ► We found a U-shaped pattern instead of an inverted one. ► Socio-economic and institutional factors of the sample could explain our results.

  8. Integration of human papillomavirus vaccination and cervical cancer screening in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Eduardo L; Tsu, Vivien; Herrero, Rolando; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Hildesheim, Allan; Muñoz, Nubia; Murillo, Raul; Sánchez, Gloria Ines; Andrus, Jon Kim

    2008-08-19

    Despite substantial efforts to control cervical cancer by screening, most Latin American and Caribbean countries continue to experience incidence rates of this disease that are much higher than those of other Western countries. The implementation of universal human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination for young adolescent women is the best prospect for changing this situation. Even though there are financial challenges to overcome to implement such a policy, there is broad political support in the region for adopting universal HPV vaccination. The costs of implementing this policy could be largely alleviated by changing cervical cancer control practices that rely on inefficient use of resources presently allocated to cytology screening. In view of the strong evidence base concerning cervical cancer prevention technologies in the region and the expected impact of vaccination on the performance of cytology, we propose a reformulation of cervical cancer screening policies to be based on HPV testing using validated methods followed by cytologic triage. This approach would serve as the central component of a system that plays the dual role of providing screening and surveillance as integrated and complementary activities sharing centralized resources and coordination. PMID:18945406

  9. Management of Disused Radium Sources in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mourao, R. P.

    2003-02-26

    This paper describes the radium sources conditioning operation carried out in Latin American and the Caribbean by a team of the Brazilian federal research institute CDTN, as part of an International Atomic Energy Agency's hands-on assistance project to safely condition disused sources in developing countries. This initiative was spawned by the perceived hazard associated with the use of radium sources, caused mainly by the high likelihood that these sources leak during their use due to the accumulation of the radon gas in their interior. The conditions under which these sources are often stored in the target countries, without proper documentation, mixed with different radiation sources and under precarious conditions, urged the Agency to start this program at the end of 1996. The conditioning process starts with a pre-mission to the candidate country, when a place is selected for the forthcoming operation, suggest improvements in the local available infrastructure is suggest ed and gather the most complete information available about the country's source inventory is collected. The operation consists of transferring the sources from their original shields to sturdy multi-barrier packages, which are put under the control of the local nuclear authority. As part of the quality assurance program applied to this project, the relevant information about the conditioned inventory is recorded and made available to the host country, to the IAEA and to the conditioning team.

  10. Management of disused radium sources in Latin America and the Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the radium sources conditioning operation carried out in Latin American and the Caribbean by a team of the Brazilian federal research institute CDTN, as part of an International Atomic Energy Agency.s hands-on assistance project to safely condition disused sources in developing countries. This initiative was spawned by the perceived hazard associated with the use of radium sources, caused mainly by the high likelihood that these sources leak during their use due to the accumulation of the radon gas in their interior. The conditions under which these sources are often stored in the target countries, without proper documentation, mixed with different radiation sources and under precarious conditions, urged the Agency to start this ten-year program at the end of 1996. The conditioning process starts with a pre-mission to the candidate country, when a place is selected for the forthcoming operation, improvements in the local available infrastructure are suggested and the most complete information available about the country.s source inventory is collected. The operation consists of transferring the sources from their original shields to sturdy multi-barrier packages, which are put under the control of the local nuclear authority. As part of the quality assurance program applied to this project, the relevant information about the conditioned inventory is recorded and made available to the host country, to the IAEA and to the conditioning team. (author)

  11. Managing Municipal Solid Waste in Latin America and the Caribbean : Integrating the Private Sector, Harnessing Incentives

    OpenAIRE

    Hoornweg, Daniel; Giannelli, Natalie

    2007-01-01

    This note states that Latin America's urban population has grown, and its solid waste has increased at an even faster pace. Today the region's urban areas generate about 369,000 tons a day of solid waste. Ensuring that the waste is collected and disposed of properly will require strengthening the strategic role of municipalities. The private sector already plays a big part in waste collect...

  12. Addressing Gender-Based Violence in Latin America and the Caribbean : A Critical Review of Interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Morrison, Andrew; Ellsberg, Mary; Bott, Sarah

    2005-01-01

    The authors present an overview of gender-based violence (GBV) in Latin America, with special emphasis on good practice interventions to prevent GBV or offer services to its survivors or perpetrators. Intimate partner violence and sexual coercion are the most common forms of GBV and these are the types of GBV that they analyzes. GBV has serious consequences for women's health and well-bein...

  13. Character of the Caribbean-Gônave-North America plate boundaries in the upper mantle based on shear-wave splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benford, B.; Tikoff, B.; DeMets, C.

    2012-12-01

    We present new shear-wave splitting measurements of SKS, SKKS, PKS, and sSKS phases from eight stations in the northern Caribbean. Prior to this work, shear-wave splitting analysis of the northern Caribbean boundary was only evaluated at a station in Puerto Rico. Stations that lie within several tens of kilometers of microplate boundaries have mean fast polarization directions parallel to the boundary and have delay times greater than 1 s. Stations more than several tens of kilometers away from microplate boundaries show no evidence for an anisotropic upper mantle. Stations in Cuba and Jamaica have fast axes oriented ˜100° with delay times of ˜1.5 s, indicating that the east-striking left-lateral strike-slip faults that define the north and south boundaries of the Gônave microplate continue into the upper mantle. A station located in Antigua, where the North America plate subducts beneath the Caribbean plate, has a high degree of splitting with the fast axis parallel to the trench. Based on our results, the deformation related to the presence of microplates in the northern Caribbean extends into the upper mantle.

  14. Climate Model Simulation of Present and Future Extreme Events in Latin America and the Caribbean: What Spatial Resolution is Required?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, C. M.; Oglesby, R. J.; Mawalagedara, R.; Mohammad Abadi Kamarei, A.

    2015-12-01

    Latin America and the Caribbean are at risk of extreme climate events, including flooding rains, damaging winds, drought, heat waves, and in high elevation mountainous regions, excessive snowfalls. The causes of these events are numerous - flooding rains and damaging winds are often associated with tropical cyclones, but also can occur, either separately or in tandem, due to smaller, more localized storms. Similarly, heat waves and droughts can be large scale or localized, and frequently occur together (as excessive drying can lead to enhanced heating, while enhanced heating in turn promotes additional drying). Even in the tropics, extreme snow and ice events can have severe consequences due to avalanches, and also impact water resources. Understanding and modeling the climate controls behind these extreme events requires consideration of a range of time and space scales. A common strategy is to use a global climate model (GCM) to simulate the large-scale (~100km) daily atmospheric controls on extreme events. A limited area, high resolution regional climate model (RCM) is then employed to dynamically downscale the results, so as to better incorporate the influence of topography and, secondarily, the nature of the land cover. But what resolution is required to provide the necessary results, i.e., minimize biases due to improper resolution? In conjunction with our partners from participating Latin American and Caribbean nations, we have made an extensive series of simulations, both region-wide and for individual countries, using the WRF regional climate model to downscale output from a variety of GCMs, as well as Reanalyses (as a proxy for observations). The simulations driven by the Reanalyses are used for robust model verification against actual weather station observations. The simulations driven by GCMs are designed to provide projections of future climate, including importantly how the nature and number of extreme events may change through coming decades. Our

  15. Phylogenetic analysis of New World screwworm fly, Cochliomyia hominivorax, suggests genetic isolation of some Caribbean island populations following colonization from South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonagh, L; García, R; Stevens, J R

    2009-06-01

    Larval infestations of the New World screwworm (NWS) fly, Cochliomyia hominivorax, cause considerable economic losses through the direct mortality and reduced production of livestock. Since the 1950s, NWS populations in North and Central America have been the target of virtually continuous eradication attempts by sterile insect technique (SIT). Nevertheless, in some areas, such as Jamaica, SIT-based control programmes have failed. Reasons for the failure of SIT-based programmes in some locations are unknown, but it is hypothesized that failure may be related to the mating incompatibility between sterile and wild flies or to the existence of sexually incompatible cryptic species. Accordingly, the current research investigates intraspecific phylogenetic relationships and associated biogeographic patterns between NWS populations from the Caribbean and South America, which represent those populations involved in, or earmarked for, forthcoming SIT programmes. Uniquely, this study also includes analyses of two North American samples, collected in Texas in 1933 and 1953 prior to initiation of the SIT-based eradication programme. The study utilizes three nucleotide datasets: elongation factor-1alpha (nuclear); cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (mitochondrial), and 12S rRNA (mitochondrial). Phylogenetic analysis of these data, representing populations from across the Caribbean, South America and Texas, indicates sub-structuring of fly populations on several of the larger Caribbean islands, suggesting a period of isolation and/or founder effects following colonization from South America; significantly, our findings do not support a North American origin for Cuban flies. The importance of these findings in the light of proposed SIT programmes in the region is discussed. PMID:19335826

  16. Effects of Climate Change on Exposure to Coastal Flooding in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borja G Reguero

    Full Text Available This study considers and compares several of the most important factors contributing to coastal flooding in Latin American and the Caribbean (LAC while accounting for the variations of these factors with location and time. The study assesses the populations, the land areas and the built capital exposed at present and at the middle and end of the 21st century for a set of scenarios that include both climatic and non-climatic drivers. Climatic drivers include global mean sea level, natural modes of climate variability such as El Niño, natural subsidence, and extreme sea levels resulting from the combination of projected local sea-level rise, storm surges and wave setup. Population is the only human-related driver accounted for in the future. Without adaptation, more than 4 million inhabitants will be exposed to flooding from relative sea-level rise by the end of the century, assuming the 8.5 W m-2 trajectory of the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs, or RCP8.5. However, the contributions from El Niño events substantially raise the threat in several Pacific-coast countries of the region and sooner than previously anticipated. At the tropical Pacific coastlines, the exposure by the mid-century for an event similar to El Niño 1998 would be comparable to that of the RCP4.5 relative sea-level rise by the end of the century. Furthermore, more than 7.5 million inhabitants, 42,600 km2 and built capital valued at 334 billion USD are currently situated at elevations below the 100-year extreme sea level. With sea levels rising and the population increasing, it is estimated that more than 9 million inhabitants will be exposed by the end of the century for either of the RCPs considered. The spatial distribution of exposure and the comparison of scenarios and timeframes can serve as a guide in future adaptation and risk reduction policies in the region.

  17. Scale is not an Issue : Opportunities for Collaboration among Geoscientists in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carby, B. E.

    2015-12-01

    Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) countries face multiple hazards such as earthquakes, volcanoes, accelerated erosion, landslides, drought, flooding, windstorms and the effects of climate variability and change. World Bank (2005) data indicate that seventeen of the top thirty-five countries with relatively high mortality risk from 3 or more hazards are located in LAC, El Salvador has the second highest per cent of its population at risk - 77.7% and 7 of the top 10 countries for population exposure to multiple hazards are in LAC. All LAC countries have half or more of GDP exposed to at least one hazard. The report underscores the need for better data and information on hazards and disasters to inform disaster risk reduction (DRR) and supports the view that reduction of disaster risk is essential for achieving Sustainable Development (SD). This suggests that DRR must be integrated into development planning of countries. However the Global Assessment Report notes that globally, there has been little progress in mainstreaming DRR in national development (UNISDR 2009). Without this, countries will not realise development goals. DRR efforts in LAC require an integrated approach including societal input in deciding priority DRR research themes and interdisciplinary, multi-hazard research informing DRR policy and practice. Jiminez (2015) from a study of countries across LAC reports that efforts are being made to link research to national planning through inclusion of policy makers in some university-led research projects. Research by the author in Jamaica reveals that the public sector has started to apply research on hazards to inform DRR policy, programmes and plans. As most research is done by universities, there is collaboration between the public sector and academia. Despite differences in scale among countries across the region, similarities in exposure to multiple hazards and potential hazard impacts suggest that collaboration among researchers in LAC could be

  18. [The Caribbean origins of the National Public Health System in the USA: a global approach to the history of medicine and public health in Latin America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Mariola

    2015-01-01

    This article defines global history in relation to the history of medicine and public health. It argues that a global approach to history opens up a space for examining the reverberations transmitted from the geographic periphery towards western regions, which have traditionally dominated modern historiography. It analyzes two medical interventions in the Caribbean in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, showing how these events had profound consequences in the USA. The successes achieved in the Caribbean in terms of yellow fever and ancylostoma control, as well as providing a model for health campaigns in the southern USA, inspired the centralization of public health in North America under the centralizing control of the federal government. PMID:25742109

  19. Late Cenozoic migration of the Caribbean-North America-Cocos triple junction: the zipper and pull-up models (Guatemala)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Authemayou, Christine; Brocard, Gilles; Teyssier, Christian; Simon-Labric, Thibaut; Noe Chiquín, E.; Guttiérrez, Axel; Morán, Sergio; Suski, Barbara; Cosenza, Beatriz; Holliger, Klaus

    2013-04-01

    Our study deals with the crustal deformation produced by the migration of a triple plate junction implying a subduction zone and a transform fault system separating two continental plates. We have chosen the Caribbean-North America-Cocos triple junction as a case study. The Polochic-Motagua fault system are part of the sinistral transform boundary between the North American and Caribbean plates. To the west, these system interact with the subduction zone of the Cocos plate. The linearity of the subduction zone is explained by a mechanically strong oceanic plate that does not tear in the triple junction implying intra-continental deformation. Structural and geomorphic data allow us to propose two tectonic models involving the progressive capture of southern North American blocks by the trailing edge of the Caribbean plate (pull-up tectonics) and a progressive suturing of fault-bounded blocks to the trailing edge of the Caribbean plate associated with a continuous forearc sliver along the two continental plates (zipper model). As a result, the forearc sliver helps maintain a linear subduction zone along the trailing edge of the Caribbean plate. The Late Quaternary activity of the Polochic transform fault have been constrained by determining the active structure geometry and quantifying recent displacement rates. Slip rates have been estimated from offsets of Quaternary volcanic markers and alluvial fan using in situ cosmogenic 36Cl exposure dating. Holocene left-lateral slip rate and Mid-Pleistocene vertical slip-rate have been estimated to 4.8 ± 2.3 mm/y and 0.3 ± 0.06 mm/y, respectively, on the central part of the Polochic fault. The non-negligible vertical motion participates in the uplift of the block north of the fault in agreement with the proposed pull-up model.

  20. First record of the polychaete Ficopomatus uschakovi (Pillai, 1960 (Annelida, Serpulidae in the Colombian Caribbean, South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Arteaga-Florez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Ficopomatus (Serpulidae consists of sessile, tubicolous polychaete annelid worms that may colonize a diversity of substrata, and tolerate considerable variations in salinity. Thus, members of this genus, including Ficopomatus uschakovi, in some cases are exotic and maybe invasive. The purpose of our research was to collect and identify marine organisms associated with the submerged roots of mangrove trees in the Gulf of Urabá, Colombian Caribbean, South America. Within the Gulf, there is a well-developed forest of the Red Mangrove, Rhizophora mangle, along the margins of El Uno Bay. We sampled the roots of R. mangle from five stations of the bay, and we identified specimens of F. uschakovi from each of those stations. Ficopomatus uschakovi was found to be more abundant in regions of the bay that exhibit the lowest salinity. Based on a morphological comparison of the present specimens with the original species description, revised descriptions, and other records from the Indo-West Pacific, Mexican Pacific, and Venezuelan and Brazilian Caribbean, we suggest that F. uschakovi has a broader geographical distribution. Furthermore, because of this broad distribution, and the observed tolerance for low salinity in our study, we also suggest that F. uschakovi is a euryhaline species. It is also likely that F. uschakovi will be found in other localities in the Gulf of Urabá, and in other regions of the Colombian Caribbean. Thus, this record extends the distribution of the species to the Colombian Caribbean, giving the species a continuous distribution across the northern coast of South America.

  1. Using a two-step method to measure transgender identity in Latin America/the Caribbean, Portugal, and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisner, Sari L; Biello, Katie; Rosenberger, Joshua G; Austin, S Bryn; Haneuse, Sebastien; Perez-Brumer, Amaya; Novak, David S; Mimiaga, Matthew J

    2014-11-01

    Few comparative data are available internationally to examine health differences by transgender identity. A barrier to monitoring the health and well-being of transgender people is the lack of inclusion of measures to assess natal sex/gender identity status in surveys. Data were from a cross-sectional anonymous online survey of members (n > 36,000) of a sexual networking website targeting men who have sex with men in Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking countries/territories in Latin America/the Caribbean, Portugal, and Spain. Natal sex/gender identity status was assessed using a two-step method (Step 1: assigned birth sex, Step 2: current gender identity). Male-to-female (MTF) and female-to-male (FTM) participants were compared to non-transgender males in age-adjusted regression models on socioeconomic status (SES) (education, income, sex work), masculine gender conformity, psychological health and well-being (lifetime suicidality, past-week depressive distress, positive self-worth, general self-rated health, gender related stressors), and sexual health (HIV-infection, past-year STIs, past-3 month unprotected anal or vaginal sex). The two-step method identified 190 transgender participants (0.54%; 158 MTF, 32 FTM). Of the 12 health-related variables, six showed significant differences between the three groups: SES, masculine gender conformity, lifetime suicidality, depressive distress, positive self-worth, and past-year genital herpes. A two-step approach is recommended for health surveillance efforts to assess natal sex/gender identity status. Cognitive testing to formally validate assigned birth sex and current gender identity survey items in Spanish and Portuguese is encouraged. PMID:25030120

  2. Institutional Capacity to Integrate Economic Development and Climate Change Considerations. An Assessment of DNAs in Latin America and the Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is the only market mechanism in the Kyoto Protocol that is open to the participation of developing countries. The CDM was established to: (1) Assist developing countries in achieving sustainable development; (2) Assist developing countries in contributing to the stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere, the ultimate goal of the U.N. Convention on Climate Change; and (3) Assist industrialized countries in achieving compliance with their emissions reductions commitments under the Protocol. While the text of the Protocol does not prioritize any one of these goals, current efforts to develop the CDM tend, even if unintentionally, to give more weight to helping industrialized countries meet their eventual reduction obligations. Current CDM efforts fall sadly short of assisting developing countries in achieving sustainable development or contributing to the stabilization of emissions concentrations. This disparity can be traced back to the historical roots of the CDM, and continues to this day. This study assesses existing institutional capacity to integrate economic development and climate change considerations in Latin America and the Caribbean. The study covers a total of twenty countries in the region,1 and is composed of three parts: (1) An assessment of the current institutional provisions for CDM in each of the twenty countries; (2) Select case studies of successful and failed linkages between GHG mitigation and economic development activities; (3) An examination of capacity building efforts to date in the region, and identification of strategic gaps. The study concludes with a view toward a sectoral CDM for the second commitment period, and recommendations on further actions that the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) may want to consider for its own participation in the CDM market. The annexes are published in a separate document

  3. The HC-LAC: a Platform for Modeling Hydrology and Climate Change in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreda, F.; Wyatt, A.; Bruhn, M.; Wheaton, W.; Miralles-Wilhelm, F.; Muñoz-Castillo, R.; Rineer, J.

    2013-05-01

    This platform, called the Hydrology and Climate Change in Latin America and The Caribbean, or "HC-LAC", is an integrated quantitative simulation of hydrology and climate change. The HC-LAC is composed of two principal components: the Analytical Hydrography Dataset (AHD) and an enhanced version of the Generalized Watershed Loading Function (GWLF). The AHD is a spatially explicit surface water data layer of Central and South America derived from digital elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and modified by the USGS to provide more accurate flow between cells in the raster data. For the LAC area, AHD consists 230, 000 catchments and stream segments with an average area of 100 km2 and length of 10 km, respectively. The AHD data structure is patterned after the US National Hydrography Dataset Plus (NHDPlus), thus providing a proven structure for flexible data integration and analyses necessary for spatial models like the HC-LAC. The structure of the AHD enables the implementation of water balance modeling and general routing of flows through the stream network thus supporting a range of environmental models. GWLF is applied on each AHD catchment which is characterized by multiple land use and soil type. The response of each land use in a given catchment is modeled separately in generating stream flow as well as recharge to soil storage. The stream flows generated from each catchment are routed through stream networks, providing total flow at any point in the stream network. A pilot implementation of the HC-LAC was established for the Rio Grande basin in North West Argentina (drainage area 6,700 km2). The model was parameterized and calibrated using readily available data. Three stream flow time series were generated using a reference climate case and two climate change projections. The reference case was based on historical records and assumes no climate change. The two climate change projections were generated using the IPCC "A2" high

  4. The spatial pattern and dominant drivers of woody cover change in Latin America and Caribbean from 2001 to 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, M.; Aide, T.; Riner, G.; Redo, D.; Grau, H.; Bonilla-Moheno, M.; Lopez-Carr, D.; Levy, M.

    2011-12-01

    Change in woody vegetation (i.e., forests, shrublands) is a major component of global environmental change: it directly affects biodiversity, the global carbon budget, and ecosystem function. For several decades, remote sensing technology has been used to document deforestation in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), although mostly at local to regional scales (e.g., moist forests of the Amazon basin). Most studies have focused on forest loss, some local-scale studies have mapped forest recovery, with contrasting forest dynamics attributed to shifting demographic and socio-economic factors. For example, local population change (rural-urban migration) can stimulate forest recovery on abandoned land, while increasing global food demand may drive regional expansion of mechanized agriculture. However, there are no studies in LAC that simultaneously map both loss and gain in woody vegetation at continental, national, and municipality scales with consistent data sources, methods and accuracy; and thus, we lack a comprehensive assessment of the spatial distribution of woody vegetation change and the relative importance of the multi-scale drivers of this change. We overcame this limitation by producing annual land-cover maps between 2001 and 2010 for each of the >16,000 municipalities in LAC. We focused on mapping municipality-scale trends in three broad classes: woody vegetation, mixed woody/plantations, and agriculture/herbaceous vegetation. Our area estimates show that woody vegetation change during the past decade was dominated by deforestation, or loss (-541,830 km2), particularly in the Amazon basin moist forest and the tropical-subtropical Cerrado and Chaco ecoregions, where large swaths of forest have been transformed to pastures and agricultural lands. Extensive areas (362,431 km2) in LAC also gained woody vegetation, particularly in regions too dry or too steep for modern agriculture, including the desert/xeric shrub biome in NE Brazil and northern Mexico, the

  5. Progress and remaining challenges for cancer control in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser-Weippl, Kathrin; Chavarri-Guerra, Yanin; Villarreal-Garza, Cynthia; Bychkovsky, Brittany L; Debiasi, Marcio; Liedke, Pedro E R; Soto-Perez-de-Celis, Enrique; Dizon, Don; Cazap, Eduardo; de Lima Lopes, Gilberto; Touya, Diego; Nunes, Joāo Soares; St Louis, Jessica; Vail, Caroline; Bukowski, Alexandra; Ramos-Elias, Pier; Unger-Saldaña, Karla; Brandao, Denise Froes; Ferreyra, Mayra E; Luciani, Silvana; Nogueira-Rodrigues, Angelica; de Carvalho Calabrich, Aknar Freire; Del Carmen, Marcela G; Rauh-Hain, Jose Alejandro; Schmeler, Kathleen; Sala, Raúl; Goss, Paul E

    2015-10-01

    Cancer is one of the leading causes of mortality worldwide, and an increasing threat in low-income and middle-income countries. Our findings in the 2013 Commission in The Lancet Oncology showed several discrepancies between the cancer landscape in Latin America and more developed countries. We reported that funding for health care was a small percentage of national gross domestic product and the percentage of health-care funds diverted to cancer care was even lower. Funds, insurance coverage, doctors, health-care workers, resources, and equipment were also very inequitably distributed between and within countries. We reported that a scarcity of cancer registries hampered the design of credible cancer plans, including initiatives for primary prevention. When we were commissioned by The Lancet Oncology to write an update to our report, we were sceptical that we would uncover much change. To our surprise and gratification much progress has been made in this short time. We are pleased to highlight structural reforms in health-care systems, new programmes for disenfranchised populations, expansion of cancer registries and cancer plans, and implementation of policies to improve primary cancer prevention. PMID:26522157

  6. Identifying African dust sources that contribute to the seasonal cycles of dust transport to the Caribbean Basin and South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prospero, J. M.; Ginoux, P. A.; Molinie, J.

    2014-12-01

    Decades of aerosol measurements on Barbados have yielded a detailed picture of African mineral dust transport to the Caribbean Basin that shows a strong seasonal cycle with a maximum in boreal summer and a minimum in winter. Recently Prospero et al. (Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 2014) presented 10 years (2002 - 2011) of aerosol measurements made at Cayenne, French Guiana, along with concurrent dust measurements on Barbados. The Cayenne study, coupled with satellite products and other evidence, shows that during spring African dust is carried to a broad region of northeastern South America in quantities comparable to, or greater than, those measured at Barbados in summer. Various lines of evidence suggest that the sources that impact on Cayenne in spring are mainly in the Sahel region, including the Bodélé Depression. In summer transport to Barbados is believed to be most affected by emissions that lie in more northerly regions. Thus the record of measurements at Cayenne and Barbados provide a data set that could be used to test the ability of dust transport models to replicate the seasonal shift of dust sources and the consequent impact on transport to these two sites. Here we attempt to link the measurements at Cayenne and Barbados to specific source regions using the GFDL global climate model (Donner et al., 2011) which simulates aerosol mass distributions for dust and other aerosol components. Winds are nudged with the NCEP re-analysis as in Li et al. (2008). The model is run repeatedly over the years 1999-2010, activating dust sources in only one North African country in each run (e.g., Mali, Mauritania, Algeria, Niger, etc.). The model accurately depicts the strong seasonal contrast in dust transport to Barbados and Cayenne and shows the changing impact of African sources over the course of the year. In our presentation we will discuss the model results and compare them to the measurements at the receptor sites. It is notable that during the dust seasons at

  7. Research on Biodiversity and Climate Change at a Distance: Collaboration Networks between Europe and Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Dangles

    Full Text Available Biodiversity loss and climate change are both globally significant issues that must be addressed through collaboration across countries and disciplines. With the December 2015 COP21 climate conference in Paris and the recent creation of the Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES, it has become critical to evaluate the capacity for global research networks to develop at the interface between biodiversity and climate change. In the context of the European Union (EU strategy to stand as a world leader in tackling global challenges, the European Commission has promoted ties between the EU and Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC in science, technology and innovation. However, it is not clear how these significant interactions impact scientific cooperation at the interface of biodiversity and climate change. We looked at research collaborations between two major regions-the European Research Area (ERA and LAC-that addressed both biodiversity and climate change. We analysed the temporal evolution of these collaborations, whether they were led by ERA or LAC teams, and which research domains they covered. We surveyed publications listed on the Web of Science that were authored by researchers from both the ERA and LAC and that were published between 2003 and 2013. We also run similar analyses on other topics and other continents to provide baseline comparisons. Our results revealed a steady increase in scientific co-authorships between ERA and LAC countries as a result of the increasingly complex web of relationships that has been weaved among scientists from the two regions. The ERA-LAC co-authorship increase for biodiversity and climate change was higher than those reported for other topics and for collaboration with other continents. We also found strong differences in international collaboration patterns within the LAC: co-publications were fewest from researchers in low- and lower-middle-income countries and most

  8. Research on Biodiversity and Climate Change at a Distance: Collaboration Networks between Europe and Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangles, Olivier; Loirat, Jean; Freour, Claire; Serre, Sandrine; Vacher, Jean; Le Roux, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Biodiversity loss and climate change are both globally significant issues that must be addressed through collaboration across countries and disciplines. With the December 2015 COP21 climate conference in Paris and the recent creation of the Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES), it has become critical to evaluate the capacity for global research networks to develop at the interface between biodiversity and climate change. In the context of the European Union (EU) strategy to stand as a world leader in tackling global challenges, the European Commission has promoted ties between the EU and Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) in science, technology and innovation. However, it is not clear how these significant interactions impact scientific cooperation at the interface of biodiversity and climate change. We looked at research collaborations between two major regions-the European Research Area (ERA) and LAC-that addressed both biodiversity and climate change. We analysed the temporal evolution of these collaborations, whether they were led by ERA or LAC teams, and which research domains they covered. We surveyed publications listed on the Web of Science that were authored by researchers from both the ERA and LAC and that were published between 2003 and 2013. We also run similar analyses on other topics and other continents to provide baseline comparisons. Our results revealed a steady increase in scientific co-authorships between ERA and LAC countries as a result of the increasingly complex web of relationships that has been weaved among scientists from the two regions. The ERA-LAC co-authorship increase for biodiversity and climate change was higher than those reported for other topics and for collaboration with other continents. We also found strong differences in international collaboration patterns within the LAC: co-publications were fewest from researchers in low- and lower-middle-income countries and most prevalent from

  9. Neurologic Outcomes in HIV-Exposed/Uninfected Infants Exposed to Antiretroviral Drugs During Pregnancy in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaulding, Alicen B; Yu, Qilu; Civitello, Lucy; Mussi-Pinhata, Marisa M; Pinto, Jorge; Gomes, Ivete M; Alarcón, Jorge O; Siberry, George K; Harris, D Robert; Hazra, Rohan

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate antiretroviral (ARV) drug exposure and other factors during pregnancy that may increase the risk of neurologic conditions (NCs) in HIV-exposed/uninfected (HEU) infants. A prospective cohort study was conducted at 24 clinical sites in Latin America and the Caribbean. Data on maternal demographics, health, HIV disease status, and ARV use during pregnancy were collected. Infant data included measurement of head circumference after birth and reported medical diagnoses at birth, 6-12 weeks, and 6 months. Only infants with maternal exposure to combination ARV therapy (cART) (≥3 drugs from ≥2 drug classes) during pregnancy were included. Microcephaly, defined as head circumference for age z-score less than -2, and NC were evaluated for their association with covariates, including individual ARVs, using bivariable and logistic regression analyses. From 2002 to 2009, 1,400 HEU infants met study inclusion criteria. At least one NC was reported in 134 (9.6%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.1-11.2), microcephaly in 105 (7.5%; 95% CI: 6.2-9.0), and specific neurologic diagnoses in 33 (2.4%; 95% CI: 1.6-3.3) HEU infants. Microcephaly and NC were not significantly associated with any specific ARV analyzed (p > 0.05). Covariates associated with increased odds of NC included male sex (odds ratio [OR] = 1.9; 95% CI: 1.3-2.8), birth weight <2.5 kg (OR = 3.1; 95% CI: 2.1-4.8), 1-min Apgar score <7 (OR = 2.5; 95% CI: 1.4-4.4), and infant infections (OR = 2.5; 95% CI: 1.5-4.1). No ARV investigated was associated with adverse neurologic outcomes. Continued investigation of such associations may be warranted as new ARVs are used during pregnancy and cART exposure during the first trimester becomes increasingly common. PMID:26879281

  10. [The singularity of population policies in Latin America and the Caribbean in the late 20th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sojo, A

    1993-06-01

    This work questions the assumption that population policies in Latin America and the Caribbean are closely related to population growth, identifies common obstacles to population policies, and recommends actions to increase the efficacy of population policies. The demographic transition has occurred in Latin American countries with widely varying levels of economic development, cultural traditions, and family planning programs. The governments of the region that regard their rates of population growth and fertility as satisfactory seldom intervene to modify them. The demographic transition is well underway in all these countries except Guatemala and Paraguay. A diverse array of strategies has been used by the countries that have achieved significant fertility reductions, ranging from family planning services provided through the national health system in Mexico to key roles by the private and commercial sectors and intensive use of the mass media in Brazil. Governments adopting population policies defined various institutional forms for them, ranging from small technical units at a high level to interministerial councils. Institutionalization of population policies created high hopes for integration of population concerns into development strategies, but performance has largely failed to meet expectations, both because of the fragility and inferior status in the government bureaucracy of policy structures, and because of their inability to develop effective programs integrating population and development. The economic crisis of the 1980s lowered the priority of population themes. Political instability, lack of adequate human resources and financing, limited decision making capacity, and failure to establish strong interinstitutional ties have all been factors in the disappointing results of population policies. The difficulty of pinpointing exactly what constitutes the population policy and the tendency to equate population policy and family planning have been

  11. Research on Biodiversity and Climate Change at a Distance: Collaboration Networks between Europe and Latin America and the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangles, Olivier; Loirat, Jean; Freour, Claire; Serre, Sandrine; Vacher, Jean; Le Roux, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Biodiversity loss and climate change are both globally significant issues that must be addressed through collaboration across countries and disciplines. With the December 2015 COP21 climate conference in Paris and the recent creation of the Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES), it has become critical to evaluate the capacity for global research networks to develop at the interface between biodiversity and climate change. In the context of the European Union (EU) strategy to stand as a world leader in tackling global challenges, the European Commission has promoted ties between the EU and Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) in science, technology and innovation. However, it is not clear how these significant interactions impact scientific cooperation at the interface of biodiversity and climate change. We looked at research collaborations between two major regions—the European Research Area (ERA) and LAC—that addressed both biodiversity and climate change. We analysed the temporal evolution of these collaborations, whether they were led by ERA or LAC teams, and which research domains they covered. We surveyed publications listed on the Web of Science that were authored by researchers from both the ERA and LAC and that were published between 2003 and 2013. We also run similar analyses on other topics and other continents to provide baseline comparisons. Our results revealed a steady increase in scientific co-authorships between ERA and LAC countries as a result of the increasingly complex web of relationships that has been weaved among scientists from the two regions. The ERA-LAC co-authorship increase for biodiversity and climate change was higher than those reported for other topics and for collaboration with other continents. We also found strong differences in international collaboration patterns within the LAC: co-publications were fewest from researchers in low- and lower-middle-income countries and most prevalent from

  12. Systematic Review of Breast Cancer Biology in Developing Countries (Part 1): Africa, the Middle East, Eastern Europe, Mexico, the Caribbean and South America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhikoo, Riyaz, E-mail: riyazbhikoo@gmail.com; Srinivasa, Sanket; Yu, Tzu-Chieh [Department of Surgery, South Auckland Clinical School, University of Auckland, Auckland 1640 (New Zealand); Moss, David [Department of Surgery, Middlemore Hospital, Auckland 1640 (New Zealand); Hill, Andrew G [Department of Surgery, South Auckland Clinical School, University of Auckland, Auckland 1640 (New Zealand)

    2011-05-13

    There has been no systematic appraisal of ethnicity-based variations in breast cancer (BC) biology amongst women from developing countries. A qualitative systematic review was conducted of breast cancer size, stage, grade, histological type, extra-mammary involvement, hormone receptor status as well as patient demographics. This review includes patients from Africa, the Middle East, Eastern Europe, Mexico, the Caribbean and South America. BC in these regions present at an earlier age with large aggressive tumours. Distant metastases are frequently present at the time of diagnosis. African women have a higher frequency of triple negative tumours. Over half of Middle Eastern women have lymph node involvement at the time of diagnosis. Despite experiencing a lower incidence compared to the Ashkenazi Jewish population, Palestinian women have poorer five-year survival outcomes. The majority of women from Mexico and South America have stage two or three disease whilst over sixty percent of women from Eastern Europe have either stage one or stage two disease. The biological characteristics of BC in the Caribbean cannot be fully assessed due to a paucity of data from the region. BC amongst the developing world is characterised by an early peak age of onset with aggressive biological characteristics. Strategies that improve breast cancer awareness, address amenable risk factors and improve early detection are essential.

  13. Beyond the Motagua and Polochic faults: Active strike-slip faulting along the Western North America-Caribbean plate boundary zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-Speziale, Marco

    2010-12-01

    I investigate the role of two strike-slip faults in the tectonics of the western North America-Caribbean plate margin. The Ixcan fault, located in Guatemala north of the Polochic fault, is seismically active, with earthquakes of magnitude up to 5.7 reported recently. Fault-plane solutions along this curvilinear but generally E-W trending fault indicate left-lateral, strike-slip displacement. Several historic earthquakes appear to have taken place along the Ixcan fault since 1728, the largest one being the 1816 event ( M = 7.5). The NW-SE trending Concordia fault in southeastern Mexico appears to be the site of the great ( M = 7.6) earthquake of 1902. Isoseismals for this event suggest shallow, left-lateral strike-slip faulting. I propose a seismotectonic model in which both faults are part of the deformation associated to the North America-Caribbean plate boundary zone. Transpressive structures are found in the fault steps between strike-slip fault systems.

  14. Systematic Review of Breast Cancer Biology in Developing Countries (Part 1): Africa, the Middle East, Eastern Europe, Mexico, the Caribbean and South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There has been no systematic appraisal of ethnicity-based variations in breast cancer (BC) biology amongst women from developing countries. A qualitative systematic review was conducted of breast cancer size, stage, grade, histological type, extra-mammary involvement, hormone receptor status as well as patient demographics. This review includes patients from Africa, the Middle East, Eastern Europe, Mexico, the Caribbean and South America. BC in these regions present at an earlier age with large aggressive tumours. Distant metastases are frequently present at the time of diagnosis. African women have a higher frequency of triple negative tumours. Over half of Middle Eastern women have lymph node involvement at the time of diagnosis. Despite experiencing a lower incidence compared to the Ashkenazi Jewish population, Palestinian women have poorer five-year survival outcomes. The majority of women from Mexico and South America have stage two or three disease whilst over sixty percent of women from Eastern Europe have either stage one or stage two disease. The biological characteristics of BC in the Caribbean cannot be fully assessed due to a paucity of data from the region. BC amongst the developing world is characterised by an early peak age of onset with aggressive biological characteristics. Strategies that improve breast cancer awareness, address amenable risk factors and improve early detection are essential

  15. Wide-angle velocity modeling and receiver functions imaging a lithospheric shear tear in the southeast Caribbean-South America plate boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, S. A.; Levander, A.; Zelt, C. A.; Niu, F.; Sobiesiak, M.

    2007-05-01

    Two models for slab detachment have been proposed for the lithospheric structure of the northern South America plate boundary with the southeast Caribbean, where westward subduction of oceanic South America transitions to east-west transform between continental South America and the Caribbean plate. In the tensile tear model, oblique convergence causes northwest-dipping subduction, and tension on the subducting slab results in detachment orthogonal to the motion vectors. Conversely, the shear tear model predicts detachment parallel to the motion vectors along a vertical plane, with shear stress focused on the edge of the propagating transform boundary. We present new active-source onshore-offshore wide-angle tomography, integrated with new passive-source receiver function analysis, from profile 64W of the BOLIVAR (Broadband Ocean-Land Investigation of Venezuela and the Antilles arc Region) project. Profile 64W is a 460 km-long, north-south, onshore-offshore reflection/refraction/teleseismic transect located approximately at 64 deg W longitude that extends from the southeastern Caribbean across the Serrania del Interior and into the Maturin basin. The various datasets image deep crustal and upper mantle structure across the entire diffuse plate boundary zone. The active-source components of profile 64W include 33 OBSs and 344 land seismic stations which recorded 7500 offshore airgun shots and 2 chemical explosive land shots. Receiver functions along 64W were picked from hundreds of events at 18 temporary and permanent broadband stations. Close agreement exists between the wide-angle inversion of first arrivals, PmP, and Pn, and receiver function analysis for the Moho conversion, indicating that the Moho deepens northward from 35 km beneath the Guiana shield craton (from receiver functions only) to 45 km beneath the Serrania del Interior; to the north, Moho abruptly shoals to a depth of 25 km. We interpret this step change in Moho depth to be the lower crustal plate

  16. Literacy and Access to the Written Culture by Youth and Adults Excluded from the School System: A Cross-Country Field Study in Nine Countries in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Rosa-Maria

    2008-01-01

    The title of this article refers to a field study carried out in 2006-2007 in nine countries in Latin America and the Caribbean. The article summarizes the basic concepts, aims, methodology and findings of the study. In conclusion, the author points out a number of important policy changes that are called for in this domain. While the study itself…

  17. Providing Skills for the Knowledge Economy : The World Bank in Tertiary Education in Latin America and the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Lauritz B. Holm-Nielsen; Blom, Andreas; Garcia, Patricia

    2003-01-01

    Knowledge based economies have an advantage in today's liberalized global market. OECD countries with extensive knowledge assets are able to drive rapid technological progress and reap the benefits in economic growth and rising living standards. Yet, Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) countries struggle to provide their citizens with the educational levels and advanced skills needed to cre...

  18. Accomodation of the deformation in the Cocos-Caribbean-North America triple junction area, from GPS meaurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, A.; Lasserre, C.; Lyon-Caen, H.; Molina, E.; Kostoglodov, V.; Barrier, E.; Figueroa, C.

    2008-12-01

    Northern Central America is located in a complex zone of interaction between three major tectonic plates: the North American (NA), the Caribbean (CA) and the Cocos (CO) plates. While the CO plate is subducting under the NA and CA plates along the Mid-American trench, the on-land relative motion between the NA and CA plates is mainly accommodated by the east-west trending left-lateral Polochic-Motagua fault system. We use GPS data to characterize the deformation in this CO-CA-NA triple junction area in terms of interactions and relative contributions of the different structures (Polochic and Motagua faults, a series of north-south grabens south of them and the Mid-American Volcanic Arc, MAVA), and coupling at the subduction interface. We analyse GPS-campaign data from different networks in Guatemala (24 sites measured in 1999-2003- 2006), Salvador (3 sites measured in 2003 and 2006) and Chiapas, southern Mexico (8 sites measured each year from 2002 to 2004). Data are processed and combined using the GAMIT/GLOBK softwares. The obtained velocity field is first fitted using simple elastic models. The Motagua fault seems to accomodate most of the present left-lateral motion between CA and NA, with less than 30 procent taken by the Polochic fault despite its comparable surface morphology, historical seismicity and microseismic activity (that we recorded during a 6 months experiment in 2005). This may suggest complex mechanical interactions between the Motagua and Polochic faults at the scale of several seismic cycles. A single fault model, centered on the Motagua fault, locked at a depth of 15 km, indicates a slip rate decrease from eastern (20 mm/yr) to central Guatemala (10 mm/yr) towards the CA-CO-NA triple junction (0 mm/yr?). This decrease seems to be consistent with east-west extension rates estimated across the Ipala and Guatemala city grabens south of the Motagua fault. We also observe a right-lateral movement across the MAVA: 15mm/yr in western Salvador and 10mm

  19. The neglected tropical diseases of Latin America and the Caribbean: a review of disease burden and distribution and a roadmap for control and elimination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Hotez

    Full Text Available The neglected tropical diseases (NTDs represent some of the most common infections of the poorest people living in the Latin American and Caribbean region (LAC. Because they primarily afflict the disenfranchised poor as well as selected indigenous populations and people of African descent, the NTDs in LAC are largely forgotten diseases even though their collective disease burden may exceed better known conditions such as of HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, or malaria. Based on their prevalence and healthy life years lost from disability, hookworm infection, other soil-transmitted helminth infections, and Chagas disease are the most important NTDs in LAC, followed by dengue, schistosomiasis, leishmaniasis, trachoma, leprosy, and lymphatic filariasis. On the other hand, for some important NTDs, such as leptospirosis and cysticercosis, complete disease burden estimates are not available. The NTDs in LAC geographically concentrate in 11 different sub-regions, each with a distinctive human and environmental ecology. In the coming years, schistosomiasis could be eliminated in the Caribbean and transmission of lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis could be eliminated in Latin America. However, the highest disease burden NTDs, such as Chagas disease, soil-transmitted helminth infections, and hookworm and schistosomiasis co-infections, may first require scale-up of existing resources or the development of new control tools in order to achieve control or elimination. Ultimately, the roadmap for the control and elimination of the more widespread NTDs will require an inter-sectoral approach that bridges public health, social services, and environmental interventions.

  20. Gender Equality and Inequality in Numeracy: The Case of Latin America and the Caribbean, 1880-1949

    OpenAIRE

    Manzel, Kerstin; Baten, Jörg

    2009-01-01

    This article outlines the development of gender disparities in education for 28 Latin American and Caribbean countries for the period from 1880 to 1949, using age heaping techniques. We explore in particular the hypothesis of a Ushaped development of women’s education during economic development, i.e., a decrease in gender equality at lower levels of overall education, and increasing gender equality at higher levels. For the downward sloping part, we find some evidence, alth...

  1. Women's Economic Empowerment in Latin America and the Caribbean : Policy Lessons from the World Bank Gender Action Plan

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    Group s gender action plan (GAP) trust fund has financed a series of programs to promote gender equality by empowering women to compete in key markets: land, labor, agriculture, finance and the private sector. Work and family: Latin American and the Caribbean women in search of a new balance offer new analysis of how household decision-making and allocation of resources affects female labo...

  2. Freshwater discharge into the Caribbean Sea from the rivers of Northwestern South America (Colombia): Magnitude, variability and recent changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, Juan Camilo; Ortíz, Juan Carlos; Pierini, Jorge; Schrottke, Kerstin; Maza, Mauro; Otero, Luís; Aguirre, Julián

    2014-02-01

    The monthly averaged freshwater discharge data from ten rivers in northern Colombia (Caribbean alluvial plain) draining into the Caribbean Sea were analysed to quantify the magnitudes, to estimate long-term trends, and to evaluate the variability of discharge patterns. These rivers deliver ∼340.9 km3 yr-1 of freshwater to the Caribbean Sea. The largest freshwater supply is provided by the Magdalena River, with a mean discharge of 205.1 km3 yr-1 at Calamar, which is 26% of the total fluvial discharge into this basin. From 2000 to 2010, the annual streamflow of these rivers increased as high as 65%, and upward trends in statistical significance were found for the Mulatos, Canal del Dique, Magdalena, and Fundación Rivers. The concurrence of major oscillation processes and the maximum power of the 3-7 year band fluctuation defined a period of intense hydrological activity from approximately 1998-2002. The wavelet spectrum highlighted a change in the variability patterns of fluvial systems between 2000 and 2010 characterised by a shift towards a quasi-decadal process (8-12 years) domain. The Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), El Niño - Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events, and quasi-decadal climate processes are the main factors controlling the fluvial discharge variability of these fluvial systems.

  3. On the Edge of Uncertainty : Poverty Reduction in Latin America and the Caribbean during the Great Recession and Beyond

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    Strong poverty reduction in Latin America resumed with the growth rebound in 2010, as both moderate and extreme poor households benefitted from the recovery, accelerating poverty reduction to rates similar to those witnessed between 2003-2006 despite a 2.8 percent decline in Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita in Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) terms, poverty levels in Latin America (LAC) remained basically static during the great recession, as the poor were shielded from the economic crisi...

  4. Geomorphic analysis of transient landscapes from the Sierra Madre de Chiapas and Maya Mountains (northern Central America): implications for the North American-Caribbean-Cocos plate boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreani, L.; Gloaguen, R.

    2015-09-01

    We use a geomorphic approach in order to unravel the recent evolution of the diffuse triple junction between the North American, Caribbean, and Cocos plates in northern Central America. The complex tectonic setting produced an intricate pattern of landscapes that we try to systemize using remote sensing tectonic geomorphology and available geological and geophysical data. We classify regions with specific relief characteristics and highlight uplifted relict landscapes in northern Central America. We also analyze the drainage network from the Sierra Madre de Chiapas and Maya Mountains in order to extract information about potential vertical displacements. Our results suggest that most of the landscapes of the Sierra Madre de Chiapas and Maya Mountains are in transient stage. Topographic profiles and morphometric maps highlight elevated relict surfaces that are characterized by a low amplitude relief. The river longitudinal profiles display upper reaches witnessing these relict landscapes while lower segments characterized by multiple knickpoints, that adjust to new base-level conditions. These results backed by published GPS and seismotectonic data allow us to refine and extend existing geodynamic models of the triple junction. Relict landscapes are delimited by faults and thus result from a tectonic control. The topography of the Sierra Madre de Chiapas evolved as the result of (1) the inland migration of deformation related to the coupling between the Chiapas Massif and the Cocos fore-arc sliver, and (2) the compression along the northern tip of the Central America Volcanic Arc. Although most of the shortening between the Cocos fore-arc sliver and the North American plate is accommodated within the Sierra de Chiapas and Sierra de los Cuchumatanes, a small part may be still transmitted to the Maya Mountains and the Belize margin through a "rigid" Petén basin.

  5. Hispanic Latin America, Spain and the Spanish-speaking Caribbean: a rich source of reference material for public health, epidemiology and tropical medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, John R; Bórquez, Annick; Basáñez, María-Gloria

    2008-01-01

    There is a multiplicity of journals originating in Spain and the Spanish-speaking countries of Latin America and the Caribbean (SSLAC) in the health sciences of relevance to the fields of epidemiology and public health. While the subject matter of epidemiology in Spain shares many features with its neighbours in Western Europe, many aspects of epidemiology in Latin America are particular to that region. There are also distinctive theoretical and philosophical approaches to the study of epidemiology and public health arising from traditions such as the Latin American social medicine movement, of which there may be limited awareness. A number of online bibliographic databases are available which focus primarily on health sciences literature arising in Spain and Latin America, the most prominent being Literatura Latinoamericana en Ciencias de la Salud (LILACS) and LATINDEX. Some such as LILACS also extensively index grey literature. As well as in Spanish, interfaces are provided in English and Portuguese. Abstracts of articles may also be provided in English with an increasing number of journals beginning to publish entire articles written in English. Free full text articles are becoming accessible, one of the most comprehensive sources being the Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO). There is thus an extensive range of literature originating in Spain and SSLAC freely identifiable and often accessible online, and with the potential to provide useful inputs to the study of epidemiology and public health provided that any reluctance to explore these resources can be overcome. In this article we provide an introduction to such resources. PMID:19243576

  6. Initiatives of Application of the Bakun-Wentworth's Method for the Estimation of Macroseismic Parameters in the Northern South America and the Caribbean Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez Capera, A.; Bindi, D.; Cifuentes, H.; Choy, J.; Chuy Rodriguez, T.; Garcia, J.; Massa, M.; Palme, C.; Pierristal, G.; Salcedo Hurtado, E.; Sanchez Vasquez, A.

    2013-05-01

    The assessment of location, magnitude and uncertainties of great historical earthquakes is a key issue for understanding the seismic potential and PSHA of a region. In the last years independent techniques using only macrosesismic data points have been developed as, for example, the approach of Bakun and Wentworth (1997) or BW. This method has been largely applied in different tectonic contexts (Bindi et al., 2013), in different UE international projects and in estimations of location, magnitude and epistemic uncertainties (Bakun et al., 2011). We focus on some regional calibration initiatives in Northern South America and areas of the Caribbean Region. BW has been calibrated by Palme et al. (2005) and Choy et al. (2012) for earthquakes of the Mérida Andes and the Venezuela Central Regions. As well, BW calibrations have been proposed for the interandean Valley in Ecuador (Beauval et al., 2010), in the Hispaniola (Bakun et al, 2012) and for the northeastern Caribbean region (ten Brink et al., 2011). Preliminary BW calibration for the southeastern region of Cuba has been proposed by Gómez-Capera et al. (2012). Applications to historical earthquakes in Cuba have given encouraging results mainly for offshore events and are presented in the present study. We also present preliminary results for some earthquakes that have been recently studied in literature as for example the historical earthquakes of 1743 (Salcedo Hurtado and Gómez-Capera in press) and 1785 (Salcedo Hurtado and Castaño Castaño, 2011) which occurred close to Bogotá, BW method and intensity relationship of the literature were used. We present comparisons and sensibility analysis of the different relationships obtained in the region as well as uncertainty assessment. We also note that the magnitude parameter depends strongly on the regional calibration. Because of the availability of new macroseismic studies in Colombia (Servicio Geológico Colombiano y Universidad Nacional de Colombia, 2013

  7. Mortality and loss to follow-up among HIV-infected persons on long-term antiretroviral therapy in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Carriquiry

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Long-term survival of HIV patients after initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy (ART has not been sufficiently described in Latin America and the Caribbean, as compared to other regions. The aim of this study was to describe the incidence of mortality, loss to follow-up (LTFU and associated risk factors for patients enrolled in the Caribbean, Central and South America Network (CCASAnet. Methods: We assessed time from ART initiation (baseline to death or LTFU between 2000 and 2014 among ART-naïve adults (≥18 years from sites in seven countries included in CCASAnet: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico and Peru. Kaplan-Meier techniques were used to estimate the probability of mortality over time. Risk factors for death were assessed using Cox regression models stratified by site and adjusted for sex, baseline age, nadir pre-ART CD4 count, calendar year of ART initiation, clinical AIDS at baseline and type of ART regimen. Results: A total of 16,996 ART initiators were followed for a median of 3.5 years (interquartile range (IQR: 1.6–6.2. The median age at ART initiation was 36 years (IQR: 30–44, subjects were predominantly male (63%, median CD4 count was 156 cells/µL (IQR: 60–251 and 26% of subjects had clinical AIDS prior to starting ART. Initial ART regimens were predominantly non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor based (86%. The cumulative incidence of LTFU five years after ART initiation was 18.2% (95% confidence interval (CI 17.5–18.8%. A total of 1582 (9.3% subjects died; the estimated probability of death one, three and five years after ART initiation was 5.4, 8.3 and 10.3%, respectively. The estimated five-year mortality probability varied substantially across sites, from 3.5 to 14.0%. Risk factors for death were clinical AIDS at baseline (adjusted hazard ratio (HR=1.65 (95% CI 1.47–1.87; p<0.001, lower baseline CD4 (HR=1.95 (95% CI 1.63–2.32 for 50 vs. 350 cells/µL; p<0.001 and

  8. In the Shadow of the Cold War: The Caribbean and Central America in U.S. Foreign Policy. [and] Teacher's Resource Book. Revised. Choices for the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown Univ., Providence, RI. Thomas J. Watson, Jr. Inst. for International Studies.

    This unit examines the economic and military concerns that have linked the Caribbean and Central America to the United States. The first section of the first booklet reviews the history of U.S. involvement in the region from the mid-1800s to the early 1960s. Part 2 focuses on the Cuban missile crisis of 1962 and presents a day-by-day account of…

  9. The role of organized civil society in tobacco control in Latin America and the Caribbean El papel de la sociedad civil organizada en el control del tabaco en Latinoamérica y el Caribe

    OpenAIRE

    Beatriz Marcet Champagne; Ernesto Sebrié; Verónica Schoj

    2010-01-01

    Civil society has been the engine that has permitted many of the accomplishments seen in tobacco control in Latin America and the Caribbean. However, the role of civil society is not clearly understood. Civil society plays five main roles: advocate, coalition builder, provider of evidence-based information, watchdog and service provider. Some of these roles are played weakly by civil society in the region and should be encouraged to support beneficial societal change. Civil society working in...

  10. Sex and the city: Differences in disease- and disability-free life years, and active community participation of elderly men and women in 7 cities in Latin America and the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Hennis Anselm J; Rose Angela MC; Hambleton Ian R

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The world's population is ageing, and four of the top 10 most rapidly ageing developing nations are from the region of Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). Although an ageing population heralds likely increases in chronic disease, disability-related dependence, and economic burden, the societal contribution of the chronically ill or those with disability is not often measured. Methods We calculated country-specific prevalences of 'disability' (difficulty with at least on...

  11. Assessment of Past Achievements and Future Perspectives of Educational Planning and Management in Latin America and the Caribbean. Regional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustos, Fabio M.

    Educational planning in Latin America is about three decades old. In the 1960s and 1970s educational systems in the region expanded dramatically. During this time countries institutionalized educational planning processes and allocated to them considerable human and financial resources. Educational management, however, did not receive sufficient…

  12. Geomorphic analysis of transient landscapes in the Sierra Madre de Chiapas and Maya Mountains (northern Central America): implications for the North American-Caribbean-Cocos plate boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreani, L.; Gloaguen, R.

    2016-01-01

    We use a geomorphic approach in order to unravel the recent evolution of the diffuse triple junction between the North American, Caribbean, and Cocos plates in northern Central America. We intend to characterize and understand the complex tectonic setting that produced an intricate pattern of landscapes using tectonic geomorphology, as well as available geological and geophysical data. We classify regions with specific relief characteristics and highlight uplifted relict landscapes in northern Central America. We also analyze the drainage network from the Sierra Madre de Chiapas and Maya Mountains in order to extract information about potential vertical displacements. Our results suggest that most of the landscapes of the Sierra Madre de Chiapas and Maya Mountains are in a transient stage. Topographic profiles and morphometric maps highlight elevated relict surfaces that are characterized by a low-amplitude relief. The river longitudinal profiles display upper reaches witnessing these relict landscapes. Lower reaches adjust to new base-level conditions and are characterized by multiple knickpoints. These results backed by published GPS and seismotectonic data allow us to refine and extend existing geodynamic models of the triple junction. Relict landscapes are delimited by faults and thus result from a tectonic control. The topography of the Sierra Madre de Chiapas evolved as the result of (1) the inland migration of deformation related to the coupling between the Chiapas Massif and the Cocos forearc sliver and (2) the compression along the northern tip of the Central American volcanic arc. Although most of the shortening between the Cocos forearc sliver and the North American Plate is accommodated within the Sierra de Chiapas and Sierra de los Cuchumatanes, a small part may be still transmitted to the Maya Mountains and the Belize margin through a "rigid" Petén Basin.

  13. Attitudes towards the mental disorder and towards the search of professional psychological support. A systematic revision of studies in Europe, United States, Latin America and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Yovany Álvarez Ramírez

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study had the intention to review like a systematicmethod the studies carried out in countries of Europe, United States,Latin America, and the Caribbean about attitudes towards the mentaldisorder and the search of professional support in case of mentalsdisorders, its convergences, divergences, limitations, tendenciesand profits. The systematic revision followed the methodology ofdocumentary investigation. The search of studies was carried outfrom 1962 to 2006, in the data bases Ebsco and Proquest using thekey words: “attitudes about mental illness”, “perceptions and beliefsabout mental disorders”, “psychological help-seeking attitudes” and“attitudes toward seeking psychological help”. The strategy searchthrew 160 articles; 38 articles finally fulfilled the criteria to be considered in the revision, of these, 21 was in base Proquest and the rest in Ebsco. The revision puts in evidence the use of nonprobabilistic designs of sampling, limitations for the generalization of the findings,poor man information on the sociodemographic characteristics of thesamples, instruments very varied that make difficult the comparison.Predominantly favorable attitudes were specially towards the mentalupheaval and the search of professional aid in urban women of zone. There was predominance of the studies with population of great urban centers in comparison with countryside.

  14. Is product diversification the Ultimate Quid Pro Quo for Gender sensitive Poverty Alleviation? Adverse Social Externalities from Combined Microfinance in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROSSEL-CAMBIER, Koen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Documented deficiencies in traditional social transfer mechanisms have led to the emergence of alternative methods for reducing poverty. In many countries, microfinance institutions (MFIs have become popular instruments for redistributive propoor policies. However, they are also criticised for not being inclusive enough. This paper explores if product diversification has an effect on poverty outreach, in particular when combining micro- credit with savings and insurance. It applies cross-sectional analysis of 250 microfinance schemes in Latin America and the Caribbean. By focusing on elements of the depth of poverty outreach, the research highlights a number of possible effects of combined microfinance (CMF. Product diversification can significantly contribute to increased social outreach («breadth» of poverty outreach. However, the findings suggest that, in the case of combining credit with savings, this is leading to a relatively lower participation of poor and female clients («depth» of poverty outreach. Exclusionary and discriminatory vulnerabilities and dynamics, linked to specific financial products, may apply double or even reinforce each other. Cumulative financial, cultural, geographical or communication barriers can make participation in multiple financial products more challenging. These findings have not been adequately tackled by academic literature, but are most relevant for MFI stakeholders and policy makers. If gender-sensitive or pro-poor income generation is at the heart of the mission of MFIs, corrective measures to these forms of adverse externalities should be considered.

  15. Proliferation of weapons and armed violence in the private security sector in Latin America and the Caribbean: Challenges and opportunities for taking action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rémi Bacouillard

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The United Nations Regional Centre for Peace, Disarmament and Development in Latin America and the Caribbean (UNLIREC has been monitoring various media in 19 countries and has documented more than 100 newspaper articles on cases of armed violence and the proliferation offirearms in the private security sector. The objective of this investigation is to analyze reported cases and systematize a typology regarding such cases, in order to prove the existence of problems in the private security sector which is a source and a victim of insecurity. This study reveals the frequency with which these cases occur, as well as the fact that they occur in different countries of the region, demonstrating that the cases being studied are not isolated cases and that they encourage the States and companies within the sector to address this disturbing reality.Finally, this article presents a series of initiatives that can be implemented by competent national authorities on the subject, as well as by the companies within the sector, to face the challenges posed by the handling, ownership and use of firearms with the privatization of the security sectorin the region.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5377/rpsp.v4i2.1754

  16. Scientific Output from Latin America and the Caribbean – Identification of the Main Institutions for Regional Open Access Integration Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Babini, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    Latin America is a region in which two thirds of the investment in research and development are funded by State resources. It can be foreseen that in the near future governments in the region will encourage and promote, or require by law or mandates, that scientific output from the region become visible and accessible in open access repositories and portals. This paper presents the results of a survey to identify the institutions of the region with the largest volume of scientific output and ...

  17. Using a Two-Step Method to Measure Transgender Identity in Latin America/the Caribbean, Portugal, and Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Reisner, Sari L.; Biello, Katie; Rosenberger, Joshua G.; Austin, S. Bryn; Haneuse, Sebastien; Perez-Brumer, Amaya; NOVAK, David S.; Mimiaga, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Few comparative data are available internationally to examine health differences by transgender identity. A barrier to monitoring the health and well-being of transgender people is the lack of inclusion of measures to assess natal sex/gender identity status in surveys. Data were from a cross-sectional anonymous online survey of members (n > 36,000) of a sexual networking website targeting men who have sex with men in Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking countries/ territories in Latin America/the...

  18. Caribbean tectonics and relative plate motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, K.; Dewey, J. F.; Cooper, C.; Mann, P.; Pindell, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    During the last century, three different ways of interpreting the tectonic evolution of the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean have been proposed, taking into account the Bailey Willis School of a permanent pre-Jurassic deep sea basin, the Edward Suess School of a subsided continental terrain, and the Alfred Wegener School of continental separation. The present investigation is concerned with an outline of an interpretation which follows that of Pindell and Dewey (1982). An attempt is made to point out ways in which the advanced hypotheses can be tested. The fit of Africa, North America, and South America is considered along with aspects of relative motion between North and South America since the early Jurasic. Attention is given to a framework for reconstructing Caribbean plate evolution, the evolution of the Caribbean, the plate boundary zones of the northern and southern Caribbean, and the active deformation of the Caribbean plate.

  19. Unraveling the nexus between water and food security in Latin America and the Caribbean: regional and global implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willaarts, Barbara; Garrido, Alberto; Soriano, Barbara; De Stefano, Lucia; López Gunn, Elena; Aldaya, Maite; Martínez-Santos, Pedro; Llamas, Ramon

    2014-05-01

    Latin American and the Caribbean (LAC) is a water and land abundant region, and plays a key role in meeting global food and water security. During the last decade, LAC has experience a rapid socio-economic growth, largely sustained by its competitive advantage in the production and exports of agricultural and mining products and by the high commodity prices in the global market. This study seeks to quantify the contribution of LAC's agriculture to global food and water security, i.e. virtual water trade, and evaluate the environmental and societal implications for regional development. Results show that between 2000 and 2011, LAC has increase its agricultural production 27%, and it now accounts for nearly 18% of the global agricultural market. As a result, the agricultural water footprint (WF) of LAC was augmented 65%; and yet, nearly 19% to 44% of the actual agricultural WF - depending on the countries - is virtual water exported to third countries. In fact, almost 50% of the increase in global virtual water trade during the last decade, corresponds to LAC. Such global contribution has significant implications for regional water and food security. From an environmental perspective, crop expansion (mostly rain-fed) resulted in the deforestation of nearly 1 million km2, turning this region into the second most important deforestation hotspots worldwide. This land clearing is having large impacts of ecosystem services, e.g. carbon sequestration, water quality or biodiversity conservation. From a socio-economic perspective, increasing agricultural production has improved regional food security indicators, although one every seven children is still stunted in LAC and nearly 10% of the population remains undernourished. Dietary shifts and socio-cultural factors also lag behind the growing problem of malnutrition in the region, i.e. overweight and obesity. Improvements of water access and sanitation, have had a positive impact on food security indicators, especially

  20. Soil-transmitted helminthiasis in Latin America and the Caribbean: modelling the determinants, prevalence, population at risk and costs of control at sub-national level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josh Colston

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We present an example of a tool for quantifying the burden, the population in need of intervention and resources need to contribute for the control of soil-transmitted helminth (STH infection at multiple administrative levels for the region of Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC. The tool relies on published STH prevalence data along with data on the distribution of several STH transmission determinants for 12,273 sub-national administrative units in 22 LAC countries taken from national censuses. Data on these determinants was aggregated into a single risk index based on a conceptual framework and the statistical significance of the association between this index and the STH prevalence indicators was tested using simple linear regression. The coefficient and constant from the output of this regression was then put into a regression formula that was applied to the risk index values for all of the administrative units in order to model the estimated prevalence of each STH species. We then combine these estimates with population data, treatment thresholds and unit cost data to calculate total control costs. The model predicts an annual cost for the procurement of preventive chemotherapy of around US$ 1.7 million and a total cost of US$ 47 million for implementing a comprehensive STH control programme targeting an estimated 78.7 million school-aged children according to the WHO guidelines throughout the entirety of the countries included in the study. Considerable savings to this cost could potentially be made by embedding STH control interventions within existing health programmes and systems. A study of this scope is prone to many limitations which restrict the interpretation of the results and the uses to which its findings may be put. We discuss several of these limitations.

  1. Training in nuclear and radiation safety in Latin American and Caribbean; Capacitacion en seguridad nuclear y radiologica en America Latina y el Caribe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadopulos, S.; Diaz, O.; Larcher, A.; Echenique, L.; Nicolas, R., E-mail: spapadopulos@arn.gob.ar, E-mail: odiaz@arn.gob.ar, E-mail: alarcher@arn.gob.ar, E-mail: lechenique@arn.gob.ar, E-mail: rnicolas@arn.gob.ar [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear (ARN), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Lombardi, R.; Quintana, G., E-mail: alombar@fi.uba, E-mail: quinta@fi.uba.ar [Universidad de Buenos Aires (FI/UBA), (Argentina). Facultad de Ingenieria

    2013-07-01

    From thirty-three years, Argentina has taken the commitment to train professionals in the field of nuclear and radiation safety for the care and protection of workers and public in general. Sponsored by the IAEA and supported by the Faculty of Engineering of the University of Buenos Aires (FIUBA), an undertaking was made to encourage the training of scientists and experts in the countries of the region in order to establish a strong safety culture in radiation in individuals and maintaining high standards of safety practices using ionizing radiation. In 2012, the Graduate Course in Radiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources has acquired the status of 'Specialization' of the FIUBA, a category that further hierarchies skills training in the subject. This is a highly anticipated achievement by the implications for academic institutions, national and regional level, contributing to the strengthening of the Regional Training Center for Latin America and the Caribbean, acknowledged in a long-term agreement between the IAEA and Argentina in September 2008. Due to increased demand for nuclear activity, it is important to continue and deepen further training in radiological and nuclear areas. In order to satisfy both national and regional needs a process of increase on training offer training is being carried out, under the jurisdiction frame of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority. This paper presents the achievements of the country so far as regards training of human resource in radiation protection and nuclear safety in the region and highlights the challenges ahead for the extension of the offer in education and training. (author)

  2. Health care providers and human trafficking: what do they know, what do they need to know? Findings from the Middle East, the Caribbean and Central America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roderik F Viergever

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundHuman trafficking is a crime that commonly results in acute and chronic physical and psychological harm. To foster more informed health sector responses to human trafficking, training sessions for health care providers were developed and pilot-tested in the Middle East, Central America and the Caribbean. This study presents the results of an investigation into what health care providers knew and needed to know about human trafficking as part of that training program.MethodsParticipants attended one of seven two-day training courses in Antigua and Barbuda, Belize, Costa Rica, Egypt, El Salvador, Guyana and Jordan. We assessed participants’ knowledge about human trafficking and opinions about appropriate responses in trafficking cases via questionnaires pre-training, and considered participant feedback about the training post-training. Results178 participants attended the trainings. Pre-training questionnaires were completed by 165 participants (93% and post-training questionnaires by 156 participants (88%. Pre-training knowledge about health and human trafficking appeared generally high for topics such as the international nature of trafficking and the likelihood of poor mental health outcomes among survivors. However, many participants had misconceptions about the characteristics of trafficked persons and a provider’s role in responding to cases of trafficking. The most valued training components included the Role of the Health Provider, Basic Definitions and Concepts and Health Consequences of Trafficking. DiscussionTraining health care providers on caring for trafficked persons has the potential to improve practitioners’ knowledge about human trafficking and its health consequences, and to increase safe practices when responding in cases of trafficking. This study provides lessons for the design of training programs on human trafficking that aim to help health care providers identify and refer victims, and provide care for

  3. Update on the mapping of prevalence and intensity of infection for soil-transmitted helminth infections in Latin America and the Caribbean: a call for action.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Idalí Saboyá

    Full Text Available It is estimated that in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC at least 13.9 million preschool age and 35.4 million school age children are at risk of infections by soil-transmitted helminths (STH: Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworms (Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale. Although infections caused by this group of parasites are associated with chronic deleterious effects on nutrition and growth, iron and vitamin A status and cognitive development in children, few countries in the LAC Region have implemented nationwide surveys on prevalence and intensity of infection. The aim of this study was to identify gaps on the mapping of prevalence and intensity of STH infections based on data published between 2000 and 2010 in LAC, and to call for including mapping as part of action plans against these infections. A total of 335 published data points for STH prevalence were found for 18 countries (11.9% data points for preschool age children, 56.7% for school age children and 31.3% for children from 1 to 14 years of age. We found that 62.7% of data points showed prevalence levels above 20%. Data on the intensity of infection were found for seven countries. The analysis also highlights that there is still an important lack of data on prevalence and intensity of infection to determine the burden of disease based on epidemiological surveys, particularly among preschool age children. This situation is a challenge for LAC given that adequate planning of interventions such as deworming requires information on prevalence to determine the frequency of needed anthelmintic drug administration and to conduct monitoring and evaluation of progress in drug coverage.

  4. Health-information needs of HIV-positive adults in Latin America and the Caribbean: an integrative review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonbraker, Samantha; Larson, Elaine

    2016-10-01

    An assessment of information needs is essential for care planning for patients living with chronic diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The extent to which these assessments have been conducted in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) is unknown. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to identify, evaluate, and summarize what research has been conducted to examine patient perceptions of their health-information needs among adults living with HIV in LAC. Using an integrative review methodology, a literature search of six databases was conducted in April and May 2015. Inclusion criteria were peer-reviewed articles published in English or Spanish that assessed the information needs of HIV-positive patients living in LAC. The quality of included articles was assessed and relevant characteristics of each article were extracted, compared, and presented. Searches returned 1885 citations, 11 of which met inclusion criteria. Studies included were conducted in 8 of 33 countries, used multiple research designs, demonstrated varying needs between populations, and found numerous unmet information needs. Information about HIV in general, methods of infection transmission, antiretroviral medications, other sexually transmitted diseases, and effective coping mechanisms were the most commonly mentioned needs. Healthcare providers were the largest and most reliable source of health information for many participants and it was emphasized that in order for health education to be effective, programs should include both individual and group components. Patients indicated that they may have difficulty processing and using information through an incorrect understanding of medications, not changing risk behaviors, and by stating that information can be overwhelming or poorly communicated. Further research on information needs is warranted so that healthcare providers and organizations may provide the information patients need to appropriately manage their health. PMID

  5. Sustainable energy in rural areas as part of energy sector modernization in latin america and the caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electric power industry in the world seems to have reached a watershed in history, characterized by deregulation, breakup of state monopolies, participation of private-sector capital, globalization of trade operations and a search for more environmentally friendly technological alternatives. Latin America is not removed from this process. Over the last few years, dramatic changes have taken place in the organizational, economic, and technological structures of the region's power utilities. Each country has adopted the schemes that it deemed most suitable to move toward a modern, efficient, and profitable electric power sector. Nevertheless, there is also a risk that the changes will have exogenous motivations or else are motivated solely by the need to capitalize with the sale of assets of the power utilities to resolve the difficult economic situation being experienced by some of the countries. In these cases, the opportunity for a genuine search of alternative schemes that help to guarantee equity and opportunity in electric power supply, as well as environmental protection, would be wasted. (The author)

  6. Origin of the Caribbean Plate Conference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Keith H. James; Maria Antonieta Lorente

    2006-01-01

    @@ An international research conference, entitled "Geology of the area between North and South America, with focus on the origin of the Caribbean Plate", took place in Siguenza, Spain, from May 29-June 2, 2006.

  7. Agreement of 5 April 1995 between the Republic of Chile and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the treaty for the prohibition of nuclear weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The text of the Agreement between the Republic of Chile and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement was approved by the Agency's Board of Governors on 29 March 1995 and signed in Vienna on 5 April 1995. The Agreement entered into force, pursuant to Article 26, on 5 April 1995

  8. IOC Regional Workshop for Member States of the Caribbean and South America - GODAR-V (Global Oceanographic Data Archeology and Rescue Project), Cartagena de Indias, Colombia 8-l 1 October 1996.

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    The GODAR Workshop for IOC Member States of the Caribbean and South America held at Cartagena, Colombia was the fifth in the series after 4 held at: Obninsk Russian Federation (17-20 May 1993) for Member States of Central and Eastern Europe; Tianjin, China (8-l 1 March 1994) for Member States of WESTPAC; Dona Paula, Goa, India (6-9 December 1994) for Member States of the Indian Ocean and Malta (25-28 April 1995) for Member States of the Mediterranean Sea. The purpose of the current Worksho...

  9. New Technologies in Libraries and Information Centres in Latin America and the Caribbean: Information and Development--Focus on the Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS) Sub-Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, Claudette

    1996-01-01

    Examines the history of information systems in the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS), proposed development strategies for the area, the OECS INFONET project, and resulting recommendations for developing and sustaining regional information networks. An appendix summarizes 1991 Gross National Product and population data for the…

  10. Stakeholders’ perspectives on access-to-medicines policy and research priorities in Latin America and the Caribbean: face-to-face and web-based interviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aims to rank policy concerns and policy-related research issues in order to identify policy and research gaps on access to medicines (ATM) in low- and middle-income countries in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), as perceived by policy makers, researchers, NGO and international organization representatives, as part of a global prioritization exercise. Methods Data collection, conducted between January and May 2011, involved face-to-face interviews in El Salvador, Colombia, Dominican Republic, and Suriname, and an e-mail survey with key-stakeholders. Respondents were asked to choose the five most relevant criteria for research prioritization and to score policy/research items according to the degree to which they represented current policies, desired policies, current research topics, and/or desired research topics. Mean scores and summary rankings were obtained. Linear regressions were performed to contrast rankings concerning current and desired policies (policy gaps), and current and desired research (research gaps). Results Relevance, feasibility, and research utilization were the top ranked criteria for prioritizing research. Technical capacity, research and development for new drugs, and responsiveness, were the main policy gaps. Quality assurance, staff technical capacity, price regulation, out-of-pocket payments, and cost containment policies, were the main research gaps. There was high level of coherence between current and desired policies: coefficients of determination (R2) varied from 0.46 (Health system structure; r = 0.68, P <0.01) to 0.86 (Sustainable financing; r = 0.93, P <0.01). There was also high coherence between current and desired research on Rational selection and use of medicines (r = 0.71, P <0.05, R2 = 0.51), Pricing/affordability (r = 0.82, P <0.01, R2 = 0.67), and Sustainable financing (r = 0.76, P <0.01, R2 = 0.58). Coherence was less for Health system structure (r = 0.61, P <0.01, R2 = 0.38). Conclusions This

  11. Rates and reasons for early change of first HAART in HIV-1-infected patients in 7 sites throughout the Caribbean and Latin America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Cesar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HAART rollout in Latin America and the Caribbean has increased from approximately 210,000 in 2003 to 390,000 patients in 2007, covering 62% (51%-70% of eligible patients, with considerable variation among countries. No multi-cohort study has examined rates of and reasons for change of initial HAART in this region. METHODOLOGY: Antiretroviral-naïve patients >or= 18 years who started HAART between 1996 and 2007 and had at least one follow-up visit from sites in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico and Peru were included. Time from HAART initiation to change (stopping or switching any antiretrovirals was estimated using Kaplan-Meier techniques. Cox proportional hazards modeled the associations between change and demographics, initial regimen, baseline CD4 count, and clinical stage. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Of 5026 HIV-infected patients, 35% were female, median age at HAART initiation was 37 years (interquartile range [IQR], 31-44, and median CD4 count was 105 cells/uL (IQR, 38-200. Estimated probabilities of changing within 3 months and one year of HAART initiation were 16% (95% confidence interval (CI 15-17% and 28% (95% CI 27-29%, respectively. Efavirenz-based regimens and no clinical AIDS at HAART initiation were associated with lower risk of change (hazard ratio (HR = 1.7 (95% CI 1.1-2.6 and 2.1 (95% CI 1.7-2.5 comparing neverapine-based regimens and other regimens to efavirenz, respectively; HR = 1.3 (95% CI 1.1-1.5 for clinical AIDS at HAART initiation. The primary reason for change among HAART initiators were adverse events (14%, death (5.7% and failure (1.3% with specific toxicities varying among sites. After change, most patients remained in first line regimens. CONCLUSIONS: Adverse events were the leading cause for changing initial HAART. Predictors for change due to any reason were AIDS at baseline and the use of a non-efavirenz containing regimen. Differences between participant sites were observed and require

  12. BOLIVAR: Crustal structure of the Caribbean-South America plate boundary between 60W and 70W from wide-angle seismic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelt, C. A.; Christeson, G. L.; Magnani, M. B.; Clark, S. A.; Guedez, M. C.; Bezada, M.; Levander, A.; Schmitz, M.

    2007-12-01

    We present the results from five wide-angle seismic profiles collected onshore and offshore Venezuela in 2004 as part of the Broadband Ocean Land Investigation of Venezuela and the Antilles arc Region project (BOLIVAR). The study area is the diffuse plate boundary between South America (SA) and the SE Caribbean plate (CAR) covering roughly 1000 km by 500 km. Over the past 55 My the Leeward Antilles island arc that borders the CAR plate has been colliding obliquely with the SA continent resulting in a collision front that has migrated from west to east. The five wide-angle profiles sample different stages of the time-transgressive margin from west to east, each crossing the margin roughly perpendicularly. The main purpose of this presentation is to contrast and compare the crustal velocity structure along these profiles to better understand the tectonic processes that are responsible for the evolution and present-day configuration of the plate boundary. Each of the wide-angle profiles is about 500 km in length and includes both onshore and offshore shots and receivers, except the easternmost profile, which is entirely offshore. The dense wide-angle data were modeled in the same way along each profile using a two-step, layer-stripping approach: (1) the first-arrival times were tomographically inverted for a smooth velocity model, and (2) the lower crust, Moho, and uppermost mantle were determined by simultaneous inversion of the PmP refection and Pn refraction phases while keeping the upper and middle crust from the first step fixed. The five models show tremendous lateral heterogeneity, as they cross features such as normal oceanic crust, oceanic plateau crust, an accretionary wedge, active and remnant island arcs, forearc and foreland basins, a major strike-slip system, a fold and thrust belt, and the edge of cratonic continental crust. Two of the main contributions of the wide-angle models to the BOLIVAR project, and the focus of this presentation, are the Moho

  13. Tendencias del cáncer de mama en América Latina y el Caribe Breast cancer trends in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Lozano-Ascencio

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Describir la magnitud y distribución espaciotemporal del cáncer de mama (CaMa en América Latina y el Caribe (LAC de 1979 a 2005. El CaMa destaca como la causa de muerte más importante por tumores malignos en las mujeres latinoamericanas, incluso por arriba del cáncer cervicouterino. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Revisión y organización de las estadísticas nacionales e internacionales (registros, estudios publicados y bases de datos sobre incidencia y mortalidad. Elaboración de estimadores básicos, razones de mortalidad para cada país y análisis de tendencias. RESULTADOS: Aun con el rezago de información presente en la región, se observa un incremento de la incidencia y la mortalidad por CaMa. La razón de muertes/casos en los países de LAC muestra problemas de acceso a la detección y tratamiento. CONCLUSIONES: El reto es mejorar los sistemas de información y la infraestructura diagnóstica para la detección oportuna y el tratamiento adecuado con la finalidad de detener la tendencia ascendente de la mortalidad prematura.Breast cancer is currently the most significant cause of death from malignancies in Latin American women, including cervical cancer. OBJECTIVE: Describe the magnitude and spatial-temporal distribution of breast cancer in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC from 1979-2005. MATERIAL AND METHODS: National and international incidence and mortality statistics were reviewed and organized (registries, databases, and published literature, basic estimators and mortality ratios for each country were calculated and trends were analyzed. RESULTS: Despite substantial data gaps in incidence for many countries, an increase in incidence and mortality is observed in LAC countries. Deaths/cases ratios illustrate problems in access to detection and treatment and the greatest gaps are observed in poorer countries. CONCLUSIONS: A regional effort is needed to improve information systems related to cancer in general and breast cancer

  14. The Caribbean after-shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canak, W L; Levy, D

    1988-03-01

    The population of the Caribbean islands, is expected to double by the mid-21st century, placing new pressures on local labor markets and economic resources and increasing the need for social expenditures. Most of this growth will take place in urban areas. Emigration to the US is an increasingly important trend, especially in the Dominican Republic, Haiti, and Jamaica, and local Caribbean economies are linked with labor markets in the US through a system of family remittances. Oil price hikes, escalating debt burdens, and falling export prices have created an economic crisis in the Caribbean since the late 1970s. There has been double-digit inflation, rising unemployment, and only sporadic growth in the gross national product. The Caribbean Basin Initiative, established by the Reagan Administration, provides the Caribbean nations with duty-free export entry to the US market for 12 years and targets manufacturing, tourism, agriculture, and foreign investment for growth. Overall, however, the results of this initiative have been an effective subsidy to US investors and little stimulus for growth in locally owned businesses. Haiti and the Dominican Republic are the islands with the most poverty, while Trinidad and Tobago are the most prosperous. Puerto Rico plays an important role in the Caribbean region, serving as a link between North and South America and between cultural differences. PMID:12280949

  15. Up in smoke? Latin America and the Caribbean. The threat from climate change to the environment and human development. The third report from the Working Group on Climate Change and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simms, A. [new economics foundation nef, 3 Jonathan Street, London SE11 5NH (United Kingdom); Reid, H. [International Institute for Environment and Development IIED, 3 Endsleigh Street, London WC1H 0DD (United Kingdom)] (eds.)

    2006-08-15

    For years, the writing has been on the wall about the impact of climate change on the people, plants, animals, and habitats of Latin America and the Caribbean. Now, day-to-day experiences and eye-witness accounts from leading environmental and development groups are proving predictions to be correct. In the late 1990s, the world's pre-eminent group of climate scientists gathered under the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and predicted a devastating range of impacts, including an increase in the intensity and number of extreme weather events exacerbating natural disasters, forest die-off, melting glaciers, and the drying out of temperate grasslands. The region's huge geographical diversity means that patterns of vulnerability to climate change are extremely varied. It also makes modelling difficult, although this is constantly improving. To avoid misunderstanding, it is important to point out that with or without global warming, extreme weather is a problem for the people of the region. For many people, however, climate change is set to turn an already rough ride into an impossible one. This report confirms that temperature and rainfall patterns, hitherto largely regular and predictable, are changing and becoming less predictable and often more extreme. Based upon the experiences of partner agencies and the people they work with across the region, this report catalogues impacts linked to both climate change and environmental degradation ranging from drought in the Amazon to floods in Haiti and elsewhere; from vanishing glaciers in Colombia to extreme cold in the Andes; and hurricanes, not only in Central America and the Caribbean, but also in southern Brazil. It examines the impacts on agriculture and farming practices, fishing and coastal zones, towns and cities, and on the people of Latin America and the Caribbean: peasants, indigenous peoples, women, town dwellers, migrants. The direct and indirect impacts catalogued include the loss and

  16. A mechanism for the promotion of technical co-operation among the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean in the field of the peaceful use of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day after day, in hospitals, industry, agricultural enterprises and universities all over the world, advantage is being taken of the peaceful uses of nuclear technology. In recent years, the Agency's regional technical co-operation projects have acquired considerable importance in Latin America and the Caribbean, particularly in such areas of common interest as nuclear information, radiation protection, human health, agriculture, hydrology, industry, and the maintenance and repair of nuclear instruments used for research purposes and related studies, to cite but a few examples. As a result, a group of Latin American countries decided to join forces to carry out specific technical co-operation projects aimed at raising the level of nuclear applications in the region. This effort culminated in the decision, made in 1984, to establish, under the auspices of the Agency, a regional co-operation programme called ARCAL. This document describes the ARCAL programme, participating countries and main results achieved

  17. Protocol Additional to the agreement between the Republic of Chile and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Chile and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Additional Protocol was approved by the Board of Governors on 10 September 2002. It was signed in Vienna on 19 September 2002. Pursuant to Article 17 of the Additional Protocol, the Protocol entered into force on 3 November 2003, the date on which the Agency received from Chile written notification that Chile's statutory and/or constitutional requirements for entry into force had been met

  18. ”Hard” infrastructure and regional connectivity in Latin America and the Caribbean: developments in the region’s land-locked economies

    OpenAIRE

    Thorpe, Andy; Sizeland, F.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the substantial reduction in tariffs over the past few decades, the competitiveness of the Latin American and Caribbean region (LAC) has suffered due to a history of underinvestment in hard infrastructure. This paper specifically focuses on transport infrastructure, utilising statistics from the World Bank’s most recent Logistics Performance Indicator (LPI 2010) and the World Economic Forum’s Global Competitiveness Report (2009) to identify the infrastructural gap in the LAC region. B...

  19. Natural Disasters Financial Risk Management : Technical and Policy Underpinnings for the Use of Disaster-Linked Financial Instruments in Latin America and the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Juan José Durante; Kurt S. Focke; Guillermo J. Collich; Mario Marcel; Torben Andersen

    2010-01-01

    The Latin American and Caribbean region is highly exposed to natural disasters. The social and economic impact of these events has been historically very significant and it is showing an increasingly growing trend. During the first quarter of 2010, this unfortunate reality was evidenced with the Haiti and Chile earthquakes. Preliminary impact assessments indicate that the powerful January 2010 Port-au-Prince earthquake killed more than 225,000 people and caused damages and losses of about US$...

  20. Tourism trends in the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    González Sánchez, Cynthia; Muñoz Salinas, Francisco; Roset Calzada, Jaime

    2012-01-01

    The Caribbean is a great holiday destination, along with Europe, Asia and South America. But it is one of the regions that depend more economically on the touristic sector. That is why there is a need to innovate and reinvent the touristic offer constantly. Throughout the years, tendencies and tourism types has changed and developed, adapting to the market and clients expectations. Beach hotel, all inclusive hotel offers, mountain tourism, hiking, ecotourism, city tourism, are some of the ...

  1. Law project (no. 1329) adopted by the Senate and authorizing the ratification of the agreement between the French Republic, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency relative to the enforcement of warranties in the framework of the treaty of nuclear weapons prohibition in South America and the Caribbeans area (two protocols together)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The French Senate adopted on January 6, 2004 the project of law which authorizes the ratification of the agreement between France, the European atomic energy community and the IAEA about the enforcement of warranties in the framework of the treaty of interdiction of nuclear weapons in South America and in the Caribbean area signed in Vienna (Austria) on March 21, 2000. The text of this treaty is attached to this law. (J.S.)

  2. Health care providers and human trafficking: what do they know, what do they need to know? Findings from the middle East, the Caribbean, and central america

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viergever, R.F.; West, H.; Borland, R.; Zimmerman, C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human trafficking is a crime that commonly results in acute and chronic physical and psychological harm. To foster more informed health sector responses to human trafficking, training sessions for health care providers were developed and pilot-tested in the Middle East, Central America,

  3. Agreement between the French Republic, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The text of the Agreement (and the Protocols thereto) between the French Republic, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Agreement on 11 June 1998. It was signed in Vienna on 21 March 2000 by the representative of the Government of the French Republic and the Director General of the IAEA, and on 26 September 2000 by the representative of the European Atomic Energy Community. Pursuant to Article 23 of the Agreement, the Agreement entered into force on 26 October 2007, one month after the Agency has received notification from both France and the European Atomic Energy Community that their respective internal requirements for entry into force have been met. Pursuant to Article II of the Protocols, the Protocols entered into force on the same date

  4. Construcción social de repositorios institucionales: el caso de un repositorio de América Latina y el Caribe Social Construction of Institutional repositories: The case of a Latin America and the Caribbean repository

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Babini

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Se analizan los repositorios institucionales -bibliotecas o archivos digitales que reúnen la producción académica y científica de una institución- desde la perspectiva de la construcción social de la tecnología, lo cual permite conocer los principales grupos sociales relevantes a tener en cuenta en el diseño e implementación de un repositorio. Se presenta el caso del repositorio institucional del Consejo Latinoamericano de Ciencias Sociales (CLACSO, repositorio que cumplió una década de servicios, analizando los grupos involucrados en su desarrollo, principalmente bibliotecas, editores de revistas, área académica y área publicaciones de los centros de investigación y docencia.This article presents an analysis of institutional repositories -digital libraries and archives with collections of institutional academic and scientific output- from the "social construction of technology" perspective, which provides information on the relevant social groups whose needs must be taken into consideration when the design and implementation of institutional repositories takes place. The case of the Latin America and the Caribbean Social Science Council (CLACSO 10 year old institutional repository is introduced from this perspective. A descripton of social groups involved in this case, mainly librarians, journal editors, academic and publishing sections of teaching and research institutions is included.

  5. The impact of the biotechnology in the sustainable development of the agriculture in the Latin America and Caribbean region: The Andean countries as model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In accordance with the premise that the base of the sustainable agricultural development is based on the conviction that it is possible to increase the agricultural production without affecting the natural resources non-renewable, the author makes a conceptual mark of the technological revolution in Latin America, he makes an analysis of the environment and the paper of the different organisms of the state inside this field

  6. Prevalence and Social Determinants of Smoking in 15 Countries from North Africa, Central and Western Asia, Latin America and Caribbean: Secondary Data Analyses of Demographic and Health Surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrashekhar T Sreeramareddy

    Full Text Available Article 20 of the World Health Organisation Framework Convention on Tobacco Control calls for a cross-country surveillance of tobacco use through population-based surveys. We aimed to provide country-level prevalence estimates for current smoking and current smokeless tobacco use and to assess social determinants of smoking.Data from Demographic and Health Surveys done between 2005 and 2012, among men and women from nine North African, Central and West Asian countries and six Latin American and Caribbean countries were analyzed. Weighted country-level prevalence rates were estimated for 'current smoking' and 'current use of smokeless tobacco (SLT products' among men and women. In each country, social determinants of smoking among men and women were assessed by binary logistic regression analyses by including men's and women's sampling weights to account for the complex survey design.Prevalence of smoking among men was higher than 40% in Armenia (63.1%, Moldova (51.1%, Ukraine (52%, Azerbaijan (49.8 %, Kyrgyz Republic (44.3 % and Albania (42.52% but the prevalence of smoking among women was less than 10% in most countries except Ukraine (14.81% and Jordan (17.96%. The prevalence of smokeless tobacco use among men and women was less than 5% in all countries except among men in the Kyrgyz Republic (10.6 %. Smoking was associated with older age, lower education and poverty among men and higher education and higher wealth among women. Smoking among both men and women was associated with unskilled work, living in urban areas and being single.Smoking among men was very high in Central and West Asian countries. Social pattern of smoking among women that was different from men in education and wealth should be considered while formulating tobacco control policies in some Central and West Asian countries.

  7. La Capacitacion de Docentes Como Prioridad de los Sistemas Educativos de America Latino y al Caribe (In-Service Teacher Training as a Priority of Latin American and Caribbean Educational Systems).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Victor M.

    Whenever top-level officials in Latin American and Caribbean educational systems are approached, the topic of inservice teacher training is presented as a major priority. This paper outlines some ideas about the subject of inservice teacher training as a priority of educational systems in Latin American and Caribbean countries. The most frequent…

  8. Falls among elderly persons in Latin America and the Caribbean and among elderly Mexican-Americans Las caídas en ancianos de América Latina y el Caribe y en ancianos mexicanoestadounidenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Reyes-Ortiz

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of and risk factors for falls among community-dwelling elders in Latin America and the Caribbean and among elderly Mexican-Americans in the southwestern United States. METHODS: Data for the study came from a project called Health, Well-Being, and Aging in Latin America and the Caribbean (Salud, Bienestar y Envejecimiento en América Latina y el Caribe (the "SABE project" (surveys from seven cities, with a total of 9 765 subjects and from the Hispanic Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly (H-EPESE (1 483 subjects. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of falls across the seven SABE cities and the H-EPESE ranged from 21.6% in Bridgetown, Barbados, to 34.0% in Santiago, Chile. In multiple logistic regression analyses, female gender, increased age, high depressive symptoms, and having any functional limitations were significant independent risk factors for falls in most of the cities studied as well as among the elderly Mexican-Americans. In several of the cities, significant risk factors also included diabetes, urinary incontinence, and arthritis. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of falls had a large variation among the countries studied. Some of the risk factors that we identified could be modified so as to help prevent falls in older people in these populations. The factors deserving attention include depressive symptoms, functional limitations, diabetes, and urinary incontinence.OBJETIVO: Estimar la prevalencia de caídas y de sus factores de riesgo en ancianos que habitan en el seno de la comunidad en América Latina y el Caribe y en ancianos mexicanoestadounidenses que viven en la zona sudoeste de Estados Unidos. MÉTODOS: Los datos usados para el estudio procedieron del proyecto Salud, Bienestar y Envejecimiento en América Latina y el Caribe (proyecto "SABE" (encuestas en siete ciudades que abarcaron a un total de 9 765 personas y de las Poblaciones Hispanas Establecidas para Estudios

  9. Country-level correlates of cervical cancer mortality in Latin America and the Caribbean Determinantes a nivel país de la mortalidad por cáncer cervicouterino en Latinoamérica y el Caribe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Pereira-Scalabrino

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify country-level correlates of geographical variations in cervical cancer (CC mortality in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: CC mortality rates for LAC countries (n=26 were examined in relation to country-specific socio-economic indicators (n=58 and Human Papilloma Virus (HPV prevalence using linear regression models. RESULTS: High mortality at ages OBJETIVO: Identificar variables a nivel de país que expliquen las variaciones geográficas en la mortalidad por cáncer cervicouterino (CaCu en América Latina y el Caribe (AL. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: Se examinaron las tasas de mortalidad por CaCu de cada país (n=26 mediante modelos de regresión lineal en relación con indicadores socioeconómicos (n=58 y prevalencia del virus del papiloma humano (VPH. RESULTADOS: Alta mortalidad en menores de cinco años, bajo gasto total en salud per-cápita y baja proporción de población con acceso a saneamiento básico son los mejores predictores de mortalidad por CaCu (R² =77%. En los países (n=10 con estimaciones de prevalencia de VPH, estos indicadores socioeconómicos y la prevalencia de VPH de alto riesgo explicaron el 98% de la variabilidad de CaCu en AL. CONCLUSIÓN: Las mejoras en el nivel socioeconómico en AL están asociadas con reducciones en la mortalidad por CaCu, a pesar de la ausencia de programas organizados de tamizaje e inmunización contra VPH.

  10. Oxytocin in Uniject Disposable Auto-Disable Injection System versus Standard Use for the Prevention of Postpartum Hemorrhage in Latin America and the Caribbean: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Pichon-Riviere

    Full Text Available Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH is a leading cause of maternal death. Despite strong evidence showing the efficacy of routine oxytocin in preventing PPH, the proportion of women receiving it after delivery is still below 100%. The Uniject injection system prefilled with oxytocin (Uniject has the potential advantage, due to its ease of use, to increase oxytocin utilization rates. We aimed to assess its cost-effectiveness in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC. We used an epidemiological model to estimate: a the impact of replacing oxytocin in ampoules with Uniject on the incidence of PPH, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs and costs from a health care system perspective, and b the minimum increment in oxytocin utilization rates required to make Uniject a cost-effective strategy. A consensus panel of LAC experts was convened to quantify the expected increase in oxytocin rates as a consequence of making Uniject available. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed. In the base case, the incremental cost of Uniject with respect to oxytocin in ampoules was estimated to be USD 1.00 (2013 US dollars. In the cost-effectiveness analysis, Uniject ranged from being cost-saving (in 8 out of 30 countries to having an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER of USD 8,990 per QALY gained. In most countries these ICERs were below one GDP per capita. The minimum required increment in oxytocin rates to make Uniject a cost-effective strategy ranged from 1.3% in Suriname to 16.2% in Haiti. Switching to Uniject could prevent more than 40,000 PPH events annually in LAC. Uniject was cost-saving or very cost-effective in almost all countries. Even if countries can achieve only small increases in oxytocin rates by incorporating Uniject, this strategy could be considered a highly efficient use of resources. These results were robust in the sensitivity analysis under a wide range of assumptions.

  11. Resolving regional frequency analysis of precipitation at large and complex scales using a bottom-up approach: The Latin America and the Caribbean Drought Atlas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, J.; Hallack-Alegría, M.; Cadena, M.

    2016-07-01

    Hydrologic frequency analysis is a statistical technique for the assessment of natural hazards, particularly the so-called water hazards caused exclusively by extreme hydrologic events. In particular, L-moments based regional frequency analysis (RFA-LM) has being adopted as the standard method for hydrologic frequency analysis in many parts of the world and for many other applications relating to hydrological extremes. However, despite the widespread use of RFA-LM, its application at large network and high and complex spatial scale conditions (LNHCSSC) has been poorly studied. The lack of studies about RFA-LM under such conditions and its use preferentially at subnational scales and areas with low number of rain gauge stations, or based on grid data, may be explained by the fact that the most difficult, less robust, and most subjective stage of RFA-LM is the delineation of homogeneous regions. This work proposes an integral procedure for the application of RFA-LM under LNHCSSC. The proposed method is applied to the study of drought event frequency in three case studies from Latin America, and incorporates innovating aspects compared to the state-of-the-art RFA-LM. These aspects are specifically (a) the decoupling of the cause of homogeneity from the regionalization stage; (b) the proposal of regionalization efficiency metrics; (c) the development of a regionalization algorithm; and (d) the development of a frequency estimation and mapping method for ungauged sites.

  12. Status and progress of family health in Latin America and the Caribbean: the Ibero-American Confederation of Family Medicine (ICPM perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Inez Padula Anderson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the XXI century, much of humanity does not have access to comprehensive health care, or even basic equitable health care. If studies show that countries with organized health systems based on a qualified and inclusive model of Primary Health Care (PHC and family physicians as permanent staff are achieving unquestionable results, why a large part of the countries with lower socio-economic development have not committed strongly to implement an efficient reform of their health systems based on PHC and family medicine (FM? These issues are at the core of the Latin American Confederation of Family Medicine’s concerns, an international non-profit organization composed of national associations of countries of FM from Latin America, Spain and Portugal. Its primary mission is to drive the implementation of a proper PHC system in all countries of the region and to ensure that family medicine, as a specialty, is considered critical to health systems, thereby transforming it into a public policy.

  13. Microfinance Issues and Challenges in the Anglophone Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Mark D. Wenner; Geoffrey Chalmers

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is fourfold. First, it seeks to highlight the general characteristics of the microenterprise sector and the microfinance industry in the Anglophone Caribbean. Second, it will examine the main factors that help explain the differences in the development of sustainable microfinance in the Anglophone Caribbean compared to Latin America. Third, it will outline what the Inter-American Development Bank, a major donor organization, has done to support microfinance and micro...

  14. Remittances in Times of Financial Instability: Impact of the Financial Crisis on Remittances to Latin America and the Caribbean Title: Las remesas en tiempos de inestabilidad financiera: El impacto de la crisis financiera sobre las remesas a América Latina y el Caribe

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Meins

    2009-01-01

    This document is a supplement to the brochure, Remittances in times of financial instability, and the map of remittances to Latin America and the Caribbean in 2008, produced by MIF. The document provides a short overview of significant trends affecting remittances and their impact on families, communities and national economies throughout the region.Abstract: Las remesas mundiales a América Latina y el Caribe (ALC) alcanzaron $69.200 millones en 2008, un incremento de sólo casi un uno por cie...

  15. Nighttime Lights of North America - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is an image of nighttime lights for North America, including the Caribbean and most of Mexico. The data were collected in 1996 and 1997 as part of...

  16. Latin American and Caribbean Urban Development

    OpenAIRE

    Christien Klaufus; Rivke Jaffe

    2015-01-01

    The new development agendas confirmed in the year 2015 evidence an increased global interest in cities and urban challenges. In Latin America and the Caribbean, cities have long been an established topic of study and debate. This exploration gives a brief overview of current research on urban development in the region and suggests fruitful avenues for future research. Following different ideological trends in twentieth-century urban studies, we currently see more pragmatic frameworks and a be...

  17. Cigarette labeling policies in Latin America and the Caribbean: progress and obstacles Políticas de etiquetado de cigarrillos en América Latina y el Caribe: progreso y obstáculos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto M Sebrié

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetive. To describe cigarette labeling policies in Latin America and the Caribbean as of August 2010. Material and Methods. Review of tobacco control legislation of all 33 countries of the region; analysis of British American Tobacco (BAT's corporate social reports; analysis of information from cigarette packages collected in 27 countries. Results. In 2002, Brazil became the first country in the region to implement pictorial health warning labels on cigarette packages. Since then, six more countries adopted pictorial labels. The message content and the picture style vary across countries. Thirteen countries have banned brand descriptors and nine require a qualitative label with information on constituents and emissions. Tobacco companies are using strategies commonly used around the world to block the effective implementation of WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC's Article 11. Conclusions. Since 2002, important progress has been achieved in the region. However, countries that have ratified the FCTC have not yet implemented all the recommendations of Article 11 Guidelines.Objetivo. Describir las políticas de etiquetado de cigarrillos vigentes en América Latina y el Caribe en agosto de 2010. Material y métodos. Revisión de la legislación para el control del tabaco en vigencia en los 33 países de la región; análisis de reportes sociales corporativos del grupo BAT; análisis de información de paquetes de cigarrillos recolectados en 27 países. Resultados. En 2002, Brasil se convirtió en el primer país de la región en implementar etiquetas de advertencias sanitarias pictoriales en los paquetes de cigarrillos. Desde entonces, otros seis países adoptaron advertencias pictoriales. El contenido del mensaje y el estilo de la fotografía varía entre los países. Trece países prohibieron descriptores de marca y nueve requieren una advertencia cualitativa con información de constituyentes y emisiones. Las compa

  18. Sex and the city: Differences in disease- and disability-free life years, and active community participation of elderly men and women in 7 cities in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hennis Anselm J

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The world's population is ageing, and four of the top 10 most rapidly ageing developing nations are from the region of Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC. Although an ageing population heralds likely increases in chronic disease, disability-related dependence, and economic burden, the societal contribution of the chronically ill or those with disability is not often measured. Methods We calculated country-specific prevalences of 'disability' (difficulty with at least one activity of daily living, 'disease' and 'co-morbidity' (presence of at least one, and at least two, of seven chronic diseases/conditions, respectively, and 'active community engagement' (using five levels of community participation, from less than weekly community contact to voluntary or paid work in seven LAC cities. We estimated remaining life expectancy (LE with and without disability, disease and co-morbidity, and investigated age, sex, and regional variations in disability-free LE. Finally, we modeled the association of disease, co-morbidity and disability with active community participation using an ordinal regression model, adjusted for depression. Results Overall, 77% of the LAC elderly had at least one chronic disease/condition, 44% had co-morbidity and 19% had a disability. The proportion of disability-free LE declined between the youngest (60–64 years and the eldest (90 years and over age-groups for both men (from 85% to 55% and women (from 75% to 45%. Disease-free and co-morbidity-free LE, however, remained at approximately 30% and 62%, respectively, for men (20% and 48% for women, until 80–84 years of age, then increased. Only Bridgetown's participants had statistically significantly longer disability-free LE than the regional average (IRR = 1.08; 95%CI 1.05–1.10; p Conclusion There is an increasing burden of disease and disability with older age across the LAC region. As these nations cope with resulting social and economic demands

  19. The role of organized civil society in tobacco control in Latin America and the Caribbean El papel de la sociedad civil organizada en el control del tabaco en Latinoamérica y el Caribe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Marcet Champagne

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Civil society has been the engine that has permitted many of the accomplishments seen in tobacco control in Latin America and the Caribbean. However, the role of civil society is not clearly understood. Civil society plays five main roles: advocate, coalition builder, provider of evidence-based information, watchdog and service provider. Some of these roles are played weakly by civil society in the region and should be encouraged to support beneficial societal change. Civil society working in tobacco control has evolved over the years to now become more professionalized. The WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and the Bloomberg Initiative to Reduce Tobacco Use have brought about significant change with positive and negative consequences. Strengthening civil society not only supports the tobacco control movement but it provides competencies that may be used in many ways to promote change in democratic societies.La sociedad civil ha sido el motor que ha permitido muchos logros en el control del tabaco en Latinoamérica y el Caribe. Sin embargo, no se comprende bien el papel que juega. La sociedad civil tiene cinco roles principales: abogar, construir coaliciones, proveer información basada en evidencia, ser perro guardián y proveer servicios. Algunos de estos roles se juegan débilmente y deben ser promovidos para apoyar cambios benéficos en la sociedad. La sociedad civil ha evolucionado a través de los años en el control del tabaco y ahora se ha profesionalizado más. El Convenio Marco para el Control del Tabaco (CMCT de la OMS y la iniciativa Bloomberg para Reducir el Uso del Tabaco han traído consigo cambios significativos con consecuencias positivas y negativas. El fortalecimiento de la sociedad civil no sólo significa un beneficio para el movimiento del control del tabaco sino que también provee las competencias que sirven de muchas formas para promover el cambio en las sociedades democráticas.

  20. China to be Latin America's2nd largest trade partner in 2015

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Xnhua reported that China will become Latin America's second largest trade partner as early as in 2015,the UN Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) said on September 8.Osvaldo Kacef,director of ECLAC's Economic Development Division,said the current China-Latin America trade volume has already reached that of Europe.

  1. Oil and Gas Fields of the Caribbean Region, 2004 (fld6bg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Caribbean region is part of World Energy Assessment region 6 (Central and South America). A fundamental task in the assessment is to map the locations and type...

  2. Autoinforme de salud general en adultos mayores de América Latina y el Caribe: su utilidad como indicador Self-reported general health in older adults in Latin America and the Caribbean: usefulness of the indicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca Wong

    2005-06-01

    , Santiago y México, D.F. (entre 30 y 40%. La evaluación de la propia memoria fue el factor más fuertemente asociado con el resultado del ASG, seguido de la satisfacción con el estado nutricional y con la vida. CONCLUSIONES: El ASG captó múltiples facetas de la salud de los adultos mayores, como el padecimiento de enfermedades crónicas, su grado de satisfacción con el nivel de nutrición y con la vida, su percepción del estado de la propia memoria y los problemas de funcionalidad que sufrían. Se deben emprender estudios más detallados que permitan establecer el papel que desempeña la salud emocional en la demanda de atención sanitaria de los adultos mayores en América Latina y el Caribe y determinar si existe alguna asociación entre el ASG y el uso de los servicios de salud.OBJECTIVES: To evaluate self-reported general health (SRGH as a health indicator and to analyze its covariates in people 60 years old or older living in private homes in seven cities of Latin America and the Caribbean. METHODS: This cross-sectional descriptive study was based on data from the Health, Well-Being, and Aging survey (Salud, Bienestar y Envejecimiento, or "SABE survey", which was carried out in 1999 and 2000 in Bridgetown, Barbados; Buenos Aires, Argentina; Havana, Cuba; Mexico City, Mexico; Montevideo, Uruguay; Santiago, Chile; and São Paulo, Brazil. The survey looked at the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of the participants, several health indicators (self-reported chronic diseases, depression, and cognitive features, the social and family support network, the use of health services, reported and observed functionality, the respondent's income, and the durable consumer goods in the household. In probit regression models, self-reported fair or poor health was used as the dependent variable. The marginal effect of each categorical explanatory variable was used to indicate the difference between the probability of reporting poor health by persons who did or did

  3. Assistance Focus: Latin America/Caribbean (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-01-01

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center Ask an Expert service connects governments seeking policy information and advice with one of more than 30 global policy experts who can provide reliable and unbiased quick-response advice and information. The service is available at no cost to government agency representatives from any country and the technical institutes assisting them. This publication presents summaries of assistance provided to African governments, including the benefits of that assistance.

  4. New vaccines in latin america and caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvis-Guzmán Nelson

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Sin duda, uno de los éxitos de lasalud pública en el siglo XX fue lapuesta en marcha de la estrategiade los Programas Ampliados deInmunizaciones (PAI. Fue durante ladécada de los setenta (1974 cuandose decide, por parte de la AsambleaMundial de la Salud con el auspicio de la Organización Mundialde la Salud (OMS convocar a los países del mundo a establecer ygeneralizar la estrategia PAI con el fin de optimizar el uso de vacunasya existentes. Para la época se contaba con vacunas contra: difteria,tos ferina o pertusis, tuberculosis, poliomielitis, tétanos y sarampión.En las Américas, en 1977 se adoptó el PAI por parte de la OrganizaciónPanamericana de la Salud (OPS. Esta estrategia ha logrado un altoimpacto en la morbilidad y la mortalidad infantil en el mundo (1.El esquema básico de vacunación de la estrategia PAI en países endesarrollo de bajo y muy bajo ingreso, ha permitido salvar anualmentela vida de dos millones de niños y ha llevado a que las coberturasde vacunación a nivel mundial, aumenten de menos de 50% a másde 80% en la actualidad. En el caso del sarampión por ejemplo, laincidencia mundial ha caído de 4,5 millones de casos anuales en 1980a menos de medio millón por año en 2004 (2.Las evidencias muestran que la vacunación es la intervención máscosto-efectiva que contribuye al mejoramiento de la salud pública,especialmente en los niños de países en desarrollo. Además, es laintervención sanitaria que en mayor medida genera equidad en losresultados de salud en las diferentes comunidades. Los países debensaber cuáles son los principales factores determinantes de la inequidaden sus comunidades, a fin de poder adoptar medidas que garanticenque la aplicación de la inmunización con nuevas vacunas y de otrasestrategias de supervivencia infantil, se realice de forma equitativa (3.Un estudio reciente ha informado que en países en desarrollo losprogramas de inmunización representan un retorno económico del12% en el corto plazo y del 18% en largo plazo. Adicionalmente, lavacunación es el paradigma de las herramientas en salud pública quemejoran el estado de salud de los pueblos fomentando la equidad enla prestación de los servicios (4,5.

  5. Regional competitiveness: Latin America and the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Aramayo, Lourdes Gabriela Daza; Vokoun, Marek; Damborsky, Milan

    2012-01-01

    Regional Competitiveness can be defined as the region's potential in the long run enforce economically in competition with other regions while maintaining social cohesion and environmental sustainability. This ability is determined by many factors, such as innovation, technological progress, investment attractiveness, skills of the labor force, transportation infrastructure and quality of transport services, public sector efficiency and public security. These factors influence the resulting e...

  6. New vaccines in latin america and caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Alvis-Guzmán Nelson

    2012-01-01

    Sin duda, uno de los éxitos de lasalud pública en el siglo XX fue lapuesta en marcha de la estrategiade los Programas Ampliados deInmunizaciones (PAI). Fue durante ladécada de los setenta (1974) cuandose decide, por parte de la AsambleaMundial de la Salud con el auspicio de la Organización Mundialde la Salud (OMS) convocar a los países del mundo a establecer ygeneralizar la estrategia PAI con el fin de optimizar el uso de vacunasya existentes. Para la época se contaba con vacunas contra: dift...

  7. 77 FR 33601 - National Caribbean-American Heritage Month, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-07

    ... the United States of America the two hundred and thirty-sixth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2012-13950... rich narratives and recognize their immeasurable contributions to our country. Caribbean Americans have shaped every aspect of our society--enhancing our arts and humanities as titans of music and...

  8. Caribbean development: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Sutton

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Reviews development in the Caribbean, especially since 1990 to the present, and highlights future development prospects. Author discusses 2 reports from 2005 on present developments problems in the Caribbean region: the economics-focussed 'A time to choose: Caribbean development in the 21st century' by the World Bank, and the UN ECLAC report 'The Millennium Development Goals: a Latin American and Caribbean perspective', with a broader, also social and political, development agenda. He relates what both reports recommend for the Caribbean on the basis of their evaluations of past development. The World Bank report advocates a move toward the services sector, including tourism, offshore education, ICT services, and health services as most viable. The ECLAC report notes some social and political advances in comparison to other developing countries, but also remaining problems and inequalities. The author finds that the World Bank report's neoliberal, one-size-fits-all approach is not mindful of specific Caribbean realities, while the ECLAC study is more sensitive to local realities, and espouses a mixed economy. He thus considers the ECLAC approach preferable, but argues that it needs to go further, as it excludes Cuba and Haiti as atypical states.

  9. Agreement between the Republic of Cuba and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The text of the Agreement between the Republic of Cuba and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in the Annex to this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement was approved by the Board of Governors on 9 September 2003. It was signed on 18 September 2003. Pursuant to Article 25 of the Agreement, the Agreement entered into force on 3 June 2004, the date on which the Agency received from Cuba written notification that Cuba's statutory and/or constitutional requirements for entry into force had been met

  10. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Cuba and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Cuba and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in the Annex to this document for the information of all Members. The Additional Protocol was approved by the Board of Governors on 9 September 2003. It was signed on 18 September 2003. Pursuant to Article 17 of the Additional Protocol, the Protocol entered into force on 3 June 2004, the date on which the Agency received from Cuba written notification that Cuba's statutory and/or constitutional requirements for entry into force had been met

  11. Un dilema político en la encrucijada histórica del proceso de integración regional de América Latina y el Caribe A political dilemma at the historical crossroads of the process of regional integration in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Rocha V.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A partir del análisis de las dinámicas políticas internas y externas de los esquemas de integración regional y subregional de América Latina y el Caribe se llega a la conclusión de que la región ha logrado concretar un posicionamiento débil en lo económico y disperso en lo político dentro del proceso de negociaciones para el ALCA. Esta situación de la región se complica un poco más debido a la nueva encrucijada histórica que atravieza y, en particular, por el dilema político (integración regional o integración continental que se instala en dicha encrucijada. De manera clara se plantea la hipótesis de una crisis del proyecto y del proceso de integración regional de ALyC y se formulan las ideas generales para un proyecto de integración regional alternativa.Based on the analysis of internal and external political dynamics of Latin America and the Caribbean's regional and subregional integration mechanisms, one concludes that the region has built a weak economic position and a diffused political position within the FTAA negotiation process. This situation in the region becomes even more complex due to the new historical crossroads it faces and particularly for the political dilemma (regional or continental integration that takes place in such crossroads. Clearly, we present the hypothesis of a crisis in the project of regional integration of Latin America and the Caribbean, and articulate the general ideas for a project of alternative regional integration.

  12. How Will the Food Price Shock Affect Inflation in Latin America and the Caribbean? Title: ¿Qué efecto inflacionario tendrá el shock de precios de los alimentos en América Latina?

    OpenAIRE

    Pilar Tavella; Andrew Powell; Eduardo Lora

    2011-01-01

    There is widespread concern that recent increases in international food prices may have significant effects on domestic food prices and inflation. This note assesses the impact of the recent food price shock on food, non-food and consumer inflation in the countries of Latin American and the Caribbean (LAC). Vector Autoregressive Regressions (VARs) are estimated for each country to trace the effect of international food prices, the price of oil and the value of the US dollar on domestic prices...

  13. Classification of Forest Fragmentation in North America - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of North America including the Caribbean and most of Mexico. The map layer is an excerpt from a global assessment of forest...

  14. Agreement between the Republic of Chile and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean. Agreement by exchange of letters of 6 November 1995 and 25 June 1996 with the Republic of Chile in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document reproduces the Agreement by exchange of letters with the Republic of Chile on Safeguards Agreement of 5 April 1995 concluded between Chile and the IAEA, in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) and the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean (the Tlatelolco Treaty). The Agreement was approved by the Board of Governors on 9 September 1996. The texts of letters of 6 November 1995 and 25 June 1996 are also included

  15. Stranded pumice in the western Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, J. A.; Henton De Angelis, S.; Toscano, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Floating and washed-up pumices have been reported by scientific expeditions along the Caribbean Sea coast of the Central American Isthmus and the northern coast of South America since at least 1947. Local coastal communities have been utilizing this resource for many years. The rounded and buffered morphology of hand specimens is consistent with water-borne transit. The volcanically active Caribbean and Central American regions provide a number of candidates for source volcanoes and eruptions. We have attempted to identify this source using samples collected from Carrie Bow Cay and Placencia Beach, Belize; Tulum Beach, Mexico; Morrosquillo Bay, Colombia; and Galeta Point, Panama. We have tracked possible transport routes through the use of river drainage and ocean current maps. The criteria for comparing the products of potential source volcanoes (including Atitlán Caldera in Guatemala and Caribbean sources such as Mt. Pelée, Martinique and Soufrière Hills, Montserrat) were developed from the whole rock major and trace element geochemistry and the compositional and textural characteristics of pumice and their constituent minerals and glasses. The largest pumice sample collected from Carrie Bow Cay, Belize, was 18.5x12 cm with the typical, rounded morphology and distinctively stretched vesicles exhibited by this pumice collection.

  16. Rodents of the Caribbean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabre, Pierre-Henri; Mouatt, Julia Thidamarth Vilstrup; Raghavan, Maanasa;

    2014-01-01

    The Capromyidae (hutias) are endemic rodents of the Caribbean and represent a model of dispersal for non-flying mammals in the Greater Antilles. This family has experienced severe extinctions during the Holocene and its phylogenetic affinities with respect to other caviomorph relatives are still ...

  17. Report made on behalf of the commission of foreign affairs about the law project, adopted by the Senate, authorizing the ratification of the agreement between the French Republic, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency relative to the enforcement of warranties in the framework of the treaty of nuclear weapons prohibition in South America and the Caribbeans area (two protocols together); Rapport fait au nom de la commission des affaires etrangeres sur le projet de loi, adopte par le senat, autorisant la ratification de l'accord entre la Republique francaise, la Communaute europeenne de l'energie atomique et l'Agence internationale de l'energie atomique relatif a l'application de garanties dans le cadre du traite visant l'interdiction des armes nucleaires en Amerique latine et dans les Caraibes (ensemble deux protocoles)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This report comments the reasons of the signature of the agreement between France, EURATOM and the IAEA for the reinforcement of IAEA's non-proliferation controls in the South America and Caribbean areas (law project no. 1329). The ratification of this agreement will have only few concrete consequences but will contribute to the promotion of non-proliferation and to the enforcement of warranties in the framework of the treaty of interdiction of nuclear weapons in South America and in the Caribbean area (signed in Vienna, Austria, on March 21, 2000). The commission of foreign affairs adopted this law project on March 3, 2004. (J.S.)

  18. Tailoring Social Protection to Small Island Developing States : Lessons Learned from the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Asha; Cheston, Timothy; Coudouel, Aline; Subran, Ludovic

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the role of social protection (SP) in Small Island Developing States (SIDS), given their particular structural, human resource and capacity constraints. While it focuses on SIDS in Latin America and the Caribbean, the lessons may be relevant to other SIDS with similar challenges. Caribbean SIDS have made significant commitment to address the needs of the vulnerable, as reflected by their level of SP spending, and the numerous safety net programs, labor market interventions...

  19. Tectonic evolution and mantle structure of the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benthem, Steven; Govers, Rob; Spakman, Wim; Wortel, Rinus

    2013-06-01

    investigate whether predictions of mantle structure from tectonic reconstructions are in agreement with a detailed tomographic image of seismic P wave velocity structure under the Caribbean region. In the upper mantle, positive seismic anomalies are imaged under the Lesser Antilles and Puerto Rico. These anomalies are interpreted as remnants of Atlantic lithosphere subduction and confirm tectonic reconstructions that suggest at least 1100 km of convergence at the Lesser Antilles island arc during the past ~45 Myr. The imaged Lesser Antilles slab consists of a northern and southern anomaly, separated by a low-velocity anomaly across most of the upper mantle, which we interpret as the subducted North America-South America plate boundary. The southern edge of the imaged Lesser Antilles slab agrees with vertical tearing of South America lithosphere. The northern Lesser Antilles slab is continuous with the Puerto Rico slab along the northeastern plate boundary. This results in an amphitheater-shaped slab, and it is interpreted as westward subducting North America lithosphere that remained attached to the surface along the northeastern boundary of the Caribbean plate. At the Muertos Trough, however, material is imaged until a depth of only 100 km, suggesting a small amount of subduction. The location and length of the imaged South Caribbean slab agrees with proposed subduction of Caribbean lithosphere under the northern South America plate. An anomaly related to proposed Oligocene subduction at the Nicaragua rise is absent in the tomographic model. Beneath Panama, a subduction window exists across the upper mantle, which is related to the cessation of subduction of the Nazca plate under Panama since 9.5 Ma and possibly the preceding subduction of the extinct Cocos-Nazca spreading center. In the lower mantle, two large anomaly patterns are imaged. The westernmost anomaly agrees with the subduction of Farallon lithosphere. The second lower mantle anomaly is found east of

  20. Usefulness for surveillance of hypertension prevalence studies in Latin America and the Caribbean: the past 10 years Utilidad de los estudios de prevalencia para la vigilancia de la hipertensión en América Latina y el Caribe: los 10 últimos años

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa S. Burroughs Peña

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the usefulness for surveillance of the peer-reviewed literature on the prevalence of hypertension in Latin America and the Caribbean published from 2001 to 2010 with a previous study of the published literature from 1962 to 2000. METHODS: A bibliographic search was conducted of publications from 2001 to 2010 that examined the prevalence of hypertension using MEDLINE and LILACS databases. The methodology of each paper was evaluated with the same critical appraisal tool used in the previous study. RESULTS: A total of 81 papers were published from 2001 to 2010 on the prevalence of hypertension in Latin America and the Caribbean. Only 24 of these studies met the minimum methodologic criteria for evaluation. While the total number of studies published in the past 10 years exceeds the number published from 1962 to 2000, the percentage of studies that met the minimum methodologic criteria has not substantially increased. In addition to major methodologic shortcomings, less than 46% of the published studies reported rates of awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension. The hypertension prevalence estimates from the peer-reviewed literature range from 7% to 49%. These studies were primarily done in urban centers and are not evenly distributed throughout the region. CONCLUSIONS: The quality and geographic distribution of the published literature on the prevalence of hypertension in Latin America and the Caribbean are inadequate. Research resources and efforts should be directed in the future toward closing this gap.OBJETIVO: Comparar la utilidad para la vigilancia epidemiológica de los artículos sobre prevalencia de hipertensión en América Latina y el Caribe publicados en revistas con arbitraje científico del 2001 al 2010, con un estudio anterior de la bibliografía publicada en el período 1962-2000. MÉTODOS: En las bases de datos MEDLINE y LILACS se efectuó una búsqueda bibliográfica de los artículos que examinaron

  1. Caribbean shallow water Corallimorpharia

    OpenAIRE

    Hartog, J.C.den

    1980-01-01

    The present paper comprises a review of the Caribbean shallow water Corallimorpharia. Six species, belonging to four genera and three families are treated, including Pseudocorynactis caribbeorum gen. nov. spec. nov., a species with tentacular acrospheres containing the largest spirocysts ever described. Several genera and species have been synonymised. The monotypic family Ricordeidae Watzl, 1922, has been re-established to accommodate Ricordea Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1860. In Ricordea flor...

  2. Latin American and Caribbean Federation of Radiation Protection Societies (FRALC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The idea of a Federation of Radiation Protection Societies in Latin America came up at the First Regional Congress on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety that was held in Buenos Aires (Argentina), in October 1991. At the Second Regional Congress, in Zacatecas (Mexico), in 1993, the Latin American and Caribbean Federation of Radiation Protection Societies (FRALC) was officially launched. The founder members were the Argentine Radiation Protection Society (SAR), the Brazilian Radiation Protection Society (SBPR), the Mexican Radiation Safety Society (SMSR) and the Peruvian Radiation Protection Society (SPR). Now, the FRALC has accepted as members the Radiation Protection Section of the Cuban Physics Society (SPRC) and the Uruguayan Radiation Protection Association (AUR). The basic objectives of the FRALC are: to promote the safe use of radiation and radioactive sources in Latin America and the Caribbean; to promote the foundation of new Radiation Protection Societies within the region, as mean of associating radiation protection professionals, and then, to promote of affiliation of this new societies to IRPA; to encourage the cooperation and mutual aid in the study, research and use of resources, in order to promote the radiation protection development in Latin America and the Caribbean

  3. Seismicity of the Earth 1900-2007, Caribbean Plate and Vicinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benz, Harley M.; Tarr, Arthur C.; Hayes, Gavin P.; Villaseñor, Antonio; Furlong, Kevin P.; Dart, Richard L.; Rhea, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Extensive diversity of tectonic regimes characterizes the perimeter of the Caribbean plate, involving no fewer than four major adjacent plates (North America, South America, Nazca, and Cocos). Inclined zones of deep earthquakes (Wadati-Benioff zones), deep ocean trenches, and arcs of volcanoes clearly indicate subduction of oceanic lithosphere along the Central American and Atlantic Ocean margins of the Caribbean plate, while shallow seismicity and focal mechanisms of major shocks in Guatemala, northern Venezuela, and the Cayman Ridge and Cayman Trench indicate transform fault and pull-apart basin tectonics.

  4. Tsunamis from Tectonic Sources along Caribbean Plate Boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, A. M.; Chacon, S.; Zamora, N.; Audemard, F. A.; Dondin, F. J. Y.; Clouard, V.; Løvholt, F.; Harbitz, C. B.; Vanacore, E. A.; Huerfano Moreno, V. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Working Group 2 (WG2) of the Intergovernmental Coordination Group for the Tsunami and Other Coastal Hazards Warning System for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions (ICG/CARIBE-EWS) in charge of Tsunami Hazards Assessment, has generated a list of tsunami sources for the Caribbean region. Simulating these worst-case, most credible scenarios would provide an estimate of the resulting effects on coastal areas within the Caribbean. In the past few years, several publications have addressed this issue resulting in a collection of potential tsunami sources and scenarios. These publications come from a wide variety of sources; from government agencies to academic institutions. Although these provide the scientific community with a list of sources and scenarios, it was the interest of the WG2 to evaluate what has been proposed and develop a comprehensive list of sources, therefore leaving aside proposed scenarios. The seismo-tectonics experts of the Caribbean within the WG2 members were tasked to evaluate comprehensively which published sources are credible, worst-cases, and consider other sources that have been omitted from available reports. Among these published sources are the GEM Faulted Earth Subduction Characterization Project, and the LANTEX/Caribe Wave annual exercise publications (2009-2015). Caribbean tectonic features capable of generating tsunamis from seismic dislocation are located along the Northeastern Caribbean, the Lesser Antilles Trench, and the Panamá and Southern Caribbean Deformed Belts. The proposed sources have been evaluated based on historical and instrumental seismicity as well as geological and geophysical studies. This paper presents the sources and their justification as most-probable tsunami sources based on the context of crustal deformation due to Caribbean plate interacting with neighboring North and South America plates. Simulations of these sources is part of a subsequent phase in which effects of these tectonically induced tsunamis

  5. Youth Unemployment in the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Parra-Torrado, Monica

    2014-01-01

    Global economic shocks coupled with natural disasters left most Caribbean countries with zero to negative growth and high unemployment rates. The Caribbean region was strongly affected by the last great financial crisis, which resulted in a regional average of zero economic growth in 2010. The purpose of this note is to evaluate the nature of youth unemployment in order to propose policy o...

  6. A serological survey of tick-borne pathogens in dogs in North America and the Caribbean as assessed by Anaplasma phagocytophilum, A. platys, Ehrlichia canis, E. chaffeensis, E. ewingii, and Borrelia burgdorferi species-specific peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara A. Qurollo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tick-borne pathogens cause a spectrum of disease manifestations in both dogs and humans. Recognizing regional and temporal shifts in exposure are important as tick distributions change. To better delineate regional exposure to canine tick-borne pathogens, an expanded set of species-specific peptides were used to detect Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Aph, Anaplasma platys (Apl, Ehrlichia canis (Ec, Ehrlichia chaffeensis (Ech, Ehrlichia ewingii (Eew, and Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb antibodies in canine serum. Methods: Archived canine serum samples (n=6,582 collected during 2008–2010 and in 2012 from the US, Canada, and the Caribbean were retrospectively screened for antibodies against Ehrlichia and Anaplasma species-specific peptides. Overall, regional and temporal seroprevalence rates were determined. Results: Overall Bb and Eew were the most seroprevalent pathogens. During 2008–2010, seroprevalence rates increased overall for Aph and Ech, and regionally, Bb and Aph seroprevalence rates increased in the South. Canada had unexpectedly high seroprevalence rates for Ec and Apl. The most common co-exposures were Eew+Ech, followed by Aph+Bb and Eew+Bb. Conclusions: This study demonstrated significant shifts in canine vector-borne disease seroprevalence rates. The use of specific peptides facilitated improved geographic delineation of tick-borne pathogen distributions among dogs, which may enhance epidemiological surveillance of vector-borne pathogens shared by dogs and humans.

  7. Golden Discoveries: Literature of the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Judith E.

    1992-01-01

    Describes a U.S. literature course and a comparative literature course that focuses on Asian, African, Canadian, Caribbean, and Latin American literature. Asserts that students need to be aware of the European impact on the U.S. identity, even where it is unpleasant. Discusses the magical realism in the distinct artistic vision of Latin America.…

  8. Cobertura de la ciencia de América Latina y el Caribe en Scopus vs Web of Science Coverage in Scopus vs. Web of Science off research produced in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaly Santa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El propósito del presente trabajo es analizar y comparar el grado de cobertura de las revistas, la producción científica y la visibilidad que tienen los mayores productores de América Latina y el Caribe (LAC en las bases de datos del Institute for Scientific Information (ISI y Scopus. Los resultados demuestran una amplia cobertura de las revistas nacionales indizadas en SCimago Journal and Country Rank frente a las que incluye journal Citation Report (JCR. Sin embargo, muchas de estas incorporaciones son recientes, lo que no ha provocado un especial aumento de los documentos en Scopus y por el momento la producción y citación por países es bastante similar en ambas fuentes. Las revistas indizadas en SJR y que no están incluidas en JCR, alcanzan en general un bajo factor de impacto, mientras que las que están en ambas presentan valores similares.This paper offers a comparative analysis of databases of the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI and Scopus in terms of coverage of journals, scientific output and visibility of the most productive Latin American and Caribbean countries in these capacities. Results show wide coverage of national journals indexed in SCimago Journal and Country Rank (SJR in contrast to those included in the journal Citation Report (JCR. Many of these, however, are recent additions that have not caused a significant increase of documents included in Scopus. Thus, the production and citation numbers for journals listed in both databases are similar, while journals indexed only in SJR exert, in general, lesser impact.

  9. Seismic Monitoring Capabilities of the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions Tsunami Warning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saurel, Jean-Marie; von Hillebrandt-Andrade, Christa; Crespo, Hector; McNamara, Dan; Huerfano, Victor

    2014-05-01

    Over 75 tsunamis have been documented in the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions during the past 500 years. Since 1500, at least 4484 people are reported to have perished in these killer waves. Hundreds of thousands are currently threatened along the Caribbean coastlines. In 2005 the Intergovernmental Coordination Group for the Tsunami and other Coastal Hazards Warning System for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions (CARIBE EWS) was established. It recommended the following minimum seismic performance standards for the detection and analysis of earthquakes: 1) Earthquake detection within 1 minute, 2) Minimum magnitude threshold = M4.5, and 3) Initial hypocenter error of seismic stations in the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions. The NOAA National Weather Service Caribbean Tsunami Warning Program prepares and distributes monthly reports on real time and archived seismic data availability of the contributing stations at the US Tsunami Warning Centers, the Puerto Rico Seismic Network and IRIS. As of early 2014, 99 of the proposed stations are being contributed by national, regional and international seismological institutions. Recent network additions (Nicaragua, Colombia, Mexico, Cayman Islands, and Venezuela) have reduced detection threshold, time and location error throughout much of the Caribbean region and Central America. Specifically, earthquakes (>M4.0) can be detected within 1 minute throughout much of the Caribbean. The remaining exceptions to this standard for detection are portions of northern South America and Mexico. Another performance criterion is 90% data availability. Currently 60-70% of the stations meet this standard. The presentation will further report on the status of the CARIBE EWS seismic capability for the timely and accurate detection and analysis of earthquakes for tsunami warning purposes for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions.

  10. Defining and dividing the greater Caribbean: insights from the biogeography of shorefishes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Ross Robertson

    Full Text Available The Greater Caribbean biogeographic region is the high-diversity heart of the Tropical West Atlantic, one of four global centers of tropical marine biodiversity. The traditional view of the Greater Caribbean is that it is limited to the Caribbean, West Indies, southwest Gulf of Mexico and tip of Florida, and that, due to its faunal homogeneity, lacks major provincial subdivisions. In this scenario the northern 2/3 of the Gulf of Mexico and southeastern USA represent a separate temperate, "Carolinian" biogeographic region. We completed a comprehensive re-assessment of the biogeography of the Greater Caribbean by comparing the distributions of 1,559 shorefish species within 45 sections of shelf waters of the Greater Caribbean and adjacent areas. This analysis shows that that the Greater Caribbean occupies a much larger area than usually thought, extending south to at least Guyana, and north to encompass the entire Carolinian area. Rather than being homogenous, the Greater Caribbean is divided into three major provinces, each with a distinctive, primarily tropical fauna: (1 a central, tropical province comprising the West Indies, Bermuda and Central America; (2 a southern, upwelling-affected province spanning the entire continental shelf of northern South America; and (iii a northern, subtropical province that includes all of the Gulf of Mexico, Florida and southeastern USA. This three-province pattern holds for both reef- and soft bottom fishes, indicating a general response by demersal fishes to major variation in provincial shelf environments. Such environmental differences include latitudinal variation in sea temperature, availability of major habitats (coral reefs, soft bottom shorelines, and mangroves, and nutrient additions from upwelling areas and large rivers. The three-province arrangement of the Greater Caribbean broadly resembles and has a similar environmental basis to the provincial arrangement of its sister biogeographic region, the

  11. Amendments to the treaty for the prohibition of nuclear weapons in Latin America (Tlatelolco Treaty)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document reproduces the amendments to the Tlatelolco Treaty approved on 26 August 1992 by the Special Session of the General Conference of the Agency for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean

  12. Agreement between the Republic of Colombia and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean. An agreement by exchange of letters of 5 February and 5 April 2001 with the Republic of Colombia in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The text of the Exchange of Letters is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. This Exchange of Letters constitutes an agreement confirming that: - the Safeguards Agreement of 22 December 1982, concluded between the Republic of Colombia and the IAEA, pursuant to the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean (the Tlatelolco Treaty), also satisfies the obligation of Colombia under Article III of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) to conclude a safeguards agreement with the IAEA; the safeguards set forth in the Safeguards Agreement shall also apply, as regards Colombia, in connection with the NPT; the provisions of the Safeguards Agreement shall apply as long as Colombia is party to the NPT or the Tlatelolco Treaty or both

  13. First visual record of a living basking shark Cetorhinus maximus in the Caribbean Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geelhoed, S.C.V.; Janinhoff, N.; Verdaat, J.P.

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of basking sharks in the Caribbean Sea is only recently documented by satellite tagging studies, which show that some individuals migrate through the region en route from waters off the east coast of the USA to waters off northeastern South-America. The observation of a basking shark

  14. Immigrants and Refugees: The Caribbean and South Florida. Occasional Papers Series, Dialogues #2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida International Univ., Miami. Latin American and Caribbean Center.

    Six papers on Caribbean immigrants and refugees in south Florida are presented in this document. Their titles (and authors) are: (1) "Let's Welcome the Refugees" (Bryan O. Walsh); (2) "The Haitians and America's 'Pull'" (Anthony P. Maingot); (3) "Estimates of Haitian International Migration for the 1950-1980 Period" (James Allman); (4) "West…

  15. Caribbean and Central American Women's Feminist Inquiry through Theater-Based Action Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Ares, Rocío

    2015-01-01

    Feminist action research interrogates gendered dynamics in the development of a collective consciousness. A group of immigrant Latina women (Latinas) from the Caribbean and Central America employed community-based theater as an instrument to mobilize diverse audiences against discriminatory practices and policies. Based on their theater work, I…

  16. A dynamic landslide hazard assessment system for Central America and Hispaniola

    OpenAIRE

    Kirschbaum, D. B.; T. Stanley(STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Didcot, UK); Simmons, J.

    2015-01-01

    Landslides pose a serious threat to life and property in Central America and the Caribbean Islands. In order to allow regionally coordinated situational awareness and disaster response, an online decision support system was created. At its core is a new flexible framework for evaluating potential landslide activity in near real time: Landslide Hazard Assessment for Situational Awareness. This framework was implemented in Central America and the Caribbean by integrating a reg...

  17. A dynamic landslide hazard assessment system for Central America and Hispaniola

    OpenAIRE

    D. B. Kirschbaum; Stanley, T.; Simmons, J

    2015-01-01

    Landslides pose a serious threat to life and property in Central America and the Caribbean Islands. In order to allow regionally coordinated situational awareness and disaster response, an online decision support system was created. At its core is a new flexible framework for evaluating potential landslide activity in near real-time: Landslide Hazard Assessment for Situational Awareness. This framework was implemented in Central America and the Caribbean by ...

  18. La práctica de la medicina tradicional en América Latina y el Caribe: el dilema entre regulación y tolerancia The practice of traditional medicine in Latin America and the Caribbean: the dilemma between regulation and tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Nigenda

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Caracterizar el estado actual de la regulación de la medicina tradicional en nueve países de América Latina y el Caribe. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se construyó una base de datos sobre componentes de los sistemas de salud tradicionales en nueve países de América Latina y el Caribe, mediante la creación de una red de individuos e instituciones de distintos países que estuvieran interesados en participar como informantes especializados con diferentes perfiles. La información para este estudio de tipo cualitativo se levantó, sistematizó y analizó entre marzo y diciembre de 1998. RESULTADOS: Se exponen los resultados obtenidos del tema de regulación de la medicina tradicional dividiendo a los países en tres grupos: a los que cuentan con algún tipo de desarrollo en materia de legislación; b los que están trabajando en el proceso de legislación, y c los que no tienen legislación y el proceso de regulación es incipiente. CONCLUSIONES: Se muestra que el proceso legislativo de la medicina tradicional es variado en la región y se encuentra en diferentes etapas. Esta variedad de estadios nos muestra la complejidad de regular una práctica terapéutica de prestadores con bajos niveles de entrenamiento formal, con prácticas variadas y que sustentan su ejercicio en usos y costumbres que en las mayoría de las ocasiones son difíciles de ubicar dentro de los estándares de los sistemas de salud oficiales. El estudio se considera importante para el diseño e implementación de políticas que permitan adecuar la oferta de servicios de medicina tradicional con las necesidades de las poblaciones que más hacen uso de ella. El texto completo en inglés de este artículo está disponible en: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.htmlOBJECTIVE: This paper characterizes the current stage of traditional medicine in nine countries of Latin America and the Caribbean. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This qualitative study was conducted between March and December

  19. Redes de Producción y Diseminación de Información sobre Educación en América Latina y el Caribe: su Utilidad para Tomadores de Decisión. Networks of Production and Dissemination of Information on Education in Latin America and the Caribbean: Their Usefulness for Decision Makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Téllez

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of a study that explored the formal and informal information networks operating in Latin America and the Caribbean, and estimated their utility for educational policymaking processes. To achieve this goal the following procedures were undertaken: first, a search for information networks in the region was conducted; second, an analysis matrix for information networks intended to reveal their main characteristics (origin, members, information resources provided, types of information offered and topics for which information is provided, among others was made; and third, interviews to key informants about the utility of these networks to design educational policies in the region were conducted. The main conclusions of the study were: a most of the information related to educational policy that circulates through information networks in Latin America and the Caribbean is not useful for policymaking processes; b the networks that offer analytic abstracts of research and policy experiences, and propose policy solutions for policy problems in a non-technical language increase the possibility of information use by policymakers; c informal networks, where consultants, advisors, or colleagues communicate orally to policymakers relevant information about the characteristics of successful policy initiatives in specific contexts, seem to have more impact than formal networks on policy development; and d the utility of information networks for educational policy decisions is related to their ability to communicate, in a clear and straightforward way, the main results of policy researches and experiences. Este artículo presenta los resultados de un estudio que exploró las distintas redes de información formales y no formales que existen en América Latina y el Caribe, estimando su utilidad para el diseño de políticas educativas. Para lograr lo anterior, se llevaron a cabo los siguientes procedimientos: primero, se elabor

  20. Marine biodiversity in the Caribbean: regional estimates and distribution patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miloslavich, Patricia; Díaz, Juan Manuel; Klein, Eduardo; Alvarado, Juan José; Díaz, Cristina; Gobin, Judith; Escobar-Briones, Elva; Cruz-Motta, Juan José; Weil, Ernesto; Cortés, Jorge; Bastidas, Ana Carolina; Robertson, Ross; Zapata, Fernando; Martín, Alberto; Castillo, Julio; Kazandjian, Aniuska; Ortiz, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of the distribution patterns of marine biodiversity and summarizes the major activities of the Census of Marine Life program in the Caribbean region. The coastal Caribbean region is a large marine ecosystem (LME) characterized by coral reefs, mangroves, and seagrasses, but including other environments, such as sandy beaches and rocky shores. These tropical ecosystems incorporate a high diversity of associated flora and fauna, and the nations that border the Caribbean collectively encompass a major global marine biodiversity hot spot. We analyze the state of knowledge of marine biodiversity based on the geographic distribution of georeferenced species records and regional taxonomic lists. A total of 12,046 marine species are reported in this paper for the Caribbean region. These include representatives from 31 animal phyla, two plant phyla, one group of Chromista, and three groups of Protoctista. Sampling effort has been greatest in shallow, nearshore waters, where there is relatively good coverage of species records; offshore and deep environments have been less studied. Additionally, we found that the currently accepted classification of marine ecoregions of the Caribbean did not apply for the benthic distributions of five relatively well known taxonomic groups. Coastal species richness tends to concentrate along the Antillean arc (Cuba to the southernmost Antilles) and the northern coast of South America (Venezuela-Colombia), while no pattern can be observed in the deep sea with the available data. Several factors make it impossible to determine the extent to which these distribution patterns accurately reflect the true situation for marine biodiversity in general: (1) highly localized concentrations of collecting effort and a lack of collecting in many areas and ecosystems, (2) high variability among collecting methods, (3) limited taxonomic expertise for many groups, and (4) differing levels of activity in the study of different

  1. New Kinematic Block Model for the Caribbean Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symithe, S. J.; Calais, E.; Freed, A. M.

    2013-12-01

    The quasi-frontal subduction of the north and south American plates under the Lesser Antilles and the left- and right-lateral strike slip along the northern and southern margins of the Caribbean plate offer the opportunity to study the transition from subduction to strike-slip faulting along major plate boundaries. In addition, the segmentation and degree of interplate coupling along the Lesser Antilles subduction is key to our understanding of the earthquake potential of a subduction zone whose length is similar to the rupture area of the Mw9.0, 2011, Tohoku earthquake in Japan. Previous studies used GPS data and a block modeling approach to infer coupling at the plate interface and strain partitioning at the transition with strike-slip fault in the northeastern Caribbean (Manaker et al., 2008; Benford et al., 2013), with three main findings: (1) a correlation between strong interplate coupling and strain partitioning, (2) low coupling of the Lesser Antilles and Puerto Rico subduction, and, (3) internal deformation within the upper plate in Hispaniola. These studies were however based on a sparse and inhomogeneous GPS data set. Here we use a much updated geodetic GPS data set (~300 stations, 50% continuous) and earthquake slip vectors to expand these previous studies to the entire Caribbean region (excluding Central America, except to define the stable Caribbean plate). We use the block modeling approach described in McCaffrey et al. (2002) to test the optimal block geometry for the northern, eastern and southern boundaries of the Caribbean plate. We solve for variations in interplate coupling along the subduction plate boundaries, estimate angular velocities for each block/plate, and determine strain accumulation rates for all major faults in the region.

  2. Marine biodiversity in the Caribbean: regional estimates and distribution patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Miloslavich

    Full Text Available This paper provides an analysis of the distribution patterns of marine biodiversity and summarizes the major activities of the Census of Marine Life program in the Caribbean region. The coastal Caribbean region is a large marine ecosystem (LME characterized by coral reefs, mangroves, and seagrasses, but including other environments, such as sandy beaches and rocky shores. These tropical ecosystems incorporate a high diversity of associated flora and fauna, and the nations that border the Caribbean collectively encompass a major global marine biodiversity hot spot. We analyze the state of knowledge of marine biodiversity based on the geographic distribution of georeferenced species records and regional taxonomic lists. A total of 12,046 marine species are reported in this paper for the Caribbean region. These include representatives from 31 animal phyla, two plant phyla, one group of Chromista, and three groups of Protoctista. Sampling effort has been greatest in shallow, nearshore waters, where there is relatively good coverage of species records; offshore and deep environments have been less studied. Additionally, we found that the currently accepted classification of marine ecoregions of the Caribbean did not apply for the benthic distributions of five relatively well known taxonomic groups. Coastal species richness tends to concentrate along the Antillean arc (Cuba to the southernmost Antilles and the northern coast of South America (Venezuela-Colombia, while no pattern can be observed in the deep sea with the available data. Several factors make it impossible to determine the extent to which these distribution patterns accurately reflect the true situation for marine biodiversity in general: (1 highly localized concentrations of collecting effort and a lack of collecting in many areas and ecosystems, (2 high variability among collecting methods, (3 limited taxonomic expertise for many groups, and (4 differing levels of activity in the study

  3. Artists in and out of the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Sally Price

    1999-01-01

    [First paragraph] Caribbean Art. VEERLE POUPEYE. London: Thames and Hudson, 1998. 224 pp. (Paper US$ 14.95) Transforming the Crown: African, Asian and Caribbean Artists in Britain, 1966-1996. MORA J. BEAUCHAMP-BYRD & M. FRANKLIN SIRMANS (eds.). New York: Caribbean Cultural Center, 1998. 177 pp. (Paper US$ 39.95, £31.95) "Caribbean" (like "Black British") culture is (as a Dutch colleague once said of postmodernism) a bit of a slippery fish. One of the books under ...

  4. The perspectives of Caribbean high school students' experiences in American science classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Renae Luenell

    The purpose of this study was to describe the perspectives of Caribbean high school students' experiences in American science classrooms. Research suggests that psychological, cultural, and socioeconomic perspectives influence the science experiences of African Americans or Blacks; the result of which is under-representation (Lewis et al., 2000). Nonetheless, what is uncertain is if these and other perspectives are similar to the science experiences of Caribbeans who also are majority black by race and rank as the 3 rd largest immigrant population in America's schools (Suarez-Orozco, 2000). Questions guiding this study were: (1) What are the perspectives of Caribbean high school students' experiences in American science classrooms? (2) What can we learn from the perspectives of Caribbean high school students' science experiences that may address issues of participation and interest; consequently, influencing the overall performance of ethnic minorities in school science? Sociocultural theory provides the framework for the analysis of the study. Four Caribbean born students in an American high school participated in this naturalistic qualitative research. A constant comparative method was used to categorize and analyze the data and uncover meaningful patterns that emerged from the four interviews and written documents. Although there were similarities between African Americans' science experiences as documented in the literature and that of Caribbeans in this study, the Caribbean participants relied on prior native experiences to dictate their perspectives of their science experiences in America. According to Caribbean students, American science high schools classrooms utilize an objective style of assessments; are characterized by a lack of teacher support; allow behavioral problems in the classroom; and function through different communication styles than the native Caribbean science classroom environment. This study implies science educators should be sensitive

  5. Archipelagic American Studies and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Russell Roberts

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article, as part of the “American Studies: Caribbean Edition” Special Forum, brings specific focus to the ways in which the Caribbean and the field of Caribbean Studies insists upon a version of American Studies that sheds its post-exceptionalist anti-insularity and, in the process, emerges as transregional and archipelagic.

  6. Connectivity for Caribbean Countries : An Initial Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Briceno-Garmendia, Cecilia; Bofinger, Heinrich C.; Cubas, Diana; Millan-Placci, Maria Florencia

    2014-01-01

    Every discussion of the Caribbean states considers their characteristics as sea-locked countries, small economies, highly vulnerable to natural disasters, and a geographic platform that calls for regional cooperation and integration. The Caribbean Sea is the most important vehicle and the most challenging obstacle Caribbean countries have to connect with the world. This report measures and...

  7. Oceanic Remnants In The Caribbean Plate: Origin And Loss Of Related LIPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giunta, G.

    2005-12-01

    The modern Caribbean Plate is an independent lithospheric entity, occupying more than 4 Mkm2 and consisting of the remnants of little deformed Cretaceous oceanic plateau of the Colombia and Venezuela Basins (almost 1 Mkm2) and the Palaeozoic-Mesozoic Chortis continental block (about 700,000 km2), both bounded by deformed marginal belts. The northern (Guatemala and Greater Antilles) and the southern (northern Venezuela) plate margins are marked by collisional zones, whereas the western (Central America Isthmus) and the eastern (Lesser Antilles) margins are represented by convergent boundaries and their magmatic arcs, all involving ophiolitic terranes. The evolutionary history of the Caribbean Plate since the Jurassic-Early Cretaceous encompasses plume, accretionary, and collisional tectonics, the evidence of which has been recorded in the oceanic remnants of lost LIPs, as revealed in: i) the MORB to OIB thickened crust of the oceanic plateau, including its un-deformed or little deformed main portion, and scattered deformed tectonic units; ii) ophiolitic tectonic units of MORB affinity and the rock blocks in ophiolitic melanges; iii) intra-oceanic, supra subduction magmatic sequences with IAT and CA affinities. The Mesozoic oceanic LIPs, from which the remnants of the Caribbean Plate have been derived, have been poorly preserved during various episodes of the intra-oceanic convergence, either those related to the original proto-Caribbean oceanic realm or those connected with two eo-Caribbean stages of subduction. The trapped oceanic plateau of the Colombia and Venezuela Basins is likely to be an unknown portion of a bigger crustal element of a LIP, similar to the Ontong-Java plateau. The Jurassic-Early Cretaceous proto-Caribbean oceanic domain consists of oceanic crust generated at multiple spreading centres; during the Cretaceous, part of this crust was thickened to form an oceanic plateau with MORB and OIB affinities. At the same time, both South and North American

  8. Annotated bibliography of coal in the Caribbean region. [Lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orndorff, R.C.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of preparing this annotated bibliography was to compile information on coal localities for the Caribbean region used for preparation of a coal map of the region. Also, it serves as a brief reference list of publications for future coal studies in the Caribbean region. It is in no way an exhaustive study or complete listing of coal literature for the Caribbean. All the material was gathered from published literature with the exception of information from Cuba which was supplied from a study by Gordon Wood of the US Geological Survey, Branch of Coal Resources. Following the classification system of the US Geological Survey (Wood and others, 1983), the term coal resources has been used in this report for reference to general estimates of coal quantities even though authors of the material being annotated may have used the term coal reserves in a similar denotation. The literature ranges from 1857 to 1981. The countries listed include Colombia, Mexico, Venezuela, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, and the countries of Central America.

  9. TSUNAMI HAZARD AND TOTAL RISK IN THE CARIBBEAN BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. William Proenza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Deadly western North Atlantic Ocean tsunami events in the last centuries have occurred along the east coast of Canada, the United States, most Caribbean islands, and the North Atlantic Coast of South America. The catastrophic Indian Ocean tsunami of 2004 reminded natural hazards managers that tsunami risk is endemic to all oceans. Total Risk is defined as hazard (frequency of tsunami events times measures of elements at risk (human exposure times measures of vulnerability (preparedness in a given epoch (Nott, 2006. While the tsunami hazard in the Caribbean (averaging 19 ± 22 years between deadly events is lower than Pacific coastal areas, the total risk to life and property is at least as high as the USA West Coast, Hawaii, or Alaska, because of the higher Caribbean population density and beach tourism so attractive to more than 35 million visitors a year. Viewed in this light, the allocation of resources by governments, industry, and insurers needs to be adjusted for the better protection of life, for coastal engineering, and for infrastructure.

  10. Reforma de sistemas de servicios de salud y equidad en América Latina y el Caribe: algunas lecciones de los años 80 y 90 Health systems reform and equity in Latin America and the Caribbean: lessons from the 1980s and 1990s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Almeida

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Este ensayo propone una revisión de la cuestión equidad y reformas en América Latina y el Caribe en el contexto de cambios de las dos últimas décadas, dando énfasis a la discusión de la reforma de los sistemas de servicios de salud. La coyuntura económica, política y social de los críticos años 70 fue ampliamente favorable a los cortes en el gasto público, sobre todo en el ámbito social, y a la reorganización de servicios de salud bajo una perspectiva economicista, pragmática y restrictiva. El balance de la situación económica y social latinoamericana es impactantemente negativo, e incluso los esfuerzos para recuperar los estragos de los años 80 no tuvieron mucho éxito en los 90. Las reformas implementadas en algunos países confirman la difusión de una agenda común, adaptada a las condiciones nacionales, siendo las opciones más radicales de adhesión al nuevo modelo reformista las que presentan peor impacto en términos de equidad. Algunos resultados positivos de estos procesos se diluyen en los nuevos problemas suscitados por las propias reformas. La superación de las desigualdades, sin embargo, todavía es una meta distante.This essay proposes a review of the issues of equity and reform in Latin America and the Caribbean in the context of changes in recent decades, emphasizing the discussion of health systems reform. The economic, political, and social context prevailing in the critical 1970s extensively favored budget cuts for public expenditures, cost containment, changes in the health sector power structure, and health services reorganization from an 'economicist', pragmatic, and restrictive perspective. An inventory of the Latin American economic and social situation is markedly negative, and efforts to recover from the damage done in the 1980s were largely unsuccessful in the 1990s. The reforms implemented in some paradigmatic countries (Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Argentina, and Brazil, in light of their specific

  11. Intervenciones para la prevención del VIH e ITS en América Latina y Caribe: una revisión de la experiencia regional Interventions for HIV/STD prevention in Latin America and the Caribbean: a review of the regional experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos F. Cáceres

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available La epidemia de VIH/SIDA ha cumplido dos décadas en América Latina y Caribe, siendo este último la segunda región más afectada en el mundo. En UNGASS (2001 los gobiernos renovaron su compromiso de enfrentar la epidemia con medidas de prevención y atención adecuadas. En esta revisión, partimos caracterizando la epidemia en la región como concentrada en grupos vulnerables (excepto algunas áreas de generalización. A continuación, reseñamos la experiencia en prevención en cada grupo objetivo, y contrastamos esta experiencia con el perfil epidemiológico para concluir que no se evidenció un abordaje oportuno y suficiente de la epidemia en grupos vulnerables, los cuales están vinculados a otros grupos. También señalamos condiciones que harían posible un mayor impacto de las acciones preventivas, y analizamos formas en que las actividades de prevención pueden integrarse mejor a las de reducción del impacto. Finalmente, analizamos la información disponible sobre gastos en prevención.The HIV/AIDS epidemic has completed its second decade in Latin America and the Caribbean, the latter being the second most heavily affected region in the world. In UNGASS (2001, governments renewed their commitment to confront the epidemic with adequate prevention and care. This review begins by characterizing the regional epidemic as concentrated on vulnerable groups (except for certain areas of generalization. Subsequently, we summarize the prevention work with each target group and contrast it with the epidemiological profile, concluding that the epidemic was not addressed in either timely or sufficient fashion in vulnerable groups, all of which are linked to other population groups. We also point out conditions that could foster greater impact by prevention strategies and analyze ways by which prevention activities could be better integrated with impact/reduction measures. Finally, we analyze the available information on expenditures in prevention.

  12. Law project (no. 1329) adopted by the Senate and authorizing the ratification of the agreement between the French Republic, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency relative to the enforcement of warranties in the framework of the treaty of nuclear weapons prohibition in South America and the Caribbeans area (two protocols together); Projet de loi (no. 1329) adopte par le Senat autorisant la ratification de l'accord entre la Republique francaise, la Communaute europeenne de l'energie atomique et l'Agence internationale de l'energie atomique relatif a l'application de garanties dans le cadre du traite visant l'interdiction des armes nucleraires en Amerique latine et dans les Caraibes (ensemble deux protocoles)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-01-01

    The French Senate adopted on January 6, 2004 the project of law which authorizes the ratification of the agreement between France, the European atomic energy community and the IAEA about the enforcement of warranties in the framework of the treaty of interdiction of nuclear weapons in South America and in the Caribbean area signed in Vienna (Austria) on March 21, 2000. The text of this treaty is attached to this law. (J.S.)

  13. Eradication of the tropical bont tick in the Caribbean: is the Caribbean amblyomma program in a crisis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegram, Rupert G; Gersabeck, Edward F; Wilson, David; Hansen, Jorgen W

    2002-10-01

    The progress and problems in the Caribbean Amblyomma Program (CAP) are reviewed since its inception in 1995. During 1998, there were funding and administrative management problems. USDA resolved the acute funding crisis, and after three years of negotiation, the CAP has now secured an additional euro 1.5 million from the European Community. Changes in administration in 1998 included the withdrawal of IICA from the program, and the transition during the decentralization of administrative and financial management from FAO headquarters to the Regional Office for Latin America and the Caribbean, based in Chile. A general overview of technical progress and one case study, St. Kitts, is presented. One major concern that emerged during 2000 is that the elimination of the small remaining tropical bont tick (TBT) "hot spots" in both St. Kitts and St. Lucia remained elusive. Why is this so? Egrets? Alternative residual hosts? Or is it fatigue in both technical and administrative management functions? Of even greater concern is the finding of two, apparently new, foci in St. Croix (USVI) in the north and St. Vincent in the south. A critical overview of the program has identified one major remaining constraint-an appropriate management support function at both regional and, in some countries, at the national level. A proposal for a revised management strategy, coupled with the identification of a future strategy to succeed the CAP, namely a Caribbean Animal Resources Management (CARM) Program. PMID:12381609

  14. Reconstructing the Population Genetic History of the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Estrada, Andrés; Gravel, Simon; Zakharia, Fouad; McCauley, Jacob L.; Byrnes, Jake K.; Gignoux, Christopher R.; Ortiz-Tello, Patricia A.; Martínez, Ricardo J.; Hedges, Dale J.; Morris, Richard W.; Eng, Celeste; Sandoval, Karla; Acevedo-Acevedo, Suehelay; Norman, Paul J.; Layrisse, Zulay; Parham, Peter; Martínez-Cruzado, Juan Carlos; Burchard, Esteban González; Cuccaro, Michael L.; Martin, Eden R.; Bustamante, Carlos D.

    2013-01-01

    The Caribbean basin is home to some of the most complex interactions in recent history among previously diverged human populations. Here, we investigate the population genetic history of this region by characterizing patterns of genome-wide variation among 330 individuals from three of the Greater Antilles (Cuba, Puerto Rico, Hispaniola), two mainland (Honduras, Colombia), and three Native South American (Yukpa, Bari, and Warao) populations. We combine these data with a unique database of genomic variation in over 3,000 individuals from diverse European, African, and Native American populations. We use local ancestry inference and tract length distributions to test different demographic scenarios for the pre- and post-colonial history of the region. We develop a novel ancestry-specific PCA (ASPCA) method to reconstruct the sub-continental origin of Native American, European, and African haplotypes from admixed genomes. We find that the most likely source of the indigenous ancestry in Caribbean islanders is a Native South American component shared among inland Amazonian tribes, Central America, and the Yucatan peninsula, suggesting extensive gene flow across the Caribbean in pre-Columbian times. We find evidence of two pulses of African migration. The first pulse—which today is reflected by shorter, older ancestry tracts—consists of a genetic component more similar to coastal West African regions involved in early stages of the trans-Atlantic slave trade. The second pulse—reflected by longer, younger tracts—is more similar to present-day West-Central African populations, supporting historical records of later transatlantic deportation. Surprisingly, we also identify a Latino-specific European component that has significantly diverged from its parental Iberian source populations, presumably as a result of small European founder population size. We demonstrate that the ancestral components in admixed genomes can be traced back to distinct sub

  15. Late Jurassic breakup of the Proto-Caribbean and circum-global circulation across Pangea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Peter O.; Rojas-Agramonte, Yamirka; Sandoval-Gutierrez, Maria; Urbani, Franco; García-Delgado, Dora; Garban, Grony; Pérez Rodríguez, Mireya

    2013-04-01

    Based on earlier plate reconstructions, many authors have postulated a circum-global equatorial current system flowing through the Pangea breakup, the Tethys - Atlantic - Caribbean Seaway, to explain changes in global climate during the Middle and Late Jurassic. While a Toarcian (late Early Jurassic) breakup is well constrained for the Central Atlantic, the place and timing of initial ocean crust formation between the Americas (Gulf of Mexico or Proto-Caribbean?) is still poorly constrained. Ar/Ar ages (190 to 154 Ma) in the Tinaquillo ultramafic complex (NW-Venezuela) have been interpreted as a result of initial Proto-Caribbean rifting. However, the Tinaquillo is clearly a subconinental block and the cited ages age cannot be related with breakup. The Siquisique Ophiolite (NW-Venezuela), long known for the occurrence of Bajocian-early Bathonian ammonite fragments found in interpilow sediments, has previously been interpreted as an early Proto-Caribbean remnant. However, the ammonite fragments were recovered from blocks in a Paleogene tectonic mélange, whereas the main Siquisique ophiolite body seems to be of middle Cretaceous age, based on a few Ar/Ar dates and poorly preserved middle to late Cretaceous radiolarians, which we recovered from black cherts interbedded with volcanics. The best record of Proto-Caribbean rifting and breakup is preserved in the Guaniguanico Terrane of NW-Cuba, which represents a distal Yucatan (N-American) passive margin segment telescoped by Tertiary nappe tectonics. In this terrane middle to upper Oxfordian pelagic limestones encroach on the E-MORB type El Sabalo Basalts which represent the oldest known remnants of oceanic crust clearly identifiable as Proto-Caribbean. Older, syn-rift sediments in the Proto-Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico are known to be deltaic to shallow marine detrital, and evaporitic. Although oceanic crust seemingly started to form in the early Late Jurassic (158 my), recent plate tectonic reconstructions show

  16. Population Aging : Is Latin America Ready?

    OpenAIRE

    Cotlear, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The past half-century has seen enormous changes in the demographic makeup of Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). In the 1950s, LAC had a small population of about 160 million people, less than today's population of Brazil. Two-thirds of Latin Americans lived in rural areas. Families were large and women had one of the highest fertility rates in the world, low levels of education, and fe...

  17. Cohabitation in Latin America: a comparative perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Sussai Soares, Maira Covre

    2014-01-01

    The coexistence of marriage and cohabitation is an intriguing feature of Latin American nuptiality. Historically common among lower social classes in Central America and the Caribbean, the incidence of cohabitation is also increasing among higher educated groups and southern Latin American countries. This study uses census and survey data to investigate the characteristics of Latin American cohabitation.First, the countries’ socioeconomic characteristics, related to the incidence of cohabitat...

  18. Areas of Unsolved Problems in Caribbean Active Tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, P.

    2015-12-01

    I review some unsolved problems in Caribbean active tectonics. At the regional and plate scale: 1) confirm the existence of intraplate deformation zones of the central Caribbean plate that are within the margin of error of ongoing GPS measurements; 2) carry out field studies to evaluate block models versus models for distributed fault shear on the densely populated islands of Jamaica, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands; 3) carry out paleoseismological research of key plate boundary faults that may have accumulated large strains but have not been previously studied in detail; 4) determine the age of onset and far-field effects of the Cocos ridge and the Central America forearc sliver; 4) investigate the origin and earthquake-potential of obliquely-sheared rift basins along the northern coast of Venezuela; 5) determine the age of onset and regional active, tectonic effects of the Panama-South America collision including the continued activation of the Maracaibo block; and 6) validate longterm rates on active subduction zones with improving, tomographic maps of subducted slabs. At the individual fault scale: 1) determine the mode of termination of large and active strike -slip faults and application of the STEP model (Septentrional, Polochic, El Pilar, Bocono, Santa Marta-Bucaramanaga); 2) improve the understanding of the earthquake potential on the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault zone given "off-fault" events such as the 2010 Haiti earthquake; how widespread is this behavior?; and 3) estimate size of future tsunamis from studies of historic or prehistoric slump scars and mass transport deposits; what potential runups can be predicted from this information?; and 4) devise ways to keep rapidly growing, circum-Caribbean urban populations better informed and safer in the face of inevitable and future, large earthquakes.

  19. Open Access Indicators and Scholarly Communications in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Alperin, Juan Pablo; Packer, Abel; Aguado-López, Eduardo; Becerril-García, Arianna; Babini, Dominique; Archuby, Gustavo; Carrizo, Valeria; García, Darío Alejandro; Higa, Sebastian; Spano, Diego

    2014-01-01

    This book is the result of a joint research and development project supported by UNESCO and undertaken in 2013 by UNESCO in partnership with the Public Knowledge Project (PKP), the Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO), the Network of Scientific Journals of Latin America, the Caribbean, Spain and Portugal (RedALyC), Africa Journals Online (AJOL), the Latin America Social Sciences SchoolBrazil (FLACSO-Brazil), and the Latin American Council of Social Sciences (CLACSO). This book aims t...

  20. TRACE Model in Pilot Cities in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2015-01-01

    This report, supported by the energy sector management assistance program (ESMAP), applies the tool for the rapid assessment of city energy (TRACE) to examine energy use in León, México. This study is one of three requested and conducted in 2013 by the World Bank Latin America and the Caribbean energy unit to begin a dialogue on energy efficiency (EE) potential in Latin America and Caribbe...

  1. Remittances as a Development Tool in Central America: Empowering Microfinance

    OpenAIRE

    Inter-American Development Bank (IDB)

    2003-01-01

    Presents the interest of the Multilateral Investment Fund (MIF) of the Inter-American Development Bank, to increase the impact of remittances on developing countries of Latin America and the Caribbean, through the promotion of innovative projects and dissemination more comprehensive information on this market in the region.

  2. Meaning and repercussions of the Tlatelolco Treaty for Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper addresses the meaning and repercussions of the TLATELOLCO Treaty for Latin America and the caribbean, as part of the major efforts regarding . A nuclear weapons-free zone, It also describes the role of the OPANAL and that of the IAEA article 13 of the treaty, as well as regional and international safeguards are also highlighted

  3. Genetic Diversity in the Lesser Antilles and Its Implications for the Settlement of the Caribbean Basin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jada Benn Torres

    Full Text Available Historical discourses about the Caribbean often chronicle West African and European influence to the general neglect of indigenous people's contributions to the contemporary region. Consequently, demographic histories of Caribbean people prior to and after European contact are not well understood. Although archeological evidence suggests that the Lesser Antilles were populated in a series of northward and eastern migratory waves, many questions remain regarding the relationship of the Caribbean migrants to other indigenous people of South and Central America and changes to the demography of indigenous communities post-European contact. To explore these issues, we analyzed mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosome diversity in 12 unrelated individuals from the First Peoples Community in Arima, Trinidad, and 43 unrelated Garifuna individuals residing in St. Vincent. In this community-sanctioned research, we detected maternal indigenous ancestry in 42% of the participants, with the remainder having haplotypes indicative of African and South Asian maternal ancestry. Analysis of Y-chromosome variation revealed paternal indigenous American ancestry indicated by the presence of haplogroup Q-M3 in 28% of the male participants from both communities, with the remainder possessing either African or European haplogroups. This finding is the first report of indigenous American paternal ancestry among indigenous populations in this region of the Caribbean. Overall, this study illustrates the role of the region's first peoples in shaping the genetic diversity seen in contemporary Caribbean populations.

  4. Honduras: Caribbean Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harborne, A R; Afzal, D C; Andrews, M J

    2001-12-01

    The coast of Honduras, Central America, represents the southern end of the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System, although its marine resources are less extensive and studied than nearby Belize and Mexico. However, the coastal zone contains mainland reef formations, mangroves, wetlands, seagrass beds and extensive fringing reefs around its offshore islands, and has a key role in the economy of the country. Like most tropical areas, this complex of benthic habitats experiences limited annual variation in climatic and oceanographic conditions but seasonal and occasional conditions, particularly coral bleaching and hurricanes, are important influences. The effects of stochastic factors on the country's coral reefs were clearly demonstrated during 1998 when Honduras experienced a major hurricane and bleaching event. Any natural or anthropogenic impacts on reef health will inevitably affect other countries in Latin America, and vice versa, since the marine resources are linked via currents and the functioning of the system transcends political boundaries. Much further work on, for example, movement of larvae and transfer of pollutants is required to delineate the full extent of these links. Anthropogenic impacts, largely driven by the increasing population and proportion of people living in coastal areas, are numerous and include key factors such as agricultural run-off, over-fishing, urban and industrial pollution (particularly sewage) and infrastructure development. Many of these threats act synergistically and, for example, poor watershed management via shifting cultivation, increases sedimentation and pesticide run-off onto coral reefs, which increases stress to corals already affected by decreasing water quality and coral bleaching. Threats from agriculture and fishing are particularly significant because of the size of both industries. The desire to generate urgently required revenue within Honduras has also led to increased tourism which provides an overarching stress

  5. Honduras: Caribbean Coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harborne, Alastair R.; Afzal, Daniel C.; Andrews, Mark J. [Coral Cay Conservation, London (United Kingdom)

    2001-07-01

    The coast of Honduras, Central America, represents the southern end of the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System, although its marine resources are less extensive and studied than nearby Belize and Mexico. However, the coastal zone contains mainland reef formations, mangroves, wetlands, seagrass beds and extensive fringing reefs around its offshore islands, and has a key role in the economy of the country. Like most tropical areas, this complex of benthic habitats experiences limited annual variation in climatic and oceanographic conditions but seasonal and occasional conditions, particularly coral bleaching and hurricanes, are important influences. The effects of stochastic factors on the country's coral reefs were clearly demonstrated during 1998 when Honduras experienced a major hurricane and bleaching event. Any natural or anthropogenic impacts on reef health will inevitably affect other countries in Latin America, and vice versa, since the marine resources are linked via currents and the functioning of the system transcends political boundaries. Much further work on, for example, movement of larvae and transfer of pollutants is required to delineate the full extent of these links. Anthropogenic impacts, largely driven by the increasing population and proportion of people living in coastal areas, are numerous and include key factors such as agricultural run-off, over-fishing, urban and industrial pollution (particularly sewage) and infrastructure development. Many of these threats act synergistically and, for example, poor watershed management via shifting cultivation, increases sedimentation and pesticide run-off onto coral reefs, which increases stress to corals already affected by decreasing water quality and coral bleaching. Threats from agriculture and fishing are particularly significant because of the size of both industries. The desire to generate urgently required revenue within Honduras has also led to increased tourism which provides an over

  6. Microfinance in Latin America and the Caribbean: 2008 Data Update

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio Navajas; Paola A. Pedroza; Peter Bate

    2008-01-01

    This note summarizes the results of a recently completed IDB survey of microfinance in the region. The survey includes information on microfinance activities in 25 countries as well as an initial review of effective interest rates charged to microfinance clients.

  7. Regional Energy Integration in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-12-15

    The regional study has been conducted by the WEC Latin American Member Committees. Having identified that the weak link between existing national energy infrastructures remains a major stumbling block to strengthening regional economic integration, this study aims to propose alternative views -- primarily on the integration of electricity and natural gas markets.

  8. Social Protection Systems in Latin America and the Caribbean: Paraguay

    OpenAIRE

    Milena Lavigne

    2014-01-01

    Since its transition to democracy at the beginning of the 1990s, Paraguay has made considerable progress in confronting poverty and social inequality. The fact that poverty has become a major issue on the public agenda since then has furthered the development of social protection and promotion programmes. The implementation of social policies has focused not only on education, health and pensions, but also on youth, employment protection and housing, showing a new approach to poverty and vuln...

  9. Social Protection Systems in Latin America and the Caribbean: Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Lucía Mina

    2014-01-01

    Social protection tends to revolve around the labour market, social security and social welfare. In Colombia, these issues are characterised by social disarticulation, both at the level of institutional capacity, as well as between supply and demand. In the early 21st century, the social protection system began to adopt a social risk management approach, understood as a set of public policies to reduce vulnerability and improve the quality of life of Colombians, especially among the most unpr...

  10. Low-income Housing in Latin America and the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Jha, Abhas K.

    2007-01-01

    Housing is one of the most important sectors of the economy -- in developing countries as in richer ones -- with large positive externalities in terms of economic growth, public health and societal stability. It is the primary form of asset accumulation for the poor -- often representing more than 50 percent of the assets of households. However, housing systems in developing countries are ...

  11. Trade logistic and regional integration in Latin America & the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Guerrero, Pablo; Lucenti, Krista; Galarza S., Sebastián

    2009-01-01

    During the past few decades, the landscape of the world economy has changed. New trade patterns reflect the globalization of the supply chain and intra-industry trade, and increasing flows between neighboring countries and trading blocs with similar factor endowments. Similarly, the approach to production, trade, and transportation has evolved incorporating freight logistics as an important valueadded service in the global production. This integrated approach have become essential, and as suc...

  12. Strategy for Agricultural Development in Latin America and the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Rubén Echeverría

    1999-01-01

    This document identifies priorities for Bank action in the sector to guide the allocation of resources in support of the strategic elements and objectives it describes. The paper aims to facilitate the preparation of loans and technical cooperation programs and to improve their quality, building consensus both within the Bank and in the region on critical issues for sustainable development of the sector. The proposed strategy presents an integrated approach including actions and instruments t...

  13. Intra-Industry Trade in Latin America and the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Fullerton, Thomas M., Jr.; Sawyer, W. Charles; Richard L Sprinkle

    2011-01-01

    An increasingly important component of total world trade is intra-industry trade (IIT). The large volume of literature on IIT is reflective of this importance. However, this extensive literature has focused almost completely on explaining the causes of IIT. This focus has left a puzzling gap in the literature. Specifically, it is almost impossible to determine the level of IIT for a particular country or region. Further, there is almost no information on the level of IIT at the industry ...

  14. Status of mangrove research in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yara Schaeffer-Novelli

    1990-06-01

    Full Text Available For those in the eastern hemisphere, the most striking characteristic of New World mangroves must be their low diversity. However, this apparent simplicity is deceptive, New World mangrove species are extraordinarily plastic in their adaptations to their environment. On a geographic basis mangroves attain their greatest development where rainfall and tidal subsidies are abundant. These conditions occur in the northwest part of South American continent and on the eastern seabord, south of the Gulf of Paría (Venezuela to São Luís, in Brazil. In the 1970's events related to the developing environmental movement in the United States led to a marked interest in these systems, their ecology and management, pointing out the ecological role of mangroves as sources of organic matter to estuarine food webs.The economic recession of the 80's and its impact on funding agencies, both national and international, and changing national priorities have dramaticaly curtailed scientific research. Research in the region is now almost totally supported by local institutions.The alarming rate at which mangroves are being destroyed in the region requires that prompt action be taken to develop a regional program such as the one recommended in the UNESCO Cali 1978 meeting, capable of fostering and supporting ecosystemic research, the development and compilation of management guidelines and the training of scientific personnel, resource managers, and providing for public environmental education. These guidelines and strategies for effective management of a complex resource can only be developed through research.Os manguesais do novo mundo estão bem mais menos ricos em espécies e vegetais que o novo e o velho Mundo> Entretanto, essa simplicidade é apenas aparente, pois as espécies de mangue são extraordináriamente máleaveis quanto as suas adaptaçõees ao meio ambiente. Geograficamente os manguezais atingem seu máximo desenvolvimento estrutural onde os subsídios das precipitações pluviais e das marés são maiores. Essas condições ocorrem na costa NW do Continente Americano e da porção oriental do litoral da Venezuela (Golfo de Paria até São Luís, no Maranhão (Brasil. O interesse pelo estudo e manejo do ecossistema manguezal ocorrido na década de 1970, destacou a função ecológica do sistema como fonte de matéria orgânica para a cadeia alimentar estuarina. A recessão dos anos 80 marcou uma dramática redução dos fundos para pesquisa, tanto nacionais como internacionais. Atualmente os projetos de pesquisa são sustentados, praticamente, por recursos institucionais locais. As elevadas taxas de destruição dos manguezais na região exigem ações decisivas dos órgãos competentes, incluindo apoio à pesquisa, desenvolvimento de planos de manejo e formação de recursos humanos, além da organização de programas de educação ambiental Essas metas somente serão atingidas através de projetos de pesquisa bem estruturados.

  15. Middle America - Regional Geological Integrity, Hydrocarbon Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, K. H.

    2008-05-01

    Dogma holds that the Caribbean Plate and its islands formed in the Pacific and comprise oceanic crust and intra- oceanic arc rocks. Middle America, between N and S America, manifests a regional, N35°E and N60°W tectonic fabric. The NE trend results from Triassic-Jurassic reactivation of Palaeozoic convergent structures as extensional faults during Pangean rifting and commencement of N America drift. The NW trend parallels major inter-continental faults and oceanic fractures along which extension and drift occurred. Triassic-Jurassic red beds accumulated in the NE trending, intra-continental rifts of N, S and Central America. Proximal extended continental margins subsided to accommodate thick Cretaceous carbonate sections (Florida - Bahamas, Campeche, Nicaragua Rise). Distal margins formed continental blocks flanked by seaward-dipping wedges. Seismic and drilling in basins along the eastern seaboard of N America (Baltimore Canyon to Blake Plateau) document Triassic-Jurassic red beds overlain by salt and carbonates. Hydrocarbons are present. In Middle America the Gulf of Mexico remained "intra-continental", surrounded by continental blocks (N America, Maya, Florida). The area further south experienced greater extension, manifest by diverging oceanic fracture patterns to the east and west. Seismic data over the Caribbean Plateau reveal deep architecture of NE trending highs flanked by dipping wedges of reflections, similar to eastern N America distal basins. DSDP drilling calibrated the overlying smooth seismic Horizon B" as recording Cenomanian basalts. Smoothness, great lateral extent and coeval exposed sections with palaeosols followed by shallow marine carbonates suggest they were sub-aerial. Adjacent, rough seismic Horizon B" probably records top of submarine, serpentinized mantle. Seismic over the plateau also reveals features identical to drilled Sigsbee salt diapirs of the Gulf of Mexico. The regional tectonic fabric demonstrates a shared geological history

  16. Smart power and foreign policy of the People's Republic of China: the case of Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Villegas Mendoza

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the most relevant aspects of the academic debate on smart power, in order to apply this concept to analyze the foreign policy of the Republic of China on Latin America and the Caribbean, but especially to Central America; where the dispute between China and Taiwan for international recognition is evident. It is argued that the smart power of China to Central America is expressed in the attractiveness of having privileged access to the Chinese market and its funding programs and official development assistance. While this country has a large presence in Latin America and the Caribbean, in Central America such influence is counteracted in the light of the close relationship that all Central American countries except Costa Rica, maintain with Taiwan. Based on the development of China as a world power, it is expected that this condition changed, so that this country would increase its influence in Central America.

  17. Breastfeeding and the nutritional transition in the Latin American and Caribbean Region: a success story?

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-Escamilla Rafael

    2003-01-01

    The objectives of this paper are to examine recent breastfeeding duration trends in Latin America and the Caribbean to document: (a) rural-urban differentials, (b) differences in educational levels, and (c) changes in breastfeeding duration across time. Secondary data analyses were conducted with 23 Demographic and Health Surveys collected between the mid-1980s and mid-1990s. Results indicate that median breastfeeding duration is still greater in rural (as compared to urban) areas and among l...

  18. The effects of net food imports on obesity in selected Latin American and Caribbean Countries

    OpenAIRE

    C. M. Jolly; Jolly, P E; Namugabo, E.; Nyguyen, G.; Diawara, N.; Ovalle, F.

    2010-01-01

    Obesity is becoming a major health problem in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). The prevalence of obesity and its related diseases such as cardiovascular diseases (CVD) which were estimated at 26 percent of all diseases are expected to triple by 2020. Researchers and policy makers have accredited the rise in obesity to changes in diet, life style, income and the growth of urbanization. Not much attention has been paid to food availability and imports. Food production in the LAC countries...

  19. Medical Tourism in the Caribbean Islands: A Cure for Economies in Crisis?

    OpenAIRE

    John Connell

    2013-01-01

    Small island states have increasingly sought new means of economic diversification. Several Caribbean states have begun to develop medical tourism, partly building on existing tourist-oriented economies. Medical tourism has boomed in this century in several states in Asia and in Central America. The Bahamas, Barbados and the Cayman Islands exemplify different strategies for medical tourism, in order to generate foreign exchange and new employment, and reduce costs from overseas referrals. Mo...

  20. Snook (Centropomidae) and grouper (Serranidae) mariculture in the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Basin

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts Jr, D

    1989-01-01

    Centropomidae and Serranidae, sometimes collectively misnamed "sea basses", are suitable for aquaculture in pens, ponds, and raceways around the tropical and subtropical latitudes of the world. Western Atlantic Ocean species were recently considered for farming. South Florida, Mexico, Central and South America and the Antilles areas of the Caribbean Basin have extensive areas suitable for farming groupers and snook. Principal species of interest are the common snook (Centropomus undecimalis )...

  1. The European Union – Caribbean Relation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Morten

    2016-01-01

    EU diplomats consider the Caribbean countries to be allies and therefore expect these countries to support the EU in international affairs – but they find that this support has been waning in recent years. Caribbean diplomats and politicians do not share the European viewpoint. Rather, they take ...... the view that the EU has forgotten its Caribbean allies and instead channels its attention and funding towards Sub-Saharan Africa. This article examines to what extent this asserted ‘rift’ really signals a profound change in the EU-Caribbean relations....

  2. Brian Meeks, Envisioning Caribbean Futures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay R. Mandle

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this feature we highlight a recently launched book. We invite specialists in the field to comment on the book, and we invite the author to respond to their comments. In this issue we focus on Brian Meeks's, Envisioning Caribbean Futures. Those invited to comment on the book are Jay Mandle and Rivke Jaffe. [First paragraph] In Envisioning Caribbean Futures: Jamaican Perspectives (2007, Brian Meeks writes “in sympathy with the new social movements that have evolved in the past decade which assert boldly that ‘another world is possible’” (p. 2. His effort is “to explore the horizons for different approaches to social living in Jamaica and the Caribbean in the twenty-first century” (p. 2. In this, he “seeks to move beyond a statement of general principles to propose specific alternatives” in order to “stimulate a conversation that looks beyond the horizon of policy confines, yet is not so far removed as to appear hopelessly utopian” (p. 3. My hope with this essay is to advance that conversation, in the first place by reviewing and assessing Meeks’s contribution and then by extending the discussion to the role that Jamaica’s diaspora (and by extension that of the region’s generally might play in moving the country, as Meeks puts it, from its current “state of crime and murder, and the broad undermining of the rule of law that pervades the society” (p. 71.

  3. Latin American and Caribbean Urban Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christien Klaufus

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The new development agendas confirmed in the year 2015 evidence an increased global interest in cities and urban challenges. In Latin America and the Caribbean, cities have long been an established topic of study and debate. This exploration gives a brief overview of current research on urban development in the region and suggests fruitful avenues for future research. Following different ideological trends in twentieth-century urban studies, we currently see more pragmatic frameworks and a belief in technocratic solutions. Some scholars consider Latin American and Caribbean cities to be the world’s new signposts in urban development, given their role as sites of innovations in politics, architecture and urban design; we see potential here for urban scholars of the region to move beyond technocratic language. In addition, we argue for an area studies approach to these cities that uses the framework of the region as a heuristic device to unsettle global urbanist epistemologies that privilege North-to-South mobilities in both policy and theory. Resumen: El desarrollo urbano latinoamericano y caribeñoLas nuevas agendas de desarrollo confirmadas en el año 2015 reflejan un mayor interés mundial en las ciudades y en los retos urbanos. En Latinoamérica y en el Caribe, las ciudades llevan mucho tiempo siendo un tema habitual de estudio y debate. Esta exploración ofrece un resumen breve de las investigaciones actuales sobre desarrollo urbano en la región y sugiere caminos fructíferos para futuras investigaciones. Siguiendo las distintas tendencias ideológicas en los estudios urbanos del siglo XX, actualmente observamos marcos más pragmáticos y una creencia en soluciones tecnocráticas. Algunos investigadores consideran las ciudades latinoamericanas y caribeñas como los nuevos referentes mundiales en desarrollo urbano, dado su papel como centros de innovación en política, arquitectura y diseño urbano; vemos potencial para que los

  4. Kinematics of the Southwestern Caribbean from New Geodetic Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, G.; La Femina, P. C.; Tapia, A.; Camacho, E.; Chichaco, E.; Mora-Paez, H.; Geirsson, H.

    2014-12-01

    The interaction of the Caribbean, Cocos, Nazca, and South American plates has resulted in a complex plate boundary zone and the formation of second order tectonic blocks (e.g., the North Andean, Choco and Central America Fore Arc blocks). The Panama Region [PR], which is bounded by these plates and blocks, has been interpreted and modeled as a single tectonic block or deformed plate boundary. Previous research has defined the main boundaries: 1) The Caribbean plate subducts beneath the isthmus along the North Panama Deformed Belt, 2) The Nazca plate converges at very high obliquity with the PR and motion is assumed along a left lateral transform fault and the South Panama Deformed Belt, 3) The collision of PR with NW South America (i.e., the N. Andean and Choco blocks) has resulted in the Eastern Panama Deformed Belt, and 4) collision of the Cocos Ridge in the west is accommodated by crustal shortening, Central American Fore Arc translation and deformation across the Central Costa Rican Deformed Belt. In addition, there are several models that suggest internal deformation of this region by cross-isthmus strike-slip faults. Recent GPS observations for the PR indicates movement to the northeast relative to a stable Caribbean plate at rates of 6.9±4.0 - 7.8±4.8 mm a-1 from southern Costa Rica to eastern Panama, respectively (Kobayashi et al., 2014 and references therein). However, the GPS network did not have enough spatial density to estimate elastic strain accumulation across these faults. Recent installation and expansion of geodetic networks in southwestern Caribbean (i.e., Costa Rica, Panama, and Colombia) combined with geological and geophysical observations provide a new input to investigate crustal deformation processes in this complex tectonic setting, specifically related to the PR. We use new and existing GPS data to calculate a new velocity field for the region and to investigate the kinematics of the PR, including elastic strain accumulation on the

  5. Proceedings of the 1st Ibero-Latin American and Caribbean Congress on Medical Physics. Mexico 98

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book composes the works received for the 1st Ibero-Latin American and the Caribbean Congress on Medical Physics. There are 68 works which represent a sample of the recent advances of the medical physics which are indicators about the level of development of the speciality in these regions of the world. Thus, the Congress represents the greatest event of medical physics of Ibero-Latin America and the Caribbean besides its consolidation and regional organization. The book also contains useful counsels for the education, yours researches and the daily hospitable practice. (Author)

  6. Assessing the Origin of and Potential for International Spread of Chikungunya Virus from the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Kamran; Bogoch, Isaac; Brownstein, John S.; Miniota, Jennifer; Nicolucci, Adrian; Hu, Wei; Nsoesie, Elaine O.; Cetron, Martin; Creatore, Maria Isabella; German, Matthew; Wilder-Smith, Annelies

    2014-01-01

    Background: For the first time, an outbreak of chikungunya has been reported in the Americas. Locally acquired infections have been confirmed in fourteen Caribbean countries and dependent territories, Guyana and French Guiana, in which a large number of North American travelers vacation. Should some travelers become infected with chikungunya virus, they could potentially introduce it into the United States, where there are competent Aedes mosquito vectors, with the possibility of local transmission. Methods: We analyzed historical data on airline travelers departing areas of the Caribbean and South America, where locally acquired cases of chikungunya have been confirmed as of May 12th, 2014. The final destinations of travelers departing these areas between May and July 2012 were determined and overlaid on maps of the reported distribution of Aedes aeygpti and albopictus mosquitoes in the United States, to identify potential areas at risk of autochthonous transmission. Results: The United States alone accounted for 52.1% of the final destinations of all international travelers departing chikungunya indigenous areas of the Caribbean between May and July 2012. Cities in the United States with the highest volume of air travelers were New York City, Miami and San Juan (Puerto Rico). Miami and San Juan were high travel-volume cities where Aedes aeygpti or albopictus are reported and where climatic conditions could be suitable for autochthonous transmission. Conclusion: The rapidly evolving outbreak of chikungunya in the Caribbean poses a growing risk to countries and areas linked by air travel, including the United States where competent Aedes mosquitoes exist. The risk of chikungunya importation into the United States may be elevated following key travel periods in the spring, when large numbers of North American travelers typically vacation in the Caribbean. PMID:24944846

  7. Resources for Teaching about the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkwood, Toni Fuss

    2000-01-01

    Provides a list of resources to aid educators in teaching about the Caribbean. Includes outreach centers for Latin American and Caribbean studies, publishers and distributors, curriculum resource guides and monographs for teachers, citations of children's literature, and a website providing links to embassies. (CMK)

  8. British African Caribbean Women and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkison-Bradley, Carla; Maynard, Donna; Johnson, Phillip; Carter, Stephaney

    2009-01-01

    Depression is a common condition among women in the United Kingdom. However, little is known about the context of depression among British African Caribbean women. This article offers a preliminary discussion regarding issues and information pertaining to depression among British African Caribbean women. Characteristics and symptoms of depression…

  9. Some Aspects of the Physical Variability of the Caribbean Sea Relevant to Regional Climate Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooers, C. N.

    2001-12-01

    The Caribbean Sea is the least studied portion of the Intra-Americas Sea (IAS), which is the combined Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, Straits of Florida, and the adjacent western North Atlantic. The upstream elements of the Gulf Stream System are the dominant features of the upper ocean circulation in the Caribbean Sea. The Trade Winds superimpose a coastal upwelling regime along the northern coast of South America and a coastal downwelling regime along the southern coasts of Cuba and Hispaniola. The inflow from the Atlantic through several Antillean passages is derived from tropical and subtropical sources and is relatively weak, shallow, and variable; the outflow to the Gulf of Mexico through the Yucatan Channel is relatively strong, deep, and variable. The variability includes mesoscale eddies and meanders as well as the seasonal cycle and year-to-year variability; it also includes lengthy plumes from the Orinoco and other rivers and lengthy filaments from coastal upwelling centers. Some of the mesoscale variability originates in the Eastern Caribbean; other components originate in the Western Caribbean, especially in the cyclonic Panama-Colombia Gyre. The upper ocean of the Caribbean Sea is not only under the influence of the Trade Winds and their seasonal and longer term variability but also two other, not mutually exclusive, sources of variability: the seasonal heating and precipitation cycles on one hand, and synoptic scale and mesoscale phenomena on the other hand. For example, there are wet and dry seasons, and the Eastern Caribbean is typically dry and the Western Caribbean typically wet, with a heavy rainfall zone off the coast of Central America. And the patterns of atmospheric deep convection and subsidence apparently account for the summertime intensification of an extensive "warm pool" concentrated in the Northwestern Caribbean, which is exported to the Gulf of Mexico. As another example, the weekly Tropical Easterly Waves (TEWs) are the predominant

  10. Population genomic analysis uncovers African and European admixture in Drosophila melanogaster populations from the south-eastern United States and Caribbean Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Joyce Y; Zubair, Asif; Salomon, Matthew P; Nuzhdin, Sergey V; Campo, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Drosophila melanogaster is postulated to have colonized North America in the past several 100 years in two waves. Flies from Europe colonized the east coast United States while flies from Africa inhabited the Caribbean, which if true, make the south-east US and Caribbean Islands a secondary contact zone for African and European D. melanogaster. This scenario has been proposed based on phenotypes and limited genetic data. In our study, we have sequenced individual whole genomes of flies from populations in the south-east US and Caribbean Islands and examined these populations in conjunction with population sequences from the west coast US, Africa, and Europe. We find that west coast US populations are closely related to the European population, likely reflecting a rapid westward expansion upon first settlements into North America. We also find genomic evidence of African and European admixture in south-east US and Caribbean populations, with a clinal pattern of decreasing proportions of African ancestry with higher latitude. Our genomic analysis of D. melanogaster populations from the south-east US and Caribbean Islands provides more evidence for the Caribbean Islands as the source of previously reported novel African alleles found in other east coast US populations. We also find the border between the south-east US and the Caribbean island to be the admixture hot zone where distinctly African-like Caribbean flies become genomically more similar to European-like south-east US flies. Our findings have important implications for previous studies examining the generation of east coast US clines via selection. PMID:25735402

  11. Artists in and out of the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally Price

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Caribbean Art. VEERLE POUPEYE. London: Thames and Hudson, 1998. 224 pp. (Paper US$ 14.95 Transforming the Crown: African, Asian and Caribbean Artists in Britain, 1966-1996. MORA J. BEAUCHAMP-BYRD & M. FRANKLIN SIRMANS (eds.. New York: Caribbean Cultural Center, 1998. 177 pp. (Paper US$ 39.95, £31.95 "Caribbean" (like "Black British" culture is (as a Dutch colleague once said of postmodernism a bit of a slippery fish. One of the books under review here presents the eclectic artistic productions of professional artists with Caribbean identities of varying sorts - some of them lifelong residents of the region (defined broadly to stretch from Belize and the Bahamas to Curacao and Cayenne, some born in the Caribbean but living elsewhere, and others from far-away parts of the world who have lingered or settled in the Caribbean. The other focuses on artists who trace their cultural heritage variously to Lebanon, France, Malaysia, Spain, China, England, Guyana, India, the Caribbean, the Netherlands, the Philippines, and the whole range of societies in West, East, and Central Africa, all of whom meet under a single ethnic label in galleries in New York and London. Clearly, the principles that vertebrate Caribbean Art and Transforming the Crown are built on the backs of ambiguities, misperceptions, ironies, and ethnocentric logics (not to mention their stronger variants, such as racism. Yet far from invalidating the enterprise, they offer an enlightening inroad to the social, cultural, economic, and political workings of artworlds that reflect globally orchestrated pasts of enormous complexity.

  12. Construyendo puentes entre investigación y políticas para la extensión de la protección social en salud en América Latina y el Caribe: una estrategia de cooperación conjunta Building bridges between research and policy to extend social protection in health in Latin America and the Caribbean: a strategy for cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Bazzani

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available La Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS y el Centro Internacional de Investigaciones para el Desarrollo de Canadá (IDRC han promovido una iniciativa conjunta para el diseño, ejecución y evaluación de estrategias de extensión de la protección social en salud en América Latina y el Caribe. Esta propuesta se basó en una revisión previa de la investigación sobre reformas del sector salud y en las recomendaciones del Taller La Reforma del Sector Salud en las Américas: Fortaleciendo los Vínculos entre Investigación y Políticas (Montreal, Canadá, 2001. En su primera fase la iniciativa impulsó el desarrollo de propuestas sobre extensión de la protección social en salud que fueron elaboradas en forma conjunta por investigadores y tomadores de decisión. En la segunda fase se apoyó la implementación de cinco de estas propuestas con el propósito de promover el desarrollo de nuevas estrategias de protección social en salud y fomentar nuevos modelos de interacción entre actores. En este número de la revista se analizan los procesos de vinculación entre investigadores y tomadores de decisión en los cinco proyectos apoyados por esta iniciativa.The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO and International Development Research Centre (IDRC have promoted a joint initiative to design, implement, and evaluate innovative strategies for the Extension of Social Protection in Health (SPH in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC, involving active partnership between researchers and research users. This initiative was based on a previous review of research on health sector reforms and the recommendations of the workshop on "Health Sector Reforms in the Americas: Strengthening the Links between Research and Policy" (Montreal, Canada, 2001. In its first phase, the initiative supported the development of proposals aiming to extend SPH, elaborated jointly by researchers and decision-makers. In the second phase, the implementation of five of

  13. Skylab photography applied to geologic mapping in northwestern Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, W. I., Jr.; Johnson, D. J.; Hahn, G. A.; Johns, G. W.

    1975-01-01

    Two photolineation maps of southwestern Guatemala and Chiapas were made from S190 photographs along a ground track from Acajutla, El Salvador to San Cristobal de las Casas, Mexico. The maps document a structural complexity spanning the presumed triple junction of the Cocos, Americas, and Caribbean plates. The Polochic fault zone, supposedly the Americas-Caribbean plate boundary, is a sharply delineated feature across western Guatemala. Westward of the Mexican border it splays into a large number of faults with NW to SW trends. The structural pattern is quite different to the north (Americas plate) and to the south (Caribbean plate) of the Polochic fault, though both areas are dominated by NW-trending lineations. Within the Central American volcanic chain, the lineation patterns support the segmented model of the Benioff Zone, by showing a concentration of transverse lineations in the predicted locations, most notably NE-trending elements near Quezaltenango, Guatemala. The structural pattern obtained from the maps are compared to patterns described on recently published maps of more southerly parts of Central America, to begin a synthesis of the structure of the convergent plate boundary.

  14. Building America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brad Oberg

    2010-12-31

    IBACOS researched the constructability and viability issues of using high performance windows as one component of a larger approach to building houses that achieve the Building America 70% energy savings target.

  15. Diversification at the narrow sea-land interface in the Caribbean: phylogeography of endemic supralittoral Ligia isopods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana eMateos

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Phylogeographic studies have provided valuable insights into the evolutionary histories and biodiversity of different groups in the Caribbean, a region that harbors exceptional terrestrial and marine biodiversity. Herein, we examined phylogeographic patterns of the poorly dispersing supralittoral isopod Ligia sampled from 35 localities in the Caribbean Sea and adjacent areas, as well as from Veracruz (Gulf of Mexico, the type locality of L. baudiniana (the only currently recognized native Ligia species in the Caribbean. We conducted Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses of four mitochondrial genes (Cytb, 16S rDNA, 12S rDNA and COI and Parsimony analyses of one nuclear gene (NaK. We found a well-supported and highly divergent clade of Ligia that is distributed in the Caribbean Sea, Bahamas, southern Florida, Bermuda, and the Pacific coast of Central America and Colombia, but not in the Gulf of Mexico. A characteristic appendix masculina distinguishes this clade from other lineages of Ligia. Large divergences within this clade suggest that it constitutes a cryptic species complex. Genetically and morphologically, the specimens from the type locality of L. baudiniana were indistinguishable from the non-native species L. exotica. Some phylogeographic patterns of Ligia in the study area may be consistent with the proto-Antillean or GAARlandia vicariant hypotheses, but uncertainty concerning divergence times and aspects of the geological history precludes stronger biogeographical inferences. Passive overwater dispersal appears to have played an important role in shaping phylogeographic patterns of Ligia in the Caribbean Sea. These patterns, however, do not correspond with predicted biogeographic patterns based on population connectivity of marine organisms with larval dispersal, and do not reflect the southeast to northwest colonization pattern that has been proposed for the colonization of the Caribbean from South America by some

  16. Summary of Caribbean managers meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The Caribbean Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) Managers held their 11th meeting in November 1994. The meeting attracted over 80 attendees from all of the member countries, including Puerto Rico (for the first time), representatives of nongovernmental organizations, and technical personnel. Among the achievements cited were the facts that no cases of indigenous measles have been reported in over 3 years in the Caribbean, no cases of paralytic poliomyelitis have been detected in nearly 12 years, progress has been made in the surveillance of fever and rash illnesses, and immunization coverage levels remain high. The main objectives of the meeting were to review the overall EPI program in the Caribbean in order to identify obstacles to achieving program targets and to evaluate continued efforts towards the elimination of measles by 1995. The discussions about measles focused on 1) the surveillance system for the detection of suspected cases, which has improved, but which could be strengthened and 2) the levels of immunization coverage and the continued increase in the number of children who remain susceptible to the disease (each country projected the number of children under age 5 years who would be susceptible by June 1995). Steps to maintain the polio-free status of the area, including maintaining immunization levels of at least 80%, were also reviewed. In addition, concerns about reducing the number of cases of congenital rubella syndrome were addressed with several recommendations including improving active hospital surveillance and developing an appropriate rubella vaccination strategy. Incidence rates for tuberculosis were reported, and the problems of coinfection with HIV and the emergence of drug resistant strains of the disease were discussed. Tuberculosis control programs in the region are generally inadequate, treatment standards have not been implemented, the availability of drugs is limited, and treatment monitoring is not routine. In order to meet

  17. Regional overview of Latin American and Caribbean energy production, consumption, and future growth. Report series No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, K.

    1994-07-01

    The Latin American and Caribbean region - comprising Mexico, Central and South America, and the Caribbean - is relatively well endowed with energy resources, although the distribution of these resources is uneven across countries. The region produces more energy than it consumes, and the surplus energy, which amounts to 3.6 million barrels of oil equivalent per day (boe/d), is mostly oil. While the region`s total oil (crude and products) exports decreased from 4.4 million barrels per day (b/d) in 1981 to 3.8 million b/d in 1992, its net oil exports increased from about 1.6 million b/d in 1981 to 2.8 million b/d in 1992. In 1993, the surplus oil in Latin America and the Caribbean remained at 2.8 million b/d. This report analyzes the key issues of the Latin American and Caribbean energy industry and presents the future outlook for oil, gas, coal, hydroelectricity, and nuclear power developments in the region. In addition, the status of biomass energy, geothermal, and other noncommercial energy in the region will be briefly discussed in the context of overall energy development. The rest of the report is organized as follows: Section II assesses the current situation of Latin American and Caribbean energy production and consumption, covering primary energy supply, primary energy consumption, downstream petroleum sector development, and natural gas utilization. Section III presents the results of our study of future energy growth in Latin America. Important hydrocarbons policy issues in the region are discussed in Section IV, and a summary and concluding remarks are provided in Section V.

  18. Water Security and Services in The Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Adrian Cashman

    2013-01-01

    The efficient management of water resources and services continues to be a concern in many of the small island states of the Caribbean. There are growing concerns over the ability of governments in the region to ensure the good management and provision of water without jeopardizing economic growth and the maintenance of social well-being. This paper provides an overview of the major factors influencing the water security facing the Caribbean Region and how the emerging concerns are being addr...

  19. Observations of TEC Depletions in South and Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valladares, C. E.; Sheehan, R. E.; Pradipta, R.

    2014-12-01

    TEC values gathered with several networks of GPS receivers, which operated in South and Central America and the Caribbean region between 2010 and 2013, have been used to investigate the characteristics and morphology of TEC depletions that develop at these locations. In South America the TEC depletions are associated with low-latitude plasma bubbles. In Central America and the Caribbean region, we found that TEC depletions that occur during magnetically active conditions (Kp > 5o), persist for very long periods and sometimes remain even during afternoon hours. During quiet magnetic conditions, TEC depletions occur around the June solstice in Central America and during the December solstice in the Southern part of South America. We have also studied possible links between mid-latitude depletions and the formation of plasma bubbles at low latitudes. In addition, TEC measurements from North America have been utilized to determine the poleward extension of the mid-latitude depletions. These depletions do not appear to be related to auroral plasma processes or to storm enhanced densities (SED). We are studying the possibility that their initiation process is associated with the disturbance dynamo or the prompt penetrating electric field that develop during storm conditions.

  20. Nutritional situation in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-01

    PAHO member countries maintain food and nutrition surveillance systems. The prevalence of malnutrition among children aged 0-4 in Latin American and Caribbean countries ranges from 0.8% in Chile to 38.5% in Guatemala. It is 2.9% in the US. Low height-for-age is most common among children aged 0-4 in Guatemala (57.9%), Bolivia (38.3%), Peru (35.2%), and Ecuador (34%). The interval between observations of malnutrition prevalence ranged from 22 years in Honduras to 3-4 years in Nicaragua and Panama. Overall, there was a downward trend in malnutrition rates in the Americas. Yet, malnutrition is increasing in Guatemala and Panama. Breast feeding, good weaning practices, appropriate feeding during disease episodes, nutrition education, and programs for immunization and control of diarrhea and respiratory diseases account for the downward trend. Anemia rates among pregnant women (=or 11 g Hb/dl) vary from 13% in Asuncion, Paraguay, to 61% in Misiones, Argentina. Those for preschoolers range from 22% to 45% in Brazil and 27% to 53% in Peru. The prevalence of goiter is more than 50% in Merida, Venezuela, and Chameza, Colombia. It differs greatly in different areas within the same country. Most countries have laws requiring iodination of all salt for human consumption, yet violations are common. Certain areas of the countries in the Americas have vitamin A deficiency rates ranging from 5% to 48.8%. Some countries have enacted laws for sugar enrichment with retinol palmitate to reduce vitamin A deficiency. During the 1970s, deaths from chronic diseases related to nutrition increased 105% in South America, 56% in Central America, Mexico, and Panama, and 21% in the Caribbean. Prevalence of obesity among children aged 0-6 varies from 2.2% in Nicaragua and Brazil to 10.7% in Chile. Adult obesity is most common in Uruguay (about 50%). It is more common among females than males. The highest rates among 20-29 year olds are in Chile, Costa Rica, Cuba, and Peru. The US adult obesity

  1. Tensions of colonial punishment: perspectives on recent developments in the study of coercive networks in Asia, Africa and the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Sherman, Taylor C.

    2009-01-01

    The study of penal practices in colonised parts of Asia, Africa, Latin America, the Indian Ocean and the Caribbean has recently witnessed a significant shift. The first generation of research into the coercive measures of colonial states tended to focus rather narrowly on imprisonment. The second generation, which has emerged only in the last five years, has significantly widened their field of vision to incorporate much more than the prison. The most recent literature considers capital and c...

  2. Sovereign Debt in Latin America, 1820-1913

    OpenAIRE

    Gerardo della Paolera; Taylor, Alan M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines sovereign lending to Latin America and the Caribbean from 1820 to 1913. We examine four waves of capital flows where defaults were followed by a return to market access. In spite of extended default, countries kept promising high returns that attracted international investors again and again: financial autarky thus gave way to eras of high integration to global markets as measured by sovereign risk pricing. We discuss imperfections of the sovereign debt institutional conte...

  3. Regional Precipitation Study in Central America, Using the WRF Model

    OpenAIRE

    Maldonado, Tito

    2012-01-01

    Using the regional climate model WRF, and the NCEP-NCAR Reanalysis Project data asboundary and initial conditions, regional precipitation was estimated by means of thedynamical downscaling technique for two selected periods, January 2000 and September2007. These months show very particular climatic characteristics of the precipitationregimen in Central America, like dry (wet) conditions in the Pacific (Caribbean) coast of theCentral American isthmus, in January, and wet (dry) conditions, resp...

  4. Efficiency of Microfinance Institutions in Latin America and Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Zetek, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    The first chapter provides a comprehensive overview of microfinance academic literature with emphasis on recent innovations, trends and efficiency. In particular, we focus on controversial issues of microfinance, such as commercialization, regulation, interest rate policy and the balance between outreach and performance of MFIs. The next chapter especially investigates the role of public expenditures and general government debt in microfinance performance in Latin America and the Caribbean. M...

  5. The First Cataract Surgeons in Anglo-America

    OpenAIRE

    Leffler, Christopher T; Schwartz, Stephen G.; Grzybowski, Andrzej; Puneet S. Braich

    2014-01-01

    We tried to identify the earliest cataract surgeons in the English-speaking areas of America. In 1751, couching was performed on the Caribbean island of Montserrat by John Morphy. William Stork of England, who couched cataracts, practiced in Jamaica in 1760 and then in cities from Annapolis to Boston between 1761 and 1764. Frederick William Jericho of Germany, upon completion of his training at Utrecht, published his 1767 treatise on his preferred surgical technique of extracapsular cataract ...

  6. Modalities for Microfinance Delivery in Asia and Latin America: Lessons for the People's Republic of China

    OpenAIRE

    Heather Montgomery; John Weiss

    2004-01-01

    This working paper assesses different approaches to microfinance delivery across Asian and Latin America. Three modalities of delivery of microfinance are discussed: the Credit Union Approach, the NGO Approach, and the Banking Approach. Also addressed is the current relatively undeveloped microfinance sector in PRC and what might be learnt from experiences elsewhere. This working paper was presented at the Latin America/Caribbean and Asia/Pacific Economics and Business Association (LAEBA) Ann...

  7. China's Competitive Threat to Latin America: An Analysis for 1990-2002.

    OpenAIRE

    Lall, Sanjaya; Weiss, John

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores China's competitive threat to Latin America in trade in manufactured goods. The direct threat to exports to third country markets appears small: Latin America and the Caribbean's (LAC's) trade structure is largely complementary to that of China. In bilateral trade, several LAC countries are increasing primary and resource-based exports to China. However, the pattern of trade, with LAC specializing increasingly in resource-based products and China in manufactured goods, see...

  8. Illiterate America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozol, Jonathan

    Intended for those involved in American social service and educational communities, this book addresses the widespread problem of illiteracy in the United States and the social consequences of this problem. Following an introduction, the chapters in the first section of the book discuss the growing crisis of illiterate America, specifically, the…

  9. Geochemistry of the Santa Fé Batholith and Buriticá Tonalite in NW Colombia - Evidence of subduction initiation beneath the Colombian Caribbean Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, M.; Gómez-Tapias, J.; Cardona, A.; Duarte, E.; Pardo-Trujillo, A.; Valencia, V. A.

    2015-10-01

    Plateau related rocks accreted to the Caribbean plate margins provide insights into the understanding of the intra-oceanic evolution of the Caribbean plate and its interaction with the continental margins of the Americas. Petrologic, geochemical and isotope (Sr and Nd) data were obtained in rocks from the Santa Fé Gabbro-Tonalite and Buriticá Tonalite in the Western Cordillera of Colombia. Field relations and whole rock-mineral geochemistry combined with juvenile isotope signatures of the different rocks present in the area, suggest that initial melts, represented by the Buriticá Tonalite, formed due to asthenospheric upwelling at ˜100 Ma, which intrude the Colombian-Caribbean Oceanic Plateau (CCOP) basalts, and subsequent migration of the Caribbean plate towards the northeast resulted in subduction initiation and the formation of the Santa Fé tonalitic units at ˜90 Ma on the CCOP. The relation of the Santa Fé Batholith with other units from the Caribbean, such as Aruba and the Buga Batholiths suggests the existence of an immature arc constructed on the Caribbean Plateau, which partially accreted onto a continental margin of South American in pre-Eocene times, or migrated to the present day position in the Lesser Antilles.

  10. East Indians in the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen M. Schnepel

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Transients to Settlers: The Experience of Indians in Jamaica 1845-J950. VERENE SHEPHERD. Leeds, U.K.: Peepal Tree Books, 1993. 281 pp. (Paper £12.95 Survivors of Another Crossing: A History of East Indians in Trinidad, 1880-1946. MARIANNE D. SOARES RAMESAR. St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago: U.W.I. School of Continuing Education, 1994. xiii + 190 pp. (Paper n.p. Les Indes Antillaises: Presence et situation des communautes indiennes en milieu caribeen. ROGER TOUMSON (ed.. Paris: L'Harmattan, 1994. 264 pp. (Paper 140.00 FF Nation and Migration: The Politics of Space in the South Asian Diaspora. PETER VAN DER VEER (ed.. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1995. vi + 256 pp. (Cloth US$ 39.95, Paper US$ 17.95 In the decade since 1988, Caribbean nations with Indian communities have commemorated the 150th anniversary of the arrival of East Indians to the West Indies. These celebrations are part of local revitalization movements of Indian culture and identity stretching from the French departement of Guadeloupe in the Windward Islands to Trinidad and Guyana in the south. Political changes have mirrored the cultural revival in the region. While the debate so often in the past centered on the legitimacy of East Indian claims to local nationality in these societies where African or Creole cultures dominate, in the 1990s leaders of Indian descent were elected heads of government in the two Caribbean nations with the most populous East Indian communities: Cheddi Jagan as President of Guyana in October 1992 (after a 28-year hiatus and Basdeo Panday as Prime Minister of Trinidad in November 1995. Both men have long been associated with their respective countries' struggles for economic, political, and social equality. Outside the region during the summer of 1997, fiftieth-anniversary celebrations marking the independence of India and Pakistan from Britain confirmed that Indo chic — or "Indofrenzy" as anthropologist

  11. SEAMAP Caribbean Reef Fish Survey (PC1202, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Objectives of the 2012 SEAMAP Caribbean Reef Fish Survey were to assess relative abundance of reef fish species around the US Caribbean Islands, estimate...

  12. Raising Student Learning in Latin America : The Challenge for the Twenty-First Century

    OpenAIRE

    Vegas, Emiliana; Petrow, Jenny

    2008-01-01

    Improving student learning is the key challenge for education in Latin America and the Caribbean. This book is divided into three parts. Part one focuses on the central role of student learning in education. Chapter one examines why student learning outcomes are important. Chapter two analyzes the extent to which learning takes place in schools in the region. Chapter three discusses some o...

  13. Interracial and Intraracial Patterns of Mate Selection among America's Diverse Black Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batson, Christie D.; Qian, Zhenchao; Lichter, Daniel T.

    2006-01-01

    Despite recent immigration from Africa and the Caribbean, Blacks in America are still viewed as a monolith in many previous studies. In this paper, we use newly released 2000 census data to estimate log-linear models that highlight patterns of interracial and intraracial marriage and cohabitation among African Americans, West Indians, Africans,…

  14. Building a cooperative digital libary with open source software - the case of CLACSO in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Babini, Dominique

    2006-01-01

    Description of why and how the Latin American Social Science Council (CLACSO-Consejo Latinoamericano de Ciencias Sociales) has developed a cooperative digital library with open source Greenstone software, to build digital collections for its member institutes in 21 countries of Latin America and the Caribbean

  15. Water for Food Security and Wellbeing in Latin America: Status and Challenges in a Globalized World.

    OpenAIRE

    Willaarts, Barbara; Garrido Colmenero, Alberto; Llamas, R.

    2013-01-01

    Water for Food Security and Wellbeing in Latin America and the Caribbean. Side Event organizado por el OA en colaboración con el Centro del Agua de América Latina y el Caribe y el Tecnológico de Monterrey. World Water Week Stockholm, 2 September 2013.

  16. Medical tourism in the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez de Arellano, Annette B

    2011-01-01

    Although travel for medical reasons has a long history, it has more recently evolved from a cottage industry to a worldwide enterprise. A number of countries are positioning themselves to attract visitors who are willing to travel to obtain health services that are more accessible, less expensive, or more available than in their countries of origin. This has in turn given rise to medical packages that combine tourism with health. Several Caribbean nations - including Cuba, Barbados, Jamaica, and Puerto Rico - hope to expand their revenues in this new market. Each country has selected specific service niches and promotes its services accordingly. While Cuba has been promoting its services to other countries for several decades, medical tourism is just beginning in the other islands. Ultimately, these nations' economic success will hinge on their comparative advantage vis-à-vis other options, while their success in terms of improving their own health care depends on the extent to which the services for tourists are also available to the islands' populations. PMID:21114073

  17. Accidents and incidents in the nuclear area occurred in Latin American and Caribbean. Bibliographical compilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication presents bibliographic information about nuclear accidents/incidents related in Latin America and the Caribbean, from January 1962 to September 2000, most of in indexed in the major bibliographic information for this subject area. The information is arranged chronologically, beginning with the year when the first even occurred. Each accident/incident includes information on the date and place of the occurrence, a description of it and an alphabetical list of the publications that cover of refer to it, with a note on availability of access to the full text mostly in cases of non conventional literature. (author)

  18. Assessment of undiscovered petroleum resources in Central and South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, C.J.

    2002-01-01

    The USGS has assessed undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources in 128 selected petroleum provinces of the world. Of these 128 provinces, 23 are in South America, Central America, and the Caribbean area. In the USGS 2000 Assessment, the provinces resulted in mean totals for undiscovered resource of 105 billion bbl of oil and 487 tcf of gas. The potential for giant oil and gas fields is greatest in the basins along the Atlantic margin of eastern South America, from the Santos Basin in the south to the Guyana-Suriname Basin in the north. The potential for giant fields is mainly offshore, in water depths up to 3600 m. The South and Central America region ranks third in the world for undiscovered conventional oil and gas behind the Middle East and the Former Soviet Union.

  19. The Caribbean-South American plate boundary at 65°W: Results from wide-angle seismic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezada, M. J.; Magnani, M. B.; Zelt, C. A.; Schmitz, M.; Levander, A.

    2010-08-01

    We present the results of the analysis of new wide-angle seismic data across the Caribbean-South American plate boundary in eastern Venezuela at about 65°W. The ˜500 km long profile crosses the boundary in one of the few regions dominated by extensional structures, as most of the southeastern Caribbean margin is characterized by the presence of fold and thrust belts. A combination of first-arrival traveltime inversion and simultaneous inversion of PmP and Pn arrivals was used to develop a P wave velocity model of the crust and the uppermost mantle. At the main strike-slip fault system, we image the Cariaco Trough, a major pull-apart basin along the plate boundary. The crust under the Southern Caribbean Deformed Belt exhibits a thickness of ˜15 km, suggesting that the Caribbean Large Igneous Province extends to this part of the Caribbean plate. The velocity structures of basement highs and offshore sedimentary basins imaged by the profile are comparable to those of features found in other parts of the margin, suggesting similarities in their tectonic history. We do not image an abrupt change in Moho depth or velocity structure across the main strike-slip system, as has been observed elsewhere along the margin. It is possible that a terrane of Caribbean island arc origin was accreted to South America at this site and was subsequently bisected by the strike-slip fault system. The crust under the continental portion of the profile is thinner than observed elsewhere along the margin, possibly as a result of thinning during Jurassic rifting.

  20. Towards indigenous feminist theorizing in the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, P

    1998-01-01

    This theoretical study of feminism in the Caribbean opens by presenting the contemporary image of the Caribbean and then pointing to the continuing influence of the colonial past in the creation of contemporary community and the establishment of identity. The paper continues with a focus on three aspects of identity, or difference, that have influenced the daily articulation of feminism and academic debates. The first concerns the positions taken by women in the region's political struggles. The second is an exploration of the linguistic meanings of the gender discourse within the region. Finally, the essay examines the idea of linguistic difference in light of contemporary Western feminist views of "sexual difference" versus equality. The discussion of each of these issues is grounded in historical analysis and illustrated with specific examples. The study concludes that, in this region, feminism offers a new way to investigate the past while creating challenges and opportunities in the struggle to establish a Caribbean identity. PMID:12294238

  1. Sea level extremes in the Caribbean Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Torres, R. Ricardo; Tsimplis, Michael N.

    2014-01-01

    Sea level extremes in the Caribbean Sea are analyzed on the basis of hourly records from 13 tide gauges. The largest sea level extreme observed is 83 cm at Port Spain. The largest nontidal residual in the records is 76 cm, forced by a category 5 hurricane. Storm surges in the Caribbean are primarily caused by tropical storms and stationary cold fronts intruding the basin. However, the seasonal signal and mesoscale eddies also contribute to the creation of extremes. The five stations that have...

  2. Magnetic vector data from the western Caribbean reveal possible origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barckhausen, U.; Engels, U.

    2013-12-01

    During a cruise with RV Meteor in the spring of 2010, magnetic measurements were carried out in the central and western Caribbean with up to six magnetic sensors deployed at the same time. These were i) a towed gradiometer consisting of two Overhauser sensors, ii) two towed vector magnetometers, and iii) two shipboard oriented vector magnetometers. While the gradiometer data provide total field magnetic anomalies free from external variations, the vector data can be analyzed with different methods in the space and wavenumber domains. In the case of the towed vector data, attitude control is challenging whereas shipboard data require a very thorough compensation for the ship's magnetic field. The data were analyzed with the goal to gain insight into the origin of the basement rocks especially of the western Caribbean. Position and strike direction of magnetic anomalies in the Columbia basin possibly hold the key to distinguish between an origin of the crust in the Pacific ocean and an alternative in situ formation between the Americas. On six long profiles in the Columbia basin and adjacent regions we find consistently strike directions of the magnetic anomalies around N100°E which seems to be incompatible with a Pacific origin of the crust. Three Project Magnet aeromagnetic vector profiles crossing the research area at different angles were analyzed with the same method and yield very similar results. In our interpretation, the crust underlying the Columbia basin formed during the Cretaceous at a roughly E-W trending spreading center between the Americas. Since the crust likely formed during the Cretaceous Superchron (C 34), the strike direction we find in our data probably does not represent typical seafloor spreading anomalies. Instead we believe it is related to changes in the intensity of the Earth's magnetic field which are known to have left correlated traces in oceanic crust formed during this period. The analysis methods we used are sensitive to intensity

  3. Latin America´s response to China and India: overview of research findings and policy implications - Observatorio de Política

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Lederman; Marcelo Olarreaga; Guillermo Perry

    2007-01-01

    The economic success of China and India is looked upon with admiration but also concern about the effects that the growth of these Asian economies may have on the Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) region’s manufacturing and services sectors. The evidence summarized here indicates that certain manufacturing and service industries in some countries, particularly in Mexico and to a lesser extent in Central America and the Caribbean, have been negatively affected by Chinese and Indian competitio...

  4. Tectonic escape of the Caribbean plate since the Paleocene: a consequence of the Chicxulub meteor impact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangin, C.; Martinez-Reyes, J.; Crespy, A.; Zitter, T. A. C.

    2012-04-01

    The debate for Pacific exotic origin versus in situ inter American plate Atlantic origin of the Caribbean plate is active in the scientific community since decades. Independently of the origin of this plate, its fast motion towards the east at a present rate of 2cm/yr is accepted to have been initiated during the early-most Cenozoic. The Paleocene is a key period in the global evolution of Central America mainly marked also by the Chicxulub multiring meteor impact in Yucatan. We question here the genetic relationship between this impact event and the incipient tectonic escape of the Caribbean plate. The mostly recent published models suggest this impact has affected the whole crust down to the Moho, the upper mantle being rapidly and considerably uplifted. The crust was then fragmented 600km at least from the point of impact, and large circular depressions were rapidly filled by clastic sediments from Cantarell to Western Cuba via Chiapas and Belize. North of the impact, the whole Gulf of Mexico was affected by mass gravity sliding, initiated also during the Paleocene in Texas, remaining active in this basin up to present time. South of the impact, in the Caribbean plate, the Yucatan basin was rapidly opened, indicating a fast escape of the crustal material towards the unique free boundary, the paleo-Antilles subduction zone. Shear waves velocity data below the Caribbean plate suggest this crustal tectonic escape was enhanced by the fast eastward flowing mantle supporting a fragmented and stretched crust. The proposed model suggests Chicxulub impact (but also the hypothetic Beata impact) have fragmented brittle crust, then easily drifted towards the east. This could explain the Paleogene evolution of the Caribbean plate largely stretched during its early evolution. Geologically, this evolution could explain the absence of evident Paleogene oblique subduction along the Caribbean plate northern and southern margins, marked only by Mid Cretaceous dragged volcanic

  5. Coping Strategies of Caribbean "Problem Students"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Donna-Maria B.; Welch, Patricia L.

    2009-01-01

    The coping strategies of middle adolescents (14-16 years) generate interest amongst educators, parents, school psychologists and school counsellors. This study, using a phenomenological approach, examined the coping strategies of "problem" adolescents in the Caribbean in regard to their interactions with peers and teachers. Data were collected…

  6. USGS contributions to earthquake and tsunami monitoring in the Caribbean Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, D.; Caribbean Project Team, U.; Partners, C.

    2007-05-01

    USGS Caribbean Project Team: Lind Gee, Gary Gyure, John Derr, Jack Odum, John McMillan, David Carver, Jim Allen, Susan Rhea, Don Anderson, Harley Benz Caribbean Partners: Christa von Hillebrandt-Andrade-PRSN, Juan Payero ISU-UASD,DR, Eduardo Camacho - UPAN, Panama, Lloyd Lynch - SRU,Gonzalo Cruz - UNAH,Honduras, Margaret Wiggins-Grandison - Jamaica, Judy Thomas - CERO Barbados, Sylvan McIntyre - NADMA Grenada, E. Bermingham - STRI. The magnitude-9 Sumatra-Andaman Islands earthquake of December 26, 2004, increased global awareness of the destructive hazard posed by earthquakes and tsunamis. In response to this tragedy, the US government undertook a collaborative project to improve earthquake and tsunami monitoring along a major portion of vulnerable coastal regions, in the Caribbean Sea, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Atlantic Ocean. Seismically active areas of the Caribbean Sea region pose a tsunami risk for Caribbean islands, coastal areas along the Gulf of Mexico, and the Atlantic seaboard of North America. Nearly 100 tsunamis have been reported for the Caribbean region in the past 500 years, including 14 tsunamis reported in Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Partners in this project include the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the Smithsonian Institute, the National Oceanic and Aeronautic Administration (NOAA), and several partner institutions in the Caribbean region. This presentation focuses on the deployment of nine broadband seismic stations to monitor earthquake activity in the Caribbean region that are affiliated with the Global Seismograph Network (GSN). By the end of 2006, five stations were transmitting data to the USGS National Earthquake Information Service (NEIS), and regional partners through Puerto Rico seismograph network (PRSN) Earthworm systems. The following stations are currently operating: SDDR - Sabaneta Dam Dominican Republic, BBGH - Gun Hill Barbados, GRGR - Grenville, Grenada, BCIP - Barro Colorado, Panama, TGUH - Tegucigalpa

  7. Ecumen(ical texts: Caribbean nation-states and the global ecumene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisha Khan

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] The Haunting Past: Politics, Economics and Race in Caribbean Life. ALVIN O. THOMPSON. Kingston: Ian Randle, 1997. xvi + 283 pp. (Cloth US$ 70.95, Paper US$ 27.95 Nationalism and Identity: Culture and the Imagination in a Caribbean Diaspora. STEFANO HARNEY. Kingston: University of the West Indies; London: Zed Books, 1996. 216 pp. (Paper J$ 350.00, US$ 10.00, £6.00 Recharting the Caribbean: Land, Law, and Citizenship in the British Virgin Islands. BILL MAURER. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1997. xvii + 301 pp. (Cloth US$ 44.50 Building on views espoused by the American Enterprise Institute, columnist George Will solves the dilemma of unequal development among contemporary nation-states in one fell swoop: Western Europe and North America outstripped Latin America and its environs, among other places, for one reason - culture. Much meaning must be unpacked from that word, but the conclusion is: The spread of democracy, free markets, technology, and information is not enough to rescue ... nations, from the consequences of their cultural deficits. Such deficits, although not incurable, are intractable. (Will 1999:64 Another "lesson to be drawn," he says, is that "Government cannot revise culture, wholesale, but government has - it cannot help but have - cultural consequences" (Will 1999:64. Even as we embark on the twenty-first century, we cling to hoary, Age of Imperialism presumptions about the character and role of culture - signaled implicitly with a capital C. Such presumptions fuel statements like the above; governments convey material and moral improvements but these do not take hold in culturally inadequate environments.

  8. First Imported Case of Chikungunya Virus Infection in a Travelling Canadian Returning from the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Therrien

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the first Canadian case of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV infection reported in a traveller returning from the Caribbean. Following multiple mosquito bites in Martinique Island in January 2014, the patient presented with high fever, headaches, arthralgia on both hands and feet, and a rash on the trunk upon his return to Canada. Initial serological testing for dengue virus infection was negative. Support therapy with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs was administered. The symptoms gradually improved 4 weeks after onset with residual arthralgia and morning joint stiffness. This clinical feature prompted the clinician to request CHIKV virus serology which was found to be positive for the presence of IgM and neutralizing antibodies. In 2014, over four hundred confirmed CHIKV infection cases were diagnosed in Canadian travellers returning from the Caribbean and Central America. Clinical suspicion of CHIKV or dengue virus infections should be considered in febrile patients with arthralgia returning from the recently CHIKV endemic countries of the Americas.

  9. The later evolution of modern sport in Latin America: the North American influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbena, J L

    2001-01-01

    American impact on modern sports in Latin America overlaps geographically and chronologically with the European, especially British, impact. Principally baseball in the Caribbean basin, more recently basketball and volleyball across the hemisphere and occasionally American football in more limited areas illustrate a north-to-south movement executed by businessmen, educators, missionaries, military personnel, returning travelers (often students), sports entrepreneurs and television. Often initially supported by promoters of development within Latin America, this transfer has altered local recreational patterns and attracted Latin athletes to pursue careers in North America, provoking accusations of cultural imperialism and exploitation. PMID:18592684

  10. Anaglyph, South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    This anaglyph (stereoscopic view) of South America was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). It is best viewed at or near full resolution with anaglyph glasses. For this broad view the resolution of the data was first reduced to 30 arcseconds (about 928 meters north-south but variable east-west), matching the best previously existing global digital topographic data set called GTOPO30. The data were then resampled to a Mercator projection with approximately square pixels (about one kilometer, or 0.6 miles, on each side). Even at this decreased resolution the variety of landforms comprising the South American continent is readily apparent.Topographic relief in South America is dominated by the Andes Mountains, which extend all along the Pacific Coast. These mountains are created primarily by the convergence of the Nazca and South American tectonic plates. The Nazca Plate, which underlies the eastern Pacific Ocean, slides under western South America resulting in crustal thickening, uplift, and volcanism. Another zone of plate convergence occurs along the northwestern coast of South America where the Caribbean Plate also slides under the South American Plate and forms the northeastern extension of the Andes Mountains.East of the Andes, much of northern South America drains into the Amazon River, the world's largest river in terms of both watershed area and flow volume. Topographic relief is very low in much of the Amazon Basin but SRTM data provide an excellent detailed look at the basin's three-dimensional drainage pattern, including the geologic structural trough (syncline) that hosts the eastern river channel.North of the Amazon, the Guiana Highlands commonly stand in sharp contrast to the surrounding lowlands, indeed hosting the world's tallest waterfall, Angel Falls (979 meters or 3212 feet). Folded and fractured bedrock structures are distinctive in the topographic pattern.South of the Amazon, the Brazilian Highlands show a mix of

  11. Geotectonic Elements, Stuctural Constraints and Current Problems for a Kinematic Reconstruction of the Caribbean Plate Margins during the Cretaceous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giunta, G.

    2001-12-01

    In the Caribbean Plate deformed margins are found relics of the Mid to Late Cretaceous eo-Caribbean tectonic phases, indicating the occurrence of sub-continental subduction zones with melange formation, and HP/LT metamorphism of ophiolitic rocks, and two main stages of intraoceanic subductions involving the unthickened proto-Caribbean oceanic lithosphere and/or supra-subduction complexes. These two stages are marked by the occurrence of (a) HP/LT metamorphic ophiolites and volcano-plutonic sequences with island-arc tholeiitic (IAT) or calc-alkaline (CA) affinities; (b) unmetamorphosed tonalitic intrusions of CA affinity below the proto-Caribbean thickened oceanic plateau. Since the Late Cretaceous the kinematics of the Caribbean Plate is closely related to the eastward drifting of the proto-Caribbean oceanic plateau (Colombia and Venezuela Basins) that produced both a diachronous tonalitic magmatism from 85-82 Ma, associated with a westward dipping oblique subduction of the proto-Caribbean-Atlantic ocean floor below the plateau, and an opposite dismembering of subduction complexes, of different ages along an E-W trend (North and South Caribbean Margins). This seems to be the consequence of the eastward shifting of both the northern and southern triple junctions, while allowing further bending of the Aves- Lesser Antilles arc. Moreover, the Caribbean oceanic plateau was trapped by different rotation rates of the Chortis, Chorotega and Choco blocks, during the construction of the western plate margin (Central American Isthmus). The previous Mid-Late Cretaceous eo-Caribbean evolution, correspondent to the beginning of the compressional conditions in Central America area, is characterized by sub-continental and/or intraoceanic subduction systems with associated IAT and CA arc magmatism. This simplified kinematic approach falls short in explaining (1) the Early Cretaceous paleogeography and morphology of the margins of the North, South American continents and minor

  12. Timing and magnitude of the Caribbean mid-Holocene highstand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashe, E.; Khan, N.; Horton, B.; Brocard, G. Y.; Dutton, A.; Engelhart, S. E.; Kopp, R. E.; Hill, D. F.; Peltier, W. R.; Scatena, F. N.

    2015-12-01

    We present a database of published and new relative sea-level (RSL) data for the past 13 ka, which constrains the Holocene sea-level histories of the Caribbean coast of Central and South America (Florida Keys, USA to Guyana) and the Bahamas and Greater and Lesser Antilles islands. Our evaluation of mangrove peat and Acropora palmata sea-level indicators from geological investigations provides 503 sea-level index points and 242 limiting dates. We subdivide the database into 21 regions based on the availability of data, tectonic setting, and distance from the former Laurentide ice sheet. Most index points (75%) and limiting dates (90%) are <8 ka, although there is an unusual temporal distribution with the greatest amount of the data (~28%) occurring between 6-8 ka. We reassess and screen radiocarbon and U/Th ages of mangrove peat and coral data. We use the stratigraphic position (overburden thickness) of index points account for sediment compaction, and use the paleotidal model of Hill et al. (2011) to account for Holocene changes in paleotidal range. A noisy-input Gaussian process regression model calculates that the rates of RSL change were highest during the early Holocene (3-8 mm/yr) and have decreased over time (< 2 mm/yr), which is related to the reduction of ice equivalent meltwater input and collapse of the proglacial forebulge during the Holocene. The sea-level reconstructions demonstrate that RSL did not exceed the present height (0 m) during the Holocene in the majority of locations, with the exception of a small highstand (<2 m) on the northern coast of South America along the Orinoco Delta and Suriname/Guyana located furthest away from the former Laurentide Ice Sheet. The different sea-level histories are an ongoing isostatic response to deglaciation of the Laurentide Ice Sheet and suggest subsidence resulting from collapse of the proglacial forebulge reaches further south than previously considered.

  13. Little People of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... information. Our Sponsors Welcome to Little People of America Little People of America (LPA) is a nonprofit organization that provides support ... survey can be seen here. © Little People of America 250 El Camino Real Suite 218, Tustin, CA ...

  14. COCONet and TLALOCNet: Multi-hazard GNSS/Met Observatories, Enhancing Geodetic Infrastructure and the Scientific Community in Mexico and the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feaux, K.; Adams, D. K.; Braun, J.; Cabral-Cano, E.; Dausz, K.; Dittmann, S. T.; Fend, M.; Galetzka, J.; Mattioli, G. S.; Miller, M. M.; Normandeau, J.; Salazar-Tlaczani, L.; Sandru, J.; Serra, Y. L.; Wang, G.

    2015-12-01

    UNAVCO manages the construction of two large NSF-funded networks of geophysical instruments in Central America and the Caribbean. COCONet (Continuously Operating Caribbean Observational Network), which consists of 83 new and refurbished cGNSS/Met stations, spans the entire Caribbean region. TLALOCNet (Trans-boundary Land and Atmospheric Long-term Observational and Collaborative Network) is a similar 24-station in Mexico. Data are being used to study solid earth processes such as plate kinematics, plate boundary deformation, and the earthquake cycle; in addition, by providing more precise estimates of tropospheric water vapor to better forecast the dynamics associated with the annual Caribbean hurricane cycle and the North American monsoon, they also address atmospheric science objectives. COCONet and TLALOCNet rely on the concept of building partnerships with a range of stakeholders that support a common goal of providing free, high-quality, low-latency, open-format data and data products. As part of COCONet, UNAVCO completed installation of sea level monitoring instruments at two locations in the Caribbean Basin. Additionally, two existing sea level stations were upgraded with co-located GNSS hardware. The locations (Jamaica, Mexico, Panama, and the Dominican Republic) enhance the coverage of tide gauge instrumentation in the Caribbean region. Each station consists of tide gauge instruments (radar and pressure gauge) on a marine pier co-located with a cGNSS/Met system. A second cGNSS system is installed nearby (IOC sea level archive (ioc-sealevelmonitoring.org). We present the siting plan, construction status, and other highlights of the COCONet and TLALOCNet projects, including the establishment of regional GNSS/Met data centers in Mexico and the Caribbean.

  15. Terrestrial Mammal Occupancy in the Context of Widespread Forest Loss and a Proposed Interoceanic Canal in Nicaragua's Decreasingly Remote South Caribbean Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Christopher A; Schank, Cody J; Urquhart, Gerald R; Dans, Armando J

    2016-01-01

    Central America is experiencing rapid forest loss and habitat degradation both inside and outside of protected areas. Despite increasing deforestation, the Caribbean region of Nicaragua plays an important role in the survival or extinction of large mammal populations in Central America given that it still retains core areas of habitat for large mammal species. The proposed interoceanic canal project that would bisect the southern half of this Caribbean region represents a new threat that, combined with an advancing agricultural frontier, could affect populations of large mammal species such as jaguars, white-lipped peccaries, and Baird's tapirs. We used occupancy models to examine the relative occupancy probabilities for an assemblage of terrestrial mammals in the south Caribbean region of Nicaragua to identify current core areas for our study species and conduct a preliminary evaluation of the potential impacts of the proposed interoceanic canal. We modeled a community level distribution of eight species with varying levels of sensitivity to human encroachment and a range of habitat associations. Our model results reveal three priority areas for terrestrial mammal conservation in our study area. The mapped predictions show that the only remaining area of suitable habitat for large mammals in the path of the proposed interoceanic canal is a relatively thin strip of forest that runs along the Caribbean Coast. In light of these findings, we propose five recommendations that will help ensure the conservation of this area of the proposed canal route as suitable habitat for our study species. PMID:27007122

  16. Terrestrial Mammal Occupancy in the Context of Widespread Forest Loss and a Proposed Interoceanic Canal in Nicaragua's Decreasingly Remote South Caribbean Region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A Jordan

    Full Text Available Central America is experiencing rapid forest loss and habitat degradation both inside and outside of protected areas. Despite increasing deforestation, the Caribbean region of Nicaragua plays an important role in the survival or extinction of large mammal populations in Central America given that it still retains core areas of habitat for large mammal species. The proposed interoceanic canal project that would bisect the southern half of this Caribbean region represents a new threat that, combined with an advancing agricultural frontier, could affect populations of large mammal species such as jaguars, white-lipped peccaries, and Baird's tapirs. We used occupancy models to examine the relative occupancy probabilities for an assemblage of terrestrial mammals in the south Caribbean region of Nicaragua to identify current core areas for our study species and conduct a preliminary evaluation of the potential impacts of the proposed interoceanic canal. We modeled a community level distribution of eight species with varying levels of sensitivity to human encroachment and a range of habitat associations. Our model results reveal three priority areas for terrestrial mammal conservation in our study area. The mapped predictions show that the only remaining area of suitable habitat for large mammals in the path of the proposed interoceanic canal is a relatively thin strip of forest that runs along the Caribbean Coast. In light of these findings, we propose five recommendations that will help ensure the conservation of this area of the proposed canal route as suitable habitat for our study species.

  17. Regional Supplier Associations as the Producers of Transnational Club Goods in Latin American and Caribbean Utility Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Horrall

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available There is growing the consensus that regional regulatory agencies provide regional club goods, however; there is little evidence of the impact of the collaborations of the utility providers themselves in the literature. Our study analyzes whether regional networks such as the Caribbean Electric Utility corporation contribute to solving energy issues in Latin America and the Caribbean. Networks of operators provide cross -border services, and operating as a single entity improves the lobbying opportunities of operators to influence policy. Results suggest that utilities that formed linkages or cooperation regionally are likely to benefit from such collaborations, but a comprehensive approach to capacity building and reform is needed to address the regions energy issues.

  18. Weather types across the Caribbean basin and their relationship with rainfall and sea surface temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moron, Vincent; Gouirand, Isabelle; Taylor, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Eight weather types (WTs) are computed over 98.75°W-56.25°W, 8.75°N-31.25°N using cluster analysis of daily low-level (925 hPa) winds and outgoing longwave radiation, without removing the mean annual cycle, by a k-means algorithm from 1979 to 2013. The WTs can be firstly interpreted as snapshots of the annual cycle with a clear distinction between 5 "wintertime" and 3 "summertime" WTs, which account together for 70 % of the total mean annual rainfall across the studied domain. The wintertime WTs occur mostly from late November to late April and are characterized by varying intensity and location of the North Atlantic subtropical high (NASH) and transient synoptic troughs along the northern edge of the domain. Large-scale subsidence dominates the whole basin but rainfall can occur over sections of the basin, especially on the windward shores of the troughs associated with the synoptic waves. The transition between wintertime and summertime WTs is rather abrupt, especially in May. One summertime WT (WT 4) is prevalent in summer, and almost exclusive around late July. It is characterized by strong NASH, fast Caribbean low level jet and rainfall mostly concentrated over the Caribbean Islands, the Florida Peninsula, the whole Central America and the tropical Eastern Pacific. The two remaining summertime WTs display widespread rainfall respectively from Central America to Bermuda (WT 5) and over the Eastern Caribbean (WT 6). Both WTs combine reduced regional scale subsidence and weaker Caribbean low-level jet relatively to WT 4. The relationships between WT frequency and El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events are broadly linear. Warm central and eastern ENSO events are associated with more WT 4 (less WT 5-6) during boreal summer and autumn (0) while this relationship is reversed during boreal summer (+1) for central events only. In boreal winter, the largest anomalies are observed for two WTs consistent with negative (WT 2) and positive (WT 8) phases of the

  19. Weather types across the Caribbean basin and their relationship with rainfall and sea surface temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moron, Vincent; Gouirand, Isabelle; Taylor, Michael

    2015-10-01

    Eight weather types (WTs) are computed over 98.75°W-56.25°W, 8.75°N-31.25°N using cluster analysis of daily low-level (925 hPa) winds and outgoing longwave radiation, without removing the mean annual cycle, by a k-means algorithm from 1979 to 2013. The WTs can be firstly interpreted as snapshots of the annual cycle with a clear distinction between 5 "wintertime" and 3 "summertime" WTs, which account together for 70 % of the total mean annual rainfall across the studied domain. The wintertime WTs occur mostly from late November to late April and are characterized by varying intensity and location of the North Atlantic subtropical high (NASH) and transient synoptic troughs along the northern edge of the domain. Large-scale subsidence dominates the whole basin but rainfall can occur over sections of the basin, especially on the windward shores of the troughs associated with the synoptic waves. The transition between wintertime and summertime WTs is rather abrupt, especially in May. One summertime WT (WT 4) is prevalent in summer, and almost exclusive around late July. It is characterized by strong NASH, fast Caribbean low level jet and rainfall mostly concentrated over the Caribbean Islands, the Florida Peninsula, the whole Central America and the tropical Eastern Pacific. The two remaining summertime WTs display widespread rainfall respectively from Central America to Bermuda (WT 5) and over the Eastern Caribbean (WT 6). Both WTs combine reduced regional scale subsidence and weaker Caribbean low-level jet relatively to WT 4. The relationships between WT frequency and El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events are broadly linear. Warm central and eastern ENSO events are associated with more WT 4 (less WT 5-6) during boreal summer and autumn (0) while this relationship is reversed during boreal summer (+1) for central events only. In boreal winter, the largest anomalies are observed for two WTs consistent with negative (WT 2) and positive (WT 8) phases of the

  20. An evaluation of Neogene tectonic reconstructions for the eastern Caribbean using tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Benthem, S.; Govers, R. M.; Spakman, W.

    2009-12-01

    Recent reconstructions of the Caribbean plate for the Neogene agree on the large-scale tectonic evolution. These reconstructions are based mostly on surface observations. Here, we investigate whether predictions of upper mantle structure that result from the reconstructions match our recent high-resolution tomographic model. In this study we interpret the upper mantle structure beneath the Caribbean plate east of 75°W. The spatial resolution of the tomographic model is variable; in most regions we resolve features larger than 200 km. The model shows extensive high velocity anomalies under the Lesser Antilles and along the northern Caribbean plate boundary. Subduction under the Lesser Antilles is evidenced by a Wadati-Benioff zone, which extends until 300 km depth. A prominent gap in the seismicity of the slab exists around 14.5°N. The Wadati-Benioff zones north and south of this gap have different dips. The Lesser Antilles Wadati-Benioff zones coincide with high P-wavespeed anomalies, but in the tomography the anomaly extends to (at least) the 660km discontinuity. The shape of the anomaly indicates that it was draped on the 660km discontinuity, possibly due to roll-back. This agrees with the amount of subducted material as predicted by tectonic reconstructions. The southern anomaly is clearly separated from the northern anomaly by a low velocity anomaly, which coincides with the observed seismic gap.We interpret this as a gap in the Lesser Antilles slab. Reconstructions show that north and South America moved westward with respect to the Caribbean plate, subducting under the Lesser Antilles island arc. Subduction ended at the southern end of the arc, which resulted in a vertical tear (or STEP) fault along the southeast boundary of the Caribbean plate. Recent seismic and geodetic studies agree with STEP faulting at the scale of the crust. In the tomographically imaged upper mantle, the southward termination of the Southern Antilles anomaly is well resolved, which

  1. Creole in the Caribbean: How Oral Discourse creates Cultural Identities

    OpenAIRE

    Sindoni, Maria Grazia

    2011-01-01

    The fictional recreation of Creole in Caribbean English literature has been traditionally studied using Eurocentric criteria. When compared to British English, Creole was considered a debased deviation (DeCamp, 1971; Hall, 1966). Creole is associated with oral discourse, one reason for its growing use in literature. Caribbean writers have represented the Caribbean experience through the use of fictional Creole. The contemporary novel has thus been transformed by African-derived modes of narra...

  2. Historical change in coral reef communities in Caribbean Panama

    OpenAIRE

    Cramer, Katie Lynn

    2011-01-01

    Scientists have witnessed a profound transformation in Caribbean coral reefs since the 1980s that includes a widespread mortality of corals and a shift in coral species composition. These changes have been widely attributed to modern disturbances such as coral disease and coral bleaching that have become prevalent in the most recent decades. However, the demise of corals in the Caribbean represents the most recent chapter in a long history of human alteration of Caribbean reef ecosystems. Cen...

  3. The ribbon continent of northwestern South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altamira-Areyan, Armando

    The tectonic structure of the Plate Boundary Zone (PBZ) between the Caribbean Plate (CARIB) and the South American Plate (SOAM) is interpreted using models that require CARIB motion from the Pacific into the Atlantic. Those models can be subdivided into: (1) those in which the island arc rocks that are now in the CARIB-SOAM PBZ have collided with the northern South America margin, either obliquely or directly during the Cretaceous or during the Cenozoic, and (2) those in which the island arc rocks now in the CARIB-SOAM PBZ collided with the west coast of South America during the Cretaceous and were transferred to the northern margin by transform motion during the Cenozoic. Magnetic anomalies were first rotated in the Central and South Atlantic, holding Africa fixed to establish how much NOAM had converged on SOAM during the Cenozoic. WSW convergence was discovered to have been accommodated in the northern boundary of the CARIB. There is no evidence of convergence in the form of Cenozoic island arc igneous rocks on the north coast of South America. Those results are consistent only with models of Class (2) that call for transform movement of material that had collided with the west coast of South America along the CARIB-SOAM PBZ on the northern margin of South America. 40Ar/39Ar ages of island arc rocks from northern Venezuela were found to be older than ca 70 Ma, which is consistent with a requirement of models of Class (2) that those rocks are from an island arc which collided with the west coast of South America during Cretaceous times. Testing that conclusion using data from Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela, the Netherlands Antilles, Trinidad and Tobago has led to the construction of a new ribbon continent model of the northwestern Cordillera of South America. Because the part of the ribbon continent on the north coast of South America has been experiencing substantial deformation in the Maracaibo block during the past 10 m.y., structures in that body have had to be

  4. Working Together in Pursuit of Inclusive Business: Sharing the Latin American and Caribbean Experience with Asia and the Pacific: A Retrospective

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank (ADB)

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, the Asian Development Bank (ADB) and the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) entered into a formal partnership on South–South cooperation. One of the priority topics for this inter-institutional cooperation is inclusive business. Since 2008, the IDB has built up a dedicated program called Opportunities for the Majority (OMJ) for Latin America and the Caribbean with 45 private sector projects worth $250 million, leveraging more than $1 billion of additional investments, and 33 grant...

  5. Art Music by Caribbean Composers: The Bahamas

    OpenAIRE

    Gangelhoff, Christine; LeGrand, Cathleen

    2011-01-01

    The cultural identity of the Bahamas owes much to its West African and British colonial heritages and to its physical proximity to the United States. A combination of African and European elements - rhyming spirituals, anthems, rushin' music at watch-night services, wake and setting-up songs; ringplays, fire dance, jump-in-dance, quadrille music (rake-‘n’-scrape music), goombay, and junkanoo - can be seen in musical traditions throughout the Caribbean, including art music.

  6. Corporate Income Tax Competition in the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Koffie Ben Nassar

    2008-01-01

    Motivated by the concern that corporate income tax (CIT) competition may have eroded the tax base, this paper calculates average effective tax rates to measure the impact of CIT competition, including the widespread use of tax holidays, on the tax base for 15 countries in the Caribbean. The results not only confirm erosion of the tax base, but also show that CIT holidays must be removed for recent tax policy initiatives (such as accelerated depreciation, loss carry forward provisions, and tax...

  7. Borders and border representations: Comparative approximations among the United States and Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Cueva Perus

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This article uses a comparative approach regarding frontier symbols and myths among the United States, Latin America and the Caribbean. Although wars fought over frontiers have greatly diminished throughout the world, the conception of frontier still held by the United States is that of a nationalist myth which embodies a semi-religious faith in the free market and democracy. On the other hand, Latin American and Caribbean countries, whose frontiers are far more complex, have shown extraordinary stability for several decades. This paper points out the risks involved in the spread of United States´ notions of frontier which, in addition, go hand-in-hand with the problem of multicultural segmentation. Although Latin American and Caribbean frontiers may be stable, they are vulnerable to the infiltration of foreing frontier representations.

  8. The Dutch Caribbean municipalities in comparative perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouter Veenendaal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Upon the dissolution of the Netherlands Antilles in 2010, the smallest islands in this federation – Bonaire, St. Eustatius, and Saba – became special municipalities of the Netherlands, and were hence politically and constitutionally integrated into the Dutch metropolis. The present article seeks to understand this development in the context of the broader academic literature on small, non-sovereign island jurisdictions in the Caribbean and elsewhere. After a description of the reforms and a discussion of the perceived benefits and drawbacks of the new political status, the newly created Dutch Caribbean municipalities are compared with other non-sovereign jurisdictions in the Caribbean. Whereas the choice for political integration in itself can be compared with the French postwar policy of départementalisation, in terms of the historical significance and the direction of the reforms, the new political situation on Bonaire, St. Eustatius, and Saba could rather be better likened to that of the British Overseas Territories and their relationship with the United Kingdom.

  9. Alleghenian Reconstruction and Subsequent Evolution of the Gulf of Mexico, Bahamas, and Proto-Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pindell, James L.

    1985-01-01

    A detailed model for the evolution of the Gulf of Mexico, the Bahamas and the Proto-Caribbean is built within the framework provided by a detailed initial Alleghenian (western Pangean) reconstruction and an accurate subsequent relative-motion history between North America and Gondwana (northern Africa and South America). The Alleghenian reconstruction closes all pre-Jurassic oceans; accounts for Jurassic attenuation of continental crust by restoring that attenuation to original prerift continental thicknesses; incorporates an improved Equatorial Atlantic fit between northern Brazil and the Guinea margin of Africa; quantitatively removes changes in shape of northern South America due to Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic accretion and internal deformation; includes pre-Mesozoic continental crust presently underlying the western Bahamas and southern Florida; and correlates Late Paleozoic geology of Yucatan with its neighboring continental masses. Extension occurred within the Gulf of Mexico from Late Triassic to earliest Cretaceous time, but seafloor spreading was delayed until the Late Callovian. This divided a single Gulf-wide salt basin into the Louann and Campeche salt provinces. The Yucatan block progressively rotated about 43 degrees counterclockwise away from the Texas-Louisiana margin around a pole in northern Florida. The Tamaulipas-Golden Lane-Chiapas fault zone of eastern Mexico is interpreted as the remains of an initially intracontinental transform system along which Yucatan migrated. Attenuated continental crust beneath southern Florida and the western Bahamas, termed here the Florida Straits block, migrated approximately 300 km out of the eastern Gulf, approximately along Central Atlantic flow lines. These rotations are consistent with recently suggested magnetic anomaly trends in the Gulf of Mexico (Shepherd et al., 1982; S. Hall, personal communication, 1984). The Proto-Caribbean formed synchronously by a fan-like rotation of Yucatan away from Venezuela.

  10. Anaglyph, North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    This anaglyph (stereoscopic view) of North America was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). It is best viewed at or near full resolution with anaglyph glasses. For this broad view the resolution of the data was first reduced to 30 arcseconds (about 928 meters north-south and 736 meters east-west in central North America), matching the best previously existing global digital topographic data set called GTOPO30. The data were then resampled to a Mercator projection with approximately square pixels (about one kilometer, or 0.6 miles, on each side). Even at this decreased resolution the variety of landforms comprising the North American continent is readily apparent.Active tectonics (structural deformation of the Earth's crust) along and near the Pacific North American plate boundary creates the great topographic relief seen along the Pacific coast. Earth's crustal plates converge in southern Mexico and in the northwest United States, melting the crust and producing volcanic cones. Along the California coast, the plates are sliding laterally past each other, producing a pattern of slices within the San Andreas fault system. And, where the plates are diverging, the crust appears torn apart as one huge tear along the Gulf of California (northwest Mexico), and as the several fractures comprising the Basin and Range province (in and around Nevada).Across the Great Plains, erosional patterns dominate, with stream channels surrounding and penetrating the remnants of older smooth slopes east of the Rocky Mountains. This same erosion process is exposing the bedrock structural patterns of the Black Hills in South Dakota and the Ozark Mountains in Arkansas. Lateral erosion and sediment deposition by the Mississippi River has produced the flatlands of the lower Mississippi Valley and the Mississippi Delta.To the north, evidence of the glaciers of the last ice age is widely found, particularly east of the Canadian Rocky Mountains and around the

  11. Kinematic reconstruction of the Caribbean region since the Early Jurassic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochman, Lydian; van Hinsbergen, Douwe; Torsvik, Trond; Spakman, Wim; Pindell, James

    2014-05-01

    The Caribbean region results from a complex tectonic history governed by the interplay of the North American, South American and (Paleo-)Pacific plates, between which the Caribbean plate evolved since the early Cretaceous. During its entire tectonic evolution, the Caribbean plate was largely surrounded by subduction and transform boundaries, which hampers a quantitative integration into the global circuit of plate motions. In addition, reconstructions of the region have so far not resulted in a first order kinematic description of the main tectonic units in terms of Euler poles and finite rotation angles. Here, we present an updated, quantitatively described kinematic reconstruction of the Caribbean region back to 200 Ma integrated into the global plate circuit, and implemented with GPlates free software. Our analysis of Caribbean tectonic evolution incorporates an extensive literature review. To constrain the Caribbean plate motion between the American continents, we use a novel approach that takes structural geological observations rather than marine magnetic anomalies as prime input, and uses regionally extensive metamorphic and magmatic phenomena such as the Great Arc of the Caribbean, the Caribbean Large Igneous Province (CLIP) and the Caribbean high-pressure belt as correlation markers. The resulting model restores the Caribbean plate back along the Cayman Trough and major strike-slip faults in Guatemala, offshore Nicaragua, offshore Belize and along the Northern Andes towards its position of origin, west of the North and South American continents in early Cretaceous time. We provide the paleomagnetic reference frame for the Caribbean region by rotating the Global Apparent Polar Wander Path into coordinates of the Caribbean plate interior, Cuba, and the Chortis Block. We conclude that a plate kinematic scenario for a Panthalassa/Pacific origin of Caribbean lithosphere leads to a much simpler explanation than a Proto-Caribbean/Atlantic origin. Placing our

  12. IAI Training in Climate and Health in the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aron, J. L.

    2007-05-01

    The Inter-American Institute for Global Change Research (IAI) has addressed training in climate and health in the Americas in two major ways. First, IAI supports students to engage in research training. A multi-country health activity funded by IAI was the collaborative research network (CRN) on Diagnostics and Prediction of Human Health Impacts in the Tropical Americas, which focused principally on the effect of El Nino/Southern Oscillation and other aspects of climate variability on mosquito-borne diseases malaria and dengue. The CRN involved students in Brazil, Mexico, Venezuela, Colombia and Jamaica. The CRN was also linked to other climate and health projects that used a similar approach. Second, IAI organizes training institutes to expand the network of global change research scientists and facilitate the transfer of global change research into practice. The IAI Training Institute on Climate and Health in the Americas was held on November 7 - 18, 2005 at the University of the West Indies in Kingston, Jamaica, engaging participants from the CRN and other programs in the Americas. The Training Institute's central objective was to help strengthen local and regional capacity to address the impacts of climate variability and climate change on human health in the populations of the Americas, particularly Latin America and the Caribbean. The Training Institute had three core components: Science; Applications; and Proposal Development for Seed Grants. Recommendations for future Training Institutes included incorporating new technologies and communicating with policy-makers to develop more proactive societal strategies to manage risks.

  13. Energy demand and life quality in America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Being considered an intermediate growth among projections of technological development expressive or of development restricted by ecological considerations, in the next 50 years, the demand of primary energy in the countries of the American continent arrived to value sufficiently high to allow to consent at levels of quality of life but next to those enjoyed at the moment in developed countries. There will be an expansion substantial of electric power demand that rots to require the installation, in countries of Latin America and Caribbean, of power plants with total capacity of the order of 400 GW until half-filled of century. The resource to the nuclear source was accentuated starting from the decade of 2020 and an enormous challenge for the governments of the region it will be the one of driving the construction of about 2.300 MW/year nuclear power plants between 2020 and 2050. (Author)

  14. Proceedings of the 1st Ibero-Latin American and Caribbean Congress on Medical Physics. Mexico 98; Memorias. 1er Congreso Iberolatinoamericano y del Caribe de Fisica Medica. Mexico 98

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaona, E. [ed.] [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Huitron, B.G. [ed.] [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Toluca (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    This book composes the works received for the 1st Ibero-Latin American and the Caribbean Congress on Medical Physics. There are 68 works which represent a sample of the recent advances of the medical physics which are indicators about the level of development of the speciality in these regions of the world. Thus, the Congress represents the greatest event of medical physics of Ibero-Latin America and the Caribbean besides its consolidation and regional organization. The book also contains useful counsels for the education, yours researches and the daily hospitable practice. (Author)

  15. Reframing political violence and mental health outcomes: outlining a research and action agenda for Latin America and the Caribbean region Reformulando a violência política e efeitos na saúde mental: esboçando uma agenda de pesquisa e ação para a América Latina e região do Caribe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan Pedersen

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, the number of people exposed to traumatic events has significantly increased as various forms of violence, including war and political upheaval, engulf civilian populations worldwide. In spite of widespread armed conflict, guerrilla warfare and political violence in the Latin American and Caribbean region, insufficient attention had been paid in assessing the medium and long-term psychological impact and additional burden of disease, death, and disability caused by violence and wars amongst civilian populations. Following a review of the literature, a few central questions are raised: What is the short, medium and long-term health impact of extreme and sustained forms of violence in a given population? How political violence is linked to poor mental health outcomes at the individual and collective levels? Are trauma-related disorders, universal outcomes of extreme and sustained violence? These questions lead us to reframe the analysis of political violence and mental health outcomes, and reexamine the notions of trauma, after which a research and action agenda for the region is outlined. In the concluding sections, some basic principles that may prove useful when designing psychosocial interventions in post-conflict situations are reviewed.Em décadas recentes, o número de pessoas expostas a eventos traumáticos tem aumentado significativamente, bem como formas de violência como guerras e revoluções políticas, que subjugam populações civis em todo o mundo. Apesar da dispersão dos conflitos armados, guerrilhas e violência política na América Latina e Caribe, atenção insuficiente tem sido dada para avaliar o impacto psicológico a médio e longo prazo e o peso das doenças, mortes, e invalidez provocadas pela violência e guerra contra populações civis. Algumas perguntas centrais são levantadas, a partir de revisão da literatura: qual o impacto na saúde da população, a curto, médio e longo prazo, ao

  16. Preliminary list of the cetaceans of the southern Caribbean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bree, van P.J.H.

    1975-01-01

    Students working at the Caribbean Marine Biological Institute (CARMABI) on the island of Curaçao asked the present author to provide them with a list of Cetacea occurring in the Caribbean. Until recently, compiling such a list was of little use as our knowledge concerning the cetaceans in the area w

  17. Privatization and human resource issues in the Caribbean sugar industry.

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, C Y

    1995-01-01

    Examines privatization of the sugar plantations and sugar processing industry in the Caribbean region. Provides a detailed account of the current state of the Caribbean sugar industry. Examines the modalities and activities of the privatization process in the six countries. Identifies the forces which led to the nationalization policies of the 1970s and their reversal in the 1990s.

  18. 76 FR 2672 - Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 068-XA145 Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Public... (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of a public meeting. SUMMARY: The Caribbean Fishery Management Council (Council) in partnership with the Fisheries Leadership and Sustainability Forum ] (FLSF) will conduct...

  19. Street Festivals in the Caribbean: Geography Lessons for Elementary Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockledge, Ann

    1992-01-01

    Describes holiday celebrations in the Caribbean as important contemporary social events with historical, geographical, and cultural significance. Discusses the origins, development, and customs of the major Caribbean street festivals. Suggests that the holidays can combine all social science disciplines into focus and emphasize the geographic…

  20. Effectiveness of lionfish removal efforts in the Southern Caribbean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. de León; K. Vane; P. Bertuol; V.C. Chamberland; F. Simal; E. Imms; M.J.A. Vermeij

    2013-01-01

    Lionfish Pterois volitans and P. miles have spread rapidly throughout the Caribbean Sea since 1985, where they negatively impact native fish communities and therefore are considered by some as the most damaging invasive species in the Caribbean to date. To combat further population growth and spread

  1. Reappearance of Chikungunya, Formerly Called Dengue, in the Americas.

    OpenAIRE

    Halstead, Scott B.

    2015-01-01

    After an absence of ≈200 years, chikungunya returned to the American tropics in 2013. The virus is maintained in a complex African zoonotic cycle but escapes into an urban cycle at 40- to 50-year intervals, causing global pandemics. In 1823, classical chikungunya, a viral exanthem in humans, occurred on Zanzibar, and in 1827, it arrived in the Caribbean and spread to North and South America. In Zanzibar, the disease was known as kidenga pepo, Swahili for a sudden cramp-like seizure caused by ...

  2. True subduction vs. underthrusting of the Caribbean plate beneath Hispaniola, northern Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llanes Estrada, P.; Ten Brink, U. S.; Granja Bruna, J.; Carbó-Gorosabel, A.; Flores, C. H.; Villasenor, A.; Pazos, A.; Martin Davila, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    The Eastern Greater Antilles arc (Hispaniola and Puerto Rico) is bounded by a north-verging accretionary prism on its north side and a south-verging thrust belt (Muertos thrust belt) on its south side. This bivergent geometry has been attributed for the last 30 years to opposing subduction of the North American plate and the Caribbean oceanic interior beneath the island arc at the Muertos margin. Recent observations of seafloor and shallow sub-seafloor deformational features at the Muertos compressive margin together with sandbox kinematic and gravity modeling question the hypothesized subduction of the Caribbean plate's interior beneath the eastern Greater Antilles island arc. To further test the subduction hypothesis, we carried out in 2009 a wide-angle seismic transect across the widest part of the Muertos compressive margin at longitude 69°W. A 2-D forward ray-tracing model of the wide-angle transect outlines the broad-scale crustal structure across the Muertos margin. The Caribbean oceanic slab is imaged beneath the Muertos margin to about 50 km north of the deformation front and down to 19 km depth. A change in crustal p-wave velocity at ~60 km from the deformation front is interpreted as the boundary between the compressive deformed belt and the arc crust. The Caribbean oceanic crust is not seen extending farther north or penetrating the upper mantle. Modeling of ship's gravity data, acquired along the seismic profile, corroborates the seismic results. Any subduction model imply the existence of a regional mass deficit generated by the subducted Caribbean slab beneath the island arc and that variations in the geometry of the subduction angle and the depth are not able to compensate it. Earthquake hypocenter distribution in the Muertos Margin shows diffuse seismicity beneath the island arc, being very hard to identify different clusters and to assign them to different subducted slabs. The diffuse seismicity may be related to the transition between subduction

  3. Distribution and differentiation of wild, feral, and cultivated populations of perennial upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. in Mesoamerica and the Caribbean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geo Coppens d'Eeckenbrugge

    Full Text Available Perennial forms of Gossypium hirsutum are classified under seven races. Five Mesoamerican races would have been derived from the wild race 'yucatanense' from northern Yucatán. 'Marie-Galante', the main race in the Caribbean, would have developed from introgression with G. barbadense. The racial status of coastal populations from the Caribbean has not been clearly defined. We combined Ecological Niche Modeling with an analysis of SSR marker diversity, to elucidate the relationships among cultivated, feral and wild populations of perennial cottons. Out of 954 records of occurrence in Mesoamerica and the Caribbean, 630 were classified into four categories cultivated, feral (disturbed and secondary habitats, wild/feral (protected habitats, and truly wild cotton (TWC populations. The widely distributed three first categories cannot be differentiated on ecological grounds, indicating they mostly belong to the domesticated pool. In contrast, TWC are restricted to the driest and hottest littoral habitats, in northern Yucatán and in the Caribbean (from Venezuela to Florida, as confirmed by their climatic envelope in the factorial analysis. Extrapolating this TWC climatic model to South America and the Pacific Ocean points towards places where other wild representatives of tetraploid Gossypium species have been encountered. The genetic analysis sample comprised 42 TWC accessions from 12 sites and 68 feral accessions from 18 sites; at nine sites, wild and feral accessions were collected in close vicinity. Principal coordinate analysis, neighbor joining, and STRUCTURE consistently showed a primary divergence between TWC and feral cottons, and a secondary divergence separating 'Marie-Galante' from all other feral accessions. This strong genetic structure contrasts strikingly with the absence of geographic differentiation. Our results show that TWC populations of Mesoamerica and the Caribbean constitute a homogenous gene pool. Furthermore, the relatively

  4. African dust and the demise of Caribbean Coral Reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinn, Eugene A.; Smith, Garriet W.; Prospero, Joseph M.; Betzer, Peter; Hayes, Marshall L.; Garrison, Virginia; Barber, Richard T.

    2000-10-01

    The vitality of Caribbean coral reefs has undergone a continual state of decline since the late 1970s, a period of time coincidental with large increases in transatlantic dust transport. It is proposed that the hundreds of millions of tons/year of soil dust that have been crossing the Atlantic during the last 25 years could be a significant contributor to coral reef decline and may be affecting other ecosystems. Benchmark events, such as near synchronous Caribbean-wide mortalities of acroporid corals and the urchin Diadema in 1983, and coral bleaching beginning in 1987, correlate with the years of maximum dust flux into the Caribbean. Besides crustal elements, in particular Fe, Si, and aluminosilicate clays, the dust can serve as a substrate for numerous species of viable spores, especially the soil fungus Aspergillus. Aspergillus sydowii, the cause of an ongoing Caribbean-wide seafan disease, has been cultured from Caribbean air samples and used to inoculate sea fans.

  5. The European Union and the Caribbean Region: Situating the Caribbean Overseas Countries and Territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Sutton

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:This paper examines one important dimension of the European Union's (EU 'regional' engagement with the Caribbean: its relations with the Overseas Countries and Territories (OCT, with a particular focus on the possibility of furthering the policy goals of greater regional integration and cooperation. It does so in three parts. The first sets out the basis for current EU policy to the OCT which has been under discussion between the EU, the OCT and the four EU member states most involved (Denmark, France, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom since 2008. It reports EU proposals for change and the responses to them by the Caribbean OCTs. The second part examines EU policy toward promoting greater regional cooperation among the Caribbean OCTs and between them and some of the other Caribbean regional organizations. Three distinct frameworks for cooperation and integration are discussed: with independent states as established in the Caribbean Community, the Caribbean Forum and the Economic Partnership Agreement; with the French departments and collectivities; and with the Caribbean OCT. In each the position of the Caribbean OCT is situated. The final part briefly discusses the creation of a 'new' framework for regional cooperation specific for the Caribbean OCT which will most closely match their interests in the Caribbean.Resumen: La Unión Europea y la Región del Caribe: Situando a los Países y Territorios de Ultramar del CaribeEste ensayo analiza una dimensión importante de la Unión Europea (UE 'regional' y su compromiso con el Caribe: de igual manera sus relaciones con los Países y Territorios de Ultramar (PTU, con un enfoque particular sobre la posibilidad de promover los objetivos de la política con una mayor integración regional y cooperación. Este proceso se desglosa en tres partes. La primera establece la base para la actual política de la UE hacia los PTU, ya que esta ha sido objeto de debate entre los mismos y los cuatro

  6. Quantifying 10 years of Improvements in Earthquake and Tsunami Monitoring in the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hillebrandt-Andrade, C.; Huerfano Moreno, V. A.; McNamara, D. E.; Saurel, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    The magnitude-9.3 Sumatra-Andaman Islands earthquake of December 26, 2004, increased global awareness to the destructive hazard of earthquakes and tsunamis. Post event assessments of global coastline vulnerability highlighted the Caribbean as a region of high hazard and risk and that it was poorly monitored. Nearly 100 tsunamis have been reported for the Caribbean region and Adjacent Regions in the past 500 years and continue to pose a threat for its nations, coastal areas along the Gulf of Mexico, and the Atlantic seaboard of North and South America. Significant efforts to improve monitoring capabilities have been undertaken since this time including an expansion of the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Global Seismographic Network (GSN) (McNamara et al., 2006) and establishment of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Intergovernmental Coordination Group (ICG) for the Tsunami and other Coastal Hazards Warning System for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions (CARIBE EWS). The minimum performance standards it recommended for initial earthquake locations include: 1) Earthquake detection within 1 minute, 2) Minimum magnitude threshold = M4.5, and 3) Initial hypocenter error of seismic network capability, we can optimize the distribution of ICG-Caribe EWS seismic stations and select an international network that will be contributed from existing real-time broadband national networks in the region. Sea level monitoring improvements both offshore and along the coast will also be addressed. With the support of Member States and other countries and organizations it has been possible to significantly expand the sea level network thus reducing the amount of time it now takes to verify tsunamis.

  7. Windward Passage and Jamaica Channel: New Insights About two Tectonic Gateways of the Northern Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormier, M. H.; Blake, R. E.; Coleman, D. F.; Guerrier, K.; Raineault, N.; Saintilus, N.; Walker, S. L.; Auscavitch, S.; Wagner, J.

    2014-12-01

    This August 2014, a 14-day expedition of the E/V NAUTILUS of the OCEAN EXPLORATION TRUST will explore the region delimited by two deep straits of the northern Caribbean, the Windward passage and the Jamaica Channel. The morphology of these straits is controlled by two transform faults: The Septentrional fault, which stretches between Cuba and Haiti (slip rate: ~13 mm/yr), and the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden Fault (EPGF), which stretches between Jamaica and Haiti (slip rate: ~9 mm/yr). Together, these faults bound the Gonave microplate, an elongated platelet caught between the North America plate and Caribbean plates. The Septentrional fault ruptured in 1842, devastating the town of Cap Haitien. The EPGF ruptured catastrophically in 2010 near Port-au-Prince (death toll > 100,000). Tsunamis were associated with both earthquakes. Oblique slip on these two faults is presumably controlling the history of uplift and subsidence of the seafloor, and has therefore also been regulating the water exchanges between the north central Atlantic and the Caribbean Sea. New multibeam bathymetric and CHIRP sub-bottom profiling data will be acquired with the E/V NAUTILUS, while the ROV HERCULES will be used to collect video, water and rock samples, as well as water column physical properties. We anticipate that this survey will document the following: (1) The nature of drowned carbonate platforms, which in turn may provide useful markers to assess rates of vertical deformation along the two faults. (2) The extent of major landslides detected on the steep fore reefs from existing multibeam bathymetric data. (3) Whether fluids are actively seeping along the fault traces or in association with the landslides, as has been reported elsewhere around the World. (4) If cold seeps are indeed present, to what extent their associated ecosystems are affected by the bottom currents that flow through these gateways. Altogether, the new findings should contribute to a better understanding of the

  8. Inbreeding among Caribbean Hispanics from the Dominican Republic and the Effects on the Risk of Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardarajan, BN; Schaid, D; Reitz, C; Lantigua, R; Medrano, M; Jiménez-Velázquez, IZ; Lee, JH; Ghani, M; Rogaeva, E; St George-Hyslop, P; Mayeux, R

    2014-01-01

    Background Inbreeding can be associated with a modification in disease risk due to excess homozygosity of recessive alleles impacting a wide range of phenotypes. We estimated the inbreeding coefficient in Caribbean Hispanics and examined its effects on risk of late-onset Alzheimer's Disease (LOAD). Methods The inbreeding coefficient was calculated in 3392 subjects (1451 LOAD patients and 1941 age-matched healthy controls) of Caribbean Hispanic ancestry using 177,997 nearly independent SNPs from genome-wide array. The inbreeding coefficient was estimated using the excess homozygosity method with and without adjusting for admixture. Results The average inbreeding coefficient in the Caribbean Hispanics without accounting for admixture was F=0.018 (±0.048) suggesting a mating equivalent to second cousins or second cousins once removed. Adjusting for admixture from 3 parent populations, the average inbreeding was found to be 0.0034 (±0.019) or close to third cousin mating. Inbreeding coefficient was a significant predictor of AD when age, sex and APOE genotype was used as adjusting covariates (p=0.03). Conclusions The average inbreeding in this population is significantly higher than the general Caucasian populations in North America. The high rate of inbreeding resulting in increased frequency of recessive variants is advantageous for the identification of rare variants associated with LOAD. PMID:25394174

  9. Infrastructure in Latin America : Recent Developments and Key Challenges, Volume 1

    OpenAIRE

    Morrison, Mary; Fay, Marianne

    2005-01-01

    In the last decade, most countries in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) have not spent enough on infrastructure. Total investment has fallen as a percentage of GDP, as public infrastructure expenditure has borne the brunt of fiscal adjustment, and private investment has failed to take up the slack. Most infrastructure services have therefore lagged behind East Asian comparators, middle income countries in general and China, in terms of both coverage and quality, despite the generally posi...

  10. Market Positioning of Varieties in World Trade: is Latin America Losing Out on Asia?

    OpenAIRE

    Nanno Mulder; Rodrigo Paiilacar; Soledad Zignago

    2009-01-01

    There is increasing empirical evidence that trade specialisation and competition takes place in varieties rather than in products or industries. This paper examines recent changes in the export specialisation of Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) and their Asian competitors by looking at their vertical specialisation through prices. Three price (or quality) segments are distinguished to compare export performance between the two regions using our BACI database, which provides harmonised bi...

  11. Experiences of Microfinance Institutions Serving Very Small to Small Enterprises in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    International Finance Corporation

    2014-01-01

    Very small enterprises (VSEs) in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) represent a broad and heterogeneous segment, often underserved by formal financial institutions. They are generally informal and often family businesses. The financial needs of these enterprises are typically overlooked by “downscaling” banks, which find larger and often more formal small and medium enterprises (SMEs) to be a more natural market for their products and services. Microfinance Institutions (MFI...

  12. Budgeting for results in Latin America: Conditions for its deployment and development

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel Filc; Carlos Scartascini

    2012-01-01

    Given current evidence of potential tangible benefits, in terms of public expenditure sustainability, efficiency and effectiveness, from more efficient utilization of budgeting for results, how can we explain the uneven development of this process in Latin America and the Caribbean? This paper analyzes the conditions that favor its implementation (institutional conditions, motivation, capacities, and legal support), and provides policy recommendations aimed at increasing the likelihood that c...

  13. Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera)dispersal to the Americas: Historical evidence of the Spanish introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) groves are found in the Americas from the south-west USA (36°N lat.) to Chile (21°S lat.) and eastward to the Caribbean Islands; from Venezuela, 63°W long. to 117°W long. (USA) and at elevations from 0-2,000 m. However, successful production of ripe dates is possible ...

  14. Detection of recent regional sea surface temperature warming in the Caribbean and surrounding region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Equisha; Comarazamy, Daniel; González, Jorge E.; Smith, Thomas

    2015-08-01

    We show a sea surface temperature (SST) warming trend for the Caribbean and surrounding region over 1982-2012. Using an optimum interpolated SST product, a 30 year climatological analysis was generated to observe annual, monthly, and seasonal trends. Results show that SSTs are increasing annually for the region. For the two Caribbean rainy seasons, the Early Rainfall Season (ERS) and the Late Rainfall Season (LRS), estimated trends at 0.0161°C yr-1 and 0.0209°C yr-1 were observed, with high statistical significance. Subregional analysis revealed that warming is greatest in the Gulf of Mexico and north of South America during the ERS and LRS. Additionally, LRS averages for 1998-2012 reflect an increase in magnitude and intensity of the Atlantic Warm Pool (AWP) since the 1983-1997 period reflected in the AWP Area Index. Extreme increases/decreases in the time series show potential correlation with El Niño and the Southern Oscillation.

  15. A sedimentary-based history of hurricane strikes on the southern Caribbean coast of Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloskey, Terrence Allen; Liu, Kam-biu

    2012-11-01

    Multi-millennial hurricane landfall records from the western North Atlantic indicate that landfall frequency has varied dramatically over time, punctuated by multi-centennial to millennial scale periods of hyperactivity. We extend the record geographically by presenting a paleostrike record inferred from a four-core transect from a marsh on the Caribbean coast of Nicaragua. Fossil pollen indicates that the site was a highly organic wetland from ~ 5400-4900 cal yr BP, at which time it became a shallow marine lagoon until ~ 2800 cal yr BP when it transitioned back into swamp/marsh, freshening over time, with the present fresh-to-brackish Typha marsh developing over the very recent past. Hurricane Joan, 1988, is recorded as a distinctive light-colored sand-silt-clay layer across the top of the transect, identifiable by abrupt shifts in color from the dark marsh deposits, increased grain size, and two upward-fining sequences, which are interpreted as representing the storm's traction and suspension loads. The six layers identified as hurricane-generated display temporal clustering, featuring a marked increase in landfall frequency ~ 800 cal yr BP. This pattern is anti-phase with the activity pattern previously identified from the northern Caribbean and the Atlantic coast of North America, thereby opposing the view that hyperactivity occurs simultaneously across the entire basin.

  16. Giant submarine landslides on the Colombian margin and tsunami risk in the Caribbean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Stephen C.; Mann, Paul

    2016-09-01

    A series of three giant, previously unrecognized submarine landslides are defined on a 16,000 line km grid of multi-channel 2D seismic reflection profiles along the active margin of northern Colombia in the western Caribbean Sea. These deposits record the collapse and mobilization of immense segments (thousands of cubic kilometers) of the submarine slope and are comparable in scale to the largest known landslides on Earth. We show that the breakaway zone for these events corresponds to the tectonically over-steepened slopes of the Magdalena Fan, an extensive submarine fan composed of sediments sourced from the northern Andes and deposited by the Magdalena River. An over-pressured zone of weakness at the base of the gas-hydrate stability layer within the fan likely facilitates slope failure. Timing of these massive slope failures is constrained by well control and occurred from the mid-to-late Pliocene to mid-Pleistocene. To understand the tsunamigenic hazards posed by the recurrence of such an event today, we model the potential tsunami source created by a submarine landslide of comparable thickness (400 m) and lateral extent (1700 km2) derived from the over-steepened upper slopes of the present day Magdalena Fan. Our modeling indicates the recurrence of an analogous slope failure would result in a major tsunami that would impact population centers along the Caribbean coastlines of Colombia, Central America, and the Greater Antilles with little advance warning.

  17. Cobertura efectiva de las intervenciones en salud de América Latina y el Caribe: métrica para evaluar los sistemas de salud Effective coverage of health interventions in Latin America and the Caribbean: metrics for the assessment of health systems performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Martínez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Medir la cobertura efectiva para once intervenciones de salud en nueve países de América Latina utilizando las encuestas de demografía y salud o registros administrativos que abarcan la salud infantil, de la mujer y el adulto. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se seleccionaron las intervenciones y se armonizaron definiciones y métodos de cálculo de acuerdo con la información disponible para lograr la comparabilidad entre países. RESULTADOS: Chile es el país con mejores indicadores de coberturas crudas y efectivas, seguido por México y Colombia, y existen brechas importantes entre regiones, departamentos o estados. CONCLUSIONES: La métrica de cobertura efectiva es un indicador sensible que relaciona la necesidad de las intervenciones en salud, su utilización y calidad, lo que permite valorar los programas de salud al aportar datos precisos de dónde y a quién deben dirigirse los recursos y esfuerzos nacionales para que los países alcancen los propósitos y metas planteados.OBJECTIVE: To measure effective coverage for ll health interventions in Latin America including the children's, women's and adult health, as part of program evaluation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Interventions were selected; the definitions and calculation methods were harmonized according to the information available to ensure comparability between countries. RESULTS: Chile has better indicators of crude and effective coverage followed by Mexico and Colombia.There are significant gaps between regions, counties or states. CONCLUSIONS: The health metric on effective coverage is a sensitive indicator that links three important aspects: Coverage of health interventions, use of health services, and access to such services. Effective coverage is a good tool to evaluate health programs performance, and also provides data of where and to whom the system should address national efforts and resources to achieve the purposes and goals set.

  18. Lupus Foundation of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You. Learn More About the Lupus Foundation of America We are devoted to solving the mystery of ... Support for Lupus Research The Lupus Foundation of America applauds the U.S. Senate Appropriations Committee for voting ...

  19. Sarcoma Foundation of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mission The mission of the Sarcoma Foundation of America (SFA) is to advocate for sarcoma patients by ... behalf of everyone at the Sarcoma Foundation of America (SFA),THANK YOU! The Celebration of Life drew ...

  20. America's Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About the Forum | Publications | Data Sources | Help Search America's Children: Key National Indicators of Well-Being, 2015 ... Care Quality List of Tables List of Figures America's Children at a Glance Forum Agencies Data Source ...

  1. America's Blood Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or less. Please donate now! Full Stoplight Report America's Blood Centers is... FEATURED TODAY Support the Foundation ... purchase will be donated to the Foundation for America's Blood Centers! Simply Click Here! "We Are" This ...

  2. Medical Tourism in the Caribbean Islands: A Cure for Economies in Crisis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Connell

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Small island states have increasingly sought new means of economic diversification. Several Caribbean states have begun to develop medical tourism, partly building on existing tourist-oriented economies. Medical tourism has boomed in this century in several states in Asia and in Central America. The Bahamas, Barbados and the Cayman Islands exemplify different strategies for medical tourism, in order to generate foreign exchange and new employment, and reduce costs from overseas referrals. Most medical tourism projects have been developed by overseas corporations and are oriented to a US market. Business principles rather than health care dominate development strategies, notably of emerging transnational medical corporations, and raise ethical issues. Success will be difficult to achieve in a crowded and competitive market.

  3. Methods and challenges for the health impact assessment of vaccination programs in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Marli Christovam Sartori

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe methods and challenges faced in the health impact assessment of vaccination programs, focusing on the pneumococcal conjugate and rotavirus vaccines in Latin America and the Caribbean. METHODS For this narrative review, we searched for the terms "rotavirus", "pneumococcal", "conjugate vaccine", "vaccination", "program", and "impact" in the databases Medline and LILACS. The search was extended to the grey literature in Google Scholar. No limits were defined for publication year. Original articles on the health impact assessment of pneumococcal and rotavirus vaccination programs in Latin America and the Caribbean in English, Spanish or Portuguese were included. RESULTS We identified 207 articles. After removing duplicates and assessing eligibility, we reviewed 33 studies, 25 focusing on rotavirus and eight on pneumococcal vaccination programs. The most frequent studies were ecological, with time series analysis or comparing pre- and post-vaccination periods. The main data sources were: health information systems; population-, sentinel- or laboratory-based surveillance systems; statistics reports; and medical records from one or few health care services. Few studies used primary data. Hospitalization and death were the main outcomes assessed. CONCLUSIONS Over the last years, a significant number of health impact assessments of pneumococcal and rotavirus vaccination programs have been conducted in Latin America and the Caribbean. These studies were carried out few years after the programs were implemented, meet the basic methodological requirements and suggest positive health impact. Future assessments should consider methodological issues and challenges arisen in these first studies conducted in the region.

  4. Can Latin America fill the U.S. polyolefin deficit?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strategic issues for the North American polyolefin industry were discussed with reference to oil and gas price forecasts, oil capacity increases, and high density polyethylene production and ethylene integration costs. The overall polyolefin trade balance in North America was also explored. It was cautioned that unless a significant amount of new capacity is built in the United States, it is anticipated that by 2008, the United States will become a net importer of polyolefin resins. Currently exported product will be used increasingly in the domestic market to meet demand growth. This shift from being a net exporter of resins can be attributed to the high cost of feedstocks and the lack of investment in new capacity throughout the region. In contrast, there have been several proposals for new capacity in Latin America in the past several years. Since there is already an important level of commerce and trade between North and South America, countries with access to the Caribbean basin, are logistically well situated to serve the North American market. The availability of low cost feedstocks in countries such as Trinidad, Venezuela and Bolivia add to the attractiveness of the region for the development of new petrochemical capacity. This paper examined the status of the different proposed projects in Latin America and analyzed the potential opportunities that exist for North American producers to collaborate in those projects. The general trade balance of the continent was reviewed in order to verify if the traditional seclusion of America's polyolefin market can be maintained in the future. It was concluded that even if all projects in Latin America are launched, the Americas will still be in a net deficit position. Under the right circumstances, the Middle East will be the global supplier of commodity polyolefins that could extend to the Americas. It was emphasized that companies should be prepared for feedstock advantaged investments, alliances, acquisitions and

  5. Women in Physics: A Caribbean Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Kandice

    2009-03-01

    This paper is concerned with aspects of post-secondary education of women in physics in the Caribbean, focusing more specifically on the main university campuses in Trinidad and Tobago, Jamaica, and Barbados. Within this framework, there are three institutions of tertiary education that provide for undergraduate and post-graduate studies in physics. On average, the bachelor-level graduating class is roughly 40% female. A great majority of these students go on to seek master's degrees in engineering. Among those enrolled in graduate programs featuring research in astronomy, materials science, environmental physics, medical physics, and quantum physics, 58% are female. Significant numbers of women from the selected countries and from the Caribbean region are engaged in bachelor and doctoral programs in physics abroad, but no formal survey is available to provide the relevant quantitative information. However, an attempt will be made to quantify this component. Based in part on personal experience, a comparison will be made between domestic and foreign educational pathways, in terms of access to resources, level of research training, and occupational opportunities following graduation.

  6. Water Security and Services in the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Cashman

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The efficient management of water resources and services continues to be a concern in many of the small island states of the Caribbean. There are growing concerns over the ability of governments in the region to ensure the good management and provision of water without jeopardizing economic growth and the maintenance of social well-being. This paper provides an overview of the major factors influencing the water security facing the Caribbean Region and how the emerging concerns are being addressed. The key challenges and vulnerabilities may be summarized as lack of data and barriers to making available what information there is. Forward planning has been largely neglected and is symptomatic of a lack of appreciation of the need for having national water policies. In this respect Jamaica’s development of a national master water plan serves as a good example of what is needed. Water service providers have to be efficient, well managed and allowed to do their job. This means that they have to be on a sound financial footing. The challenge is to find the balance between appropriate political and regulatory oversight and the autonomy of water managers and service providers.

  7. Decadal climate variability in the eastern Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jury, Mark R.; Gouirand, Isabelle

    2011-11-01

    Rainfall variability in the eastern Caribbean during the 20th century is analyzed using principal component analysis and singular value decomposition. In contrast to earlier studies that used seasonal data, here we employ continuous signal processing. The leading mode is a decadal oscillation related to third and fourth modes of sea level pressure (SLP) and sea surface temperatures (SST) which together identify three zones of action in the Atlantic: 35°N-20°N, 20°N-5°N, and 5°N-20°S. The ability of the ECHAM4.5 model to simulate this signal is investigated. Its decadal variability is also represented through lower-order SLP and SST modes that comprise an Atlantic tripole pattern with lower pressure east of the Caribbean. Composite analysis of high and low phases of the decadal mode reflects a cool east Pacific and a more active Atlantic Intertropical Convergence Zone during boreal summer, conditions that favor the intensification of African easterly waves. The decadal signal has strengthened since 1970, yet the three centers of action in Atlantic SST are relatively unsynchronized.

  8. Natural gas as an integrating element for Latin America - An opportunity for Venezuela?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Cruz, Diego

    2010-09-15

    Summary This paper offers an analysis of the natural gas situation in Latin America, from Mexico to Argentina, including countries of the Caribbean; analyzes the attitude of potential buyers of this energy source and the possibilities of each country receiving natural gas from Venezuela based on its reserves and production, highlighting the most outstanding projects being undertaken in some of those countries; makes recommendations in the area of energy, with emphasis on natural gas; and, lastly, presents an epilog describing Venezuela's role in an integration process in Latin America.

  9. Phylogenetic and morphologic analyses of a coastal fish reveals a marine biogeographic break of terrestrial origin in the southern Caribbean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Betancur-R

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Marine allopatric speciation involves interplay between intrinsic organismal properties and extrinsic factors. However, the relative contribution of each depends on the taxon under study and its geographic context. Utilizing sea catfishes in the Cathorops mapale species group, this study tests the hypothesis that both reproductive strategies conferring limited dispersal opportunities and an apparent geomorphologic barrier in the Southern Caribbean have promoted speciation in this group from a little studied area of the world. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Mitochondrial gene sequences were obtained from representatives of the Cathorops mapale species group across its distributional range from Colombia to Venezuela. Morphometric and meristic analyses were also done to assess morphologic variation. Along a approximately 2000 km transect, two major lineages, Cathorops sp. and C. mapale, were identified by levels of genetic differentiation, phylogenetic reconstructions, and morphological analyses. The lineages are separated by approximately 150 km at the Santa Marta Massif (SMM in Colombia. The northward displacement of the SMM into the Caribbean in the early Pleistocene altered the geomorphology of the continental margin, ultimately disrupting the natural habitat of C. mapale. The estimated approximately 0.86 my divergence of the lineages from a common ancestor coincides with the timing of the SMM displacement at approximately 0.78 my. MAIN CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Results presented here support the hypothesis that organismal properties as well as extrinsic factors lead to diversification of the Cathorops mapale group along the northern coast of South America. While a lack of pelagic larval stages and ecological specialization are forces impacting this process, the identification of the SMM as contributing to allopatric speciation in marine organisms adds to the list of recognized barriers in the Caribbean. Comparative examination of

  10. Migration and development in the Caribbean: relating policies and people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, R

    1985-01-01

    Throughout the 20th century, the US has feared that political instability in the Caribbean area could be exploited by adversaries; therefore, the US and the nations of the Caribbean share a compelling interest in the region's development. The dramatic increase in legal and illegal immigration to the US from the Caribbean in the last 2 decades has offered an additional human reason for US interest in the region. This migration has also created a new source of dependence and vulnerability for the region. Curtailment of migration would undoubtedly affect the region, and if the effect were social and political instability, then the US would also share those consequences. The 1984 Conference on Migration and Development in the Caribbean held discussions to 1) enhance the benefits of migration to Caribbean development, 2) identify development strategies, policies, and projects that would reduce pressures that have accelerated the rate of international migration, making it less manageable and more costly, and 3) identify ways to reduce dependence on migration by expanding employment and assisting economies in the region to become more self-reliant. The attitudes of both US and Caribbean participants seemed to reflect a considerable degree of ambivalence on the migration issue. The US views itself as "a nation of immigrants" and yet is troubled by the recent large influx of immigrants, particularly illegal migrants and refugees. While Americans recognize that the "brain" reduces the development capacity of developing countries, the US still needs and benefits from young immigrants trained in the sciences, engineering, and computers. Caribbean participants were also ambivalent about immigration. They consider immigration "a way of life" and a "right," but they also recognize that there are significant developmental costs to some types of migration. While many want the US to keep a wide open door to Caribbean immigrants, they are aware that most Caribbean Community (CARICOM

  11. Reproductive performance of dairy cattle in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The review describes the commonly practised systems of milk production in sample countries within the five major topographical/climatological subregions of Latin America, viz. Central America, the Caribbean, the South American subtropics, the Andes and the Temperate Zone. The state of development and importance of the dairy industry to the economy of each country are discussed. Production and reproduction indices are quoted, as are the genetic make-up of the dairy herds, husbandry practices and the quality of livestock management. It is clear that there is an enormous capacity for improvement in the efficiency of milk production systems in the Latin American region as a whole; to achieve this improvement, there is an urgent need to pursue on-farm based research aimed at identifying constraints to the performance of dairy cattle and the implementation of low cost management/nutritional/health control measures. (author)

  12. Central and South America GPS geodesy - CASA Uno

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, James N.; Dixon, Timothy H.

    1990-01-01

    In January 1988, scientists from over 25 organizations in 13 countries and territories cooperated in the largest GPS campaign in the world to date. A total of 43 GPS receivers collected approximately 590 station-days of data in American Samoa, Australia, Canada, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, New Zealand, Norway, Panama, Sweden, United States, West Germany, and Venezuela. The experiment was entitled CASA Uno. Scientific goals of the project include measurements of strain in the northern Andes, subduction rates for the Cocos and Nazca plates beneath Central and South America, and relative motion between the Caribbean plate and South America. A second set of measurements are planned in 1991 and should provide preliminary estimates of crustal deformation and plate motion rates in the region.

  13. Rotavirus vaccine introduction in the Americas: progress and lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Lucia Helena; Danovaro-Holliday, M Carolina; Matus, Cuauhtemoc Ruiz; Andrus, Jon Kim

    2008-04-01

    In Latin America and the Caribbean, rotavirus causes approximately 15,000 deaths, 75,000 hospitalizations, 2 million clinic visits and 10 million cases of rotavirus diarrhea annually. Two safe vaccines are available that are effective in preventing severe illness. To date, seven countries in Latin America (Brazil, Ecuador, El Salvador, Panama, Mexico, Nicaragua and Venezuela) have introduced the vaccine. For successful rotavirus vaccine introduction, the lessons learned re-emphasize the critical need for countries to have precise plans that will ensure technical, programmatic and financial sustainability of vaccine introduction. Of these lessons learned, programmatic feasibility and financial sustainability were particularly challenging for countries that were the first to introduce a rotavirus vaccine. PMID:18393604

  14. Medical Tourism in the Caribbean: A Call for Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Adams

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Numerous Caribbean countries have discussed plans for developing medical tourism activities as a means of tourism diversification and economic development. These plans have been encouraged and shaped by outside agencies whose influence might cause a race-to-the-bottom environment between countries competing for the same niche of tourists. This paper provides a call for cooperation between local health officials in the Caribbean region to coordinate plans for the development of a medical tourism industry that enhances regional access to specialized health care and facilitates the movement of patients and healthcare resources throughout the region to enhance health equity and health outcomes in the Caribbean.

  15. BAT-BORNE RABIES IN LATIN AMERICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis E. Escobar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The situation of rabies in America is complex: rabies in dogs has decreased dramatically, but bats are increasingly recognized as natural reservoirs of other rabies variants. Here, bat species known to be rabies-positive with different antigenic variants, are summarized in relation to bat conservation status across Latin America. Rabies virus is widespread in Latin American bat species, 22.5%75 of bat species have been confirmed as rabies-positive. Most bat species found rabies positive are classified by the International Union for Conservation of Nature as “Least Concern”. According to diet type, insectivorous bats had the most species known as rabies reservoirs, while in proportion hematophagous bats were the most important. Research at coarse spatial scales must strive to understand rabies ecology; basic information on distribution and population dynamics of many Latin American and Caribbean bat species is needed; and detailed information on effects of landscape change in driving bat-borne rabies outbreaks remains unassessed. Finally, integrated approaches including public health, ecology, and conservation biology are needed to understand and prevent emergent diseases in bats.

  16. Bat-borne rabies in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Luis E; Peterson, A Townsend; Favi, Myriam; Yung, Verónica; Medina-Vogel, Gonzalo

    2015-01-01

    The situation of rabies in America is complex: rabies in dogs has decreased dramatically, but bats are increasingly recognized as natural reservoirs of other rabies variants. Here, bat species known to be rabies-positive with different antigenic variants, are summarized in relation to bat conservation status across Latin America. Rabies virus is widespread in Latin American bat species, 22.5%75 of bat species have been confirmed as rabies-positive. Most bat species found rabies positive are classified by the International Union for Conservation of Nature as "Least Concern". According to diet type, insectivorous bats had the most species known as rabies reservoirs, while in proportion hematophagous bats were the most important. Research at coarse spatial scales must strive to understand rabies ecology; basic information on distribution and population dynamics of many Latin American and Caribbean bat species is needed; and detailed information on effects of landscape change in driving bat-borne rabies outbreaks remains unassessed. Finally, integrated approaches including public health, ecology, and conservation biology are needed to understand and prevent emergent diseases in bats. PMID:25651328

  17. Recycling and transport of continental material through the mantle wedge above subduction zones: A Caribbean example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Agramonte, Yamirka; Garcia-Casco, Antonio; Kemp, Anthony; Kröner, Alfred; Proenza, Joaquín A.; Lázaro, Concepción; Liu, Dunyi

    2016-02-01

    Estimates of global growth rates of continental crust critically depend upon knowledge of the rate at which crustal material is delivered back into the mantle at subduction zones and is then returned to the crust as a component of mantle-derived magma. Quantification of crustal recycling by subduction-related magmatism relies on indirect chemical and isotopic tracers and is hindered by the large range of potential melt sources (e.g., subducted oceanic crust and overlying chemical and clastic sediment, sub-arc lithospheric mantle, arc crust), whose composition may not be accurately known. There is also uncertainty about how crustal material is transferred from subducted lithosphere and mixed into the mantle source of arc magmas. We use the resilient mineral zircon to track crustal recycling in mantle-derived rocks of the Caribbean (Greater Antilles) intra-oceanic arc of Cuba, whose inception was triggered after the break-up of Pangea. Despite juvenile Sr and Nd isotope compositions, the supra-subduction zone ophiolitic and volcanic arc rocks of this Cretaceous (∼135-70 Ma) arc contain old zircons (∼200-2525 Ma) attesting to diverse crustal inputs. The Hf-O isotope systematics of these zircons suggest derivation from exposed crustal terranes in northern Central America (e.g. Mexico) and South America. Modeling of the sedimentary component in the most mafic lavas suggests a contribution of no more than 2% for the case of source contamination or less than 4% for sediment assimilation by the magma. We discuss several possibilities for the presence of inherited zircons and conclude that they were transported as detrital grains into the mantle beneath the Caribbean Plate via subduction of oceanic crust. The detrital zircons were subsequently entrained by mafic melts that were rapidly emplaced into the Caribbean volcanic arc crust and supra-subduction mantle. These findings suggest transport of continental detritus, through the mantle wedge above subduction zones, in

  18. Isotope hydrology investigations in Latin America 1994. Investigations on hydrology and hydrogeology in Latin America on water resources and groundwater pollution. Results achieved during the implementation of the project RLA/8/014 - ARCAL XIII: Application of isotope techniques in hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This IAEA Technical Document contains 17 articles about the results achieved during the implementation of the project RLA/8/014, ARCAL XIII, aimed at the application of isotope techniques in hydrology in the Caribbean and Latin America. Also included is the list of 19 participants in the project. Refs, figs and tabs

  19. Faults of the Caribbean Region (flt6bg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset describes faults and structural features of the Caribbean region (Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Aruba, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, British Virgin...

  20. Caribbean Seasonal and/or Area Closures GIS data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data represents the geographic area described in Title 50 CFR Part 622, Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic, Subpart S - Reef Fish...

  1. Surface Geology of the Caribbean Region (geo6bg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset includes polygons that describe the geologic age of surface outcrops of bedrock of the Caribbean region (Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Aruba, Bahamas,...

  2. Climate Change Adaptation and Water Resources in the Caribbean Region

    OpenAIRE

    John Charlery

    2011-01-01

    Presentation on climate change adaptation in the Caribbean for a capacity building workshop. Topics discussed include the A1B Model, temperature and rainfall patterns, their implications for water resource management and climate change mitigation.

  3. Black Themes in the Literature of the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Ben

    1973-01-01

    Those Africans brought over to the Western Hemisphere left a strong impression on culture and language of Spanish colonizers. This effect has been exemplified in the religion, music, dance, and food of the republics of the Caribbean. (Author/RJ)

  4. Caribbean women: changes in the works

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isabel Quiñones-Arocho

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] The women of Azua: work and family in the rural Dominican Republic, by BARBARA FINLAY. New York: Praeger, 1989. xi + 190 pp. (Cloth US$ 35.00 The psychosocial development of Puerto Rican women, edited by CYNTHIA T. GARCIA COLL & MARIA DE LOURDES MATTEI. New York: Praeger, 1989. xiii + 272 pp. (Cloth US$ 45.00 Women and the sexual division oflabour in the Caribbean, edited by KEITH HART. Mona, Jamaica: Consortium Graduate School of Social Sciences, UWI, 1989. 141 pp. (Paper n.p. The three books under review work have a common theme: the impact of changing gender expectations on Caribbean women. The authors are mainly concerned with recent political and economie changes that might have contributed to either the improvement or deterioration of women's status in these societies. The questions raised by the contributors are strikingly similar: What has been the impact of dependent economie development on women's lives and has this resulted in increased labor participation (a problem explored for rural Dominican women as well as for Jamaican and Barbadian women or in the migration to metropolitan centers, with its psychosocial consequences (an issue raised for Puerto Rican women living in the United States? If patriarchal values (often referred to as traditional values prevail in these societies, then what impact might wage work, migration, or improved education have on those values? Could it be the disintegration of the nuclear family with an increased proportion of female-headed households (Hart, higher rates of mental illness as a result of dysfunctional aceulturation (Garcia Coll and Mattei, or even an improvement of women's status within their families and communities (Finlay?

  5. Caribbean area food irradiation feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Agency for International Development funded the Caribbean Area Food Irradiation Feasibility Study (CAFI) through the US National Food Processors Association and with the collaboration of the US Department of Energy. This study focused on the economic, technical, financial, political and social feasibility of transferring food irradiation technology to the Caribbean area. The study focuses on three areas including the benefits to small farmers and nations interested in the export of crops, including non-traditional tropical commodities. The Feasibility Study Team conducted field work in Guatemala, Haiti, and Trinidad. The benefits of irradiation technology have been shown to have an impact particularly on the small farmer who is more capable of producing non-traditional crops intended for international export marketing. In Haiti, the anthropologists working on the CAFI study found that 74,000 individuals will be directly affected by the ban on the postharvest fumigant ethylene dibromide. Irradiation technology can not only provide the quarantine security needed to allow crops requiring quarantine treatment to move into international trade, but it can promote international co-operation in technology transfer. Training and safety issues related to the transfer, operation, and disposal of nuclear materials must be considered and point out the need for adequate regional co-operative programmes. Research and training programmes will be needed to augment the implementation of food irradiation processing by the private sector. Irradiation firms planning facilities in developing countries may need to provide crop production information, international marketing intelligence, and other assistance needed to integrate an irradiator into the overall postharvest food system. (author)

  6. Caribbean Civil Society: Development Role and Policy Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Bowen Glenn A.

    2013-01-01

    Civil society organizations (CSOs) in Caribbean countries have performed social service delivery and program implementation roles for many years. Using survey, interview, and document review techniques, this cross-national study explored the potential role of nonprofit, nongovernmental, and community-based organizations in regional integration and development. The study has found that Caribbean CSOs perform functions primarily in four areas – social services, community building, local economi...

  7. Strengthening integrated research and capacity development within the Caribbean region

    OpenAIRE

    Dewailly Eric; Morrison Karen; Forde Martin; Badrie Neela; Robertson Lyndon

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The Caribbean region, like other developing regions of the world, faces significant challenges in conducting research, especially in the context of limited resource capacities and capabilities. Further, due to its diverse and multiple island states, research capacity is scattered and unevenly spread within the region. The Caribbean EcoHealth Programme (CEHP) is a research program that is structured to improve the capacity and capability of health professionals in the Carib...

  8. Eddy development and motion in the Caribbean Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade, Carlos Alberto; Barton, Eric D.

    2000-01-01

    Eddy motion in the Caribbean Sea is described on the basis of sea level anomalies deduced from ERS‐1 altimetry data corrected with TOPEX/Poseidon data during the 15 months of the Exact Repeat Mission (October 1992 to December 1993). Both cyclones and anticyclones were observed in the satellite data as anomalies originating in the Venezuelan Basin or entering the Caribbean through the Antillean passages, mainly the St. Lucia Channel, Anegada Passage, and north of Trinidad. The diameter of the ...

  9. Medical Tourism in the Caribbean: A Call for Cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, K.; Snyder, J.; V Crooks; L Hoffman

    2014-01-01

    Numerous Caribbean countries have discussed plans for developing medical tourism activities as a means of tourism diversification and economic development. These plans have been encouraged and shaped by outside agencies whose influence might cause a race-to-the-bottom environment between countries competing for the same niche of tourists. This paper provides a call for cooperation between local health officials in the Caribbean region to coordinate plans for the development of a medical touri...

  10. Culture and Identity in African and Caribbean Theatre

    OpenAIRE

    Okagbue, Osita

    2009-01-01

    What connects Africa and the Caribbean is trans-Atlantic slavery which transported numerous sons and daughters of Africa to the plantations of the New World in the service of Western European capitalism. Because of this shared experience of trans-Atlantic slavery and European colonialism, issues of culture and identity are major concerns for African and Caribbean playwrights. Slavery and colonialism had involved systematic acts of cultural denigration, de-humanisation and loss of freedom, whi...

  11. Quality Assurance in Emergency Medicine - A Caribbean Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Sammy, I.A.; Paul, J.F.; Watson, H; Williams-Johnson, J; Bullard, C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – Emergency medicine is a new specialty in the Caribbean. With the development of specialist training over the past 20 years, the issues of quality assurance and governance have become more prominent. The purpose of this paper is to explore the successes and challenges of implementing systems of quality assurance in this unique environment, highlighting issues peculiar to the Caribbean setting. Design/methodology/approach – This paper is a review of current practice in the e...

  12. Assimilation Differences among Africans in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodoo, F. Nii-Amoo

    1997-01-01

    Census data (1990) indicate that male African immigrants earn more than their Caribbean-born counterparts or native-born African Americans, but controlling for relevant earnings-related endowments erases the African advantage and elevates Caribbean earnings above those of the other groups. Also, African (but not Caribbean) university degree…

  13. Gracilaria, Subgenus Textoriella (Gracilariaceae, Rhodophyta) in the Gulf of Mexico and the Mexican Caribbean Gracilaria, subgénero Textoriella (Gracilariaceae, Rhodophyta) en el golfo de México y el Caribe mexicano

    OpenAIRE

    Kurt M. Dreckmann; Abel Sentíes

    2009-01-01

    Four species of Gracilaria (Gracilariaceae, Rhodophyta) with textorii-type spermatangial conceptacles (subgenus Textoriella Yamamoto) are recorded for the Gulf of Mexico and the Mexican Caribbean: Gracilaria blodgettii, G. cervicornis, G. mammillaris, and G. tikvahiae. The general distribution of the subgenus for Central America, both Pacific and Atlantic, displays a disjunct pattern explainable based on the geologic vicariant events that interrupted the connection between Pacific and Atlanti...

  14. [International migration in the Americas: intraregional migration grows].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlotnik, H

    1992-01-01

    The principal destinations for intraregional migrants in South America in recent decades have been Argentina, Brazil, and Venezuela, while in North America the U.S. has exerted a growing attraction since 1965. Intraregional migration in Latin America has been irregular and difficult to quantify, and reliable statistics on migratory flows are nonexistent. Census data indicate that most migration to Argentina and Brazil occurred before 1960, while most migration to Venezuela occurred during the 1970s. Between 1960 and 1980, the proportion of migrants from other Latin American countries showed a tendency to increase, despite decreases in the overall level of immigration. The effect of the economic crisis of the 1980s on immigration from Latin American countries will become more apparent as census data for the 1990s become available. Selectivity according to country of origin is an important characteristic of intraregional migration in South America. The U.S. has, however, been the principal destination of Latin American migrants for the past three decades. Between 1965 and 1991 the U.S. granted resident status to more than 7.4 million persons of Latin American and Caribbean origin, and they constituted 47% of immigrants during those years. The great majority of the Latin American immigrants in the U.S. are Mexican. The 3.5 million Mexicans admitted to the U.S. as immigrants between 1965 and 1991 accounted for 22% of all immigrants during this period. PMID:12158068

  15. Mosaic origins of Bradyrhizobium legume symbionts on the Caribbean island of Guadeloupe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Matthew A; Rousteau, Alain

    2014-08-01

    To analyze geographic affinities of Bradyrhizobium sp. symbionts associated with the diverse legume flora on the Caribbean island of Guadeloupe, 39 isolates from 18 legume genera were compared to a reference set of 269 Bradyrhizobium strains from North America, Central America, Puerto Rico and the Philippines. A multilocus sequence analysis (4192 bp) showed that nucleotide diversity in Guadeloupe equaled or exceeded that found in all other regional Bradyrhizobium populations examined. Bayesian phylogenetic tree analysis grouped the Guadeloupe Bradyrhizobium strains into clades with at least 20 distinct sets of non-Guadeloupe relatives, implying that the island was colonized numerous times from multiple source regions. However, for 18% of the Guadeloupe isolates, inferred geographic affinities for the nifD locus, in the symbiosis island region of the Bradyrhizobium chromosome, conflicted with the source region deduced from a tree based on six concatenated housekeeping genes. Geographic mosaic ancestry was therefore evident among Guadeloupe bradyrhizobia. Horizontal gene transfer subsequent to island colonization appears to have generated strains that carry combinations of genes from disparate source regions. PMID:24747127

  16. Faulting and strain partitioning in Jamaica from GPS and structural data: Implications for Gonave and Hispaniola microplate kinematics, northern Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benford, Bryn

    A series of small microplates separate the Caribbean and North America plates in the northern Caribbean. My dissertation focuses on understanding the structural evolution and neotectonic deformation of Jamaica, and how it relates to the overall microplates and tectonics of the northern Caribbean. Jamaica, which lies along the same seismically active plate boundary as Haiti, has had twelve earthquakes with Modified Mercalli intensities of VII to X since 1667. However, remarkably little is known about which faults presently constitute the most significant seismic hazards. This research provides insight into tectonic processes and facilitates mitigation of geological hazards in the region. Two chapters focus on characterizing deformation in Jamaica through modeling GPS velocities and through field mapping. The best-fitting models based on GPS velocities place most strike-slip motion on faults in central Jamaica and suggest that faults in northern Jamaica have minimal motion. I estimate 4--5 mm yr-1 of slip for faults near the capital city of Kingston of southeastern Jamaica, implying significant seismic hazard. Field mapping combined with present-day topography, focal mechanisms, geology, gravity, and well and borehole data indicate that east-west contraction is accommodated by reactivated, NNW-striking reverse faults, which are bound by E-striking strike-slip faults in southern Jamaica. The other two chapters of my thesis focuses on understanding the behavior of the microplates along the Caribbean-North America plate boundary: I model GPS velocities and use shear-wave splitting to understand the crustal and mantle behaviors, respectively of the microplates. The GPS data require an independently moving Hispaniola microplate between the Mona Passage and a likely diffuse boundary just west of or within western Hispaniola. The new microplate angular velocities predict 6.8+/-1.0 mm yr-1 of left-lateral slip and 5.7+/-1 mm yr-1 of convergent motion surrounding the

  17. Moisture sources to the 2010-2012 anomalous wet season in northern South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Paola A.; Martínez, J. Alejandro; Vieira, Sara C.

    2015-11-01

    During 2010-2012, northern South America experienced one of the strongest wet seasons during the recent decades, with socio-economic implications of wide proportions. This period was characterized by two stronger-than-average La Niña events, one occurred in 2010-2011 and another less intense event in 2011-2012. This study focused on identifying the main moisture sources, besides the eastern Pacific, for the anomalous wet season occurred in this region during 2010-2012, and their association with the La Niña events observed in the equatorial Pacific. The results discussed here suggest that the main moisture sources to this anomalous wet season were the Pacific Ocean (via the westerly flow of the Choco jet) and the Caribbean Sea (via the weakening of the Caribbean low-level jet and the development of southward anomalies toward northern South America). Such changes appear to be associated not only to El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO)-driven sea surface temperature anomalies in the eastern Pacific, Caribbean Sea, and north Atlantic, but also to ENSO-independent variability in the Atlantic Ocean. The latter is related to an enhanced Atlantic Meridional Mode.

  18. Schooling in Capitalist America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, David K.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The symposium transcript presents and discusses commentaries on "Schooling in Capitalist America," by Sam Bowles and Herbert Gintis. The transcript serves three functions: (1) it offers a comprehensive account of the role of schools in America; (2) critiques efforts to reform schools; and (3) suggests alternative visions of how school reform…

  19. World review: Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article gives information on contracts announced (and to whom) throughout Latin America in all aspects of the petroleum, natural gas and petrochemicals industries. Countries specifically mentioned are Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico, Trinidad and Venezuela. The future for the oil industry in Latin America is viewed as 'highly prospective'

  20. Climate Change and Agriculture in Latin America, 2020-2050 : Projected Impacts and Response to Adaptation Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Erick C.M. Fernandes; Soliman, Ayat; Confalonieri, Roberto; DONATELLI Marcello; Tubiello, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    The impacts of climate change on agriculture are projected to be significant in coming decades, so response strategies, and their likely costs, should be evaluated now. That is why this study produced an open-access, crop-climate-economic impact modeling platform for Latin America and the Caribbean, that can be extended to other regions, then modified and improved by users as new crop, cli...

  1. Assessing the HIV Care Continuum in Latin America: progress in clinical retention, cART use and viral suppression

    OpenAIRE

    Rebeiro, Peter F.; Carina Cesar; Shepherd, Bryan E.; Raquel B De Boni; Cortés, Claudia P.; Fernanda Rodriguez; Pablo Belaunzarán-Zamudio; Pape, Jean W; Denis Padgett; Daniel Hoces; McGowan, Catherine C; Pedro Cahn

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: We assessed trends in HIV Care Continuum outcomes associated with delayed disease progression and reduced transmission within a large Latin American cohort over a decade: clinical retention, combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) use and viral suppression (VS). Methods: Adults from Caribbean, Central and South America network for HIV epidemiology clinical cohorts in seven countries contributed data between 2003 and 2012. Retention was defined as two or more HIV care visits an...

  2. A Comparison of Product Price Targeting and Other Monetary Anchor Options for Commodity Exporters in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Frankel, Jeffrey A.

    2011-01-01

    Seven possible nominal variables are considered as candidates to be the anchor or target for monetary policy. The context is countries in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), which tend to be price takers on world markets, to produce commodity exports subject to volatile terms of trade, and to experience procyclical international finance. Three candidates are exchange rate pegs: to the dollar, euro and SDR. One candidate is orthodox Inflation Targeting. Three candidates represent proposals ...

  3. A Comparison of Monetary Anchor Options, Including Product Price Targeting, for Commodity-Exporters in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Frankel, Jeffrey A.

    2010-01-01

    Seven possible nominal variables are considered as candidates to be the anchor or target for monetary policy. The context is countries in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), which tend to be price takers on world markets, to produce commodity exports subject to volatile terms of trade, and to experience procyclical international finance. Three candidates are exchange rate pegs: to the dollar, euro and SDR. One candidate is orthodox Inflation Targeting. Three candidates represent proposals ...

  4. Caribbean Coral Reef, Seagrass and Mangrove Sites (CARICOMP), (NODC Accession 0000501)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Caribbean Coastal Marine Productivity (CARICOMP) Program is a Caribbean-wide research and monitoring network of 27 marine laboratories, parks, and reserves in...

  5. The New World screw-worm as a pest in the Caribbean and plans for its eradication from Jamaica and the other infested Caribbean islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    . Real progress was not made until 1997, based principally on efforts by the Jamaican Veterinary Services Division (VSD) when cooperation was established with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) and the Animal and Plant Health Information Service of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA/APHIS/ARS) with respect to the preparation for an eradication programme. Preliminary organisational activities for this programme have been started with the expectation that the first sterile fly releases will be made in January, 1999 to initiate what is projected to be a 3-year eradication campaign. With respect to the rest of the Caribbean, FAO currently has a project in Cuba which is aimed at determining the extent of the problem and its economic impact. Concurrently, IAEA is developing a 'thematic' plan for the entire Caribbean as well as South America

  6. Surveillance of avian influenza in the Caribbean through the Caribbean Animal Health Network: surveillance tools and epidemiologic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefrançois, T; Hendrikx, P; Ehrhardt, N; Millien, M; Gomez, L; Gouyet, L; Gaidet, N; Gerbier, G; Vachiéry, N; Petitclerc, F; Carasco-Lacombe, C; Pinarello, V; Ahoussou, S; Levesque, A; Gongora, H V; Trotman, M

    2010-03-01

    The Caribbean region is considered to be at risk for avian influenza (AI) due to a large backyard poultry system, an important commercial poultry production system, the presence of migratory birds, and disparities in the surveillance systems. The Caribbean Animal Health Network (CaribVET) has developed tools to implement AI surveillance in the region with the goals to have 1) a regionally harmonized surveillance protocol and specific web pages for AI surveillance on www.caribvet.net, and 2) an active and passive surveillance for AI in domestic and wild birds. A diagnostic network for the Caribbean, including technology transfer and AI virus molecular diagnostic capability in Guadeloupe (real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for the AI virus matrix gene), was developed. Between 2006 and 2009, 627 samples from four Caribbean countries were tested for three circumstances: importation purposes, following a clinical suspicion of AI, or through an active survey of wild birds (mainly waders) during the southward and northward migration periods in Guadeloupe. None of the samples tested were positive, suggesting a limited role of these species in the AI virus ecology in the Caribbean. Following low pathogenic H5N2 outbreaks in the Dominican Republic in 2007, a questionnaire was developed to collect data for a risk analysis of AI spread in the region through fighting cocks. The infection pathway of the Martinique commercial poultry sector by AI, through introduction of infected cocks, was designed, and recommendations were provided to the Caribbean Veterinary Services to improve cock movement control and biosecurity measures. The CaribVET and its organization allowed interaction between diagnostic and surveillance tools on the one hand and epidemiologic studies on the other, both of them developed in congruence with regional strategies. Together, these CaribVET activities contribute to strengthening surveillance of avian influenza virus (AIV) in the

  7. Baseball and society in the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Zimbalist

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] The Tropic of Baseball: Baseball in the Dominican Republic. Rob Ruck. Westport CT: Meckler, 1991. x + 205 pp. (Cloth n.p. Trading with the Enemy: A Yankee Travels Through Castro's Cuba. Tom Miller. New York: Atheneum, 1992. x + 338 pp. (Cloth US$ 24.00 Read Bart Giamatti's Take Time for Paradise (1989 or any of the other grand old game sentimentalists and you'11 discover that baseball somehow perfectly reflects the temperament of U.S. culture. This match, in turn, accounts for basebali's enduring and penetrating popularity in the United States. Read Ruck and Miller and you'11 learn that baseball is more popular and culturally dominant in the Dominican Republic and Cuba than it is to the north. The suppressed syllogism affirms that U.S. and Caribbean cultures hold intimate similarities. If that is true, this Caribbeanist has been out to lunch; then again, no one ever accused economists of having acute cultural sensibilities.

  8. The Caribbean and the Wild Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Goslinga

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Suriname: a bibliography, 1980-1989. Jo DERKX & IRENE ROLFES. Leiden, the Netherlands: Department of Caribbean Studies, KITLV/Royal Institute of Linguistics and Anthropology, 1990. x + 297 pp. (Paper NLG 25.00 La Caraïbe politique et internationale: bibliographie politologique avec références économiques et socio-culturelles. MICHEL L. MARTIN. Paris: L'Harmattan, 1990. xvii + 287 pp. Suriname. ROSEMARIJN HOEFTE. Oxford and Santa Barbara CA: Clio Press, 1990. xxx + 229 pp. (Cloth US$ 45.00 Although in North American academie circles interest in Suriname (or the Wild Coast, as the area was originally called has always been marginal, the same cannot be said for the Dutch, for whom the former colony continues to hold an enduring fascination. Not only have the Dutch studied the country's historical beginnings assiduously, but Suriname's controversial relationship with the former mother country assures it a definite place in contemporary social and political thought.

  9. Energy review 2003 Latin American and Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To develop this document we have placed our eagerness to present an analysis of the Energy Sector of Latin American and Caribbean, it contains information about the current energy situation of each of our member countries, regional data, as well as economic and social indicators corrected through historical series. The 2003 energy report, presents an innovative structure for analysis that allows the reader to easily find general information on the energy sectors of the 26th OLADE member countries. In addition, the written publications present data from Algeria, an extra regional participant country of the Organization. With the objective of enriching the statistical value that the document have presented since initial editions, this document contains the participation of our technical coordinators in the each of our specialized areas of our organization: energy policy, hydrocarbons, electricity, statistical information, renewable energy and environment. It is likely to emphasize in this occasion, for the first time the energy report is spread into the immediate year subsequent to the one of reference, as it was obtained thanks to the effort of our specialists and the cooperation of our countries members. The modern world presents us with constant changes and challenges for the security of supply that sets dynamic integration within the strategic areas. In this sense, we expect that this document will be a useful tool to face the challenges of the energy sector of our region. (The author)

  10. Tracking the Caribbean sound: three current hits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth M. Bilby

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Zouk: World Music in the West lndies. JOCELYNE GuiLBAULT (with GAGE AVERILL, ÉDOUARD BENOIT & GREGORY RABESS. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993. xxv + 279 pp. and compact disk. (Cloth US$ 55.00, Paper US$ 27.75 Calypso Calaloo: Early Carnival Music in Trinidad. DONALD R. HlLL. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1993. xvi + 344 pp. and compact disk. (Cloth US$ 49.95, Paper US$ 24.95 Calypso & Society in Pre-Independence Trinidad. GORDON ROHLEHR. Port of Spain: Gordon Rohlehr, 1990. x + 613 pp. (Paper US$ 40.00 In 1983, from my Hstening post in Cayenne, the southernmost extension of the French Caribbean, I reported that "popular musicians in the Lesser Antilles are in the process of breathing life into new musical varieties blending soka, cadence, and reggae" (Bilby 1985:211. Little did I know that what I was describing was the sudden emergence, at that very moment, of an entirely new music in French Guiana's fellow Départements d'Outre-Mer to the north, Martinique and Guadeloupe. Down in Cayenne, which has always had close ties to the French Antilles, there was a feeling in the air that some fresh and invigorating cultural trend was about to burst forth. Even in the Maroon villages of the French Guianese interior, where I relocated in early 1984, the excitement was palpable.

  11. Eddy development and motion in the Caribbean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Carlos A.; Barton, Eric D.

    2000-11-01

    Eddy motion in the Caribbean Sea is described on the basis of sea level anomalies deduced from ERS-1 altimetry data corrected with TOPEX/Poseidon data during the 15 months of the Exact Repeat Mission (October 1992 to December 1993). Both cyclones and anticyclones were observed in the satellite data as anomalies originating in the Venezuelan Basin or entering the Caribbean through the Antillean passages, mainly the St. Lucia Channel, Anegada Passage, and north of Trinidad. The diameter of the eddies ranged from a few tens of kilometers to 700 km. Advection speeds were typically 20-30 cm s-1 and the eddies were energetic (kinetic energy > 0.6 m2 s-2). Their lifetime of 3-4 months was determined, in general, by their interaction with topography. Most eddy activity was eroded and disappeared at the Central American Rise area, although a few eddies crossed into the Cayman Sea through the Chibcha Channel. Some eddies also entered the Cayman Sea from outside the Caribbean through the Windward Passage. The Panama-Colombia Gyre was evident only during the tropical rainy season. A large cyclonic eddy was formed there during the period of maximum precipitation, when strong meridional salinity and wind speed gradients occurred. Eddy production in the central Caribbean appears to be associated with the interaction of the meandering Caribbean Current and the strong wind curl.

  12. An Historical and Contemporary Overview of Gendered Caribbean Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Sharla Blank

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a broad overview of historical and contemporary gender and social class relations in the British, French, and Spanish Caribbean islands focusing primarily on Afro-Caribbean people. It begins with a discussion of gendered relations during slavery and then investigates gender roles post emancipation. Next, multiple aspects of contemporary West Indian family life are addressed including the prevalence of matrifocal households and child shifting. The important roles played by Caribbean female household heads are discussed in the context of patriarchy. Highlights include the significance of the maternal role over the marital, socializing youth, particular negative expectations each sex holds of the other, customary sexual behavior, as well as common relationship types. Varying aspects of women’s behavior according to social class is touched upon followed by a brief synopsis of the status of Caribbean women on measures of educational and work force participation rates; finally, a summary of the dearth of active women’s movements in the region is addressed. The paper provides an introduction to the intimate and working lives of Caribbean women and men.

  13. Las Migraciones en el Proceso de Integracion de las Americas: Seminario Internacional (Migration in the Integration Process in the Americas: International Seminar). Conference report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglund, S

    1993-01-01

    This conference report of the Centro de Estudios Migratorios Latinoamericanos and the Center for Migration Studies pertains to meetings held in August 1992. Summary information on migration movements in Latin America is presented by region and subject. The topic of integration in the Americas was presented by Mr. Lelio Marmora. Other topics and presenters include the new Colombian Migration Policy (Mr. Carlos Adolfo Arenas), the integration policies in Central America (Mr. Pilar Norza of Costa Rica, Raimundo Alvarado of El Salvador, and Luis Armando Gusman of Nicaragua), the Andean Pact agreements (representatives of each country), US immigration policy (Charles B. Keely), the Mexican integration with Latin America and immigration to the US (Jorge Bustamante), migration to Bolivia and Argentina and Chile, and transnationalism in the Caribbean (Professor Andre Corten). Migration policy needs to be tailored specifically to the situation in Latin America, and greater attention needs to be devoted to labor migrants' rights and working conditions. There are still fundamental differences among countries in policies regarding the free circulation of persons across borders. There is a division among those who support migration and those who are realists. National sovereignty issues are solvable because of a common national past and a relatively homogenous population. Another opinion is that Latin America is more diverse than commonly recognized. Capital is protected more in international agreements than is migrant labor. Regional integration for the US does mean immigration from Mexico. The US sees Mexican migration as a policy problem, and Mexico sees migration as a labor opportunity. PMID:12346329

  14. Crust and upper mantle structure in the Caribbean region by group velocity tomography and regionalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview of the crust and upper mantle structure of the Central America and Caribbean region is presented as a result of the processing of more than 200 seismograms recorded by digital broadband stations from SSSN and GSN seismic networks. By FTAN analysis of the fundamental mode of the Rayleigh waves, group velocity dispersion curves are obtained in the period range from 10 s to 40 s; the error of these measurements varies from 0.06 and 0.10 km/s. From the dispersion curves, seven tomographic maps at different periods and with average spatial resolution of 500 km are obtained. Using the logical combinatorial classification techniques, eight main groups of dispersion curves are determined from the tomographic maps and eleven main regions, each one characterized by one kind of dispersion curves, are identified. The average dispersion curves obtained for each region are extended to 150 s by adding data from the tomographic study of and inverted using a non-linear procedure. As a result of the inversion process, a set of models of the S-wave velocity vs. depth in the crust and upper mantle are found. In six regions, we identify a typically oceanic crust and upper mantle structure, while in the other two the models are consistent with the presence of a continental structure. Two regions, located over the major geological zones of the accretionary crust of the Caribbean region, are characterized by a peculiar crust and upper mantle structure, indicating the presence of lithospheric roots reaching, at least, about 200 km of depth. (author)

  15. Natural gas and energy security in Trinidad and Tobago, and their impact on U.S. energy security and stability in the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Kelshall, Jason R.

    2005-01-01

    The current focus of the Global War on terror in the Middle East and in increased surveillance on U.S. borders has left a third border, the Caribbean, open to terrorist infiltration and attack. Large scale U.S. direct investment in the industrialized island nation of Trinidad and Tobago relative to the other islands in the region and Latin America, and the United State's current dependence on it for the majority of its liquefied natural gas imports, makes it an attractive target for terror. W...

  16. 3 CFR 8390 - Proclamation 8390 of June 2, 2009. National Caribbean-American Heritage Month, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Caribbean-American Heritage Month, 2009 8390 Proclamation 8390 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8390 of June 2, 2009 Proc. 8390 National Caribbean-American Heritage Month, 2009By the President... Caribbean-American Heritage Month. I urge all Americans to commemorate this month by learning more about...

  17. Observations on the whale shark (Rhincodon typus) in the Dutch Caribbean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debrot, A.O.; Leon, R.; Esteban, N.; Meesters, H.W.G.

    2013-01-01

    Records of whale sharks in the Caribbean are relatively sparse. Here we document 24 records of whale sharks (Rhincodon typus Smith 1882) for the Dutch Caribbean, four for the windward islands of Saba, St. Eustatius and St. Maarten, and twenty for the southern Caribbean leeward islands of Aruba, Cura

  18. Competing Meanings of Childhood and the Social Construction of Child Sexual Abuse in the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasura, Dominic; Jones, Adele D.; Hafner, James A. H.; Maharaj, Priya E.; Nathaniel-DeCaires, Karene; Johnson, Emmanuel Janagan

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the dynamic interplay between competing meanings of childhood and the social construction of sexual abuse in the Caribbean. Drawing on qualitative data from a study undertaken in six Caribbean countries, the article suggests that Caribbean childhoods are neither wholly global nor local but hybrid creations of the region's…

  19. Gendered Perceptions of Schooling: Classroom Dynamics and Inequalities within Four Caribbean Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younger, Mike; Cobbett, Mary

    2014-01-01

    This paper sets out to interrogate the reality of secondary schooling in one part of the Caribbean, through a case study exploration of the "gender regimes" of four secondary schools in the small Eastern Caribbean nation state of Antigua and Barbuda. In Antigua, as in the Caribbean region more broadly, the focus of attention has been on…

  20. Mastering the Midas Touch: The Indo-Trinidadian Diaspora in North America and England, 1967-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome Teelucksingh

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This article will assess the experiences of the Indo-Trinidadian immigrant population during 1967 to 2007. The displaced Indo-Trinidadians residing in North America and Britain were challenged to define themselves in relation to Afro-Caribbean and Asian-Indian immigrants. The broad categories used to determine the success or failure of migration included culture, social mobility, identity and religion. The research will prove that the Indo-Trinidadian diaspora in North America and England have experienced considerable social mobility and acculturation.