WorldWideScience

Sample records for amends ecological restoration

  1. Making amends: ecological restoration in the United States.

    OpenAIRE

    Tibbetts, J

    2000-01-01

    Restoring an ecosystem to its preindustrial state can be very difficult or impossible. The great majority of restoration projects put a high priority on the biological requirements of endangered species, often drawing ecologists into volatile political controversies over the rights of humans versus those of wildlife. Meanwhile, resource managers struggle to gain enough information about historical ecosystems to reconstruct them successfully. There are often difficult judgment calls when scien...

  2. Challenges of ecological restoration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halme, Panu; Allen, Katherine A.; Aunins, Ainars;

    2013-01-01

    on Biological Diversity. Several northern countries are now taking up this challenge by restoring forest biodiversity with increasing intensity. The ecology and biodiversity of boreal forests are relatively well understood making them a good model for restoration activities in many other forest ecosystems. Here...... of the target ecosystem should be established with the need for restoration carefully assessed and the outcome properly monitored. Finally, we identify the most important challenges that need to be solved in order to carry out efficient restoration with powerful and long-term positive impacts on biodiversity...

  3. Challenges of ecological restoration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halme, Panu; Allen, Katherine A.; Aunins, Ainars;

    2013-01-01

    The alarming rate of ecosystem degradation has raised the need for ecological restoration throughout different biomes and continents. North European forests may appear as one of the least vulnerable ecosystems from a global perspective, since forest cover is not rapidly decreasing and many ecosys...

  4. Linking restoration ecology with coastal dune restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lithgow, D.; Martínez, M. L.; Gallego-Fernández, J. B.; Hesp, P. A.; Flores, P.; Gachuz, S.; Rodríguez-Revelo, N.; Jiménez-Orocio, O.; Mendoza-González, G.; Álvarez-Molina, L. L.

    2013-10-01

    Restoration and preservation of coastal dunes is urgently needed because of the increasingly rapid loss and degradation of these ecosystems because of many human activities. These activities alter natural processes and coastal dynamics, eliminate topographic variability, fragment, degrade or eliminate habitats, reduce diversity and threaten endemic species. The actions of coastal dune restoration that are already taking place span contrasting activities that range from revegetating and stabilizing the mobile substrate, to removing plant cover and increasing substrate mobility. Our goal was to review how the relative progress of the actions of coastal dune restoration has been assessed, according to the ecosystem attributes outlined by the Society of Ecological Restoration: namely, integrity, health and sustainability and that are derived from the ecological theory of succession. We reviewed the peer reviewed literature published since 1988 that is listed in the ISI Web of Science journals as well as additional references, such as key books. We exclusively focused on large coastal dune systems (such as transgressive and parabolic dunefields) located on natural or seminatural coasts. We found 150 articles that included "coastal dune", "restoration" and "revegetation" in areas such as title, keywords and abstract. From these, 67 dealt specifically with coastal dune restoration. Most of the studies were performed in the USA, The Netherlands and South Africa, during the last two decades. Restoration success has been assessed directly and indirectly by measuring one or a few ecosystem variables. Some ecosystem attributes have been monitored more frequently (ecosystem integrity) than others (ecosystem health and sustainability). Finally, it is important to consider that ecological succession is a desirable approach in restoration actions. Natural dynamics and disturbances should be considered as part of the restored system, to improve ecosystem integrity, health and

  5. Restoration of rare earth mine areas: organic amendments and phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lingyan; Li, Zhaolong; Liu, Wen; Liu, Shenghong; Zhang, Limin; Zhong, Liyan; Luo, Ximei; Liang, Hong

    2015-11-01

    Overexploitation of rare earth mine has caused serious desertification and various environmental issues, and ecological restoration of a mining area is an important concern in China. In this study, experiments involving dry grass landfilling, chicken manure broadcasting, and plant cultivation were carried out to reclaim a rare earth mine area located in Heping County, Guangdong Province, China. The prime focus was to improve soil quality in terms of nutrients, microbial community, enzyme activity, and physicochemical properties so as to reclaim the land. After 2 years of restoration, an increase of organic matter (OM), available potassium (K), available phosphorus (P) levels, and acid phosphatase (ACP) activity and a reduction of the available nitrogen (N) level and urease (URE) activity in soil were achieved compared to the original mined land. The nutrients and enzyme activities in soil with 5 years of restoration were close to or surpass those in the unexploited land as control. The bulk density, total porosity, water holding capacity, pH, and electrical conductivity (EC) of soil were improved, and the number of cultivable microorganisms and the bacterial diversity in soil were greatly increased with time during ecological restoration, especially for surface soil. Furthermore, the artificial vegetation stably grew at the restored mining sites. The results indicated that organic amendments and phytoremediation could ecologically restore the rare earth mining sites and the mined land could finally be planted as farmland.

  6. Restoration of rare earth mine areas: organic amendments and phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lingyan; Li, Zhaolong; Liu, Wen; Liu, Shenghong; Zhang, Limin; Zhong, Liyan; Luo, Ximei; Liang, Hong

    2015-11-01

    Overexploitation of rare earth mine has caused serious desertification and various environmental issues, and ecological restoration of a mining area is an important concern in China. In this study, experiments involving dry grass landfilling, chicken manure broadcasting, and plant cultivation were carried out to reclaim a rare earth mine area located in Heping County, Guangdong Province, China. The prime focus was to improve soil quality in terms of nutrients, microbial community, enzyme activity, and physicochemical properties so as to reclaim the land. After 2 years of restoration, an increase of organic matter (OM), available potassium (K), available phosphorus (P) levels, and acid phosphatase (ACP) activity and a reduction of the available nitrogen (N) level and urease (URE) activity in soil were achieved compared to the original mined land. The nutrients and enzyme activities in soil with 5 years of restoration were close to or surpass those in the unexploited land as control. The bulk density, total porosity, water holding capacity, pH, and electrical conductivity (EC) of soil were improved, and the number of cultivable microorganisms and the bacterial diversity in soil were greatly increased with time during ecological restoration, especially for surface soil. Furthermore, the artificial vegetation stably grew at the restored mining sites. The results indicated that organic amendments and phytoremediation could ecologically restore the rare earth mining sites and the mined land could finally be planted as farmland. PMID:26139395

  7. Reinventing the Wheel: Teaching Restoration Ecology without the Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speldewinde, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Restoration ecology is "the process of assisting the recovery of an ecosystem that has been degraded, damaged or destroyed." Restoration can range from returning the system to its "natural" state through to restoring some ecological functionality to a system. The University of Western Australia offers an undergraduate degree in Restoration…

  8. ECOLOGICAL RESTORATION:OUR HOPE FOR THE FUTURE?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xu-gao; LI Xiu-zhen; HE Hong S; HU Yuan-man

    2004-01-01

    Ecological restoration is widely employed from tens to millions of hectares in space, and from tens of days to thousands of years in time, which forces consideration of it thoroughly. We argue that three questions are the most important among the contents relevant of ecological restoration, including why, what and how to restore degraded systems. Why to restore determines whether or not the degraded ecological systems should be restored. What to restore is the goal of ecological restoration. The explicit goal of ecological restoration is necessary to guide ecological restoration workers in pursuit of excellence and prevent restoration from being swamped by purely technological activities. And how to restore means the methods and steps we should apply. To ensure the final success of ecological restoration, restored sites should be monitored and managed for long time to determine whether the selected methods are appropriate, and can be remedy better. Only to deal with these effectively, ecological restoration would be the hope for the future.

  9. Integrating ecological restoration into CDM forestry projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Concerns and issues in sustainability of CDM forestry projects are reviewed. • Ecological restoration is suggested to be integrated in the CDM framework. • As an ecosystem supporting service, soil restoration on degraded land is of primary importance. • Regenerating forests naturally rather than through monoculture plantations is suggested. • Potential social impacts of ecological restoration are discussed. - Abstract: The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is proposed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and promote sustainable development. CDM forestry projects should contribute to mitigation of climate change through afforestation and reforestation (A/R) activities on degraded land in developing countries. However, like other types of CDM projects, the forestry projects have encountered a number of concerns and critiques. Appropriate approaches and concrete aims to achieve long-term sustainability have been lacking, and reforms have therefore been called for. The aims of this paper are to examine the published information relevant to these concerns, and frame appropriate approaches for a more sustainable CDM. In this review, as a first step to tackle some of these issues, ecological restoration is suggested for integration into the CDM framework. Essentially, this involves the restoration of ecosystem supporting service (soil restoration), upon which forests regenerate naturally rather than establishing monoculture plantations. In this way, forestry projects would bring cost-effective opportunities for multiple ecosystem services. Potential approaches, necessary additions to the monitoring plans, and social impacts of ecological restoration in CDM projects are discussed

  10. Evaluating the process of ecological restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christer Nilsson

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We developed a conceptual framework for evaluating the process of ecological restoration and applied it to 10 examples of restoration projects in the northern hemisphere. We identified three major phases, planning, implementation, and monitoring, in the restoration process. We found that evaluation occurred both within and between the three phases, that it included both formal and informal components, and that it often had an impact on the performance of the projects. Most evaluations were short-term and only some parts of them were properly documented. Poor or short-term evaluation of the restoration process creates a risk that inefficient methods will continue to be used, which reduces the efficiency and effectiveness of restoration. To improve the restoration process and to transfer the knowledge to future projects, we argue for more formal, sustained evaluation procedures, involving all relevant stakeholders, and increased and improved documentation and dissemination of the results.

  11. Ecological restoration of litter in mined areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teresinha Gonçalves Bizuti, Denise; Nino Diniz, Najara; Schweizer, Daniella; de Marchi Soares, Thaís; Casagrande, José Carlos; Henrique Santin Brancalion, Pedro

    2016-04-01

    The success of ecological restoration projects depends on going monitoring of key ecological variables to determine if a desired trajectory has been established and, in the case of mining sites, nutrient cycling recovery plays an utmost importance. This study aimed to quantify and compare the annual litter production in native forests, and in restoration sites established in bauxite mines. We collected samples in 6 native forest remnants and 6 year-old restoration sites every month for a period of one year, in the city of Poços de Caldas/MG, SE Brazil. 120 wire collectors were used (0,6x0,6) and suspended 30cm above the soil surface. The material was dried until constant weight, weighed and fractionated in leaves, branches and reproductive material. The average annual litter production was 2,6 Mg ha-1 in native forests and 2,1 in forest in restoration sites, differing statistically. Litter production was higher in the rainy season, especially in September. Among the litter components, the largest contributor to total production was the fraction leaves, with 55,4% of the total dry weight of material collected, followed by reproductive material which contributed 24,5% and branches, with 20%. We conclude that the young areas in restoration process already restored important part, but still below the production observed in native areas.

  12. [Progress and prospects on evaluation of ecological restoration: a review of the 5th World Conference on Ecological Restoration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jing-Yi; Zhao, Wen-Wu

    2014-09-01

    The 5th World Conference on Ecological Restoration was held in Madison, Wisconsin, USA on October 6-11, 2013. About 1200 delegates from more than 50 countries attended the conference, and discussed the latest developments in different thematic areas of ecological restoration. Discussions on evaluation of ecological restoration were mainly from three aspects: The construction for evaluation indicator system of ecological restoration; the evaluation methods of ecological restoration; monitoring and dynamic evaluation of ecological restoration. The meeting stressed the importance of evaluation in the process of ecological restoration and concerned the challenges in evaluation of ecological restoration. The conference had the following enlightenments for China' s research on evaluation of ecological restoration: 1) Strengthening the construction of comprehensive evaluation indicators system and focusing on the multi-participation in the evaluation process. 2) Paying more attentions on scale effect and scale transformation in the evaluation process of ecological restoration. 3) Expanding the application of 3S technology in assessing the success of ecological restoration and promoting the dynamic monitoring of ecological restoration. 4) Carrying out international exchanges and cooperation actively, and promoting China's international influence in ecological restoration research.

  13. The potential of territory in ecological restoration. The use of GIS tools for ecological restoration prioritization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper develops a proposal for interdisciplinary dialogue through the use of GIS (Geographic Information System) tools for the construction of a methodology to identify the ecological restoration potential ERP in urban edge areas that are part of the Main Ecological Structure of Bogota, according to land management plans. These areas subscribe their own socio-environmental problems particular to their own sign of the interaction between nature and culture. Methodological steps for identification of PER are described: biotic, physical and social characterization, identification and spatialization of variables and weighted overlay for the calculation of the final potential. Then, carry out the discussion on the scope and limitations of using GIS tools and methodological possibility for interaction between disciplines such as biology, physical geography and sociology during the process of ecological restoration.

  14. Ecological restoration alters microbial communities in mine tailings profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Li; Zhongjun Jia; Qingye Sun; Jing Zhan; Yang Yang; Dan Wang

    2016-01-01

    Ecological restoration of mine tailings have impact on soil physiochemical properties and microbial communities. The surface soil has been a primary concern in the past decades, however it remains poorly understood about the adaptive response of microbial communities along the profile during ecological restoration of the tailings. In this study, microbial communities along a 60-cm profile were investigated in a mine tailing pond during ecological restoration of the bare waste tailings (BW) wi...

  15. Big Canyon Creek Ecological Restoration Strategy.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, Lynn; Richardson, Shannon

    2007-10-01

    He-yey, Nez Perce for steelhead or rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), are a culturally and ecologically significant resource within the Big Canyon Creek watershed; they are also part of the federally listed Snake River Basin Steelhead DPS. The majority of the Big Canyon Creek drainage is considered critical habitat for that DPS as well as for the federally listed Snake River fall chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) ESU. The Nez Perce Soil and Water Conservation District (District) and the Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resources Management-Watershed (Tribe), in an effort to support the continued existence of these and other aquatic species, have developed this document to direct funding toward priority restoration projects in priority areas for the Big Canyon Creek watershed. In order to achieve this, the District and the Tribe: (1) Developed a working group and technical team composed of managers from a variety of stakeholders within the basin; (2) Established geographically distinct sub-watershed areas called Assessment Units (AUs); (3) Created a prioritization framework for the AUs and prioritized them; and (4) Developed treatment strategies to utilize within the prioritized AUs. Assessment Units were delineated by significant shifts in sampled juvenile O. mykiss (steelhead/rainbow trout) densities, which were found to fall at fish passage barriers. The prioritization framework considered four aspects critical to determining the relative importance of performing restoration in a certain area: density of critical fish species, physical condition of the AU, water quantity, and water quality. It was established, through vigorous data analysis within these four areas, that the geographic priority areas for restoration within the Big Canyon Creek watershed are Big Canyon Creek from stream km 45.5 to the headwaters, Little Canyon from km 15 to 30, the mainstem corridors of Big Canyon (mouth to 7km) and Little Canyon (mouth to 7km). The District and the Tribe

  16. Study on the Ecological Restoration Project of Dalian Lake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Choosing Dalian Lake as study area to implement ecological restoration project,the existing environmental problems in Dalian Lake were analyzed firstly,and then the project area in Dalian Lake was divided into wetland restoration and reconstruction area,forest wetland cultivation area and shallow wetland restoration and diversity conservation area,finally corresponding restoration measures were put forward according to various function areas,so as to improve the economic output of wetland and operability an...

  17. On the Ecological Restoration Mode of Urban Water Revetment Landscape

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yicheng; WANG; Hui; LIN

    2014-01-01

    Urban waterfront revetment is a special zone between water and land,with high ecological,economic and aesthetic value. Waterfront revetment landscape is not only an important part of urban water and land ecosystems,but also an integral part of the city. Based on the current situation of ecological environment of waterfront revetment landscape,we come up with different ecological restoration modes for different types of revetment,to achieve the organic integration of waterfront revetment landscape and ecology.

  18. Ecological and Social Aspects of Ecological Restoration: New Challenges and Opportunities for Northern Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christer Nilsson

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Interest in ecological restoration has recently intensified as scientists, policymakers, and stakeholders use restoration in management strategies to address and mitigate global climate change and biodiversity loss. Northern ecosystems offer special challenges to restoration managers because of their short growing seasons and long recovery periods. This special feature of Ecology and Society on ecological restoration in northern regions draws together 11 papers based on presentations from the conference "Restoring the North", convened in October 2011 in Selfoss, Iceland. We summarize two themes of this conference: (1 setting objectives and evaluating success in restoration, and (2 legislation, policy, and implementation of restoration. We conclude that northern countries altogether comprise a significant knowledge base and suggest five actions to enhance restoration practices within them: (1 improved documentation of restoration actions, including objectives, measures and results, (2 regular evaluation of restoration progress and outcome, (3 coordination of conservation actions among northern countries, including location of restoration actions to sites where they are most useful in a global context, (4 formation of a common platform to strengthen development of research about ecological, political, social, and technical aspects of ecological restoration, and (5 education of new generations of restoration actors who can work in diverse biogeographic settings and cultures.

  19. Ecological restoration across the Mediterranean Basin as viewed by practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Alice; Oliveira, Graça; Mexia, Teresa; Valdecantos, Alejandro; Zucca, Claudio; Costantini, Edoardo A C; Abraham, Eleni M; Kyriazopoulos, Apostolos P; Salah, Ayman; Prasse, Ruediger; Correia, Otília; Milliken, Sarah; Kotzen, Benz; Branquinho, Cristina

    2016-10-01

    Restoration efforts in the Mediterranean Basin have been changing from a silvicultural to an ecological restoration approach. Yet, to what extent the projects are guided by ecological restoration principles remains largely unknown. To analyse this issue, we built an on-line survey addressed to restoration practitioners. We analysed 36 restoration projects, mostly from drylands (86%). The projects used mainly soil from local sources. The need to comply with legislation was more important as a restoration motive for European Union (EU) than for non-EU countries, while public opinion and health had a greater importance in the latter. Non-EU countries relied more on non-native plant species than EU countries, thus deviating from ecological restoration guidelines. Nursery-grown plants used were mostly of local or regional provenance, whilst seeds were mostly of national provenance. Unexpected restoration results (e.g. inadequate biodiversity) were reported for 50% of the projects and restoration success was never evaluated in 22%. Long term evaluation (>6years) was only performed in 31% of cases, and based primarily on plant diversity and cover. The use of non-native species and species of exogenous provenances may: i) entail the loss of local genetic and functional trait diversity, critical to cope with drought, particularly under the predicted climate change scenarios, and ii) lead to unexpected competition with native species and/or negatively impact local biotic interactions. Absent or inappropriate monitoring may prevent the understanding of restoration trajectories, precluding adaptive management strategies, often crucial to create functional ecosystems able to provide ecosystem services. The overview of ecological restoration projects in the Mediterranean Basin revealed high variability among practices and highlighted the need for improved scientific assistance and information exchange, greater use of native species of local provenance, and more long

  20. A review of ecological restoration techniques in fluvial rivers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baozhu Pan; Mengzhen Xu; Jianping Yuan; Xinhua Zhang; Zhaoyin Wang; Jiao Chen; Jinyou Lu; Wenjun Yang; Zhiwei Li; Na Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Rivers play an important role in people's living and agricultural production, however, intense human activities have broken the original ecological balance, and affected structures and functions of the river ecosystem. To restore the damaged river ecosystem back to a healthy status, effective ecological restoration measures need to be implemented. The main problems that the damaged rivers face are either the locally altered hydrological processes affected by construction of hydraulic facilities, or the deterioration of water quality resulted from pollution emissions, or both. In this study, ecological restoration techniques of the rivers affected by engineering control or pollution are reviewed respec-tively. In addition, three kinds of methods, i.e. physical, chemical and biological–ecological methods are introduced in details for the rivers affected by water pollution. At present, the development of river restoration techniques shows the following trends: 1) the scale of ecological restoration is becoming larger; 2) ecological restoration measures are required to meet multiple objectives; and 3) the man-agement of water environment is changing from water quality management to aquatic ecosystem management.

  1. Choosing appropriate temporal and spatial scales for ecological restoration

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J Baird Callicott

    2002-07-01

    Classic ecological restoration seems tacitly to have taken the Clementsian ``balance of nature” paradigm for granted: plant succession terminates in a climax community which remains at equilibrium until exogenously disturbed after which the process of succession is restarted until the climax is reached. Human disturbance is regarded as unnatural and to have commenced in the Western Hemisphere at the time of European incursion. Classic ecological restoration thus has a clear and unambiguous target and may be conceived as aiming to foreshorten the natural processes that would eventually lead to the climax of a given site, which may be determined by its state at ``settlement”. According to the new ``flux of nature” paradigm in ecology a given site has no telos and is constantly changing. Human disturbance is ubiquitous and long-standing, and at certain spatial and temporal scales is ``incorporated”. Any moment in the past 10,000 years that may be selected as a benchmark for restoration efforts thus appears to be arbitrary. Two prominent conservationists have therefore suggested that the ecological conditions in North America at the Pleistocene–Holocene boundary, prior to the anthropogenic extinction of the Pleistocene megafauna, be the target for ecological restoration. That suggestion explicitly assumes evolutionary temporal scales and continental spatial scales as the appropriate frame of reference for ecological restoration. However, ecological restoration should be framed in ecological spatio-temporal scales, which may be defined temporally in reference to ecological processes such as disturbance regimes and spatially in reference to ecological units such as landscapes, ecosystems, and biological provinces. Ecological spatio-temporal scales are also useful in achieving a scientifically defensible distinction between native and exotic species, which plays so central a role in the practice of ecological restoration and the conservation of biodiversity

  2. Research and application of ecological river courses restoration technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Z. C.; Yang, Y. Z.; Gao, X. L.; Xiao, H.; Liu, H. C.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, a practical method of ordered binary comparison determined by weight vector is proposed, as based on correlative concepts of the dualistic relative comparative method in fuzzy mathematics. By taking advantage of the proposed method, subordinated degree of evaluation indicators can be defined, such as weightiness and the degree of importance of ecological restoration of river courses, and a mathematical model can be established. The proposed mathematical model is clear in its physical conception and offers convenient calculations, and provides a theoretical foundation for the ecological restoration of river courses. This paper employs "standard values" of the evaluation index system (EIS) of ecological river networks as derived by previous literature [1] as the theoretical basis for the ecological restoration river courses.

  3. Ecological Restoration in an Era of Ecological Disequilibrium

    OpenAIRE

    Cairns, John

    2006-01-01

    The current rate of ecological destruction greatly exceeds the rate of ecological repair, a situation that obviously cannot continue indefinitely. In addition, the rate of biotic impoverishment makes finding suitable species for recolonization extremely difficult. Furthermore, for the first time in human history, humankind is confronted with two global, ecological problems: (1) climate change, including global warming, which makes return to antecedent conditions extremely difficult, and (2) a...

  4. Estimating the Size and Impact of the Ecological Restoration Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BenDor, Todd; Lester, T William; Livengood, Avery; Davis, Adam; Yonavjak, Logan

    2015-01-01

    Domestic public debate continues over the economic impacts of environmental regulations that require environmental restoration. This debate has occurred in the absence of broad-scale empirical research on economic output and employment resulting from environmental restoration, restoration-related conservation, and mitigation actions - the activities that are part of what we term the "restoration economy." In this article, we provide a high-level accounting of the size and scope of the restoration economy in terms of employment, value added, and overall economic output on a national scale. We conducted a national survey of businesses that participate in restoration work in order to estimate the total sales and number of jobs directly associated with the restoration economy, and to provide a profile of this nascent sector in terms of type of restoration work, industrial classification, workforce needs, and growth potential. We use survey results as inputs into a national input-output model (IMPLAN 3.1) in order to estimate the indirect and induced economic impacts of restoration activities. Based on this analysis we conclude that the domestic ecological restoration sector directly employs ~ 126,000 workers and generates ~ $9.5 billion in economic output (sales) annually. This activity supports an additional 95,000 jobs and $15 billion in economic output through indirect (business-to-business) linkages and increased household spending.

  5. Estimating the Size and Impact of the Ecological Restoration Economy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd BenDor

    Full Text Available Domestic public debate continues over the economic impacts of environmental regulations that require environmental restoration. This debate has occurred in the absence of broad-scale empirical research on economic output and employment resulting from environmental restoration, restoration-related conservation, and mitigation actions - the activities that are part of what we term the "restoration economy." In this article, we provide a high-level accounting of the size and scope of the restoration economy in terms of employment, value added, and overall economic output on a national scale. We conducted a national survey of businesses that participate in restoration work in order to estimate the total sales and number of jobs directly associated with the restoration economy, and to provide a profile of this nascent sector in terms of type of restoration work, industrial classification, workforce needs, and growth potential. We use survey results as inputs into a national input-output model (IMPLAN 3.1 in order to estimate the indirect and induced economic impacts of restoration activities. Based on this analysis we conclude that the domestic ecological restoration sector directly employs ~ 126,000 workers and generates ~ $9.5 billion in economic output (sales annually. This activity supports an additional 95,000 jobs and $15 billion in economic output through indirect (business-to-business linkages and increased household spending.

  6. Review of ecological restoration technology for mine tailings in China

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Fang; Yao, Qiang; Tian, Jingyi

    2016-01-01

    The disposal of mine tailings is identified as one source of an environmental impact finally resulting in a typically degraded ecosystem. It can easily cause air and water pollution and is a source of man-made mudslides with high-potential socioeconomic-energy impacts. Pollution control and ecological restoration technologies of mine tailings have become the burning question in China. In this paper restoration technologies for mine tailings in China are reviewed, by...

  7. Ecological restoration of southwestern ponderosa pine ecosystems: A broad perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, C. D.; Savage, M.; Falk, D. A.; Suckling, K. F.; Swetnam, T.W.; Schulke, T.; Stacey, P. B.; Morgan, P.; Hoffman, M; Klingel, J. T.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to promote a broad and flexible perspective on ecological restoration of Southwestern (U.S.) ponderosa pine forests. Ponderosa pine forests in the region have been radically altered by Euro-American land uses, including livestock grazing, fire suppression, and logging. Dense thickets of young trees now abound, old-growth and biodiversity have declined, and human and ecological communities are increasingly vulnerable to destructive crown fires. A consensus has emer...

  8. Research Status and Development Trend of Coastal Wetland Ecological Restoration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jian-lei; WANG Shu-bo

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, with the influenced by both man-made and natural factors. coastal wetlands sharp decline in the area, lack of resources, biological diversity declined, and the ecosystem function damaged. Through on current issues such as pollution and destruction of coastal wetlands analysis of coastal wetlands in research conducted a review and prospect of ecological restoration. So the protection and restoration of coastal wetlands should be brook no delay. The article based on the current pollution and destruction of the coastal wetlands analyses, and reviewed the current effective measures to restore coastal wetlands mainly in china and abroad.

  9. Ecological restoration alters microbial communities in mine tailings profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Jia, Zhongjun; Sun, Qingye; Zhan, Jing; Yang, Yang; Wang, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Ecological restoration of mine tailings have impact on soil physiochemical properties and microbial communities. The surface soil has been a primary concern in the past decades, however it remains poorly understood about the adaptive response of microbial communities along the profile during ecological restoration of the tailings. In this study, microbial communities along a 60-cm profile were investigated in a mine tailing pond during ecological restoration of the bare waste tailings (BW) with two vegetated soils of Imperata cylindrica (IC) and Chrysopogon zizanioides (CZ) plants. Revegetation of both IC and CZ could retard soil degradation of mine tailing by stimulation of soil pH at 0-30 cm soils and altered the bacterial communities at 0-20 cm depths of the mine tailings. Significant differences existed in the relative abundance of the phyla Alphaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Firmicutes and Nitrospira. Slight difference of bacterial communities were found at 30-60 cm depths of mine tailings. Abundance and activity analysis of nifH genes also explained the elevated soil nitrogen contents at the surface 0-20 cm of the vegetated soils. These results suggest that microbial succession occurred primarily at surface tailings and vegetation of pioneering plants might have promoted ecological restoration of mine tailings. PMID:27126064

  10. Upgrading Marine Ecosystem Restoration Using Ecological-Social Concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abelson, Avigdor; Halpern, Benjamin S.; Reed, Daniel C.; Orth, Robert J.; Kendrick, Gary A.; Beck, Michael W.; Belmaker, Jonathan; Krause, Gesche; Edgar, Graham J.; Airoldi, Laura; Brokovich, Eran; France, Robert; Shashar, Nadav; Blaeij, De Arianne; Stambler, Noga; Salameh, Pierre; Shechter, Mordechai; Nelson, Peter A.

    2016-01-01

    Conservation and environmental management are principal countermeasures to the degradation of marine ecosystems and their services. However, in many cases, current practices are insufficient to reverse ecosystem declines. We suggest that restoration ecology, the science underlying the concepts an

  11. Ecological restoration alters microbial communities in mine tailings profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Jia, Zhongjun; Sun, Qingye; Zhan, Jing; Yang, Yang; Wang, Dan

    2016-04-01

    Ecological restoration of mine tailings have impact on soil physiochemical properties and microbial communities. The surface soil has been a primary concern in the past decades, however it remains poorly understood about the adaptive response of microbial communities along the profile during ecological restoration of the tailings. In this study, microbial communities along a 60-cm profile were investigated in a mine tailing pond during ecological restoration of the bare waste tailings (BW) with two vegetated soils of Imperata cylindrica (IC) and Chrysopogon zizanioides (CZ) plants. Revegetation of both IC and CZ could retard soil degradation of mine tailing by stimulation of soil pH at 0–30 cm soils and altered the bacterial communities at 0–20 cm depths of the mine tailings. Significant differences existed in the relative abundance of the phyla Alphaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Firmicutes and Nitrospira. Slight difference of bacterial communities were found at 30–60 cm depths of mine tailings. Abundance and activity analysis of nifH genes also explained the elevated soil nitrogen contents at the surface 0–20 cm of the vegetated soils. These results suggest that microbial succession occurred primarily at surface tailings and vegetation of pioneering plants might have promoted ecological restoration of mine tailings.

  12. Hydrodynamic and Ecological Assessment of Nearshore Restoration: A Modeling Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Along the Pacific Northwest coast, much of the estuarine habitat has been diked over the last century for agricultural land use, residential and commercial development, and transportation corridors. As a result, many of the ecological processes and functions have been disrupted. To protect coastal habitats that are vital to aquatic species, many restoration projects are currently underway to restore the estuarine and coastal ecosystems through dike breaches, setbacks, and removals. Information on physical processes and hydrodynamic conditions are critical for the assessment of the success of restoration actions. Restoration of a 160- acre property at the mouth of the Stillaguamish River in Puget Sound has been proposed. The goal is to restore native tidal habitats and estuary-scale ecological processes by removing the dike. In this study, a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model was developed for the Stillaguamish River estuary to simulate estuarine processes. The model was calibrated to observed tide, current, and salinity data for existing conditions and applied to simulate the hydrodynamic responses to two restoration alternatives. Responses were evaluated at the scale of the restoration footprint. Model data was combined with biophysical data to predict habitat responses at the site. Results showed that the proposed dike removal would result in desired tidal flushing and conditions that would support four habitat types on the restoration footprint. At the estuary scale, restoration would substantially increase the proportion of area flushed with freshwater (< 5 ppt) at flood tide. Potential implications of predicted changes in salinity and flow dynamics are discussed relative to the distribution of tidal marsh habitat.

  13. Ecological risks of DOE`s programmatic environmental restoration alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    This report assesses the ecological risks of the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Environmental Restoration Program. The assessment is programmatic in that it is directed at evaluation of the broad programmatic alternatives outlined in the DOE Implementation Plan. It attempts to (1) characterize the ecological resources present on DOE facilities, (2) describe the occurrence and importance of ecologically significant contamination at major DOE facilities, (3) evaluate the adverse ecological impacts of habitat disturbance caused by remedial activities, and (4) determine whether one or another of the programmatic alternatives is clearly ecologically superior to the others. The assessment focuses on six representative facilities: the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL); the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP); the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), including the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Y-12 plant, and K-25 plant; the Rocky Flats Plant; the Hanford Reservation; and the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant.

  14. Ecological risks of DOE's programmatic environmental restoration alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report assesses the ecological risks of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Environmental Restoration Program. The assessment is programmatic in that it is directed at evaluation of the broad programmatic alternatives outlined in the DOE Implementation Plan. It attempts to (1) characterize the ecological resources present on DOE facilities, (2) describe the occurrence and importance of ecologically significant contamination at major DOE facilities, (3) evaluate the adverse ecological impacts of habitat disturbance caused by remedial activities, and (4) determine whether one or another of the programmatic alternatives is clearly ecologically superior to the others. The assessment focuses on six representative facilities: the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL); the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP); the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), including the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Y-12 plant, and K-25 plant; the Rocky Flats Plant; the Hanford Reservation; and the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

  15. Restoring Ecological Function to a Submerged Salt Marsh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagg, C.L.; Mendelssohn, I.A.

    2010-01-01

    Impacts of global climate change, such as sea level rise and severe drought, have altered the hydrology of coastal salt marshes resulting in submergence and subsequent degradation of ecosystem function. A potential method of rehabilitating these systems is the addition of sediment-slurries to increase marsh surface elevation, thus ameliorating effects of excessive inundation. Although this technique is growing in popularity, the restoration of ecological function after sediment addition has received little attention. To determine if sediment subsidized salt marshes are functionally equivalent to natural marshes, we examined above- and belowground primary production in replicated restored marshes receiving four levels of sediment addition (29-42 cm North American Vertical Datum of 1988 [NAVD 88]) and in degraded and natural ambient marshes (4-22 cm NAVD 88). Moderate intensities of sediment-slurry addition, resulting in elevations at the mid to high intertidal zone (29-36 cm NAVD 88), restored ecological function to degraded salt marshes. Sediment additions significantly decreased flood duration and frequency and increased bulk density, resulting in greater soil drainage and redox potential and significantly lower phytotoxic sulfide concentrations. However, ecological function in the restored salt marsh showed a sediment addition threshold that was characterized by a decline in primary productivity in areas of excessive sediment addition and high elevation (>36 cm NAVD 88). Hence, the addition of intermediate levels of sediment to submerging salt marshes increased marsh surface elevation, ameliorated impacts of prolonged inundation, and increased primary productivity. However, too much sediment resulted in diminished ecological function that was equivalent to the submerged or degraded system. ?? 2010 Society for Ecological Restoration International.

  16. Effect of Ecological Restoration on Body Condition of a Predator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel González-Tokman

    Full Text Available Ecological restoration attempts to recover the structure and function of ecosystems that have been degraded by human activities. A crucial test of ecosystem recovery would be to determine whether individuals in restored environments are as healthy as those in conserved environments. However, the impact of restoration on physiology of terrestrial animals has never been tested. Here, we evaluated the effect of two restoration methods on body condition measured as body size, body mass, lipid and muscle content of the spider Nephila clavipes in a tropical dry forest that has suffered chronic disturbance due to cattle grazing. We used experimental plots that had been excluded from disturbance by cattle grazing during eight years. Plots were either planted with native trees (i. e. maximal intervention, or only excluded from disturbance (i. e. minimal intervention, and were compared with control conserved (remnants of original forest and disturbed plots (where cattle is allowed to graze. We predicted (1 better body condition in spiders of conserved and restored sites, compared to disturbed sites, and (2 better body condition in plots with maximal intervention than in plots with minimal intervention. The first prediction was not supported in males or females, and the second prediction was only supported in females: body dry mass was higher in planted than in conserved plots for spiders of both sexes and also higher that in disturbed plots for males, suggesting that plantings are providing more resources. We discuss how different life histories and environmental pressures, such as food availability, parasitism, and competition for resources can explain our contrasting findings in male and female spiders. By studying animal physiology in restoration experiments it is possible to understand the mechanistic basis of ecological and evolutionary processes that determine success of ecological restoration.

  17. Proposed Plan for an amendment to the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility Record of Decision, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the Washington State Department of Ecology, and the U.S. Department of Energy (Tri- Parties) are proposing an amendment to the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility Record of Decision (ERDF ROD). EPA is the lead regulatory agency for the ERDF Project. This Proposed Plan includes two elements intended to promote Hanford Site cleanup activities by broadening utilization and operation of ERDF as follows: (1) Construct the planned Phase II of ERDF using the current disposal cell design and (2) enable centralized treatment of remediation waste at ERDF prior to disposal, as appropriate

  18. American wild celery (Vallisneria americana): Ecological considerations for restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korschgen, C.E.; Green, W.L.

    1988-01-01

    The success of vegetation management programs for waterfowl is dependent on knowing the physical and physiological requirements of target species. Lakes and riverine impoundments that contain an abundance of the American wildcelery (Vallisneria americana ) have traditionally been favored by canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria ) and other waterfowl as feeding areas during migration. Information on the ecology of American wildcelery is summarized to serve as a guide for potential wetland restoration projects. Techniques are described for transplanting winter buds. Management programs that employ these techniques should define objectives clearly and evaluate the water regime carefully before initiating major restoration.

  19. Restoration in Its Natural Context: How Ecological Momentary Assessment Can Advance Restoration Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Femke Beute

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available More and more people use self-tracking technologies to track their psychological states, physiology, and behaviors to gain a better understanding of themselves or to achieve a certain goal. Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA also offers an excellent opportunity for restorative environments research, which examines how our physical environment (especially nature can positively influence health and wellbeing. It enables investigating restorative health effects in everyday life, providing not only high ecological validity but also opportunities to study in more detail the dynamic processes playing out over time on recovery, thereby bridging the gap between laboratory (i.e., short-term effects and epidemiological (long-term effects research. We have identified four main areas in which self-tracking could help advance restoration research: (1 capturing a rich set of environment types and restorative characteristics; (2 distinguishing intra-individual from inter-individual effects; (3 bridging the gap between laboratory and epidemiological research; and (4 advancing theoretical insights by measuring a more broad range of effects in everyday life. This paper briefly introduces restorative environments research, then reviews the state of the art of self-tracking technologies and methodologies, discusses how these can be implemented to advance restoration research, and presents some examples of pioneering work in this area.

  20. Amendable Gaussian channels:restoring entanglement via a unitary filter

    OpenAIRE

    Pasquale, A.; Mari, A.; Porzio, A.; Giovannetti, V.

    2013-01-01

    We show that there exist Gaussian channels which are amendable. A channel is amendable if when applied twice is entanglement breaking while there exists a unitary filter such that, when interposed between the first and second action of the map, prevents the global transformation from being entanglement breaking [Phys. Rev. A 86, 052302 (2012)]. We find that, depending on the structure of the channel, the unitary filter can be a squeezing transformation or a phase shift operation. We also prop...

  1. Restoration ecology: two-sex dynamics and cost minimization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferenc Molnár

    Full Text Available We model a spatially detailed, two-sex population dynamics, to study the cost of ecological restoration. We assume that cost is proportional to the number of individuals introduced into a large habitat. We treat dispersal as homogeneous diffusion in a one-dimensional reaction-diffusion system. The local population dynamics depends on sex ratio at birth, and allows mortality rates to differ between sexes. Furthermore, local density dependence induces a strong Allee effect, implying that the initial population must be sufficiently large to avert rapid extinction. We address three different initial spatial distributions for the introduced individuals; for each we minimize the associated cost, constrained by the requirement that the species must be restored throughout the habitat. First, we consider spatially inhomogeneous, unstable stationary solutions of the model's equations as plausible candidates for small restoration cost. Second, we use numerical simulations to find the smallest rectangular cluster, enclosing a spatially homogeneous population density, that minimizes the cost of assured restoration. Finally, by employing simulated annealing, we minimize restoration cost among all possible initial spatial distributions of females and males. For biased sex ratios, or for a significant between-sex difference in mortality, we find that sex-specific spatial distributions minimize the cost. But as long as the sex ratio maximizes the local equilibrium density for given mortality rates, a common homogeneous distribution for both sexes that spans a critical distance yields a similarly low cost.

  2. The robustness and restoration of a network of ecological networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocock, Michael J O; Evans, Darren M; Memmott, Jane

    2012-02-24

    Understanding species' interactions and the robustness of interaction networks to species loss is essential to understand the effects of species' declines and extinctions. In most studies, different types of networks (such as food webs, parasitoid webs, seed dispersal networks, and pollination networks) have been studied separately. We sampled such multiple networks simultaneously in an agroecosystem. We show that the networks varied in their robustness; networks including pollinators appeared to be particularly fragile. We show that, overall, networks did not strongly covary in their robustness, which suggests that ecological restoration (for example, through agri-environment schemes) benefitting one functional group will not inevitably benefit others. Some individual plant species were disproportionately well linked to many other species. This type of information can be used in restoration management, because it identifies the plant taxa that can potentially lead to disproportionate gains in biodiversity.

  3. Study on Key Problems of a New Environmental Dredging Based on Ecological Protection and Subsequent Ecological Restoration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU; Wei

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The research aimed to study key problems of a new environmental dredging based on ecological protection and subsequent ecological restoration. [Method] People paid more attention to sediment pollutant removal in environmental dredging, without considering coming aquatic eco-restoration work after dredging. Factor affecting aquatic ecosystem existence and growth was screened, and ecological dredging manner was put forward. [Result] On the basis of analyzing dredging objective, effect and influence, started from ecological protection and subsequent ecological restoration, water depth and substrate were screened as priority control factors of the environmental sediment dredging. New manner of combining sediment dredging to reshape underwater terrain was put forward. [Conclusion] The research provided solution for water depth and substrate demands of the subsequent ecological restoration.

  4. Ecological and Social Dimensions of Ecosystem Restoration in the Nordic Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Hagen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available An international overview of the extent and type of ecological restoration can offer new perspectives for understanding, planning, and implementation. The Nordic countries, with a great range of natural conditions but historically similar social and political structures, provide an opportunity to compare restoration approaches and efforts across borders. The aim of this study was to explore variation in ecological restoration using the Nordic countries as an example. We used recent national assessments and expert evaluations of ecological restoration. Restoration efforts differed among countries: forest and peatland restoration was most common in Finland, freshwater restoration was most common in Sweden, restoration of natural heathlands and grasslands was most common in Iceland, restoration of natural and semi-cultural heathlands was most common in Norway, and restoration of cultural ecosystems, mainly abandoned agricultural land, was most common in Denmark. Ecological restoration currently does not occur on the Faroe Islands. Economic incentives influence ecological restoration and depend on laws and policies in each country. Our analyses suggest that habitat types determine the methods of ecological restoration, whereas socio-economic drivers are more important for the decisions concerning the timing and location of restoration. To improve the understanding, planning, and implementation of ecological restoration, we advocate increased cooperation and knowledge sharing across disciplines and among countries, both in the Nordic countries and internationally. An obvious advantage of such cooperation is that a wider range of experiences from different habitats and different socio-economic conditions becomes available and thus provides a more solid basis for developing practical solutions for restoration methods and policies.

  5. Posttreatment Tree Mortality After Forest Ecological Restoration, Arizona, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulé, Peter Z.; Roccaforte, John P.; Covington, W. Wallace

    2007-10-01

    Pine oak forests are of high ecological importance worldwide, but many are threatened by uncharacteristically severe wildfire. Forest restoration treatments, including the reintroduction of a surface fire regime, are intended to decrease fire hazard and emulate historic ecosystem structure and function. Restoration has recently received much management attention and short-term study, but little is known about longer-term ecosystem responses. We remeasured a replicated experimental restoration site in the southwestern United States 5 years after treatments. Basal area, tree density, and canopy cover decreased in the treated units at a faster rate than in controls. Delayed mortality, not evident right after treatment, decreased density modestly (13% in treated units and 10% in controls) but disproportionately affected large trees (“large” ponderosa pines were those with diameter at breast height [dbh] ≥37.5 cm; other species dbh ≥20 cm). In treated units, 10.9 large trees ha 1 died, whereas 6.2 trees ha 1 died in control units. Compared with reference conditions, the experimental blocks remained higher in pine density and, in three of the four blocks, in basal area. Pine trees grew significantly faster in treated units than in controls, enough to reach the reference level of basal area in 6 years. Although mortality of large trees is a concern, the treated units have vigorous growth and low density, indicating that they will be relatively resistant to future drought and fire events. Similar treatments may be beneficial in many areas of the United States and in related pine-oak ecosystems elsewhere.

  6. Current Status and Control Measures of Ecological Restoration in Karst Rocky Desertification Area of Guizhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to analyze the current status and control measures of ecological restoration in Karst rocky desertification area of Guizhou.[Method] The current status and existing problems of ecological restoration in Karst rocky desertification area of Guizhou were studied firstly,and main control measures were put forward according to existing problems.[Result] At present,Karst rocky desertification area in Guizhou has suitable ecological environment,obvious control results and rich control exper...

  7. Impacts of ecological restoration projects on agricultural productivity in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Yuanwei; YAN Huimin; LIU Jiyuan; DONG Jinwei; CHEN Jingqing; XIAO Xiangming

    2013-01-01

    The changes in cropland quantity and quality due to land use are critical concerns to national food security,particularly for China.Despite the significant ecological effects,the ecological restoration program (ERP),started from 1999,has evidently altered the spatial patterns of China's cropland and agricultural productivity.Based on cropland dynamic data from 2000 to 2008 primarily derived from satellite images with a 30-m resolution and satellite-based net primary productivity models,we identified the impacts on agricultural productivity caused by ERP,including "Grain for Green" Program (GFGP) and "Reclaimed Cropland to Lake" (RCTL) Program.Our results indicated that the agricultural productivity lost with a rate of 132.67×104 t/a due to ERP,which accounted for 44.01% of the total loss rate caused by land use changes during 2000-2005.During 2005-2008,the loss rate due to ERP decreased to 77.18×104 t/a,which was equivalent to 58.17% of that in the first five years and 30.22% of the total loss rate caused by land use changes.The agricultural productivity loss from 2000-2008 caused by ERP was more attributed to GFGP (about 70%) than RCTL.Al-though ERP had a certain influence on cropland productivity during 2000-2008,its effect was still much less than that of urbanization; moreover,ERP was already converted from the project implementation phase to the consolidation phase.

  8. Reconciliation Ecology, Rewilding and the San Joaquin River Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus-Polk, A.

    2014-12-01

    Recent events, perhaps reaching their climactic convergence in the current drought, have exposed the fragility and imbalances of the socioecological system of the San Joaquin river. We see that our triumphant march of progress onfolds on a thin, and unstable crust. What lies below is lava. Our agricultural systems progress only while extracting an ever-untenable social and ecological debt. Our successive regimes of accumulation by appropriation have brought us to the brink of ecological exhaustion. Have we reached our day of reckoning? This is not the first time this question has been asked of this particular system of irrigated agriculture? "Insurmountable" ecological barriers have been eyed down and promptly obliterated through magnificent features of physical and social engineering. But lets us consider for a moment that we have at last reached some sort of edge, a threshold past which we experience a sudden socioecological regime shift. Staring out over this edge can we begin to come to terms with the fallacies of our stories, our ignorance, our foolishness? We need an acknowledgement of the needs of the agriculture systems, it's connections and dependencies. What desperate measures are we willing to take in order to sustain this system? How much further can we go? How far is too far? Is there another way to produce and distribute food? We then turn to the past. We imagine the ecosystem as it once was. The pelagic fish species that formed the biological connection between this river system, the delta, the Ocean, the Mountains. What would it mean to restore this diversity and repair these relationships? What would it take to cede control to the non-human forces that sustain these connections? How do we reconcile restraint and the cessation of control with the human needs of the system? How do we rewild our river in such a way that our needs are met in a way that is more resilient and equitable? We will need systems of agriculture and flood control that serve

  9. Soil restoration with organic amendments: linking cellular functionality and ecosystem processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastida, F.; Selevsek, N.; Torres, I. F.; Hernández, T.; García, C.

    2015-10-01

    A hot topic in recent decades, the application of organic amendments to arid-degraded soils has been shown to benefit microbially-mediated processes. However, despite the importance of soils for global sustainability, a gap has not been addressed yet in soil science: is there any connection between ecosystem-community processes, cellular functionality, and microbial lifestyles (i.e. oligotrophy-copiotrophy) in restored soils? Together with classical ecosystem indicators (fatty-acids, extracellular-enzyme activities, basal respiration), state-of-the-art metaproteomics was applied to fill this gap in a model-restoration experiment initiated 10-years ago by the addition of sewage-sludge and compost. Organic amendment strongly impacted ecosystem processes. Furthermore, the type of material used induced differences in the cellular functionalities through variations in the percentages of proteins involved in translation, transcription, energy production and C-fixation. We conclude that the long-term impact of organic restoration goes beyond ecosystem processes and affects cellular functionalities and phyla-lifestyles coupled with differences in microbial-community structures.

  10. Environmental conservation and restoration ecology: two facets of the same problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Urbanska

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Restoration ecology has often been regarded as a subordinate component of conservation biology and yet the two disciplines differ from each other. Conservation aims at staving off extinction, i.e. preserving ecological structures and services which still exist, however endangered they may be. On the other hand, the principal objective of restoration is re-building ecological structures and services that have been destroyed. The most distinct focus of conservation is on population response to exploitation, whereas restoration is principally concerned with over-exploited sites and landscapes in which communities/ecosystems are to be re-built. Conservation aims at preserving as many species as possible; on the other hand, the biodiversity approach in restoration may be addressed on three levels viz. 1 initial species diversity, 2 post-restoration increase of diversity via spontaneous species immigration, and 3 age-state diversity of developing plant cover.

    The conceptual framework in conservation biology differs from that in restoration ecology. The two basic paradigms used in conservation biology are 1 small-population paradigm and 2 declining-population paradigm, and one of its useful concepts is population viability assessment (PVA. The two principal paradigms used in restoration ecology are 1 nature-in-balance paradigm and 2 nature-in-flux paradigm. Interfaces between conservation and restoration may be recognized when e.g., recovery strategies for threatened species include habitat/ecosystem restoration, or when population processes in non-threatened species are studied to verify their usefulness as restoration material.

    Integration of species and ecosystem approaches is already recognizable in ecology. It is to be hoped that in future conservation and restoration become integrated components of ecosystem management, but for the time being they remain two different facets of the same problem which is the negative human impact

  11. Ecological Restoration of Rocky Desertification in Hongfeng Lake Karst Area Based on SWOT Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    In order to provide a reference for rocky desertification control in karst areas,we take the case of Hongfeng Lake Rocky Desertification Comprehensive Control Demonstration Area in Qingzhen City of Guizhou Province,and expound strength,weakness,opportunity and challenge in its ecological restoration,using SWOT analysis method in management sciences.And we finally put forth scientific strategies for ecological restoration in this demonstration area.

  12. River restoration: morphological, hydrological, biogeochemical and ecological changes and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Schirmer, M.; Luster, J; N. Linde; Perona, P; Mitchell, E. A. D.; Barry, D. A.; O. A. Cirpka; P. Schneider; Vogt, T; Durisch-Kaiser, E

    2013-01-01

    River restoration is essential as a means to enhance river dynamics, environmental heterogeneity and biodiversity. The underlying processes governing the dynamic changes need to be understood thoroughly to ensure that restoration projects meet their goals. In particular, we need to understand quantitatively how hydromorphological variability relates to ecosystem functioning and services, biodiversity and (ground)water quality in restored river corridors. Here, we provide a short overview ...

  13. Soil biochar amendment in a nature restoration area: effects on plant productivity and community composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Voorde, Tess F J; Bezemer, T Martijn; Van Groenigen, Jan Willem; Jeffery, Simon; Mommer, Liesje

    2014-07-01

    Biochar (pyrolyzed biomass) amendment to soils has been shown to have a multitude of positive effects, e.g., on crop yield, soil quality, nutrient cycling, and carbon sequestration. So far the majority of studies have focused on agricultural systems, typically with relatively low species diversity and annual cropping schemes. How biochar amendment affects plant communities in more complex and diverse ecosystems that can evolve over time is largely unknown. We investigated such effects in a field experiment at a Dutch nature restoration area. In April 2011, we set up an experiment using biochar produced from cuttings collected from a local natural grassland. The material was pyrolyzed at 400 degrees C or at 600 degrees C. After biochar or residue (non-pyrolyzed cuttings) application (10 Mg/ha), all plots, including control (0 Mg/ ha) plots, were sown with an 18-species grassland mixture. In August 2011, we determined characteristics of the developed plant community, as well as soil nutrient status. Biochar amendment did not alter total plant productivity, but it had a strong and significant effect on plant community composition. Legumes were three times as abundant and individual legume plants increased four times in biomass in plots that received biochar as compared to the control treatment. Biomass of the most abundant forb (Plantago lanceolata) was not affected by biochar addition. Available phosphorous, potassium, and pH were significantly higher in soils that received biochar than in Control soils. The rate of biological nitrogen fixation and seed germination were not altered by biochar amendment, but the total amount of biological N fixed per Trifolium pratense (red clover) plant was more than four times greater in biochar-amended soil. This study demonstrates that biochar amendment has a strong and rapid effect on plant communities and soil nutrients. Over time these changes may cascade up to other trophic groups, including above- and belowground organisms

  14. Effects of organic amendments and mulches on soil microbial communities in quarry restoration under semiarid climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna Ramos, Lourdes; Pastorelli, Roberta; Miralles Mellado, Isabel; Fabiani, Arturo; Bastida López, Felipe; Hernández Fernández, María Teresa; García Izquierdo, Carlos; Solé Benet, Albert

    2015-04-01

    Mining activities generate loss of the quality of the environment and landscape specially in arid and semiarid Mediterranean regions. A precondition for ecosystem reclamation in such highly disturbed mining areas is the development of functional soils with appropriate levels of organic matter. In an experimental soil restoration in limestone quarries from Sierra de Gádor (Almería), SE Spain, 9 plots 15 x 5 m were prepared to test organic amendments (compost from solid urban residues-DOW-, sludge from urban water treatment-SS-, control-NA-) and different mulches (fine gravel-GM-, wood chips-WM-, control-NM-) with the aim to improve soil/substrate properties and to reduce evaporation and erosion. In each experimental plot, 75 native plants (Macrochloa tenacissima, Anthyllis terniflora and Anthyllis cytisoides) were planted. After 5 years from the start of the experiment, we evaluated how microbial community composition responded to the organic amendments and mulches. Microbial community composition of both bacteria and fungi was determined by phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) and polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) fingerprinting. The results of the two-way ANOVA showed that PLFAs were significantly affected by organic amendments but not by the mulches or interaction of both factors. Experimental plots with DOW showed significantly higher level of fungal PLFAs than those with SS and NA, even higher than the reference undisturbed soil. However, any plot with organic amendments did not reach the content of bacterial PLFAs of the reference soils. The bacterial diversity (evaluated by diversity indices calculated from DGGE profiles) was greater in soil samples taken under NA and GM. Comparing these indices in fungal DGGE, we found greater values for soil samples taken under DOW and without mulches. Results from UPGMA analysis showed significant differences in the structure of soil bacterial communities from the different treatments

  15. An appraisal of adaptive management planning and implementation in ecological restoration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagarkar, Mita; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive management has been defined and redefined in the context of natural resource management, yet there are few examples of its successful application in ecological restoration. Although the 2009 Delta Reform Act now legally requires adaptive management for all restoration efforts in the Sacr...

  16. Human health and ecological risks from environmental restoration and waste management activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes the methodologies for estimating human health and ecological risks resulting from Environmental Restoration and Waste Management activities across the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. DOE is currently assessing these activities as part of the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (EM-PEIS)

  17. Ecological restoration and effect investigation of a river wetland in a semi-arid region, China

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, S.; Jiang, X.; Liu, Y.; Fu, Y.; Zhao, Q.

    2015-01-01

    River wetlands are heavily impacted by human intervention. The degradation and loss of river wetlands has made the restoration of river ecosystems a top priority. How to rehabilitate rivers and their services has been a research focus. The main goal of it is to restore the river wetland ecosystems with ecological methods. The Gudong River was selected as a study site in Chaoyang city in this study. Based on the analysis of interference factors in the river wetland degradation, a set of restor...

  18. A global meta-analysis on the ecological drivers of forest restoration success

    OpenAIRE

    Crouzeilles, Renato; Curran, Michael; Ferreira, Mariana S.; Lindenmayer, David B; Carlos E V Grelle; Rey Benayas, José M.

    2016-01-01

    Two billion ha have been identified globally for forest restoration. Our meta-analysis encompassing 221 study landscapes worldwide reveals forest restoration enhances biodiversity by 15–84% and vegetation structure by 36–77%, compared with degraded ecosystems. For the first time, we identify the main ecological drivers of forest restoration success (defined as a return to a reference condition, that is, old-growth forest) at both the local and landscape scale. These are as follows: the time e...

  19. Impacts of wastewater sludge amendments in restoring nitrogen cycle in p-nitrophenol contaminated soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    F. Olcay Topac Sagban

    2011-01-01

    The possible impacts on nitrogen-cycle in a p-nitrophenol (PNP) polluted soil and the effectiveness of wastewater sludge amendments in restoring nitrification potential and urease activity were evaluated by an incubation study. The results indicated that PNP at 250 mg/kg soil inhibited urease activity, nitrification potential, arginine ammonification rate and heterotrophic bacteria counts to some extents.After exposure to PNP, the nitrification potential of the tested soil was dramatically reduced to zero over a period of 30 days. Based on the findings, nitrification potential was postulated as a simple biochemical indicator for PNP pollution in soils. Nitrogen-cycling processes in soils responded positively to the applications of wastewater sludges. A sludge application rate of 200 tons/ha was sufficient for successful biostimulation of these nitrogen processes. The microbial activities in sludge-amended, heavy PNP-polluted soils seemed to recover after 30-45 days, indicating the effectiveness of sludge as a useful soil amendment.

  20. Manager Perspectives on Communication and Public Engagement in Ecological Restoration Project Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    We argue that public engagement is crucial to achieving lasting ecological success in aquatic restoration efforts, and that the most effective public engagement mechanisms are what we term iterative mechanisms. Here we look to a particular social-ecological system – the restorati...

  1. River restoration: morphological, hydrological, biogeochemical and ecological changes and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schirmer

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available River restoration is essential as a means to enhance river dynamics, environmental heterogeneity and biodiversity. The underlying processes governing the dynamic changes need to be understood thoroughly to ensure that restoration projects meet their goals. In particular, we need to understand quantitatively how hydromorphological variability relates to ecosystem functioning and services, biodiversity and (groundwater quality in restored river corridors. Here, we provide a short overview on the literature and present a study of a restored river corridor in Switzerland combining physical, chemical, and biological observations with modeling. The results show complex spatial patterns of bank infiltration, habitat-type, biotic communities and biogeochemical processes. In particular, we found an increase in taxonomic and functional diversity for earthworms, testate amoebae and bacteria in the restored part of the river. This complexity is driven by river hydrology and morphodynamics, which are in turn actively coupled to riparian vegetation processes. Given this complexity and the multiple constraints on the uses and management of floodplains, a multi-disciplinary approach is needed to monitor the success of restoration measures and to make recommendations for future restoration projects.

  2. River restoration: morphological, hydrological, biogeochemical and ecological changes and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirmer, M.; Luster, J.; Linde, N.; Perona, P.; Mitchell, E. A. D.; Barry, D. A.; Cirpka, O. A.; Schneider, P.; Vogt, T.; Durisch-Kaiser, E.

    2013-08-01

    River restoration is essential as a means to enhance river dynamics, environmental heterogeneity and biodiversity. The underlying processes governing the dynamic changes need to be understood thoroughly to ensure that restoration projects meet their goals. In particular, we need to understand quantitatively how hydromorphological variability relates to ecosystem functioning and services, biodiversity and (ground)water quality in restored river corridors. Here, we provide a short overview on the literature and present a study of a restored river corridor in Switzerland combining physical, chemical, and biological observations with modeling. The results show complex spatial patterns of bank infiltration, habitat-type, biotic communities and biogeochemical processes. In particular, we found an increase in taxonomic and functional diversity for earthworms, testate amoebae and bacteria in the restored part of the river. This complexity is driven by river hydrology and morphodynamics, which are in turn actively coupled to riparian vegetation processes. Given this complexity and the multiple constraints on the uses and management of floodplains, a multi-disciplinary approach is needed to monitor the success of restoration measures and to make recommendations for future restoration projects.

  3. Ecological water requirement based on ecological protection and restoration targets in the lower reaches of the Heihe River, northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li ZHANG

    2009-01-01

    Owing to the irrational use of water resources in the Heihe River, northern China, the eco-environment has deteriorated seriously in its lower reaches. Some ecological problems exist (i.e., lake shrinkage, the decline of the underground water table, vegetation degradation, land desertification, and sandstorm damage). Subareas of ecological protection and restoration in the lower reaches of the river are proposed, considering the course of the river, its ecosystem characteristics, and the range of impact of water resource allocation. Based on a comprehensive decision-making method and GIS technology, the targets of ecological protection and restoration in the lower reaches of the river were determined quantitatively. Using a phreatic evapotranspiration model and a groundwater balance equation, the ecological water requirements of the riparian forest ecosystem, the desert ecosystem, the water area ecosystem, and the underground ecosystem, given various eco-restoration targets in different level years, were calculated and analyzed. The results show that the total ecological water requirements of the Shaomaying section were 548 million m3 in 2000 to maintain the normal growth of its natural vegetation and a stable groundwater table in the lower reaches of the Heihe River. The total ecological water requirement of the Shaomaying section is expected to be 632 million m3 in 2010, 635 million m3 in 2020, and 635 million m3 in 2030.

  4. A global meta-analysis on the ecological drivers of forest restoration success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouzeilles, Renato; Curran, Michael; Ferreira, Mariana S; Lindenmayer, David B; Grelle, Carlos E V; Rey Benayas, José M

    2016-01-01

    Two billion ha have been identified globally for forest restoration. Our meta-analysis encompassing 221 study landscapes worldwide reveals forest restoration enhances biodiversity by 15-84% and vegetation structure by 36-77%, compared with degraded ecosystems. For the first time, we identify the main ecological drivers of forest restoration success (defined as a return to a reference condition, that is, old-growth forest) at both the local and landscape scale. These are as follows: the time elapsed since restoration began, disturbance type and landscape context. The time elapsed since restoration began strongly drives restoration success in secondary forests, but not in selectively logged forests (which are more ecologically similar to reference systems). Landscape restoration will be most successful when previous disturbance is less intensive and habitat is less fragmented in the landscape. Restoration does not result in full recovery of biodiversity and vegetation structure, but can complement old-growth forests if there is sufficient time for ecological succession. PMID:27193756

  5. Prioritization of Forest Restoration Projects: Tradeoffs between Wildfire Protection, Ecological Restoration and Economic Objectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin C. Vogler

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of US federal forest restoration programs on national forests is a complex process that requires balancing diverse socioecological goals with project economics. Despite both the large geographic scope and substantial investments in restoration projects, a quantitative decision support framework to locate optimal project areas and examine tradeoffs among alternative restoration strategies is lacking. We developed and demonstrated a new prioritization approach for restoration projects using optimization and the framework of production possibility frontiers. The study area was a 914,657 ha national forest in eastern Oregon, US that was identified as a national priority for restoration with the goal of increasing fire resiliency and sustaining ecosystem services. The results illustrated sharp tradeoffs among the various restoration goals due to weak spatial correlation of forest stressors and provisional ecosystem services. The sharpest tradeoffs were found in simulated projects that addressed either wildfire risk to the urban interface or wildfire hazard, highlighting the challenges associated with meeting both economic and fire protection goals. Understanding the nature of tradeoffs between restoration objectives and communicating them to forest stakeholders will allow forest managers to more effectively design and implement economically feasible restoration projects.

  6. Environmental risk evaluation of the use of mine spoils and treated sewage sludge in the ecological restoration of limestone quarries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordán, M. M.; Pina, S.; García-Orenes, F.; Almendro-Candel, M. B.; García-Sánchez, E.

    2008-07-01

    The ecologic restoration criteria in areas degraded from extraction activities require making use of their mine spoils. These materials do not meet fertility conditions to guarantee restoration success and therefore, need the incorporation of organic amendments to obtain efficient substratum. Reducing the deficiencies in the organic material and restoration material nutrients with the contribution of treated sewage sludge is proposed in this work. This experiment was based on a controlled study using columns. The work was conducted with two mine spoils, both very rich in calcium carbonate. The first mineral, of poor quality, came from the formation of aggregates of crushed limestone ( Z). The other residual material examined originated in limestone extraction, formed by the levels of interspersed non-limestone materials and the remains of stripped soils ( D). Two treatments were undertaken (30,000 and 90,000 kg/ha of sewage sludge), in addition to a control treatment. The water contribution was carried out with a device that simulated either short-duration rain or a flooding irrigation system in order to cover the surface and then percolate through the soil. The collection of leached water took place 24 h after the applications. Different parameters of the leached water were determined, including pH, electrical conductivity, nitrate anions, ammonium, phosphates, sulphates and chlorides. The values obtained for each irrigation application are discussed, and the nitrate values obtained were very elevated.

  7. Announcement—guidance document for acquiring reliable data in ecological restoration projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapanian, Martin A.; Rodriguez, Karen; Lewis, Timothy E.; Blume, Louis; Palmer, Craig J.; Walters, Lynn; Schofield, Judith; Amos, Molly M.; Bucher, Adam

    2016-01-01

    The Laurentian Great Lakes are undergoing intensive ecological restoration in Canada and the United States. In the United States, an interagency committee was formed to facilitate implementation of quality practices for federally funded restoration projects in the Great Lakes basin. The Committee's responsibilities include developing a guidance document that will provide a common approach to the application of quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) practices for restoration projects. The document will serve as a “how-to” guide for ensuring data quality during each aspect of ecological restoration projects. In addition, the document will provide suggestions on linking QA/QC data with the routine project data and hints on creating detailed supporting documentation. Finally, the document will advocate integrating all components of the project, including QA/QC applications, into an overarching decision-support framework. The guidance document is expected to be released by the U.S. EPA Great Lakes National Program Office in 2017.

  8. The DPSIR Framework and a Pressure-Oriented Water Quality Monitoring Approach to Ecological River Restoration

    OpenAIRE

    Björn Frostell; Xingqiang Song

    2012-01-01

    Without monitoring anthropogenic pressures on the water environment, it is difficult to set realistic river restoration targets in relation to water quality. Therefore a more holistic approach is needed to systematically explore the links between socio-economic drivers and observed water quality-related impacts on river ecosystems. Using the DPSIR (Drivers-Pressures-State of the Environment-Impacts-Responses) framework, this study linked ecological river restoration with the socio-economic se...

  9. Habitat selection and behaviour of a reintroduced passerine: linking experimental restoration, behaviour and habitat ecology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria A Bennett

    Full Text Available Habitat restoration can play an important role in recovering functioning ecosystems and improving biodiversity. Restoration may be particularly important in improving habitat prior to species reintroductions. We reintroduced seven brown treecreeper (Climacteris picumnus social groups into two nature reserves in the Australian Capital Territory in south-eastern Australia. This study provided a unique opportunity to understand the interactions between restoration ecology, behavioural ecology and habitat ecology. We examined how experimental restoration treatments (addition of coarse woody debris, variations in ground vegetation cover and nest box installation influenced the behaviour and microhabitat use of radio-tracked individuals to evaluate the success of restoration treatments. The addition of coarse woody debris benefited the brown treecreeper through increasing the probability of foraging on a log or on the ground. This demonstrated the value of using behaviour as a bio-indicator for restoration success. Based on previous research, we predicted that variations in levels of ground vegetation cover would influence behaviour and substrate use, particularly that brown treecreepers would choose sites with sparse ground cover because this allows better access to food and better vigilance for predators. However, there was little effect of this treatment, which was likely influenced by the limited overall use of the ground layer. There was also little effect of nest boxes on behaviour or substrate use. These results somewhat confound our understanding of the species based on research from extant populations. Our results also have a significant impact regarding using existing knowledge on a species to inform how it will respond to reintroduction and habitat restoration. This study also places great emphasis on the value of applying an experimental framework to ecological restoration, particularly when reintroductions produce unexpected outcomes.

  10. Habitat selection and behaviour of a reintroduced passerine: linking experimental restoration, behaviour and habitat ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Victoria A; Doerr, Veronica A J; Doerr, Erik D; Manning, Adrian D; Lindenmayer, David B; Yoon, Hwan-Jin

    2013-01-01

    Habitat restoration can play an important role in recovering functioning ecosystems and improving biodiversity. Restoration may be particularly important in improving habitat prior to species reintroductions. We reintroduced seven brown treecreeper (Climacteris picumnus) social groups into two nature reserves in the Australian Capital Territory in south-eastern Australia. This study provided a unique opportunity to understand the interactions between restoration ecology, behavioural ecology and habitat ecology. We examined how experimental restoration treatments (addition of coarse woody debris, variations in ground vegetation cover and nest box installation) influenced the behaviour and microhabitat use of radio-tracked individuals to evaluate the success of restoration treatments. The addition of coarse woody debris benefited the brown treecreeper through increasing the probability of foraging on a log or on the ground. This demonstrated the value of using behaviour as a bio-indicator for restoration success. Based on previous research, we predicted that variations in levels of ground vegetation cover would influence behaviour and substrate use, particularly that brown treecreepers would choose sites with sparse ground cover because this allows better access to food and better vigilance for predators. However, there was little effect of this treatment, which was likely influenced by the limited overall use of the ground layer. There was also little effect of nest boxes on behaviour or substrate use. These results somewhat confound our understanding of the species based on research from extant populations. Our results also have a significant impact regarding using existing knowledge on a species to inform how it will respond to reintroduction and habitat restoration. This study also places great emphasis on the value of applying an experimental framework to ecological restoration, particularly when reintroductions produce unexpected outcomes. PMID:23349923

  11. Adopting an ecological view of metropolitan landscape: the case of "three circles" system for ecological construction and restoration in Beijing area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Feng; ZHANG Xin-Shi

    2004-01-01

    Ecological construction and restoration for sustainable development are now a driving paradigm. It is increasingly recognized that ecological principles, especially landscape ecology theory, are not only necessary but also essential to maintain the long-term sustainability worldwide. Key landscape ecology principles-element,structure and process, dynamics, heterogeneity, hierarchies, connectivity, place and time were reviewed, and use Beijing area as a case study to illustrate how these principles might be applied to ecological construction and restoration, to eventually achieve sustainability. An example to more effectively incorporate the ecological principles in sustainable planning in China was presented.

  12. Morphological, hydrological, biogeochemical and ecological changes and challenges in river restoration - the Thur River case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirmer, M.; Luster, J.; Linde, N.; Perona, P.; Mitchell, E. A. D.; Barry, D. A.; Hollender, J.; Cirpka, O. A.; Schneider, P.; Vogt, T.; Radny, D.; Durisch-Kaiser, E.

    2014-06-01

    River restoration can enhance river dynamics, environmental heterogeneity and biodiversity, but the underlying processes governing the dynamic changes need to be understood to ensure that restoration projects meet their goals, and adverse effects are prevented. In particular, we need to comprehend how hydromorphological variability quantitatively relates to ecosystem functioning and services, biodiversity as well as ground- and surface water quality in restored river corridors. This involves (i) physical processes and structural properties, determining erosion and sedimentation, as well as solute and heat transport behavior in surface water and within the subsurface; (ii) biogeochemical processes and characteristics, including the turnover of nutrients and natural water constituents; and (iii) ecological processes and indicators related to biodiversity and ecological functioning. All these aspects are interlinked, requiring an interdisciplinary investigation approach. Here, we present an overview of the recently completed RECORD (REstored CORridor Dynamics) project in which we combined physical, chemical, and biological observations with modeling at a restored river corridor of the perialpine Thur River in Switzerland. Our results show that river restoration, beyond inducing morphologic changes that reshape the river bed and banks, triggered complex spatial patterns of bank infiltration, and affected habitat type, biotic communities and biogeochemical processes. We adopted an interdisciplinary approach of monitoring the continuing changes due to restoration measures to address the following questions: How stable is the morphological variability established by restoration? Does morphological variability guarantee an improvement in biodiversity? How does morphological variability affect biogeochemical transformations in the river corridor? What are some potential adverse effects of river restoration? How is river restoration influenced by catchment-scale hydraulics

  13. The DPSIR Framework and a Pressure-Oriented Water Quality Monitoring Approach to Ecological River Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Frostell

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Without monitoring anthropogenic pressures on the water environment, it is difficult to set realistic river restoration targets in relation to water quality. Therefore a more holistic approach is needed to systematically explore the links between socio-economic drivers and observed water quality-related impacts on river ecosystems. Using the DPSIR (Drivers-Pressures-State of the Environment-Impacts-Responses framework, this study linked ecological river restoration with the socio-economic sector, with the focus on promoting a pressure-oriented water quality monitoring system. Based on the European Water Framework Directive (WFD and relevant literature, it was found that most water quality-related indicators employed today are state/impacts-oriented, while very few are pressure-oriented. As a response, we call for more attention to a DPR (Drivers-Pressures-Responses framework in developing an industrial ecology-based pressure-oriented water quality monitoring system for aiding ecological river restoration planning. This approach is characterized in general by accounting for material-related flows throughout the socio-economic sector in relation to river ecosystem degradation. Then the obtained information would help decision makers take appropriate measures to alleviate various significant human-induced wastes and emissions at their sources. We believe that such a pressure-oriented monitoring system will substantially complement traditional state/impacts-oriented environmental and ecological monitoring and help develop more proactive planning and decision-making processes for specific river restoration projects and general water quality management.

  14. Do the Principles of Ecological Restoration Cover EU LIFE Nature Cofunded Projects in Denmark?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Morsing

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Ecological restoration is becoming a main component in nature management; hence, its definitions and interpretations of the underlying principles are widely discussed. In Denmark, restoration has been implemented for decades, and the LIFE Nature program has contributed to several large-scale projects. Our aim was to indicate tendencies in Danish nature policy by analyzing a representative sample of nature management projects. Using qualitative document analyses of official reports, we investigated how well 13 LIFE Nature cofinanced projects undertaken in Denmark fit with the principles of ecological restoration, as formulated in the nine attributes of the Society for Ecological Restoration's Primer on Ecological Restoration, and based on the five myths of ecological restoration. Objectives of the analyzed projects were divided into three categories: conservation of a single or a group of species; restoration of set-aside areas, mainly on abandoned agricultural land; and habitat management of Natura 2000 areas. Despite this grouping, improvement in living conditions for certain species associated with specific nature types was in focus in all projects. No projects considered or fulfilled all nine attributes. It seems that attributes associated with fundamental requirements for the existence of target species or habitats were more often fulfilled than attributes associated with continuity of the ecosystem as a whole, which indicated a focus on ecosystem structures rather than on processes. We found that the two assumptions of a predictable single endpoint (the myth of the Carbon Copy and that nature is controllable (the myth of Command and Control were notably frequent in the Danish projects. Often, the target ecosystem was associated with a semicultural landscape, and management focused on keeping the vegetation low and preventing overgrowth of colonizing trees. The results indicated that nature policy in Denmark and the LIFE Nature program are

  15. 河流生态修复浅议%ECOLOGICAL RESTORATION OF RIVERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王韶伟; 徐劲草; 许新宜

    2009-01-01

    With urban developments, natural rivers are re-routed or discontinued, especially for urban rivers which are over-developed and heavily-contaminated. Recently, ecological issues for rivers are discussed widely, and river ecological restoration is proposed. In this paper, the concept and principles of river ecological restoration is discussed, and techniques for river ecological restoration are examined, including riverbank construction, improvement of water quality, and ecological landscape construction.%河流与人类社会发展息息相关,具有重要的社会意义.在人类社会的发展过程中,自然河流逐渐渠道化、非连续化,城市河流更是开发过度、污染严重.近年来,河流的生态问题受到广泛关注,人们开始重新认识和利用河流,提出了河流牛态修复的理念.本文对河流生态修复的理念进行了阐述.提出了河流生态修复的原则,之后从生态护岸、水质改善、生态景观建设3方面对现行的河流生态修复技术进行了说明.

  16. Valuing fire planning alternatives in forest restoration: using derived demand to integrate economics with ecological restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rideout, Douglas B; Ziesler, Pamela S; Kernohan, Nicole J

    2014-08-01

    Assessing the value of fire planning alternatives is challenging because fire affects a wide array of ecosystem, market, and social values. Wildland fire management is increasingly used to address forest restoration while pragmatic approaches to assessing the value of fire management have yet to be developed. Earlier approaches to assessing the value of forest management relied on connecting site valuation with management variables. While sound, such analysis is too narrow to account for a broad range of ecosystem services. The metric fire regime condition class (FRCC) was developed from ecosystem management philosophy, but it is entirely biophysical. Its lack of economic information cripples its utility to support decision-making. We present a means of defining and assessing the deviation of a landscape from its desired fire management condition by re-framing the fire management problem as one of derived demand. This valued deviation establishes a performance metric for wildland fire management. Using a case study, we display the deviation across a landscape and sum the deviations to produce a summary metric. This summary metric is used to assess the value of alternative fire management strategies on improving the fire management condition toward its desired state. It enables us to identify which sites are most valuable to restore, even when they are in the same fire regime condition class. The case study site exemplifies how a wide range of disparate values, such as watershed, wildlife, property and timber, can be incorporated into a single landscape assessment. The analysis presented here leverages previous research on environmental capital value and non-market valuation by integrating ecosystem management, restoration, and microeconomics. PMID:24878985

  17. Effective Ecological Restoration of Collapsed Ecosystems - Linking Soil, Water and Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petursdottir, Thorunn; Finger, David

    2014-05-01

    All natural resources, utilized by humans are embedded in complex social-ecological systems (SESs). To maintain the systems' sustainability, the SESs needs to be managed within their resilience optimum, considering both social and ecological elements. Throughout the centuries the humankind has often failed in doing so. Overexploitation of natural resources has thus widely disrupted equilibrium within the respective SESs, driving unforeseen changes of ecosystems worldwide. Anthropogenic factors such as poor institutional structure on resource utilization and weak policies in combination to environmental factors like droughts, fires or other unpredictable events have ruptured ecosystems' resilience and caused global degradation on a scale that currently threatens the Earth's welfare. As an example it's worth to mention that up to 40% of the world's agricultural land is severely degraded mainly due to unsustainable landuse. Once an ecosystem, or part/s of it, have collapsed, ecological restoration is almost always necessary to overcome the threshold/s that may prevent the system from self-recovering. It also re-activates the system's environmental cycles like the water, carbon and nutrient circulation. Although soil is the fundamental body of terrestrial ecosystems, water availability is of equal importance and should be taken more into consideration in restoration than currently is done. Based on that, we will focus on how to best manage effective large-scale ecological restoration (LSER) of collapsed ecosystems and link it to water catchment areas. LSER is a fundamental social-ecological activity that substantially can improve ecosystem condition, human livelihood and if well organized, facilitate improved management of natural resources. By definition, restoration of ecological integrity and functions is the fundamental basis for all restoration activities. But to achieve long-term sustainability of LSER activities the initial set of rules/policies established by

  18. The ecohealth assessment and ecological restoration division of urban water system in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J.; Ma, M.; Zhang, F.; Yang, Z.; Domagalski, J.

    2009-01-01

    Evaluating six main rivers and six lakes in Beihuan water system (BWS) and diagnosing the limiting factors of eco-health were conducted for the ecohealth assessment and ecological restoration division of urban water system (UWS) for Beijing. The results indicated that Jingmi River and Nanchang River were in a healthy state, the degree of membership to unhealthy were 0.358, 0.392, respectively; while Yongding River, Beihucheng River, Liangma River, Tongzi River and six lakes were in an unhealthy state, their degree of membership to unhealthy were between 0.459 and 0.927. The order of that was Liangma > Beihucheng > Tongzi > Yongding > six lakes > Jingmi > Nanchang, in which Liangma Rivers of that was over 0.8. The problems of Rivers and lakes in BWS are different. Jingmi River and Nanchang River were ecotype limiting; Yongding River, Tongzi River and six lakes were water quality and ecotype limiting. Beihucheng River and Liangma River were water quantity, water quality and ecotype limiting. BWS could be divided into 3 restoration divisions, pollution control division including Yongding River, Tongzi River and six lakes; Jingmi River and Nanchang River were ecological restoration zone, while Beihucheng River and Liangma River were in comprehensive improvement zone. Restoration potentiality of Jingmi River and Nanchang River were higher, and Liangma River was hardest to restore. The results suggest a new idea to evaluate the impact of human and environmental factors on UWS. ?? Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009.

  19. Nurse plant theory and its application in ecological restoration in lower subtropics of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai Ren; Long Yang; Nan Liu

    2008-01-01

    Nurse plants are those that facilitate the growth and development of other plant species (target species) beneath their canopy because they offer benign microhabitats that are more favorable for seed germination and/or seedling recruitment than their surrounding envi-ronment. Nurse plants have been mainly used to restore vegetation in arid and sub-arid zones in recent years. Based on summarizing the definition of nurse plant and target plant, we review the nursing effect mechanisms, ecological factors that influence nursing effect, relationships between nurse plant and ecological restoration. This review also brings forward possible pairs of nurse and target species at lower subtropical areas. Furthermore, we provide the potential tendency in nurse plant research and application.

  20. ECOLOGICAL PROBLEMS OF RESTORATED TRADITIONAL SETTLEMENTS: A CASE STUDY IN KALEİÇİ (ANTALYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacer MUTLU DANACI

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Historical fabrics of the cities reflect the cultural backgrounds of the societies. For centuries in historical urban settlements formed via experiences the most appropriate structure type to the climatic conditions and the region, has been produced. With the industrial revolution, to be able to have more comfortable places in the settlement, fossil fuel based energy consumption began to be generally preferred. As a result, the ecological balance in the nature has begun to deteriorate in an irrevocable way. To find a solution for the situation, in ecological architecture and planning issues various ecological structure criteria is defined. Accordingly, buildings appropriate to the local and climatic characteristics are meant to be constructed besides the use of renewable energy sources and minimizing energy consumption. When historical city fabrics are analyzed in the ecological context, one can observe that these include sustainable structure characteristics. In order for the buildings to be renewed and restored in accordance with their original structures, great care should be given in terms of financial resource, manpower, material and control.Antalya Kaleiçi which was chosen as the working area was analyzed in terms of settlement structure, building form and structure cover, place organization, material choice, renewable, clean energy usage and water saving and usage and it was determined to have ecological, sustainable settlement characteristics. Traditional architecture samples which have been built by the people after trial and error for centuries and with the solutions appropriate to the climatic and environmental conditions are highly appropriate to the ecological design criteria as structures and settlements peculiar to the district. However the mistakes in the restoration of the buildings used for touristic aims after 1970s, adding of new necessary functions to the buildings, not taking care of the original structure and materials

  1. Restoring fish ecological quality in estuaries: Implication of interactive and cumulative effects among anthropogenic stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichert, Nils; Borja, Angel; Chust, Guillem; Uriarte, Ainhize; Lepage, Mario

    2016-01-15

    Estuaries are subjected to multiple anthropogenic stressors, which have additive, antagonistic or synergistic effects. Current challenges include the use of large databases of biological monitoring surveys (e.g. the European Water Framework Directive) to help environmental managers prioritizing restoration measures. This study investigated the impact of nine stressor categories on the fish ecological status derived from 90 estuaries of the North East Atlantic countries. We used a random forest model to: 1) detect the dominant stressors and their non-linear effects; 2) evaluate the ecological benefits expected from reducing pressure from stressors; and 3) investigate the interactions among stressors. Results showed that largest restoration benefits were expected when mitigating water pollution and oxygen depletion. Non-additive effects represented half of pairwise interactions among stressors, and antagonisms were the most common. Dredged sediments, flow changes and oxygen depletion were predominantly implicated in non-additive interactions, whereas the remainder stressors often showed additive impacts. The prevalence of interactive impacts reflects a complex scenario for estuaries management; hence, we proposed a step-by-step restoration scheme focusing on the mitigation of stressors providing the maximum of restoration benefits under a multi-stress context.

  2. RESTAURACIÓN ECOLÓGICA:: BIODIVERSIDAD Y CONSERVACIÓN Ecological Restoration:: Biodiversity and Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ORLANDO VARGAS RÍOS

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available En este ensayo se compilan los principales conceptos y métodos aplicados en el desarrollo de proyectos de restauración ecológica, haciendo énfasis en la relación entre conservación, biodiversidad y restauración. El trabajo se inicia con las definiciones más comunes y de fácil comprensión y continúa con la explicación de los pasos principales a tener en cuenta en el desarrollo de proyectos de restauración ecológica. Los pasos que se presentan son los más comunes en casi todos los procesos de restauración, pero su aplicación total depende del estado de degradación del ecosistema que se va a restaurar.In this essay the principal concepts and methods applied on projects aimed at ecological restoration are reviewed, with emphasis on the relationship between conservation, biodiversity and restoration. The most common definitions are provided and the steps to take into account to develop projects on ecological restoration, which will be determined by the level of degradation of the ecosystem to be intervened.

  3. Relationship Between Agriculture and Ecological Deterioration, Restoration and Reconstruction in Loess Plateau Areas of Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Xu

    2002-01-01

    A comprehensive analysis was conducted on the current situation as well as historic succession process of agriculture and ecological conditions in Northwest China, in particular in the Loess Plateau, by means of a inter-disciplinary approach of ecology, agro-geohistory, and agronomy. It was concluded that the fundamental causes responsible for the ecological deterioration, signed by the poor agro-productivity and serious soil erosion, had been the extensive cropping system by ever-increasing reclamation on semi-drought slope land, where initiated a natural vegetation of brushy grasses with sparse trees, thus suitable only for animal husbandry. Based on an identification of specific actual status of China, several countermeasures of correctly dealing with the relationship between agricultural development and the ecological restoration and reconstruction were proposed, including to get breakthrough first in the transection area by means of the rational use of resources and the raising of agro-system productivity, to promoting "water conservancy-type ecological agriculture" through the radical shift of traditional production pattern, and the adoption of a policy of proper degree of grain self-reliance, as well as to construct livestock industry base in Northwest China.

  4. Soil biochar amendment in a nature restoration area: effects on plant productivity and community composition

    OpenAIRE

    Van de Voorde, T.F.J.; Bezemer, T.M.; Groenigen, J. W.; Jeffery, S; Mommer, L.

    2014-01-01

    Biochar (pyrolyzed biomass) amendment to soils has been shown to have a multitude of positive effects, e.g., on crop yield, soil quality, nutrient cycling, and carbon sequestration. So far the majority of studies have focused on agricultural systems, typically with relatively low species diversity and annual cropping schemes. How biochar amendment affects plant communities in more complex and diverse ecosystems that can evolve over time is largely unknown. We investigated such effects in a fi...

  5. Understanding the ecology of blue elderberry to inform landscape restoration in semiarid river corridors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaghti, Mehrey G; Holyoak, Marcel; Williams, Amy; Talley, Theresa S; Fremier, Alexander K; Greco, Steven E

    2009-01-01

    Societal constraints often limit full process restoration in large river systems, making local rehabilitation activities valuable for regeneration of riparian vegetation. A target of much mitigation and restoration is the federally threatened Valley elderberry longhorn beetle and its sole host plant, blue elderberry, in upper riparian floodplain environments. However, blue elderberry ecology is not well understood and restoration attempts typically have low success rates. We determined broad-scale habitat characteristics of elderberry in altered systems and examined associated plant species composition in remnant habitat. We quantified vegetation community composition in 139 remnant riparian forest patches along the Sacramento River and elderberry stem diameters along this and four adjacent rivers. The greatest proportion of plots containing elderberry was located on higher and older floodplain surfaces and in riparian woodlands dominated by black walnut. Blue elderberry saplings and shrubs with stems <5.0 cm in diameter were rare, suggesting a lack of recruitment. A complex suite of vegetation was associated with blue elderberry, including several invasive species which are potentially outcompeting seedlings for light, water, or other resources. Such lack of recruitment places increased importance on horticultural restoration for the survival of an imperiled species. These findings further indicate a need to ascertain whether intervention is necessary to maintain functional and diverse riparian woodlands, and a need to monitor vegetative species composition over time, especially in relation to flow regulation. PMID:19034562

  6. The ecological state and restoration of the river Simojoki; Simojoen tila ja kunnostus - Simojoki-life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nenonen, S.; Liljaniemi, P. (eds.)

    2007-07-01

    Human activity has had an unmistakable impact on the ecosystem of the River Simojoki basin. The river was cleared for log floating in the 1940s and 1950s, with the measures taken being quite radical in some locations. Clearing rapids resulted in a less diverse habitat structure and considerably reduced the number and total area of habitats available to aquatic fauna. With the ensuing loss of protected areas and spawning grounds, the production of salmon fry declined and salmon catches dropped significantly. Other pressures on the aquatic environment included the drainage of peatlands and mires for forestry and peat production, a procedure that increased nutrient and solid loadings in the rivers and altered the hydrological characteristics of the catchment area. The goal of the five-year Simojoki-Life project (2002-2007) was to ensure the favourable conservation status of the Simojoki river nature type, which is part of the Natura 2000 network of special protection areas. The principal means to this end were ecological restoration of the river and intensification of the water protection measures in the catchment area. Other central aims were to develop the river's potential for education and recreation and to improve opportunities for tourism as a livelihood in the area. The Simojoki restoration and protection project carried out a number of subprojects: measures to reduce loading, a survey of the ecological state of the river, and ecological restoration of the main course. This summary report presents studies dealing with the state of wastewater treatment in areas of the river basin with scattered settlement, the implementation of water protection measures in forestry, the surveys of the ecological state of the river, and the ecological restoration of the waterway. A number of needs for development were noted in the treatment of wastewater in areas of scattered settlement but the costs involved pose the principal obstacle to reforming the methods currently in

  7. Soil biochar amendment in a nature restoration area: effects on plant productivity and community composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorde, van de T.F.J.; Bezemer, T.M.; Groenigen, van J.W.; Jeffery, S.L.; Mommer, L.

    2014-01-01

    Biochar (pyrolyzed biomass) amendment to soils has been shown to have a multitude of positive effects, e.g., on crop yield, soil quality, nutrient cycling, and carbon sequestration. So far the majority of studies have focused on agricultural systems, typically with relatively low species diversity a

  8. Achieving ecological restoration by working with local people: a Chinese scholar seeks win-win paths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heran Zheng

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Environmental degradation and poverty are linked, and this means that conservation and poverty reduction must be tackled together. However, finding a successful integrated strategy has been an elusive goal. We describe the career of a Chinese scholar, Shixiong Cao, whose persistent efforts to find and follow win-win paths have led to ecological restoration accompanied by long-term benefits for local residents. Cao’s story illustrates how development that combines environmental and economic perspectives can both help people to escape the poverty trap and restore degraded environments. His experience demonstrates that when environmental managers find solutions that can mitigate or eliminate poverty through the development of green enterprises, they can combine them with environmental restoration efforts to produce long-term sustainable solutions. In this paper, we share Cao’s 28 years of experience because we believe that his scientific and practical spirit, and his belief that it is necessary to work directly with the people affected by environmental projects, will inspire other scholars and practitioners to achieve similar successes.

  9. Sources, sinks, and spatial ecology of cotton mice in longleaf pine stands undergoing restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, N.W.; Mitchell, M.S.; Grand, J.B.

    2009-01-01

    The Fire and Fire Surrogate studya replicated, manipulative experimentsought the most economically and ecologically efficient way to restore the nation's fire-maintained ecosystems. As part of this study, we conducted a 3-year markrecapture study, comprising 105,000 trap-nights, to assess demographic responses of cotton mice (Peromyscus gossypinus) to Fire and Fire Surrogate treatments at the Gulf Coastal Plain site, where longleaf pine was the ecosystem to be restored. We compared competing models to evaluate restoration effects on variation in apparent survival and recruitment over time, space, and treatment, and incorporated measures of available source habitat for cotton mice with reverse-time modeling to infer immigration from outside the study area. The top-ranked survival model contained only variation over time, but the closely ranked 2nd and 3rd models included variation over space and treatment, respectively. The top 4 recruitment models all included effects for availability of source habitat and treatments. Burning appeared to degrade habitat quality for cotton mice, showing demographic characteristics of a sink, but treatments combining fire with thinning of trees or application of herbicide to the understory appeared to improve habitat quality, possibly creating sources. Bottomland hardwoods outside the study also acted as sources by providing immigrants to experimental units. Models suggested that population dynamics operated over multiple spatial scales. Treatments applied to 15-ha stands probably only caused local variation in vital rates within the larger population. ?? 2009 American Society of Mammalogists.

  10. An Ecological Examination of North Carolina's Amendment One Vote to Ban Same Sex Marriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth L. Davison

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available On May 8th, 2012, North Carolina voters passed a constitutional amendment that officially banned same sex marriage. Whereas statewide the amendment was supported by 61% of North Carolina voters, there was a 67% range in variance of support for the amendment among North Carolina counties. This paper examines the large variance regarding the state amendment vote, among North Carolina's 100 counties. Controlling for percent of county residents with a bachelor’s or greater degree had an enormous effect in diminished support for the amendment while age, race and urban demographics were weaker and capricious measures in understanding the county variance of the Amendment One vote.

  11. Evaluating dryland ecological and river restoration using repeat LiDAR and hydrological monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, W. M.; DeLong, S.

    2012-12-01

    Recent improvements in the collection of multitemporal, high-resolution topographic data such as Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) have done a great deal to increase our ability to quantify the details of landscape change. Both Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) and Airborne Laser Swath Mapping (ALSM) can be used to easily assess how Earth surface processes affect landscape form to a level of precision that was previously more difficult to attain. A comprehensive approach using ALSM, TLS-TLS comparison, and hydrological monitoring is being used to assess the effectiveness of a large scale ecological and river restoration effort by the Cuenca los Ojos Foundation at San Bernardino Ranch near Agua Prieta, Sonora, Mexico. In the study area, historical arroyo cutting and changes in land use led to the abandonment of a ciénega wetland and resulted in widespread ecological destruction. The current land managers have employed engineering methods in order to restore stream and ciénega ecology, including the installation of large rock gabions, earthen berms, and concrete spillways along channels. Our goal is to test the hypothesis that the use of dam and gabion structures leads to stream aggradation, flash flood dampening, and ultimately, increased available water and reestablishment of historic wetland plant and animal communities. We present results from LiDAR change detection that includes 2007-2011 ALSM to TLS change, and several 2011-2012 TLS-TLS comparisons. We also present results from streamflow monitoring, field observation, and monitoring of shallow groundwater and soil moisture conditions. Preliminary results show that channel aggradation occurs rapidly upstream of engineered structures. However, the apparent dampening of sediment transport by the structures leads to less aggradation and even incision immediately downstream of structures. Peak flood flows are decreased by the reservoirs formed behind large earthen berms. After several years of water retention

  12. Insights into invasion and restoration ecology: Time to collaborate towards a holistic approach to tackle biological invasions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirijam Gaertner

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study is to provide an integrated framework for the management of alien plant invasions, combining insights and experiences from the fields of invasion and restoration ecology to enable more effective management of invasive species. To determine linkages between the scientific outputs of the two disciplines we used an existing data base on restoration studies between 2000 and 2008 and did a bibliometric analysis. We identified the type of restoration applied, determined by the aim of the study, and conducted a content analysis on 208 selected studies with a link to biological invasions (invasion-restoration studies. We found a total of 1075 articles on ecosystem restoration, with only eight percent of the studiesthe main objective to control alien invasions. The content analysis of 208 invasion-restoration studies showed that the majority of the studies focused on causes of degradation other than alien invasions. If invaders were referred to as the main driver of degradation, the prevalent cause for degradation was invaders outcompeting and replacing native species. Mechanical control of alien plant invasions was by far the most common control method used. Measures that went beyond the removal of alien plants were implemented in sixty-five percent of the studies.Although invasion control was not as common as other types of restoration, a closer look at the sub-group of invasion-restoration studies shows a clear link between restoration and invasion ecology. Concerns, as identified in the literature review, are firstly that restoration activities mostly focus on controlling the invader while other underlying causes for degradation are neglected, and secondly that the current approach of dealing with alien invasions lacks a combination of theoretical and practical aspects. We suggest that closer collaboration between invasion and restoration ecologists can help to improve the management of alien plant invasions. We conclude with a

  13. Public support for river restoration. A mixed-method study into local residents' support for and framing of river management and ecological restoration in the Dutch floodplains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buijs, Arjen E

    2009-06-01

    . People using these frames challenge safety arguments for river restoration and highlight potential threats to sense of place and to agriculture. In the areas surveyed, the project initiator's focus on biodiversity and safety did not resonate very well among the local community, because of their diverging views on nature. Practical implications of the study include the need to incorporate public perception into river restoration projects and the potential for project initiators to form strategic alliances with local residents to promote ecological restoration in combination with river restoration. PMID:19303194

  14. Manure derived biochar can successfully replace phosphate rock amendment in peatland restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouliot, Rémy; Hugron, Sandrine; Rochefort, Line; Godbout, Stéphane; Palacios, Joahnn H; Groeneveld, Elisabeth; Jarry, Isabelle

    2015-07-01

    Phosphate rock fertilization is commonly used in peatland restoration to promote the growth of Polytrichum strictum, a nurse plant which aids the establishment of Sphagnum mosses. The present study tested whether 1) phosphorus fertilization facilitates the germination of P. strictum spores and 2) biochar derived from local pig manure can replace imported phosphate rock currently used in peatland restoration. Various doses of biochar were compared to phosphate rock to test its effect directly on P. strictum stem regeneration (in Petri dishes in a growth chamber) and in a simulation of peatland restoration with the moss layer transfer technique (in mesocoms in a greenhouse). Phosphorus fertilization promoted the germination of P. strictum spores as well as vegetative stem development. Biochar can effectively replace phosphate rock in peatland restoration giving a new waste management option for rural regions with phosphorus surpluses. As more available phosphorus was present in biochar, an addition of only 3-9 g m(-2) of pig manure biochar is recommended during the peatland restoration process, which is less than the standard dose of phosphate rock (15 g m(-2)). PMID:25897506

  15. Managing floodplain-forest restoration in European river landscapes combining ecological and flood-protection issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyer, Ilona; Mosner, Eva; Lehmann, Boris

    2012-01-01

    Throughout Europe the demands for improved flood protection on the one hand and the requirements to maintain and enhance floodplain forests on the other are perceived as conflicting goals in river-basin management, revealing the urgent need for strategies to combine both issues. We developed an interdisciplinary approach for floodplain-forest restoration identifying sites suitable for reforestations from both an ecological and hydraulic point of view. In the ecological module, habitat-distribution models are developed providing information on ecologically suitable sites. In the hydraulic module, a two-dimensional hydrodynamic-numerical model (2D-HN model) delivers the requested hydraulic information. The output of the two models is intersected. Subsequently, in an iterative procedure, the potential of plantings without exceeding critical water levels can be identified by hydraulic evaluation using the 2D-HN-model. The approach is exemplified using two reforestation scenarios at the Elbe River, Germany, showing considerable potential for softwood forest establishment without negative hydraulic effects. The approach reported here provides a solution for a severe conflict in river-basin management that hampers the reestablishment of the strongly threatened floodplain forests in Europe. Alternative measures to enhance floodplain-forest regeneration feasible under certain preconditions are discussed in the context of the current state of European large rivers. PMID:22471087

  16. Ecological restoration of tidal estuaries in North Western Europe: an adaptive strategy to multi-scale changes

    OpenAIRE

    Ducrotoy, J.-P.

    2010-01-01

    Estuaries are subject to increasing pressures due to local human activities. In addition, global change is affecting coastal habitats. Such disturbances impinge on goods and services provided by these ecosystems. The paper is devoted to efforts to restore environmental quality in some industrialised estuaries during the few past decades. It then compares strategies to recover damaged habitats and methods to restore lost ecological functionalities. Case studies are taken from the Seine in Fran...

  17. Predicting performance for ecological restoration: A case study using Spartina altemiflora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, S.E.; Grace, J.B.

    2010-01-01

    The success of population-based ecological restoration relies on the growth and reproductive performance of selected donor materials, whether consisting of whole plants or seed. Accurately predicting performance requires an understanding of a variety of underlying processes, particularly gene flow and selection, which can be measured, at least in part, using surrogates such as neutral marker genetic distances and simple latitudinal effects. Here we apply a structural equation modeling approach to understanding and predicting performance in a widespread salt marsh grass, Spartina alterniflora, commonly used for ecological restoration throughout its native range in North America. We collected source materials from throughout this range, consisting of eight clones each from 23 populations, for transplantation to a common garden site in coastal Louisiana and monitored their performance. We modeled performance as a latent process described by multiple indicator variables (e.g., clone diameter, stem number) and estimated direct and indirect influences of geographic and genetic distances on performance. Genetic distances were determined by comparison of neutral molecular markers with those from a local population at the common garden site. Geographic distance metrics included dispersal distance (the minimum distance over water between donor and experimental sites) and latitude. Model results indicate direct effects of genetic distance and latitude on performance variation among the donor sites. Standardized effect strengths indicate that performance was roughly twice as sensitive to variation in genetic distance as to latitudinal variation. Dispersal distance had an indirect influence on performance through effects on genetic distance, indicating a typical pattern of genetic isolation by distance. Latitude also had an indirect effect on genetic distance through its linear relationship with dispersal distance. Three performance indicators had significant loadings on

  18. Ecological restoration of peatlands in steppe and forest-steppe areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minayeva, Tatiana; Sirin, Andrey; Dugarjav, Chultem

    2016-04-01

    Peatlands in the arid and semi-arid regions of steppe and forest steppe belt of Eurasia have some specific features. That demands the special approach to their management and restoration. The distribution of peatlands under conditions of dry climate is very limited and they are extremely vulnerable. Peatlands in those regions are found in the highlands where temperate conditions still present, in floodplains where they can get water from floods and springs, or in karst areas. Peatlands on watersheds present mainly remains from the more humid climate periods. Water and carbon storage as well as maintenance of the specific biodiversity are the key ecosystem natural functions of peatlands in the steppe and forest steppe. The performance of those functions has strong implications for people wellness and livelihood. Anyhow, peatlands are usually overlooked and poorly represented in the systems of natural protected areas. Land management plans, mitigation and restoration measures for ecosystems under use do not usually include special measures for peatlands. Peatlands'use depends on the traditional practices. Peat extraction is rather limited in subhumid regions but still act as one of the threats to peatlands. The most of peatlands are used as pastures and grasslands. In densely populated areas large part of peatlands are transformed to the arable lands. In many cases peatlands of piedmonts and highlands are affected by industrial developments: road construction, mining of subsoil resources (gold, etc.). Until now, the most of peatlands of steppe and forest steppe region are irreversibly lost, what also effects water regime, lands productivity, biodiversity status. To prevent further dramatic changes the ecological restoration approach should be introduced in the subhumid regions. The feasibility study to assess the potential for introducing ecological restoration techniques for peatlands in the arid and semi-arid conditions had been undertaken in steppe and forest

  19. Environmental management: integrating ecological evaluation, remediation, restoration, natural resource damage assessment and long-term stewardship on contaminated lands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna

    2008-08-01

    Ecological evaluation is essential for remediation, restoration, and Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA), and forms the basis for many management practices. These include determining status and trends of biological, physical, or chemical/radiological conditions, conducting environmental impact assessments, performing remedial actions should remediation fail, managing ecosystems and wildlife, and assessing the efficacy of remediation, restoration, and long-term stewardship. The objective of this paper is to explore the meanings of these assessments, examine the relationships among them, and suggest methods of integration that will move environmental management forward. While remediation, restoration, and NRDA, among others, are often conducted separately, it is important to integrate them for contaminated land where the risks to ecoreceptors (including humans) can be high, and the potential damage to functioning ecosystems great. Ecological evaluations can range from inventories of local plants and animals, determinations of reproductive success of particular species, levels of contaminants in organisms, kinds and levels of effects, and environmental impact assessments, to very formal ecological risk assessments for a chemical or other stressor. Such evaluations can range from the individual species to populations, communities, ecosystems or the landscape scale. Ecological evaluations serve as the basis for making decisions about the levels and kinds of remediation, the levels and kinds of restoration possible, and the degree and kinds of natural resource injuries that have occurred because of contamination. Many different disciplines are involved in ecological evaluation, including biologists, conservationists, foresters, restoration ecologists, ecological engineers, economists, hydrologist, and geologists. Since ecological evaluation forms the basis for so many different types of environmental management, it seems reasonable to integrate management options

  20. Managing Boundaries, Healing the Homeland: Ecological Restoration and the Revitalization of the White Mountain Apache Tribe, 1933 â 2000

    OpenAIRE

    Tomblin, David Christian

    2009-01-01

    The main argument of this dissertation is that the White Mountain Apache Tribeâ s appropriation of ecological restoration played a vital role in reinstituting control over knowledge production and eco-cultural resources on the Fort Apache Indian Reservation in the second half of the twentieth century. As a corollary, I argue that the shift in knowledge production practices from a paternalistic foundation to a community-based approach resulted in positive consequences for the ecological healt...

  1. Assessing the grass Schizachyrium gracile for capacity to ecologically restore the polluted soils of ecosystems in a bauxite mining area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abandoned bauxite mines in the tropical forest of the Dominican Republics only biosphere reserve are leaving behind extensive areas and landfills, whose negative impacts need restoring because of the ecological interest of the sites they occupy. Given that any realistic recovery program should be based on knowledge of the ecological succession, in this report we present the results derived from the study of two populations of a pioneer species of these ecosystems. (Author)

  2. Causes of Wetland Degradation and Ecological Restoration in the Yellow River Delta Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jian-feng; Sun Qi-xiang

    2005-01-01

    Yellow River delta (YRD) is one of the biggest deltas that there is a large area of wetland in the world. Thanks to soil(sands) sediment carried by the Yellow River, there was averagely the newly formed land 21.3 km2in YRD. During the development of petroleum industry and urban expansion, wetlands were degraded due to population growth, irrational land use, in addition to adverse natural eco-environment such as lower precipitation, higher soil evaporation and soil salinazation. The major ecological measures to restore degraded wetland concerned with ensuring water supply, especially establishing perfect irrigation works; protecting virgin plant communities and assisting them to regenerate by the way of site preparation, improving living surroundings; introducing salt-tolerant plants to increase vegetation species and plant coverage, thereby enhancing the capability of wetland to combat contamination and pollution through plant remediation, uptake, absorption, etc. Finally making a comprehensive land use plan,accordingly removing deleterious facilities.

  3. Habitat Re-Creation (Ecological Restoration as a Strategy for Conserving Insect Communities in Highly Fragmented Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Shuey

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Because of their vast diversity, measured by both numbers of species as well as life history traits, insects defy comprehensive conservation planning. Thus, almost all insect conservation efforts target individual species. However, serious insect conservation requires goals that are set at the faunal level and conservation success requires strategies that conserve intact communities. This task is complicated in agricultural landscapes by high levels of habitat fragmentation and isolation. In many regions, once widespread insect communities are now functionally trapped on islands of ecosystem remnants and subject to a variety of stressors associated with isolation, small population sizes and artificial population fragmentation. In fragmented landscapes ecological restoration can be an effective strategy for reducing localized insect extinction rates, but insects are seldom included in restoration design criteria. It is possible to incorporate a few simple conservation criteria into restoration designs that enhance impacts to entire insect communities. Restoration can be used as a strategy to address fragmentation threats to isolated insect communities if insect communities are incorporated at the onset of restoration planning. Fully incorporating insect communities into restoration designs may increase the cost of restoration two- to three-fold, but the benefits to biodiversity conservation and the ecological services provided by intact insect communities justify the cost.

  4. Process-Based Ecological River Restoration: Visualizing Three-Dimensional Connectivity and Dynamic Vectors to Recover Lost Linkages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saija Koljonen

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Human impacts to aquatic ecosystems often involve changes in hydrologic connectivity and flow regime. Drawing upon examples in the literature and from our experience, we developed conceptual models and used simple bivariate plots to visualize human impacts and restoration efforts in terms of connectivity and flow dynamics. Human-induced changes in longitudinal, lateral, and vertical connectivity are often accompanied by changes in flow dynamics, but in our experience restoration efforts to date have more often restored connectivity than flow dynamics. Restoration actions have included removing dams to restore fish passage, reconnecting flow through artificially cut-off side channels, setting back or breaching levees, and removing fine sediment deposits that block vertical exchange with the bed, thereby partially restoring hydrologic connectivity, i.e., longitudinal, lateral, or vertical. Restorations have less commonly affected flow dynamics, presumably because of the social and economic importance of water diversions or flood control. Thus, as illustrated in these bivariate plots, the trajectories of ecological restoration are rarely parallel with degradation trajectories because restoration is politically and economically easier along some axes more than others.

  5. In Situ Burning Restores the Ecological Function and Structure of an Oil-Impacted Coastal Marsh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baustian, Joseph; Mendelssohn, Irving; Lin, Qianxin; Rapp, John

    2010-11-01

    As the use of in situ burning for oil spill remediation in coastal wetlands accelerates, the capacity of this procedure to restore the ecological structure and function of oil-impacted wetlands becomes increasingly important. Thus, our research focused on evaluating the functional and structural recovery of a coastal marsh in South Louisiana to an in situ burn following a Hurricane Katrina-induced oil spill. Permanent sampling plots were set up to monitor marsh recovery in the oiled and burned areas as well as non-oiled and non-burned (reference) marshes. Plots were monitored for species composition, stem density, above- and belowground productivity, marsh resiliency, soil chemistry, soil residual oil, and organic matter decomposition. The burn removed the majority of the oil from the marsh, and structurally the marsh recovered rapidly. Plant biomass and species composition returned to control levels within 9 months; however, species richness remained somewhat lower in the oiled and burned areas compared to the reference areas. Recovery of ecological function was also rapid following the in situ burn. Aboveground and belowground plant productivity recovered within one growing season, and although decomposition rates were initially higher in the oiled areas, over time they became equivalent to those in reference sites. Also, marsh resiliency, i.e., the rate of recovery from our applied disturbances, was not affected by the in situ burn. We conclude that in situ burning is an effective way to remove oil and allow ecosystem recovery in coastal marshes.

  6. Ecological and social dimensions of ecosystem restoration in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Dagmar; Svavarsdottir, Kristin; Nilsson, Christer;

    2013-01-01

    : forest and peatland restoration was most common in Finland, freshwater restoration was most common in Sweden, restoration of natural heathlands and grasslands was most common in Iceland, restoration of natural and semi-cultural heathlands was most common in Norway, and restoration of cultural ecosystems...

  7. Restoration of the Hydrosedimentary and Ecological Continuity: Hydromorphological Impacts on the Yerres River, Seine Catchment, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melun, Gabriel; Arnaud-Fassetta, Gilles; Fort, Monique; Chalaux, Eric; Lucas, Emmanuelle; Fourel, Sabine; Guesdon, Loïc

    2014-05-01

    The European Water Framework Directive (WFD) aims to achieve "a good ecological and chemical status" by 2015. Hydromorphology influences ecological status in three ways: (i) hydrological regime (flow and groundwater), (ii) morphological conditions, and (iii) longitudinal and transverse continuity of rivers. Physical and ecological impacts of those structures upon hydrosystems are known, but removal's impacts are misunderstood due to lack of scientific feedbacks. According to particular methodology (following hydromorphological protocols established by ONEMA - the French National Agency for Water and Aquatic Environments), which is based on field measurements and modelling, we aim at characterizing and quantifying hydromorphological impacts of dam removals on riverbed and bank structures. This study is applied to the Yerres watershed particularly significant due to its anthropic pressure conditions. We study limnimetric adjustments, stream power variations, transport capacity variations and riverbanks dynamics in no-dam context, at the reach scale. Our results show that there is a clear morphological adjustment of the riverbed and bank structures, even though locally those possibilities are constrained by anthropogenic facilities. Run-of-the-river dam removals result in: (i) systematic lowering of water level, (ii) shrinkage of the cross-section, (iii) increase of stream-power and transport capacity, proportional to uncompartmentalised context (calculated values can be greater than 35 W/m², hence suggesting that flow would have theoretical capacity to modify the channel geometry notably in sections without protection); (iv) clear recovery of bank erosion processes during flood events. Finally, our study demonstrates that the Yerres River can be hydromorphologically restored; yet higher hydrodynamic conditions in no-dam context involve new issues particularly in relation with the human occupation of the Yerres's valley (wetlands and channels disconnection

  8. The state of the art of aquatic and semi-aquatic ecological restoration projects in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nienhuis, P.H.; Bakker, J.P.; Grootjans, A.P.; Gulati, R.D.; De Jonge, V.N.

    2002-01-01

    ecosystems are in full swing now, enhanced by the European Union policy to set aside agricultural land in the Netherlands in favour of the development of `nature'. The state of the art of aquatic and semi-aquatic ecological restoration projects in the Netherlands is given. Starting from the conceptu

  9. Considerations of Scale and Processes in Stream Restoration and Ecological Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, A.; Shields, D.; Kuhnle, R.; Knight, S.

    2005-12-01

    stream temperatures. Aggradation processes typical of Stage V result in loss of interstitial spaces for spawning, de-oxygenation of substrate and may suffocate organisms. Perhaps most importantly, channel widening produces shallower depths at base flow and renders streams less retentive of large wood. Ecological characteristics recover in advanced stages of channel evolution as baseflow channels are narrowed and berms re-vegetate (Stage VI), but full recovery to pre-incision (Stage I) conditions has not been observed for both ecologic and sediment-transport systems. The processes reflected by stages of evolution can operate over entire fluvial networks and over time scales in the order of 100 years. Issues regarding effectiveness or benefit of stream restoration practices, therefore, must address scale. Furthermore, site and approach selection for reach-scale restoration projects should be guided by knowledge of watershed-scale processes. As an example, a grade control structure installed on Hotophia Creek, Mississippi successfully eliminated upstream-progressing incision and resulted in locally improved aquatic populations in the stilling basin. However, the trapping of hydraulically-controlled sediment on the upstream side of the structure resulted in streambed incision, de-stabilization of streambanks and degraded aquatic habitat in downstream reaches not protected by other grade-control structures.

  10. Cumulative effects of restoration efforts on ecological characteristics of an open water area within the Upper Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, B.R.; Shi, W.; Houser, J.N.; Rogala, J.T.; Guan, Z.; Cochran-Biederman, J. L.

    2011-01-01

    Ecological restoration efforts in large rivers generally aim to ameliorate ecological effects associated with large-scale modification of those rivers. This study examined whether the effects of restoration efforts-specifically those of island construction-within a largely open water restoration area of the Upper Mississippi River (UMR) might be seen at the spatial scale of that 3476ha area. The cumulative effects of island construction, when observed over multiple years, were postulated to have made the restoration area increasingly similar to a positive reference area (a proximate area comprising contiguous backwater areas) and increasingly different from two negative reference areas. The negative reference areas represented the Mississippi River main channel in an area proximate to the restoration area and an open water area in a related Mississippi River reach that has seen relatively little restoration effort. Inferences on the effects of restoration were made by comparing constrained and unconstrained models of summer chlorophyll a (CHL), summer inorganic suspended solids (ISS) and counts of benthic mayfly larvae. Constrained models forced trends in means or in both means and sampling variances to become, over time, increasingly similar to those in the positive reference area and increasingly dissimilar to those in the negative reference areas. Trends were estimated over 12- (mayflies) or 14-year sampling periods, and were evaluated using model information criteria. Based on these methods, restoration effects were observed for CHL and mayflies while evidence in favour of restoration effects on ISS was equivocal. These findings suggest that the cumulative effects of island building at relatively large spatial scales within large rivers may be estimated using data from large-scale surveillance monitoring programs. Published in 2010 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Research Progress of Restoration in Urban Ecology System%城市生态系统恢复研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘熙

    2009-01-01

    定义了城市生态系统恢复的概念,分析了全球城市生态系统恢复状况,总结了城市生态系统恢复的研究进展,指出了城市生态系统恢复科学的研究方向.%The author defined the concept of urban ecology system,analyzed the restoration condition of urban ecology system of the global and China,summarized research progress of restoration of urban ecology system,and pointed research aspects of scieace restoration of urbarn ecology system.

  12. 霞湾港生态修复研究%Study on Ecological Restoration of Xiawan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈明梅; 姚晔; 李良

    2014-01-01

    Xiawan is located in Qingshuitang industrial region of Zhuzhou City and its industrial pollution causes obvious harm to water ecological environment. Xiawan water pollution is serious, 7 indexes of ammonia nitrogen, suspended solids, COD, BOD, fluoride, total cyanide and TP in water exceed the standard, and the contents of mercury, cadmium, lead, zinc, arsenic, nickel and copper in the port sediment exceed the national soil pollution standards. Xiawan water pollution affects the water quality of Xiang Jiang and endangers the lives and health of residents, also restricts sustainable development of Chang-Zhu-Tan City Group at Xiangjiang River downstream. The governance ideas can be applied such as cutting off the pollution sources of enterprises, cleaning long-term depositing sludge containing heavy metals in Xiawan, developing a scientific and reasonable implement scheme and plan measures and effectively supervising the whole process management by relevant departments of environmental protection. At the same time of physical treatment, takes ecological restoration schemes such as planting artificial vegetation after the dredging solidification landfill, applying ecological restoration design aiming at the plane, cross-sectional and longitudinal river course, establishing wetland protection zone, recovering and reconstructing riparian vegetation, establishing riparian vegetation buffer zone and taking the ecological revetment measures to maximize the recovery of good ecological environment of Xiawan harbor basin.%霞湾港位于湖南省株洲市清水塘工业区,区域内工业污染使其水生态环境受到明显损害。霞湾港中氨氮、悬浮物、化学需氧量、生化需氧量、氟化物、总氰化物及总磷7项指标均超标,且底泥中汞、镉、铅、锌、砷、镍、铜等重金属含量严重超过国家土壤污染标准。霞湾港水污染直接影响到湘江水质,危害居民的生活和健康,也制约了湘江干流下游

  13. Ecological filtering and plant traits variation across quarry geomorphological surfaces: implication for restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilardelli, Federica; Sgorbati, Sergio; Armiraglio, Stefano; Citterio, Sandra; Gentili, Rodolfo

    2015-05-01

    Revegetation patterns after quarry abandonment have been widely studied from several ecological points of view, but a trait-based approach is still lacking. The aim of this study was to characterise the plant species assemblages and the associated functional traits filtered on different geomorphological surfaces in abandoned limestone quarry areas: artificial cliffs, embankments, and platforms. We then verified if species with certain traits were better able to overcome the dispersal and environmental filters necessary for establishment. To this aim, we analyzed 113 vegetation plots and collected data on 25 morphological, ecological, and dispersal traits to detect species adaptaions across these man-made environments. As a case study, we investigated the extraction basin of Botticino (Lombardy, Italy), the second largest in Italy. The results obtained by SIMPER and CCA analyses showed that rockiness, stoniness, slope, elevation, and time of surfaces are the main filters that varied across quarries and affected plant assemblages at the macro-scale level. Across the three geomorphological surfaces (meso-scale) of quarries, more specific abiotic filters selecting species were found. In turn, traits differentiation according to the three main geomorphological surfaces of quarry emphasized that further filters acting at the micro-scale imply differences in dispersal mechanisms and resource availability. This work highlighted the utility to study species assemblages and environmental filters to address quarry restoration according to the type of geomorphological surface. The investigation of some traits (chorological form, life forms, seed dispersal,s and plant height) can furnish some interesting indications for practice individuating further abiotic filters acting at the micro-scale.

  14. BASIS FOR IMPLEMENTING RESTORATION STRATEGIES: SAN NICOLÁS ZOYATLAN SOCIAL-ECOLOGICAL SYSTEM (GUERRERO, MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Cervantes Gutiérrez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In Latin America, indigenous communities have been distinguished by continuous marginalization and degradation of their social-ecological systems (SES, and this is the case of San Nicolás Zoyatlan (Guerrero, Mexico. With the purpose of establishing restoration strategies, we conducted an in situ diagnosis to assess the current condition of the community and its disturbance factors. We combined methods of environmental and social sciences to analyze, in diachronic and synchronic contexts, how the SES’s natural resources are used. Results indicate that the chronic ecological disturbance of the SES and agrarian conflicts have contributed to the degradation of vegetation and soil. Thus, vegetation is impoverished, with secondary tropical deciduous forest (TDF shrub vegetation predominating, and the risk of soil degradation is high, despite the inhabitants’ knowledge and appreciation of this resource. To reverse degradation, we defined and established rehabilitation practices with the involvement of inhabitants. These comprised agroforestry systems (AFSs and plantations (PLs on community lands, using 18 native TDF species selected on the basis of local preferences. Our ongoing assessment indicates that after more than a decade, the AFSs and PLs are maintained and managed by the people, as reflected in the current size of plants whose inputs contribute to improve physical and chemical soil characteristics, such as soil aggregate formation, cation exchange capacity and organic matter content. However, we concluded that we need to confirm whether the ecosystem processes and environmental services are recovered and maintained over time, in addition to determining how they have influenced and will continue to influence the socioeconomic factors involved in maintaining rehabilitation practices.

  15. Experimental Research on the Application of Water Hyacinths to the Ecological Restoration of Water Bodies with Eutrophication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Fa-kuo; SHAO; Xiao-long; SUN; Yi-chao; LIU; Hong-lei; YUAN; Min; XIE; Hua-sheng; LI; Li; YU; Dan; LIU; Xu

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The study aims to discuss the application of water hyacinths to the ecological restoration of water bodies with eutrophication through simulation experiments. [Method] In this study, water hyacinths were used to restore the simulated eutrophic water with green algae as the dominant algae species, and then the restoration effect of the simulated eutrophic water by water hyacinths was analyzed. [Result] In the simulation test without sediment, the peak chlorophyll concentration was 434.6 mg/m3 in the tank without water hyacinths, which decreased to 285 and 119 mg/m3 respectively in the tanks with 1 and 4 water hyacinths. In the experiment with sediment, compared with the control tank without water hyacinths, a 58% reduction in chlorophyll concentration could be observed in the tank with 4 water hyacinths planted (with a coverage of 51%). The results showed that water hyacinths could inhibit alga growth notably, but there was likely a density threshold (51% coverage), and no significant eco-restoration effect was observed in the simulated eutrophic water with too few water hyacinths planted. [Conclusion] The research could provide scientific references for the ecological restoration of eutrophic water bodies.

  16. Restoration of sodic soils involving chemical and biological amendments and phytoremediation by Eucalyptus camaldulensis in a semiarid region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seenivasan, R; Prasath, V; Mohanraj, R

    2015-06-01

    Salt-affected soils in semiarid regions impede the agricultural productivity and degrade the ecosystem health. In South India, several hectares of land are salt-affected, where the evapotranspiration exceeds the annual precipitation. This study is an attempt to ameliorate sodic soils, by an experiment involving chemical treatment (addition of gypsum), organic amendments (decomposed bagasse pith and green manuring with Sesbania rostrata) and phytoremediation by plantation of Eucalyptus camaldulensis. The prime focus is to minimize the use of gypsum and improve the soil health in terms of nutrients, microbial population and enzyme activity in addition to sodicity reclamation. At the end of the third year, a reduction of 10 % in soil pH, 33 % in electrical conductivity and 20 % in exchangeable sodium percentage was achieved compared to the initial values. Three- to fourfold increases in organic carbon content were observed. Significant improvement in the available major and micronutrients of soil, microbial growth and enzyme activity was observed, suggesting phytoremediation by E. camaldulensis as a sustainable option for restoration of similar kind of degraded lands. PMID:25547478

  17. Peace on the River? Social-Ecological Restoration and Large Dam Removal in the Klamath Basin, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Hannah Gosnell; Erin Clover Kelly

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to explain the multiple factors that contributed to a 2010 agreement to remove four large dams along the Klamath river in California and Oregon and initiate a comprehensive social-ecological restoration effort that will benefit Indian tribes, the endangered fish on which they depend, irrigated agriculture, and local economies in the river basin. We suggest that the legal framework, including the tribal trust responsibility, the Endangered Species Act, and the Federal Power Act...

  18. Assessing Vegetation Cover Dynamics Induced by Policy-Driven Ecological Restoration and Implication to Soil Erosion in Southern China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jien; Wang, Tianming; Ge, Jianping

    2015-01-01

    In the aftermath of the severe droughts and floods at the end of the 20th century, the Chinese government launched several ecological restoration projects, including the Natural Forest Protection Program in 1998 and the Grain-for-Green Program in 1999, to promote afforestation and reforestation to reduce surface runoff and consequent soil erosion nationwide. However, it is still unclear how vegetation has changed in southern China since the launch of these programs. In this study, we used the...

  19. Analysis of the arboreal diversity in restorated after-fire areas in the ecological park Chipinque, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research assessed the diversity of the arboreal component of areas, with and without ecological restoration, after being impacted by a wildfire in the Ecological Park Chipinque (PECh), in Northeastern Mexico. Two areas were analyzed, one facing northeast and the other Northwest in the Sierra Madre Oriental, in each facing were assessed two areas, one of them where there were not practices of ecological restoration (control) and other one in which these practices were carried out. Within each area, four sites were selected. Plots were 10 m x 10 m, in a mixed ecosystem pine-oak, ranging in height from 1000 to 1150 m above sea level; all trees with a diameter equal to 0.10 m ≥1.5 cm were assessed, and were obtained parameters of height (h) and diameter (d0.10). The diversity was estimated using the Shannon index (H') and Margalef (Da) and an analysis of Bray-Curtis was used to determine the diversity according to the similarity-dissimilarity between the ecosystems of both exposures. To evaluate the vertical distribution of species Pretzsch index was estimated, and species were distributed in different zones of altitude. The family Fagaceae was the predominant group in both areas. According to the analysis of diversity, sampled areas showed a decrease on richness and diversity. The species with the highest ecological weight in both aspects (NE and NO) and in both treatments (with and without restoration) was Quercus rysophylla; while Pinus pseudostrobus was the second specie in the restored areas due to the re-vegetation practices.

  20. Assessing Vegetation Cover Dynamics Induced by Policy-Driven Ecological Restoration and Implication to Soil Erosion in Southern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jien Zhang

    Full Text Available In the aftermath of the severe droughts and floods at the end of the 20th century, the Chinese government launched several ecological restoration projects, including the Natural Forest Protection Program in 1998 and the Grain-for-Green Program in 1999, to promote afforestation and reforestation to reduce surface runoff and consequent soil erosion nationwide. However, it is still unclear how vegetation has changed in southern China since the launch of these programs. In this study, we used the MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI to analyze the vegetation cover dynamics in southern China from 2000 to 2009 and evaluate the resulting effects of controlling soil erosion. Our observations indicate that 5.3% of the study area significantly increased and 0.98% significantly decreased in EVI value (p < 0.05. The spring EVI had largest increase in space. The conversions of croplands on steep slopes to forests resulting from national policies led to significant increases in EVI. The increase in EVI was not driven by annual average temperature and annual precipitation. By referencing ecological restoration statistical data and field observations, we showed that ecological restoration programs significantly improved vegetation cover in southern China. Increase in the area of farmland-converted forestlands has reduced soil erosion based upon monitoring sediment yields at hydrologic stations in the Yangtze River. This study displays the spatial patterns of trend in vegetation growth since the beginning of the 21st century in southern China and highlights the important role of China's afforestation program.

  1. Rethinking Partnerships with the Aim of Producing Knowledge with Practical Relevance: a Case Study in the Field of Ecological Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Hazard

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Researchers in conservation biology and restoration ecology often work in partnership with local actors to increase the practical relevance of the knowledge they produce. Although an academic mode of knowledge production is essential in research for a better understanding of biological systems, it often fails to produce frameworks and methodologies having practical relevance that can be used in conservation and restoration programs. The involvement of researchers in collective plans of action is supposed to contribute to the production of a more contextualized form of knowledge. In this paper, we report our experience of partnership research in an ecological restoration project. We show that changing our mode of knowledge production to one that produces knowledge having more practical relevance requires a particular spectrum of partners and reflexive communication between all the partners. We advocate the need for participatory approaches that favor collective and reflexive processes of problem finding and problem solving in conservation and restoration projects. Putting such processes into practice is not only a challenge for researchers but also for their partners, and presupposes a profound transformation of their roles.

  2. Mapping Ecological Processes and Ecosystem Services for Prioritizing Restoration Efforts in a Semi-arid Mediterranean River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabucchi, Mattia; O'Farrell, Patrick J.; Notivol, Eduardo; Comín, Francisco A.

    2014-06-01

    Semi-arid Mediterranean regions are highly susceptible to desertification processes which can reduce the benefits that people obtain from healthy ecosystems and thus threaten human wellbeing. The European Union Biodiversity Strategy to 2020 recognizes the need to incorporate ecosystem services into land-use management, conservation, and restoration actions. The inclusion of ecosystem services into restoration actions and plans is an emerging area of research, and there are few documented approaches and guidelines on how to undertake such an exercise. This paper responds to this need, and we demonstrate an approach for identifying both key ecosystem services provisioning areas and the spatial relationship between ecological processes and services. A degraded semi-arid Mediterranean river basin in north east Spain was used as a case study area. We show that the quantification and mapping of services are the first step required for both optimizing and targeting of specific local areas for restoration. Additionally, we provide guidelines for restoration planning at a watershed scale; establishing priorities for improving the delivery of ecosystem services at this scale; and prioritizing the sub-watersheds for restoration based on their potential for delivering a combination of key ecosystem services for the entire basin.

  3. Mapping ecological processes and ecosystem services for prioritizing restoration efforts in a semi-arid Mediterranean river basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabucchi, Mattia; O'Farrell, Patrick J; Notivol, Eduardo; Comín, Francisco A

    2014-06-01

    Semi-arid Mediterranean regions are highly susceptible to desertification processes which can reduce the benefits that people obtain from healthy ecosystems and thus threaten human wellbeing. The European Union Biodiversity Strategy to 2020 recognizes the need to incorporate ecosystem services into land-use management, conservation, and restoration actions. The inclusion of ecosystem services into restoration actions and plans is an emerging area of research, and there are few documented approaches and guidelines on how to undertake such an exercise. This paper responds to this need, and we demonstrate an approach for identifying both key ecosystem services provisioning areas and the spatial relationship between ecological processes and services. A degraded semi-arid Mediterranean river basin in north east Spain was used as a case study area. We show that the quantification and mapping of services are the first step required for both optimizing and targeting of specific local areas for restoration. Additionally, we provide guidelines for restoration planning at a watershed scale; establishing priorities for improving the delivery of ecosystem services at this scale; and prioritizing the sub-watersheds for restoration based on their potential for delivering a combination of key ecosystem services for the entire basin.

  4. Driving Forces of Dynamic Changes in Soil Erosion in the Dahei Mountain Ecological Restoration Area of Northern China Based on GIS and RS

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao Li; Xiang Niu; Bing Wang; Peng Gao; Yu Liu

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic change in soil erosion is an important focus of regional ecological restoration research. Here, the dynamic changes of soil erosion and its driving forces in the Dahei Mountain ecological restoration area of northern China were analyzed by LANDSAT TM remote sensing captured via geographic information system (GIS) technologies during three typical periods in 2004, 2008 and 2013. The results showed the following: (1) a decrease in intensive erosion and moderate erosion areas, as well as...

  5. Understanding the Mechanisms of Collective Decision Making in Ecological Restoration: An Agent-Based Model of Actors and Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristy Watkins

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Ecological restoration, particularly in urban contexts, is a complex collective decision-making process that involves a diversity of stakeholders and experts, each with their own perceptions and preferences about what landscapes should and can look like, how to get them to the desired state, and on what timeline. We investigate how structural and behavioral factors may influence collective decision making in the context of ecological restoration, with the purpose of establishing general relationships between management styles (defined by structural and behavioral factors of the organization and decision outcomes. Informed by existing literature on collective decision making and by empirical data from the Chicago Wilderness region, we present a stylized agent-based model that maps out and simulates the processes by which individuals within restoration organizations communicate, discuss, and ultimately make a decision. Our study examines how structural and behavioral characteristics--including: (a the number of actors and groups involved in decision making, (b the frequency and type of interactions among actors, (c the initial setup of positions and respect, (d outside information, and (e entrenchment and cost of dissent--lead to or prohibit group convergence in terms of collective position, variation in position across actors, and final decision strategies. We found that formal meetings and group leaders are important facilitators of convergence, especially when multiple groups are present, new information is introduced in the process, and participants are polarized around an issue. Also, intergroup interactions are particularly important for overall convergence. Position entrenchment slows the convergence process and increases the need for decision strategies involving outside intervention. Cost of dissent can reinforce these effects. Our study formalizes collective decision-making processes within the context of ecological restoration

  6. [Influence of ecological restoration of riparian zone on water quality of Zhuanhe River in Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wan; Zhang, Na; Wu, Fang-Fang

    2011-01-01

    The ecological effects of restoration of flood lands and banks in the Zhuanhe River of Beijing are discussed. From July to September in 2009, water samples were periodically collected in the 13 chosen sample sites, and the concentrations of nutrients and dissolved oxygen (DO) were measured and analyzed. The results showed that there were obvious seasonal variations in the concentrations of ammonia nitrogen (NH4(+) -N), nitrate nitrogen (NO3(-) -N), total phosphorus (TP), and DO in the Zhuanhe River. The increase of domestic sewage with rising water consumption in mid and late July and early August resulted in the great increase of NH4(+) -N and TP concentrations. The NO3(-) -N concentration was controlled by the seasonal variations of precipitation and surface runoff. In the higher precipitation seasons, it depended on the interval time between two rainfalls just before the sample; in the lower precipitation seasons, it depended on the time from last rainfall or the interval time between two rainfalls just before the sample. DO concentration was due to the relationship between oxygen release in photosynthesis and oxygen consumption in decomposition of organic matter in the river, which was controlled by phenological periods of hydrophytes. It also served to slight changes of NO3(-) -N and NH4(+) -N concentration. As a whole, the Zhuanhe River was not eutrophicated, but reducing the concentration of NH4(+) -N in early August and that of NO3(-) -N in the wet seasons was still the key to improve water quality. The NO3(-) -N and NH4(+) -N concentrations were lower where the amount of hydrophytes was relatively large. In the growing seasons, the stronger growth and larger coverage of hydrophytes led to the lower TP and higher DO concentration in the river; while in the late growing period, much more litters contributed to the higher TP and lower DO concentration. In both periods, Calamus affected more than Scirpus tabernaemontani. Concentrations of NO3(-) -N, NH4(+) -N

  7. Transient Social–Ecological Stability: the Effects of Invasive Species and Ecosystem Restoration on Nutrient Management Compromise in Lake Erie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph D. Conroy

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Together, lake ecosystems and local human activity form complex social–ecological systems (SESs characterized by feedback loops and discontinuous change. Researchers in diverse fields have suggested that complex systems do not have single stable equilibria in the long term because of inevitable perturbation. During this study, we sought to address the general question of whether or not stable social–ecological equilibria exist in highly stressed and managed lacustrine systems. Using an integrated human–biophysical model, we investigated the impacts of a species invasion and ecosystem restoration on SES equilibrium, defined here as a compromise in phosphorus management among opposing stakeholders, in western Lake Erie. Our integrated model is composed of a calibrated ecological submodel representing Sandusky Bay, and a phosphorus management submodel that reflects the societal benefits and costs of phosphorus regulation. These two submodels together form a dynamic feedback loop that includes freshwater ecology, ecosystem services, and phosphorus management. We found that the invasion of dreissenid mussels decreased ecosystem resistance to eutrophication, necessitating increased phosphorus management to preserve ecosystem services and thus creating the potential for a shift in social–ecological equilibrium. Additionally, our results suggest that net benefits in the region following the invasion of dreissenids may never again reach the pre-invasion level if on-site phosphorus control is the sole management lever. Further demonstrating transient system stability, large-scale wetland restoration shifted points of management compromise to states characterized by less on-site phosphorus management and higher environmental quality, resulting in a significant increase in net benefits in the region. We conclude that lacustrine SESs are open and dynamic, and we recommend that future models of these systems emphasize site-specific perturbation over

  8. Ecological outcomes and evaluation of success in passively restored southeastern depressional wetlands.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Steven, Diane; Sharitz, Rebecca R.; Barton, Christopher, D.

    2010-11-01

    Abstract: Depressional wetlands may be restored passively by disrupting prior drainage to recover original hydrology and relying on natural revegetation. Restored hydrology selects for wetland vegetation; however, depression geomorphology constrains the achievable hydroperiod, and plant communities are influenced by hydroperiod and available species pools. Such constraints can complicate assessments of restoration success. Sixteen drained depressions in South Carolina, USA, were restored experimentally by forest clearing and ditch plugging for potential crediting to a mitigation bank. Depressions were assigned to alternate revegetation methods representing desired targets of herbaceous and wet-forest communities. After five years, restoration progress and revegetation methods were evaluated. Restored hydroperiods differed among wetlands, but all sites developed diverse vegetation of native wetland species. Vegetation traits were influenced by hydroperiod and the effects of early drought, rather than by revegetation method. For mitigation banking, individual wetlands were assessed for improvement from pre-restoration condition and similarity to assigned reference type. Most wetlands met goals to increase hydroperiod, herb-species dominance, and wetland-plant composition. Fewer wetlands achieved equivalence to reference types because some vegetation targets were incompatible with depression hydroperiods and improbable without intensive management. The results illustrated a paradox in judging success when vegetation goals may be unsuited to system constraints.

  9. Opportunities and challenges of integrating ecological restoration into assessment and management of contaminated ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Ruth N; Luoma, Samuel N; Bayne, Bruce A; Iliff, John; Larkin, Daniel J; Paschke, Mark W; Victor, Sasha L; Ward, Sara E

    2016-04-01

    Ecosystem restoration planning near the beginning of the site assessment and management process ("early integration") involves consideration of restoration goals from the outset in developing solutions for contaminated ecosystems. There are limitations to integration that stem from institutional barriers, few successful precedents, and limited availability of guidance. Challenges occur in integrating expertise from various disciplines and multiple, sometimes divergent interests and goals. The more complex process can result in timing, capacity, communication, and collaboration challenges. On the other hand, integrating the 2 approaches presents new and creative opportunities. For example, integration allows early planning for expanding ecosystem services on or near contaminated lands or waters that might otherwise have been unaddressed by remediation alone. Integrated plans can explicitly pursue ecosystem services that have market value, which can add to funds for long-term monitoring and management. Early integration presents opportunities for improved and productive collaboration and coordination between ecosystem restoration and contaminant assessment and management. Examples exist where early integration facilitates liability resolution and generates positive public relations. Restoration planning and implementation before the completion of the contaminated site assessment, remediation, or management process ("early restoration") can facilitate coordination with offsite restoration options and a regional approach to restoration of contaminated environments. Integration of performance monitoring, for both remedial and restoration actions, can save resources and expand the interpretive power of results. Early integration may aid experimentation, which may be more feasible on contaminated lands than in many other situations. The potential application of concepts and tools from adaptive management is discussed as a way of avoiding pitfalls and achieving benefits in

  10. Opportunities and challenges of integrating ecological restoration into assessment and management of contaminated ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Ruth N; Luoma, Samuel N; Bayne, Bruce A; Iliff, John; Larkin, Daniel J; Paschke, Mark W; Victor, Sasha L; Ward, Sara E

    2016-04-01

    Ecosystem restoration planning near the beginning of the site assessment and management process ("early integration") involves consideration of restoration goals from the outset in developing solutions for contaminated ecosystems. There are limitations to integration that stem from institutional barriers, few successful precedents, and limited availability of guidance. Challenges occur in integrating expertise from various disciplines and multiple, sometimes divergent interests and goals. The more complex process can result in timing, capacity, communication, and collaboration challenges. On the other hand, integrating the 2 approaches presents new and creative opportunities. For example, integration allows early planning for expanding ecosystem services on or near contaminated lands or waters that might otherwise have been unaddressed by remediation alone. Integrated plans can explicitly pursue ecosystem services that have market value, which can add to funds for long-term monitoring and management. Early integration presents opportunities for improved and productive collaboration and coordination between ecosystem restoration and contaminant assessment and management. Examples exist where early integration facilitates liability resolution and generates positive public relations. Restoration planning and implementation before the completion of the contaminated site assessment, remediation, or management process ("early restoration") can facilitate coordination with offsite restoration options and a regional approach to restoration of contaminated environments. Integration of performance monitoring, for both remedial and restoration actions, can save resources and expand the interpretive power of results. Early integration may aid experimentation, which may be more feasible on contaminated lands than in many other situations. The potential application of concepts and tools from adaptive management is discussed as a way of avoiding pitfalls and achieving benefits in

  11. A Proposal on the Restoration of Nostoc flagelliforme for Sustainable Improvement in the Ecology of Arid Steppes in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Gao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nostoc flagelliforme, a filamentous nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium, is widely distributed in arid steppes of the west and northwestern parts of China. However, as a food delicacy this species has been overexploited from 1970 to 2000. Moreover, overgrazing, land reclamation and the removal of medicinal herbs have caused severely reduced vegetation coverage there. In this communication, a badly damaged but slowly rehabilitating N. flagelliforme-inhibiting steppe is described, and the rehabilitation of desertified steppes by the renewed growth of N. flagelliforme is proposed. The restoration of this dominant nitrogen supplier would be an ecologically sustainable solution for supplementing current measures already taken in the desertified regions. In addition, a goal of 50%–60% vegetation coverage is proposed by the N. flagelliforme restoration.

  12. Mangrove Restoration Areas in Salt River Bay National Historical Park and Ecological Preserve

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Apart from two 100 m test plots, mangrove restoration activities were conducted between 1999 and 2001. Each year, thousands of red mangrove propagules were planted...

  13. Approach and Strategy for Performing Ecological Risk Assessments for the Department of Energy Oak Ridge Field Office Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suter, G.W. II

    1992-01-01

    This technical memorandum provides guidance for planning and performing ecological risk assessments (ERAs) on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). This work was performed under Work Breakdown Structure 1.4.12.2.3.04.07.02 (Activity Data Sheet 8304) and meets an Environmental Restoration Program milestone for FY 95. The strategy discussed in this report is consistent with the overall strategy for site management and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) compliance developed for the ORR and relevant U.S. Environmental Protection Agency documents and guidance. The general approach and strategy presented herein was developed for the ORR, but it could be applicable to other complex CERCLA sites that possess significant ecological resources.

  14. 生态工程自然化恢复米勒河滨水生态%Riverine Ecology Restoration through Ecological Engineering and Naturalization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡先祥; 汪洋; 陈林; 阮维桢; 尹茜

    2013-01-01

    [目的]为改善和恢复埃塞俄比亚加里示范区米勒河滨水及河流遭到破坏的生态系统,防止生物多样性严重下降或丧失.[方法]基于演替理论,通过生态工程和”自然化”结合的方法,保护自然和恢复湿地.[结果]通过重建湿地的生物群落,恢复河流生态环境,生态功能明显恢复.[结论]多体系配套生态工程在东非半干旱地区是可行的,其恢复实践为保护和恢复当地水生态资源做出了建设性示范.%The aim was to improve and restore destroyed riverine and water ecosystem and to prevent bio-diversity from deteriorating in Jari demonstration plot in Ethiopia.[Method] Biological engineering and naturalization were made use of to protect nature and restore wetland as per Succession Theory.[Result] Both of ecoenvironment and eco-functions of Mille River were restored through reconstruction of biocenosis in wetlands.[Conclusion] It is feasible to implement matched ecological projects in semiarid regions in East Africa,providing references for restoration and protection of local water resources.

  15. Revealed Preference and Effectiveness of Public Investment in Ecological River Restoration Projects: An Application of the Count Data Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Lee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Ecological river restoration projects aim to revitalize healthy and self-sustaining river systems that can provide irreplaceable benefits to human society. Cheonggyecheon and Anyangcheon are two sites of recent river restoration projects in Korea. To assess the economic value of two rivers, count data was collected to conduct the individual travel cost method (ITCM in this study. Five statistical models such as the Poisson, the negative binomial, the zero-truncated Poisson, the negative binomial, and negative binomial model adjusted for both truncation and endogenous stratification were used in the analysis due to the nature of count data. Empirical results showed that regressors were statistically significant and corresponded to conventional consumer theory. Since collected count data indicated over-dispersion and endogenous stratification, the adjusted Negative Binomial was selected as an optimal model to analyze the recreational value of Cheonggyecheon and Anyangcheon. Estimates of the annual economic value of two river restoration projects were approximately US $170.1 million and US $50.5 million, respectively.

  16. Effect of ecological restoration and climate change on ecosystems: a case study in the Three-Rivers Headwater Region, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chong; Zhang, Linbo

    2016-06-01

    The Three-Rivers Headwater Region (TRHR) is the headwater of the Yangtze River Basin (YARB), Yellow River Basin (YRB), and Lancang River Basin (LRB); it is known as China's 'Water Tower' owing to its important supply of freshwater. In order to assess ecosystem changes in the TRHR during 2000-2012, we systematically and comprehensively evaluated a combination of model simulation results and actual observational data. The results showed the following: (1) Ecosystem pattern was relatively stable during 2000-2010, with a slight decrease in farmland and desert areas, and a slight increase in grassland and wetland/water-body areas. (2) A warmer and wetter climate, and ecological engineering, caused the vegetation cover and productivity to significantly improve. (3) Precipitation was the main controlling factor for streamflow. A significant increase in precipitation during 2000-2012 resulted in an obvious increase in annual and seasonal streamflow. Glacier melting also contributed to the streamflow increase. (4) The total amount of soil conservation increased slightly from 2000 to 2012. The increase in precipitation caused rainfall erosivity to increase, which enhanced the intensity of soil erosion. The decrease in wind speed decreased wind erosion and the frequency of sandstorms. (5) The overall habitat quality in the TRHR was stable between 2000 and 2010, and the spatial pattern exhibited obvious heterogeneity. In some counties that included nature reserves, habitat quality was slightly higher in 2010 than in 2000, which reflected the effectiveness of the ecological restoration. Overall, the aforementioned ecosystem changes are the combined results of ecological restoration and climate change, and they are likely a local and temporary improvement, rather than a comprehensive and fundamental change. Therefore, more investments and efforts are needed to preserve natural ecosystems. PMID:27240853

  17. 论“原生态-损生态-复生态”的辩证复归%On Dialectic Reversion of Original Ecology-Damaged Ecology-Restored Ecology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖功欧

    2011-01-01

    生态文明是全球面向未来的必然选择。我们面临的是大自然原生态的“损生态”,技术将被作为工具体系而利用来恢复生态;在这一过程中,我们不仅要建立生态环境的技术体系,还要建立生态环境的责任体系。人是这两个体系中的核心主体,地球原生态的辩证复归,仍要依靠人的主体性。在当前,尤其要加大责任主体的行政与法律问责。此外,必须确立人与万物的相依之环,并以建立生态环境的责任体系来维系此相依之环;这个环就是“生态价值观”。%Ecological civilization is a global inevitable choice for the future. We are faced with the damaged ecology of the original ecology of nature while technologies are used as a tool system to restore the ecology. In doing so,we should form not only a technological system for the ecological environment, but also a responsibility system, in which, man is the core body. Therefore, the dialectic reversion of the earth original ecology shall have reliance on man's subjectivity. Nowadays,administrative and legal accountabilities for responsibility subjects should be in particular intensified. In addition,the ecological value for man and nature should be established,which could be maintained with the responsibility system of the ecological environment.

  18. Nucleation in tropical ecological restoration A nucleação na restauração ecológica de ecossistemas tropicais

    OpenAIRE

    Ademir Reis; Fernando Campanhã Bechara; Deisy Regina Tres

    2010-01-01

    Ecological theories of facilitation and nucleation are proposed as a basis for environmental restoration in tropical ecosystems. The main goal of this paper is to present restoration techniques based on the concept of nucleation, in which small nuclei of vegetation are established within a degraded land. The nucleation techniques (artificial shelters for animals, planting of herbaceous shrub life forms, soil and seed bank translocation, seed rain translocation, soil and seed rain translocatio...

  19. Stoney Creek Ecological Restoration Post-Project Appraisal: Soil Quality Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Miskiewicz, Adam; Gao, Celia; Wong, Michael; Rong, Nick

    2013-01-01

    The state of the soil in the riparian area around an urban stream, Stoney Creek, in Burnaby, British Columbia was investigated. This site had recently been disturbed by a salmon habitat restoration project. Our study aimed to provide a first set of data for post-project soil quality assessments in this region. Four soil pits were excavated and various soil samples were collected. These samples were transported to the Soil Science Lab at Simon Fraser University for laboratory analysis, where s...

  20. The ecology, restoration, and management of southeastern floodplain ecosystems: a synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Sammy L.; Sharitz, Rebecca R.; Groninger, John W.; Battaglia, Loretta L.

    2009-01-01

    Floodplain ecosystems of the southeastern United States provide numerous services to society, but hydrologic and geomorphic alterations, agricultural practices, water quality and availability, and urban development continue to challenge restorationists and managers at multiple spatial and temporal scales. These challenges are further exacerbated by tremendous uncertainty regarding climate and land use patterns and natural variability in these systems. The symposium from which the papers in 2009 ensued was organized to provide a critical evaluation of current natural resource restoration and management practices to support the sustainability of floodplain ecosystem functions in the southeastern United States. In this paper we synthesize these concepts and evaluate restoration and conservation techniques in light of our understanding of these ecosystems. We also discuss current and future challenges and attempt to identify new approaches that may facilitate the long-term sustainability of southeastern floodplain systems. We conclude thatintegration of disciplines and approaches is necessary to meet the floodplain conservation challenges of the coming century. Integration will not only include purposeful dialogue between interdisciplinary natural resource professionals, but it also is necessary to sincerely engage the public about goals, objectives, and desirable outcomes of floodplain ecosystem restoration.

  1. Peace on the River? Social-Ecological Restoration and Large Dam Removal in the Klamath Basin, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Gosnell

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to explain the multiple factors that contributed to a 2010 agreement to remove four large dams along the Klamath river in California and Oregon and initiate a comprehensive social-ecological restoration effort that will benefit Indian tribes, the endangered fish on which they depend, irrigated agriculture, and local economies in the river basin. We suggest that the legal framework, including the tribal trust responsibility, the Endangered Species Act, and the Federal Power Act, combined with an innovative approach to negotiation that allowed for collaboration and compromise, created a space for divergent interests to come together and forge a legally and politically viable solution to a suite of social and environmental problems. Improved social relations between formerly antagonistic Indian tribes and non-tribal farmers and ranchers, which came about due to a number of local collaborative processes during the early 2000s, were critical to the success of this effort. Overall, we suggest that recent events in the Klamath basin are indicative of a significant power shift taking place between tribal and non-tribal interests as tribes gain access to decision-making processes regarding tribal trust resources and develop capacity to participate in the development of complex restoration strategies.

  2. Conforming Amendments to the Regulations Governing Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Race, Color, National, Origin, Disability, Sex, and Age under the Civil Rights Restoration Act of 1987; Final Rule. Federal Register, Part IV: Department of Education, 34 CFR Parts 100, 104, 106, and 110.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Register, 2000

    2000-01-01

    The Secretary amends the regulations governing nondiscrimination on the basis of race, color, national origin, sex, handicap, and age to conform with statutory amendments made by the Civil Rights Restoration Act of 1987 (CRRA). These amendments add a definition of "program or activity" or "program" that adopts the statutory definition of "program…

  3. Long-term persistence of seeded grass species: an unwanted side effect of ecological restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydgren, Knut; Auestad, Inger; Hamre, Liv Norunn; Hagen, Dagmar; Rosef, Line; Skjerdal, Gudrun

    2016-07-01

    Spoil heaps are the visible footprint of hydropower production, particularly in vulnerable alpine environments. Speeding up vegetation development by seeding commercial grass species has been a common restoration practice for the last 50 years, but we lack information on whether seeded species decline and allow native plant cover to develop. We visually estimated cover of native vascular plants and five seeded grass species (Agrostis capillaris, Festuca ovina, Festuca rubra, Schedonorus pratensis and Phleum pratense) on eight spoil heaps at different elevations (boreal-alpine zone) in western Norway. Spoil heap vegetation was censused twice (9-20 and 24-36 years after spoil heap construction); the undisturbed surrounding vegetation was also censused on the second occasion. Total cover on the spoil heaps showed some increase, but remained far below that in surrounding areas. Cover of seeded grass species in the surroundings was low (but not negligible), indicating suboptimal establishment ability. Seeded species usually covered less than 20 % of the spoil heaps, and only F. rubra, F. ovina and A. capillaris contributed substantially. Proportional cover indicated better initial establishment by seeded species, but their cover decreased between the censuses on all but the highest located spoil heap. The persistence of seeded grass species is problematic, and despite the decrease in proportional cover, they are likely to persist for decades on spoil heaps, posing a risk of invasion of surrounding areas. We therefore recommend replacing the practice of seeding with more appropriate restoration measures.

  4. [Remote sensing based monitoring of vegetation dynamics and ecological restoration in Beijing mountainous area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yong; Liu, Liang-yun; Jia, Jian-hua

    2010-11-01

    By using the Landsat images in 1979, 1988, 1999, 2005, and 2009, and the linear unmixed model at pixel scale, this paper analyzed the spatiotemporal variation of vegetation coverage in Beijing mountainous area. After detecting the areas of vegetation degradation or restoration, the impacts of elevation, slope, and soil type on vegetation restoration were studied. From 1979 to 1988, the vegetation coverage in the study area had no obvious change, but in the following 12 years, the vegetation coverage was seriously destroyed due to the fast development of social economy. Fortunately, many protective measures were taken since 2000, which improved the vegetation coverage to 72% in 2009, with an increment of 13% compared to the vegetation coverage in 1999. A significant correlation was observed between the variations of vegetation coverage and territorial features. The areas with poor soil or large slope were more easily suffered from degradation than other places, and the flat regions with low elevation were more affected by human activities. PMID:21361013

  5. Research of land reclamation and ecological restoration in the resource-exhausting city : a case study of Huaibei in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eco-city construction is a strong tool which could move a city from traditional industrial civilization to ecological civilization. The city of Huaibet, located in China, has 50 years of coal mining history, and has been listed as a national resource-exhausting city. The city's sustainable development and ecological restoration is encountering extreme challenges. This study used time-space evolution analysis of mining subsidence in order to study the situation of evolution and distribution of subsidence in the area in Huaibet. The purpose of the study was to provide strategic recommendations to assist Huaibei city transform from a resource-exhausting city to an eco-city. Specifically, the paper discussed the direction of eco-reconstruction in Huaibei such as rural eco-agriculture; wetland park or suburban park; and mine park. It also presented a time-space evolution analysis of mining subsidence in Huaibet including the subsidence status of the main city of Huaibet and intensive use of land evaluation and land use measures of the main city of Huaibei. Land reclamation and eco-reconstruction of Huaibet was also examined in the paper. It was concluded that based on land use of all aspects of the evaluation area and city's development plan, an integrated tourism with full use of subsidence land could be developed. 10 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  6. Germination and emergence of annual species and burial depth: Implications for restoration ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limón, Ángeles; Peco, Begoña

    2016-02-01

    Due to the high content of viable seeds, topsoil is usually spread on ground left bare during railway and motorway construction to facilitate the regeneration of vegetation cover. However, during handling of the topsoil, seeds are often buried deeply and they cannot germinate or the seedlings cannot emerge from depth. This study experimentally explores the predictive value of seed mass for seed germination, mortality and seedling emergence at different burial depths for 13 common annual species in semiarid Mediterranean environments. We separate the effect of burial depth on germination and emergence by means of two experiments. In the germination experiment, five replicates of 20 seeds for each species were buried at depths ranging from 0 to 4 cm under greenhouse conditions. Germinated and empty or rotten seeds were counted after 8 weeks. In the emergence experiment, five replicates of four newly-germinated seeds per species were buried at the same depths under controlled conditions and emergence was recorded after 3 weeks. The effect of burial depth on percentage of germination and seedling emergence was dependent on seed size. Although all species showed a decrease in germination with burial depth, this decrease was greater for small-than large-seeded species. Percentage of emergence was positively related to seed mass but negatively related to burial depth. Seed mortality was higher for small-than large-seeded species, but there was no general effect of burial depth on this variable. Thus, the current practice of spreading 30 cm deep layers of topsoil in post-construction restoration projects is unadvisable. In this restoration scenario, thinner layers of topsoil should be used to achieve the maximum potential of the topsoil for germination and seedling establishment.

  7. Study of the ecological restoration of aquatic macrophytes in a eutrophic shallow lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Dong-Ru; Wu, Zhen-Bin; Yan, Guo-An; Li, Yi-Jian; Zhou, Yuan-Jie

    1997-03-01

    Investigations in 1991 to 1993 showed that a perennial submerged plant, Potamogeton maackianus A. Benn, which always dominates the submerged vegetation in the shallow lakes in the middle and lower basins of the Changjiang River, had been extinct from Donghu Lake of Wuhan, and that some other submerged plants sensitive to water contamination had also dissappeared or declined in the lake. The r-selected species, Najas marina L., Myriophyllum spicatum L. and Vallisneria sp. had superseded the K-selected one, P. maackianus, to co-dominate the submerged vegetation. Several hypereutrophic or eutrophic subregions had switched from macrophyte dominance to phytoplankton dominance, while the shrinkage of macrophytes and the deterioration of water quality had also become more and more severe in the other subregions. The emergent macrophytes were poorly developed and the share of leaf-floating plants had increased in the lake. It was found that the existing vegetation fluctuated drastically from year to year. Macrophyte restoration experiments carried out in large enclosures at 3 subregions of different trophic state, suggested that the aquatic vegetation of less polluted sublakes, such as Niuchao, Tanglin and Houhu Lakes, could recover spontaneously after stocking of herbivorous fish stopped; that K-selected plants should be introduced into these sublakes to enhance the stability of aquatic vegetation; that a prerequisite for the recovery of macrophytes in the severely polluted basins is the reduction of external and internal nutrient loadings coupled with feasible management measures; and that r-selected submerged species should be used as pioneer plants for the macrophyte recovery. The recently introduced exotic submerged plant, Elodea canadensis, transplanted into the Houhu Enclosure could survive but failed to survive summer in the enclosures located in the hypereutrophic Shuiguohu Bay.

  8. 黄沙河生态修复措施的探讨%Huangsha River Ecological Restoration Measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王健; 彭金华

    2016-01-01

    黄沙河目前已为纳污渠道,生态系统退化严重,河道水体污染严重,护岸硬质化导致河岸表面植物稀少,两岸植被缺乏连通性。该文以黄沙河生态修复为出发点,探讨工程中河流生态修复措施。实现河道功能性、生态性、亲水性,达到“安全、健康、生态、亲水”人与自然和谐,为区域经济可持续发展提供有力的支撑和保障。%Huangsha River is a dilution sewage channel at present, the ecosystem of which degenerates seriously.The water of the river course contaminates badly, which cause the decrease of both the type and the number of the water plants;the hard of the river revetment leads to the lack of botany on the bank;poor connectivity of the plants on both side of the river bank is resulted;Based on the ecological restoration of Huangsha River, and then discuses on measures of rehabilitation which aims at realizing the security, healthy, ecology and hydrophilic of the river channel and provides strong support for the sustainable development of regional econo-mies has been discussed.

  9. PHYTOSOCIOLOGICAL AND PHYTOGEOGRAPHIC CHARACTERIZATION OF A RIPARIAN FOREST SECTOR IN ALFREDO WAGNER, SANTA CATARINA STATE, AS SUBSIDY FOR ECOLOGICAL RESTORATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina da Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509812342The understanding of floristic and structure of tree communities is essential to subside the strategies offorest restoration. In this sense, a phyto-sociological survey was conducted in a forest fragment situated along a tributary of Caeté river, in Alfredo Wagner, state of Santa Catarina, in order to: i know the structureof trees and flora in this forest, ii classify the species found according to ecological groups and iii comparethe flora of the study area with other studies in Araucaria forest (FOM, Atlantic Rain Forest (FOD andthe transition area between FOM-FOD of Santa Catarina state. In this fragment, 10 plots of 400 m2 wereallocated, where all individual trees with the circumference at breast height (CBH, measured at 1.30 mabove the ground greater than or equal to 15.7 cm were measured, marked and identified. The species wereclassified into the following succession groups: pioneer, climax light-demanding or climax shade-tolerant.The Rectified Correspondence Analysis (DCA was used for the floristic comparison. The structure of thetree component was described by the density, frequency, dominance and importance value (VI. The resultsshowed elevated species richness (98 species. It was found typical species of FOM, such as Araucariaangustifolia (Bert. Kuntze, and species characteristics of FOD such as Byrsonima ligustrifolia A.Juss.,confirming the study fragment as an area of ecological tension between FOM and FOD. The species withmost elevated VI were Psychotria vellosiana Benth., Alsophila setosa Kaulf. and Guatteria australis A.St.-Hil. The species with elevated VI, for their considerable representation in the area, are important in therestoration of degraded riparian forests in the region. The species seedlings plantation should be plannedobserving the group successional of each species, planting pioneer and light-demanding climax speciesfirst (e.g. Psychotria vellosiana, followed by, after the

  10. Is the “Ecological and Economic Approach for the Restoration of Collapsed Gullies” in Southern China Really Economic?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengchao Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Collapsed gully erosion constantly plagues the sustainability of rural areas in China. To control collapsed gully erosion, an ecological and economic approach, which uses tree plantation to gain economic benefits and control soil erosion, has been widely applied by local governments in Southern China. However, little is known about the economic feasibility of this new method. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness and economic benefits of the new method. Based on a case study in Changting County, Southeast China, two farms were selected to represent a timber tree plantation and a fruit tree plantation, respectively. The Annual Capital Capitalization Method and Return on Investment (ROI were selected to conduct cost-benefit analysis. In contrast to previous studies, we found that the new approach was far from economic. The value of the newly-built forestland in Sanzhou Village and Tufang Village is 2738 RMB ha−1 and 5477 RMB ha−1, respectively, which are extremely lower than the costs of ecological restoration. Meanwhile, the annual ROI is −3.60% and −8.90%, respectively, which is negative and also far poorer than the average value of forestry in China. The costs of conservation were substantially over the related economic benefits, and the investors would suffer from greater loss if they invested more in the conservation. Low-cost terraces with timber trees had less economic loss compared with the costly terraces with fruit tree plantation. Moreover, the cost efficiency of the new approaches in soil conservation was also greatly poorer than the conventional method. The costs of conserving one ton soil per year for conventional method, new method for planting timber trees, and planting fruit trees were 164 RMB, 696 RMB, and 11,664 RMB, respectively. Therefore, the new collapsed gully erosion control methods are uneconomic and unsuitable to be widely carried out in China in the near future.

  11. Restoration Ecology - An Effective Way to Restore Biodiversity of Degraded Ecosystems%恢复生态学——退化生态系统生物多样性恢复的有效途径

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵平; 彭少麟; 张经炜

    2000-01-01

    Conversion of natural habitats from forest to agricultural and industrial landscape and then to degraded land is a major factor resulting in reduced biodiversity. Species with different functional traits strongly affect on structure and function of ecosystem. Low biodiversity characterizes the degraded ecosystems which bring great concern in the world. The emerging of restoration ecology provides tool and opportunity to reverse the trend of losing species. Therefore, whether a degraded ecosystem could be recovered or not depends on the recovery of its biodiversity.

  12. Aquatic vegetation in response to increased eutrophication and degraded light climate in Eastern Lake Taihu: Implications for lake ecological restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunlin; Liu, Xiaohan; Qin, Boqiang; Shi, Kun; Deng, Jianming; Zhou, Yongqiang

    2016-04-01

    Terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem degradation is widely recognized as a major global environmental and development problem. Although great efforts have been made to prevent aquatic ecosystem degradation, the degree, extent and impacts of this phenomenon remain controversial and unclear, such as its driving mechanisms. Here, we present results from a 17-year field investigation (1998–2014) of water quality and a 12-year remote sensing mapping (2003–2014) of the aquatic vegetation presence frequency (VPF) in Eastern Lake Taihu, a macrophyte-dominated bay of Lake Taihu in China. In the past 17 years, nutrient concentrations and water level (WL) have significantly increased, but the Secchi disk depth (SDD) has significantly decreased. These changes were associated with increased lake eutrophication and a degraded underwater light climate that further inhibited the growth of aquatic vegetation. In Eastern Lake Taihu, increased nutrients, chlorophyll a and WL, and a decreased SDD were all significantly correlated with a decreased VPF. NH4+-N concentration and SDD/WL were the most important controlling factors for VPF. Therefore, increased anthropogenic nutrient inputs and a degraded underwater light climate surely result in a decreased VPF. These results elucidate the driving mechanism of aquatic vegetation degradation and will facilitate Lake Taihu ecological restoration.

  13. Aquatic vegetation in response to increased eutrophication and degraded light climate in Eastern Lake Taihu: Implications for lake ecological restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunlin; Liu, Xiaohan; Qin, Boqiang; Shi, Kun; Deng, Jianming; Zhou, Yongqiang

    2016-01-01

    Terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem degradation is widely recognized as a major global environmental and development problem. Although great efforts have been made to prevent aquatic ecosystem degradation, the degree, extent and impacts of this phenomenon remain controversial and unclear, such as its driving mechanisms. Here, we present results from a 17-year field investigation (1998–2014) of water quality and a 12-year remote sensing mapping (2003–2014) of the aquatic vegetation presence frequency (VPF) in Eastern Lake Taihu, a macrophyte-dominated bay of Lake Taihu in China. In the past 17 years, nutrient concentrations and water level (WL) have significantly increased, but the Secchi disk depth (SDD) has significantly decreased. These changes were associated with increased lake eutrophication and a degraded underwater light climate that further inhibited the growth of aquatic vegetation. In Eastern Lake Taihu, increased nutrients, chlorophyll a and WL, and a decreased SDD were all significantly correlated with a decreased VPF. NH4+-N concentration and SDD/WL were the most important controlling factors for VPF. Therefore, increased anthropogenic nutrient inputs and a degraded underwater light climate surely result in a decreased VPF. These results elucidate the driving mechanism of aquatic vegetation degradation and will facilitate Lake Taihu ecological restoration. PMID:27041062

  14. Restoring forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobs, Douglass F.; Oliet, Juan A.; Aronson, James;

    2015-01-01

    Forest loss and degradation is occurring at high rates but humankind is experiencing historical momentum that favors forest restoration. Approaches to restoration may follow various paradigms depending on stakeholder objectives, regional climate, or the degree of site degradation. The vast amount...... of land requiring restoration implies the need for spatial prioritization of restoration efforts according to cost-benefit analyses that include ecological risks. To design resistant and resilient ecosystems that can adapt to emerging circumstances, an adaptive management approach is needed. Global change...

  15. Study of Ecological Restoration Mode in Danjiang River Basin%丹江流域生态修复模式研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建林; 茹秋瑾

    2012-01-01

    Directing at the water loss and soil erosion as well as the environmental degradation of Danjiang River Basin, by using some aspects for reference including the circular eco-agricultural pattern of Australia, the barrage project for the ecological restoration in Maximilian River of United States, the silting-retention dams in loess plateaus of China, the pro- ject of converting cropland to forest in Wuqi County, the present situation of the ecologic immigrants in Luntai County of Tarim Basin and so on, the ecological restoration pattern of Danjiang River Basin is established mainly by creating the e-cologic forest and economic forest, especially by using the forest-farming mode and forest-farming-livestock-fishery mode. These modes could not only get the economic development, but also achieve the environmental and ecological benefits, so as to achieve the desired effect of ecological restoration.%针对丹江流域的水土流失及环境恶化问题,利用借鉴澳洲循环型生态农业模式、美国基西米河生态修复拦河坝工程、我国黄土高原淤地坝工程、吴起县退耕还林工程、塔里木河流域轮台县生态移民的现状及带给我们的启示,通过营造生态林和经济林,重点采用林农模式和林农牧渔模式来建立丹江流域生态修复模式,既发展了经济,又实现环保和生态效益,从而达到理想的生态修复效果。

  16. Fernald restoration: ecologists and engineers integrate restoration and cleanup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, Eric; Homer, John

    2002-07-15

    As cleanup workers excavate pits and tear down buildings at the Fernald site in southwest Ohio, site ecologists are working side-by-side to create thriving wetlands and develop the early stages of forest, prairie, and savanna ecosystems to restore natural resources that were impacted by years of site operations. In 1998, the U.S. Department of Energy-Fernald Office (DOE-FN) and its cleanup contractor, Fluor Fernald, Inc., initiated several ecological restoration projects in perimeter areas of the site (e.g., areas not used for or impacted by uranium processing or waste management). The projects are part of Fernald's final land use plan to restore natural resources over 904 acres of the 1,050-acre site. Pete Yerace, the DOE-FN Natural Resource Trustee representative is working with the Fernald Natural Resource Trustees in an oversight role to resolve the state of Ohio's 1986 claim against DOE for injuries to natural resources. Fluor Fernald, Inc., and DOE-FN developed the ''Natural Resource Restoration Plan'', which outlines 15 major restoration projects for the site and will restore injured natural resources at the site. In general, Fernald's plan includes grading to maximize the formation of wetlands or expanded floodplain, amending soil where topsoil has been removed during excavation, and establishing native vegetation throughout the site. Today, with cleanup over 35 percent complete and site closure targeted for 2006, Fernald is entering a new phase of restoration that involves heavily remediated areas. By working closely with engineers and cleanup crews, site ecologists can take advantage of remediation fieldwork (e.g., convert an excavated depression into a wetland) and avoid unnecessary costs and duplication. This collaboration has also created opportunities for relatively simple and inexpensive restoration of areas that were discovered during ongoing remediation. To ensure the survival of the plant material in heavily

  17. Use of cotton gin trash to enhance denitrification in restored forested wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, S.; Faulkner, S.P.

    2006-01-01

    Lower Mississippi Valley (LMV) has lost about 80% bottomland hardwood forests, mainly to agriculture. This landscape scale alteration of the LMV resulted in the loss of nitrate (NO3) removal capacity of the valley, contributing to nitrogen (N)-enhanced eutrophication and potentially hypoxia in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Restoration of hardwood forests in the LMV is a highly recommended practice to reduce NO3 load of the Mississippi River. However, restored bottomland forests take decades to develop characteristic ecological functions including denitrifier activity. One way to enhance denitrifier activity in restored wetland forests is to amend the soils with an available carbon (C) source. This research investigated the effects of cotton gin trash (CGT) amendment on denitrification rate and N2O:N2 emission ratio from a restored bottomland forest soils and compared it to those from an adjacent unamended natural forest soils. CGT amendment increased denitrification rates in the restored forest soils to the level of the natural forest soils. N2O:N2 emission ratios from the restored and natural forest soils were highly variable and were not significantly different from each other. These findings suggest that restoration of bottomland hardwood forests in the LMV will require organic carbon amendment to achieve enhanced denitrifier activity for NO3 removal while the restored forest is developing into a mature state over time. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The Rakiura Titi Islands Restoration Project: community action to eradicate Rattus rattus and Rattus exulans for ecological restoration and cultural wellbeing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, P.J; Coote, R.; Trow, M.; Hutchins, P.; Nevins, HannahRose M.; Adams, Josh; Newman, J.; Moller, H.

    2011-01-01

    In 2003, a non-profit group, Ka Mate Nga Kiore, was set up to oversee the restoration of four Maori-owned islands off the south coast of Stewart Island, New Zealand. The first step in the restoration was to eradicate ship rats (Rattus rattus) from three islands and Pacific rats (R. exulans) from another. The eradication was funded by the Command Oil Spill Trustee Council which managed the mitigation money from an oil spill off the Californian coast in 1998. The funding was coordinated via Oikonos Ecosystem Knowledge, a non-profit USA group primarily involved in seabird research and restoration. The project was primarily to benefit sooty shearwater (Puffinus griseus) and to sustain a culturally important customary harvest of their chicks by Rakiura Maori. However, like all island eradications, a wide range of other species also benefited from the removal of rats. The New Zealand Department of Conservation provided technical advice and assistance for the planning and implementation of the eradication programme. This paper describes how, with appropriate funding, community and technical support, rodent eradications can be achieved on private islands. In this case, a range of institutions and individuals joined to achieve a common goal that highlighted a significant international conservation action. We urge that more international and local-community-led restoration projects be initiated in the future.

  19. Land degradation causes in Daqing City and ecological restoration countermeasures%大庆市土地退化成因及生态恢复对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张思冲; 李丽娜; 叶华香

    2012-01-01

    土地退化是阻碍农业、工业发展的重要影响因素,从黑土带资源流失、土地盐碱化、经济因素分别阐述了大庆市土地退化的成因和相应的生态恢复措施。对待盐碱化地区,应采取土壤改良修复技术和盐碱地植物修复技术改良土地;对待重金属污染严重地区,通过调控理化性质、微生物修复和利用转基因植物修复技术进行土地修复,探索出针对研究区的生态恢复方案。结论指出,首先应加强土地退化的监测力度,与历史数据进行对比分析,制定修复退化土地的方案。其次,采用和引进先技术,用生态修复法修复土地,改变土地理化性质,最后可采用转基因技术对土地进行改良。%Land degradation is one of the most important factors influencing agricultural and industrial develop- ment. This paper analyzed land degeneration in Daqing from three aspects: erosion of black land belt resources, land salinization, and economic factors, and expounded corresponding ecological recovery measures. For salinized areas, land improvement and restoration techniques should be used and plants on salinized land should be imple- mented; for areas polluted by heavy metals, the land should be restored by regulating and controlling physiochemi- cal properties, using microbial techniques and gene conversion techniques, and suitable ecological restoration schemes should be explored. Results show that, to restore the ecology system, first, monitoring of land degradation should be strengthened, and based on the comparison of historical data, restoration scheme of degraded lands should be adopted. Second, land can be restored and land~ physiochemical properties can be changed through in- troducing advanced techniques; last, the land can be improved by using gene conversion technique.

  20. A Policy-Driven Large Scale Ecological Restoration: Quantifying Ecosystem Services Changes in the Loess Plateau of China

    OpenAIRE

    Lü, Yihe; Fu, Bojie; Feng, Xiaoming; Zeng, Yuan; Liu, Yu; Chang, Ruiying; Sun, Ge; Wu, Bingfang

    2012-01-01

    As one of the key tools for regulating human-ecosystem relations, environmental conservation policies can promote ecological rehabilitation across a variety of spatiotemporal scales. However, quantifying the ecological effects of such policies at the regional level is difficult. A case study was conducted at the regional level in the ecologically vulnerable region of the Loess Plateau, China, through the use of several methods including the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE), hydrological mo...

  1. 1997-2001 Mangrove Restoration Areas in Salt River Bay National Historical Park and Ecological Preserve, St. Croix, USVI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Apart from two 100 m test plots, mangrove restoration activities were conducted between 1997 and 2001. Each year, thousands of red mangrove propagules were planted...

  2. Process-Based Ecological River Restoration: Visualizing Three-Dimensional Connectivity and Dynamic Vectors to Recover Lost Linkages

    OpenAIRE

    Saija Koljonen; Harald Huber; Chiara Cristoni; Julia Carlstrom; Asa Bång; Ellen Wohl; Stanley, Emily H.; Rahel, Frank J.; Geoffrey C. Poole; Scott O'Daniel; Boulton, Andrew J.; G. Mathias Kondolf; Pauliina Louhi; Keigo Nakamura

    2006-01-01

    Human impacts to aquatic ecosystems often involve changes in hydrologic connectivity and flow regime. Drawing upon examples in the literature and from our experience, we developed conceptual models and used simple bivariate plots to visualize human impacts and restoration efforts in terms of connectivity and flow dynamics. Human-induced changes in longitudinal, lateral, and vertical connectivity are often accompanied by changes in flow dynamics, but in our experience restoration efforts to da...

  3. 采石场生态恢复与综合开发利用研究%Ecological Restoration and Comprehensive Exploitation of Quarries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨利琴; 雷昌伟; 黄毅; 辜彬; 寒烟

    2011-01-01

    建筑石料的开采,带来了一系列严重的生态环境问题,包括景观破坏、植被破坏、水土流失、占用土地、地质灾害、生态功能遭到破坏等.从生态文明、科学发展观出发,以海宁市33个采石场为例,对其现状及存在的问题进行了详细分析,提出了采石场生态恢复与综合开发利用的指导思想;对海宁市采石场进行归类后,构建了生态复绿、回填利用、湖泊蓄水、旅游开发等采石场生态恢复与综合开发利用模式,以期对未来采石场的生态治理提供新的思路.%Quarrying produces a serious of ecological environmental problems, including landscape damage, vegetation damage, soil erosion, occupying land, geological disasters, ecological function destruction, and so on. In this paper, a case study in Haining City, Zhejiang Province is introduced. By analyzing the current situation and problems of quarries, the guidelines of ecological restoration and comprehensive exploitation of quarries are discussed and constructed. In addition, a corresponding mode of ecological restoration and comprehensive exploitation of quarries is proposed according to characteristics of quarries in Haining City.

  4. Fish Movement Ecology in High Gradient Headwater Streams: Its Relevance to Fish Passage Restoration through Stream Culvert Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Robert L.; Dunham, Jason B.

    2007-01-01

    Executive Summary Restoration of fish passage through culvert barriers has emerged as a major issue in the Pacific Northwest and nationwide. The problem has many dimensions, including the huge number of potential barriers, uncertainty about which structures are actually barriers, the benefits and risks involved with restoration, and the financial costs and timelines. This report attempts to address what we call 'thinking outside of the pipe' in terms of fish passage information needs. This means understanding the value of each potential passage restoration project in the context of other possible projects, and to view individual restoration projects within a larger landscape of habitats and population processes. In this report we provide a brief review of some essential characteristics of animal movement and examples from a focal group of fishes in Washington State: salmon, trout, and char. While several other fishes and many other species use streams where culvert passage barriers may occur, it is the salmonids that are by far the most widespread and in most cases extending furthest into the headwaters of stream networks in Washington. We begin this report by outlining some basic characteristics of animal movement and then apply that foundation to the case of salmonid fishes. Next we consider the consequences of disrupting fish movement with human-constructed barriers, such as culverts. Finally, this body of evidence is summarized and we propose a short list of what we view as high priority information needs to support more effective restoration of fish passage through culverts.

  5. Occurrence of organochlorine pollutants in the eggs and dropping-amended soil of Antarctic large animals and its ecological significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG HaiSheng; WANG ZiPan; LU Bing; ZHU Chun; WU GuangHai; Vetter WALTER

    2007-01-01

    Persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) are analyzed for the dropping-amended soils from the habitats of Antarctic seabirds and seals in Fildes Peninsula and Ardley Island. The concentration ranges are 0.21 to 3.85 ng/g for polychlorinated biphenyls (ΣPCBs), 0.09 to 2.01 ng/g for organochlorine pesticides (ΣDDT), and 0.06 to 0.76 ng/g for hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs). Among these, hepatachlorobiphenyls, hexachlorobiphenyls, p,p'-DDE and α-HCH compounds are dominant. The concentration ranges of ΣPCB, DDT and HCH in the eggs of skuas were 91.9-515.5 ng/g, 56.6-304.4 ng/g and 0.5-2.0 ng/g respectively; those in the eggs of penguins were 0.4-0.9 ng/g, 2.4-10.3 ng/g and 0.1-0.4 ng/g; and those in the eggs of giant petrel were 38.1-81.7 ng/g, 12.7-53.7 ng/g and 0.5-1.5 ng/g respectively. The dominant POP compounds in the eggs are PCB180, PCB153, p,p'-DDE and hexachlorobenzene (HCB). The present study shows that the concentration of POPs in the seabird-inhabited-dropping-amended soil varies with the extent of predation and nest occupancy of different seabird populations. Statistical analysis on the POP concentrations from the different seabird eggs implies that the difference in the bio-concentration levels of the birds depends on the bio-habits of the species, such as the range of activity, distance of immigration, feeding pattern, and nest occupation. Among these, the most important factor is the location of the seabirds in the food chain and their feeding pattern. This shows that POPs accumulated in the seabirds resulted from the bio-concentration through the food chain. In addtion, 210Pb dating for the dropping-amended soils (AD1-a and AD2) was performed, which provided the POP accumulation rate and the historic record for the soil profile. It indicates that POP will continuously affect the Antarctic ecosystem for a long time.

  6. Occurrence of organochlorine pollutants in the eggs and dropping-amended soil of Antarctic large animals and its ecological significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vetter; WALTER

    2007-01-01

    Persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) are analyzed for the dropping-amended soils from the habitats of Antarctic seabirds and seals in Fildes Peninsula and Ardley Island. The concentration ranges are 0.21 to 3.85 ng/g for polychlorinated biphenyls (ΣPCBs),0.09 to 2.01 ng/g for organochlorine pesticides (ΣDDT),and 0.06 to 0.76 ng/g for hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs). Among these,hepata-chlorobiphenyls,hexachlorobiphenyls,p,p′-DDE and α-HCH compounds are dominant. The concentra-tion ranges of ΣPCB,DDT and HCH in the eggs of skuas were 91.9―515.5 ng/g,56.6―304.4 ng/g and 0.5―2.0 ng/g respectively; those in the eggs of penguins were 0.4―0.9 ng/g,2.4―10.3 ng/g and 0.1― 0.4 ng/g; and those in the eggs of giant petrel were 38.1―81.7 ng/g,12.7―53.7 ng/g and 0.5―1.5 ng/g respectively. The dominant POP compounds in the eggs are PCB180,PCB153,p,p′-DDE and hexa-chlorobenzene (HCB). The present study shows that the concentration of POPs in the sea-bird-inhabited-dropping-amended soil varies with the extent of predation and nest occupancy of dif-ferent seabird populations. Statistical analysis on the POP concentrations from the different seabird eggs implies that the difference in the bio-concentration levels of the birds depends on the bio-habits of the species,such as the range of activity,distance of immigration,feeding pattern,and nest occupation. Among these,the most important factor is the location of the seabirds in the food chain and their feeding pattern. This shows that POPs accumulated in the seabirds resulted from the bio-concentration through the food chain. In addtion,210Pb dating for the dropping-amended soils (AD1-a and AD2) was performed,which provided the POP accumulation rate and the historic record for the soil profile. It indicates that POP will continuously affect the Antarctic ecosystem for a long time.

  7. Natural vegetal regeneration as a basis for the development of strategies for ecological restoration in three Protected Biotopes in the Maya Biosphere Reserve, Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manolo José García Vettorazzi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The natural ecosystems of the Maya Biosphere Reserve contain high levels of biodiversity providing environmental goods and services to society, so their conservation is strategic for local and regional development. However, there is a increasing tendency to disturb these ecosystems as a result of human activities, so is necessary to develop strategies that minimize the negative impacts and allow the recovery of degraded natural ecosystems. Existing information on the functioning of essential ecological processes of local ecosystems is sparse and is scattered, limiting the development of strategies. It was proposed to study the dynamics of natural regeneration of vegetation as a basis for defining strategies of ecological restoration in three Protected Biotopes in Peten and adjacent areas, by characterizing the structure and composition of vegetation in six categories of natural regeneration and forest without recent disturbance. Two modified Whitaker 0.1 ha plots were plotted by category and seed bank samples were collected. With this information a conceptual framework of natural regeneration was developed for application in restoration strategies at local and landscape scales.

  8. Benefit Value Calculation Model of Ecological Restoration%生态恢复效益价值计算模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许岚; 周富春

    2011-01-01

    Taking highway engineering as example, environmental space is divided into six aspects, including the water environment, soil environment, atmospheric environment, sound environment, biological environment and landscape environment. Monetary efficiency value calculation model of ecological restoration is established, through various evaluation methods, including the shadow engineering method, protective cost method, recovery /reset cost method. Then the engineering data of case study are involved in the model, so the feasibility of the model is verified and evaluation results are obtained. The proposed model proves that environmental space will produce a great benefit value after the implementation of ecological restoration.%以公路工程为样例,将环境空间分为水环境、土壤环境、大气环境、声环境、生物环境、景观环境等6个层面,通过影子工程法、防护费用法、恢复/重置费用法等评估方法建立生态恢复效益货币价值计算模型,并代入实例工程数据,验证模型的可行性,从而获得评价结果,证明生态恢复工程实施后将产生巨大的效益价值.

  9. Collaborative implementation for ecological restoration on US Public Lands: implications for legal context, accountability, and adaptive management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, William H; Monroe, Ashley; McCaffrey, Sarah

    2015-03-01

    The Collaborative Forest Landscape Restoration Program (CFLRP), established in 2009, encourages collaborative landscape scale ecosystem restoration efforts on United States Forest Service (USFS) lands. Although the USFS employees have experience engaging in collaborative planning, CFLRP requires collaboration in implementation, a domain where little prior experience can be drawn on for guidance. The purpose of this research is to identify the ways in which CFLRP's collaborative participants and agency personnel conceptualize how stakeholders can contribute to implementation on landscape scale restoration projects, and to build theory on dynamics of collaborative implementation in environmental management. This research uses a grounded theory methodology to explore collaborative implementation from the perspectives and experiences of participants in landscapes selected as part of the CFLRP in 2010. Interviewees characterized collaborative implementation as encompassing three different types of activities: prioritization, enhancing treatments, and multiparty monitoring. The paper describes examples of activities in each of these categories and then identifies ways in which collaborative implementation in the context of CFLRP (1) is both hindered and enabled by overlapping legal mandates about agency collaboration, (2) creates opportunities for expanded accountability through informal and relational means, and, (3) creates feedback loops at multiple temporal and spatial scales through which monitoring information, prioritization, and implementation actions shape restoration work both within and across projects throughout the landscape creating more robust opportunities for adaptive management.

  10. FROM RESTORING FLORIDA'S EVERGLADES TO ASSESSING OUR NATION'S ECOLOGICAL CONDITION: SCIENCE PROVIDES THE BASIS FOR UNDERSTANDING AND POLICY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Based on first hand experiences, Dr. Fontaine will provide a personal and insightful look at major environmental research and restoration programs he has been involved in. Starting with a visual tour through the Florida Everglades and a discussion of the $12 B science-based rest...

  11. Collaborative Implementation for Ecological Restoration on US Public Lands: Implications for Legal Context, Accountability, and Adaptive Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, William H.; Monroe, Ashley; McCaffrey, Sarah

    2015-03-01

    The Collaborative Forest Landscape Restoration Program (CFLRP), established in 2009, encourages collaborative landscape scale ecosystem restoration efforts on United States Forest Service (USFS) lands. Although the USFS employees have experience engaging in collaborative planning, CFLRP requires collaboration in implementation, a domain where little prior experience can be drawn on for guidance. The purpose of this research is to identify the ways in which CFLRP's collaborative participants and agency personnel conceptualize how stakeholders can contribute to implementation on landscape scale restoration projects, and to build theory on dynamics of collaborative implementation in environmental management. This research uses a grounded theory methodology to explore collaborative implementation from the perspectives and experiences of participants in landscapes selected as part of the CFLRP in 2010. Interviewees characterized collaborative implementation as encompassing three different types of activities: prioritization, enhancing treatments, and multiparty monitoring. The paper describes examples of activities in each of these categories and then identifies ways in which collaborative implementation in the context of CFLRP (1) is both hindered and enabled by overlapping legal mandates about agency collaboration, (2) creates opportunities for expanded accountability through informal and relational means, and, (3) creates feedback loops at multiple temporal and spatial scales through which monitoring information, prioritization, and implementation actions shape restoration work both within and across projects throughout the landscape creating more robust opportunities for adaptive management.

  12. Ecosystems, ecological restoration, and economics: does habitat or resource equivalency analysis mean other economic valuation methods are not needed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, W Douglass; Wlodarz, Marta

    2013-09-01

    Coastal and other area resources such as tidal wetlands, seagrasses, coral reefs, wetlands, and other ecosystems are often harmed by environmental damage that might be inflicted by human actions, or could occur from natural hazards such as hurricanes. Society may wish to restore resources to offset the harm, or receive compensation if this is not possible, but faces difficult choices among potential compensation projects. The optimal amount of restoration efforts can be determined by non-market valuation methods, service-to-service, or resource-to-resource approaches such as habitat equivalency analysis (HEA). HEA scales injured resources and lost services on a one-to-one trade-off basis. Here, we present the main differences between the HEA approach and other non-market valuation approaches. Particular focus is on the role of the social discount rate, which appears in the HEA equation and underlies calculations of the present value of future damages. We argue that while HEA involves elements of economic analysis, the assumption of a one-to-one trade-off between lost and restored services sometimes does not hold, and then other non-market economic valuation approaches may help in restoration scaling or in damage determination.

  13. A Discussion on Ecological Restoration of Emigration Area of Yuanzhou District%固原市原州区移民迁出区生态修复探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李云; 窦建德

    2014-01-01

    Based on an analysis of the present situation of ecological restoration in the emigration area of Yuanzhou district in Guyuan municipality,the experience of ecological restoration is summarized,the existing problems are found out and the countermeasures for the ecological restoration of the emigration area of Yuanzhou district are proposed.%通过对固原市原州区移民迁出区生态恢复现状进行分析,总结生态恢复的经验,查找出存在的问题,提出了原州区移民迁出区生态修复的对策。

  14. Approach and strategy for performing ecological risk assessments for the Department of Energy Oak Ridge Field Office Environmental Restoration Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is intended to supplement exiting US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guidance for ecological risk assessment at hazardous waste sites by providing guidance that is more specific and more tailored to US Department of Energy sites than the guidance available from the EPA. However, it is a conceptual strategy document and does not include specific guidance on data, assumptions, and models. That detailed guidance is under development and will be presented in subsequent documents. Ecological risk assessments are equal to human health risk assessments in regulatory importance and can use many of the same data and some of the same estimation methods. However, they also have peculiar data needs and methods. Ecological risk assessments begin with an initial scoping phase, termed hazard definition, that characterizes the sources, the potentially environment, and the assessment endpoints. In the subsequent measurement and estimation phase, in which data are obtained concerning source of the endpoint biota to the contaminants and the effects of those exposures, and assumptions and models are used to relate the data to the desired exposure and effects parameters. Finally, in an integration phase, termed risk characterization, the various exposure and effects estimates are combined to infer the existence, cause, magnitude, and extent of effects of contaminants on the ecological endpoints. This phase is much more complicated for ecological risk assessments than for human health assessments because more types of data are available. Ecological risk assessments estimate effects using laboratory toxicity test results, like human health assessments, but also use results of ambient toxicity tests and biological surveys

  15. What can and should be legalized in ecological restoration? O que pode e deveria ser legalizado na restauração ecológica?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Aronson

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available After listing the five key elements of ecological restoration, ecology, economics, social values, cultural values, and politics, I celebrate the fact that in Brazil there is legislation on how to perform ecological restoration of degraded tropical forests, as well as an ongoing dialogue among legislators and scientists about this legislation, and also a lively debate among scientists as the best way forward, referring to articles by Brancalion et al. (2010 and Durigan et al. (2010 in this issue of Revista Árvore. Legislators elsewhere, especially megadiversity countries, should take note. I do not take sides in the debate; I think both groups of authors make very good points. Instead I call on the scientists and legislators concerned with restoration to ponder five strategic tools: A. Start with clear concepts. B. Decide where you want to go and why. C. Negotiate who should benefit & how, and who should pay, how, & why. D. Work out how an honest cost-benefit analysis of restoration would look, regardless of the biome in which you are working. Finally, figure out how to make the restoration immediately attractive for private landowners. Otherwise, they will not cooperate as fully as they could or should, and restoration efforts will not achieve its full potential.Depois de listar os cinco elementos chave da restauração ecológica - ecologia, economia, valores sociais, valores culturais e política, eu celebro o fato de que no Brasil há uma legislação sobre como conduzir a restauração ecológica de florestas tropicais degradadas, bem como o diálogo em andamento entre legisladores e cientistas sobre essa legislação, e também o intenso debate entre cientistas sobre a melhor forma de avançar, referindo aos artigos de Brancalion et al. (2010 e Durigan et al. (2010 nessa edição da Revista Árvore. Legisladores de todas as regiões, especialmente de países de megadiversidade, devem tomar nota. Eu não tomei partido por um dos lados no

  16. 8 CFR 324.4 - Women restored to United States citizenship by the act of June 25, 1936, as amended by the act of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Women restored to United States citizenship... NATURALlZED: WOMEN WHO HAVE LOST UNITED STATES CITIZENSHIP BY MARRIAGE AND FORMER CITIZENS WHOSE NATURALIZATION IS AUTHORIZED BY PRlVATE LAW § 324.4 Women restored to United States citizenship by the act...

  17. Social-ecological dynamics of change and restoration attempts in the Chihuahuan Desert Grasslands of Janos Biosphere Reserve, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrub encroachment and grassland loss are widespread throughout the US-Mexico borderlands with negative consequences for production of livestock and ecosystem services. In this paper we detail the complex social and ecological phenomena associated with this pattern of degradation in a large area in ...

  18. Benefits and costs of ecological restoration: Rapid assessment of changing ecosystem service values at a U.K. wetland

    OpenAIRE

    Peh, Kelvin S.-H.; Balmford, Andrew; Field, Rob H.; Lamb, Anthony; Birch, Jennifer C; Bradbury, Richard B.; BROWN Claire; Butchart, Stuart H. M.; Lester, Martin; Morrison, Ross; Sedgwick, Isabel; Soans, Chris; Alison J Stattersfield; Stroh, Peter A; Swetnam, Ruth D

    2014-01-01

    Restoration of degraded land is recognized by the international community as an important way of enhancing both biodiversity and ecosystem services, but more information is needed about its costs and benefits. In Cambridgeshire, U.K., a long-term initiative to convert drained, intensively farmed arable land to a wetland habitat mosaic is driven by a desire both to prevent biodiversity loss from the nationally important Wicken Fen National Nature Reserve (Wicken Fen NNR) and to increase the pr...

  19. The Landscape Ecological Impact of Afforestation on the British Uplands and Some Initiatives to Restore Native Woodland Cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bunce Robert G. H.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The majority of forest cover in the British Uplands had been lost by the beginning of the Nineteenth Century, because of felling followed by overgrazing by sheep and deer. The situation remained unchanged until a government policy of afforestation, mainly by exotic conifers, after the First World War up to the present day. This paper analyses the distribution of these predominantly coniferous plantations, and shows how they occupy specific parts of upland landscapes in different zones throughout Britain Whilst some landscapes are dominated by these new forests, elsewhere the blocks of trees are more localised. Although these forests virtually eliminate native ground vegetation, except in rides and unplanted land, the major negative impacts are at the landscape level. For example, drainage systems are altered and ancient cultural landscape patterns are destroyed. These impacts are summarised and possible ways of amelioration are discussed. By contrast, in recent years, a series of projects have been set up to restore native forest cover, as opposed to the extensive plantations of exotic species. Accordingly, the paper then provides three examples of such initiatives designed to restore native forests to otherwise bare landscapes, as well as setting them into a policy context. Whilst such projects cover a limited proportion of the British Uplands they nevertheless restore forest to landscapes at a local level.

  20. Advances in ecology restoration of abandoned quarries%采石场废弃地的生态重建研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨振意; 薛立; 许建新

    2012-01-01

    Many quarries are exploited to provide construction material due to rapid progress of urbanization and industrialization. Exploitation of quarries causes lots of bare rock slopes, resulting in complete removal of vegetation and propagules, soil depletion, and landscape fragmentation. The soil erosion causes an impoverishment of nutritional and hydric status, hindering natural germination and establishment of young plants. As a result, the reutilization of abandoned quarries becomes quite difficult. The destruction of vegetation is the major factor that leads to the ecosystem degradation. Revegetation of abandoned quarries is the key to improving the ecological environment. Low water and nutrient availabilities are the primary factors limiting plant development at quarries. The establishment of a plant community is often quite low and limits the success of revegetation. Natural restoration is a very slow process, which may take hundreds of years. As a result, artificial revegetation methods have been widely used in ecology restoration of abandoned quarries. Soil management, slope stabilization, species selection, seed collection, seeding and planting strategies and techniques are recommended practices. Treatments with fertilizer may promise procedures to improve plant performance in the site with low water and nutrient availabilities. Artificial restoration of abandoned quarries should be based on spontaneous succession, which could guide artificial practices. At the early stages of vegetation succession, abiotic factors play a key role, and biotic factors become more important as the succession proceeds. Soil accumulation on the rocky slope face is a key factor for vegetation establishment at the early successional stages, but it is very difficult to retain soil on a rocky slope surface due to high rates of water erosion resulting from rainfall influence. In addition, extreme low and high temperatures and drought are the most limiting factors on these sites for

  1. 焦作煤矿采煤塌陷区生态景观再造设计%Jiaozuo Coal Mining Subsidence Area of Ecological Landscape Restoration Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王燕

    2013-01-01

    煤炭资源的开采地点大多为城镇边缘地带,随着时间的推移矿区土地相继出现大面积塌陷,周边植被也受到了严重的破坏,原始生态环境和自然景观已不复存在。这一切都源于煤矿企业在开采初期没有做好全面的生态规划。随着社会的发展,人们越来越重视采煤塌陷区的环境恢复,并将重心放在重建生态区的方式方法上。文中将以焦作地区煤矿采煤塌陷区的生态景观再造为例,为矿区土地复垦提供一个清晰的思路。%The exploitation of coal resources and location are mostly urban fringe land mine, with over time appeared large area collapse, surrounding vegetation has been severely damaged, the original ecological environment and natural landscape has ceased to exist. All this stems from the coal mine enterprises in the initial stage of production did not do a good job of ecological planning comprehensive. With the development of society, people pay more and more attention to the coal mining subsidence area of environmental restoration, and will focus on the reconstruction method of ecological zone mode. This paper will collapse in the Jiaozuo area of coal mining and reconstruction of ecological landscape area as a case study, to provide a clear way for land reclamation in mining area.

  2. Nucleation in tropical ecological restoration A nucleação na restauração ecológica de ecossistemas tropicais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademir Reis

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Ecological theories of facilitation and nucleation are proposed as a basis for environmental restoration in tropical ecosystems. The main goal of this paper is to present restoration techniques based on the concept of nucleation, in which small nuclei of vegetation are established within a degraded land. The nucleation techniques (artificial shelters for animals, planting of herbaceous shrub life forms, soil and seed bank translocation, seed rain translocation, soil and seed rain translocation's seedling set, artificial perches, planting of native trees in groups, and ecological stepping-stones with functional groups promote the landscape connectivity on two flows: inward: receiver connectivity and outward: donor connectivity. The nuclei development represents an alternative for restoration by prioritizing the natural processes of succession. This methodology appears to take long to generate vegetation corresponding to tropical climates, but is fundamental in the formation of communities capable of acting, in the future, as a new functional nuclei within the current fragmented landscape. This strategy also encourages greater integration between the theories and projects of ecological restoration for the development of human resources and to benefit the restoration practitioner.As teorias ecológicas da facilitação e nucleação são propostas como base para a restauração ambiental de ecossistemas tropicais. Nesse "Ponto de Vista" apresentam-se técnicas de restauração fundamentadas no conceito de nucleação, onde pequenos núcleos de vegetação são implantados em uma área degradada. As técnicas de nucleação (abrigos artificiais para animais, plantio de espécies herbáceo-arbustivas, transposição de solo e banco de sementes, transposição de chuva de sementes, blocos de mudas procedentes de transposição de solo e chuva de sementes, poleiros artificiais, plantio de árvores nativas em grupos de Anderson, e trampolins ecol

  3. Dynamic processes and ecological restoration of hyporheic layer in riparian zone%河岸带潜流层动态过程与生态修复

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏继红; 陈永明; 王为木; 韩玉玲; 刘海洋; 胡玲

    2013-01-01

    suitable habitats and removed pollution.However,some of these functions were being weakened due to human and natural actions.In order to conserve the ecological balance and keep the sustainable development in riparian zone,it should be necessary to diagnose health status and verify weakening mechanism and practice ecological restoration.In future,according to the complex properties of riparian zones in our countries,it should be very important to investigate the responses of the hydrological,heat transportation,biochemical and ecological mechanisms to variation of hydrology,geomorphology,permeability,vegetation and riparian construction,and quantify the range of hyporheic layer and design the ecological restoration.

  4. Ecology of endangered damselfly \\kur{Coenagrion ornatum} in post-mining streams in relation to their restoration

    OpenAIRE

    TICHÁNEK, Filip

    2016-01-01

    The thesis explores various aspects of ecology of endangered damselfly Coenagrion ornatum, the specialists for lowland headwaters, in post-mining streams of Radovesicka spoil. The first part of thesis is manuscript which has been already submitted in Journal of Insect Conservation. In the first part, we focused on population estimate of the local population using capture-recapture method, and explored its habitat requirements across life stages and spatial scales. In the next part, I assess m...

  5. A Living Mediterranean River: Restoration and Management of the Rio Real in Portugal to Achieve Good Ecological Condition

    OpenAIRE

    Natali, Jennifer; Kondolf, G. Mathias; Landeiro, Clara; Christian-Smith, Juliet; Grantham, Ted

    2009-01-01

    In Mediterranean climates, mild year-round temperatures support comfortable human settlement with rich agricultural regions. The climate’s long summer drought, seasonal river flow, high inter-annual variability in precipitation, and episodic floods threaten these settlements, leading to highly manipulated hydrologic systems. The degree of hydrological alteration and consequent ecological change is typically much greater in Mediterranean-climate rivers than humid-climate systems. Dams...

  6. Diversity of free-living nitrogen-fixing microorganisms in wastelands of copper mine tailings during the process of natural ecological restoration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Zhan; Qingye Sun

    2011-01-01

    Biological nitrogen fixing is an important source of nitrogen input in the natural ecological restoration of mine wastelands.The diversity of nifH genes in tailings samples under different plant communities in Yangshanchong and Tongguanshan wastelands in Tongling, was analyzed using polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) approach.The nitrogen-fixing microorganism community in the upper layer of tailings of Tongguanshan wasteland discarded in 1980 showed higher Shannon-Wiener diversity index than that in Yangshanchong wasteland discarded in 1991.The diversity of nifH genes in Yangshanchong wasteland of copper mine tailings did not display a consistent successional tendency with development of plant communities during the process of natural ecological restoration.Phylogenetic analysis of 25 sequences of nifH gene fragments retrieved from the DGGE gels indicated that there were mainly two taxa of free-living nitrogen-fixing microorganisms, Proteobacteria and Cyanobacteria living in the wastelands investigated, most of which were unique and uncultured.Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) based on the relationship between band patterns of DGGE profile and physico-chemical properties of tailings samples showed that the diversity of nifH genes in different tailing samples was mainly affected by loss of ignition, water content, pH and available Zn contents of wastelands.The dominant plant species and development period of plant communities by ameliorating pH, reducing the toxicity of heavy metals, increasing organic matter and water content affected the diversity and structure of the free-living nitrogenfixing microorganisms in wastelands of copper mine tailings.

  7. Ecological restoration of a copper polluted vineyard: Long-term impact of farmland abandonment on soil bio-chemical properties and microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavani, Luciano; Manici, Luisa M; Caputo, Francesco; Peruzzi, Elisabetta; Ciavatta, Claudio

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed at investigating the degree of interference of high soil copper (Cu) contamination when an old vineyard is converted into a protected area. This study was performed within an intensive agricultural system; it was organized into a two-factorial nested design to analyze the impact of management (conventional vs re-naturalized orchard) and position within each orchard (tree-rows and strips). Chemical and biochemical properties along with bacterial and fungal communities, evaluated with PCR-DGGE starting from total soil DNA, were analyzed. Total Cu was localized in tree rows in the old vineyard at 1000 mg kg(-1) of soil, whereas it did not exceed 80 mg kg(-1) soil in the other treatments. Total organic carbon and all biochemical properties significantly improved in re-naturalized compared to conventionally cultivated site, while no significant differences were observed between tree row and strip. Moreover, a higher extractable carbon-extractable nitrogen (Cext-to-Next) ratio in the re-naturalized (19.3) site than in the conventionally managed site (10.2) indicated a shift of soil system from C-limited to N-limited, confirming a successful ecological restoration. Deep improvement of soil biochemical properties exceeded the negative impact of Cu contamination. A shift of bacterial community composition as well as increased bacterial diversity in Cu contaminated treatment indicated a bacterial response to Cu stress; to the contrary, soil fungi were less susceptible than bacteria, though an overall reduction of fungal DNA was detected. Findings suggest that ecological restoration of highly polluted agricultural soils leads to overcoming the reduction of soil functionalities linked to Cu contamination and opens interesting perspectives for mitigating Cu stress in agricultural soils with strategies based on conservative agriculture. PMID:27454095

  8. The effects of ecological restoration, on soil-pore water quality and DOC concentrations, on a British upland blanket bog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qassim, Suzane; Dixon, Simon; Rowson, James; Worrall, Fred; Evans, Martin

    2013-04-01

    Polluted by past atmospheric deposition, eroded and burnt, the Bleaklow plateau (Peak district National Park, UK) has long been degraded. Peatlands are important carbon reservoirs and can act as sources or sinks of carbon. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is carbon lost from peatlands via the fluvial pathway and as the major component of water colour it is costly to remove during water treatment processes. The Bleaklow Summit peatlands, were subjected to a large wildfire in 2003 devegetating 5.5km2. This fire prompted stakeholders to initiate a large-scale programme of restoration of the plateau. This study considered restoration techniques across four sites: all four sites were seeded with lawn grass, limed and fertilised; to raise the pH and allow establishment of vegetation. In addition to these interventions, one site also had a mulch of Calluna vulgaris applied to the surface to allow soil stabilisation and promote vegetation establishment and another site had biodegradable geojute textile mesh installed, to stabilize the steep gully surfaces. Another site had a gully block installed, to reduce peat desiccation and erosion. This study will compare the four restored sites to two types of comparators: bare soil sites where no restoration was undertaken and a naturally vegetated site unaffected by the 2003 wildfire. Each site had six replicate dipwells, installed in two groups of three. The depth to the water table was monitored and soil water samples collected for analysis, monthly for 5 years, from Nov 2006 - Jan 2012. No significant difference in DOC concentration was found between control and treated sites. There was, however, a significant difference in DOC composition between sites and over the 5 year period of monitoring. UV-vis absorbance of the samples is used to quantify the fulvic to humic components of DOC. The vegetated control was not significantly different to the bare sites; however the vegetated control had a significantly greater humic fraction of

  9. Social and Ecological Factors Influencing Attitudes Toward the Application of High-Intensity Prescribed Burns to Restore Fire Adapted Grassland Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Toledo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Fire suppression in grassland systems that are adapted to episodic fire has contributed to the recruitment of woody species in grasslands worldwide. Even though the ecology of restoring these fire prone systems back to grassland states is becoming clearer, a major hurdle to the reintroduction of historic fires at a landscape scale is its social acceptability. Despite the growing body of literature on the social aspects of fire, an understanding of the human dimensions of applying high-intensity prescribed burns in grassland and savanna systems is lacking. We used structural equation modeling to examine how landowners' attitudes toward high-intensity prescribed burns are affected by previous experience with burning, perceptions of brush encroachment, land condition, proximity constraints, risk orientation, fire management knowledge and skill, access to fire management equipment, and subjective norms. Our results suggest that experience, risk taking orientation, and especially social norms, i.e., perceived support from others, when implementing prescribed burns play an important role in determining the attitudes of landowners toward the use of high-intensity prescribed burns. Concern over lack of skill, knowledge, and insufficient resources have a moderately negative effect on these attitudes. Our results highlight the importance of targeted engagement strategies to address risk perceptions, subjective norms, and landowner's concerns. With these concerns allayed, it is possible to increase the adoption of high-intensity prescribed burns that lead to landscape-scale grassland restoration and conservation.

  10. Drainage-basis-scale geomorphic analysis to determine refernce conditions for ecologic restoration-Kissimmee River, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warne, A.G.; Toth, L.A.; White, W.A.

    2000-01-01

    Major controls on the retention, distribution, and discharge of surface water in the historic (precanal) Kissimmee drainage basin and river were investigated to determine reference conditions for ecosystem restoration. Precanal Kissimmee drainage-basin hydrology was largely controlled by landforms derived from relict, coastal ridge, lagoon, and shallow-shelf features; widespread carbonate solution depressions; and a poorly developed fluvial drainage network. Prior to channelization for flood control, the Kissimmee River was a very low gradient, moderately meandering river that flowed from Lake Kissimmee to Lake Okeechobee through the lower drainage basin. We infer that during normal wet seasons, river discharge rapidly exceeded Lake Okeechobee outflow capacity, and excess surface water backed up into the low-gradient Kissimmee River. This backwater effect induced bankfull and peak discharge early in the flood cycle and transformed the flood plain into a shallow aquatic system with both lacustrine and riverine characteristics. The large volumes of surface water retained in the lakes and wetlands of the upper basin maintained overbank flow conditions for several months after peak discharge. Analysis indicates that most of the geomorphic work on the channel and flood plain occurred during the frequently recurring extended periods of overbank discharge and that discharge volume may have been significant in determining channel dimensions. Comparison of hydrogeomorphic relationships with other river systems identified links between geomorphology and hydrology of the precanal Kissimmee River. However, drainage-basin and hydraulic geometry models derived solely from general populations of river systems may produce spurious reference conditions for restoration design criteria.

  11. Comprehensive study on ecological restoration and land exploitation of mining subsidence in suburbs of Chinese mining cities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinhua Zhou; Lejie Wang

    2014-01-01

    China has nearly a hundred mining cities derived from mining development. While mining development has brought about immense achievements in a city’s economic construction, it has also resulted in different levels of damage to the eco-environment of the mining city, leaving behind a lot of subsided wasteland and heavily confining the sustainable development and transformation there. How to restore and exploit the land and eco-environment disrupted by mining development in an effective way, therefore, has become a pressing challenge that Chinese mining cities are facing. In this paper, the planning and construction of Nanhu Eco-city in the suburb of Tangshan City is analyzed as an example. After characterizing the coal-mining subsided lands in Kailuan Tangshan Mine originated in different periods and under different geological mining conditions and evaluating their safety level, the authors try to demonstrate how eco-restoration and comprehensive land exploitation should be implemented by making the best use of available local resources to achieve‘‘economy-society-environment’’ sustainability and coexistence in a mining city.

  12. Exploring an Ecologically Sustainable Scheme for Landscape Restoration of Abandoned Mine Land: Scenario-Based Simulation Integrated Linear Programming and CLUE-S Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liping; Zhang, Shiwen; Huang, Yajie; Cao, Meng; Huang, Yuanfang; Zhang, Hongyan

    2016-01-01

    Understanding abandoned mine land (AML) changes during land reclamation is crucial for reusing damaged land resources and formulating sound ecological restoration policies. This study combines the linear programming (LP) model and the CLUE-S model to simulate land-use dynamics in the Mentougou District (Beijing, China) from 2007 to 2020 under three reclamation scenarios, that is, the planning scenario based on the general land-use plan in study area (scenario 1), maximal comprehensive benefits (scenario 2), and maximal ecosystem service value (scenario 3). Nine landscape-scale graph metrics were then selected to describe the landscape characteristics. The results show that the coupled model presented can simulate the dynamics of AML effectively and the spatially explicit transformations of AML were different. New cultivated land dominates in scenario 1, while construction land and forest land account for major percentages in scenarios 2 and 3, respectively. Scenario 3 has an advantage in most of the selected indices as the patches combined most closely. To conclude, reclaiming AML by transformation into more forest can reduce the variability and maintain the stability of the landscape ecological system in study area. These findings contribute to better mapping AML dynamics and providing policy support for the management of AML. PMID:27023575

  13. Exploring an Ecologically Sustainable Scheme for Landscape Restoration of Abandoned Mine Land: Scenario-Based Simulation Integrated Linear Programming and CLUE-S Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liping; Zhang, Shiwen; Huang, Yajie; Cao, Meng; Huang, Yuanfang; Zhang, Hongyan

    2016-04-01

    Understanding abandoned mine land (AML) changes during land reclamation is crucial for reusing damaged land resources and formulating sound ecological restoration policies. This study combines the linear programming (LP) model and the CLUE-S model to simulate land-use dynamics in the Mentougou District (Beijing, China) from 2007 to 2020 under three reclamation scenarios, that is, the planning scenario based on the general land-use plan in study area (scenario 1), maximal comprehensive benefits (scenario 2), and maximal ecosystem service value (scenario 3). Nine landscape-scale graph metrics were then selected to describe the landscape characteristics. The results show that the coupled model presented can simulate the dynamics of AML effectively and the spatially explicit transformations of AML were different. New cultivated land dominates in scenario 1, while construction land and forest land account for major percentages in scenarios 2 and 3, respectively. Scenario 3 has an advantage in most of the selected indices as the patches combined most closely. To conclude, reclaiming AML by transformation into more forest can reduce the variability and maintain the stability of the landscape ecological system in study area. These findings contribute to better mapping AML dynamics and providing policy support for the management of AML. PMID:27023575

  14. Responses of soil microbial biomass and bacterial community structure to closed-off management (an ecological natural restoration measures): A case study of Dongting Lake wetland, middle China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Juan; Wu, Haipeng; Zhang, Chang; Zeng, Guangming; Liang, Jie; Guo, Shenglian; Li, Xiaodong; Huang, Lu; Lu, Lunhui; Yuan, Yujie

    2016-09-01

    Soil microbial biomass (SMB) and bacterial community structure, which are critical to global ecosystem and fundamental ecological processes, are sensitive to anthropogenic activities and environmental conditions. In this study, we examined the possible effects of closed-off management (an ecological natural restoration measures, ban on anthropogenic activity, widely employed for many important wetlands) on SMB, soil bacterial community structure and functional marker genes of nitrogen cycling in Dongting Lake wetland. Soil samples were collected from management area (MA) and contrast area (CA: human activities, such as hunting, fishing and draining, are permitted) in November 2013 and April 2014. Soil properties, microbial biomass carbon (MBC), and bacterial community structure were investigated. Comparison of the values of MA and CA showed that SMB and bacterial community diversity of the MA had a significant increase after 7 years closed-off management. The mean value of Shannon-Weiner diversity index of MA and CA respectively were 2.85 and 2.07. The gene copy numbers of 16S rRNA and nosZ of MA were significant higher than those of CA. the gene copy numbers of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and nirK of MA were significant lower than those of CA. However, there was no significant change in the gene copy numbers of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nirS.

  15. Process, policy, and implementation of pool-wide drawdowns on the Upper Mississippi River: a promising approach for ecological restoration of large impounded rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenow, Kevin P.; Gretchen Benjamin,; Tim Schlagenhaft,; Ruth Nissen,; Mary Stefanski,; Gary Wege,; Scott A. Jutila,; Newton, Teresa J.

    2016-01-01

    The Upper Mississippi River (UMR) has been developed and subsequently managed for commercial navigation by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). The navigation pools created by a series of lock and dams initially provided a complex of aquatic habitats that supported a variety of fish and wildlife. However, biological productivity declined as the pools aged. The River Resources Forum, an advisory body to the St. Paul District of the USACE, established a multiagency Water Level Management Task Force (WLMTF) to evaluate the potential of water level management to improve ecological function and restore the distribution and abundance of fish and wildlife habitat. The WLMTF identified several water level management options and concluded that summer growing season drawdowns at the pool scale offered the greatest potential to provide habitat benefits over a large area. Here we summarize the process followed to plan and implement pool-wide drawdowns on the UMR, including involvement of stakeholders in decision making, addressing requirements to modify reservoir operating plans, development and evaluation of drawdown alternatives, pool selection, establishment of a monitoring plan, interagency coordination, and a public information campaign. Three pool-wide drawdowns were implemented within the St. Paul District and deemed successful in providing ecological benefits without adversely affecting commercial navigation and recreational use of the pools. Insights are provided based on more than 17 years of experience in planning and implementing drawdowns on the UMR. 

  16. Responses of soil microbial biomass and bacterial community structure to closed-off management (an ecological natural restoration measures): A case study of Dongting Lake wetland, middle China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Juan; Wu, Haipeng; Zhang, Chang; Zeng, Guangming; Liang, Jie; Guo, Shenglian; Li, Xiaodong; Huang, Lu; Lu, Lunhui; Yuan, Yujie

    2016-09-01

    Soil microbial biomass (SMB) and bacterial community structure, which are critical to global ecosystem and fundamental ecological processes, are sensitive to anthropogenic activities and environmental conditions. In this study, we examined the possible effects of closed-off management (an ecological natural restoration measures, ban on anthropogenic activity, widely employed for many important wetlands) on SMB, soil bacterial community structure and functional marker genes of nitrogen cycling in Dongting Lake wetland. Soil samples were collected from management area (MA) and contrast area (CA: human activities, such as hunting, fishing and draining, are permitted) in November 2013 and April 2014. Soil properties, microbial biomass carbon (MBC), and bacterial community structure were investigated. Comparison of the values of MA and CA showed that SMB and bacterial community diversity of the MA had a significant increase after 7 years closed-off management. The mean value of Shannon-Weiner diversity index of MA and CA respectively were 2.85 and 2.07. The gene copy numbers of 16S rRNA and nosZ of MA were significant higher than those of CA. the gene copy numbers of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and nirK of MA were significant lower than those of CA. However, there was no significant change in the gene copy numbers of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nirS. PMID:27036597

  17. 基于生态视角的城市老旧住区环境修复探析%Study On The Environment Restoration Of Old Urban Settlements In View Of Ecology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王蓓; 陈青扬

    2016-01-01

    The article analyzes the ecological problems in the old urban setlements. Then, from the ecological view, it presents the principles of the environment restoration, including diversity and commensalism, recirculation and high eficiency, ecological culture. Last, it researches on the implementation strategies.%本文从当下老旧住区面临的环境问题出发,从生态学视角,提出多样共生、循环高效、生态文化的修复原则,进而探讨了老旧住区环境修复的实施策略。

  18. Large-scale dam removal in the northeast United States: documenting ecological responses to the Penobscot River Restoration Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, M. J.; Aponte Clarke, G.; Baeder, C.; McCaw, D.; Royte, J.; Saunders, R.; Sheehan, T.

    2012-12-01

    The Penobscot River Restoration Project aims to improve aquatic connectivity in New England's second largest watershed ( 22,000 km2) by removing the two lowermost, mainstem dams and bypassing a third dam on a principal tributary upstream. Project objectives include: restoring unobstructed access to the entire historic riverine range for five lower river diadromous species including Atlantic and shortnose sturgeon; significantly improving access to upstream habitat for six upper river diadromous species including Atlantic salmon; reconnecting trophic linkages between headwater areas and the Gulf of Maine; restoring fluvial processes to the former impoundments; improving recreational and Penobscot Nation cultural opportunities; and maintaining basin-wide hydropower output. The project is expected to have landscape-scale benefits and the need for a significant investment in long-term monitoring and evaluation to formally quantify ecosystem response has been recognized. A diverse group of federal, state, tribal, NGO, and academic partners has developed a long-term monitoring and evaluation program composed of nine studies that began in 2009. Including American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funding that leveraged partner contributions, we have invested nearly $2M to date in pre- and post-removal investigations that evaluate geomorphology/bed sediment, water quality, wetlands, and fisheries. Given the number of affected diadromous species and the diversity of their life histories, we have initiated six distinct, but related, fisheries investigations to document these expected changes: Atlantic salmon upstream and downstream passage efficiency using passive integrated transponder (PIT) and acoustic telemetry; fish community structure via an index of biotic integrity (IBI); total diadromous fish biomass through hydroacoustics; shortnose sturgeon spawning and habitat use via active and passive acoustic telemetry; and freshwater-marine food web interactions by

  19. Risk Reduction and Soil Ecosystem Restoration in an Active Oil Producing Area in an Ecologically Sensitive Setting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerry L. Sublette; Greg Thoma; Kathleen Duncan

    2006-01-01

    The empowerment of small independent oil and gas producers to solve their own remediation problems will result in greater environmental compliance and more effective protection of the environment as well as making small producers more self-reliant. In Chapter 1 we report on the effectiveness of a low-cost method of remediation of a combined spill of crude oil and brine in the Tallgrass Prairie Preserve in Osage County, OK. Specifically, we have used hay and fertilizer as amendments for remediation of both the oil and the brine. No gypsum was used. Three spills of crude oil plus produced water brine were treated with combinations of ripping, fertilizers and hay, and a downslope interception trench in an effort to demonstrate an inexpensive, easily implemented, and effective remediation plan. There was no statistically significant effect of treatment on the biodegradation of crude oil. However, TPH reduction clearly proceeded in the presence of brine contamination. The average TPH half-life considering all impacted sites was 267 days. The combination of hay addition, ripping, and a downslope interception trench was superior to hay addition with ripping, or ripping plus an interception trench in terms of rates of sodium and chloride leaching from the impacted sites. Reductions in salt inventories (36 months) were 73% in the site with hay addition, ripping and an interception trench, 40% in the site with hay addition and ripping only, and < 3% in the site with ripping and an interception trench.

  20. A Long-Term Study of Ecological Impacts of River Channelization on the Population of an Endangered Fish: Lessons Learned for Assessment and Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James H. Roberts

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Projects to assess environmental impact or restoration success in rivers focus on project-specific questions but can also provide valuable insights for future projects. Both restoration actions and impact assessments can become “adaptive” by using the knowledge gained from long-term monitoring and analysis to revise the actions, monitoring, conceptual model, or interpretation of findings so that subsequent actions or assessments are better informed. Assessments of impact or restoration success are especially challenging when the indicators of interest are imperiled species and/or the impacts being addressed are complex. From 1997 to 2015, we worked closely with two federal agencies to monitor habitat availability for and population density of Roanoke logperch (Percina rex, an endangered fish, in a 24-km-long segment of the upper Roanoke River, VA. We primarily used a Before-After-Control-Impact analytical framework to assess potential impacts of a river channelization project on the P. rex population. In this paper, we summarize how our extensive monitoring facilitated the evolution of our (a conceptual understanding of the ecosystem and fish population dynamics; (b choices of ecological indicators and analytical tools; and (c conclusions regarding the magnitude, mechanisms, and significance of observed impacts. Our experience with this case study taught us important lessons about how to adaptively develop and conduct a monitoring program, which we believe are broadly applicable to assessments of environmental impact and restoration success in other rivers. In particular, we learned that (a pre-treatment planning can enhance monitoring effectiveness, help avoid unforeseen pitfalls, and lead to more robust conclusions; (b developing adaptable conceptual and analytical models early was crucial to organizing our knowledge, guiding our study design, and analyzing our data; (c catchment-wide processes that we did not monitor, or initially

  1. Restoring and rehabilitating sagebrush habitats In Knick, S.T., Connelly, J.W., eds., Greater Sage-Grouse: Ecology and Conservation of a Landscape Species and Its Habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyke, David A.; Knick, S.T.; Connelly, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    Less than half of the original habitat of the Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus uropha-sianus) currently exists. Some has been perma-nently lost to farms and urban areas, but the remaining varies in condition from high quality to no longer adequate. Restoration of sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) grassland ecosystems may be pos-sible for resilient lands. However, Greater Sage-Grouse require a wide variety of habitats over large areas to complete their life cycle. Effective restoration will require a regional approach for prioritizing and identifying appropriate options across the landscape. A landscape triage method is recommended for prioritizing lands for restora-tion. Spatial models can indicate where to protect and connect intact quality habitat with other simi-lar habitat via restoration. The ecological site con-cept of land classification is recommended for characterizing potential habitat across the region along with their accompanying state and transi-tion models of plant community dynamics. These models assist in identifying if passive, manage-ment-based or active, vegetation manipulation?based restoration might accomplish the goals of improved Greater Sage-Grouse habitat. A series of guidelines help formulate questions that manag-ers might consider when developing restoration plans: (1) site prioritization through a landscape triage; (2) soil verification and the implications of soil features on plant establishment success; (3) a comparison of the existing plant community to the potential for the site using ecological site descriptions; (4) a determination of the current successional status of the site using state and transition models to aid in predicting if passive or active restoration is necessary; and (5) implemen-tation of post-treatment monitoring to evaluate restoration effectiveness and post-treatment man-agement implications to restoration success.

  2. The selection of plant species-organic amendment combinations aids to restore soil microbial function recovery in a metal-contaminated soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Josef; Caravaca, Fuensanta; Azcón, Rosario; Diáz, Gisela; Fuensanta, Garcia-Orenes; Roldan, Antonio

    2014-05-01

    A mesocosm experiment was established to evaluate the effect of two organic wastes: fermented sugar beet residue (SBR) and urban waste compost on the stimulation of plant growth, phytoaccumulation of heavy metals and soil biological quality and their possible use in phytostabilitation tasks with native (Piptatherum miliaceum, Retama sphaerocarpa, Bituminaria bituminosa, Coronilla juncea and Anthyllis cytisoides) and non-native (Lolium perenne) plants in a heavy metal contaminated semiarid soil. Excepting R. sphaerocarpa, SBR increased the contents of shoot N, P and K and shoot biomass of all plants. The percentage of mycorrhizal colonization was not affected by the organic amendments. The highest increase in dehydrogenase and β-glucosidase activities was recorded in SBR-amended P. miliaceum. SBR reduced toxic levels of HM in shoot of P. miliaceum, mainly decreasing Fe and Pb uptake to plants. This study pointed out that the SBR was the most effective amendment for enhancing the plant performance and for improving soil quality. The combination of SBR and P. miliaceum can be regarded the most effective strategy for being employed in phytostabilisation projects of this contaminated site.

  3. Watershed Restoration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julie Thompson; Betsy Macfarlan

    2007-09-27

    In 2003, the U.S. Department of Energy issued the Eastern Nevada Landscape Coalition (ENLC) funding to implement ecological restoration in Gleason Creek and Smith Valley Watersheds. This project was made possible by congressionally directed funding that was provided through the US Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of the Biomass Program. The Ely District Bureau of Land Management (Ely BLM) manages these watersheds and considers them priority areas within the Ely BLM district. These three entities collaborated to address the issues and concerns of Gleason Creek and Smith Valley and prepared a restoration plan to improve the watersheds’ ecological health and resiliency. The restoration process began with watershed-scale vegetation assessments and state and transition models to focus on restoration sites. Design and implementation of restoration treatments ensued and were completed in January 2007. This report describes the restoration process ENLC undertook from planning to implementation of two watersheds in semi-arid Eastern Nevada.

  4. Study on the evaluation index system of river ecological restoration%河流生态修复效果评价指标体系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹欠欠; 王兴科

    2014-01-01

    本文在归纳分析国内外河流生态修复效果评价研究现状的基础上,总结了河流生态修复效果评价各类方法的优缺点,指出生态修复效果评价指标体系的构建原则和结构层次;通过对生态修复效果评价指标体系的构建依据和方法进行分析,运用频度分析法、理论分析法并结合工程实践,依据与河流生态修复成果紧密相关的河流健康评价指标体系、河流生态修复效果评价指标体系及国内外河流生态修复技术措施进行指标筛选,构建河流生态修复效果评价指标体系,从新的视角提出了包含河流自然功能、生态环境功能和社会经济功能三个方面27项分指标的河流生态修复效果多目标综合评价指标体系;同时展望河流生态修复效果评价今后主要的研究方向,为后续河流生态修复研究工作提供有效的参考依据。%in this paper,we used frequency analysis,theoretical analysis,and combined with engi-neering practice and index system of river health evaluation,proposed an index system for evaluating the result of river restoration. The new evaluation index system was divided into 3 categories,further into 27 sub-indicators as nature function,ecological function and socio-economic function of the rivers. Finally we put forward the prospects for future research direction in the field of ecological res-toration of rivers.

  5. A comparison of the efficacy and ecosystem impact of residual-based and topsoil-based amendments for restoring historic mine tailings in the Tri-State mining district

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Sally, E-mail: slb@uw.edu [School of Forest and Environmental Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98105 (United States); Mahoney, Michele; Sprenger, Mark [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Environmental Response Team, Edison, NJ (United States)

    2014-07-01

    A long-term research and demonstration site was established on Pb and Zn mine wastes in southwestern Missouri in 1999. Municipal biosolids and lime and composts were mixed into the wastes at different loading rates. The site was monitored intensively after establishment and again in 2012. A site restored with topsoil was also included in the 2012 sampling. Initial results including plant, earthworm and small mammal assays indicate that the bioaccessibility of metals had been significantly reduced as a result of amendment addition. The recent sampling showed that at higher loading rates, the residual mixtures have maintained a vegetative cover and are similar to the topsoil treatment based on nutrient availability and cycling and soil physical properties including bulk density and water holding capacity. The ecosystem implications of restoration with residuals versus mined topsoil were evaluated. Harvesting topsoil from nearby farms would require 1875 years to replace based on natural rates of soil formation. In contrast, diverting biosolids from combustion facilities (60% of biosolids generated in Missouri are incinerated) would result in greenhouse gas savings of close to 400 Mg CO{sub 2} per ha. - Highlights: • Plant yield and metal uptake over 12 years show efficacy of residuals. • Field small mammal trapping indicate minimal risk of attractive nuisance. • Physical properties and fertility of residuals are similar to topsoil. • Ecosystem costs of replacement topsoil show benefit of residuals.

  6. A comparison of the efficacy and ecosystem impact of residual-based and topsoil-based amendments for restoring historic mine tailings in the Tri-State mining district

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A long-term research and demonstration site was established on Pb and Zn mine wastes in southwestern Missouri in 1999. Municipal biosolids and lime and composts were mixed into the wastes at different loading rates. The site was monitored intensively after establishment and again in 2012. A site restored with topsoil was also included in the 2012 sampling. Initial results including plant, earthworm and small mammal assays indicate that the bioaccessibility of metals had been significantly reduced as a result of amendment addition. The recent sampling showed that at higher loading rates, the residual mixtures have maintained a vegetative cover and are similar to the topsoil treatment based on nutrient availability and cycling and soil physical properties including bulk density and water holding capacity. The ecosystem implications of restoration with residuals versus mined topsoil were evaluated. Harvesting topsoil from nearby farms would require 1875 years to replace based on natural rates of soil formation. In contrast, diverting biosolids from combustion facilities (60% of biosolids generated in Missouri are incinerated) would result in greenhouse gas savings of close to 400 Mg CO2 per ha. - Highlights: • Plant yield and metal uptake over 12 years show efficacy of residuals. • Field small mammal trapping indicate minimal risk of attractive nuisance. • Physical properties and fertility of residuals are similar to topsoil. • Ecosystem costs of replacement topsoil show benefit of residuals

  7. Problems and Countermeasures of Ecological Restoration and Compensation in Mining Areas in Jiangxi Province%江西省矿区生态修复补偿问题与对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐斌; 傅伟

    2015-01-01

    江西省属国有矿区生态修复中存在生态补偿制度不合理;生态补偿体系不完善;生态补偿管理不健全;生态补偿市场不充分;生态补偿资金不到位等问题。完善江西省属国有矿区生态修复补偿的原则包括:开发与治理协同;新账与旧账分治;政府与市场结合;分类与共建并进。文章提出江西省属国有矿区生态修复补偿的对策建议为:构建生态监测和生态标准两种体系;建立补偿评估与补偿谈判两种机制;完善事前补偿与事后补偿两种制度;优化环境税制和补偿费用两种手段;运用直接融资和间接融资两种方式;加强环境法规和生态管理两种保障。%In the ecological restoration of state-owned mining areas in Jiangxi province,there are some prob-lems such as unreasonable ecological compensation system;imperfect ecological compensation system;unsound eco-logical compensation management;insufficient ecological compensation market;inadequate ecological compensation funds. The principles of improve the ecological restoration and compensation of state-owned mining areas in Jiangxi Province includes:coordination in development and governance;partition the new account and old scores;combined with the government and the market;and the principle of classification and co-construction and hand in hand. The article puts forward countermeasures and suggestions for the ecological restoration of state-owned mining areas in Jiangxi province:to establish two systems of ecological monitoring and ecological standard,to establish two mecha-nisms of compensation evaluation and compensation negotiation,to improve two systems of pre compensation and post compensation,to optimize two means of environment tax and compensation cost,to use two ways of direct finan-cing and indirect financing,to strengthen two guarantees of environmental regulations and ecological management.

  8. [Temporal stability of river ecological restoration based on the assessment of contingent valuation method: a case study of Shanghai urban river].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi-Fei; Wang, Dan

    2013-04-01

    Whether the assessment results of Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) have temporal stability is an important issue in examining the reliability of CVM findings, and also, is critical to decide whether CVM can be applied to evaluate the ecosystem services value in China. Taking the ecological restoration along the Caohejing River in Shanghai as a case, three CVM survey schemes with one month apart and two years apart were designed. Then, 426, 498, and 200 questionnaires in these surveys were comparatively analyzed, respectively. The mean values of the willingness to pay (WTP) from the three surveys were 14. 2, 14. 1, and 18. 0 RMB, and the median values were 5, 5, and 10 RMB, respectively. With the comparison of the WTP distribution and the main statistics, the analysis of the factors affecting the WTP, and the test of the significances of temporal variables, it was found that the CVM results from the surveys with one-month apart had temporal stability, while those from the surveys with two years apart presented definite difference. PMID:23898647

  9. Restoration of ailing wetlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswald J Schmitz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is widely held that humankind's destructive tendencies when exploiting natural resources leads to irreparable harm to the environment. Yet, this thinking runs counter to evidence that many ecological systems damaged by severe natural environmental disturbances (e.g., hurricanes can restore themselves via processes of natural recovery. The emerging field of restoration ecology is capitalizing on the natural restorative tendencies of ecological systems to build a science of repairing the harm inflicted by humans on natural environment. Evidence for this, for example, comes from a new meta-analysis of 124 studies that synthesizes recovery of impacted wetlands worldwide. While it may take up to two human generations to see full recovery, there is promise, given human will, to restore many damaged wetlands worldwide.

  10. 人为干扰对西南喀斯特小流域生态恢复的影响%Effects of Human-Induced Disturbance on the Ecological Restoration in Karst Small Watershed of Southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红玉; 杨勇; 李勇

    2014-01-01

    Ecological restoration is an important ecological security for Karst ecological fragile region to develop social economy.Agricultural production activities,rocky desertification control and land utilization way were the main human-induced disturbance factors,which affected ecosystem degradation and restoration in Karst small water-shed.Based on the previous research on the ecological development and ecological management,made the compo-nents of ecosystem and the process of the restoration as the starting point,this paper analyzed the effects of human-induced disturbance on the vegetation,soil,litter,soil biological structure,function and diversity.Ecological man-agement should pay more attention to constantly maintain and rich ecosystem elements,and strengthen the study of the ecological process and the “integrity”recovery of degraded ecosystem,and then restart and promote ecological restoration in Karst small watershed.%对退化生态系统的恢复,是喀斯特生态脆弱区域社会经济发展的重要保障。农业生产活动、石漠化治理、土地利用方式等,共同构成了影响喀斯特小流域生态系统退化和恢复的人为干扰因素。在前人对喀斯特石漠化小流域生态治理相关研究的基础上,以生态系统组成要素和生态恢复动态过程为出发点,分析并探讨人为干扰对于植被、土壤、凋落物、土壤生物结构、功能和多样性的扰动。提出生态治理和生态建设应注意对生态系统要素的维持和丰富,并加强对生态系统整体恢复和生态过程的研究,从而更好地促进喀斯特石漠化小流域生态系统的恢复。

  11. 珊瑚礁生态修复的理论与实践%Review on Ecological Restoration Theories and Practices of Coral Reefs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃祯俊; 余克服; 王英辉

    2016-01-01

    Coral reefsaredegraded rapidlybythe global warming and large-scale human activities around the world, especially in the South China Sea (SCS).Coral reef restoration hascaught the attentionsofresearchers and volunteersin recentyears.Relatedtheories andtechnologiesare to be developed, but undoubtedly, the most important strategy is to protect the eco-environment of coral reefs to avoid further damage.For coral reef restoration, coraltransplantationis a promising way.After corals are transplanted, the damaged tissuescanbe repaired inafew days, the immune systemcan berebuilt,and thesymbiont(zooxanthellae) community structure can be changed to enhance coral’s adaptation to thenew environment.Gardening and captive breeding are effective ways to provide transplantation materials while artificial reefs are an important means to help establish coral development base.Creating and maintaining the growth environment for corals canhelp to raise the efficiency of ecological restoration. Spread and survival of coral larva can be promoted with the help of favorable water flow, chemical induction and microtopography. The environment-tolerantcapacityand recovery potential of corals andtheysymbioticzooxanthellaecan be improved using molecular technologies. Coral restoration technologies including coral transplantation, gardening, artificial reefs, coral repair andcaptive coralbreeding can beemployedeffectively in lots ofareas.%南海乃至全球的珊瑚礁生态系统都处于快速退化中,珊瑚礁的生态修复因此成为社会关注的热点内容,但相关理论与技术仍在探索之中。保护珊瑚礁的生态环境、避免对珊瑚礁进一步的破坏无疑是最关键的策略。对于已退化珊瑚礁的修复,初步有以下认识:1)珊瑚移植是重要的技术手段,可通过对移植后的珊瑚进行损伤组织修复、重建免疫系统、改变共生体虫黄藻系群结构等增强移植珊瑚适应新环境的能力。2)园艺式养殖

  12. Results of Community Deliberation About Social Impacts of Ecological Restoration: Comparing Public Input of Self-Selected Versus Actively Engaged Community Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Charles C.; Nielsen, Erik A.; Becker, Dennis R.; Blahna, Dale J.; McLaughlin, William J.

    2012-08-01

    Participatory processes for obtaining residents' input about community impacts of proposed environmental management actions have long raised concerns about who participates in public involvement efforts and whose interests they represent. This study explored methods of broad-based involvement and the role of deliberation in social impact assessment. Interactive community forums were conducted in 27 communities to solicit public input on proposed alternatives for recovering wild salmon in the Pacific Northwest US. Individuals identified by fellow residents as most active and involved in community affairs ("AE residents") were invited to participate in deliberations about likely social impacts of proposed engineering and ecological actions such as dam removal. Judgments of these AE participants about community impacts were compared with the judgments of residents motivated to attend a forum out of personal interest, who were designated as self-selected ("SS") participants. While the magnitude of impacts rated by SS participants across all communities differed significantly from AE participants' ratings, in-depth analysis of results from two community case studies found that both AE and SS participants identified a large and diverse set of unique impacts, as well as many of the same kinds of impacts. Thus, inclusion of both kinds of residents resulted in a greater range of impacts for consideration in the environmental impact study. The case study results also found that the extent to which similar kinds of impacts are specified by AE and SS group members can differ by type of community. Study results caution against simplistic conclusions drawn from this approach to community-wide public participation. Nonetheless, the results affirm that deliberative methods for community-based impact assessment involving both AE and SS residents can provide a more complete picture of perceived impacts of proposed restoration activities.

  13. Quantifying the impacts of climate change and ecological restoration on streamflow changes based on a Budyko hydrological model in China's Loess Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wei; Bai, Dan; Wang, Feiyu; Fu, Bojie; Yan, Junping; Wang, Shuai; Yang, Yuting; Long, Di; Feng, Minquan

    2015-08-01

    Understanding hydrological effects of ecological restoration (ER) is fundamental to develop effective measures guiding future ER and to adapt climate change in China's Loess Plateau (LP). Streamflow (Q) is an important indicator of hydrological processes that represents the combined effects of climatic and land surface conditions. Here 14 catchments located in the LP were chosen to explore the Q response to different driving factors during the period 1961-2009 by using elasticity and decomposition methods based on the Budyko framework. Our results show that (1) annual Q exhibited a decreasing trend in all catchments (-0.30 ˜ -1.71 mm yr-2), with an average reduction of -0.87 mm yr-2. The runoff coefficients in flood season and nonflood season were both decreasing between two periods divided by the changing point in annual Q series; (2) the precipitation (P) and potential evapotranspiration (E0) elasticity of Q are 2.75 and -1.75, respectively, indicating that Q is more sensitive to changes in P than that in E0; (3) the two methods consistently demonstrated that, on average, ER (62%) contributing to Q reduction was much larger than that of climate change (38%). In addition, parameter n that entails catchment characteristics in the Budyko framework showed positive correlation with the relative area of ER measures in all catchments (eight of them are statistically significant with p < 0.05). These findings highlight the importance of ER measures on modifying the hydrological partitioning in the region. However, ER actions over the sloping parts of the landscape weakened the impact of those in channels (i.e., check-dams) on Q, especially after the implementation of the Grain-for-Green project in 1999.

  14. Combining system dynamics and agent-based modeling to analyze social-ecological interactions - an example from modeling restoration of a shallow lake

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Romina; Schlüter, Maja

    2015-01-01

    Modeling social-ecological interactions between humans and ecosystems to analyze their implications for sustainable management of social-ecological systems (SES) has multiple challenges. When integrating social and ecological dynamics, which are often studied separately, one has to deal with different modeling paradigms, levels of analysis, temporal and spatial scales, and data availabilities in the social and ecological domains. A major challenge, for instance, is linking the emergent patter...

  15. Research Progress of Ecological Restoration Theory and Technology in Coal Mine Area%煤矿区生态恢复理论与技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴历勇

    2012-01-01

    煤矿的开采占用和破坏了大量土地,改变了矿区及周围区域水体结构,破坏了动植物区系,导致矿区生态环境退化与环境污染,进而引发了一系列社会、经济与生态环境问题.矿区的生态恢复已经在社会上引起了广泛关注,成为当今较为活跃的研究热点之一.综述了国内外煤矿区生态恢复在理论与技术研究上取得的进展及存在的主要问题.%Coal mine exploitation occupies and destroys a large number of land. The structure of waters around the mine has changed. The changes also causes huge destruction of flora and fauna, results in eco - environmental degradation and environmental pollution in mining areas, and further triggers a series of social, economic and ecological environment problems. Mine ecological restoration has aroused widespread attention in society and becomes the focus of research. This paper summarized the progress and existing main problems in ecological restoration of domestic and international coal mine area in the theory and technology.

  16. Using plant functional traits to guide restoration: A case study in California coastal grassland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandel, Brody Steven; Corbin, Jeffrey; Krupa, Monica

    2011-01-01

    Restoration ecology can benefit greatly from developments in trait-based ecology that enable improved predictions of how the composition of plant communities will respond to changes in environmental conditions. Plant functional traits can be used to guide the restoration of degraded habitats...... by closely tailoring treatments to the local species pool. We tested this approach in two heavily invaded coastal California grasslands. We asked whether native plant abundance and plant community trait composition respond to (1) experimental soil fertility reduction in the form of twice-yearly carbon (C......) amendments and (2) disturbance in the form of mowing. We measured height, specific leaf area, leaf thickness and leaf density from individuals of 39 species in the control and C addition plots, and supplemented these trait values with database information on growth form, lifespan, nitrogen-fixing ability...

  17. Impact of river restoration on groundwater - surface water - interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurth, Anne-Marie; Schirmer, Mario

    2014-05-01

    Since the end of the 19th century, flood protection was increasingly based on the construction of impermeable dams and side walls (BWG, 2003). In spite of providing flood protection, these measures also limited the connectivity between the river and the land, restricted the area available for flooding, and hampered the natural flow dynamics of the river. Apart from the debilitating effect on riverine ecosystems due to loss of habitats, these measures also limited bank filtration, inhibited the infiltration of storm water, and affected groundwater-surface water-interactions. This in turn had a profound effect on ecosystem health, as a lack of groundwater-surface water interactions led to decreased cycling of pollutants and nutrients in the hyporheic zone and limited the moderation of the water temperature (EA, 2009). In recent decades, it has become apparent that further damages to riverine ecosystems must be prohibited, as the damages to ecology, economy and society surmount any benefits gained from exploiting them. Nowadays, the restoration of rivers is a globally accepted means to restore ecosystem functioning, protect water resources and amend flood protection (Andrea et al., 2012; Palmer et al., 2005; Wortley et al., 2013). In spite of huge efforts regarding the restoration of rivers over the last 30 years, the question of its effectiveness remains, as river restorations often reconstruct a naturally looking rather than a naturally functioning stream (EA, 2009). We therefore focussed our research on the effectiveness of river restorations, represented by the groundwater-surface water-interactions. Given a sufficiently high groundwater level, a lack of groundwater-surface water-interactions after restoration may indicate that the vertical connectivity in the stream was not fully restored. In order to investigate groundwater-surface water-interactions we determined the thermal signature on the stream bed and in +/- 40 cm depth by using Distributed Temperature

  18. Does origin always matter? Evaluating the influence of nonlocal seed provenances for ecological restoration purposes in a widespread and outcrossing plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiker, Jutta; Schulz, Benjamin; Wissemann, Volker; Gemeinholzer, Birgit

    2015-12-01

    For restoration purposes, nature conservation generally enforces the use of local seed material based on the "local-is-best" (LIB) approach. However, in some cases recommendations to refrain from this approach have been made. Here we test if a common widespread species with no obvious signs of local adaptation may be a candidate species for abandoning LIB during restoration. Using 10 microsatellite markers we compared population genetic patterns of the generalist species Daucus carota in indigenous and formerly restored sites (nonlocal seed provenances). Gene diversity overall ranged between H e = 0.67 and 0.86 and showed no significant differences between the two groups. Hierarchical AMOVA and principal component analysis revealed very high genetic population admixture and negligible differentiation between indigenous and restored sites (F CT = 0.002). Moreover, differentiation between groups was caused by only one outlier population, where inbreeding effects are presumed. We therefore conclude that the introduction of nonlocal seed provenances in the course of landscape restoration did not jeopardize regional species persistence by contributing to inbreeding or outbreeding depressions, or any measurable adverse population genetic effect. On the basis of these results, we see no obvious objections to the current practice to use the 10-fold cheaper, nonlocal seed material of D. carota for restoration projects. PMID:27069613

  19. 北京市采石迹地生态恢复与景观构建%Ecological Restoration and Landscape Construction of the Abandoned Quarries in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴娜

    2014-01-01

    结合北京市采石废弃地植被恢复工程建设实际,对采石迹地类型划分、采石迹地立地改造、生态恢复中植物品种的选择与色彩的搭配、生态景观序列的展开与景观节点的设计等内容进行研究,以期为北京市采石迹地生态恢复与景观构建提供参考。%Combined with the Beijing quarry restoration project,this paper studies the quarry types,quarry site transformation,plant species selection and color matching,restoration landscape series expansion and scenic spot design,with an aim to provide experiences for ecological restoration and landscape construc-tion of abandoned quarries in Beijing.

  20. Ecological Restoration and Landscape Construction of the Abandoned Quarries in Beijing%北京市采石迹地生态恢复与景观构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴娜

    2014-01-01

    结合北京市采石废弃地植被恢复工程建设实际,对采石迹地类型划分、采石迹地立地改造、生态恢复中植物品种的选择与色彩的搭配、生态景观序列的展开与景观节点的设计等内容进行研究,以期为北京市采石迹地生态恢复与景观构建提供参考。%Combined with the Beijing quarry restoration project,this paper studies the quarry types,quarry site transformation,plant species selection and color matching,restoration landscape series expansion and scenic spot design,with an aim to provide experiences for ecological restoration and landscape construc-tion of abandoned quarries in Beijing.

  1. 水生植物对水体重金属污染的监测和生态修复%Biomonitoring and Ecological Restoring Heavy Metal Polluted Water by Aquatic Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    惠峰; 王良桂

    2013-01-01

    Aquatic plants have excellent ability in biomonitoring and ecological restoring heavy metal polluted water. Bryophytes are excellent biomonitors of heavy metal pollution, so they can be used to monitor and evaluate the heavy metal contamination level of the studied water. Moreover, four life forms of aquatic plants (including emergent, free-drifting, floating-leaved and submergent) all have certain accumulation capacity on heavy metals, so they are appropriate materials for ecological restoring of heavy metal polluted water. Using aquatic plants to treat heavy metal polluted water is a simple and low cost method, and won't bring secondary pollution. This phytoremediation method can not only restore heavy metal pollution, but also prettify the environment and bring direct and indirect economic benefits.%水生植物对水体重金属污染具有良好的监测和生态修复功能.苔藓植物是重金属污染良好的生物监测器,可用于水体重金属污染状况的监测和评价.同时,4种生活型的水生植物(挺水、浮叶、漂浮和沉水植物)对重金属都有一定的富集能力,对重金属污染水体有生态修复作用.利用水生植物对水体进行生态修复具有简便易行、成本较低、不易形成二次污染的优势,在修复水体重金属污染的同时还可以美化环境,并可产生直接或间接的经济效益.

  2. Ecological Restoration and Benefit Evaluation of the Test Section of Chaohu Lake Wetland%巢湖湿地试验段生态修复及其效益评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨玲玲

    2015-01-01

    本文以巢湖退化湿地试验段为研究对象,在生态修复的基础上对其恢复效果进行效益评价.结果表明,经采取基底恢复、水生植物恢复、水生动物及微生物的引入等措施后,巢湖试验段湿地景观得到较大改善,水质污染状况明显好转,水体中总氮( TN)、总磷( TP )的含量明显下降,评价结果表明试验段呈现了较好的生态效益、社会效益和经济效益,以期为巢湖的污染和湿地退化治理提供一定依据.%In this paper, the test section of Chaohu Lake degraded wetland was the study object and its restoration effects were evaluated based on its ecological restoration. The results showed that, after several measures were taken including the basal recovery, aquatic plant restoration and introduction of aquatic animals and microorganisms, the wetland landscape of the test section has been greatly improved. Water quality has been improved significantly with significant decrease of the total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP). The evaluation showed that the test section demonstrated good ecological, social and economic benefits and provided some reference for controlling pollution and wetland degradation of Chaohu Lake.

  3. 红池坝炼山后生态恢复过程中群落特征研究%Community characteristics in Hongchiba area of Wuxi County during ecological restoration after controlled burning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何丙辉; 郝云庆; 李旭光; 韩晨霞; 陈昌沛; 郑国词

    2004-01-01

    This paper studied the species composition and the structure and species diversity of communities in Hongchiba area of Wuxi County after controlled burning and aerial-sowing afforestation. The results showed that after buming and afforestation, pure Pinus armandii forest was not developed, but various mixed needle board-leaved forests which comprised P. armandii and native board-leaved trees grew. Various native species contributed to the communities with great species diversity. Shannon-Wiener index was 2.305~3.145, ecological dominance was 0.063~0.151, and evenness was 0.600~0.749. The natural regeneration of P. armandii population was very poor, and there was a trend that P. armandii would be gradually replaced by other native board-leaved trees. It was demonstrated that P. armandii should not be taken as a unique afforesr tree, and controlled burning was not a favorite ecological measure in subtropical area. Native trees should play more important roles in the process of ecological restoration.

  4. Preliminary report on the ecological assessment of Waste Area Grouping 5 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashwood, T.L.; Suter, G.W. II; Stewart, A.J.

    1992-09-01

    In support of the remedial investigation for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 5, staff of the Environmental Sciences Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory have conducted preliminary ecological assessment activities. A screening level ecological risk assessment has been completed, ambient toxicity tests have been conducted on streams and seeps within WAG 5, WAG 5 has been surveyed for rare and endangered species and wetlands, and wild turkeys that may feed on contaminated vegetation and insects in WAG 5 have been screened for beta-emitting isotopes and {sup 137}Cs. The screening-level ecological risk assessment identified some data gaps that were addressed in the ecological assessment plan. These include gaps in data on the toxicity of surface water and soil within WAG 5 and on the status of rare and endangered species. In addition, the screening-level risk assessment identified the need for data on the level of contaminants in wild turkeys that may be consumed by predatory wildlife and humans. Three rounds of ambient toxicity tests on six streams and seeps, using the microcrustacean Ceriodaphnia, have identified potential toxicity in three of the sample sites. Further tests are required to identify the toxicant. No rare or endangered animal species have been identified in the WAG 5 area.

  5. The ecological and physiological responses of the microbial community from a semiarid soil to hydrocarbon contamination and its bioremediation using compost amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastida, F; Jehmlich, N; Lima, K; Morris, B E L; Richnow, H H; Hernández, T; von Bergen, M; García, C

    2016-03-01

    The linkage between phylogenetic and functional processes may provide profound insights into the effects of hydrocarbon contamination and biodegradation processes in high-diversity environments. Here, the impacts of petroleum contamination and the bioremediation potential of compost amendment, as enhancer of the microbial activity in semiarid soils, were evaluated in a model experiment. The analysis of phospholipid fatty-acids (PLFAs) and metaproteomics allowed the study of biomass, phylogenetic and physiological responses of the microbial community in polluted semiarid soils. Petroleum pollution induced an increase of proteobacterial proteins during the contamination, while the relative abundance of Rhizobiales lowered in comparison to the non-contaminated soil. Despite only 0.55% of the metaproteome of the compost-treated soil was involved in biodegradation processes, the addition of compost promoted the removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkanes up to 88% after 50 days. However, natural biodegradation of hydrocarbons was not significant in soils without compost. Compost-assisted bioremediation was mainly driven by Sphingomonadales and uncultured bacteria that showed an increased abundance of catabolic enzymes such as catechol 2,3-dioxygenases, cis-dihydrodiol dehydrogenase and 2-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde. For the first time, metaproteomics revealed the functional and phylogenetic relationships of petroleum contamination in soil and the microbial key players involved in the compost-assisted bioremediation.

  6. The ecological and physiological responses of the microbial community from a semiarid soil to hydrocarbon contamination and its bioremediation using compost amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastida, F; Jehmlich, N; Lima, K; Morris, B E L; Richnow, H H; Hernández, T; von Bergen, M; García, C

    2016-03-01

    The linkage between phylogenetic and functional processes may provide profound insights into the effects of hydrocarbon contamination and biodegradation processes in high-diversity environments. Here, the impacts of petroleum contamination and the bioremediation potential of compost amendment, as enhancer of the microbial activity in semiarid soils, were evaluated in a model experiment. The analysis of phospholipid fatty-acids (PLFAs) and metaproteomics allowed the study of biomass, phylogenetic and physiological responses of the microbial community in polluted semiarid soils. Petroleum pollution induced an increase of proteobacterial proteins during the contamination, while the relative abundance of Rhizobiales lowered in comparison to the non-contaminated soil. Despite only 0.55% of the metaproteome of the compost-treated soil was involved in biodegradation processes, the addition of compost promoted the removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkanes up to 88% after 50 days. However, natural biodegradation of hydrocarbons was not significant in soils without compost. Compost-assisted bioremediation was mainly driven by Sphingomonadales and uncultured bacteria that showed an increased abundance of catabolic enzymes such as catechol 2,3-dioxygenases, cis-dihydrodiol dehydrogenase and 2-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde. For the first time, metaproteomics revealed the functional and phylogenetic relationships of petroleum contamination in soil and the microbial key players involved in the compost-assisted bioremediation. PMID:26225916

  7. Ecology of plant and free-living nematodes in natural and agricultural soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neher, Deborah A

    2010-01-01

    Nematodes are aquatic organisms that depend on thin water films to live and move within existing pathways of soil pores of 25-100 mum diameter. Soil nematodes can be a tool for testing ecological hypotheses and understanding biological mechanisms in soil because of their central role in the soil food web and linkage to ecological processes. Ecological succession is one of the most tested community ecology concepts, and a variety of nematode community indices have been proposed for purposes of environmental monitoring. In contrast, theories of biogeography, colonization, optimal foraging, and niche partitioning by nematodes are poorly understood. Ecological hypotheses related to strategies of coexistence of nematode species sharing the same resource have potential uses for more effective biological control and use of organic amendments to foster disease suppression. Essential research is needed on nematodes in natural and agricultural soils to synchronize nutrient release and availability relative to plant needs, to test ecological hypotheses, to apply optimal foraging and niche partitioning strategies for more effective biological control, to blend organic amendments to foster disease suppression, to monitor environmental and restoration status, and to develop better predictive models for land-use decisions. PMID:20455699

  8. 石缝重生--采石场的生态恢复和景观重建研究%Rebirth of the Stone Gap--Research on the Ecological Restoration and Landscape Reconstruction of the Quarry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王薇; 褚楚; 徐丽萍

    2015-01-01

    废弃采石场不仅对生态环境造成重大破坏,同时也对城市形象产生影响,并且造成土地资源浪费,对废弃采石场进行合理的改造是一个长期的过程,让它保持持续旅游环保的经济和社会价值是对其进行生态恢复和景观重建的根本目的。文章通过对伊斯坦布尔卡尔塔尔地区的采石场进行深入的研究与SWOT分析,提出了设计原则和具体改造方案,包括工业建筑改造、集装箱改造、竖向设计和水体设计等,营造出层次丰富的生态景观和具有传统地域文化记忆的场所,从而为废弃采石场的生态恢复和景观重建探索一条科学可行的方法。%Abandoned quarry not only severely damaged the ecological environment, but also greatly impacted the city image and wasted land resources. It is a long term to reasonably reconstruct the abandoned quarry;ecological restoration and landscape reconstruction is mainly for make it keep the economic and social value of sustainable tourism. This paper had an in-depth study and SWOY analysis on the quarry in the Kartal area of Istanbul and proposed design principles and speciifc reconstruction scheme, including industrial building reconstruction, container transformation, vertical design, water design, etc., creating layered ecological landscapes and places of traditional regional culture memory, so as to exploit a scientiifc and feasible way for the ecological restoration and landscape reconstruction of the abandoned quarry.

  9. 石缝重生--采石场的生态恢复和景观重建研究%Rebirth of the Stone Gap--Research on the Ecological Restoration and Landscape Reconstruction of the Quarry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王薇; 褚楚; 徐丽萍

    2015-01-01

    Abandoned quarry not only severely damaged the ecological environment, but also greatly impacted the city image and wasted land resources. It is a long term to reasonably reconstruct the abandoned quarry;ecological restoration and landscape reconstruction is mainly for make it keep the economic and social value of sustainable tourism. This paper had an in-depth study and SWOY analysis on the quarry in the Kartal area of Istanbul and proposed design principles and speciifc reconstruction scheme, including industrial building reconstruction, container transformation, vertical design, water design, etc., creating layered ecological landscapes and places of traditional regional culture memory, so as to exploit a scientiifc and feasible way for the ecological restoration and landscape reconstruction of the abandoned quarry.%废弃采石场不仅对生态环境造成重大破坏,同时也对城市形象产生影响,并且造成土地资源浪费,对废弃采石场进行合理的改造是一个长期的过程,让它保持持续旅游环保的经济和社会价值是对其进行生态恢复和景观重建的根本目的。文章通过对伊斯坦布尔卡尔塔尔地区的采石场进行深入的研究与SWOT分析,提出了设计原则和具体改造方案,包括工业建筑改造、集装箱改造、竖向设计和水体设计等,营造出层次丰富的生态景观和具有传统地域文化记忆的场所,从而为废弃采石场的生态恢复和景观重建探索一条科学可行的方法。

  10. Research Progress in the Ecological Restoration of Tree Species in the Rocky Desertification Mountains in Guangxi%广西石漠化山地生态修复树种的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱善勤

    2012-01-01

    Rocky desertification is a major environmental problem in Guangxi, several species of ecological restoration trees were introduced in this paper, including Zenia insignis Chun, Cephalomappa sinensis, Broussonetia papyrifera, etc. Their growth characteristics and economic values as feeds, timbers and paper-making materials were introduced.%石漠化是广西生态环境的头号问题,综述了在广西石漠化山区常用的生态修复树种,任豆树、肥牛树、构树、大叶速生槐等,介绍了其生长习性及其在生物饲料、木材以及造纸等方面的经济利用价值.

  11. Study on Matrix Absorbent Agent(SAP) Performance of Mine Ecological Restoration%矿山生态修复基质保水剂(SAP)性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余莉琳; 裴宗平

    2012-01-01

    In mine rocky slope ecological restoration,the selection and using of super absorbent polymers in substrate configuration was the research base and key.Using super absorbent polymer-polyacrylic acid sodium/potassium SAP,the SAP of bibulous rate,and water retention capacity and stability were analyzed,11 different proportion matrix was deviced,and the indexes of plant germination rate,survival rate,drought resistance and each matrix's water retention capacity were studied.The results showed that the selection of SAP in rocky slope ecological restoration technology was preferred,choosing polyacrylic acid potassium SAP,with 2.0% application amount.%矿山石质边坡生态修复技术中保水剂的选用是研究的基础和重点。本研究采用高吸水性树脂—聚丙烯酸钾/钠两种SAP进行试验,分析两者吸水倍/速率、保水能力及稳定性,设计11种不同配比的基质,研究植物发芽率、存活率、抗旱能力及基质保水力。结果表明,在石质边坡生态修复基质SAP选择上,选用聚丙烯酸钾SAP,并且施用量为2.0%较优。

  12. Rational groundwater table indicated by the eco-physiological parameters of the vegetation: A case study of ecological restoration in the lower reaches of the Tarim River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yaning; WANG Qiang; LI Weihong; RUAN Xiao; CHEN Yapeng; ZHANG Lihua

    2006-01-01

    The eco-physiological response and adaptation of Populus euphratica Oliv and Tamarix ramosissima Ldb during water release period were investigated. Nine typical areas and forty-five transects were selected along the lower reaches of Tarim River. The groundwater table as well as plant performance and the contents of proline, soluble sugars,and plant endogenous hormone (ABA, CTK) in leaves were monitored and analyzed. The groundwater table was raised in different areas and transects by water release program. The physiological stress to P. euphratica and T. ramosissima had been reduced after water release. Our results suggested that the groundwater table in the studied region remained at-3.15 to -4.12 m, the proline content from 9.28 to 11.06 (mmol/L), the soluble sugar content from 224.71 to 252.16 (mmol/L), the ABA content from 3.59 to 5.01 (ng/g FW), and the CK content from 4.01 to 4.56 (ng/g FW), for the optimum growth and restoration of P. euphratica indicated by the plant performance parameters and the efficiency of water application was the highest. The groundwater table in the studied region remained at -2.16 to -3.38 m, the proline content from 12.15 to 14.17 (mmol/L), the soluble sugar content from 154.71 to 183.16 (mmol/L), the ABA content from 2.78 to 4.86 (ng/g FW), and the CK content from 3.78 to 4.22 (ng/g FW), for the optimum growth and restoration of T. ramosissima indicated by the plant performance parameters and the efficiency of water application was the highest. The rational groundwater table for the restoration of vegetation in the studied region was at -3.15 to -3.38 m.

  13. Improving the Legal Framework for the Ecological Restoration of Subsided Coal Mining Areas in China%论采煤塌陷区生态修复法律制度的完善——以淮南市采煤塌陷区为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴鹏

    2013-01-01

    生态修复是全新的采煤塌陷生态环境社会治理模式,主要指在人工条件下对原有被破坏生态环境进行恢复、重建和修整使其更适合社会经济可持续发展的过程.生态修复法的价值体现在它对于社会经济可持续发展的重要意义,及其对公众社会正义、分配正义需求的满足.生态修复不仅仅追求对于生态环境本身的恢复和重建,更体现了它对生态环境影响下人们权利和义务的修正,这一过程也同时反映出人们对于环境正义的述求,而环境正义的实质就是分配正义.这种正义价值的选择决定了生态修复法律制度建设的目标应当包括经济利益的实现和环境利益的保障这两个基本方面.目前,生态修复实践已经在多个煤炭开发城市里广泛开展,但是理论研究尚局限在技术和管理领域.采煤塌陷区生态修复研究存在理论研究不深入,相关法律制度欠缺等问题.选取安徽省淮南市采煤塌陷区的生态修复作为典型案例,深入研究生态修复理论,探索其理论的社会意义,并以此为基础完善采煤塌陷区生态修复法律制度,将有助于解决我国现实的社会问题和生态环境问题.%Ecological restoration is a new form of ecological environmental control and is a process of recovery and reconstruction. The ultimate aim of human-driven ecological and environmental repair is to maximize social justice and this relies on a well-developed ecological restoration legal system. The values of ecological restoration law are representing the significance of sustainable development of society and the economy, meeting the demands of social justice, and distribution justice for the public. Justice values of the ecological restoration legal system should include secure economic benefits and environmental benefits. Ecological restoration is undertaken in many cities, but the theoretical framework is limited. Studies of urban coalmine ecological

  14. 西安护城河水质分析与生态修复方案%Water quality analysis and ecological restoration scheme for Moat of Xi'an City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉玲; 高升; 白凯

    2011-01-01

    对西安市护城河水质进行了分析,并对其污染成因进行了探讨,最后针对护城河不同河段各自的水质特点设计了生态修复方案:对护城河东北角至安远门河段利用人工浮岛+接触氧化技术修复受污染水体;在护城河东段利用阿科蔓生态基+复合菌种组合技术,改善该河段较严重的水体有机污染及底泥污染.%This paper analyzed the water quality and pollution reason for moat of Xian City and then designed the ecological restoration program according to the water qualities in different sections for the city moat. It used the artificial river floating island + contact oxidation technology to restore the contaminated water from the northeast corner of the city moat to the An Yuan door in the eastern moat used Aquamats + Composite strain technology to improve the seriously organic pollution and sediment contamination for the river water.

  15. 景观水体污染生态修复技术与景观优化系统设计%Landscape Water Ecological Restoration and Landscape Optimization System Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱士鑫; 廖章森; 王登蒿; 沈洲; 梅雪

    2014-01-01

    基于北方地区人工景观水体存在的问题,以西安市长安大学修远湖水体为研究对象,对水体进行水质监测,从数据结果分析总结出水体的水环境特征,依据现存景观水体水污染在内的环境问题归纳出景观水体污染的生境改善措施,综合水体的周边环境特征,结合水体生境改善措施和美学设计等专业知识,即运用景观设计形式及手法把研究得到的修复植物置于污染水体之中,达到对水体的修复效果,同时形成良好的水上景观区,得出人工景观水体污染生态修复技术与景观优化系统设计。%The paper addresses the artificial landscape water in the northern region. With Xi-uyuan Lake of Chang’an University as the sample water body, the water quality is monitored. The characteristics of water environment are identified. The improvements of the eco-environ-ment for artificial landscape water are proposed. With regard to the environmental characteris-tics, the improvement measures of water eco-environment and art design, restoration plants have been placed in contaminated water body. The outcome is restored water and a superaque-ous landscape. What is achieved is the technique of artificial water pollution ecological restora-tion and the design of artificial landscape optimization.

  16. 珠江流域贵州段石漠化生态修复管理机制研究%Research on the Management Mechanism of Ecological Restoration of the Stony Desertificationin the Pearl River Basin in Guizhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾春花; 韩杰

    2016-01-01

    珠江流域贵州段石漠化生态修复取得显著成就,石漠化生态修复管理机制的缺乏亦凸显出来。珠江流域贵州段石漠化生态修复管理机制主要包括石漠化专项工程推进机制、石漠化生态修复整合机制和政府考评机制。石漠化生态修复专项工程推进机制包括工程推进形式、综合效益思想及其计划、组织、领导、控制过程等内容;石漠化生态修复整合机制包括部门整合机制和资金整合机制;石漠化治理各级政府考核评价机制包括石漠化生态修复与地方GDP的关联性、石漠化生态修复项目的主要考核指标及其可持续性考核指标。%The ecological restoration of stony desertification in the Pearl River Basin in Guizhou Province has made great achievement, while the shortage of the management mechanism stands out.The management mechanism includes the promoting mechanism of stony desertification engineering, the integration mechanism and the government appraisal system.The promoting mechanism includes propulsion form,the thought,plan,organization,leading and control of comprehensive benefits.And the integration mechanism is the integration of departments and funds.The appraisal system of government at all levels includes the relationship of ecological restoration of stony desertification and local GDP,the main evaluation index of the restoration proj ect and the evaluation index about sustainability.

  17. The Impact of Historical Geography and Agricultural Land Development Processes on Wetland Restoration Methods Used to Create Ecological Networks: A Comparison of Japan and the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    HARA, Y.; Hooimeijer, F.L.; Nijhuis, S.; Ryu, M.; Van Timmeren, A.

    2014-01-01

    In the Osaka area in the 1880s, rice was grown mostly in dry fields in upland areas, and a few paddy fields were situated on the natural wet landforms along the major rivers and streams on the Osaka Plain. As the area developed, dry fields became irrigated, and the lowland fields were filled and converted to urban land uses. For the Osaka city region, developed in this historical context, an ecological network has been proposed by the national government in 2006. The proposal was partially in...

  18. Contribuição da fauna silvestre em projetos de restauração ecológica no Brasil Contribution of the wildlife in ecological restoration projects in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanuza Helena Campos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O sucesso no processo de restauração e manutenção da dinâmica de um ecossistema é extremamente dependente da capacidade das espécies em promover interações interespecíficas entre as diversas formas de vida. Estas interações criam um cenário favorável à restauração ecológica de ecossistemas degradados. Assim, por meio de revisão de literatura, o objetivo deste trabalho é relatar a contribuição e utilização dos diferentes grupos de animais na execução de projetos de restauração ecológica no Brasil. As aves e mamíferos frugívoros e também outros animais, como os répteis, peixes e insetos, têm se destacado como ferramentas de auxílio aos projetos de restauração ecológica. As técnicas para atração de animais e consequente chegada de propágulos em um ecossistema degradado compreende a utilização de poleiros, que servem de pouso e abrigo para a avifauna e morcegos, e a utilização de abrigos artificiais, que servem para fuga de predadores, descanso e reprodução dos animais. De modo geral, estes estudos são excelentes ferramentas para gerir ações de manejo ambiental em ecossistemas degradados, possibilitando a recuperação da biodiversidade destes ambientes. The success in the process of restoration and maintenance of the dynamics of an ecosystem is highly dependent on the capacity of species to promote interspecific interactions among the various life forms. These interactions create a favorable environment for the ecological restoration of degraded ecosystems. Thus, by review the literature, the objective of this study is to report the contribution and use of different animal groups in carrying out ecological restoration projects in Brazil. The fruit-eating birds and mammals and also other animals such as reptiles, fish and insects have been highlighted as tools to aid environmental ecological restoration projects. Techniques for attracting animals and consequent arrival of seedlings in a degraded

  19. Use of Amphibian Communities as Indicators of Restoration Success

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP) requires the use of ecological indicators to measure the success of restoration efforts. The Everglades...

  20. Non-monetary benefit indicators for prioritizing wetlands restoration projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecological restoration of wetlands can reestablish ecosystem services that provide valuable social and environmental benefits. Explicitly characterizing these benefits can help managers better allocate scarce resources among potential restoration projects. Economic valuation stud...

  1. Valuation of ecological carrying capacity and ecological restoration research of resource-based city--Case Study in Hunan Lengshuijiang%资源型城市生态承载力评价和生态修复研究--以湖南省冷水江市为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘艳平

    2013-01-01

      资源型城市的过度开发以及开发初期环境保护意识的淡薄,导致资源型城市面临地形地貌破坏、地表塌陷、裂缝、尾矿废石污染、地下水污染等各种生态问题。本文以湖南省冷水江市为例,对其城市的生态承载力进行综合评价,提出了相应的生态修复措施,为资源枯竭型城市可持续发展提供参考。%The over-exploitation of resource-based cities and the weak awareness of environmental protection in the early development stage that have resulted in destruction topography, surface subsidence, cracks, tailings waste pollution, groundwater pollution and other ecological problems in resource-based cities. In this paper, Lengshuijiang City as an ex-ample, the city's ecological carrying capacity have been comprehensively evaluated and the corresponding ecological restoration measures have put forward.The article have been provided some references for the sustainable development of resource-exhausted cities also.

  2. Ecological Restoration of the La Primavera Forest Geothermal Zone, Jalisco, Mexico; Restauracion ecologica de lazona geotermica del bosque La Primavera, Jalisco, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastrana Melchor, Eugenio J.; Manon Mercado, Alfredo; Hernandez Ayala, Cuauhtemoc [Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos de la Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia, (Mexico)

    1997-05-01

    The Bosque La Primavera is an oak-pine forest covering a surface estimated in 36 000 hectares. It is located westerly from Guadalajara City, Jalisco. Over a small part of the forest, between 1980 and 1988 the Comision Federal de Electricidad (Federal Commission for Electricity, or CFE) carried out several works to drill 13 geothermal wells, which caused environmental impacts on 53 hectares of the forest; this means 0.15% of the forestry area. In March 1989 the CFE suspended its geothermal exploration and development activities in the zone, and started an exhaustive program to restore the environmental impacts. So, between 1989 and 1994 different works were done within two hydrographic micro-basins (named the Arroyo El Caracol and Arroyo El Huilustre micro-basins) where the CFE works are located. Objectives were to reduce the exposed to erosion areas at the high portions of those micro-basins, and to retain sediments at low portions of the same. Up to now the erosion index, which have been monitored by CFE each year, have reached comparable values to those from the beginning of eighties. This means those restoration works are successful. [Espanol] El bosque La Primavera se encuentra constituido principalmente por encino-pino con una superficie aproximada de 36 mil hectareas, localizado al occidente de la ciudad de Guadalajara, Jalisco. En una pequena porcion de el, la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) llevo a cabo, entre 1980 y 1988, diversas obras para perforar un total de 13 pozos geotermicos que ocasionaron impactos al ambiente en 53 hectareas del bosque, correspondientes al 0.15% de la superficie boscosa. A partir de marzo de 1989 la CFE suspendio sus actividades de exploracion y desarrollo geotermico en la zona, para llevar a cabo un exhaustivo programa de restauracion ecologica de los impactos ambientales. Asi, entre 1989 y 1994 se realizaron trabajos en las dos microcuencas hidrograficas en las que se ubican las obras realizadas por la CFE, las

  3. Normas jurídicas para a restauração ecológica: uma barreira a mais a dificultar o êxito das iniciativas? Legal rules for ecological restoration: an additional barrier to hinder the success of initiatives?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselda Durigan

    2010-06-01

    legislation. Here we offer a critical analysis of the resolution SMA 08 of the Secretary of Environment of the State of Sao Paulo, a law which aims to standardize the mixed planting of degraded areas. We believe that the State rules are based on assumptions not supported by scientific experimentation, since the present understanding of ecological processes involved in the restoration of tropical forests is far from being sufficient for standards or norms to be established as yet on this vast subject. In addition, the technicians who prepare projects and those who license and monitor such projects do not have the knowledge necessary to implement the rules of the Resolution. We also argue that strict rules are likely to constrain creativity and inhibit initiatives of scientists and restoration practitioners, and thus constitute a barrier to innovation and creativity. It also may well retard expansion of restoration to wider areas. From the perspective of biodiversity conservation objectives, we also believe that the creation of commercial demand for propagation material of rare and threatened species could endanger the conservation of natural populations of these species, which should be targeted for specific programs. In conclusion, we suggest that the Resolution has not helped to accelerate the expansion of restored areas nor does it increase the probability of success of restoration initiatives.

  4. Stimulating nitrate removal processes of restored wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantine, Kate A; Groffman, Peter M; Lehmann, Johannes; Schneider, Rebecca L

    2014-07-01

    The environmental and health effects caused by nitrate contamination of aquatic systems are a serious problem throughout the world. A strategy proposed to address nitrate pollution is the restoration of wetlands. However, although natural wetlands often remove nitrate via high rates of denitrification, wetlands restored for water quality functions often fall below expectations. This may be in part because key drivers for denitrification, in particular soil carbon, are slow to develop in restored wetlands. We added organic soil amendments that range along a gradient of carbon lability to four newly restored wetlands in western New York to investigate the effect of carbon additions on denitrification and other processes of the nitrogen cycle. Soil carbon increased by 12.67-63.30% with the use of soil amendments (p ≤ 0.0001). Soil nitrate, the carbon to nitrogen ratio, and microbial biomass nitrogen were the most significant predictors of denitrification potential. Denitrification potential, potential net nitrogen nitrification and mineralization, and soil nitrate and ammonium, were highest in topsoil-amended plots, with increases in denitrification potential of 161.27% over control plots. While amendment with topsoil more than doubled several key nitrogen cycling processes, more research is required to determine what type and level of amendment application are most effective for stimulating removal of exogenous nitrate and meeting functional goals within an acceptable time frame. PMID:24915604

  5. Role of the morphology of Salix tillers barriers in marly sediment trapping efficiency in gully floor under ecological restoration: a flume experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erktan, A.; Pianu, B.; Lucisine, P.; Rey, F.

    2012-04-01

    In the southern French Alps, the brittleness of the black marls, combined to the erosivity of the rain and the scarce vegetative cover, has led to high sediment yields at the exit of gullies. From the observation that gullies, with a 20% vegetative cover located in the lower gully bed, can shut down gully exit activity through sediment trapping, a bioengineering strategy to restore eroded gullies has been developed. It consists implanting a linear brush layer of Salix tillers, resprouting from cuttings arranged perpendicularly to the flow in gullies beds, on a dead-wood sill. Implanting vegetative barriers to increase sedimentation is a well-known strategy. Nevertheless, only few studies investigated the link between the barriers morphology and their efficiency in sediment trapping. Our goal was therefore to link the morphology of Salix tillers barriers to their sediment trapping efficiency. Salix tillers barriers with various morphologies have been recreated in a flume experiment (flow features: 0,5L/s; 60s duration; sediment concentration 33g/L). First, we recreated barriers aged of 2 to 9 years-old as we observed in the field. The young-shaped barriers show dense (spacing: 55mm) and thin stems (2mm) while the older ones show opposite morphological features (spacing: 2,5cm and diameter: 9mm). Thus, we tested the influence of the distribution of an invariant surface of tillers obstacle in sediment trapping efficiency. Then, we investigated the influence of oak litter on sediment efficiency of both young and old-shaped Salix tillers barriers. Fifteen replicates were conducted for each barrier tested. The sediment trapping efficiency is given by the ratio of the dried trapped sediment mass divided by the dried sediment mass initially loaded. Results show that the distributions of the tillers influence significantly the sediment trapping efficiency. The young-shaped barriers trap significantly more sediment than the old-shaped one. The oak litter increases

  6. Application of topsoil resources in ecological restoration of gentle slopes along Pengze Hukou highway%表土在彭湖高速公路低缓边坡生态恢复中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王倜; 陶双成; 孔亚平

    2012-01-01

    Selecting five representative gentle slopes along the Pengze-Hukou highway in Jiangxi Province of China as experimental sites, topsoil was applied to carry out ecological restoration, and line transect method was adopted to investigate the plant growth on the slopes one year later. It was feasible to take advantage of topsoil resources on the ecological restoration of the highway' s gentle slopes. Satisfactory results were obtained by implementing all experimental designs, among which, covering the gentle slopes with 7-10 cm depth of topsoil and artificially broadcasting plant seeds made the plant community structure on the slopes reached the initial stage of succession, with higher Simpson diversity index (averagely 0. 80) and Pielou evenness index (averagely 0. 84) and significantly higher biomass accumulation (averagely 446 g ? Hm-2) and woody importance value index (averagely 14.5) , being an available approach for the stability and continuity of plant community structure on the gentle slopes.%选取江西省彭泽至湖口高速公路沿线5个典型低缓边坡试验点,利用表土生态恢复,采用样线法调查1年后的试验边坡植物的生长情况.结果表明:在彭湖高速公路低缓边坡利用表土资源进行边坡生态恢复是可行的,各种利用表土的试验设计均取得了较好的恢复效果,其中,边坡覆盖7 ~ 10 cm中层厚度表土后采取人工撒播恢复方式,边坡植物群落的Simpson多样性指数(平均0.80)及Pielou均匀度指数(平均0.84)相对较高,恢复效果较好;同时,此试验条件下生物量的积累值(平均446 g·m-2)和木本植被的群落重要值(平均14.5)都显著高于其他恢复方式,这有利于群落结构的稳定和延续.

  7. Evolution of plant colonization in acid and alkaline mine tailing ponds after amendments and microorganisms application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Jose Alberto; Faz, Ángel; Kabas, Sebla; Zornoza, Raúl; Martínez-Martínez, Silvia

    2014-05-01

    Intense mining activities in the past were carried out in Cartagena-La Unión mining district, SE Spain, and caused excessive accumulation of toxic metals in tailing ponds which poses a high environmental and ecological risk. One of the remediation options gaining considerable interest in recent years is the in situ immobilization of metals. A corresponding reduction in the plant-available metal fraction allows re-vegetation and ecosystem restoration of the heavily contaminated sites. In addition, the use of microorganisms to improve the soil condition is a new tool used to increase spontaneous plant colonization. The aim of this research was to assess the effect of amendments (pig manure, sewage sludge, and lime) and microorganisms on plant cover establishment, as a consequence of metal immobilization and the improvement of soil properties. The study was carried out in two mine ponds (acid and alkaline). Twenty seven square field plots, each one consisting of 4 m2, were located in each pond. Four different doses of microorganism (0 ml, 20 ml, 100 ml and 200 ml of microorganism solution in each plot) and one dose of pig manure (5 kg per plot), sewage sludge (4 kg per plot) and lime (22 kg per plot) were used. Organic amendment doses were calculated according to European nitrogen legislations, and lime dose was calculated according with the potential acid production through total sulphur oxidation. Three replicates of each treatment (organic amendment + lime + microorganism dose 0, 1, 2, or 3) and control soil (with no amendments) were carried out. Plots were left to the semi-arid climate conditions after the addition of amendments to simulate real potential applications of the results. Identification of plant species and biodiversity was determined on each plot, after 2, 4, 6 and 8 months of amendment addition. The results showed that, in those plots without application of microorganism, 8 months after applications the number of species and individuals of each

  8. Forest Transition, Agricultural Land Marginalization and Ecological Restoration%森林转型、农地边际化与生态恢复

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秀彬; 赵宇鸾

    2011-01-01

    China ushered in the transition of its national land use morphology in the 1980s . Such a transition indicates that the space of nature represented by forest area down to a trough reversed upward, while the intensively-used space represented by cropland, from expansion to contraction. It is one of the most direct causes of the change in ecological state of the country from the overall deterioration to the overall improvement. Forest transition corresponds to the evolution stage of national economic and social development process. Its direct reason is that agriculture loses out in the competition with forestry for land resources in the ecotone between forest and cropland. The rising labor costs with industrialization and urbanization and the increasing demand for forest products with the improved living standards enhance the competitiveness of forestry to agriculture, while pre-transition ecological degradation caused by agricultural expansion triggers the implementation of the governmental policies favored forestry. Governmental policies played a key role in the early stages of China's forest transition. With the accelerated development of urbanization and aged society, China ushered in the continuously rising stage of labor wages. Slopeland cropping would tend to be marginalized" because it is not easy in mechanization compared to the agriculture in plain area. This gives room for the further expansion of forest area or natural space.%中国20世纪80年代迎来了国家土地利用形态的转型,即代表自然生态空间的森林面积降至低谷后反转向上,代表人类干扰较强的耕地面积从扩张到收缩.这是生态状况从整体恶化向整体改善转变的最直接原因.森林转型对应着国家经济社会发展的阶段性演进过程,存在着必然性.其直接原因,是农林交错带的农业在与森林竞争土地资源的过程中失去优势.伴随工业化和城市化的劳动力价格上升,生活水平提高带来的林

  9. 西北地区生态环境建设中水资源可持续开发与管理的认识%KNOWLEDGE ON SUSTAINABLE EXPLOIT AND MANAGEMENT OF WATE RRESOURCES CONCERNING ECOLOGICAL RESTORATION IN NORTHWEST CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓林

    2001-01-01

    西北地区水资源短缺,生态环境相当脆弱。随着西北地区大规模生态环境建设的实施,原来水资源的供需矛盾更为明显,处理好西北地区有限水资源中经济用水和生态用水的比例关系具有重要的意义。就西北地区的生态环境建设中水资源可持续开发和利用提出几点认识。%There is a shortage of water resources in Northwest China where the ecological environment is very brittle. With the implementation of ecological restoration on large scale in the area, the contradiction between water supply and need becomes more pronounced. So it is very important to make use of limited water resources in a reasonable proportion of water use in ecological restoration and in economic activities in Northwest China. The paper brings forward some knowledge on sustainable exploit and management of water resources concerning ecological restoration in Northwest China.

  10. Economic barriers and incentives for biodiversity restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costs related with restoration efforts, as well as the economic incentives, are fundamental issues that have not been fully considered from a formal standpoint. Through the analysis of restoration trials in collaboration with an indigenous community in western Mexico, we analyzed economic issues related with the restoration trials themselves, and with the economic context that gives incentives for ecological restoration. We reach to the conclusion that the cost-benefit relationship of the restoration process by itself can be straightforward calculated in some cases, calculating economic benefits accrued from the diversity restored to ecosystem is more difficult. In terms of the incentives for biodiversity restoration, we concluded that in many cases, economic variables out of the control of those involved in restoration are determinant.

  11. Research of Ecological Restoration of Jari Agricultural Demonstration Site in Ethiopia%埃塞俄比亚加里农业示范区生态恢复研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪洋; 胡先祥; 阮维桢; 陈林; 尹茜

    2013-01-01

    为解决东非高原水土流水问题,该研究通过在埃塞尔比亚高原建立微景观灌溉示范区,并通过对埃塞俄比亚加里农业示范区的现状进行研究,找出水土流失、粮食短缺的问题所在,同时,分析了示范区不同景观内部元素的结构与功能的关系,通过运用生态学、造林学、农业与经济等科学原理,对生态景观按功能进行分区,对退耕土地进行单元划分和再利用,对草原、河流、农业以及庭院生态系统进行研究构建,论证了在农业示范区生态恢复和可持续发展的可行性,提出了合理灌溉及水土保持模式.研究结果为农牧业的发展提供了可持续的保证,对非洲其他贫困国家走出困境也提供了有益参考.%In order to resolve the issue of soil erosion in East African plateau,a micro-landscape irrigation region was established in Ethiopia plateau to research status quo of agricultural demonstration site in Jari in Ethiopia and to analyze the relation between structure and function of inner elements in different landscapes of demonstration site.Furthermore,in accordance with ecology,silviculture,agriculture and economics,the ecological landscapes were classified as per landscape functions;lands retuming from farming were classified and re-used; ecosystems of grassland,river,agriculture and courtyard were researched; the feasibility of ecological restoration and sustainable development in demonstration site was demonstrated; the model for rational irrigation and water conservation was proposed.The research guarantees sustainable development of agriculture and animal husbandry and provides references for undeveloped countries with similar problems.

  12. 77 FR 9694 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Restoration Design...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-17

    ... authorizations; military airspace; air quality; minerals/geology and soils; farm lands (prime or unique); water... Restoration Design Energy Project and Land Use Plan Amendments AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior... (EIS) for the Restoration Design Energy Project (RDEP) to evaluate proposed amendments to...

  13. 环保型裂缝修复材料对混凝土抗碳化性能的影响%Research on the influence of ecological crack restoring material on the resistance carbonation ability of concrete members

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢利宝; 徐翚; 赵月悦; 赵端端

    2014-01-01

    Concrete carbonation is always lead to the depassivation and corrosion of concrete reinforcing bars. Ultimately affect the durability of the concrete structure. This paper made a carbonation resistance test to concrete specimens that treated by ecological crack restoring material(ECRM). It is found that, compared with ordinary concrete specimens, the carbonation depth of specimens coated with ECRM are decreased. Moreover, concrete carbonation rate declined in advance. ECRM can enhance the resistance carbonation ability of concrete effectively.%混凝土碳化会导致混凝土中的钢筋脱钝,从而引起钢筋锈蚀,最终影响到混凝土结构的耐久性。该文对环保型裂缝修复材料处理试件进行了抗碳化性能试验。试验结果表明:相比普通混凝土试件,ECRM处理后试件的碳化深度减小,且混凝土碳化速率提前出现下降趋势, ECRM能有效增强混凝土的抗碳化能力。

  14. The income elasticity of Willingness-To-Pay (WTP) revisited: A meta-analysis of studies for restoring Good Ecological Status (GES) of water bodies under the Water Framework Directive (WFD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyllianakis, Emmanouil; Skuras, Dimitris

    2016-11-01

    The income elasticity of Willingness-To-Pay (WTP) is ambiguous and results from meta-analyses are disparate. This may be because the environmental good or service to be valued is very broadly defined or because the income measured in individual studies suffers from extensive non-reporting or miss reporting. The present study carries out a meta-analysis of WTP to restore Good Ecological Status (GES) under the Water Framework Directive (WFD). This environmental service is narrowly defined and its aims and objectives are commonly understood among the members of the scientific community. Besides income reported by the individual studies, wealth and income indicators collected by Eurostat for the geographic entities covered by the individual studies are used. Meta-regression analyses show that income is statistically significant, explains a substantial proportion of WTP variability and its elasticity is considerable in magnitude ranging from 0.6 to almost 1.7. Results are robust to variations in the sample of the individual studies participating in the meta-analysis, the econometric approach and the function form of the meta-regression. The choice of wealth or income measure is not that important as it is whether this measure is Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) adjusted among the individual studies.

  15. The income elasticity of Willingness-To-Pay (WTP) revisited: A meta-analysis of studies for restoring Good Ecological Status (GES) of water bodies under the Water Framework Directive (WFD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyllianakis, Emmanouil; Skuras, Dimitris

    2016-11-01

    The income elasticity of Willingness-To-Pay (WTP) is ambiguous and results from meta-analyses are disparate. This may be because the environmental good or service to be valued is very broadly defined or because the income measured in individual studies suffers from extensive non-reporting or miss reporting. The present study carries out a meta-analysis of WTP to restore Good Ecological Status (GES) under the Water Framework Directive (WFD). This environmental service is narrowly defined and its aims and objectives are commonly understood among the members of the scientific community. Besides income reported by the individual studies, wealth and income indicators collected by Eurostat for the geographic entities covered by the individual studies are used. Meta-regression analyses show that income is statistically significant, explains a substantial proportion of WTP variability and its elasticity is considerable in magnitude ranging from 0.6 to almost 1.7. Results are robust to variations in the sample of the individual studies participating in the meta-analysis, the econometric approach and the function form of the meta-regression. The choice of wealth or income measure is not that important as it is whether this measure is Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) adjusted among the individual studies. PMID:27538249

  16. 潮白河生态流量估算及恢复保障措施%Study on Ecological Flow Estimation and Ecological Restoration Safeguard Measures in Chaobai River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴向前; 黄晓丽; 柳长顺; 游进军

    2012-01-01

    针对潮白河水资源过度开发导致的生态与环境问题,从生态流量的视角进行分析,以潮白河控制性水文站——戴营、下堡站47年(1956年-2002年)的实测日径流资料为基础,利用水文指标法(IHA)及范围变化法(RVA)计算潮白河流量均值、极值及其发生时间、频率、历时和变动率等5组33个指标,对比分析人类活动影响较小的参照期(1956年-1974年)与人类活动影响强烈的影响期(1975年-2003年)的系列水文指标的变化,分析影响期内潮白河流量与目标范围的差距,明确生态流量的恢复目标,提出了实现恢复目标的保障措施.%In order to protect and rehabilitate the health of the riverine ecosystem in the Chaobai River,the Indicators of Hydro-logic Alteration method (IHA) and Range of Variability Approach (RVA) were used to calculate the characteristics of hydro-logical indices in 5 groups including the average streamflow,extreme value and its occurring time of streamflow, frequency and duration of pulse flow, and variation rates of streamf low based on the daily streamf low data at the Daiying and Xiapu hydrologi-cal stations from 1956 to 2002. The hydrological indices were compared between two time periods. The first one was from 1956 to 1974,which was characterized by little effects from human activities; whereas the second one was from 1975 to 2003,which was characterized by intense effects from human activities. The differences between the actual value and target range of stream-flow were analyzed for the intense human activities time periods. Furthermore, this paper proposed some specific safeguard measures for achieving the restoration objectives.

  17. Response of the soil physical properties to restoration techniques in limestone quarries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna Ramos, Lourdes; Miralles Mellado, Isabel; Vignozzi, Nadia; Solé-Benet, Albert

    2016-04-01

    The devastating effects of soil erosion in mining areas from arid/semiarid environments have prompted efforts geared toward an improvement of the soil physical conditions for a fast establishment of vegetal cover. Restoration practices that increase soil moisture content are essential in drylands where rainfall is irregular or insufficient in order to accelerate ecological restoration. The aim of this study was to analyse the influence of organic amendments and mulches on the soil porosity as well as their impact on infiltration, five years after the beginning of an experimental restoration from limestone quarries in Sierra de Gádor (Almería, SE Spain). Nine plots 15 x 5 m were prepared at the site in a completely randomized 2 x 3 factorial design. The first factor, organic amendment, had three levels: sewage sludge (SA), compost from domestic organic residues (CA) and no amendment (NA). The second factor, mulches, also had three levels: gravel (GM), woodchip (WM) and no mulch (NM). In each experimental plot 75 native plants (Macrochloa tenacissima, Anthyllis terniflora and Anthyllis cytisoides) were planted. Infiltration was determined from rainfall simulations and soil porosity was assessed by image analysis of soil thin sections. Total porosity and pores distribution were measured according to pore shape (regular, irregular and elongated) and size (transmission pores [50-500 μm] and fissures [>500 μm]). Natural undisturbed soils around the mine area were used as a reference soil (RS). Restoration treatments showed higher total porosity, fissures and elongated pores than RS and we observed the highest values in treatments with WM. This fact is due to the disruption caused by the application of treatments rather that a good soil structure. Each combination exhibited different values of transmission pores, being greater in the combinations of NA-GM, SA-NM and CA-WM. Infiltration increased with the increase of the total porosity, fissures and elongated pores

  18. Can Viral Videos Help Beaver Restore Streams?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, J. M.; Pollock, M. M.; Lewallen, G.; Jordan, C.; Woodruff, K.

    2015-12-01

    Have you watched YouTube lately? Did you notice the plethora of cute animal videos? Researchers, including members of our Beaver Restoration Research team, have been studying the restoration potential of beaver for decades, yet in the past few years, beaver have gained broad acclaim and some much deserved credit for restoration of aquatic systems in North America. Is it because people can now see these charismatic critters in action from the comfort of their laptops? While the newly released Beaver Restoration Guidebook attempts to answer many questions, sadly, this is not one of them. We do, however, address the use of beaver (Castor canadensis) in stream, wetland, and floodplain restoration and discuss the many positive effects of beaver on fluvial ecosystems. Our team, composed of researchers from NOAA National Marine Fisheries Service, US Fish and Wildlife Service, US Forest Service, and Portland State University, has developed a scientifically rigorous, yet accessible, practitioner's guide that provides a synthesis of the best available science for using beaver to improve ecosystem functions. Divided into two broad sections -- Beaver Ecology and Beaver Restoration and Management -- the guidebook focuses on the many ways in which beaver improve habitat, primarily through the construction of dams that impound water and retain sediment. In Beaver Ecology, we open with a discussion of the general effects that beaver dams have on physical and biological processes, and we close with "Frequently Asked Questions" and "Myth Busters". In Restoration and Management, we discuss common emerging restoration techniques and methods for mitigating unwanted beaver effects, followed by case studies from pioneering practitioners who have used many of these beaver restoration techniques in the field. The lessons they have learned will help guide future restoration efforts. We have also included a comprehensive beaver ecology library of over 1400 references from scientific journals

  19. 绿色矿山生态恢复模式及其实现方法研究──绿色矿业系列研究之三%Research on the Ecological Restoration Patterns and Methods with Regard to Green Mines—the Third Series of Study on Green Mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙彦辉; 夏佐铎

    2015-01-01

    According to the type of minerals and mines, this paper has divided the mine ecological recovery patterns into four types, that is, subsidence ecological restoration pattern, tail mine environmental restoration pattern, environmental pollution area ecological restoration pattern, and home service ecological restoration pattern. The ifrst three modes lay the emphasis on restoring the production capacity of the land deterioration in mining areas with a view to producing better economic beneifts and ecological beneifts; while home service ecological restoration pattern can bring better ecological and social beneifts for mining areas. And then, this paper introduces the restoration methods of each type. In the subsidence area, the main methods include the tail mineral iflling, covering with trees and shrub-grass, facilities agriculture construction, water and soil conservation, livestock breeding, and dynamic subsidence land reclamation. The methods of comprehensive utilization of tail ore and afforesting the mountain of tail ore are good for the area of tailings sand accumulation. Bioremediation and ecological control are suitable to mineral smelting area with heavy environmental pollution. Leisure and entertainment, ecological village construction, ecological tourism, and mine park is, to be sure, not the best ways for life service zone.%根据开发的矿种和矿山类型不同,将矿山生态恢复实现模式划分为塌陷区生态恢复模式、尾矿山环境治理模式、环境污染区生态恢复模式以及家园服务生态恢复模式四大类型.前三种模式注重恢复矿区破坏土地的生产能力,以求能产生更好的经济效益和生态效益,而家园服务生态恢复模式,则能给矿区带来更好的生态效益和社会效益.针对塌陷区主要有尾矿石充填和林灌草覆盖、设施农业建设、水土保持、畜牧养殖和动态塌陷区复垦等实现方法;针对尾矿砂石堆积区,主要有尾矿石综合利用

  20. Suitability evaluation and zoning in ecological natural restoration of soil and water conservation in Funiu Mountains Area of Huaihe River Valley%淮河流域伏牛山区水土保持生态自然修复适宜性评价与分区

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐志强; 张光灿; 刘霞; 王冰; 赵瑜; 李欢; 吴迪

    2013-01-01

    伏牛山区水土流失危害严重,实施水土保持生态修复是加快区域水土流失防治步伐的有效措施.针对大区域生态修复工程建设亟待解决的适宜性区划问题,采用主导因子分级组合及其专题图叠加分析法,对伏牛山区生态自然修复的适宜性进行评价与分区.1)提出地貌类型、土地覆被类型和地面坡度3个主导因子作为生态自然修复适宜性评价与分区指标,并对其进行分级(分类)和分区;2)按照实施封禁保育(促进生态自然修复)措施的适宜程度,提出“适宜”、“暂不适宜”和“不适宜”3个生态自然修复适宜性等级,并确定其区域分布格局;3)将伏牛山区的生态自然修复适宜性划分为2个大区(一级区)、4个亚区(二级区)和15个类型区(三级区).研究结果可为伏牛山区水土保持生态自然修复工程的规划布局提供技术支撑.%The soil erosion in Funiu Mountains Area is serious,and the implementation of ecological restoration in soil and water conservation is an effective way to solve the problem of soil and water loss.Aiming at resolving the suitability division problems in large-scale ecological restoration project,the dominant factor grading combination and the analysis methods of thematic map overlay were used to evaluate and zone the suitability of ecological natural restoration in Funiu Mountains Area.The results showed that 1) the three dominant factors including geomorphological types,land-cover types and the slopes of the ground,were proposed as the indexes in the suitability assessment and classification of ecological natural restoration; 2) According to the degree of suitability in the implement of protected conservation,namely the ecological natural restoration,three suitability grades of ecological natural restoration including suitability,temporarily unsuitability and unsuitability,were proposed in Funiu Mountains Area,and their regional distribution patterns were

  1. ramic restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish R Jain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rehabilitation of a patient with severely worn dentition after restoring the vertical dimension is a complex procedure and assessment of the vertical dimension is an important aspect in these cases. This clinical report describes the full mouth rehabilitation of a patient who was clinically monitored to evaluate the adaptation to a removable occlusal splint to restore vertical dimension for a period 1 month and provisional restorations to determine esthetic and functional outcome for a period of 3 months. It is necessary to recognizing that form follows function and that anterior teeth play a vital role in the maintenance of oral health. Confirmation of tolerance to changes in the vertical dimension of occlusion (VDO is of paramount importance. Articulated study casts and a diagnostic wax-up can provide important information for the evaluation of treatment options. Alteration of the VDO should be conservative and should not be changed without careful consideration.

  2. 76 FR 47055 - Emergency Restoration Plan (ERP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ... 26, 2010, at 75 FR 4006 proposing to amend the ERP regulatory requirements to add that the ERP.... Background The Agency published a final rule on October 12, 2004, at 69 FR 60541 requiring all borrowers to... 7 CFR Part 1730 RIN 0572-AC16 Emergency Restoration Plan (ERP) AGENCY: Rural Utilities Service,...

  3. Civic Ecology: Linking Social and Ecological Approaches in Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasny, Marianne E.; Tidball, Keith G.

    2010-01-01

    Civic ecology refers to the philosophy and science of community forestry, community gardening, watershed enhancement, and other volunteer-driven restoration practices in cities and elsewhere. Such practices, although often viewed as initiatives to improve a degraded environment, also foster social attributes of resilient social-ecological systems,…

  4. Agricultural and Rural Ecological Restoration---Based on the Case of Zhejiang%农业农村生态环境治理-以浙江实践为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宇; 朱立志

    2016-01-01

    marked�The practice of agricultural and rural ecological restoration in Zhejiang experience is important to other parts of China.

  5. Transforming ecosystems: When, where, and how to restore contaminated sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohr, Jason R; Farag, Aïda M; Cadotte, Marc W; Clements, William H; Smith, James R; Ulrich, Cheryl P; Woods, Richard

    2016-04-01

    Chemical contamination has impaired ecosystems, reducing biodiversity and the provisioning of functions and services. This has spurred a movement to restore contaminated ecosystems and develop and implement national and international regulations that require it. Nevertheless, ecological restoration remains a young and rapidly growing discipline and its intersection with toxicology is even more nascent and underdeveloped. Consequently, we provide guidance to scientists and practitioners on when, where, and how to restore contaminated ecosystems. Although restoration has many benefits, it also can be expensive, and in many cases systems can recover without human intervention. Hence, the first question we address is: "When should we restore contaminated ecosystems?" Second, we provide suggestions on what to restore-biodiversity, functions, services, all 3, or something else--and where to restore given expected changes to habitats driven by global climate change. Finally, we provide guidance on how to restore contaminated ecosystems. To do this, we analyze critical aspects of the literature dealing with the ecology of restoring contaminated ecosystems. Additionally, we review approaches for translating the science of restoration to on-the-ground actions, which includes discussions of market incentives and the finances of restoration, stakeholder outreach and governance models for ecosystem restoration, and working with contractors to implement restoration plans. By explicitly considering the mechanisms and strategies that maximize the success of the restoration of contaminated sites, we hope that our synthesis serves to increase and improve collaborations between restoration ecologists and ecotoxicologists and set a roadmap for the restoration of contaminated ecosystems. PMID:26033665

  6. Transforming ecosystems: When, where, and how to restore contaminated sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohr, Jason R; Farag, Aïda M; Cadotte, Marc W; Clements, William H; Smith, James R; Ulrich, Cheryl P; Woods, Richard

    2016-04-01

    Chemical contamination has impaired ecosystems, reducing biodiversity and the provisioning of functions and services. This has spurred a movement to restore contaminated ecosystems and develop and implement national and international regulations that require it. Nevertheless, ecological restoration remains a young and rapidly growing discipline and its intersection with toxicology is even more nascent and underdeveloped. Consequently, we provide guidance to scientists and practitioners on when, where, and how to restore contaminated ecosystems. Although restoration has many benefits, it also can be expensive, and in many cases systems can recover without human intervention. Hence, the first question we address is: "When should we restore contaminated ecosystems?" Second, we provide suggestions on what to restore-biodiversity, functions, services, all 3, or something else--and where to restore given expected changes to habitats driven by global climate change. Finally, we provide guidance on how to restore contaminated ecosystems. To do this, we analyze critical aspects of the literature dealing with the ecology of restoring contaminated ecosystems. Additionally, we review approaches for translating the science of restoration to on-the-ground actions, which includes discussions of market incentives and the finances of restoration, stakeholder outreach and governance models for ecosystem restoration, and working with contractors to implement restoration plans. By explicitly considering the mechanisms and strategies that maximize the success of the restoration of contaminated sites, we hope that our synthesis serves to increase and improve collaborations between restoration ecologists and ecotoxicologists and set a roadmap for the restoration of contaminated ecosystems.

  7. Site Restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noynaert, L.; Bruggeman, A.; Cornelissen, R.; Massaut, V.; Rahier, A

    2001-04-01

    The objectives, the programme, and the achievements of the Site Restoration Department of SCK-CEN in 2000 are summarised. Main activities include the decommissioning of the BR3 PWR-reactor as well as other clean-up activities, projects on waste minimisation and activities related to the management of decommissioning projects. The department provides consultancy and services to external organisations.

  8. Restorative neuroscience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andres, Robert H; Meyer, Morten; Ducray, Angélique D;

    2008-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the search for therapeutic options for diseases and injuries of the central nervous system (CNS), for which currently no effective treatment strategies are available. Replacement of damaged cells and restoration of function can be accomplished by transplantation of...

  9. 湖南省铅锌尾矿污染区植被修复适生植物选择研究%Screening of Vegetation for Ecological Restoration around Lead-Zinc Tailings Site in Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙伟; 王琼; 张望; 吴亮亮; 周连碧

    2016-01-01

    Phytoremediation is a very effective way to remedy heavy metal polluted site. The investigations and tests on vegetation and plants of Qiaokou & Yongxing Peng lead-zinc tailings area in Zixing city, Hunan shows that: ①Herbs have perfect ability to adapt lead-zinc tailings contaminated land; ②Absorption capacity of heavy metals by plants are mutually influenced by genetic factor and environment domestication;③Caulis Fici Tikouae, Lespedeza bicolor Turc. and Lolium perenne L. have perfect ability of migrating and gathering Pb and zinc, and could be used for ecological restoration at Pb and zinc pollution site.%植物修复技术是重金属污染场地修复十分有效的方法。本研究通过调查、测试湖南资兴市东江湖桥口和永兴棚铅锌尾矿污染区的植物与土壤,分析得出:淤草本植物对铅锌尾矿污染土地有强适应能力;于植物对重金属吸收能力受遗传特性与环境的驯化共同影响;盂地枇杷、胡枝子和黑麦草分别对Pb和Zn有较强的迁移能力和富集能力,可用于Pb和Zn污染地区的生态修复。

  10. The Status Quo and Discussion on Revetment Ecological Restoration of the Middle and Lower Yangtze River%长江中下游护岸生态修复现状与探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王越; 范北林; 丁艳荣; 徐建华

    2011-01-01

    River slope is a transition zone between the aquatic ecosystem and the terrestrial ecosystem and it is a dynamic ecological system, with the ability that could exchange water and energy each other between land and water and clean water, provide habitats for plants and animals and other vital functions and values. This paper analyzed the reasons of resources of the middle and lower Yangtze River riparian zone reducing and the lack of current revetment, combined with the actual situation of the middle and lower Yangtze River, described the function of riparian zone, the significance of ecosystem restoration slope, and made a system discussion about slope repairing technologies of the mid- dle and lower Yangtze River.%河道岸坡是水生生态系统与陆地生态系统之间的过渡带,是一个动态的生态系统,具有相互补给水陆之间的水分和能量交换、净化水体、为动植物提供栖息地等极其重要的功能和价值。分析了长江中下游河岸带资源的减少原因和现状各种护岸工程的不足,结合长江中下游实际情况,阐述了河岸带的功能,修复岸坡生态系统的意义,并对长江中下游岸坡修复技术做了系统探讨。

  11. [Ecology and ecologies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valera, Luca

    2011-01-01

    Ecology (from the Greek words οιχοσ, "house" and λογια "study of") is the science of the "house", since it studies the environments where we live. There are three main ways of thinking about Ecology: Ecology as the study of interactions (between humans and the environment, between humans and living beings, between all living beings, etc.), Ecology as the statistical study of interactions, Ecology as a faith, or rather as a science that requires a metaphysical view. The history of Ecology shows us how this view was released by the label of "folk sense" to gain the epistemological status of science, a science that strives to be interdisciplinary. So, the aim of Ecology is to study, through a scientific methodology, the whole natural world, answering to very different questions, that arise from several fields (Economics, Biology, Sociology, Philosophy, etc.). The plurality of issues that Ecology has to face led, during the Twentieth-century, to branch off in several different "ecologies". As a result, each one of these new approaches chose as its own field a more limited and specific portion of reality.

  12. Verification of watershed vegetation restoration policies, arid China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chengqi; Li, Yu

    2016-07-01

    Verification of restoration policies that have been implemented is of significance to simultaneously reduce global environmental risks while also meeting economic development goals. This paper proposed a novel method according to the idea of multiple time scales to verify ecological restoration policies in the Shiyang River drainage basin, arid China. We integrated modern pollen transport characteristics of the entire basin and pollen records from 8 Holocene sedimentary sections, and quantitatively reconstructed the millennial-scale changes of watershed vegetation zones by defining a new pollen-precipitation index. Meanwhile, Empirical Orthogonal Function method was used to quantitatively analyze spatial and temporal variations of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index in summer (June to August) of 2000-2014. By contrasting the vegetation changes that mainly controlled by millennial-scale natural ecological evolution with that under conditions of modern ecological restoration measures, we found that vegetation changes of the entire Shiyang River drainage basin are synchronous in both two time scales, and the current ecological restoration policies met the requirements of long-term restoration objectives and showed promising early results on ecological environmental restoration. Our findings present an innovative method to verify river ecological restoration policies, and also provide the scientific basis to propose future emphasizes of ecological restoration strategies.

  13. Verification of watershed vegetation restoration policies, arid China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chengqi; Li, Yu

    2016-07-01

    Verification of restoration policies that have been implemented is of significance to simultaneously reduce global environmental risks while also meeting economic development goals. This paper proposed a novel method according to the idea of multiple time scales to verify ecological restoration policies in the Shiyang River drainage basin, arid China. We integrated modern pollen transport characteristics of the entire basin and pollen records from 8 Holocene sedimentary sections, and quantitatively reconstructed the millennial-scale changes of watershed vegetation zones by defining a new pollen-precipitation index. Meanwhile, Empirical Orthogonal Function method was used to quantitatively analyze spatial and temporal variations of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index in summer (June to August) of 2000–2014. By contrasting the vegetation changes that mainly controlled by millennial-scale natural ecological evolution with that under conditions of modern ecological restoration measures, we found that vegetation changes of the entire Shiyang River drainage basin are synchronous in both two time scales, and the current ecological restoration policies met the requirements of long-term restoration objectives and showed promising early results on ecological environmental restoration. Our findings present an innovative method to verify river ecological restoration policies, and also provide the scientific basis to propose future emphasizes of ecological restoration strategies.

  14. Verification of watershed vegetation restoration policies, arid China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chengqi; Li, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Verification of restoration policies that have been implemented is of significance to simultaneously reduce global environmental risks while also meeting economic development goals. This paper proposed a novel method according to the idea of multiple time scales to verify ecological restoration policies in the Shiyang River drainage basin, arid China. We integrated modern pollen transport characteristics of the entire basin and pollen records from 8 Holocene sedimentary sections, and quantitatively reconstructed the millennial-scale changes of watershed vegetation zones by defining a new pollen-precipitation index. Meanwhile, Empirical Orthogonal Function method was used to quantitatively analyze spatial and temporal variations of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index in summer (June to August) of 2000–2014. By contrasting the vegetation changes that mainly controlled by millennial-scale natural ecological evolution with that under conditions of modern ecological restoration measures, we found that vegetation changes of the entire Shiyang River drainage basin are synchronous in both two time scales, and the current ecological restoration policies met the requirements of long-term restoration objectives and showed promising early results on ecological environmental restoration. Our findings present an innovative method to verify river ecological restoration policies, and also provide the scientific basis to propose future emphasizes of ecological restoration strategies. PMID:27470948

  15. Restoring Ancestral Language, Restoring Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannon, Kay T.

    1999-01-01

    Describes the Cherokee Language Renewal Program that was designed to help Cherokee elementary school children learn to function in the dominant culture without sacrificing their own cultural heritage. Explains how the program got started, and reports on how it helps restore a cultural identify to a people who are at risk of losing their identity.…

  16. 78 FR 56202 - Ecological Restoration Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    ... necessary seed and eradication of poisonous plants and noxious weeds, in order to protect or improve the... National Forest System, including requiring guidelines to provide for the diversity of plant and animal... 24, 1977. Protection and enhancement of environmental quality (35 FR 4247, March 7, 1970; 42 FR...

  17. Large river floodplain restoration: predicting species richness and trait responses to the restoration of hydrological connectivity

    OpenAIRE

    Paillex, Amael; Dolédec, Sylvain; Castella, Emmanuel; Mérigoux, Sylvie

    2009-01-01

    1. Floodplains are species-rich environments often strongly impacted by human activities. In particular, the negative effects of progressive and rapid disconnection of secondary channels have led to restoration programmes and a growing interest in restoration ecology. 2. Current restoration strategies in large river floodplains focus on the macroinvertebrate response related to the increases in lateral connectivity of the secondary channels. We constructed a framework to assess a gradient of ...

  18. Transforming ecosystems: When, where, and how to restore contaminated sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohr, Jason R.; Farag, Aida M.; Cadotte, Marc W.; Clements, William H.; Smith, James R.; Ulrich, Cheryl P.; Woods, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Chemical contamination has impaired ecosystems, reducing biodiversity and the provisioning of functions and services. This has spurred a movement to restore contaminated ecosystems and develop and implement national and international regulations that require it. Nevertheless, ecological restoration remains a young and rapidly growing discipline and its intersection with toxicology is even more nascent and underdeveloped. Consequently, we provide guidance to scientists and practitioners on when, where, and how to restore contaminated ecosystems. Although restoration has many benefits, it also can be expensive, and in many cases systems can recover without human intervention. Hence, the first question we address is: “When should we restore contaminated ecosystems?” Second, we provide suggestions on what to restore—biodiversity, functions, services, all 3, or something else—and where to restore given expected changes to habitats driven by global climate change. Finally, we provide guidance on how to restore contaminated ecosystems. To do this, we analyze critical aspects of the literature dealing with the ecology of restoring contaminated ecosystems. Additionally, we review approaches for translating the science of restoration to on-the-ground actions, which includes discussions of market incentives and the finances of restoration, stakeholder outreach and governance models for ecosystem restoration, and working with contractors to implement restoration plans. By explicitly considering the mechanisms and strategies that maximize the success of the restoration of contaminated sites, we hope that our synthesis serves to increase and improve collaborations between restoration ecologists and ecotoxicologists and set a roadmap for the restoration of contaminated ecosystems.

  19. Restoration Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    In the accompanying photos, a laboratory technician is restoring the once-obliterated serial number of a revolver. The four-photo sequence shows the gradual progression from total invisibility to clear readability. The technician is using a new process developed in an applications engineering project conducted by NASA's Lewis Research Center in conjunction with Chicago State University. Serial numbers and other markings are frequently eliminated from metal objects to prevent tracing ownership of guns, motor vehicles, bicycles, cameras, appliances and jewelry. To restore obliterated numbers, crime laboratory investigators most often employ a chemical etching technique. It is effective, but it may cause metal corrosion and it requires extensive preparatory grinding and polishing. The NASA-Chicago State process is advantageous because it can be applied without variation to any kind of metal, it needs no preparatory work and number recovery can be accomplished without corrosive chemicals; the liquid used is water.

  20. 喀斯特生态恢复过程中土壤原生动物的指示作用研究%Bioindication of Soil Protozoa during Ecological Restoration on Karst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐政; 李继光; 李慧; 李贵春; 娄翼来; 李忠芳

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the bioindication of soil protozoa to Karst ecological restoration, and in turn to better understand the Karst ecological restoration processes and mechanisms and to provide scientific basis for the Karst ecological mangement. The investigation was carried out at Guzhou village of Guangxi Province, the artificial forest plots with a standing age gradients (2, 4, 8, 12 years) and the adjacent degraded plot as the control were selected to investigate responses of topsoil protozoa community to the Karst reforestation. In our study, the collected protozoa were identified as 22 groups, including 8 groupsof Mastigophora dominated by Kinetoplastida, ChrysomonadidaandEuglenida, 4 groupsof Sarcodina dominated byAmoebida and Arcellinida,10 groupsof Ciliophoradominated byHypotrichida, Prostomatida, Colpodidaand Pleurostomatida. The total number of soil protozoa increased from 425×103 in per gram dry soil in the control plots to 633×103 in the 12-yr forested plots with a mean annual rate of 17.7×103·in per gram dry soil. Soil protozoa species number (SN) increased from17 in the control plots to 22 in the 12-yr forested plots with a mean annual rate of 17.7×103·in per gram dry soil. The protozoa richness index (SR, 3.10~3.30) in the forested plots was significantly higher by 19%~27% than that (2.64) in the control plot. The Shannon-Wiener index (H′, 2.59~2.77) and the evenness index (J′, 0.86~0.91) showed no significant changes following the reforestation. As soil basic fertility indicators, porosity, moisture, total organic carbon (TOC) and dissolved carbon (DOC), total nitrogen (TN), available nitrogen (AN) and microbial biomass carbon (MBC) contents generally increased with increasing forestation ages, with mean annual rates of 3.84%, 6.85%, 3.89%, 11.5%, 4.20%, 7.13% and 24.8%, respectively, and all were significantly positively correlated with protozoa total number, SN andH′ (except for TOC with SN and AN withH′;P < 0.01) under the

  1. Reconnecting plants and pollinators: challenges in the restoration of pollination mutualisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menz, Myles H M; Phillips, Ryan D; Winfree, Rachael; Kremen, Claire; Aizen, Marcelo A; Johnson, Steven D; Dixon, Kingsley W

    2011-01-01

    Ecological restoration of plant-pollinator interactions has received surprisingly little attention, despite animal-mediated pollination underpinning reproduction of the majority of higher plants. Here, we offer a conceptual and practical framework for the ecological restoration of pollination mutualisms. Through the use of targeted restoration plantings to attract and sustain pollinators and increased knowledge of the ecological requirements of pollinators, we propose that pollination could be successfully restored in degraded ecosystems. The challenge for pollination biologists is to integrate their findings with those of plant restoration ecologists to ensure sustainable pollination in restored ecosystems. PMID:20980193

  2. Amendment 80 Permit Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Amendment 80 Program was adopted by the North Pacific Fishery Management Council (Council) in June 2006. The final rule implementing Amendment 80 published in...

  3. Steps Towards Sustainability and Tools for Restoring Natural Capital: Etang de Berre (southern France) case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aronson, J.; Claeys, F.; Westerberg, V.; Picon, P.; Bernard, G.; Bocognano, J.M.; Groot, de R.S.

    2011-01-01

    Communities, nations, not-for-pro fi t groups, and some mining, infrastructure, and energy corporations are catching on to the fact that the ecological restoration of degraded ecosystems is vital to their search for sustainability and ecological accountability. The science of restoration ecology can

  4. CLEAR Landscape Change Module: No Increased Restoration and Protection, UTM Zone 15N NAD83, Coastal Louisiana Ecosystem Assessment and Restoration (2007), [CLEAR_Output_NIA_012307_final

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — The Coastal Louisiana Ecosystem Assessment and Restoration (CLEAR) Framework is an integrated ecosystem forecasting system, designed to simulate ecological change...

  5. Study on the Screening of Plants for Ecological Restoration of Rock Side Slope in Huangshi City%黄石市岩质边坡生态修复植物筛选应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许建新; 吴彩琼; 周琼; 张衡; 周贤军; 张洪钢

    2011-01-01

    Taking the No. 5 quarry in the northern Huangjingshan Mountain in Huangshi City as the research object, we casted the plant slots in the slope surface, so as to create the basic conditions for plants growing, such as soil, water and fertilizer. Then the plants were planted in the slots for the research of the survival rate, the height growth, the ground diameter growth, the crown growth and so on. The results show that the appropriate plants for ecological restoration of rock slope in Huangshi city are :(1) the tree species : Leucaena leucocephala, Ligustrum lucidum ; (2) the shrub species : Liqustrum quihoui, Pyracantha fortuneana, Nerium indicum, Jasminum mesnyi, Cudrania tricuspidata ; (3) the vine species: Parthenocissus quinquefolia, Rubus coreanus, Mucuna sempervirens, Eunoymus fortunei%以黄石市黄荆山北麓5号采石场岩质边坡为研究对象,在坡面上浇筑飘板种植槽,创造植物生长所需的土壤、水分、肥料等基本生长条件,种植并筛选适宜的边坡绿化植物,观察其成活率、高生长量、地径生长量、冠幅生长量、覆盖度等。综合比较结果表明,适宜黄石市岩质边坡生态修复的植物为:①乔木种类:银合欢(Leucaena leucocephala)、大叶女贞(Ligustrum lucidum);②灌木种类为:小叶女贞(Liqustrum quihoui)、火棘(Pyracantha fortuneana)、夹竹桃(Nerium indicum)、云南黄素馨(Jasminum mesnyi)、柘木(Cudrania tricuspidata);③藤本植物为:五叶地锦(Parthenocissus quinquefolia)、野蔷薇(Rubus coreartus)、常春油麻藤(Mucuna sempervirens)、扶芳藤(Eunoymus fortunei)。

  6. THE EMERGENCE OF ECOLOGICAL ENGINEERING AS A DISCIPLINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pioneering efforts in the field of ecological engineering research and practice have proven to be tremendous strides toward establishing a new engineering discipline with a science base in ecology. Case studies, demonstrations and applications pertaining to restoration, rehabili...

  7. 不同生态修复措施对滇池沉积物无机氮迁移转化影响%Effects of Different Ecological Restoration Measures on Transferring and Transformation of Inorganic Nitrogen in Dianchi Sediment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈国元; 周易勇

    2011-01-01

    Effects of three ecological restoration measures which are planting Vallisneria spiraslis L. directly in Dianchi sediment, planting Vallisneria spiraslis L. in sediment covered by silver sand and planting Vallisneria spiraslis L. in sediment covered by laterite on transfer and transformation of inorganic nitrogen were studied by indoor incubation experiment. Results showed that the concentrations of CODMn, SS and NH4+-N in waters and NH/-N in sediment were the highest in plastic casks treated with planting Vallisneria spiraslis L. diretly in sediment, and there conentrations in plastic casks treated with planting Vallisneria spiraslis L. in sediment covered by laterite were the lowest. Ammonia and nitrite oxidation in waters firstly appear in the plastic casks treated with planting Vallisneria spiraslis L. in sediment covered by silver sand and laterite, and the date were the 13th and 19th day separately. Rates of ammonia and nitrite oxidation in waters and sediment were the highest in plastic casks treated with planting Vallisneria spiraslis L. in sediment covered by laterite, and followed by rates in plastic casks treated with planting Vallisneria spiraslis L. in sediment covered by silver sand. Results indicated that planting Vallisneria spiraslis L. in Dianchi sediment covered by silver sand and laterite are able to not only hold back the release of reductive material, suspended paniculate material and ammonia into water from sediment, but also decrease markedly ammonia concentration in sediment. Planting Vallisneria spiraslis L. in sediment covered by laterite which provided an effective attachment matrix for Vallisneria spiraslis L. to take a root and promoted Vallisneria spiraslis L. grow and recovery has the better result than planting Vallisneria spiraslis L. in sediment covered by silver sand, which indicated that planting Vallisneria spiraslis L. in sediment covered by laterite is the effective way of ecological restoration for contaminative sediment.%

  8. Administrative Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarity, Augustus C., III; Maulding, Wanda

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how all four facets of administrative ecology help dispel the claims about the "impossibility" of the superintendency. These are personal ecology, professional ecology, organizational ecology, and community ecology. Using today's superintendency as an administrative platform, current literature describes a preponderance of…

  9. Site Restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives, the programme, and the achievements of SCK-CEN's Site Restoration Department for 2001 are described. Main activities include the decommissioning of the BR3 PWR-reactor as well as other clean-up activities, projects on waste minimisation and the management of spent fuel and the flow of dismantled materials and the recycling of materials from decommissioning activities based on the smelting of metallic materials in specialised foundries. The department provides consultancy and services to external organisations and performs R and D on new techniques including processes for the treatment of various waste components including the reprocessing of spent fuel, the treatment of tritium, the treatment of liquid alkali metals into cabonates through oxidation, the treatment of radioactive organic waste and the reconditioning of bituminised waste products

  10. Geomorphic and chemical controls on sediment denitrification in restored urban streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, A. K.; McMillan, S. K.

    2011-12-01

    In the Southeastern United States, recent endeavors in stream restoration address bank destabilization, catastrophic flooding, and water quality issues resulting from urban stream syndrome. Several projects in the city of Charlotte, North Carolina are underway with goals of stabilizing stream banks, improving local water quality and enhancing ecological functions. Restoration of natural stream pattern and profile provides an opportunity to mitigate eutrophication by enhancing nitrogen uptake and removal in stream sediments. Four restored headwater streams, and a degraded and reference stream were included in this study to examine sediment denitrification rates. Several environmental factors (e.g. NO3¬ concentration, dissolved organic carbon, sediment carbon) as well as proximity to engineered grade-control structures, riffles, and pools are examined as possible drivers affecting nitrogen removal. We used an acetylene block method to measure denitrification rates using slurries of stream sediments from different locations in each reach, including steps, riffles, and pools. Although average denitrification rates were variable (ranging from 64 to 864 μmol N hr-1 m-2), restored streams had the highest denitrification rates, especially those with a restored floodplain. At the NO3-concentrations typically observed in these streams during baseflow, (0.50 ±0.2 ¬ mg/L), NO3- availability appears to be the primary limiting factor for denitrification rates. Generally, sediments collected immediately downstream of grade control structures had highest rates of NO3- removal, which we hypothesize is linked to deposition and burial of benthic organic material, enhancing development of active microbial populations at anaerobic microsites. Laboratory experiments amended with NO3- and labile carbon as glucose showed that while NO3- was likely primarily controlling rates, labile carbon increased denitrification rates with NO3- saturation at approximately 1 mg/L.

  11. Rapidly restoring biological soil crusts and ecosystem functions in a severely disturbed desert ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiquoine, Lindsay P; Abella, Scott R; Bowker, Matthew A

    2016-06-01

    Restoring biological soil crusts (biocrusts) in degraded drylands can contribute to recovery of ecosystem functions that have global implications, including erosion resistance and nutrient cycling. To examine techniques for restoring biocrusts, we conducted a replicated, factorial experiment on recently abandoned road surfaces by applying biocrust inoculation (salvaged and stored dry for two years), salvaged topsoil, an abiotic soil amendment (wood shavings), and planting of a dominant perennial shrub (Ambrosia dumosa). Eighteen months after treatments, we measured biocrust abundance and species composition, soil chlorophyll a content and fertility, and soil resistance to erosion. Biocrust addition significantly accelerated biocrust recovery on disturbed soils, including increasing lichen and moss cover and cyanobacteria colonization. Compared to undisturbed controls, inoculated plots had similar lichen and moss composition, recovered 43% of total cyanobacteria density, had similar soil chlorophyll content, and exhibited recovery of soil fertility and soil stability. Inoculation was the only treatment that generated lichen and moss cover. Topsoil application resulted in partial recovery of the cyanobacteria community and soil properties. Compared to untreated disturbed plots, topsoil application without inoculum increased cyanobacteria density by 186% and moderately improved soil chlorophyll and ammonium content and soil stability. Topsoil application produced 22% and 51% of the cyanobacteria density g⁻¹ soil compared to undisturbed and inoculated plots, respectively. Plots not treated with either topsoil or inoculum had significantly lower cyanobacteria density, soil chlorophyll and ammonium concentrations, and significantly higher soil nitrate concentration. Wood shavings and Ambrosia had no influence on biocrust lichen and moss species recovery but did affect cyanobacteria composition and soil fertility. Inoculation of severely disturbed soil with native

  12. Rapidly restoring biological soil crusts and ecosystem functions in a severely disturbed desert ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiquoine, Lindsay P; Abella, Scott R; Bowker, Matthew A

    2016-06-01

    Restoring biological soil crusts (biocrusts) in degraded drylands can contribute to recovery of ecosystem functions that have global implications, including erosion resistance and nutrient cycling. To examine techniques for restoring biocrusts, we conducted a replicated, factorial experiment on recently abandoned road surfaces by applying biocrust inoculation (salvaged and stored dry for two years), salvaged topsoil, an abiotic soil amendment (wood shavings), and planting of a dominant perennial shrub (Ambrosia dumosa). Eighteen months after treatments, we measured biocrust abundance and species composition, soil chlorophyll a content and fertility, and soil resistance to erosion. Biocrust addition significantly accelerated biocrust recovery on disturbed soils, including increasing lichen and moss cover and cyanobacteria colonization. Compared to undisturbed controls, inoculated plots had similar lichen and moss composition, recovered 43% of total cyanobacteria density, had similar soil chlorophyll content, and exhibited recovery of soil fertility and soil stability. Inoculation was the only treatment that generated lichen and moss cover. Topsoil application resulted in partial recovery of the cyanobacteria community and soil properties. Compared to untreated disturbed plots, topsoil application without inoculum increased cyanobacteria density by 186% and moderately improved soil chlorophyll and ammonium content and soil stability. Topsoil application produced 22% and 51% of the cyanobacteria density g⁻¹ soil compared to undisturbed and inoculated plots, respectively. Plots not treated with either topsoil or inoculum had significantly lower cyanobacteria density, soil chlorophyll and ammonium concentrations, and significantly higher soil nitrate concentration. Wood shavings and Ambrosia had no influence on biocrust lichen and moss species recovery but did affect cyanobacteria composition and soil fertility. Inoculation of severely disturbed soil with native

  13. River Restoration and Meanders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Mathias Kondolf

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the most visually striking river restoration projects are those that involve the creation of a new channel, often in a new alignment and generally with a form and dimensions that are different from those of the preproject channel. These channel reconstruction projects often have the objective of creating a stable, single-thread, meandering channel, even on rivers that were not historically meandering, on rivers whose sediment load and flow regime would not be consistent with such stable channels, or on already sinuous channels whose bends are not symmetrical. Such meandering channels are often specified by the Rosgen classification system, a popular restoration design approach. Although most projects of this type have not been subject to objective evaluation, completed postproject appraisals show that many of these projects failed within months or years of construction. Despite its, at best, mixed results, this classification and form-based approach continues to be popular because it is easy to apply, because it is accessible to those without formal training in fluvial geomorphology, and probably because it satisfies a deep-seated, although unrecognized, cultural preference for single-thread meandering channels. This preference is consistent with 18th-century English landscape theories, which held the serpentine form to be ideal and led to widespread construction of meandering channels on the country estates of the era. The preference for stability in restored channels seems to be widely accepted by practitioners and funders despite the fact that it is antithetical to research showing that dynamically migrating channels have the greatest ecological richness.

  14. A guide for establishing restoration goals for contaminated ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Anne M.; Larson, Diane L.; DalSoglio, Julie A.; Harris, James A.; Labus, Paul; Rosi-Marshall, Emma J.; Skarbis, Krisin E.

    2015-01-01

    As natural resources become increasingly limited, the value of restoring contaminated sites, both terrestrial and aquatic, becomes increasingly apparent. Traditionally, goals for remediation have been set before any consideration of goals for ecological restoration. The goals for remediation have focused on removing or limiting contamination whereas restoration goals have targeted the ultimate end use. Here, we present a framework for developing a comprehensive set of achievable goals for ecological restoration of contaminated sites to be used in concert with determining goals for remediation. This framework was developed during a Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) and Society of Ecological Restoration (SER) cosponsored workshop that brought together experts from multiple countries. Although most members were from North America, this framework is designed for use internationally. We discuss the integration of establishing goals for both contaminant remediation and overall restoration, and the need to include both the restoration of ecological and socio-cultural-economic value in the context of contaminated sites. Although recognizing that in some countries there may be regulatory issues associated with contaminants and clean up, landscape setting and social drivers can inform the restoration goals. We provide a decision tree support tool to guide the establishment of restoration goals for contaminated ecosystems. The overall intent of this decision tree is to provide a framework for goal setting and to identify outcomes achievable given the contamination present at a site.

  15. Techniques of forest restoration in restingas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane Garcia da Silva Morais Rodrigues

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Restinga is an ecosystem of the Atlantic Forest Biome vegetation which has ecological functions and is undergoing anthropogenic occupations that result in the disturbance and its suppression of these environments. But to be the restoration of degraded restinga is necessary to know the different formations of the ecosystem and their respective characteristics. From this diagnosis, one can choose the most appropriate techniques to apply for its restoration. Thus, this study aims to conduct a literature on restoration techniques in restinga environments. It was found that forest restoration on restinga, in most cases there is use of natural regeneration techniques nucleation, and these studies highlight the successional advances and establishments of life forms preserved features of the area, thus making the restoration in these environments.

  16. Study of Mine Geologic Environmental Control and Ecologic Restoration Plans During Transfer from Open Pit to Underground Mine%露天转地下矿山地质环境治理与生态恢复规划研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    南世卿; 李东生

    2009-01-01

    Taking for example mining of Shirengou Iron Mine during transfer from open pit to underground mine, the mine's geologic status was discussed. According to the characteristics of the mining during transfer from open pit to underground mine, the mine geologic environmental and ecologic restoration plans were raised. It effectively protected mine environment and restored ecology of mining area. It achieved better effects in ensuring underground safe mining and had a demonstration effect for similar mines.%以石人沟铁矿露天转地下开采为例,论述了其矿山地质现状,根据露天转地下开采的特点,提出了矿山地质环境与生态恢复的规划,既做到矿山环境有效保护、矿区生态得到恢复,又达到保障地下开采安全的良好效果,为类似矿山起到示范作用.

  17. Selecting cost-effective areas for restoration of ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adame, M F; Hermoso, V; Perhans, K; Lovelock, C E; Herrera-Silveira, J A

    2015-04-01

    Selection of areas for restoration should be based on cost-effectiveness analysis to attain the maximum benefit with a limited budget and overcome the traditional ad hoc allocation of funds for restoration projects. Restoration projects need to be planned on the basis of ecological knowledge and economic and social constraints. We devised a novel approach for selecting cost-effective areas for restoration on the basis of biodiversity and potential provision of 3 ecosystem services: carbon storage, water depuration, and coastal protection. We used Marxan, a spatial prioritization tool, to balance the provision of ecosystem services against the cost of restoration. We tested this approach in a mangrove ecosystem in the Caribbean. Our approach efficiently selected restoration areas that at low cost were compatible with biodiversity targets and that maximized the provision of one or more ecosystem services. Choosing areas for restoration of mangroves on the basis carbon storage potential, largely guaranteed the restoration of biodiversity and other ecosystem services.

  18. Research and Practice of the Architectural Cultural Heritage Preservation and Ecological Restoration of Wuliqiao Bridge (Anpingqiao Bridge), Quanzhou%泉州五里桥(安平桥)建筑文化遗产保护与生态环境恢复的研究与实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱祥明; 方尉元; 王端峰

    2013-01-01

    Wuliqiao Bridge,or Anping Bridge,the longest ancient beam stone bridge widely known all the world with more than 870 years history,has extremely high value in civil and historical aspects.During the recent decades,the surrounding areas near the bridge have been influenced by illegal constructions,environmental pollution,ecological degradation and social safety due to rapid economic development and management stagnation.The bridge has suffered from these factors and has become worse in recent years.In this study,the trinity methods had been established for the protection of architectural culture heritage,natural environmental restoration and enlargement of recreation space.To achieve this aim,not only the protection of the bridge itself but the ecological restoration and management of surrounding environment recovery were concerned,especially the ecological restoration of water environment.The design obtained from this study could be helpful to effectively provide the good ecological recreation space for residents.%五里桥(安平桥)具有870多年的历史,是我国现存最长的梁式石桥,具有极高的历史、文化价值.由于经济的高速发展、管理的滞后,使五里桥周边区域存在着违章建设、环境污染、生态退化、社会安全等诸多问题,五里桥桥体也受到越来越严重的破坏.研究从建筑文化遗产保护、周边自然环境修复、市民游憩空间拓展等“三位一体”的体系出发,不仅着眼于对桥体本身的保护,同时注重对其周围生态自然环境的恢复与治理,特别是水体生态环境的修复,最后为市民提供良好的生态游憩环境.

  19. Coupled Hydrological/Hydraulic Modelling of River Restoration Impacts and Floodplain Hydrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Clilverd, H. M.; Thompson, J. R.; Heppell, C. M.; Sayer, C. D.; J. C. Axmacher

    2016-01-01

    Channelization and embankment of rivers has led to major ecological degradation of aquatic habitats worldwide. River restoration can be used to restore favourable hydrological conditions for target species or processes. However, the effects of river restoration on hydraulic and hydrological processes are complex and are often difficult to determine because of the long-term monitoring required before and after restoration works. Our study is based on rarely available, detailed pre-restoration ...

  20. Evaluation of the ecological integrity and ecosystem health of three benthic networks influenced by coastal upwelling in the northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ecological health of ecosystems relates to the maintenance or restoration of optimal system function when confronted with a disturbance. A healthy ecosystem is a prerequisite for ecological sustainability. Ecological integrity has been defined as an emergent property of ecosy...

  1. River restoration, discharge uncertainties and floods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendiondo, E.M. [Kassel Univ. (Germany). Hydraulic Structures and Water-Resources Engineering]|[Univ. Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Pesquisas Hidraulicas; Clarke, R.T. [Univ. Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Pesquisas Hidraulicas; Toensmann, F. [Kassel Univ. (Germany). Hydraulic Structures and Water-Resources Engineering

    2000-07-01

    Although ecological river restoration is updated continuously, discharge uncertainties are not being addressed to practical purposes, i.e. flood mitigation. So, uncertainty-based strategies need to be addressed with resilient river habitats. Not only the flood-defence and river-restoration framework of Toensmann (1996), but also the uncertainties in rating curves pointed by Clarke et al (2000), are used as starting points to propose an alternative flood mitigation scheme, managing hydraulics, ecology and statistics for restoring watercourses. Our working hypothesis considers the likelihood and the resiliency of riparian habitats in order to encompass the routing effects caused by this alternative flood mitigation scheme. Herein we depict the strategy and assessment for the appraisal of flood mitigation due to discharge reduction in rating curves, with application examples. (orig.)

  2. 基于生态修复的青海湖沙柳河鱼道建设与维护%Construction and management of fish passage on Shaliu River adjacent to Qinghai Lake based on ecological restoration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晓春; 史建全

    2014-01-01

    River. After considering inlet location of fish passage, suction flow and hydraulic conditions within passage, the inlet was located at the area with aggregated fish and slow current velocity. The water flow was 0.5 m/s, the current velocity was 0.1-0.25 m3/s, as well as the slope of 1:10 within fish passage. 3) The ladder slope type fish passage was built on the dam of Shaliu River in 2010, which used two types open fishponds of multi-ladder and slight slope. Fish passage without hindrance had been almost come to be real through this type. This type was designed according to basic theories and related parameters of simple fish passage. The length was 80 m and the width was 1.3 m for each platform, and the outer edge width was 0.3 m, height difference of outer edge between two adjacent levels was 0.15 m, as well as the height difference between outer edge and adjacent lower inner edge was nearly 0.35 m. Fish passage had 18 levels in total, and its plane width was 23.4 m, vertical height was 3 m and length extended to 160 m. In addition, the suggestions on design of fish passage in China had been discussed. Four highlights were provided, including:1) The fish gathering area should be considered when locating the inlet;2) Migration ability of fish should be thought over while designing; 3) The passage should be improved and maintained regularly in the process of operation;4) The design of fish passage needs the attention and joint effort of experts from multi-principles. Furthermore, the strategies on construction and management of fish passage based on ecological restoration had been presented, which included:setting the goal of fish passage design based on the ecosystem function value, realizing the idea of fish passage design serving for fish, establishing the systematic ways for fish passage design, construction and maintenance.

  3. 北京转河河岸带生态修复对河流水质的影响%Influence of Ecological Restoration of Riparian Zone on Water Quality of Zhuanhe River in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李婉; 张娜; 吴芳芳

    2011-01-01

    The ecological effects of restoration of flood lands and hanks in the Zhuanhe River of Beijing are discussed. From July to September in 2009, water samples were periodically collected in the 13 chosen sample sites, and the concentrations of nutrients and dissolved oxygen (DO) were measured and analyzed. The results showed that there were obvious seasonal variations in the concentrations of ammonia nitrogen (NH4+ -N), nitrate nitrogen (NO3--N), total phosphorus (TP), and DO in the Zhuanhe River. The increase of domestic sewage with rising water consumption in mid and late July and early August resulted in the great increase of NH4+-N and TP concentrations. The NO3--N concentration was controlled by the seasonal variations of precipitation and surface runoff. In the higher precipitation seasons, it depended on the interval time between two rainfalls just before the sample; in the lower precipitation seasons, it depended on the time from last rainfall or the interval time between two rainfalls just before the sample. DO concentration was due to the relationship between oxygen release in photosynthesis and oxygen consumption in decomposition of organic matter in the river, which was controlled by phenological periods of hydrophytes. It also served to slight changes of NO3- -N and NH4+-N concentration. As a whole, the Zhuanhe River was not eutrophicated, but reducing the concentration of NH4+-N in early August and that of NO3- -N in the wet seasons was still the key to improve water quality. The NO3--N and NH4+ -N concentrations were lower where the amount of hydrophytes was relatively large. In the growing seasons, the stronger growth and larger coverage of hydrophytes led to the lower TP and higher DO concentration in the river; while in the late growing period, much more litters contributed to the higher TP and lower DO concentration. In both periods, Calamus affected more than Scirpus taberanemontani. Concentrations of NO3--N, NH4+-N and TP near vertical cement

  4. 基于生态修复的青海湖沙柳河鱼道建设与维护%Construction and management of fish passage on Shaliu River adjacent to Qinghai Lake based on ecological restoration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晓春; 史建全

    2014-01-01

    .3 m for each platform, and the outer edge width was 0.3 m, height difference of outer edge between two adjacent levels was 0.15 m, as well as the height difference between outer edge and adjacent lower inner edge was nearly 0.35 m. Fish passage had 18 levels in total, and its plane width was 23.4 m, vertical height was 3 m and length extended to 160 m. In addition, the suggestions on design of fish passage in China had been discussed. Four highlights were provided, including:1) The fish gathering area should be considered when locating the inlet;2) Migration ability of fish should be thought over while designing; 3) The passage should be improved and maintained regularly in the process of operation;4) The design of fish passage needs the attention and joint effort of experts from multi-principles. Furthermore, the strategies on construction and management of fish passage based on ecological restoration had been presented, which included:setting the goal of fish passage design based on the ecosystem function value, realizing the idea of fish passage design serving for fish, establishing the systematic ways for fish passage design, construction and maintenance.%为减少水坝对青海湖裸鲤溯河洄游的阻隔,在入湖的沙柳河上先后建设了导壁式、简易模块式和阶梯型鱼道。通过对青海湖鱼道建设案例分析,得出鱼道设计需要关注的问题:鱼道进鱼口设计要安排在鱼类洄游通路并采取集鱼措施,鱼道设计要依据鱼类洄游能力,鱼道运行要注意改进和维护,鱼道设计需要多学科专家共同参与。结合国内外鱼道设计、建设和运行情况,提出基于生态修复的鱼道建设维护对策:确立生态系统功能价值的鱼道设计目标,确立从鱼的角度出发,系统性的鱼道设计理念、建设和管护方式。

  5. Technologies for lake restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut KLAPPER

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Lakes are suffering from different stress factors and need to be restored using different approaches. The eutrophication remains as the main water quality management problem for inland waters: both lakes and reservoirs. The way to curb the degradation is to stop the nutrient sources and to accelerate the restoration with help of in-lake technologies. Especially lakes with a long retention time need (eco- technological help to decrease the nutrient content in the free water. The microbial and other organic matter from sewage and other autochthonous biomasses, causes oxygen depletion, which has many adverse effects. In less developed countries big reservoirs function as sewage treatment plants. Natural aeration solves problems only partly and many pollutants tend to accumulate in the sediments. The acidification by acid rain and by pyrite oxidation has to be controlled by acid neutralizing technologies. Addition of alkaline chemicals is useful only for soft waters, and technologies for (microbial alkalinization of very acidic hardwater mining lakes are in development. The corrective measures differ from those in use for eutrophication control. The salinization and water shortage mostly occurs if more water is used than available. L. Aral, L. Tschad, the Dead Sea or L. Nasser belong to waters with most severe environmental problems on a global scale. Their hydrologic regime needs to be evaluated. The inflow of salt water at the bottom of some mining lakes adds to stability of stratification, and thus accumulation of hydrogen sulphide in the monimolimnion of the meromictic lakes. Destratification, which is the most used technology, is only restricted applicable because of the dangerous concentrations of the byproducts of biological degradation. The contamination of lakes with hazardous substances from industry and agriculture require different restoration technologies, including subhydric isolation and storage, addition of nutrients for better self

  6. Macroinvertebrate community assembly in pools created during peatland restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lee E; Ramchunder, Sorain J; Beadle, Jeannie M; Holden, Joseph

    2016-11-01

    Many degraded ecosystems are subject to restoration attempts, providing new opportunities to unravel the processes of ecological community assembly. Restoration of previously drained northern peatlands, primarily to promote peat and carbon accumulation, has created hundreds of thousands of new open water pools. We assessed the potential benefits of this wetland restoration for aquatic biodiversity, and how communities reassemble, by comparing pool ecosystems in regions of the UK Pennines on intact (never drained) versus restored (blocked drainage-ditches) peatland. We also evaluated the conceptual idea that comparing reference ecosystems in terms of their compositional similarity to null assemblages (and thus the relative importance of stochastic versus deterministic assembly) can guide evaluations of restoration success better than analyses of community composition or diversity. Community composition data highlighted some differences in the macroinvertebrate composition of restored pools compared to undisturbed peatland pools, which could be used to suggest that alternative end-points to restoration were influenced by stochastic processes. However, widely used diversity metrics indicated no differences between undisturbed and restored pools. Novel evaluations of restoration using null models confirmed the similarity of deterministic assembly processes from the national species pool across all pools. Stochastic elements were important drivers of between-pool differences at the regional-scale but the scale of these effects was also similar across most of the pools studied. The amalgamation of assembly theory into ecosystem restoration monitoring allows us to conclude with more certainty that restoration has been successful from an ecological perspective in these systems. Evaluation of these UK findings compared to those from peatlands across Europe and North America further suggests that restoring peatland pools delivers significant benefits for aquatic fauna by

  7. Macroinvertebrate community assembly in pools created during peatland restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lee E; Ramchunder, Sorain J; Beadle, Jeannie M; Holden, Joseph

    2016-11-01

    Many degraded ecosystems are subject to restoration attempts, providing new opportunities to unravel the processes of ecological community assembly. Restoration of previously drained northern peatlands, primarily to promote peat and carbon accumulation, has created hundreds of thousands of new open water pools. We assessed the potential benefits of this wetland restoration for aquatic biodiversity, and how communities reassemble, by comparing pool ecosystems in regions of the UK Pennines on intact (never drained) versus restored (blocked drainage-ditches) peatland. We also evaluated the conceptual idea that comparing reference ecosystems in terms of their compositional similarity to null assemblages (and thus the relative importance of stochastic versus deterministic assembly) can guide evaluations of restoration success better than analyses of community composition or diversity. Community composition data highlighted some differences in the macroinvertebrate composition of restored pools compared to undisturbed peatland pools, which could be used to suggest that alternative end-points to restoration were influenced by stochastic processes. However, widely used diversity metrics indicated no differences between undisturbed and restored pools. Novel evaluations of restoration using null models confirmed the similarity of deterministic assembly processes from the national species pool across all pools. Stochastic elements were important drivers of between-pool differences at the regional-scale but the scale of these effects was also similar across most of the pools studied. The amalgamation of assembly theory into ecosystem restoration monitoring allows us to conclude with more certainty that restoration has been successful from an ecological perspective in these systems. Evaluation of these UK findings compared to those from peatlands across Europe and North America further suggests that restoring peatland pools delivers significant benefits for aquatic fauna by

  8. Restoration treatments in urban park forests drive long-term changes in vegetation trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lea R; Handel, Steven N

    2016-04-01

    Municipalities are turning to ecological restoration of urban forests as a measure to improve air quality, ameliorate urban heat island effects, improve storm water infiltration, and provide other social and ecological benefits. However, community dynamics following urban forest restoration treatments are poorly documented. This study examines the long-term effects of ecological restoration undertaken in New York City, New York, USA, to restore native forest in urban park natural areas invaded by woody non-native plants that are regional problems. In 2009 and 2010, we sampled vegetation in 30 invaded sites in three large public parks that were restored 1988-1993, and 30 sites in three large parks that were similarly invaded but had not been restored. Data from these matched plots reveal that the restoration treatment achieved its central goals. After 15-20 years, invasive species removal followed by native tree planting resulted in persistent structural and compositional shifts, significantly lower invasive species abundance, a more complex forest structure, and greater native tree recruitment. Together, these findings indicate that successional trajectories of vegetation dynamics have diverged between restored forests and invaded forests that were not restored. In addition, the data suggest that future composition of these urban forest patches will be novel assemblages. Restored and untreated sites shared a suite of shade-intolerant, quickly-growing tree species that colonize disturbed sites, indicating that restoration treatments created sites hospitable for germination and growth of species adapted to high light conditions and disturbed soils. These findings yield an urban perspective on the use of succession theory in ecological restoration. Models of ecological restoration developed in more pristine environments must be modified for use in cities. By anticipating both urban disturbances and ecological succession, management of urban forest patches can be

  9. 滇西北高原闭合半闭合退化湿地的生态恢复效果%Ecological restoration effect of closed and half-dosed degraded wetlands in Northwest Yunnan Plateau, Southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨倩; 田昆; 肖德荣; 李隐; 董瑜; 杨扬

    2012-01-01

    Selecting the restoration site of Napahai, a representative degraded wetland in Northwest Yunnan Plateau, as test object, a comparative study was made on the changes of plant community species composition, water quality, and soil organic matter (OM) and total nitrogen ( TN) contents within stream way, meadow, and lakeside before and after vegetation restoration, aimed to verify the effectiveness of integrated ecosystem restoration at catchment scale. In the early restoration period, the plants at the study site increased from 13 to 28 species, 12 to 22 genera, and 8 to 18 families, and the aboveground biomass increased from 318. 56 g· m-2 to 507. 68 g·m-2. The plant community structure and composition in lakeside and riverside had an obvious change before and after the vegetation restoration. Pollution-tolerant species diminished or disappeared, while the primary swamp communities of Sparganium stoloniferum and Batrachium bungei appeared after their disappearance for many years. After vegetation restoration, soil OM and TN contents increased from 28. 85 g · kg-1 and 0. 79 g · kg-1 to 50. 26 g · kg-1 and 1. 45 g· kg-1, respectively. The TN and TP contents and COD in the water decreased significantly, and their removal rates reached to 67. 9% , 79. 2% , and 71. 2% , respectively. The transparency of water body increased to 179% , indicating that the structure and function of the wetland ecosystem had been substantially improved and restored. It was concluded that the vegetation restoration measures and technology used in closed or half-closed plateau wetland area were effective.%选取滇西北高原典型退化湿地纳帕海,对比植被恢复前后入湖河流廊道、草甸(汇水过渡区)、湖滨带植物群落物种的组成、水质、土壤有机质和全氮含量的变化,分析流域完整尺度恢复实践的有效性.结果表明:研究区湿地植物在恢复初期由8科12属13种迅速增加至18科22属28种;地上生物量从318.56 g·m-2

  10. [Perspectives in researches on grassland ecology for the early 21st century in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Cunzhu; Zhu, Tingcheng; Wang, Deli; Lü, Xinlong

    2002-06-01

    Grassland degeneration is a prominent problem in China. More in-depth studies should be carried out on the key problem--grassland degeneration for Chinese grassland ecologists in the early 21st century. Some hot research fields were restoration ecology, interface ecology, grazing ecology, health diagnoses and evaluation for grasslands. Among them, restoration ecology was the foundation for restoring degenerative grasslands; interface ecology involved with the point of contact for analyzing degenerative grasslands; grazing ecology was the effective way to control degenerative grasslands; diagnoses of grassland health benefited accurately appraising degenerative levels of grasslands; and evaluation for grassland was also considered as an estimation on services and benefits of grassland ecosystems.

  11. 75 FR 66293 - Adoption of Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Restoration Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-27

    ... facing the banking industry, the FDIC amended its Restoration Plan to extend the restoration period from... reserve ratio to 1.15 percent by the end of 2016.\\4\\ \\1\\ 73 FR 61598 (Oct. 16, 2008). \\2\\ 74 FR 9564 (Mar... of 2009, Public Law 111-22, Sec. 204(b), 123 Stat. 1632, 1649. \\4\\ 74 FR 51062 (Oct. 2, 2009)....

  12. Amending Death Rules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    China’s Criminal Law is being revised to cut down on death sentences and tighten up punishment for surging crimes The eighth amendment to the Criminal Law, demanding moreprudent use of capital punishment

  13. CLEAR Landscape Change Module: Preliminary Draft Coastal Protection and Restoration Authority Master Plan, UTM Zone 15N NAD83, Coastal Louisiana Ecosystem Assessment and Restoration (2007), [clear_ouput_cpra_pdmp_012307

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — The Coastal Louisiana Ecosystem Assessment and Restoration (CLEAR) Framework is an integrated ecosystem forecasting system, designed to simulate ecological change...

  14. Hyporheic Restoration in Streams and Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, E. T.; Gooseff, M. N.

    2008-12-01

    The hyporheic zone is the area of mixing of surface and groundwater beneath and adjacent to streams and rivers. The unique physical, chemical, and biological properties of the hyporheic zone, often different from both surface water and groundwater, create unique habitat for organisms. Exchange of water between surface water and the hyporheic zone additionally creates hyporheic functions such as nutrient processing, toxic mineralization, and thermal buffering, which benefit surface water ecosystems and humans downstream. Human activities have reduced hyporheic exchange through impacts like channel simplification and introduction of fines which clog the bed. Efforts to improve ecological conditions in impaired streams and rivers have increased dramatically in recent decades. Nevertheless, the value of hyporheic restoration as a component of stream and river restoration is only beginning to be acknowledged. Further, guidance for accomplishing hyporheic restoration is scarce. Nevertheless, due to considerable recent interest in the hyporheic zone and its functions, data that could inform hyporheic restoration efforts are already fairly common. Here we lay out possible goals for hyporheic restoration and summarize design data that already exist in the scientific literature. We also lay out the hyporheic restoration process, and set that within the largest context of stream and river restoration and watershed planning. Finally, we present our future vision for future research, creating design guidance, and government leadership.

  15. Advances on Ecological Restoration of Urban River in China and New Technologies of Bank Revetment%城市河流生态修复研究进展与护岸新技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关春曼; 张桂荣; 赵波; 程大鹏; 费宗如

    2014-01-01

    我国传统的硬质化、规整化的城市河流整治工程片面强调行洪、排涝等功能,降低甚至破坏了河流生态系统,造成河流自净能力消失殆尽,河水严重污染。结合我国城市水域大面积污染现状,概述了城市河流污染成因与整治现状,提出污染河流的治理必须采取污染源控制和生态修复相结合的原则,指出芦苇生态湿地技术、生态浮岛技术等多种常用的河流生态修复技术在调节气候、净化环境和保护生物多样性等方面的重要意义,并阐述了适用于城市狭窄河流的岸坡生态修复技术:空心砌块生态护面的加筋土轻质护岸技术、石笼网装生态袋和废旧轮胎联合的生态护岸技术。%In our country,traditional river improvement projects,which were cemented and regularized,were taken the one-sided emphasis on the functions of flood discharge capacity and draining flood capacity and so on. It decreased and even destroyed the river ecosystem,which harmed the self cleaning capacity and made the river severe contamination. Combined with the current situation that a large areas of water were polluted in Chi-na cities,the factors which caused river pollution and the current remediation to urban rivers of China were overviewed. The principle of polluted river improvements must consider the union of pollution sources controlling and ecological remediation. Some methods,like ecological reed wetland technique,ecological island technique,take important significances in regulating climate,purifying environment and keeping biological diversity. The author put forward two new technologies of the ecological light revetment technique of reinforced soil with hollow block mask and the bank pro-tection technique of ecological bag packed in gabion box combined with waste tire,which were especially pertinent for narrow bank slopes of urban river.

  16. Metabolic ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Murray M; McCann, Kevin S

    2014-01-01

    Ecological theory that is grounded in metabolic currencies and constraints offers the potential to link ecological outcomes to biophysical processes across multiple scales of organization. The metabolic theory of ecology (MTE) has emphasized the potential for metabolism to serve as a unified theory of ecology, while focusing primarily on the size and temperature dependence of whole-organism metabolic rates. Generalizing metabolic ecology requires extending beyond prediction and application of standardized metabolic rates to theory focused on how energy moves through ecological systems. A bibliometric and network analysis of recent metabolic ecology literature reveals a research network characterized by major clusters focused on MTE, foraging theory, bioenergetics, trophic status, and generalized patterns and predictions. This generalized research network, which we refer to as metabolic ecology, can be considered to include the scaling, temperature and stoichiometric models forming the core of MTE, as well as bioenergetic equations, foraging theory, life-history allocation models, consumer-resource equations, food web theory and energy-based macroecology models that are frequently employed in ecological literature. We conclude with six points we believe to be important to the advancement and integration of metabolic ecology, including nomination of a second fundamental equation, complementary to the first fundamental equation offered by the MTE. PMID:24028511

  17. Global Ecosystem Restoration Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez, Miguel; Garcia, Monica; Fernandez, Nestor

    2015-01-01

    The Global ecosystem restoration index (GERI) is a composite index that integrates structural and functional aspects of the ecosystem restoration process. These elements are evaluated through a window that looks into a baseline for degraded ecosystems with the objective to assess restoration...

  18. Forest restoration, biodiversity and ecosystem functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aerts Raf

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Globally, forests cover nearly one third of the land area and they contain over 80% of terrestrial biodiversity. Both the extent and quality of forest habitat continue to decrease and the associated loss of biodiversity jeopardizes forest ecosystem functioning and the ability of forests to provide ecosystem services. In the light of the increasing population pressure, it is of major importance not only to conserve, but also to restore forest ecosystems. Ecological restoration has recently started to adopt insights from the biodiversity-ecosystem functioning (BEF perspective. Central is the focus on restoring the relation between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Here we provide an overview of important considerations related to forest restoration that can be inferred from this BEF-perspective. Restoring multiple forest functions requires multiple species. It is highly unlikely that species-poor plantations, which may be optimal for above-ground biomass production, will outperform species diverse assemblages for a combination of functions, including overall carbon storage and control over water and nutrient flows. Restoring stable forest functions also requires multiple species. In particular in the light of global climatic change scenarios, which predict more frequent extreme disturbances and climatic events, it is important to incorporate insights from the relation between biodiversity and stability of ecosystem functioning into forest restoration projects. Rather than focussing on species per se, focussing on functional diversity of tree species assemblages seems appropriate when selecting tree species for restoration. Finally, also plant genetic diversity and above - below-ground linkages should be considered during the restoration process, as these likely have prominent but until now poorly understood effects at the level of the ecosystem. The BEF-approach provides a useful framework to evaluate forest restoration in an

  19. The application of UAV remote sensing technology for the restoration investigation of farm land in ecological emigration areas in Ningxia%无人机遥感技术在生态移民迁出区农用地恢复调查中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩芬; 杨阳; 张永杰

    2015-01-01

    采用无人机对宁夏中南部地区的同心县生态移民迁出区及农用地恢复工作进行了调查,通过本次的调查研究,认为无人机适合小范围内高分辨率遥感数据的即时获取,在本地区生态移民迁出区及农用地恢复的调查工作中具有无可替代的作用,可以在其他地区进行广泛推广和应用.%UAV remote sensing has many advantages and wide range of practical applications as a new way of Surveying and mapping. We use the UAV in Tongxin ecological emigration areas and agricultural land restoration work carried out investigations,through this research,I think no man-machine fit within a small range of high-resolution remote sensing data instant access,in south-central area of ecological emigration investigation and recovery of agricultural land has an irreplaceable role,and can be widely applied in other areas.

  20. Ecological Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Alier, Joan

    2001-01-01

    Ecological economics is a relatively new interdisciplinary field concerned with the relationship between economic systems and the biological and physical world. This article covers the following topics: A discussion of views on whether ecological economics is just a field or approach within economics or a new ÒtransdisciplinaryÓ field in its own right; Origin of the name of the field; Core common principles of ecological economics; Comparison with environmental economics; Applications; Histor...

  1. River and riparian restoration in the southwest: Results of the National River Restoration Science Synthesis project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follstad, Shah J.J.; Dahm, Clifford N.; Gloss, S.P.; Bernhardt, E.S.

    2007-01-01

    Restoration activity has exponentially increased across the Southwest since 1990. Over 37,000 records were compiled into the National River Restoration Science Synthesis (NRRSS) database to summarize restoration trends and assess project effectiveness. We analyzed data from 576 restoration projects in the Southwest (NRRSS-SW). More than 50% of projects were less than or equal to 3 km in length. The most common restoration project intent categories were riparian management, water quality management, in-stream habitat improvement, and flow modification. Common project activities were well matched to goals. Conservative estimates of total restoration costs exceeded $500 million. Most restoration dollars have been allocated to flow modification and water quality management. Monitoring was linked to 28% of projects across the Southwest, as opposed to just 10% nationwide. Mean costs were statistically similar whether or not projects were monitored. Results from 48 telephone interviews provided validation of NRRSS-SW database analyses but showed that project costs are often underreported within existing datasets. The majority of interviewees considered their projects to be successful, most often based upon observed improvements to biota or positive public reaction rather than evaluation of field data. The efficacy of restoration is difficult to ascertain given the dearth of information contained within most datasets. There is a great need for regional entities that not only track information on project implementation but also maintain and analyze monitoring data associated with restoration. Agencies that fund or regulate restoration should reward projects that emphasize monitoring and evaluation as much as project implementation. ?? 2007 Society for Ecological Restoration International.

  2. Production possibility frontiers and socioecological tradeoffs for restoration of fire adapted forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ager, Alan A; Day, Michelle A; Vogler, Kevin

    2016-07-01

    We used spatial optimization to analyze alternative restoration scenarios and quantify tradeoffs for a large, multifaceted restoration program to restore resiliency to forest landscapes in the western US. We specifically examined tradeoffs between provisional ecosystem services, fire protection, and the amelioration of key ecological stressors. The results revealed that attainment of multiple restoration objectives was constrained due to the joint spatial patterns of ecological conditions and socioeconomic values. We also found that current restoration projects are substantially suboptimal, perhaps the result of compromises in the collaborative planning process used by federal planners, or operational constraints on forest management activities. The juxtaposition of ecological settings with human values generated sharp tradeoffs, especially with respect to community wildfire protection versus generating revenue to support restoration and fire protection activities. The analysis and methods can be leveraged by ongoing restoration programs in many ways including: 1) integrated prioritization of restoration activities at multiple scales on public and adjoining private lands, 2) identification and mapping of conflicts between ecological restoration and socioeconomic objectives, 3) measuring the efficiency of ongoing restoration projects compared to the optimal production possibility frontier, 4) consideration of fire transmission among public and private land parcels as a prioritization metric, and 5) finding socially optimal regions along the production frontier as part of collaborative restoration planning. PMID:27033166

  3. The role of benthic microhabitats in determining the effects of hydromorphological river restoration on macroinvertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Verdonschot, R.C.M.; Kail, Jochem; McKie, Brendan G.; Verdonschot, P.F.M.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the large number of river restoration projects carried out worldwide, evidence for strong and long-term positive ecological effects of hydromorphological restoration on macroinvertebrates is scarce. To improve the understanding of the success and failure of restoration measures, a standardized field study was carried out in nineteen paired restored and degraded river sections in mid-sized lowland and mountain rivers throughout Europe. We investigated if there were effects of restorati...

  4. Preliminary study on water environmental protection and ecological restoration in Three Gorges reservoir area%三峡库区水环境保护与生态修复初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐萍; 翟红娟; 邹家祥

    2011-01-01

    分析三峡工程对库区水环境和水生态的影响,主要有:库内水温分层、水污染及富营养化问题、泥沙淤积以及对陆生生态和水生生态的影响.提出加强库区城镇污水处理、控制城镇发展和农村面源污染、排污口综合整治、水华控制,加强水质监测与管理等水环境保护措施;陆生生态与生物多样性保护,水域生境保护与修复,珍稀、特有物种资源保护,水库生态调度和建立自然保护区(点)等水生态保护与修复措施.%The effects of the Three Gorges Project on the water environment in the Three Gorges reservoir area, including reservoir water temperature stratification, water pollution, eutrophication, and sediment deposition and its effect on the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, were analyzed. Measures to protect the water environment, including enhancing sewage management, controlling city development and rural pollutant sources, controlling water blooms, and enhancing water quality monitoring and management, were put forward. Suggestions to protect and restore the ecosystem were put forward: protection of terrestrial ecosystems and biodiversity, protection and restoration of water habitat, protection of rare and endemic species, and construction of natural protection areas.

  5. 垦殖后洲滩湿地生态恢复的景观设计途径——以长江新济洲滩为例%ECOLOGICAL RESTORATION OF A RECLAIMED ISLAND LANDSCAPE IN THE YANGTZE RIVER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞孔坚; 陈义勇; 王春连; 李迪华

    2011-01-01

    长江南京段新济洲滩是一处由心滩不断扩大形成的洲滩湿地,由于人类长期垦殖、修筑垸堤等活动,导致洲滩湿地的景观格局和过程发生根本性改变,湿地生态系统服务退化。从景观生态学的角度出发,参照Steinitz景观设计六步骤模式,构建了描述、过程、评价、改变、评估和决策模型,探讨洲滩湿地的生态恢复途径,指出拆除垸堤、去除人类过分干扰是新济洲滩生态恢复的关键,恢复自然洪水过程、让自然做功、恢复季节性湿地及生境是其基本途径。模拟维持现状、拆除圩堤、拆除防洪堤3种预景,分析不同预景洲滩湿地面积、生物栖息地面积变化,结果表明拆除防洪堤将使洲滩季节性、洪水泛滥湿地面积所占比重分别将由5%、4%增加到56%、24%,长江鱼类、龟鳄类、涉禽类栖息地面积所占比重由7%、11%、5%分别增加到21%、75%、56%。湿地是重要的景观生态系统,利用Steinitz六步骤模式进行生态恢复途径的探讨,对其他湿地生态恢复的规划和设计也有重要的借鉴意义。%This paper discussed the ecological restoration of a reclaimed riparian wetland, using the example of Xinji Riverine Island located inside the Yangtze River, with GIS/RS tools and a six-level framework. The reclaimed island was strongly anthropogenically disturbed, resulting in a change of structure and process of the riverine island landscape as well as a decrease of its ecological services. The ecological approach considers the physical and biological factors to represent landscape's ability to support riparian wet- land ecosystem services. Three scenarios, namely maintaining the status quo, removing the ponder dyke, and removing all flood embankments, were established to select the best solution. We estimate the impact of the different scenarios on the wetland area and the habitat, which points out that the

  6. Making Electoral Amends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Lin

    2010-01-01

    @@ An amendment to the Electoral Law of the National People's Congress and Local People's Congresses of the People's Republic of China providing equal legislative representation to rural and urban people was ratifled at the closing meeting of the Third Session of the 11th National People's Congress(NPC),China's top legislature,on March 14.Li Lin,Director of the Law Institute of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences.elaborated on the amendment and outlined its effect on the Chinese people during an interview with Beijing Review reporter Yin Pumin.Some excerpts follow:

  7. Áreas prioritárias ao restabelecimento da conectividade estrutural entre fragmentos florestais da Zona de Amortecimento da Estação Ecológica de Ribeirão Preto. Priority areas to restoration of structural connectivity between forest fragments of Buffer Zone of Ribeirão Preto Ecological Station.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenice Mouro VARANDA

    2015-06-01

    . In order to subsidize the forest restoration actions, a map of priority areas was generated for the reestablishment of the connectivity between the fragments of BF. The considered criteria for the production of the map were: the structure and configuration of the landscape, the conservation status of the remnant and the Brazilian legislation. The results demonstrate the urgency to achieve actions to restore the connectivity of Buffer Zone in EERP, demonstrating the high degree of fragmentation and degradation of this area. The methodology used to determine the areas of priority for the connectivity was comprehensive and resulted in a reliable and realistic map. The generated map indicates that the actions of forest restoration in BZ of Ribeirão Preto Ecological Station should be focused on two strategies: forest corridors and enrichment of the fragments, prioritizing the restoration of riparian forests. These procedures would act as facilitators for the structural connectivity between the green areas nearby the streams present in BF and so minimizing the impact of the edge effects. The generated result has the approval of all those directly or indirectly involved with the management of the protected area and its BF, it is also an excellent tool to assist management and should be used in future projects of restoration in partnership with the landowners.

  8. Amending Death Rules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI LI

    2010-01-01

    @@ The eighth amendment to the Criminal Law, demanding more prudent use of capital punishment, has triggered hot debates in China after it was presented to the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPC), China's top legislature, for the first reading at the end of August.

  9. First Amendment Glossary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Update on Law-Related Education, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Provides a list of terms and the corresponding definitions pertaining to the First Amendment. Focuses on concepts such as, but not limited to, freedom, ratification, separation of church and state, and Constitution that are used in the articles and teaching strategies throughout this issue of "Update on Law-Related Education." (CMK)

  10. 干热河谷典型区土壤功能对不同植被恢复措施的响应%Response of Soil Functioning to Ecological Restoration Practices in the Typical Arid-Hot Valley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪中华; 李建增; 闫帮国; 钱坤建; 潘志贤; 奎建蕊

    2012-01-01

    To explore the response of soil function in arid-hot ecosystem to restoration treatments,the soil infiltration,physical and chemical properties under different restoration models were measured.The results showed that mixture plantation-Cajanus cajan+Pennisetum purpureum had the most effective function on soil in Tamarindus indica forest.The proportion of soil aggregation increased up to 60%~80%,organic matter of soil surface increased by a factor up to 5.01 times,infiltration rate increased by a factor up to 14.43 times compared to the control(T.indica only).The maximum water holding storage reached up to 633.0 t/hm2.All of the soil characters measured in the C.cajan+P.purpureum model were obviously higher than other models and this also enhanced T.indica productivity.The soil functions of other models were poorer than C.cajan+P.purpureum,but better than the control.The results indicated that the improving effects of soil function were determined by plant species and their combinations.%为研究干热河谷地区不同恢复措施下土壤功能的变化,分析了不同模式下土壤入渗和理化特征。结果表明,在乡土树种罗望子(Tamarindus indica)林下,木豆(Cajanus cajan)+象草(Pennisetum purpureum)模式的恢复效果最好,土壤团粒达60%~80%,表层有机质含量较对照提高了5.01倍,其入渗率较对照区提高14.43倍,最大吸持贮水量可达633.0t/hm2,明显高于其他模式,土壤性质的改善也提高了罗望子的生产力水平。其他恢复模式的土壤功能较差,但优于对照模式,表明土壤理化性质的改良取决于植物种类的选择和配置。

  11. Restoring the worn dentition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibsen, R L; Ouellet, D F

    1992-01-01

    Strong dental materials and dental porcelains are providing dentists with restorative opportunities that are more conservative because they require less destruction of healthy tooth structure and yield a more esthetic result. In cases of severe wear due to attrition, abrasion, and erosion, this process can be stopped, restoring the esthetics and function by using proper techniques and materials. The case report described in this article demonstrates the conservative restoration of severe wear due to attrition and erosion. Teeth were lengthened, wear was restored, and further wear was ceased by using a combination of bonded porcelain, a heat, light, and self-cure resin system, and a new glass-ionomer restorative material. The result was a strong, durable restoration (that required no anesthesia) with high esthetics.

  12. Corrective action management unit application for the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, G.C.

    1994-06-01

    The Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF) is to accept both CERCLA (EPA-regulated) and RCRA (Ecology-regulated) remediation waste. The ERDF is considered part of the overall remediation strategy on the Hanford Site, and as such, determination of ERDF viability has followed both RCRA and CERCLA decision making processes. Typically, determination of the viability of a unit, such as the ERDF, would occur as part of record of decision (ROD) or permit modification for each remediation site before construction of the ERDF. However, because construction of the ERDF may take a significant amount of time, it is necessary to begin design and construction of the ERDF before final RODs/permit modifications for the remediation sites. This will allow movement of waste to occur quickly once the final remediation strategy for the RCRA and CERCLA past-practice units is determined. Construction of the ERDF is a unique situation relative to Hanford Facility cleanup, requiring a Hanford Facility specific process be developed for implementing the ERDF that would satisfy both RCRA and CERCLA requirements. While the ERDF will play a significant role in the remediation process, initiation of the ERDF does not preclude the evaluation of remedial alternatives at each remediation site. To facilitate this, the January 1994 amendment to the Tri-Party Agreement recognizes the necessity for the ERDF, and the Tri-Party Agreement states: ``Ecology, EPA, and DOE agree to proceed with the steps necessary to design, approve, construct, and operate such a ... facility.`` The Tri-Party Agreement requires the DOE-RL to prepare a comprehensive ``package`` for the EPA and Ecology to consider in evaluating the ERDF. The package is to address the criteria listed in 40 CFR 264.552(c) for corrective action management unit (CAMU) designation and a CERCLA ROD. This CAMU application is submitted as part of the Tri-Party Agreement-required information package.

  13. Corrective action management unit application for the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF) is to accept both CERCLA (EPA-regulated) and RCRA (Ecology-regulated) remediation waste. The ERDF is considered part of the overall remediation strategy on the Hanford Site, and as such, determination of ERDF viability has followed both RCRA and CERCLA decision making processes. Typically, determination of the viability of a unit, such as the ERDF, would occur as part of record of decision (ROD) or permit modification for each remediation site before construction of the ERDF. However, because construction of the ERDF may take a significant amount of time, it is necessary to begin design and construction of the ERDF before final RODs/permit modifications for the remediation sites. This will allow movement of waste to occur quickly once the final remediation strategy for the RCRA and CERCLA past-practice units is determined. Construction of the ERDF is a unique situation relative to Hanford Facility cleanup, requiring a Hanford Facility specific process be developed for implementing the ERDF that would satisfy both RCRA and CERCLA requirements. While the ERDF will play a significant role in the remediation process, initiation of the ERDF does not preclude the evaluation of remedial alternatives at each remediation site. To facilitate this, the January 1994 amendment to the Tri-Party Agreement recognizes the necessity for the ERDF, and the Tri-Party Agreement states: ''Ecology, EPA, and DOE agree to proceed with the steps necessary to design, approve, construct, and operate such a ... facility.'' The Tri-Party Agreement requires the DOE-RL to prepare a comprehensive ''package'' for the EPA and Ecology to consider in evaluating the ERDF. The package is to address the criteria listed in 40 CFR 264.552(c) for corrective action management unit (CAMU) designation and a CERCLA ROD. This CAMU application is submitted as part of the Tri-Party Agreement-required information package

  14. Fracture resistance of posterior teeth restored with modern restorative materials

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim M. Hamouda; Shehata, Salah H.

    2011-01-01

    We studied the fracture resistance of maxillary premolars restored with recent restorative materials. Fifty maxillary premolars were divided into five groups: Group 1 were unprepared teeth; Group 2 were teeth prepared without restoration; Group 3 were teeth restored with tetric ceram HB; Group 4 were teeth restored with InTen S; and Group 5 were teeth restored with Admira. The samples were tested using a universal testing machine. Peak loads at fracture were recorded. The teeth restored with ...

  15. Restoring Damaged Aquatic Ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Cairns, John

    2006-01-01

    Aquatic ecosystems must play a major role to ensure that water, which is both essential and scarce, is always available for both present and future generations. This has become even more urgent in light of the ongoing increase in total world population and predicted changes in the world climate. Since aquatic ecosystems have been damaged at a rate far in excess of both natural restoration and anthropogenic restoration, it is essential that both restorative processes be accelerated. However, e...

  16. Peatland restoration in Canada by the sphagnum moss layer transfer method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rochefort, L.; Boismenu, C. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). Dept. de Phytologie, Peatland Ecology and Research Group; Quinty, F. [SNC-Lavalin, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2009-04-01

    This article described a peatland restoration approach that has received international recognition for restoring the ecological functions of cutover sphagnum dominated peatlands. The Peatland Ecology Research Group (PERG) conducted a long-term study at the Bois-des-Bel (BDB) peatland site in Quebec to restore plant composition to a peat accumulating ecosystem. The sphagnum moss layer transfer restoration method includes 5 obligatory steps and one optional. These include planning; surface preparation; plant collection and spreading; straw mulch spreading; blocking drainage ditches; and fertilization if needed. Variable moisture conditions throughout the restoration site contribute to the spatial variability in the development of the sphagnum layer. The site has been monitored each year since its restoration. sphagnum cover reached 60 per cent in the restored zone in 2005, a value close to the range of sphagnum cover found in natural sites. In addition, a new moss layer has developed with an average of 25 cm in thickness. 27 refs., 4 figs.

  17. Cognitive ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, Edwin

    2010-10-01

    Cognitive ecology is the study of cognitive phenomena in context. In particular, it points to the web of mutual dependence among the elements of a cognitive ecosystem. At least three fields were taking a deeply ecological approach to cognition 30 years ago: Gibson's ecological psychology, Bateson's ecology of mind, and Soviet cultural-historical activity theory. The ideas developed in those projects have now found a place in modern views of embodied, situated, distributed cognition. As cognitive theory continues to shift from units of analysis defined by inherent properties of the elements to units defined in terms of dynamic patterns of correlation across elements, the study of cognitive ecosystems will become an increasingly important part of cognitive science.

  18. Community Ecology

    CERN Document Server

    1988-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of a workshop on community ecology organized at Davis, in April, 1986, sponsored by the Sloan Foundation. There have been several recent symposia on community ecology (Strong et. al., 1984, Diamond and Case, 1987) which have covered a wide range of topics. The goal of the workshop at Davis was more narrow: to explore the role of scale in developing a theoretical approach to understanding communities. There are a number of aspects of scale that enter into attempts to understand ecological communities. One of the most basic is organizational scale. Should community ecology proceed by building up from population biology? This question and its ramifications are stressed throughout the book and explored in the first chapter by Simon Levin. Notions of scale have long been important in understanding physical systems. Thus, in understanding the interactions of organisms with their physical environment, questions of scale become paramount. These more physical questions illustrate the...

  19. Ecological Modernization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, A.P.J.

    2006-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of Globalization provides a thorough understanding of the theoretical underpinnings of globalization as well as the various historical and analytical interpretations. Consisting of over 400 entries, coverage includes key cultural, ecological, economic, geographical, historical, poli

  20. Time is no healer: increasing restoration age does not lead to improved benthic invertebrate communities in restored river reaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leps, Moritz; Sundermann, Andrea; Tonkin, Jonathan D; Lorenz, Armin W; Haase, Peter

    2016-07-01

    Evidence for successful restoration of riverine communities is scarce, particularly for benthic invertebrates. Among the multitude of reasons discussed so far for the lack of observed effects is too short of a time span between implementation and monitoring. Yet, studies that explicitly focus on the importance of restoration age are rare. We present a comprehensive study based on 44 river restoration projects in Germany, focusing on standardized benthic invertebrate sampling. A broad gradient ranging from 1 to 25years in restoration age was available. In contrast to clear improvements in habitat heterogeneity, benthic community responses to restoration were inconsistent when compared to control sections. Taxon richness increased in response to restoration, but abundance, diversity and various assessment metrics did not respond clearly. Restoration age was a poor predictor of community composition and community change, as no significant linear responses could be detected using 34 metrics. Moreover, only 5 out of 34 tested metrics showed non-linear shifts at restoration ages of 2 to 3years. This might be interpreted as an indication of a post-restoration disturbance followed by a re-establishment of pre-restoration conditions. BIO-ENV analysis and fourth-corner modeling underlined the low importance of restoration age, but revealed high importance of catchment-scale characteristics (e.g., ecoregion, catchment size and land use) in controlling community composition and community change. Overall, a lack of time for community development did not appear to be the ultimate reason for impaired benthic invertebrate communities. Instead, catchment-scale characteristics override the effectiveness of restoration. To enhance the ecological success of future river restoration projects, we recommend improving water quality conditions and catchment-scale processes (e.g., connectivity and hydrodynamics) in addition to restoring local habitat structure. PMID:27046138

  1. Resilience Through Ecological Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazia Brunetta

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the strategic role that urban biodiversity and ecosystem services management, natural infrastructure and adaptive governance approaches can play in making our economies and societies more resilient and in linking human societies and the natural environment. Resilience – a concept that entered the debate on urban governance – means the ability of urban systems, considered as linear-systems, to react to external disturbances by returning to some socio-ecological equilibrium steady-state by overcoming a crisis period (Gunderson & al. 2010, Newman & al. 2009. In this view, green infrastructures can assume a strategic role in restoring and enhancing the ecological and environmental livability in urban areas. Starting from the International and European context, the paper discusses innovative programs and interdisciplinary projects and practices (some cases in Turin Metropolitan Area to demonstrate how green infrastructures can increase the adaptive capacity of urban systems in term of resilience. They can contribute to increase the ability of European cities to adapt to climate change and to reduce their ecological footprints, to enhance security and life quality.

  2. Ecological shortage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Meadows study (Limits to Growth) has made the environmental problem popular, but it has reduced the ecological problem to one of population and raw materials, leaving the conditions of social organisation and developmental policy out of consideration. This means that in spite of the repeated moral appeals, developing countries are left to their natural fate while fear and resignation are spread in the industrial nations. The present study tries to contradict this trend in consideration of interdependences in ecological development. (orig.)

  3. Restoration and Reconstruction of the Industrialand Mineral Industry Ecosystem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Large amount of toxic contanminants are being released to the environment around the global from rapid urbanization andindustrialization. Among such contaminants are industiral wastes and ore tailing that result from worldwide mining acticities. Inmining operations and ecological restoration projects increase public perception of mining companies. The effects of minieralindustry and ore tailing to environment were studied and the restoration measurements, such as soil and waste materials ecologicaltreament, water purification and recycling, vegetation ecological design, are proposed as successfully designs to achieve anoptimum recovery of the waste lands.

  4. Restoration enhances wetland biodiversity and ecosystem service supply, but results are context-dependent: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meli, Paula; Rey Benayas, José María; Balvanera, Patricia; Martínez Ramos, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Wetlands are valuable ecosystems because they harbor a huge biodiversity and provide key services to societies. When natural or human factors degrade wetlands, ecological restoration is often carried out to recover biodiversity and ecosystem services (ES). Although such restorations are routinely performed, we lack systematic, evidence-based assessments of their effectiveness on the recovery of biodiversity and ES. Here we performed a meta-analysis of 70 experimental studies in order to assess the effectiveness of ecological restoration and identify what factors affect it. We compared selected ecosystem performance variables between degraded and restored wetlands and between restored and natural wetlands using response ratios and random-effects categorical modeling. We assessed how context factors such as ecosystem type, main agent of degradation, restoration action, experimental design, and restoration age influenced post-restoration biodiversity and ES. Biodiversity showed excellent recovery, though the precise recovery depended strongly on the type of organisms involved. Restored wetlands showed 36% higher levels of provisioning, regulating and supporting ES than did degraded wetlands. In fact, wetlands showed levels of provisioning and cultural ES similar to those of natural wetlands; however, their levels of supporting and regulating ES were, respectively, 16% and 22% lower than in natural wetlands. Recovery of biodiversity and of ES were positively correlated, indicating a win-win restoration outcome. The extent to which restoration increased biodiversity and ES in degraded wetlands depended primarily on the main agent of degradation, restoration actions, experimental design, and ecosystem type. In contrast, the choice of specific restoration actions alone explained most differences between restored and natural wetlands. These results highlight the importance of comprehensive, multi-factorial assessment to determine the ecological status of degraded, restored

  5. Research and Prediction of Ecological Security in Jiangsu Province Based on the Ecological Footprint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    According to the 2000-2010 Jiangsu Statistical Yearbook,per capita ecological footprint and per capita ecological carrying capacity in Jiangsu Province in the years 2001-2009 are analyzed starting from the ecological footprint model.Per capita ecological deficit is measured,as well as the pressure index of ecological footprint in order to judge the grade of ecological security and to objectively evaluate the ecological security of Jiangsu Province.GM(1,1) grey forecasting model is used to forecast the ecological security of Jiangsu Province in the years 2010-2014.Research shows that in the next 5 years,both the per capita ecological footprint and the pressure index of ecological footprint will increase by 4% and 3.7% each year,respectively.And the ecological status in Jiangsu Province will be extremely unsafe.To achieve the coordinated development of ecological security and economy of Jiangsu Province,we should strictly control the population growth,rationally utilize the land resources,and strengthen the ecological restoration and construction.

  6. Effects of restoration on instream bryophyte communities : Monitoring of two different restoration techniques in the Vindel River system

    OpenAIRE

    Sandberg, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Ecological restoration is the practice of assisting the recovery of a degraded, damaged or destroyed ecosystem. The aim of this study was to analyse the effects of two different restoration techniques on instream bryophyte abundance, species richness and diversity as well as community composition, in streams channelized for timber-floating. Instream bryophytes were collected from 10 tributaries of the Vindel River in boreal northern Sweden, from five stream reaches each of channelized reaches...

  7. Governing and Delivering a Biome-Wide Restoration Initiative: The Case of Atlantic Forest Restoration Pact in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Severino R. Pinto; Felipe Melo; Marcelo Tabarelli; Aurélio Padovesi; Carlos A. Mesquita; Carlos Alberto de Mattos Scaramuzza; Pedro Castro; Helena Carrascosa; Miguel Calmon; Ricardo Rodrigues; Ricardo Gomes César; Brancalion, Pedro H. S.

    2014-01-01

    In many human-modified tropical landscapes, biodiversity conservation and the provision of ecosystem services require large-scale restoration initiatives. Such initiatives must be able to augment the amount and the quality of remaining natural habitats. There is thus a growing need for long-term, multi-stakeholder and multi-purpose initiatives that result in multiple ecological and socioeconomic benefits at the biome scale. The Atlantic Forest Restoration Pact (AFRP) is a coalition of 260+ st...

  8. Technology and Demonstration of Water Environment Ecological Restoration and Governance of Heavily Polluted River in Town%重污染村镇河道水环境生态修复治理技术与示范

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    占明飞; 李仁霞; 郑泽鑫; 张文艺; 陶勤锋

    2013-01-01

    针对重污染村镇河道——常州武进南宅河现状,采用底质改性、微纳米气泡复氧系统、微气泡复氧造流器系统、高效净水膜、浮岛式湿地与底栖动物控养等组合式生态修复工艺技术进行治理.工程运行结果表明,原河道的水质得到明显的改善,河水水质由治理前有劣Ⅴ类达到了治理后Ⅳ~Ⅴ类(《地表水环境质量标准(GB3838-2002)》),氮磷流失得到有效控制,为苏南地区乃至我国南方黑臭河道的治理提供了一种借鉴,工程示范与推广意义重大.%Based on the present situation of Nanzhai River in Wujin which is the heavily polluted,we govern it with combined ecological repairment technologies which include substrated modification technology,micro-nano bubble reoxygenation system,micro-bubbles reoxygenation converter system,efficient water purification membrane technology,wetland of floating island type technology and the benthic animal control raising technology.Operation results show that the river water,Which was worse than Grade Ⅴ,is obviously improved,and reaches Grade Ⅳ-Ⅴ (Quality Standard of Environmental for Surface Water (GB 3838-2002)).Nitrogen and phosphorus losses are under effective control.It provides a reference for river treatment of the Sunan region as well as black and stink rivers in southern China,the significance of engineering demonstration and promotion is outstanding.

  9. Impacts of China' s Large-Scale Ecological Restoration Program on Society and the Environment%生态修复项目对自然与社会的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹世雄

    2012-01-01

    1978年以来,我国开展了一系列大规模的生态修复项目,包括三北防护林工程、天然林保护项目、退耕还林还草工程等.为了讨论这些项目对社会经济和环境的综合影响、及其应用前景,本文通过相关文献综述与展评,研究环境修复政策与社会可持续发展之间的内在关系.30多年的实践经验表明,封山禁牧、退耕还林还草、天然林保护、以及其他环保政策使项目区的绿色植被覆盖度迅速提高.但是与撂荒地的自然恢复过程相比,半干旱地区植树造林降低了总的植被覆盖度,导致退化土地面积增加,加剧了当地的沙漠化;同时,由退耕引起的粮食减产部分可以通过在更适宜地区改进农业生产技术来补偿,退耕还林工程对中国的粮食安全没有造成负面影响.在大规模环境修复工程的实施过程中,中国人民对环保政策的态度也在平稳进步.与其相反,由于天然林保护项目所实施的禁采、禁牧政策缺少必要的补偿措施,对当地居民的生计造成一定的负面影响;而且,由于只有极少数人认为植树种草应该是农业可持续发展的首要目标,当退耕还林还草工程结束后,许多已修复的植被面临被再一次开垦的危险.由此可见,通过改进农业技术和提供适当的生态补偿,可以在改善环境和促进社会发展的同时避免贫困与环境恶化.同时,必须警惕不适当的技术和政策对环境和社会的危害.%Since 1978, China has pursued some of the world' s most ambitious conservation and restoration programs. To evaluate potential links between China' s environmental policy and the country* s environmental and social sustainability, we reviewed published materials to provide a historical perspective on these programs and provide a preliminary assessment of their socioeconomic and environmental impacts. Based on this review, we discuss the potential applications of this approach. After

  10. Demonstration Restoration Measures in Tributaries of the Vindel River Catchment

    OpenAIRE

    Johanna Gardeström; Daniel Holmqvist; Polvi, Lina E; Christer Nilsson

    2013-01-01

    Some ecological restoration projects include elements of trial and error where new measures are repeatedly tried, evaluated, and modified until satisfactory results are achieved. Thereafter, the resulting methods may be applied on larger scales. A difficult step is judging whether developed “best-practice” methods have become reasonably ecologically functional or whether further experimentation “demonstration” methods can lead to yet better results. Here, we use a stre...

  11. National Strategy for River Restoration in Spain: A multidisciplinary approach.

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez del Tanago del Rio, Marta; García de Jalón Lastra, Diego; Yague, M.J.; Sánchez Martínez, Francisco Javier

    2008-01-01

    A National Strategy for River Restoration is being implemented by the Spanish Ministry of Environmental Affairs, with the scientific assistance of the Universidad Politécnica of Madrid. Theoretical concepts from Fluvial Geomorphology and Ecology, together with Water Framework Directive principles and objectives, have been the basis for this Strategy, whose the main objective is to improve the ecological status of rivers, recovering their natural variability and dynamics.

  12. River restoration by dam removal: Enhancing connectivity at watershed scales

    OpenAIRE

    F.J. Magilligan; B.E. Graber; K.H. Nislow; J. W. Chipman; C.S. Sneddon; Fox, C A

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The prolonged history of industrialization, flood control, and hydropower production has led to the construction of 80,000 dams across the U.S. generating significant hydrologic, ecological, and social adjustments. With the increased ecological attention on re-establishing riverine connectivity, dam removal is becoming an important part of large-scale river restoration nationally, especially in New England, due to its early European settlement and history of waterpower-based industry...

  13. Assessing future vegetation trends and restoration prospects in the Karst regions of Southwest China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tong, Xiaowei; Wang, Kelin; Brandt, Martin Stefan;

    2016-01-01

    To alleviate the severe rocky desertification and improve the ecological conditions in Southwest China, the national and local Chinese governments have implemented a series of Ecological Restoration Projects since the late 1990s. In this context, remote sensing can be a valuable tool for conserva......To alleviate the severe rocky desertification and improve the ecological conditions in Southwest China, the national and local Chinese governments have implemented a series of Ecological Restoration Projects since the late 1990s. In this context, remote sensing can be a valuable tool...

  14. Bacterial communities established in bauxite residues with different restoration histories

    OpenAIRE

    Schmalenberger, Achim; O'Sullivan, Orla; Gahan, Jacinta; Cotter, Paul D.; Courtney, Ronan

    2013-01-01

    peer-reviewed Bauxite residue is the alkaline byproduct generated when alumina is extracted from bauxite ores and is commonly deposited in impoundments. These sites represent hostile environments with increased salinity and alkalinity and little prospect of revegetation when left untreated. This study reports the establishment of bacterial communities in bauxite residues with and without restoration amendments (compost and gypsum addition, revegetation) in samples taken in 2009 and 2011 fr...

  15. Riparian restoration framework for the Upper Gila River, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Bruce K.; Leverich, Glen L.; Diggory, Zooey E.; Dudley, Tom L.; Hatten, James R.; Hultine, Kevin R.; Johnson, Matthew P.; Orr, Devyn A.

    2014-01-01

    This technical report summarizes the methods and results of a comprehensive riparian restoration planning effort for the Gila Valley Restoration Planning Area, an approximately 53-mile portion of the upper Gila River in Arizona (Figure 1-1). This planning effort has developed a Restoration Framework intended to deliver science-based guidance on suitable riparian restoration actions within the ecologically sensitive river corridor. The framework development was conducted by a restoration science team, led by Stillwater Sciences with contributions from researchers at the Desert Botanical Garden (DBG), Northern Arizona University (NAU), University of California at Santa Barbara (UCSB), and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). All work was coordinated by the Gila Watershed Partnership of Arizona (GWP), whose broader Upper Gila River Project Area is depicted in Figure 1-1, with funding from the Walton Family Foundation’s Freshwater Initiative Program.

  16. Restoration of ecosystem services and biodiversity: conflicts and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, James M; Aronson, James; Newton, Adrian C; Pywell, Richard F; Rey-Benayas, Jose M

    2011-10-01

    Ecological restoration is becoming regarded as a major strategy for increasing the provision of ecosystem services as well as reversing biodiversity losses. Here, we show that restoration projects can be effective in enhancing both, but that conflicts can arise, especially if single services are targeted in isolation. Furthermore, recovery of biodiversity and services can be slow and incomplete. Despite this uncertainty, new methods of ecosystem service valuation are suggesting that the economic benefits of restoration can outweigh costs. Payment for Ecosystem Service schemes could therefore provide incentives for restoration, but require development to ensure biodiversity and multiple services are enhanced and the needs of different stakeholders are met. Such approaches must be implemented widely if new global restoration targets are to be achieved.

  17. How is success or failure in river restoration projects evaluated? Feedback from French restoration projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morandi, Bertrand; Piégay, Hervé; Lamouroux, Nicolas; Vaudor, Lise

    2014-05-01

    Since the 1990s, French operational managers and scientists have been involved in the environmental restoration of rivers. The European Water Framework Directive (2000) highlights the need for feedback from restoration projects and for evidence-based evaluation of success. Based on 44 French pilot projects that included such an evaluation, the present study includes: 1) an introduction to restoration projects based on their general characteristics 2) a description of evaluation strategies and authorities in charge of their implementation, and 3) a focus on the evaluation of results and the links between these results and evaluation strategies. The results show that: 1) the quality of an evaluation strategy often remains too poor to understand well the link between a restoration project and ecological changes; 2) in many cases, the conclusions drawn are contradictory, making it difficult to determine the success or failure of a restoration project; and 3) the projects with the poorest evaluation strategies generally have the most positive conclusions about the effects of restoration. Recommendations are that evaluation strategies should be designed early in the project planning process and be based on clearly-defined objectives. PMID:24675435

  18. Information Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ellen Tove

    2006-01-01

    in the 1960ties, and chosen here because it integrates cultural and psychological trajectories in a theory of living settings. The pedagogical-didactical paradigm comprises three distinct information ecologies, named after their intended outcome: the problem-setting, the exploration-setting, and the fit......The paper describes a pedagogical didactical paradigm for teaching student-designers how to deal with context issues. Form/context-relationships are conceptualized as information ecologies and described as behavioral settings using a key concept developed by social psychologist R.A. Baker......-setting. It is specified how context issues can be treated within each of these information ecologies. The paper concludes by discussing the outcome of applying this paradigm with respect to the student-designers’ competence as reflective practitioners....

  19. Willapa NWR: Initial Survey Instructions for Tidal Restoration Monitoring - Vegetation Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Key ecological processes were restored with saltwater influence to formerly diked areas. These processes include tidal hydrology, cycling of organic matter and...

  20. Restoration handbook for sagebrush steppe ecosystems with emphasis on greater sage-grouse habitat—Part 1. Concepts for understanding and applying restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyke, David A.; Chambers, Jeanne C.; Pellant, Mike; Knick, Steven T.; Miller, Richard F.; Beck, Jeffrey L.; Doescher, Paul S.; Schupp, Eugene W.; Roundy, Bruce A.; Brunson, Mark; McIver, James D.

    2015-10-26

    Sagebrush steppe ecosystems in the United States currently occur on only about one-half of their historical land area because of changes in land use, urban growth, and degradation of land, including invasions of non-native plants. The existence of many animal species depends on the existence of sagebrush steppe habitat. The greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) is a landscape-dependent bird that requires intact habitat and combinations of sagebrush and perennial grasses to exist. In addition, other sagebrush-obligate animals also have similar requirements and restoration of landscapes for greater sage-grouse also will benefit these animals. Once sagebrush lands are degraded, they may require restoration actions to make those lands viable habitat for supporting sagebrushobligate animals. This restoration handbook is the first in a three-part series on restoration of sagebrush ecosystems. In Part 1, we discuss concepts surrounding landscape and restoration ecology of sagebrush ecosystems and greater sage-grouse that habitat managers and restoration practitioners need to know to make informed decisions regarding where and how to restore specific areas. We will describe the plant dynamics of sagebrush steppe ecosystems and their responses to major disturbances, fire, and defoliation. We will introduce the concepts of ecosystem resilience to disturbances and resistance to invasions of annual grasses within sagebrush steppe. An introduction to soils and ecological site information will provide insights into the specific plants that can be restored in a location. Soil temperature and moisture regimes are described as a tool for determining resilience and resistance and the potential for various restoration actions. Greater sage-grouse are considered landscape birds that require large areas of intact sagebrush steppe; therefore, we describe concepts of landscape ecology that aid our decisions regarding habitat restoration. We provide a brief overview of

  1. 太湖流域源头南苕溪河口生态工程恢复及其初期水质净化效应%Ecological engineering restoration at the confluence of South Tiaoxi Stream in the upper Taihu Lake and its water quality improvement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁淑方; 王为东; 董慧峪; 强志民; 李松; 汪仲琼; 杨金珠; 尹澄清

    2013-01-01

    Headwater streams of Taihu Lake suffer from severe agricultural diffuse pollution and decreased ecological purification function. To improve this situation, several ecological restoration measures were implemented at the confluence of South Tiaoxi Stream in front of Qingshanhu Reservoir. Based on the hydrological and hydraulic characteristics of the stream, a design to establish stabilized ecosystems at the interior corridor and riparian zones was adopted. The techniques used in the program include alloy-steel wire gabion wrapping riprap, pool/riffle and pond/swale combinations, diverging barrier spit, permeable dam with riprap of T-type stones, sandbar field for prevention of riparian erosion, vegetated buffer strip, and aquatic macrophyte restoration. Monitoring of the water quality in the program area for nine months showed that the upstream riffle and overflow weir area effectively reoxygenated the water, increased the pH, reduced electrical conductivity, and removed suspended solids, soluble reactive phosphorus and total phosphorus. The middle pool area removed ammonium and nitrite well via enhanced microbial activity. With periodic cleaning, the downstream T-bars intercepted and deposited the floating materials and sediments from the confluence area. Overall, the confluence ecological engineering measures improved the river corridor structure and enhanced its self-purification capability, as indicated by the increased dissolved oxygen saturation degree of 14. 5% and ammonia nitrogen removal rate of 14.7% at the confluence.%针对太湖流域源头溪流农业面源污染严重和生态拦截净化较弱的问题,采用生态工程措施于南苕溪人青山湖水库河口处对河道进行恢复.综合考虑山溪性河流水文水动力特征,通过构建、稳定和保护河口与滨岸带生态系统实现河道恢复目标.所采用关键技术包括:合金钢网石兜抛石技术、深潭-浅滩/塘-洼地组合净化技术、分流沙嘴技术、T-型

  2. Restoration of impaired ecosystems: An ounce of prevention or a pound of cure? introduction, overview, and key messages from a SETAC-SER workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Aida M.; Hull, Ruth N.; Clements, Will H.; Glomb, Steve; Larson, Diane L.; Stahl, Ralph G.; Stauber, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    A workshop on Restoration of Impaired Ecosystems was held in Jackson, Wyoming, in June 2014. Experts from Australia, Canada, Mexico, the United Kingdom, and the United States in ecotoxicology, restoration, and related fields from both the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry and the Society for Ecological Restoration convened to advance the practice of restoring ecosystems that have been contaminated or impaired from industrial activities. The overall goal of this workshop was to provide a forum for ecotoxicologists and restoration ecologists to define the best scientific practices to achieve ecological restoration while addressing contaminant concerns. To meet this goal, participants addressed 5 areas: 1) links between ecological risk assessment and ecological restoration, 2) restoration goals, 3) restoration design, 4) monitoring for restoration effectiveness and 5) recognizing opportunities and challenges. Definitions are provided to establish a common language across the varied disciplines. The current practice for addressing restoration of impaired ecosystems tends to be done sequentially to remediate contaminants, then to restore ecological structure and function. A better approach would anticipate or plan for restoration throughout the process. By bringing goals to the forefront, we may avoid intrusive remediation activities that close off options for the desired restoration. Participants realized that perceived limitations in the site assessment process hinder consideration of restoration goals; contaminant presence will influence restoration goal choices; social, economic, and cultural concerns can factor into goal setting; restoration options and design should be considered early during site assessment and management; restoration of both structure and function is encouraged; creative solutions can overcome limitations; a regional focus is imperative; monitoring must occur throughout the restoration process; and reciprocal transfer of

  3. ECOLOGICAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIELA GYONGY MIHUT

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available While in most emerging and developing countries, the population has a lower ecological footprint in the developed countries have a larger footprint.There is also an alarming contrast between a person perception of her liability for damages to its environment and its actual size. These misconceptions may have their source in the absence of awareness of risks from climate change, culture or religion.The purpose of this study is to analyze the situation at the international and Romanian level and to draw attention on the necessity of un ecological education.

  4. Bearing restoration by grinding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanau, H.; Parker, R. J.; Zaretsky, E. V.; Chen, S. M.; Bull, H. L.

    1976-01-01

    A joint program was undertaken by the NASA Lewis Research Center and the Army Aviation Systems Command to restore by grinding those rolling-element bearings which are currently being discarded at aircraft engine and transmission overhaul. Three bearing types were selected from the UH-1 helicopter engine (T-53) and transmission for the pilot program. No bearing failures occurred related to the restoration by grinding process. The risk and cost of a bearing restoration by grinding programs was analyzed. A microeconomic impact analysis was performed.

  5. Restoration of Ecosystems Destroyed by the Fly Ash Dump Using Different Plant Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florica Morariu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The leguminous plants was studied at experimental variants on fly ash dump: sown species of Onobrichys viciifolia and invasive colonies of Bird's-foot Trefoil (Lotus corniculatus, and yellow sweet (Melilotus officinalis. Six experimental variants were studied in three replicates each: untreated fly ash, fly ash amended with unmodified/modified volcanic rock and fly ash treated with unmodified/modified volcanic rock (indigenous volcanic tuff mixed with organic fertilizer, anaerobically stabilized municipal sludge type. The characteristics of topsoil was assessed in toxic metals Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni content and the characteristics of plants was assessed in terms: height, shoot and roots dry weight, root and shoot ratio, root length density, the aspect plant and competitive ability of this species to dominate in sown habitat. Invasive plants (Lotus corniculatus and Melilotus officinalis have colonized up to 38 - 43 % and max 5 % respectively, treated experimental variants fly ash with organic fertilizer mixed with unmodified/modified volcanic tuff. The proposed strategy with sown leguminous species led to improved conditions for installation of more and resistant invasive species. Furthermore ecological restoration is increasing with effective fly ash dump stabilization.

  6. Amending Contracts for Choreographies

    CERN Document Server

    Bocchi, Laura; Tuosto, Emilio; 10.4204/EPTCS.59.10

    2011-01-01

    Distributed interactions can be suitably designed in terms of choreographies. Such abstractions can be thought of as global descriptions of the coordination of several distributed parties. Global assertions define contracts for choreographies by annotating multiparty session types with logical formulae to validate the content of the exchanged messages. The introduction of such constraints is a critical design issue as it may be hard to specify contracts that allow each party to be able to progress without violating the contract. In this paper, we propose three methods that automatically correct inconsistent global assertions. The methods are compared by discussing their applicability and the relationships between the amended global assertions and the original (inconsistent) ones.

  7. Multifunctional Riverscapes: Stream restoration, Capability Brown's water features, and artificial whitewater

    OpenAIRE

    Podolak, Kristen

    2012-01-01

    Society is investing in river restoration and urban river revitalization as a solution for sustainable development. Many of these river projects adopt a multifunctional planning and design approach that strives to meld ecological, aesthetic, and recreational functions. However our understanding of how to accomplish multifunctionality and how the different functions work together is incomplete. Numerous ecologically justified river restoration projects may actually be driven by aesthetic an...

  8. Restoring primary anterior teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waggoner, William F

    2002-01-01

    A variety of esthetic restorative materials are available for restoring primary incisors. Knowledge of the specific strengths, weakness, and properties of each material will enhance the clinician's ability to make the best choice of selection for each individual situation. Intracoronal restorations of primary teeth may utilize resin composites, glass ionomer cements, resin-modified ionomers, or polyacid-modified resins. Each has distinct advantages and disadvantages and the clinical conditions of placement may be a strong determining factor as to which material is utilized. Full coronal restoration of primary incisors may be indicated for a number of reasons. Crowns available for restoration of primary incisors include those that are directly bonded onto the tooth, which generally are a resin material, and those crowns that are luted onto the tooth and are some type of stainless steel crown. However, due to lack of supporting clinical data, none of the crowns can be said to be superior to the others under all circumstances. Though caries in the mandibular region is rare, restorative solutions for mandibular incisors are needed. Neither stainless steel crowns nor celluloid crown forms are made specifically for mandibular incisors. Many options exist to repair carious primary incisors, but there is insufficient controlled, clinical data to suggest that one type of restoration is superior to another. This does not discount the fact that dentists have been using many of these crowns for years with much success. Operator preferences, esthetic demands by parents, the child's behavior, and moisture and hemorrhage control are all variables which affect the decision and ultimate outcome of whatever restorative treatment is chosen.

  9. Technologies for lake restoration

    OpenAIRE

    Helmut KLAPPER

    2003-01-01

    Lakes are suffering from different stress factors and need to be restored using different approaches. The eutrophication remains as the main water quality management problem for inland waters: both lakes and reservoirs. The way to curb the degradation is to stop the nutrient sources and to accelerate the restoration with help of in-lake technologies. Especially lakes with a long retention time need (eco-) technological help to decrease the nutrient content in the free water. The microbial and...

  10. Restoring primary anterior teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waggoner, William F

    2002-01-01

    A variety of esthetic restorative materials are available for restoring primary incisors. Knowledge of the specific strengths, weakness, and properties of each material will enhance the clinician's ability to make the best choice of selection for each individual situation. Intracoronal restorations of primary teeth may utilize resin composites, glass ionomer cements, resin-modified ionomers, or polyacid-modified resins. Each has distinct advantages and disadvantages and the clinical conditions of placement may be a strong determining factor as to which material is utilized. Full coronal restoration of primary incisors may be indicated for a number of reasons. Crowns available for restoration of primary incisors include those that are directly bonded onto the tooth, which generally are a resin material, and those crowns that are luted onto the tooth and are some type of stainless steel crown. However, due to lack of supporting clinical data, none of the crowns can be said to be superior to the others under all circumstances. Though caries in the mandibular region is rare, restorative solutions for mandibular incisors are needed. Neither stainless steel crowns nor celluloid crown forms are made specifically for mandibular incisors. Many options exist to repair carious primary incisors, but there is insufficient controlled, clinical data to suggest that one type of restoration is superior to another. This does not discount the fact that dentists have been using many of these crowns for years with much success. Operator preferences, esthetic demands by parents, the child's behavior, and moisture and hemorrhage control are all variables which affect the decision and ultimate outcome of whatever restorative treatment is chosen. PMID:12412967

  11. River restoration success depends on the species pool of the immediate surroundings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundermann, Andrea; Stoll, Stefan; Haase, Peter

    2011-09-01

    Previous studies evaluating the success of river restorations have rarely found any consistent effects on benthic invertebrate assemblages. In this study, we analyzed data from 24 river restoration projects in Germany dating back 1 to 12 years and 1231 data sets from adjacent river reaches that lie within 0-5, 5-10, and 10-15 km rings centered on the restored sites. We calculated restoration success and recolonization potential of adjacent river reaches based on stream-type-specific subsets of taxa indicative for good or bad habitat quality. On average, the restorations did not improve the benthic invertebrate community quality. However, we show that restoration success depends on the presence of source populations of desired taxa in the surrounding of restored sites. Only where source populations of additional desired taxa existed within a 0-5 km ring around the restored sites were benthic invertebrate assemblages improved by the restoration. Beyond the 5-km rings, this recolonization effect was no longer detected. We present here the first field results to support the debated argument that a lack of source populations in the areas surrounding restored sites may play an important role in the failure to establish desired invertebrate communities by the means of river restorations. In contrast, long-range dispersal of invertebrates seems to play a subordinate role in the recolonization of restored sites. However, because the surroundings of the restored sites were far from good ecological quality, the potential for improvement of restored sites was limited. PMID:21939037

  12. Integrated risk and recovery monitoring of ecosystem restorations on contaminated sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Michael J; Glomb, Stephen J; Harper, David D; Hoelzle, Timothy B; McIntosh, Lisa M; Mulligan, David R

    2016-04-01

    Ecological restorations of contaminated sites balance the human and ecological risks of residual contamination with the benefits of ecological recovery and the return of lost ecological function and ecosystem services. Risk and recovery are interrelated dynamic conditions, changing as remediation and restoration activities progress through implementation into long-term management and ecosystem maturation. Monitoring restoration progress provides data critical to minimizing residual contaminant risk and uncertainty, while measuring ecological advancement toward recovery goals. Effective monitoring plans are designed concurrently with restoration plan development and implementation and are focused on assessing the effectiveness of activities performed in support of restoration goals for the site. Physical, chemical, and biotic measures characterize progress toward desired structural and functional ecosystem components of the goals. Structural metrics, linked to ecosystem functions and services, inform restoration practitioners of work plan modifications or more substantial adaptive management actions necessary to maintain desired recovery. Monitoring frequency, duration, and scale depend on specific attributes and goals of the restoration project. Often tied to restoration milestones, critical assessment of monitoring metrics ensures attainment of risk minimization and ecosystem recovery. Finally, interpretation and communication of monitoring findings inform and engage regulators, other stakeholders, the scientific community, and the public. Because restoration activities will likely cease before full ecosystem recovery, monitoring endpoints should demonstrate risk reduction and a successional trajectory toward the condition established in the restoration goals. A detailed assessment of the completed project's achievements, as well as unrealized objectives, attained through project monitoring, will determine if contaminant risk has been minimized, if injured

  13. Integrated risk and recovery monitoring of ecosystem restorations on contaminated sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Michael J.; Glomb, Stephen J.; Harper, David; Hoelzle, Timothy B.; McIntosh, Lisa M.; Mulligan, David R.

    2016-01-01

    Ecological restorations of contaminated sites balance the human and ecological risks of residual contamination with the benefits of ecological recovery and the return of lost ecological function and ecosystem services. Risk and recovery are interrelated dynamic conditions, changing as remediation and restoration activities progress through implementation into long-term management and ecosystem maturation. Monitoring restoration progress provides data critical to minimizing residual contaminant risk and uncertainty, while measuring ecological advancement toward recovery goals. Effective monitoring plans are designed concurrently with restoration plan development and implementation and are focused on assessing the effectiveness of activities performed in support of restoration goals for the site. Physical, chemical, and biotic measures characterize progress toward desired structural and functional ecosystem components of the goals. Structural metrics, linked to ecosystem functions and services, inform restoration practitioners of work plan modifications or more substantial adaptive management actions necessary to maintain desired recovery. Monitoring frequency, duration, and scale depend on specific attributes and goals of the restoration project. Often tied to restoration milestones, critical assessment of monitoring metrics ensures attainment of risk minimization and ecosystem recovery. Finally, interpretation and communication of monitoring findings inform and engage regulators, other stakeholders, the scientific community, and the public. Because restoration activities will likely cease before full ecosystem recovery, monitoring endpoints should demonstrate risk reduction and a successional trajectory toward the condition established in the restoration goals. A detailed assessment of the completed project's achievements, as well as unrealized objectives, attained through project monitoring, will determine if contaminant risk has been minimized, if injured

  14. 75 FR 16351 - Medical Devices; Technical Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., and 1050 Medical Devices; Technical Amendment AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule; technical amendment. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending certain medical device regulations to correct statutory and regulatory references to ensure accuracy, consistency,...

  15. 75 FR 10204 - Collaborative Forest Landscape Restoration Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ..., women, persons with disabilities, and senior citizens. Dated: February 24, 2010. Pearlie S. Reed... proposed ecological restoration strategies; c. The strength of the collaborative process and the likelihood.... Members must report any changes in financial holdings requiring additional disclosure. OGE 450 forms...

  16. Draft Mission Plan Amendment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-09-01

    The Department of Energy`s Office Civilian Radioactive Waste Management has prepared this document to report plans for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program, whose mission is to manage and dispose of the nation`s spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste in a manner that protects the health and safety of the public and of workers and the quality of the environment. The Congress established this program through the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. Specifically, the Congress directed us to isolate these wastes in geologic repositories constructed in suitable rock formations deep beneath the surface of the earth. In the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987, the Congress mandated that only one repository was to be developed at present and that only the Yucca Mountain candidate site in Nevada was to be characterized at this time. The Amendments Act also authorized the construction of a facility for monitored retrievable storage (MRS) and established the Office of the Nuclear Waste Negotiator and the Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board. After a reassessment in 1989, the Secretary of Energy restructured the program, focusing the repository effort scientific evaluations of the Yucca Mountain candidate site, deciding to proceed with the development of an MRS facility, and strengthening the management of the program. 48 refs., 32 figs.

  17. Draft Mission Plan Amendment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy's Office Civilian Radioactive Waste Management has prepared this document to report plans for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program, whose mission is to manage and dispose of the nation's spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste in a manner that protects the health and safety of the public and of workers and the quality of the environment. The Congress established this program through the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. Specifically, the Congress directed us to isolate these wastes in geologic repositories constructed in suitable rock formations deep beneath the surface of the earth. In the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987, the Congress mandated that only one repository was to be developed at present and that only the Yucca Mountain candidate site in Nevada was to be characterized at this time. The Amendments Act also authorized the construction of a facility for monitored retrievable storage (MRS) and established the Office of the Nuclear Waste Negotiator and the Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board. After a reassessment in 1989, the Secretary of Energy restructured the program, focusing the repository effort scientific evaluations of the Yucca Mountain candidate site, deciding to proceed with the development of an MRS facility, and strengthening the management of the program. 48 refs., 32 figs

  18. Preoperational baseline and site characterization report for the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility: Volume 1. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This site characterization report provides the results of the field data collection activities for the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility site. Information gathered on the geology, hydrology, ecology, chemistry, and cultural resources of the area is presented. The Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility is located at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington

  19. Effects of landscape gradients on wetland vegetation communities: information for large-scale restoration

    OpenAIRE

    Zweig, Christa L.; Kitchens, Wiley M.

    2008-01-01

    Projects of the scope of the restoration of the Florida Everglades require substantial information regarding ecological mechanisms, and these are often poorly understood. We provide critical base knowledge for Everglades restoration by characterizing the existing vegetation communities of an Everglades remnant, describing how present and historic hydrology affect wetland vegetation community composition, and documenting change from communities described in previous studies. Vegeta...

  20. 75 FR 13138 - Grand Ditch Breach Restoration Environmental Impact Statement, Rocky Mountain National Park, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-18

    ...Pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, 42 U.S.C. 4332(2)(C), the National Park Service is preparing an Environmental Impact Statement for the Grand Ditch Breach Restoration, Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado. This effort will result in ecological restoration of the area affected by the 2003 Grand Ditch Breach. Alternatives to be considered will likely include a......

  1. Approaches to defining reference regimes for river restoration planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beechie, T. J.

    2014-12-01

    Reference conditions or reference regimes can be defined using three general approaches, historical analysis, contemporary reference sites, and theoretical or empirical models. For large features (e.g., floodplain channels and ponds) historical data and maps are generally reliable. For smaller features (e.g., pools and riffles in small tributaries), field data from contemporary reference sites are a reasonable surrogate for historical data. Models are generally used for features that have no historical information or present day reference sites (e.g., beaver pond habitat). Each of these approaches contributes to a watershed-wide understanding of current biophysical conditions relative to potential conditions, which helps create not only a guiding vision for restoration, but also helps quantify and locate the largest or most important restoration opportunities. Common uses of geomorphic and biological reference conditions include identifying key areas for habitat protection or restoration, and informing the choice of restoration targets. Examples of use of each of these three approaches to define reference regimes in western USA illustrate how historical information and current research highlight key restoration opportunities, focus restoration effort in areas that can produce the largest ecological benefit, and contribute to estimating restoration potential and assessing likelihood of achieving restoration goals.

  2. 78 FR 18233 - Medical Devices; Technical Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ...). These amendments are merely correcting nonsubstantive errors. FDA therefore, for good cause, finds under... heartbeats in patients following cardiac surgery or a myocardial infarction. * * * * * * * * 0 4. Amend...

  3. Restoration treatments in urban park forests drive long-term changes in vegetation trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lea R; Handel, Steven N

    2016-04-01

    Municipalities are turning to ecological restoration of urban forests as a measure to improve air quality, ameliorate urban heat island effects, improve storm water infiltration, and provide other social and ecological benefits. However, community dynamics following urban forest restoration treatments are poorly documented. This study examines the long-term effects of ecological restoration undertaken in New York City, New York, USA, to restore native forest in urban park natural areas invaded by woody non-native plants that are regional problems. In 2009 and 2010, we sampled vegetation in 30 invaded sites in three large public parks that were restored 1988-1993, and 30 sites in three large parks that were similarly invaded but had not been restored. Data from these matched plots reveal that the restoration treatment achieved its central goals. After 15-20 years, invasive species removal followed by native tree planting resulted in persistent structural and compositional shifts, significantly lower invasive species abundance, a more complex forest structure, and greater native tree recruitment. Together, these findings indicate that successional trajectories of vegetation dynamics have diverged between restored forests and invaded forests that were not restored. In addition, the data suggest that future composition of these urban forest patches will be novel assemblages. Restored and untreated sites shared a suite of shade-intolerant, quickly-growing tree species that colonize disturbed sites, indicating that restoration treatments created sites hospitable for germination and growth of species adapted to high light conditions and disturbed soils. These findings yield an urban perspective on the use of succession theory in ecological restoration. Models of ecological restoration developed in more pristine environments must be modified for use in cities. By anticipating both urban disturbances and ecological succession, management of urban forest patches can be

  4. Ant Foraging As an Indicator of Tropical Dry Forest Restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Flores, J; Osorio-Beristain, M; Martínez-Garza, C

    2016-08-01

    Variation in foraging behavior may indicate differences in food availability and allow assessment of restoration actions. Ants are prominent bioindicators used in assessing ecological responses to disturbance. However, behavioral data have been poorly incorporated as an index. The foraging performance of red harvester ants was quantified in order to evaluate the success of a restoration ecology experiment in the tropical dry forest of Sierra de Huautla, Morelos, in central Mexico. Foraging performance by granivorous, Pogonomyrmex barbatus, ants was diminished after 6 and 8 years of cattle grazing and wood harvest were excluded as part of a restoration experiment in a highly degraded biome. Despite investing more time in foraging, ant colonies in exclusion plots showed lower foraging success and acquired less seed biomass than colonies in control plots. In line with the predictions of optimal foraging theory, in restored plots where ant foraging performance was poor, ants harvested a higher diversity of seeds. Reduced foraging success and increased harvest of non-preferred foods in exclusion plots were likely due to the growth of herbaceous vegetation, which impedes travel by foragers. Moreover, by 8 years of exclusion, 37% of nests in exclusion plots had disappeared compared to 0% of nests in control plots. Ants' foraging success and behavior were sensitive to changes in habitat quality due to the plant successional process triggered by a restoration intervention. This study spotlights on the utility of animal foraging behavior in the evaluation of habitat restoration programs.

  5. Forest landscape ecology and its applications in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Shi-rong; Lin Yong; Sun Peng-sen; Li Chong-wei; Hu Yu-zhe

    2006-01-01

    Landscape ecology is playing an increasingly important role in resources management and landuse planning in recent decades and attracting much attention from resource managers and scientists in China as well as in the world. Reviews of landscape ecology development in China have been well documented, whereas forest landscape ecology and its applications receive relatively fewer reviews. In this paper, we first present a brief review of the historical development and current advances of landscape ecology in China and then introduce the applications of landscape ecology to forest park designs, urban greenspace planning, ecological restoration, biodiversity conservation and forest eco-hydrology. Finally, the problems with the application of forest landscape ecology in China, such as inadequate synthesis and integration, lack of basic research on patterns and processes, basic data shortage and model usage problem are discussed on the basis of which we suggest a future direction of forest landscape ecology in China.

  6. Ecological macroeconomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2013-01-01

    of the economy could go hand in hand with increased employment. These ideas were not reflected much in actual policies, and – despite some green elements – the subsequent economic upturn was driven first of all by consumption, and in several affluent countries, fueled by credit expansion. The current revival...... on how to reconcile environmental and social concerns. Based on this broad variety of pieces in a jigsaw puzzle, a new ecological macroeconomics is emerging, but the contours are still vague. This chapter seeks to outline some of this topography and to add a few pieces of its own by highlighting the need...... to shift resources from consumption to investment and describing the role of consumer-citizens in such a change. The chapter starts by identifying the problems and challenges for an ecological macroeconomics. The next section outlines some of the shortcomings of traditional macroeconomics...

  7. ECOLOGICAL EDUCATION

    OpenAIRE

    GABRIELA GYONGY MIHUT

    2011-01-01

    While in most emerging and developing countries, the population has a lower ecological footprint in the developed countries have a larger footprint.There is also an alarming contrast between a person perception of her liability for damages to its environment and its actual size. These misconceptions may have their source in the absence of awareness of risks from climate change, culture or religion.The purpose of this study is to analyze the situation at the international and Romanian level an...

  8. Bacterial Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenchel, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial ecology is concerned with the interactions between bacteria and their biological and nonbiological environments and with the role of bacteria in biogeochemical element cycling. Many fundamental properties of bacteria are consequences of their small size. Thus, they can efficiently exploit...... biogeochemical processes are carried exclusively by bacteria. * Bacteria play an important role in all types of habitats including some that cannot support eukaryotic life....

  9. Amending Contracts for Choreographies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Bocchi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Distributed interactions can be suitably designed in terms of choreographies. Such abstractions can be thought of as global descriptions of the coordination of several distributed parties. Global assertions define contracts for choreographies by annotating multiparty session types with logical formulae to validate the content of the exchanged messages. The introduction of such constraints is a critical design issue as it may be hard to specify contracts that allow each party to be able to progress without violating the contract. In this paper, we propose three methods that automatically correct inconsistent global assertions. The methods are compared by discussing their applicability and the relationships between the amended global assertions and the original (inconsistent ones.

  10. Tropical Forest Restoration within Galapagos National Park: Application of a State-transition Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. K. A. Schmiegelow

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Current theory on non-equilibrium communities, thresholds of irreversibility, and ecological resilience suggests the goal of ecological restoration of degraded communities is not to achieve one target, but to reestablish the temporal and spatial diversity inherent in natural ecosystems. Few restoration models, however, address ecological and management issues across the vegetation mosaic of a landscape. Because of a lack of scientific knowledge and funds, restoration practitioners focus instead on site-specific prescriptions and reactive rather than proactive approaches to restoration; this approach often dooms restoration projects to failure. We applied a state-transition model as a decision-making tool to identify and achieve short- and long-term restoration goals for a tropical, moist, evergreen forest on the island of Santa Cruz, Galapagos. The model guided the process of identifying current and desirable forest states, as well as the natural and human disturbances and management actions that caused transitions between them. This process facilitated assessment of opportunities for ecosystem restoration, expansion of the definition of restoration success for the system, and realization that, although site- or species-specific prescriptions may be available, they cannot succeed until broader landscape restoration issues are identified and addressed. The model provides a decision-making framework to allocate resources effectively to maximize these opportunities across the landscape, and to achieve long-term restoration success. Other restoration models have been limited by lack of scientific knowledge of the system. State-transition models for restoration incorporate current knowledge and funds, are adaptive, and can provide direction for restoration research and conservation management in other degraded systems.

  11. 77 FR 65401 - Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Restoration Design...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-26

    ... development, including solar and wind energy technologies, and to establish a baseline set of environmental... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the... Management Plan (RMP) Amendments and a Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Restoration...

  12. 77 FR 18997 - Rim Lakes Forest Restoration Project; Apache-Sitgreavese National Forest, Black Mesa Ranger...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-29

    ... Forest Service Rim Lakes Forest Restoration Project; Apache-Sitgreavese National Forest, Black Mesa... to meet the purpose, this project includes a site- specific, forest plan amendment to the Apache..., Overgaard, AZ 85933. Comments may also be sent via email to...

  13. Restoration of Shoulder Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boe, Chelsea C; Elhassan, Bassem T

    2016-08-01

    Restoration of shoulder function in patients with brachial plexus injury can be challenging. Initial reported efforts were focused on stabilizing the shoulder, improving inferior subluxation and restoring abduction and flexion of the joint. Recent advancements and improved understanding of coordinated shoulder motion and the biomechanical properties of the muscles around the shoulder applicable to tendon transfer have expanded available surgical options to improve shoulder function, specifically external rotation. Despite the advances in reconstructive options, brachial plexus injury remains a serious problem that requires complex surgical solutions, prolonged recovery, and acceptance of functional loss. PMID:27387074

  14. Pigs and Pollards: Medieval Insights for UK Wood Pasture Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolly Jørgensen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available English wood pastures have become a target for ecological restoration, including the restoration of pollarded trees and grazing animals, although pigs have not been frequently incorporated into wood pasture restoration schemes. Because wood pastures are cultural landscapes, created through the interaction of natural processes and human practices, a historical perspective on wood pasture management practices has the potential to provide insights for modern restoration projects. Using a wide range of both written and artistic sources form the Middle Ages, this article argues that pigs were fed in wood pastures both during the mast season when acorns were available and at other times as grazing fields. Pollarded pedunculate oak (Quercus robur likely dominated these sustainable cultural landscapes during the medieval period.

  15. Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act Section 120(e)(5)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is committed to conducting its operations. In a safe and environmentally sound manner. High priorities for the Department are identifying and correcting environmental problems at DOE facilities that resulted from past operations, and preventing environmental problems from occurring during present and future operations. In this regard, the Department is committed to the 30-year goal of cleanup of all facilities by the year 2019. DOE has issued an Order and guidance establishing policy and procedures for activities conducted under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA), and has developed a Five-Year Plan, updated annually, that integrates planing for corrective activities, environmental restoration, and waste management operations at its facilities. During Calendar Year 1991 and early 1992, DOE made significant progress in reaching agreements with regulatory entities, undertaking cleanup actions, and initiating preventive measures designed to eliminate future environmental problems. These accomplishments are described

  16. River Restoration for a Socially and Ecologically Devastated Border City

    OpenAIRE

    Friedman, Noah

    2008-01-01

    The Tijuana River Watershed is one of eight watersheds that encompass the urbanized area of San Diego and Tijuana. The San Diego - Tijuana cross border corridor lies along the 1,951 mile long international border dividing the United States and Mexico, known as the U.S. Mexican Border Region (San Diego Association of Governments). It is currently the fastest growing region in North America (US / Mexico Border Counties Coalition) and accounts for roughly a third of total population growth in th...

  17. Ecological Restoration and Reforestation of Fragmented Forests in Kianjavato, Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Manjaribe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A reforestation effort in Kianjavato Commune in southeast Madagascar is presented that combines native diversity with rapidly growing introduced and native pioneer trees. This work utilizes a three-tiered corridor design that capitalizes on the region’s mountainous terrain. The process of seed selection, transplantation, and survival rate of seedlings over a 16 month period is reported. The uppermost 50% of each mountain is planted with 38 woody species and most closely approximates native forest. This tier was divided into two categories, pioneer and secondary species. Most of the pioneer species were not native; however, results showed that four fast-growing, environmentally-tolerant native species could be suitable alternatives: Streblus mauritianus, Syzygium bernieri, Treculia madagascariensis and Uapaca thouarsii. More than 70,000 seeds of secondary species were extracted from fecal samples from wild, free-ranging black and white ruffed lemurs; the majority of which germinated significantly better after gut passage. The most effective pretreatment that enhanced germination was to scarify unwashed seeds. Commercially valuable trees, belonging to the community members, were grown on the lower half of each mountain. Lastly, the various contributions of the community are described along with agroforestry development plans designed to reduce pressure on forest resources and generate supplemental income.

  18. What restoration ecology can tell us about mycorrhiza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    Research is summarized on how different topsoil handling procedures influence mycorrhizal propagule survival. The relationship of mycorrhiza to plant establishment and survival is also discussed. (ACR)

  19. Just Fake It! Public Understanding of Ecological Restoration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gremmen, B.

    2014-01-01

    When you travel by train from Amsterdam to Lelystad, you do not expect to see many herds of wild animals in an open landscape. What you do see, however, are herds of Heck cattle and Konik horses, and huge herds of red deer! This is possible in the nature reserve of the Oostvaardersplassen. Some peop

  20. Reassembling ecologies

    OpenAIRE

    Justesen, Lise; Mouritsen, Jan; Tryggestad, Kjell

    2011-01-01

    In its general form, stakeholder theory posits an extension of the ecology. It claims that there are other stakes and interests than those posited by shareholder value theory (Freeman et al. 2004; Jensen and Sandström 2011), and some stakeholder theory proponents argue that the natural environment is also to be considered as a stakeholder (Driscoll and Starik 2004; Norton 2007). It is a positive claim – there are more stakes and interests – and a moral one – we should look towards more intere...

  1. Application of clustering techniques for the characterization of macroinvertebrate communities to support river restoration management

    OpenAIRE

    Adriaenssens, V; Verdonschot, P.F.M.; Goethals, P.L.M.; De Pauw, N.

    2007-01-01

    The European Water Framework Directive prescribes that the development of a river assessment system should be based on an ecological typology taking the biological reference conditions of each river type as a starting point. Aside from this assessment, water managers responsible for river restoration actions also need to know the steering environmental factors to meet these reference conditions for biological communities in each ecological river type. As such, an ecological typology based on ...

  2. Ecological Planning from the Perspectives of Resources, Population, Land and Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    <正> Integrated ecological planning is a new area of study in the current amendment of the Master Plan of Beijing. Ecological planning emerges alongside with the urban development process: at the stage when the economy of a city is relatively backward, the main concern of the people is on employment and income. As employment and income being stabilized, people start to focus on housing

  3. Ecological Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common, Michael; Stagl, Sigrid

    2005-10-01

    Taking as its starting point the interdependence of the economy and the natural environment, this book provides a comprehensive introduction to the emerging field of ecological economics. The authors, who have written extensively on the economics of sustainability, build on insights from both mainstream economics and ecological sciences. Part I explores the interdependence of the modern economy and its environment, while Part II focuses mainly on the economy and on economics. Part III looks at how national governments set policy targets and the instruments used to pursue those targets. Part IV examines international trade and institutions, and two major global threats to sustainability - climate change and biodiversity loss. Assuming no prior knowledge of economics, this textbook is well suited for use on interdisciplinary environmental science and management courses. It has extensive student-friendly features including discussion questions and exercises, keyword highlighting, real-world illustrations, further reading and website addresses. A comprehensive introduction to a developing field which will interest students from science, economics and management backgrounds A global approach to the problems of sustainability and sustainable development, issues which are increasingly prominent in political debate and policy making Filled with student-friendly features including focus areas for each chapter, keyword highlighting, real-world illustrations, discussion questions and exercises, further reading and website addresses

  4. Genetic aspects of restoring Olympia oysters and other native bivalves: Balancing the need for action, good intentions, and the risks of making things worse

    Science.gov (United States)

    As interest and efforts in ecological restoration of native bivalve populations grow, the genetic implications of various restoration strategies are often unclear to resource managers and restoration practitioners, even though genetic considerations are vital to the ultimate success or failure of re...

  5. Structural and functional loss in restored wetland ecosystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Moreno-Mateos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands are among the most productive and economically valuable ecosystems in the world. However, because of human activities, over half of the wetland ecosystems existing in North America, Europe, Australia, and China in the early 20th century have been lost. Ecological restoration to recover critical ecosystem services has been widely attempted, but the degree of actual recovery of ecosystem functioning and structure from these efforts remains uncertain. Our results from a meta-analysis of 621 wetland sites from throughout the world show that even a century after restoration efforts, biological structure (driven mostly by plant assemblages, and biogeochemical functioning (driven primarily by the storage of carbon in wetland soils, remained on average 26% and 23% lower, respectively, than in reference sites. Either recovery has been very slow, or postdisturbance systems have moved towards alternative states that differ from reference conditions. We also found significant effects of environmental settings on the rate and degree of recovery. Large wetland areas (>100 ha and wetlands restored in warm (temperate and tropical climates recovered more rapidly than smaller wetlands and wetlands restored in cold climates. Also, wetlands experiencing more (riverine and tidal hydrologic exchange recovered more rapidly than depressional wetlands. Restoration performance is limited: current restoration practice fails to recover original levels of wetland ecosystem functions, even after many decades. If restoration as currently practiced is used to justify further degradation, global loss of wetland ecosystem function and structure will spread.

  6. The economics of restoration: looking back and leaping forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blignaut, James; Aronson, James; de Wit, Martin

    2014-08-01

    Since the publication of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment in 2005 there has been a surge of interest in ecological restoration (ER) to recover biodiversity, re-establish ecosystem functioning and connectivity, and reactivate the delivery of ecosystem services. In policy spheres, there have also been repeated calls for expansion of restoration efforts. In many countries, new legislation now requires some form of restoration and/or a form of offset investment. All of this will require major increases in financial allocations toward restoration science, technology, and implementation, and much more detailed valuation techniques. The economics of restoration is a new field emerging to support these needs. Our paper here starts with an analysis of the articles and reviews published on this broad subject from 1928 to 2012, as captured in the Scopus academic search platform. Our goal is to present and summarize what has been said and done in this area to date. Next, we map out one possible way forward, illustrated by examples and based on a coherent bundle of decision parameters related to the economics of ER and, more broadly, to the restoration of natural capital. The restoration of natural capital is defined as activities that integrate investment in, and replenishment of, natural capital stocks to improve the flows of ecosystem goods and services, and the preservation of biodiversity, while enhancing all aspects of human well-being. We give special attention to system dynamic approaches and other promising tools and techniques. PMID:24830561

  7. Current Challenges and Perspectives for Governing Forest Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel R. Guariguata

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Negotiation, reconciliation of multiple scales through both ecological and social dimensions and minimization of power imbalances are considered critical challenges to overcome for effective governance of forest restoration. Finding the right mix of “command and control” in forest restoration vs. “environmental governance”, which includes non-state actors, regulatory flexibility, and market based instruments is at the heart of these challenges. This Special Issue attempts at shedding light on these challenges with case studies from South and Central America, Africa, and Asia. Some provide within-country as well as cross-country comparisons. A few others present case studies at the household level. Both policy and legal constraints towards implementing forest restoration are also discussed as a function of top down vs. bottom up approaches. The effectiveness of payments for environmental services is examined as catalyzers of forest restoration initiatives. Finally, two papers deal with the legal and policy constraints in making restoration through natural regeneration a viable and cost-effective tool. In the face of renewed perspectives for expanding forest restoration programs globally, governance issues will likely play a key role in eventually determining success. As many of the papers in this Special Issue suggest, the fate of forest restoration outcomes is, more often than not, associated with overall governance challenges, some of which are often overlooked particularly across multiple scales.

  8. The economics of restoration: looking back and leaping forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blignaut, James; Aronson, James; de Wit, Martin

    2014-08-01

    Since the publication of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment in 2005 there has been a surge of interest in ecological restoration (ER) to recover biodiversity, re-establish ecosystem functioning and connectivity, and reactivate the delivery of ecosystem services. In policy spheres, there have also been repeated calls for expansion of restoration efforts. In many countries, new legislation now requires some form of restoration and/or a form of offset investment. All of this will require major increases in financial allocations toward restoration science, technology, and implementation, and much more detailed valuation techniques. The economics of restoration is a new field emerging to support these needs. Our paper here starts with an analysis of the articles and reviews published on this broad subject from 1928 to 2012, as captured in the Scopus academic search platform. Our goal is to present and summarize what has been said and done in this area to date. Next, we map out one possible way forward, illustrated by examples and based on a coherent bundle of decision parameters related to the economics of ER and, more broadly, to the restoration of natural capital. The restoration of natural capital is defined as activities that integrate investment in, and replenishment of, natural capital stocks to improve the flows of ecosystem goods and services, and the preservation of biodiversity, while enhancing all aspects of human well-being. We give special attention to system dynamic approaches and other promising tools and techniques.

  9. [Influence of implant restoration on traditional restoration idea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H C

    2016-01-01

    Implant restoration affected the traditional restoration idea. Artificial implant restoration has a profound influence on the design of dental restoration. Implant supported prostheses have not only changed the method of oral rehabilitation, but also integrated revolutionary concept with the traditional treatment protocol. By using implants, posterior missing molars can be effectively restored and thus eliminating the disadvantages of traditional removable partial denture for Kennedy classification Ⅰ, Ⅱ partically edentulous dentition. Full edentulous arch can also be restored with implant fixed denture which provide much better oral health related quality of life compared with the traditional complete denture. It is useful to master the theory and skills of artificial implant restoration, and to provide a reference for the restoration of oral physiological function.

  10. Ecological Benefits Evaluation in Ecological Migration Zone Based on Ecological Green Equivalent: A Case Study of Migration Zone in Yanchi County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun; SHI; Muwen; HAN; Zhuzhou; ZHUANG; Chao; Ma; Jin; WU; Xue; MA

    2015-01-01

    With four ecological migration zones in Huamachi Town of Yanchi County in Ningxia Autonomous Region as the object of study,we carry out the evaluation of ecological benefits in ecological migration zone. Using the SPOT satellite remote sensing image in 2008 and UAV aerophotographic image in 2013,we first monitor and analyze the land use change over five years in the study area,and then adopt ecological green equivalent evaluation model for the evaluation of ecological benefits in the ecological migration zone. Studies have shown that:( i) from 2008 to 2013,the ecological green equivalent in the study area was increased and the ecological environment was improved;( ii) the ecological green equivalent in the study area was less than 1 in 2008 and 2013,and ecological environment was still fragile in the migration zone;( iii)the forest coverage rate of the study area was 20% less than the minimum forest coverage rate of the United Nations,but 15% higher than the forest coverage rate of the Ministry of Environmental Protection. There is a large gap between the forest coverage rate based on ecological green equivalent and optimal forest coverage rate,suggesting that the land use still needs to be adjusted in study area,and it is necessary to increase efforts to strengthen ecological restoration and continue to implement forest conservation,returning land for farming to forestry and other measures.

  11. Assessing future vegetation trends and restoration prospects in the Karst regions of Southwest China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tong, Xiaowei; Wang, Kelin; Brandt, Martin;

    2016-01-01

    To alleviate the severe rocky desertification and improve the ecological conditions in Southwest China, the national and local Chinese governments have implemented a series of Ecological Restoration Projects since the late 1990s. In this context, remote sensing can be a valuable tool for conserva......To alleviate the severe rocky desertification and improve the ecological conditions in Southwest China, the national and local Chinese governments have implemented a series of Ecological Restoration Projects since the late 1990s. In this context, remote sensing can be a valuable tool...... are utilized. The proposed framework of this analysis has been proven to work well for assessing restoration prospects in the study area, and due to the generic design, the method is expected to be applicable for other areas of complex landscapes in the world to explore future trends of vegetation....

  12. Restoring proximal caries lesions conservatively with tunnel restorations

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, CH; Mei, L.; Cheung, C.; Nalliah, RP

    2013-01-01

    The tunnel restoration has been suggested as a conservative alternative to the conventional box preparation for treating proximal caries. The main advantage of tunnel restoration over the conventional box or slot preparation includes being more conservative and increasing tooth integrity and strength by preserving the marginal ridge. However, tunnel restoration is technique-sensitive and can be particularly challenging for inexperienced restorative dentists. Recent advances in technology, suc...

  13. TREE SPECIES DIRECT SOWING FOR FOREST RESTORATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robério Anastácio Ferreira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The direct sowing to tropical forest restoration can be viable when the ecological and silvicultural aspects of species areknown. This work evaluated the effect of breaking seed dormancy and a physical protector on the initial growth of riparian treespecies. The experiment was carried out in a randomized blocks design, in a factorial (2x2, with four blocks and four plots for eachtreatment. The treatment to break seed dormancy used were: immersion in sulphuric acid for 20 minutes and washing in water for 1hour plus soaking for 24 hours for Trema micrantha; immersion in boiling water (100oC with following soaking until refreshing for24 hours to Senna multijuga and Senna macranthera and pre-soaking in water for 2 hours for Solanum granuloso-leprosum. Thephysical protector used was a transparent plastic cup (500mL. The breaking seed dormancy used was efficient in laboratory, exceptfor S. macranthera. In field conditions, it was efficient only for S. multijuga and S. macranthera. The physical protector did notpresented any benefit for the studied tree species regarding seedlings emergence and survival, but it provided significant differencesin height and base diameter for S. multijuga and in height for S. macranthera after three months. After 24 months, T. micranthapresented the highest values for height and basal diameter. S. macranthera presented the height relative growth and T. micrantha thehighest basal diameter. The studied species can be recommended for ecological forest restoration, using direct sowing.

  14. Governing and Delivering a Biome-Wide Restoration Initiative: The Case of Atlantic Forest Restoration Pact in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Severino R. Pinto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In many human-modified tropical landscapes, biodiversity conservation and the provision of ecosystem services require large-scale restoration initiatives. Such initiatives must be able to augment the amount and the quality of remaining natural habitats. There is thus a growing need for long-term, multi-stakeholder and multi-purpose initiatives that result in multiple ecological and socioeconomic benefits at the biome scale. The Atlantic Forest Restoration Pact (AFRP is a coalition of 260+ stakeholders, including governmental agencies, private sector, NGOs and research institutions, aimed at restoring 15 million ha of degraded and deforested lands by 2050. By articulating, and then integrating common interests, this initiative has allowed different sectors of society to implement an ambitious vision and create a forum for public and private concerns regarding forest restoration. The AFRP adopts a set of governance tools so multiple actors can implement key processes to achieve long-term and visionary restoration goals. Having overcome some initial challenges, AFRP now has to incorporate underrepresented stakeholders and enhance its efforts to make forest restoration more economically viable, including cases where restoration could be less expensive and profitable. The AFRP experience has resulted in many lessons learned, which can be shared to foster similar initiatives across tropical regions.

  15. Management pattern of ecological public welfare forests in South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chong LOU; Anxing LIU; Guomin ZHU

    2008-01-01

    The characteristics and actualities of ecologi-cal public welfare forests in South China are studied in this paper, including common and special management patterns. The restoration and reconstruction pattern of subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forests, zonal vegeta-tion in the key eco-zone, and the transformation pattern of coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forests in the general eco-zone with multi-forms are discussed in detail. The authors also point out, based on ecological transformation and utilization, that ecological public welfare forests should be oriented to multiple benefit utilization to maintain sustainable management.

  16. Papahanaumokuakea - Laysan Island Restoration 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Goal of the Laysan Island Restoration is to restore Laysan to a "Pristine" state which would require minimal monitoring and habitat for Endemic Endangered...

  17. Kissimmee River restoration: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, P J; Toth, L A; Koebel, J W; Strayer, P K

    2002-01-01

    Channelization of the Kissimmee River transformed a 167 km meandering river into a 9 metre deep, 75 metre wide, 90 km drainage canal (C-38) that is compartmentalized with levees and water control structures into a series of five stagnant pools. Channelization dramatically changed water level and flow characteristics, drained 21,000 hectares of floodplain wetlands and severely impacted fish and wildlife populations. A $500 million dollar restoration project will restore the ecological integrity of the river-floodplain system by reconstructing the natural river channel and reestablishing hydrologic processes. Sixty expectations have been established to quantify the ecosystem's recovery. The first phase of reconstruction was completed in February 2001 and included movement of 9.2 million cubic metres of earth to backfill 12 km of C-38, the explosive demolition of one water control structure, construction of two sections (2.4 km) of new river channel, and reestablishment of 24 contiguous km of river. Numerous social, political, and technical challenges have been encountered during the project's evolution. Recommendations are provided for future restoration projects. PMID:12171366

  18. Ecological Ethics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deborah Oughton started with a view of the work in progress by the ICRP TG 94 on ethics, from the historical context and the principles-based ethics in RP, to continue with an overview of the ethical theories and with the main area of elaboration which concerns the common values, to conclude with considerations about the implementation in different area such as biomedicine, nuclear safety and workers, ecological aspects, and environmental health and society. By reading again the ICRP and IAEA publications on the ethical aspects in the protection of environment from the effects of ionizing radiation, the presentation covers the various and different cultures within the history of environmental ethics, the perception of Nature and the theories of environmental ethics, in particular by focusing on anthropocentrism, biocentrism and ecocentrism, as philosophical worldwide views, and on conservation, biodiversity, sustainability, environmental justice and human dignity, as primary principles of environmental protection. The influence of western Christianity, with a view of man dominating over every creeping thing on earth, and of the non-western ideas, the human perception of Nature has been analyzed and discussed to conclude that, in reality then, the anthropocentrism, biocentrism and ecocentrism, as reflected in many cultures and religions, they all support the need to protect the environment and to recognise and preserve the diversity. Three challenges were then discussed in the presentation: the ecosystem approach and ecological economics, for example in the case of Fukushima by asking what is the economic cost of marine contamination; the ecosystem changes with attention to what harms, as in the case of the environment in the contaminated areas around Chernobyl; and the environmental consequences of remediation, which can be considered a source of controversy for environmental ethics and policy

  19. Ecoengineering with Ecohydrology: Successes and failures in estuarine restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Michael; Mander, Lucas; Mazik, Krysia; Simenstad, Charles; Valesini, Fiona; Whitfield, Alan; Wolanski, Eric

    2016-07-01

    Ecological Engineering (or Ecoengineering) is increasingly used in estuaries to re-create and restore ecosystems degraded by human activities, including reduced water flow or land poldered for agricultural use. Here we focus on ecosystem recolonization by the biota and their functioning and we separate Type A Ecoengineering where the physico-chemical structure is modified on the basis that ecological structure and functioning will then follow, and Type B Ecoengineering where the biota are engineered directly such as through restocking or replanting. Modifying the physical system to create and restore natural processes and habitats relies on successfully applying Ecohydrology, where suitable physical conditions, especially hydrography and sedimentology, are created to recover estuarine ecology by natural or human-mediated colonisation of primary producers and consumers, or habitat creation. This successional process then allows wading birds and fish to reoccupy the rehabilitated areas, thus restoring the natural food web and recreating nursery areas for aquatic biota. We describe Ecohydrology principles applied during Ecoengineering restoration projects in Europe, Australia, Asia, South Africa and North America. These show some successful and sustainable approaches but also others that were less than successful and not sustainable despite the best of intentions (and which may even have harmed the ecology). Some schemes may be 'good for the ecologists', as conservationists consider it successful that at least some habitat was created, albeit in the short-term, but arguably did little for the overall ecology of the area in space or time. We indicate the trade-offs between the short- and long-term value of restored and created ecosystems, the success at developing natural structure and functioning in disturbed estuaries, the role of this in estuarine and wetland management, and the costs and benefits of Ecoengineering to the socio-ecological system. These global case

  20. Biomanipulation - a tool in marine ecosystem management and restoration?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegren, Martin; Möllmann, Christian; Hansson, Lars-Anders

    2010-01-01

    in restoring degraded lakes and coastal ecosystems. Whether biomanipulation may prove a useful restoration method in open and structurally complex marine ecosystems is however still unknown. To promote a recovery of the collapsed stock of Eastern Baltic cod (Gadus morhua), large-scale biomanipulation of sprat...... forcing through commercial fishing, zooplankton and climate. By running multiple, stochastic simulations of reductions in sprat spawning stock biomass (SSB) only minor increases in cod SSB were detected, none of which brought the cod significantly above ecologically safe levels. On the contrary...

  1. Adaptive wiener image restoration kernel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ding

    2007-06-05

    A method and device for restoration of electro-optical image data using an adaptive Wiener filter begins with constructing imaging system Optical Transfer Function, and the Fourier Transformations of the noise and the image. A spatial representation of the imaged object is restored by spatial convolution of the image using a Wiener restoration kernel.

  2. Ecological stability of landscape - ecological infrastructure - ecological management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Field Workshop 'Ecological Stability of Landscape - Ecological Infrastructure - Ecological Management' was held within a State Environmental Programme financed by the Federal Committee for the Environment. The objectives of the workshop were to present Czech and Slovak approaches to the ecological stability of the landscape by means of examples of some case studies in the field, and to exchange ideas, theoretical knowledge and practical experience on implementing the concept of ecological infrastructure in landscape management. Out of 19 papers contained in the proceedings, 3 items were inputted to the INIS system. (Z.S.)

  3. River Restoration and Meanders

    OpenAIRE

    G. Mathias Kondolf

    2006-01-01

    Among the most visually striking river restoration projects are those that involve the creation of a new channel, often in a new alignment and generally with a form and dimensions that are different from those of the preproject channel. These channel reconstruction projects often have the objective of creating a stable, single-thread, meandering channel, even on rivers that were not historically meandering, on rivers whose sediment load and flow regime would not be consistent with such stable...

  4. Relativistic Linear Restoring Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D.; Franklin, J.; Mann, N.

    2012-01-01

    We consider two different forms for a relativistic version of a linear restoring force. The pair comes from taking Hooke's law to be the force appearing on the right-hand side of the relativistic expressions: d"p"/d"t" or d"p"/d["tau"]. Either formulation recovers Hooke's law in the non-relativistic limit. In addition to these two forces, we…

  5. Restoring proximal caries lesions conservatively with tunnel restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu CH

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Chun-Hung Chu1, May L Mei,1 Chloe Cheung,1 Romesh P Nalliah2 1Faculty of Dentistry, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, People's Republic of China; 2Department of Restorative Dentistry and Biomaterials Sciences, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: The tunnel restoration has been suggested as a conservative alternative to the conventional box preparation for treating proximal caries. The main advantage of tunnel restoration over the conventional box or slot preparation includes being more conservative and increasing tooth integrity and strength by preserving the marginal ridge. However, tunnel restoration is technique-sensitive and can be particularly challenging for inexperienced restorative dentists. Recent advances in technology, such as the contemporary design of dental handpieces with advanced light-emitting diode (LED and handheld comfort, offer operative dentists better vision, illumination, and maneuverability. The use of magnifying loupes also enhances the visibility of the preparation. The advent of digital radiographic imaging has improved dental imaging and reduced radiation. The new generation of restorative materials has improved mechanical properties. Tunnel restoration can be an option to restore proximal caries if the dentist performs proper case selection and pays attention to the details of the restorative procedures. This paper describes the clinical technique of tunnel restoration and reviews the studies of tunnel restorations. Keywords: operative, practice, tunnel preparation, composite, amalgam, glass ionomer

  6. Addition of organic amendments contributes to C sequestration in trace element contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Mar Montiel Rozas, María; Panettier, Marco; Madejón Rodríguez, Paula; Madejón Rodríguez, Engracia

    2015-04-01

    Nowadays, the study of global C cycle and the different natural sinks of C have become especially important in a climate change context. Fluxes of C have been modified by anthropogenic activities and, presently, the global objective is the decrease of net CO2 emission. For this purpose, many studies are being conducted at local level for evaluate different C sequestration strategies. These techniques must be, in addition to safe in the long term, environmentally friendly. Restoration of contaminated and degraded areas is considered as a strategy for SOC sequestration. Our study has been carried out in the Guadiamar Green Corridor (Seville, Spain) affected by the Aznalcóllar mining accident. This accident occurred 16 years ago, due to the failure of the tailing dam which contained 4-5 million m3 of toxic tailings (slurry and acid water).The affected soils had a layer of toxic sludge containing heavy metals as As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn. Restoration techniques began to be applied just after the accident, including the removal of the toxic sludge and a variable layer of topsoil (10-30 cm) from the surface. In a second phase, in a specific area (experimental area) of the Green Corridor the addition of organic amendments (Biosolid compost (BC) and Leonardite (LE), a low grade coal rich in humic acids) was carried out to increase pH, organic matter and fertility in a soil which lost its richest layer during the clean-up operation. In our experimental area, half of the plots (A) received amendments for four years (2002, 2003, 2006 and 2007) whereas the other half (B) received amendments only for two years (2002-2003). To compare, plots without amendments were also established. Net balance of C was carried out using values of Water Soluble Carbon (WSC) and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) for three years (2012, 2013 and 2015). To eliminate artificial changes carried out in the plots, amendment addition and withdrawal of biomass were taken into account to calculate balance of kg TOC

  7. Creating a catchment perspective for river restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Benda

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the major challenges in river restoration is to identify the natural fluvial landscape in catchments with a long history of river control. Intensive land use on valley floors often predates the earliest remote sensing: levees, dikes, dams, and other structures alter valley-floor morphology, river channels and flow regimes. Consequently, morphological patterns indicative of the fluvial landscape including multiple channels, extensive floodplains, wetlands, and fluvial-riparian and tributary-confluence dynamics can be obscured, and information to develop appropriate and cost effective river restoration strategies can be unavailable. This is the case in the Pas River catchment in northern Spain (650 km2, in which land use and development have obscured the natural fluvial landscape in many parts of the basin. To address this issue we coupled general principles of hydro-geomorphic processes with computer tools to characterize the fluvial landscape. Using a 5-m digital elevation model, valley-floor surfaces were mapped according to elevation above the channel and proximity to key geomorphic processes. The predicted fluvial landscape is patchily distributed according to topography, valley morphology, river network structure, and fan and terrace landforms. The vast majority of the fluvial landscape in the main segments of the Pas River catchment is presently masked by human infrastructure, with only 15% not impacted by river control structures and development. The reconstructed fluvial landscape provides a catchment scale context to support restoration planning, in which areas of potential ecological productivity and diversity could be targeted for in-channel, floodplain and riparian restoration projects.

  8. Sound Ecologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Duffy

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Discussions about what constitutes ‘the rural’ invariably focus on notions of spatial location – of inhabiting spaces apart from that of the metropolitan. Deeply embedded in our images of what it means to be Australian, nonetheless our intellectual framing of ‘the rural’ as something outback and beyond has significant implications for our relations with these spaces. The relatively recent phenomenon of sea- and tree-changes has struck many unawares, and not simply because a good latté is so hard to find. Although a frivolous remark, such an apparent lack does shift our focus to a bodily scale of the rural; how is rural place re/made through our experiences of it? This article originates out of on-going research that explores the practice of listening and sound and the ways in which the body can draw attention to the intuitive, emotional, and psychoanalytical processes of subjectivity and place-making. Drawing on Nigel Thrift’s concept of an ecology of place, I suggest that contemporary heightened concerns with regards to loss and lack in rural Australia has led to a nascent emotional economy – one in which individual and intimate connections to the rural require a rethinking of how we live community and belonging. In such a terrain, what does it mean to be rural?

  9. Applying science to conservation and restoration of the world's wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsch, W J

    2005-01-01

    The world has an estimated 7 to 9 million km2 of wetlands which can be defined through their hydrology, physiochemical environment, and biota. Many human cultures have lived in harmony with wetland environments for centuries. Many others have not, resulting in drainage or severe impact of wetlands throughout the world. Conservation of wetlands needs to be a priority for the cultural and ecological values they provide. But a more optimistic note is that large-scale restoration and re-creation of wetlands and riverine systems is beginning to happen throughout the world through ecological engineering. Examples of large-scale wetland restoration projects are presented for Delaware Bay, the Skjern River (Denmark), Florida Everglades, Louisiana Delta, the Mississippi River Basin, and the Mesopotamian Marshlands of Iraq.

  10. Two decades of prairie restoration at Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betz, R.F. [Northeastern Illinois Univ., Chicago, IL (United States); Lootens, R.J.; Becker, M.K. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Successional Restoration is the method being used to restore the prairie at Fermilab on the former agricultural fields. This involves an initial planting, using aggressive species that have wide ecological tolerances which will grow well on abandoned agricultural fields. Collectively, these species are designated as the prairie matrix. The species used for this prairie matrix compete with and eventually eliminate most weedy species. They also provide an adequate fuel load capable of sustaining a fire within a few years after a site has been initially planted. Associated changes in the biological and physical structure of the soil help prepare the way for the successful introduction of plants of the later successional species. Only after the species of the prairie matrix are well established, is the species diversity increased by introducing species with narrower ecological tolerances. These species are thus characteristic of the later successional stages.

  11. A review of biochars' potential role in the remediation, revegetation and restoration of contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beesley, Luke; Moreno-Jiménez, Eduardo; Gomez-Eyles, Jose L; Harris, Eva; Robinson, Brett; Sizmur, Tom

    2011-12-01

    Biochars are biological residues combusted under low oxygen conditions, resulting in a porous, low density carbon rich material. Their large surface areas and cation exchange capacities, determined to a large extent by source materials and pyrolysis temperatures, enables enhanced sorption of both organic and inorganic contaminants to their surfaces, reducing pollutant mobility when amending contaminated soils. Liming effects or release of carbon into soil solution may increase arsenic mobility, whilst low capital but enhanced retention of plant nutrients can restrict revegetation on degraded soils amended only with biochars; the combination of composts, manures and other amendments with biochars could be their most effective deployment to soils requiring stabilisation by revegetation. Specific mechanisms of contaminant-biochar retention and release over time and the environmental impact of biochar amendments on soil organisms remain somewhat unclear but must be investigated to ensure that the management of environmental pollution coincides with ecological sustainability. PMID:21855187

  12. Using river restoration operations to test predictive ecohydraulic models: fish and invertebrate communities of the Rhône river

    OpenAIRE

    LAMOUROUX N.; Olivier, J.M.; Paillex, A.; Mérigoux, S.; Castella, E.

    2012-01-01

    Despite strong investments dedicated to river physical restoration, it is still difficult to assess the ecological effects of restoration operations. This is largely due to the difficulty of organizing long-term scientific surveys that anticipate operations and allow comparisons of their effects over multiple years in multiple sites. It is even more difficult to assess how ecohydraulic models can predict actual biological responses to stream restoration. As other large rivers in Europe, the R...

  13. River Restoration in Spain: Theoretical and Practical Approach in the Context of the European Water Framework Directive.

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez del Tanago del Rio, Marta; García de Jalón Lastra, Diego; Roman, Mercedes

    2012-01-01

    River restoration is becoming a priority in many countries because of increasing the awareness of environmental degradation. In Europe, the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) has significantly reinforced river restoration, encouraging the improvement of ecological status for water bodies. To fulfill the WFD requirements, the Spanish Ministry of the Environment developed in 2006 a National Strategy for River Restoration whose design and implementation are described in this paper. At the same t...

  14. Latest Amendment to Criminal Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU ZONGJIE

    2011-01-01

    @@ On Feb.25, 2011,the 19th Session of the Standine Commlttee or the 11th National Peonle's Congress, the country's highest legislative body, approved the eighth amendment to the Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China.This brought about the broadest changes ever made to the law-to be precise, to 50 items that involve 49 legal matters.While reducing the number of crimes punishable by death, the amended Criminal Law provides for additional instances of leniency for senior citizens and minors who are convicted of a crime.

  15. Skjern River Restoration Counterfactual

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Thomas Juel

    2014-01-01

    heritage. While the meanders of the Skjern River were reconstructed according to its assumed course in 1870s, the embanked canal, which was the main feature and symbol of a comprehensive cultivation project from the 1960s, was deconstructed and reduced to incomprehensible traces of the past. Not only did...... history and more openness towards constant change. In this approach the idea of palimpsest as metaphor for the cultural landscape plays an important role. Rather than being an obstacle for the restoration of nature, the historical layer following the comprehensive cultivation project from the 1960s...

  16. Setting limits: Using air pollution thresholds to protect and restore U.S. ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenn, M.E.; Lambert, K.F.; Blett, T.F.; Burns, Douglas A.; Pardo, L.H.; Lovett, Gary M.; Haeuber, R. A.; Evers, D.C.; Driscoll, C.T.; Jeffries, D.S.

    2011-01-01

    states and on many tribal lands. High concentrations of mercury in wildlife are also widespread and have multiple adverse effects. ??? Air quality programs, such as those stemming from the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, have helped decrease air pollution even as population and energy demand have increased. Yet, they do not adequately protect ecosystems from long-term damage. Moreover they do not address ammonia emissions. ??? A stronger ecosystem basis for air pollutant policies could be established through adoption of science-based thresholds. Existing monitoring programs track vital information needed to measure the response to policies, and could be expanded to include appropriate chemical and biological indicators for terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and establishment of a national ecosystem monitoring network for mercury. The development and use of air pollution thresholds for ecosystem protection and management is increasing in the United States, yet threshold approaches remain underutilized. Ecological thresholds for air pollution, such as critical loads for nitrogen and sulfur deposition, are not currently included in the formal regulatory process for emissions controls in the United States, although they are now considered in local management decisions by the National Park Service and U.S. Forest Service. Ecological thresholds offer a scientifically sound approach to protecting and restoring U.S. ecosystems and an important tool for natural resource management and policy. ?? The Ecological Society of America.

  17. Coupling systematic planning and expert judgement enhances the efficiency of river restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhans, Simone D; Gessner, Jörn; Hermoso, Virgilio; Wolter, Christian

    2016-08-01

    Ineffectiveness of current river restoration practices hinders the achievement of ecological quality targets set by country-specific regulations. Recent advances in river restoration help planning efforts more systematically to reach ecological targets at the least costs. However, such approaches are often desktop-based and overlook real-world constraints. We argue that combining two techniques commonly used in the conservation arena - expert judgement and systematic planning - will deliver cost-effective restoration plans with a high potential for implementation. We tested this idea targeting the restoration of spawning habitat, i.e. gravel bars, for 11 rheophilic fish species along a river system in Germany (Havel-Spree rivers). With a group of local fish experts, we identified the location and extent of potential gravel bars along the rivers and necessary improvements to migration barriers to ensure fish passage. Restoration cost of each gravel bar included the cost of the action itself plus a fraction of the cost necessary to ensure longitudinal connectivity by upgrading or building fish passages located downstream. We set restoration targets according to the EU Water Framework Directive, i.e. relative abundance of 11 fish species in the reference community and optimised a restoration plan by prioritising a subset of restoration sites from the full set of identified sites, using the conservation planning software Marxan. Out of the 66 potential gravel bars, 36 sites which were mainly located in the downstream section of the system were selected, reflecting their cost-effectiveness given that fewer barriers needed intervention. Due to the limited overall number of sites that experts identified as being suitable for restoring spawning habitat, reaching abundance-targets was challenged. We conclude that coupling systematic river restoration planning with expert judgement produces optimised restoration plans that account for on-the-ground implementation constraints

  18. Restoring proximal caries lesions conservatively with tunnel restorations

    OpenAIRE

    Chu CH; Mei ML; Cheung C; Nalliah RP

    2013-01-01

    Chun-Hung Chu1, May L Mei,1 Chloe Cheung,1 Romesh P Nalliah2 1Faculty of Dentistry, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, People's Republic of China; 2Department of Restorative Dentistry and Biomaterials Sciences, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: The tunnel restoration has been suggested as a conservative alternative to the conventional box preparation for treating proximal caries. The main advantage of tunnel restoration over the conventional box or slot pre...

  19. Restoring proximal caries lesions conservatively with tunnel restorations

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Chun-Hung

    2013-01-01

    Chun-Hung Chu1, May L Mei,1 Chloe Cheung,1 Romesh P Nalliah2 1Faculty of Dentistry, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, People's Republic of China; 2Department of Restorative Dentistry and Biomaterials Sciences, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: The tunnel restoration has been suggested as a conservative alternative to the conventional box preparation for treating proximal caries. The main advantage of tunnel restoration over the conventional box or slo...

  20. Demonstration Restoration Measures in Tributaries of the Vindel River Catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Gardeström

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Some ecological restoration projects include elements of trial and error where new measures are repeatedly tried, evaluated, and modified until satisfactory results are achieved. Thereafter, the resulting methods may be applied on larger scales. A difficult step is judging whether developed “best-practice” methods have become reasonably ecologically functional or whether further experimentation “demonstration” methods can lead to yet better results. Here, we use a stream restoration project as a case study for evaluating methods and abiotic effects and outlining stakeholder support for demonstration restoration measures, rather than only using best-practice methods. Our work was located in the Vindel River system, a free-flowing river that is part of the Natura 2000 network. The river was exploited for timber floating from 1850–1976, and rapids in the main channel and tributaries below timberline were channelized to increase timber transport capacity. Several side channels in multi-channeled rapids were blocked and the flow was concentrated to a single channel from which boulders and large wood were removed. Hence, previously heterogeneous environments were replaced by more homogeneous systems with limited habitat for riverine species. The restoration project strives to alleviate the effects of fragmentation and channelization in affected rapids by returning coarse sediment from channel margins to the main channel. However, only smaller, angular sediment is available given blasting of large boulders, and large (old-growth wood is largely absent; therefore, original levels of large boulders and large wood in channels cannot be achieved with standard restoration practices. In 10 demonstration sites, we compensated for this by adding large boulders and large wood (i.e., entire trees from adjacent upland areas to previously best-practice restored reaches and compared their hydraulic characteristics with 10 other best-practice sites. The

  1. Oak Ridge Reservation Site Management Plan for the Environmental Restoration Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This site management for the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program implements the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) (EPA 1990), also known as an Interagency Agreement (IAG), hereafter referred to as ''the Agreement.'' The Department of Energy (DOE), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC), hereafter known as ''the Parties,'' entered into this Agreement for the purpose of coordinating remediation activities undertaken on the ORR to comply with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) as amended by the Superfund Amendments, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). 7 refs., 17 figs

  2. Ecological rebuilding and land reclamation in surface mines inShanxi Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    It is well known that the mining industry produces a large amount of derelict land, and muses pollution of water loss and soil erosion as well as other environmental damage in China. As land is under pressure in China, it is now policy to restore or reclaim land despoiled by mining, the aim being to develop sustainable and healthy arable land ecosystems. This paper outlines the principles and approaches of ecological restoration, which have been adopted in Shanxi Province with reference to three typical surface mines. In the research, the principles of ecological engineering and ecological succession are considered as the critical theories of ecological restoration in mine degraded land. Meanwhile, the paper made a comparative research on main links of ecological rebuilding in three surface mines in Shanxi Province, which include new land construction, treatment of toxic substances, control of soil erosion, fertility management, irrigation, ecological planning and the establishment of legislation systems. As the research demonstrated, for successful restoration, new land construction is the fundamental framework, but it must be integrated with ecological engineering including ecological planning, the control of soil erosion and vegetation establishment and ecosystem creation in order to optimiee land productivity and soil fertility. In addition, the establishment of the legislation systems and organization of administration are also indispensable aspects of ecological rebuilding in mined land.

  3. 32 CFR 10.8 - Amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amendment. 10.8 Section 10.8 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE MILITARY COMMISSIONS MILITARY COMMISSION INSTRUCTIONS § 10.8 Amendment. The General Counsel may issue, supplement, amend, or revoke any...

  4. 7 CFR 1.165 - Amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Amendments. 1.165 Section 1.165 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Rules of Practice Governing Cease and Desist Proceedings Under Section 2 of the Capper-Volstead Act § 1.165 Amendments. Amendments to the complaint may...

  5. Reparative dentistry or restorative dentistry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Bruce W

    2008-01-01

    The real definition of restorative dentistry is found in the heart and hands of each individual restorative dentist. His or her training, continuing dental education, mentors, needs (financial and emotional), and style of practice all help to develop a philosophy of dental practice that affects daily restorative decisions. Depending on the factors described above, the decision to repair a tooth or change the environment and restore the tooth to a different shape, size, or color also may change. In recent years, patients' esthetic desires have become more of a factor than they were in previous decades. There are no exact written-tn-stone definitions of restorative dentistry, since the answers are operator-dependent and can vary. This column is meant to be food for thought and perhaps inspire discussion when dentists assemble for meetings or study clubs with the goal of delivering longer-lasting dentistry through a restorative dental practice. PMID:18348367

  6. The research of Chinese karst ecological hydrology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Chunqing; Wang Jiajia

    2006-01-01

    Karst environment is very common in southwest China. Soil and vegetation are the most sensitive elements for the variation of karst environment. The weathering of carbonate is important soil formation mechanism in karst area,but its soil forming ability is so poor that the thickness of soil layer becomes thin by the water erosion, though the soil loss is insignificant but serious. The karst process, the ecology process, the hydrology process are three important circulation mechanisms in the karst multiple media environment. In the Chinese North and South karst area, the eco-environmental protection and restoration has already been the important part as the national territorial resources and the environmental comprehensive development and management. The character of karst plants mainly depends on the environmental conditions, i.e. lack of water, richness of Ca, poor soil and shortage of organic matter. The plants have low growth pace and low life-form resource; it is vulnerable under the disturbance of irrational human activities. Therefore, the rocky desertification is the final result of karst ecosystem degradation. But ecological condition is severe in the North and South karst area, especially in the south karst stone mountainous area and the north arid karst area. There are many problems with the eco-environmental protection and restoration. This paper takes the karst multiple media environment as a core,comprehensively discusses the relations of the three processes - karst, hydrology, and ecology, and puts forward the direction of the research on karst ecology hydrology and the future.

  7. 76 FR 80226 - Technical Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Part 701 Technical Amendments AGENCY: National Credit Union Administration (NCUA). ACTION... to the Office of Consumer Protection. This authority previously sat with the regional directors....

  8. Automated Clustering of Similar Amendments

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    The Italian Senate is clogged by computer-generated amendments. This talk will describe a simple strategy to cluster them in an automated fashion, so that the appropriate Senate procedures can be used to get rid of them in one sweep.

  9. Amended Silicated for Mercury Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Butz; Thomas Broderick; Craig Turchi

    2006-12-31

    Amended Silicates{trademark}, a powdered, noncarbon mercury-control sorbent, was tested at Duke Energy's Miami Fort Station, Unit 6 during the first quarter of 2006. Unit 6 is a 175-MW boiler with a cold-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP). The plant burns run-of-the-river eastern bituminous coal with typical ash contents ranging from 8-15% and sulfur contents from 1.6-2.6% on an as-received basis. The performance of the Amended Silicates sorbent was compared with that for powdered activated carbon (PAC). The trial began with a period of baseline monitoring during which no sorbent was injected. Sampling during this and subsequent periods indicated mercury capture by the native fly ash was less than 10%. After the baseline period, Amended Silicates sorbent was injected at several different ratios, followed by a 30-day trial at a fixed injection ratio of 5-6 lb/MMACF. After this period, PAC was injected to provide a comparison. Approximately 40% mercury control was achieved for both the Amended Silicates sorbent and PAC at injection ratios of 5-6 lbs/MMACF. Higher injection ratios did not achieve significantly increased removal. Similar removal efficiencies have been reported for PAC injection trials at other plants with cold-side ESPs, most notably for plants using medium to high sulfur coal. Sorbent injection did not detrimentally impact plant operations and testing confirmed that the use of Amended Silicates sorbent does not degrade fly ash quality (unlike PAC). The cost for mercury control using either PAC or Amended Silicates sorbent was estimated to be equivalent if fly ash sales are not a consideration. However, if the plant did sell fly ash, the effective cost for mercury control could more than double if those sales were no longer possible, due to lost by-product sales and additional cost for waste disposal. Accordingly, the use of Amended Silicates sorbent could reduce the overall cost of mercury control by 50% or more versus PAC for locations where

  10. Archived film analysis and restoration

    OpenAIRE

    Rares, A.

    2004-01-01

    The progressive degradation of current film archives poses a serious threat to the preservation of our cultural and technical heritage. Digitization and digital restoration are currently the most viable solutions for the long term preservation and high quality restoration of filmed material. They also open the path for more effective search, reuse and distribution of the archived content. This thesis covers various aspects of digital restoration applied to archived film. The main focus here l...

  11. Heavy metal water pollution associated with the use of sewage sludge compost and limestone outcrop residue for soil restoration: effect of saline irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Gimeno, Ana; Navarro-Pedreño, Jose; Gómez, Ignacio; Belén Almedro-Candel, María; Jordán, Manuel M.; Bech, Jaume

    2015-04-01

    The use of composted sewage sludge and limestone outcrop residue in soil restoration and technosol making can influence the mobility of heavy metals into groundwater. The use of compost from organic residues is a common practice in soil and land rehabilitation, technosol making, and quarry restoration (Jordán et al. 2008). Compost amendments may improve the physical, chemical, and biological properties of soils (Jordão et al. 2006; Iovieno et al. 2009). However, the use of compost and biosolids may have some negative effects on the environment (Karaca 2004; Navarro-Pedreño et al. 2004). This experiment analyzed the water pollution under an experimental design based on the use of columns (0-30 cm) formed by both wastes. Two waters of different quality (saline and non-saline) were used for irrigation. The presence of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) in the leachates was checked under controlled conditions inside a greenhouse (mean values: 20°±5°C and around 60% relative humidity). Sixteen 30-cm tall columns made of PVC pipe with internal diameters of 10.5 cm were prepared. The columns were filled with one of these materials: either sewage sludge compost (SW) or limestone outcrop residue (LR), fraction (mineral fertilizers on soil respiration and enzyme activities of two Mediterranean horticultural soils. Biol Fert Soils doi:10.1007/s00374-009-0365-z. Jordán MM, Pina S, García-Orenes F, Almendro-Candel MB, García-Sánchez E (2008) Environmental risk evaluation of the use of mine spoils and treated sewage sludge in the ecological restoration of limestone quarries. Environ Geol doi:10.1007/s00254-007-0991-4. Jordão CP, Nascentes CC, Cecon PR, Fontes RLF, Pereira JL (2006) Heavy metal availability in soil amended with composted urban solid wastes. Environ Monit Assess doi:10.1007/s10661-006-1072-y. Karaca A (2004) Effect of organic wastes on the extractability of cadmium, copper, nickel, and zinc in soil. Geoderma doi:10.1016/j.geoderma.2004

  12. The use of phytometers for evaluating restoration effects on riparian soil fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Anna L; Lind, Lovisa; Nilsson, Christer; Jansson, Roland

    2014-11-01

    The ecological restoration of streams in Sweden has become increasingly important to counteract effects of past timber floating. In this study, we focused on the effect on riparian soil properties after returning coarse sediment (cobbles and boulders) to the channel and reconnecting riparian with in-stream habitats. Restoration increases habitat availability for riparian plants, but its effects on soil quality are unknown. We also analyzed whether the restoration effect differs with variation in climate and stream size. We used standardized plant species to measure the performance of a grass ( L.) and a forb ( L.) in soils sampled in the riparian zones of channelized and restored streams and rivers. Furthermore, we analyzed the mass fractions of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) along with the proportions of the stable isotopes C and N in the soil, as well as its grain size composition. We found a positive effect of restoration on biomass of phytometers grown in riparian soils from small streams, indicating that restoration enhanced the soil properties favoring plant performance. We suggest that changed flooding with more frequent but less severe floods and slower flows, enhancing retention, could explain the observed patterns. This positive effect suggests that it may be advantageous to initiate restoration efforts in small streams, which make up the highest proportion of the stream network in a catchment. Restoration responses in headwater streams may then be transmitted downstream to facilitate recovery of restored larger rivers. If the larger rivers were restored first, a slower reaction would be expected. PMID:25602208

  13. Changes in habitat availability for outmigrating juvenile salmon (Oncorhychus spp.) following estuary restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellings, Christopher S.; Davis, Melanie; Grossman, Eric; Hodgson, Sayre; Turner, Kelley L.; Woo PR, Isa; Nakai, Glynnis; Takekawa, Jean E.; Takekawa, John Y.

    2016-01-01

    The restoration of the Nisqually River Delta (Washington, U.S.A.) represents one of the largest efforts toward reestablishing the ecosystem function and resilience of modified habitat in the Puget Sound, particularly for anadromous salmonid species. The opportunity for outmigrating salmon to access and benefit from the expansion of available tidal habitat can be quantified by several physical attributes, which are related to the ecological and physiological responses of juvenile salmon. We monitored a variety of physical parameters to measure changes in opportunity potential from historic, pre-restoration, and post-restoration habitat conditions at several sites across the delta. These parameters included channel morphology, water quality, tidal elevation, and landscape connectivity. We conducted fish catch surveys across the delta to determine if salmon was utilizing restored estuary habitat. Overall major channel area increased 42% and major channel length increased 131% from pre- to post-restoration conditions. Furthermore, the results of our tidal inundation model indicated that major channels were accessible up to 75% of the time, as opposed to 30% pre-restoration. Outmigrating salmon utilized this newly accessible habitat as quickly as 1 year post-restoration. The presence of salmon in restored tidal channels confirmed rapid post-restoration increases in opportunity potential on the delta despite habitat quality differences between restored and reference sites.

  14. Longevity of Posterior Composite Restorations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opdam, N.J.M.; van de Sande, F.H.; Bronkhorst, E.; Cenci, M.S.; Bottenberg, P.; Pallesen, U.; Gaengler, P.; Lindberg, A.; Huysmans, M.C.D.N.J.M.; van Dijken, J.W.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this meta-analysis, based on individual participant data from several studies, was to investigate the influence of patient-, materials-, and tooth-related variables on the survival of posterior resin composite restorations. Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, we conducted a search resulting in 12 longitudinal studies of direct posterior resin composite restorations with at least 5 years’ follow-up. Original datasets were still available, including placement/failure/censoring of restorations, restored surfaces, materials used, reasons for clinical failure, and caries-risk status. A database including all restorations was constructed, and a multivariate Cox regression method was used to analyze variables of interest [patient (age; gender; caries-risk status), jaw (upper; lower), number of restored surfaces, resin composite and adhesive materials, and use of glass-ionomer cement as base/liner (present or absent)]. The hazard ratios with respective 95% confidence intervals were determined, and annual failure rates were calculated for subgroups. Of all restorations, 2,816 (2,585 Class II and 231 Class I) were included in the analysis, of which 569 failed during the observation period. Main reasons for failure were caries and fracture. The regression analyses showed a significantly higher risk of failure for restorations in high-caries-risk individuals and those with a higher number of restored surfaces. PMID:25048250

  15. Evaluation of river restoration by local residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidl, Roman; Stauffacher, Michael

    2013-10-01

    Today, river corrections aiming at better flood protection must consider ecological aspects such as "naturalness" and biodiversity. Gaining acceptance among local residents for these projects is important, since they impact local infrastructure and alter the familiar landscape. The question addressed in this paper is whether there are differences between local residents regarding the question of whether they think a river restoration project at a section of the Swiss Thur River was reasonable. We also investigate whether there are differences regarding the reasons for this evaluation, such as improved flood protection, higher perceived naturalness, increased biodiversity, and aesthetics. Results show that for farmers flood protection and naturalness are more important factors than for others and that there are differences among the local villages.

  16. Stability and Restoration phenomena in Competitive Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Uechi, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    A conservation law and stability, recovering phenomena and characteristic patterns of a nonlinear dynamical system have been studied and applied to biological and ecological systems. In our previous study, we proposed a system of symmetric 2n-dimensional conserved nonlinear differential equations with external perturbations. In this paper, competitive systems described by 2-dimensional nonlinear dynamical (ND) model with external perturbations are applied to population cycles and recovering phenomena of systems from microbes to mammals. The famous 10-year cycle of population density of Canadian lynx and snowshoe hare is numerically analyzed. We find that a nonlinear dynamical system with a conservation law is stable and generates a characteristic rhythm (cycle) of population density, which we call the {\\it standard rhythm} of a nonlinear dynamical system. The stability and restoration phenomena are strongly related to a conservation law and balance of a system. The {\\it standard rhythm} of population density ...

  17. 干旱区绿洲农田土壤污染生态补偿标准测算——以白银、金昌市郊农业区为例%Calculation of the compensation criteria for ecological restoration of the contaminated arid oasis soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪霞; 南忠仁; 郭奇; 贾艳艳; 沈子露

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,the contingent valuation method(CVM) was used to analyze the farmers' willingness to accept(WTA) the compensation for recovering the heavy metal contaminated soil in arid oasis areas,using Baiyin and Jinchang suburb farmland as a case study.Based on the result of statistical analysis of 382 questionnaires,it was showed that 91.79% of farmers in this area have recognized the impact of soil contamination.41.62% of respondents were against to abandon the contaminated cropland because of less life safeguard,so reasonable compensation standard in ecological restoration project is an important issue.Econometrics model analysis indicated the farmers' willingness to accept(WTA) were between 746.45-862.73 Yuan(RMB) /hm2.The acute WTA data had a positive relationship with the family population,education and the areas of the cropland.The farmers' gender,age and their income had little affection on WTA.The results showed that the farmers' WTA was based on the income of crops planting which was 840 Yuan(RMB) /hm2 pre year in this areas.%文中基于环境价值评估法(CVM)为干旱区绿洲农田土壤重金属污染防治生态补偿政策进行了计量经济学的模型分析,测算了农户对当地实施生态补偿的受偿意愿。在382个调查样本中,91.79%的受访村民认为所在地目前土壤污染问题十分严重并已造成了食用人群健康风险,制定合理的生态补偿标准是保障生态修复工程的核心因素。受偿意愿调查结果显示,干旱区绿洲农田受重金属污染的农户的年平均受偿意愿(MWPA)在746.45-862.73元/hm2之间,影响该数额的主要因素为农户家庭人口、户均耕地面积以及农户受教育程度。该结果说明受访农户提出的受偿意愿是以当地种植基本粮食作物的年收入840元/亩为基础的,但未包括当地农业生产的生态效益损失和对人群健康影响的损失,且受经济欠发达地区农户年均收入较低和信息获取渠

  18. Successes, Failures and Suggested Future Directions for Ecosystem Restoration of the Middle Sacramento River, California

    OpenAIRE

    Golet, Gregory H.; Brown, David L.; Carlson, Melinda; Gardali, Thomas; Henderson, Adam; Holl, Karen D.; Howell, Christine A.; Holyoak, Marcel; Hunt, John W; Kondolf, G. Mathias; Larsen, Eric W; Luster, Ryan A.; McClain, Charles; Nelson, Charles; Paine, Seth

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale ecosystem restoration projects seldom undergo comprehensive evaluation to determine project effectiveness. Consequently, there are missed opportunities for learning and strategy refinement. Before our study, monitoring information from California’s middle Sacramento River had not been synthesized, despite restoration having been ongoing since 1989. Our assessment was based on the development and application of 36 quantitative ecological indicators. These indicators were used to ch...

  19. Developing a broader scientific foundation for river restoration: Columbia River food webs

    OpenAIRE

    Robert J. Naiman; Alldredge, J. Richard; Beauchamp, David A.; Bisson, Peter A.; Congleton, James; Henny, Charles J.; Huntly, Nancy; Lamberson, Roland; Levings, Colin; Merrill, Erik N.; Pearcy, William G.; Rieman, Bruce E.; Ruggerone, Gregory T.; Scarnecchia, Dennis; Smouse, Peter E.

    2012-01-01

    Well-functioning food webs are fundamental for sustaining rivers as ecosystems and maintaining associated aquatic and terrestrial communities. The current emphasis on restoring habitat structure—without explicitly considering food webs—has been less successful than hoped in terms of enhancing the status of targeted species and often overlooks important constraints on ecologically effective restoration. We identify three priority food web-related issues that potentially impede successful river...

  20. Using Species Distribution Models to Predict Potential Landscape Restoration Effects on Puma Conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Angelieri, Cintia Camila Silva; Adams-Hosking, Christine; Ferraz, Katia Maria Paschoaletto Micchi de Barros; de Souza, Marcelo Pereira; McAlpine, Clive Alexander

    2016-01-01

    A mosaic of intact native and human-modified vegetation use can provide important habitat for top predators such as the puma (Puma concolor), avoiding negative effects on other species and ecological processes due to cascade trophic interactions. This study investigates the effects of restoration scenarios on the puma’s habitat suitability in the most developed Brazilian region (São Paulo State). Species Distribution Models incorporating restoration scenarios were developed using the species’...

  1. Community Interactions In Tropical Forest Restoration And Environmental Governance In The Panama Canal Watershed

    OpenAIRE

    Schweizer, Daniella

    2012-01-01

    Increased global awareness of the loss of environmental services that derive from deforestation has triggered calls to promote the recovery of tropical forests. I studied two types of community interactions in tropical forest restoration. The first two chapters present the results of applying tools from phylogenetic ecology to tropical forest restoration. I hypothesized that negative biotic interactions, driven mainly by shared deleterious symbionts, would reduce the natural recruitment of cl...

  2. Public participation in environmental decision-making: a case study of ecosystem restoration in South Florida

    OpenAIRE

    Ogden, Laura

    2006-01-01

    The “ecosystem” is the conceptual model guiding environmental restoration projects in the Florida Everglades, a large wetlands region in the southern United States. According to applied ecological frameworks, ecosystems are geographies (of various temporal and spatial scales) where systemic interrelationships of organisms and habitat occur. With current project estimates at 14.8 billion dollars, ecosystem restoration in South Florida represents one of the largest and most expensive environmen...

  3. Restoring medical professionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernat, James L

    2012-08-21

    The essence of medical professionalism is placing dedication to the welfare of patients above physicians' personal or proprietary interests. Medicine has become deprofessionalized as a consequence of socioeconomic factors leading to increasing commercialization and perverse financial incentives converting it into a business, the presence of unmanaged conflicts of interest, challenges to medical authority by insurance companies and the consumerism movement, and by gradual changes in the attitudes of physicians. Organized medicine has responded by making explicit its standards of professionalism and its dedication to preserving them. Medical educators have studied the means to develop professional attitudes and behaviors among medical students and residents. Modeling the characteristics of professional behavior by virtuous physicians remains the most effective method to instill professional behaviors in trainees. Restoring professionalism may be abetted by changes in physicians' financial incentives through innovative models of health care delivery, by physicians reducing their conflicts of interest, and by medical societies rejecting a guild identity. PMID:22915177

  4. [Wetlands of priority restoration in Northeast China based on spatial analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhang-Yu; Liu, Dian-Wei; Wang, Zong-Ming; Ren, Chun-Ying; Tang, Xu-Guang; Jia, Ming-Ming; Wang, Yan

    2013-01-01

    By using GIS/RS technology, and from the aspects of landscape structure, river- and road densities, wetness index, geomorphology, and cultivated land productivity, a spatial analysis was made on the potentiality of wetland restoration in Northeast China, with the regions of priority and secondary priority restoration wetlands determined. Then, by using the coordinated development index of crop production and wetland as well as the landscape indices, the wetland restoration effect was verified. In Northeast China, the wetland area of priority restoration was 1.78 x 10(6) hm2, among which, farmland and grassland were the main types for restoration, accounting for 96.7% of the total, and mainly located in the Sanjiang Plain in the northeastern part and the Songnen Plain in the central part of Northeast China. The wetland area of secondary priority restoration was 1.03 x 10(6) hm2. After the restoration of the wetlands, the wetland area in Northeast China would be increased by 37.4%, compared with the present wetland area, and the value of the coordinated development index of crop production and wetland would increase from 0.539 before restoration to 0.733 after restoration. The landscape pattern would be more benefit to the performance of the ecological functions of the wetlands. This study revealed that the restoration scheme of the wetlands in Northeast China based on spatial analysis was practicable, which could provide data support for the implement of wetland restoration and the improvement of ecological environment in Northeast China.

  5. Restoring Soil Quality to Mitigate Soil Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rattan Lal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Feeding the world population, 7.3 billion in 2015 and projected to increase to 9.5 billion by 2050, necessitates an increase in agricultural production of ~70% between 2005 and 2050. Soil degradation, characterized by decline in quality and decrease in ecosystem goods and services, is a major constraint to achieving the required increase in agricultural production. Soil is a non-renewable resource on human time scales with its vulnerability to degradation depending on complex interactions between processes, factors and causes occurring at a range of spatial and temporal scales. Among the major soil degradation processes are accelerated erosion, depletion of the soil organic carbon (SOC pool and loss in biodiversity, loss of soil fertility and elemental imbalance, acidification and salinization. Soil degradation trends can be reversed by conversion to a restorative land use and adoption of recommended management practices. The strategy is to minimize soil erosion, create positive SOC and N budgets, enhance activity and species diversity of soil biota (micro, meso, and macro, and improve structural stability and pore geometry. Improving soil quality (i.e., increasing SOC pool, improving soil structure, enhancing soil fertility can reduce risks of soil degradation (physical, chemical, biological and ecological while improving the environment. Increasing the SOC pool to above the critical level (10 to 15 g/kg is essential to set-in-motion the restorative trends. Site-specific techniques of restoring soil quality include conservation agriculture, integrated nutrient management, continuous vegetative cover such as residue mulch and cover cropping, and controlled grazing at appropriate stocking rates. The strategy is to produce “more from less” by reducing losses and increasing soil, water, and nutrient use efficiency.

  6. Inside the “Black Box” of River Restoration: Using Catchment History to Identify Disturbance and Response Mechanisms to Set Targets for Process-Based Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Creese

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Many river restoration projects fail. Inadequate project planning underpins many of the reasons given for failure (such as setting overly ambitious goals; selecting inappropriate sites and techniques; losing stakeholder motivation; and neglecting to monitor, assess, and document projects. Another major problem is the lack of an agreed guiding image to direct the activities aimed at restoring the necessary biophysical and ecological processes within the logistic constraints of on-ground works. Despite a rich literature defining the components of restoration project planning, restoration ecology currently lacks an explicit and logical means of moving from the initial project vision through to on-ground strategies. Yet this process is fundamental because it directly links the ecological goals of the project to the on-ground strategies used to achieve them. We present a planning process that explicitly uses an interdisciplinary mechanistic model of disturbance drivers and system responses to build from the initial project vision to the implementation of on-ground works. A worked example on the Upper Hunter River in southeastern Australia shows how understanding catchment history can reveal disturbance and response mechanisms, thus facilitating process-based restoration.

  7. A general protocol for restoration of entire river catchments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanford, J.A.; Frissell, C.A. [Univ. of Montana, Polson, MT (United States). Flathead Lake Biological Station; Ward, J.V. [EAWAG/ETH, Dubendorf (Switzerland). Dept. of Limnology; Liss, W.J. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). Dept. of Fisheries and Wildlife; Coutant, C.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Williams, R.N.; Lichatowich, J.A.

    1996-05-28

    Large catchment basins may be viewed as ecosystems with interactive natural and cultural attributes. Stream regulation severs ecological connectivity between channels and flood plains by reducing the range of natural flow and temperature variation, reduces the capacity of the ecosystem to sustain native biodiversity and bioproduction and promotes proliferation of non-native biota. However, regulated rivers regain normative attributes, which promote recovery of native biota, as distance from the dam increases and in relation to the mode of regulation. Therefore, reregulation of flow and temperature to normative pattern, coupled with elimination of pollutants and constrainment of nonnative biota, can naturally restore damaged habitats from headwaters to mouth. The expectation is rapid recovery of depressed populations of native species. The protocol requires: restoration of seasonal temperature patterns; restoration of peak flows needed to reconnect and periodically reconfigure channel and floodplain habitats; stabilization of base flows to revitalize the shallow water habitats; maximization of dam passage to allow restoration of metapopulation structure; change in the management belief system to rely on natural habitat restoration as opposed to artificial propagation, installation of artificial instream structures (river engineering) and artificial food web control; and, practice of adaptive ecosystem management.

  8. Forest Landscape Restoration in the Drylands of Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Smith-Ramírez

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Forest Landscape Restoration (FLR involves the ecological restoration of degraded forest landscapes, with the aim of benefiting both biodiversity and human well-being. We first identify four fundamental principles of FLR, based on previous definitions. We then critically evaluate the application of these principles in practice, based on the experience gained during an international, collaborative research project conducted in six dry forest landscapes of Latin America. Research highlighted the potential for FLR; tree species of high socioeconomic value were identified in all study areas, and strong dependence of local communities on forest resources was widely encountered, particularly for fuelwood. We demonstrated that FLR can be achieved through both passive and active restoration approaches, and can be cost-effective if the increased provision of ecosystem services is taken into account. These results therefore highlight the potential for FLR, and the positive contribution that it could make to sustainable development. However, we also encountered a number of challenges to FLR implementation, including the difficulty of achieving strong engagement in FLR activities among local stakeholders, lack of capacity for community-led initiatives, and the lack of an appropriate institutional and regulatory environment to support restoration activities. Successful implementation of FLR will require new collaborative alliances among stakeholders, empowerment and capacity building of local communities to enable them to fully engage with restoration activities, and an enabling public policy context to enable local people to be active participants in the decision making process.

  9. Pink shrimp as an indicator for restoration of everglades ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browder, Joan A.; Robblee, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    The pink shrimp, Farfantepenaeus duorarum, familiar to most Floridians as either food or bait shrimp, is ubiquitous in South Florida coastal and offshore waters and is proposed as an indicator for assessing restoration of South Florida's southern estuaries: Florida Bay, Biscayne Bay, and the mangrove estuaries of the lower southwest coast. Relationships between pink shrimp and salinity have been determined in both field and laboratory studies. Salinity is directly relevant to restoration because the salinity regimes of South Florida estuaries, critical nursery habitat for the pink shrimp, will be altered by changes in the quantity, timing, and distribution of freshwater inflow planned as part of the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Project (CERP). Here we suggest performance measures based on pink shrimp density (number per square meter) in the estuaries and propose a restoration assessment and scoring scheme using these performance measures that can readily be communicated to managers, policy makers, and the interested public. The pink shrimp is an appropriate restoration indicator because of its ecological as well as its economic importance and also because scientific interest in pink shrimp in South Florida has produced a wealth of information about the species and relatively long time series of data on both juveniles in estuarine nursery habitats and adults on the fishing grounds. We suggest research needs for improving the pink shrimp performance measure.

  10. Using Short-Term Monitoring Data to Achieve Goals in a Large-Scale Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Hagen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the outcome of restoration projects, an overall goal, reformulated to specific subgoals or targets, must be explicit and translated into scientifically measurable ecological attributes. Monitoring ecological attributes is necessary to assess restoration progress. Data from long-term monitoring are rarely available when restoration interventions are planned and implemented. In this study, we show how short-term monitoring data are incorporated into the planning of the large-scale restoration of a former military training area: the largest restoration project approved in Norway, covering more than 165 km² and intended to enhance nature conservation. A pilot project was initiated in 2002 that removed 1.2 km of roads and tested three restoration treatments to facilitate vegetation development: stirred topsoil (C, control, fertilizer added to the stirred topsoil (F, and fertilizer and commercial grass seeds added to the stirred topsoil (FS. Vegetation turfs were transplanted in all treatments. A monitoring program was established, and three ecological attributes linked to the specific targets for vegetation development (vegetation cover, species richness, and presence of non-native species were sampled at 2 yr and 7 yr after the intervention. We discuss pilot project results in relation to the temporal scale and to the type of intervention of the restoration treatments (introduction of non-native seeds and nutrient addition in an ecosystem with slow nutrient turnover. We consider the implications of the short-term data for the large-scale restoration and describe the cooperation between developers, research ecologists, and contractors, illustrating how adaptive management is relevant to large-scale restoration projects.

  11. Restorative Justice in School Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, David R.; Breslin, Beau

    2001-01-01

    Explores the recent implementation of restorative justice practices in Minnesota, Colorado, and Pennsylvania school communities, examining how their approaches can address substance abuse problems and offer alternatives to zero-tolerance policies. The three programs are committed to the idea that restoration is a more appropriate educational tool…

  12. SOCIAL WELFARE AND RESTORATIVE JUSTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darrell Fox

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the links and connections between social work and restorative justice. After a brief description of social work, restorative justice and family group conferencing, I will explore some the complementary theoretical links and practice applications, critically examining the potential implications and opportunities for social work practitioners and academics in relation to practice.

  13. Archived film analysis and restoration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rares, A.

    2004-01-01

    The progressive degradation of current film archives poses a serious threat to the preservation of our cultural and technical heritage. Digitization and digital restoration are currently the most viable solutions for the long term preservation and high quality restoration of filmed material. They al

  14. Restoration and Rational Use of Degraded Saline Reed Wetlands:A Case Study in Western Songnen Plain, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Bolong; LIU Xingtu; LI Xiujun; YANG Fuyi; LI Xiaoyu

    2012-01-01

    The protection,restoration and sustainable use are key issues of all the wetlands worldwide.Ecological,agronomic,and engineering techniques have been integrated in the development of a structurally sound,ecologically beneficial engineering restoration method for restoring and utilizing a degraded saline wetland in the western Songnen Plain of China.Hydrological restoration was performed by developing a system of biannual irrigation and drainage using civil engineering measures to bring wetlands into contact with river water and improve the irrigation and drainage system in the wetlands.Agronomic measures such as plowing the reed fields,reed rhizome transplantation,and fertilization were used to restore the reed vegetation.Biological measures,including the release of crab and fish fry and natural proliferation,were used to restore the aquatic communities.The results of the restoration were clear and positive.By the year 2009,the reed yield had increased by 20.9 times.Remarkable ecological benefits occurred simultaneously.Vegetation primary-production capacity increased,local climate regulation and water purification enhanced,and biodiversity increased.This demonstration of engineering techniques illustrates the basic route for the restoration of degraded wetlands,that the biodiversity should be reconstructed by the comprehensive application of engineering,biological,and agronomic measures based on habitat restoration under the guidance of process-oriented strategies.The complex ecological system including reeds,fish and crabs is based on the biological principles of coexistence and material recycling and provides a reasonable ecological engineering model suitable for the sustainable utilization of degraded saline reed wetlands.

  15. Phosphorus amendment reduces hematological effects of lead in mallards ingesting contaminated sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, D.J.; Heinz, G.H.; Audet, D.J.

    2006-01-01

    Lead poisoning of waterfowl has been reported for decades in the Coeur d?Alene River Basin (CDARB) in Idaho as a result of the ingestion of lead-contaminated sediments. This study was conducted to determine whether the addition of phosphoric acid to sediments would reduce the bioavailability and toxicity of lead to mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) as related to adverse hematological effects and altered plasma chemistries. Mallards received diets containing 12% clean sediment (controls) or 12% sediment from three different CDARB sites containing 4520, 5390, or 6990 :g/g lead (dw) with or without phosphoric acid amendment. Blood lead concentrations were significantly higher in all CDARB treatment groups and ranged from geometric mean values of 5.0 ug/g for the first two sites to 6.2 ug/g for the third site. With amendments, all blood lead concentrations became 41% to 64% lower. Red blood cell ALAD activity was depressed by 90% or more with lead-contaminated sediment from all sites and did not differ with amended diets. Free erythrocyte protoporphyrin (FEP) concentrations were elevated by contaminated sediment from all sites. Amendment decreased the elevations in FEP by as much as 80%. Hematocrit values and hemoglobin concentrations were lower for all lead site sediments by as much as 30% for site 3. Plasma enzyme activities for ALT, CK, and LDH-L were elevated by as much as 2.2-fold, and plasma creatinine concentration was 1.7-fold higher for site 3 sediment. Amendments restored hematocrit, hemoglobin, and plasma enzyme activities so that they did not differ from controls. Although amendments of phosphorus substantially reduced the bioavailability of lead and alleviated many of the adverse hematological effects, lead concentrations in the blood of mallards fed the amended sediments were still above those believed to be harmful to waterfowl under the present conditions.

  16. Functional variability of habitats within the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta: Restoration implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, L.V.; Cloern, J.E.; Thompson, J.K.; Monsen, N.E.

    2002-01-01

    We have now entered an era of large-scale attempts to restore ecological functions and biological communities in impaired ecosystems. Our knowledge base of complex ecosystems and interrelated functions is limited, so the outcomes of specific restoration actions are highly uncertain. One approach for exploring that uncertainty and anticipating the range of possible restoration outcomes is comparative study of existing habitats similar to future habitats slated for construction. Here we compare two examples of one habitat type targeted for restoration in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta. We compare one critical ecological function provided by these shallow tidal habitats - production and distribution of phytoplankton biomass as the food supply to pelagic consumers. We measured spatial and short-term temporal variability of phytoplankton biomass and growth rate and quantified the hydrodynamic and biological processes governing that variability. Results show that the production and distribution of phytoplankton biomass can be highly variable within and between nearby habitats of the same type, due to variations in phytoplankton sources, sinks, and transport. Therefore, superficially similar, geographically proximate habitats can function very differently, and that functional variability introduces large uncertainties into the restoration process. Comparative study of existing habitats is one way ecosystem science can elucidate and potentially minimize restoration uncertainties, by identifying processes shaping habitat functionality, including those that can be controlled in the restoration design.

  17. Pastoralists and the Environmental State : A study of ecological resettlement in Inner Mongolia, China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Qian

    2015-01-01

    China's quest for sustainable development has given birth to a set of contested ‘ecological construction’ programmes. Focusing on ‘ecological resettlement’, a type of policy measure in a programme for restoring degraded grasslands, this thesis sets out a critical analysis in opposition to the dominant technical and managerial approaches to understanding environmentalisation. The aim is to draw out the politics of the formulation, implementation and effects of ecological resettlement at and ac...

  18. Towards improved instrumentation for assessing river-groundwater interactions in a restored river corridor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Schneider

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available River restoration projects have been launched over the last two decades to improve the ecological status and water quality of regulated rivers. As most restored rivers are not monitored at all, it is difficult to predict consequences of restoration projects or analyze why restorations fail or are successful. It is thus necessary to implement efficient field assessment strategies, for example by employing sensor networks that continuously measure physical parameters at high spatial and temporal resolution. This paper focuses on the design and implementation of an instrumentation strategy for monitoring changes in bank filtration, hydrological connectivity, groundwater travel time and quality due to river restoration. We specifically designed and instrumented a network of monitoring wells at the Thur River (NE Switzerland, which is partly restored and mainly channelized since more than 100 years. Our results show that bank filtration – especially in a restored section with alternating riverbed morphology – is variable in time and space. Consequently, our monitoring network sensing physical and sampling chemical water quality parameters was adapted in response to that variability. Although not available at our test site, we consider long-term measurements – ideally initialized before and continued after restoration – as a fundamental step, towards predicting consequences of river restoration for groundwater quality. As a result, process-based models could be adapted and evaluated using these types of high-resolution data sets.

  19. Towards improved instrumentation for assessing river-groundwater interactions in a restored river corridor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Schneider

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available River restoration projects have been launched over the last two decades to improve the ecological status and water quality of regulated rivers. As most restored rivers are not monitored at all, it is difficult to predict consequences of restoration projects or analyze why restorations fail or are successful. It is thus necessary to implement efficient field assessment strategies, for example by employing sensor networks that continuously measure physical parameters at high spatial and temporal resolution. This paper focuses on the design and implementation of an instrumentation strategy for monitoring changes in bank filtration, hydrological connectivity, groundwater travel time and quality due to river restoration. We specifically designed and instrumented a network of monitoring wells at the Thur River (NE Switzerland, which is partly restored and has been mainly channelized for more than 100 years. Our results show that bank filtration – especially in a restored section with alternating riverbed morphology – is variable in time and space. Consequently, our monitoring network has been adapted in response to that variability. Although not available at our test site, we consider long-term measurements – ideally initiated before and continued after restoration – as a fundamental step towards predicting consequences of river restoration for groundwater quality. As a result, process-based models could be adapted and evaluated using these types of high-resolution data sets.

  20. Taoism and Deep Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvan, Richard; Bennett, David

    1988-01-01

    Contrasted are the philosophies of Deep Ecology and ancient Chinese. Discusses the cosmology, morality, lifestyle, views of power, politics, and environmental philosophies of each. Concludes that Deep Ecology could gain much from Taoism. (CW)

  1. EcologicOther_ELT

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The EcologicOther_ELT (Ecological Land Type) data layer was developed by the Green Mountain National Forest in the early 1980's from aerial photography. Using...

  2. Economic and Ecological Aspects of Biogas Scene in China

    OpenAIRE

    Nie, Pingping

    2010-01-01

    The following points should be noted for economic and ecological aspects of the biogas scene in China: biogas as one of the most popular renewable energies, which has already proved to be a prosperous development for both households and livestock farms. The Chinese government pays attention to biogas utilization and greenhouse gas emission reduction by constantly amending the Renewable Energy Law and increasing the amount of bonus. As a part of these measures, more and more cooperation betw...

  3. Ecological function regionalization of fluvial corridor landscapes and measures for ecological regeneration in the middle and lower reaches of the Tarim River,Xinjiang of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The middle and lower reaches of the Tarim River are currently one of the main regions of ecological restoration in the arid areas of western China.Using the principles and method of landscape ecology,this study has chosen the fluvial corridor landscape in the middle and lower reaches of the Tarim River,and discusses the region’s ecologically functional regionalization system and issues related to its practical classification.On this basis the corresponding regionalizing principles and standards were developed which were used to qualitatively divide the three main landscapes as the ecologically functional areas in the drainage basin.The paper has also analyzed the characteristic of the study areas,and has put forward the measures for its ecological restoration.

  4. Civic ecology practices: insights from practice theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne E. Krasny

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to explore the use of practice theory as an approach to studying urban environmental stewardship. Urban environmental stewardship, or civic ecology practice, contributes to ecosystem services and community well-being and has been studied using social-ecological systems resilience, property rights, communities of practice, and governance frameworks. Practice theory, which previously has been applied in studies of consumer behaviors, adds a new perspective to urban stewardship research, focusing on how elements of a practice, such as competencies, meanings, and physical resource, together define the practice. We applied practice theory to eight different civic ecology practices, including oyster gardening in New York City, a civil society group engaged in litter cleanup in Iran, and village grove restoration in South Korea. Our analysis suggests that in applying practice theory to the civic ecology context, consideration should be given to social and communication competencies, how meanings can motivate volunteers and sustain practice, and the nature of the resource that is being stewarded. Future studies may want to focus on how practice elements interact within and vary across practices and may be used to more systematically analyze and share ideas among diverse civic ecology practices.

  5. 不同生态恢复阶段无瓣海桑人工林湿地中大型底栖动物群落的演替%Succession of macrofauna communities in wetlands of Sonneratia apetala artificial mangroves during different ecological restoration stages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐以杰; 方展强; 钟燕婷; 张再旺; 陈康; 安东; 杨雄邦; 廖宝文

    2012-01-01

    -year and 6-year forest age of Sonneratia apetala artificial mangroves whose restoration background had been the same and the naked tidal flat in Qi'ao Island Mangrove Nature Reserve of Zhuhai, Guangdong Province, China. The results showed that there were significant differences in dominant species of macrofauna (Y > 0.02) in wetlands of S. apetala artificial mangroves during different ecological restoration stages. The analysis of One-way ANOSIM showed that there were significant structural differences in macrofauna communities in the four kinds of habitats. The analysis of hierarchical clustering and non-metric Multi-Dimensional Scaling also showed that the structure of macrofauna communities in the four habitats had significant differences. Similarity percentages analysis (SIMPER) showed that the main species which caused the differences of macrofauna communities in different habitats were the dominant species of macrofauna of each habitat. The results also showed that Shannon-Wiener diversity index, Pielou evenness index and Margalef richness index of macrofauna communities from the naked tidal fiat, 6-month and 3-year forest age of S. apetala artificial mangroves were presented from low to high respectively, which indicated that macrofauna diversity had increased obviously with the rapid vegetation recovery in the first 3 years of 5. apetala artificial mangroves. BIOENV analysis showed that the vegetation characteristics were the main reason which influenced the species diversity of macrofauna during the first 3-year forest age of the 5. apetala artificial mangroves. The shade provided by the vegetation of rapid recovery may not only reduce the stress to macrofauna caused by high temperature and the moisture evaporation, but also provide a place for macrofauna to hide and escape predators. However, the change of soil physical and chemical properties of S. apetala artificial mangroves is slow and lagging compared with the rapid recovery of vegetation. However, with

  6. Ecological, Pedagogical, Public Rhetoric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, Nathaniel A.; Weber, Ryan P.

    2011-01-01

    Public rhetoric pedagogy can benefit from an ecological perspective that sees change as advocated not through a single document but through multiple mundane and monumental texts. This article summarizes various approaches to rhetorical ecology, offers an ecological read of the Montgomery bus boycotts, and concludes with pedagogical insights on a…

  7. The Need for Savanna Restoration in the Cross Timbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caleb Stotts

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Along the prairie/forest transition zone oak savannas have been severely degraded by logging, clearing for agriculture, fire suppression, invasion of exotic plants, and excessive livestock grazing. Savanna shares equal billing with tallgrass prairie as the most threatened plant community in the Midwest. As such, there is increasing interest in restoring these communities. Conservation criteria have not been developed for the post oak (Querces stellata and blackjack oak (Querces marilandica savanna of the Cross Timbers. Oak savanna was arguably an important component of the historical Cross Timbers region. Following settlement, overgrazing in conjunction with a decrease in fire frequency and/or intensity has increased the density of oak stands to the point where they resemble closed-canopy forests rather than savanna. This is a threat to the biodiversity of the Cross Timbers. Proactive land management practices are recommended for restoring savanna communities. Such efforts may require thinning-out areas of degraded oak savanna to help re-establish the herbaceous understory. Fire is recommended to restore ecological processes that limit woody plant encroachment and promote biodiversity. Further research should investigate the ecological dynamics and functions of oak savannas, as well as provide further guidelines for its conservation.

  8. River Restoration Data in Lamoille County, Vermont

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Documented river and riparian buffer restoration projects in Lamoille County, Vermont. Restoration includes buffer plantings (trees and shrubs), bank stabilization...

  9. Urban Environmental Education From a Social-Ecological Perspective: Conceptual Framework for Civic Ecology Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith G. Tidball

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A variety of environmental education practices are emerging to address the needs of an increasingly urban population. Drawing from social-ecological systems and social learning theory, we propose a conceptual framework to stimulate research questions in urban environmental education. More specifically, our conceptual framework focuses on environmental education programs that are nested within and linked to community-based stewardship or civic ecology practices, such as community forestry, streamside restoration, and community gardening. It suggests ways in which educational programs, stewardship practice, and other social-ecological system components and processes interact through feedback loops and other mechanisms, as well as means by which urban environmental education might lead to local ecosystem services and human and community well-being. Human and community outcomes may in turn result in pressure to change environmental policies.

  10. VEGETATION DYNAMICS IN THE DRY VALLEYS OF YUNNAN, CHINA, DURING THE LAST 150 YEARS: IMPLICATIONS FOR ECOLOGICAL RESTORATION%云南干旱河谷150年来的植被变化研究及其对生态恢复的意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MOSELEY Robert K; 唐亚

    2006-01-01

    . Specifically, we assessed vegetation dynamics by comparing historical records from 1868-1949 to conditions in 2001-2005. We used two sources to establish baseline conditions from which to assess change: 28 historical publications and 56 old photographs for which we rephotographed the modern scene. Our major finding is that there has been no substantial change in the cover of Dry Valley vegetation during the last 150 years. We also found that the aerial coverage of crop fields has decreased and major landslide activity was caused by chronic geological instability and infrastructure development. Overall, we found that comparisons of written and photographic records between 1868 and 2005 do not support many common assumptions regarding environmental degradation in the Dry Valleys, upon which current ecological restoration programs are based.

  11. Kondolf Diagram for River Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehabilitation, protection, and management of riverine backwaters (floodplain aquatic habitats that are seasonally or periodically connected to the main channel) are becoming increasingly common. General criteria for selecting restoration goals and evaluating alternative designs are lacking. An app...

  12. Papahanaumokuakea - Laysan Island Restoration 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This project will support restoration activities at Laysan Island. Staff and volunteers continue efforts to eradicate alien invasive species such as Indian dropseed...

  13. Papahanaumokuakea - Laysan Island Restoration 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This project supports restoration activities at Laysan Island. Staff and volunteers continue efforts to eradicate alien invasive species such as Indian dropseed...

  14. Basic research for environmental restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the midst of a major environmental restoration effort to reduce the health and environmental risks resulting from past waste management and disposal practices at DOE sites. This report describes research needs in environmental restoration and complements a previously published document, DOE/ER-0419, Evaluation of Mid-to-Long Term Basic Research for Environmental Restoration. Basic research needs have been grouped into five major categories patterned after those identified in DOE/ER-0419: (1) environmental transport and transformations; (2) advanced sampling, characterization, and monitoring methods; (3) new remediation technologies; (4) performance assessment; and (5) health and environmental effects. In addition to basic research, this document deals with education and training needs for environmental restoration. 2 figs., 6 tabs

  15. Basic research for environmental restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the midst of a major environmental restoration effort to reduce the health and environmental risks resulting from past waste management and disposal practices at DOE sites. This report describes research needs in environmental restoration and complements a previously published document, DOE/ER-0419, Evaluation of Mid-to-Long Term Basic Research for Environmental Restoration. Basic research needs have been grouped into five major categories patterned after those identified in DOE/ER-0419: (1) environmental transport and transformations; (2) advanced sampling, characterization, and monitoring methods; (3) new remediation technologies; (4) performance assessment; and (5) health and environmental effects. In addition to basic research, this document deals with education and training needs for environmental restoration. 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. Esthetic restoration of primary incisors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, F; García-Godoy, F

    1999-04-01

    A simple and esthetic technique for restoring cariously involved primary maxillary incisors is described. The technique includes mini-pins, a preformed celluloid crown and resin-based composite. PMID:10477982

  17. Community-level response of fishes and aquatic macroinvertebrates to stream restoration in a third-order tributary of the Potomac River, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selego, S.M.; Rose, C.L.; Merovich, G.T., Jr.; Welsh, S.A.; Anderson, James T.

    2012-01-01

    Natural stream channel design principles and riparian restoration practices were applied during spring 2010 to an agriculturally impaired reach of the Cacapon River, a tributary of the Potomac River which flows into the Chesapeake Bay. Aquatic macroinvertebrates and fishes were sampled from the restoration reach, two degraded control, and two natural reference reaches prior to, concurrently with, and following restoration (2009 through 2010). Collector filterers and scrapers replaced collector gatherers as the dominant macroinvertebrate functional feeding groups in the restoration reach. Before restoration, based on indices of biotic integrity (IBI), the restoration reach fish and macroinvertebrate communities closely resembled those sampled from the control reaches, and after restoration more closely resembled those from the reference reaches. Although the macroinvertebrate community responded more favorably than the fish community, both communities recovered quickly from the temporary impairment caused by the disturbance of restoration procedures and suggest rapid improvement in local ecological conditions. Copyright ?? 2012 Stephen M. Selego et al.

  18. Community-Level Response of Fishes and Aquatic Macroinvertebrates to Stream Restoration in a Third-Order Tributary of the Potomac River, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M. Selego

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural stream channel design principles and riparian restoration practices were applied during spring 2010 to an agriculturally impaired reach of the Cacapon River, a tributary of the Potomac River which flows into the Chesapeake Bay. Aquatic macroinvertebrates and fishes were sampled from the restoration reach, two degraded control, and two natural reference reaches prior to, concurrently with, and following restoration (2009 through 2010. Collector filterers and scrapers replaced collector gatherers as the dominant macroinvertebrate functional feeding groups in the restoration reach. Before restoration, based on indices of biotic integrity (IBI, the restoration reach fish and macroinvertebrate communities closely resembled those sampled from the control reaches, and after restoration more closely resembled those from the reference reaches. Although the macroinvertebrate community responded more favorably than the fish community, both communities recovered quickly from the temporary impairment caused by the disturbance of restoration procedures and suggest rapid improvement in local ecological conditions.

  19. A Multi-Criteria Index for Ecological Evaluation of Tropical Agriculture in Southeastern Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Esperanza Huerta; Christian Kampichler; Susana Ochoa-Gaona; Ben de Jong; Salvador Hernandez-Daumas; Violette Geissen

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to generate an easy to use index to evaluate the ecological state of agricultural land from a sustainability perspective. We selected environmental indicators, such as the use of organic soil amendments (green manure) versus chemical fertilizers, plant biodiversity (including crop associations), variables which characterize soil conservation of conventional agricultural systems, pesticide use, method and frequency of tillage. We monitored the ecological state of 52 a...

  20. Casting and Mechanized Titanium Restorations

    OpenAIRE

    Madrigal, A.; Lopez, I; Suarez, MJ; Salido, MP.

    2002-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: New materials and methods for clinical dentistry are continuously being introduced. There is a growing interest in the use of titanium as a restorative material for several reasons: its relatively low cost, favorable physical properties and biocompatibility. However, titanium is technically more difficult to handle than conventional metal alloys. There are two fabrication methods for titanium restorations: casting and mechanized (a combination of machine duplication and spark er...