WorldWideScience

Sample records for america caribbean celebrando

  1. Latin America and the Caribbean | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Long-term sustainability of development in Latin America and the Caribbean through economic growth, equitable access to health and social services, sustainable natural resources, and civil security. And we are ... Honduras. With our partners, IDRC-funded research in Honduras is building robust local leadership capacity.

  2. WELFARE REGIMES IN LATIN AMERICA AND CARIBBEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melisa Campana-Alabarce

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a characterization of Latin American and Caribbean Welfare regimes in historiographical perspective. Firstly, it makes a review of the emergence conditions of Welfare States in Western Europe and its core features, with particular emphasis on its role as a method to regulate inequalities in industrial capitalism. Dialoguing with it, then stops in the specific configurations that welfare regimes have taken in Latin America during the course of the twentieth century. Finally, it provides a map of its contemporary features and the major challenges that the States of the region face in his capacity as right guarantors for the future.

  3. Internet and Society in Latin America and the Caribbean | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The research contained in this book is designed to foster discussion about the policies and actions that must be promoted for building an Internet culture in Latin America and the Caribbean based on the principles of social and cultural equity.

  4. EPA Efforts in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Latin America and Caribbean (LAC) program provides environmental tools and information to build the capacity of LAC governments and civil society organizations to reduce environmental degradation and its impacts on public health.

  5. Regional Specialization. The Middle Americas: Mexico, Panama, Central America and the Caribbean Basin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Owen, Mark H; Inman, Kenneth A

    1997-01-01

    .... Generally viewed as lagging in efforts to develop stable governments and self-sustaining economies, Mexico, Central America to include Panama and the Caribbean, henceforth Middle America, have in the...

  6. Energy sector developments in Central America and the Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, J.

    1997-01-01

    Energy sector developments in Central America and the Caribbean were discussed. Central America is composed of six small countries whose total population is 32 million. The Caribbean population is 20.5 million. Central America is generally poor in hydrocarbon reserves but the geological prospects in several of the countries are encouraging. The oil and petroleum products supply and demand picture, the main characteristics of the hydrocarbon market, structure of the oil industry, hydrocarbon market reforms, pricing issues and recent trend towards reforms in the electric power industry in Central America were discussed. An overview of the Inter-American Development Bank's (IDB) effort to provide technical assistance and loans to strengthen the energy sector development in Central America and the Caribbean was also given. 17 refs., 2 tabs., 23 figs

  7. Productivity in services in Latin America and the Caribbean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arias Ortiz, E.; Crespi, G.A.; Rasteletti, A.; Vargas, F.

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies productivity in Latin America and the Caribbean, with an emphasis on the service sector. It shows that the low levels of productivity observed in the region are not only a consequence of low productivity at the firm level, but also of misallocation of workers across firms. These

  8. Canada-Latin America and Caribbean Zika Virus Research Program ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-05-10

    May 10, 2016 ... A new funding opportunity on Zika virus is responding to the virus outbreak and the health threat it represents for the affected populations in the hardest hit countries in Latin America and the Caribbean. The Canadian Institutes for Health Research and the International Development Research Centre, ...

  9. Assistance Focus: Latin America/Caribbean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-03-29

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center, an initiative of the Clean Energy Ministerial, helps countries throughout the world create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. Through the Solutions Center's no-cost 'Ask an Expert' service, a team of international experts has delivered assistance to countries in all regions of the world. High-impact examples from the Latin American/Caribbean region are featured here.

  10. Outlook for hydropower in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Sierra, G. (OLADE, Quito (Ecuador))

    1993-02-01

    In the last two decades, the Latin America/Carribean region has become increasingly dependent on electricity to meet growing demands for energy. Hydropower is the prevailing source for meeting this need. Hydroelectric generation increased at an annual average rate of nearly 9% between 1971 and 1989. HYdro now provides more than two-thirds of total electric power generated in Latin America and the Caribbean. The only other predominant source used for electric generation is fossil fuels. In this region there are several trends developing. They include: developing more small hydro facilities, opportunities for sharing water resources, an interest in changing the approach to water use regulation, and possibilities for more participation by the private sector. Overall, hydro appears to have a favorable competitive position in the power industry in the Latin America/Caribbean region.

  11. Cancer burden in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curado, Maria Paula; de Souza, Dyego Leandro Bezerra

    2014-01-01

    In Latin America and the Caribbean, the epidemiological transition has been occurring in an unequal manner. Infectious-contagious diseases share space with the increase of chronic nontransmissible diseases, such as cancer, which already represents the second most common cause of death, after cardiovascular illnesses. This study provides a global picture of the burden of cancer in Latin America and the Caribbean, as well as the challenges faced when controlling this disease in these regions. Epidemiological information on cancer in Latin America originates mainly from mortality registries and from a limited number of population-based cancer registries. Estimates indicate increases of 72% in the incidence of cancer and 78% in the mortality of men between 2012 and 2030, and for women the rates are 62% and 74%, respectively. These increases in incidence rates, accompanied by disproportionally high mortality rates, when compared with other regions of the world, reveal the magnitude of the challenge of controlling cancer in Latin America and the Caribbean. Although neoplasms are among the main causes of death, the control strategies are faced with issues such as organization and development of the health system, and the public policy formulation mechanism. Establishing knowledge on the real impact of incidence, mortality, and survival in Latin America and the Caribbean is quite a challenge due to the lack of an updated and dynamic information system on mortality and incidence, although some improvement has been made in the information systems of some countries within the most recent decade. Other obstacles for cancer control are the uneven allocation of resources, lack of investments in equipment and infrastructure, and the concentration of health care professionals in large urban centers, which contribute to the reproduction of socioeconomic iniquities in the assistance of populations that suffer from cancer. Copyright © 2014 Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai

  12. Assistance Focus: Latin America and the Caribbean Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-05-17

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center, an initiative of the Clean Energy Ministerial, helps countries throughout the world create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. Through the Solutions Center's no-cost Ask an Expert service, a team of international experts has delivered assistance to countries in all regions of the world, including Latin America and the Caribbean.

  13. Rickettsioses in Latin America, Caribbean, Spain and Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo B. Labruna

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Data on genus and infectious by Rickettsia were retrospectively compiled from the critical review literature regarding all countries in Latin America, Caribbean islands, Portugal and Spain. We considered all Rickettsia records reported for human and/or animal hosts, and/or invertebrate hosts considered being the vector. In a few cases, when no direct detection of a given Rickettsia group or species was available for a given country, the serologic method was considered. A total of 13 Rickettsia species have been recorded in Latin America and the Caribbean. The species with the largest number of country confirmed records were Rickettsia felis (9 countries, R. prowazekii (7 countries, R. typhi (6 countries, R. rickettsii (6 countries, R. amblyommii (5 countries, and R. parkeri (4 countries. The rickettsial records for the Caribbean islands (West Indies were grouped in only one geographical area. Both R. bellii, R. akari, and Candidatus ‘R. andeane’ have been recorded in only 2 countries each, whereas R. massiliae, R. rhipicephali, R.monteiroi, and R. africae have each been recorded in a single country (in this case, R. africae has been recorded in nine Caribbean Islands. For El Salvador, Honduras, and Nicaragua, no specific Rickettsia has been reported so far, but there have been serological evidence of human or/and animal infection. The following countries remain without any rickettsial records: Belize, Venezuela, Guyana, Surinam, and Paraguay. In addition, except for a few islands, many Caribbean islands remain without records. A total of 12 Rickettsia species have been reported in Spain and Portugal: R. conorii, R. helvetica, R. monacensis, R. felis, R. slovaca, R. raoultii, R. sibirica, R. aeschlimannii, R. rioja, R. massiliae, R. typhi, and R. prowazekii. Amongst these Rickettsia species reported in Spain and Portugal, only R. prowazekii, R. typhi, R. felis, and R. massiliae have also been reported in Latin America. This study summarizes

  14. How is the Slowdown Affecting Households in Latin America and the Caribbean?

    OpenAIRE

    Calvo-Gonzalez, Oscar; Castaneda, R. Andres; Farfan, Maria Gabriela; Reyes, German; Sousa, Liliana D.

    2017-01-01

    This paper shows evidence that suggests the economic slowdown in Latin America and the Caribbean has already translated into slowing social gains, including decelerating poverty reduction, stagnating growth of the middle class, and lower income growth. The countries of South America outperformed Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean in poverty reduction during the decade up to 2012. B...

  15. Inclusive education in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa BLANCO GUIJARRO

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The region of Latin America and the Caribbean is known for being the most socially unequal in the world and for this has highly segmented societies, which affects the education, integration and social cohesion of the population. Expanding opportunities for everyone to have access to quality education and developing more inclusive schools, which would educate within and for diversity, stand out as two powerful strategies in a move towards more just and democratic societies in Latin America. This paper presents a detailed analysis of the educational situation in the region from the perspective of rights and inclusion, with particular attention paid to those individuals and groups that suffer most from the impact of inequality, exclusion and marginalization. This analysis begins with an assessment the progress and challenges still to be made regarding access, attendance, quality and equity of education in Latin America. In the second part it addresses the major issues on the agenda of Inclusion in Latin America and the Caribbean.

  16. A preliminary analysis of emigration determinants in Mexico, Central America, northern South America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, M A

    1994-01-01

    The author examines migratory movements and their causes in Mexico, Central and South America, and the Caribbean. Sections are included on migration trends, theoretical approaches, and methodological tools before the 1970s; the shift in migratory patterns after the 1980s; macrosocial variables as a general background of current international flows; and migration policies.

  17. Prevalence of Anemia in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujica-Coopman, María F; Brito, Alex; López de Romaña, Daniel; Ríos-Castillo, Israel; Coris, Héctor; Olivares, Manuel

    2015-06-01

    In Latin America and the Caribbean, anemia has been a public health problem that affects mainly women of childbearing age and children under 6 years of age. However, the current prevalence of anemia in this region is unknown. To examine the latest available prevalence data on anemia in Latin America and the Caribbean. A systematic review was conducted in 2011 and updated in 2014. Studies determining the prevalence of anemia conducted in apparently healthy populations with national or regional representativeness were included in the review. The lowest prevalence rates of anemia among children under 6 years of age were found in Chile (4.0%), Costa Rica (4.0%), Argentina (7.6%), and Mexico (19.9%). In Nicaragua, Brazil, Ecuador, El Panama, and Honduras, anemia was a moderate public health problem, with prevalence ranging Salvador, Cuba, Colombia, the Dominican Republic, Peru, from 20.1% to 37.3%. Anemia was a severe public health problem in Guatemala, Haiti, and Bolivia. The prevalence of anemia among women of childbearing age was lowest in Chile (5.1%). In Colombia, El Salvador, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Honduras, and Argentina, anemia was a mild public health problem, with prevalence ranging from 7.6% to 18.7%. In Guatemala, Brazil, the Dominican Republic, and Bolivia, anemia was a moderate public health problem, with prevalence ranging from 21.4% to 38.3%. Panama and Haiti had the highest reported prevalence rates (40.0% and 45.5%, respectively), and anemia was considered a severe public health problem in those countries. Anemia remains a public health problem in children under 6 years of age and women of childbearing age in most Latin America and Caribbean countries for which data are available.

  18. Folate and vitamin B12 status in Latin America and the Caribbean: An update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The current magnitude of folate and vitamin B12 deficiency in Latin America and the Caribbean is uncertain. Objective: To summarize data on plasma or serum vitamin B12 and folate concentrations in Latin America and the Caribbean reported since 1990, a period that covers the era before an...

  19. Functional Patterns in International Organizations for University Cooperation in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Daniel A.; Lopez, Daniel C.; Andrade, Lorenzo I.; Lopez, Boris A.

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes the coverage, organizational patterns, problems and trends of international organizations for university cooperation in Latin America and the Caribbean. More than 30 international organizations for cooperation currently operating in Latin America and the Caribbean were identified. Two groups of institutions with more than 60%…

  20. Gestational syphilis and stillbirth in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnesen, Lauren; Martínez, Gerardo; Mainero, Luis; Serruya, Suzanne; Durán, Pablo

    2015-03-01

    To measure the association between gestational syphilis and stillbirth in Latin America and the Caribbean. In a retrospective study, data on stillbirth and gestational syphilis extracted from the Sistema Informático Perinatal database were analyzed for deliveries in 11 countries between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2012. Potential confounders were examined, and binary logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the association between gestational syphilis and stillbirth. Among 368 151 deliveries, 3875 (1.1%) were by women with a positive syphilis test, and 1461 (0.4%) were stillbirths. Among the stillbirths, 29 (2.0%) were delivered by women with a positive syphilis test. After controlling for country, congenital anomalies, gestational age at labor, maternal age, and previous stillbirth, gestational syphilis was significantly associated with stillbirth (odds ratio 1.88, 95% confidence interval 1.25-2.83; P=0.002). Gestational syphilis contributes to stillbirth in Latin America and the Caribbean. Interventions targeting gestational syphilis are highly cost-effective and should be implemented across the region. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Breast cancer in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia C Robles

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available As recently as two decades ago breast cancer was not a significant public health concern in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC. However, mortality rates from breast cancer have been increasing for at least 40 years in most LAC countries. Socioeconomic development and consequent changes in reproductive behaviors over the past 50 years are thought to have contributed to the increased risk of breast cancer. Socioeconomic development has also increased women's health awareness and therefore the demand for quality services. In industrialized countries, screening and widely available, high-quality treatment protocols are being implemented as the main strategy for breast cancer control. Studies show that out of three available screening methods (mammography, clinical breast examination, and breast self-examination, only mammography for women 50-69 years of age has been effective at reducing mortality, and has done so by an estimated 23%. While there is much controversy about the benefits and cost-effectiveness of mammography screening for women aged 40-49, some countries, including Australia, the United States of America, and four European nations, recommend that physicians assess the need for it on an individual basis. A survey that we conducted of LAC countries shows that most of their breast cancer screening policies are not justified by available scientific evidence. Moreover, as seen by relatively high mortality/incidence ratios, breast cancer cases are not being adequately managed in many LAC countries. Before further developing screening programs, these countries need to evaluate the feasibility of designing and implementing appropriate treatment guidelines and providing wide access to diagnostic and treatment services. Given the relevance of breast cancer in Latin America and the Caribbean today, it is crucial that both women and health care providers have access to up-to-date information on which to base their decisions.

  2. Diabetes in North America and the Caribbean: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yisahak, Samrawit F; Beagley, Jessica; Hambleton, Ian R; Narayan, K M Venkat

    2014-02-01

    The North America and Caribbean (NAC) Region faces a high burden of diabetes. In 2013, the number of children (aged 0-14 years) with type 1 diabetes was 108,600, with 16.7 new cases diagnosed per 100,000 children. Furthermore, there were 36,755,500 individuals with diabetes (mostly type 2 diabetes) in adults (20-79 years), and an additional 44,277,700 individuals had impaired glucose tolerance. The age-adjusted prevalence of diabetes in adults was 9.6%; the second highest among the seven Regions of the International Diabetes Federation. This estimate is expected to grow to 9.9% by 2035. There was some heterogeneity in the estimates within the Region with the age-adjusted prevalence for the USA estimated at 9.2%, 7.9% for Canada, 12.6% for Mexico, and 9.6% for the Caribbean islands. Mortality due to diabetes in the NAC Region is not limited to older age groups, with 37.6% of deaths occurring in people under the age of 60. The economic impact was also enormous, with healthcare expenditure due to diabetes estimated at 263.2 billion USD for 2013 - the highest of all IDF Regions. Diabetes threatens the public health and economies of countries in the NAC Region, and efforts in prevention and management must be intensified in order to surmount this growing problem. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Urban air pollution in Latin America and the Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romieu, I.; Weitzenfeld, H.; Finkelman, J.

    1991-01-01

    Urban air pollution has become an increasing problem in Latin America and the Caribbean. One reason is the rapid expansion in the size of the urban population. This phenomenon is associated with an increase in the number of vehicles and in energy utilization which, in addition to industrial processes often concentrated in the cities, are the primary sources of air pollution i n Latin American cities. The air quality standards established in such countries are frequently exceeded although control programs have been implemented. The urban areas more affected by anthropogenic pollutant emissions are Sao Paulo, Brazil; Santiago, Chile; and Mexico City. In Latin America, the population of cities with high priority air pollution problems include approximately 81 million people or 26.5 percent of the total urban population of Latin America, corresponding to 30 million children (<15 years), 47 million adults (15-59 years) and 4 million elderly people (≥60 years) who are exposed to air pollutant levels that exceed World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for adequate health protection

  4. [Breast cancer trends in Latin America and the Caribbean].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-Ascencio, Rafael; Gómez-Dantés, Héctor; Lewis, Sarah; Torres-Sánchez, Luisa; López-Carrillo, Lizbeth

    2009-01-01

    Breast cancer is currently the most significant cause of death from malignancies in Latin American women, including cervical cancer. Describe the magnitude and spatial-temporal distribution of breast cancer in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) from 1979-2005. National and international incidence and mortality statistics were reviewed and organized (registries, databases, and published literature), basic estimators and mortality ratios for each country were calculated and trends were analyzed. Despite substantial data gaps in incidence for many countries, an increase in incidence and mortality is observed in LAC countries. Deaths/cases ratios illustrate problems in access to detection and treatment and the greatest gaps are observed in poorer countries. A regional effort is needed to improve information systems related to cancer in general and breast cancer in particular. It is imperative to develop strategies to improve diagnostic infrastructure in order to achieve early detection and effective treatment and halt the upward trend in premature mortality.

  5. Blindness and visual impairment in the Americas and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, B; West, S K

    2002-05-01

    To summarise available data on the prevalence and causes of visual impairment and blindness in the Americas and the Caribbean. The published literature was searched in Medline and LILACS using the following key words: blindness, visual impairment, prevalence. Articles were reviewed, and the references of the articles were also searched for relevant articles, which were also reviewed. Using the mortality in children under the age of 5 as an indicator, the overall prevalence of childhood blindness (in the under age 15 group) for the region was estimated at 0.45/1000, with the majority (67%) living in countries with mortality of children under age 5 above 30/1000 live births. Corneal opacities were more common in countries where the under 5 year mortality are above 30/1000 live births and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) was an important cause in countries with intermediate death rates. For adults, overall blindness rates were not estimated because of the social, economic, and ethnic diversity in the region. The primary causes of visual loss in adults in the Americas were age related eye diseases, notably cataract and glaucoma in the African-American and Hispanic populations, and age related macular degeneration in the white population. Uncorrected refractive error was a significant cause of decreased vision across ages, ethnic groups, and countries. More data are needed on the magnitude and causes of visual loss for the Caribbean and Latin American countries. Rates of blindness and visual loss from available data within these countries are widely disparate. Prevention and control of avoidable blindness needs to be an ongoing focus in this region.

  6. Corruption and Political Participation in the Americas and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Bonifácio

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with an issue as yet little explored in the vast literature about political participation: the role of corruption in political engagement. It investigates whether the coexistence, the values and the perception of citizens in relation to corrupt practices and actors have effects on political activism, and it verifies the direction in which this is evolving, whether it is in the direction of engagement in or withdrawal from politics. The unit of analysis is the individual, the geographic sector includes the Americas and the Caribbean, and the time frame includes biennial intervals between 2004 and 2012. A theoretical discussion and empirical analysis of the data from the Americas Barometer is used. Five distinct types of political participation were identified: contact with political and governmental actors, community activism, partisan and electoral activism, voter turnout and protest activism. The article concludes that the experience with corruption and the tolerance for bribe increase the chances of engagement in participative activities, going against the principal contributions of the specialized literature.

  7. Review of the genera of Conoderinae (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) from North America, Central America, and the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzaldo, Salvatore S.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The thirty-nine extant genera of Conoderinae known to occur in North America, Central America, and the Caribbean are reviewed based on external morphology. An identification key is provided along with diagnoses, distributions, species counts, and natural history information, when known, for each genus. Morphological character systems of importance for weevil classification are surveyed, potential relationships among the tribes and genera are discussed, and groups most in need of taxonomic and phylogenetic attention are identified. The following genera are transferred to new tribes: Acoptus LeConte, 1876 from the Lechriopini to the Othippiini (new placement) and the South American genus Hedycera Pascoe, 1870 from the Lechriopini to the Piazurini (new placement). Philides Champion, 1906 and Philinna Champion, 1906 are transferred from the Lechriopini to Conoderinae incertae sedis (new placement) although their placement as conoderines is uncertain. The species Copturomimus cinereus Heller, 1895 is designated as the type species of the genus Copturomimus Heller, 1895. PMID:28769729

  8. Review of the genera of Conoderinae (Coleoptera, Curculionidae from North America, Central America, and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore S. Anzaldo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The thirty-nine extant genera of Conoderinae known to occur in North America, Central America, and the Caribbean are reviewed based on external morphology. An identification key is provided along with diagnoses, distributions, species counts, and natural history information, when known, for each genus. Morphological character systems of importance for weevil classification are surveyed, potential relationships among the tribes and genera are discussed, and groups most in need of taxonomic and phylogenetic attention are identified. The following genera are transferred to new tribes: Acoptus LeConte, 1876 from the Lechriopini to the Othippiini (new placement and the South American genus Hedycera Pascoe, 1870 from the Lechriopini to the Piazurini (new placement. Philides Champion, 1906 and Philinna Champion, 1906 are transferred from the Lechriopini to Conoderinae incertae sedis (new placement although their placement as conoderines is uncertain. The species Copturomimus cinereus Heller, 1895 is designated as the type species of the genus Copturomimus Heller, 1895.

  9. Planning cancer control in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, Paul E; Lee, Brittany L; Badovinac-Crnjevic, Tanja; Strasser-Weippl, Kathrin; Chavarri-Guerra, Yanin; St Louis, Jessica; Villarreal-Garza, Cynthia; Unger-Saldaña, Karla; Ferreyra, Mayra; Debiasi, Márcio; Liedke, Pedro E R; Touya, Diego; Werutsky, Gustavo; Higgins, Michaela; Fan, Lei; Vasconcelos, Claudia; Cazap, Eduardo; Vallejos, Carlos; Mohar, Alejandro; Knaul, Felicia; Arreola, Hector; Batura, Rekha; Luciani, Silvana; Sullivan, Richard; Finkelstein, Dianne; Simon, Sergio; Barrios, Carlos; Kightlinger, Rebecca; Gelrud, Andres; Bychkovsky, Vladimir; Lopes, Gilberto; Stefani, Stephen; Blaya, Marcelo; Souza, Fabiano Hahn; Santos, Franklin Santana; Kaemmerer, Alberto; de Azambuja, Evandro; Zorilla, Andres Felipe Cardona; Murillo, Raul; Jeronimo, Jose; Tsu, Vivien; Carvalho, Andre; Gil, Carlos Ferreira; Sternberg, Cinthya; Dueñas-Gonzalez, Alfonso; Sgroi, Dennis; Cuello, Mauricio; Fresco, Rodrigo; Reis, Rui Manuel; Masera, Guiseppe; Gabús, Raúl; Ribeiro, Raul; Knust, Renata; Ismael, Gustavo; Rosenblatt, Eduardo; Roth, Berta; Villa, Luisa; Solares, Argelia Lara; Leon, Marta Ximena; Torres-Vigil, Isabel; Covarrubias-Gomez, Alfredo; Hernández, Andrés; Bertolino, Mariela; Schwartsmann, Gilberto; Santillana, Sergio; Esteva, Francisco; Fein, Luis; Mano, Max; Gomez, Henry; Hurlbert, Marc; Durstine, Alessandra; Azenha, Gustavo

    2013-04-01

    Non-communicable diseases, including cancer, are overtaking infectious disease as the leading health-care threat in middle-income and low-income countries. Latin American and Caribbean countries are struggling to respond to increasing morbidity and death from advanced disease. Health ministries and health-care systems in these countries face many challenges caring for patients with advanced cancer: inadequate funding; inequitable distribution of resources and services; inadequate numbers, training, and distribution of health-care personnel and equipment; lack of adequate care for many populations based on socioeconomic, geographic, ethnic, and other factors; and current systems geared toward the needs of wealthy, urban minorities at a cost to the entire population. This burgeoning cancer problem threatens to cause widespread suffering and economic peril to the countries of Latin America. Prompt and deliberate actions must be taken to avoid this scenario. Increasing efforts towards prevention of cancer and avoidance of advanced, stage IV disease will reduce suffering and mortality and will make overall cancer care more affordable. We hope the findings of our Commission and our recommendations will inspire Latin American stakeholders to redouble their efforts to address this increasing cancer burden and to prevent it from worsening and threatening their societies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Monitoring decarbonization and resilience in Latin America and the Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zevallos, Pia; Castro, Rodrigo; Aldana, Rocio; Apaclla, Karol

    2015-11-01

    Climate change is already an inherent part of our future that will result in considerable negative effects which are not only inevitable, but also irreversible. In Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) the effects of climate change and its associated impacts on human and productive systems are already evident. There is a real and current need to adapt and build resilience to climate change that will only become more pressing if global actions to stabilize GHG emissions continue to be postponed. LAC is not properly adapted to existing climate risks, and there is an 'adaptation gap (or deficit)', which is actually part of a larger development deficit. Delayed action in both mitigation and adaptation will increase this deficit. It has been estimated that the total investment necessary in the region to adapt to the inevitable physical effects of climate change is approximately one quarter to one sixth of the costs of these impacts. Achieving climate stabilization requires the region to reduce its emissions to 1.43 Gt CO 2 by 2050, at a cost of approximately US $100 billion per year. Significant mitigation efforts are still required, given that the region is exposed to increased pressure relating to land use changes and industrialization, which in turn increases energy consumption. However, it is estimated that the co-benefits of mitigation could be as high as 30% to 100% of the total abatement costs. The fight against climate change can be tackled as a management issue; both of GHG emissions and climate risk. A National System of Measurement, Reporting and Verification (MRV) facilitates decision-making and national planning; it helps track the achievement of goals; promotes coordination and communication between the sectors; generates comparable and transparent information, and facilitates its exchange; and helps identify and showcase good practices, as well as building trust (both between countries and in the private sector) and increasing the likelihood of

  11. Improving food security in Latin America and the Caribbean | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-21

    Apr 21, 2016 ... Fish farming is greatly improving food security, incomes, health, and quality of life for families in Bolivia. Women are empowered to become leaders in their communities, promoting gender equality. More fruits and vegetables in children's diets in Caribbean primary schools are helping with child obesity.

  12. Improving food security in Latin America and the Caribbean | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    21 avr. 2016 ... Fish farming is greatly improving food security, incomes, health, and quality of life for families in Bolivia. Women are empowered to become leaders in their communities, promoting gender equality. More fruits and vegetables in children's diets in Caribbean primary schools are helping with child obesity.

  13. Protecting The Homeland By Efficient Phase 0 Operations In The Caribbean, Central, And South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Ministry of Health, Ministry of Defense, Ministry of Education , non-governmental organizations, bilingual schools and a variety of community members...Per the guidance provided in Military Medical Ethics, “military exercises specifically in Latin America were to (1) improve readiness of armed...Strengthening regional and U.S. security in the Caribbean, Central, and South America requires active engagement through exercises and educational

  14. The Digital Divide: The View from Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Adolfo

    This paper discusses the digital divide from the perspective of Latin America and the Caribbean. Highlights include: new issues that make access to electronic resources difficult for users; differences in technological infrastructure among countries; how Internet users are distributed worldwide; Internet access in Africa; the number of students…

  15. Foreword: Regional solidarity and commitment to protection in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Grandi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available At a time when over 65 million people are forcibly displaced worldwide, Latin America and the Caribbean offer examples of good practices from a region which continues to uphold a long-standing commitment to protect those in need.

  16. Enhancing stewardship in Latin America and Caribbean small-scale fisheries : challenges and opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gasalla, M.A.; de Castro, F.

    2016-01-01

    This thematic series, entitled “Enhancing Stewardship in Latin America and Caribbean Small-Scale Fisheries”, emerged as part of a joint effort to bridge Latin-American scholars interested in networking on small-scale fisheries in the region. Built on results presented at two meetings (‘Too Big to

  17. Regional trends and controlling factors of fatal landslides in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda, S. A.; Petley, D. N.

    2015-08-01

    A new data set of landslides that caused loss of life in Latin America and the Caribbean in the 10-year period from 2004 and 2013 inclusive has been compiled, providing new insight into the impact of landslides in this key part of the world. This data set indicates that in the 10-year period a total of 11 631 people lost their lives across the region in 611 landslides. The geographical distribution of the landslides is highly heterogeneous, with areas of high incidence in parts of the Caribbean (most notably Haiti), Central America, Colombia, and southeast Brazil. There is significant interannual variation in the number of landslides, with the El Niño/La Niña cycle emerging as a key control. Our analysis suggests that on a continental scale the mapped factors that best explain the observed distribution are topography, annual precipitation and population density. On a national basis we have compared the occurrence of fatality-inducing landslide occurrence with the production of locally authored research articles, demonstrating that there is a landslide research deficit in Latin America and the Caribbean. Understanding better the mechanisms, distribution causes and triggers of landslides in Latin America and the Caribbean must be an essential first step towards managing the hazard.

  18. Expanding Financing for Biodiversity Conservation : Experiences from Latin America and the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2013-01-01

    The Latin America and Caribbean Region has been at the forefront of global biodiversity conservation, dedicating 20 percent of its land to protected areas compared to 13 percent in the rest of the developing world. This progress has stretched available budgets for conservation with estimates indicating that a twofold increase would be necessary to achieve optimal management of existing pro...

  19. Post Doctorate Award on Central America and the Caribbean at St ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This grant will allow St Antony's College at the University of Oxford to establish a 2-year post doctoral position on Central America and the Caribbean under the leadership of Canadian historian, Margaret MacMillan. The position will be awarded to a scholar from the region, in keeping with IDRC's philosophy that developing ...

  20. Sustainability, efficiency and equitability of water consumption and pollution in Latin America and the Caribbean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mekonnen, Mesfin; Pahlow, Markus; Martinez-Aldaya, Maite; Zarate, E.; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2015-01-01

    This paper assesses the sustainability, efficiency and equity of water use in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) by means of a geographic Water Footprint Assessment (WFA). It aims to provide understanding of water use from both a production and consumption point of view. The study identifies

  1. Financial services and trade agreements in Latin America and the Caribbean : an overview

    OpenAIRE

    Goncalves, Marilyne Pereira; Stephanou, Constantinos

    2007-01-01

    The authors review the international framework governing trade in financial services, describe the treatment of financial services in recent trade agreements involving Latin America and Caribbean countries, and analyze the liberalization commitments made in three selected country case studies-Chile, Colombia, and Costa Rica. They give emphasis to free trade agreements because of the genera...

  2. A Study of Public Library Users in Some Countries of Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara, Alvaro Agudo

    This user survey was part of a three-part diagnostic study that sought to obtain information on how public libraries operate in Latin America (Argentina, Colombia, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Panama, and Venezuela) and the Caribbean (Barbados, Grenada, Jamaica, and Surinam) and the social role performed by this type of service in the region.…

  3. Disaster Risk Management in Latin America and the Caribbean Region : GFDRR Country Notes

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    Latin America and the Caribbean Region (LCR) is exposed to a wide variety of natural hazards including earthquakes, volcanoes, storms, extreme temperatures, droughts, floods, landslides, etc., many of which are regularly aggravated by the recurrent El Nino and ENSO phenomenon. The global trend toward increasing climate variability is likely to exacerbate many of these hazards. The World Ba...

  4. Climate change impacts in Latin America and the Caribbean and their implications for development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reyer, Christopher P.O.; Adams, Sophie; Albrecht, Torsten; Baarsch, Florent; Boit, Alice; Canales Trujillo, Nella; Cartsburg, Matti; Coumou, Dim; Eden, Alexander; Fernandes, Erick; Langerwisch, Fanny; Marcus, Rachel; Mengel, Matthias; Mira-Salama, Daniel; Perette, Mahé; Pereznieto, Paola; Rammig, Anja; Reinhardt, Julia; Robinson, Alexander; Rocha, Marcia; Sakschewski, Boris; Schaeffer, Michiel; Schleussner, Carl Friedrich; Serdeczny, Olivia; Thonicke, Kirsten

    2017-01-01

    This paper synthesizes what is known about the physical and biophysical impacts of climate change and their consequences for societies and development under different levels of global warming in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). Projections show increasing mean temperatures by up to 4.5 °C

  5. Managing weather and climate risks to agriculture in North America, Central America and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harlan D. Shannon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, numerous weather- and climate-related natural disasters have impacted North America, Central America, and the Caribbean, repeatedly demonstrating how vulnerable local agriculture is to extreme episodic events. Given this recent history, and expectations that the frequency and intensity of some episodic events will increase with climate change, it is becoming increasingly important for farmers to proactively manage weather and climate risks to agriculture to protect their livelihoods. Some farmers in this region already apply various strategies to help reduce weather and climate risks and uncertainties, including farming in multiple locations, diversifying crops and varieties, seeking alternative sources of income, and purchasing crop insurance. Such efforts often help farmers maintain a more stable income while also protecting and preserving the productivity of the land. Other farmers, however, have failed to implement basic risk management strategies despite the clear benefits. Reasons for these failures can be attributed to inadequate farmer education and training, a lack of tools to help facilitate the practical application of risk management concepts, and poor communications between the agrometeorological and farming communities. The agrometeorological community can help overcome these obstacles by building upon existing efforts that have successfully educated farmers about weather and climate risks to agriculture and have equipped farmers with the data, tools, and applications necessary to manage these risks. Farmer input is critical to preparing effective educational and training materials and developing user-friendly risk management tools. The agrometeorological community should solicit input from farmers regularly to ensure that farmers are obtaining the information necessary to effectively manage weather and climate risks to agriculture.

  6. Genetic diversity and population structure of native maize populations in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedoya, Claudia A; Dreisigacker, Susanne; Hearne, Sarah; Franco, Jorge; Mir, Celine; Prasanna, Boddupalli M; Taba, Suketoshi; Charcosset, Alain; Warburton, Marilyn L

    2017-01-01

    This study describes the genetic diversity and population structure of 194 native maize populations from 23 countries of Latin America and the Caribbean. The germplasm, representing 131 distinct landraces, was genetically characterized as population bulks using 28 SSR markers. Three main groups of maize germplasm were identified. The first, the Mexico and Southern Andes group, highlights the Pre-Columbian and modern exchange of germplasm between North and South America. The second group, Mesoamerica lowland, supports the hypothesis that two separate human migration events could have contributed to Caribbean maize germplasm. The third, the Andean group, displayed early introduction of maize into the Andes, with little mixing since then, other than a regional interchange zone active in the past. Events and activities in the pre- and post-Columbian Americas including the development and expansion of pre-Columbian cultures and the arrival of Europeans to the Americas are discussed in relation to the history of maize migration from its point of domestication in Mesoamerica to South America and the Caribbean through sea and land routes.

  7. Supporting E-government in Latin America and the Caribbean ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC Officer. Smith, Matthew. Total funding. CA$ 850,300. Country(s). North and Central America, South America, West Indies. Project Leader. Miguel Porrúa. Institution. General Secretariat of the Organization of American States. Institution Country. United States. Institution Website. http://www.oas.org. Outputs. Reports.

  8. SIRGAS: ITRF densification in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunini, C.; Costa, S.; Mackern, V.; Martínez, W.; Sánchez, L.; Seemüller, W.; da Silva, A.

    2009-04-01

    The continental reference frame of SIRGAS (Sistema de Referencia Geocéntrico para las Américas) is at present realized by the SIRGAS Continuously Operating Network (SIRGAS-CON) composed by about 200 stations distributed over all Latin America and the Caribbean. SIRGAS member countries are qualifying their national reference frames by installing continuously operating GNSS stations, which have to be consistently integrated into the continental network. As the number of these stations is rapidly increasing, the processing strategy of the SIRGAS-CON network was redefined during the SIRGAS 2008 General Meeting in May 2008. The new strategy relies upon the definition of two hierarchy levels: a) A core network (SIRGAS-CON-C) with homogeneous continental coverage and stabile site locations ensures the long-term stability of the reference frame and provides the primary link to the ITRS. Stations belonging to this network have been selected so that each country contributes with a number of stations defined according to its surface and guarantying that the selected stations are the best in operability, continuity, reliability, and geographical coverage. b) Several densification sub-networks (SIRGAS-CON-D) improve the accessibility to the reference frame. The SIRGAS-CON-D sub-networks shall correspond to the national reference frames, i.e., as an optimum there shall be as many sub-networks as countries in the region. The goal is that each country processes its own continuously stations following the SIRGAS processing guidelines, which are defined in accordance with the IERS and IGS standards and conventions. Since at present not all of the countries are operating a processing centre, the existing stations are classified in three densification networks (a Northern, a middle, and a Southern one), which are processed by three local processing centres until new ones are installed. As SIRGAS is defined as a densification of the ITRS, stations included in the core network, as

  9. Latin America and the Caribbean Poverty and Labor Brief, June 2013 : Shifting Gears to Accelerate Shared Prosperity in Latin America and the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2013-01-01

    The Latin America and Caribbean (LAC) region has made laudable progress in the past fifteen years in reducing poverty, building the middle class, and promoting prosperity for all levels of society. Extreme poverty, defined in this region as life on less than $2.50 a day, has declined by half, while in 2011 for the first time in recorded history the LAC region had a larger number of people in the middle class than in poverty. Across this region of close to 600 million people, the poor have bee...

  10. Stigma toward mental illness in Latin America and the Caribbean: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Mascayano

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Stigma toward individuals with mental disorders has been studied extensively. In the case of Latin America and the Caribbean, the past decade has been marked by a significant increase in information on stigma toward mental illness, but these findings have yet to be applied to mental health services in Latin America. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review of studies relating to stigma toward mental illness in Latin America and the Caribbean. The authors specifically considered differences in this region as compared with manifestations reported in Western European countries. Methods: A systematic search of scientific papers was conducted in the PubMed, MEDLINE, EBSCO, SciELO, LILACS, Imbiomed, and Bireme databases. The search included articles published from 2002 to 2014. Results: Twenty-six studies from seven countries in Latin America and the Caribbean were evaluated and arranged into the following categories: public stigma, consumer stigma, family stigma, and multiple stigmas. Conclusion: We identified some results similar to those reported in high-income settings. However, some noteworthy findings concerning public and family stigma differed from those reported in Western European countries. Interventions designed to reduce mental illness-related stigma in this region may benefit from considering cultural dynamics exhibited by the Latino population.

  11. Stigma toward mental illness in Latin America and the Caribbean: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascayano, Franco; Tapia, Thamara; Schilling, Sara; Alvarado, Rubén; Tapia, Eric; Lips, Walter; Yang, Lawrence H

    2016-03-01

    Stigma toward individuals with mental disorders has been studied extensively. In the case of Latin America and the Caribbean, the past decade has been marked by a significant increase in information on stigma toward mental illness, but these findings have yet to be applied to mental health services in Latin America. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review of studies relating to stigma toward mental illness in Latin America and the Caribbean. The authors specifically considered differences in this region as compared with manifestations reported in Western European countries. A systematic search of scientific papers was conducted in the PubMed, MEDLINE, EBSCO, SciELO, LILACS, Imbiomed, and Bireme databases. The search included articles published from 2002 to 2014. Twenty-six studies from seven countries in Latin America and the Caribbean were evaluated and arranged into the following categories: public stigma, consumer stigma, family stigma, and multiple stigmas. We identified some results similar to those reported in high-income settings. However, some noteworthy findings concerning public and family stigma differed from those reported in Western European countries. Interventions designed to reduce mental illness-related stigma in this region may benefit from considering cultural dynamics exhibited by the Latino population.

  12. Smokefree Policies in Latin America and the Caribbean: Making Progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanton A. Glantz

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We reviewed the adoption and implementation of smokefree policies in all Latin American and the Caribbean (LAC countries. Significant progress has been achieved among LAC countries since the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC was adopted in 2005. Both national and sub-national legislation have provided effective mechanisms to increase the fraction of the population protected from secondhand tobacco smoke. Civil society has actively promoted these policies and played a main role in enacting them and monitoring their enforcement. The tobacco industry, while continuing to oppose the approval and regulation of the laws at legislative and executive levels, has gone a step further by litigating against them in the Courts. As in the US and elsewhere, this litigation has failed to stop the legislation.

  13. Abstracts of the Second energy conference of the Latin America and the Caribbean (ENERLAC'95)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The Latin American Energy Organization (OLADE), with support from the Ministry of Energy and Mines of Ecuador, held the Second Energy Conference of Latin America and the Caribbean (ENERLAC 95) under the heading Energy Integration and Private-Sector Participation, essentially aimed at bringing together top public and private sector executives of latin america and the caribbean and entrepreneurs, investors, representatives of commercial banks and financial institutions to identify and concretize business opportunities and foster the energy integration of the region by identifying projects and investment opportunities in the sector. The present document is a reference work compiling the abstracts of the presentations that have been submitted and selected for ENERLAC 95. This publication provides a wide range of opinions and ideas about many energy sector topics

  14. Open Data for Public Policy in Latin America and the Caribbean ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project will explore how Open Data strategies can contribute to improve public policymaking in Latin America and the Caribbean. In particular, it will examine ... rémunéré des femmes. Policy in Focus publie un numéro spécial présentant des données probantes sur l'autonomisation des femmes sur le marché du travail.

  15. Women and social security in Latin America, the Caribbean and sub- saharan Africa.

    OpenAIRE

    Folbre N

    1993-01-01

    One of a series of reports examining issues related to equality for women in employment. Provides an overview of the treatment of women in social security programmes in Latin America, the Caribbean, and Sub- Saharan Africa. Calls attention to four separate aspects of gender bias. Also traces the evolution of social security programmes and highlights specific aspects of gender bias in current provisions. Makes recommendations for specific policy changes. Bibliography and statistical tables.

  16. Quality and accreditation in higher education: integration and internationalization of Latin America and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge González González

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the concepts of «quality» and «accreditation» in education with different meanings, and proposes comprehensive definitions that have been put into practice by the Union of Universities of Latin America and the Caribbean and the International Network of Evaluators through model «V» evaluation planningfor continuous improvement, integration and internationalization of higher education.

  17. Results in the Latin America and Caribbean Region, 2015, Volume 6

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2015-01-01

    Latin America and the Caribbean (LCR) will be center stage in the global development debate as leaders from around the world convene in Lima, Peru for the annual meetings of the World Bank Group and International Monetary Fund. Critical progress in poverty reduction has been made in the region over the last decade. The region’s bottom 40 percent of the population saw growth eclipsing that ...

  18. International trends in health science librarianship. Part 5 Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Beverley; Rodrííguez-Jiménez, Teresa M

    2013-03-01

    This is the 5th in a series of articles exploring international trends in health science librarianship in Latin America and the Caribbean in the first decade of the 21st century. The invited authors are from Argentina, Bermuda and Mexico. Future issues will track trends in Central Europe and the Middle East. JM. © 2013 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2013 Health Libraries Group.

  19. Opportunities for Small Geothermal Projects: Rural Power for Latin America, the Caribbean, and the Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vimmerstedt, L.

    1998-11-30

    The objective of this report is to provide information on small geothermal project (less than 5 MW) opportunities in Latin America, the Caribbean, and the Philippines. This overview of issues facing small geothermal projects is intended especially for those who are not already familiar with small geothermal opportunities. This is a summary of issues and opportunities and serves as a starting point in determining next steps to develop this market.

  20. Opportunities for Small Geothermal Projects: Rural Power for Latin America, the Caribbean, and the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vimmerstedt, L.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this report is to provide information on small geothermal project (less than 5 MW) opportunities in Latin America, the Caribbean, and the Philippines. This overview of issues facing small geothermal projects is intended especially for those who are not already familiar with small geothermal opportunities. This is a summary of issues and opportunities and serves as a starting point in determining next steps to develop this market

  1. Absent but represented: institutional mechanisms of representation of emigrants in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pau PALOP GARCIA

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper, using the framework provided by studies on transnationalism and political representation, analyzes the institutional mechanisms that 22 states of Latin America and the Caribbean have designed to formally incorporate emigrants into their political process –reserved seats in their legislative chambers and advisory boards–. This analysis reveals that almost half of the states included in the sample do have a mechanism of institutional representation for emigrants.

  2. Latin America and the Caribbean | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Despite recent progress, more than one-quarter of Latin America's population lives in poverty. The region has some of the highest homicide rates in the world. Challenges also include social and economic inequality, degraded coastal ecosystems, disease, and natural disasters. Research focus We believe that research and ...

  3. From transpressional to transtensional tectonics in Northern Central America controlled by Cocos - Caribbean subduction coupling change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Henar, Jorge; Alvarez-Gomez, José Antonio; Jesús Martinez-Diaz, José

    2017-04-01

    The Central American Volcanic Arc (CAVA) is located at the western margin of the Caribbean plate, over the Chortís Block, spanning from Guatemala to Costa Rica. The CAVA is associated to the subduction of the Cocos plate under the Caribbean plate at the Middle America Trench. Our study is focused in the Salvadorian CAVA segment, which is tectonically characterized by the presence of the El Salvador Fault Zone (ESFZ), part of the western boundary of a major block forming the Caribbean plate (the Chortis Block). The structural evolution of the western boundary of the Chortis Block, particularly in the CAVA crossing El Salvador remains unknown. We have done a kinematic analysis from seismic and fault slip data and combined our results with a review of regional previous studies. This approach allowed us to constrain the tectonic evolution and the forces that control the deformation in northern Central America. Along the active volcanic arc we identified active transtensional deformation. On the other hand, we have identified two deformation phases in the back arc region: A first one of transpressional wrenching close to simple shearing (Miocene); and a second one characterized by almost E-W extension. Our results reveal a change from transpressional to transtensional shearing coeval with a migration of the volcanism towards the trench in Late Miocene times. This strain change could be related with a coupled to decoupled transition on the Cocos - Caribbean subduction interface, which could be related to a slab roll-back of the Cocos Plate beneath the Chortis Block. The combination of different degrees of coupling on the subduction interface, together with a constant relative eastward drift of the Caribbean Plate, control the deformation style along the western boundary of the Chortis Block.

  4. Voluntary reduction of trans-fatty acids in Latin America and the Caribbean: current situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge-Rojas, Rafael; Colón-Ramos, Uriyoán; Jacoby, Enrique; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2011-02-01

    As part of the Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization Trans-Fat-Free Americas initiative, 12 representatives from food industries in Latin America and the Caribbean signed a declaration stating their intention to voluntarily eliminate industrially produced trans-fatty acids (TFA) from the Americas. A year later, in order to document the extent of the voluntary reduction, each declarant was asked to describe all reformulations and reductions in the TFA content of their products. After up to six requests for data, only three declarants provided such information in detail, and three others offered an overall summary of their reformulations. Additionally, three declarants reported the barriers that limit this process: availability of oil substitutes, cost, and consumers' sensory acceptance. The content of TFA and saturated fat in the food supply in the Americas should be regulated and strictly monitored in order to adequately evaluate a reduction of TFA in the region.

  5. La Educacion en America Latina y El Caribe Durante Los Proximos 25 Anos. (Education in Latin America and the Caribbean during the Next 25 Years.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roggi, Luis Osvaldo, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    The nine papers appearing in this document review both limitations and progress in education in Latin America, study the future of education in Latin America and the Caribbean, and make recommendations to the Regional Program for Educational Development (PREDE). There is, in addition, a lengthy transcription of a discussion, among eight of the…

  6. Seismic microzonation in Latin America and the Caribbean: social, cultural, economic and political aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murria, J.

    2009-04-01

    The lack of success, not to say failure, of seismic microzonation projects in the Latin America and Caribbean nations-and for that matter elsewhere in the world-should not be attributed to the lack of technical and scientific expertise of our engineers and scientists as there exists in our continent sufficient knowledge and information about the techniques and procedures that have been successfully used elsewhere in the world in the implementation of seismic microzonation projects. The main constrains to the implementation of seismic microzonation projects in Latin America and the Caribbean are of an economic, social, political, and cultural aspects rather than the purely scientific and engineering aspects. Another very important factor contributing to this lack of success has been the apparent failure of the scientific and technical community to convince decision makers (both official and private) that the sound implementation of seismic microzonation projects are a valid instrument to mitigate the negative effects that earthquakes have on the population, on the physical infrastructure and on the environment. An attempt will be made in this paper to analyze these "non technical" aspects and try to arrive at some conclusions as well as to some possible lines of action for the successful implementation of seismic microzonation projects in the seismic risk prone Latin American and Caribbean nations.

  7. Early dispersals of maize and other food plants into the Southern Caribbean and Northeastern South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagán-Jiménez, Jaime R.; Rodríguez-Ramos, Reniel; Reid, Basil A.; van den Bel, Martijn; Hofman, Corinne L.

    2015-09-01

    Grindstones from Eva 2 and St. John, two of the earliest sites in northeastern South America and the southern Caribbean respectively, were subjected to starch grain analysis. Results of this study revealed that these stone artifacts were utilized to process a variety of cultivars such as maize (Zea mays), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas), chili pepper (Capsicum spp.), achira (Canna spp.), legumes (Fabaceae), and yams (Dioscoreaceae), coupled with wild resources, most notably marunguey (Zamia spp.). Radiocarbon dates indicate that the use of plants identified at these two sites were much older than previously considered, going back to at least 7790 cal. BP at St. John and 5990 cal. BP at Eva 2. This new evidence showcases the importance of the Caribbean basin as an arena for early phytocultural dispersals. It also focuses attention on the role of navigation as a mechanism for crop diffusion in the Neotropics.

  8. Do Minimum Wages in Latin America and the Caribbean Matter? Evidence from 19 Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Nicolai; Cunningham, Wendy

    Despite the existence of minimum wage legislation in most Latin American countries, there is little empirical evidence demonstrating its impact on the distribution of wages. In this study, cross-country data for 19 Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) countries is analyzed to gain an understanding ...... of the regional study "The Role of Minimum Wages in Latin America: Poverty Alleviation, Income Inequality, Employment, and Wages".......Despite the existence of minimum wage legislation in most Latin American countries, there is little empirical evidence demonstrating its impact on the distribution of wages. In this study, cross-country data for 19 Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) countries is analyzed to gain an understanding...... of if and how minimum wages affect wage distributions in LAC countries. Although there is no single minimum wage institution in the LAC region, we find regional trends. Minimum wages affect the wage distribution in both the formal and, especially, the informal sector, both at the minimum wage and at multiples...

  9. Sociocultural factors affecting reproductive health in latin america and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, M

    1991-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the socio-economic, health and fertility conditions in the countries of the Americas. Among those considered are GNP and annual growth and inflation rates, fertility rates, increasing urbanization, life expectancy at birth, infant and child mortality, and maternal mortality particularly due to complication from pregnancy and childbirth. Barriers for women and men on contraception use are discussed. Among the most important influencing factors are ethical and moral considerations, lack of access to information and supplies, women holding a lower status than men throughout Latin America and some parts of the Caribbean resulting in women's unregulated fertility, poor quality health services being available, and lower educational opportunities and levels than men. Additionally, the extremely poor quality of the interface women have with the health care system sends many of them away. Although a major proportion of pregnancies occur in adolescent women, no special provisions are made to provide education or services to this population. The article ends by proposing some alternative actions to improve options for contraceptive choices in the populations of Latin America and the Caribbean.

  10. Land-Atmosphere Coupling in the Central America and Caribbean Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arritt, R. W.

    2016-12-01

    We use results from a regional climate model to investigate the influence of land-atmosphere coupling on climate of the Central America and Caribbean. Previous studies using global climate models have found evidence of strong land-atmosphere coupling in parts of this region. Although the region's complex coastlines and topography have the potential to modify land-atmosphere coupling through their influence on surface fluxes and precipitation, these terrain features are represented coarsely if at all in global models. Here we better resolve the complex terrain of Central America by using 25 and 50 km grid spacing in a regional climate model (RegCM4). Simulations over the Central America and Caribbean domain of the Coordinated Regional climate Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX) with ERA-Interim reanalysis boundary conditions for 1989-2009 are used to calculate multiple diagnostic measures of land-atmosphere coupling. Land-atmosphere coupling "hot spots" are found to differ in both location and magnitude from those obtained using global models. Location and intensity of these "hot spots" vary depending on model physics and spatial resolution.

  11. Energy and sustainable development in Latin America and the Caribbean: Approaches for the power policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-05-01

    Energy and sustainable development in Latin America and the Caribbean is a joint project of the Latin American Organization of Energia (OLADE), the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (Cepal) of the United Nations and the Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Technische Zusammennarbeit (GTZ). The intention of this project is the one to fortify the processes of formulation of power policies to harmonize economic growth, social fairness and protection of the environment in order to contribute to that the reforms that come undertaking the countries from the region prohang to the sustainable development. The made work it is come off that the sustainability of the power development raises a series of challenges to future. Concordant with the reactivation of the economic growth in the Nineties a low power productivity is still pronounced. To this they add one reduced to cover of satisfaction of the power necessities and the forest deterioration, jointly with the low quality of the power consumption and the impacts in the level of transmissions that will have the incorporation of polluting sources in the expansion of the regional power systems. On the other hand, the work shows a preoccupation with respect to the sustainability of the expansion of the power systems. At the present time the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean do not have a significant responsibility in the global environmental problems, since single they generate 5% of the world-wide CO2 transmissions whereas the developed countries contribute around 70%. Nevertheless, the new power developments based on the greater hydrocarbon consumption will be able to increase the contribution from the region to the deterioration of the atmosphere. At the same time, the expansion based on the hydroelectric generation also has some limitations although it contributes positively to the mitigation of the transmissions, which raises new challenges to the reform of the power sector

  12. Seismic hazard maps of Mexico, the Caribbean, and Central and South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, J.G.; Shedlock, K.M.

    2004-01-01

    The growth of megacities in seismically active regions around the world often includes the construction of seismically unsafe buildings and infrastructures due to an insufficient knowledge of existing seismic hazard and/or economic constraints. Minimization of the loss of life, property damage, and social and economic disruption due to earthquakes depends on reliable estimates of seismic hazard. We have produced a suite of seismic hazard estimates for Mexico, the Caribbean, and Central and South America. One of the preliminary maps in this suite served as the basis for the Caribbean and Central and South America portion of the Global Seismic Hazard Map (GSHM) published in 1999, which depicted peak ground acceleration (pga) with a 10% chance of exceedance in 50 years for rock sites. Herein we present maps depicting pga and 0.2 and 1.0 s spectral accelerations (SA) with 50%, 10%, and 2% chances of exceedance in 50 years for rock sites. The seismicity catalog used in the generation of these maps adds 3 more years of data to those used to calculate the GSH Map. Different attenuation functions (consistent with those used to calculate the U.S. and Canadian maps) were used as well. These nine maps are designed to assist in global risk mitigation by providing a general seismic hazard framework and serving as a resource for any national or regional agency to help focus further detailed studies required for regional/local needs. The largest seismic hazard values in Mexico, the Caribbean, and Central and South America generally occur in areas that have been, or are likely to be, the sites of the largest plate boundary earthquakes. High hazard values occur in areas where shallow-to-intermediate seismicity occurs frequently. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Interpretation of Serum Retinol Data From Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cediel, Gustavo; Olivares, Manuel; Brito, Alex; Lòpez de Romaña, Daniel; Cori, Héctor; La Frano, Michael R

    2015-06-01

    In recent decades, the general socioeconomic situation in Latin America and the Caribbean countries has improved, and many vitamin A programs have been implemented in an attempt to reduce vitamin A deficiency in the region. To examine vitamin A status in Latin America and the Caribbean based on serum retinol concentrations and to contrast available data published before and after 1998. A systematic review was performed. National surveys or representative studies that reported vitamin A status were selected. Ten national surveys and six representative studies were identified. Data for children under 6 years of age indicate that Guatemala and Nicaragua have practically eradicated vitamin A deficiency (less than 2% prevalence of serum retinol Colombia, Mexico, and Haiti it is a severe public health problem (prevalence from 24.3% to 32.0%). Disadvantaged groups (indigenous people and those of Afro-Colombian descent) have the highest rates of deficiency. The prevalence of vitamin A deficiency is under 20% in school-children and adult women. When data published before and after 1998 for children under 6 years of age were compared, most Central American countries had a reduction in the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency (p < .05), whereas in South American countries, the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency increased over time (p < .05). The prevalence of vitamin A deficiency in children under 6 years of age has decreased in many Central American countries, but vitamin A deficiency still remains a public health problem in numerous Latin America and Caribbean countries, especially among disadvantaged and vulnerable groups. Because of issues with the accuracy of the serum retinol biomarker reflecting body stores, these results must be interpreted with caution.

  14. Celebrating 25 years of technical cooperation for promotion of nuclear science, technology in Latin America, Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Full text: The IAEA celebrates the 25th Anniversary of the Regional Agreement of Technical Cooperation for the Promotion of Nuclear Science and Technology in Latin America and the Caribbean (ARCAL) for the peaceful use of nuclear energy as well as its applications for development during the 53rd General Conference of the International Atomic Energy Agency, taking place this week. The Board of Country Representatives of ARCAL (BAR) is celebrating the 25th anniversary of the Regional Agreement of Technical Cooperation for the Promotion of Nuclear Science and Technology in Latin America and the Caribbean (ARCAL) from 14-18 September, during the 53rd General Conference of the IAEA in Vienna, Austria. Through sustainable horizontal technical and economic cooperation over the past 25 years, the IAEA Member States of Latin America and the Caribbean have expressed their solidarity and commitment to the establishment and improvement of technical capabilities in nuclear science and technology within the region, with the goal of promoting the use of diverse nuclear techniques and their applications for peaceful use in the region. Thanks to the ARCAL agreement, a mechanism for regular meetings and discussions has been established between professionals working in the nuclear field in Latin America and the Caribbean. ARCAL was established in 1984, thanks to the initiative of the Andean Group countries. At the moment, ARCAL has 19 Member States: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Dominican Republic, Uruguay and Venezuela. The main thematic areas covered by the technical cooperation projects sponsored by the IAEA through the ARCAL agreement are human health, agriculture and food security, physics and chemistry sciences, engineering and technology, hydrology, industrial applications, environment and nuclear security. During its 25 years, the ARCAL regional agreement has

  15. Celebrating 25 years of technical cooperation for promotion of nuclear science, technology in Latin America, Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Full text: The IAEA celebrates the 25th Anniversary of the Regional Agreement of Technical Cooperation for the Promotion of Nuclear Science and Technology in Latin America and the Caribbean (ARCAL) for the peaceful use of nuclear energy as well as its applications for development during the 53rd General Conference of the International Atomic Energy Agency, taking place this week. The Board of Country Representatives of ARCAL (BAR) is celebrating the 25th anniversary of the Regional Agreement of Technical Cooperation for the Promotion of Nuclear Science and Technology in Latin America and the Caribbean (ARCAL) from 14-18 September, during the 53rd General Conference of the IAEA in Vienna, Austria. Through sustainable horizontal technical and economic cooperation over the past 25 years, the IAEA Member States of Latin America and the Caribbean have expressed their solidarity and commitment to the establishment and improvement of technical capabilities in nuclear science and technology within the region, with the goal of promoting the use of diverse nuclear techniques and their applications for peaceful use in the region. Thanks to the ARCAL agreement, a mechanism for regular meetings and discussions has been established between professionals working in the nuclear field in Latin America and the Caribbean. ARCAL was established in 1984, thanks to the initiative of the Andean Group countries. At the moment, ARCAL has 19 Member States: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Dominican Republic, Uruguay and Venezuela. The main thematic areas covered by the technical cooperation projects sponsored by the IAEA through the ARCAL agreement are human health, agriculture and food security, physics and chemistry sciences, engineering and technology, hydrology, industrial applications, environment and nuclear security. During its 25 years, the ARCAL regional agreement has

  16. Governing Cocaine Supply and Organized Crime from Latin America and the Caribbean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stambøl, Eva Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    The logics of the European Union’s policy and practices against narcotic drugs in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) have undergone a substantial shift the past decade: from development to security. Based on an empirical mapping of the EU’s drug-related projects in LAC, this article argues...... at dismantling transnational organized crime along the cocaine trafficking routes to Europe might have unintended consequences. While keeping in mind the shifting tectonics of the international drug prohibition consensus, the article goes on to analyze the increasingly salient security rationale in EU external...

  17. The treaty for the prohibition of nuclear weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The text of the statement, made by Ambassador Carlos Portales Cifuentes, Director General for Foreign Policy of the Ministry of External Relations of Chile, during the VIII. Special Session of the General Conference of the Agency for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean (OPANAL) on the occasion of Chile's becoming a Contracting Party to the Tlatelolco Treaty, is being circulated for the information of all Member States of the Agency at the request of the Alternate to the Resident Representative of Chile

  18. [International financial cooperation in the fight against AIDS in Latin America and the Caribbean].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyva-Flores, René; Castillo, José Gabriel; Serván-Mori, Edson; Ballesteros, Maria Luisa Gontes; Rodríguez, Juan Francisco Molina

    2014-07-01

    This study analyzed the financial contribution by the Global Fund to Fight HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria and its relationship to eligibility criteria for funding in Latin America and the Caribbean in 2002-2010. Descriptive analysis (linear regression) was conducted for the Global Fund financial contributions according to eligibility criteria (income level, burden of disease, governmental co-investment). Financial contributions totaled US$ 705 million. Lower-income countries received higher shares; there was no relationship between Global Fund contributions and burden of disease. The Global Fund's international financing complements governmental expenditure, with equity policies for financial allocation.

  19. Evaluation of small hydropower plants in Latin America and the Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardo-Gomez, R.

    1991-01-01

    Latin America and the Caribbean Region has a long-standing tradition of small hydropower plant development. In the 1890s the first plants were installed in the Region, and in the first half of this century pioneering efforts were made to develop the technology. The major reason was the technical modernization of agriculture (coffee, cacao, sugar, etc.) and small-scale mining, which led to increased energy demand in isolated areas when the electrification process was just beginning in the region. However, interest in small hydropower plants (SHP) waned because of technological improvements, enhanced efficiency, lower purchase prices and installation costs of gasoline engines, and the expansion of interconnected power systems

  20. Mental health services development in Latin America and the Caribbean: achievements, barriers and facilitating factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldas de Almeida, J M

    2013-03-01

    Mental health services reforms in Latin America and the Caribbean in the last 20 years have led to a significant improvement of mental health services. They also contributed to the development of new evidence that may help the implementation of future reforms. These advances, however, were clearly insufficient to respond to the huge challenges countries of Latin American and the Caribbean face to improve mental health services. Insufficient funding, one of the most important barriers to mental health services development found in most countries, was related to the absence of a strong consensus among all stakeholders and the weakness of user and family associations. Other barriers were the lack of technical capacity of the coordination unit responsible for development of services in the ministries of health, resistance from professionals towards changing to new models of care and lack of human resources. Transition to democracy in some countries and natural disasters proved to be windows of opportunity for mental health services reform. Facilitating factors included alliance with the human rights defence movement, development of research capacity in Latin American and the Caribbean countries, and international cooperation.

  1. Strategies for establishing organ transplant programs in developing countries: the Latin America and Caribbean experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Pestana, José Osmar; Duro-Garcia, Valter

    2006-07-01

    The Latin America and Caribbean region is composed of 39 countries. It is remarkable the progress of transplantation in the region in despite of the low economic resources when compared to other regions. The criteria for brain death are well established and culturally accepted. The consent for retrieval is based on required family consent in most countries. The regulations for living donors are also well established, with restrictions to unrelated donors and prohibition of any kind of commerce. The access to transplant is limited by the model of public financing by each country, and those with public universal coverage have no financial restrictions to cover the costs for any citizen; in countries with restricted coverage, the access is restricted to the employment status. There is a progressive increment in the annual number of solid organ transplants in Latin America, reaching near 10,000 in 2004, accomplished by adequate legislation that is also concerned with the prohibition of organ commerce.

  2. Cost-effectiveness of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in Latin America and the Caribbean: a regional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Anushua; Constenla, Dagna; Valencia, Juan Esteban; O'Loughlin, Rosalyn; Gomez, Elizabeth; de la Hoz, Fernando; Valenzuela, Maria Teresa; de Quadros, Ciro A

    2008-11-01

    In Latin America and the Caribbean, routine vaccination of infants against Streptococcus pneumoniae would need substantial investment by governments and donor organizations. Policymakers need information about the projected health benefits, costs, and cost-effectiveness of vaccination when considering these investments. Our aim was to incorporate vaccine, demographic, epidemiologic, and cost data into an economic analysis of pneumococcal vaccination of infants in Latin America and the Caribbean. We previously used a structured literature review to develop regional estimates of the incidence of disease. Cost data were collected from physician interviews and public fee schedules. We then constructed a decision analytic model to compare pneumococcal conjugate vaccination of infants with no vaccination across this region, examining only vaccine's direct effects on children. Pneumococcal vaccination at the rate of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine coverage was projected to prevent 9 500 deaths per year in children aged 0 to 5 years in the region, or approximately one life saved per 1 100 infants vaccinated. These saved lives as well as averted cases of deafness, motor deficit, and seizure result in 321 000 disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) being averted annually. At vaccine prices between US$5 and US$53 per dose, the cost per DALY averted from a societal perspective would range from US$154 to US$5 252. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine was highly cost-effective up to $40 per dose. Introduction of pneumococcal vaccine in the Latin American and Caribbean region is projected to reduce childhood mortality and to be highly cost-effective across a range of possible costs.

  3. ARCAL - Regional Strategic Profile for Latin America and the Caribbean (RSP) 2016-2021 [Spanish version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-04-01

    This TECDOC presents the Regional Strategic Profile (RSP) for Latin America and the Caribbean for 2016–2021. This key document offers a programmatic reference of major importance for the preparation of project and programme proposals for future technical cooperation (TC) cycles. The RSP reflects an assessment of the situation in the region made by the States Parties to the Regional Cooperation Agreement for the Promotion of Nuclear Science and Technology in Latin America and the Caribbean (ARCAL). It identifies the most pressing needs that can be addressed through nuclear technology, in the areas of human health, food safety and agriculture, environment, and energy. It also covers radiation technology and radiation protection. The RSP was prepared by a working group of ARCAL National Coordinators, together with thematic experts from the region, Programme Management Officers and Technical Officers. The group reviewed the previous Profile for the period 2007–2013 to identify lessons learned, and assessed the current situation in the region regarding needs and priorities in the Latin American and Caribbean socioeconomic context. The new profile is expected to serve as a valuable tool to foster regional cooperation and promote cooperation among countries. As a flagship regional document, it makes visible the region’s needs and facilitates the establishment of partnerships with other development community organizations working in the region in complementary fields. The RSP identifies opportunities for cooperation, and for joining forces and creating synergies. The RSP for 2016–2021 was finalized in 2014, the year in which the ARCAL Regional Agreement turns 30, celebrating three decades of successful implementation of technical cooperation projects and fruitful cooperation between the ARCAL Regional Agreement and the IAEA. It is expected that the RSP will lead to the implementation of effective and efficient regional cooperation mechanisms that will ensure

  4. ARCAL - Regional Strategic Profile for Latin America and the Caribbean (RSP) 2016-2021 [English version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-08-01

    This TECDOC presents the Regional Strategic Profile (RSP) for Latin America and the Caribbean for 2016–2021. This key document offers a programmatic reference of major importance for the preparation of project and programme proposals for future technical cooperation (TC) cycles. The RSP reflects an assessment of the situation in the region made by the States Parties to the Regional Cooperation Agreement for the Promotion of Nuclear Science and Technology in Latin America and the Caribbean (ARCAL). It identifies the most pressing needs that can be addressed through nuclear technology, in the areas of human health, food safety and agriculture, environment, and energy. It also covers radiation technology and radiation protection. The RSP was prepared by a working group of ARCAL National Coordinators, together with thematic experts from the region, Programme Management Officers and Technical Officers. The group reviewed the previous Profile for the period 2007–2013 to identify lessons learned, and assessed the current situation in the region regarding needs and priorities in the Latin American and Caribbean socioeconomic context. The new profile is expected to serve as a valuable tool to foster regional cooperation and promote cooperation among countries. As a flagship regional document, it makes visible the region’s needs and facilitates the establishment of partnerships with other development community organizations working in the region in complementary fields. The RSP identifies opportunities for cooperation, and for joining forces and creating synergies. The RSP for 2016–2021 was finalized in 2014, the year in which the ARCAL Regional Agreement turns 30, celebrating three decades of successful implementation of technical cooperation projects and fruitful cooperation between the ARCAL Regional Agreement and the IAEA. It is expected that the RSP will lead to the implementation of effective and efficient regional cooperation mechanisms that will ensure

  5. Implementation strategy for advanced practice nursing in primary health care in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldenburger, David; De Bortoli Cassiani, Silvia Helena; Bryant-Lukosius, Denise; Valaitis, Ruta Kristina; Baumann, Andrea; Pulcini, Joyce; Martin-Misener, Ruth

    2017-06-08

    SYNOPSIS Advanced practice nursing (APN) is a term used to describe a variety of possible nursing roles operating at an advanced level of practice. Historically, APN roles haves evolved informally, out of the need to improve access to health care services for at-risk and disadvantaged populations and for those living in underserved rural and remote communities. To address health needs, especially ones related to primary health care, nurses acquired additional skills through practice experience, and over time they developed an expanded scope of practice. More recently, APN roles have been developed more formally through the establishment of graduate education programs to meet agreed-upon competencies and standards for practice. The introduction of APN roles is expected to advance primary health care throughout Latin America and the Caribbean, where few such roles exist. The purpose of the paper is to outline an implementation strategy to guide and support the introduction of primary health care APN roles in Latin America and the Caribbean. The strategy includes the adaptation of an existing framework, utilization of recent research evidence, and application of knowledge from experts on APN and primary health care. The strategy consists of nine steps. Each step includes a national perspective that focuses on direct country involvement in health workforce planning and development and on implementation. In addition, each step incorporates an international perspective on encouraging countries that have established APN programs and positions to collaborate in health workforce development with nations without advanced practice nursing.

  6. Control and Regulation of Private Security Providers in Latin America and the Caribbean: A Comparative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Caonero

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available States and different international players have drafted legal frameworks to adequately regulate the phenomenon of privatization of security. Among these initiatives is the Project for a Possible Convention on Private Military and Security Companies, prepared with guidance from the United Nations Human Rights Council. The objective of this proposed convention is to provide a universal framework to regulate these companies.The United Nations Regional Center for Peace, Disarmament and Development in Latin America and the Caribbean (UNLIREC has studied this Proposed Convention and contrasted it with existing national regulations. The objective of this study is to identify whether and how States already comply with some of the provisions contained in this proposal.Based on the study of national private security law, UNLIREC has contrasted it with the Convention Proposal identifying the different items in this document that are referred to in the different national regulations from various countries in Latin America and the Caribbean.As a result of this legal contrast, it can be observed that laws in some States in the region include significant legal aspects put forth in the Proposed Convention, such as licenses, registry and training. Other States go beyond that, stipulating specific regulations that can be noted. Others, on the contrary, lack any provisions regarding control and regulation of private security providers.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5377/rpsp.v1i1.1392

  7. Islands of knowledge: science and agriculture in the history of Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Prieto, Leida

    2013-12-01

    This essay explores the participation of Latin America and the Caribbean in the construction and circulation of tropical agricultural science during the nineteenth century and the first half of the twentieth century. It uses the term "islands of knowledge" to underscore the idea that each producing region across the global tropics, including Latin America and the Caribbean, was instrumental in the creation, adoption, and application of scientific procedures. At the same time, it emphasizes the value of interchange and interconnection between these regions, as well as the many and heterogeneous local areas, for analyzing what it calls "global archipelago agricultural scientific knowledge." This focus challenges the traditional center/periphery hierarchy and opens it to a wider vision of science and practice in agriculture. This essay shows how writing in related areas of research--specifically, commodity histories, biological exchange studies, and knowledge exchange studies--introduces approaches and case studies that are useful for the history of tropical agricultural science. In particular, this work provides analytical frameworks for developing studies of exchanges across the Global South.

  8. Preferences on Redistribution in Fragmented Labor Markets in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Berens

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the extent to which labor market dualization polarizes preferences on redistribution between formal and informal sector workers in Latin America and the Caribbean. Differences in welfare state costs and benefits for these labor market groups are likely to fuel diverging incentives regarding welfare consumption. The article tests whether or not informal workers are driven mainly by economic self-interest to increase gains from public welfare goods. The study employed a hierarchical model on pooled survey data from the Latin American Public Opinion Project (LAPOP 2008 and 2010 to analyze the risk exposure of formal and informal workers and, subsequently, their preferences on redistribution. The analysis reveals that while economic self-interest is an influential factor for formal workers, it is (unexpectedly much less so for informal workers. Also, an increased economically insecure environment, reflected by high unemployment rates, does not motivate informal workers to an exceptional degree to turn towards the state for redistribution, despite greater exposure to economic risk. Labor market dualization does not translate into polarization at the individual level regarding redistributive preferences in Latin America and the Caribbean.

  9. The situation of nursing education in Latin America and the Caribbean towards universal health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassiani, Silvia Helena De Bortoli; Wilson, Lynda Law; Mikael, Sabrina de Souza Elias; Peña, Laura Morán; Grajales, Rosa Amarilis Zarate; McCreary, Linda L.; Theus, Lisa; Agudelo, Maria del Carmen Gutierrez; Felix, Adriana da Silva; de Uriza, Jacqueline Molina; Gutierrez, Nathaly Rozo

    2017-01-01

    Objective: to assess the situation of nursing education and to analyze the extent to which baccalaureate level nursing education programs in Latin America and the Caribbean are preparing graduates to contribute to the achievement of Universal Health. Method: quantitative, descriptive/exploratory, cross-sectional study carried out in 25 countries. Results: a total of 246 nursing schools participated in the study. Faculty with doctoral level degrees totaled 31.3%, without Brazil this is reduced to 8.3%. The ratio of clinical experiences in primary health care services to hospital-based services was 0.63, indicating that students receive more clinical experiences in hospital settings. The results suggested a need for improvement in internet access; information technology; accessibility for the disabled; program, faculty and student evaluation; and teaching/learning methods. Conclusion: there is heterogeneity in nursing education in Latin America and the Caribbean. The nursing curricula generally includes the principles and values of Universal Health and primary health care, as well as those principles underpinning transformative education modalities such as critical and complex thinking development, problem-solving, evidence-based clinical decision-making, and lifelong learning. However, there is a need to promote a paradigm shift in nursing education to include more training in primary health care. PMID:28513769

  10. Falls among elderly persons in Latin America and the Caribbean and among elderly Mexican-Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Ortiz, Carlos A; Al Snih, Soham; Markides, Kyriakos S

    2005-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of and risk factors for falls among community-dwelling elders in Latin America and the Caribbean and among elderly Mexican-Americans in the southwestern United States. Data for the study came from a project called Health, Well-Being, and Aging in Latin America and the Caribbean (Salud, Bienestar y Envejecimiento en América Latina y el Caribe) (the "SABE project") (surveys from seven cities, with a total of 9,765 subjects) and from the Hispanic Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly (H-EPESE) (1,483 subjects). The overall prevalence of falls across the seven SABE cities and the H-EPESE ranged from 21.6% in Bridgetown, Barbados, to 34.0% in Santiago, Chile. In multiple logistic regression analyses, female gender, increased age, high depressive symptoms, and having any functional limitations were significant independent risk factors for falls in most of the cities studied as well as among the elderly Mexican-Americans. In several of the cities, significant risk factors also included diabetes, urinary incontinence, and arthritis. The prevalence of falls had a large variation among the countries studied. Some of the risk factors that we identified could be modified so as to help prevent falls in older people in these populations. The factors deserving attention include depressive symptoms, functional limitations, diabetes, and urinary incontinence.

  11. [The urbanized societies of Latin America and the Caribbean: some dimensions and observations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebanks, G E

    1993-06-01

    A demographic perspective on urbanization patterns in Latin America and the Caribbean is provided. The level and rate of urbanization and the hierarchies of urban places are considered, along with the determinants and consequences of these trends. Latin America and the Caribbean are the most urbanized of the developing regions, with almost 70% of the population classified as urban in 1991. Most Latin American and Caribbean countries have rural populations capable of maintaining continuous growth of the urban population for some time through internal migration and reclassification of localities. Latin American societies are urban in nature, and it is unlikely that decentralization and deconcentration policies will have significant repercussions. The Latin American urban population is estimated to have increased from 164 million in 1970 to 320 million in 1990, while the rural population increased from 122 to 128 million in the same years. Most governments of the region are preoccupied by the size of the urban population. There are too many urban residents to be absorbed in productive activities, but all require public services generally financed through taxation. The small tax bases result in frequent decisions to finance services through deficit spending. The size of the population and the level of urbanization may not be the principal agents of ecological deterioration or the greatest obstacles to development, but they play a significant role in these problems. Incorporating millions of urban residents into the productive sector of the economy is an important challenge for the development of these societies. The urban population in Latin America and the Caribbean is expected to continue growing at significant rates until well into the next century. In most countries of the region, internal migration accounted for 30-40% of urban growth between 1950 and 1970, but its contribution loses importance as the level of urbanization exceeds 70% or so. The number of urban

  12. Simulated Near-term Climate Change Impacts on Major Crops across Latin America and the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourdji, S.; Mesa-Diez, J.; Obando-Bonilla, D.; Navarro-Racines, C.; Moreno, P.; Fisher, M.; Prager, S.; Ramirez-Villegas, J.

    2016-12-01

    Robust estimates of climate change impacts on agricultural production can help to direct investments in adaptation in the coming decades. In this study commissioned by the Inter-American Development Bank, near-term climate change impacts (2020-2049) are simulated relative to a historical baseline period (1971-2000) for five major crops (maize, rice, wheat, soybean and dry bean) across Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) using the DSSAT crop model. No adaptation or technological change is assumed, thereby providing an analysis of existing climatic stresses on yields in the region and a worst-case scenario in the coming decades. DSSAT is run across irrigated and rain-fed growing areas in the region at a 0.5° spatial resolution for each crop. Crop model inputs for soils, planting dates, crop varieties and fertilizer applications are taken from previously-published datasets, and also optimized for this study. Results show that maize and dry bean are the crops most affected by climate change, followed by wheat, with only minimal changes for rice and soybean. Generally, rain-fed production sees more severe yield declines than irrigated production, although large increases in irrigation water are needed to maintain yields, reducing the yield-irrigation productivity in most areas and potentially exacerbating existing supply limitations in watersheds. This is especially true for rice and soybean, the two crops showing the most neutral yield changes. Rain-fed yields for maize and bean are projected to decline most severely in the sub-tropical Caribbean, Central America and northern South America, where climate models show a consistent drying trend. Crop failures are also projected to increase in these areas, necessitating switches to other crops or investment in adaptation measures. Generally, investment in agricultural adaptation to climate change (such as improved seed and irrigation infrastructure) will be needed throughout the LAC region in the 21st century.

  13. Formacion Profesional del Maestro Especial en America Latina y el Caribe = Professional Education of the Special Teacher in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Babra, Marcia Gilbert

    The paper, in Spanish, with a lengthy English summary, analyzes the status of special education in Latin America and the Caribbean. Noting that many countries in the region lack a substantial system of special education, the paper proceeds to examine models for personnel training. Approaches for university-based teacher training as well as for…

  14. Phenotypic and genotypic heterogeneity among Streptococcus iniae isolates recovered from cultured and wild fish in North America, Central America and the Caribbean Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus iniae, the etiological agent of streptococcosis in fish, is an important pathogen of cultured and wild fish worldwide. During the last decade outbreaks of streptococcosis have occurred in a wide range of cultured and wild fish in the Americas and Caribbean islands. To gain a better und...

  15. "The Madness of the Carnival": Representations of Latin America and the Caribbean in the U.S. Homophile Press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleibman, Shlomo

    2017-01-01

    This essay examines representations of Latin America and the Caribbean in U.S. homophile periodicals from 1953 to 1964. The 120 items in ONE, Mattachine Review, and The Ladder that referenced this region depicted Latin America and the Caribbean as different from the United States in a number of ways, in particular as more sexually repressive or more sexually liberal. These representations typically conformed to the general homophile movement tendency to challenge U.S. anti-homosexual campaigns during the "Lavender Scare," while arguing for acceptance based on rights claims. The representations also were based on Cold War, colonial, racist, nationalist, and imperialist frameworks. The essay argues that although the magazines generally affirmed the dominant homophile discourses of respectability and domesticity, they also challenged these discourses by presenting Latin American and Caribbean cultures as gender-nonconforming and sexually promiscuous.

  16. [Toward a model of communications in public health in Latin America and the Caribbean].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macías-Chapula, César A

    2005-12-01

    So far, there have been no bibliometric or scientometric studies that make it possible to examine, with quantitative, retrospective, and comprehensive criteria, the scientific output on public health in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). Further, the weakness of the existing information systems makes it impossible to examine the relevance, quality, and impact of this scientific output, with a view to evaluating it in terms of societal needs and existing patterns of scientific communication. This article presents the results of a bibliographic analysis of the scientific output in the area of public health in Latin America and the Caribbean. The ultimate goal of the analysis is to build a model of scientific communication in this field, to help researchers, managers, and others working in the area of public health to make decisions and choose actions to take. We conducted a literature review in order to identify the distribution of publications on public health that were produced by LAC researchers and published in each of the LAC countries from 1980 through 2002. The review used the Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Saúde Pública (LILACS-SP) (Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Public Health) bibliographic database. That database is operated by the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences Information (BIREME), which is in São Paulo, Brazil. We processed the LILACS-SP data using two software packages, Microsoft Excel and Bibexcel, to obtain indicators of the scientific output, the type of document, the language, the number of authors for each publication, the thematic content, and the participating institutions. For the 1980-2002 period, there were 97,605 publications registered, from a total of 37 LAC countries. For the analysis presented in this article, we limited the sample to the 8 countries in Latin America and the Caribbean that had at least 3,000 documents each registered in the LILACS-SP database over the 1980-2002 study

  17. Global Issues of Higher Education with Special Reference to Latin America and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Lopez Segrera

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Higher education in Latin America has deep roots back to the Spanish colonisation in the Hispanic countries. In Brazil, a former Portuguese colony, this sector did not emerge until the nineteenth century and in the Anglophone Caribbean, not until the twentieth. Now in the twenty-first century throughout the region it is subject to the global reach of the neoliberal era with marketisation, quality assurance and international rankings playing very strong roles. The number of private higher education institutions has increased dramatically with problems attached for quality, which is extremely variable. New types of institution have emerged, for example the community colleges in the Anglophone Caribbean offering the first few years of undergraduate study even in small island nations. At the top of the scale there are still quality institutions, but they are locked into the global convention and competition of the international rankings and league tables. So the overall picture is of a higher education sector of unusual variety and variability.

  18. The Politics of LGBT Rights in Latin America and the Caribbean: Research Agendas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Corrales

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available LGBT rights have expanded unevenly across Latin America and the Caribbean. Recent scholarship has been able to explain some of the reasons for this unevenness. But new and old questions remain unaddressed. This article suggests areas for further research. Resumen: Los derechos LGBT en la política de América Latina y el Caribe: Agendas para la investigación Los derechos LGBT han proliferado en América Latina y el Caribe de modo disparejo. Varios estudios académicos recientes han logrado explicar las razones de dicho crecimiento disparejo. Sin embargo, existen todavía preguntas sin responder al igual que nuevas preguntas por contestar. Este artículo sugiere algunas áreas que ameritan más investigación.

  19. Youth’s employment training from civil society organizations in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Girardo

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The study of Non Governmental Organizations (NGOs is undertaken in this article. They are understood as innovative agents for the design and implementation of specific vocational training programs for young people within the changes in the National vocational education and training policies that took place in Latin America an the Caribbean in the last decade, which are briefly described in this text. The importance of local space and decentralization policies, resulting from the reforms of the Latin American Estate, and the innovation in the management of local governments is the context in which NGOs develop and function. NGOs are part of the idea of a new public space created by the interaction between private and estate spheres. Selected Mexican NGOs operating in a local space and training young people, who otherwise have no other training opportunities are described: their general characteristics, their institutional profile, the population they serve, the approaches, strategies and instruments of their intervention.

  20. Cigarette labeling policies in Latin America and the Caribbean: progress and obstacles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebrié, Ernesto M; Blanco, Adriana; Glantz, Stanton A

    2010-01-01

    To describe cigarette labeling policies in Latin America and the Caribbean as of August 2010. Review of tobacco control legislation of all 33 countries of the region; analysis of British American Tobacco (BAT)'s corporate social reports; analysis of information from cigarette packages collected in 27 countries. In 2002, Brazil became the first country in the region to implement pictorial health warning labels on cigarette packages. Since then, six more countries adopted pictorial labels. The message content and the picture style vary across countries. Thirteen countries have banned brand descriptors and nine require a qualitative label with information on constituents and emissions. Tobacco companies are using strategies commonly used around the world to block the effective implementation of WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC)'s Article 11. Since 2002, important progress has been achieved in the region. However, countries that have ratified the FCTC have not yet implemented all the recommendations of Article 11 Guidelines.

  1. Implementation of a Web-Based Spatial Carbon Calculator for Latin America and the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degagne, R. S.; Bachelet, D. M.; Grossman, D.; Lundin, M.; Ward, B. C.

    2013-12-01

    A multi-disciplinary team from the Conservation Biology Institute is creating a web-based tool for the InterAmerican Development Bank (IDB) to assess the impact of potential development projects on carbon stocks in Latin America and the Caribbean. Funded by the German Society for International Cooperation (GIZ), this interactive carbon calculator is an integrated component of the IDB Decision Support toolkit which is currently utilized by the IDB's Environmental Safeguards Group. It is deployed on the Data Basin (www.databasin.org) platform and provides a risk screening function to indicate the potential carbon impact of various types of projects, based on a user-delineated development footprint. The tool framework employs the best available geospatial carbon data to quantify above-ground carbon stocks and highlights potential below-ground and soil carbon hotspots in the proposed project area. Results are displayed in the web mapping interface, as well as summarized in PDF documents generated by the tool.

  2. SIRGAS: the core geodetic infrastructure in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, L.; Brunini, C.; Drewes, H.; Mackern, V.; da Silva, A.

    2013-05-01

    Studying, understanding, and modelling geophysical phenomena, such as global change and geodynamics, require geodetic reference frames with (1) an order of accuracy higher than the magnitude of the effects we want to study, (2) consistency and reliability worldwide (the same accuracy everywhere), and (3) a long-term stability (the same order of accuracy at any time). The definition, realisation, maintenance, and wide-utilisation of the International Terrestrial Reference System (ITRS) are oriented to guarantee a globally unified geometric reference frame with reliability at the mm-level, i.e. the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). The densification of the global ITRF in Latin America and The Caribbean is given by SIRGAS (Sistema de Referencia Geocéntrico para Las Américas), primary objective of which is to provide the most precise coordinates in the region. Therefore, SIRGAS is the backbone for all regional projects based on the generation, use, and analysis of geo-referenced data at national as well as at international level. Besides providing the reference for a wide range of scientific applications such as the monitoring of Earth's crust deformations, vertical movements, sea level variations, atmospheric studies, etc., SIRGAS is also the platform for practical applications such as engineering projects, digital administration of geographical data, geospatial data infrastructures, etc. According to this, the present contribution describes the main features of SIRGAS, giving special care to those challenges faced to continue providing the best possible, long-term stable and high-precise reference frame for Latin America and the Caribbean.

  3. Seismic hazard map of North and Central America and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Shedlock

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Minimization of the loss of life, property damage, and social and economic disruption due to earthquakes depends on reliable estimates of seismic hazard. National, state, and local governments, decision makers, engineers, planners, emergency response organizations, builders, universities, and the general public require seismic hazard estimates for land use planning, improved building design and construction (including adoption of building construction codes, emergency response preparedness plans, economic forecasts, housing and employment decisions, and many more types of risk mitigation. The seismic hazard map of North and Central America and the Caribbean is the concatenation of various national and regional maps, involving a suite of approaches. The combined maps and documentation provide a useful regional seismic hazard framework and serve as a resource for any national or regional agency for further detailed studies applicable to their needs. This seismic hazard map depicts Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA with a 10% chance of exceedance in 50 years. PGA, a short-period ground motion parameter that is proportional to force, is the most commonly mapped ground motion parameter because current building codes that include seismic provisions specify the horizontal force a building should be able to withstand during an earthquake. This seismic hazard map of North and Central America and the Caribbean depicts the likely level of short-period ground motion from earthquakes in a fifty-year window. Short-period ground motions effect short-period structures (e.g., one-to-two story buildings. The highest seismic hazard values in the region generally occur in areas that have been, or are likely to be, the sites of the largest plate boundary earthquakes.

  4. Meeting health and family planning needs in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-06-01

    The operations research and technical assistance (OR/TA) project in The Population Council has concentrated on fertility and infant mortality issues in Latin American and the Caribbean for more than a decade through INOPAL. INOPAL is an acronym for Investigacion Operacional en Planificacion Familiar y Atencion Materno-Infantil para America Latina y el Caribe (Operations Research in Family Planning and Maternal-Child Health in Latin America and the Caribbean). In March 1995, the project entered its third phase, INOPAL III, with the renewal of its contract from the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). To facilitate communication between INOPAL, collaborating agencies, and USAID, INOPAL Director James Foreit moved from Peru to a Council office in Washington, D.C. INOPAL has six objectives: 1) to test the integration of family planning and reproductive health services; 2) to increase access to family planning; 3) to develop strategies to reach special populations; 4) to improve the sustainability of family planning programs; 5) to improve service quality; and 6) to institutionalize operations research capability in the region. INOPAL II conducted 61 subprojects in 12 countries in collaboration with 24 USAID cooperating agencies and other international organizations. The project established new services for postpartum women, adolescents, and rural women; improved program quality and financial sustainability; increased vasectomy promotion and the range of available contraceptives; and developed new modes of service delivery. A key finding of INOPAL II operations research was the importance of increasing cost-effectiveness to ensure program sustainability. INOPAL III will work toward all six objectives, with an emphasis on integrating reproductive health and family planning services. Operations research and technical assistance (OR/TA) subprojects will focus on the prevention and treatment of sexually transmitted diseases, perinatal and postpartum

  5. Short Term Patterns of Landslides Causing Death in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, S. A.; Petley, D. N.

    2015-12-01

    Among natural hazards, landslides represent a significant source of loss of life in mountainous terrains. Many regions of Latin America and the Caribbean are prone to landslide activity, due to strong topographic relief, high tectonic uplift rates, seismicity and/or climate. Further, vulnerable populations are often concentrated in deep valleys or mountain foothills susceptible to catastrophic landslides, with vulnerability further increased by dense urbanization and precarious settlements in some large cities. While historic extremely catastrophic events such as the 1999 Vargas flows in Venezuela or the 1970 Huascaran rock avalanche in Peru are commonly cited to characterize landslide hazards in this region, less known is the landslide activity in periods without such large disasters. This study assesses the occurrence of fatal landslides in Latin America and the Caribbean between 2004 and 2013. Over this time period we recorded 611 landslides that caused 11,631 deaths in 25 countries, mostly as a result of rainfall triggers. The countries with the highest number of fatal landslides are Brazil, Colombia, Mexico, Guatemala, Peru and Haiti. The highest death toll for a single event was ca.3000. The dataset has not captured a strong El Niño event or large earthquakes in landslide prone areas, thus the analysis is indicative of short term rather than long term spatial and temporal patterns. Results show that at continental scale, the spatial distribution of landslides in the 2004-2013 period correlates well with relief, precipitation and population density, while the temporal distribution reflects the regional annual rainfall patterns. In urban areas, the presence of informal settlements has a big impact on the number of fatalities, while at national level weaker correlations with gross income, human development and corruption indices can be found. This work was funded by the Durham International Fellowships for Research and Enterprise and Fondecyt project 1140317.

  6. Urban air pollution in Latin America and the Caribbean: health perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romieu, I; Weitzenfeld, H; Finkelman, J

    1990-01-01

    In the last few years, air pollution has become a major issue in some countries of Latin America and the Caribbean because of urban development and growing industrialization. In addition to industrial processes often concentrated in the cities, vehicle emission and stationary-source fuel combustion are the primary sources of air pollution. Although air-quality standards have been established in some Latin American countries, these are frequently exceeded. Adverse health effects of air pollution have been mainly associated with the following pollutants: sulfur dioxide and particulate matter, photochemical oxidants, nitrogen dioxide and carbon monoxide, and lead. Short-term as well as long-term effects can be expected at levels exceeding WHO guidelines. The Latin American urban areas most affected by anthropogenic pollutant emissions are: the area of São Paulo (Brazil), the city of Santiago (Chile) and the metropolitan area of Mexico City. However, situations similar to those prevailing in these cities could well occur in other cities of Latin America and the Caribbean. The population exposed to air-pollutant levels exceeding WHO guidelines can be estimated to 81 million or 26.5% of the total urban population of Latin America and 19% of its total population. These estimates correspond to 30 million children (0-14), 47 million adults (15-59) and 4 million elderly people (60+). To date a very limited number of epidemiological studies have been carried out to determine the potential health effects of air pollutants in Latin America. To obtain a rough estimate, a scenario was hypothesized in which subjects living in cities would be exposed to a given level of air pollutant, using data from the international literature to extrapolate the expected number of events in different strata of the hypothetical population. The estimated health effects are considerable and warrant priority control intervention. This is true although epidemiological studies are needed to evaluate

  7. Embedding research to improve program implementation in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Nhan; Langlois, Etienne V; Reveiz, Ludovic; Varallyay, Ilona; Elias, Vanessa; Mancuso, Arielle; Becerra-Posada, Francisco; Ghaffar, Abdul

    2017-06-08

    In the last 10 years, implementation research has come to play a critical role in improving the implementation of already-proven health interventions by promoting the systematic uptake of research findings and other evidence-based strategies into routine practice. The Alliance for Health Policy and Systems Research and the Pan American Health Organization implemented a program of embedded implementation research to support health programs in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) in 2014-2015. A total of 234 applications were received from 28 countries in the Americas. The Improving Program Implementation through Embedded Research (iPIER) scheme supported 12 implementation research projects led by health program implementers from nine LAC countries: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Panama, Peru, and Saint Lucia. Through this experience, we learned that the "insider" perspective, which implementers bring to the research proposal, is particularly important in identifying research questions that focus on the systems failures that often manifest in barriers to implementation. This paper documents the experience of and highlights key conclusions about the conduct of embedded implementation research. The iPIER experience has shown great promise for embedded research models that place implementers at the helm of implementation research initiatives.

  8. Cancer in indigenous people in Latin America and the Caribbean: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Suzanne P; Forman, David; Piñeros, Marion; Fernández, Sdenka M; de Oliveira Santos, Marceli; Bray, Freddie

    2014-02-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death in Latin America but there have been few assessments of the cancer burden for the 10% of the population who are indigenous. Evidence from other world regions suggests cancer survival is poorer for indigenous people than for others due to a greater incidence of case-fatal cancers, later stage at diagnosis, and less cancer treatment. A status report on the cancer profile of indigenous people in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) is therefore clearly warranted. We undertook a systematic review of the peer-reviewed literature in academic databases, and considered evidence from cancer registries from 1980, to assess cancer epidemiology among indigenous people in LAC. We identified 35 peer-reviewed articles pertaining to cancer in indigenous people. Rates of cervical cancer in parts of Brazil, Ecuador, and Guyana, stomach cancer rates in regions of Chile and gallbladder rates in Chile and Bolivia, were higher for indigenous compared to others. Breast cancer rates were lower in Ecuador, Brazil, and Chile. Six cancer registries in Brazil provided incidence data but no other reports of incidence, mortality, or survival were identified. There was a paucity of data surrounding the cancer burden of indigenous people in LAC. In view of predicted increases in cancer rates in ensuing decades, and the disparities in burden already experienced by indigenous people in the region, it is imperative that cancer profiles are obtained and cancer control measures identified and prioritized. © 2013 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Violence Research in Latin America and the Caribbean: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Carrión

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available

     

    Latin America has long been a violence-prone continent. No other region of the world knows higher homicide rates nor has such a variety of violence. Political violence, guerilla movements and civil wars, bloody revolutions, brutal dictatorships, domestic violence, criminal violence, and youth violence are all well known throughout history. This article gives an overview of the historical development of violence in Latin America and the Caribbean, examining its specificities

    and changes. The focus is on the recent explosion of violence and crime since the 1980s. As a literature review, it summarizes the main findings of academic research on violence in the different Latin American countries, thus providing additional insights into the major topics and research interests of Latin American and international institutions. After a short introduction and some remarks on the historical development of violence, the main part of the article deals with the recent rise of violence in the region. A special focus is on youth violence. At the end, the causes, costs, and consequences of violence for the Latin American societies are addressed.

     

  10. A Guide to NGO Directories: How To Find Over 20,000 Nongovernmental Organizations in Latin America and the Caribbean. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anson, Christina N., Comp.; Barry, Maria E.

    This guide provides information on 42 directories that list over 20,000 nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in Latin America and the Caribbean. Listings cover NGOs in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Caribbean Region, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico,…

  11. Adherence to antiretroviral therapy for HIV/AIDS in Latin America and the Caribbean: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Jessica de Mattos; Torres, Thiago Silva; Coelho, Lara Esteves; Luz, Paula Mendes

    2018-01-01

    Optimal adherence to antiretroviral therapy is closely related with suppression of the HIV viral load in plasma, slowing disease progression and decreasing HIV transmission rates. Despite its importance, the estimated proportion of people living with HIV in Latin America and the Caribbean with optimal adherence has not yet been reported in a meta-analysis. Moreover, little is known of the factors leading to poor adherence which may be setting-specific. We present a pooled estimate of adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) of people living with HIV in Latin America and Caribbean, report the methods used to measure adherence and describe the factors associated with poor adherence among the selected studies. We electronically searched published studies up to July 2016 on the PubMed, Web of Science and Virtual Health Library (Latin America and the Caribbean Regional Portal); considering the following databases: MEDLINE, LILACS, PAHO and IBECS. Two independent reviewers selected and extracted data on ART adherence and study characteristics. Pooled estimate of adherence was derived using a random-effects model. Risk of bias in individual studies was assessed independently by two investigators using the Risk of Bias Assessment tool for Non-randomized Studies (RoBANS). The meta-analysis included 53 studies published between 2005 and 2016, which analysed 22,603 people living with HIV in 25 Latin America and Caribbean countries. Overall adherence in Latin America and Caribbean was 70% (95% CI: 63-76; I 2  = 98%), similar to levels identified by studies conducted in high-income regions. Self-report was the most frequently used method to measure adherence. Subgroup analysis showed that adherence was higher for the shortest recall time frame used, as well as in countries with lower income level, Gross National Income (GNI) per capita and Human Development Index (HDI). Studies reported diverse adherence barriers, such as alcohol and substance misuse, depression

  12. Quantifying the risk of deforestation in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manners, Rhys; Varela-Ortega, Consuelo

    2015-04-01

    Latin American and Caribbean countries have seen considerable deforestation due to a complex web of interconnected and interdependent causes, which include agricultural expansion, infrastructure development, social demographics and governmental policies and activity. It is necessary for successful and efficient policy development to understand how variability in these causes can potentially result in increased or decreased deforestation. The purpose of this study is to develop a tool that can quantify the risk, as in the threat or pressure, of potential deforestation, whilst identifying the key indicators that contribute to this risk. This tool will take the form of a composite index that will provide spatial and temporal trends of deforestation risk across Latin America and the Caribbean. The development of the Deforestation Risk Index (DRI) was based upon work performed in the EU project ROBIN1. Indicators of deforestation included in the index were identified based upon the multi-scalar approach adopted in ROBIN- nationally from principal component analysis and econometric modelling, provincially from extensive interviews with experts and farmers (subsistence and commercial) in Amazonian regions of Bolivia and Brazil, and locally from stakeholder workshops in Bolivia, Brazil and Mexico. The identification process was supported by an extensive literature review. In total, 11 indicators were identified and grouped into four components (biophysical, economic, governance and social) capable of explaining the risk of deforestation in Latin America and Caribbean countries. The DRI was calculated for 24 Latin American and Caribbean countries in the years 2000, 2005 and 2010 using national-level data collected from open access databases (FAOStat, WorldBank and UNDP). The DRI was subjected to two weighting schemes; the first based upon the opinions of experts from ROBIN (weighted biophysical and governance components heavily), and the second developed from the results of

  13. Twelve Years of Fogarty-Funded Bioethics Training in Latin America and the Caribbean: Achievements and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenz, Carla; Heitman, Elizabeth; Luna, Florencia; Litewka, Sergio; Goodman, Kenneth W.; Macklin, Ruth

    2017-01-01

    The landscape in research ethics has changed significantly in Latin America and the Caribbean over the past two decades. Research ethics has gone from being a largely foreign concept and unfamiliar practice to an integral and growing feature of regional health research systems. Four bioethics training programs have been funded by the Fogarty International Center (FIC) in this region in the past 12 years. Overall, they have contributed significantly to changing the face of research ethics through the creation of locally relevant training materials and courses (including distance learning), academic publications, workshops, and conferences in Spanish, and strengthening ethics review committees and national systems of governance. This paper outlines their achievements and challenges, and reflects on current regional needs and what the future may hold for research ethics and bioethics training in Latin America and the Caribbean. PMID:24782074

  14. Twelve years of Fogarty-funded bioethics training in Latin America and the Caribbean: achievements and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenz, Carla; Heitman, Elizabeth; Luna, Florencia; Litewka, Sergio; Goodman, Kenneth W; Macklin, Ruth

    2014-04-01

    The landscape in research ethics has changed significantly in Latin America and the Caribbean over the past two decades. Research ethics has gone from being a largely foreign concept and unfamiliar practice to an integral and growing feature of regional health research systems. Four bioethics training programs have been funded by the Fogarty International Center (FIC) in this region in the past 12 years. Overall, they have contributed significantly to changing the face of research ethics through the creation of locally relevant training materials and courses (including distance learning), academic publications, workshops, and conferences in Spanish, and strengthening ethics review committees and national systems of governance. This paper outlines their achievements and challenges, and reflects on current regional needs and what the future may hold for research ethics and bioethics training in Latin America and the Caribbean.

  15. Medicinal Plants from North and Central America and the Caribbean Considered Toxic for Humans: The Other Side of the Coin

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso-Castro, Angel Josabad; Domínguez, Fabiola; Ruiz-Padilla, Alan Joel; Campos-Xolalpa, Nimsi; Zapata-Morales, Juan Ramón; Carranza-Alvarez, Candy; Maldonado-Miranda, Juan Jose

    2017-01-01

    The consumption of medicinal plants has notably increased over the past two decades. People consider herbal products as safe because of their natural origin, without taking into consideration whether these plants contain a toxic principle. This represents a serious health problem. A bibliographic search was carried out using published scientific material on native plants from Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean, which describe the ethnobotanical and toxicological information of medicin...

  16. Importance of Environmental Education in Socio-Natural Risk Management in Five Countries of Latin America and the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Martha Melizza Ordóñez-Díaz; Luisa María Montes-Arias; Giovanna del Pilar Garzón-Cortes

    2017-01-01

    Considering environmental education as a social tool allowing individuals to achieve a significant knowledge of the inhabited environment, to reduce the probability of occurrence of a disaster, and to respond to the presence of natural phenomena to which people are vulnerable, this article aims to generate a space for reflection on the importance of environmental education in the management of the social and natural risk in five countries of Latin America and the Caribbean. For this purpose, ...

  17. Proposal: A Strategy towards an Ocean Data and Information Network for Latin America and the Caribbean: ODINLAC

    OpenAIRE

    Geerders, P.

    2000-01-01

    The advancement of science is unthinkable without continuous and efficient exchange of data and information. There is no point in developing scientific programmes and in undertaking scientific research activities unless the research findings can be communicated to the scientific community, and, of even more importance, in an adequate form to policy makers and the general public. This was clearly stated during UNCED and is fully applicable to the LAC (Latin America and the Caribbean) region. ...

  18. Progress in reducing inequalities in reproductive, maternal, newborn,' and child health in Latin America and the Caribbean: an unfinished agenda

    OpenAIRE

    María Clara Restrepo-Méndez; Aluísio J. D. Barros; Jennifer Requejo; Pablo Durán; Luis Andrés de Francisco Serpa; Giovanny V. A. França; Fernando C. Wehrmeister; Cesar G. Victora

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To expand the "Countdown to 2015" analyses of health inequalities beyond the 75 countries being monitored worldwide to include all countries in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) that have adequate data available. METHODS: Demographic and Health Surveys and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys were used to monitor progress in health intervention coverage and inequalities in 13 LAC countries, five of which are included in the Countdown (Bolivia, Brazil, Guatemala, Haiti, and Peru) ...

  19. Usefulness for surveillance of hypertension prevalence studies in Latin America and the Caribbean: the past 10 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burroughs Peña, Melissa S; Mendes Abdala, Carmen Verônica; Silva, Luis Carlos; Ordúñez, Pedro

    2012-07-01

    To compare the usefulness for surveillance of the peer-reviewed literature on the prevalence of hypertension in Latin America and the Caribbean published from 2001 to 2010 with a previous study of the published literature from 1962 to 2000. A bibliographic search was conducted of publications from 2001 to 2010 that examined the prevalence of hypertension using MEDLINE and LILACS databases. The methodology of each paper was evaluated with the same critical appraisal tool used in the previous study. A total of 81 papers were published from 2001 to 2010 on the prevalence of hypertension in Latin America and the Caribbean. Only 24 of these studies met the minimum methodologic criteria for evaluation. While the total number of studies published in the past 10 years exceeds the number published from 1962 to 2000, the percentage of studies that met the minimum methodologic criteria has not substantially increased. In addition to major methodologic shortcomings, less than 46% of the published studies reported rates of awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension. The hypertension prevalence estimates from the peer-reviewed literature range from 7% to 49%. These studies were primarily done in urban centers and are not evenly distributed throughout the region. The quality and geographic distribution of the published literature on the prevalence of hypertension in Latin America and the Caribbean are inadequate. Research resources and efforts should be directed in the future toward closing this gap.

  20. Epidemiological Characteristics of Dengue Disease in Latin America and in the Caribbean: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Rafael Torres

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue, an important mosquito-borne virus transmitted mainly by Aedes aegypti, is a major public health issue in Latin America and the Caribbean. National epidemiological surveillance systems, usually based on passive detection of symptomatic cases, while underestimating the true burden of dengue disease, can provide valuable insight into disease trends and excess reporting and potential outbreaks. We carried out a systematic review of the literature to characterize the recent epidemiology of dengue disease in Latin America and the English-speaking and Hispanic Caribbean Islands. We identified 530 articles, 60 of which met criteria for inclusion. In general, dengue seropositivity across the region was high and increased with age. All four virus serotypes were reported to circulate in the region. These observations varied considerably between and within countries and over time, potentially due to climatic factors (temperature, rainfall, and relative humidity and their effect on mosquito densities and differences in socioeconomic factors. This review provides important insight into the major epidemiological characteristics of dengue in distinct regions of Latin America and the Caribbean, allowing gaps in current knowledge and future research needs to be identified.

  1. Epidemiological Characteristics of Dengue Disease in Latin America and in the Caribbean: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Jaime Rafael; Orduna, Tomás Agustín; Piña-Pozas, Maricela; Vázquez-Vega, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    Dengue, an important mosquito-borne virus transmitted mainly by Aedes aegypti, is a major public health issue in Latin America and the Caribbean. National epidemiological surveillance systems, usually based on passive detection of symptomatic cases, while underestimating the true burden of dengue disease, can provide valuable insight into disease trends and excess reporting and potential outbreaks. We carried out a systematic review of the literature to characterize the recent epidemiology of dengue disease in Latin America and the English-speaking and Hispanic Caribbean Islands. We identified 530 articles, 60 of which met criteria for inclusion. In general, dengue seropositivity across the region was high and increased with age. All four virus serotypes were reported to circulate in the region. These observations varied considerably between and within countries and over time, potentially due to climatic factors (temperature, rainfall, and relative humidity) and their effect on mosquito densities and differences in socioeconomic factors. This review provides important insight into the major epidemiological characteristics of dengue in distinct regions of Latin America and the Caribbean, allowing gaps in current knowledge and future research needs to be identified. PMID:28392806

  2. Active fault characterization throughout the Caribbean and Central America for seismic hazard modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styron, Richard; Pagani, Marco; Garcia, Julio

    2017-04-01

    The region encompassing Central America and the Caribbean is tectonically complex, defined by the Caribbean plate's interactions with the North American, South American and Cocos plates. Though active deformation over much of the region has received at least cursory investigation the past 50 years, the area is chronically understudied and lacks a modern, synoptic characterization. Regardless, the level of risk in the region - as dramatically demonstrated by the 2010 Haiti earthquake - remains high because of high-vulnerability buildings and dense urban areas home to over 100 million people, who are concentrated near plate boundaries and other major structures. As part of a broader program to study seismic hazard worldwide, the Global Earthquake Model Foundation is currently working to quantify seismic hazard in the region. To this end, we are compiling a database of active faults throughout the region that will be integrated into similar models as recently done in South America. Our initial compilation hosts about 180 fault traces in the region. The faults show a wide range of characteristics, reflecting the diverse styles of plate boundary and plate-margin deformation observed. Regional deformation ranges from highly localized faulting along well-defined strike-slip faults to broad zones of distributed normal or thrust faulting, and from readily-observable yet slowly-slipping structures to inferred faults with geodetically-measured slip rates >10 mm/yr but essentially no geomorphic expression. Furthermore, primary structures such as the Motagua-Polochic Fault Zone (the strike-slip plate boundary between the North American and Caribbean plates in Guatemala) display strong along-strike slip rate gradients, and many other structures are undersea for most or all of their length. A thorough assessment of seismic hazard in the region will require the integration of a range of datasets and techniques and a comprehensive characterization of epistemic uncertainties driving

  3. Risk Management in Agriculture for Food Security in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, A.; National Research CouncilScientific; Technological Research (Conicet)

    2013-05-01

    The Americas are extremely important as a unique contributor to Food Security. It provides from tropical to temperate crops. Not only they are able to feed their own population, but contribute significantly to the food supply of the population in developed, emergent and underdeveloped countries. This fact has given the region a unique responsibility to develop a regional risk-management strategy to manage food insecurity at a local, national, regional and global level. Although international agencies such as UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), Instituto Interamericano para la Cooperación en Agricultura (IICA) and the regional centres of the Consultative Group for International Agriculture Research (CGIAR) and the World Bank (WB), are engaged in actions for Risk Management in Agriculture for reducing Food Insecurity. However there is a need to build a framework and/or comprehensive regional strategy for the Americas. It would identify areas for promoting research projects where natural and social science work together for producing relevant scientific information and tools i.e. maps, indicators, models and scenarios, early warning systems, etc. to cooperate with both policy and decision makers in the public and private sectors. This would eventually lead to a comprehensive regional programme for reducing food insecurity. The purpose of International Council for Science-International Research and the International Research for Disaster Risk programme (ICSU-IRDR) and ICSU Regional Office for Latinamerica and the Caribbean (ICSU-ROLAC) is to promote the cooperation of the relevant scientific fields in both natural science and social science in a multi and trans-disciplinary approach on risk management to reduce food insecurity. Also both ICSU-IRDR and ICSU-ROLAC are building a case for the inclusion of the scientific community in the revision of the Hjogo Framework for Action for Disaster Reduction to be held in 2015 as risk management for reducing food

  4. Sustainability, Efficiency and Equitability of Water Consumption and Pollution in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesfin M. Mekonnen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the sustainability, efficiency and equity of water use in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC by means of a geographic Water Footprint Assessment (WFA. It aims to provide understanding of water use from both a production and consumption point of view. The study identifies priority basins and areas from the perspectives of blue water scarcity, water pollution and deforestation. Wheat, fodder crops and sugarcane are identified as priority products related to blue water scarcity. The domestic sector is the priority sector regarding water pollution from nitrogen. Soybean and pasture are priority products related to deforestation. We estimate that consumptive water use in crop production could be reduced by 37% and nitrogen-related water pollution by 44% if water footprints were reduced to certain specified benchmark levels. The average WF per consumer in the region is 28% larger than the global average and varies greatly, from 912 m3/year per capita in Nicaragua to 3468 m3/year in Bolivia. Ironically, the LAC region shows significant levels of undernourishment, although there is abundant water and food production in the region and substantial use of land and water for producing export crops like soybean.

  5. Nutrition and the commoditization of food systems in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewey, K G

    1989-01-01

    Commoditization of food systems, defined as the use of agricultural goods for sale rather than for home consumption, affects nutrition of rural families via economic, social and ecological mechanisms in addition to direct dietary effects. Broad-scale mechanisms include alterations in land tenure, increased stratification of wealth, widespread labor migration, urban bias, food price changes, disruption of traditional reciprocal social relations, and ecological changes accompanying commercial agriculture that may limit long-term food production. At the family level, the replacement of food with cash is often problematic as regards nutrition, due to low prices to producers, increased cash needs, the 'lumpiness' of earnings during the year, reduced decision-making power of women, and often decreased dietary diversity. Three case studies in Latin America and the Caribbean, from Peru, Jamaica, and Mexico, illustrate that commoditization tends to have a negative impact on nutrition in poor rural households. Although commoditization is theoretically advantageous on a national level by allowing the use of 'comparative advantage', in actuality its potential benefits are eroded by inequitable uses of foreign exchange. Commoditization is in essence a more efficient means by which to extract surplus value from small agricultural producers. While commoditization is a necessary component of economic growth, policies to safeguard health and nutrition and improve the status of women in development programs must be implemented within an overall strategy to meet basic needs of the population.

  6. Prevalence estimates for hypertension in Latin America and the Caribbean: are they useful for surveillance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Ordúñez

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To apply a recently proposed model and assessment tool created by the authors for critically evaluating the data available on the prevalence of hypertension in LAC and assessing their usefulness for surveillance. Methods. A bibliographic search to identify all publications that estimated the prevalence of hypertension was performed. Each of the papers located was assessed using a critical appraisal tool. Results. Of the 58 studies published between 1966 and 2000, only 28 of them (48% met the critical threshold to be considered useful for surveillance purposes. The distribution of the 28 studies in terms of their usefulness for surveillance was as follows: minimally useful, 16 studies; useful, 8 studies; and very useful, 4 studies. Several methodological shortcomings were identified, from inadequate sampling procedures and sample size to the poor quality of the primary data for planning purposes. Discussion. Published studies on the prevalence of hypertension in Latin America and the Caribbean have, as a whole, limited usefulness for surveillance activities.

  7. Prevalence estimates for hypertension in Latin America and the Caribbean: are they useful for surveillance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ordúñez Pedro

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To apply a recently proposed model and assessment tool created by the authors for critically evaluating the data available on the prevalence of hypertension in LAC and assessing their usefulness for surveillance. Methods. A bibliographic search to identify all publications that estimated the prevalence of hypertension was performed. Each of the papers located was assessed using a critical appraisal tool. Results. Of the 58 studies published between 1966 and 2000, only 28 of them (48% met the critical threshold to be considered useful for surveillance purposes. The distribution of the 28 studies in terms of their usefulness for surveillance was as follows: minimally useful, 16 studies; useful, 8 studies; and very useful, 4 studies. Several methodological shortcomings were identified, from inadequate sampling procedures and sample size to the poor quality of the primary data for planning purposes. Discussion. Published studies on the prevalence of hypertension in Latin America and the Caribbean have, as a whole, limited usefulness for surveillance activities.

  8. Determinants of tuberculosis in countries of Latin America and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Bergonzoli

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives To explore the relationships among social, economic, environmental, and health services determinants of tuberculosis (TB morbidity and mortality, and to identify the mechanisms that mediate such associations in countries of Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC. Methods This was an ecological study of 26 LAC countries that had accurate data available on 38 selected variables for the year 2010. The countries represented 99% of the TB burden in LAC. Multivariate linear regression was used to identify associations among determinants of health and TB morbidity and mortality. Results TB-HIV coinfection and multidrug resistant TB (MDR-TB in previously treated cases were found to be positively associated to TB morbidity and negatively associated to improved basic sanitation and water coverage—pointing to an increase of TB morbidity in the first two variables and a decrease of TB morbidity in the last two. Regarding TB mortality, indigenous people and MDR-TB in previously treated cases were positively associated. In contrast, literacy among women, basic sanitation, water coverage, and nutritional status were negatively associated to mortality, denoting that improvements in these areas could reduce TB mortality. Conclusions The study findings support intersectoral actions that address social, economic, environmental, and health services determinants within the Stop TB strategy. The mechanisms by which social determinants of health affect current trend outcomes extend beyond medical interventions to control TB, but more research is needed to understand how and to develop actionable recommendations.

  9. Energy conservation and sustainable economic growth: The case of Latin America and the Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Ching-Chih; Soruco Carballo, Claudia Fabiola

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the causal relationships among energy consumption, economic growth and carbon dioxide emissions in twenty countries from Latin America and the Caribbean region. The methodology includes the use of Phillips and Perron (PP) tests, a cointegration model with vector error correction modeling (VECM) and vector autoregression (VAR) with Granger causality. The study concludes that of the twenty countries analyzed, only in four of them will it be possible to implement energy conservation polices without affecting their economic growth, four others are not able to consider an energy conservation policy with economic growth, and the other twelve should focus on their economic growth before adopting any conservation policies. Energy efficiency was found in this region, especially in the countries which have both cointegration and short-term equilibrium. - Highlights: → Only four countries could implement energy conservation polices without affecting economic growth. → Twelve nations should focus on their economic growth before designing any energy conservation policies. → Energy efficiency was found in the countries which have both cointegration and short-term equilibrium.

  10. The regional response to the greenhouse issue. Latin America and the Caribbean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez, F.J. [Olade - Latin-American Energy Organization, Quito (Ecuador)

    1995-06-01

    The increase in greenhouse gas emissions in Latin America and the Caribbean is not directly linked to energy consumption. It is estimated that about two thirds of the carbon compounds that are emitted annually in the Region and contribute to the greenhouse effect stem from the deforestation of 4 to 6 million hectares of forests destroyed annually by unplanned land settlement, migratory agriculture, and agribusiness. As a contribution to the debate on the global problem of increasing greenhouse effect, the present article tries to analyze the specific regional characteristics of the problem, their relation to the global issues, and the regional options for decreasing carbon compound emissions. The developing countries, will have to deal with the possibility of seeing their land converted into ecological disaster areas, where life cannot be sustained, within the next 20 years. Within this context, technology can do very little, since deforestation basically is not a technological problem since its solution rather involves the application of sustainable development models that require profound economic and social changes. (EG) 11 refs.

  11. Mapping Vulnerability to Disasters in Latin America and the Caribbean, 1900-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard-Ford, Miriam C.; Phillips, Emily C.; Chirico, Peter G.

    2008-01-01

    The vulnerability of a population and its infrastructure to disastrous events is a factor of both the probability of a hazardous event occurring and the community's ability to cope with the resulting impacts. Therefore, the ability to accurately identify vulnerable populations and places in order to prepare for future hazards is of critical importance for disaster mitigation programs. This project created maps of higher spatial resolution of vulnerability to disaster in Latin America and the Caribbean from 1900 to 2007 by mapping disaster data by first-level administrative boundaries with the objective of identifying geographic trends in regional occurrences of disasters and vulnerable populations. The method of mapping by administrative level is an improvement on displaying and analyzing disasters at the country level and shows the relative intensity of vulnerability within and between countries in the region. Disaster mapping at the country level produces only a basic view of which countries experience various types of natural disasters. Through disaggregation, the data show which geographic areas of these countries, including populated areas, are historically most susceptible to different hazard types.

  12. Height, education and later-life cognition in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Jürgen

    2010-07-01

    Building on previous evidence from the U.S., this study investigates the relationship between anthropometric markers (height and knee height), early-life conditions, education, and cognitive function in later life among urban elderly from Latin America and the Caribbean. I document a positive association between height and later-life cognitive function, which is larger for women than for men. This sex difference increases when I address potential feedback effects from mid- and later-life circumstances on stature by using knee height as an instrument for height. Specifically, while the estimates for women remain largely unchanged, I only find a diminished and statistically insignificant association between instrumented height and later-life cognition for men. This finding suggests that at least part of the association between height and later-life cognition among men may stem from common third factors that are correlated with both height and later-life cognition, such as adverse occupational exposures or health events during mid- and later life. Extended models that also include education further diminish the association between height and later-life cognition. Education displays strong positive gradients with the employed measures of childhood circumstances - including height - which points to education as a potential pathway linking early-life conditions and later-life cognitive function. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Gender, acculturative stress and Caribbean immigrants' health in the United States of America: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, I L; Neita, M; Riviere, L; Livingston, S L

    2007-06-01

    Given that the health of many immigrants declines after increasing years in their host countries and that there may be gender differences in these experiences, this exploratory study's main objective was twofold: a) assess the relationship between acculturative stress and negative health (ie both mental and physical) and b) determine if there were any gender differences in these stress-health relationships. Gender-stratified analyses were conducted on a sample of 418 (males = 158, females = 260) English-speaking immigrants (the majority of whom were Jamaicans--males = 81%, females = 86%) that lived in the District of Columbia, Virginia, and Maryland (DC Metropolitan Area, United States of America (USA). Mail-order surveys were used to collect the data over a six-month period in 2002. Data for the main independent variable, acculturative stress, were collected using five indices (ie personal problems, group affiliations, adjustment to life in the USA, lonely feelings and feeling socially satisfied). Data for the major dependent variable, health, were collected using four indices (ie symptoms of depression, physical health conditions, the rating of one's health and the feeling of control one had over one's health). After controlling for selected covariates, both males (r = 0.42, p loneliness (r = .26, p < 0.05) had less symptoms of depression. These exploratory results suggest the potential importance of selected variables (eg personal problems and depression) in efforts at improving the health of Caribbean immigrants.

  14. Air pollution management and control in Latin America and the Caribbean: implications for climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riojas-Rodríguez, Horacio; da Silva, Agnes Soares; Texcalac-Sangrador, José Luis; Moreno-Banda, Grea Litai

    2016-09-01

    To assess the status of the legal framework for air quality control in all countries of Latin America and Caribbean (LAC); to determine the current distribution of air monitoring stations and mean levels of air pollutants in all capital and large cities (more than 100 000 inhabitants); and to discuss the implications for climate change and public policymaking. From January 2015-February 2016, searches were conducted of online databases for legislation, regulations, policies, and air pollution programs, as well as for the distribution of monitoring stations and the mean annual levels of air pollution in all LAC countries. Only 117 cities distributed among 17 of 33 LAC countries had official information on ground level air pollutants, covering approximately 146 million inhabitants. The annual mean of inhalable particles concentration in most of the cities were over the World Health Organization Air Quality Guidelines; notably, only Bolivia, Peru, and Guatemala have actually adopted the guidelines. Most of the cities did not have information on particulate matter of 2.5 microns or less, and only a few measured black carbon. The air quality regulatory framework should be updated to reflect current knowledge on health effects. Monitoring and control of ground level pollutants should be extended and strengthened to increase awareness and protect public health. Using the co-benefits of air pollution control for health and climate as a framework for policy and decision-making in LAC is recommended.

  15. Geoid modeling in Mexico and the collaboration with Central America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avalos, D.; Gomez, R.

    2012-12-01

    The model of geoidal heights for Mexico, named GGM10, is presented as a geodetic tool to support vertical positioning in the context of regional height system unification. It is a purely gravimetric solution computed by the Stokes-Helmert technique in resolution of 2.5 arc minutes. This product from the Instituto Nacional de Estadistica y Geografia (INEGI) is released together with a series of 10 gravimetric models which add to the improvements in description of the gravity field. In the recent years, the INEGI joined the initiative of the U.S. National Geodetic Survey and the Canada's Geodetic Survey Division to promote the regional height system unification. In an effort to further improve the compatibility among national geoid models in the region, the INEGI has begun to champion a network of specialists that includes national representatives from Central America and the Caribbean. Through the opening of opportunities for training and more direct access to international agreements and discussions, the tropical region is gaining participation. Now a significantly increased number of countries is pushing for a future North and Central American geoid-based vertical datum as support of height system unification.eoidal height in Mexico, mapped from the model GGM10.

  16. The regional response to the greenhouse issue: Latin America and the Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillo, I.

    1992-01-01

    The increase in greenhouse gas emissions in Latin America and the Caribbean is not directly linked to energy consumption. It is estimated that about two-thirds of the carbon compounds that are emitted annually in the region and contribute to the greenhouse effect stem from the deforestation of 4 to 6 million hectares of forests destroyed annually by unplanned land settlement, migratory agriculture, and agribusiness. As a contribution to the debate on the global problem of the increasing greenhouse effect, the present article tries to analyze the specific regional characteristics of the problem, their relation to the global issue, and the regional options for decreasing carbon compound emissions. The developing countries, instead of waiting for the consequences of the 1- to 5-degree-Centrigrade increase in average temperature that is being forecast for the planet in the next 50 to 70 years, will have to deal with the possibility of seeing their land converted into ecological disaster areas where life cannot be sustained within the next 20 years. Within this context, technology can do very little, because deforestation basically is not a technological problem but rather has to do with the application of unsustainable development models that require profound economic and social changes

  17. Prioritization of strategies to approach the judicialization of health in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Pinzón-Flórez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe strategies that contribute to the comprehensive approach to the judicialization of health in countries of Latin America and the Caribbean. METHODS A search was structured to identify articles presenting strategies to approach the judicialization of health. A survey was designed, which included actors of the health system and judiciary sector. We prioritized the strategies qualified by more than the 50.0% of the participants as “very relevant”. Strategies were categorized according to: governance, provision of services, human resources, information systems, financing, and medical products. RESULTS We included 64 studies, which identified 50 strategies, related to the sub-functions and components of health systems. Of the 165 people who answered the survey, 80.0% were aged 35-64 years. The distribution of men and women was homogeneous. Half of the respondents were from Colombia (20.0%, Uruguay (16.9%, and Argentina (12.7%. We prioritized strategies that addressed aspects of generation of useful scientific evidence for decision making according to the health needs of the population, empowerment for the society, and creating spaces for discussion of measures of inclusion or exclusion of health technologies. The executive and judiciary decision makers prioritized questions that dealt with strategies that would ensure accountability. CONCLUSIONS The results of this study contribute to the identification of effective strategies to approach the phenomenon of judicialization of health, guaranteeing the right to health.

  18. The regional response to the greenhouse issue. Latin America and the Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez, F.J.

    1995-01-01

    The increase in greenhouse gas emissions in Latin America and the Caribbean is not directly linked to energy consumption. It is estimated that about two thirds of the carbon compounds that are emitted annually in the Region and contribute to the greenhouse effect stem from the deforestation of 4 to 6 million hectares of forests destroyed annually by unplanned land settlement, migratory agriculture, and agribusiness. As a contribution to the debate on the global problem of increasing greenhouse effect, the present article tries to analyze the specific regional characteristics of the problem, their relation to the global issues, and the regional options for decreasing carbon compound emissions. The developing countries, will have to deal with the possibility of seeing their land converted into ecological disaster areas, where life cannot be sustained, within the next 20 years. Within this context, technology can do very little, since deforestation basically is not a technological problem since its solution rather involves the application of sustainable development models that require profound economic and social changes. (EG) 11 refs

  19. Viral hepatitis in Latin America and the Caribbean: a public health challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núria Díez-Padrisa

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Viral hepatitis (VH is an emergent concern in public health agendas worldwide. More than one million people die annually from hepatitis and 57% and 78% of global cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma cases, respectively, are caused by VH. The burden of disease caused by hepatitis in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC is high. Data on hepatitis has been collected in several countries, but more accurate and comparable studies are needed. Hepatitis B vaccination and screening of donated blood are routine practices in the region. However, integrated policies covering prevention and control of disease caused by all types of hepatitis viruses are scarce. Existing preventive measures need to be reinforced. Attention must be paid to at-risk populations, awareness campaigns, and water and food safety. Affordable access to diagnosis and treatment, population screening, referral to health services and monitoring of positive cases are among the main challenges currently posed by VH in LAC. The World Health Organization framework and Pan American Health Organization regional strategy, defined in response to resolution WHA63.18 of the World Health Assembly, may help to overcome these difficulties. Successful experiences in the fight against hepatitis in some LAC countries may also provide very interesting solutions for the region.

  20. Towards the construction of health workforce metrics for Latin America and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrasco Victor V

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction One of the components of the Health Observatory for Latin American and the Caribbean (HO-LAC is the design and implementation of metrics for human resources for health. Under the HO-LAC initiative, researchers from nine countries in the region formed the Collaborative Community on Human Resources for Health in Latin America and the Caribbean to identify common metrics applicable to the field of human resources for health (HRH. Case description The case description comprises three stages: a the origins of an initiative in which a non-governmental organization brings together researchers involved in HRH policy in LAC, b a literature search to identify initiatives to develop methods and metrics to assess the HRH field in the region, and c subsequent discussions held by the group of researchers regarding the possibilities of identifying an appropriate set of metrics and indicators to assess HRH throughout the region. Discussion and evaluation A total of 101 documents produced between 1985 and 2008 in the LAC region were identified. Thirty-three of the papers included a variety of measurements comprising counts, percentages, proportions, indicators, averages and metrics, but only 13 were able to fully describe the methods used to identify these metrics and indicators. Of the 33 articles with measurements, 47% addressed labor market issues, 25% were about working conditions, 23% were on HRH training and 5% addressed regulations. Based on these results, through iterative discussions, metrics were defined into three broad categories (training, labor market and working conditions and available sources of information for their estimation were proposed. While only three of the countries have data on working conditions, all countries have sufficient data to measure at least one aspect of HRH training and the HRH labor market. Conclusions Information gleaned from HRH metrics makes it possible to carry out comparisons on a determined

  1. Towards the construction of health workforce metrics for Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigenda, Gustavo G; Machado, Maria H; Ruiz, Fernando F; Carrasco, Victor V; Moliné, Patricia P; Girardi, Sabado S

    2011-10-14

    One of the components of the Health Observatory for Latin American and the Caribbean (HO-LAC) is the design and implementation of metrics for human resources for health. Under the HO-LAC initiative, researchers from nine countries in the region formed the Collaborative Community on Human Resources for Health in Latin America and the Caribbean to identify common metrics applicable to the field of human resources for health (HRH). The case description comprises three stages: a) the origins of an initiative in which a non-governmental organization brings together researchers involved in HRH policy in LAC, b) a literature search to identify initiatives to develop methods and metrics to assess the HRH field in the region, and c) subsequent discussions held by the group of researchers regarding the possibilities of identifying an appropriate set of metrics and indicators to assess HRH throughout the region. A total of 101 documents produced between 1985 and 2008 in the LAC region were identified. Thirty-three of the papers included a variety of measurements comprising counts, percentages, proportions, indicators, averages and metrics, but only 13 were able to fully describe the methods used to identify these metrics and indicators. Of the 33 articles with measurements, 47% addressed labor market issues, 25% were about working conditions, 23% were on HRH training and 5% addressed regulations. Based on these results, through iterative discussions, metrics were defined into three broad categories (training, labor market and working conditions) and available sources of information for their estimation were proposed. While only three of the countries have data on working conditions, all countries have sufficient data to measure at least one aspect of HRH training and the HRH labor market. Information gleaned from HRH metrics makes it possible to carry out comparisons on a determined experience in space and time, in a given country and/or region. The results should then

  2. [Perception scales of validated food insecurity: the experience of the countries in Latin America and the Caribbean].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperandio, Naiara; Morais, Dayane de Castro; Priore, Silvia Eloiza

    2018-02-01

    The scope of this systematic review was to compare the food insecurity scales validated and used in the countries in Latin America and the Caribbean, and analyze the methods used in validation studies. A search was conducted in the Lilacs, SciELO and Medline electronic databases. The publications were pre-selected by titles and abstracts, and subsequently by a full reading. Of the 16,325 studies reviewed, 14 were selected. Twelve validated scales were identified for the following countries: Venezuela, Brazil, Colombia, Bolivia, Ecuador, Costa Rica, Mexico, Haiti, the Dominican Republic, Argentina and Guatemala. Besides these, there is the Latin American and Caribbean scale, the scope of which is regional. The scales ranged from the standard reference used, number of questions and diagnosis of insecurity. The methods used by the studies for internal validation were calculation of Cronbach's alpha and the Rasch model; for external validation the authors calculated association and /or correlation with socioeconomic and food consumption variables. The successful experience of Latin America and the Caribbean in the development of national and regional scales can be an example for other countries that do not have this important indicator capable of measuring the phenomenon of food insecurity.

  3. Systematic review of pneumococcal disease costs and productivity loss studies in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahia, Luciana; Toscano, Cristiana M; Takemoto, Maíra Libertad Soligo; Araujo, Denizar Vianna

    2013-07-02

    Pneumococcal disease is an important cause of morbidity and mortality associated with significant economic burden for healthcare systems and society. To systematically review pneumococcal disease cost of illness and productivity loss studies in the Latin America and Caribbean (LAC) region. A search of relevant databases was performed till November 2011. A broad and sensitive search strategy was used consisting of medical subject headings (MeSH) terms for pneumococcal disease, healthcare costs and productivity loss studies. No language restriction was applied. Only papers from LAC region and child population were analyzed. Additional exclusion criteria included duplicate studies, and insufficient information about methods. A total of 1241 citations were retrieved. After applying the exclusion criteria, only 16 studies remained for analysis. There were 4 papers from Brazil, 3 from Argentina, 2 from Colombia, 2 from Mexico, 1 from Uruguay, 1 from Chile, and 3 analyzing a group of LAC countries. Only 4 were cost-of-illness studies, 11 were cost-effectiveness studies of pneumococcal vaccine and 1 study of the pneumococcal burden of disease. Methods used for quantifying health resource utilization and costing methods varied significantly among studies, as well as data sources considered. Productivity losses were considered in 8 studies, all of which used the human capital approach method. Pneumococcal disease cost estimates varied significantly depending on the pneumococcal syndromes considered, methods used, study perspective and type of costs included. This systematic review reinforced the importance of standardization of methods for cost studies that can allow comparison and reproducibility in other settings. These estimates can be useful for future economic analysis conducted to support the decision making process on the introduction of new vaccines in LAC. However, caution must be taken, as methodological aspects of studies will result in estimates with varying

  4. Increases in breastfeeding in Latin America and the Caribbean: an analysis of equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutter, Chessa K; Chaparro, Camila M; Grummer-Strawn, Laurence M

    2011-05-01

    Breastfeeding has large benefits for mothers and infants. The short-term benefits for child survival and reduced morbidity differ by population subgroup because of differences in underlying risk factors. Although breastfeeding is more common among poor than well-off women, how breastfeeding patterns change between these subgroups is important from a policy perspective as the poor will benefit more from increased duration of breastfeeding. We use nationally representative data from eight countries in Latin America and the Caribbean to document changes in breastfeeding duration between 1986 and 2005, and separate the overall change into the portion attributable to changing population characteristics and the portion resulting from changing breastfeeding behaviour within population subgroups. Breastfeeding duration increased in six out of the eight countries and the changes observed are largely explained by changing behaviour within population subgroups rather than changing population characteristics. Changes in breastfeeding duration did not tend to be equitably distributed, but in four countries (Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia and Peru) the population subgroups whose children are most at risk for mortality and increased morbidity from not being breastfed were least likely to show improvements in breastfeeding duration. Between 1986 and 2004 in Peru, breastfeeding duration declined by 0.6 months among rural women while increasing by 9.7 months among urban women; it increased by 6.3 months among women with prenatal care but only by 3.7 months among women with no prenatal care. Changes in breastfeeding in Guatemala and Haiti tended to favour the well-off compared with the poor, though not consistently. In Nicaragua changes in breastfeeding duration tended to favour the less well-off. While promoting breastfeeding is a must for all women, to maximize its benefits for child survival and health, additional efforts are needed to reach poorly educated and rural women with little

  5. Nutrition situation in Latin America and the Caribbean: current scenario, past trends, and data gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Galicia

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To determine the current nutritional status in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC and identify data gaps and trends in nutrition surveillance. Methods A systematic Internet search was conducted to identify official sources that allowed for monitoring of LAC countries’ nutritional status, including progress toward World Health Organization Global Nutrition Targets 2025. Reports from national nutrition surveillance systems and reports on nationally representative surveys were collected and collated to 1 analyze nutritional status, based on life-course anthropometric indicators and biomarkers, and 2 identify gaps in data availability and trends in nutritional deficiencies. Information on iron, vitamin A, iodine, folate, and vitamin B12 deficiency was also collected and collated. Results Twenty-two of the 46 LAC countries/territories (48% had information on undernutrition (stunting, underweight, and wasting in children under 5 years old and women of reproductive age (WRA. Seventeen countries (38% had information on anemia in children under 5 years old and WRA, and 12 (27% had information on anemia in pregnant women. Although overall nutritional status has improved in the past few decades in all countries in the region, some LAC countries still had a high prevalence of stunting and anemia in children and WRA. Overweight affected at least 50% of WRA in nine countries with available data, and was increasing in children. Data for school-age children, adolescents, adult males, and older adults were scarce in the region. Conclusions Overall nutritional status has improved in the LAC countries with available information, but more efforts are needed to scale up nutrition-sensitive and nutrition-specific interventions to tackle malnutrition in all its forms, as stunting, anemia, and vitamin A deficiency are still a public health problem in many countries, and overweight is an epidemic. Nutrition information systems are weak in the

  6. Link between diet and cardiovascular disease in Latin America and the Caribbean using geographic information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Jennifer; Brevard, Patricia B; Lee, Robert E; Wagner, Tammy

    2009-10-01

    To determine the visual, spatial, and/or statistical relationships between food availability/dietary patterns and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). CVD mortality rates and diet information (the number of kilocalories and amount of alcohol, fats, fish, fruits, meats, sugars, and vegetables available per person daily) were obtained from internationally available databases. The analyses included 32 LAC countries with sufficient data (15 of 47 had been excluded for incomplete data). Pearson's correlations (r) were used to determine relationships between diet and CVD mortality, and multiple linear regression analysis was conducted to identify predictors of mortality. ArcGIS version 9.2 (Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc., Redlands, California, United States) was used to construct maps to explore visual relationships between CVD and diet. No relationships were found between CVD and alcohol, fruit, meat, sugar, or vegetable intake. Statistically significant, positive correlations were found between oil-crops (r = 0.680, P = 0.000) and fish and seafood (r = 0.411, P = 0.019) and CVD mortality. Regression analysis revealed that high kilocalorie availability was a predictor of low CVD mortality (P = 0.020). High oil-crop availability was a predictor of high CVD mortality (P = 0.000). Maps constructed show visual relationships between availability of fish and seafood, kilocalories, and oil-crops, and CVD mortality. Fish and seafood, kilocalorie, and oil-crop availability appear to be related to CVD mortality, but further investigation is needed. Associations between diet and CVD mortality create the opportunity to target specific countries for nutrition education and CVD prevention programs.

  7. Social determinants and inequalities in tuberculosis incidence in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César V. Munayco

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify key social determinants of tuberculosis (TB incidence among countries in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC, a geographic area regarded as one of the most socioeconomically unequal in the world METHODS: An ecological study was conducted at the country level. Data were obtained from several institutional-based sources. Random-effects regression modeling was used to explore the relationship between several social determinants indicators and TB incidence rates in 20 LAC countries in 1995-2012. Standard gap and gradient metrics of social inequality in TB incidence among countries in 2000, 2005, and 2010 were then calculated. RESULTS: TB incidence rate trends were significantly associated with health expenditure per capita and access to improved sanitation facilities, as well as with life expectancy at birth and TB detection rate, after adjusting for other socioeconomic, demographic, and health services variables. Absolute and relative inequality in TB incidence remained mostly unchanged: countries at the bottom 20% of both health expenditure and sanitation coverage distributions concentrated up to 40% of all TB incident cases, despite a considerable decline in the overall TB incidence mean rate during the period assessed. CONCLUSIONS: Along with the intensity of TB control (reflected by TB detection rate, both access to sanitation (as a proxy of quality of living conditions and health expenditure per capita (either as an indicator of the level of resources and/or commitment to health care appear to be key determinants of TB incidence trends in LAC countries. Inequalities in both health expenditure per capita and access to sanitation seem to define profound and persistent inverse gradients in TB incidence among LAC countries.

  8. Comparative Coastal Risk Index (CCRI: A multidisciplinary risk index for Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Calil

    Full Text Available As the world's population grows to a projected 11.2 billion by 2100, the number of people living in low-lying areas exposed to coastal hazards is projected to increase. Critical infrastructure and valuable assets continue to be placed in vulnerable areas, and in recent years, millions of people have been displaced by natural hazards. Impacts from coastal hazards depend on the number of people, value of assets, and presence of critical resources in harm's way. Risks related to natural hazards are determined by a complex interaction between physical hazards, the vulnerability of a society or social-ecological system and its exposure to such hazards. Moreover, these risks are amplified by challenging socioeconomic dynamics, including poorly planned urban development, income inequality, and poverty. This study employs a combination of machine learning clustering techniques (Self Organizing Maps and K-Means and a spatial index, to assess coastal risks in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC on a comparative scale. The proposed method meets multiple objectives, including the identification of hotspots and key drivers of coastal risk, and the ability to process large-volume multidimensional and multivariate datasets, effectively reducing sixteen variables related to coastal hazards, geographic exposure, and socioeconomic vulnerability, into a single index. Our results demonstrate that in LAC, more than 500,000 people live in areas where coastal hazards, exposure (of people, assets and ecosystems and poverty converge, creating the ideal conditions for a perfect storm. Hotspot locations of coastal risk, identified by the proposed Comparative Coastal Risk Index (CCRI, contain more than 300,00 people and include: El Oro, Ecuador; Sinaloa, Mexico; Usulutan, El Salvador; and Chiapas, Mexico. Our results provide important insights into potential adaptation alternatives that could reduce the impacts of future hazards. Effective adaptation options must not only

  9. Elimination of neglected diseases in latin america and the Caribbean: a mapping of selected diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Schneider

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In Latin America and the Caribbean, around 195 million people live in poverty, a situation that increases the burden of some infectious diseases. Neglected diseases, in particular, are often restricted to poor, marginalized sections of the population. Tools exist to combat these diseases, making it imperative to work towards their elimination. In 2009, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO received a mandate to support the countries in the Region in eliminating neglected diseases and other poverty-related infections. The objective of this study is to analyze the presence of selected diseases using geo-processing techniques. Five diseases with information available at the first sub-national level (states were mapped, showing the presence of the disease ("hotspots" and overlap of diseases ("major hotspots". In the 45 countries/territories (approximately 570 states of the Region, there is: lymphatic filariasis in four countries (29 states, onchocerciasis in six countries (25 states, schistosomiasis in four countries (39 states, trachoma in three countries (29 states, and human rabies transmitted by dogs in ten countries (20 states. Of the 108 states with one or more of the selected diseases, 36 states present the diseases in overlapping areas ("major hotspots". Additional information about soil-transmitted helminths was included. The analysis suggests a majority of the selected diseases are not widespread and can be considered part of an unfinished agenda with elimination as a goal. Integrated plans and a comprehensive approach, ensuring access to existing diagnostic and treatment methods, and establishing a multi-sectoral agenda that addresses social determinants, including access to adequate water and sanitation, are required. Future studies can include additional diseases, socio-economic and environmental variables.

  10. Elimination of neglected diseases in latin america and the Caribbean: a mapping of selected diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Maria Cristina; Aguilera, Ximena Paz; Barbosa da Silva Junior, Jarbas; Ault, Steven Kenyon; Najera, Patricia; Martinez, Julio; Requejo, Raquel; Nicholls, Ruben Santiago; Yadon, Zaida; Silva, Juan Carlos; Leanes, Luis Fernando; Periago, Mirta Roses

    2011-02-15

    In Latin America and the Caribbean, around 195 million people live in poverty, a situation that increases the burden of some infectious diseases. Neglected diseases, in particular, are often restricted to poor, marginalized sections of the population. Tools exist to combat these diseases, making it imperative to work towards their elimination. In 2009, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) received a mandate to support the countries in the Region in eliminating neglected diseases and other poverty-related infections. The objective of this study is to analyze the presence of selected diseases using geo-processing techniques. Five diseases with information available at the first sub-national level (states) were mapped, showing the presence of the disease ("hotspots") and overlap of diseases ("major hotspots"). In the 45 countries/territories (approximately 570 states) of the Region, there is: lymphatic filariasis in four countries (29 states), onchocerciasis in six countries (25 states), schistosomiasis in four countries (39 states), trachoma in three countries (29 states), and human rabies transmitted by dogs in ten countries (20 states). Of the 108 states with one or more of the selected diseases, 36 states present the diseases in overlapping areas ("major hotspots"). Additional information about soil-transmitted helminths was included. The analysis suggests a majority of the selected diseases are not widespread and can be considered part of an unfinished agenda with elimination as a goal. Integrated plans and a comprehensive approach, ensuring access to existing diagnostic and treatment methods, and establishing a multi-sectoral agenda that addresses social determinants, including access to adequate water and sanitation, are required. Future studies can include additional diseases, socio-economic and environmental variables.

  11. Current status of nuclear cardiology practice in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paez, Diana; Peix, Amalia; Orellana, Pilar; Vitola, Joao; Mut, Fernando; Gutiérrez, Claudia; Plaza, Crosby; Becic, Tarik; Dondi, Maurizio; Estrada, Enrique

    2017-02-01

    The burden of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in the world is ever growing. They represent the first cause of death worldwide and in Latin America. Nuclear cardiology has a well-established role in the management of patient with CVDs and is being increasingly integrated into the healthcare systems in the region. However, there remains variability as to the infrastructure available across the countries, in terms of existing technology, radiopharmaceuticals, and human resources. The approximate number of gamma (γ) cameras in the region is 1348, with an average of 2.25 per million population; Argentina and Brazil having the largest number. Nearly 80% of the existing cameras are single-photon emission tomography (SPECT), of which 8% are hybrid SPECT-CT systems. Positron emission tomography technology is steadily increasing, and currently, there is an average of 0.25 scanners per million inhabitants, indicating that there is a potential to expand the capacities in order to cover the needs. Four countries have nuclear reactors for research purposes, which allow the production of technetium-99 m (Argentina, Chile, Mexico and Peru), while four (Argentina, Brazil, Cuba, and Mexico) assemble 99 Mo- 99m Tc generators. As for the nuclear cardiology studies, about 80% of studies performed are gated SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging; less than 10% are multi-gated acquisition (mainly for evaluation of cardiac toxicity in cancer patients), and the other 10% correspond to other types of studies, such as viability detection, and adrenergic innervation studies with 123 I-MIBG. Physical stress is preferred, when possible, based on the clinical condition of the patient. Regarding human resources, there is an average of 1.1 physicians and 1.3 technologists per γ camera, with 0.1 medical physicists and 0.1 radiopharmacists per center in the region. The future of nuclear cardiology in Latin America and the Caribbean is encouraging, with great potential and possibilities for growth

  12. Plants used in the traditional medicine of Mesoamerica (Mexico and Central America) and the Caribbean for the treatment of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Castro, Angel Josabad; Domínguez, Fabiola; Zapata-Morales, Juan Ramón; Carranza-Álvarez, Candy

    2015-12-04

    Obesity is a worldwide medical concern. New ethnobotanical information regarding the antiobesity effect of medicinal plants has been obtained in the last 30 years in response to socio-demographic changes and high-fat diets became common. This review provides a summary of medicinal plants used in Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean for the empirical treatment of obesity in terms of ethnobotany, toxicity, pharmacology, conservation status, trade and chemistry. Bibliographic investigation was performed by analyzing recognized books, undergraduate and postgraduate theses and peer-reviewed scientific articles, consulting worldwide accepted scientific databases from the last four decades. Medicinal plants used for the treatment of obesity were classified in two categories: (1) plants with pharmacological evidence and (2) plants without pharmacological evidence. A total of 139 plant species, belonging to 61 families, native to Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean that are used for the empirical treatment of obesity were recorded. From these plants, 33 were investigated in scientific studies, and 106 plants lacked scientific investigation. Medicinal plants were experimentally studied in vitro (21 plants) and in vivo (16 plants). A total of 4 compounds isolated from medicinal plants used for the empirical treatment of obesity have been tested in vitro (2 compounds) and in vivo (4 compounds) studies. No clinical trials on obese subjects (BMI>30 kg/m(2)) have been performed using the medicinal plants cited in this review. There are no herbal-based products approved in Mexico for the treatment of obesity. There are a limited number of scientific studies published on medicinal plants from Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean used for the treatment of obesity. This review highlights the need to perform pharmacological, phytochemical, toxicological and ethnobotanical studies with medicinal flora to obtain new antiobesity agents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland

  13. Less than adequate vitamin D status and intake in Latin America and the Caribbean:a problem of unknown magnitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Alex; Cori, Héctor; Olivares, Manuel; Fernanda Mujica, María; Cediel, Gustavo; López de Romaña, Daniel

    2013-03-01

    The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in Latin America and the Caribbean is unknown. To examine the prevalence data available on vitamin D deficiency in Latin America and the Caribbean. A systematic review was conducted in 2011. Studies using biochemical biomarkers and dietary intake estimation were included. Studies conducted in apparently healthy individuals, independently of age, latitude, skin pigmentation, and season of the year at the time of blood collection, were included. A total of 243 studies were identified. The final number of selected studies was 28, including two National Health Surveys (Mexico and Argentina). There are studies that report the vitamin D status of specific subgroups conducted in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, and Mexico. However, the small sample sizes in these studies and thus the low national representativeness of the reported data do not allow for an accurate assessment of vitamin D status at the regional level. In the majority of the countries with available data, we observed that vitamin D insufficiency was classified as a mild, moderate, or severe public health problem. The only country with a nationally representative sample was Mexico, which found 24%, 10%, 8%, and 10% prevalence rates of vitamin D insufficiency (25-hydroxyvitamin D < 50 nmol/L) in preschoolers, schoolchildren, adolescents, and adults, respectively. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (25-hydroxyvitamin D < 20 nmol/L) was less than 1% for all groups. There is some indication that vitamin D insufficiency may be a public health problem in Latin America and the Caribbean, but the exact magnitude is currently unknown.

  14. Co-operation Agreement for the promotion of nuclear science and technology in Latin America and the Caribbean (ARCAL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of the Co-operation Agreement for the Promotion of Nuclear Science and Technology in Latin America and the Caribbean (ARCAL) which was opened for signature on 25 September 1998 and shall come into force after deposit of the instrument of ratification by ten Member States. It shall remain in force for ten years, and may be extended by periods of five years if the Member States so agree. By 15 september 1999, there were 14 Signatories to the above Agreement

  15. Detecting and Treating Cervical Cancer Using Diagnostic Imaging Techniques and Radiotherapy. IAEA Support to Latin America and the Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixit, Aabha

    2016-01-01

    The diagnosis and treatment of cervical cancer are an important area of cooperation in the field of human health between Member States in the Latin America and the Caribbean region and the IAEA. Nuclear medicine and radiation therapy offer rapid diagnosis and effective treatment for various types of cancer. Cervical cancer is usually curable if caught early and treated. Member States in the region have shown a very strong commitment to enhancing access to radiation oncology and to assuring the quality of treatment. Many are focusing on education and training and the modernization of clinical infrastructure in national institutions responsible for health care and services.

  16. The treaty for the prohibition of nuclear weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean (Tlatelolco Treaty)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    In a letter of 28 January 1994, the Director General was informed that on 18 January 1994, the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin American and the Caribbean entered into force for the Argentine Republic

  17. Lead exposure in Latin America and the Caribbean. Lead Research Group of the Pan-American Health Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romieu, I; Lacasana, M; McConnell, R

    1997-04-01

    As a result of the rapid industrialization of Latin America and the Caribbean during the second half of this century, exposure to lead has become an increasingly important problem. To obtain an estimate of the magnitude of lead exposure in the region, we carried out a survey and a literature search on potential sources of lead exposure and on blood lead concentrations. Sixteen out of 18 Latin American and 2 out of 10 Caribbean countries responded to the survey. Lead in gasoline remains a major problem, although the lead content has decreased in many countries in the last few years. The impact of leaded fuel is more important in urban settings, given their high vehicular density. Seventy-five percent of the population of the region lives in urban areas, and children younger than 15 years of age, the most susceptible group, comprise 30% of the population. Other sources of lead exposure identified in the region included industrial emissions, battery recycling, paint and varnishes, and contaminated food and water. Lead is recognized as a priority problem by national authorities in 72% of the countries that responded to the survey, and in 50% of the countries some legislation exists to regulate the lead content in certain products. However, compliance is low. There is an urgent need for a broad-based coalition between policy makers, industry, workers, unions, health care providers, and the community to take actions to reduce environmental and occupational lead exposures in all the Latin American and Caribbean countries.

  18. Meta-analysis and time series modeling allow a systematic review of primary HIV-1 drug-resistant prevalence in Latin America and Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Antonio Victor Campos; De Moura, Ronald Rodrigues; Da Silva, Ronaldo Celerino; Kamada, Anselmo Jiro; Guimarães, Rafael Lima; Brandão, Lucas André Cavalcanti; Coelho, Hemílio Fernandes Campos; Crovella, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Here we review the prevalence of HIV-1 primary drug resistance in Latin America and Caribbean using meta-analysis as well as time-series modeling. We also discuss whether there could be a drawback to HIV/AIDS programs due to drug resistance in Latin America and Caribbean in the next years. We observed that, although some studies report low or moderate primary drug resistance prevalence in Caribbean countries, this evidence needs to be updated. In other countries, such as Brazil and Argentina, the prevalence of drug resistance appears to be rising. Mutations conferring resistance against reverse transcriptase inhibitors were the most frequent in the analyzed populations (70% of all mutational events). HIV-1 subtype B was the most prevalent in Latin America and the Caribbean, although subtype C and B/F recombinants have significant contributions in Argentina and Brazil. Thus, we suggest that primary drug resistance in Latin America and the Caribbean could have been underestimated. Clinical monitoring should be improved to offer better therapy, reducing the risk for HIV-1 resistance emergence and spread, principally in vulnerable populations, such as men who have sex with men transmission group, sex workers and intravenous drug users.

  19. Formulary availability and regulatory barriers to accessibility of opioids for cancer pain in Latin America and the Caribbean: a report from the Global Opioid Policy Initiative (GOPI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, J; De Lima, L; Eisenchlas, J; Radbruch, L; Torode, J; Cherny, N I

    2013-12-01

    The nations of the Caribbean, Central America and South America form a heterogeneous region with substantial variability in economic, social and palliative care development. Palliative care provision is at varied stages of development throughout the region. The consumption of opioids in Latin America and the Caribbean is variable with moderate levels of consumption by international standards (1-10 mg morphine equivalents/capita/year) observed in Argentine, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Mexico, Costa Rica, Uruguay and most of the Caribbean but relatively low levels of consumption in other countries particularly Guatemala, Honduras and Bolivia. Data for Latin American and Caribbean is reported on the availability and accessibility of opioids for the management of cancer pain in 24 of the 33 countries surveyed. The results of this survey are relevant to 560 million of the region's 595 million people (94%). Opioid availability continues to be low throughout most of Latin America and the Caribbean. While formularies in this region generally include all recommended morphine formulations, access is significantly impaired by widespread over-regulation that continues to be pervasive across the region.

  20. Surveillance of HIV Transmitted Drug Resistance in Latin America and the Caribbean: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Avila-Rios

    Full Text Available HIV transmitted drug resistance (TDR remains at moderate level in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC. However, different epidemiologic scenarios could influence national and sub-regional TDR levels and trends.We performed a systematic review of currently available publications on TDR in antiretroviral treatment-naïve adults in LAC. Ninety-eight studies published between January 2000 and June 2015 were included according to critical appraisal criteria and classified by sub-region: Brazil (50, Mesoamerica (17, Southern Cone (16, Andean (8 and Caribbean (7. From these, 81 studies encompassing 11,441 individuals with data on DR mutation frequency were included in a meta-analysis. Overall TDR prevalence in LAC was 7.7% (95% CI: 7.2%-8.2%. An increasing trend was observed for overall TDR when comparing 2000-2005 (6.0% and 2006-2015 (8.2% (p<0.0001, which was associated with significant NNRTI TDR increase (p<0.0001. NRTI TDR decreased (4.5% vs. 2.3%, p<0.0001. NNRTI TDR increase was associated mainly with K101E, K103N and G190A. NRTI TDR decrease was associated mainly with M184V, K70R and T215Y. All sub-regions reached moderate overall TDR levels. The rapid increase in TDR to all antiretroviral classes in the Caribbean is notable, as well as the significant increase in NNRTI TDR reaching moderate levels in the Southern Cone. NRTI TDR was dominant in 2000-2005, mainly in the Caribbean, Mesoamerica and Brazil. This dominance was lost in 2006-2015 in all sub-regions, with the Southern Cone and the Caribbean switching to NNRTI dominance. PI TDR remained mostly constant with a significant increase only observed in the Caribbean.Given the high conceptual and methodological heterogeneity of HIV TDR studies, implementation of surveys with standardized methodology and national representativeness is warranted to generate reliable to inform public health policies. The observed increasing trend in NNRTI TDR supports the need to strengthen TDR surveillance and

  1. Inequities in access to and use of drinking water services in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soares Luiz Carlos Rangel

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To identify and evaluate inequities in access to drinking water services as reflected in household per capita expenditure on water, and to determine what proportion of household expenditures is spent on water in 11 countries of Latin America and the Caribbean. Methods. Using data from multi-purpose household surveys (such as the Living Standards Measurement Survey Study conducted in 11 countries from 1995 to 1999, the availability of drinking water as well as total and per capita household expenditures on drinking water were analyzed in light of socioeconomic parameters, such as urban vs. rural setting, household income, type and regularity of water supply service, time spent obtaining water in homes not served by running water, and type of water-purifying treatment, if any. Results. Access to drinking water as well as total and per capita household expenditures on drinking water show an association with household income, economic conditions of the household, and location. The access of the rural population to drinking water services is much more restricted than that of the urban population for groups having similar income. The proportion of families having a household water supply system is comparable in the higher-income rural population and the lower-income urban population. Families without a household water supply system spend a considerable amount of time getting water. For poorer families, this implies additional costs. Low-income families that lack a household water supply spend as much money on water as do families with better income. Access to household water disinfection methods is very limited among poor families due to its relatively high cost, which results in poorer drinking water quality in the lower-income population. Conclusions. Multi-purpose household surveys conducted from the consumer's point of view are important tools for research on equity and health, especially when studying unequal access to, use of, and

  2. What are the blood lead levels of children living in Latin America and the Caribbean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olympio, Kelly Polido Kaneshiro; Gonçalves, Cláudia Gaudência; Salles, Fernanda Junqueira; Ferreira, Ana Paula Sacone da Silva; Soares, Agnes Silva; Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo; Cardoso, Maria Regina Alves; Bechara, Etelvino José Henriques

    2017-04-01

    Information on the prevalence of lead exposure is essential to formulate efficient public health policies. Developed countries have implemented successful public policies for the prevention and control of lead poisoning. In the United States, Canada, Japan and the European Union, for instance, periodically repeated prevalence studies show that blood lead levels (BLLs) in children have decreased overall. Although BLL of Latino children in the U.S. have also dropped in recent years, the geometric mean remains higher than that of white children. Little is known about lead exposure in children in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). In this review, we responded to two questions: What is currently known about lead sources and levels in children in LAC? Are there public policies to prevent children's exposure to lead in LAC? We conducted a literature review covering the period from January 2000 to March 2014 in the PubMed and Lilacs databases to obtain English, Portuguese and Spanish language studies reporting the prevalence of BLLs in children aged 0-18years living in LAC countries. No specific analytical method was selected, and given the scarcity of data, the study was highly inclusive. Fifty-six papers were selected from 16 different LAC countries. The children's BLLs found in this review are high (≥10μg/dL) compared to BLLs for the same age group in the U. S. However, most studies reported an association with some type of "lead hot spot", in which children can be exposed to lead levels similar to those of occupational settings. Only Peru and Mexico reported BLLs in children from population-based studies. Most BLLs prevalence studies carried out in LAC were in areas with known emission sources. The percentage of children at risk of lead poisoning in LAC is unknown, and probably underestimated. Thus, there is an urgent need to establish public health policies to quantify and prevent lead poisoning, specifically by prioritizing the identification and control of

  3. [International financing for cooperation to develop health in Latin America and the Caribbean].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Los Ríos, Rebecca; Arósquipa, Carlos; Vigil-Oliver, William

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study is (a) to examine the ways in which Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) have benefited from increases in international development assistance for health (DAH) at the global level and whether the trend observed after the Millennium Summit has also applied to the Region; (b) to determine whether there are differences in the distribution of this assistance, based on the gross per capita income of each country; (c) to identify the possible effects of the 2008 international financial crisis on official bilateral assistance; and (d) to compare trends in public health expenditure in relation to DAH before and after the Millennium Summit. The study has found that DAH in LAC follows a very different pattern than in other regions of the world. The period from 1997 to 2008 was one of fluctuating stagnation, with average annual disbursements of US$ 1 200 million. Multilateral financial institutions accounted for 79% of the average disbursements in the upper-middle income countries between 2002 and 2008, while official bilateral assistance held the greatest share (61%) in the low- and lower-middle income countries. Bilateral assistance grew at an annual rate of 13% during this period, but in the year after the crisis, disbursements fell to US$ 20 million. Sixty-four percent of bilateral assistance came from the United States, Spain, and Canada, with 29% of it being directed to HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases. After the Millennium Summit DAH channeled to governments decreased 30% in the period 2001-2006, and its share of public health expenditure in the region was 0.3% for the same period, with an equally marginal proportion in relation to total health expenditure for 2008 (0.37%; US$ 2 per capita). The study concludes that after the Millennium Summit, DAH in LAC did not grow nor did it equal the trends prior to 2000, and public health expenditure followed its historical growth trend, without further increases in relation to the regional

  4. Characteristics of randomized trials published in Latin America and the Caribbean according to funding source.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovic Reveiz

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Few studies have assessed the nature and quality of randomized controlled trials (RCTs in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The aims of this systematic review are to evaluate the characteristics (including the risk of bias assessment of RCT conducted in LAC according to funding source. A review of RCTs published in 2010 in which the author's affiliation was from LAC was performed in PubMed and LILACS. Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias. The primary outcomes were risk of bias assessment and funding source. A total of 1,695 references were found in PubMed and LILACS databases, of which 526 were RCTs (N = 73.513 participants. English was the dominant publication language (93% and most of the RCTs were published in non-LAC journals (84.2%. Only five of the 19 identified countries accounted for nearly 95% of all RCTs conducted in the region (Brazil 70.9%, Mexico 10.1%, Argentina 5.9%, Colombia 3.8%, and Chile 3.4%. Few RCTs covered priority areas related with Millennium Development Goals like maternal health (6.7% or high priority infectious diseases (3.8%. Regarding children, 3.6% and 0.4% RCT evaluated nutrition and diarrhea interventions respectively but none pneumonia. As a comparison, aesthetic and sport related interventions account for 4.6% of all trials. A random sample of RCTs (n = 358 was assessed for funding source: exclusively public (33.8%; private (e.g. pharmaceutical company (15.3%; other (e.g. mixed, NGO (15.1%; no funding (35.8%. Overall assessments for risk of bias showed no statistically significant differences between RCTs and type of funding source. Statistically significant differences favoring private and others type of funding was found when assessing trial registration and conflict of interest reporting. CONCLUSION: Findings of this study could be used to provide more direction for future research to facilitate innovation, improve health

  5. Characteristics of randomized trials published in Latin America and the Caribbean according to funding source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveiz, Ludovic; Sangalang, Stephanie; Glujovsky, Demian; Pinzon, Carlos E; Asenjo Lobos, Claudia; Cortes, Marcela; Cañón, Martin; Bardach, Ariel; Bonfill, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have assessed the nature and quality of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). The aims of this systematic review are to evaluate the characteristics (including the risk of bias assessment) of RCT conducted in LAC according to funding source. A review of RCTs published in 2010 in which the author's affiliation was from LAC was performed in PubMed and LILACS. Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias. The primary outcomes were risk of bias assessment and funding source. A total of 1,695 references were found in PubMed and LILACS databases, of which 526 were RCTs (N = 73.513 participants). English was the dominant publication language (93%) and most of the RCTs were published in non-LAC journals (84.2%). Only five of the 19 identified countries accounted for nearly 95% of all RCTs conducted in the region (Brazil 70.9%, Mexico 10.1%, Argentina 5.9%, Colombia 3.8%, and Chile 3.4%). Few RCTs covered priority areas related with Millennium Development Goals like maternal health (6.7%) or high priority infectious diseases (3.8%). Regarding children, 3.6% and 0.4% RCT evaluated nutrition and diarrhea interventions respectively but none pneumonia. As a comparison, aesthetic and sport related interventions account for 4.6% of all trials. A random sample of RCTs (n = 358) was assessed for funding source: exclusively public (33.8%); private (e.g. pharmaceutical company) (15.3%); other (e.g. mixed, NGO) (15.1%); no funding (35.8%). Overall assessments for risk of bias showed no statistically significant differences between RCTs and type of funding source. Statistically significant differences favoring private and others type of funding was found when assessing trial registration and conflict of interest reporting. Findings of this study could be used to provide more direction for future research to facilitate innovation, improve health outcomes or address priority health problems.

  6. Improvement of IDC/CTBTO Event Locations in Latin America and the Caribbean Using a Regional Seismic Travel Time Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Given, J. W.; Guendel, F.

    2013-05-01

    The International Data Centre is a vital element of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) verification mechanism. The fundamental mission of the International Data Centre (IDC) is to collect, process, and analyze monitoring data and to present results as event bulletins to Member States. For the IDC and in particular for waveform technologies, a key measure of the quality of its products is the accuracy by which every detected event is located. Accurate event location is crucial for purposes of an On Site Inspection (OSI), which would confirm the conduct of a nuclear test. Thus it is important for the IDC monitoring and data analysis to adopt new processing algorithms that improve the accuracy of event location. Among them the development of new algorithms to compute regional seismic travel times through 3-dimensional models have greatly increased IDC's location precision, the reduction of computational time, allowing forward and inverse modeling of large data sets. One of these algorithms has been the Regional Seismic Travel Time model (RSTT) of Myers et al., (2011). The RSTT model is nominally a global model; however, it currently covers only North America and Eurasia in sufficient detail. It is the intention CTBTO's Provisional Technical Secretariat and the IDC to extend the RSTT model to other regions of the earth, e.g. Latin America-Caribbean, Africa and Asia. This is particularly important for the IDC location procedure, as there are regions of the earth for which crustal models are not well constrained. For this purpose IDC has launched a RSTT initiative. In May 2012, a technical meeting was held in Vienna under the auspices of the CTBTO. The purpose of this meeting was to invite National Data Centre experts as well as network operators from Africa, Europe, the Middle East, Asia, Australia, Latin and North America to discuss the context under which a project to extend the RSTT model would be implemented. A total of 41 participants from 32 Member States

  7. Systematic review of studies on rotavirus disease cost-of-illness and productivity loss in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemoto, Maíra Libertad Soligo; Bahia, Luciana; Toscano, Cristiana M; Araujo, Denizar Vianna

    2013-07-02

    Rotavirus is the most common cause of severe acute diarrhea among children in both developed and developing countries. Vaccination can reduce the disease burden and its incorporation into health care systems should consider future costs and benefits. To systematically review studies on costs due to rotavirus infection in Latin America and Caribbean (LAC) region, considering their methods and results. A search of relevant databases including the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Embase, MEDLINE via PubMed, the Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature database (LILACS), and the Brazilian Thesis Databank was performed. Inclusion criteria for studies were: (a) economic evaluation or cost-of-illness studies; (b) conducted in the LAC region; (c) assess economic burden of rotavirus disease or the economic impact of rotavirus vaccination programs. Two authors independently screened the studies for eligibility. Of 444 studies initially retrieved, 21 met the eligibility criteria and were included (14 cost-effectiveness analyses of vaccination programs and 7 cost-of-illness studies). Direct medical costs were assessed in all 21 studies, but only 10 also investigated indirect and non-medical direct costs. The most commonly observed methods for cost estimation were retrospective database analysis and hospital-based surveillance study. Only one study was a household-based survey.A wide cost range was identified (e.g., inpatient care US$79.91 to US$858.40 and outpatient care US$13.06 to US$64.10), depending on the methods, study perspective, and type of costs included. Rotavirus-associated costs were assessed in 21 studies across the Latin America and Caribbean region. The majority of studies were made alongside economic evaluations of vaccination programs. Methods are broadly different among studies but administrative databases seem to be the most employed source of data. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Medicinal Plants from North and Central America and the Caribbean Considered Toxic for Humans: The Other Side of the Coin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Castro, Angel Josabad; Domínguez, Fabiola; Ruiz-Padilla, Alan Joel; Campos-Xolalpa, Nimsi; Zapata-Morales, Juan Ramón; Carranza-Alvarez, Candy; Maldonado-Miranda, Juan Jose

    2017-01-01

    The consumption of medicinal plants has notably increased over the past two decades. People consider herbal products as safe because of their natural origin, without taking into consideration whether these plants contain a toxic principle. This represents a serious health problem. A bibliographic search was carried out using published scientific material on native plants from Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean, which describe the ethnobotanical and toxicological information of medicinal plants empirically considered to be toxic. A total of 216 medicinal plants belonging to 77 families have been reported as toxic. Of these plants, 76 had been studied, and 140 plants lacked studies regarding their toxicological effects. The toxicity of 16 plants species has been reported in clinical cases, particularly in children. From these plants, deaths have been reported with the consumption of Chenopodium ambrosioides , Argemone mexicana , and Thevetia peruviana . In most of the cases, the principle of the plant responsible for the toxicity is unknown. There is limited information about the toxicity of medicinal plants used in Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean. More toxicological studies are necessary to contribute information about the safe use of the medicinal plants cited in this review.

  9. Medicinal Plants from North and Central America and the Caribbean Considered Toxic for Humans: The Other Side of the Coin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Josabad Alonso-Castro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of medicinal plants has notably increased over the past two decades. People consider herbal products as safe because of their natural origin, without taking into consideration whether these plants contain a toxic principle. This represents a serious health problem. A bibliographic search was carried out using published scientific material on native plants from Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean, which describe the ethnobotanical and toxicological information of medicinal plants empirically considered to be toxic. A total of 216 medicinal plants belonging to 77 families have been reported as toxic. Of these plants, 76 had been studied, and 140 plants lacked studies regarding their toxicological effects. The toxicity of 16 plants species has been reported in clinical cases, particularly in children. From these plants, deaths have been reported with the consumption of Chenopodium ambrosioides, Argemone mexicana, and Thevetia peruviana. In most of the cases, the principle of the plant responsible for the toxicity is unknown. There is limited information about the toxicity of medicinal plants used in Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean. More toxicological studies are necessary to contribute information about the safe use of the medicinal plants cited in this review.

  10. The spectrum of BRCA1 and BRCA2 alleles in Latin America and the Caribbean: a clinical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutil, Julie; Golubeva, Volha A; Pacheco-Torres, Alba L; Diaz-Zabala, Hector J; Matta, Jaime L; Monteiro, Alvaro N

    2015-12-01

    Hereditary cancer predisposition gene testing allows the identification of individuals at high risk of cancer that may benefit from increased surveillance, chemoprevention, and prophylactic surgery. In order to implement clinical genetic strategies adapted to each population's needs and intrinsic genetic characteristic, this review aims to present the current status of knowledge about the spectrum of BRCA pathogenic variants in Latin American populations. We have conducted a comprehensive review of 33 studies published between 1994 and 2015 reporting the prevalence and/or spectrum of BRCA1 (OMIM 113705) and BRCA2 (OMIM 600185) variants. The combined sample size for these studies consisted of 4835 individuals from 13 countries in Latin America and the Caribbean, as well as in Hispanics in the United States. A total of 167 unique pathogenic variants have been reported in the existing literature. In unselected breast cancer cases, the prevalence ranged from 1.2 to 27.1%. Some countries presented a few recurrent pathogenic variants, while others were characterized by diverse, non-recurrent variants. The proportion of BRCA pathogenic variants shared between Hispanics in the United States and Latin American populations was estimated at 10.4%. Within Latin America and the Caribbean, 8.2% of the BRCA variants reported were present in more than one country. Countries with high prevalence of BRCA pathogenic variants may benefit from more aggressive testing strategies, while testing of recurrent variant panels might present a cost-effective solution for improving genetic testing in some, but not all, countries.

  11. The marketing potential of corporate social responsibility activities: the case of the alcohol industry in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantani, Daniela; Peltzer, Raquel; Cremonte, Mariana; Robaina, Katherine; Babor, Thomas; Pinsky, Ilana

    2017-01-01

    The aims were to: (1) identify, monitor and analyse the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) practices of the alcohol industry in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) and (2) examine whether the alcohol industry is using these actions to market their products and brands. Nine health experts from Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay conducted a content analysis of 218 CSR activities using a standardized protocol. A content rating procedure was used to evaluate the marketing potential of CSR activities as well as their probable population reach and effectiveness. The LEAD procedure (longitudinal, expert and all data) was applied to verify the accuracy of industry-reported descriptions. A total of 55.8% of the actions were found to have a marketing potential, based on evidence that they are likely to promote brands and products. Actions with marketing potential were more likely to reach a larger audience than actions classified with no marketing potential. Most actions did not fit into any category recommended by the World Health Organization; 50% of the actions involving classroom and college education for young people were found to have marketing potential; 62.3% were classified as meeting the definition of risk management CSR. Alcohol industry Corporate Social Responsibility activities in Latin America and the Caribbean appear to have a strategic marketing role beyond their stated philanthropic and public health purpose. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  12. Education and male-female differences in later-life cognition: international evidence from Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Jürgen

    2011-08-01

    This study explores the role of early-life education for differences in cognitive functioning between men and women aged 60 and older from seven major urban areas in Latin America and the Caribbean. After documenting statistically significant differences in cognitive functioning between men and women for six of the seven study sites, I assess the extent to which these differences can be explained by prevailing male-female differences in education. I decompose predicted male-female differences in cognitive functioning based on various statistical models for later-life cognition and find robust evidence that male-female differences in education are a major driving force behind cognitive functioning differences between older men and women. This study therefore suggests that early-life differences in educational attainment between boys and girls during childhood have a lasting impact on gender inequity in cognitive functioning at older ages. Increases in educational attainment and the closing of the gender gap in education in many countries in Latin America and the Caribbean may thus result in both higher levels and a more gender-equitable distribution of later-life cognition among the future elderly in those countries.

  13. The situation of nursing education in Latin America and the Caribbean towards universal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassiani, Silvia Helena De Bortoli; Wilson, Lynda Law; Mikael, Sabrina de Souza Elias; Peña, Laura Morán; Grajales, Rosa Amarilis Zarate; McCreary, Linda L; Theus, Lisa; Agudelo, Maria Del Carmen Gutierrez; Felix, Adriana da Silva; Uriza, Jacqueline Molina de; Gutierrez, Nathaly Rozo

    2017-05-11

    to assess the situation of nursing education and to analyze the extent to which baccalaureate level nursing education programs in Latin America and the Caribbean are preparing graduates to contribute to the achievement of Universal Health. quantitative, descriptive/exploratory, cross-sectional study carried out in 25 countries. a total of 246 nursing schools participated in the study. Faculty with doctoral level degrees totaled 31.3%, without Brazil this is reduced to 8.3%. The ratio of clinical experiences in primary health care services to hospital-based services was 0.63, indicating that students receive more clinical experiences in hospital settings. The results suggested a need for improvement in internet access; information technology; accessibility for the disabled; program, faculty and student evaluation; and teaching/learning methods. there is heterogeneity in nursing education in Latin America and the Caribbean. The nursing curricula generally includes the principles and values of Universal Health and primary health care, as well as those principles underpinning transformative education modalities such as critical and complex thinking development, problem-solving, evidence-based clinical decision-making, and lifelong learning. However, there is a need to promote a paradigm shift in nursing education to include more training in primary health care. avaliar a situação da educação em enfermagem e analisar o quanto os programas de educação em enfermagem, no nível de Bacharelado na América Latina e no Caribe, estão preparando graduados a contribuir para o alcance da Saúde Universal. estudo quantitativo, descritivo/exploratório, transversal, realizado em 25 países. um total de 246 escolas de enfermagem participaram do estudo. O corpo docente com nível de Doutorado totalizou 31,3%; sem o Brasil o número fica reduzido a 8,3%. A razão entre experiências clínicas nos serviços de atenção primária à saúde e nos serviços hospitalares foi de 0

  14. Women and development in Latin America and the Caribbean. Lessons from the seventies and hopes for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arizpe, L

    1982-01-01

    The early implicit assumptions that industrialization or, generally, modernization should automatically improve the condition of women have been challenged more and more by research and statistical data. In Latin America and the Caribbean, the theory which held that the cultural assimilation of ethnic groups of Indian and African descent into the national Hispanic or Portuguese cultures implied an improvement in the condition of women has been challenged through ethnographic and historical research. Women in closed corporate communities may have higher status, greater participation in authority, and more support from their children than those in open mestizo communities, where excessive alcohol consumption and abusive sexual relations form an integral part of the psychosocial complex of "machismo." New research has dealt with the forced integration of black women and Indian women, as concubines of the dominant white men, as a mechanism of "mestizaje," i.e., mixing of the population, against which women had no legal or "de facto" defense. Such abuse of women, masked by racial and cultural prejudice, continues in many backward rural areas in Latin America. In discussions of the peasantry and of rural development in Latin America and the Caribbean, women had been largely ignored because agriculture was conceptualized as an exclusively male activity. This androcentric view is reflected in census categories that make the component of women's labor in agriculture invisible or unimportant. Consequently, the statistical percentages have always been unrealistically low in most countries. Detailed observations and surveys conducted during the last decade have shown, to the contrary, that peasant women work longer hours than men and are more liable to increase their time and work load to offset pauperization. The research of Deere and Leon (Colombia) as well as that of other women in different countries of the region confirms that women's subordination precedes capitalism and

  15. Poverty and Policy in Latin America and the Caribbean. World Bank Technical Paper No. 467.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodon, Quentin T.

    Although the progress toward poverty reduction remains sluggish, other dimensions of social welfare in the Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) region show signs of improvement. Adult literacy and school enrollment rates, life expectancy at birth, access to safe water, and nutrition indicators are improving. However, other factors demonstrate that…

  16. Prioritization of strategies to approach the judicialization of health in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzón-Flórez, Carlos Eduardo; Chapman, Evelina; Cubillos, Leonardo; Reveiz, Ludovic

    2016-09-01

    To describe strategies that contribute to the comprehensive approach to the judicialization of health in countries of Latin America and the Caribbean. A search was structured to identify articles presenting strategies to approach the judicialization of health. A survey was designed, which included actors of the health system and judiciary sector. We prioritized the strategies qualified by more than the 50.0% of the participants as "very relevant". Strategies were categorized according to: governance, provision of services, human resources, information systems, financing, and medical products. We included 64 studies, which identified 50 strategies, related to the sub-functions and components of health systems. Of the 165 people who answered the survey, 80.0% were aged 35-64 years. The distribution of men and women was homogeneous. Half of the respondents were from Colombia (20.0%), Uruguay (16.9%), and Argentina (12.7%). We prioritized strategies that addressed aspects of generation of useful scientific evidence for decision making according to the health needs of the population, empowerment for the society, and creating spaces for discussion of measures of inclusion or exclusion of health technologies. The executive and judiciary decision makers prioritized questions that dealt with strategies that would ensure accountability. The results of this study contribute to the identification of effective strategies to approach the phenomenon of judicialization of health, guaranteeing the right to health. Describir estrategias que contribuyan al abordaje integral de la judicialización de la salud en países de América Latina y El Caribe. Se estructuró una búsqueda para identificar artículos que presentaran estrategias para el abordaje de la judicialización en salud. Se diseñó una encuesta, en donde se incluyeron actores del sistema de salud y del sector judicial. Se priorizaron las estrategias calificadas por más del 50,0% de los participantes como "muy relevantes

  17. Trends and Innovations in Higher Education Reform: Worldwide, Latin America and in the Caribbean. Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.12.10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segrera, Francisco Lopez

    2010-01-01

    Universities in Latin America and in the Caribbean (LAC), and throughout the world, are facing one of the most challenging eras in their history. Globalization presents many important opportunities for higher education, but also poses serious problems and raises questions about how best to serve the common good. The traditional values of…

  18. Comparison of national health research priority-setting methods and characteristics in Latin America and the Caribbean, 2002-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveiz, Ludovic; Elias, Vanessa; Terry, Robert F; Alger, Jackeline; Becerra-Posada, Francisco

    2013-07-01

    To compare health research priority-setting methods and characteristics among countries in Latin America and the Caribbean during 2002 - 2012. This was a systematic review that identified national health research policies and priority agendas through a search of ministry and government databases related to health care institutions. PubMed, LILACS, the Health Research Web, and others were searched for the period from January 2002 - February 2012. The study excluded research organized by governmental institutions and specific national strategies on particular disease areas. Priority-setting methods were compared to the "nine common themes for good practice in health research priorities." National health research priorities were compared to those of the World Health Organization's Millennium Development Goals (MDG). Of the 18 Latin American countries assessed, 13 had documents that established national health research priorities; plus the Caribbean Health Research Council had a research agenda for its 19 constituents. These 14 total reports varied widely in terms of objectives, content, dissemination, and implementation; most provided a list of strategic areas, suggestions, and/or sub-priorities for each country; however, few proposed specific research topics and questions. Future reports could be improved by including more details on the comprehensive approach employed to identify priorities, on the information gathering process, and on practices to be undertaken after priorities are set. There is a need for improving the quality of the methodologies utilized and coordinating Regional efforts as countries strive to meet the MDG.

  19. The performance of RegCM4 over the Central America and Caribbean region using different cumulus parameterizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Castro, Daniel; Vichot-Llano, Alejandro; Bezanilla-Morlot, Arnoldo; Centella-Artola, Abel; Campbell, Jayaka; Giorgi, Filippo; Viloria-Holguin, Cecilia C.

    2017-09-01

    A sensitivity study of the performance of the RegCM4 regional climate model driven by the ERA Interim reanalysis is conducted for the Central America and Caribbean region. A set of numerical experiments are completed using four configurations of the model, with a horizontal grid spacing of 25 km for a period of 6 years (1998-2003), using three of the convective parameterization schemes implemented in the model, the Emanuel scheme, the Grell over land-Emanuel over ocean scheme and two configurations of the Tiedtke scheme. The objective of the study is to investigate the ability of each configuration to reproduce different characteristics of the temperature, circulation and precipitation fields for the dry and rainy seasons. All schemes simulate the general temperature and precipitation patterns over land reasonably well, with relatively high correlations compared to observation datasets, though in specific regions there are positive or negative biases, greater in the rainy season. We also focus on some circulation features relevant for the region, such as the Caribbean low level jet and sea breeze circulations over islands, which are simulated by the model with varied performance across the different configurations. We find that no model configuration assessed is best performing for all the analysis criteria selected, but the Tiedtke configurations, which include the capability of tuning in particular the exchanges between cloud and environment air, provide the most balanced range of biases across variables, with no outstanding systematic bias emerging.

  20. Reconstructing the timing and dispersion routes of HIV-1 subtype B epidemics in the Caribbean and Central America: a phylogenetic story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagán, Israel; Holguín, Africa

    2013-01-01

    The Caribbean and Central America are among the regions with highest HIV-1B prevalence worldwide. Despite of this high virus burden, little is known about the timing and the migration patterns of HIV-1B in these regions. Migration is one of the major processes shaping the genetic structure of virus populations. Thus, reconstruction of epidemiological network may contribute to understand HIV-1B evolution and reduce virus prevalence. We have investigated the spatio-temporal dynamics of the HIV-1B epidemic in The Caribbean and Central America using 1,610 HIV-1B partial pol sequences from 13 Caribbean and 5 Central American countries. Timing of HIV-1B introduction and virus evolutionary rates, as well as the spatial genetic structure of the HIV-1B populations and the virus migration patterns were inferred. Results revealed that in The Caribbean and Central America most of the HIV-1B variability was generated since the 80 s. At odds with previous data suggesting that Haiti was the origin of the epidemic in The Caribbean, our reconstruction indicated that the virus could have been disseminated from Puerto Rico and Antigua. These two countries connected two distinguishable migration areas corresponding to the (mainly Spanish-colonized) Easter and (mainly British-colonized) Western islands, which indicates that virus migration patterns are determined by geographical barriers and by the movement of human populations among culturally related countries. Similar factors shaped the migration of HIV-1B in Central America. The HIV-1B population was significantly structured according to the country of origin, and the genetic diversity in each country was associated with the virus prevalence in both regions, which suggests that virus populations evolve mainly through genetic drift. Thus, our work contributes to the understanding of HIV-1B evolution and dispersion pattern in the Americas, and its relationship with the geography of the area and the movements of human populations.

  1. The Treaty for the prohibition of nuclear weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean (Tlatelolco Treaty)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    In a note verbale of 10 June 1994, the Agency was informed that, on 30 May 1994, the instruments necessary to bring the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin American and the Caribbean into force for the Federative Republic of Brazil had been deposited. As requested by the Permanent Mission of Brazil to the International Organizations in Vienna, the text of the note is attached hereto for the information of Member States

  2. Household Education Spending in Latin America and the Caribbean: Evidence from Income and Expenditure Surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Santiago Acerenza; Néstor Gandelman

    2017-01-01

    This paper characterizes household spending in education using microdata from income and expenditure surveys for 12 Latin American and Caribbean countries and the United States. Bahamas, Chile and Mexico have the highest household spending in education while Bolivia, Brazil and Paraguay have the lowest. Tertiary education is the most important form of spending, and most educational spending is performed for individuals 18-23 years old. More educated and richer household heads spend more in th...

  3. The impact of prices and taxes on the use of tobacco products in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guindon, G Emmanuel; Paraje, Guillermo R; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2015-03-01

    We examined the impact of tobacco prices or taxes on tobacco use in Latin America and Caribbean countries. We searched MEDLINE, EconLit, LILACS, unpublished literature, 6 specialty journals, and reviewed references. We calculated pooled price elasticities using random-effects models. The 32 studies we examined found that cigarette prices have a negative and statistically significant effect on cigarette consumption. A change in price is associated with a less than proportional change in the quantity of cigarettes demanded. In most Latin American countries, own-price elasticity for cigarettes is likely below  -0.5  (pooled elasticities, short-run: -0.31; 95% confidence interval=-0.39, -0.24; long-run: -0.43; 95% CI=-0.51, -0.35). Tax increases effectively reduce cigarette use. Lack of studies using household- or individual-level data limits research's policy relevance.

  4. Muscidae (Insecta: Diptera) of Latin America and the Caribbean: geographic distribution and check-list by country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löwenberg-Neto, Peter; De Carvalho, Claudio J B

    2013-01-01

    Here we provide a geographic database for the Muscidae (Insecta: Diptera) that are endemic to Latin America and the Caribbean and non-synanthropic. We summarize the geographic information provided by specimens from three entomological collections in Brazil (DZUP, MNRJ, and MZUEFS) as well as geographic information we compiled in the literature. The resulting 817 species were linked to their geographic records by country, state/province/department, locality, latitude and longitude, including source reference. When coordinates were not provided in specimens' labels, we used the locality information to search geographic coordinates in online gazetteers. We also separated the species by country for a country-species list. These data comprise 250 years of collections and taxonomic studies of Neotropical Muscidae and we expect that it provides a foundation and serves as guide for future studies of systematics and biogeography of the family.

  5. Early meteorological records from Latin-America and the Caribbean during the 18th and 19th centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Castro, Fernando; Vaquero, José Manuel; Gallego, María Cruz; Farrona, Ana María Marín; Antuña-Marrero, Juan Carlos; Cevallos, Erika Elizabeth; Herrera, Ricardo García; de La Guía, Cristina; Mejía, Raúl David; Naranjo, José Manuel; Del Rosario Prieto, María; Ramos Guadalupe, Luis Enrique; Seiner, Lizardo; Trigo, Ricardo Machado; Villacís, Marcos

    2017-11-01

    This paper provides early instrumental data recovered for 20 countries of Latin-America and the Caribbean (Argentina, Bahamas, Belize, Brazil, British Guiana, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, France (Martinique and Guadalupe), Guatemala, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, Puerto Rico, El Salvador and Suriname) during the 18th and 19th centuries. The main meteorological variables retrieved were air temperature, atmospheric pressure, and precipitation, but other variables, such as humidity, wind direction, and state of the sky were retrieved when possible. In total, more than 300,000 early instrumental data were rescued (96% with daily resolution). Especial effort was made to document all the available metadata in order to allow further post-processing. The compilation is far from being exhaustive, but the dataset will contribute to a better understanding of climate variability in the region, and to enlarging the period of overlap between instrumental data and natural/documentary proxies.

  6. Early meteorological records from Latin-America and the Caribbean during the 18th and 19th centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Castro, Fernando; Vaquero, José Manuel; Gallego, María Cruz; Farrona, Ana María Marín; Antuña-Marrero, Juan Carlos; Cevallos, Erika Elizabeth; Herrera, Ricardo García; de la Guía, Cristina; Mejía, Raúl David; Naranjo, José Manuel; Del Rosario Prieto, María; Ramos Guadalupe, Luis Enrique; Seiner, Lizardo; Trigo, Ricardo Machado; Villacís, Marcos

    2017-11-14

    This paper provides early instrumental data recovered for 20 countries of Latin-America and the Caribbean (Argentina, Bahamas, Belize, Brazil, British Guiana, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, France (Martinique and Guadalupe), Guatemala, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, Puerto Rico, El Salvador and Suriname) during the 18th and 19th centuries. The main meteorological variables retrieved were air temperature, atmospheric pressure, and precipitation, but other variables, such as humidity, wind direction, and state of the sky were retrieved when possible. In total, more than 300,000 early instrumental data were rescued (96% with daily resolution). Especial effort was made to document all the available metadata in order to allow further post-processing. The compilation is far from being exhaustive, but the dataset will contribute to a better understanding of climate variability in the region, and to enlarging the period of overlap between instrumental data and natural/documentary proxies.

  7. BOLIVAR: the Caribbean-South America plate boundary between 60W and 71W as imaged by seismic reflection data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnani, M.; Mann, P.; Clark, S. A.; Escalona, A.; Zelt, C. A.; Christeson, G. L.; Levander, A.

    2007-12-01

    We present the results of ~6000km of marine multi-channel seismic (MCS) reflection data collected offshore Venezuela as part of the Broadband Ocean Land Investigation of Venezuela and the Antilles arc Region project (BOLIVAR). The imaged area spans almost 12 degrees of longitude and 5 degrees of latitude and encompasses the diffuse plate boundary between South America (SA) and the SE Caribbean plate (CAR). This plate boundary has been evolving for at least the past 55My when the volcanic island arc that borders the CAR plate started colliding obliquely with the SA continent: the collision front has migrated from west to east. BOLIVAR MCS data show that the crustal architecture of the present plate boundary is dominated by the eastward motion of the Caribbean plate with respect to SA and is characterized by a complex combination of convergent and strike-slip tectonics. To the north, the reflection data image the South Caribbean Deformed Belt (SCDB) and the structures related to the thrusting of the CAR plate under the Leeward Antilles volcanic arc region. The data show that the CAR underthrusting continues as far east as the southern edge of the Aves ridge and detailed stratigraphic dating of the Venezuela basin and trench deposits suggests that the collision began in the Paleogene. The amount of shortening along the SCDB decreases toward the east, in part due to the geometry of plate motion vectors and in part as a result of the NNE escape of the Maracaibo block in western Venezuela. South of the SCDB the MCS profiles cross the Leeward Antilles island arc and Cenozoic sedimentary basins, revealing a complex history of Paleogene-Neogene multiphase extension, compression, and tectonic inversion, as well as the influence of the tectonic activity along the right-lateral El Pilar - San Sebastian fault system. East of the Bonaire basin the MCS data image the southern end of the Aves Ridge abandoned volcanic island arc and the southwestern termination of the Grenada basin

  8. Open Data for Public Policy in Latin America and the Caribbean ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Understanding an increasingly complex knowledge economy demands economic, social and environmental data from a wide range of sources. In many cases, however, these sources are dispersed, unstructured or ... Country(s). Brazil, South America, Chile, Colombia, Uruguay, North and Central America, West Indies ...

  9. Ocean deformation processes at the Caribbean-North America-South America triple junction: Initial results of the 2007 ANTIPLAC marine survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benard, F.; Deville, E.; Le Drezen, E.; Loubrieu, B.; Maltese, L.; Patriat, M.; Roest, W.; Thereau, E.; Umber, M.; Vially, R.

    2007-12-01

    Marine geophysical data (multibeam and seismic lines) acquired in 2007 (ANTIPLAC survey) in the North-South Americas-Caribbean triple point (Central Atlantic, Barracuda and Tiburon ridges area), provide information about the structure, the tectonic processes and the timing of the deformation in this large diffuse zone of polyphase deformation. The deformation of the plate boundary between the north and south Americas is distributed on several structures located in the Atlantic plain, at the front of the Barbados accretionary prism. In this area of deformation of the Atlantic oceanic lithosphere, the main depressions and transform troughs are filled by Late Pliocene-Pleistocene turbidite sediments, especially in the Barracuda trough, north of Barracuda ridge. These sediments are not issued from the Lesser Antilles volcanic arc but they are sourced from the East, probably by the Orinoco turbidite distal system, through channels transiting in the Atlantic abyssal plain. These Late Pliocene- Quaternary sediments show locally spectacular evidences of syntectonic deformation. It can be shown notably that Barracuda ridge includes a pre-existing transform fault system which has been folded and uplifted very recently during Pleistocene times. This recent deformation has generate relieves up to 2 km high with associated erosion processes notably along the northern flank the Barracuda ridge. The subduction of these recently deformed ridges induces deformation of earlier structures within the Barbados accretionary prism. These asperities within the Atlantic oceanic lithosphere which is subducted in the Lesser Antilles active margin are correlated with the zone of intense seismic activity below the volcanic arc.

  10. Progress of implementation of the World Health Organization strategy for HIV drug resistance control in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravasi, Giovanni; Jack, Noreen; Alonso Gonzalez, Mónica; Sued, Omar; Pérez-Rosales, María Dolores; Gomez, Bertha; Vila, Marcelo; Riego, Amalia del; Ghidinelli, Massimo

    2011-12-01

    By the end of 2010, Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) achieved 63% antiretroviral treatment (ART) coverage. Measures to control HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) at the country level are recommended to maximize the efficacy and sustainability of ART programs. Since 2006, the Pan American Health Organization has supported implementation of the World Health Organization (WHO) strategy for HIVDR prevention and assessment through regional capacity-building activities and direct technical cooperation in 30 LAC countries. By 2010, 85 sites in 19 countries reported early warning indicators, providing information about the extent of potential drivers of drug resistance at the ART site. In 2009, 41.9% of sites did not achieve the WHO target of 100% appropriate first-line prescriptions; 6.3% still experienced high rates (> 20%) of loss to follow-up, and 16.2% had low retention of patients (< 70%) on first-line prescriptions in the first year of treatment. Stock-outs of antiretroviral drugs occurred at 22.7% of sites. Haiti, Guyana, and the Mesoamerican region are planning and implementing WHO HIVDR monitoring surveys or threshold surveys. New HIVDR surveillance tools for concentrated epidemics would promote further scale-up. Extending the WHO HIVDR lab network in Latin America is key to strengthening regional lab capacity to support quality assured HIVDR surveillance. The WHO HIVDR control strategy is feasible and can be rolled out in LAC. Integrating HIVDR activities in national HIV care and treatment plans is key to ensuring the sustainability of this strategy.

  11. Institutions, Criminal Violence and Interdependence: The Narrow Path of Development in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogelio Madrueño

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to examine the complexities of economic and social change from a global perspective with a focus on Latin American and the Caribbean. The academic literature in this area has emphasized the importance of institutional change as a central factor underlying economic growth over the long term. However the thrust behind this literature has not fully incorporated the relevance of interdependence from a dynamic perspective. Interdependence emphasizes the integral nature of social, economic and institutional transformation over the short, medium and long terms. This article attempts to shed light on central aspects and factors of surrounding crime and development from a multi-dimensional perspective in which the relationship between criminal violence, institutions and interdependence are key factors. An analytical framework is presented in conjunction with an empirical analysis on the impacts of criminal delinquency and criminal violence on the dynamics of economic growth per capita of the global economy, underlining the case of the Latin American and Caribbean region between 1990-2010.

  12. Business Incubation as an Instrument of Innovation: The Experience of South America and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haven Allahar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the experience of business incubation as an innovative developmental instrument based on the recent experience of the South American countries of Brazil and Chile and the Caribbean island nation of Trinidad and Tobago. A qualitative research method was adopted involving a review of published reports, journal articles and relevant case studies; and face-to-face semi-structured interviews with incubator managerial staff. The major findings are that there are great similarities among the incubators studied in terms of their links to universities, services offered, and funding challenges, but there is growing acceptance of incubation as a potentially valid tool for promoting business development and innovation although most incubators are at the early stage. The paper is original because the case study application to incubation in Trinidad and Tobago is new with only one related article published, and this study therefore adds value to the body of research because business incubation has been under-researched in the study area. The research is limited to the extent that the case study focuses on a comparison of selected incubator features and did not include the views of clients. The practical implications of this study is that sponsors of incubators and managers need to obtain a deeper understanding of the incubation ecosystem especially with regard to innovation-based incubators, if successful innovative businesses are to emerge. The results of the study can also be generalized over the small island developing states of the Caribbean.

  13. Electron beam accelerators—trends in radiation processing technology for industrial and environmental applications in Latin America and the Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parejo Calvo, Wilson A.; Duarte, Celina L.; Machado, Luci Diva B.; Manzoli, Jose E.; Geraldo, Aurea Beatriz C.; Kodama, Yasko; Silva, Leonardo Gondim A.; Pino, Eddy S.; Somessari, Elizabeth S.R.; Silveira, Carlos G.

    2012-01-01

    The radiation processing technology for industrial and environmental applications has been developed and used worldwide. In Latin America and the Caribbean and particularly in Brazil there are 24 and 16 industrial electron beam accelerators (EBA) respectively with energy from 200 keV to 10 MeV, operating in private companies and governmental institutions to enhance the physical and chemical properties of materials. However, there are more than 1500 high-current electron beam accelerators in commercial use throughout the world. The major needs and end-use markets for these electron beam (EB) units are R and D, wire and electric cables, heat shrinkable tubes and films, PE foams, tires, components, semiconductors and multilayer packaging films. Nowadays, the emerging opportunities in Latin America and the Caribbean are paints, adhesives and coatings cure in order to eliminate VOCs and for less energy use than thermal process; disinfestations of seeds; and films and multilayer packaging irradiation. For low-energy EBA (from 150 keV to 300 keV). For mid-energy EBA (from 300 keV to 5 MeV), they are flue gas treatment (SO 2 and NO X removal); composite and nanocomposite materials; biodegradable composites based on biorenewable resources; human tissue sterilization; carbon and silicon carbide fibers irradiation; irradiated grafting ion-exchange membranes for fuel cells application; electrocatalysts nanoparticles production; and natural polymers irradiation and biodegradable blends production. For high-energy EBA (from 5 MeV to 10 MeV), they are sterilization of medical, pharmaceutical and biological products; gemstone enhancement; treatment of industrial and domestic effluents and sludge; preservation and disinfestations of foods and agricultural products; soil disinfestations; lignocellulosic material irradiation as a pretreatment to produce ethanol biofuel; decontamination of pesticide packing; solid residues remediation; organic compounds removal from wastewater; and

  14. Electron beam accelerators—trends in radiation processing technology for industrial and environmental applications in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parejo Calvo, Wilson A.; Duarte, Celina L.; Machado, Luci Diva B.; Manzoli, Jose E.; Geraldo, Aurea Beatriz C.; Kodama, Yasko; Silva, Leonardo Gondim A.; Pino, Eddy S.; Somessari, Elizabeth S. R.; Silveira, Carlos G.; Rela, Paulo R.

    2012-08-01

    The radiation processing technology for industrial and environmental applications has been developed and used worldwide. In Latin America and the Caribbean and particularly in Brazil there are 24 and 16 industrial electron beam accelerators (EBA) respectively with energy from 200 keV to 10 MeV, operating in private companies and governmental institutions to enhance the physical and chemical properties of materials. However, there are more than 1500 high-current electron beam accelerators in commercial use throughout the world. The major needs and end-use markets for these electron beam (EB) units are R and D, wire and electric cables, heat shrinkable tubes and films, PE foams, tires, components, semiconductors and multilayer packaging films. Nowadays, the emerging opportunities in Latin America and the Caribbean are paints, adhesives and coatings cure in order to eliminate VOCs and for less energy use than thermal process; disinfestations of seeds; and films and multilayer packaging irradiation. For low-energy EBA (from 150 keV to 300 keV). For mid-energy EBA (from 300 keV to 5 MeV), they are flue gas treatment (SO2 and NOX removal); composite and nanocomposite materials; biodegradable composites based on biorenewable resources; human tissue sterilization; carbon and silicon carbide fibers irradiation; irradiated grafting ion-exchange membranes for fuel cells application; electrocatalysts nanoparticles production; and natural polymers irradiation and biodegradable blends production. For high-energy EBA (from 5 MeV to 10 MeV), they are sterilization of medical, pharmaceutical and biological products; gemstone enhancement; treatment of industrial and domestic effluents and sludge; preservation and disinfestations of foods and agricultural products; soil disinfestations; lignocellulosic material irradiation as a pretreatment to produce ethanol biofuel; decontamination of pesticide packing; solid residues remediation; organic compounds removal from wastewater; and

  15. Geothermal energy in the new competitive electric sector of Latin America and the Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrientos, Maria Elena; Coviello, Manlio

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to analyze the problem of the allocation of risks in private or mixed geothermal projects, within the framework of the new competitive electric sector being structured in Latin America. (The author)

  16. Advanced practice nursing in Latin America and the Caribbean: regulation, education and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zug, Keri Elizabeth; Cassiani, Silvia Helena De Bortoli; Pulcini, Joyce; Garcia, Alessandra Bassalobre; Aguirre-Boza, Francisca; Park, Jeongyoung

    2016-08-08

    to identify the current state of advanced practice nursing regulation, education and practice in Latin America and the Caribbean and the perception of nursing leaders in the region toward an advanced practice nursing role in primary health care to support Universal Access to Health and Universal Health Coverage initiatives. a descriptive cross-sectional design utilizing a web-based survey of 173 nursing leaders about their perceptions of the state of nursing practice and potential development of advanced practice nursing in their countries, including definition, work environment, regulation, education, nursing practice, nursing culture, and perceived receptiveness to an expanded role in primary health care. the participants were largely familiar with the advanced practice nursing role, but most were unaware of or reported no current existing legislation for the advanced practice nursing role in their countries. Participants reported the need for increased faculty preparation and promotion of curricula reforms to emphasize primary health care programs to train advanced practice nurses. The vast majority of participants believed their countries' populations could benefit from an advanced practice nursing role in primary health care. strong legislative support and a solid educational framework are critical to the successful development of advanced practice nursing programs and practitioners to support Universal Access to Health and Universal Health Coverage initiatives. identificar o estado atual da regulação, educação e prática do enfermeiro de prática avançada na América Latina e no Caribe e a percepção de líderes de enfermagem na região quanto ao papel da enfermagem de prática avançada na atenção primaria à saúde em apoio às iniciativas de Acesso Universal à Saúde e Cobertura Universal de Saúde. o estudo descritivo transversal utilizou um survey online com 173 líderes de enfermagem questionando suas percepções sobre o estado atual da pr

  17. Building alliances for improving newborn health in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly K. Miller-Petrie

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The regional Latin American and Caribbean (LAC Neonatal Alliance and national neonatal alliances in Bolivia, El Salvador, and Peru were studied through in-depth interviews and a review of publications. Findings were analyzed to distill successful strategies, structures, and tools for improving neonatal health by working through alliances that can be replicated at the regional or national level. The studies found the following factors were the most critical for successful outcomes from alliance work: inclusion of the Ministry of Health as a leader or primary stakeholder; a committed, diverse, technically expert, and horizontal membership; the presence of champions for neonatal health at the national level; development of a shared work plan based on feasible objectives; the use of shared financing mechanisms; the use of informal and dynamic organizational structures; and a commitment to scientific evidence-based programming. The relationship between the regional and national alliances was found to be mutually beneficial.

  18. Climate Change in Latin America and the Caribbean. Current status and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-11-01

    This report is based on the agreements reached at the ITC meeting held in Brasilia on 17 and 18 July 2003, where each of the participating ITC agencies promised to compile collective efforts in the various thematic areas of priority to the Latin American and the Caribbean Initiative for Sustainable Development (LACI). In this report the activities on climate change that have been carried out in the region are detailed. It also notes the region's opportunities for implementing the Framework Convention on Climate Change. It should be noted that the inputs for this paper have been provided by the ITC agencies, that has been structured according to the activities and lines of work considered as important and strategic by the agencies

  19. Current Status of Nuclear Medicine Practice in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Páez, Diana; Orellana, Pilar; Gutiérrez, Claudia; Ramirez, Raúl; Mut, Fernando; Torres, Leonel

    2015-10-01

    The practice of nuclear medicine (NM) in the Latin American and Caribbean region has experienced important growth in the last decade. However, there is great heterogeneity among countries regarding the availability of technology and human resources. According to data collected through June 2014 by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the total number of γ cameras in the region is 1,231, with an average of 2.16 per million inhabitants. Over 90% of the equipment is SPECT cameras; 7.6% of which have hybrid technology. There are 161 operating PET or PET/CT cameras in 12 member states, representing a rate of 0.3 per million people. Most NM centers belong to the private health system and are in capitals or major cities. Only 4 countries have the capability of assembling 99Mo-99mTc generators, and 2 countries produce 99mTc from nuclear reactors. Cold kits are produced in some countries, and therapeutic agents are mostly imported from outside the region. There are 35 operative cyclotrons. In relation to human resources: there is 1 physician per γ camera, 1.6 technologists per γ camera, 0.1 medical physicist per center, and approximately 0.1 radiochemist or radiopharmacist per center. Nearly 94% of the procedures are diagnostic. PET studies represent about 4% of the total. The future of NM in the Latin American and Caribbean region is promising, with great potential and possibilities. Some of the most important factors driving the region toward greater homogeneity in the availability and application of NM, and bridging the gaps between countries, are clinician awareness of the importance of NM in managing diseases prevalent in the region, increased building of capacity, continuous and strong support from international organizations such as the IAEA through national and regional projects, and strong public-private partnerships and government commitment. © 2015 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  20. [Chronic diseases and functional limitation in older adults: a comparative study in seven cities of Latin America and the Caribbean].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez, Jesús; Guevara, Adialys; Arcia, Néstor; León Díaz, Esther María; Marín, Clara; Alfonso, Juan C

    2005-01-01

    To identify the relationship between selected chronic diseases and the presence of disability in inhabitants 60 years old or older in seven cities of Latin America and the Caribbean. In 2000 and 2001 a descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of 10 891 persons 60 or older in seven cities: Bridgetown, Barbados; Buenos Aires, Argentina; Havana, Cuba; Mexico City, Mexico; Montevideo, Uruguay; Santiago, Chile; and São Paulo, Brazil. This research was part of the Salud, Bienestar y Envejecimiento (Health, Well-Being, and Aging) project (known as the "SABE project"). The dependent variables in the study were difficulty in performing basic activities of daily living, and difficulty in performing instrumental activities of daily living. Compiled from self-reports, the independent variables were: age, sex, educational level, living alone or with other person(s), self-assessed health, and the presence or not of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular diseases, and osteoarthritis. The presence of depression and cognitive impairment in the participants was evaluated, and body mass index was also calculated. To compare the degree of influence of the different variables on disability, a standardized coefficient for each association was calculated. In the seven cities studied, the variables that showed a direct association with difficulty in carrying out basic activities of daily living and instrumental activities of daily living were: suffering from a higher number of noncommunicable diseases, from cerebrovascular diseases, from osteoarthritis, or from depression; being older; being female; rating one's own health as bad; and experiencing cognitive impairment. In general the strongest associations were between difficulty in carrying out instrumental activities of daily living and depression, being older, reporting one's health as bad, and the presence of cerebrovascular diseases

  1. [Self-reported general health in older adults in Latin America and the Caribbean: usefulness of the indicator].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Rebeca; Peláez, Martha; Palloni, Alberto

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate self-reported general health (SRGH) as a health indicator and to analyze its covariates in people 60 years old or older living in private homes in seven cities of Latin America and the Caribbean. This cross-sectional descriptive study was based on data from the Health, Well-Being, and Aging survey (Salud, Bienestar y Envejecimiento, or "SABE survey"), which was carried out in 1999 and 2000 in Bridgetown, Barbados; Buenos Aires, Argentina; Havana, Cuba; Mexico City, Mexico; Montevideo, Uruguay; Santiago, Chile; and São Paulo, Brazil. The survey looked at the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of the participants, several health indicators (self-reported chronic diseases, depression, and cognitive features), the social and family support network, the use of health services, reported and observed functionality, the respondent's income, and the durable consumer goods in the household. In probit regression models, self-reported fair or poor health was used as the dependent variable. The marginal effect of each categorical explanatory variable was used to indicate the difference between the probability of reporting poor health by persons who did or did not have a given characteristic. In all the cities studied the self-reporting of "excellent" health was very low (6% or less). The results of the multivariate analysis of the relationships between SRGH and covariates showed: (1) the relative importance of several health indicators as covariates of SRGH, (2) the association between sociodemographic characteristics and SRGH, and (3) the differences or similarities found among the seven cities with respect to the relationships studied. The level of self-rated good health was highest in Buenos Aires and Montevideo (60%), followed by Bridgetown and São Paulo (around 50%) and Havana, Santiago, and Mexico City (between 30% and 40%). The respondents' evaluation of their memory was the factor that was most strongly related to SRGH, followed by satisfaction

  2. The association between adult drug abuse and childhood maltreatment in students attending seven universities in five countries in Latin America and one country in the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Longman-Mills, Samantha; Williams, Yolanda Maria González; Rodriguez, Marlon Osman Melendez; Baquero, Monica Rosaura García; Rojas, Juan Daniel Gómez; Amaya, Cristina Juárez de; Diaz, Eduardo Alfredo Martínez; Corea, Sobeya Jose Peñalba; Baez, Enrique Miguel Pizzanelli; Tinoco, Lucia Isabel Solórzano

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between childhood maltreatment and adulthood drug abuse among university students from seven universities in five countries in Latin America and one country in the Caribbean. This multi-country study utilised a cross-sectional design to collect data on drug abuse, as well as retrospective data on maltreatment during childhood. The sample consisted of 2,283 university students, of which 82.6% reported childhood maltreatment experiences, and 33.5% increa...

  3. Ocean Data and Information Network for the Caribbean and South America Regions (ODINCARSA): Report of Activities 2005-2006 and Proposed Work Plan 2007-2008.

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez Güingla, Rodney

    2007-01-01

    ODINCARSA was set up primarily as a mechanism for assessing the current and potential state of development of national data centers and to create the means for mutual capacity building in South America and the Caribbean. It further sought to develop a cooperation network for managing and exchanging oceanographic data and information within these regions. ODINCARSA is a network which is integrated by 19 IOC Member States: Argentina, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Brazil, Colombia, Chile, Cuba, ...

  4. [The first experience wih ICSI and MESA in Panama, Central America and the Caribbean].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleyne, C; Sánchez, F

    1998-01-01

    The intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) has represented an important advance in human reproduction technology, improving the results in those couples with a very low probability of achieving pregnancy. Our aim is present the results of our first experience with ICSI and MESA in Panama, Central America and the Caribe.

  5. Actual and predicted prevalence of alcohol consumption during pregnancy in Latin America and the Caribbean: systematic literature review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon Lange

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To estimate the prevalence of alcohol consumption during pregnancy among the general population of Latin America and the Caribbean, by country, in 2012. Methods Three steps were taken: a comprehensive, systematic literature search; meta-analyses, assuming a random-effects model for countries with published studies; and regression modelling (data prediction for countries with either no published studies or too few to obtain an estimate. Results Based on 24 existing studies, the pooled prevalence of alcohol consumption during pregnancy among the general population was estimated for Brazil (15.2%; 95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 10.4%–20.8% and Mexico (1.2%; 95%CI: 0.0%–2.7%. The prevalence of alcohol consumption during pregnancy among the general population was predicted for 31 countries and ranged from 4.8% (95%CI: 4.2%–5.4% in Cuba to 23.3% (95%CI: 20.1%–26.5% in Grenada. Conclusions Greater prevention efforts and measures are needed in the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean to prevent pregnant women from consuming alcohol during pregnancy and decrease the rates of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder. Additional high quality studies on the prevalence of alcohol consumption during pregnancy in Latin America and the Caribbean are also needed.

  6. Progress towards Millennium Development Goal 1 in Latin America and the Caribbean: the importance of the choice of indicator for undernutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutter, Chessa K; Chaparro, Camila M; Muñoz, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    To assess the effect of using stunting versus underweight as the indicator of child undernutrition for determining whether countries in Latin America and the Caribbean are on track to meet the component of Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 1 pertaining to the eradication of hunger, namely to reduce undernutrition by half between 1990 and 2015. The prevalence of underweight and stunting among children less than 5 years of age was calculated for 13 countries in Latin America and the Caribbean by applying the WHO Child Growth Standards to nationally-representative, publicly available anthropometric data. The predicted trend (based on the trend in previous years) and the target trend (based on MDG 1) for stunting and underweight were estimated using linear regression. The choice of indicator affects the conclusions regarding which countries are on track to reach MDG 1. All countries are on track when underweight is used to assess progress towards the target prevalence, but only 6 of them are on track when stunting is used instead. Another two countries come within 2 percentage points of the target prevalence of stunting. Whether countries are determined to be on track to meet the nutritional component of MDG 1 or not depends on the choice of stunting versus underweight as the indicator. Unfortunately, underweight is the indicator officially used to monitor progress towards MDG 1. In Latin America and the Caribbean, the use of underweight for this purpose will fail to take account of the large remaining burden of stunting.

  7. GDP and environment pressure: The role of energy in Latin America and the Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zilio, Mariana; Recalde, Marina

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the relationship between economic growth and energy consumption for a sample of 21 Latin American and Caribbean countries during the 1970–2007 period. The investigation is made on the bases of the Energy Environmental Kuznets Curve (EEKC) hypothesis, using a panel data analysis. Energy consumption at aggregate level is used as an indicator of human environmental pressure and GDP per capita as an indicator of economic activity. Based in a cointegration approach, our results does not support the existence of a stable long run relationship between the series, rejecting the validity of such hypothesis for the selected sample over the 1970–2007 period. - Highlights: ► We analyze the relationship between energy consumption and per capita GDP. ► The main objective is to study the environmental pressure of energy consumption. ► We use the theoretical framework of EKC hypothesis. ► We found a U-shaped pattern instead of an inverted one. ► Socio-economic and institutional factors of the sample could explain our results.

  8. Gram-Negative Infections in Adult Intensive Care Units of Latin America and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos M. Luna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes recent epidemiology of Gram-negative infections in selected countries from Latin American and Caribbean adult intensive care units (ICUs. A systematic search of the biomedical literature (PubMed was performed to identify articles published over the last decade. Where appropriate, data also were collected from the reference list of published articles, health departments of specific countries, and registries. Independent cohort data from all countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Mexico, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela signified a high rate of ICU infections (prevalence: Argentina, 24%; Brazil, 57%. Gram-negative pathogens, predominantly Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli, accounted for >50% of ICU infections, which were often complicated by the presence of multidrug-resistant strains and clonal outbreaks. Empirical use of antimicrobial agents was identified as a strong risk factor for resistance development and excessive mortality. Infection control strategies utilizing hygiene measures and antimicrobial stewardship programs reduced the rate of device-associated infections. To mitigate the poor health outcomes associated with infections by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria, urgent focus must be placed on infection control strategies and local surveillance programs.

  9. Health and traditional medicine cultures in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, D; Baruffati, V

    1985-01-01

    In this article, the authors summarise the origins and development of traditional medicine cultures in the Latin American and Caribbean regions, beginning with an overview of terminology and definitions related to 'medicine' and 'medical systems'. A short look is taken at original medicine cultures and at how they syncretised with colonial European medicine to give birth to a mosaic of lay and traditional medicine practices still in evidence in the New World today. A review is then made of the latest and main bibliographic sources in traditional medicine for the region, which are then analysed briefly. The main body of the paper deals with the different research approaches to traditional medicine cultures of which seven are discussed here. The authors conclude by stressing the need for closing the gap between the social and medical sciences in order to reach a better understanding of the health needs of the population. Biology and culture are at the centre of the discussion between medicine and anthropology where two trends dominate, viz. the socio-cultural and the biomedical models. The main task for ethnomedical researchers in the Latin American region is to work towards the creation of a bio-sociocultural model in an attempt to enrich systems qualitatively in the development of more humane and efficient interventions, both in the clinical field as in the field of health policies and strategies.

  10. International Collaboration in Medical Research in Latin America and the Caribbean (2003-2007)

    OpenAIRE

    Chinchilla-Rodríguez, Zaida; Benavent-Pérez, María; Miguel, Sandra; Moya Anegón, Félix de

    2012-01-01

    This paper characterises the patterns of international medical research in Central and South America. The objective is to ascertain countries' capacity to establish intra- and extra-regional scientific collaboration. The methodology used combines bibliometric techniques and social network analysis. Publication patterns are characterised by production volume, specialisation, visibility and collaboration through Scopus database. The results show the recent increase in Central and South American...

  11. The road to elimination: an overview of neglected infectious diseases in latin america and the caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Kenyon Ault, Steven; Unidad de Enfermedades Desatendidas, Tropicales y Transmitidas por Vectores, Departamento de Enfermedades Transmisibles y Análisis de Salud, Organización Panamericana de la Salud. Washington DC, EE. UU. Licenciado en Ciencias, Máster en Ciencias, Especialista registrado en Salud Ambiental.; Catalá Pascual, Laura; Unidad de Enfermedades Desatendidas, Tropicales y Transmitidas por Vectores, Departamento de Enfermedades Transmisibles y Análisis de Salud, Organización Panamericana de la Salud. Washington DC, EE. UU. Doctor en Medicina, especialista en Salud Pública y Medicina Preventiva, Máster en Salud Pública.; Grados-Zavala, Maria Elena; Unidad de Enfermedades Desatendidas, Tropicales y Transmitidas por Vectores, Departamento de Enfermedades Transmisibles y Análisis de Salud, Organización Panamericana de la Salud. Washington DC, EE. UU. Bachiller en Administración de Empresas y Bachiller en Economía.; Gonzálvez García, Guillermo; Departamento de Enfermedades Transmisibles y Análisis de Salud, Organización Panamericana de la Salud. Lima, Perú. Doctor en Medicina, Máster en Salud Pública; Castellanos, Luis Gerardo; Unidad de Enfermedades Desatendidas, Tropicales y Transmitidas por Vectores, Departamento de Enfermedades Transmisibles y Análisis de Salud, Organización Panamericana de la Salud. Washington DC, EE. UU.

    2014-01-01

    Neglected infectious diseases (NID) affect mainly isolated populations living in isolation and in poor socioeconomic conditions. These diseases, by their chronic and silent nature, often affect communities with a weak political voice. This translates into very little attention or political priority; which is reflected in minimal and insufficient preventive measures, monitoring and control. However, there is evidence this situation is changing favorably in some countries of the Americas. In re...

  12. Indian and Chinese Engagement in Latin America and the Caribbean: A Comparative Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    pharmaceutical companies, which are well established in the region.43 Leading Indian pharma firms in the Latin American market include Dr. Reddy’s...began to consider establishing plants in smaller economies with mature markets , such as Colombia . The trajectory of Chinese heavy equipment pro...has an es- tablished retail network throughout the region, and its motorcycles are considered a market leader in Colombia and Central America.119

  13. The Soviet-Cuban Connection in Central America and the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-04-01

    is on such ideals as " socialistA Strong Supporter of solidarity," Castro is known to charge many of these Communist Expansion countries for Cuban...Nacion Internacional (San Jose, Costa !Pop Rica), November 20-24, 1983. 19. This speech was carried in Spanish in its entirety in La Prensa (San Pedro...Salvador, on July 8, 1984. on Central America, prepared for the Presi- dent. Henry A. Kissinger, Chairman. Washing- 45. La Nacion Internacional (San Jose

  14. [The report of the Commission on Macroeconomics and Health: its relevance to the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-09-01

    The Commission on Macroeconomics and Health (CMH) was established by the Director-General of the World Health Organization (WHO) to evaluate the role of health in economic development. On 20 December 2001 the CMH submitted its report to the WHO Director-General. Entitled Macroeconomics and Health: Investing in Health for Economic Development, the CMH report affirms that in order to reduce poverty; and achieve economic development, it is essential to improve the health of the poor; to accomplish this, it is necessary to expand the access that the poor have to essential health services. The Commission believes that more financial resources are needed, that the health expenditures of less-developed and low-income countries are insufficient for the challenges that these countries face, and that high-income countries must increase their financial assistance in order to help solve the main health problems of less-developed and low-income countries. This piece summarizes a report that was prepared by the Program on Public Policy and Health of the Division of Health and Human Development of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO). The PAHO document analyzes the importance of the CMH report for the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean, focusing on some of the central arguments put forth in the CMH report as they relate to achieving better health conditions in the Americas. These arguments have been organized around three major themes in the CMH report: a) the relationships between health and economic growth, b) the principal health problems that affect the poor in low-income and low-middle-income#10; countries, and c) the gap between the funding needed to address the principal problems that affect these countries and the actual spending levels. #10;

  15. Latin America and the Caribbean: assessment of the advances in public health for the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Amal K; Rodriguez-Fernandez, Gisela

    2010-05-01

    To improve health and economy of the world population, the United Nations has set up eight international goals, known as Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), that 192 United Nations member states and at least 23 international organizations have agreed to achieve by the year 2015. The goals include: (1) eradicating extreme poverty and hunger; (2) achieving universal primary education; (3) promoting gender equality; (4) reducing child mortality; (5) improving maternal health; (6) combating HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases; (7) ensuring environmental sustainability; and (8) developing a global partnership for development. Having been in the midway from the 2015 deadline, the UN Secretary-General urges countries to engage constructively to review progress towards the MDGs. This paper aims to evaluate advances in public health, with special reference to gender inequalities in health, health sector reform, global burden of disease, neglected tropical diseases, vaccination, antibiotic use, sanitation and safe water, nutrition, tobacco and alcohol use, indicators of health, and disease prevention in Latin America and the Caribbean region (LAC). The paper also identifies areas of deficits for the achievement of MDGs in LAC.

  16. Latin America and the Caribbean: Assessment of the Advances in Public Health for the Achievement of the Millennium Development Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Amal K.; Rodriguez-Fernandez, Gisela

    2010-01-01

    To improve health and economy of the world population, the United Nations has set up eight international goals, known as Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), that 192 United Nations member states and at least 23 international organizations have agreed to achieve by the year 2015. The goals include: (1) eradicating extreme poverty and hunger; (2) achieving universal primary education; (3) promoting gender equality; (4) reducing child mortality; (5) improving maternal health; (6) combating HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases; (7) ensuring environmental sustainability; and (8) developing a global partnership for development. Having been in the midway from the 2015 deadline, the UN Secretary-General urges countries to engage constructively to review progress towards the MDGs. This paper aims to evaluate advances in public health, with special reference to gender inequalities in health, health sector reform, global burden of disease, neglected tropical diseases, vaccination, antibiotic use, sanitation and safe water, nutrition, tobacco and alcohol use, indicators of health, and disease prevention in Latin America and the Caribbean region (LAC). The paper also identifies areas of deficits for the achievement of MDGs in LAC. PMID:20623022

  17. Analysis of renewable energy incentives in the Latin America and Caribbean region: The feed-in tariff case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, David; Marzolf, Natacha; Paredes, Juan Roberto; Rickerson, Wilson; Flynn, Hilary; Becker-Birck, Christina; Solano-Peralta, Mauricio

    2013-01-01

    Renewable energy is becoming a priority for Latin America and Caribbean (LAC) countries because of energy challenges such as demand growth, high dependence on imported fossil fuels, and climate change. As of 2010, 12 LAC countries have implemented formal targets for renewable energy deployment. Some of the LAC countries, namely Argentina, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Honduras, and Nicaragua, are using feed-in tariffs (FITs) to promote renewables. FITs are long-term, guaranteed purchase agreements for green electricity at a price that can provide project developers a reasonable return on investment. FITs are increasingly popular because if designed well, they can mitigate investor risk in renewables. This article presents a low-risk FIT design and then uses this design to benchmark the existing LAC region FITs. - Highlights: ► 12 LAC countries have implemented formal targets for renewable energy deployment. ► Argentina, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Honduras, and Nicaragua, are using feed-in tariffs (FITs) to promote renewables. ► Low-risk FIT design of feed-in tariffs in the LAC region can be improved

  18. A comprehensive protocol to evaluate the use of blood and its components in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana E. del Pozo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Blood transfusion safety is a critical part of appropriate health care. Considering the limited information available on the use of blood and its components in Latin America and the Caribbean, the Grupo Cooperativo iberoamericano de Medicina Transfusional (Ibero-American Cooperative Group for Transfusion Medicine; GCIAMT, through its Research and International Affairs committees, carried out a project to develop a protocol that would facilitate the evaluation of blood usage at the country, jurisdiction, and institutional levels in varied country contexts. Experts in blood safety from the Pan American Health Organization (Washington, DC, United States, the University of São Paulo (São Paulo, Brazil, the Hemocentro of São Paulo (São Paulo, Brazil, and GCIAMT designed a 2-step comprehensive blood-use evaluation protocol: step 1 collects data from blood requests, and step 2, from medical charts. At a minimum, 1 000 analyzed requests are necessary; as such, study periods vary depending on the number of transfusion requests issued. An Internet-based application, the Modular Research System-Study Management System (MRS-SMS, houses the data and produces reports on how hospitals request blood, how blood is issued, who requires blood and blood components, and as an added benefit, how many blood units are wasted and what the real demand for blood is.

  19. The Impact of Prices and Taxes on the Use of Tobacco Products in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraje, Guillermo R.; Chaloupka, Frank J.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the impact of tobacco prices or taxes on tobacco use in Latin America and Caribbean countries. We searched MEDLINE, EconLit, LILACS, unpublished literature, 6 specialty journals, and reviewed references. We calculated pooled price elasticities using random-effects models. The 32 studies we examined found that cigarette prices have a negative and statistically significant effect on cigarette consumption. A change in price is associated with a less than proportional change in the quantity of cigarettes demanded. In most Latin American countries, own-price elasticity for cigarettes is likely below  −0.5  (pooled elasticities, short-run: −0.31; 95% confidence interval = −0.39, −0.24; long-run: −0.43; 95% CI = −0.51, −0.35). Tax increases effectively reduce cigarette use. Lack of studies using household- or individual-level data limits research’s policy relevance. PMID:25602902

  20. Animal Leptospirosis in Latin America and the Caribbean Countries: Reported Outbreaks and Literature Review (2002–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Petrakovsky

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is a worldwide zoonotic disease whose transmission is linked through multiple factors in the animal-human-ecosystem interface. The data on leptospirosis reported to the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE for Latin America and Caribbean (LAC countries/sovereign territories from 2005–2011 were mapped, showing a wide distribution of outbreaks in the region. Tropical terrestrial biomes are the predominate ecosystems showing reports of outbreaks. Climatic and ecological factors were relevant to the occurrence of epidemic outbreaks. The available scientific information from 2002–2014 was summarized to obtain a general overview and identify key issues related to the One Health approach. The primary serological test used for diagnosis and for conducting surveys was the microscopic agglutination test (MAT. Reports regarding the isolation and typing of leptospires were scattered and limited to data from a few countries, but their results revealed considerable biodiversity at the species and serovar levels. A total of six out of 11 currently named pathogenic species were found in the region. There was also high diversity of animal species showing evidence of infection by leptospires, including rodents, pets, livestock and wild animals. Prevention and control measures for leptospirosis should consider issues of animal and human health in the context of ecosystems, the territorial land borders of countries and trade.

  1. Animal Leptospirosis in Latin America and the Caribbean Countries: Reported Outbreaks and Literature Review (2002–2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrakovsky, Jessica; Bianchi, Alejandra; Fisun, Helen; Nájera-Aguilar, Patricia; Pereira, Martha Maria

    2014-01-01

    Leptospirosis is a worldwide zoonotic disease whose transmission is linked through multiple factors in the animal-human-ecosystem interface. The data on leptospirosis reported to the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) for Latin America and Caribbean (LAC) countries/sovereign territories from 2005–2011 were mapped, showing a wide distribution of outbreaks in the region. Tropical terrestrial biomes are the predominate ecosystems showing reports of outbreaks. Climatic and ecological factors were relevant to the occurrence of epidemic outbreaks. The available scientific information from 2002–2014 was summarized to obtain a general overview and identify key issues related to the One Health approach. The primary serological test used for diagnosis and for conducting surveys was the microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Reports regarding the isolation and typing of leptospires were scattered and limited to data from a few countries, but their results revealed considerable biodiversity at the species and serovar levels. A total of six out of 11 currently named pathogenic species were found in the region. There was also high diversity of animal species showing evidence of infection by leptospires, including rodents, pets, livestock and wild animals. Prevention and control measures for leptospirosis should consider issues of animal and human health in the context of ecosystems, the territorial land borders of countries and trade. PMID:25325360

  2. Animal leptospirosis in Latin America and the Caribbean countries: reported outbreaks and literature review (2002-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrakovsky, Jessica; Bianchi, Alejandra; Fisun, Helen; Nájera-Aguilar, Patricia; Pereira, Martha Maria

    2014-10-16

    Leptospirosis is a worldwide zoonotic disease whose transmission is linked through multiple factors in the animal-human-ecosystem interface. The data on leptospirosis reported to the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) for Latin America and Caribbean (LAC) countries/sovereign territories from 2005-2011 were mapped, showing a wide distribution of outbreaks in the region. Tropical terrestrial biomes are the predominate ecosystems showing reports of outbreaks. Climatic and ecological factors were relevant to the occurrence of epidemic outbreaks. The available scientific information from 2002-2014 was summarized to obtain a general overview and identify key issues related to the One Health approach. The primary serological test used for diagnosis and for conducting surveys was the microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Reports regarding the isolation and typing of leptospires were scattered and limited to data from a few countries, but their results revealed considerable biodiversity at the species and serovar levels. A total of six out of 11 currently named pathogenic species were found in the region. There was also high diversity of animal species showing evidence of infection by leptospires, including rodents, pets, livestock and wild animals. Prevention and control measures for leptospirosis should consider issues of animal and human health in the context of ecosystems, the territorial land borders of countries and trade.

  3. [Health, human development, and governance in Latin America and the Caribbean at the beginning of the 21st century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas-Zamora, Juan Antonio

    2002-01-01

    The issue of the reciprocal relationship between health and development has recently taken on greater importance in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), given the persistence of extreme poverty and the political and social difficulties due to macroeconomic imbalances and crises of governance. This piece reviews concepts of sustainable human development, social determinants of health in general and of health inequities in particular (gender, ethnic group, income level), and the relationship between health and economic growth in the medium term and the long term. An analysis is made of how persistent poverty in countries of LAC relates to disparities in health conditions, access to health services, and health care financing, as well as to such health determinants as nutrition and environmental sanitation. Health inequities most strongly affect the most excluded and vulnerable sectors of the population. In the face of this situation, the author stresses that putting a priority on health inequities is vital to safeguarding the governability and the social and political stability of countries in LAC in the next decade.

  4. Systematic review of risk factors for suicide and suicide attempt among psychiatric patients in Latin America and Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán L. Teti

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze published evidence from the Latin America and Caribbean (LAC region pertaining to risk factors for completed suicide and suicide attempts among psychiatric populations. METHODS: Potential studies were identified through systematic electronic searches in MEDLINE and LILACS. Included studies were cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional designed investigations of psychiatric samples in which suicide or a suicide attempt was reported as an outcome and evaluated with some measure of impact (odds ratio, risk ratio, or hazard ratio. Methodological quality was assessed using the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE recommendations. RESULTS: Of the 2 987 identified studies, a total of 17 studies were reviewed to determine potential suicidal risk factors. Eleven studies used a case-control design, five used a cross-sectional design, and only one study used a prospective-cohort design. The main risk factors for suicide attempts in LAC included major depressive disorder (MDD, family dysfunction, and prior suicide attempt, while the main risk factors for completed suicide were male gender and MDD. The methodological quality of most of the studies was low. CONCLUSIONS: This review provides evidence that the majority of relevant risk factors for suicide and suicide attempts in the LAC region are similar to those observed in Western societies but different from those reported in Eastern societies. Studies of higher methodological quality from the region are needed to support these results.

  5. Latin America and the Caribbean: Assessment of the Advances in Public Health for the Achievement of the Millennium Development Goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal K. Mitra

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available To improve health and economy of the world population, the United Nations has set up eight international goals, known as Millennium Development Goals (MDGs, that 192 United Nations member states and at least 23 international organizations have agreed to achieve by the year 2015. The goals include: (1 eradicating extreme poverty and hunger; (2 achieving universal primary education; (3 promoting gender equality; (4 reducing child mortality; (5 improving maternal health; (6 combating HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases; (7 ensuring environmental sustainability; and (8 developing a global partnership for development. Having been in the midway from the 2015 deadline, the UN Secretary-General urges countries to engage constructively to review progress towards the MDGs. This paper aims to evaluate advances in public health, with special reference to gender inequalities in health, health sector reform, global burden of disease, neglected tropical diseases, vaccination, antibiotic use, sanitation and safe water, nutrition, tobacco and alcohol use, indicators of health, and disease prevention in Latin America and the Caribbean region (LAC. The paper also identifies areas of deficits for the achievement of MDGs in LAC.

  6. Migrants and asylum seekers: policy responses in the United States to immigrants and refugees from Central America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcbride, M J

    1999-01-01

    This article analyzes the complex political environment of US immigration and refugee policies in which tensions exist, especially with regard to Central America and the Caribbean. Recommendations for managing it more effectively in the future are discussed. Several western countries, including the US, have implemented stricter restriction policies as a result of the perceived threats to their economies and cultural homogeneity. In general, US immigration policy has addressed both economic concerns and domestic pressures, whereas US refugee policy has reflected foreign policy concerns. As a result of these policies, there has been an increasing number of immigrants from Mexico, as well as huge numbers of refugees from Cuba and Nicaragua. Yet, there has been limited acceptance of asylum seekers from Haiti, El Salvador and Guatemala. Among the policies passed by the US Congress to reduce illegal immigration and limit assistance to legal immigrants were the Welfare Reform Act, Illegal Immigration Reform, Immigration Responsibility Act of 1996, and the Proposition 187 movement. Revisions in the procedures of the Immigration and Naturalization Service were also made.

  7. Compilation of geospatial data for the mineral industries and related infrastructure of Latin America and the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Michael S.; Buteyn, Spencer D.; Freeman, Philip A.; Trippi, Michael H.; Trimmer III, Loyd M.

    2017-07-31

    This report describes the U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) ongoing commitment to its mission of understanding the nature and distribution of global mineral commodity supply chains by updating and publishing the georeferenced locations of mineral commodity production and processing facilities, mineral exploration and development sites, and mineral commodity exporting ports in Latin America and the Caribbean. The report includes an overview of data sources and an explanation of the geospatial PDF map format.The geodatabase and geospatial data layers described in this report create a new geographic information product in the form of a geospatial portable document format (PDF) map. The geodatabase contains additional data layers from USGS, foreign governmental, and open-source sources as follows: (1) coal occurrence areas, (2) electric power generating facilities, (3) electric power transmission lines, (4) hydrocarbon resource cumulative production data, (5) liquefied natural gas terminals, (6) oil and gas concession leasing areas, (7) oil and gas field center points, (8) oil and gas pipelines, (9) USGS petroleum provinces, (10) railroads, (11) recoverable proven plus probable hydrocarbon resources, (12) major cities, (13) major rivers, and (14) undiscovered porphyry copper tracts.

  8. Importance of Environmental Education in Socio-Natural Risk Management in Five Countries of Latin America and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Melizza Ordóñez-Díaz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering environmental education as a social tool allowing individuals to achieve a significant knowledge of the inhabited environment, to reduce the probability of occurrence of a disaster, and to respond to the presence of natural phenomena to which people are vulnerable, this article aims to generate a space for reflection on the importance of environmental education in the management of the social and natural risk in five countries of Latin America and the Caribbean. For this purpose, the paper presents a descriptive review of primary and secondary bibliographical sources referring to the performance of the management of social and natural risks related to environmental education in Colombia, Nicaragua, Mexico, Chile, and Jamaica between 1994 and 2015. In this period, a solid administrative and legislative organization of this management and environmental education is evident, but these two themes are clearly separated when implementing citizen projects: a situation that has generated shortcomings in the management of natural disasters, specifically under the principles of precaution and prevention. For this reason, this article offers a series of recommendations that include the dissemination of information, the creation of centers for the management of risk reduction, the strengthening of communication strategies, and the establishment of response plans and post-disaster recovery.

  9. La Salud Pública en América Latina y El Caribe Public Health in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar García-Roco Pérez

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Se consideran a través de la situación de salud, las características de la Salud Pública en América Latina y el Caribe, su evolución y los hechos que justifican los procesos de reforma del sector, sus fuentes teóricas, la forma en que se desarrollan, y los problemas que enfrentan. Se describen las características esenciales de Colombia, Chile, México, Venezuela y se particulariza en el modelo cubano. Se realiza una reflexión final respecto a la contradictoria situación prevaleciente y se analiza su contexto políticoThe characteristics of Public Health in Latin America and the Caribbean through the present health state of the region is considered. The evolution of these characteristics and the facts that justify the processes of reformation of the sector, as well as their theoretical sources ; the form in which they are developed, and the problems they face are also regarded. The essential characteristics of Colombia, Chile, Mexico, Venezuela and particularly those of the Cuban model are described. A final reflection regarding the contradictory prevalent situation and its political context is made

  10. Porphyry copper assessment of Central America and the Caribbean Basin: Chapter I in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Floyd; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Ludington, Stephen; Zürcher, Lukas; Nelson, Carl E.; Robinson, Gilpin R.; Miller, Robert J.; Moring, Barry C.

    2014-01-01

    Mineral resource assessments provide a synthesis of available information about distributions of mineral deposits in the Earth’s crust. The U.S. Geological Survey prepared a probabilistic mineral resource assessment of undiscovered resources in porphyry copper deposits in Central America and the Caribbean Basin in collaboration with geoscientists from academia and the minerals industry. The purpose of the study was to (1) delineate permissive areas (tracts) for undiscovered porphyry copper deposits within 1 kilometer of the surface at a scale of 1:1,000,000; (2) provide a database of known porphyry copper deposits and significant prospects; (3) estimate numbers of undiscovered deposits within the permissive tracts; and (4) provide probabilistic estimates of amounts of copper, molybdenum, gold, and silver that could be contained in undiscovered deposits. The assessment was done using a three-part mineral resource assessment based on established mineral deposit models. Permissive tracts were delineated based primarily on distributions of mapped igneous rocks related to magmatic arcs that formed in tectonic settings associated with convergent plate margins. Five permissive tracts were delineated: the Early Cretaceous through Eocene Santiago tract, the Late Cretaceous through Oligocene Chortis tract, the Paleocene through Oligocene Darién tract, the Miocene and Pliocene Cocos tract, and the Eocene to Holocene Lesser Antilles tract. These tracts range in size from about 3,000 to about 204,000 square kilometers.

  11. Backsliding on a key health investment in Latin America and the Caribbean: the case of breastfeeding promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutter, Chessa K; Chaparro, Camila M; Grummer-Strawn, Laurence; Victora, Cesar G

    2011-11-01

    We examined trends in breastfeeding promotion investments, breastfeeding promotion activities, and breastfeeding duration in Latin America and the Caribbean from the 1980s to the 2000s. We obtained financial data from the United States Agency for International Development and the International Code Documentation Center, and we obtained breastfeeding promotion data from surveys of breastfeeding coordinators with ministries of health and with the International Baby Food Action Network. We obtained breastfeeding data from nationally representative surveys conducted between 1986 and 2008. Investment in breastfeeding promotion declined in the 2000s relative to earlier years. For all countries, breastfeeding duration increased between the first and last survey. Of the 12 countries represented in the interval when investment in breastfeeding promotion was high, breastfeeding duration decreased in 1 country. Of the 12 countries represented in the interval when investment was low, breastfeeding duration decreased in 3 countries. Nonetheless, the average annual change in breastfeeding duration for the 2 intervals was positive and similar (0.16 months and 0.21 months). Breastfeeding promotion likely resulted in large improvements in breastfeeding. Investments in breastfeeding promotion have declined, but this does not appear to have adversely affected breastfeeding duration.

  12. Morphodynamics of the Pacific and Caribbean deltas of Colombia, South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, Juan D.; López, Sergio A.

    2008-02-01

    This paper analyzes the physical factors controlling the recent morphology of major deltas along the Pacific and Caribbean coasts of Colombia. The study considers the fluvial, coastal, and oceanographic contributions to changes in delta morphology and uses different approaches, including (1) remote sensing techniques; (2) time series analysis of river discharge, sea level, wave climate and tidal variability; (3) analysis of the relationship between monthly mean sea level anomalies near the deltas related to the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO); (4) development of a database of key physical variables; (5) series of correlation calculations to examine which environmental factors control delta morphology; (6) analysis of shoreline changes for the 1986-2000 yr-period; and (7) classification of each delta system based on the relationship between water and sediment discharges and wave and tidal energies. Overall, Colombian deltas are built under destructive physical conditions. The Pacific deltas, San Juan, Mira, and Patía, are tide-influenced deltas although they exhibit definite characteristics of wave-dominated systems such as the presence of barriers and beach ridges. Also, these deltas exhibit the highest marine energy conditions of all Colombian deltas (marine power values between 9.1 and 11.6) due to the interplay of (1) moderate wave conditions as a result of the effect of swells from the SW with a significant height varying from 1.7 in the San Juan delta to 3.0 m and 3.1 m in the Mira and Patía deltas, respectively; (2) meso-tidal ranges; (3) steep subaqueous profiles; (4) low attenuation indexes of deep-water waves; and (5) strong oceanographic manifestations associated with the ENSO, causing regional sea level rises of 20-44 cm during El Niño events. The Caribbean deltas, Magdalena, Sinú and to a lesser extent, the Atrato, are wave-influenced deltas. The Magdalena, with deep and nearshore wave power values of 45 × 10 6 erg s -1 and 35 × 10 6 erg s -1

  13. The State of Veterinary Dental Education in North America, Canada, and the Caribbean: A Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jamie G; Goldstein, Gary; Boudreaux, Karen; Ilkiw, Jan E

    Dental disease is important in the population of pets seen by veterinarians. Knowledge and skills related to oral disease and dentistry are critical entry-level skills expected of graduating veterinarians. A descriptive survey on the state of veterinary dental education was sent to respondents from 35 veterinary schools in the United States, Canada, and the Caribbean. Using the online SurveyMonkey application, respondents answered up to 26 questions. Questions were primarily designed to determine the breadth and depth of veterinary dental education from didactic instruction in years 1-3 to the clinical year programs. There was an excellent response to the survey with 86% compliance. Learning opportunities for veterinary students in years 1-3 in both the lecture and laboratory environments were limited, as were the experiences in the clinical year 4, which were divided between community-type practices and veterinary dentistry and oral surgery services. The former provided more hands-on clinical experience, including tooth extraction, while the latter focused on dental charting and periodontal debridement. Data on degrees and certifications of faculty revealed only 12 programs with board-certified veterinary dentists. Of these, seven veterinary schools had residency programs in veterinary dentistry at the time of the survey. Data from this study demonstrate the lack of curricular time dedicated to dental content in the veterinary schools participating in the survey, thereby suggesting the need for veterinary schools to address the issue of veterinary dental education. By graduation, new veterinarians should have acquired the needed knowledge and skills to meet both societal demands and professional expectations.

  14. Scale is not an Issue : Opportunities for Collaboration among Geoscientists in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carby, B. E.

    2015-12-01

    Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) countries face multiple hazards such as earthquakes, volcanoes, accelerated erosion, landslides, drought, flooding, windstorms and the effects of climate variability and change. World Bank (2005) data indicate that seventeen of the top thirty-five countries with relatively high mortality risk from 3 or more hazards are located in LAC, El Salvador has the second highest per cent of its population at risk - 77.7% and 7 of the top 10 countries for population exposure to multiple hazards are in LAC. All LAC countries have half or more of GDP exposed to at least one hazard. The report underscores the need for better data and information on hazards and disasters to inform disaster risk reduction (DRR) and supports the view that reduction of disaster risk is essential for achieving Sustainable Development (SD). This suggests that DRR must be integrated into development planning of countries. However the Global Assessment Report notes that globally, there has been little progress in mainstreaming DRR in national development (UNISDR 2009). Without this, countries will not realise development goals. DRR efforts in LAC require an integrated approach including societal input in deciding priority DRR research themes and interdisciplinary, multi-hazard research informing DRR policy and practice. Jiminez (2015) from a study of countries across LAC reports that efforts are being made to link research to national planning through inclusion of policy makers in some university-led research projects. Research by the author in Jamaica reveals that the public sector has started to apply research on hazards to inform DRR policy, programmes and plans. As most research is done by universities, there is collaboration between the public sector and academia. Despite differences in scale among countries across the region, similarities in exposure to multiple hazards and potential hazard impacts suggest that collaboration among researchers in LAC could be

  15. The FAO/IAEA Partnership for Food Security: Food Safety and Quality Networks in Latin America and the Caribbean, Mexico City, 3 March 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasanya, James; Maestroni, Britt

    2016-01-01

    The side event on “The FAO-IAEA Partnership for Food Security: Food Safety and Quality Networks in Latin America and the Caribbean” took place in Mexico City, on 3rd March 2016 on the occasion of the 34th FAO Regional Conference for Latin America (LAC). The side event helped raise the awareness of stakeholders and decision makers about the benefits of partnership between the FAO/IAEA and Member States in Latin America and the Caribbean to improve food safety and food security in the region. The IAEA and its Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture supports Member State laboratories and institutions in the area of food safety and quality in Latin America and the Caribbean. For instance, capacity is built and an analytical network of laboratories initiated by transferring relevant technologies, strengthening laboratory functionality and competence through the procurement and supply of relevant equipment, analytical standards, reference materials and the facilitation of proficiency tests.

  16. Some considerations on women's mental health in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaviria, Silvia L; Rondon, Marta B

    2010-01-01

    The mental health status of women in Latin America depends on several social determinants: unequal access to education and work and its benefits, as well as exposure to violence and lack of proper reproductive health impinge on women's psychological well-being. A review of the epidemiological studies on mental health in the region shows a paucity of gender disaggregated data which hinders analyses. However, depression and anxiety are twice as prevalent in women, post traumatic stress disorder is common in the regions that have been exposed to political violence, suicide is an important cause of death in the reproductive years and alcohol and drug use are increasing among younger women. Given the current risks for mental health for girls and women in the region, it is important that research in this area be fostered and it is even more important that gender as it relates to health be included in the curricula of health professionals.

  17. Phylogenetic analysis of New World screwworm fly, Cochliomyia hominivorax, suggests genetic isolation of some Caribbean island populations following colonization from South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonagh, L; García, R; Stevens, J R

    2009-06-01

    Larval infestations of the New World screwworm (NWS) fly, Cochliomyia hominivorax, cause considerable economic losses through the direct mortality and reduced production of livestock. Since the 1950s, NWS populations in North and Central America have been the target of virtually continuous eradication attempts by sterile insect technique (SIT). Nevertheless, in some areas, such as Jamaica, SIT-based control programmes have failed. Reasons for the failure of SIT-based programmes in some locations are unknown, but it is hypothesized that failure may be related to the mating incompatibility between sterile and wild flies or to the existence of sexually incompatible cryptic species. Accordingly, the current research investigates intraspecific phylogenetic relationships and associated biogeographic patterns between NWS populations from the Caribbean and South America, which represent those populations involved in, or earmarked for, forthcoming SIT programmes. Uniquely, this study also includes analyses of two North American samples, collected in Texas in 1933 and 1953 prior to initiation of the SIT-based eradication programme. The study utilizes three nucleotide datasets: elongation factor-1alpha (nuclear); cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (mitochondrial), and 12S rRNA (mitochondrial). Phylogenetic analysis of these data, representing populations from across the Caribbean, South America and Texas, indicates sub-structuring of fly populations on several of the larger Caribbean islands, suggesting a period of isolation and/or founder effects following colonization from South America; significantly, our findings do not support a North American origin for Cuban flies. The importance of these findings in the light of proposed SIT programmes in the region is discussed.

  18. Midwifery practice and maternity services: A multisite descriptive study in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binfa, Lorena; Pantoja, Loreto; Ortiz, Jovita; Cavada, Gabriel; Schindler, Peter; Burgos, Rosa Ypania; Maganha E Melo, Célia Regina; da Silva, Lúcia Cristina Florentino Pereira; Lima, Marlise de Oliveira Pimentel; Hernández, Laura Valli; Schlenker Rm, Rosana; Sánchez, Verdún; Rojas, Mirian Solis; Huamán, Betty Cruz; Chauca, Maria Luisa Torres; Cillo, Alicia; Lofeudo, Susana; Zapiola, Sandra; Weeks, Fiona; Foster, Jennifer

    2016-09-01

    over the past three decades there has been a social movement in Latin American countries (LAC) to support humanised, physiologic birth. Rates of caesarean section overall in Latin America are approximately 35%, increasing up to 85% in some cases. There are many factors related to poor outcomes with regard to maternal and newborn/infant health in LAC countries. Maternal and perinatal outcome data within and between countries is scarce and inaccurate. The aims of this study were to: i) describe selected obstetric and neonatal outcomes of women who received midwifery care, ii) identify the level of maternal well-being after experiencing midwifery care in 6 Latin America countries. this was a cross sectional and descriptive study, conducted in selected maternity units in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, the Dominican Republic, Peru, and Uruguay. Quantitative methods were used to measure midwifery processes of care and maternal perceptions of well-being in labour and childbirth through a validated survey of maternal well-being and an adapted version of the American College of Nurse-Midwives (ACNM) standardized antepartum and intrapartum data set. Maternity units from 6 Latin American countries. the final sample was a convenience sample, and the total participants for all sites in the six countries was 3009 low risk women. for the countries reporting, overall, 82% of these low risk women had spontaneous vaginal deliveries. The rate of caesarean section was 16%; the Dominican Republic had the highest rate of Caesarean sections (30%) and Peru had the lowest rate (4%). The use of oxytocin in labour was widely variable, although overall there was a high proportion of women whose labour was augmented or induced. Ambulation was common, with the lowest proportion (48%) of women ambulating in labour in Chile, Uruguay (50%), Peru (65%), Brazil (85%). The presence of continuous support was highest in Uruguay (93%), Chile (75%) and Argentina (55%), and Peru had the lowest (22

  19. Using a two-step method to measure transgender identity in Latin America/the Caribbean, Portugal, and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisner, Sari L; Biello, Katie; Rosenberger, Joshua G; Austin, S Bryn; Haneuse, Sebastien; Perez-Brumer, Amaya; Novak, David S; Mimiaga, Matthew J

    2014-11-01

    Few comparative data are available internationally to examine health differences by transgender identity. A barrier to monitoring the health and well-being of transgender people is the lack of inclusion of measures to assess natal sex/gender identity status in surveys. Data were from a cross-sectional anonymous online survey of members (n > 36,000) of a sexual networking website targeting men who have sex with men in Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking countries/territories in Latin America/the Caribbean, Portugal, and Spain. Natal sex/gender identity status was assessed using a two-step method (Step 1: assigned birth sex, Step 2: current gender identity). Male-to-female (MTF) and female-to-male (FTM) participants were compared to non-transgender males in age-adjusted regression models on socioeconomic status (SES) (education, income, sex work), masculine gender conformity, psychological health and well-being (lifetime suicidality, past-week depressive distress, positive self-worth, general self-rated health, gender related stressors), and sexual health (HIV-infection, past-year STIs, past-3 month unprotected anal or vaginal sex). The two-step method identified 190 transgender participants (0.54%; 158 MTF, 32 FTM). Of the 12 health-related variables, six showed significant differences between the three groups: SES, masculine gender conformity, lifetime suicidality, depressive distress, positive self-worth, and past-year genital herpes. A two-step approach is recommended for health surveillance efforts to assess natal sex/gender identity status. Cognitive testing to formally validate assigned birth sex and current gender identity survey items in Spanish and Portuguese is encouraged.

  20. Technical cooperation for the pacific uses of nuclear technology in Latin America and Caribbean: the experience of regional agreement ARCAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rondinelli Junior, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    This thesis studies the international technical cooperation in the field of peaceful applications of the nuclear technology, focusing on the experience of Latin American countries, where the Cooperation Agreement for the Promotion of Nuclear Science and Technology in Latin America and the Caribbean, also known as ARCAL, is in force. The study adopts as theoretical approach the concept of state capacities, particularly with regard to the institutional capacities applicable to the ARCAL Agreement. Within this approach, three dimensions of analysis are adopted: the institutional dimension, the governance dimension and the focus on outcomes. The evaluation of the ARCAL Agreement is carried out in order to confirm if the intended role to promote regional technical cooperation in the nuclear sector is being implemented. The methodological approach adopted the case study model. It starts with the analysis of the institutional evolution of the Agreement, and identifies variables articulating with the three dimensions above mentioned. The empirical data were collected in two stages. In the first stage it were performed 29 interviews carried out by the author with the technical and staff members of the Department of Technical Cooperation of IAEA, in Vienna, Austria, headquarter of IAEA. The other stage involved an electronic questionnaire submitted to the national coordinator of ARCAL in 14 countries, in a universe of 21 member states. The conclusion of the research points to the fact that the ARCAL Agreement has incorporated, throughout its trajectory, elements of the institutional capacities which are still in the process of development. They give to the Agreement the potential to induce the development of the state capacities of the respective countries in the field of peaceful applications of nuclear technology. (author)

  1. Progress in reducing inequalities in reproductive, maternal, newborn,' and child health in Latin America and the Caribbean: an unfinished agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Clara Restrepo-Méndez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To expand the "Countdown to 2015" analyses of health inequalities beyond the 75 countries being monitored worldwide to include all countries in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC that have adequate data available. METHODS: Demographic and Health Surveys and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys were used to monitor progress in health intervention coverage and inequalities in 13 LAC countries, five of which are included in the Countdown (Bolivia, Brazil, Guatemala, Haiti, and Peru and eight that are not (Belize, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Guyana, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Suriname. The outcomes included neonatal and under-5 year mortality rates, child stunting prevalence, and the composite coverage index-a weighted average of eight indicators of coverage in reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health. The slope index of inequality and concentration index were used to assess absolute and relative inequalities. RESULTS: The composite coverage index showed monotonic patterns over wealth quintiles, with lowest levels in the poorest quintile. Under-5 and neonatal mortality as well as stunting prevalence were highest among the poor. In most countries, intervention coverage increased, while under-5 mortality and stunting prevalence fell most rapidly among the poor, so that inequalities were reduced over time. However, Bolivia, Guatemala, Haiti, Nicaragua, and Peru still show marked inequalities. Brazil has practically eliminated inequalities in stunting. CONCLUSIONS: LAC countries presented substantial progress in terms of reducing inequalities in reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health interventions, child mortality, and nutrition. However, the poorest 20% of the population in most countries is still lagging behind, and renewed actions are needed to improve equity.

  2. Using a Two-Step Method to Measure Transgender Identity in Latin America/the Caribbean, Portugal, and Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisner, Sari L.; Biello, Katie; Rosenberger, Joshua G.; Austin, S. Bryn; Haneuse, Sebastien; Perez-Brumer, Amaya; Novak, David S.; Mimiaga, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Few comparative data are available internationally to examine health differences by transgender identity. A barrier to monitoring the health and well-being of transgender people is the lack of inclusion of measures to assess natal sex/gender identity status in surveys. Data were from a cross-sectional anonymous online survey of members (n > 36,000) of a sexual networking website targeting men who have sex with men in Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking countries/ territories in Latin America/the Caribbean, Portugal, and Spain. Natal sex/gender identity status was assessed using a two-step method (Step 1: assigned birth sex, Step 2: current gender identity). Male-to-female (MTF) and female-to-male (FTM) participants were compared to non-transgender males in age-adjusted regression models on socioeconomic status (SES) (education, income, sex work), masculine gender conformity, psychological health and well-being (lifetime suicidality, past-week depressive distress, positive self-worth, general self-rated health, gender related stressors), and sexual health (HIV-infection, past-year STIs, past-3 month unprotected anal or vaginal sex). The two-step method identified 190 transgender participants (0.54%; 158 MTF, 32 FTM). Of the 12 health-related variables, six showed significant differences between the three groups: SES, masculine gender conformity, lifetime suicidality, depressive distress, positive self-worth, and past-year genital herpes. A two-step approach is recommended for health surveillance efforts to assess natal sex/gender identity status. Cognitive testing to formally validate assigned birth sex and current gender identity survey items in Spanish and Portuguese is encouraged. PMID:25030120

  3. [Animal production and animal health and their relationship with veterinary public health in Latin America and the Caribbean].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas Olascoaga, R; Rosenberg, F J; Astudillo, V M

    1991-12-01

    The authors analyse the relationships which exist, in terms of programmes, sectors and institutions, between animal health, animal production and veterinary public health on the one hand, and between each of these three sectors and public health in general on the other. The most important common factor is food safety. Undernutrition, which affects some 60 million inhabitants of Latin America and the Caribbean, is still the most important public health problem in this part of the world. While it is known that the major cause of undernutrition is the low gross domestic product and uneven distribution of wealth, increased animal production and productivity would provide the key to an improvement in the situation. The concept of animal health, in its broadest sense, implies optimum animal production in a given region and during a specified period of time. Veterinary public health has functions and objectives which are crucial for food safety: protection and hygiene of foods, and control of the use in animal production of substances toxic to human beings (such as heavy metals, hormones and insecticides). Within the area of transmissible diseases, the authors discuss control measures for zoonoses. Besides the specific subject of interdisciplinary relationships in regard to zoonoses, the authors stress the importance of joint work conducted in the research, development and implementation of laboratory diagnostic activities and the production and quality control of antigens and vaccines. The production of laboratory animals is another sphere of common activity and research, and it cannot be said that such work is specific to any one of the three disciplines. Moreover, the fields of health, animal health and veterinary public health share the same methods and strategies, and reciprocal benefits could be more significant than the objectives of individual programmes. Reference is made to the organisation of state services and their adaptation to administrative de

  4. Progress in reducing inequalities in reproductive, maternal, newborn,' and child health in Latin America and the Caribbean: an unfinished agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo-Méndez, María Clara; Barros, Aluísio J D; Requejo, Jennifer; Durán, Pablo; Serpa, Luis Andrés de Francisco; França, Giovanny V A; Wehrmeister, Fernando C; Victora, Cesar G

    2015-07-01

    To expand the "Countdown to 2015" analyses of health inequalities beyond the 75 countries being monitored worldwide to include all countries in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) that have adequate data available. Demographic and Health Surveys and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys were used to monitor progress in health intervention coverage and inequalities in 13 LAC countries, five of which are included in the Countdown (Bolivia, Brazil, Guatemala, Haiti, and Peru) and eight that are not (Belize, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Guyana, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Suriname). The outcomes included neonatal and under-5 year mortality rates, child stunting prevalence, and the composite coverage index-a weighted average of eight indicators of coverage in reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health. The slope index of inequality and concentration index were used to assess absolute and relative inequalities. The composite coverage index showed monotonic patterns over wealth quintiles, with lowest levels in the poorest quintile. Under-5 and neonatal mortality as well as stunting prevalence were highest among the poor. In most countries, intervention coverage increased, while under-5 mortality and stunting prevalence fell most rapidly among the poor, so that inequalities were reduced over time. However, Bolivia, Guatemala, Haiti, Nicaragua, and Peru still show marked inequalities. Brazil has practically eliminated inequalities in stunting. LAC countries presented substantial progress in terms of reducing inequalities in reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health interventions, child mortality, and nutrition. However, the poorest 20% of the population in most countries is still lagging behind, and renewed actions are needed to improve equity.

  5. Bibliometric assessment of the contributions of literature on Chagas disease in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Osorio, Nathalia; Vera-Polania, Felipe; Lopez-Isaza, Andres F; Martinez-Pulgarin, Dayron F; Murillo-Abadia, Jonathan; Munoz-Urbano, Marcela; Cardona-Ospina, Jaime A; Bello, Ricardo; Lagos-Grisales, Guillermo J; Villegas-Rojas, Soraya; Rodriguez-Morales, Alfonso J

    2014-01-01

    Chagas disease, considered a parasitic neglected disease, is endemic in Latin America. Although, its mortality rate has decreased over time, it still represents a public health problem in the region. A bibliometric evaluation of the Latin American contributions on this disease was done. This study used SCI (1980-2013), MEDLINE/GOPUBMED (1802-2013), Scopus (1959-2013), SCIELO (2004-2013), and LILACS (1980-2013). Different study types have been characterized by years, origin city/country, journals and most productive authors, by country, cites and H-index. 2988 articles were retrieved from SCI (30.85% of total). Brazil was found to be the highest producer (31.22%), followed by Argentina (18.14%) and México (9.57%); the region received 47241 citations, 28.60% for Brazil (H-index=52), 18.26% of Argentina (Hindex= 43), 11.40% Bolivia (H-index=37). 4484 were retrieved from Scopus (30.20% of the total), 38.58% of which were from Brazil, 12.40% from Argentina and 8.90% from Mexico. From Medline, 6647 records were retrieved (45.58% Brazil). From SciELO, 917 articles (47.66% Brazil). From LILACS, 2165 articles (60.05% Brazil). Brazil has the highest output in the region. Despite advances in controlling Chagas disease, scientific production is low, particularly for regional bibliographic databases, which calls for more research on this disease.

  6. First record of the polychaete Ficopomatus uschakovi (Pillai, 1960 (Annelida, Serpulidae in the Colombian Caribbean, South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Arteaga-Florez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Ficopomatus (Serpulidae consists of sessile, tubicolous polychaete annelid worms that may colonize a diversity of substrata, and tolerate considerable variations in salinity. Thus, members of this genus, including Ficopomatus uschakovi, in some cases are exotic and maybe invasive. The purpose of our research was to collect and identify marine organisms associated with the submerged roots of mangrove trees in the Gulf of Urabá, Colombian Caribbean, South America. Within the Gulf, there is a well-developed forest of the Red Mangrove, Rhizophora mangle, along the margins of El Uno Bay. We sampled the roots of R. mangle from five stations of the bay, and we identified specimens of F. uschakovi from each of those stations. Ficopomatus uschakovi was found to be more abundant in regions of the bay that exhibit the lowest salinity. Based on a morphological comparison of the present specimens with the original species description, revised descriptions, and other records from the Indo-West Pacific, Mexican Pacific, and Venezuelan and Brazilian Caribbean, we suggest that F. uschakovi has a broader geographical distribution. Furthermore, because of this broad distribution, and the observed tolerance for low salinity in our study, we also suggest that F. uschakovi is a euryhaline species. It is also likely that F. uschakovi will be found in other localities in the Gulf of Urabá, and in other regions of the Colombian Caribbean. Thus, this record extends the distribution of the species to the Colombian Caribbean, giving the species a continuous distribution across the northern coast of South America.

  7. The spatial pattern and dominant drivers of woody cover change in Latin America and Caribbean from 2001 to 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, M.; Aide, T.; Riner, G.; Redo, D.; Grau, H.; Bonilla-Moheno, M.; Lopez-Carr, D.; Levy, M.

    2011-12-01

    Change in woody vegetation (i.e., forests, shrublands) is a major component of global environmental change: it directly affects biodiversity, the global carbon budget, and ecosystem function. For several decades, remote sensing technology has been used to document deforestation in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), although mostly at local to regional scales (e.g., moist forests of the Amazon basin). Most studies have focused on forest loss, some local-scale studies have mapped forest recovery, with contrasting forest dynamics attributed to shifting demographic and socio-economic factors. For example, local population change (rural-urban migration) can stimulate forest recovery on abandoned land, while increasing global food demand may drive regional expansion of mechanized agriculture. However, there are no studies in LAC that simultaneously map both loss and gain in woody vegetation at continental, national, and municipality scales with consistent data sources, methods and accuracy; and thus, we lack a comprehensive assessment of the spatial distribution of woody vegetation change and the relative importance of the multi-scale drivers of this change. We overcame this limitation by producing annual land-cover maps between 2001 and 2010 for each of the >16,000 municipalities in LAC. We focused on mapping municipality-scale trends in three broad classes: woody vegetation, mixed woody/plantations, and agriculture/herbaceous vegetation. Our area estimates show that woody vegetation change during the past decade was dominated by deforestation, or loss (-541,830 km2), particularly in the Amazon basin moist forest and the tropical-subtropical Cerrado and Chaco ecoregions, where large swaths of forest have been transformed to pastures and agricultural lands. Extensive areas (362,431 km2) in LAC also gained woody vegetation, particularly in regions too dry or too steep for modern agriculture, including the desert/xeric shrub biome in NE Brazil and northern Mexico, the

  8. The HC-LAC: a Platform for Modeling Hydrology and Climate Change in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreda, F.; Wyatt, A.; Bruhn, M.; Wheaton, W.; Miralles-Wilhelm, F.; Muñoz-Castillo, R.; Rineer, J.

    2013-05-01

    This platform, called the Hydrology and Climate Change in Latin America and The Caribbean, or "HC-LAC", is an integrated quantitative simulation of hydrology and climate change. The HC-LAC is composed of two principal components: the Analytical Hydrography Dataset (AHD) and an enhanced version of the Generalized Watershed Loading Function (GWLF). The AHD is a spatially explicit surface water data layer of Central and South America derived from digital elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and modified by the USGS to provide more accurate flow between cells in the raster data. For the LAC area, AHD consists 230, 000 catchments and stream segments with an average area of 100 km2 and length of 10 km, respectively. The AHD data structure is patterned after the US National Hydrography Dataset Plus (NHDPlus), thus providing a proven structure for flexible data integration and analyses necessary for spatial models like the HC-LAC. The structure of the AHD enables the implementation of water balance modeling and general routing of flows through the stream network thus supporting a range of environmental models. GWLF is applied on each AHD catchment which is characterized by multiple land use and soil type. The response of each land use in a given catchment is modeled separately in generating stream flow as well as recharge to soil storage. The stream flows generated from each catchment are routed through stream networks, providing total flow at any point in the stream network. A pilot implementation of the HC-LAC was established for the Rio Grande basin in North West Argentina (drainage area 6,700 km2). The model was parameterized and calibrated using readily available data. Three stream flow time series were generated using a reference climate case and two climate change projections. The reference case was based on historical records and assumes no climate change. The two climate change projections were generated using the IPCC "A2" high

  9. Emergent and Reemergent Arboviruses in South America and the Caribbean: Why So Many and Why Now?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcondes, Carlos Brisola; Contigiani, Marta; Gleiser, Raquel Miranda

    2017-05-01

    Varios arbovirus han emergido y/o reemergido en el Nuevo Mundo en las últimas décadas. Los virus Zika y chikungunya, anteriormente restringidos a África y quizás Asia, invadieron el continente, causando gran preocupación; además siguen ocurriendo brotes causados por el virus dengue en casi todos los países, con millones de casos por año. El virus West Nile invadió rápidamente América del Norte, y ya se han encontrado casos en América Central y del Sur. Otros arbovirus, como Mayaro y el virus de la encefalitis equina del este han aumentado su actividad y se han encontrado en nuevas regiones. Se han documentado cambios en la patogenicidad de algunos virus que conducen a enfermedades inesperadas. Una fauna diversa de mosquitos, cambios climáticos y en la vegetación, aumento de los viajes, y urbanizaciones no planificadas que generan condiciones adecuadas para la proliferación de Aedes aegypti (L.), Culex quinquefasciatus Say y otros mosquitos vectores, se han combinado para influir fuertemente en los cambios en la distribución y la incidencia de varios arbovirus. Se enfatiza la necesidad de realizar estudios exhaustivos de la fauna de mosquitos y modificaciones de las condiciones ambientales, sobre todo en las zonas urbanas fuertemente influenciadas por factores sociales, políticos y económicos. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. The Role of Long-Term Tectonic Deformation on the Distribution of Present-Day Seismic Activity in the Caribbean and Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schobelock, J.; Stamps, D. S.; Pagani, M.; Garcia, J.; Styron, R. H.

    2017-12-01

    The Caribbean and Central America region (CCAR) undergoes the entire spectrum of earthquake types due to its complex tectonic setting comprised of transform zones, young oceanic spreading ridges, and subductions along its eastern and western boundaries. CCAR is, therefore, an ideal setting in which to study the impacts of long-term tectonic deformation on the distribution of present-day seismic activity. In this work, we develop a continuous tectonic strain rate model based on inter-seismic geodetic data and compare it with known active faults and earthquake focal mechanism data. We first create a 0.25o x 0.25o finite element mesh that is comprised of block geometries defined in previously studies. Second, we isolate and remove transient signals from the latest open access community velocity solution from UNAVCO, which includes 339 velocities from COCONet and TLALOCNet GNSS data for the Caribbean and Central America, respectively. In a third step we define zones of deformation and rigidity by creating a buffer around the boundary of each block that varies depending on the size of the block and the expected deformation zone based on locations of GNSS data that are consistent with rigid block motion. We then assign each node within the buffer a 0 for the deforming areas and a plate index outside the buffer for the rigid. Finally, we calculate a tectonic strain rate model for CCAR using the Haines and Holt finite element approach to fit bi-cubic Bessel splines to the the GNSS/GPS data assuming block rotation for zones of rigidity. Our model of the CCAR is consistent with compression along subduction zones, extension across the mid-Pacific Rise, and a combination of compression and extension across the North America - Caribbean plate boundary. The majority of CCAR strain rate magnitudes range from -60 to 60 nanostrains/yr. Modeling results are then used to calculate expected faulting behaviors that we compare with mapped geologic faults and seismic activity.

  11. Using Increases in Criminal Deportees from the US to Estimate the Effect of Crime on Economic Growth and Development in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garfield O. Blake

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous empirical studies have uncovered little evidence that crime hinders development, possibly due to simultaneity problems. This paper uses the increase in criminal deportees from the US as an instrumental variable to identify the causal effect of crime on economic growth and development. An increase in the number of criminal deportees received by a country is shown to substantially increase that country’s homicide rate. Using panel data for a sample of 30 Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC countries, I show that the increase in crime is becoming a major obstacle to growth and development in the region.

  12. Detecting and Treating Cervical Cancer Using Diagnostic Imaging Techniques and Radiotherapy. IAEA Support to Latin America and the Caribbean (Spanish Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixit, Aabha

    2016-01-01

    The diagnosis and treatment of cervical cancer are an important area of cooperation in the field of human health between Member States in the Latin America and the Caribbean region and the IAEA. Nuclear medicine and radiation therapy offer rapid diagnosis and effective treatment for various types of cancer. Cervical cancer is usually curable if caught early and treated. Member States in the region have shown a very strong commitment to enhancing access to radiation oncology and to assuring the quality of treatment. Many are focusing on education and training and the modernization of clinical infrastructure in national institutions responsible for health care and services.

  13. Human immunodeficiency virus, AIDS, and drug consumption in South America and the Caribbean: epidemiological evidence and initiatives to curb the epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Mariana A; Malta, Monica; Enriquez, Melissa; Bastos, Francisco I

    2005-01-01

    The paper reviews data on drug use in relation to the spread of human immunodeficiency virus and AIDS in South America and the Caribbean. Information was gathered by thoroughly reviewing major bibliographic databanks, web sites of international institutions and regional networks working with substance misuse or human immunodeficiency virus and AIDS, and abstracts from conferences and meetings. Although some gaps remain, a growing body of evidence documents the significant role of injected cocaine in the Brazilian and Southern Cone epidemics. The Caribbean and the Andean areas have thus far been spared in large part from the spread of injection drug use and its consequences, but the situation has been changing in Southern Cone countries towards a higher prevalence of harmful injection habits. Additional challenges have been posed by the increasing availability of heroin in the Andean Area and the abuse of crack cocaine and its impact on the sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus in many cities. Harm reduction strategies have been established in most areas of Brazil and are gaining momentum in Argentina. Other countries in the Region still face serious limitations due to restrictive legislation and lack of broader support. Greater participation of Latin American and Caribbean countries in research protocols and continued debate on both successful and failed experiences should be encouraged in order to minimize existing barriers to the full adoption of effective measures to curb the human immunodeficiency virus and AIDS epidemic in this Region.

  14. Multidsciplinary Approaches to Coastal Adaptation - Aplying Machine Learning Techniques to assess coastal risk in Latin America and The Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calil, J.

    2016-12-01

    The global population, currently at 7.3 billion, is increasing by nearly 230,000 people every day. As the world's population grows to an estimated 11.2 billion by 2100, the number of people living in low elevation areas, exposed to coastal hazards, is continuing to increase. In 2013, 22 million people were displaced by extreme weather events, with 37 events displacing at least 100,000 people each. Losses from natural disasters and disaster risk are determined by a complex interaction between physical hazards and the vulnerability of a society or social-ecological system, and its exposure to such hazards. Impacts from coastal hazards depend on the number of people, value of assets, and presence of critical resources in harm's way. Moreover, coastal risks are amplified by challenging socioeconomic dynamics, including ill-advised urban development, income inequality, and poverty level. Our results demonstrate that in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), more than half a million people live in areas where coastal hazards, exposure (of people, assets and ecosystems), and poverty converge, creating the ideal conditions for a perfect storm. In order to identify the population at greatest risk to coastal hazards in LAC, and in response to a growing demand for multidisciplinary coastal adaptation approaches, this study employs a combination of machine learning clustering techniques (K-Means and Self Organizing Maps), and a spatial index, to assess coastal risks on a comparative scale. Data for more than 13,000 coastal locations in LAC were collected and allocated into three categories: (1) Coastal Hazards (including storm surge, wave energy and El Niño); (2) Geographic Exposure (including population, agriculture, and ecosystems); and (3) Vulnerability (including income inequality, infant mortality rate and malnutrition). This study identified hotspots of coastal vulnerability, the key drivers of coastal risk at each geographic location. Our results provide important

  15. Research on Biodiversity and Climate Change at a Distance: Collaboration Networks between Europe and Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangles, Olivier; Loirat, Jean; Freour, Claire; Serre, Sandrine; Vacher, Jean; Le Roux, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Biodiversity loss and climate change are both globally significant issues that must be addressed through collaboration across countries and disciplines. With the December 2015 COP21 climate conference in Paris and the recent creation of the Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES), it has become critical to evaluate the capacity for global research networks to develop at the interface between biodiversity and climate change. In the context of the European Union (EU) strategy to stand as a world leader in tackling global challenges, the European Commission has promoted ties between the EU and Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) in science, technology and innovation. However, it is not clear how these significant interactions impact scientific cooperation at the interface of biodiversity and climate change. We looked at research collaborations between two major regions-the European Research Area (ERA) and LAC-that addressed both biodiversity and climate change. We analysed the temporal evolution of these collaborations, whether they were led by ERA or LAC teams, and which research domains they covered. We surveyed publications listed on the Web of Science that were authored by researchers from both the ERA and LAC and that were published between 2003 and 2013. We also run similar analyses on other topics and other continents to provide baseline comparisons. Our results revealed a steady increase in scientific co-authorships between ERA and LAC countries as a result of the increasingly complex web of relationships that has been weaved among scientists from the two regions. The ERA-LAC co-authorship increase for biodiversity and climate change was higher than those reported for other topics and for collaboration with other continents. We also found strong differences in international collaboration patterns within the LAC: co-publications were fewest from researchers in low- and lower-middle-income countries and most prevalent from

  16. NCD Prevention and Control in Latin America and the Caribbean: A Regional Approach to Policy and Program Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hospedales, C James; Barcelo, Alberto; Luciani, Silvana; Legetic, Branka; Ordunez, Pedro; Blanco, Adriana

    2012-03-01

    This article describes efforts from the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) that have supported progress in country-driven planning and implementing of actions to address noncommunicable diseases (NCD), as well as mechanisms that PAHO has supported for countries in the Americas to share and build on each other's experiences. The Regional Strategy and Plan of Action for NCD, approved by all member states in 2006, is the major frame for this work. The strategy has 4 lines of action: policy and advocacy; surveillance; health promotion and disease prevention; and integrated management of NCD and risk factors. Cross-cutting strategies include resource mobilization, communication, training, and networks and partnerships. The strategy is operationalized through biannual work plans for which countries link and commit to achieving specific objectives. PAHO then provides technical support toward achieving these plans, and countries report progress annually. The CARMEN (Collaborative Action for Risk Factor Prevention and Effective Management of NCD [Conjunto de Acciones para la Reducción y el Manejo de las Enfermedades No transmisibles]) Network provides a major platform for sharing, and the multisector Pan American Forum for Action on NCD has been launched to extend the network to include business and civil society. PAHO also supported civil society capacity building. Almost all member states have made substantial progress in implementing their national chronic disease programs, in most instances reporting exceeding the indicators of the strategic plan related to chronic diseases. From the Caribbean countries, leadership has been provided to achieve the historic UN High-Level Meeting on NCD in September 2011. The region is on track to meet the mortality reduction target set for 2013, though much remains to be done to further increase awareness of and resources for scaling up NCD prevention and control programs, given the huge health and economic burden, increasing costs

  17. Predictors of adverse pregnancy outcomes in women infected with HIV in Latin America and the Caribbean: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreitchmann, R; Li, S X; Melo, V H; Fernandes Coelho, D; Watts, D H; Joao, E; Coutinho, C M; Alarcon, J O; Siberry, G K

    2014-11-01

    To examine maternal characteristics associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes among women infected with HIV. Prospective cohort study. Multiple sites in Latin America and the Caribbean. Women infected with HIV enrolled in the Perinatal (2002-2007) and the Longitudinal Study in Latin American Countries (LILAC; 2008-2012) studies of the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) International Site Development Initiative (NISDI). Frequencies of adverse pregnancy outcomes assessed among pregnancies. Risk factors investigated by logistic regression analysis. Adverse pregnancy outcomes, including preterm delivery (PT), low birthweight (LBW), small for gestational age (SGA), stillbirth (SB), and neonatal death. Among 1512 women, 1.9% (95% confidence interval, 95% CI, 1.3-2.7) of singleton pregnancies resulted in a stillbirth and 32.9% (95% CI 30.6-35.4) had at least one adverse pregnancy outcome. Of 1483 singleton live births, 19.8% (95% CI 17.8-21.9) were PT, 14.2% (95% CI 12.5-16.1) were LBW, 12.6% (95% CI 10.9-14.4) were SGA, and 0.4% (95% CI 0.2-0.9) of infants died within 28 days of birth. Multivariable logistic regression modelling indicated that the following risk factors increased the probability of having one or more adverse pregnancy outcomes: lower maternal body mass index at delivery (odds ratio, OR, 2.2; 95% CI 1.4-3.5), hospitalisation during pregnancy (OR 3.3; 95% CI 2.0-5.3), hypertension during pregnancy (OR 2.7; 95% CI 1.5-4.8), antiretroviral use at conception (OR 1.4; 95% CI 1.0-1.9), and tobacco use during pregnancy (OR 1.7; 95% CI 1.3-2.2). The results of fitting multivariable logistic regression models for PT, LBW, SGA, and SB are also reported. Women infected with HIV had a relatively high occurrence of adverse pregnancy outcomes, and some maternal risk factors were associated with these adverse pregnancy outcomes. Interventions targeting modifiable risk factors should be evaluated further. © 2014

  18. Predictors of Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes in HIV infected Women in Latin America and the Caribbean: a Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreitchmann, Regis; Li, Su X.; Melo, Victor Hugo; Coelho, Debora Fernandes; Watts, D. Heather; Joao, Esau; Coutinho, Conrado Milani; Alarcon, Jorge O.; Siberry, George K.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine maternal characteristics associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes (APOs) among HIV-infected women. Design Prospective cohort study Setting Multiple sites in Latin America and the Caribbean Population First on-study pregnancy among HIV-1-infected women enrolled in NISDI (Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) International Site Development Initiative) Perinatal (2002–2007) and LILAC (2008–2012) studies. Methods Frequencies of APOs assessed among pregnancies. Risk factors investigated by logistic regression analysis. Main Outcome measures APOs including preterm delivery (PT), low birth weight (LBW), small for gestational age (SGA), stillbirth (SB) and neonatal death. Results Among 1512 women, 1.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3–2.7%) of singleton pregnancies resulted in a stillbirth and 32.9% (30.6–35.4%) had at least one APO. Of 1483 singleton live births, 19.8% (17.8–21.9%) were PT, 14.2% (12.5–16.1%) were LBW, 12.6% (10.9–14.4%) were SGA, and 0.4% (0.2–0.9%) of infants died within 28 days after birth. Multivariable logistic regression modeling indicated that the following risk factors increased the probability of having one or more APOs: lower maternal body mass index (odds ratio [OR]=2.2; 95% CI: 1.4–3.5) at delivery, hospitalization during pregnancy (OR=3.3; 95% CI: 2.0–5.3), hypertension during pregnancy (OR=2.7; 95% CI: 1.5–4.8), antiretroviral use at conception (OR=1.4; 95% CI: 1.0–1.9) and tobacco use during pregnancy (OR=1.7; 95% CI: 1.3–2.2). Results of fitting multivariable logistic regression models for PT, LBW, SGA and SB are also reported. Conclusions HIV-infected women had relatively high occurrence of APOs and some maternal risk factors were associated with these APOs. Interventions targeting modifiable risk factors should be evaluated further. PMID:24602102

  19. Systematic Review of Breast Cancer Biology in Developing Countries (Part 1): Africa, the Middle East, Eastern Europe, Mexico, the Caribbean and South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhikoo, Riyaz; Srinivasa, Sanket; Yu, Tzu-Chieh; Moss, David; Hill, Andrew G

    2011-01-01

    There has been no systematic appraisal of ethnicity-based variations in breast cancer (BC) biology amongst women from developing countries. A qualitative systematic review was conducted of breast cancer size, stage, grade, histological type, extra-mammary involvement, hormone receptor status as well as patient demographics. This review includes patients from Africa, the Middle East, Eastern Europe, Mexico, the Caribbean and South America. BC in these regions present at an earlier age with large aggressive tumours. Distant metastases are frequently present at the time of diagnosis. African women have a higher frequency of triple negative tumours. Over half of Middle Eastern women have lymph node involvement at the time of diagnosis. Despite experiencing a lower incidence compared to the Ashkenazi Jewish population, Palestinian women have poorer five-year survival outcomes. The majority of women from Mexico and South America have stage two or three disease whilst over sixty percent of women from Eastern Europe have either stage one or stage two disease. The biological characteristics of BC in the Caribbean cannot be fully assessed due to a paucity of data from the region. BC amongst the developing world is characterised by an early peak age of onset with aggressive biological characteristics. Strategies that improve breast cancer awareness, address amenable risk factors and improve early detection are essential

  20. The growth of transport cector CO2 emissions and underlying factors in Latin America and the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Timilsina, Govinda R.; Shrestha, Ashish

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the factors responsible for the growth of transport sector carbon dioxide emissions in 20 Latin American and Caribbean countries during 1980-2005 by decomposing the emissions growth into components associated with changes in fuel mix, modal shift, and economic growth, as well as changes in emission coefficients and transportation energy intensity. The key finding of the...

  1. Suspended sediment load in northwestern South America (Colombia): A new view on variability and fluxes into the Caribbean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo López, Juan Camilo; Orejarena R, Andrés F.; Torregroza, Ana Carolina

    2017-12-01

    Monthly averaged suspended sediment load data from seven rivers in northern Colombia (Caribbean alluvial plain) draining into the Caribbean Sea were analyzed to quantify magnitudes, estimate long-term trends, and evaluate variability patterns of suspended sediment load. Collectively these rivers deliver an average of around 146.3 × 106 t yr-1 of suspended sediments to the Colombian Caribbean coast. The largest sediment supply is provided by the Magdalena River, with a mean suspended sediment load of 142.6 × 106 t yr-1, or 38% of the total fluvial discharge estimated for the whole Caribbean littoral zone. Between 2000 and 2010, the annual suspended sediment load of these rivers increased by as much as 36%. Wavelet spectral analyses identified periods of intense variability between 1987-1990 and 1994-2002, where major oscillation processes appeared simultaneously. The semi-annual, annual and quasi-decadal bands are the main factors controlling suspended sediment load variability in fluvial systems, whereas the quasi-biennial and interannual bands constitute second-order sources of variability. The climatic and oceanographic drivers of the oscillations identified through wavelet spectral analyses define a signal of medium-long-term variability for the suspended sediment load, while the physiographic and environmental characteristics of the basins determine their ability to magnify, attenuate or modify this signal.

  2. Mortality and loss to follow-up among HIV-infected persons on long-term antiretroviral therapy in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carriquiry, Gabriela; Fink, Valeria; Koethe, John Robert; Giganti, Mark Joseph; Jayathilake, Karu; Blevins, Meridith; Cahn, Pedro; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Wolff, Marcelo; Pape, Jean William; Padgett, Denis; Madero, Juan Sierra; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; McGowan, Catherine Carey; Shepherd, Bryan Earl

    2015-01-01

    Long-term survival of HIV patients after initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy (ART) has not been sufficiently described in Latin America and the Caribbean, as compared to other regions. The aim of this study was to describe the incidence of mortality, loss to follow-up (LTFU) and associated risk factors for patients enrolled in the Caribbean, Central and South America Network (CCASAnet). We assessed time from ART initiation (baseline) to death or LTFU between 2000 and 2014 among ART-naïve adults (≥18 years) from sites in seven countries included in CCASAnet: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico and Peru. Kaplan-Meier techniques were used to estimate the probability of mortality over time. Risk factors for death were assessed using Cox regression models stratified by site and adjusted for sex, baseline age, nadir pre-ART CD4 count, calendar year of ART initiation, clinical AIDS at baseline and type of ART regimen. A total of 16,996 ART initiators were followed for a median of 3.5 years (interquartile range (IQR): 1.6-6.2). The median age at ART initiation was 36 years (IQR: 30-44), subjects were predominantly male (63%), median CD4 count was 156 cells/µL (IQR: 60-251) and 26% of subjects had clinical AIDS prior to starting ART. Initial ART regimens were predominantly non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor based (86%). The cumulative incidence of LTFU five years after ART initiation was 18.2% (95% confidence interval (CI) 17.5-18.8%). A total of 1582 (9.3%) subjects died; the estimated probability of death one, three and five years after ART initiation was 5.4, 8.3 and 10.3%, respectively. The estimated five-year mortality probability varied substantially across sites, from 3.5 to 14.0%. Risk factors for death were clinical AIDS at baseline (adjusted hazard ratio (HR)=1.65 (95% CI 1.47-1.87); pLatin America and the Caribbean, overall estimates of mortality were heterogeneous, generally falling between those reported in high

  3. Programmes, resources, and needs of HIV-prevention nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in Africa, Central/Eastern Europe and Central Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, J A; Somlai, A M; Benotsch, E G; Amirkhanian, Y A; Fernandez, M I; Stevenson, L Y; Sitzler, C A; McAuliffe, T L; Brown, K D; Opgenorth, K M

    2006-01-01

    This study assessed the programmes, resources, and needs of HIV-prevention nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in 75 countries in Africa, Central/Eastern Europe and Central Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean. Multiple databases and expert recommendations were used to identify one major HIV-prevention NGO in the capital or a large city in each country, and in-depth interviews were conducted with each NGO Director. Most NGOs are carrying out their programmes with minimal funding and few regularly employed personnel. Most are highly dependent on international donors, but reliance on small grants with short funding periods limits programme development capacity. HIV-prevention activities varied by region, with African NGOs most likely to use peer education and community awareness events; Eastern European NGOs most likely to offer needle exchange; Latin American NGOs to have resource centres and offer risk reduction programmes; and Caribbean organizations to use mass education approaches. Across regions, NGOs most often targeted the general public and youth, although specialized at-risk groups were the additional focus of attention in some regions. Limited funding, governmental indifference or opposition, AIDS stigma, and social discomfort discussing sex were often cited as barriers to new HIV-prevention programmes. NGOs are critical service providers. However, their funding, programmes, and resource capacities must be strengthened if NGOs are to realize their full potential in HIV prevention.

  4. The neglected tropical diseases of Latin America and the Caribbean: a review of disease burden and distribution and a roadmap for control and elimination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Hotez

    Full Text Available The neglected tropical diseases (NTDs represent some of the most common infections of the poorest people living in the Latin American and Caribbean region (LAC. Because they primarily afflict the disenfranchised poor as well as selected indigenous populations and people of African descent, the NTDs in LAC are largely forgotten diseases even though their collective disease burden may exceed better known conditions such as of HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, or malaria. Based on their prevalence and healthy life years lost from disability, hookworm infection, other soil-transmitted helminth infections, and Chagas disease are the most important NTDs in LAC, followed by dengue, schistosomiasis, leishmaniasis, trachoma, leprosy, and lymphatic filariasis. On the other hand, for some important NTDs, such as leptospirosis and cysticercosis, complete disease burden estimates are not available. The NTDs in LAC geographically concentrate in 11 different sub-regions, each with a distinctive human and environmental ecology. In the coming years, schistosomiasis could be eliminated in the Caribbean and transmission of lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis could be eliminated in Latin America. However, the highest disease burden NTDs, such as Chagas disease, soil-transmitted helminth infections, and hookworm and schistosomiasis co-infections, may first require scale-up of existing resources or the development of new control tools in order to achieve control or elimination. Ultimately, the roadmap for the control and elimination of the more widespread NTDs will require an inter-sectoral approach that bridges public health, social services, and environmental interventions.

  5. Interventions Using Regular Activities to Engage High-Risk School-Age Youth: a Review of After-School Programs in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cid, Alejandro

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, I review an issue that is an urgent challenge in the development field-the effectiveness of after-school programs for preventing school-age youth violence in vulnerable settings in Latin American and the Caribbean. These programs have proliferated in the region and include sports, recreation, music, tutoring, and other focused activities. Given their popularity and because they target known risk factors for violence (such as drop-out from school, poor academic performance, lack of motivation, too much idle time, low quality and quantity of adult supervision, and social isolation), it is critical to examine empirically whether they can be effective prevention strategies. Unfortunately, most rigorous trials of after-school interventions to prevent youth violence have been conducted in developed countries, with far fewer in Latin America. In this review, a broad range of databases was searched systematically. Only six studies in five Latin American and Caribbean countries were identified. Reported results indicate at least some benefits for youth behavior, although not across all youth. Additional concerns regarding how these programs are implemented and whether specific components can be tied to violence prevention are noted. The need for more rigorous evaluation of these programs is noted.

  6. Hispanic Latin America, Spain and the Spanish-speaking Caribbean: a rich source of reference material for public health, epidemiology and tropical medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, John R; Bórquez, Annick; Basáñez, María-Gloria

    2008-09-30

    There is a multiplicity of journals originating in Spain and the Spanish-speaking countries of Latin America and the Caribbean (SSLAC) in the health sciences of relevance to the fields of epidemiology and public health. While the subject matter of epidemiology in Spain shares many features with its neighbours in Western Europe, many aspects of epidemiology in Latin America are particular to that region. There are also distinctive theoretical and philosophical approaches to the study of epidemiology and public health arising from traditions such as the Latin American social medicine movement, of which there may be limited awareness. A number of online bibliographic databases are available which focus primarily on health sciences literature arising in Spain and Latin America, the most prominent being Literatura Latinoamericana en Ciencias de la Salud (LILACS) and LATINDEX. Some such as LILACS also extensively index grey literature. As well as in Spanish, interfaces are provided in English and Portuguese. Abstracts of articles may also be provided in English with an increasing number of journals beginning to publish entire articles written in English. Free full text articles are becoming accessible, one of the most comprehensive sources being the Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO). There is thus an extensive range of literature originating in Spain and SSLAC freely identifiable and often accessible online, and with the potential to provide useful inputs to the study of epidemiology and public health provided that any reluctance to explore these resources can be overcome. In this article we provide an introduction to such resources.

  7. Women's Economic Empowerment in Latin America and the Caribbean : Policy Lessons from the World Bank Gender Action Plan

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    Group s gender action plan (GAP) trust fund has financed a series of programs to promote gender equality by empowering women to compete in key markets: land, labor, agriculture, finance and the private sector. Work and family: Latin American and the Caribbean women in search of a new balance offer new analysis of how household decision-making and allocation of resources affects female labo...

  8. Freshwater discharge into the Caribbean Sea from the rivers of Northwestern South America (Colombia): Magnitude, variability and recent changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, Juan Camilo; Ortíz, Juan Carlos; Pierini, Jorge; Schrottke, Kerstin; Maza, Mauro; Otero, Luís; Aguirre, Julián

    2014-02-01

    The monthly averaged freshwater discharge data from ten rivers in northern Colombia (Caribbean alluvial plain) draining into the Caribbean Sea were analysed to quantify the magnitudes, to estimate long-term trends, and to evaluate the variability of discharge patterns. These rivers deliver ∼340.9 km3 yr-1 of freshwater to the Caribbean Sea. The largest freshwater supply is provided by the Magdalena River, with a mean discharge of 205.1 km3 yr-1 at Calamar, which is 26% of the total fluvial discharge into this basin. From 2000 to 2010, the annual streamflow of these rivers increased as high as 65%, and upward trends in statistical significance were found for the Mulatos, Canal del Dique, Magdalena, and Fundación Rivers. The concurrence of major oscillation processes and the maximum power of the 3-7 year band fluctuation defined a period of intense hydrological activity from approximately 1998-2002. The wavelet spectrum highlighted a change in the variability patterns of fluvial systems between 2000 and 2010 characterised by a shift towards a quasi-decadal process (8-12 years) domain. The Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), El Niño - Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events, and quasi-decadal climate processes are the main factors controlling the fluvial discharge variability of these fluvial systems.

  9. Incidence of virological failure and major regimen change of initial combination antiretroviral therapy in the Latin America and the Caribbean: an observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesar, Carina; Jenkins, Cathy A; Shepherd, Bryan E; Padgett, Denis; Mejía, Fernando; Ribeiro, Sayonara Rocha; Cortes, Claudia P; Pape, Jean W; Madero, Juan Sierra; Fink, Valeria; Sued, Omar; McGowan, Catherine; Cahn, Pedro

    2015-11-01

    Access to combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) is expanding in Latin America (Mexico, Central America, and South America) and the Caribbean. We assessed the incidence of and factors associated with regimen failure and regimen change of initial ART in this region. This observational cohort study included antiretroviral-naive adults starting ART from 2000 to 2014 at sites in seven countries throughout Latin America and the Caribbean. Primary outcomes were time from ART initiation until virological failure, major regimen modification, and a composite endpoint of the first of virological failure or major regimen modification. Cumulative incidence of the primary outcomes was estimated with death considered a competing event. 14,027 patients starting ART were followed up for a median of 3.9 years (2.0-6.5): 8374 (60%) men, median age 37 years (IQR 30-44), median CD4 count 156 cells per μL (61-253), median plasma HIV RNA 5.0 log10 copies per mL (4.4-5.4), and 3567 (28%) had clinical AIDS. 1719 (12%) patients had virological failure and 1955 (14%) had a major regimen change. Excluding the site in Haiti, which did not regularly measure HIV RNA, cumulative incidence of virological failure was 7.8% (95% CI 7.2-8.5) 1 year after ART initiation, 19.2% (18.2-20.2) at 3 years, and 25.8% (24.6-27.0) at 5 years; cumulative incidence of major regimen change was 5.9% (5.3-6.4) at 1 year, 12.7% (11.9-13.5) at 3 years, and 18.2% (17.2-19.2) at 5 years. Incidence of major regimen change at the site in Haiti was 10.7% (95% CI 9.7-11.6) at 5 years. Virological failure was associated with younger age (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 2.03, 95% CI 1.68-2.44, for 20 years vs 40 years), infection through injection drug use (vs infection through heterosexual sex; 1.60, 1.02-2.52), and initiation in earlier calendar years (1.28, 1.13-1.46, for 2002 vs 2006), but was not significantly associated with boosted protease inhibitor-based regimens (vs non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor; 1

  10. The false promises of the (second Washington consensus: evidence from Latin America and the Caribbean (1990-2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Berr

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is twofold. Firstly, we show how, and to what extent, Latin American and Caribbean countries applied the precepts of the second Washington consensus, i.e. a consensus which stresses the capital account liberalization. Secondly, we highlight the effects of this set of reforms on their economies. Thus, we show that countries having most scrupulously followed these recommendations did not experience better economic results. On the contrary, their situation as regards inequality and debt is getting worse than others.

  11. Convergence and divergence in the strategy on the world drug problem between the European Union and Latin America and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Ayuso

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The world drug problem has become a vital subject in the political dialogue and cooperation between the European Union and Latin America and the Caribbean. International relations in this regard are based on the principle of shared responsibility, which has been enshrined on the most relevant international instruments, and its focus areas have been extending from approaches related to security to others such as alternative development and health and prevention social policies. The approaches and views of countries and actors involved have been converging, and they are also determined by multiple strategies that come from the United Nations and multilateral treaties, the OAS, anti-drug European strategies and sub-regional strategies that have been created in the Andean area and South America. Coordination of programs and operations is difficult since cooperation is very fragmented and also due to the existence of ideological approaches that either favor prohibition or argue for decriminalization and the total or partial regulation of its production and distribution. Such differences were visible in the UN General Assembly Special Session on Drugs that was held in April 2016, which hindered significant progress of the international agenda on drugs.

  12. Knowledge and perceived implementation of food safety risk analysis framework in Latin America and the Caribbean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, C; Mohr, A Hofelich; Lindsay, T; Diez-Gonzalez, F; Hueston, W; Sampedro, F

    2014-12-01

    Risk analysis is increasingly promoted as a tool to support science-based decisions regarding food safety. An online survey comprising 45 questions was used to gather information on the implementation of food safety risk analysis within the Latin American and Caribbean regions. Professionals working in food safety in academia, government, and private sectors in Latin American and Caribbean countries were contacted by email and surveyed to assess their individual knowledge of risk analysis and perceptions of its implementation in the region. From a total of 279 participants, 97% reported a familiarity with risk analysis concepts; however, fewer than 25% were able to correctly identify its key principles. The reported implementation of risk analysis among the different professional sectors was relatively low (46%). Participants from industries in countries with a long history of trade with the United States and the European Union, such as Mexico, Brazil, and Chile, reported perceptions of a higher degree of risk analysis implementation (56, 50, and 20%, respectively) than those from the rest of the countries, suggesting that commerce may be a driver for achieving higher food safety standards. Disagreement among respondents on the extent of the use of risk analysis in national food safety regulations was common, illustrating a systematic lack of understanding of the current regulatory status of the country. The results of this survey can be used to target further risk analysis training on selected sectors and countries.

  13. Iniciativa Regional de Reforma del Sector de la Salud en América Latina y el Caribe The Latin America and Caribbean Regional Health Sector Reform Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Crocco

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Muchos países de América Latina y el Caribe están introduciendo reformas que pueden influir profundamente en la forma como se prestan los servicios de salud y en quienes los reciben. Tanto en la Cumbre de las Américas de 1994 como en la "Reunión Especial sobre Reforma del Sector de la Salud" de 1995, organizada por la Organización Panamericana de la Salud/Organización Mundial de la Salud (OPS/OMS, el Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo, el Banco Mundial y otros organismos multilaterales y bilaterales, los gobiernos de la Región decidieron apoyar la generación de capacidad de análisis y la capacitación en lo relativo a las reformas del sector de la salud. En consecuencia, en 1997, la OPS y la Agencia de los Estados Unidos para el Desarrollo Internacional lanzaron la "Iniciativa Regional de Reforma del Sector de la Salud en América Latina y el Caribe". Esta iniciativa tiene un financiamiento de aproximadamente US$ 10 millones hasta el año 2002 para apoyar actividades en Bolivia, Brasil, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haití, Honduras, Jamaica, México, Nicaragua, Paraguay, Perú y República Dominicana, busca promover una prestación más equitativa y eficaz de los servicios básicos de salud sustentando actividades regionales, y se encuentra ya en su tercer año de implementación.Many countries throughout Latin America and the Caribbean are introducing reforms that can profoundly influence how health services are provided and who receives them. Governments in the region identified the need for a network to support health reform by building capacity in analysis and training, both at the Summit of the Americas in 1994 and at the Special Meeting on Health Sector Reform, which was convened in 1995 by an interagency committee of the Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization, the Inter-American Development Bank, the World Bank, and other multilateral and bilateral agencies. In response, in 1997 the Pan American Health

  14. Efficacy, safety and effectiveness of licensed rotavirus vaccines: a systematic review and meta-analysis for Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez, Raúl F; Linhares, Alexandre C; Muñoz, Sergio; Seron, Pamela; Lorca, Pedro; DeAntonio, Rodrigo; Ortega-Barria, Eduardo

    2017-01-13

    RotaTeq™ (RV5; Merck & Co. Inc., USA) and Rotarix™ (RV1, GlaxoSmithKline, Belgium) vaccines, developed to prevent rotavirus diarrhea in children under five years old, were both introduced into national immunization programs in 2006. As many countries in Latin America and the Caribbean have included either RV5 or RV1 in their routine childhood vaccination programs, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to analyze efficacy, safety and effectiveness data from the region. We conducted a systematic search in PubMed, EMBASE, Scielo, Lilacs and the Cochrane Central Register, for controlled efficacy, safety and effectiveness studies published between January 2000 until December 2011, on RV5 and RV1 across Latin America (where both vaccines are available since 2006). The primary outcome measures were: rotavirus-related gastroenteritis of any severity; rotavirus emergency department visits and hospitalization; and severe adverse events. The results of the meta-analysis for efficacy show that RV1 reduced the risk of any-severity rotavirus-related gastroenteritis by 65% (relative risk (RR) 0.35, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.25; 0.50), and of severe gastroenteritis by 82% (RR 0.18, 95%CI 0.12; 0.26) versus placebo. In trials, both vaccines significantly reduced the risk of hospitalization and emergency visits by 85% (RR 0.15, 95%CI 0.09; 0.25) for RV1 and by 90% (RR 0.099, 95%CI 0.012; 0.77) for RV5. Vaccination with RV5 or RV1 did not increase the risk of death, intussusception, or other severe adverse events which were previously associated with the first licensed rotavirus vaccine. Real-world effectiveness studies showed that both vaccines reduced rotavirus hospitalization in the region by around 45-50% for RV5 (for 1 to 3 doses, respectively), and, by around 50-80% for RV1 (for 1 to 2 doses, respectively). For RV1, effectiveness against hospitalization was highest (around 80-96%) for children vaccinated before 12 months of age, compared with 5

  15. Cocaine and Instability in Africa: Lessons from Latin America and the Caribbean (Africa Security Brief, Number 5, July 2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    originated from South Amer- ica. Its cargo added to the mounting cocaine traffic from Latin America that transships West Africa on AFRICA SECURITY...in South America in shipping containers, on yachts, and by small planes and jets. South American organized criminal and militant groups commonly...M O D I T Y Trafficking in illicit goods is common in West Af- rica. Arms, counterfeit medicine , cigarettes, and crude oil all move illegally to and

  16. Providers' perspectives on inbound medical tourism in Central America and the Caribbean: factors driving and inhibiting sector development and their health equity implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Rory; Crooks, Valorie A; Cerón, Alejandro; Labonté, Ronald; Snyder, Jeremy; Núñez, Emanuel O; Flores, Walter G

    2016-01-01

    Many governments and health care providers worldwide are enthusiastic to develop medical tourism as a service export. Despite the popularity of this policy uptake, there is relatively little known about the specific local factors prospectively motivating and informing development of this sector. To identify common social, economic, and health system factors shaping the development of medical tourism in three Central American and Caribbean countries and their health equity implications. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted in Mexico, Guatemala, and Barbados with 150 health system stakeholders. Participants were recruited from private and public sectors working in various fields: trade and economic development, health services delivery, training and administration, and civil society. Transcribed interviews were coded using qualitative data management software, and thematic analysis was used to identify cross-cutting issues regarding the drivers and inhibitors of medical tourism development. Four common drivers of medical tourism development were identified: 1) unused capacity in existing private hospitals, 2) international portability of health insurance, vis-a-vis international hospital accreditation, 3) internationally trained physicians as both marketable assets and industry entrepreneurs, and 4) promotion of medical tourism by public export development corporations. Three common inhibitors for the development of the sector were also identified: 1) the high expense of market entry, 2) poor sector-wide planning, and 3) structural socio-economic issues such as insecurity or relatively high business costs and financial risks. There are shared factors shaping the development of medical tourism in Central America and the Caribbean that help explain why it is being pursued by many hospitals and governments in the region. Development of the sector is primarily being driven by public investment promotion agencies and the private health sector seeking

  17. Providers’ perspectives on inbound medical tourism in Central America and the Caribbean: factors driving and inhibiting sector development and their health equity implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Rory; Crooks, Valorie A.; Cerón, Alejandro; Labonté, Ronald; Snyder, Jeremy; Núñez, Emanuel O.; Flores, Walter G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Many governments and health care providers worldwide are enthusiastic to develop medical tourism as a service export. Despite the popularity of this policy uptake, there is relatively little known about the specific local factors prospectively motivating and informing development of this sector. Objective To identify common social, economic, and health system factors shaping the development of medical tourism in three Central American and Caribbean countries and their health equity implications. Design In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted in Mexico, Guatemala, and Barbados with 150 health system stakeholders. Participants were recruited from private and public sectors working in various fields: trade and economic development, health services delivery, training and administration, and civil society. Transcribed interviews were coded using qualitative data management software, and thematic analysis was used to identify cross-cutting issues regarding the drivers and inhibitors of medical tourism development. Results Four common drivers of medical tourism development were identified: 1) unused capacity in existing private hospitals, 2) international portability of health insurance, vis-a-vis international hospital accreditation, 3) internationally trained physicians as both marketable assets and industry entrepreneurs, and 4) promotion of medical tourism by public export development corporations. Three common inhibitors for the development of the sector were also identified: 1) the high expense of market entry, 2) poor sector-wide planning, and 3) structural socio-economic issues such as insecurity or relatively high business costs and financial risks. Conclusion There are shared factors shaping the development of medical tourism in Central America and the Caribbean that help explain why it is being pursued by many hospitals and governments in the region. Development of the sector is primarily being driven by public investment promotion

  18. Providers’ perspectives on inbound medical tourism in Central America and the Caribbean: factors driving and inhibiting sector development and their health equity implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rory Johnston

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many governments and health care providers worldwide are enthusiastic to develop medical tourism as a service export. Despite the popularity of this policy uptake, there is relatively little known about the specific local factors prospectively motivating and informing development of this sector. Objective: To identify common social, economic, and health system factors shaping the development of medical tourism in three Central American and Caribbean countries and their health equity implications. Design: In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted in Mexico, Guatemala, and Barbados with 150 health system stakeholders. Participants were recruited from private and public sectors working in various fields: trade and economic development, health services delivery, training and administration, and civil society. Transcribed interviews were coded using qualitative data management software, and thematic analysis was used to identify cross-cutting issues regarding the drivers and inhibitors of medical tourism development. Results: Four common drivers of medical tourism development were identified: 1 unused capacity in existing private hospitals, 2 international portability of health insurance, vis-a-vis international hospital accreditation, 3 internationally trained physicians as both marketable assets and industry entrepreneurs, and 4 promotion of medical tourism by public export development corporations. Three common inhibitors for the development of the sector were also identified: 1 the high expense of market entry, 2 poor sector-wide planning, and 3 structural socio-economic issues such as insecurity or relatively high business costs and financial risks. Conclusion: There are shared factors shaping the development of medical tourism in Central America and the Caribbean that help explain why it is being pursued by many hospitals and governments in the region. Development of the sector is primarily being driven by public

  19. Geomorphic analysis of transient landscapes from the Sierra Madre de Chiapas and Maya Mountains (northern Central America): implications for the North American-Caribbean-Cocos plate boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreani, L.; Gloaguen, R.

    2015-09-01

    We use a geomorphic approach in order to unravel the recent evolution of the diffuse triple junction between the North American, Caribbean, and Cocos plates in northern Central America. The complex tectonic setting produced an intricate pattern of landscapes that we try to systemize using remote sensing tectonic geomorphology and available geological and geophysical data. We classify regions with specific relief characteristics and highlight uplifted relict landscapes in northern Central America. We also analyze the drainage network from the Sierra Madre de Chiapas and Maya Mountains in order to extract information about potential vertical displacements. Our results suggest that most of the landscapes of the Sierra Madre de Chiapas and Maya Mountains are in transient stage. Topographic profiles and morphometric maps highlight elevated relict surfaces that are characterized by a low amplitude relief. The river longitudinal profiles display upper reaches witnessing these relict landscapes while lower segments characterized by multiple knickpoints, that adjust to new base-level conditions. These results backed by published GPS and seismotectonic data allow us to refine and extend existing geodynamic models of the triple junction. Relict landscapes are delimited by faults and thus result from a tectonic control. The topography of the Sierra Madre de Chiapas evolved as the result of (1) the inland migration of deformation related to the coupling between the Chiapas Massif and the Cocos fore-arc sliver, and (2) the compression along the northern tip of the Central America Volcanic Arc. Although most of the shortening between the Cocos fore-arc sliver and the North American plate is accommodated within the Sierra de Chiapas and Sierra de los Cuchumatanes, a small part may be still transmitted to the Maya Mountains and the Belize margin through a "rigid" Petén basin.

  20. Family planning and Zika virus: need for renewed and cohesive efforts to ensure availability of intrauterine contraception in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Moazzam; Miller, Kelsey; Gómez Ponce de Leon, Rodolfo Federico

    2017-04-01

    The advantages of intrauterine contraception (IUC) are well established (highly effective, low discontinuation rate, easy to use, low cost, and suitable for immediate postpartum use), but low levels of use in many countries and declining use in others are causes for concern. Due to the ongoing Zika virus outbreak, public health officials are calling for the continued practice of safe sex and the delay of pregnancy. Our study was conducted to assess the current situation of IUC availability and provision in Latin America and to determine the role of national policies in meeting the contraceptive needs of the populations in these countries. A survey was conducted in Latin America and the Caribbean between December 2015 and January 2016 to assess national policies with regard to IUC provision, availability and accessibility. 18 countries participated. All responding countries had national policies on IUC. Many in the public sector provided the intrauterine device (IUD) free of charge, but the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) was generally available in the private sector. Some countries had very restrictive policies on who was permitted to carry out IUC insertions, but most permitted a range of health professionals to do so. Immediate postpartum IUC insertion was uncommon. Some countries placed restrictions on IUC use in women who were nulliparous, young, at high risk of catching a sexually transmitted infection or who had multiple sexual partners. IUC is underused in Latin America. The study reveals policy level barriers that may impede access to IUC, one of the most effective, long-acting, non-hormonal, reversible contraceptive methods. Governments should consider reviewing and rethinking their policies on contraception to ensure IUC service provision among populations at high risk of unplanned pregnancy, especially those vulnerable to Zika virus.

  1. Hispanic Latin America, Spain and the Spanish-speaking Caribbean: A rich source of reference material for public health, epidemiology and tropical medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, John R; Bórquez, Annick; Basáñez, María-Gloria

    2008-01-01

    There is a multiplicity of journals originating in Spain and the Spanish-speaking countries of Latin America and the Caribbean (SSLAC) in the health sciences of relevance to the fields of epidemiology and public health. While the subject matter of epidemiology in Spain shares many features with its neighbours in Western Europe, many aspects of epidemiology in Latin America are particular to that region. There are also distinctive theoretical and philosophical approaches to the study of epidemiology and public health arising from traditions such as the Latin American social medicine movement, of which there may be limited awareness. A number of online bibliographic databases are available which focus primarily on health sciences literature arising in Spain and Latin America, the most prominent being Literatura Latinoamericana en Ciencias de la Salud (LILACS) and LATINDEX. Some such as LILACS also extensively index grey literature. As well as in Spanish, interfaces are provided in English and Portuguese. Abstracts of articles may also be provided in English with an increasing number of journals beginning to publish entire articles written in English. Free full text articles are becoming accessible, one of the most comprehensive sources being the Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO). There is thus an extensive range of literature originating in Spain and SSLAC freely identifiable and often accessible online, and with the potential to provide useful inputs to the study of epidemiology and public health provided that any reluctance to explore these resources can be overcome. In this article we provide an introduction to such resources. PMID:19243576

  2. Stories From the Field: The Use of Information and Communication Technologies to Address the Health Needs of Underserved Populations in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faba, Gladys; Julian, Soroya; Mejía, Felipe; Cabieses, Báltica; D'Agostino, Marcelo; Cortinois, Andrea A

    2015-01-01

    Background As their availability grew exponentially in the last 20 years, the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) in health has been widely espoused, with many emphasizing their potential to decrease health inequities. Nonetheless, there is scarce availability of information regarding ICT as tools to further equity in health, specifically in Latin American and Caribbean settings. Objective Our aim was to identify initiatives that used ICT to address the health needs of underserved populations in Latin America and Caribbean. Among these projects, explore the rationale behind the selection of ICT as a key component, probe perceptions regarding contributions to health equity, and describe the challenges faced during implementation. Methods We conducted an exploratory qualitative study. Interviews were completed via Skype or face-to-face meetings using a semistructured interview guide. Following participant consent, interviews were audio recorded and verbatim transcriptions were developed. All transcriptions were coded using ATLASti7 software. The text was analyzed for patterns, shared themes, and diverging opinions. Emerging findings were reviewed by all interviewers and shared with participants for feedback. Results We interviewed representatives from eight organizations in six Latin American and Caribbean countries that prominently employed ICT in health communication, advocacy, or surveillance projects. ICT expanded project's geographic coverage, increased their reach into marginalized or hard-to-reach groups, and allowed real-time data collection. Perceptions of contributions to health equity resided mainly in the provision of health information and linkage to health services to members of groups experiencing greater morbidity because of poverty, remote place of residence, lack of relevant public programs, and/or stigma and discrimination, and in more timely responses by authorities to the health needs of these groups as a result of the

  3. Mortality and loss to follow-up among HIV-infected persons on long-term antiretroviral therapy in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carriquiry, Gabriela; Fink, Valeria; Koethe, John Robert; Giganti, Mark Joseph; Jayathilake, Karu; Blevins, Meridith; Cahn, Pedro; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Wolff, Marcelo; Pape, Jean William; Padgett, Denis; Madero, Juan Sierra; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; McGowan, Catherine Carey; Shepherd, Bryan Earl

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Long-term survival of HIV patients after initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy (ART) has not been sufficiently described in Latin America and the Caribbean, as compared to other regions. The aim of this study was to describe the incidence of mortality, loss to follow-up (LTFU) and associated risk factors for patients enrolled in the Caribbean, Central and South America Network (CCASAnet). Methods We assessed time from ART initiation (baseline) to death or LTFU between 2000 and 2014 among ART-naïve adults (≥18 years) from sites in seven countries included in CCASAnet: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico and Peru. Kaplan-Meier techniques were used to estimate the probability of mortality over time. Risk factors for death were assessed using Cox regression models stratified by site and adjusted for sex, baseline age, nadir pre-ART CD4 count, calendar year of ART initiation, clinical AIDS at baseline and type of ART regimen. Results A total of 16,996 ART initiators were followed for a median of 3.5 years (interquartile range (IQR): 1.6–6.2). The median age at ART initiation was 36 years (IQR: 30–44), subjects were predominantly male (63%), median CD4 count was 156 cells/µL (IQR: 60–251) and 26% of subjects had clinical AIDS prior to starting ART. Initial ART regimens were predominantly non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor based (86%). The cumulative incidence of LTFU five years after ART initiation was 18.2% (95% confidence interval (CI) 17.5–18.8%). A total of 1582 (9.3%) subjects died; the estimated probability of death one, three and five years after ART initiation was 5.4, 8.3 and 10.3%, respectively. The estimated five-year mortality probability varied substantially across sites, from 3.5 to 14.0%. Risk factors for death were clinical AIDS at baseline (adjusted hazard ratio (HR)=1.65 (95% CI 1.47–1.87); p<0.001), lower baseline CD4 (HR=1.95 (95% CI 1.63–2.32) for 50 vs. 350 cells/µL; p<0.001) and

  4. Do infrastructure reforms reduce the effect of corruption? Theory and evidence from Latin America and the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Liam Wren-Lewis

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the interaction between corruption and governance at the sector level. A simple model illustrates how both an increase in regulatory autonomy and privatization may influence the effect of corruption. The interaction is analyzed empirically using a fixed-effects estimator on a panel of 153 electricity distribution firms across 18 countries in Latin America and the C...

  5. Progress in the introduction of the rotavirus vaccine in Latin America and the Caribbean: four years of accumulated experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Lucia Helena; Danovaro-Holliday, M Carolina; Sanwogou, N Jennifer; Ruiz-Matus, Cuauhtemoc; Tambini, Gina; Andrus, Jon Kim

    2011-01-01

    Two effective and safe rotavirus vaccines became available in 2006 and have been recommended for use in all countries by the World Health Organization. This article provides an update on the use of rotavirus vaccine in Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) countries. Data reported by LAC countries to the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) were reviewed. As of May 2010, 14 LAC countries and 1 territory have introduced the rotavirus vaccine into their national expanded program on immunization (EPI). Reported coverage levels for rotavirus vaccine are lower than those for other EPI vaccines recommended at the same age. A total of 15 LAC countries are part of the PAHO's LAC rotavirus surveillance network; 12 of them are using the vaccine. LAC countries are conducting several studies on rotavirus vaccine effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and monitoring safety. Also, LAC countries are generating lessons learned on the public health implications of introducing a new vaccine into the EPI. Nine countries and the Cayman Islands pay for the entire cost of the vaccine using government funds. All but 2 countries purchase their rotavirus vaccine through PAHO's Revolving Fund. Rotavirus vaccine introduction in LAC has been faster than for other new vaccines, but coverage levels need to increase to maximize the effect of the intervention. Rotavirus surveillance needs to expand and be strengthened to better assess the effect of vaccine use. LAC countries will continue to provide useful data to monitor rotavirus trends and vaccine effect.

  6. Geomorphic analysis of transient landscapes in the Sierra Madre de Chiapas and Maya Mountains (northern Central America): implications for the North American-Caribbean-Cocos plate boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreani, L.; Gloaguen, R.

    2016-01-01

    We use a geomorphic approach in order to unravel the recent evolution of the diffuse triple junction between the North American, Caribbean, and Cocos plates in northern Central America. We intend to characterize and understand the complex tectonic setting that produced an intricate pattern of landscapes using tectonic geomorphology, as well as available geological and geophysical data. We classify regions with specific relief characteristics and highlight uplifted relict landscapes in northern Central America. We also analyze the drainage network from the Sierra Madre de Chiapas and Maya Mountains in order to extract information about potential vertical displacements. Our results suggest that most of the landscapes of the Sierra Madre de Chiapas and Maya Mountains are in a transient stage. Topographic profiles and morphometric maps highlight elevated relict surfaces that are characterized by a low-amplitude relief. The river longitudinal profiles display upper reaches witnessing these relict landscapes. Lower reaches adjust to new base-level conditions and are characterized by multiple knickpoints. These results backed by published GPS and seismotectonic data allow us to refine and extend existing geodynamic models of the triple junction. Relict landscapes are delimited by faults and thus result from a tectonic control. The topography of the Sierra Madre de Chiapas evolved as the result of (1) the inland migration of deformation related to the coupling between the Chiapas Massif and the Cocos forearc sliver and (2) the compression along the northern tip of the Central American volcanic arc. Although most of the shortening between the Cocos forearc sliver and the North American Plate is accommodated within the Sierra de Chiapas and Sierra de los Cuchumatanes, a small part may be still transmitted to the Maya Mountains and the Belize margin through a "rigid" Petén Basin.

  7. Calidad de los datos de salud ocupacional en América Latina y el Caribe The quality of occupational health data in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Work-related accidents and illnesses cause significant economic and social losses in Latin America and the Caribbean. However, the lack of reliable and systematized data on that situation makes it harder for health authorities and business operators to make decisions and for workers and the general public to take steps to improve working conditions, reduce risks, and prevent those accidents and illnesses. To address that concern, the Program on Workers' Health of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO coordinated the Project on Systematizing Basic Data on Workers' Health in the Countries of the Americas. A report on the project issued in August 1998 contains results, conclusions, and recommendations based on data collected from 10 countries of the Region: Barbados, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Jamaica, Mexico, Panama, Peru, and Venezuela. The data were systematized and presented in 42 tables that allowed comparisons among the countries and evaluations of the situation in any one of the countries. Data from countries with adequate record keeping made it clear that many persons work in sectors with high rates of accidents and chronic disease. The research also found it is often hard to analyze trends and changes in labor mortality and morbidity and the conditions that increase the frequency of accidents and occupational diseases. That is because countries and institutions use a variety of approaches to classify, diagnose, and report diseases and occupational injuries, and also frequently modify their criteria. As a follow-up to this research, PAHO is working to compile more specific information on occupational health in the countries of the Region, through an approach that would improve the quality of the information and make it easier to compare the data that is collected.

  8. Proliferation of weapons and armed violence in the private security sector in Latin America and the Caribbean: Challenges and opportunities for taking action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rémi Bacouillard

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The United Nations Regional Centre for Peace, Disarmament and Development in Latin America and the Caribbean (UNLIREC has been monitoring various media in 19 countries and has documented more than 100 newspaper articles on cases of armed violence and the proliferation offirearms in the private security sector. The objective of this investigation is to analyze reported cases and systematize a typology regarding such cases, in order to prove the existence of problems in the private security sector which is a source and a victim of insecurity. This study reveals the frequency with which these cases occur, as well as the fact that they occur in different countries of the region, demonstrating that the cases being studied are not isolated cases and that they encourage the States and companies within the sector to address this disturbing reality.Finally, this article presents a series of initiatives that can be implemented by competent national authorities on the subject, as well as by the companies within the sector, to face the challenges posed by the handling, ownership and use of firearms with the privatization of the security sectorin the region.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5377/rpsp.v4i2.1754

  9. Association of outdoor air pollution with the prevalence of asthma in children of Latin America and the Caribbean: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellano, Pablo; Quaranta, Nancy; Reynoso, Julieta; Balbi, Brenda; Vasquez, Julia

    2017-12-06

    This study aimed to evaluate the association between asthma prevalence and outdoor air pollution in children in Latin America and the Caribbean. We searched studies in global and regional databases: PubMed, Scopus, LILACS and SciELO. Articles following a cross-sectional design, studying children from 0 to 18 years old, and comparing the prevalence of asthma in two or more areas of LAC countries with different air pollution levels were included. The exclusion criteria comprised air pollution not related to human activities. Database searches retrieved 384 records, while 20 studies were retained for qualitative and 16 for quantitative analysis, representing 48 442 children. We found a positive association, i.e. a higher prevalence of asthma in children living in a polluted environment, with pooled odds ratio (OR) of 1.34 (95% CI: 1.17-1.54). Heterogeneity between studies was moderate (I 2 : 68.39%), while the risk of bias was intermediate or high in 14 studies. In all the subgroup and sensitivity analyses, the pooled ORs were significant and higher than those found in the general analysis Conclusions: Our results showed that living in a polluted environment is significantly associated with children having asthma in LAC. Limitations of this study include the low number of studies performed in LAC countries, differences in methodologies and the risk of bias in individual studies.

  10. Taxonomic review of the species of Mugil (Teleostei: Perciformes: Mugilidae) from the Atlantic South Caribbean and South America, with integration of morphological, cytogenetic and molecular data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Naércio A; Nirchio, Mauro; De Oliveira, Cláudio; Siccharamirez, Raquel

    2015-01-10

    Analysis of morphological, molecular and cytological data helped to define and more precisely characterize the species of Mugil from the Atlantic coasts of South Caribbean and South America, allowing a correction of prior misidentifications and distributional ranges. A new species from Venezuela is described and all the species from the area are redescribed. It is demonstrated that the apparent similarity in morphological traits, which contradicted the results from recent molecular studies, is the result of the misuse of traditional morphological characters, and thus both the molecular and cytological data instead are congruent with the morphological differences that are found among mullet species. The presence of Mugil hospes Jordan & Culver in the western south Atlantic is refuted based on the comparison of type material of this species with specimens from this area that also indicated a very significant morphological difference, what on the other hand justifies the recognition of these specimens as Mugil brevirostris (Ribeiro). The distribution of Mugil incilis Hancock is restricted and the similarities among the species formerly depicted in a prior dendrogram is modified following the inclusion of recently obtained molecular data for Mugil curvidens Valenciennes.

  11. Is product diversification the Ultimate Quid Pro Quo for Gender sensitive Poverty Alleviation? Adverse Social Externalities from Combined Microfinance in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROSSEL-CAMBIER, Koen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Documented deficiencies in traditional social transfer mechanisms have led to the emergence of alternative methods for reducing poverty. In many countries, microfinance institutions (MFIs have become popular instruments for redistributive propoor policies. However, they are also criticised for not being inclusive enough. This paper explores if product diversification has an effect on poverty outreach, in particular when combining micro- credit with savings and insurance. It applies cross-sectional analysis of 250 microfinance schemes in Latin America and the Caribbean. By focusing on elements of the depth of poverty outreach, the research highlights a number of possible effects of combined microfinance (CMF. Product diversification can significantly contribute to increased social outreach («breadth» of poverty outreach. However, the findings suggest that, in the case of combining credit with savings, this is leading to a relatively lower participation of poor and female clients («depth» of poverty outreach. Exclusionary and discriminatory vulnerabilities and dynamics, linked to specific financial products, may apply double or even reinforce each other. Cumulative financial, cultural, geographical or communication barriers can make participation in multiple financial products more challenging. These findings have not been adequately tackled by academic literature, but are most relevant for MFI stakeholders and policy makers. If gender-sensitive or pro-poor income generation is at the heart of the mission of MFIs, corrective measures to these forms of adverse externalities should be considered.

  12. A multi-country, cross-sectional observational study of retinopathy of prematurity in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnesen, Lauren; Durán, Pablo; Silva, Juan; Brumana, Luisa

    2016-06-01

    Objective To consolidate available information from the Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) region on 1) national incidence of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and 2) national-level government inputs on ROP (existing national policies, guidelines, programs, and financing for ROP prevention, detection, and treatment, including ROP screening) in 2014. Methods In March and April 2015, a multi-country online survey was distributed to 56 medical and public health experts working on ROP in LAC countries. Respondents were instructed to provide quantitative and qualitative information representative of the national situation in 2014 for ROP incidence and national-level government inputs (existing national policies, guidelines, programs, and financing for ROP prevention, detection, and treatment, including ROP screening) in their country. Results The survey was completed in full by a total of 11 experts from 10 LAC countries (Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Mexico, Nicaragua, and Panama). According to the survey results, six countries had a national policy that includes ROP prevention, detection, and treatment, with screening and treatment covered by national/federal funding. Eight countries had national guidelines for ROP. Four countries had legislation mandating eye examination of preterm infants. Most countries had Level 3 and 4 neonatal intensive care units with ROP programs in public sector health care facilities. Five countries had a data collection or monitoring system to track the number of newborn babies screened for ROP within hospital settings. On average, countries with three or four of the above-mentioned ROP elements screened 95% of eligible newborns in 2014, while those with only one or two of the ROP elements screened 35% of eligible newborns. Conclusions National government buy-in and involvement in ROP screening and treatment legislation is related to a higher proportion of eligible premature newborns being

  13. Inequities in milk-based prelacteal feedings in Latin America and the Caribbean: the role of cesarean section delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccolini, Cristiano Siqueira; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Giugliani, Elsa Regina Justo; Boccolini, Patricia de Moraes Mello

    2015-02-01

    Prelacteal feeds (ie, foods other than breast milk offered before the milk comes in) have been identified as a risk factor for shorter breastfeeding duration and neonatal mortality. This study aimed to test for socioeconomic inequities on the risk of milk-based prelacteal feeding associated with cesarean section delivery. We conducted secondary cross-sectional data analyses of 7 Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in Latin American and Caribbean countries between 2005 and 2010 (N = 49 253 women with children younger than 3 years of age). Multivariate logistic regression was used to test the association between cesarean section delivery and the risk of milk-based prelacteal feeding in the total samples as well as within the lowest and highest wealth quintile subsamples by country and in the pooled sample. Almost one-third of newborns received milk-based (22.9%) prelacteal feeds. Prelacteal feeding prevalence varied from 17.6% in Guiana to 55% in Dominican Republic. Cesarean section delivery was associated with significantly higher odds of introduction of milk-based prelacteals in all countries (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] range, 2.34 in Bolivia to 4.50 in Peru). The association between cesarean section delivery and risk of milk-based prelacteal feeds was stronger among the poorest than wealthiest women (AOR [95% confidence interval], 2.94 [2.58-3.67] vs 2.17 [1.85-2.54]). Women of lower socioeconomic status may need additional breastfeeding support after cesarean section delivery to prevent the introduction of milk-based prelacteals. Reducing the rates of cesarean section deliveries is likely to reduce the prevalence of prelacteal feeding. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. A multi-country, cross-sectional observational study of retinopathy of prematurity in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Arnesen

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To consolidate available information from the Latin American and Caribbean (LAC region on 1 national incidence of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP and 2 national-level government inputs on ROP (existing national policies, guidelines, programs, and financing for ROP prevention, detection, and treatment, including ROP screening in 2014. Methods In March and April 2015, a multi-country online survey was distributed to 56 medical and public health experts working on ROP in LAC countries. Respondents were instructed to provide quantitative and qualitative information representative of the national situation in 2014 for ROP incidence and national-level government inputs (existing national policies, guidelines, programs, and financing for ROP prevention, detection, and treatment, including ROP screening in their country. Results The survey was completed in full by a total of 11 experts from 10 LAC countries (Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Mexico, Nicaragua, and Panama. According to the survey results, six countries had a national policy that includes ROP prevention, detection, and treatment, with screening and treatment covered by national/federal funding. Eight countries had national guidelines for ROP. Four countries had legislation mandating eye examination of preterm infants. Most countries had Level 3 and 4 neonatal intensive care units with ROP programs in public sector health care facilities. Five countries had a data collection or monitoring system to track the number of newborn babies screened for ROP within hospital settings. On average, countries with three or four of the above-mentioned ROP elements screened 95% of eligible newborns in 2014, while those with only one or two of the ROP elements screened 35% of eligible newborns. Conclusions National government buy-in and involvement in ROP screening and treatment legislation is related to a higher proportion of eligible

  15. Using a Two-Step Method to Measure Transgender Identity in Latin America/the Caribbean, Portugal, and Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Reisner, Sari L.; Biello, Katie; Rosenberger, Joshua G.; Austin, S. Bryn; Haneuse, Sebastien; Perez-Brumer, Amaya; Novak, David S.; Mimiaga, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Few comparative data are available internationally to examine health differences by transgender identity. A barrier to monitoring the health and well-being of transgender people is the lack of inclusion of measures to assess natal sex/gender identity status in surveys. Data were from a cross-sectional anonymous online survey of members (n > 36,000) of a sexual networking website targeting men who have sex with men in Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking countries/ territories in Latin America/the...

  16. West Nile virus activity in Latin America and the Caribbean La actividad del virus del Nilo occidental en América Latina y el Caribe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Komar

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: West Nile virus (Flavivirus: Flaviviridae; WNV has spread rapidly throughout the Caribbean Basin since its initial detection there in 2001. This report summarizes our current knowledge of WNV transmission in tropical America. METHODS: We reviewed the published literature and consulted with key public health officials to obtain unpublished data. RESULTS: West Nile virus infections first appeared in human residents of the Cayman Islands and the Florida Keys in 2001, and in apparently healthy Jamaican birds sampled early in 2002. Serologic evidence of WNV infection in 2002 was detected in horses, chickens and resident free-ranging birds in Guadeloupe, the Dominican Republic, and eastern Mexico. In 2003, WNV spread in Mexico and northern Central America, and serologic evidence was detected in the Bahamas, Puerto Rico and Cuba. In 2004, the first serologic evidence of WNV activity in South American ecosystems surfaced in September-October in Colombia and Trinidad, where domestic animals circulated WNV-neutralizing antibodies. CONCLUSIONS: The sparse reports of equine, human and avian disease in Latin America and the Caribbean is puzzling. Isolates are needed to evaluate viral attenuation or other possible explanations for reduced disease burden in tropical ecosystems.OBJETIVOS: El virus del Nilo occidental (VNO, familia Flaviviridae, género Flavivirus se ha propagado rápidamente por toda la cuenca del Caribe desde que se detectó por primera vez en 2001. En este informe se resumen nuestros conocimientos actuales acerca de la transmisión del VNO en zonas tropicales del continente americano. MÉTODOS: Revisamos todo lo que se ha publicado sobre el tema y consultamos a autoridades de salud clave para obtener datos inéditos. RESULTADOS: Las infecciones por el virus del Nilo occidental aparecieron por primera vez en seres humanos residentes de las Islas Caimán y de los Cayos de la Florida en 2001, y en pájaros de aspecto sano de los

  17. Unraveling the nexus between water and food security in Latin America and the Caribbean: regional and global implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willaarts, Barbara; Garrido, Alberto; Soriano, Barbara; De Stefano, Lucia; López Gunn, Elena; Aldaya, Maite; Martínez-Santos, Pedro; Llamas, Ramon

    2014-05-01

    Latin American and the Caribbean (LAC) is a water and land abundant region, and plays a key role in meeting global food and water security. During the last decade, LAC has experience a rapid socio-economic growth, largely sustained by its competitive advantage in the production and exports of agricultural and mining products and by the high commodity prices in the global market. This study seeks to quantify the contribution of LAC's agriculture to global food and water security, i.e. virtual water trade, and evaluate the environmental and societal implications for regional development. Results show that between 2000 and 2011, LAC has increase its agricultural production 27%, and it now accounts for nearly 18% of the global agricultural market. As a result, the agricultural water footprint (WF) of LAC was augmented 65%; and yet, nearly 19% to 44% of the actual agricultural WF - depending on the countries - is virtual water exported to third countries. In fact, almost 50% of the increase in global virtual water trade during the last decade, corresponds to LAC. Such global contribution has significant implications for regional water and food security. From an environmental perspective, crop expansion (mostly rain-fed) resulted in the deforestation of nearly 1 million km2, turning this region into the second most important deforestation hotspots worldwide. This land clearing is having large impacts of ecosystem services, e.g. carbon sequestration, water quality or biodiversity conservation. From a socio-economic perspective, increasing agricultural production has improved regional food security indicators, although one every seven children is still stunted in LAC and nearly 10% of the population remains undernourished. Dietary shifts and socio-cultural factors also lag behind the growing problem of malnutrition in the region, i.e. overweight and obesity. Improvements of water access and sanitation, have had a positive impact on food security indicators, especially

  18. Sustainable and Low Greenhouse Gas Emitting Rice Production in Latin America and the Caribbean: A Review on the Transition from Ideality to Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngonidzashe Chirinda

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The burgeoning demand for rice in Latin America and Caribbean (LAC exceeds supply, resulting in a rice deficit. To overcome this challenge, rice production should be increased, albeit sustainably. However, since rice production is associated with increases in the atmospheric concentration of two greenhouse gases (GHGs, namely methane (CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O, the challenge is on ensuring that production increases are not associated with an increase in GHG emissions and thus do not cause an increase in GHG emission intensities. Based on current understanding of drivers of CH4 and N2O production, we provide here insights on the potential climate change mitigation benefits of management and technological options (i.e., seeding, tillage, irrigation, residue management pursued in the LAC region. Studies conducted in the LAC region show intermittent irrigation or alternate wetting and drying of rice fields to reduce CH4 emissions by 25–70% without increasing N2O emissions. Results on yield changes associated with intermittent irrigation remain inconclusive. Compared to conventional tillage, no-tillage and anticipated tillage (i.e., fall tillage cause a 21% and 25% reduction in CH4 emissions, respectively. From existing literature, it was unambiguous that the mitigation potential of most management strategies pursued in the LAC region need to be quantified while acknowledging country-specific conditions. While breeding high yielding and low emitting rice varieties may represent the most promising and possibly sustainable approach for achieving GHG emission reductions without demanding major changes in on-farm management practices, this is rather idealistic. We contend that a more realistic approach for realizing low GHG emitting rice production systems is to focus on increasing rice yields, for obvious food security reasons, which, while not reducing absolute emissions, should translate to a reduction in GHG emission intensities. Moreover, there

  19. Late Quaternary uplift along the North America-Caribbean plate boundary: Evidence from the sea level record of Guantanamo Bay, Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, Daniel R.; Schweig, Eugene S.; Simmons, Kathleen R.; Halley, Robert B.

    2017-12-01

    The tectonic setting of the North America-Caribbean plate boundary has been studied intensively, but some aspects are still poorly understood, particularly along the Oriente fault zone. Guantanamo Bay, southern Cuba, is considered to be on a coastline that is under a transpressive tectonic regime along this zone, and is hypothesized to have a low uplift rate. We tested this by studying emergent reef terrace deposits around the bay. Reef elevations in the protected, inner part of the bay are ∼11-12 m and outer-coast, wave-cut benches are as high as ∼14 m. Uranium-series analyses of corals yield ages ranging from ∼133 ka to ∼119 ka, correlating this reef to the peak of the last interglacial period, marine isotope stage (MIS) 5.5. Assuming a span of possible paleo-sea levels at the time of the last interglacial period yields long-term tectonic uplift rates of 0.02-0.11 m/ka, supporting the hypothesis that the tectonic uplift rate is low. Nevertheless, on the eastern and southern coasts of Cuba, east and west of Guantanamo Bay, there are flights of multiple marine terraces, at higher elevations, that could record a higher rate of uplift, implying that Guantanamo Bay may be anomalous. Southern Cuba is considered to have experienced a measurable but modest effect from glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) processes. Thus, with a low uplift rate, Guantanamo Bay should show no evidence of emergent marine terraces dating to the ∼100 ka (MIS 5.3) or ∼80 ka (MIS 5.1) sea stands and results of the present study support this.

  20. Soil-transmitted helminthiasis in Latin America and the Caribbean: modelling the determinants, prevalence, population at risk and costs of control at sub-national level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josh Colston

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We present an example of a tool for quantifying the burden, the population in need of intervention and resources need to contribute for the control of soil-transmitted helminth (STH infection at multiple administrative levels for the region of Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC. The tool relies on published STH prevalence data along with data on the distribution of several STH transmission determinants for 12,273 sub-national administrative units in 22 LAC countries taken from national censuses. Data on these determinants was aggregated into a single risk index based on a conceptual framework and the statistical significance of the association between this index and the STH prevalence indicators was tested using simple linear regression. The coefficient and constant from the output of this regression was then put into a regression formula that was applied to the risk index values for all of the administrative units in order to model the estimated prevalence of each STH species. We then combine these estimates with population data, treatment thresholds and unit cost data to calculate total control costs. The model predicts an annual cost for the procurement of preventive chemotherapy of around US$ 1.7 million and a total cost of US$ 47 million for implementing a comprehensive STH control programme targeting an estimated 78.7 million school-aged children according to the WHO guidelines throughout the entirety of the countries included in the study. Considerable savings to this cost could potentially be made by embedding STH control interventions within existing health programmes and systems. A study of this scope is prone to many limitations which restrict the interpretation of the results and the uses to which its findings may be put. We discuss several of these limitations.

  1. Clinical and virologic outcomes after changes in first antiretroviral regimen at 7 sites in the Caribbean, Central and South America Network (CCASAnet)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Marcelo; Shepherd, Bryan E.; Cortés, Claudia; Rebeiro, Peter; Cesar, Carina; Cardoso, Sandra Wagner; Pape, Jean W.; Padgett, Denis; Sierra-Madero, Juan; Echevarria, Juan; McGowan, Catherine C.

    2015-01-01

    Background HIV-infected persons in lower income countries may experience high rates of antiretroviral therapy (ART) change, particularly due to toxicity or other non-failure reasons. Few reports address patient outcomes after these modifications. Methods HIV-infected adults from 7 Caribbean, Central and South America network (CCASAnet) clinical cohorts who modified > or = 1 drug from first ART regimen (ART-1) for any reason thereby starting a second regimen (ART-2) were included. Results 5,565 ART-naïve HAART initiators started ART-2 after a median of 9.8 months on ART-1; 39% changed to ART-2 due to toxicity and 11% due to failure. Median follow-up after starting ART-2 was 2.9 years; 45% subsequently modified ART-2. Cumulative incidences of death at 1, 3, and 5 years after starting ART-2 were 5.1%, 8.4% and 10.5%, respectively. In adjusted analyses, death was associated with older age, clinical AIDS, lower CD4 at ART-2 start, earlier calendar year, and starting ART-2 because of toxicity (adjusted hazard ratio[aHR]=1.5 vs. failure, 95% confidence interval[CI]=1.0–2.1). Cumulative incidences of VF after 1, 3, and 5 years were 9%, 19%, and 25%. In adjusted analyses, VF was associated with younger age, earlier calendar year, lower CD4 at start of ART-2, and starting ART-2 because of failure (aHR=2.1 vs. toxicity, 95% CI=1.5–2.8). Conclusions Among patients modifying first ART regimen, risks of subsequent modifications, mortality, and virologic failure were high. Access to improved antiretrovirals in the region is needed to improve initial treatment success. PMID:26761273

  2. Information and communication technology (ICT) and eHealth policy in Latin America and the Caribbean: a review of national policies and assessment of socioeconomic context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Marroquin, Maria Carolina; Deber, Raisa; Jadad, Alejandro R

    2014-01-01

    To examine the availability of national information and communication technology (ICT) or eHealth policies produced by countries in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), and to determine the influence of a country's socioeconomic context on the existence of these policies. Documents describing a national ICT or eHealth policy in any of the 33 countries belonging to the LAC region as listed by the United Nations were identified from three data sources: academic databases; the Google search engine; and government agencies and representatives. The relationship between the existence of a policy and national socioeconomic indicators was also investigated. There has been some progress in the establishment of ICT and eHealth policies in the LAC region. The most useful methods for identifying the policies were 1) use of the Google search engine and 2) contact with Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) country representatives. The countries that have developed a national ICT policy seem to be more likely to have a national eHealth policy in place. There was no statistical significant association between the existence of a policy and a country's socioeconomic context. Governments need to make stronger efforts to raise awareness about existing and planned ICT and eHealth policies, not only to facilitate ease of use and communication with their stakeholders, but also to promote collaborative international efforts. In addition, a better understanding of the effect of economic variables on the role that ICTs play in health sector reform efforts will help shape the vision of what can be achieved.

  3. Planificación del recurso hídrico en América Latina y el Caribe Planning Water Resources in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Guzmán-Arias

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Se destaca el estado actual de los recursos hídricos en los países de América Latina y el Caribe, con énfasis en los aspectos de planificación y gestión. El análisis se basa en los estudios más recientes sobre el tema, a partir de los cuales se aportan elementos como información actualizada y debidamente verificada sobre la realidad legislativa, institucional y organizativa de los países de la región. La planificación y gestión integrada del agua se ha caracterizado por una gran diversidad de enfoques legales e institucionales, más la presencia de largos debates que anteceden anteproyectos de leyes de aguas y constantes propuestas de reformas a las pocas leyes aprobadas (Dourojeanni & Jouravlev, 2002. Algunos países, como México y Chile, presentan experiencias más exitosas conducentes a lograr objetivos importantes, sin embargo, aún requieren la continuidad necesaria en el tiempo y la cobertura requerida y por el momento solo constituyen casos aislados.The current status of water resources management and planning in Latin America and the Caribbean countries is described and discussed. The analysis is based on recent studies made on this subject. The available information is updated and duly verified the reality of legislation, institutions and organizations in the countries of the region. Currently planning and integrated management of water resources have been characterized by great diversity of approaches for the legal and institutional aspects. These processes are anticipated by long debates and constant proposals to reform the few approved water laws (Dourojeanni & Jouravlev, 2002. Some countries like Mexico and Chile have more successful experiences conducive to achieving important goals, however, they still require the necessary continuity in time and coverage and nowadays are only isolated cases.

  4. Stakeholders' perspectives on access-to-medicines policy and research priorities in Latin America and the Caribbean: face-to-face and web-based interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeredo, Thiago Botelho; Luiza, Vera Lucia; Oliveira, Maria Auxiliadora; Emmerick, Isabel Cristina Martins; Bigdeli, Maryam

    2014-06-25

    This study aims to rank policy concerns and policy-related research issues in order to identify policy and research gaps on access to medicines (ATM) in low- and middle-income countries in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), as perceived by policy makers, researchers, NGO and international organization representatives, as part of a global prioritization exercise. Data collection, conducted between January and May 2011, involved face-to-face interviews in El Salvador, Colombia, Dominican Republic, and Suriname, and an e-mail survey with key-stakeholders. Respondents were asked to choose the five most relevant criteria for research prioritization and to score policy/research items according to the degree to which they represented current policies, desired policies, current research topics, and/or desired research topics. Mean scores and summary rankings were obtained. Linear regressions were performed to contrast rankings concerning current and desired policies (policy gaps), and current and desired research (research gaps). Relevance, feasibility, and research utilization were the top ranked criteria for prioritizing research. Technical capacity, research and development for new drugs, and responsiveness, were the main policy gaps. Quality assurance, staff technical capacity, price regulation, out-of-pocket payments, and cost containment policies, were the main research gaps. There was high level of coherence between current and desired policies: coefficients of determination (R2) varied from 0.46 (Health system structure; r = 0.68, P metrics approaches, contributing to priority setting methodology development, with country and regional level stakeholder participation. Stakeholders received feedback with the results, and we hope to have contributed to the discussion and implementation of ATM research and policy priorities in LAC.

  5. Health care providers and human trafficking: what do they know, what do they need to know? Findings from the Middle East, the Caribbean and Central America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roderik F Viergever

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundHuman trafficking is a crime that commonly results in acute and chronic physical and psychological harm. To foster more informed health sector responses to human trafficking, training sessions for health care providers were developed and pilot-tested in the Middle East, Central America and the Caribbean. This study presents the results of an investigation into what health care providers knew and needed to know about human trafficking as part of that training program.MethodsParticipants attended one of seven two-day training courses in Antigua and Barbuda, Belize, Costa Rica, Egypt, El Salvador, Guyana and Jordan. We assessed participants’ knowledge about human trafficking and opinions about appropriate responses in trafficking cases via questionnaires pre-training, and considered participant feedback about the training post-training. Results178 participants attended the trainings. Pre-training questionnaires were completed by 165 participants (93% and post-training questionnaires by 156 participants (88%. Pre-training knowledge about health and human trafficking appeared generally high for topics such as the international nature of trafficking and the likelihood of poor mental health outcomes among survivors. However, many participants had misconceptions about the characteristics of trafficked persons and a provider’s role in responding to cases of trafficking. The most valued training components included the Role of the Health Provider, Basic Definitions and Concepts and Health Consequences of Trafficking. DiscussionTraining health care providers on caring for trafficked persons has the potential to improve practitioners’ knowledge about human trafficking and its health consequences, and to increase safe practices when responding in cases of trafficking. This study provides lessons for the design of training programs on human trafficking that aim to help health care providers identify and refer victims, and provide care for

  6. Health care providers and human trafficking: what do they know, what do they need to know? Findings from the middle East, the Caribbean, and central america.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viergever, Roderik F; West, Haley; Borland, Rosilyne; Zimmerman, Cathy

    2015-01-01

    Human trafficking is a crime that commonly results in acute and chronic physical and psychological harm. To foster more informed health sector responses to human trafficking, training sessions for health care providers were developed and pilot-tested in the Middle East, Central America, and the Caribbean. This study presents the results of an investigation into what health care providers knew and needed to know about human trafficking as part of that training program. Participants attended one of seven two-day training courses in Antigua and Barbuda, Belize, Costa Rica, Egypt, El Salvador, Guyana, and Jordan. We assessed participants' knowledge about human trafficking and opinions about appropriate responses in trafficking cases via questionnaires pre-training, and considered participant feedback about the training post-training. 178 participants attended the trainings. Pre-training questionnaires were completed by 165 participants (93%) and post-training questionnaires by 156 participants (88%). Pre-training knowledge about health and human trafficking appeared generally high for topics such as the international nature of trafficking and the likelihood of poor mental health outcomes among survivors. However, many participants had misconceptions about the characteristics of trafficked persons and a provider's role in responding to cases of trafficking. The most valued training components included the "Role of the Health Provider," "Basic Definitions and Concepts," and "Health Consequences of Trafficking." Training health care providers on caring for trafficked persons has the potential to improve practitioners' knowledge about human trafficking and its health consequences, and to increase safe practices when responding in cases of trafficking. This study provides lessons for the design of training programs on human trafficking that aim to help health care providers identify and refer victims, and provide care for survivors.

  7. Mortality during the first year of potent antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1-infected patients in 7 sites throughout Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuboi, Suely H; Schechter, Mauro; McGowan, Catherine C; Cesar, Carina; Krolewiecki, Alejandro; Cahn, Pedro; Wolff, Marcelo; Pape, Jean W; Padgett, Denis; Madero, Juan Sierra; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Masys, Daniel R; Shepherd, Bryan E

    2009-08-15

    Although nearly 2 million people live with HIV in Latin America and the Caribbean, mortality rates after initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) have not been well described. Five thousand one hundred fifty-two HIV-infected, antiretroviral-naive adults from clinics in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico, and Peru starting HAART during 1996-2007 were included. First-year mortality rates and their association with demographics, regimen, baseline CD4, and clinical stage were assessed. Overall 1-year mortality rate was 8.3% [95% confidence interval (CI): 7.6% to 9.1%], although variable across sites: 2.6%, 3.7%, 6.0%, 13.0%, 10.8%, 3.5%, and 9.8% for clinics in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico, and Peru, respectively. Eighty percent of deaths occurred within the first 6 months. Median baseline CD4 was 107 cells per milliliter, ranging from 79 (Peru) to 163 (Argentina). Mortality estimates adjusting for CD4 were similar across sites (1.1%-2.8% for CD4 = 200), except for Haiti, 7.5%, and Honduras, 7.0%. Death was associated with lower CD4 [adjusted hazard ratio for CD4 = 200 vs. CD4 = 50 was 0.58; 95% CI: 0.40 to 0.85] and clinical AIDS (hazard ratio = 3.1; 95% CI: 2.1 to 4.5). Mortality rates were similar to those reported elsewhere for resource-limited settings. Disease stage at HAART initiation, treatment eligibility criteria, program age, and background mortality rates may explain some variability in prognosis between sites.

  8. Late Quaternary uplift along the North America-Caribbean plate boundary: Evidence from the sea level record of Guantanamo Bay, Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, Daniel; Schweig, Eugene S.; Simmons, Kathleen; Halley, Robert B.

    2017-01-01

    The tectonic setting of the North America-Caribbean plate boundary has been studied intensively, but some aspects are still poorly understood, particularly along the Oriente fault zone. Guantanamo Bay, southern Cuba, is considered to be on a coastline that is under a transpressive tectonic regime along this zone, and is hypothesized to have a low uplift rate. We tested this by studying emergent reef terrace deposits around the bay. Reef elevations in the protected, inner part of the bay are ∼11–12 m and outer-coast, wave-cut benches are as high as ∼14 m. Uranium-series analyses of corals yield ages ranging from ∼133 ka to ∼119 ka, correlating this reef to the peak of the last interglacial period, marine isotope stage (MIS) 5.5. Assuming a span of possible paleo-sea levels at the time of the last interglacial period yields long-term tectonic uplift rates of 0.02–0.11 m/ka, supporting the hypothesis that the tectonic uplift rate is low. Nevertheless, on the eastern and southern coasts of Cuba, east and west of Guantanamo Bay, there are flights of multiple marine terraces, at higher elevations, that could record a higher rate of uplift, implying that Guantanamo Bay may be anomalous. Southern Cuba is considered to have experienced a measurable but modest effect from glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) processes. Thus, with a low uplift rate, Guantanamo Bay should show no evidence of emergent marine terraces dating to the ∼100 ka (MIS 5.3) or ∼80 ka (MIS 5.1) sea stands and results of the present study support this.

  9. Update on the mapping of prevalence and intensity of infection for soil-transmitted helminth infections in Latin America and the Caribbean: a call for action.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Idalí Saboyá

    Full Text Available It is estimated that in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC at least 13.9 million preschool age and 35.4 million school age children are at risk of infections by soil-transmitted helminths (STH: Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworms (Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale. Although infections caused by this group of parasites are associated with chronic deleterious effects on nutrition and growth, iron and vitamin A status and cognitive development in children, few countries in the LAC Region have implemented nationwide surveys on prevalence and intensity of infection. The aim of this study was to identify gaps on the mapping of prevalence and intensity of STH infections based on data published between 2000 and 2010 in LAC, and to call for including mapping as part of action plans against these infections. A total of 335 published data points for STH prevalence were found for 18 countries (11.9% data points for preschool age children, 56.7% for school age children and 31.3% for children from 1 to 14 years of age. We found that 62.7% of data points showed prevalence levels above 20%. Data on the intensity of infection were found for seven countries. The analysis also highlights that there is still an important lack of data on prevalence and intensity of infection to determine the burden of disease based on epidemiological surveys, particularly among preschool age children. This situation is a challenge for LAC given that adequate planning of interventions such as deworming requires information on prevalence to determine the frequency of needed anthelmintic drug administration and to conduct monitoring and evaluation of progress in drug coverage.

  10. Training in nuclear and radiation safety in Latin American and Caribbean; Capacitacion en seguridad nuclear y radiologica en America Latina y el Caribe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadopulos, S.; Diaz, O.; Larcher, A.; Echenique, L.; Nicolas, R., E-mail: spapadopulos@arn.gob.ar, E-mail: odiaz@arn.gob.ar, E-mail: alarcher@arn.gob.ar, E-mail: lechenique@arn.gob.ar, E-mail: rnicolas@arn.gob.ar [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear (ARN), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Lombardi, R.; Quintana, G., E-mail: alombar@fi.uba, E-mail: quinta@fi.uba.ar [Universidad de Buenos Aires (FI/UBA), (Argentina). Facultad de Ingenieria

    2013-07-01

    From thirty-three years, Argentina has taken the commitment to train professionals in the field of nuclear and radiation safety for the care and protection of workers and public in general. Sponsored by the IAEA and supported by the Faculty of Engineering of the University of Buenos Aires (FIUBA), an undertaking was made to encourage the training of scientists and experts in the countries of the region in order to establish a strong safety culture in radiation in individuals and maintaining high standards of safety practices using ionizing radiation. In 2012, the Graduate Course in Radiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources has acquired the status of 'Specialization' of the FIUBA, a category that further hierarchies skills training in the subject. This is a highly anticipated achievement by the implications for academic institutions, national and regional level, contributing to the strengthening of the Regional Training Center for Latin America and the Caribbean, acknowledged in a long-term agreement between the IAEA and Argentina in September 2008. Due to increased demand for nuclear activity, it is important to continue and deepen further training in radiological and nuclear areas. In order to satisfy both national and regional needs a process of increase on training offer training is being carried out, under the jurisdiction frame of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority. This paper presents the achievements of the country so far as regards training of human resource in radiation protection and nuclear safety in the region and highlights the challenges ahead for the extension of the offer in education and training. (author)

  11. Seroprevalence of hepatitis C virus among people living with HIV/AIDS in Latin America and the Caribbean: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tengan, Fatima Mitiko; Ibrahim, Karim Yakub; Dantas, Bianca Peixoto; Manchiero, Caroline; Magri, Mariana Cavalheiro; Bernardo, Wanderley Marques

    2016-11-09

    Studies have shown that the immunosuppression induced by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) accelerates the natural history of liver disease associated with hepatitis C virus (HCV), with 3- to 5-fold higher odds of coinfected individuals developing cirrhosis. However, estimates of the seroprevalence of hepatitis C among people living with HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) (PLHA) in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) are widely variable. We performed a systematic review to estimate the seroprevalence of HCV among PLHA. We searched studies on HIV and HCV infections in LAC included in the PubMed, LILACS and Embase databases in December of 2014 with no time or language restrictions. The following combinations of search terms were used in the PubMed and Embase databases: (HIV OR Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Virus OR AIDS OR HTLV OR Human Immunodeficiency Virus OR Human T Cell) AND (HCV OR HEPATITIS C OR HEPATITIS C VIRUS OR HEPACIVIRUS) AND (name of an individual country or territory in LAC). The following search terms were used in the LILACS database: (HIV OR AIDS OR Virus da Imunodeficiencia Humana) AND (HCV OR Hepatite C OR Hepacivirus). An additional 11 studies were identified through manual searches. A total of 2,380 publications were located, including 617 duplicates; the remaining articles were reviewed to select studies for inclusion in this study. A total of 37 studies were selected for systematic review, including 23 from Brazil, 5 from Argentina, 3 from Cuba, 1 from Puerto Rico, 1 from Chile, 1 from Colombia, 1 from Mexico, 1 from Peru and 1 from Venezuela. The estimated seroprevalence of HCV infection varied from 0.8 to 58.5 % (mean 17.37; median 10.91), with the highest in Argentina and Brazil and the lowest in Venezuela and Colombia. Investigation of HCV infection among PLHA and of HIV infection among people living with HCV is highly recommended because it allows for better follow up, counseling and treatment of HIV

  12. Durability of Efavirenz Compared With Boosted Protease Inhibitor-Based Regimens in Antiretroviral-Naïve Patients in the Caribbean and Central and South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro-Vega, Yanink; Belaunzarán-Zamudio, Pablo F; Crabtree-Ramírez, Brenda E; Shepherd, Bryan E; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Wolff, Marcelo; Pape, Jean W; Padgett, Denis; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; McGowan, Catherine C; Sierra-Madero, Juan G

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background Efavirenz (EFV) and boosted protease inhibitors (bPIs) are still the preferred options for firstline antiretroviral regimens (firstline ART) in Latin America and have comparable short-term efficacy. We assessed the long-term durability and outcomes of patients receiving EFV or bPIs as firstline ART in the Caribbean, Central and South America network for HIV epidemiology (CCASAnet). Methods We included ART-naïve, HIV-positive adults on EFV or bPIs as firstline ART in CCASAnet between 2000 and 2016. We investigated the time from starting until ending firstline ART according to changes of third component for any reason, including toxicity and treatment failure, death, and/or loss to follow-up. Use of a third-line regimen was a secondary outcome. Kaplan-Meier estimators of composite end points were generated. Crude cumulative incidence of events and adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) were estimated accounting for competing risk events. Results We included 14 519 patients: 12 898 (89%) started EFV and 1621 (11%) bPIs. The adjusted median years on firstline ART were 4.6 (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.4–4.7) on EFV and 3.8 (95% CI, 3.8–4.0) on bPI (P < .001). Cumulative incidence of firstline ART ending at 10 years of follow-up was 32% (95% CI, 31–33) on EFV and 44% (95% CI, 39–48) on bPI (aHR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.78–0.97). The cumulative incidence rates of third-line initiation in the bPI-based group were 6% (95% CI, 2.4–9.6) and 2% (95% CI, 1.4–2.2) among the EFV-based group (P < .01). Conclusions Durability of firstline ART was longer with EFV than with bPIs. EFV-based regimens may continue to be the preferred firstline regimen for our region in the near future due to their high efficacy, relatively low toxicity (especially at lower doses), existence of generic formulations, and affordability for national programs. PMID:29527539

  13. Incidence of virological failure and major regimen change of initial combination antiretroviral therapy in the Latin America and the Caribbean: an observational cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesar, Carina; Jenkins, Cathy A.; Shepherd, Bryan E.; Padgett, Denis; Mejía, Fernando; Ribeiro, Sayonara Rocha; Cortes, Claudia P.; Pape, Jean W.; Madero, Juan Sierra; Fink, Valeria; Sued, Omar; McGowan, Catherine; Cahn, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Background Access to combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) is expanding in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). There is little information in this region regarding incidence of and factors associated with regimen failure and regimen change. Methods Antiretroviral-naïve adults starting cART from 2000-2014 at sites in seven countries throughout LAC were included. Cumulative incidence of virologic failure and major regimen change were estimated with death considered a competing event. Findings 14,027 cART initiators (60% male, median age 37 years, median CD4 156 cells/mm3, median HIV-RNA 5·0 log10 copies/mL, and 28% with clinical AIDS) were followed for a median of 3·9 years. 1,719 patients presented virologic failure and 1,955 had a major regimen change. Excluding GHESKIO-Haiti (which did not regularly measure HIV-RNA), cumulative incidence of virologic failure was 7·8%, 19·2%, and 25·8% at one, three, and five years after cART initiation, respectively; cumulative incidence of major regimen change was 5·9%, 12·7%, and 18·2%. Incidence of major regimen change at GHESKIO-Haiti at five years was 10·7%. Virologic failure was associated with younger age (adjusted hazard ratio[aHR]=2·03 for 20 vs. 40 years; 95% confidence interval[CI] 1·68-2·44), infection through injection-drug use (IDU) (aHR=1·60; 95%CI 1·02-2·52), initiation in earlier calendar years (aHR=1·28 for 2002 vs. 2006; 95%CI 1·13-1·46), and starting with a boosted protease inhibitor (aHR=1·17 vs. non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor; 95%CI 1·00-1·64). Interpretation Incidence of virologic failure was generally lower than in North America/Europe. Our results suggest the need to design strategies to reduce failure and major regimen change among younger patients and those with a history of IDU. Funding US National Institutes of Health: U01 AI069923. PMID:26520929

  14. Seroprevalence of hepatitis C virus among people living with HIV/AIDS in Latin America and the Caribbean: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Mitiko Tengan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have shown that the immunosuppression induced by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV accelerates the natural history of liver disease associated with hepatitis C virus (HCV, with 3- to 5-fold higher odds of coinfected individuals developing cirrhosis. However, estimates of the seroprevalence of hepatitis C among people living with HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS (PLHA in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC are widely variable. Methods We performed a systematic review to estimate the seroprevalence of HCV among PLHA. We searched studies on HIV and HCV infections in LAC included in the PubMed, LILACS and Embase databases in December of 2014 with no time or language restrictions. The following combinations of search terms were used in the PubMed and Embase databases: (HIV OR Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Virus OR AIDS OR HTLV OR Human Immunodeficiency Virus OR Human T Cell AND (HCV OR HEPATITIS C OR HEPATITIS C VIRUS OR HEPACIVIRUS AND (name of an individual country or territory in LAC. The following search terms were used in the LILACS database: (HIV OR AIDS OR Virus da Imunodeficiencia Humana AND (HCV OR Hepatite C OR Hepacivirus. An additional 11 studies were identified through manual searches. A total of 2,380 publications were located, including 617 duplicates; the remaining articles were reviewed to select studies for inclusion in this study. Results A total of 37 studies were selected for systematic review, including 23 from Brazil, 5 from Argentina, 3 from Cuba, 1 from Puerto Rico, 1 from Chile, 1 from Colombia, 1 from Mexico, 1 from Peru and 1 from Venezuela. The estimated seroprevalence of HCV infection varied from 0.8 to 58.5 % (mean 17.37; median 10.91, with the highest in Argentina and Brazil and the lowest in Venezuela and Colombia. Conclusions Investigation of HCV infection among PLHA and of HIV infection among people living with HCV is highly recommended because it allows for better

  15. Voluntary reduction of trans-fatty acids in Latin America and the Caribbean: current situation Disminución voluntaria del contenido de ácidos grasos trans en América Latina y el Caribe: situación actual

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Monge-Rojas; Uriyoán Colón-Ramos; Enrique Jacoby; Dariush Mozaffarian

    2011-01-01

    As part of the Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization Trans-Fat-Free Americas initiative, 12 representatives from food industries in Latin America and the Caribbean signed a declaration stating their intention to voluntarily eliminate industrially produced trans-fatty acids (TFA) from the Americas. A year later, in order to document the extent of the voluntary reduction, each declarant was asked to describe all reformulations and reductions in the TFA content of their prod...

  16. Agreement of 5 April 1995 between the Republic of Chile and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the treaty for the prohibition of nuclear weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    The text of the Agreement between the Republic of Chile and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement was approved by the Agency's Board of Governors on 29 March 1995 and signed in Vienna on 5 April 1995. The Agreement entered into force, pursuant to Article 26, on 5 April 1995

  17. Co-operation Agreement for the Promotion of Nuclear Science and Technology in Latin America and the Caribbean (ARCAL). Status list as of 30 September 2002. Signature and ratification. Declarations/reservations made upon signature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of the Co-operation Agreement for the Promotion of Nuclear Science and Technology in Latin America and the Caribbean (ARCAL) which was opened for signature on 25 September 1998 and shall come into force after deposit of the instrument of ratification by ten Member States. It shall remain in force for ten years, and may be extended by periods of five years if the Member States so agree. By 30 September 2002, there were 18 Signatories to the above Agreement

  18. Breast cancer in Latin America and the Caribbean El cáncer de mama en América Latina y el Caribe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia C Robles

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available As recently as two decades ago breast cancer was not a significant public health concern in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC. However, mortality rates from breast cancer have been increasing for at least 40 years in most LAC countries. Socioeconomic development and consequent changes in reproductive behaviors over the past 50 years are thought to have contributed to the increased risk of breast cancer. Socioeconomic development has also increased women's health awareness and therefore the demand for quality services. In industrialized countries, screening and widely available, high-quality treatment protocols are being implemented as the main strategy for breast cancer control. Studies show that out of three available screening methods (mammography, clinical breast examination, and breast self-examination, only mammography for women 50-69 years of age has been effective at reducing mortality, and has done so by an estimated 23%. While there is much controversy about the benefits and cost-effectiveness of mammography screening for women aged 40-49, some countries, including Australia, the United States of America, and four European nations, recommend that physicians assess the need for it on an individual basis. A survey that we conducted of LAC countries shows that most of their breast cancer screening policies are not justified by available scientific evidence. Moreover, as seen by relatively high mortality/incidence ratios, breast cancer cases are not being adequately managed in many LAC countries. Before further developing screening programs, these countries need to evaluate the feasibility of designing and implementing appropriate treatment guidelines and providing wide access to diagnostic and treatment services. Given the relevance of breast cancer in Latin America and the Caribbean today, it is crucial that both women and health care providers have access to up-to-date information on which to base their decisions.Hace tan solo dos d

  19. Inequalities in health in Latin America and the Caribbean: descriptive and exploratory results for self-reported health problems and health care in twelve countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Norberto W. Dachs

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To explore and describe inequalities in health and use of health care as revealed by self-report in 12 countries of Latin America and the Caribbean. Methods. A descriptive and exploratory study was performed based on the responses to questions on health and health care utilization that were included in general purpose household surveys. Inequalities are described by quintile of household expenditures (or income per capita, sex, age group (children, adults, and older adults, and place of residence (urban vs. rural area. For those who sought health care, median polishing was performed by economic status and sex, for the three age groups. Results. Although the study is exploratory and descriptive, its findings show large economic gradients in health care utilization in these countries, with generally small differences between males and females and higher percentages of women seeking health care than men, although there were some exceptions among the lower economic strata in urban areas. Conclusions. Inequalities in self-reported health problems among the different economic strata were small, and such problems were usually more common among women than men. The presence of small inequalities may be due to cultural and social differences in the perception of health. However, in most countries included in the study, large inequalities were found in the use of health care for the self-reported health problems. It is important to develop regional projects aimed at improving the questions on self-reported health in household interview surveys so that the determinants of the inequalities in health can be studied in depth. The authors conclude that due to the different patterns of economic gradients among different age groups and among males and females, the practice of standardization used in constructing concentration curves and in computing concentration indices should be avoided. At the end is a set of recommendations on how to improve these

  20. Rates and Reasons for Early Change of First HAART in HIV-1-Infected Patients in 7 Sites throughout the Caribbean and Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesar, Carina; Shepherd, Bryan E.; Krolewiecki, Alejandro J.; Fink, Valeria I.; Schechter, Mauro; Tuboi, Suely H.; Wolff, Marcelo; Pape, Jean W.; Leger, Paul; Padgett, Denis; Madero, Juan Sierra; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Sued, Omar; McGowan, Catherine C.; Masys, Daniel R.; Cahn, Pedro E.

    2010-01-01

    Background HAART rollout in Latin America and the Caribbean has increased from approximately 210,000 in 2003 to 390,000 patients in 2007, covering 62% (51%–70%) of eligible patients, with considerable variation among countries. No multi-cohort study has examined rates of and reasons for change of initial HAART in this region. Methodology Antiretroviral-naïve patients > = 18 years who started HAART between 1996 and 2007 and had at least one follow-up visit from sites in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico and Peru were included. Time from HAART initiation to change (stopping or switching any antiretrovirals) was estimated using Kaplan-Meier techniques. Cox proportional hazards modeled the associations between change and demographics, initial regimen, baseline CD4 count, and clinical stage. Principal Findings Of 5026 HIV-infected patients, 35% were female, median age at HAART initiation was 37 years (interquartile range [IQR], 31–44), and median CD4 count was 105 cells/uL (IQR, 38–200). Estimated probabilities of changing within 3 months and one year of HAART initiation were 16% (95% confidence interval (CI) 15–17%) and 28% (95% CI 27–29%), respectively. Efavirenz-based regimens and no clinical AIDS at HAART initiation were associated with lower risk of change (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.7 (95% CI 1.1–2.6) and 2.1 (95% CI 1.7–2.5) comparing neverapine-based regimens and other regimens to efavirenz, respectively; HR = 1.3 (95% CI 1.1–1.5) for clinical AIDS at HAART initiation). The primary reason for change among HAART initiators were adverse events (14%), death (5.7%) and failure (1.3%) with specific toxicities varying among sites. After change, most patients remained in first line regimens. Conclusions Adverse events were the leading cause for changing initial HAART. Predictors for change due to any reason were AIDS at baseline and the use of a non-efavirenz containing regimen. Differences between participant sites were observed

  1. BOLIVAR: Crustal structure of the Caribbean-South America plate boundary between 60W and 70W from wide-angle seismic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelt, C. A.; Christeson, G. L.; Magnani, M. B.; Clark, S. A.; Guedez, M. C.; Bezada, M.; Levander, A.; Schmitz, M.

    2007-12-01

    We present the results from five wide-angle seismic profiles collected onshore and offshore Venezuela in 2004 as part of the Broadband Ocean Land Investigation of Venezuela and the Antilles arc Region project (BOLIVAR). The study area is the diffuse plate boundary between South America (SA) and the SE Caribbean plate (CAR) covering roughly 1000 km by 500 km. Over the past 55 My the Leeward Antilles island arc that borders the CAR plate has been colliding obliquely with the SA continent resulting in a collision front that has migrated from west to east. The five wide-angle profiles sample different stages of the time-transgressive margin from west to east, each crossing the margin roughly perpendicularly. The main purpose of this presentation is to contrast and compare the crustal velocity structure along these profiles to better understand the tectonic processes that are responsible for the evolution and present-day configuration of the plate boundary. Each of the wide-angle profiles is about 500 km in length and includes both onshore and offshore shots and receivers, except the easternmost profile, which is entirely offshore. The dense wide-angle data were modeled in the same way along each profile using a two-step, layer-stripping approach: (1) the first-arrival times were tomographically inverted for a smooth velocity model, and (2) the lower crust, Moho, and uppermost mantle were determined by simultaneous inversion of the PmP refection and Pn refraction phases while keeping the upper and middle crust from the first step fixed. The five models show tremendous lateral heterogeneity, as they cross features such as normal oceanic crust, oceanic plateau crust, an accretionary wedge, active and remnant island arcs, forearc and foreland basins, a major strike-slip system, a fold and thrust belt, and the edge of cratonic continental crust. Two of the main contributions of the wide-angle models to the BOLIVAR project, and the focus of this presentation, are the Moho

  2. Rates and reasons for early change of first HAART in HIV-1-infected patients in 7 sites throughout the Caribbean and Latin America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Cesar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HAART rollout in Latin America and the Caribbean has increased from approximately 210,000 in 2003 to 390,000 patients in 2007, covering 62% (51%-70% of eligible patients, with considerable variation among countries. No multi-cohort study has examined rates of and reasons for change of initial HAART in this region. METHODOLOGY: Antiretroviral-naïve patients >or= 18 years who started HAART between 1996 and 2007 and had at least one follow-up visit from sites in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico and Peru were included. Time from HAART initiation to change (stopping or switching any antiretrovirals was estimated using Kaplan-Meier techniques. Cox proportional hazards modeled the associations between change and demographics, initial regimen, baseline CD4 count, and clinical stage. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Of 5026 HIV-infected patients, 35% were female, median age at HAART initiation was 37 years (interquartile range [IQR], 31-44, and median CD4 count was 105 cells/uL (IQR, 38-200. Estimated probabilities of changing within 3 months and one year of HAART initiation were 16% (95% confidence interval (CI 15-17% and 28% (95% CI 27-29%, respectively. Efavirenz-based regimens and no clinical AIDS at HAART initiation were associated with lower risk of change (hazard ratio (HR = 1.7 (95% CI 1.1-2.6 and 2.1 (95% CI 1.7-2.5 comparing neverapine-based regimens and other regimens to efavirenz, respectively; HR = 1.3 (95% CI 1.1-1.5 for clinical AIDS at HAART initiation. The primary reason for change among HAART initiators were adverse events (14%, death (5.7% and failure (1.3% with specific toxicities varying among sites. After change, most patients remained in first line regimens. CONCLUSIONS: Adverse events were the leading cause for changing initial HAART. Predictors for change due to any reason were AIDS at baseline and the use of a non-efavirenz containing regimen. Differences between participant sites were observed and require

  3. Impact of WHO recommendations to eliminate industrial trans-fatty acids from the food supply in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colón-Ramos, Uriyoán; Monge-Rojas, Rafael; Campos, Hannia

    2014-08-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has deemed that there is enough evidence to recommend the elimination of industrially produced trans-fatty acids (TFA) from the food supply. This article evaluates government-led public health strategies in countries in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), and factors perceived to affect following WHO's recommendation to eliminate industrially produced TFA. Descriptive, prospective multiple case studies integrated data from open-ended questionnaires to representatives of ministries of health, and systematic review of internal and publicly available documents in 13 LAC countries. Overall, government efforts to follow WHO recommendations have not been well co-ordinated throughout the region. Evidence for this includes the lack of standardization of TFA definitions. For example, some countries exclude naturally occurring TFA from the definitions, whereas others leave the option open to their inclusion. As a consequence, the criteria for trans-free nutrient claims and labelling requirements are inconsistent across the region. Government-led strategies varied from banning or limiting TFA content in the food supply to voluntary labelling of TFA. The identified challenges to the implementation of policies to reduce TFA include the shortage of information on TFA content of diets and foods, consumer unawareness of TFA and lack of monitoring and surveillance. The identified enabling factors were intersectoral collaboration with industry, mandatory labelling regulation and international and national visibility of the topic, which facilitated reduction of TFA content. A co-ordinated effort is required to achieve virtual elimination of all TFA in the region, as recommended by WHO. Standardization of the definition of TFA across the region would facilitate regulation, consumer education efforts and monitoring and surveillance efforts. Simultaneously, countries need to determine their level of exposure to TFA through the implementation of

  4. Rates and reasons for early change of first HAART in HIV-1-infected patients in 7 sites throughout the Caribbean and Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesar, Carina; Shepherd, Bryan E; Krolewiecki, Alejandro J; Fink, Valeria I; Schechter, Mauro; Tuboi, Suely H; Wolff, Marcelo; Pape, Jean W; Leger, Paul; Padgett, Denis; Madero, Juan Sierra; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Sued, Omar; McGowan, Catherine C; Masys, Daniel R; Cahn, Pedro E

    2010-06-01

    HAART rollout in Latin America and the Caribbean has increased from approximately 210,000 in 2003 to 390,000 patients in 2007, covering 62% (51%-70%) of eligible patients, with considerable variation among countries. No multi-cohort study has examined rates of and reasons for change of initial HAART in this region. Antiretroviral-naïve patients >or= 18 years who started HAART between 1996 and 2007 and had at least one follow-up visit from sites in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico and Peru were included. Time from HAART initiation to change (stopping or switching any antiretrovirals) was estimated using Kaplan-Meier techniques. Cox proportional hazards modeled the associations between change and demographics, initial regimen, baseline CD4 count, and clinical stage. Of 5026 HIV-infected patients, 35% were female, median age at HAART initiation was 37 years (interquartile range [IQR], 31-44), and median CD4 count was 105 cells/uL (IQR, 38-200). Estimated probabilities of changing within 3 months and one year of HAART initiation were 16% (95% confidence interval (CI) 15-17%) and 28% (95% CI 27-29%), respectively. Efavirenz-based regimens and no clinical AIDS at HAART initiation were associated with lower risk of change (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.7 (95% CI 1.1-2.6) and 2.1 (95% CI 1.7-2.5) comparing neverapine-based regimens and other regimens to efavirenz, respectively; HR = 1.3 (95% CI 1.1-1.5) for clinical AIDS at HAART initiation). The primary reason for change among HAART initiators were adverse events (14%), death (5.7%) and failure (1.3%) with specific toxicities varying among sites. After change, most patients remained in first line regimens. Adverse events were the leading cause for changing initial HAART. Predictors for change due to any reason were AIDS at baseline and the use of a non-efavirenz containing regimen. Differences between participant sites were observed and require further investigation.

  5. Tithonian-Early Valanginian evolution of deposition along the proto-Caribbean margin of North America recorded in Guaniguanico successions (western Cuba)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pszczółkowski, Andrzej; Myczyński, Ryszard

    2010-03-01

    In the Guaniguanico Mountains of western Cuba, the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous limestones occur in three stratigraphic successions, which have accumulated along the proto-Caribbean margin of North America. The Late Jurassic subsidence and shallow-water carbonate deposition of the Guaniguanico successions have no counterpart on the northeastern Maya block, but some distant similarities with the southeastern Gulf of Mexico may exist. Four facies types have been distinguished in the Tithonian-Lower Valanginian deposits of the Guaniguanico tectonic units. Drowning of the Late Jurassic carbonate bank of the Sierra de los Organos occurred at the Kimmeridgian/Tithonian boundary. During this boundary interval, sedimentation in the west Cuban area and southwestern margin of the Maya block (Mexico) has evolved in a similar way in response to a major second-order transgression. The Lower Tithonian ammonite assemblages of the Guaniguanico successions indicate, in general, the neritic zone. Presence of juvenile gastropods and lack of adult specimens suggest unfavorable environment for these molluscs, probably related to low oxygenation levels. The Early Tithonian transgressive phase terminated about the lower boundary of the Chitinoidella Zone. The Late Tithonian "regressive" phase is weakly marked, whereas the latest Tithonian-earliest Berriasian strata were deposited during a deepening phase. The latter transgressive phase has ended in the Late Berriasian Oblonga Subzone. We correlate the bioturbated pelagic biomicrites of the Tumbitas Member of the Guasasa Formation with a significant fall of the sea level during the latest Berriasian-Early Valanginian. The average sedimentation rate for the Tumbitas Member biomicrites was about three times faster than for the Berriasian Tumbadero Member limestones. Sedimentation rates for the Tumbitas Member and the Valanginian limestones at the DSDP Site 535 in the southeastern Gulf of Mexico were similar. In the Los Organos succession

  6. Tendencias del cáncer de mama en América Latina y el Caribe Breast cancer trends in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Lozano-Ascencio

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Describir la magnitud y distribución espaciotemporal del cáncer de mama (CaMa en América Latina y el Caribe (LAC de 1979 a 2005. El CaMa destaca como la causa de muerte más importante por tumores malignos en las mujeres latinoamericanas, incluso por arriba del cáncer cervicouterino. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Revisión y organización de las estadísticas nacionales e internacionales (registros, estudios publicados y bases de datos sobre incidencia y mortalidad. Elaboración de estimadores básicos, razones de mortalidad para cada país y análisis de tendencias. RESULTADOS: Aun con el rezago de información presente en la región, se observa un incremento de la incidencia y la mortalidad por CaMa. La razón de muertes/casos en los países de LAC muestra problemas de acceso a la detección y tratamiento. CONCLUSIONES: El reto es mejorar los sistemas de información y la infraestructura diagnóstica para la detección oportuna y el tratamiento adecuado con la finalidad de detener la tendencia ascendente de la mortalidad prematura.Breast cancer is currently the most significant cause of death from malignancies in Latin American women, including cervical cancer. OBJECTIVE: Describe the magnitude and spatial-temporal distribution of breast cancer in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC from 1979-2005. MATERIAL AND METHODS: National and international incidence and mortality statistics were reviewed and organized (registries, databases, and published literature, basic estimators and mortality ratios for each country were calculated and trends were analyzed. RESULTS: Despite substantial data gaps in incidence for many countries, an increase in incidence and mortality is observed in LAC countries. Deaths/cases ratios illustrate problems in access to detection and treatment and the greatest gaps are observed in poorer countries. CONCLUSIONS: A regional effort is needed to improve information systems related to cancer in general and breast cancer

  7. Latin America and the Caribbean

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Brain trust puts Peru back on its feet. When top officials in Peru need expert advice, they know who to call. Recommendations made by CIES, the Economic and Social Research Consortium, have led to a healthy energy sector; modern customs, export, and labour laws; stronger consumer protection in banking; and higher.

  8. 76 FR 32855 - National Caribbean-American Heritage Month, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-07

    ... pursue and realize the American dream. This month, we also recognize the important friendship between the... Caribbean-American Heritage Month, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation The... Nation of immigrants is part of what makes America strong, and during National Caribbean-American...

  9. Regional and global science: Publications from Latin America and the Caribbean in the SciELO Citation Index and the Web of Science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vélez-Cuartas, G.; Lucio-Arias, D.; Leydesdorff, L.

    2016-01-01

    In this article the authors compare the visibility of Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) publications in the Core Collection indexes of the Web of Science (WoS) inlcuding Science Citation Index Expanded, Social Sciences Citation Index, and Arts & Humanities Citation Index, and the SciELO Citation

  10. A Phenomenological Study of the Preparation and Career Paths of Academic Deans in Church of God Institutions of Theological Education in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras Flores, Jenniffer

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the preparation and career paths of academic deans in Church of God (COG) theological institutions located in Latin American and Caribbean. This study used a qualitative research approach and the in-depth interview method for data collection. A group of 14 academic deans that serve in COG theological schools and that…

  11. Meeting the Challenge of Basic Education and Literacy in Latin America and the Caribbean. Highlights of a Unesco/UNICEF Regional Seminar on the Universalization of Primary Education and Literacy (Sucre, Bolivia, May 4-10, 1987). UNESCO-UNICEF Co-operative Programme Digest No. 24.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Children's Fund, Paris (France).

    This digest presents the main elements of a regional seminar held in Sucre, Bolivia, to analyze and assess basic education and literacy programs that have been implemented in Latin America and the Caribbean. In addition to UNICEF and UNESCO officials, some 36 experts from 11 countries participated in the meeting. Although the initial aim of the…

  12. Up in smoke? Latin America and the Caribbean. The threat from climate change to the environment and human development. The third report from the Working Group on Climate Change and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simms, A. [new economics foundation nef, 3 Jonathan Street, London SE11 5NH (United Kingdom); Reid, H. [International Institute for Environment and Development IIED, 3 Endsleigh Street, London WC1H 0DD (United Kingdom)] (eds.)

    2006-08-15

    For years, the writing has been on the wall about the impact of climate change on the people, plants, animals, and habitats of Latin America and the Caribbean. Now, day-to-day experiences and eye-witness accounts from leading environmental and development groups are proving predictions to be correct. In the late 1990s, the world's pre-eminent group of climate scientists gathered under the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and predicted a devastating range of impacts, including an increase in the intensity and number of extreme weather events exacerbating natural disasters, forest die-off, melting glaciers, and the drying out of temperate grasslands. The region's huge geographical diversity means that patterns of vulnerability to climate change are extremely varied. It also makes modelling difficult, although this is constantly improving. To avoid misunderstanding, it is important to point out that with or without global warming, extreme weather is a problem for the people of the region. For many people, however, climate change is set to turn an already rough ride into an impossible one. This report confirms that temperature and rainfall patterns, hitherto largely regular and predictable, are changing and becoming less predictable and often more extreme. Based upon the experiences of partner agencies and the people they work with across the region, this report catalogues impacts linked to both climate change and environmental degradation ranging from drought in the Amazon to floods in Haiti and elsewhere; from vanishing glaciers in Colombia to extreme cold in the Andes; and hurricanes, not only in Central America and the Caribbean, but also in southern Brazil. It examines the impacts on agriculture and farming practices, fishing and coastal zones, towns and cities, and on the people of Latin America and the Caribbean: peasants, indigenous peoples, women, town dwellers, migrants. The direct and indirect impacts catalogued include the loss and

  13. A mechanism for the promotion of technical co-operation among the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean in the field of the peaceful use of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-03-01

    Day after day, in hospitals, industry, agricultural enterprises and universities all over the world, advantage is being taken of the peaceful uses of nuclear technology. In recent years, the Agency's regional technical co-operation projects have acquired considerable importance in Latin America and the Caribbean, particularly in such areas of common interest as nuclear information, radiation protection, human health, agriculture, hydrology, industry, and the maintenance and repair of nuclear instruments used for research purposes and related studies, to cite but a few examples. As a result, a group of Latin American countries decided to join forces to carry out specific technical co-operation projects aimed at raising the level of nuclear applications in the region. This effort culminated in the decision, made in 1984, to establish, under the auspices of the Agency, a regional co-operation programme called ARCAL. This document describes the ARCAL programme, participating countries and main results achieved

  14. Protocol Additional to the agreement between the Republic of Chile and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Chile and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Additional Protocol was approved by the Board of Governors on 10 September 2002. It was signed in Vienna on 19 September 2002. Pursuant to Article 17 of the Additional Protocol, the Protocol entered into force on 3 November 2003, the date on which the Agency received from Chile written notification that Chile's statutory and/or constitutional requirements for entry into force had been met

  15. Caribbean Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Kris

    1991-01-01

    The Caribbean is a rich breeding ground for African-derived music. A synopsis is given of the music of the following countries and styles: (1) Jamaica; (2) Trinidad and Tobago; (3) Calypso; (4) steel pan; (5) Haiti; (6) Dominican Republic; (7) Cuba; (8) Puerto Rico; and (9) other islands. (SLD)

  16. The Tectonic Evolution of Caribbean Ophiolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, G.

    2001-12-01

    Ophiolitic rocks (associated basalts, gabbros and ultramafic rocks) occur in many areas in the circum-Caribbean and Central America. These ophiolites are derived principally from two oceanic provinces: (1) the Atlantic realm, proto-Caribbean sea that formed when North America separated from South America during the opening of the North Atlantic during Jurassic and Early Cretaceous time. These ophiolites were emplaced during a series of late Cretaceous to early Tertiary arc-continent collisions as the east facing Antilles arc migrated into the Caribbean realm. These occurrences include Guatamala, northern Cuba, northern Hispaniola, and northern Venezuela. (2) the Pacific realm, late Cretaceous Caribbean-Colombian plateau that now occupies the central Caribbean, but outcrops on land in Costa Rica, SW Hispaniola, the Netherlands Antilles and western Colombia. Accretion, emplacement and uplift was aided by their buoyancy and took place at various times during the Caribbean plateau's insertion into the middle American continental gap. A third set of occurrences are more uncertain in origin. The central Hispaniola and SE Puerto Rico ophiolites seem to be Jurassic age oceanic plateau rocks that were emplaced in mid-Cretaceous time during an, subduction polarity reversal episode. The emplacement of the metamorphosed ophiolitic rocks of eastern Jamaica may also be associated with this event, but the adjacent, upper Cretaceous, Bath-Dunrobin complex seems to be more related to the Campanian Yucatan-Antillean arc collision. The ultramafic rocks of Tobago are not oceanic, but represent Alaksan-type, assemblages.

  17. Los trastornos mentales en América Latina y el Caribe: asunto prioritario para la salud pública Mental disorders in Latin America and the Caribbean: a public health priority

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Kohn

    2005-11-01

    los trastornos mentales en América Latina y el Caribe sigue siendo abrumadora. Además, las tasas actuales probablemente subestiman el número de personas sin atención. La transición epidemiológica y los cambios en la composición poblacional acentuarán aun más la brecha en la atención en América Latina y el Caribe, a no ser que se formulen nuevas políticas de salud mental o que se actualicen las existentes, procurando incluir en ellas la extensión de los programas y servicios.OBJECTIVE: The growing burden of mental disorders in Latin America and the Caribbean has become too large to ignore. There is a need to know more about the prevalence of mental disorders and the gap between the number of individuals with psychiatric disorders and the number of those persons who remain untreated even though effective treatments exist. Having that knowledge would make it possible to improve advocacy, adopt better policies, formulate innovative intervention programs, and apportion resources commensurate with needs. METHODS: Data were extracted from community-based psychiatric epidemiological studies published in Latin America and the Caribbean from 1980 through 2004 that used structured diagnostic instruments and provided prevalence rates. Estimates of the crude rates in Latin America and the Caribbean for the various disorders were determined by calculating the mean and median rates across the studies, by gender. In addition, data on service utilization were reviewed in order to calculate the treatment gap for specific disorders. RESULTS: Nonaffective psychosis (including schizophrenia had an estimated mean one-year prevalence rate of 1.0%; major depression, 4.9%; and alcohol use abuse or dependence, 5.7%. Over one-third of individuals with nonaffective psychosis, over half of those with an anxiety disorder, and some three-fourths of those with alcohol use abuse or dependence did not receive mental health care from either specialized or general health services

  18. Structure of the la VELA Offshore Basin, Western Venezuela: AN Obliquely-Opening Rift Basin Within the South America-Caribbean Strike-Slip Plate Boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, J. M.; Mann, P.

    2015-12-01

    Bathymetric, gravity and magnetic maps show that the east-west trend of the Cretaceous Great Arc of the Caribbean in the Leeward Antilles islands is transected by an en echelon series of obliquely-sheared rift basins that show right-lateral offsets ranging from 20 to 40 km. The basins are 75-100 km in length and 20-30 km in width and are composed of sub-parallel, oblique slip normal faults that define deep, bathymetric channels that bound the larger islands of the Leeward Antilles including Aruba, Curacao and Bonaire. A single basin of similar orientation and structure, the Urumaco basin, is present to the southwest in the Gulf of Venezuela. We mapped structures and sedimentation in the La Vela rift basin using a 3D seismic data volume recorded down to 6 seconds TWT. The basin can be mapped from the Falcon coast where it is correlative with the right-lateral Adicora fault mapped onshore, and its submarine extension. To the southeast of the 3D survey area, previous workers have mapped a 70-km-wide zone of northeast-striking, oblique, right-lateral faults, some with apparent right-lateral offsets of the coastline. On seismic data, the faults vary in dip from 45 to 60 degrees and exhibit maximum vertical offsets of 600 m. The La Vela and other obliquely-opening rifts accommodate right-lateral shear with linkages to intervening, east-west-striking right-lateral faults like the Adicora. The zone of oblique rifts is restricted to the trend of the Great Arc of the Caribbean and may reflect the susceptiblity of this granitic basement to active shearing. The age of onset for the basins known from previous studies on the Leeward Antilles is early Miocene. As most of these faults occur offshore their potential to generate damaging earthquakes in the densely populated Leeward Antilles is not known.

  19. Has the implementation of the TRIPS Agreement in Latin America and the Caribbean produced intellectual property legislation that favours public health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Maria Auxiliadora; Bermudez, Jorge Antonio Zepeda; Chaves, Gabriela Costa; Velásquez, Germán

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The World Trade Organization's Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) Agreement establishes minimum standards for intellectual property rights, including patent protection for pharmaceuticals; therefore, it may make it difficult for developing countries to gain access to medicines, especially those countries that are the least developed. This study aims to determine whether implementation of the TRIPS Agreement in Latin American and Caribbean countries has generated patent legislation that is sensitive to public health needs. METHODS: Legislation in 11 Latin American and Caribbean countries was analysed. The variables considered in the analysis were: the term of patents issued, patentable subject matter, transition periods (that is, time until legislation was enacted), reversal of the burden of proof of patent infringement, exhaustion of rights, compulsory licensing and the early working exception (which allows a country to complete all procedures necessary to register a generic product before the original patent expires). FINDINGS: By 2000, all of the countries studied had reformed their legislation to conform to the agreement. Brazil and Argentina used the transition period until 2005 to grant patents in the pharmaceutical industry. All countries, except Panama, made use of the safeguards and flexibilities available through the agreement by including mechanisms for compulsory licensing in their legislation. Argentina; Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela (countries that represented the Andean community); the Dominican Republic; and Panama included mechanisms to allow parallel importation. Mexico did not. Brazil only permits parallel importation after a compulsory licence has been issued. The early working exception is included in legislation in Brazil and the Dominican Republic. CONCLUSION: The countries in this study did not incorporate all of the mechanisms allowed for by the Agreement and are not adequately using the

  20. New taxonomic and distributional information on hermit crabs (Crustacea: Anomura: Paguroidea) from the Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean Sea, and Atlantic coast of South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaitre, Rafael; Tavares, Marcos

    2015-08-04

    A collection of Paguroidea recently obtained during deep-water expeditions along the coast of Brazil, forms the basis of this report. Of the 14 species reported from Brazil, 11 represent range extensions to the south, and one, Michelopagurus atlanticus (Bouvier, 1922), is a first record for the western Atlantic. The specimens were compared with types and western Atlantic materials deposited in various major museums. A diagnosis and illustrations are presented for each of seven species found to be poorly or insufficiently known. New material and information is reported for two additional species that occur in Brazil but not found in the recent deep-water collections: Clibanarius symmetricus (Randall, 1840) and Mixtopagurus paradoxus A. Milne-Edwards, 1880. Remarkable and unique color photographs of live or fresh specimens of Allodardanus bredini Haig & Provenzano, 1965, Bathynarius anomalus (A. Milne-Edwards & Bouvier, 1893), Pylopagurus discoidalis (A. Milne-Edwards, 1880), Paguristes spinipes A. Milne-Edwards, 1880, Parapagurus pilosimanus Smith, 1876, and P. alaminos Lemaitre, 1986, are presented. A review of published records and museum collections of the terrestrial Coenobita clypeatus (Fabricius, 1787), has shown that the southern range limit of this species does not extend beyond the southern Caribbean and Trinidad and Tobago, and thus does not occur on the Brazilian coast as previously believed. A distribution map of C. clypeatus is provided based on specimens in the collections of the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution. New distribution records in the Gulf of Mexico and southern Caribbean, and morphological information, are included for Pagurus rotundimanus Wass, 1963, a species originally described from the Florida Keys but rarely reported since. Relevant remarks on the taxonomy, morphology, and distribution of all these species are included. The revised list of Paguroidea known from Brazil is updated, and now includes a total of

  1. Has the implementation of the TRIPS Agreement in Latin America and the Caribbean produced intellectual property legislation that favours public health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Maria Auxiliadora; Bermudez, Jorge Antonio Zepeda; Chaves, Gabriela Costa; Velásquez, Germán

    2004-11-01

    The World Trade Organization's Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) Agreement establishes minimum standards for intellectual property rights, including patent protection for pharmaceuticals; therefore, it may make it difficult for developing countries to gain access to medicines, especially those countries that are the least developed. This study aims to determine whether implementation of the TRIPS Agreement in Latin American and Caribbean countries has generated patent legislation that is sensitive to public health needs. Legislation in 11 Latin American and Caribbean countries was analysed. The variables considered in the analysis were: the term of patents issued, patentable subject matter, transition periods (that is, time until legislation was enacted), reversal of the burden of proof of patent infringement, exhaustion of rights, compulsory licensing and the early working exception (which allows a country to complete all procedures necessary to register a generic product before the original patent expires). By 2000, all of the countries studied had reformed their legislation to conform to the agreement. Brazil and Argentina used the transition period until 2005 to grant patents in the pharmaceutical industry. All countries, except Panama, made use of the safeguards and flexibilities available through the agreement by including mechanisms for compulsory licensing in their legislation. Argentina; Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela (countries that represented the Andean community); the Dominican Republic; and Panama included mechanisms to allow parallel importation. Mexico did not. Brazil only permits parallel importation after a compulsory licence has been issued. The early working exception is included in legislation in Brazil and the Dominican Republic. The countries in this study did not incorporate all of the mechanisms allowed for by the Agreement and are not adequately using the provisions that enable World Trade

  2. Report made on behalf of the commission of foreign affairs about the law project, adopted by the Senate, authorizing the ratification of the agreement between the French Republic, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency relative to the enforcement of warranties in the framework of the treaty of nuclear weapons prohibition in South America and the Caribbeans area (two protocols together)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This report comments the reasons of the signature of the agreement between France, EURATOM and the IAEA for the reinforcement of IAEA's non-proliferation controls in the South America and Caribbean areas (law project no. 1329). The ratification of this agreement will have only few concrete consequences but will contribute to the promotion of non-proliferation and to the enforcement of warranties in the framework of the treaty of interdiction of nuclear weapons in South America and in the Caribbean area (signed in Vienna, Austria, on March 21, 2000). The commission of foreign affairs adopted this law project on March 3, 2004. (J.S.)

  3. Clinical guidelines for Western clinicians engaged in primary care medical service trips in Latin America and the Caribbean: an integrative literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dainton, Christopher; Chu, Charlene H; Lin, Henry; Loh, Lawrence

    2016-04-01

    Participation in primary care-focused medical service trips (MSTs) by North American providers is increasingly common, with many of these being conducted in Latin America. The literature has yet to comprehensively explore the nature of MST practice, including the use of evidence-based clinical guidelines. This integrative review presents an analysis of guidelines employed in MSTs in Latin America. MEDLINE and LILACs were searched using the terms 'medical brigades', 'Latin America', 'primary health care' and related terms. The search was limited to articles published between 2000 and 2015 in any language. Qualitative or quantitative articles were subsequently included if they described management protocols in the context of patient care on an MST occurring in Latin America. Additional publications were identified by searching the citations of articles reviewed in full. Themes were extracted to an Excel file, and objective instruments were used to evaluate article quality (Mixed Methods Assessment Tool) and the quality of guidelines (Appraisal of Guidelines for Research & Evaluation II). Of 391 abstracts screened, eight met inclusion criteria. All described MSTs operating in rural settings in Central America. Five were qualitative descriptive, including two travel reports, an ethics thesis paper, and a description of a dermatologic MST. Four described subjective clinician experiences while describing non-evidence-based treatment suggestions or practices. Only one described evidence-supported primary care interventions. Three studies were quantitative descriptive, including two epidemiological articles, one of which used case definitions for select diagnoses. One described the application of American Family Physician guidelines to the description of UTI prevalence on a MST. Article scores in MMAT quality domains were variable, and only one article achieved a positive overall AGREE II score for guideline quality. Existing literature demonstrates minimal development or

  4. Usefulness for surveillance of hypertension prevalence studies in Latin America and the Caribbean: the past 10 years Utilidad de los estudios de prevalencia para la vigilancia de la hipertensión en América Latina y el Caribe: los 10 últimos años

    OpenAIRE

    Melissa S. Burroughs Peña; Carmen Verônica Mendes Abdala; Luis Carlos Silva; Pedro Ordúñez

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the usefulness for surveillance of the peer-reviewed literature on the prevalence of hypertension in Latin America and the Caribbean published from 2001 to 2010 with a previous study of the published literature from 1962 to 2000. METHODS: A bibliographic search was conducted of publications from 2001 to 2010 that examined the prevalence of hypertension using MEDLINE and LILACS databases. The methodology of each paper was evaluated with the same critical appraisal tool us...

  5. Health care providers and human trafficking: What do they know, what do they need to know? Findings from the middle East, the Caribbean, and Central America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viergever, R.F.; West, H.; Borland, R.; Zimmerman, C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human trafficking is a crime that commonly results in acute and chronic physical and psychological harm. To foster more informed health sector responses to human trafficking, training sessions for health care providers were developed and pilot-tested in the Middle East, Central America,

  6. Eradicating statelessness in the Americas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ignacio Mondelli

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Considerable progress has been made towards eradicating statelessness in Latin America and the Caribbean since 2014 but there is still work to be done if it is to become the first world region to eradicate statelessness.

  7. Cost-effectiveness analysis of varenicline versus existing smoking cessation strategies in Central America and the Caribbean using the BENESCO model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Manfred A; Lovato, Pedro; Cuesta, Genaro

    2012-02-01

    In Central American countries, the economic burden of tobacco has not been assessed. In Costa Rica, a study demonstrated that tobacco-related diseases represent high costs for the health care system. The aim of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of varenicline compared with other existing strategies for smoking cessation within a 10-year time horizon in an adult population cohort from Central American and Caribbean countries using the health care payer's perspective. The Benefits of Smoking Cessation on Outcomes simulation model was used for an adult cohort in Costa Rica (n = 2 474 029), Panama (n = 2 249 676), Nicaragua (n = 3 639 948), El Salvador (n = 4 537 803), and the Dominican Republic (n = 6 528 125) (N = 19 429 581). Smoking cessation therapies compared were varenicline (0.5-2 mg/day) versus bupropion (300 mg/day), nicotine replacement therapy (5-15 mg/day), and unaided cessation. Effectiveness measures were: life-years (LYs) gained and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) gained. Resource use and cost data were obtained from a country's Ministry of Health and/or Social Security Institutions (2008-2010). The model used a 5% discount rate for costs (expressed in 2010 US$) and health outcomes. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted and acceptability curves were constructed. Varenicline reduced smoking-related morbidity, mortality, and health care costs in each country included in the study. Accumulatively, mortality in the varenicline arm was reduced by 1190, 1538, and 2902 smoking-related deaths compared with bupropion, nicotine replacement therapy, and unaided cessation, respectively. The net average cost per additional quitter showed that varenicline was cost-saving when compared with competing alternatives. Regarding LYs and QALYs gained in 10 years, varenicline obtained the greatest number of QALYs and LYs in each country, while unaided cessation obtained the fewest. Cost-effectiveness analyses in all 5 countries showed that

  8. Criminality and Violence in Latin America: a Comparative ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Canada-Latin America and Caribbean Zika Virus Research Program. A new funding opportunity on Zika virus is responding to the virus outbreak and the health threat it represents for the affected populations in the hardest hit countries in Latin America and the... View moreCanada-Latin America and Caribbean Zika Virus ...

  9. Development of a Faith-Based Mental Health Literacy Program to Improve Treatment Engagement Among Caribbean Latinos in the Northeastern United States of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Susan; Cordero, Carolyn

    2015-01-01

    Depression is one of the leading causes of years lived with disability (YLDs) worldwide. Although depression can be successfully treated, 75% of Americans do not receive care. Treatment rates among Latinos immigrants are significantly lower than non-immigrant Latinos and non-Hispanic Whites. Known factors for mental health-care disparities such as poverty, insurance coverage, language barriers, and access to specialty mental health services in Latino neighborhoods do not fully explain the differences in treatment rates. Significant, but poorly understood factors influencing depression treatment among Latinos in the United States are lack of culturally congruent care, low mental health literacy, and stigma. Even though churches are a major source of health information, social and spiritual support for Latinos, the conceptualization of culturally congruent care rarely addresses religious beliefs. Therefore, one strategy to reduce disparities in depression treatment is to partner with churches to address faith-based stigma. Community-based participatory research is recognized as a methodology particularly well suited for creating successful culturally targeted interventions. The purpose of this article is to describe the process of creating a faith-based mental health literacy intervention in the Caribbean Latino community using the principles of community-based participatory research. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  10. The impact of the biotechnology in the sustainable development of the agriculture in the Latin America and Caribbean region: The Andean countries as model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artunduaga Salas, Rodrigo

    2001-01-01

    In accordance with the premise that the base of the sustainable agricultural development is based on the conviction that it is possible to increase the agricultural production without affecting the natural resources non-renewable, the author makes a conceptual mark of the technological revolution in Latin America, he makes an analysis of the environment and the paper of the different organisms of the state inside this field

  11. Construcción social de repositorios institucionales: el caso de un repositorio de América Latina y el Caribe Social Construction of Institutional repositories: The case of a Latin America and the Caribbean repository

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Babini

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Se analizan los repositorios institucionales -bibliotecas o archivos digitales que reúnen la producción académica y científica de una institución- desde la perspectiva de la construcción social de la tecnología, lo cual permite conocer los principales grupos sociales relevantes a tener en cuenta en el diseño e implementación de un repositorio. Se presenta el caso del repositorio institucional del Consejo Latinoamericano de Ciencias Sociales (CLACSO, repositorio que cumplió una década de servicios, analizando los grupos involucrados en su desarrollo, principalmente bibliotecas, editores de revistas, área académica y área publicaciones de los centros de investigación y docencia.This article presents an analysis of institutional repositories -digital libraries and archives with collections of institutional academic and scientific output- from the "social construction of technology" perspective, which provides information on the relevant social groups whose needs must be taken into consideration when the design and implementation of institutional repositories takes place. The case of the Latin America and the Caribbean Social Science Council (CLACSO 10 year old institutional repository is introduced from this perspective. A descripton of social groups involved in this case, mainly librarians, journal editors, academic and publishing sections of teaching and research institutions is included.

  12. Agreement between the French Republic, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The text of the Agreement (and the Protocols thereto) between the French Republic, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Agreement on 11 June 1998. It was signed in Vienna on 21 March 2000 by the representative of the Government of the French Republic and the Director General of the IAEA, and on 26 September 2000 by the representative of the European Atomic Energy Community. Pursuant to Article 23 of the Agreement, the Agreement entered into force on 26 October 2007, one month after the Agency has received notification from both France and the European Atomic Energy Community that their respective internal requirements for entry into force have been met. Pursuant to Article II of the Protocols, the Protocols entered into force on the same date

  13. The Right to Environmental Information on Sustainable Brazilian Context : The Declaration of Principle 10 in Latin America and the Caribbean and the Bill nº. 4148/2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerônimo Siqueira Tybusch

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Discrepancies between the Bill nº4148 / 2008 and Principle 10, which has about the commitment of States to ensure access to environmental information, generate the need for reflection on the actual Brazilian paradigms front of such a commitment, as well as sustainability Informational as a prerequisite to the realization of rights. Thus, the objective is to generally examine the relevant provisions to Principle 10, the prospects of the Declaration on Principle 10 in Latin America and the Caribbean and investigate the fundamentals of Bill No. 4148/2008, from the perspective of informational sustainability . After it is intended specifically delineate the contrasts between international goals and the said bill. It seeks to answer the question: The reasons which led the Law No. Project. 4148/2008 to the National Congress and its approval in the Chamber of Deputies, can be considered as opposed to the international commitments made by Brazil, with regard to sustainable environmental information, consolidating in a legal setback? The methodology has as basis of theory and approach to systemic-complex perspective. Procedures are bibliographical and documentary research. The technique is building fichamentos and summaries. Conclusively, one sees that Brazil has adopted contradictory paradigms for the right to environmental information, which need to be better delineated, otherwise these setbacks consubstanciarem in legal setback.

  14. Educação de jovens e adultos na América Latina e Caribe: trajetória recente Youth and adult education in Latin America and the Caribbean: the recent trajectory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Clara Di Pierro

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa resultados de pesquisa colaborativa que recuperou a trajetória recente da educação de jovens e adultos em vinte países da América Latina e Caribe, traçando uma cartografia das políticas e programas dos governos e da sociedade civil. Pelo exame do contexto regional, o estudo infere os papéis desempenhados por essa modalidade de educação no período e reconhece a pluralidade de sujeitos sociais singulares que a demandam. A caracterização e a comparação das políticas e programas dos países permitem identificar tendências comuns, casos excepcionais e aspectos críticos.This article analyzes the results of a collaborative survey which has traced the recent trajectory of youth and adult education (YAE in twenty countries of Latin America and the Caribbean, drawing a cartography of the politics and programs of the governments and of the civil society. Based on an exam of the regional context, the work draws conclusions about the roles recently played by YAE and recognizes the plurality of particular social subjects which require this education modality. Characterization and comparison of policies and programs of such countries lead to the identification of common trends, exceptional cases and critical aspects.

  15. The Global Opioid Policy Initiative (GOPI) project to evaluate the availability and accessibility of opioids for the management of cancer pain in Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean, and the Middle East: introduction and methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherny, N I; Cleary, J; Scholten, W; Radbruch, L; Torode, J

    2013-12-01

    Opioid analgesics are critical to the effective relief of cancer pain. Effective treatment is predicated on sound assessments, individually tailored analgesic therapy, and the availability and accessibility of the required medications. In some countries, pain relief is hampered by the lack of availability or barriers to the accessibility of opioid analgesics. As the follow-up to a successful project to evaluate the availability and accessibility of opioids and regulatory barriers in Europe, the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) and the European Association for Palliative Care (EAPC) undertook to expand their research to those parts of the world where data were lacking regarding these aspects of care, in particular Africa, Asia, the Middle East, Latin America and the Caribbean, and the states of India. This project has been undertaken in collaboration with the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC), the Pain and Policy Studies Group (PPSG) of the University of Wisconsin, and the World Health Organization (WHO), together with a consortium of 17 international oncology and palliative care societies. This article describes the study methodology.

  16. Prevalence and Social Determinants of Smoking in 15 Countries from North Africa, Central and Western Asia, Latin America and Caribbean: Secondary Data Analyses of Demographic and Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T; Pradhan, Pranil Man Singh

    2015-01-01

    Article 20 of the World Health Organisation Framework Convention on Tobacco Control calls for a cross-country surveillance of tobacco use through population-based surveys. We aimed to provide country-level prevalence estimates for current smoking and current smokeless tobacco use and to assess social determinants of smoking. Data from Demographic and Health Surveys done between 2005 and 2012, among men and women from nine North African, Central and West Asian countries and six Latin American and Caribbean countries were analyzed. Weighted country-level prevalence rates were estimated for 'current smoking' and 'current use of smokeless tobacco (SLT) products' among men and women. In each country, social determinants of smoking among men and women were assessed by binary logistic regression analyses by including men's and women's sampling weights to account for the complex survey design. Prevalence of smoking among men was higher than 40% in Armenia (63.1%), Moldova (51.1%), Ukraine (52%), Azerbaijan (49.8 %), Kyrgyz Republic (44.3 %) and Albania (42.52%) but the prevalence of smoking among women was less than 10% in most countries except Ukraine (14.81%) and Jordan (17.96%). The prevalence of smokeless tobacco use among men and women was less than 5% in all countries except among men in the Kyrgyz Republic (10.6 %). Smoking was associated with older age, lower education and poverty among men and higher education and higher wealth among women. Smoking among both men and women was associated with unskilled work, living in urban areas and being single. Smoking among men was very high in Central and West Asian countries. Social pattern of smoking among women that was different from men in education and wealth should be considered while formulating tobacco control policies in some Central and West Asian countries.

  17. Violence against children in Latin America and Caribbean countries: a comprehensive review of national health sector efforts in prevention and response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea L. Wirtz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Violence against children (VAC remains a global problem. The health sector has an opportunity and responsibility to be part of the multi-sector collaboration to prevent and respond to VAC. This review aimed to assess the health sector’s response to VAC among Latin American & Caribbean (LAC countries, particularly as it relates to physical violence, sexual violence, and neglect. Method National protocols for the identification and provision of health care to child survivors of violence, abuse and neglect were solicited in partnership with UNICEF and PAHO/WHO country offices within the LAC region. A parallel systematic review was undertaken in January 2015 to review studies published in the last 10 years that describe the regional health sector response to VAC. Results We obtained health sectors guidelines/protocols related to VAC from 22 of 43 (51 % countries and reviewed 97 published articles/reports that met the review inclusion criteria. Country protocols were presented in Spanish (n = 12, Portuguese (n = 1, and English (n = 9. Thematic areas of country protocols included: 1 identifying signs and symptoms of VAC, 2 providing patient-centered care to the victim, and 3 immediate treatment of injuries related to VAC. The systematic review revealed that health professionals are often unaware of national protocols and lack training, resources, and support to respond to cases of VAC. Further, there is limited coordination between health and social protection services. Conclusions VAC remains an international, public health priority. Health professionals are well-positioned to identify, treat and refer cases of VAC to appropriate institutions and community-based partners. However, poor protocol dissemination and training, limited infrastructure, and inadequate human resources challenge adherence to VAC guidelines.

  18. [Women become "humans" in the regional preparatory meeting for the World Conference on Human Rights for Latin America and the Caribbean].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facio, A

    1993-01-01

    The Latin American and Caribbean Regional Preparatory Meeting for the 1993 World Conference on Human Rights was attended by representatives from over 150 nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). The women's groups attending the preparatory meeting succeeded in developing a "women's platform" whose proposals were largely adopted by the main conference. The composition of the attending NGOS was varied. Some of the women represented the traditional, androcentric human rights focus, while around 20 of the organizations were feminist. Human rights groups and women's organizations were urged not to wait for a government invitation, but to seek accreditation and attend the conference independently. The feminists prepared for the conference with a preliminary satellite conference in which a 19-point women's platform was created and strategy was discussed. The women consequently were able to use the conference time for meeting and lobbying the delegates. The women's platform was distributed to women's and human rights groups before the conference so that they would arrive prepared to defend it. The satellite conference debated the need to reconceptualize "human rights". The significance of "human being" is often taken to refer to male human being, and human rights might then be considered rights of male human beings. A second theme debated was whether mechanisms to protect the human rights of women are insufficient and marginal in UN activities. The feminization of poverty resulting from neoliberal policies, gender violence as one of the gravest forms of discrimination against women, and the need for recognition of rights required only by women were other topics debated. The final Declaration incorporated a paragraph affirming that violence against women should be considered a violation of human rights.

  19. Establishing a regional network of academic centers to support decision making for new vaccine introduction in Latin America and the Caribbean: the ProVac experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscano, C M; Jauregui, B; Janusz, C B; Sinha, A; Clark, A D; Sanderson, C; Resch, S; Ruiz Matus, C; Andrus, J K

    2013-07-02

    The Pan American Health Organization's ProVac Initiative, designed to strengthen national decision making regarding the introduction of new vaccines, was initiated in 2004. Central to realizing ProVac's vision of regional capacity building, the ProVac Network of Centers of Excellence (CoEs) was established in 2010 to provide research support to the ProVac Initiative, leveraging existing capacity at Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) universities. We describe the process of establishing the ProVac Network of CoEs and its initial outcomes and challenges. A survey was sent to academic, not-for-profit institutions in LAC that had recently published work in the areas of clinical decision sciences and health economic analysis. Centers invited to join the Network were selected by an international committee on the basis of the survey results. Selection criteria included academic productivity in immunization-related work, team size and expertise, successful collaboration with governmental agencies and international organizations, and experience in training and education. The Network currently includes five academic institutions across LAC. Through open dialog and negotiation, specific projects were assigned to centers according to their areas of expertise. Collaboration among centers was highly encouraged. Faculty from ProVac's technical partners were assigned as focal points for each project. The resulting work led to the development and piloting of tools, methodological guides, and training materials that support countries in assessing existing evidence and generating new evidence on vaccine introduction. The evidence generated is shared with country-level decision makers and the scientific community. As the ProVac Initiative expands to other regions of the world with support from immunization and public health partners, the establishment of other regional and global networks of CoEs will be critical. The experience of LAC in creating the current network could benefit the

  20. A Comparison of Seven Cox Regression-Based Models to Account for Heterogeneity Across Multiple HIV Treatment Cohorts in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giganti, Mark J; Luz, Paula M; Caro-Vega, Yanink; Cesar, Carina; Padgett, Denis; Koenig, Serena; Echevarria, Juan; McGowan, Catherine C; Shepherd, Bryan E

    2015-05-01

    Many studies of HIV/AIDS aggregate data from multiple cohorts to improve power and generalizability. There are several analysis approaches to account for cross-cohort heterogeneity; we assessed how different approaches can impact results from an HIV/AIDS study investigating predictors of mortality. Using data from 13,658 HIV-infected patients starting antiretroviral therapy from seven Latin American and Caribbean cohorts, we illustrate the assumptions of seven readily implementable approaches to account for across cohort heterogeneity with Cox proportional hazards models, and we compare hazard ratio estimates across approaches. As a sensitivity analysis, we modify cohort membership to generate specific heterogeneity conditions. Hazard ratio estimates varied slightly between the seven analysis approaches, but differences were not clinically meaningful. Adjusted hazard ratio estimates for the association between AIDS at treatment initiation and death varied from 2.00 to 2.20 across approaches that accounted for heterogeneity; the adjusted hazard ratio was estimated as 1.73 in analyses that ignored across cohort heterogeneity. In sensitivity analyses with more extreme heterogeneity, we noted a slightly greater distinction between approaches. Despite substantial heterogeneity between cohorts, the impact of the specific approach to account for heterogeneity was minimal in our case study. Our results suggest that it is important to account for across cohort heterogeneity in analyses, but that the specific technique for addressing heterogeneity may be less important. Because of their flexibility in accounting for cohort heterogeneity, we prefer stratification or meta-analysis methods, but we encourage investigators to consider their specific study conditions and objectives.

  1. Explaining health differences between men and women in later life: a cross-city comparison in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zunzunegui, Maria-Victoria; Alvarado, Beatriz-Eugenia; Béland, François; Vissandjee, Bilkis

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes differences in health and functional status among older men and women and attempts to anchor the explanations for these differences within a lifecourse perspective. Seven health outcomes for men and women 60 years and older from seven Latin American and Caribbean cities are examined, using data from the 2000 SABE survey (Salud, Bienestar y Envejecimiento-n=10,587). Age-adjusted as well as city- and sex-specific prevalence was estimated for poor self-rated health, comorbidity, mobility limitations, cognitive impairment, depressive symptoms and disability in basic and instrumental activities of daily living. Logistic regressions were fitted to determine if the differences between men and women in each outcome could be explained by differential exposures in childhood (hunger, poverty), adulthood (education, occupation) and old age (income) and/or by differential vulnerability of men and women to these exposures. Sao Paulo, Santiago and Mexico, cities in countries with a high level of income inequalities, presented the highest prevalence of disability, functional limitations and poor physical health for both women and men. Women showed poorer health outcomes as compared with men for all health indicators and in all cities. Controlling for lifecourse exposures in childhood, adulthood and old age did not attenuate these differences. Women's unadjusted and adjusted odds of reporting poor self-rated health, cognitive impairment and basic activities of daily living disability were approximately 50% higher than for men, twice as high for number of comorbidities, depressive symptoms and instrumental activities of daily living disability, and almost three times as high for mobility limitations. Higher vulnerability to lifecourse exposures in women as compared with men was not found, meaning that lifecourse exposures have similar odds of poor health outcomes for men and women. A more integrated understanding of how sex and gender act together to influence

  2. The association between adult drug abuse and childhood maltreatment in students attending seven universities in five countries in Latin America and one country in the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Longman-Mills,Samantha; Williams,Yolanda Maria González; Rodriguez,Marlon Osman Melendez; Baquero,Monica Rosaura García; Rojas,Juan Daniel Gómez; Amaya,Cristina Juárez de; Diaz,Eduardo Alfredo Martínez; Corea,Sobeya Jose Peñalba; Baez,Enrique Miguel Pizzanelli; Tinoco,Lucia Isabel Solórzano

    2015-01-01

    Este estudio busca identificar la relación entre el maltrato durante la infancia y el abuso de drogas entre estudiantes de siete Universidad en cinco países de Latin America y uno país del Caribe. Este es un estudio hecho en varios países utilizando un diseño de corte para colectar los datos del abuso de drogas y un levantamiento retrospectivo sobre el maltrato en la infancia. La muestra fue constituida de 2.283 estudiantes universitarios, de los cuales 82,6% informaran maltrato en la infanci...

  3. Waist circumference, BMI and the prevalence of self-reported diabetes among the elderly of the United States and six cities of Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barceló, A; Gregg, E W; Pastor-Valero, M; Robles, S C

    2007-12-01

    Using data from the Salud Bienestar y Envejecimiento (SABE) project and the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999-2004), we examined the prevalence of obesity and diagnosed diabetes among older adults in the Americas; we also examined the association of age, sex, level of education, weight status, waist circumference, smoking, and race/ethnicity with diabetes among older adults. The prevalence of diagnosed diabetes was highest in the US Blacks and Mexican Americans, followed by Bridgetown and Mexico City (22% for each) and lowest in Santiago, Montevideo, Havana, and US Whites (13-15%). Diagnosed diabetes was significantly associated with BMI among participants from Bridgetown, Sao Paulo, and the three US ethnic groups, while it was associated with waist circumference in all sites except Mexico City. Our findings suggest major geographical and ethnic variation in the prevalence of diagnosed diabetes among older adults. Waist circumference was more consistently associated with the prevalence of diagnosed diabetes than BMI. Higher prevalences of diabetes are found among the elderly of African or Mexican descent in the United States and in other countries of the Americas when compared to the prevalence among whites in the United States and in other Latin American countries with populations of predominant Western European descent.

  4. Los fines de la educación latinoamericana y caribeña en los albores del siglo XXI: un estudiodesde las leyes nacionales de educación / The educational goals of Latin America and the Caribbean at the dawn of the twenty-first century: a study from the national laws of education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Patricia Estrella Acencio

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the findings of study aimed at identifying the goals of Latin American and Caribbean education in the early years of the 21st century. The use of the comparative method, on which this study was based, supported by other methods of the theoretical level, such as analysis-synthesis, induction-deduction, and documentary analysis made possible the fulfillment of the pursued objective. The main sources of information were documents related to educational legislation in 16 countries of Latin America and the Caribbean, promulgated or updated between 1991 and 2016. The findings lead to conclude that theeducation goals of Latin America and the Caribbean are expressed from two general perspectives: 1 as the "expectations that educating individuals must turn into reality as personal development (hominization, a coherent relationship with the human social environment in which it develops (socialization, and the development of its capacity to create culture and to live within a cultural environment and; b as "strategic contributions that education must do "to contribute to the improvement of society, in a specific socio-historical context. Accordingly, it became evident that education attempts to achieve a larger pertinencein facing current challenges in the context of a globalized world.

  5. The Pan American Health Organization’s role and perspectives on the mapping and modeling of the neglected tropical diseases in Latin America and the Caribbean: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven K. Ault

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO, which functions as the regional office for the Americas of the World Health Organization, is committed to provide technical cooperation to countries to update the epidemiological information available for mapping and modelling of the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs, a set of diseases mainly caused by parasites affecting people living in low socioeconomic and favourable environmental conditions. This communication discusses PAHO’s role and perspectives in the use of mapping and modelling of these diseases with a view to promote its use in the development and implementation of integrated, inter-programmatic and inter-sectoral plans for the prevention, control or elimination of the NTDs and other infectious diseases related to poverty.

  6. The Pan American Health Organization's role and perspectives on the mapping and modeling of the neglected tropical diseases in Latin America and the Caribbean: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ault, Steven K; Nicholls, Ruben Santiago; Saboya, Martha IdaIí

    2012-09-01

    The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), which functions as the regional office for the Americas of the World Health Organization, is committed to provide technical cooperation to countries to update the epidemiological information available for mapping and modelling of the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), a set of diseases mainly caused by parasites affecting people living in low socioeconomic and favourable environmental conditions. This communication discusses PAHO's role and perspectives in the use of mapping and modelling of these diseases with a view to promote its use in the development and implementation of integrated, inter-programmatic and inter-sectoral plans for the prevention, control or elimination of the NTDs and other infectious diseases related to poverty.

  7. La Capacitacion de Docentes Como Prioridad de los Sistemas Educativos de America Latino y al Caribe (In-Service Teacher Training as a Priority of Latin American and Caribbean Educational Systems).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Victor M.

    Whenever top-level officials in Latin American and Caribbean educational systems are approached, the topic of inservice teacher training is presented as a major priority. This paper outlines some ideas about the subject of inservice teacher training as a priority of educational systems in Latin American and Caribbean countries. The most frequent…

  8. Falls among elderly persons in Latin America and the Caribbean and among elderly Mexican-Americans Las caídas en ancianos de América Latina y el Caribe y en ancianos mexicanoestadounidenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Reyes-Ortiz

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of and risk factors for falls among community-dwelling elders in Latin America and the Caribbean and among elderly Mexican-Americans in the southwestern United States. METHODS: Data for the study came from a project called Health, Well-Being, and Aging in Latin America and the Caribbean (Salud, Bienestar y Envejecimiento en América Latina y el Caribe (the "SABE project" (surveys from seven cities, with a total of 9 765 subjects and from the Hispanic Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly (H-EPESE (1 483 subjects. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of falls across the seven SABE cities and the H-EPESE ranged from 21.6% in Bridgetown, Barbados, to 34.0% in Santiago, Chile. In multiple logistic regression analyses, female gender, increased age, high depressive symptoms, and having any functional limitations were significant independent risk factors for falls in most of the cities studied as well as among the elderly Mexican-Americans. In several of the cities, significant risk factors also included diabetes, urinary incontinence, and arthritis. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of falls had a large variation among the countries studied. Some of the risk factors that we identified could be modified so as to help prevent falls in older people in these populations. The factors deserving attention include depressive symptoms, functional limitations, diabetes, and urinary incontinence.OBJETIVO: Estimar la prevalencia de caídas y de sus factores de riesgo en ancianos que habitan en el seno de la comunidad en América Latina y el Caribe y en ancianos mexicanoestadounidenses que viven en la zona sudoeste de Estados Unidos. MÉTODOS: Los datos usados para el estudio procedieron del proyecto Salud, Bienestar y Envejecimiento en América Latina y el Caribe (proyecto "SABE" (encuestas en siete ciudades que abarcaron a un total de 9 765 personas y de las Poblaciones Hispanas Establecidas para Estudios

  9. Oxytocin in Uniject Disposable Auto-Disable Injection System versus Standard Use for the Prevention of Postpartum Hemorrhage in Latin America and the Caribbean: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichon-Riviere, Andrés; Glujovsky, Demián; Garay, Osvaldo Ulises; Augustovski, Federico; Ciapponi, Agustin; Serpa, Magdalena; Althabe, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is a leading cause of maternal death. Despite strong evidence showing the efficacy of routine oxytocin in preventing PPH, the proportion of women receiving it after delivery is still below 100%. The Uniject injection system prefilled with oxytocin (Uniject) has the potential advantage, due to its ease of use, to increase oxytocin utilization rates. We aimed to assess its cost-effectiveness in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). We used an epidemiological model to estimate: a) the impact of replacing oxytocin in ampoules with Uniject on the incidence of PPH, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and costs from a health care system perspective, and b) the minimum increment in oxytocin utilization rates required to make Uniject a cost-effective strategy. A consensus panel of LAC experts was convened to quantify the expected increase in oxytocin rates as a consequence of making Uniject available. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed. In the base case, the incremental cost of Uniject with respect to oxytocin in ampoules was estimated to be USD 1.00 (2013 US dollars). In the cost-effectiveness analysis, Uniject ranged from being cost-saving (in 8 out of 30 countries) to having an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of USD 8,990 per QALY gained. In most countries these ICERs were below one GDP per capita. The minimum required increment in oxytocin rates to make Uniject a cost-effective strategy ranged from 1.3% in Suriname to 16.2% in Haiti. Switching to Uniject could prevent more than 40,000 PPH events annually in LAC. Uniject was cost-saving or very cost-effective in almost all countries. Even if countries can achieve only small increases in oxytocin rates by incorporating Uniject, this strategy could be considered a highly efficient use of resources. These results were robust in the sensitivity analysis under a wide range of assumptions.

  10. Oxytocin in Uniject Disposable Auto-Disable Injection System versus Standard Use for the Prevention of Postpartum Hemorrhage in Latin America and the Caribbean: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichon-Riviere, Andrés; Glujovsky, Demián; Garay, Osvaldo Ulises; Augustovski, Federico; Ciapponi, Agustin; Serpa, Magdalena; Althabe, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is a leading cause of maternal death. Despite strong evidence showing the efficacy of routine oxytocin in preventing PPH, the proportion of women receiving it after delivery is still below 100%. The Uniject injection system prefilled with oxytocin (Uniject) has the potential advantage, due to its ease of use, to increase oxytocin utilization rates. We aimed to assess its cost-effectiveness in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). We used an epidemiological model to estimate: a) the impact of replacing oxytocin in ampoules with Uniject on the incidence of PPH, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and costs from a health care system perspective, and b) the minimum increment in oxytocin utilization rates required to make Uniject a cost-effective strategy. A consensus panel of LAC experts was convened to quantify the expected increase in oxytocin rates as a consequence of making Uniject available. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed. In the base case, the incremental cost of Uniject with respect to oxytocin in ampoules was estimated to be USD 1.00 (2013 US dollars). In the cost-effectiveness analysis, Uniject ranged from being cost-saving (in 8 out of 30 countries) to having an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of USD 8,990 per QALY gained. In most countries these ICERs were below one GDP per capita. The minimum required increment in oxytocin rates to make Uniject a cost-effective strategy ranged from 1.3% in Suriname to 16.2% in Haiti. Switching to Uniject could prevent more than 40,000 PPH events annually in LAC. Uniject was cost-saving or very cost-effective in almost all countries. Even if countries can achieve only small increases in oxytocin rates by incorporating Uniject, this strategy could be considered a highly efficient use of resources. These results were robust in the sensitivity analysis under a wide range of assumptions. PMID:26057930

  11. Oxytocin in Uniject Disposable Auto-Disable Injection System versus Standard Use for the Prevention of Postpartum Hemorrhage in Latin America and the Caribbean: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Pichon-Riviere

    Full Text Available Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH is a leading cause of maternal death. Despite strong evidence showing the efficacy of routine oxytocin in preventing PPH, the proportion of women receiving it after delivery is still below 100%. The Uniject injection system prefilled with oxytocin (Uniject has the potential advantage, due to its ease of use, to increase oxytocin utilization rates. We aimed to assess its cost-effectiveness in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC. We used an epidemiological model to estimate: a the impact of replacing oxytocin in ampoules with Uniject on the incidence of PPH, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs and costs from a health care system perspective, and b the minimum increment in oxytocin utilization rates required to make Uniject a cost-effective strategy. A consensus panel of LAC experts was convened to quantify the expected increase in oxytocin rates as a consequence of making Uniject available. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed. In the base case, the incremental cost of Uniject with respect to oxytocin in ampoules was estimated to be USD 1.00 (2013 US dollars. In the cost-effectiveness analysis, Uniject ranged from being cost-saving (in 8 out of 30 countries to having an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER of USD 8,990 per QALY gained. In most countries these ICERs were below one GDP per capita. The minimum required increment in oxytocin rates to make Uniject a cost-effective strategy ranged from 1.3% in Suriname to 16.2% in Haiti. Switching to Uniject could prevent more than 40,000 PPH events annually in LAC. Uniject was cost-saving or very cost-effective in almost all countries. Even if countries can achieve only small increases in oxytocin rates by incorporating Uniject, this strategy could be considered a highly efficient use of resources. These results were robust in the sensitivity analysis under a wide range of assumptions.

  12. Country-level correlates of cervical cancer mortality in Latin America and the Caribbean Determinantes a nivel país de la mortalidad por cáncer cervicouterino en Latinoamérica y el Caribe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Pereira-Scalabrino

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify country-level correlates of geographical variations in cervical cancer (CC mortality in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: CC mortality rates for LAC countries (n=26 were examined in relation to country-specific socio-economic indicators (n=58 and Human Papilloma Virus (HPV prevalence using linear regression models. RESULTS: High mortality at ages OBJETIVO: Identificar variables a nivel de país que expliquen las variaciones geográficas en la mortalidad por cáncer cervicouterino (CaCu en América Latina y el Caribe (AL. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: Se examinaron las tasas de mortalidad por CaCu de cada país (n=26 mediante modelos de regresión lineal en relación con indicadores socioeconómicos (n=58 y prevalencia del virus del papiloma humano (VPH. RESULTADOS: Alta mortalidad en menores de cinco años, bajo gasto total en salud per-cápita y baja proporción de población con acceso a saneamiento básico son los mejores predictores de mortalidad por CaCu (R² =77%. En los países (n=10 con estimaciones de prevalencia de VPH, estos indicadores socioeconómicos y la prevalencia de VPH de alto riesgo explicaron el 98% de la variabilidad de CaCu en AL. CONCLUSIÓN: Las mejoras en el nivel socioeconómico en AL están asociadas con reducciones en la mortalidad por CaCu, a pesar de la ausencia de programas organizados de tamizaje e inmunización contra VPH.

  13. El embarazo no deseado: impacto sobre la salud y la sociedad en América Latina y el Caribe Unwanted pregnancy: impact on health and society in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Langer

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Engaging in sexuality and reproduction should always be something that is wanted and planned. Unfortunately, when that is not the case, one result can be unwanted pregnancy. Unwanted pregnancies have consequences for women, their families, and their countries. This document reviews the causes and results of unwanted pregnancy, emphasizing the impact that this problem has on Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC. Four reasons why unwanted pregnancy is a continuing problem in LAC are: 1 people's growing desire to have smaller families, 2 the unmet need for family planning, 3 the fact that contraceptive methods are not 100% effective, and 4 unwanted sexual relations. Unwanted pregnancies especially affect adolescent women, single women, and women over 40 years of age. Given their desperate situation with an unwanted pregnancy, some women opt for an unsafe abortion, which can lead to their death. Other women can go so far as to commit suicide, or be murdered by a family member or other person who is unhappy that the pregnancy has occurred. It has been found that women who decide to continue with the pregnancy have higher risks of suffering an illness, and the same is true for the child. Reducing unwanted pregnancies and treating post-abortion complications are key to lowering maternal mortality and morbidity. This necessitates developing mass communication programs that address gender issues, education programs for girls, and sex education programs. It is also vital to make available to all persons reproductive health services that include family planning methods. In the countries of LAC with laws that specify grounds for legally ending a pregnancy, it is necessary that health care be organized to actually provide this service, and that health care programs obtain the safest, most effective technologies now available for ending a pregnancy.

  14. Status and progress of family health in Latin America and the Caribbean: the Ibero-American Confederation of Family Medicine (ICPM perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Inez Padula Anderson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the XXI century, much of humanity does not have access to comprehensive health care, or even basic equitable health care. If studies show that countries with organized health systems based on a qualified and inclusive model of Primary Health Care (PHC and family physicians as permanent staff are achieving unquestionable results, why a large part of the countries with lower socio-economic development have not committed strongly to implement an efficient reform of their health systems based on PHC and family medicine (FM? These issues are at the core of the Latin American Confederation of Family Medicine’s concerns, an international non-profit organization composed of national associations of countries of FM from Latin America, Spain and Portugal. Its primary mission is to drive the implementation of a proper PHC system in all countries of the region and to ensure that family medicine, as a specialty, is considered critical to health systems, thereby transforming it into a public policy.

  15. The association between adult drug abuse and childhood maltreatment in students attending seven universities in five countries in Latin America and one country in the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Longman-Mills

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio busca identificar la relación entre el maltrato durante la infancia y el abuso de drogas entre estudiantes de siete Universidad en cinco países de Latin America y uno país del Caribe. Este es un estudio hecho en varios países utilizando un diseño de corte para colectar los datos del abuso de drogas y un levantamiento retrospectivo sobre el maltrato en la infancia. La muestra fue constituida de 2.283 estudiantes universitarios, de los cuales 82,6% informaran maltrato en la infancia, y 33,5% informaran ter niveles elevados de distress psicológicos. Los datos indicaran una relación significante (p<0.05 entre el maltrato en la infancia y el abuso de drogas en la vida adulta. A pesar de la técnica amuéstrale no permitir generalización para la población de estudiantes universitarios, el presente estudio identifico que la exposición al maltrato durante la infancia es un precursor potencial para el abuso de drogas durante la vida adulta. Por lo tanto, estrategias para reducir el consume de drogas entre las respectivas universidades poden mejorar su efectividad si incorporan políticas e intervenciones que llevan en consideración el aspecto del maltrato en la infancia.

  16. Research and implementation of novel approaches for the control of nematode parasites in Latin America and the Caribbean: is there sufficient incentive for a greater extension effort?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Acosta, J F J; Molento, M; Mendoza de Gives, P

    2012-05-04

    The widespread presence of anthelmintic resistant gastrointestinal parasitic nematodes in outdoor ruminant production systems has driven the need to identify and develop novel approaches for the control of helminths with the intention to reduce the dependence on commercial anthelmintic drugs. This paper identifies what has been done in Latin America (LA) in terms of estimating the prevalence of anthelmintic resistance (AR) in ruminant production systems and the application of different novel approaches for the control of helminths in those systems, including research and extension activities. Firstly, the paucity of knowledge of AR is discussed in the context of different countries, as well as, the available economic resources for research, the technical infrastructure available and the practical difficulties of the production systems. It is then proposed that the search for novel approaches is not only driven by AR but also by the need for techniques that are feasible for application by resource-poor farmers in non-commercial subsistence farming systems. However, the commercial benefits of these approaches are often limited and so are funding inputs in most countries. The workers participating in the research into different novel approaches are identified as well as the different methods being studied in the different areas of LA according to their published results. In addition, the difficulties experienced during extension efforts to reach farmers and help them to adopt novel approaches for the control of parasitic nematodes in LA are discussed. The role of regulatory authorities in these countries is discussed as some methods of control might need an official confirmation of their efficacy as well as authorization prior to application as they may affect animal products (i.e. residues) and/or impose a hazard for animal welfare. The role of the pharmaceutical companies is also discussed. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Hacia un modelo de comunicación en salud pública en América Latina y el Caribe Toward a model of communications in public health in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César A. Macías-Chapula

    2005-12-01

    and the Caribbean (LAC. Further, the weakness of the existing information systems makes it impossible to examine the relevance, quality, and impact of this scientific output, with a view to evaluating it in terms of societal needs and existing patterns of scientific communication. This article presents the results of a bibliographic analysis of the scientific output in the area of public health in Latin America and the Caribbean. The ultimate goal of the analysis is to build a model of scientific communication in this field, to help researchers, managers, and others working in the area of public health to make decisions and choose actions to take. METHODS: We conducted a literature review in order to identify the distribution of publications on public health that were produced by LAC researchers and published in each of the LAC countries from 1980 through 2002. The review used the Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Saúde Pública (LILACS-SP (Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Public Health bibliographic database. That database is operated by the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences Information (BIREME, which is in São Paulo, Brazil. We processed the LILACS-SP data using two software packages, Microsoft Excel and Bibexcel, to obtain indicators of the scientific output, the type of document, the language, the number of authors for each publication, the thematic content, and the participating institutions. For the 1980-2002 period, there were 97 605 publications registered, from a total of 37 LAC countries. RESULTS: For the analysis presented in this article, we limited the sample to the 8 countries in Latin America and the Caribbean that had at least 3 000 documents each registered in the LILACS-SP database over the 1980-2002 study period. In descending order of the number of publications registered, the 8 nations were: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Mexico, Peru, and Venezuela. Those 8 countries were responsible for 83 054

  18. Alternativas de financiamiento de la atención médica en América Latina y el Caribe Alternatives for the financing of health care in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Coelho Campino

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Dada la magnitud del problema de salud en los paises de America Latina y el Caribe, el déficit de recursos financieros necesarios para proveer atención médica no se puede cubrir a través de aumentos en los precios, o adoptando medidas como pago por servicio o cobro por los costos de los servicios. Es necesario recurrir a la política fiscal. Se demuestra que es posible aumentar los recursos disponibles para la atención médica, tanto por el aumento en la recaudación de impuestos, como por la toma de decisión política de aumentar los ingresos del gobierno destinados a financiar la atención médica. Se revisa la experiencia de los Fondos de Emergencia Social y de las operaciones de cambio de deuda por salud como importantes fuentes adicionales de recursos especialmente para financiar la inversión.Dada a magnitude do problema de saúde nos países da América Latina e do Caribe, não é possível cobrir o déficit de recursos financeiros necessários para prover assistência médica através de aumentos nos preços, ou com a adoção de medidas como o pagamento por serviços ou a cobrança do custo dos serviços. Faz-se necessário recorrer à política fiscal. Foi mostrado que é possível aumentar os recursos disponíveis para assistência médica, tanto por meio do aumento na arrecadação de impostos, quanto pela tomada da decisão política de aumentar a parcela da receita do Governo, destinada a financiar a assistência médica. Foi revista a experiência dos Fundos de Emergência Social e das operações de troca de dívida por projetos na área de saúde como importantes fontes adicionais de recursos, especialmente para financiar o investimento.Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC countries are experiencing both an economic crisis and a crisis in the public sector. As a result it is impossible to increase the amount of resources available to the health sector, unless there is a drastic restructuring of the way in which financing

  19. The role of organized civil society in tobacco control in Latin America and the Caribbean El papel de la sociedad civil organizada en el control del tabaco en Latinoamérica y el Caribe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Marcet Champagne

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Civil society has been the engine that has permitted many of the accomplishments seen in tobacco control in Latin America and the Caribbean. However, the role of civil society is not clearly understood. Civil society plays five main roles: advocate, coalition builder, provider of evidence-based information, watchdog and service provider. Some of these roles are played weakly by civil society in the region and should be encouraged to support beneficial societal change. Civil society working in tobacco control has evolved over the years to now become more professionalized. The WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and the Bloomberg Initiative to Reduce Tobacco Use have brought about significant change with positive and negative consequences. Strengthening civil society not only supports the tobacco control movement but it provides competencies that may be used in many ways to promote change in democratic societies.La sociedad civil ha sido el motor que ha permitido muchos logros en el control del tabaco en Latinoamérica y el Caribe. Sin embargo, no se comprende bien el papel que juega. La sociedad civil tiene cinco roles principales: abogar, construir coaliciones, proveer información basada en evidencia, ser perro guardián y proveer servicios. Algunos de estos roles se juegan débilmente y deben ser promovidos para apoyar cambios benéficos en la sociedad. La sociedad civil ha evolucionado a través de los años en el control del tabaco y ahora se ha profesionalizado más. El Convenio Marco para el Control del Tabaco (CMCT de la OMS y la iniciativa Bloomberg para Reducir el Uso del Tabaco han traído consigo cambios significativos con consecuencias positivas y negativas. El fortalecimiento de la sociedad civil no sólo significa un beneficio para el movimiento del control del tabaco sino que también provee las competencias que sirven de muchas formas para promover el cambio en las sociedades democráticas.

  20. Epilepsy in Latin America and the Caribbean: a survey on needs and resources Epilepsia en América Latina y el Caribe: encuesta sobre las necesidades y los recursos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itzhak Levav

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available A survey was done on the needs and resources available to control epilepsy in the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean. Responses came from ministries of health, prominent neurologists, and epilepsy advocacy organizations. A mailed questionnaire was used, and the response rate was excellent, 89%. The survey results showed that the private sector is better equipped to deal with epilepsy than is the public sector, in terms of both specialized personnel and access to a variety of drugs. Public policies are lacking, and linkages between medical personnel and social workers are almost nonexistent. Primary care doctors and nurses are somewhat able to diagnose some types of epilepsy but do less well with other types of the disorder. There is a strong justification for the new "Out of the Shadows" initiative, in which the International League Against Epilepsy, the International Bureau for Epilepsy, the World Health Organization, and the Pan American Health Organization are working to improve epilepsy health-care services, treatment, and social acceptance.Se realizó una encuesta sobre las necesidades y los recursos disponibles para controlar la epilepsia en los países de América Latina y el Caribe. Se utilizó un cuestionario postal que fue enviado a los ministerios de salud, a destacados neurólogos y a organizaciones no gubernamentales de defensa y apoyo a los pacientes epilépticos. La tasa de respuesta fue excelente: 89%. Los resultados obtenidos revelaron que el sector privado está mejor equipado que el sector público en términos tanto de disponibilidad de personal especializado como de acceso a diferentes medicamentos. El sector público carece de políticas definidas y apenas existen relaciones entre el personal médico y los trabajadores sociales. Los médicos y el personal de enfermería de atención primaria están capacitados para diagnosticar algunos tipos de epilepsia, pero no todos. Está plenamente justificada la nueva

  1. Cigarette labeling policies in Latin America and the Caribbean: progress and obstacles Políticas de etiquetado de cigarrillos en América Latina y el Caribe: progreso y obstáculos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto M Sebrié

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetive. To describe cigarette labeling policies in Latin America and the Caribbean as of August 2010. Material and Methods. Review of tobacco control legislation of all 33 countries of the region; analysis of British American Tobacco (BAT's corporate social reports; analysis of information from cigarette packages collected in 27 countries. Results. In 2002, Brazil became the first country in the region to implement pictorial health warning labels on cigarette packages. Since then, six more countries adopted pictorial labels. The message content and the picture style vary across countries. Thirteen countries have banned brand descriptors and nine require a qualitative label with information on constituents and emissions. Tobacco companies are using strategies commonly used around the world to block the effective implementation of WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC's Article 11. Conclusions. Since 2002, important progress has been achieved in the region. However, countries that have ratified the FCTC have not yet implemented all the recommendations of Article 11 Guidelines.Objetivo. Describir las políticas de etiquetado de cigarrillos vigentes en América Latina y el Caribe en agosto de 2010. Material y métodos. Revisión de la legislación para el control del tabaco en vigencia en los 33 países de la región; análisis de reportes sociales corporativos del grupo BAT; análisis de información de paquetes de cigarrillos recolectados en 27 países. Resultados. En 2002, Brasil se convirtió en el primer país de la región en implementar etiquetas de advertencias sanitarias pictoriales en los paquetes de cigarrillos. Desde entonces, otros seis países adoptaron advertencias pictoriales. El contenido del mensaje y el estilo de la fotografía varía entre los países. Trece países prohibieron descriptores de marca y nueve requieren una advertencia cualitativa con información de constituyentes y emisiones. Las compa

  2. The Integration Movement in the Caribbean at Crossroads: Towards a New Approach of Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Uziel Nogueira

    1997-01-01

    The Institute for the Integration of Latin America and the Caribbean (INTAL) has inaugurated a Working Papers Series with the publication of a study by Uziel Nogueira, the Institute's Economist. Entitled "The Integration Movement in the Caribbean at the Crossroads: Towards a New Approach to Integration", the study opens with an overview of the movement towards integration among the English-speaking countries of the Caribbean. It continues with an analysis of the integration process during thi...

  3. Does Latin America lag behind due to shaper recessions and/or slower recoveries?

    OpenAIRE

    Perez Caldentey, Esteban; Pineda, Ramon

    2010-01-01

    Since the 1950’s Latin America and the Caribbean have lost relative income share on a consistent basis in relation to the World and the developed countries on average. This paper presents a regional comparative statistical and econometric analysis for 1950-2007 for seven regions in the world, showing that for Latin America and the Caribbean convergence results mainly from weak expansions. Contractions have, as expected, a negative effect on the performance of Latin America and the Caribbean i...

  4. Inequalities in health in Latin America and the Caribbean: descriptive and exploratory results for self-reported health problems and health care in twelve countries Desigualdades de salud en América Latina y el Caribe: resultados descriptivos y exploratorios basados en la autonotificación de problemas de salud y atención de salud en doce países

    OpenAIRE

    J. Norberto W. Dachs; Marcela Ferrer; Carmen Elisa Florez; Aluisio J. D. Barros; Rory Narváez; Martín Valdivia

    2002-01-01

    Objective. To explore and describe inequalities in health and use of health care as revealed by self-report in 12 countries of Latin America and the Caribbean. Methods. A descriptive and exploratory study was performed based on the responses to questions on health and health care utilization that were included in general purpose household surveys. Inequalities are described by quintile of household expenditures (or income) per capita, sex, age group (children, adults, and older adults), and p...

  5. Autoinforme de salud general en adultos mayores de América Latina y el Caribe: su utilidad como indicador Self-reported general health in older adults in Latin America and the Caribbean: usefulness of the indicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca Wong

    2005-06-01

    , Santiago y México, D.F. (entre 30 y 40%. La evaluación de la propia memoria fue el factor más fuertemente asociado con el resultado del ASG, seguido de la satisfacción con el estado nutricional y con la vida. CONCLUSIONES: El ASG captó múltiples facetas de la salud de los adultos mayores, como el padecimiento de enfermedades crónicas, su grado de satisfacción con el nivel de nutrición y con la vida, su percepción del estado de la propia memoria y los problemas de funcionalidad que sufrían. Se deben emprender estudios más detallados que permitan establecer el papel que desempeña la salud emocional en la demanda de atención sanitaria de los adultos mayores en América Latina y el Caribe y determinar si existe alguna asociación entre el ASG y el uso de los servicios de salud.OBJECTIVES: To evaluate self-reported general health (SRGH as a health indicator and to analyze its covariates in people 60 years old or older living in private homes in seven cities of Latin America and the Caribbean. METHODS: This cross-sectional descriptive study was based on data from the Health, Well-Being, and Aging survey (Salud, Bienestar y Envejecimiento, or "SABE survey", which was carried out in 1999 and 2000 in Bridgetown, Barbados; Buenos Aires, Argentina; Havana, Cuba; Mexico City, Mexico; Montevideo, Uruguay; Santiago, Chile; and São Paulo, Brazil. The survey looked at the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of the participants, several health indicators (self-reported chronic diseases, depression, and cognitive features, the social and family support network, the use of health services, reported and observed functionality, the respondent's income, and the durable consumer goods in the household. In probit regression models, self-reported fair or poor health was used as the dependent variable. The marginal effect of each categorical explanatory variable was used to indicate the difference between the probability of reporting poor health by persons who did or did

  6. Assistance Focus: Latin America/Caribbean (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-01-01

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center Ask an Expert service connects governments seeking policy information and advice with one of more than 30 global policy experts who can provide reliable and unbiased quick-response advice and information. The service is available at no cost to government agency representatives from any country and the technical institutes assisting them. This publication presents summaries of assistance provided to African governments, including the benefits of that assistance.

  7. Technical cooperation for the pacific uses of nuclear technology in Latin America and Caribbean: the experience of regional agreement ARCAL; Cooperacao tecnica para os usos pacificos da tecnologia nuclear na America Latina e no Caribe: a experiencia do acordo regional ARCAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rondinelli Junior, Francisco

    2017-11-01

    This thesis studies the international technical cooperation in the field of peaceful applications of the nuclear technology, focusing on the experience of Latin American countries, where the Cooperation Agreement for the Promotion of Nuclear Science and Technology in Latin America and the Caribbean, also known as ARCAL, is in force. The study adopts as theoretical approach the concept of state capacities, particularly with regard to the institutional capacities applicable to the ARCAL Agreement. Within this approach, three dimensions of analysis are adopted: the institutional dimension, the governance dimension and the focus on outcomes. The evaluation of the ARCAL Agreement is carried out in order to confirm if the intended role to promote regional technical cooperation in the nuclear sector is being implemented. The methodological approach adopted the case study model. It starts with the analysis of the institutional evolution of the Agreement, and identifies variables articulating with the three dimensions above mentioned. The empirical data were collected in two stages. In the first stage it were performed 29 interviews carried out by the author with the technical and staff members of the Department of Technical Cooperation of IAEA, in Vienna, Austria, headquarter of IAEA. The other stage involved an electronic questionnaire submitted to the national coordinator of ARCAL in 14 countries, in a universe of 21 member states. The conclusion of the research points to the fact that the ARCAL Agreement has incorporated, throughout its trajectory, elements of the institutional capacities which are still in the process of development. They give to the Agreement the potential to induce the development of the state capacities of the respective countries in the field of peaceful applications of nuclear technology. (author)

  8. Caribbean literary theory: modernist and postmodern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. James Arnold

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] The Repeating Mand: The Caribbean and the Postmodern Perspective. ANTONIO BENITEZ-ROJO. Durham NC: Duke University Press, 1992. xi + 303 pp. (Cloth US$ 49.95, Paper US$ 15.95 Myth and History in Caribbean Fiction: Alejo Carpentier, Wilson Harris, and Edouard Glissant. BARBARA J. WEBB. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1992. x + 185 pp. (Cloth US$ 25.00 Caribbean literature has been overtaken of late by the quarrels that have pitted postmodernists against modernists in Europe and North America for the past twenty years. The modernists, faced with the fragmentation of the region that hard-nosed pragmatists and empiricists could only see as hostile to the emergence of any common culture, had sought in myth and its literary derivatives the collective impulse to transcend the divisions wrought by colonial history. Fifteen years ago I wrote a book that combined in its lead title the terms Modernism and Negritude in an effort to account for the efforts by mid-century Caribbean writers to come to grips with this problem. A decade later I demonstrated that one of the principal Caribbean modernists, Aimé Césaire, late in his career adopted stylistic characteristics that we associate with the postmodern (Arnold 1990. The example of Césaire should not be taken to suggest that we are dealing with some sort of natural evolution of modernism toward the postmodern. In fact the two terms represent competing paradigms that organize concepts and data so differently as to offer quite divergent maps of the literary Caribbean.

  9. Caribbean landscapes and their biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. E. Lugo; E. H. Helmer; E. Santiago Valentín

    2012-01-01

    Both the biodiversity and the landscapes of the Caribbean have been greatly modified as a consequence of human activity. In this essay we provide an overview of the natural landscapes and biodiversity of the Caribbean and discuss how human activity has affected both. Our Caribbean geographic focus is on the insular Caribbean and the biodiversity focus is on the flora,...

  10. Variation of cervical cancer incidence in Latin America and the Caribbean Variación de la incidencia del cáncer cervicouterino en América Latina y el Caribe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine M. Pierce Campbell

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To provide a comprehensive analysis of the descriptive epidemiology of invasive cervical cancer in Latin America and the Caribbean by analyzing quality data from the area's cancer registries, including data that were excluded from the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC publication, Cancer Incidence in Five Continents, Vol. IX (CI5-IX. METHODS: This was a descriptive epidemiologic study that involved 20 cancer registries, 9 of which were included by IARC in CI5-IX, and 11 of which were not. Data on invasive cervical cancers diagnosed from 1998-2002 were obtained from IARC. A cervical cancerspecific quality assessment was performed on all registries whether or not they were included in CI5-IX. Data from 14 registries met quality criteria and were analyzed. Incidence rates were calculated and compared across registries. RESULTS: A substantial variation in incidence rates existed among the registries; agestandardized rates ranged from 14.6-44.0 per 100 000 women per year. Mean cervical cancer incidence rates were 10.4% higher for registries included in CI5-IX than for those excluded; however, this difference was not significant (P = 0.541. CONCLUSIONS: This study compared cervical cancer rates from a more diverse group of Latin American and Caribbean countries than that of the CI5-IX. The heterogeneity found among registries highlights the importance of examining data from as many registries as possible when characterizing risk across a geographic area. Data from developing countries can be used to better understand cancer distribution and enable Region-specific recommendations on cancer control and prevention once data quality has been establishedOBJETIVO: Efectuar un análisis integral de las características epidemiológicas descriptivas del cáncer de cervicouterino invasor en América Latina y el Caribe mediante el análisis de datos de calidad de los registros de cáncer de la región, incluso datos que fueron

  11. Capital social y salud en América Latina y el Caribe: una revisión sistemática Social capital and health in Latin America and the Caribbean: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristóbal E. Kripper

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar la información validada disponible sobre la relación entre el capital so cial (CS y la salud en América Latina y el Caribe (ALC. MÉTODOS: Se realizó una búsqueda sistemática de los trabajos publicados entre enero de 1990 y junio de 2007 en las bases de datos Medline, SciELO, LILACS y The Cochrane Library. Se analizaron todos los artículos de investigación y revisión publicados en revistas científicas, que evaluaran el CS y su relación con la salud en ALC. RESULTADOS: Se encontraron 15 artículos (11 de investigación original y 4 de revisión. Las áreas de salud exploradas por las investigaciones originales fueron: a mortalidad y esperanza de vida, b salud mental, c traumas, d estado nutricional y e vacunación. Se analiza detalla damente la validez de estos trabajos, sus resultados y principales conclusiones. CONCLUSIONES: A pesar de las limitaciones propias del concepto de CS y de los estudios iden tificados, se puede afirmar que existe evidencia científica incipiente de la posible relación entre el CS y la salud en ALC. El CS podría desempeñar un papel protector en ciertas áreas sanita rias, como la prevención de traumas y la salud mental; no obstante, la relación entre el CS y la salud podría variar según los subtipos de CS y los contextos socioeconómicos y culturales es pecíficos. Resulta fundamental continuar desarrollando investigaciones en el ámbito de la epi demiología social, en las que se analice en profundidad la relación entre los determinantes so ciales y los aspectos específicos de la salud en el contexto de ALC.OBJECTIVE: To identify validated information available on the relationship between social capital (SC and health in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC. METHODS: A systematic search for papers published from January 1990-June 2007 was conducted on the Medline, SciELO, LILACS, and the Cochrane Library databases. All of the research and review articles published by

  12. Toward a Caribbean psychology: an African-centered approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Marcia Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Although the Americas and Caribbean region are purported to comprise different ethnic groups, this article’s focus is on people of African descent, who represent the largest ethnic group in many countries. The emphasis on people of African descent is related to their family structure, ethnic identity, cultural, psychohistorical, and contemporary psychosocial realities. This article discusses the limitations of Western psychology for theory, research, and applied work on people of African descent in the Americas and Caribbean region. In view of the adaptations that some people of African descent have made to slavery, colonialism, and more contemporary forms of cultural intrusions, it is argued that when necessary, notwithstanding Western psychology’s limitations, Caribbean psychologists should reconstruct mainstream psychology to address the psychological needs of these Caribbean people. The relationship between theory and psychological interventions for the optimal development of people of African descent is emphasized throughout this article. In this regard, the African-centered and constructionist viewpoint is argued to be of utility in addressing the psychological growth and development of people of African descent living in the Americas and Caribbean region.

  13. Insights Into Caribbean Lithospheric Structure From S Wave Receiver Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landes, M.; Pavlis, G. L.

    2007-12-01

    BOLIVAR (Broadband Ocean-Land Investigation of Venezuela and the Antilles arc Region) was aimed at investigating the interplay between the lithospheric and asthenospheric mantle of the Caribbean and the South America plates. The oblique collision of the Caribbean plate migrating eastwards has created a complicated deformation zone with strike-slip, compressional and extensional structures along the Caribbean and South America boundary. Earlier results with P receiver functions revealed strong variations in crustal thickness ranging from 15 km beneath the Caribbean Sea to 55 km beneath Venezuela. However, one of the fundamental questions not yet resolved concerns the thickness of the lithosphere in this region. Using the S wave receiver function technique, we analyzed seismograms from some 100 events at epicentral distances of 55-125 degree. The seismograms were rotated and deconvolved to isolate S-to-P conversions from the incident S wave. These were subsequently stacked after their respective conversion points and mapped into the subsurface. A strong negative phase is associated with the S-to-P conversion from the base of the lithosphere. Analysis of these data is ongoing, but we expect to see large variation in lithospheric thickness as the BOLIVAR array spans the transition from the Caribbean with OBS stations to the interior of South America (Guyana Shield).

  14. Caribbean shallow water Corallimorpharia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, J.C.den

    1980-01-01

    The present paper comprises a review of the Caribbean shallow water Corallimorpharia. Six species, belonging to four genera and three families are treated, including Pseudocorynactis caribbeorum gen. nov. spec. nov., a species with tentacular acrospheres containing the largest spirocysts ever

  15. Agreement between the Republic of Cuba and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The text of the Agreement between the Republic of Cuba and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in the Annex to this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement was approved by the Board of Governors on 9 September 2003. It was signed on 18 September 2003. Pursuant to Article 25 of the Agreement, the Agreement entered into force on 3 June 2004, the date on which the Agency received from Cuba written notification that Cuba's statutory and/or constitutional requirements for entry into force had been met

  16. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Cuba and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Cuba and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in the Annex to this document for the information of all Members. The Additional Protocol was approved by the Board of Governors on 9 September 2003. It was signed on 18 September 2003. Pursuant to Article 17 of the Additional Protocol, the Protocol entered into force on 3 June 2004, the date on which the Agency received from Cuba written notification that Cuba's statutory and/or constitutional requirements for entry into force had been met

  17. Caribbean development: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Sutton

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Reviews development in the Caribbean, especially since 1990 to the present, and highlights future development prospects. Author discusses 2 reports from 2005 on present developments problems in the Caribbean region: the economics-focussed 'A time to choose: Caribbean development in the 21st century' by the World Bank, and the UN ECLAC report 'The Millennium Development Goals: a Latin American and Caribbean perspective', with a broader, also social and political, development agenda. He relates what both reports recommend for the Caribbean on the basis of their evaluations of past development. The World Bank report advocates a move toward the services sector, including tourism, offshore education, ICT services, and health services as most viable. The ECLAC report notes some social and political advances in comparison to other developing countries, but also remaining problems and inequalities. The author finds that the World Bank report's neoliberal, one-size-fits-all approach is not mindful of specific Caribbean realities, while the ECLAC study is more sensitive to local realities, and espouses a mixed economy. He thus considers the ECLAC approach preferable, but argues that it needs to go further, as it excludes Cuba and Haiti as atypical states.

  18. Un dilema político en la encrucijada histórica del proceso de integración regional de América Latina y el Caribe A political dilemma at the historical crossroads of the process of regional integration in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Rocha V.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A partir del análisis de las dinámicas políticas internas y externas de los esquemas de integración regional y subregional de América Latina y el Caribe se llega a la conclusión de que la región ha logrado concretar un posicionamiento débil en lo económico y disperso en lo político dentro del proceso de negociaciones para el ALCA. Esta situación de la región se complica un poco más debido a la nueva encrucijada histórica que atravieza y, en particular, por el dilema político (integración regional o integración continental que se instala en dicha encrucijada. De manera clara se plantea la hipótesis de una crisis del proyecto y del proceso de integración regional de ALyC y se formulan las ideas generales para un proyecto de integración regional alternativa.Based on the analysis of internal and external political dynamics of Latin America and the Caribbean's regional and subregional integration mechanisms, one concludes that the region has built a weak economic position and a diffused political position within the FTAA negotiation process. This situation in the region becomes even more complex due to the new historical crossroads it faces and particularly for the political dilemma (regional or continental integration that takes place in such crossroads. Clearly, we present the hypothesis of a crisis in the project of regional integration of Latin America and the Caribbean, and articulate the general ideas for a project of alternative regional integration.

  19. Educación sobre sexualidad y prevención del VIH: un diagnóstico para América Latina y el Caribe Sex education and HIV prevention: an evaluation in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M. DeMaria

    2009-12-01

    comportamiento sexual auto-reportado.OBJECTIVE: To present, through an evaluation in Latin America and the Caribbean, the current regulatory and curricular landscape of sexuality and HIV prevention in the school setting, and contrast it with sexual behaviors as reported by demographic and health surveys. METHODS: In May 2008, with the support of the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA, a survey was conducted involving key contacts in 34 countries of the Region. The self-administered questionnaire sought in-depth information on school-based HIV/AIDS prevention programs from the staff of various stakeholders, including ministries of education and of health. RESULTS: Twenty-seven countries responded to the survey, representing 95.5% of the target population (6-18 years of age. Most countries reported having at least one textbook or one specific chapter devoted to teaching sex education and HIV prevention. Many, but not all of the important sex education topics, were covered in secondary school; for example, the issue of discrimination based on sexual orientation/ preference is not included in school curricula. CONCLUSIONS: Sex education materials should be reviewed and updated periodically to reflect progress being made on the issues and the handling of the subject matter. In each country, the curriculum should address the issue of respecting differences in sexual orientation, preference, and identity, and especially, an appropriate approach toward sexually-transmitted infection (STI prevention education among males who have sex with males. Efforts to assess the programs' effectiveness should consider outcomes, such as biomarkers (STI incidence and prevalence and pregnancy, not just indicators of self-reported sexual knowledge and behavior.

  20. El financiamiento internacional para la cooperación al desarrollo de la salud de América Latina y el Caribe International financing for cooperation to develop health in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca De Los Ríos

    2011-08-01

    úblico en salud siguió su tendencia de crecimiento histórico, sin mayores incrementos con respecto al producto interno bruto regional. Frente a este panorama y por ser ALC la región más desigual pero no la más pobre del mundo, resulta imperativo replantearse las formas de pensar, conducir y entregar la cooperación para el desarrollo de la salud con enfoques innovadores y mecanismos alternativos de financiamiento que respondan más y mejor a las realidades de la región.The purpose of this study is (a to examine the ways in which Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC have benefited from increases in international development assistance for health (DAH at the global level and whether the trend observed after the Millennium Summit has also applied to the Region; (b to determine whether there are differences in the distribution of this assistance, based on the gross per capita income of each country; (c to identify the possible effects of the 2008 international financial crisis on official bilateral assistance; and (d to compare trends in public health expenditure in relation to DAH before and after the Millennium Summit. The study has found that DAH in LAC follows a very different pattern than in other regions of the world. The period from 1997 to 2008 was one of fluctuating stagnation, with average annual disbursements of US$ 1 200 million. Multilateral financial institutions accounted for 79% of the average disbursements in the upper-middle income countries between 2002 and 2008, while official bilateral assistance held the greatest share (61% in the low- and lower-middle income countries. Bilateral assistance grew at an annual rate of 13% during this period, but in the year after the crisis, disbursements fell to US$ 20 million. Sixty-four percent of bilateral assistance came from the United States, Spain, and Canada, with 29% of it being directed to HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases. After the Millennium Summit DAH channeled to governments decreased 30% in

  1. Regional integration and south-south cooperation in health in Latin America and the Caribbean Integración regional y cooperación sur-sur en materia de salud en América Latina y el Carib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Carrillo Roa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes whether south-south cooperation is legitimately a recent practice or merely an improved version of previous regional integration processes in Latin America and the Caribbean. The authors reviewed and systematized the historic development of subregional integration processes in Latin America and the Caribbean and focused on health cooperation in the following contexts: the Central American Integration System, the Andean Community of Nations, the Caribbean Community, the Amazon Cooperation Treaty Organization, the Southern Common Market, and the Union of South American Nations. The study concludes that the conceptual and methodologic foundations of south-south cooperation in health were born from and nurtured by the processes of regional integration in Latin America and the Caribbean. This paper posits that regional political and economic integration initiatives bring potential benefits to the health sector and act as an important mechanism to develop south-south cooperation in this domain. The study recommends furthering this type of research to provide information that will allow national and multilateral agencies, or other stakeholders, to formulate and implement better policies for international health cooperation that target reducing inequities and promoting health and well-being for all people.Este artículo analiza si la cooperación sur-sur constituye legítimamente una práctica reciente o es solo una versión mejorada de los procesos anteriores de integración regional en América Latina y el Caribe. Los autores analizaron y sistematizaron el desarrollo histórico de los procesos de integración subregional en América Latina y el Caribe y se centraron en la cooperación en materia de salud en los siguientes contextos: el Sistema de Integración Centroamericana, la Comunidad Andina de Naciones, la Comunidad del Caribe, la Organización del Tratado de Cooperación Amazónica, el Mercado Común del Sur y la Unión de

  2. Efecto del ajuste estructural sobre la situación de salud en América Latina y el Caribe, 1980-2000 The effect of structural adjustment on health conditions in Latin America and the Caribbean, 1980-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Franco-Giraldo

    2006-05-01

    indicators in Latin America and the Caribbean during 1980-2000. METHODS: This was an ecological study. Public spending and per capita gross domestic product (pcGDP figures were obtained from the World Bank, and life expectancy (LE and infant mortality (IM figures were obtained from the World Health Organization. Structural adjustment (government downsizing was assessed by looking at the change in the amount of spending taken up by the government (or the reduction in public spending in Latin American and Caribbean countries during 1980-1990. Changes in health indicators were measured in terms of the percentage variation in LE and IM. The variations found in Latin America and the Caribbean were compared to those seen in different groups of countries in other parts of the world during 1980-2000. Pearson’s chi squared test was used to explore the associations between the decrease in public spending and health indicators. In order to estimate the health effects of such changes, a multivariate linear regression model was created, with adjustments for pcGDP. RESULTS: A deceleration in the rise of LE and in the decline of IM in Latin America and the Caribbean was noted, especially over the period from 1980 through 1990. Significant associations were observed between health indicators and the change in public spending in all groups of countries included in the study. When adjustments were introduced into the multiple regression model, the only associations that remained were seen in Latin America and the Caribbean. CONCLUSIONS: In the decade of 1980, adjustments in macroeconomic policies had a negative effect on social indicators, specifically those that had to do with health conditions in Latin America and the Caribbean. Such an effect lasted throughout the following decade.

  3. Thirsty Cities: Urban Environments and Water Supply in Latin America

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Many cities in Latin America and the Caribbean are experiencing a water crisis as sources become exhausted or degraded. Urbanization, deteriorating infrastructures with a lack of funds for repairs, and inadequate polices are conspiring to cause water shortages.

  4. Leading countries in mental health research in Latin America and the Caribbean Os países líderes em pesquisa em saúde mental na América Latina e Caribe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Razzouk

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The prevalence and burden of mental disorders have been growing in Latin-American and the Caribbean countries and research is an important tool for changing this scenario. The objective of this paper is to describe the development of mental health research in Latin American and the Caribbean countries from 1995 to 2005. METHOD: The indicators of productivity were based on the ISI Essential Science Indicators database. We compared the number of papers and citations, as well as the number of citations per paper between 1995 and 2005 for each country ranked in the Essential Science Indicators. RESULT: Eleven Latin-American countries were ranked in the ISI database and six of them demonstrated a higher level of development in mental health research: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, and Venezuela. Mexico produced the largest number of papers, while Brazil showed a larger number of citations per paper. CONCLUSION: Mental health research is still incipient in Latin American and the Caribbean countries, and many challenges remain to be overcome. Also, it is necessary to establish the research priorities, to allocate more funding, and to improve researchers training in research method and design.OBJETIVO: A prevalência e a carga dos transtornos mentais vêm crescendo nos países latino-americanos e a pesquisa tem sido considerada uma importante ferramenta para alterar este cenário. Este estudo descreve o desenvolvimento da pesquisa em saúde mental nos países latino-americanos e Caribe no período de 1995 a 2005. MÉTODO: Foram utilizados os indicadores de produtividade baseados no banco de dados "Essential Science Indicators" do ISI. Foram comparados o número total de artigos e citações e também o número de citações por artigo para cada um dos países classificados no Essential Science Indicators. RESULTADOS: Foram encontrados 11 países latino-americanos e Caribe no ISI, e seis destes apresentaram um maior

  5. Caribbean health Policy Briefing

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Caribbean health. Diversity in local food production to combat obesity. Did you know? • The World Health Organization recommends that children should eat 400 g of fruit and vegetables per day. • Drip irrigation can provide the entire water requirements for vegetable crops using 40-50% less water. • About 60% of the ...

  6. IDRC in the Caribbean

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Since the early 1970s, IDRC has supported the efforts of researchers in the English-speaking Caribbean to reduce poverty and inequality, restore degraded coastal ecosystems, and protect communities against disease and natural disasters. Research has helped to improve farming and fishing practices and tackle.

  7. Usefulness for surveillance of hypertension prevalence studies in Latin America and the Caribbean: the past 10 years Utilidad de los estudios de prevalencia para la vigilancia de la hipertensión en América Latina y el Caribe: los 10 últimos años

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa S. Burroughs Peña

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the usefulness for surveillance of the peer-reviewed literature on the prevalence of hypertension in Latin America and the Caribbean published from 2001 to 2010 with a previous study of the published literature from 1962 to 2000. METHODS: A bibliographic search was conducted of publications from 2001 to 2010 that examined the prevalence of hypertension using MEDLINE and LILACS databases. The methodology of each paper was evaluated with the same critical appraisal tool used in the previous study. RESULTS: A total of 81 papers were published from 2001 to 2010 on the prevalence of hypertension in Latin America and the Caribbean. Only 24 of these studies met the minimum methodologic criteria for evaluation. While the total number of studies published in the past 10 years exceeds the number published from 1962 to 2000, the percentage of studies that met the minimum methodologic criteria has not substantially increased. In addition to major methodologic shortcomings, less than 46% of the published studies reported rates of awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension. The hypertension prevalence estimates from the peer-reviewed literature range from 7% to 49%. These studies were primarily done in urban centers and are not evenly distributed throughout the region. CONCLUSIONS: The quality and geographic distribution of the published literature on the prevalence of hypertension in Latin America and the Caribbean are inadequate. Research resources and efforts should be directed in the future toward closing this gap.OBJETIVO: Comparar la utilidad para la vigilancia epidemiológica de los artículos sobre prevalencia de hipertensión en América Latina y el Caribe publicados en revistas con arbitraje científico del 2001 al 2010, con un estudio anterior de la bibliografía publicada en el período 1962-2000. MÉTODOS: En las bases de datos MEDLINE y LILACS se efectuó una búsqueda bibliográfica de los artículos que examinaron

  8. Principales marcos conceptuales aplicados para la evaluación de la salud ambiental mediante indicadores en América Latina y el Caribe Application of key frameworks to an indicator-based evaluation of environmental health in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Schütz

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available La construcción de indicadores de salud ambiental para evaluar el efecto adverso de los cambios ambientales sobre el bienestar y la calidad de vida de la población es una meta todavía no alcanzada totalmente en América Latina y el Caribe. Por ello, el Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el Medio Ambiente y la Organización Panamericana de la Salud han convocado a instituciones y especialistas de toda la Región para desarrollar un método integral de evaluación del medio ambiente y la salud. En este trabajo se hace un análisis crítico de varias de las metodologías de evaluación ambiental y sanitaria (integrales o no y se describen, desde una perspectiva histórica, los marcos conceptuales que fundamentan los principales métodos ordenadores o generadores de indicadores de salud ambiental utilizados en América Latina y el Caribe. Se identificaron dos limitaciones metodológicas recurrentes: a la fuerte dependencia de datos secundarios, lo que implica la necesidad de una capacidad tecnológica instalada poco accesible en América Latina y el Caribe en la actualidad; y b la falta de criterios claros para desarrollar instrumentos participativos que faciliten la evaluación de problemas de salud ambiental a nivel local. A pesar de los avances alcanzados en el campo de la salud ambiental en cuanto a la comprensión de su complejidad interdisciplinaria, aún se deben mejorar los mecanismos intersectoriales que favorezcan la discusión e implementación de políticas integradas de medio ambiente y salud.The establishment of environmental health indicators for assessing the adverse effects of environmental changes on the population's health and quality of life is, as yet, a goal that has not been fully reached in Latin America and the Caribbean. As such, the United Nations Environment Program and the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO have convened Region's institutions and experts to develop a comprehensive method for assessing

  9. Regional diversity of Amphipoda in the Caribbean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Martín

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The order Amphipoda is one of the most diverse within Peracarids, and comprises 6 950 described marine species. Amphipod research in the Caribbean Sea began in the late 1 800s, but has increased significantly since 1 980. In this study, we analized the amphipod biodiversity (Caprellidea, Gammaridea, Hyperiidea, and Ingolfiellidea of the Caribbean Sea. For this, we compiled available data on species diversity of marine amphipods (data bases: WoRMS and OBIS and published species lists into a comprehensive taxonomic list by country for the ecoregions of the Caribbean. Additionally, we analized the relative contribution of each country to regional diversity and the rate of discovery of new species. The Caribbean amphipod fauna is composed of 535 species within 236 genera and 73 families for the higher taxon. The Western Caribbean ecoregion holds the largest diversity (282 species, while the Eastern Caribbean recorded the lowest one (73. Mexico and Venezuela recorded the largest number of species with 266 and 206, respectively. Twelve countries had less than 50 species. The richest suborder is the Gammaridea with 381 species followed by the suborder Hyperiidea with 116. From the total of 535 amphipod species reported for the Caribbean region, 218 have the Caribbean as the holotype locality, and 132 are endemic (about 25% of the total. Areas of higher diversity seem to be concentrated along the Mexican Caribbean, Cuba and the Northern coast of South America (Venezuela-Colombia; however, such pattern is most likely reflecting local collection efforts and taxonomic expertise rather than actual distribution. Knowledge of amphipod species is mostly limited to shallow, near-shore waters, with little information available on the deep sea fauna. Regional research priorities for this group should be focused on completing shallow water coastal inventories of species in Central America and the Greater and Lesser Antilles. In addition, sampling the deep sea

  10. Caribbean plate tectonics from seismic tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Brink, U. S.; Villasenor, A.

    2012-12-01

    New seismic tomography in the Caribbean shows close links between the geometry and dynamics of subducting slabs and the geology of the overriding plate. Unlike most oceanic plates, the Caribbean plate lacks identifiable seafloor magnetic anomalies and fracture zones. The plate's history has therefore been inferred primarily from land geology along the plate boundary, which is complicated by large-scale shear deformation, and from finite rotations of surrounding plates.We used more than 14 million arrival times from 300,000 earthquakes to identify P-wave velocity anomalies. We relate the anomalies to the geometry and dynamics of subducting slabs and to patterns of earthquake activity, volcanism, topographic relief, and tectonic deformation. For example, we detect two separate slabs belonging to the North and South American plates, respectively, which appear to be responsible for morphologic and tectonic differences between the arcs of the Northern (from Guadeloupe northward) and Southern (from Dominica southward) Lesser Antilles. Variations in earthquake activity between Haiti and the Dominican Republic can be explained by a change in slab geometry from an underplated slab beneath Haiti to a subducting slab under the Dominican Republic. A shallow tear in the slab may explain the anomalously deep Puerto Rico Trench and the frequent earthquake swarms there. The westward shift in volcanic activity in the Northern Lesser Antilles from the Miocene Limestone Caribbees to the present arc can be attributed to the limit on convective flow imposed by the 3-D geometry of the slab at depth. A thinned South America slab under the southern Lesser Antilles may result from traction imposed on the slab by a wide forearc wedge. Variations in tectonic deformation of northern South America could be related to the location of the Caribbean Large Igneous Province north of the Maracaibo Block.

  11. Rodents of the Caribbean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabre, Pierre-Henri; Mouatt, Julia Thidamarth Vilstrup; Raghavan, Maanasa

    2014-01-01

    The Capromyidae (hutias) are endemic rodents of the Caribbean and represent a model of dispersal for non-flying mammals in the Greater Antilles. This family has experienced severe extinctions during the Holocene and its phylogenetic affinities with respect to other caviomorph relatives are still ...... (Bahamas, Cuba, Jamaica) hutias. Recent divergences among these western hutias suggest Plio-Pleistocene dispersal waves associated with glacial cycles....

  12. Voluntary reduction of trans-fatty acids in Latin America and the Caribbean: current situation Disminución voluntaria del contenido de ácidos grasos trans en América Latina y el Caribe: situación actual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Monge-Rojas

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available As part of the Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization Trans-Fat-Free Americas initiative, 12 representatives from food industries in Latin America and the Caribbean signed a declaration stating their intention to voluntarily eliminate industrially produced trans-fatty acids (TFA from the Americas. A year later, in order to document the extent of the voluntary reduction, each declarant was asked to describe all reformulations and reductions in the TFA content of their products. After up to six requests for data, only three declarants provided such information in detail, and three others offered an overall summary of their reformulations. Additionally, three declarants reported the barriers that limit this process: availability of oil substitutes, cost, and consumers' sensory acceptance. The content of TFA and saturated fat in the food supply in the Americas should be regulated and strictly monitored in order to adequately evaluate a reduction of TFA in the region.Como parte de la iniciativa "Las Américas sin grasas trans" de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud/Organización Mundial de la Salud, 12 representantes de empresas alimentarias de América Latina y el Caribe firmaron una declaración en la que se comprometieron a eliminar voluntariamente los ácidos grasos trans (AGT de los alimentos producidos industrialmente. Un año después, a fin de verificar el progreso en este sentido, se solicitó a cada firmante que describiera todas las reformulaciones y la disminución del contenido de AGT de sus productos. Después de solicitar los datos hasta seis veces en algunos casos, solo tres de las empresas firmantes suministraron información detallada y otras tres ofrecieron un resumen general de las distintas reformulaciones incorporadas. Además, tres proporcionaron información acerca de los obstáculos que dificultan este proceso: la disponibilidad de sucedáneos del aceite, el costo y la aceptación de los consumidores

  13. A serological survey of tick-borne pathogens in dogs in North America and the Caribbean as assessed by Anaplasma phagocytophilum, A. platys, Ehrlichia canis, E. chaffeensis, E. ewingii, and Borrelia burgdorferi species-specific peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara A. Qurollo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tick-borne pathogens cause a spectrum of disease manifestations in both dogs and humans. Recognizing regional and temporal shifts in exposure are important as tick distributions change. To better delineate regional exposure to canine tick-borne pathogens, an expanded set of species-specific peptides were used to detect Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Aph, Anaplasma platys (Apl, Ehrlichia canis (Ec, Ehrlichia chaffeensis (Ech, Ehrlichia ewingii (Eew, and Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb antibodies in canine serum. Methods: Archived canine serum samples (n=6,582 collected during 2008–2010 and in 2012 from the US, Canada, and the Caribbean were retrospectively screened for antibodies against Ehrlichia and Anaplasma species-specific peptides. Overall, regional and temporal seroprevalence rates were determined. Results: Overall Bb and Eew were the most seroprevalent pathogens. During 2008–2010, seroprevalence rates increased overall for Aph and Ech, and regionally, Bb and Aph seroprevalence rates increased in the South. Canada had unexpectedly high seroprevalence rates for Ec and Apl. The most common co-exposures were Eew+Ech, followed by Aph+Bb and Eew+Bb. Conclusions: This study demonstrated significant shifts in canine vector-borne disease seroprevalence rates. The use of specific peptides facilitated improved geographic delineation of tick-borne pathogen distributions among dogs, which may enhance epidemiological surveillance of vector-borne pathogens shared by dogs and humans.

  14. El informe de la Comisión sobre Macroeconomía y Salud: su relevancia para los países de América Latina y el Caribe The report of the Commission on Macroeconomics and Health: its relevance to the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The Commission on Macroeconomics and Health (CMH was established by the Director-General of the World Health Organization (WHO to evaluate the role of health in economic development. On 20 December 2001 the CMH submitted its report to the WHO Director-General. Entitled Macroeconomics and Health: Investing in Health for Economic Development, the CMH report affirms that in order to reduce poverty and achieve economic development, it is essential to improve the health of the poor; to accomplish this, it is necessary to expand the access that the poor have to essential health services. The Commission believes that more financial resources are needed, that the health expenditures of less-developed and low-income countries are insufficient for the challenges that these countries face, and that high-income countries must increase their financial assistance in order to help solve the main health problems of less-developed and low-income countries. This piece summarizes a report that was prepared by the Program on Public Policy and Health of the Division of Health and Human Development of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO. The PAHO document analyzes the importance of the CMH report for the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean, focusing on some of the central arguments put forth in the CMH report as they relate to achieving better health conditions in the Americas. These arguments have been organized around three major themes in the CMH report: a the relationships between health and economic growth, b the principal health problems that affect the poor in low-income and low-middle-income countries, and c the gap between the funding needed to address the principal problems that affect these countries and the actual spending levels.

  15. Large Earthquake Potential in the Southeast Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mencin, D.; Mora-Paez, H.; Bilham, R. G.; Lafemina, P.; Mattioli, G. S.; Molnar, P. H.; Audemard, F. A.; Perez, O. J.

    2015-12-01

    The axis of rotation describing relative motion of the Caribbean plate with respect to South America lies in Canada near Hudson's Bay, such that the Caribbean plate moves nearly due east relative to South America [DeMets et al. 2010]. The plate motion is absorbed largely by pure strike slip motion along the El Pilar Fault in northeastern Venezuela, but in northwestern Venezuela and northeastern Colombia, the relative motion is distributed over a wide zone that extends from offshore to the northeasterly trending Mérida Andes, with the resolved component of convergence between the Caribbean and South American plates estimated at ~10 mm/yr. Recent densification of GPS networks through COLOVEN and COCONet including access to private GPS data maintained by Colombia and Venezuela allowed the development of a new GPS velocity field. The velocity field, processed with JPL's GOA 6.2, JPL non-fiducial final orbit and clock products and VMF tropospheric products, includes over 120 continuous and campaign stations. This new velocity field along with enhanced seismic reflection profiles, and earthquake location analysis strongly suggest the existence of an active oblique subduction zone. We have also been able to use broadband data from Venezuela to search slow-slip events as an indicator of an active subduction zone. There are caveats to this hypothesis, however, including the absence of volcanism that is typically concurrent with active subduction zones and a weak historical record of great earthquakes. A single tsunami deposit dated at 1500 years before present has been identified on the southeast Yucatan peninsula. Our simulations indicate its probable origin is within our study area. We present a new GPS-derived velocity field, which has been used to improve a regional block model [based on Mora and LaFemina, 2009-2012] and discuss the earthquake and tsunami hazards implied by this model. Based on the new geodetic constraints and our updated block model, if part of the

  16. An analysis of three levels of scaled-up coverage for 28 interventions to avert stillbirths and maternal, newborn and child mortality in 27 countries in Latin America and the Caribbean with the Lives Saved Tool (LiST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnesen, Lauren; O'Connell, Thomas; Brumana, Luisa; Durán, Pablo

    2016-07-22

    Action to avert maternal and child mortality was propelled by the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in 2000. The Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) region has shown promise in achieving the MDGs in many countries, but preventable maternal, neonatal and child mortality persist. Furthermore, preventable stillbirths are occurring in large numbers in the region. While an effective set of maternal, newborn and child health (MNCH) interventions have been identified, they have not been brought to scale across LAC. Baseline data for select MNCH interventions for 27 LAC countries that are included in the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) were verified and updated with survey data. Three LiST projections were built for each country: baseline, MDG-focused, and All Included, each scaling up a progressively larger set of interventions for 2015 - 2030. Impact was assessed for 2015 - 2035, comparing annual and total lives saved, as projected by LiST. Across the 27 countries 235,532 stillbirths, and 752,588 neonatal, 959,393 under-five, and 60,858 maternal deaths would be averted between 2015 and 2035 by implementing the All-Included intervention package, representing 67 %, 616 %, 807 % and 101 % more lives saved, respectively, than with the MDG-focused interventions. 25 % neonatal deaths averted with the All-Included intervention package would be due to asphyxia, 42 % from prematurity and 24 % from sepsis. Our modelling suggests a 337 % increase in the number of lives saved, which would have enormous impacts on population health. Further research could help clarify the impacts of a comprehensive scale-up of the full range of essential MNCH interventions we have modelled.

  17. The Political Economy of "Open Regionalism" and Education in Small (and Micro) States: The Construction of the Caribbean Educational Policy Space in CARICOM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jules, Tavis D.

    2014-01-01

    In this era of amplified regionalisation, the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean's (ECLAC) conceptualisation of 'open regionalism' is pertinent to examine the role of regional governance mechanisms in constructing what I call the "Caribbean Educational Policy Space." With the aid of a latent content analysis of…

  18. Borders and Borderlands in the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    both licit and illicit networks. Traditional territorial security concerns declined in the Americas following the end of the Cold War, and NAFTA in...Central America, and the Caribbean in the 1980s into the United States and Mexico in the last decade. This dynamic has fostered substantial illicit...deepen economic ties and liberalize regimes, privileging development over security.12 Similarly, trade, fostered through NAFTA , has shaped and affected

  19. Youth Unemployment in the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Monica Parra-Torrado

    2014-01-01

    Global economic shocks coupled with natural disasters left most Caribbean countries with zero to negative growth and high unemployment rates. The Caribbean region was strongly affected by the last great financial crisis, which resulted in a regional average of zero economic growth in 2010. The purpose of this note is to evaluate the nature of youth unemployment in order to propose policy o...

  20. Educational Research in Latin America: A Twelve-Year Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egginton, Everett

    1983-01-01

    Analyzes reviewers' assessments of all publications on Latin American education included in the "Handbook of Latin American Studies" since 1969. Compares publications on education in South America with those relating to Central America and the Caribbean. Concludes that although the quality of research has been uneven, progress is being…

  1. Latin America: An Annotated List of Materials for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Children's Fund, New York, NY. United States Committee.

    This annotated bibliography of materials on Latin America is intended for children to age 14. South and Central America, Mexico, and the French, English, and Spanish speaking areas of the Caribbean are covered. Listings are by country and include history books, geography books, fiction, nonfiction, poetry, and folklore books. Some works in Spanish…

  2. e-Government project strengthens regional network in the Americas ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-06-22

    Jun 22, 2016 ... Building on the IDRC and Organization of American States partnership which established the Network of e-Government Leaders of Latin America and the Caribbean (RED GEALC) in 2003, the joint project Innovations in e-Government in the Americas has strengthened regional capacity to generate and ...

  3. Policy Influence and Urban Slums in Latin America : Ecohealth ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Policy Influence and Urban Slums in Latin America : Ecohealth International Workshop. IDRC's Ecosystem Approaches to Human Health (Ecohealth) program initiative has been active in Latin America and the Caribbean for the past eight years. Ecohealth recognizes that it is now imperative to systematize the lessons ...

  4. Seismicity of the Earth 1900-2007, Caribbean Plate and Vicinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benz, Harley M.; Tarr, Arthur C.; Hayes, Gavin P.; Villaseñor, Antonio; Furlong, Kevin P.; Dart, Richard L.; Rhea, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Extensive diversity of tectonic regimes characterizes the perimeter of the Caribbean plate, involving no fewer than four major adjacent plates (North America, South America, Nazca, and Cocos). Inclined zones of deep earthquakes (Wadati-Benioff zones), deep ocean trenches, and arcs of volcanoes clearly indicate subduction of oceanic lithosphere along the Central American and Atlantic Ocean margins of the Caribbean plate, while shallow seismicity and focal mechanisms of major shocks in Guatemala, northern Venezuela, and the Cayman Ridge and Cayman Trench indicate transform fault and pull-apart basin tectonics.

  5. Transforming Territories (Latin America) | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project aims to support policies and programs that create greater opportunities and improve the well-being of 900,000 people living in poverty in the rural-urban territories of Chile, Colombia, and Mexico. Poverty in the region Two-thirds of people in Latin America and the Caribbean live in areas that have not ...

  6. Golden Discoveries: Literature of the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Judith E.

    1992-01-01

    Describes a U.S. literature course and a comparative literature course that focuses on Asian, African, Canadian, Caribbean, and Latin American literature. Asserts that students need to be aware of the European impact on the U.S. identity, even where it is unpleasant. Discusses the magical realism in the distinct artistic vision of Latin America.…

  7. Caribbean Sea Level Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hillebrandt-Andrade, C.; Crespo Jones, H.

    2012-12-01

    Over the past 500 years almost 100 tsunamis have been observed in the Caribbean and Western Atlantic, with at least 3510 people having lost their lives to this hazard since 1842. Furthermore, with the dramatic increase in population and infrastructure along the Caribbean coasts, today, millions of coastal residents, workers and visitors are vulnerable to tsunamis. The UNESCO IOC Intergovernmental Coordination Group for Tsunamis and other Coastal Hazards for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions (CARIBE EWS) was established in 2005 to coordinate and advance the regional tsunami warning system. The CARIBE EWS focuses on four areas/working groups: (1) Monitoring and Warning, (2) Hazard and Risk Assessment, (3) Communication and (4) Education, Preparedness and Readiness. The sea level monitoring component is under Working Group 1. Although in the current system, it's the seismic data and information that generate the initial tsunami bulletins, it is the data from deep ocean buoys (DARTS) and the coastal sea level gauges that are critical for the actual detection and forecasting of tsunamis impact. Despite multiple efforts and investments in the installation of sea level stations in the region, in 2004 there were only a handful of sea level stations operational in the region (Puerto Rico, US Virgin Islands, Bermuda, Bahamas). Over the past 5 years there has been a steady increase in the number of stations operating in the Caribbean region. As of mid 2012 there were 7 DARTS and 37 coastal gauges with additional ones being installed or funded. In order to reach the goal of 100 operational coastal sea level stations in the Caribbean, the CARIBE EWS recognizes also the importance of maintaining the current stations. For this, a trained workforce in the region for the installation, operation and data analysis and quality control is considered to be critical. Since 2008, three training courses have been offered to the sea level station operators and data analysts. Other

  8. Seismic Monitoring Capabilities of the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions Tsunami Warning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saurel, Jean-Marie; von Hillebrandt-Andrade, Christa; Crespo, Hector; McNamara, Dan; Huerfano, Victor

    2014-05-01

    Over 75 tsunamis have been documented in the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions during the past 500 years. Since 1500, at least 4484 people are reported to have perished in these killer waves. Hundreds of thousands are currently threatened along the Caribbean coastlines. In 2005 the Intergovernmental Coordination Group for the Tsunami and other Coastal Hazards Warning System for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions (CARIBE EWS) was established. It recommended the following minimum seismic performance standards for the detection and analysis of earthquakes: 1) Earthquake detection within 1 minute, 2) Minimum magnitude threshold = M4.5, and 3) Initial hypocenter error of data availability of the contributing stations at the US Tsunami Warning Centers, the Puerto Rico Seismic Network and IRIS. As of early 2014, 99 of the proposed stations are being contributed by national, regional and international seismological institutions. Recent network additions (Nicaragua, Colombia, Mexico, Cayman Islands, and Venezuela) have reduced detection threshold, time and location error throughout much of the Caribbean region and Central America. Specifically, earthquakes (>M4.0) can be detected within 1 minute throughout much of the Caribbean. The remaining exceptions to this standard for detection are portions of northern South America and Mexico. Another performance criterion is 90% data availability. Currently 60-70% of the stations meet this standard. The presentation will further report on the status of the CARIBE EWS seismic capability for the timely and accurate detection and analysis of earthquakes for tsunami warning purposes for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions.

  9. Agreement between the Republic of Colombia and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean. An agreement by exchange of letters of 5 February and 5 April 2001 with the Republic of Colombia in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The text of the Exchange of Letters is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. This Exchange of Letters constitutes an agreement confirming that: - the Safeguards Agreement of 22 December 1982, concluded between the Republic of Colombia and the IAEA, pursuant to the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean (the Tlatelolco Treaty), also satisfies the obligation of Colombia under Article III of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) to conclude a safeguards agreement with the IAEA; the safeguards set forth in the Safeguards Agreement shall also apply, as regards Colombia, in connection with the NPT; the provisions of the Safeguards Agreement shall apply as long as Colombia is party to the NPT or the Tlatelolco Treaty or both

  10. Uma análise crítica do acordo de associação estratégica entre a União Européia e a América Latina e o Caribe: a Cúpula de Viena A critical analysis of the "strategic association" between the European Union and the Latin America and the Caribbean: The Europe - LAC Vienna Summit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Trein

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available No artigo se realiza um exame crítico das relações entre a União Européia, América Latina e Caribe. O objetivo é explicitar a "associação estratégica" entre aqueles parceiros, proposta no Rio de Janeiro em 1999 e reiterada pela Cúpula de Viena em 2006. O texto pretende mostrar ainda por que estas reuniões não conseguiram uma aproximação efetiva.A critical analysis of the relations between the European Union, Latin America and Caribbean. This article aims to explicit the "strategic association" between those partners, proposed in Rio de Janeiro, in 1999, and reiterated by the Vienna Summit in 2006. The text also intends to demonstrate why these meetings failed to foster an effective approximation.

  11. Redes de Producción y Diseminación de Información sobre Educación en América Latina y el Caribe: su Utilidad para Tomadores de Decisión. Networks of Production and Dissemination of Information on Education in Latin America and the Caribbean: Their Usefulness for Decision Makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Téllez

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of a study that explored the formal and informal information networks operating in Latin America and the Caribbean, and estimated their utility for educational policymaking processes. To achieve this goal the following procedures were undertaken: first, a search for information networks in the region was conducted; second, an analysis matrix for information networks intended to reveal their main characteristics (origin, members, information resources provided, types of information offered and topics for which information is provided, among others was made; and third, interviews to key informants about the utility of these networks to design educational policies in the region were conducted. The main conclusions of the study were: a most of the information related to educational policy that circulates through information networks in Latin America and the Caribbean is not useful for policymaking processes; b the networks that offer analytic abstracts of research and policy experiences, and propose policy solutions for policy problems in a non-technical language increase the possibility of information use by policymakers; c informal networks, where consultants, advisors, or colleagues communicate orally to policymakers relevant information about the characteristics of successful policy initiatives in specific contexts, seem to have more impact than formal networks on policy development; and d the utility of information networks for educational policy decisions is related to their ability to communicate, in a clear and straightforward way, the main results of policy researches and experiences. Este artículo presenta los resultados de un estudio que exploró las distintas redes de información formales y no formales que existen en América Latina y el Caribe, estimando su utilidad para el diseño de políticas educativas. Para lograr lo anterior, se llevaron a cabo los siguientes procedimientos: primero, se elabor

  12. La práctica de la medicina tradicional en América Latina y el Caribe: el dilema entre regulación y tolerancia The practice of traditional medicine in Latin America and the Caribbean: the dilemma between regulation and tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Nigenda

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Caracterizar el estado actual de la regulación de la medicina tradicional en nueve países de América Latina y el Caribe. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se construyó una base de datos sobre componentes de los sistemas de salud tradicionales en nueve países de América Latina y el Caribe, mediante la creación de una red de individuos e instituciones de distintos países que estuvieran interesados en participar como informantes especializados con diferentes perfiles. La información para este estudio de tipo cualitativo se levantó, sistematizó y analizó entre marzo y diciembre de 1998. RESULTADOS: Se exponen los resultados obtenidos del tema de regulación de la medicina tradicional dividiendo a los países en tres grupos: a los que cuentan con algún tipo de desarrollo en materia de legislación; b los que están trabajando en el proceso de legislación, y c los que no tienen legislación y el proceso de regulación es incipiente. CONCLUSIONES: Se muestra que el proceso legislativo de la medicina tradicional es variado en la región y se encuentra en diferentes etapas. Esta variedad de estadios nos muestra la complejidad de regular una práctica terapéutica de prestadores con bajos niveles de entrenamiento formal, con prácticas variadas y que sustentan su ejercicio en usos y costumbres que en las mayoría de las ocasiones son difíciles de ubicar dentro de los estándares de los sistemas de salud oficiales. El estudio se considera importante para el diseño e implementación de políticas que permitan adecuar la oferta de servicios de medicina tradicional con las necesidades de las poblaciones que más hacen uso de ella. El texto completo en inglés de este artículo está disponible en: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.htmlOBJECTIVE: This paper characterizes the current stage of traditional medicine in nine countries of Latin America and the Caribbean. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This qualitative study was conducted between March and December

  13. Defining and dividing the greater Caribbean: insights from the biogeography of shorefishes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Ross Robertson

    Full Text Available The Greater Caribbean biogeographic region is the high-diversity heart of the Tropical West Atlantic, one of four global centers of tropical marine biodiversity. The traditional view of the Greater Caribbean is that it is limited to the Caribbean, West Indies, southwest Gulf of Mexico and tip of Florida, and that, due to its faunal homogeneity, lacks major provincial subdivisions. In this scenario the northern 2/3 of the Gulf of Mexico and southeastern USA represent a separate temperate, "Carolinian" biogeographic region. We completed a comprehensive re-assessment of the biogeography of the Greater Caribbean by comparing the distributions of 1,559 shorefish species within 45 sections of shelf waters of the Greater Caribbean and adjacent areas. This analysis shows that that the Greater Caribbean occupies a much larger area than usually thought, extending south to at least Guyana, and north to encompass the entire Carolinian area. Rather than being homogenous, the Greater Caribbean is divided into three major provinces, each with a distinctive, primarily tropical fauna: (1 a central, tropical province comprising the West Indies, Bermuda and Central America; (2 a southern, upwelling-affected province spanning the entire continental shelf of northern South America; and (iii a northern, subtropical province that includes all of the Gulf of Mexico, Florida and southeastern USA. This three-province pattern holds for both reef- and soft bottom fishes, indicating a general response by demersal fishes to major variation in provincial shelf environments. Such environmental differences include latitudinal variation in sea temperature, availability of major habitats (coral reefs, soft bottom shorelines, and mangroves, and nutrient additions from upwelling areas and large rivers. The three-province arrangement of the Greater Caribbean broadly resembles and has a similar environmental basis to the provincial arrangement of its sister biogeographic region, the

  14. Estimating diabetes and diabetes-free life expectancy in Mexico and seven major cities in Latin America and the Caribbean Estimación de la esperanza de vida con y sin diabetes en México y siete ciudades importantes de América Latina y el Caribe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Andrade

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To estimate diabetes and diabetes-free life expectancy in seven major cities in Latin America and the Caribbean, plus Mexico as a whole. METHODS: Data from the Survey on Health, Well-being, and Aging in Latin America and the Caribbean (n = 10 602 and the Mexican Health and Aging Study (n = 6 953 on individuals 60 or more years of age were used in this study. Estimates of diabetes and diabetes-free life expectancy were obtained by applying the Sullivan method. RESULTS: Diabetes life expectancy for men 60 years of age was highest in Mexico City (4.5 years and Bridgetown (3.4 years, and lowest in Havana (1.3 years. Diabetes-free life expectancy for men 60 years of age was highest in Santiago (17.6 years and lowest in Bridgetown (14.2 years and São Paulo (14.3 years. For women, diabetes life expectancy was highest in Bridgetown (5.4 years, followed by Mexico City and Havana; but these three cities also had the lowest diabetes-free life expectancy. Women 60 years of age in Buenos Aires had the lowest diabetes life expectancy (2.5 years, and in Santiago, the highest, with a diabetes-free life expectancy of 20.7 years. CONCLUSIONS: Older individuals in Latin America and the Caribbean can expect to live a large proportion of their remaining lives with diabetes. There were also important differences across settings; in particular, the pronounced diabetes burden in Barbados and Mexico and among women. Given the fast growth of the elderly population in these societies, it is crucial to promote healthy eating and exercise as a way of reducing the burden of diabetes.OBJETIVO: Estimar la esperanza de vida en personas con y sin diabetes en siete ciudades importantes de América Latina y el Caribe y en México. MÉTODOS: Para América Latina y el Caribe se tomaron los datos del estudio Salud, Bienestar y Envejecimiento (SABE (n = 10602 y para México se utilizaron los datos del Estudio Nacional de Salud y Envejecimiento (n = 6953 en personas de 60

  15. Caracterización de aislamientos invasivos de S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae y N. meningitidis en América Latina y el Caribe: SIREVA II, 2000-2005 Characterization of invasive isolates of S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, and N. meningitidis in Latin America and the Caribbean: SIREVA II, 2000-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marc Gabastou

    2008-07-01

    cobertura de las vacunas aplicadas. Se recomienda realizar un análisis específico por país para ajustar la introducción de nuevas vacunas conjugadas y decidir el esquema de vacunación más adecuado.OBJECTIVES: To analyze the phenotypical characteristics and the susceptibility to antibiotics of the circulating strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Neisseria meningitidis circulating in Latin America and the Caribbean from 2000-2005. Potential coverage by conjugate vaccines was evaluated. METHODS: Conventional methods were used to study the distribution of the serotypes or serogroups of 17 303 strains of S. pneumoniae, 2 782 strains of H. influenzae, and 6 955 strains of N. meningitidis isolated from cases of pneumonia, meningitis, sepsis, bacteriemias, and other invasive processes. The antimicrobial susceptibilities of the study strains were evaluated. The isolates came from 453 sentinel surveillance sites in 19 countries in Latin America and four in the Caribbean, as part of the SIREVA II (Network Surveillance System for the Bacterial Agents Responsible for Pneumonia and Meningitis project. RESULTS: S. pneumoniae serotype 14 was the most frequently isolated (21.1%, especially in children under 6 years of age (29.1%. The potential coverages by hepta-, nona-, deca-, and trideca-valent antipneumonia conjugate vaccines were 59.0%, 73.4%, 76.5%, and 85.9%, respectively. Of the isolates, 63.3% were sensitive to penicillin. H. influenzae serotype b was present in 72.2% of the isolations from children under 2 years of age, whereas 8.6% produced serotypes a, c, d, e, and f, and 19.2% could not be serotyped. The rate of H. influenzae beta-lactamase-producing strains isolated from children under 2 years of age was 16.3%. The most frequent N. meningitidis serogroups were B (69.0% and C (25.7%; 65.8% and 99.2% of the strains were susceptible to penicillin and rifampicin, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: These results highlight the importance of comprehensive

  16. Satellite Teleconferencing in the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, Hollis C.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the need for, and the development, use, and future trends of, the University of the West Indies Distance Teaching Experiment, which utilizes telephone and communications satellite technology teleconferencing to extend educational opportunities to the peoples of the Caribbean. (MBR)

  17. Structure and Variability of the Mesoscale Circulation in the Caribbean sea as Deduced From Satellite Altimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-01

    Current is generally affected by the river runoff of the Amazon and Orinoco rivers . The confluence flow divides into two currents, the Antilles Current...Antilles; (2) Caribbean Surface Water, a combination of Amazon River Water and local freshwater runoff from South America, is found at depths of 100-150

  18. First visual record of a living basking shark Cetorhinus maximus in the Caribbean Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geelhoed, S.C.V.; Janinhoff, N.; Verdaat, J.P.

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of basking sharks in the Caribbean Sea is only recently documented by satellite tagging studies, which show that some individuals migrate through the region en route from waters off the east coast of the USA to waters off northeastern South-America. The observation of a basking shark

  19. Report of the experts' meeting on maritime transport in the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-11-01

    A meeting of high-level experts in the area of maritime transport took place on 14 and 15 September 2000 at the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) Subregional Headquarters in Port-of-Spain, Trinidad and Tobago. The purpos...

  20. Soil biological community structure in coffee (Coffea arabica L.) agroecosystems in the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffee production in the Caribbean and Latin America is an important commodity in terms of economic, ecologic and social value. Coffee production in Puerto Rico was intensified in the 1960s, with the shift to higher-yield varieties, increased use of pesticides and fertilizers, increased mechanizati...

  1. Immigrants and Refugees: The Caribbean and South Florida. Occasional Papers Series, Dialogues #2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida International Univ., Miami. Latin American and Caribbean Center.

    Six papers on Caribbean immigrants and refugees in south Florida are presented in this document. Their titles (and authors) are: (1) "Let's Welcome the Refugees" (Bryan O. Walsh); (2) "The Haitians and America's 'Pull'" (Anthony P. Maingot); (3) "Estimates of Haitian International Migration for the 1950-1980 Period"…

  2. Mirando al Futuro del Desarrollo Humano en America Latina y el Caribe. Seminario Regional sobre Universalization de la Educacion (Sucre, Bolivia, 4-10 mayo 1987) (Looking at the Future of Human Development in Latin America and the Caribbean. Regional Seminar on the Universalization of Education [Sucre, Bolivia, May 4-10, 1987]).

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Children's Fund, Santiago (Chile). Oficina Regional para les Americas.

    One of every two children in developing nations does not complete primary school and four out of ten adults do not read or write. Of these ten, six are women. There were 44 million illiterate adults in Latin America in 1985, and of the 66 million school age children, 8.5 million were not in school. Thirty million of these children lived in…

  3. Social and Cultural Barriers to Women's Participation in Pap Smear Screening Programs in Low- and Middle-Income Latin American and Caribbean Countries: An Integrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebermann, Erica J; VanDevanter, Nancy; Hammer, Marilyn J; Fu, Mei R

    2018-01-01

    Pap smear screening programs have been ineffective in reducing cervical cancer mortality in most Latin American and Caribbean countries, in part due to low screening rates. The purpose of this review was to analyze recent studies to identify demographic, social, and cultural factors influencing women's participation in Pap screening programs in Latin America and the Caribbean. For this integrative review, cervical cancer screening in Latin America and the Caribbean was searched using PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, and PsycINFO databases. Findings/Results: Demographic barriers to screening were socioeconomic status, education, race/ethnicity, and geography. Social barriers included lack of uniformity in screening guidelines, lack of knowledge regarding cervical cancer, and lack of preventive culture. Cultural barriers were fear/embarrassment and gender roles. There are multilevel barriers to Pap smear utilization among women in Latin America and the Caribbean. Findings highlight a need for health system engagement, promotion of preventive care, and community-generated educational programs and solutions.

  4. Marine biodiversity in the Caribbean: regional estimates and distribution patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Miloslavich

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an analysis of the distribution patterns of marine biodiversity and summarizes the major activities of the Census of Marine Life program in the Caribbean region. The coastal Caribbean region is a large marine ecosystem (LME characterized by coral reefs, mangroves, and seagrasses, but including other environments, such as sandy beaches and rocky shores. These tropical ecosystems incorporate a high diversity of associated flora and fauna, and the nations that border the Caribbean collectively encompass a major global marine biodiversity hot spot. We analyze the state of knowledge of marine biodiversity based on the geographic distribution of georeferenced species records and regional taxonomic lists. A total of 12,046 marine species are reported in this paper for the Caribbean region. These include representatives from 31 animal phyla, two plant phyla, one group of Chromista, and three groups of Protoctista. Sampling effort has been greatest in shallow, nearshore waters, where there is relatively good coverage of species records; offshore and deep environments have been less studied. Additionally, we found that the currently accepted classification of marine ecoregions of the Caribbean did not apply for the benthic distributions of five relatively well known taxonomic groups. Coastal species richness tends to concentrate along the Antillean arc (Cuba to the southernmost Antilles and the northern coast of South America (Venezuela-Colombia, while no pattern can be observed in the deep sea with the available data. Several factors make it impossible to determine the extent to which these distribution patterns accurately reflect the true situation for marine biodiversity in general: (1 highly localized concentrations of collecting effort and a lack of collecting in many areas and ecosystems, (2 high variability among collecting methods, (3 limited taxonomic expertise for many groups, and (4 differing levels of activity in the study

  5. Cost-effectiveness of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in Latin America and the Caribbean: a regional analysis Rentabilidad médica de la vacunación antineumocócica en América Latina y el Caribe: un análisis regional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anushua Sinha

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In Latin America and the Caribbean, routine vaccination of infants against Streptococcus pneumoniae would need substantial investment by governments and donor organizations. Policymakers need information about the projected health benefits, costs, and cost-effectiveness of vaccination when considering these investments. Our aim was to incorporate vaccine, demographic, epidemiologic, and cost data into an economic analysis of pneumococcal vaccination of infants in Latin America and the Caribbean. METHODS: We previously used a structured literature review to develop regional estimates of the incidence of disease. Cost data were collected from physician interviews and public fee schedules. We then constructed a decision analytic model to compare pneumococcal conjugate vaccination of infants with no vaccination across this region, examining only vaccine's direct effects on children. RESULTS: Pneumococcal vaccination at the rate of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine coverage was projected to prevent 9 500 deaths per year in children aged 0 to 5 years in the region, or approximately one life saved per 1 100 infants vaccinated. These saved lives as well as averted cases of deafness, motor deficit, and seizure result in 321 000 disability-adjusted life years (DALYs being averted annually. At vaccine prices between US$5 and US$53 per dose, the cost per DALY averted from a societal perspective would range from US$154 to US$5 252. CONCLUSION: Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine was highly cost-effective up to $40 per dose. Introduction of pneumococcal vaccine in the Latin American and Caribbean region is projected to reduce childhood mortality and to be highly cost-effective across a range of possible costs.OBJETIVO: En América Latina y el Caribe, la vacunación sistemática de niños contra Streptococcus pneumoniae podría requerir inversiones considerables de los gobiernos y organizaciones donantes. Al evaluar estas inversiones se requiere

  6. Permo-Triassic reconstruction of western Pangea and the evolution of the Gulf of Mexico&solCaribbean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pindell, James; Dewey, John F.

    1982-04-01

    A Permo-Triassic reconstruction of western Pangea (North America, South America, Africa) is proposed that is characterized by (1) definition of the North Atlantic fit by matching of marginal offsets (fracture zones) along the opposing margins, (2) a South Atlantic fit that is tighter than the BuIlard fit and that is achieved by treating Africa as two plates astride the Benue Trough and related structures during the Cretaceous, (3) complete closure of the Proto-Atlantic Ocean between North and South America, accomplished by placing the Yucatan block between the Ouachita Mountains and Venezuela, (4) a proposed Hercynian suture zone that separates zones of foreland thrusting from zones of arc-related magmatic activity; to the northwest of this suture lie the Chortis block and Mexico and most of North America, and to the southeast lie South America, the Yucatan Block, Florida and Africa, and (5) satisfaction of paleomagmatic data from North America, South America, and Africa. Beginning with the proposed reconstruction, the relative motion history of South America with respect of North America is defined by using the finite difference method. Within the framework provided by the proposed relative motion history, an evolutionary model for the development of the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean region is outlined in a series of 13 plate boundary reconstructions at time intervals from the Jurassic to the present. The model includes (1) formation of the Gulf of Mexico by 140 Ma, (2) Pacific provenance of the Caribbean plate through the North America-South America gap during Cretaceous time, (3) Paleocene-Early Eocene back arc spreading origin for the Yucatan Basin, whereby Cuba is the frontal arc and the Nicaragua Rise-Jamaica-Southern Hispaniola is the remnant arc, and (4) 1200 km of post-Eocene cumulative offset along both the Northern and Southern Caribbean Plate Boundary Zones, allowing large-scale eastward migration of the Caribbean plate with respect to the North and

  7. The Effects of Aseismic Ridge Collision on Upper Plate Deformation: Cocos Ridge Collision and Deformation of the Western Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Femina, P. C.; Govers, R. M. A.; Ruiz, G.; Geirsson, H.; Camacho, E.; Mora-Paez, H.

    2015-12-01

    The collision of the Panamanian isthmus with northwestern South America is thought to have initiated as early as Oligocene - Miocene time (23-25 Ma) based on geologic and geophysical data and paleogeographic reconstructions. This collision was driven by eastward-directed subduction beneath northwestern South America. Cocos - Caribbean convergence along the Middle America Trench, and Nazca - Caribbean oblique convergence along the South Panama Deformed Belt have resulted in complex deformation of the southwestern Caribbean since Miocene - Pliocene time. Subduction and collision of the aseismic Cocos Ridge is thought to have initiated migration of the volcanic arc toward the back-arc in Costa Rica; 3) Quaternary to present deformation within the Central Costa Rica Deformed Belt; 4) Quaternary to present shortening across the fore-arc Fila Costeña fold and thrust belt and back-arc North Panama Deformed Belt (NPDB); 5) Quaternary to present outer fore-arc uplift of Nicoya Peninsula above the seamount domain, and the Osa and Burica peninsulas above the ridge; and 6) Pleistocene to present northwestward motion of the Central American Fore Arc (CAFA) and northeastward motion of the Panama Region. We investigate the geodynamic effects of Cocos Ridge collision on motion of the Panama Region with a new geodynamic model. The model is compared to a new 1993-2015 GPS-derived three-dimensional velocity field for the western Caribbean and northwestern South America. Specifically, we test the hypotheses that the Cocos Ridge is the main driver for upper plate deformation in the western Caribbean. Our models indicate that Cocos Ridge collision drives northwest-directed motion of the CAFA and the northeast-directed motion of the Panama Region. The Panama Region is driven into the Caribbean across the NPDB and into northwestern South America, which is also converging with the Panama Region, pushing it toward the west-northwest. Therefore, recent (South America is driven by Cocos

  8. Rigidity and definition of Caribbean plate motion from COCONet and campaign GPS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattioli, G. S.; Miller, J. A.; DeMets, C.; Jansma, P. E.

    2015-12-01

    The kinematic model of the Caribbean plate presented by DeMets et al. (2007) is based on velocities from 6 continuous and 14 campaign GPS sites. COCONet is a multi-hazard GPS-Met observatory, which extends the existing infrastructure of the PBO in North America into the Caribbean basin. In 2010, UNAVCO in collaboration with UCAR, was funded by NSF to design, build, and initially maintain a network of 50 new cGPS/Met sites and include data from another 50 existing sites in the Caribbean region. The COCONet siting plan is for 46 new stations, 21 refurbished stations, and 77 existing stations across 26 nations in the Caribbean region. Data from all COCONet sites flow into the UNAVCO archive and are processed by the PBO analysis centers and are also processed independently by the UTA Geodesy Lab using GIPSY-OASISII (v.6.3) using an APP strategy and final, precise orbits, clocks, and EOP from JPL in the IGS08r frame. We present a refined estimate of Caribbean plate motion by evaluating data from an expanded number of stations with an improved spatial distribution. In order to better constrain the eastern margin of the plate near the Lesser Antilles subduction interface, campaign GPS observations have been collected on the island of Dominica over the last decade. These are combined with additional campaign observations from the western Caribbean, specifically from Honduras and Nicaragua. We have analyzed a total of 117 sites from the Caribbean region, including campaign data and the data from the cGPS stations that comprise COCONet. An updated velocity field for the Caribbean plate is presented and an inversion of the velocities for 24 sites yields a plate angular velocity that differs from previously published models. Our best fitting inversion to GPS velocities from these 24 sites suggests that 2-plate model for the Caribbean is required to fit the GPS observations, which implies that the Caribbean is undergoing modest (1-3 mm/yr) deformation within its interior. Some

  9. Caribbean Crucible: History, Culture, and Globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelvington, Kevin A.

    2000-01-01

    Reconsiders the Caribbean as an origin-point of the modern global system. Discusses the conquests and colonization of the Caribbean; the slavery system and racial distinctions; the post-emancipation society; and culture, Creolization, and the concept of movement as features of Caribbean society. Provides a bibliography. (CMK)

  10. Nanotecnología: gestión y reglamentación de riesgos para la salud y medio ambiente en América Latina y el Caribe Nanotechnology: risk management and regulation for health and environment in Latin America and in the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Foladori

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza la discusión sobre los riesgos de las nanopartículas manufacturadas llevada a cabo en las reuniones regionales de América Latina y el Caribe del SAICM (Strategic Approach to International Chemicals Management/Enfoque Estratégico para la Gestión de Productos Químicos a Nivel Internacional. Contextualiza esta discusión con un panorama del desarrollo de las nanotecnologías en la región y de las evidencias científicas disponibles sobre riesgos de las nanotecnologías. Propone un abordaje para identificar a los actores que deben participar en la discusión y gestión del riesgo basado en el ciclo de vida de las nanopartículas. El artículo propone, además, algunas condiciones necesarias para incentivar un desarrollo responsable de las nanotecnologías desde ámbitos como el SAICM, y trae a la discusión los ocho puntos relevados por más de cien organizaciones ambientalistas y de trabajadores acerca de la supervisión de las nanotecnologías y los nanomateriales.This article addresses the discussion concerning the risks posed by manufactured nanoparticles held during regional meetings in Latin America and the Caribbean by the SAICM (Strategic Approach to International Chemicals Management/Enfoque Estratégico para la Gestión de Productos Químicos a Nivel Internacional. It contextualizes this discussion by overviewing the development of nanotechnology in the region and the scientific evidence available on the risks brought about by nanotechnology. It proposes an approach to identify the players that should be involved in the discussion and in risk management based on the nanoparticles' life cycle. The article also proposes a few of the conditions needed to encourage the responsible development of nanotechnology from sectors such as the SAICM, and brings into the discussion the eight relevant items from over a hundred environmental organizations and workers under the supervision of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials.

  11. Reforma de sistemas de servicios de salud y equidad en América Latina y el Caribe: algunas lecciones de los años 80 y 90 Health systems reform and equity in Latin America and the Caribbean: lessons from the 1980s and 1990s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Almeida

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Este ensayo propone una revisión de la cuestión equidad y reformas en América Latina y el Caribe en el contexto de cambios de las dos últimas décadas, dando énfasis a la discusión de la reforma de los sistemas de servicios de salud. La coyuntura económica, política y social de los críticos años 70 fue ampliamente favorable a los cortes en el gasto público, sobre todo en el ámbito social, y a la reorganización de servicios de salud bajo una perspectiva economicista, pragmática y restrictiva. El balance de la situación económica y social latinoamericana es impactantemente negativo, e incluso los esfuerzos para recuperar los estragos de los años 80 no tuvieron mucho éxito en los 90. Las reformas implementadas en algunos países confirman la difusión de una agenda común, adaptada a las condiciones nacionales, siendo las opciones más radicales de adhesión al nuevo modelo reformista las que presentan peor impacto en términos de equidad. Algunos resultados positivos de estos procesos se diluyen en los nuevos problemas suscitados por las propias reformas. La superación de las desigualdades, sin embargo, todavía es una meta distante.This essay proposes a review of the issues of equity and reform in Latin America and the Caribbean in the context of changes in recent decades, emphasizing the discussion of health systems reform. The economic, political, and social context prevailing in the critical 1970s extensively favored budget cuts for public expenditures, cost containment, changes in the health sector power structure, and health services reorganization from an 'economicist', pragmatic, and restrictive perspective. An inventory of the Latin American economic and social situation is markedly negative, and efforts to recover from the damage done in the 1980s were largely unsuccessful in the 1990s. The reforms implemented in some paradigmatic countries (Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Argentina, and Brazil, in light of their specific

  12. Human immunodeficiency virus, AIDS, and drug consumption in South America and the Caribbean: epidemiological evidence and initiatives to curb the epidemic El virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana, el sida y el consumo de drogas en América del Sur y el Caribe: pruebas epidemiológicas e iniciativas para frenar la epidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana A Hacker

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The paper reviews data on drug use in relation to the spread of human immuno-deficiency virus and AIDS in South America and the Caribbean. METHODS: Information was gathered by thoroughly reviewing major bibliographic databanks, web sites of international institutions and regional networks working with substance misuse or human immunodeficiency virus and AIDS, and abstracts from conferences and meetings. RESULTS: Although some gaps remain, a growing body of evidence documents the significant role of injected cocaine in the Brazilian and Southern Cone epidemics. The Caribbean and the Andean areas have thus far been spared in large part from the spread of injection drug use and its consequences, but the situation has been changing in Southern Cone countries towards a higher prevalence of harmful injection habits. Additional challenges have been posed by the increasing availability of heroin in the Andean Area and the abuse of crack cocaine and its impact on the sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus in many cities. Harm reduction strategies have been established in most areas of Brazil and are gaining momentum in Argentina. Other countries in the Region still face serious limitations due to restrictive legislation and lack of broader support. CONCLUSION: Greater participation of Latin American and Caribbean countries in research protocols and continued debate on both successful and failed experiences should be encouraged in order to minimize existing barriers to the full adoption of effective measures to curb the human immunodeficiency virus and AIDS epidemic in this Region.RESUMEN OBJETIVO: En el trabajo se revisan los datos acerca del consumo de drogas en relación con la propagación del virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana y el sida en Amé-rica del Sur y el Caribe. MÉTODOS: La información se obtuvo mediante una revisión exhaustiva de las principales bases de datos bibliográficas, así como de sitios en la web

  13. The role of the meridional sea surface temperature gradient in controlling the Caribbean low-level jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Tito; Rutgersson, Anna; Caballero, Rodrigo; Pausata, Francesco S. R.; Alfaro, Eric; Amador, Jorge

    2017-06-01

    The Caribbean low-level jet (CLLJ) is an important modulator of regional climate, especially precipitation, in the Caribbean and Central America. Previous work has inferred, due to their semiannual cycle, an association between CLLJ strength and meridional sea surface temperature (SST) gradients in the Caribbean Sea, suggesting that the SST gradients may control the intensity and vertical shear of the CLLJ. In addition, both the horizontal and vertical structure of the jet have been related to topographic effects via interaction with the mountains in Northern South America (NSA), including funneling effects and changes in the meridional geopotential gradient. Here we test these hypotheses, using an atmospheric general circulation model to perform a set of sensitivity experiments to examine the impact of both SST gradients and topography on the CLLJ. In one sensitivity experiment, we remove the meridional SST gradient over the Caribbean Sea and in the other, we flatten the mountains over NSA. Our results show that the SST gradient and topography have little or no impact on the jet intensity, vertical, and horizontal wind shears, contrary to previous works. However, our findings do not discount a possible one-way coupling between the SST and the wind over the Caribbean Sea through friction force. We also examined an alternative approach based on barotropic instability to understand the CLLJ intensity, vertical, and horizontal wind shears. Our results show that the current hypothesis about the CLLJ must be reviewed in order to fully understand the atmospheric dynamics governing the Caribbean region.

  14. Annotated bibliography of coal in the Caribbean region. [Lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orndorff, R.C.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of preparing this annotated bibliography was to compile information on coal localities for the Caribbean region used for preparation of a coal map of the region. Also, it serves as a brief reference list of publications for future coal studies in the Caribbean region. It is in no way an exhaustive study or complete listing of coal literature for the Caribbean. All the material was gathered from published literature with the exception of information from Cuba which was supplied from a study by Gordon Wood of the US Geological Survey, Branch of Coal Resources. Following the classification system of the US Geological Survey (Wood and others, 1983), the term coal resources has been used in this report for reference to general estimates of coal quantities even though authors of the material being annotated may have used the term coal reserves in a similar denotation. The literature ranges from 1857 to 1981. The countries listed include Colombia, Mexico, Venezuela, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, and the countries of Central America.

  15. Law project (no. 1329) adopted by the Senate and authorizing the ratification of the agreement between the French Republic, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency relative to the enforcement of warranties in the framework of the treaty of nuclear weapons prohibition in South America and the Caribbeans area (two protocols together); Projet de loi (no. 1329) adopte par le Senat autorisant la ratification de l'accord entre la Republique francaise, la Communaute europeenne de l'energie atomique et l'Agence internationale de l'energie atomique relatif a l'application de garanties dans le cadre du traite visant l'interdiction des armes nucleraires en Amerique latine et dans les Caraibes (ensemble deux protocoles)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-01-01

    The French Senate adopted on January 6, 2004 the project of law which authorizes the ratification of the agreement between France, the European atomic energy community and the IAEA about the enforcement of warranties in the framework of the treaty of interdiction of nuclear weapons in South America and in the Caribbean area signed in Vienna (Austria) on March 21, 2000. The text of this treaty is attached to this law. (J.S.)

  16. Cohabitation in Latin America: a comparative perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Sussai Soares, Maira Covre

    2014-01-01

    The coexistence of marriage and cohabitation is an intriguing feature of Latin American nuptiality. Historically common among lower social classes in Central America and the Caribbean, the incidence of cohabitation is also increasing among higher educated groups and southern Latin American countries. This study uses census and survey data to investigate the characteristics of Latin American cohabitation.First, the countries’ socioeconomic characteristics, related to the incidence of cohabitat...

  17. Enfermedades crónicas y limitación funcional en adultos mayores: estudio comparativo en siete ciudades de América Latina y el Caribe Chronic diseases and functional limitation in older adults: a comparative study in seven cities of Latin America and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Menéndez

    2005-06-01

    presencia de ECV, artrosis o deterioro cognoscitivo. CONCLUSIONES: Se ofrece por primera vez una descripción sistematizada de la asociación entre la presencia de discapacidad y de enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles en adultos mayores en América Latina y el Caribe. Como las dificultades de los adultos mayores para realizar AIVD son las primeras en aparecer, se deben establecer mecanismos de seguimiento que permitan detectar tempranamente este tipo de discapacidad.OBJECTIVE: To identify the relationship between selected chronic diseases and the presence of disability in inhabitants 60 years old or older in seven cities of Latin America and the Caribbean. METHODS: In 2000 and 2001 a descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of 10 891 persons 60 or older in seven cities: Bridgetown, Barbados; Buenos Aires, Argentina; Havana, Cuba; Mexico City, Mexico; Montevideo, Uruguay; Santiago, Chile; and São Paulo, Brazil. This research was part of the Salud, Bienestar y Envejecimiento (Health, Well-Being, and Aging project (known as the "SABE project". The dependent variables in the study were difficulty in performing basic activities of daily living, and difficulty in performing instrumental activities of daily living. Compiled from self-reports, the independent variables were: age, sex, educational level, living alone or with other person(s, self-assessed health, and the presence or not of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular diseases, and osteoarthritis. The presence of depression and cognitive impairment in the participants was evaluated, and body mass index was also calculated. To compare the degree of influence of the different variables on disability, a standardized coefficient for each association was calculated. RESULTS: In the seven cities studied, the variables that showed a direct association with difficulty in carrying out basic activities of daily living and

  18. Prehistoric settlements in the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter L. Drewett

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available Mesoamerican archaeology has focused mainly on the ancient civilizations of the mainland, but knowledge of early settlement, society and economy in the Caribbean islands is essential for our understanding of the prehistory of the region as a whole. Institute staff and students are currently working in three islands: Puerto Rico, Tortola and Barbados.

  19. Sidney Mintz and Caribbean Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel Baud

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Empirical Futures: Anthropologists and Historians Engage the Work of Sidney W. Mintz. George Baca, A isha Khan & Stephan Palmié (eds.. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2009. v + 232 pp. (Paper US$ 24.95 Three Ancient Colonies: Caribbean Themes and Variations. Sidney W. Mintz. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press, 2010. xiv + 257 pp. (Cloth US$ 27.95 [First paragraph] There can be no doubt about the importance of U.S. anthropologist Sidney Mintz in the development of Caribbean Studies. His work has influenced both the historiography and anthropology of Caribbean slavery and the emergence of Caribbean peasant societies. Now two books have been published that interrogate the significance of his work. The first is an anthology that tries to build on Mintz’s ideas – as I will argue below, in a circumspect and not fully convincing way. In the second Mintz describes and compares the societies of Jamaica, Haiti, and Puerto Rico, and looks back on his work that started in the 1940s.

  20. Canada-Latin America and the Caribbean Research Exchange ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IWRA/IDRC webinar on climate change and adaptive water management. International Water Resources Association, in close collaboration with IDRC, is holding a webinar titled “Climate change and adaptive water management: Innovative solutions from the Global South”... View moreIWRA/IDRC webinar on climate ...

  1. Internet and Society in Latin America and the Caribbean | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les directeurs. Marcelo Bonilla est coordonnateur du programme de recherche sur l'impact social de l'Internet à FLACSO, en Équateur. Gilles Cliche est agent de programmes principal au Centre de recherches pour le développement international (CRDI) à Ottawa, au Canada.

  2. Advancing ecohealth in Latin America and the Caribbean | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2012-04-03

    Apr 3, 2012 ... Mexico: Under the coordination of the National Institute of Public Health, Mexican members of CoPEH-LAC are conducting research on chemical pollution and vector-borne diseases. They introduced ecohealth concepts and methods into public health training at nine federal and state universities.

  3. Electronic Waste Toolkit for Latin America and the Caribbean | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This grant will support a one-year initiative to design and disseminate a practical toolkit to educate computer users about responsible options for e-waste disposal. Although the primary ... The toolkit will be disseminated through a wide range of channels, including media, schools, libraries, service clubs, entrepreneurs, etc.

  4. Lasting impacts in Latin America and the Caribbean | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2014-04-29

    Apr 29, 2014 ... Brain trust puts Peru back on its feet · A safer way to fight malaria in Mexico · Keeping ideas alive in Chile · Maize gene banks help farmers adapt to new challenges · Cash from trash: Using and reducing fish bycatch · Brazil's youth enter the policy arena · Rosario reaps the benefits of city farming · More food ...

  5. Energy and sustainable development in Latin America and the Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suding, Paul H.

    1999-01-01

    The development process is conceived as a process of transformation and transaction based on resources. This process is really infinitely more complex that what is suggested by the chart and involves not only the generation of goods and services in the production and public sectors, but also in communities and residential sectors, where cultural goods, in particular, are created. (The author)

  6. Lasting impacts in Latin America and the Caribbean | CRDI - Centre ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    29 avr. 2014 ... Cash from trash: Using and reducing fish bycatch · Brazil's youth enter the policy arena · Rosario reaps the benefits of city farming · More food, higher incomes in the Andes · Giving women a voice in government · Pioneering system made information affordable · Software for justice · More nutritious bananas ...

  7. Status of mangrove research in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yara Schaeffer-Novelli

    1990-06-01

    Full Text Available For those in the eastern hemisphere, the most striking characteristic of New World mangroves must be their low diversity. However, this apparent simplicity is deceptive, New World mangrove species are extraordinarily plastic in their adaptations to their environment. On a geographic basis mangroves attain their greatest development where rainfall and tidal subsidies are abundant. These conditions occur in the northwest part of South American continent and on the eastern seabord, south of the Gulf of Paría (Venezuela to São Luís, in Brazil. In the 1970's events related to the developing environmental movement in the United States led to a marked interest in these systems, their ecology and management, pointing out the ecological role of mangroves as sources of organic matter to estuarine food webs.The economic recession of the 80's and its impact on funding agencies, both national and international, and changing national priorities have dramaticaly curtailed scientific research. Research in the region is now almost totally supported by local institutions.The alarming rate at which mangroves are being destroyed in the region requires that prompt action be taken to develop a regional program such as the one recommended in the UNESCO Cali 1978 meeting, capable of fostering and supporting ecosystemic research, the development and compilation of management guidelines and the training of scientific personnel, resource managers, and providing for public environmental education. These guidelines and strategies for effective management of a complex resource can only be developed through research.Os manguesais do novo mundo estão bem mais menos ricos em espécies e vegetais que o novo e o velho Mundo> Entretanto, essa simplicidade é apenas aparente, pois as espécies de mangue são extraordináriamente máleaveis quanto as suas adaptaçõees ao meio ambiente. Geograficamente os manguezais atingem seu máximo desenvolvimento estrutural onde os subsídios das precipitações pluviais e das marés são maiores. Essas condições ocorrem na costa NW do Continente Americano e da porção oriental do litoral da Venezuela (Golfo de Paria até São Luís, no Maranhão (Brasil. O interesse pelo estudo e manejo do ecossistema manguezal ocorrido na década de 1970, destacou a função ecológica do sistema como fonte de matéria orgânica para a cadeia alimentar estuarina. A recessão dos anos 80 marcou uma dramática redução dos fundos para pesquisa, tanto nacionais como internacionais. Atualmente os projetos de pesquisa são sustentados, praticamente, por recursos institucionais locais. As elevadas taxas de destruição dos manguezais na região exigem ações decisivas dos órgãos competentes, incluindo apoio à pesquisa, desenvolvimento de planos de manejo e formação de recursos humanos, além da organização de programas de educação ambiental Essas metas somente serão atingidas através de projetos de pesquisa bem estruturados.

  8. Multiculturalism and Racialization in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Reiter

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo, basado en un discurso entregado con motivo del Segundo Congreso Internacional de Estudios del Caribe , celebrado en la Universidad del Norte , Barranquilla, Colombia , en agosto de 2012, argumenta que las naciones del Caribe están en extrema necesidad de analizar y deconstruir los mitos fundacionales sobre los que se construyeron sus discursos de unidad nacional después de lograr la independencia. Este proceso está en marcha en países como Brasil , México y Colombia, pero no se ha llevado a cabo en la mayoría de las naciones del Caribe, tal vez con la excepción de Cuba. Los mi tos de la armonía racial tiend na prevalecer donde dichos procesos no han tenido lugar . Estos mitos , si bien han servido el propósito inicial de socavar el faccionalismo y la secesión potencial , ahora son un obstáculo para el reconocimiento de la diversidad cultural, impidiendo así que sea abordada con políticas públicas significativas . Hasta que el de smantelamiento de tales mi tos fundacionales de la armonía racial no se logre , el multiculturalismo, es decir, el reconocimiento de la igualdad de las diferentes culturas bajo un mismo territorio nacional , sigue siendo un objetivo inalcanzable.

  9. Internet and Society in Latin America and the Caribbean

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This situation of cultural exclusion points to the need for research into the social impact of the Internet within the cycles of cultural and economic production and ...... cultural spaces in which students live, in the places where vital meanings are constructed: those involving peers, context, mass media, cultural industries and ...

  10. Regional Energy Integration in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-12-15

    The regional study has been conducted by the WEC Latin American Member Committees. Having identified that the weak link between existing national energy infrastructures remains a major stumbling block to strengthening regional economic integration, this study aims to propose alternative views -- primarily on the integration of electricity and natural gas markets.

  11. Canada-Latin America and the Caribbean Research Exchange ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Like the three earlier phases (002624, 004097 and 101783), this project will allow the Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada (AUCC) to offer academics (graduate students, professors, researchers) from Canada and Latin ... Special journal issue highlights IDRC-supported findings on women's paid work.

  12. Canada-Latin America and Caribbean Zika Virus Research Program ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    10 mai 2016 ... Stimulation de l'entrepreneuriat dans les Caraïbes. Les pays des Caraïbes présentent une grande diversité sur le plan culturel et économique. Voir davantageStimulation de l'entrepreneuriat dans les Caraïbes ...

  13. Health care technology transfer in Latin America and the Caribbean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coe, G.A.; Banta, H.D.

    1992-01-01

    The greatest problem concerning health care technology for developing countries is that they are dependent upon the industrialized world for technology. The only short-term solution to this problem is to improve the choices that are available to them. This goal will require changes in the structure

  14. Distance Education Leaders in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Patrícia Lupion; Rama, Claudio

    2018-01-01

    Distance higher education has only relatively recently been established in some Latin American countries, as part of wider higher education reforms. The developments of distance education have been the result of sustained efforts of leading thinkers and practitioners in the region. In this article, several leading distance education professionals…

  15. Advancing ecohealth in Latin America and the Caribbean | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    CoPEH-LAC provides learning opportunities for academics, junior researchers, non-governmental organizations, practitioners, and policymakers. A virtual library of course materials is now available online. Network self-evaluations help to assess the needs of the membership and identify new ways to work together.

  16. America and the Caribbean: The case of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Seidl

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Este documento ilustra un enfoque económico a la comprensión de la industria de turismo de cruceros como impulsora del desarrollo económico en Costa Rica. El objetivo es describir el papel y las actividades de la industria de cruceros e identificar fuentes de costo y beneficio económico, a fin de que se puedan tomar decisiones locales de política con más información sobre el turismo de cruceros. Por ejemplo, nuestro análisis indica que la industria de turismo de cruceros compite con la industria de despacho de carga por espacio portuario a un significativo costo para los puertos de Costa Rica: la cantidad de dinero inyectada a la economía local por turista de crucero es sustancialmente más baja que para otros tipos de turismo. Los cruceros de turismo compran relativamente pocos suministros en Costa Rica y generan una gran cantidad de desechos producidos por las personas así como contaminación de agua y aire, lo que puede crear un serio peligro para la salud y costos de limpieza que no son proporcionales con otros tipos de desarrollo turístico de los que dispone el país. Quizás los encargados de tomar decisiones quieran considerar que la inversión en puertos amistosos con el turismo de crucero podría ser menos eficiente desde una perspectiva nacional que la inversión en infraestructura (por ejemplo, aeropuertos para aumentar tipos más rentables de turismo. Asimismo, quizás los líderes quieran pensar en estimular cruceros más pequeños “de bolsillo” más bien que la actual versión de turismo masivo. Este método debería ser aplicable a comunidades donde el turismo de crucero existe actualmente o se está considerando para incluirlo en la cartera de actividades económicas comunitarias.

  17. Improving food security in Latin America and the Caribbean | IDRC .