WorldWideScience

Sample records for amendments

  1. Amendment 80 Permit Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Amendment 80 Program was adopted by the North Pacific Fishery Management Council (Council) in June 2006. The final rule implementing Amendment 80 published in...

  2. Amending Death Rules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    China’s Criminal Law is being revised to cut down on death sentences and tighten up punishment for surging crimes The eighth amendment to the Criminal Law, demanding moreprudent use of capital punishment

  3. Amending Death Rules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI LI

    2010-01-01

    @@ The eighth amendment to the Criminal Law, demanding more prudent use of capital punishment, has triggered hot debates in China after it was presented to the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPC), China's top legislature, for the first reading at the end of August.

  4. Amending Contracts for Choreographies

    CERN Document Server

    Bocchi, Laura; Tuosto, Emilio; 10.4204/EPTCS.59.10

    2011-01-01

    Distributed interactions can be suitably designed in terms of choreographies. Such abstractions can be thought of as global descriptions of the coordination of several distributed parties. Global assertions define contracts for choreographies by annotating multiparty session types with logical formulae to validate the content of the exchanged messages. The introduction of such constraints is a critical design issue as it may be hard to specify contracts that allow each party to be able to progress without violating the contract. In this paper, we propose three methods that automatically correct inconsistent global assertions. The methods are compared by discussing their applicability and the relationships between the amended global assertions and the original (inconsistent) ones.

  5. Draft Mission Plan Amendment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy's Office Civilian Radioactive Waste Management has prepared this document to report plans for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program, whose mission is to manage and dispose of the nation's spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste in a manner that protects the health and safety of the public and of workers and the quality of the environment. The Congress established this program through the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. Specifically, the Congress directed us to isolate these wastes in geologic repositories constructed in suitable rock formations deep beneath the surface of the earth. In the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987, the Congress mandated that only one repository was to be developed at present and that only the Yucca Mountain candidate site in Nevada was to be characterized at this time. The Amendments Act also authorized the construction of a facility for monitored retrievable storage (MRS) and established the Office of the Nuclear Waste Negotiator and the Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board. After a reassessment in 1989, the Secretary of Energy restructured the program, focusing the repository effort scientific evaluations of the Yucca Mountain candidate site, deciding to proceed with the development of an MRS facility, and strengthening the management of the program. 48 refs., 32 figs

  6. Draft Mission Plan Amendment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-09-01

    The Department of Energy`s Office Civilian Radioactive Waste Management has prepared this document to report plans for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program, whose mission is to manage and dispose of the nation`s spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste in a manner that protects the health and safety of the public and of workers and the quality of the environment. The Congress established this program through the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. Specifically, the Congress directed us to isolate these wastes in geologic repositories constructed in suitable rock formations deep beneath the surface of the earth. In the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987, the Congress mandated that only one repository was to be developed at present and that only the Yucca Mountain candidate site in Nevada was to be characterized at this time. The Amendments Act also authorized the construction of a facility for monitored retrievable storage (MRS) and established the Office of the Nuclear Waste Negotiator and the Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board. After a reassessment in 1989, the Secretary of Energy restructured the program, focusing the repository effort scientific evaluations of the Yucca Mountain candidate site, deciding to proceed with the development of an MRS facility, and strengthening the management of the program. 48 refs., 32 figs.

  7. Implementing the Amended FOI Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClain, Wallis

    The Freedom of Information Act amendments, which became effective in February 1975, have so far yielded mixed results. This report provides an account of how different federal agencies are implementing this amended statute. Among the topics discussed are modifications of the original 1966 Freedom of Information Act, which were made in the attempt…

  8. Amending Contracts for Choreographies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Bocchi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Distributed interactions can be suitably designed in terms of choreographies. Such abstractions can be thought of as global descriptions of the coordination of several distributed parties. Global assertions define contracts for choreographies by annotating multiparty session types with logical formulae to validate the content of the exchanged messages. The introduction of such constraints is a critical design issue as it may be hard to specify contracts that allow each party to be able to progress without violating the contract. In this paper, we propose three methods that automatically correct inconsistent global assertions. The methods are compared by discussing their applicability and the relationships between the amended global assertions and the original (inconsistent ones.

  9. Draft 1988 mission plan amendment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This draft 1988 amendment to the Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program has been prepared by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The purpose is to inform the Congress of the DOE's plans for implementing the provisions of the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987 (P.L. 100-203) for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. This document is being submitted in draft form to Federal agencies, states, previously affected Indian Tribes, affected units of local government, and the public. After the consideration of comments, this amendment will be revised as appropriate and submitted to the Congress. 39 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs

  10. The draft Mission Plan Amendment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The draft Mission Plan Amendment provides an opportunity for States and Indian Tribes and other involved parties to participate in a process that no other nation affords its citizens. More than just a comment period on a Department of Energy document, the amendment that is to be submitted later this year will lay before Congress, the documentary basis on which to make decisions about the scope and timing of the high-level waste program in what Secretary Herrington has called a ''crossroads'' years. The Amendment will distill the view of the participants and also preset them to Congress as an integral part of the document. After four years of effort, the Nation is being afforded an opportunity to ask itself again whether the Act passed in 1982 is working and remains the best way to protect the public interest

  11. Latest Amendment to Criminal Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU ZONGJIE

    2011-01-01

    @@ On Feb.25, 2011,the 19th Session of the Standine Commlttee or the 11th National Peonle's Congress, the country's highest legislative body, approved the eighth amendment to the Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China.This brought about the broadest changes ever made to the law-to be precise, to 50 items that involve 49 legal matters.While reducing the number of crimes punishable by death, the amended Criminal Law provides for additional instances of leniency for senior citizens and minors who are convicted of a crime.

  12. 32 CFR 10.8 - Amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amendment. 10.8 Section 10.8 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE MILITARY COMMISSIONS MILITARY COMMISSION INSTRUCTIONS § 10.8 Amendment. The General Counsel may issue, supplement, amend, or revoke any...

  13. Automated Clustering of Similar Amendments

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    The Italian Senate is clogged by computer-generated amendments. This talk will describe a simple strategy to cluster them in an automated fashion, so that the appropriate Senate procedures can be used to get rid of them in one sweep.

  14. Amended Silicated for Mercury Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Butz; Thomas Broderick; Craig Turchi

    2006-12-31

    Amended Silicates{trademark}, a powdered, noncarbon mercury-control sorbent, was tested at Duke Energy's Miami Fort Station, Unit 6 during the first quarter of 2006. Unit 6 is a 175-MW boiler with a cold-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP). The plant burns run-of-the-river eastern bituminous coal with typical ash contents ranging from 8-15% and sulfur contents from 1.6-2.6% on an as-received basis. The performance of the Amended Silicates sorbent was compared with that for powdered activated carbon (PAC). The trial began with a period of baseline monitoring during which no sorbent was injected. Sampling during this and subsequent periods indicated mercury capture by the native fly ash was less than 10%. After the baseline period, Amended Silicates sorbent was injected at several different ratios, followed by a 30-day trial at a fixed injection ratio of 5-6 lb/MMACF. After this period, PAC was injected to provide a comparison. Approximately 40% mercury control was achieved for both the Amended Silicates sorbent and PAC at injection ratios of 5-6 lbs/MMACF. Higher injection ratios did not achieve significantly increased removal. Similar removal efficiencies have been reported for PAC injection trials at other plants with cold-side ESPs, most notably for plants using medium to high sulfur coal. Sorbent injection did not detrimentally impact plant operations and testing confirmed that the use of Amended Silicates sorbent does not degrade fly ash quality (unlike PAC). The cost for mercury control using either PAC or Amended Silicates sorbent was estimated to be equivalent if fly ash sales are not a consideration. However, if the plant did sell fly ash, the effective cost for mercury control could more than double if those sales were no longer possible, due to lost by-product sales and additional cost for waste disposal. Accordingly, the use of Amended Silicates sorbent could reduce the overall cost of mercury control by 50% or more versus PAC for locations where

  15. 1990 Amendments: The federal partner steps forward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In October of 1990, Congress enacted a new set of amendments to the Clean Air Act. These amendments are longer and more complex than any previous environmental legislation. In enacting the 1990 Amendments, Congress did not evaluate the results of earlier efforts at air quality regulation. Rather, Congress accepted what it had created in 1970 and reinforced in 1977, and proceeded to build on that foundation. As a result, the 1990 Amendments create substantial new regulatory responsibilities, while leaving in place most of the pre-existing system of air quality control. The chapter highlights the key provisions of the 1990 Amendments, and discusses their relationship to the 1970 and 1977 Amendments to the Act. Included are changes in the requirements for the control of carbon monoxide, ozone, nitrogen oxides, particulates, mobile sources, air toxics and acid rain

  16. Atomic Energy Commission (Amendment) Law, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Atomic Energy Commission (Amendment) Law, 1993 (P.N.D.C.L. 308) seeks to amend the Atomic Energy Commission Act of 1963 (Act 204) so as to provide for the establishment of a Radiation Protection Board and other institutes under the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission. The Law further repeats the Atomic Energy Commission (Amendment) Law of 1982 (P.N.D.C.L. 37). (EAA)

  17. 78 FR 18590 - Organic Arsenicals; Amendments to Terminate Uses; Amendment to Existing Stocks Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-27

    ... AGENCY Organic Arsenicals; Amendments to Terminate Uses; Amendment to Existing Stocks Provisions AGENCY... September 30, 2009 (74 FR 50187) (FRL-8437-7) concerning the cancellations and amendments of pesticide... voluntary cancellation request identified in the 2009 document (74 FR 50187) was based upon a...

  18. Hate Speech and the First Amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainey, Susan J.; Kinsler, Waren S.; Kannarr, Tina L.; Reaves, Asa E.

    This document is comprised of California state statutes, federal legislation, and court litigation pertaining to hate speech and the First Amendment. The document provides an overview of California education code sections relating to the regulation of speech; basic principles of the First Amendment; government efforts to regulate hate speech,…

  19. 77 FR 3091 - IFR Altitudes; Miscellaneous Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-23

    ... ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does... RNAV Route T246 Is Amended To Read in Part Mc Grath, AK VORTAC * Winor, AK FIX 4900 17500 * 7500--MCA... BND 12000 W BND 6600 Sec. 95.6320 Alaska VOR Federal Airway V320 Is Amended by Adding Mc Grath,...

  20. Student Assistance Education Amendments of 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Student Financial Assistance (ED), Washington, DC.

    Information and guidelines for implementing the various amendments to the federal student financial aid programs are provided. The provisions are effective October 1, 1980 through 1985, except for the Guaranteed Student Loan Program amendments, effective January 1, 1980. General provisions are outlined, concerning the new administrative cost…

  1. 47 CFR 3.27 - Amended application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... AUTHORITIES IN MARITIME AND MARITIME MOBILE-SATELLITE RADIO SERVICES Application Procedures § 3.27 Amended application. Changes in circumstances that cause information previously supplied to the FCC to be incorrect or... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Amended application. 3.27 Section...

  2. 75 FR 52437 - IFR Altitudes; Miscellaneous Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-26

    ... ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does... Airway V17 Is Amended To Read in Part ARDMORE, OK VORTAC WILL ROGERS, OK VORTAC.. 3100 Sec. 95.6029 VOR... JOHNSTOWN R-125 UNUSABLE. Sec. 95.6507 VOR Federal Airway V507 Is Amended To Read in Part ARDMORE, OK...

  3. 14 CFR 221.70 - Who may amend tariffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Who may amend tariffs. 221.70 Section 221...) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Amendment of Tariffs § 221.70 Who may amend tariffs. A tariff shall be amended only by the carrier or agent who issued the tariff (except as otherwise authorized in subparts P and Q)....

  4. 33 CFR 106.415 - Amendment and audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Security Plan (FSP) § 106.415 Amendment and audit. (a) Amendments. (1) Amendments to a Facility Security... duties; and (iii) Be independent of any security measures being audited. (5) If the results of an audit... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amendment and audit....

  5. 75 FR 40720 - IFR Altitudes; Miscellaneous Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-14

    ... ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does....6157 VOR FEDERAL AIRWAY V157 IS AMENDED TO READ IN PART HAARP, CT FIX KINGSTON, NY VOR/DME.......

  6. Radiation Safety (Qualifications) Amendment Regulations 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These Regulations amend the Radiation Safety (Qualifications) Regulations 1980 by establishing the fees to be paid for the radiation safety examination to be passed by persons engaged in activities involving radiation. (NEA)

  7. Amendment works of the Korean civil code (Property Law)

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sang Yong

    2001-01-01

    "The Korean Civil Code is currently in the process of amendment. The government expects to submit a proposal for amending the Civil Code to this year's regular session of the National Assembly. However, considering the extent to which the works for amending the Civil Code being in process by the Civil Code amendment committee have thus far advanced, submission of the proposal for Civil Code amendment within this year’s regular session of the National Assembly can be considered ...

  8. Implementation of Amendment to CPPNM in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paper describes the implementation of Amendment to CPPNM into Slovakian national legislation. Main part of implementation had been done even before the amendment was ratified by our parliament and signed by president. Active participation of experts from Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD) during meetings of “Open-ended Group of Legal and Technical Experts to prepare a draft amendment to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material“ (Group) has set very good starting position for the implementation. Therefore some principles have been implemented even in Atomic Act (Act No. 541/2004 Coll.) and in respective regulations (Regulation No. 51/2006 Coll. and Regulation No. 57/2006 Coll.). After the amendment was ratified UJD reassessed the recommendations and started activities with aim to implement as many recommendations as possible without significant changes of legislation. We decided to implement tree principles which have not been fully reflected in our nuclear security system. We focused our effort to strengthen mainly Nuclear Security Culture, Threat evaluation and Confidentiality. In 2013 to 2014 we will also prepare full implementation of the amendment as well as NSS document in Atomic Act and respective regulation. We hope the Amendment to CPPNM will enter into force soon. (author)

  9. Immobilization of pentachlorophenol in soil using carbonaceous material amendments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen Bei [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shuangqing Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100085 (China)], E-mail: bwen@rcees.ac.cn; Li Ruijuan; Zhang Shuzhen [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shuangqing Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100085 (China); Shan Xiaoquan [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shuangqing Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100085 (China)], E-mail: xiaoquan@rcees.ac.cn; Fang Jing; Xiao Ke [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shuangqing Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100085 (China); Khan, Shahamat U. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, MSN 3E2, George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, Fairfax, VA 22030-4444 (United States)

    2009-03-15

    In this study, three pentachlorophenol (PCP) laboratory-spiked and one field-contaminated soil were amended with 2.0% char, humic acid (HA) and peat, respectively. The amended soils were aged for either 7 or 250 days. After amendment, CaCl{sub 2} extractability of PCP was significantly decreased. Desorption kinetics indicated that the proposed amendment could lead to a strong binding and slow desorption of PCP in soils. Amendment with char reduced the bioaccumulation factor (BAF) of PCP most significantly for earthworms (Eisenia fetida) in all soils studied. The results of both physicochemical and biological tests suggested that amendment reduced PCP bioavailability quickly and enduringly, implying that carbonaceous material amendment, especially char amendment, was a potentially attractive in situ remediation method for sequestration of PCP in contaminated soil. - Carbonaceous material amendment was a potential in situ remediation method for pentachlorophenol contaminated soil.

  10. Immobilization of pentachlorophenol in soil using carbonaceous material amendments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, three pentachlorophenol (PCP) laboratory-spiked and one field-contaminated soil were amended with 2.0% char, humic acid (HA) and peat, respectively. The amended soils were aged for either 7 or 250 days. After amendment, CaCl2 extractability of PCP was significantly decreased. Desorption kinetics indicated that the proposed amendment could lead to a strong binding and slow desorption of PCP in soils. Amendment with char reduced the bioaccumulation factor (BAF) of PCP most significantly for earthworms (Eisenia fetida) in all soils studied. The results of both physicochemical and biological tests suggested that amendment reduced PCP bioavailability quickly and enduringly, implying that carbonaceous material amendment, especially char amendment, was a potentially attractive in situ remediation method for sequestration of PCP in contaminated soil. - Carbonaceous material amendment was a potential in situ remediation method for pentachlorophenol contaminated soil

  11. Atomic Energy Amendment Act 1978, No. 31

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Act amends certain Sections of the Atomic Energy Act 1953. The principal modifications concern the definitions of atomic energy, prescribed substances, the provision and supply of uranium in relation to the functions of the Atomic Energy Commission, compliance with the agreement with the IAEA on the application of safeguards under the Non-Proliferation Treaty as well as with any agreement with any other international organization or another country. The Act also amends the 1953 Act in respect of the control of prescribed substances and repeals the section concerning jurisdiction of courts. (NEA)

  12. AFSC/REFM: Amendment 80 Economic Data Report Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Annual series of economic data collected for years 2008 and forward for the Amendment 80 Economic Data Report (EDR). Reporting is required of holders of Amendment...

  13. 29 CFR 2200.106 - Amendment to rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., amend or revoke any of the rules contained herein. The Commission invites suggestions from interested parties to amend or revoke rules of procedure. Such suggestions should be addressed to the...

  14. Fuel Receiving and Storage Station. License application, amendment 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amendment No. 7 to Allied-General Nuclear Services application for licensing of the Fuel Receiving and Storage Station consists of revised pages for: Amendment No. 7 to AG-L 105, ''Technical Description in Support of Application for FRSS Operation''; Amendment No. 1 to AG-L 105A, ''Early Operation of the Service Concentrator''; and Amendment No. 2 to AG-L 110, ''FRSS Summary Preoperational Report.''

  15. 7 CFR 1726.400 - Final contract amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE ELECTRIC SYSTEM CONSTRUCTION POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Contract Closeout § 1726.400 Final contract amendment. As needed, a final contract amendment will be prepared and processed in accordance with § 1726.24... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Final contract amendment. 1726.400 Section...

  16. 49 CFR 1312.5 - Amendments to tariffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Amendments to tariffs. 1312.5 Section 1312.5..., POSTING AND FILING OF TARIFFS FOR THE TRANSPORTATION OF PROPERTY BY OR WITH A WATER CARRIER IN NONCONTIGUOUS DOMESTIC TRADE § 1312.5 Amendments to tariffs. (a) Manner of making changes. An amendment is...

  17. 32 CFR 701.108 - Amendment of records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... disclosure accounting record) that the amendment has been made and provide each a copy of the amended record... of amendment even if those activities or agencies are not listed on the disclosure accounting form... statement of disagreement to all individuals listed on the disclosure accounting form (except those...

  18. Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant. License application, amendment 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amendment No. 10 provides the applicant's responses to questions raised by the AEC in letters dated November 6 and December 5, 1974. Amendment No. 3, dated February 1975, to the BNFP Separations Facility Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) is included. The amendment consists of revision pages for volumes 1 through 5 of the FSAR along with a deletion and insertion guide. (U.S.)

  19. 33 CFR 105.415 - Amendment and audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: FACILITIES Facility Security Plan (FSP) § 105.415 Amendment and audit. (a... security measures being audited. (5) If the results of an audit require amendment of either the FSA or FSP... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amendment and audit....

  20. 33 CFR 104.415 - Amendment and audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: VESSELS Vessel Security Plan (VSP) § 104.415 Amendment and audit. (a... independent of any security measures being audited. (5) If the results of an audit require amendment of either... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amendment and audit....

  1. 14 CFR 91.1017 - Amending program manager's management specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Amending program manager's management... Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1017 Amending program manager's management specifications. (a... specifications; or (2) The program manager applies for the amendment of any management specifications, and...

  2. 40 CFR 265.54 - Amendment of contingency plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amendment of contingency plan. 265.54... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Contingency Plan and Emergency Procedures § 265.54 Amendment of contingency plan. The contingency plan must be reviewed, and immediately amended, if necessary, whenever: (a) Applicable...

  3. 75 FR 65641 - Risk Communication Advisory Committee; Amendment of Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Risk Communication Advisory Committee; Amendment of Notice... announcing an amendment to the notice of meeting of the Risk Communication Advisory Committee. This meeting was announced in the Federal Register of September 20, 2010 (75 FR 57279). The amendment is being...

  4. 19 CFR 174.14 - Amendment of protests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amendment of protests. 174.14 Section 174.14... TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROTESTS Protests § 174.14 Amendment of protests. (a) Time for filing. A protest may be amended at any time prior to the expiration of the 90-day period within which such protest may...

  5. 32 CFR 505.6 - Amendment of records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Amendment of records. 505.6 Section 505.6 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS ARMY PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM § 505.6 Amendment of records. (a) Amended records....

  6. 42 CFR 457.60 - Amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... categories of benefits covered under the State plan. (5) Basic delivery system approach as described in § 457... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Amendments. 457.60 Section 457.60 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED)...

  7. Vertical Integration, Monopoly, and the First Amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Timothy J.

    This paper addresses the relationship between the First Amendment, monopoly of transmission media, and vertical integration of transmission and content provision. A survey of some of the incentives a profit-maximizing transmission monopolist may have with respect to content is followed by a discussion of how vertical integration affects those…

  8. 78 FR 18233 - Medical Devices; Technical Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    .../ MedicalDevices/ pma/. DeviceRegulationa ndGuidance/ HowtoMarketYourDe vice/ PremarketSubmissi ons..., 876, 878, 880, 882, 884, 886, 888, 890, and 892 Medical Devices; Technical Amendment AGENCY: Food and... outdated Web site addresses affecting certain regulations regarding medical devices. Publication of...

  9. 75 FR 16351 - Medical Devices; Technical Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., and 1050 Medical Devices; Technical Amendment AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final.... 360hh- 360ss). The Safe Medical Devices Act of 1990 (SMDA) (Public Law 101- 629), transferred the... protection. 21 CFR Part 1020 Electronic products, Medical devices, Radiation protection, Reporting...

  10. Point Counterpoint: The English Language Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdock, Deroy; Brown, Willie, Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Presents two views on recognizing English as the official language of the U.S. Proponents say it will help immigrants advance themselves and will bind Americans together. Critics argue that the amendment does not increase English proficiency but punishes those who have not learned; it also heightens racism and xenophobia. (LHW)

  11. Rapping the 27 Amendments to the Constitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaresborough, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Early in the year, the students of history and government at Mountain View High School in Stafford, Virginia, began to devise hand motions to help memorize the 27 amendments to the Constitution for government class. Three students in the school who are interested in hip hop music then suggested composing a rap song about the topic. Working with…

  12. 77 FR 38477 - IFR Altitudes; Miscellaneous Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-28

    ... ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policiesand Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does... KREMMLING, CO VOR/DME * ALLAN, CO FIX......... * * 16000 * 16000--MRA ** 15400--MOCA * MTA V361 SW TO V85 SE 14700 * MTA V361 SW TO V85 NW 16500 Sec. 95.6366 VOR Federal Airway V366 is Amended to Read in Part...

  13. 24 CFR 1003.305 - Program amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT BLOCK GRANTS FOR INDIAN TRIBES AND ALASKA NATIVE VILLAGES Single Purpose Grant Application and Selection Process § 1003.305 Program amendments. (a) Grantees shall request prior... class of beneficiaries of the approved activities, as originally described in the application....

  14. AECB Cost Recovery Fees Regulations, amendment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The amendment to the Regulations was published on 24 October 1991 (SOR/91-590,Canada Gazette Part II, Vol.125, No 23). It modifies the list of institutions exempted from paying cost recovery fees (licence fees) to the Atomic Energy Control Board. The exemptions now include educational and health care institutions as well as Departments. (NEA)

  15. AECB Cost Recovery Fees Regulations, amendment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The amendments to the AECB Cost Recovery Fees Regulations have been made with a view to simplifying the registration procedure for obtaining such a certificate or approval under the above Transport Regulations. In effect there will no longer be a need for a separate fee system for registered users of certified package designs. (NEA)

  16. 44 CFR 19.235 - Statutory amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Statutory amendments. 19.235 Section 19.235 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... of factors related to the individual's personal appearance, poise, and talent. The pageant,...

  17. 12 CFR 552.4 - Charter amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Charter amendments. 552.4 Section 552.4 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FEDERAL STOCK ASSOCIATIONS..., to the holders of the outstanding shares of any class of stock having preference over the...

  18. 75 FR 82228 - IFR Altitudes; Miscellaneous Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-30

    ... ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does... FIX Youngstown, OH VORTAC... 2900 Youngstown, OH VORTAC Mercy, PA FIX *5000 *3000--MOCA *3000--GNSS MEA Mercy, PA FIX Clarion, PA VOR/DME..... 3600 ] Sec. 95.6007 VOR Federal Airway V7 Is Amended...

  19. Alternatives to crop residues for soil amendment

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, J.M.; Unger, P.W.

    1997-01-01

    Metadata only record In semiarid agroecosystems, crop residues can provide important benefits of soil and water conservation, nutrient cycling, and improved subsequent crop yields. However, there are frequently multiple competing uses for residues, including animal forage, fuel, and construction material. This chapter discusses the various uses of crop residues and examines alternative soil amendments when crop residues cannot be left on the soil.

  20. Amending America: Proposed Amendments to the United States Constitution, 1787 to 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration — This dataset provides information about more than 11,000 proposed Constitutional amendments introduced in the United States Congress from 1787 to 2014. This dataset...

  1. 50 CFR Table 37 to Part 679 - GOA Amendment 80 Sideboard Limit for Groundfish for the Amendment 80 Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false GOA Amendment 80 Sideboard Limit for...) FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 37 Table 37 to Part 679— GOA Amendment 80 Sideboard Limit for Groundfish for the Amendment 80 Sector In the following management areas in the GOA...

  2. 50 CFR Table 38 to Part 679 - GOA Amendment 80 Sideboard Limit for Halibut PSC for the Amendment 80 Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false GOA Amendment 80 Sideboard Limit for...) FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 38 Table 38 to Part 679— GOA Amendment 80... GOA halibut PSC limit that may be used by all Amendment 80 qualified vessels subject to the...

  3. 76 FR 11675 - IFR Altitudes; Miscellaneous Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-03

    ...; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February... Read in Part JACKSON, WY VOR/DME BIG PINEY, WY VOR/DME 13500 MTA V328 NW TO V465 SW 15100 Sec. 95.6330.../DME, W BND MTA V330 E TO V520 W 16000 Sec. 95.6465 VOR Federal Airway V465 Is Amended To Read in...

  4. An Economic Theory of the Fifth Amendment

    OpenAIRE

    Hugo Mialon

    2004-01-01

    The Fifth Amendment's due process clause requires the prosecution to share evidence with the defense, and its right to silence blocks the jury from drawing an adverse inference from the defendant's silence during trial. I examine the effect of the right to silence and the disclosure requirement on conviction rates and social welfare in an economic model of criminal trials. Many policy-relevant results emerge. The right to silence can only improve welfare if juries discriminate unduly against ...

  5. Outline of amendments to nuclear compensation law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amendments to 'the Japanese Law on Compensation for Nuclear Damage', submitted to the Diet in February, 1989, were approved as drafted as from January 1st, 1990. Although the Revised Law requires a nuclear operator to raise its financial security amount from 10 to 30 Billion yen, the framework of the Law remains, in principle, unchanged. How we should deal with cross frontier nuclear incidents is an important problem to be studied hereafter. (author)

  6. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The natural gas liquids industry and specifically the gas processing business has not been rosy the last several years. processors have been faced with low NGL prices, high inventories and more regulations which have forced product margins to all time lows and have resulted in plant closings, mergers and a determined search for those processors that are left for ways to make ends meet until times get better. Whether a barometer for the future or merely a fluke in the economy, things got better in 1990. Last year represented a change for the positive in all the indicators characterizing the gas processing business. An early winter in 1989, propane distribution problems, overall increases in petrochemical demand for NGLs and the fear brought on by events in Kuwait all contributed to changes in the marketplace. For the gas processor, these events combined with relatively low natural gas prices to produce wider processing margins and a degree of prosperity. The biggest regulatory event in 1990 however was without a doubt the Clean Air Act Amendments. These sweeping changes to the 1970 Clean Air Act promise to affect the economy and public health well into the next century. The purpose of this paper is to examine first the major provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and then relate those anticipated changes to the gas processing industry. As will be examined later, the Amendments will create both threats and opportunities for gas processors

  7. Amendments to enhance phytoremediation: Single or repetitive applications in time?

    OpenAIRE

    Madejón, Paula; Pérez de Mora, Alfredo; Burgos, Pilar; Cabrera, Francisco; Madejón, Engracia

    2009-01-01

    We tested the effectiveness of single and repetitive additions of three amendments on trace element stabilisation and volunteer vegetation development in a contaminated soil. The results showed the need of repeated addition depending on the amendment. In the case of inorganic amendments (sugar lime) a single addition was enough to accelerate natural attenuation in soil. However, when organic materials were used solubility of these compounds increased trace element availability with time and n...

  8. The effect of organic amendments on clubroot (Plasmodiophora brassicae)

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, Gareth; Jones, Catherine

    2002-01-01

    This report was presented at the UK Organic Research 2002 Conference. Clubroot (Plasmodiophora brassicae) is an important disease of organic brassica crops. Organic soil amendments were added at realistic rates and times to infested organic soil in pot trials in order to evaluate their effect on the disease. Both chitin and straw amendments reduced disease incidence compared to other amendments but straw also reduced plant vigour.

  9. A Critique of the Unemployment Insurance Amendment Bill, 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Marius Olivier; Avinash Govindjee

    2015-01-01

    The contribution critically reflects on the proposed amendments to the Unemployment Insurance Act Act 63 of 2001 (the UIA / the Act), introduced via the provisions of the Unemployment Insurance Amendment Bill of 2015 (B25-2015). Several shortcomings and deficiencies are addressed and improvements introduced by the proposed amending legislation, including the extension of coverage to a wider range of beneficiaries, the extension of the period of benefits (to a maximum of 365 days), the increas...

  10. NUSAR: N Reactor Updated Safety Analysis Report, Amendment 21

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, G L

    1989-12-01

    The enclosed pages are Amendment 21 of the N Reactor Updated Safety Analysis Report (NUSAR). NUSAR, formerly UNI-M-90, was revised by 18 amendments that were issued by UNC Nuclear Industries, the contractor previously responsible for N Reactor operations. As of June 1987, Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) acquired the operations and engineering contract for N Reactor and other facilities at Hanford. The document number for NUSAR then became WHC-SP-0297. The first revision was issued by WHC as Amendment 19, prepared originally by UNC. Summaries of each of the amendments are included in NUSAR Section 1.1.

  11. The merchant shipping (dangerous goods) (amendment) rules 1980 No. 789

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These Rules amend the Merchant Shipping Rules 1978 and revoke the Merchant Shipping (Dangerous Goods) (Amendment) Rules 1979. The purpose of this amendment is to update the references to the 1978 Report of the Department of Trade's Standing Advisory Committee on the Carriage of Dangerous Goods in Ships (the Blue Book) and the 1977 Edition of the International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code of IMCO (the IMDG Code), referred to in the 1978 Rules. The amendments concern, inter alia, marking of packages on board ship which contain dangerous goods, including radioactive materials (NEA)

  12. 78 FR 69543 - Amendments to General Regulations of the Food and Drug Administration; Technical Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ... Federal Register of November 30, 2010 (75 FR 73951), we amended certain regulations in part 1 (21 CFR part... products under the Tobacco Control Act (75 FR 73951 at 73952). However, the revisions inadvertently created... to section 302 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FD&C Act) (21 U.S.C. 332); Revised Sec....

  13. Molecular speciation of phosphorus in organic amendments and amended soils using nuclear magnetic resonance and X-ray absorption spectroscopies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Characterization of phosphorus (P) in organic amendments is essential for environmentally sustainable fertilization of agricultural soils. The sequential chemical extraction (SCE) technique commonly used for P characterization does not provide any direct molecular information about P species. Studies were conducted to characterize P species in organic amendments and amended soils at a molecular level. The SCE was used to fractionate P in organic amendments including biosolids, hog, dairy and beef cattle manures, and poultry litter. The extracts were analyzed for total P and P species using inductively coupled plasma - optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and solution 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, respectively. The relative proportions of P species in intact organic amendments and residues after each extraction, and calcareous soils amended with organic amendments and monoammonium phosphate (MAP) were estimated using the synchrotron-based P 1s X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. The solution 31P NMR provided a detailed characterization of organic P in the non-labile NaOH and HCl fractions of organic amendments, but was limited in characterizing the labile fractions of most of these organic amendments due to their proneness to alkaline hydrolysis. The XANES analysis, however, identified the actual chemical species constituting the labile P that was only characterized as inorganic P or orthophosphates by sequential extraction and solution 31P NMR. In the amended Vertisolic and Chernozemic soils, XANES analysis estimated 'soluble and adsorbed P' as the dominant P species. For the Vertisolic soil, both the unamended and soil amended with biosolids and MAP contained hydroxyapatite (HAP). In addition, soil amended with biosolids, hog and dairy manures contained β-tricalcium phosphate (TRICAL), a more soluble CaP than HAP. TRICAL was found in all amended soils except in that amended with hog manure, while HAP was present in

  14. The Hyde Amendment and the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosoff, J I

    1980-01-01

    The U.S. Supreme Court has affirmed the constitutionality of the Hyde Amendment prohibiting federal funding for virtually all abortions for indigent women eligible for medical assistance. The Hyde Amendment represents a compromise on the politically sensitive issue of legality of all abortions. Despite the political controversy, however, real gains have been made since the Court decision legalizing abortion in 1973, in providing abortions services and lowering their costs. With the cutoff of Federal funds, however, most states will probably not support abortion services, thus rendering the poor and young especially vulnerable to the consequences of unwanted pregnancies. Barring the restoration of public funding, and noting that the cost of replacing it with private philanthropy is too high to be realistic, the author suggests some ways in which the cost of abortion services could be held down. Among these are setting up low cost clinic services in areas where no such services exist, thus alleviating substantial travel expenses for poor rural women; advertising the availability of such services and making other efforts to assure earlier, safer, less expensive procedures; encouraging clinics and hospitals to bill Medicaid for medical services related to (but not involved in) the abortion procedure; instituting outpatient abortion services in hospitals; and establishing satellite and mobile services by larger facilities to serve outlying areas. PMID:7002585

  15. 76 FR 30997 - National Transit Database: Amendments to Urbanized Area Annual Reporting Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... Federal Transit Administration National Transit Database: Amendments to Urbanized Area Annual Reporting... certain amendments for the Federal Transit Administration's (FTA) 2011 National Transit Database (NTD... Federal Register (73 FR 7361) inviting comments on proposed amendments to the 2011 Annual Manual....

  16. 77 FR 43127 - Further Amendment to Memorandum Describing Authority and Assigned Responsibilities of the General...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... BOARD Further Amendment to Memorandum Describing Authority and Assigned Responsibilities of the General... Relations Board is amending the memorandum describing the authority and assigned responsibilities of the... amendment to Board memorandum describing the authority and assigned responsibilities of the General...

  17. Proposed Federal Gun-Control Amendment. Student Forum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, Gayle; Mertz, David

    1995-01-01

    Presents an outline for a student-run forum on a proposed federal gun control amendment. Procedures include mandatory reading assignments and researching the issue. Students role-play fictional representative characters and later facilitate discussions. Concludes with a vote on the amendment. (MJP)

  18. 21 CFR 720.6 - Amendments to statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... discontinuance of commercial distribution of a cosmetic product formulation should be submitted by Form FDA 2514... VOLUNTARY FILING OF COSMETIC PRODUCT INGREDIENT COMPOSITION STATEMENTS § 720.6 Amendments to statement... a cosmetic product should be submitted by filing an amended Form FDA 2512 within 60 days after...

  19. 75 FR 13670 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Gadsden, AL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-23

    ... direct final rule with a request for comments in the Federal Register on December 29, 2009 (74 FR 68667... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Gadsden, AL AGENCY: Federal... December 29, 2009 that amends Class E airspace at Northeast Alabama Regional, Gadsden, AL. DATES:...

  20. 45 CFR 2543.87 - Byrd anti-lobbying amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Byrd anti-lobbying amendment. 2543.87 Section 2543...-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Statutory Compliance § 2543.87 Byrd anti-lobbying amendment. Contractors who apply... disclose any lobbying with non-Federal funds that takes place in connection with obtaining any...

  1. 31 CFR 10.67 - Proof; variance; amendment of pleadings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proof; variance; amendment of... BEFORE THE INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE Rules Applicable to Disciplinary Proceedings § 10.67 Proof; variance; amendment of pleadings. In the case of a variance between the allegations in pleadings and the...

  2. 20 CFR 901.40 - Proof; variance; amendment of pleadings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Proof; variance; amendment of pleadings. 901... Suspension or Termination of Enrollment § 901.40 Proof; variance; amendment of pleadings. In the case of a variance between the allegations in a pleading and the evidence adduced in support of the pleading,...

  3. 31 CFR 8.59 - Proof; variance; amendment of pleadings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proof; variance; amendment of... BEFORE THE BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO AND FIREARMS Disciplinary Proceedings § 8.59 Proof; variance; amendment of pleadings. In the case of a variance between the allegations in a pleading, the...

  4. Fuzzy indicator approach: development of impact factor of soil amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil amendments have been shown to be useful for improving soil condition, but it is often difficult to make management decisions as to their usefulness. Utilization of Fuzzy Set Theory is a promising method for decision support associated with utilization of soil amendments. In this article a tool ...

  5. 76 FR 28193 - Amendments to Material Control and Accounting Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-16

    ... COMMISSION 10 CFR Parts 72, 74, and 150 RIN 3150-AI61 Amendments to Material Control and Accounting... proposed rule language concerning the NRC's proposed amendments to the material control and accounting (MC... FNMC is an outdated term, as it does not include ``accounting,'' and thus does not fully describe...

  6. 76 FR 70069 - Federal Home Loan Bank Community Support Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... published on November 21, 1991. See 56 FR 58639 (Nov. 21, 1991). The original regulation required members to... amended to its current form by a final rule published on May 29, 1997. See 62 FR 28983. The amendments... Financial Institutions,'' 75 FR 678, 689-690 (Jan. 5, 2010). E. CRA Standard--Proposed Sec. 1290.5...

  7. 14 CFR 21.177 - Amendment or modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Amendment or modification. 21.177 Section 21.177 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Airworthiness Certificates § 21.177 Amendment or...

  8. 46 CFR 201.9 - Suspension, amendment, etc., of rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension, amendment, etc., of rules. 201.9 Section 201.9 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION POLICY, PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE General Information (Rule 1) § 201.9 Suspension, amendment, etc.,...

  9. The Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as Amended.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Employment Standards Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Wage and Hour Div.

    This publication contains the original text of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 with revisions effected by twenty-three Amendments. (Different typefaces are used to represent the original text and subsequent amendments grouped as pre-1961, 1961, 1966, 1972, 1974, and 1977.) Sections covered in the Act include minimum wages, maximum workweek…

  10. Food Safety Issues: Mineral fertilizers and soil amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fertilizers and other soil amendments are required to maintain soil fertility, but some may be naturally rich in trace elements, or contaminated. Thus, as part of the overall consideration of using fertilizers and soil amendments, one should consider the levels of trace elements present in relation...

  11. 15 CFR 923.83 - Mediation of amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mediation of amendments. 923.83... Programs § 923.83 Mediation of amendments. (a) Section 307(h)(2) of the Act provides for mediation of... management program. Accordingly mediation is available to states or federal agencies when a...

  12. 40 CFR 264.54 - Amendment of contingency plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amendment of contingency plan. 264.54 Section 264.54 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... Contingency Plan and Emergency Procedures § 264.54 Amendment of contingency plan. The contingency plan must...

  13. 77 FR 63339 - Amended Notice of Lodging Proposed Consent Decree

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-16

    ... Amended Notice of Lodging Proposed Consent Decree This Notice amends and replaces the original notice published on October 10, 2012, 77 FR 61640. In accordance with Departmental Policy, 28 CFR 50.7, notice is hereby given that a proposed Consent Decree in United States v. Snowden, Civil Action No....

  14. 44 CFR 70.5 - Letter of Map Amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Letter of Map Amendment. 70.5 Section 70.5 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... Amendment. Upon determining from available scientific or technical information that a FHBM or a...

  15. A Case Against First Amendment Protections for Commercial Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Kent R.

    Although extending constitutional protection to commercial expression might benefit the consumer, the First Amendment is the wrong instrument for carrying out what are basically economic policies. While in most First Amendment cases the nature of the content determines whether it is constitutionally protected, advertising is distinct in that it…

  16. Effects of Biochar amendments on soil chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, A.; Zimmerman, A. R.

    2009-12-01

    Humans have been transforming soil composition, both accidentally and purposefully, for centuries. For example, terra preta soils found in Amazonia that are greatly enriched in organic carbon and phosphorus and have enhanced fertility relative to the surrounding depleted oxisols, seem to have been deliberately created by native pre-Colombian Indians through the addition of combusted biomass, or biochar. Biochar amendment has gained attention recently as a way to enhance soil carbon sequestration while increasing soil fertility. It may also have adsorptive properties that are useful for pollution control. Our research examines the chemical and morphological properties of biochar with the goals of understanding the origin of terra preta, as well as how biochar can best be put to use as a soil amendment. Biochar was produced from a range of parent biomass types (hardwoods, softwoods and grasses) and under a range of combustion conditions (250 to 650 oC, under air and N2). Surface areas, determined by gas sorptometry, ranged from 3 to 394 m2g-1 (for N2) and from 129 to 345 m2g-1 (for CO2) and were found to generally increase with increasing pyrolysis temperature. The pH of the biochars ranged from 1.8 to 4.5, from 6.2 to 8.7, and from 6.2 to 9.2 for the 250, 400, and 650 oC biochars, respectively, and did not vary consistently with parent biomass types. Cation exchange capacity (CEC), determined using K+ exchange, ranged between 5 to 60 cmolc kg-1, higher than most soils, and generally increased with charring temperature. Anion exchange capacity (AEC) was low or undetectable. Lastly, the isoelectric point of the chars, determined using a zeta potential analyzer, ranged from a pH of 1.3 to 1.5, indicating that the biochar surfaces will be predominantly negatively charged in soil solutions. These data are complimentary and show that, when added to soil, biochar, particularly those produced at higher temperatures, would function as a cation exchanger system. The acid

  17. The 1990 Clean Air Act amendments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impacts of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments on utilities are substantial, presenting a host of new technical challenges, introducing new business risks, changing costs of electric generation, creating new winners and losers, and calling for new organizational responses capable of dealing with the complexity and short time for decisions. The magnitude of costs and unknowns puts clean air compliance into a new league of energy issues, in which the decisions utilities must make are not simply technological or engineering economic choices, but rather are very complex business decisions with numerous stakeholders, pitfalls, and opportunities. This paper summarizes the key regulatory requirements of the CAAA, outlines compliance options and questions facing the utility industry, and addresses how utility strategic business decisions could be affected

  18. AMENDMENTS TO THE STAFF RULES AND REGULATIONS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    The Staff Rules and Regulations in force since 1 January 1996 are modified as follows as from : 1 January 2001 Scale of basic salaries and scale of basic stipends (Annex R A 1 and Annex R A 2 respectively). These scales include the correction approved in June 2001 of the discrepancy of 0.3% in the net salary adjustment on 1 January 2001. Family Allowance and Child Allowance (Annex R A 4). Reimbursement of education fees (Article R A 8.01) for the academic year 2000/2001, i.e. with effect from 1 September 2000. Periodic reviews of the financial conditions of members of the personel (Annex A1). 1 July 2001 Various drafting amendments adopted in order to ensure greater coherence between the texts, the procedures and actual practice. 1 September 2001 Implementation of the new career structure. Copies of these updates are available in the divisional secretariats.

  19. Effect of isobutanol on toluene biodegradation in nitrate amended, sulfate amended and methanogenic enrichment microcosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayamani, Indumathy; Cupples, Alison M

    2013-09-01

    Isobutanol is an alternate fuel additive that is being considered because of economic and lower emission benefits. However, future gasoline spills could result in co-contamination of isobutanol with gasoline components such as benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene and xylene. Hence, isobutanol could affect the degradability of gasoline components thereby having an effect on contaminant plume length and half-life. In this study, the effect of isobutanol on the biodegradation of a model gasoline component (toluene) was examined in laboratory microcosms. For this, toluene and isobutanol were added to six different toluene degrading laboratory microcosms under sulfate amended, nitrate amended or methanogenic conditions. While toluene biodegradation was not greatly affected in the presence of isobutanol in five out of the six different experimental sets, toluene degradation was completely inhibited in one set of microcosms. This inhibition occurred in sulfate amended microcosms constructed with inocula from wastewater treatment plant activated sludge. Our data suggest that toluene degrading consortia are affected differently by isobutanol addition. These results indicate that, if co-contamination occurs, in some cases the in situ half-life of toluene could be significantly extended. PMID:23224907

  20. Biochar amendment reduced methylmercury accumulation in rice plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Rui; Wang, Yongjie; Zhong, Huan

    2016-08-01

    There is growing concern about methylmercury (MeHg) accumulation in rice grains and thus enhanced dietary exposure to MeHg in Asian countries. Here, we explored the possibility of reducing grain MeHg levels by biochar amendment, and the underlying mechanisms. Pot (i.e., rice cultivation in biochar amended soils) and batch experiments (i.e., incubation of amended soils under laboratory conditions) were carried out, to investigate MeHg dynamics (i.e., MeHg production, partitioning and phytoavailability in paddy soils, and MeHg uptake by rice) under biochar amendment (1-4% of soil mass). We demonstrate for the first time that biochar amendment could evidently reduce grain MeHg levels (49-92%). The declines could be attributed to the combined effects of: (1) increased soil MeHg concentrations, probably explained by the release of sulfate from biochar and thus enhanced microbial production of MeHg (e.g., by sulfate-reducing bacteria), (2) MeHg immobilization in soils, facilitated by the large surface areas and high organosulfur content of biochar, and (3) biodilution of MeHg in rice grains, due to the increased grain biomass under biochar amendment (35-79%). These observations together with mechanistic explanations improve understanding of MeHg dynamics in soil-rice systems, and support the possibility of reducing MeHg phytoaccumulation under biochar amendment. PMID:27045620

  1. Nematode Population Fluctuations during Decomposition of Specific Organic Amendments

    OpenAIRE

    McSorley, R.; Frederick, J. J.

    1999-01-01

    Population densities of nematodes in field soil without plants were monitored for 10 months following application of organic amendments to pots in a greenhouse. The four treatments consisted of three different kinds of organic amendments: homogeneous crop residues of maize (Zea mays, C:N = 48.0:1), Texas panicum (Panicum texanum, C:N = 32.9:1), or velvetbean (Mucuna pruriens, C:N = 18.6:1), plus a control without any amendment. Plant-parasitic nematodes declined in all treatments due to absen...

  2. 50 CFR 679.91 - Amendment 80 Program annual harvester privileges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... established under paragraph (g) of this section. (x) Are GOA sideboard limits assigned to specific persons or Amendment 80 cooperatives? No, GOA sideboard limits are not assigned to specific persons or Amendment 80 cooperatives. GOA sideboard limits are assigned to the Amendment 80 sector. (xi) Can an Amendment 80 QS...

  3. 46 CFR 531.8 - Amendment, correction, cancellation, and electronic transmission errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Amendment, correction, cancellation, and electronic... SHIPPING IN FOREIGN COMMERCE NVOCC SERVICE ARRANGEMENTS Filing Requirements § 531.8 Amendment, correction, cancellation, and electronic transmission errors. (a) Amendment. (1) NSAs may be amended by mutual agreement...

  4. 76 FR 2913 - National Cancer Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-18

    ..., January 24, 2011, 5 p.m. to January 26, 2011, 5 p.m., Bethesda North Marriott Hotel & Conference Center..., 75 FR 71713. This notice is amending the meeting from three days to two days. The new date and...

  5. Amendment I : Basic fur management plan : Stillwater Wildlife Management Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This amendment to the fur management plan for Stillwater Wildlife Management area calls for the annual trapping of beaver. The Lower Carson River is overpopulated...

  6. 48 CFR 15.206 - Amending the solicitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the contract file and formalize the notice with an amendment (see subpart 4.5, Electronic Commerce in... (and electronic or facsimile address, if appropriate). (7) Revision to solicitation closing date,...

  7. Biochar Soil Amendment Effects on Arsenic Availability to Mountain Brome ().

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strawn, Daniel G; Rigby, April C; Baker, Leslie L; Coleman, Mark D; Koch, Iris

    2015-07-01

    Biochar is a renewable energy byproduct that shows promise for remediating contaminated mine sites. A common contaminant at mine sites is arsenic (As). In this study, the effects of biochar amendments to a mine-contaminated soil on As concentrations in mountain brome ( Nees ex Steud.) were investigated. In the biochar-amended soil, mountain brome had greater root biomass and decreased root and shoot As concentrations. X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy results showed that arsenate [As(V)] is the predominant species in both the nonamended and biochar-amended soils. Soil extraction tests that measure phosphate and arsenate availability to plants failed to accurately predict plant tissue As concentrations, suggesting the arsenate bioavailability behavior in the soils is distinct from phosphate. Results from this study indicate that biochar will be a beneficial amendment to As-contaminated mine sites for remediation. PMID:26437113

  8. 78 FR 9311 - Hazard Communication; Corrections and Technical Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ... Communication; Corrections and Technical Amendment AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA..., Chemicals, Fire prevention, Hazard communication, Hazardous substances, Occupational safety and health. 29... revisions to OSHA's Hazard Communication Standard, published at 77 FR 17574. The majority of...

  9. Proposals for amending the Nuclear Liability Act (1968:45)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proposal is to amend the Nuclear Liability Act so that the nuclear operator liability has an unlimited liability. An insurance duty covering at least 300 million SDRs (about 3.1 billion SEK) is also proposed

  10. Enhancing Soil Quality and Plant Health Through Suppressive Organic Amendments

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco M. Cazorla; Antonio de Vicente; Gutiérrez-Barranquero, José A.; Nuria Bonilla

    2012-01-01

    The practice of adding organic amendments to crop soils is undergoing resurgence as an efficient way to restore soil organic matter content and to improve soil quality. The quantity and quality of the organic matter inputs affect soil physicochemical properties and soil microbiota, influencing different parameters such as microbial biomass and diversity, community structure and microbial activities or functions. The influence of organic amendments on soil quality has also effects on crop prod...

  11. Influence of biochar amendments on marine sediment trace metal bioavailability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrke, G. E.; Hsu-Kim, H.

    2014-12-01

    Biochar has become a desirable material for use in agricultural application to enhance soil quality and in-situ soil and sediment remediation to immobilize organic contaminants. We investigated the effects of biochar sediment amendments on the bioavailability of a suite of inorganic trace metals (Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb) in contaminated sediments from multiple sites in Elizabeth River, VA. We incubated sediments in microcosms with a variety of water column redox and salinity conditions and compared sediments amended with two types of woody biochar to sediments amended with charcoal activated carbon and unamended sediments. We leached sediments in artificial gut fluid mimic of the benthic invertebrate Arenicola marina as a measure of bioavailability of the trace metals analyzed. In unamended anaerobic sediments, the gut fluid mimic leachable fraction of each trace metal is 1-4% of the total sediment concentration for each metal. Initial results indicate that in anaerobic microcosms, woody biochar sediment amendments (added to 5% dry wt) decrease the gut fluid mimic leachable fraction by 30-90% for all trace metals analyzed, and have comparable performance to charcoal activated carbon amendments. However, in microcosms without controlled redox conditions, woody biochar amendments increase the bioavailable fraction of Ni and Cu by up to 80%, while decreasing the bioavailable fraction of Co, Zn, and Pb by approximately 50%; charcoal activated carbon amendments decreased the bioavailability of all trace metals analyzed by approximately 20%. In microcosms without an overlying water column, biochar and activated carbon amendments had no significant effects on trace metal bioavailability. This research demonstrates that biochar can effectively decrease the bioavailability of trace metals in marine sediments, but its efficiency is metal-specific, and environmental conditions impact biochar performance.

  12. Amendable Gaussian channels:restoring entanglement via a unitary filter

    OpenAIRE

    Pasquale, A.; Mari, A.; Porzio, A.; Giovannetti, V.

    2013-01-01

    We show that there exist Gaussian channels which are amendable. A channel is amendable if when applied twice is entanglement breaking while there exists a unitary filter such that, when interposed between the first and second action of the map, prevents the global transformation from being entanglement breaking [Phys. Rev. A 86, 052302 (2012)]. We find that, depending on the structure of the channel, the unitary filter can be a squeezing transformation or a phase shift operation. We also prop...

  13. 30 CFR 925.16 - Required program amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... regulations at 30 CFR 817.95(a). (5)-(19) (20) At 10 CSR 40-8.070(2)(C)1.A(II)(a) and (b) to revise the... the Federal regulation requirements at 30 CFR 702.5(a)(2)(i) and (ii). (21) (q)-(u) (v) By May 10... amendments. Pursuant to 30 CFR 732.17, Missouri is required to make the following program amendments:...

  14. Amendments to the Staff Rules and Regulations

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    The Staff Rules and Regulations in force since 1 January 1996 are modified as follows as from 1 July 2005 : Article R II 4.07 of the Staff Regulations - Leave year (pages 25 & 26) The purpose of the amendment is to allow certain members of the personnel, on an exceptional basis in the context of LHC construction, to carry forward more than 30 days of annual leave into the following year. This possibility of additional carry-forward, which will be used sparingly, is governed by strict conditions : i.e. it must be with the consent of the member of the personnel concerned and subject to a specific, documented request by the hierarchy and a favourable medical opinion. In addition, the number of additional days of leave that can be carried forward must not exceed 10 per leave year, and all days of leave accumulated in this way must be used before 30 September 2009. Finally, this possibility will not be available to members of the personnel taking part in the Saved Leave Scheme (SLS) as at 3...

  15. Alternate nitrogen amendments for organic fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, M K; Adeoye, G O; AdeOluwa, O O

    2001-12-19

    The use of compost or manure in agriculture as an organic source of nutrients is common in many tropical, developing countries like Nigeria. One of the drawbacks of such materials is their low nitrogen (N) content (=1% N). Farmers commonly use chemical N fertilizers such as urea, calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN), and NPK formulations to obtain better crop growth and yield. These chemical supplements may have a negative impact on the environment through nitrate leaching into water, leading to eutrophication of surface waters that can affect public health. Gliricidia sepium, a fast-growing, tropical, perennial hedge plant was tested as a source of N in organo-mineral fertilizer formulations. Average nutrient content of Gliricidia is 3.8% N, 0.32% P, 1.8% K, 0.8% Ca, and 0.2% Mg. Using a sand culture and Amaranthus caudatus as a test crop, it was shown that amending commercial composts with 30% Gliricidia prunings would benefit many small-scale farmers and control environmental pollution. PMID:12805738

  16. Effect of Sludge Amendment on Remediation of Metal Contaminated Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Navarro

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Column-leaching and pilot-scale experiments were conducted to evaluate the use of biosolids (sewage sludges to control the mobilization of metals from contaminated soils with smelting slags. The pilot-scale experiments using amended soils showed that Cu, Pb and Sb were retained, decreasing their concentrations from 250 mg/L, 80 mg/L and 6 mg/L, respectively in the leachates of contaminated soils, to <20 mg/L, 40 mg/L and 4 mg/L, respectively, in the amended material. Hydrogeochemical modeling of the leachates using Minteq revealed that the degree of complexation of Cu rose 56.3% and 57.6% in leachates of amended soils. Moreover, Cu may be immobilized by biosolids, possibly via adsorption by oxyhydroxides of Fe or sorption by organic matter. The partial retention of Pb coincides with the possible precipitation of chloropyromorphite, which is the most stable mineral phase in the pH-Eh conditions of the leachates from the amended material. The retention of Sb may be associated with the precipitation of Sb2O3, which is the most stable mineral phase in the experimental conditions. The organic amendments used in this study increased some metal and metalloid concentrations in the leachates (Fe, Mn, Ni, As and Se, which suggests that the organic amendments could be used with caution to remediate metal contaminated areas.

  17. Implication of Amendment 49 in Brazilian radiopharmacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Amendment 49: Amendment 49, 8th february 2006, excludes from the monopoly of the Brazilian Government the production, the commercialization and the use of short half-life radiopharmaceuticals for medical, agricultural and industrial uses. The most recent modification of the Brazilian Constitution was gave for the alteration of the writing in the ''alinea b'', addition of a ''alinea c'' to the interpolated proposition XXIII of the caput of article 21 and for the new writing given to interpolated proposition V of the caput of article 177. Since its publishing a great effort of all regulatories agencies in Brazil have been made looking for the harmonization of national laws bu the Brazilian Nuclear Energy C omission, Health Surveillance Agency and Brazilian Pharmacopoeia. The growth of PET-technology and consequently the use of FDG-18 and the radiopharmaceuticals in general, request a specific regulation. This regulation must be supported in the tripod: security, effectiveness and quality (FINN, 1999). In the United States, the radiopharmaceuticals are regulated under a number of agencies, because they are radioactive materials, and also are prescribed as medicine, being administered to human being. Finn (1999) alert, however, that an explicit need for the specific regulation. This necessity can be demonstrated by the signature in 21 november of 1997, in form of law, of the ''Administration Modernization Act'' (FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION MODERNIZATION ACT, 1997) applied to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). This act, in its structure, commands that the FDA, develops practical procedures and good manufacture practice for radiopharmaceuticals, including that used in PET. In Europe, the regulations (registration and production) is made by the publishing of various ECC rules (the first was in 1965's) that are published in the form of Directives and Decision. To date tere have been 33 Council Directives, one Council Decision and one Council Regulation. In

  18. 78 FR 14503 - Amendment 4 to the Corals and Reef Associated Plants and Invertebrates Fishery Management Plan of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-06

    ... 30, 2011 (76 FR 82414). The 2011 Caribbean ACL Amendment included Amendment 3 to the Coral FMP... Amendment 2 to the Queen Conch FMP and Amendment 5 to the Reef Fish FMP (2010 Caribbean ACL Amendment)(76 FR... Reef Associated Plants and Invertebrates Fishery Management Plan of Puerto Rico and the U.S....

  19. Bacterial Mobilization of Nutrients From Biochar-Amended Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalenberger, A; Fox, A

    2016-01-01

    Soil amendments with biochar to improve soil fertility and increase soil carbon stocks have received some high-level attention. Physical and chemical analyses of amended soils and biochars from various feedstocks are reported, alongside some evaluations of plant growth promotion capabilities. Fewer studies investigated the soil microbiota and their potential to increase cycling and mobilization of nutrients in biochar-amended soils. This review is discussing the latest findings in the bacterial contribution to cycling and mobilizing nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur in biochar-amended soils and potential contributions to plant growth promotion. Depending on feedstock, pyrolysis, soil type, and plant cover, changes in the bacterial community structure were observed for a majority of the studies using amplicon sequencing or genetic fingerprinting methods. Prokaryotic nitrification largely depends on the availability of ammonium and can vary considerably under soil biochar amendment. However, denitrification to di-nitrogen and in particular, nitrous oxide reductase activity is commonly enhanced, resulting in reduced nitrous oxide emissions. Likewise, bacterial fixation of di-nitrogen appears to be regularly enhanced. A paucity of studies suggests that bacterial mobilization of phosphorus and sulfur is enhanced as well. However, most studies only tested for extracellular sulfatase and phosphatase activity. Further research is needed to reveal details of the bacterial nutrient mobilizing capabilities and this is in particular the case for the mobilization of phosphorus and sulfur. PMID:26917243

  20. Effect of biodegradable amendments on uranium solubility in contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duquene, L. [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Environment Health and Safety, Biosphere Impact Studies, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium)], E-mail: lduquene@sckcen.be; Tack, F.; Meers, E. [Ghent University, Laboratory for Analytical Chemistry and Applied Ecochemistry, Coupure Links 653, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Baeten, J. [Katholieke Hogeschool Kempen, Departement of Health-Care and Chemistry, Kleinhoefstraat 4, B-2440 Geel (Belgium); Wannijn, J.; Vandenhove, H. [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Environment Health and Safety, Biosphere Impact Studies, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2008-02-25

    Chelate-assisted phytoextraction has been proposed as a potential tool for phytoremediation of U contaminated sites. In this context, the effects of five biodegradable amendments on U release in contaminated soils were evaluated. Three soils were involved in this study, one with a relatively high background level of U, and two which were contaminated with U from industrial effluents. Soils were treated with 5 mmol kg{sup -1} dry weight of either citric acid, NH{sub 4}-citrate/citric acid, oxalic acid, S,S-ethylenediamine disuccinic acid or nitrilotriacetic acid. Soil solution concentration of U was monitored during 2 weeks. All amendments increased U concentration in soil solution, but citric acid and NH{sub 4}-citrate/citric acid mixture were most effective, with up to 479-fold increase. For oxalic acid, S,S-ethylenediamine disuccinic acid and nitrilotriacetic acid, the increase ranged from 10-to 100-fold. The highest concentrations were observed 1 to 7 days after treatment, after which U levels in soil solution gradually decreased. All amendments induced a temporary increase of soil solution pH and TOC that could not be correlated with the release of U in the soil solution. Thermodynamic stability constants (log K) of complexes did not predict the relative efficiency of the selected biodegradable amendments on U release in soil solution. Amendments efficiency was better predicted by the relative affinity of the chelate for Fe compared to U.

  1. Effect of biodegradable amendments on uranium solubility in contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duquène, L; Tack, F; Meers, E; Baeten, J; Wannijn, J; Vandenhove, H

    2008-02-25

    Chelate-assisted phytoextraction has been proposed as a potential tool for phytoremediation of U contaminated sites. In this context, the effects of five biodegradable amendments on U release in contaminated soils were evaluated. Three soils were involved in this study, one with a relatively high background level of U, and two which were contaminated with U from industrial effluents. Soils were treated with 5 mmol kg(-1) dry weight of either citric acid, NH(4)-citrate/citric acid, oxalic acid, S,S-ethylenediamine disuccinic acid or nitrilotriacetic acid. Soil solution concentration of U was monitored during 2 weeks. All amendments increased U concentration in soil solution, but citric acid and NH(4)-citrate/citric acid mixture were most effective, with up to 479-fold increase. For oxalic acid, S,S-ethylenediamine disuccinic acid and nitrilotriacetic acid, the increase ranged from 10-to 100-fold. The highest concentrations were observed 1 to 7 days after treatment, after which U levels in soil solution gradually decreased. All amendments induced a temporary increase of soil solution pH and TOC that could not be correlated with the release of U in the soil solution. Thermodynamic stability constants (log K) of complexes did not predict the relative efficiency of the selected biodegradable amendments on U release in soil solution. Amendments efficiency was better predicted by the relative affinity of the chelate for Fe compared to U. PMID:18061243

  2. An Ecological Examination of North Carolina's Amendment One Vote to Ban Same Sex Marriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth L. Davison

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available On May 8th, 2012, North Carolina voters passed a constitutional amendment that officially banned same sex marriage. Whereas statewide the amendment was supported by 61% of North Carolina voters, there was a 67% range in variance of support for the amendment among North Carolina counties. This paper examines the large variance regarding the state amendment vote, among North Carolina's 100 counties. Controlling for percent of county residents with a bachelor’s or greater degree had an enormous effect in diminished support for the amendment while age, race and urban demographics were weaker and capricious measures in understanding the county variance of the Amendment One vote.

  3. Looking to the future: Implementation of the 1990 Amendments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The foregoing chapters have shown that the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990 contains numerous, complex and overlapping regulatory requirements. Over the next decade, EPA will be faced with implementation responsibilities that far surpass those that have been assigned to virtually any other administrative agencies. Implementation of the Clean Air Act will present unprecedented challenges not only to EPA, but to industry, to the public, and to the system of administrative law generally. This chapter summarizes issues that EPA, industry, and other will confront as implementation of the 1990 Amendments proceeds

  4. Soil biochar amendments: type and dose effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda, G.; Domene, X.; Mattana, S.; Sousa, J. P.; Ortiz, O.; Andres, P.; Alcañiz, J. M.

    2012-04-01

    Biochar is an organic material produced via the pyrolysis of C-based biomass, which is increasingly being recognized by scientists and policy makers for its potential role in carbon sequestration, reducing greenhouse gas emissions, waste mitigation, and as a soil amendment. Recent studies indicated that biochar improves soil fertility through its positive influence on physical-chemical properties, since not only improves water retention, aggregation and permeability, but its high charge density can also hold large amounts of nutrients, increasing crop production. However, it was observed that combustion temperature could affects the degree of aromaticity and the size of aromatic sheets, which in turns determine short-term mineralization rates. To reconcile the different decompasibility observations of biochar, it has sugested that physical protection and interactions with soil minerals play a significant part in biochar stability. In this context, it has initiated one pilot studies which aims to assess the effects of biochar application on physical and chemical properties of agricultural soil under Mediterranean conditions, such as changes in aggregate formation, intra-aggregate carbon sequestration and chemistry of soil water. In the present study, different clases of biochar produced from fast, slow and gasification pyrolisis of vegetal (pine, poplar) and dried sludge biomass, were applied at 1% of biochar-C to mesocosmos of an agricultural soil. Preliminary, it must be pointed out that slow and gasification pyrolisis changes the proportion of particles < 2 mm in diameter, from 10% (original materials) to almost 100%. In contrast, slow pyrolisis not modifies significantly biochar granulometry. As a consequence, bulk density of poplar and pine splinters decreases after fast pyrolisis. Regarding to organic carbon contents of biochar, all biochars obtained from plant biomass presented percentagens of total organic carbon (TOC) between 70 - 90%, while biochar

  5. 75 FR 20813 - Certain Magnesia Carbon Bricks from the People's Republic of China: Amended Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ... Determination, 75 FR 11847 (March 12, 2010) (``Preliminary Determination''). We are amending our Preliminary... International Trade Administration Certain Magnesia Carbon Bricks from the People's Republic of China: Amended... value (``LTFV'') in the antidumping duty investigation of certain magnesia carbon bricks...

  6. 76 FR 46217 - Implementation of the Amendments to the International Convention on Standards of Training...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-02

    ... Register (73 FR 3316). ] Information on Service for Individuals With Disabilities For information on... Amendments to the International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for... Amendments to the International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping...

  7. 78 FR 31815 - National Organic Program (NOP); Amendments to the National List of Allowed and Prohibited...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-28

    ... List beginning on October 31, 2003 (68 FR 61987). AMS published the most recent amendment to the National List on September 27, 2012 (77 FR 59287). This final rule amends the National List to enact five... organic handling. DATES: This rule is effective May 29, 2013, except for the amendment in instruction 4...

  8. Designing relevant biochars as soil amendments using lignocellulosic-based and manure-based feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpose: Biochars are a soil amendment produced from lignocellulosic and manure feedstocks. Not all biochars are viable soil amendments because of differences in their physical and chemical properties. Biochar could deliver more effective service as a soil amendment if its chemis...

  9. 76 FR 60941 - Policy Regarding Submittal of Amendments for Processing of Equivalent Feed at Licensed Uranium...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    ... COMMISSION Policy Regarding Submittal of Amendments for Processing of Equivalent Feed at Licensed Uranium... amendment, of equivalent feed at an NRC and Agreement State-licensed uranium recovery site, either... Policy Regarding Submittal of Amendments for Processing of Equivalent Feed at Licensed Uranium...

  10. 76 FR 68674 - Proposed Amendment of VOR Federal Airways V-320 and V-440; Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    .... 11-AAL-1 published on April 28, 2011 (76 FR 23687), that amends all Alaska Federal Airways affected... until further notice (76 FR 35097; June 16, 2011). The FAA then determined that V-320 and V-440 did not... rule, to be amended in a future rulemaking (76 FR 65106; October 20, 2011). This action would amend...

  11. 76 FR 77549 - Colorado River Indian Tribes-Amendment to Health & Safety Code, Article 2. Liquor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Colorado River Indian Tribes--Amendment to Health & Safety Code, Article 2... amendment to the Colorado River Tribal Health and Safety Code, Article 2. Liquor, Section 2-403(12). The... Indian Tribal Council adopted this amendment to the Colorado River Tribal Health and Safety Code,...

  12. 40 CFR 267.54 - When must I amend the contingency plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When must I amend the contingency plan... STANDARDIZED PERMIT Contingency Plan and Emergency Procedures § 267.54 When must I amend the contingency plan? You must review, and immediately amend the contingency plan, if necessary, whenever: (a) The...

  13. 75 FR 59094 - Federal Travel Regulation; Miscellaneous Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-27

    ...-0017; Sequence 1] RIN 3090-AJ07 Federal Travel Regulation; Miscellaneous Amendments AGENCY: Office of... the Federal Travel Regulation (FTR) by updating statutory references in a number of sections, by providing additional guidance for determining distance measurements when traveling by privately...

  14. 75 FR 44274 - National Cancer Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-28

    ... Select), 8120 Wisconsin Avenue, Bethesda, MD, 20814 which was published in the Federal Register on July 9, 2010, 75 FR 39547. This FRN amendment has been processed to change the location of this meeting from the Doubletree Hotel Bethesda, 8120 Wisconsin Avenue, Bethesda MD 20814 to the Legacy Hotel...

  15. 75 FR 79009 - National Cancer Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ... Therapeutics Program (NExT), January 6, 2011, 8:30 a.m.-4:30 p.m., Doubletree Hotel Bethesda, 8120 Wisconsin Avenue, Rockville, MD 20852 which was published in the Federal Register on November 24, 2010, 75 FR 71712. This notice is amending the location of the meeting from the Doubletree Hotel Bethesda, 8120...

  16. 78 FR 58323 - National Cancer Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ..., October 17, 2013, 4:00 p.m. to October 18, 2013, 06:00 p.m., Bethesda North Marriott Hotel & Conference..., 2013, 78 FR 50065. The meeting notice is amended to change the start time from 4:00 p.m. to 5:00...

  17. 17 CFR 250.20 - Prescribed forms and amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... amendment such other information as the Commission may require. (f) Electronic filings. (1) Electronic... in this part requiring the filing of any application, declaration, report or other document on a... appropriate Commission authorizations (or exemption) of the proposed transaction or any part thereof, and...

  18. First Amendment Implications of Harassment Rules to Be Studied.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaschik, Scott

    1994-01-01

    The Department of Education, criticized by colleges for its guidelines on investigating racial harassment and hate-speech charges, will issue a new policy on First Amendment implications of such inquiries. A major issue is school responsibility for racial harassment by diverse populations over whom colleges may have little control. (MSE)

  19. Radiological Protection (Amendment) Act, 2002. Number 3 of 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Act amends the Radiological Protection Acts, 1991 and 1995, and provides for the making of grants out of funds provided by the legislature for remediation works for houses having certain levels of radon gas and for the administration by the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland of such grants and to provide for related matters

  20. 77 FR 60382 - Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ... benefits of consumer financial products or services, (b) consumer behavior with respect to consumer... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended AGENCY: Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection. ACTION: Notice...

  1. 77 FR 67802 - Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-14

    ... costs, risks, and benefits of such products or services, and consumer behavior with respect to such... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended AGENCY: Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection ACTION: Notice...

  2. Expert Consideration on the Amendment to the INFCIRC/225

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The INFCIRC/225 has played an important role as a guideline for establishing international regimes for physical protection since it was published in 1975 by the IAEA. It has been amended four times to reflect the changes that have taken place with regard to nuclear security. The fourth revision was released in 1999. Since the release of this revision, the international nuclear security environment has changed drastically. Because of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks in the USA, an amendment to the CPPNM (Convention on Physical Protection of Nuclear Material) was passed at an international conference held in July of 2005 in Vienna. Many requests for a revision of the INFCIRC/225 have been raised since then. The IAEA had prepared a revised document; and sponsored the first of six meetings in order to amendment the document beginning in February of 2008. A TM (Technical Meeting) was also held in February of 2010. Physical protection experts from 22 countries participated in the meeting. After the TM, a draft document was sent to member states for reviewed for a designated 120 days. If ratified, document will then become the 5th amendment to the INFCIRC/225. The INFCIRC/225 will be used as a basis for physical protection measures specified in the Act. This paper will analyze the revised document and discussed on how it affects our national regime of physical protection

  3. Crop residue decomposition in Minnesota biochar-amended plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biochar, a black carbon substance, can be a beneficial soil amendment to improve soil properties and sequester C. Positive and negative priming effects on soil organic matter (SOM) are as wide ranging as the feedstocks and pyrolysis platforms used to create biochar. Impacts of biochar application on...

  4. 76 FR 18137 - Amendment of the Schedule of Application Fees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... Documents in Rulemaking Proceedings, 63 FR 24121 (1998). Electronic Filers. Comments may be filed... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 1 Amendment of the Schedule of Application Fees AGENCY: Federal Communications... to clarify the rules on the payment of filing fees by winning bidders in auctions of...

  5. Effects of chemical amendments to swine manure on runoff quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land-applied swine manure can be an environmental concern when runoff losses of manure constituents occur. The use of chemical amendments to mitigate these losses has been investigated for poultry litter, but materials such as swine manure have received less attention in this context, particularly ...

  6. 77 FR 45238 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Montgomery, AL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-31

    ... ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does..., 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Montgomery, AL...

  7. 75 FR 57846 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Brewton, AL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ... ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does... FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in 14 CFR 71.1... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Brewton, AL AGENCY:...

  8. Did that Dog Sniff Violate the Fourth Amendment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawke, Catherine; Middleton, Tiffany

    2012-01-01

    Is sniffing at the front door of a private home by a trained narcotics detection dog a Fourth Amendment search requiring probable cause? Is a "drug dog" somehow like a manmade technology, such as a thermal imaging device? These were a couple of the questions recently presented to the U.S. Supreme Court during arguments in "Florida v. Jardines."…

  9. Can We Protect Children and the First Amendment? Student Forum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, Gayle

    1998-01-01

    Presents a plan for a student-organized open discussion relating to conflicts between the desire to protect children from harmful material on the Internet and the need to protect First Amendment rights. Includes a note to teachers, instructions for conducting the forum, background information, and roles for students participating in the…

  10. Effects of remediation amendments on vadose zone microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Hannah M.; Tilton, Fred A.

    2012-08-10

    Surfactant-based foam delivery technology has been studied to remediate Hanford 200 area deep vadose zone sediment. However, the surfactants and remediation amendments have an unknown effect on indigenous subsurface microorganisms. Microbial populations are important factors to consider in remediation efforts due to their potential to alter soil geochemistry. This project focuses on measuring microbial metabolic responses to remediation amendments in batch and column studies using Deep Vadose Zone Sediments. Initial studies of the microbes from Hanford 200 area deep vadose zone sediment showed surfactants sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and cocamidopropyl betaine (CAPB) and remediation amendment calcium polysulfide (CPS) had no affect on microbial growth using BiologTM Ecoplates. To move towards a more realistic field analog, soil columns were packed with Hanford 200 Area sediment. Once microbial growth in the column was verified by observing growth of the effluent solution on tryptic soy agar plates, remedial surfactants were injected into the columns, and the resulting metabolic diversity was measured. Results suggest surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) stimulates microbial growth. The soil columns were also visualized using X-ray microtomography to inspect soil packing and possibly probe for evidence of biofilms. Overall, BiologTM Ecoplates provide a rapid assay to predict effects of remediation amendments on Hanford 200 area deep vadose zone microorganisms.

  11. 78 FR 14271 - Manual for Courts-Martial; Proposed Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ..., 2012 (77 FR 64854-64887), the JSC published a Notice of Proposed Amendments concerning the rules of procedure and evidence and the punitive articles applicable in trials by courts-martial and a Notice of... evidence and the punitive articles applicable in trials by courts-martial. These proposed changes have...

  12. 77 FR 53801 - Nexira; Filing of Food Additive Petition; Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-04

    ... Register on December 20, 2011 (76 FR 78866), FDA announced that a food additive petition (FAP 1A4784) had... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 172 Nexira; Filing of Food Additive Petition... Administration (FDA) is amending the filing notice for a food additive petition filed by Nexira proposing...

  13. 15 CFR 714.4 - Amended declaration or report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... process the amendment to ensure current information is on file regarding the facility or trading company... produced (e.g., production of additional Schedule 3 chemicals); (2) Production range (e.g., from 30 to 200... production (e.g., additional end-uses); or (4) Addition of new plant(s) for production of Schedule...

  14. Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant. License application, FSAR, amendment 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FSAR Amendment No. 6 consists principally of revisions of the portions relating to: (1) facilities for the interim storage of solid waste, (2) handling of spent iodine scrubber solutions, and (3) the rise of N2O4 as an oxidizer. (LK)

  15. Central Bank (Supervision and Enforcement) (Amendment) Bill 2016: Legislative Bill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butler, Graham; Rock, Noel

    2016-01-01

    Private Members' Bill (legislation) introduced in Dáil Éireann (House of Deputies), Houses of the Oireachtas (Irish Parliament). An Act to amend sections 49 and 51 of the Central Bank (Supervision and Enforcement) Act 2013 to ensure the powers exercised by the Central Bank of Ireland to make regu...

  16. 78 FR 46357 - National Cancer Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... published in the Federal Register on July 24, 2013, 78FR44577. This meeting notice is amended to provide a... indicated, members of the public may also dial-in to the teleconference using the following number:...

  17. 75 FR 77613 - Sunshine Act Notice-Amended

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office COMMISSION ON CIVIL RIGHTS Sunshine Act Notice--Amended AGENCY: United States Commission on Civil Rights. ACTION: Notice of Meeting. DATE AND TIME: Friday, December 17, 2010; 11:30 a.m. EST. PLACE: Via Teleconference, Public Dial In:...

  18. 32 CFR 312.9 - Appeal of initial amendment decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Appeal of initial amendment decision. 312.9 Section 312.9 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE... be provided to all future users of the file, and that the requester may file suit in a...

  19. 7 CFR 1488.6 - Amendments to financing agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Amendments to financing agreement. 1488.6 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS FINANCING OF SALES OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES Financing of Export Sales of Agricultural Commodities From Private Stocks Under...

  20. 78 FR 22414 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Reno, NV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-16

    ... (NPRM) to amend controlled airspace at Reno, NV (78 FR 5153). Interested parties were invited to... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a... FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in 14 CFR...

  1. 75 FR 23565 - Unfair or Deceptive Acts or Practices; Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... granting credit to a consumer, or as a condition for forbearance on collection of a consumer's obligation... amendments). See 74 FR 20804. On May 22, 2009, the President signed into law the Credit Card Accountability... those provisions of the Credit CARD Act that became effective on August 20, 2009. See 74 FR 36077....

  2. 77 FR 42427 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Grinnell, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-19

    ...) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26..., 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Grinnell, IA AGENCY:...

  3. 77 FR 14979 - Transportation Conformity Rule Restructuring Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    ... activities conform to the SIP. EPA first promulgated the conformity rule on November 24, 1993 (58 FR 62188... Amendments'') final rule and the July 1, 2004 final rule (75 FR 14260, and 69 FR 40004, respectively). Due to... area's attainment date has passed or has not yet been established (75 FR 49435). EPA is not...

  4. 41 CFR 101-1.111 - Retention of FPMR amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Retention of FPMR amendments. 101-1.111 Section 101-1.111 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS GENERAL 1-INTRODUCTION 1.1-Regulation System §...

  5. 78 FR 37723 - Laser Products; Proposed Amendment to Performance Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    ... Efforts In the Federal Register of March 24, 1999 (64 FR 14180), FDA published a proposed rule to amend.... In the Federal Register of November 26, 2004 (69 FR 68831), the Agency withdrew its March 1999... different standards (i.e., the IEC and FDA standards), in the Federal Register of July 26, 2001 (66 FR...

  6. 76 FR 33999 - Spouse and Surviving Spouse; Technical Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ... toll-free number). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On February 6, 1997 (62 FR 5528), VA amended 38 CFR part.... Administrative Procedure Act This action is a technical correction to cross-references in two regulations....C. 553. List of Subjects 38 CFR Part 18 Administrative practice and procedure, Aged,...

  7. 76 FR 55273 - Federal Travel Regulation; Per Diem, Miscellaneous Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-07

    ... approaches that maximize net benefits (including potential economic, environmental, public health and safety... Case 2011-301; Docket 2011-0018, Sequence 1] RIN 3090-AJ11 Federal Travel Regulation; Per Diem...: Interim rule with request for comments. SUMMARY: GSA is amending the Federal Travel Regulation (FTR)...

  8. 77 FR 24885 - Hazardous Materials; Miscellaneous Amendments (RRR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-26

    ... DOT's complete Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477...-2008-0005 (HM-215J) [74 FR 220] entitled ``Hazardous Materials: Revision to Requirements for the... RIN 2137-AE78 Hazardous Materials; Miscellaneous Amendments (RRR) AGENCY: Pipeline and...

  9. Counselor Educators' Gatekeeping Responsibilities and Students' First Amendment Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchens, Neal; Block, Jason; Young, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    In 2 recent legal cases, graduate counselor education students challenged the imposition of remediation plans as violating their First Amendment rights of freedom of speech and religion. With special emphasis on this recent litigation, the article examines the legal standards governing the authority of counselor educators at public colleges and…

  10. 76 FR 60511 - Amendment of Marine Safety Manual, Volume III

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Background and Purpose Chapter 16 of Volume III of the Marine Safety Manual... SECURITY Coast Guard Amendment of Marine Safety Manual, Volume III AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice... Offshore Units. The policy is currently found in Chapter 16 of the Marine Safety Manual, Volume III....

  11. 30 CFR 732.17 - State program amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... is not approved under this section, then the Director must begin proceedings under 30 CFR part 733 if... provisions of 43 CFR part 14 are complied with. (4) All State program amendments which may have an effect on...) Significant changes in funding or budgeting relative to the approved program; and (7) Significant changes...

  12. Waste rock revegetation: Evaluation of nutrient and biological amendments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meikle, T.W.; Lu, S.; Barta, J.P.

    1999-07-01

    Lack of salvaged topsoil for the reclamation of historical waste rock piles is a common problem in the arid Great Basin region. Utilization of amended waste rock as a growth media could reduce further disturbance resulting from topsoil harvest, minimize hauling costs, and potentially allow for the use of a higher quality material for plant growth. Getchell Gold Corporation initiated a study in 1995 to determine the suitability of waste rock substrates to support plant growth following application of nutrient and biological amendments. Three nutrient amendments and a biological seed treatment were evaluation for use in establishing vegetative cover on three distinct waste rock substrates. Completely randomized blocks were placed on the three substrates. Treatments included organic fertilizers (Biosol and Gro-Power), a mineral fertilizer (16-20-0), and Azospirillum bacterial inoculant, plus controls. The seed mix consisted of Agropyron riparium, Agropyron spicatum, Elymus cinereus, Poa secunda, and Sitanion hystrix. Canopy and ground cover were monitored for three growing seasons. Conclusions from the study are: (1) two of the three substrates supported plant growth following amendment with organic fertilizers; (2) organic fertilizers increased cover substantially over the mineral fertilizer; and (3) Azospirillum had no effect on canopy cover.

  13. Cesium and strontium sorption behavior in amended agricultural soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehmood, Khalid; Hofmann, Diana; Burauel, Peter; Vereecken, Harry; Berns, Anne E.

    2014-05-01

    Biogas digestates and biochar are emerging soil amendments. Biochar is a byproduct of pyrolysis process which is thermal decomposition of biomass to produce syngas and bio-oil. The use of biochar for soil amendment is being promoted for higher crop yields and carbon sequestration. Currently, the numbers of biogas plants in Germany are increasing to meet the new energy scenarios. The sustainability of biogas industry requires proper disposal options for digestate. Biogas digestates being rich in nutrients are beneficial to enhance agricultural productions. Contrary to the agronomical benefits of these organic amendments, their use can influence the mobility and bioavailability of soil contaminants due to nutrients competition and high organic matter content. So far, the impact of such amendments on highly problematic contaminants like radionuclides is not truly accounted for. In the present study, sorption-desorption behavior of cesium and strontium was investigated in three soils of different origin and texture. Two agricultural soils, a loamy sand and a silty soil, were amended with biochar and digestate in separate experiments, with field application rates of 25 Mg/ha and 34 Mg/ha, respectively. For comparison a third soil, a forest soil, was incubated without any amendment. The amendments were mixed into the top 20 cm of the field soils, resulting in final concentrations of 8-9 g biochar/Kg soil and 11-12 g digestate/Kg soil. The soils were incubated for about six months at room temperature. Sorption-desorption experiments were performed with CsCl and SrCl2 after pre-equilibrating the soils with CaCl2 solutions. The amendments with field application rates did not have a significant effect on the relevant soil parameters responsible for the sorption behavior of the two radionuclides. Comparatively, the soil type lead to distinctive differences in sorption-desorption dynamics of the two radionuclides. Cesium showed a higher affinity for silty soil followed by

  14. The First Amendment Right to Speak About the Human Genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Barbara J.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores whether laws that restrict the communication of genetic test results may, under certain circumstances, violate the First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. The focus is whether investigators have a right to return results from non-CLIA-certified laboratories in situations where a research participant requests the results and the investigator is willing to share them but is concerned that doing so may violate regulations under the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988 (“CLIA”). This article takes no position on whether investigators can be compelled to return results when they do not wish to do so. It examines only whether investigators may, not whether they must, return results to a willing research participant. The article: (1) surveys state and federal laws that block communication of genetic test results to research participants; (2) examines the historical use of speech restrictions as a tool for protecting human research subjects; (3) traces how First Amendment doctrine has evolved since the 1970s when foundations of modern research bioethics were laid; (4) inquires whether recent bioethical and policy debate has accorded due weight to the First Amendment. The article applies two common methods of legal analysis, textual and constitutional analysis. It concludes that the CLIA regulations, when properly construed, do not treat the return of results as an event that triggers CLIA’s certification requirements. Moreover, there is a potential First Amendment problem in construing CLIA’s research exception in a way that bans the return of results from non-CLIA-certified laboratories. PMID:25473380

  15. Teaching about Big Money in Elections: To Amend or Not to Amend the U.S. Constitution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwick, James M. M.; Levy, Brett L. M.

    2012-01-01

    Last summer, California and Massachusetts became the sixth and seventh states--along with Hawaii, New Mexico, Vermont, Rhode Island, and Maryland--to send a resolution to the U.S. Congress calling for a constitutional amendment to (1) end the court's extension of personhood rights to corporations, and (2) enable the government to definitively…

  16. Influence of organic amendments on the sorption of pentachlorophenol on soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ruijuan; WEN Bei; ZHANG Shuzhen; PEI Zhiguo; SHAN Xiaoquan

    2009-01-01

    The influence of pH on the sorption of pentachlorophenol (PCP) onto three organic amendments, char, humic acid (HA) and peat, and the effect of organic amendments on PCP sorption to three kinds of soils were evaluated. The sorption of PCP on these sorbents fitted the Freundlich model well, suggesting that PCP sorption isotherms were nonlinear with exponential coefficient (N) value lower than 1. The PCP sorption capacity on three organic amendments and the N values increased with decreasing pH. The sorption capacities were in the order: char > HA > peat. Organic amendments resulted in an enhancement of sorption capacities of soils. The N values of PCP sorption on soils were decreased by char amendment and increased by HA and peat amendments. This study demonstrated that application of traditional organic amendments led to the enhancement of PCP sorption by soils. This information may aid both in predicting environmental fates of hydrophobic ionizable organic compounds and in developing remediation strategies for them.

  17. Amendment to the Solomon Islands National Provident Fund Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    On 6 June 1988 the Solomon Islands National Provident Fund Act was amended to allow the Solomon Islands National Provident Fund Board to grant loans to members of the Fund. In November 1989 under authority of this amendment the Board implemented a housing scheme for members of the Fund. It instituted loans for the purchase of residential homes from property owners, the construction of residential houses, and the redemption of bank loans obtained for purchase or construction of residential houses. To qualify for the loan the applicant must be a permanent employee, be an active member of the Fund, and less than 50 years old, and the house sought to be purchased or built must be on registered land. PMID:12344585

  18. Cadmium sorption and mobility in sludge-amended soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium sorption was examined in three soils that were unamended, freshly amended, or preconditioned with gamma-irradiated sewage sludge. Metal sorption in the same soils treated with a CaCl2-extract of the sludge was also studied. Cadmium sorption was greatest in the unamended soils, less in soils preconditioned with sludge, and least in the freshly amended soils and sludge-extract-treated soils. The authors attempted to explain the treatment effects on the basis of reduced free metal ion activity, but the explanations were not adequate. Despite the reduction in metal retention effected by various treatments, cadmium mobility was very limited. Short- or long-term leaching studies showed cadmium movement to be limited to 1 or 2 m below the zone of sludge (109Cd) incorporation. Cadmium mobility is expected to be very limited in calcareous soils, regardless of sludge treatments. 24 references, 1 figure, 5 tables

  19. Soil amendment with olive mill wastes: impact on groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, Maria Clementina; De Girolamo, Anna Maria; Volpe, Angela

    2013-12-15

    Two sets of soil lysimeters were amended with solid and liquid olive mill wastes and the composition of leachate was analysed. Five treatments were carried out using: olive mill wastewater (OMW) at two different rates (80 and 320 m(3)/ha); OMW pre-treated by catalytical digestion with MnO2; compost obtained by exhausted olive pomace; freshwater as the control. Electric conductivity, pH, potassium, total polyphenols and nitrates were monitored in the leachate as indexes of potential groundwater contamination. The study demonstrated that the impact of all the selected amendments on groundwater was the minimum. OMW was safely applied to soil even at four times the rate allowed by the Italian law, and pre-treatment by catalytical digestion was not necessary to further reduce the impact on groundwater. The application of olive pomace compost was equally safe. PMID:24178314

  20. The Pursuit of an Effective Balanced Budget Amendment

    OpenAIRE

    Cebula, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This article provides an alternative to the standard simplistic form of a balanced budget amendment to the U.S. Constitution. Instead of simply prohibiting government outlays from exceeding government revenues, which could lead to higher government spending and to higher taxation levels, this proposal provides potential flexibility in the federal budget and deficit conditions (when necessary) while protecting against tax increases and excessive growth in government outlays. The proposal proh...

  1. Central Bank (Supervision and Enforcement) (Amendment) Bill 2016: Legislative Bill

    OpenAIRE

    Butler, Graham; Rock, Noel

    2016-01-01

    Private Members' Bill (legislation) introduced in Dáil Éireann (House of Deputies), Houses of the Oireachtas (Irish Parliament).An Act to amend sections 49 and 51 of the Central Bank (Supervision and Enforcement) Act 2013 to ensure the powers exercised by the Central Bank of Ireland to make regulations, conferred by the Central Bank (Supervision and Enforcement) Act 2013 are fit for purpose; and to provide for related matters.

  2. Biochar amendment and greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural soils

    OpenAIRE

    Case, Sean

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of biochar amendment on soil greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and to elucidate the mechanisms behind these effects. I investigated the suppression of soil carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions in a bioenergy and arable crop soil, at a range of temperatures and with or without wetting/drying cycles. More detailed investigation on the underlying mechanisms focused on soil N2O emissions. I tested how biochar alter...

  3. Bioavailability of heavy metals in soils amended with sewage sludge

    OpenAIRE

    Morera Luzán, María Teresa; Echeverría Morrás, Jesús; Garrido Segovia, Julián José

    2002-01-01

    The recycling of sewage sludge to agricultural land results in the slow accumulation of potentially toxic heavy metals in soils. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to determine the bioavailability of Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn applied to soils in urban anaerobically stabilized sewage sludge. The soils were Lithic Haplumbrept (Lh), Calcixerollic Xerochrept (Cx1 and Cx2) and Paralithic Xerorthent (Px). Sunflower plants (Helianthus annuus L) were grown in. the soils following amendment with the slu...

  4. Crop residue decomposition in Minnesota biochar-amended plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyers, S. L.; Spokas, K. A.

    2014-06-01

    Impacts of biochar application at laboratory scales are routinely studied, but impacts of biochar application on decomposition of crop residues at field scales have not been widely addressed. The priming or hindrance of crop residue decomposition could have a cascading impact on soil processes, particularly those influencing nutrient availability. Our objectives were to evaluate biochar effects on field decomposition of crop residue, using plots that were amended with biochars made from different plant-based feedstocks and pyrolysis platforms in the fall of 2008. Litterbags containing wheat straw material were buried in July of 2011 below the soil surface in a continuous-corn cropped field in plots that had received one of seven different biochar amendments or a uncharred wood-pellet amendment 2.5 yr prior to start of this study. Litterbags were collected over the course of 14 weeks. Microbial biomass was assessed in treatment plots the previous fall. Though first-order decomposition rate constants were positively correlated to microbial biomass, neither parameter was statistically affected by biochar or wood-pellet treatments. The findings indicated only a residual of potentially positive and negative initial impacts of biochars on residue decomposition, which fit in line with established feedstock and pyrolysis influences. Overall, these findings indicate that no significant alteration in the microbial dynamics of the soil decomposer communities occurred as a consequence of the application of plant-based biochars evaluated here.

  5. Crop residue decomposition in Minnesota biochar amended plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyers, S. L.; Spokas, K. A.

    2014-02-01

    Impacts of biochar application at laboratory scales are routinely studied, but impacts of biochar application on decomposition of crop residues at field scales have not been widely addressed. The priming or hindrance of crop residue decomposition could have a cascading impact on soil processes, particularly those influencing nutrient availability. Our objectives were to evaluate biochar effects on field decomposition of crop residue, using plots that were amended with biochars made from different feedstocks and pyrolysis platforms prior to the start of this study. Litterbags containing wheat straw material were buried below the soil surface in a continuous-corn cropped field in plots that had received one of seven different biochar amendments or a non-charred wood pellet amendment 2.5 yr prior to start of this study. Litterbags were collected over the course of 14 weeks. Microbial biomass was assessed in treatment plots the previous fall. Though first-order decomposition rate constants were positively correlated to microbial biomass, neither parameter was statistically affected by biochar or wood-pellet treatments. The findings indicated only a residual of potentially positive and negative initial impacts of biochars on residue decomposition, which fit in line with established feedstock and pyrolysis influences. Though no significant impacts were observed with field-weathered biochars, effective soil management may yet have to account for repeat applications of biochar.

  6. Crop residue decomposition in Minnesota biochar amended plots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Weyers

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Impacts of biochar application at laboratory scales are routinely studied, but impacts of biochar application on decomposition of crop residues at field scales have not been widely addressed. The priming or hindrance of crop residue decomposition could have a cascading impact on soil processes, particularly those influencing nutrient availability. Our objectives were to evaluate biochar effects on field decomposition of crop residue, using plots that were amended with biochars made from different feedstocks and pyrolysis platforms prior to the start of this study. Litterbags containing wheat straw material were buried below the soil surface in a continuous-corn cropped field in plots that had received one of seven different biochar amendments or a non-charred wood pellet amendment 2.5 yr prior to start of this study. Litterbags were collected over the course of 14 weeks. Microbial biomass was assessed in treatment plots the previous fall. Though first-order decomposition rate constants were positively correlated to microbial biomass, neither parameter was statistically affected by biochar or wood-pellet treatments. The findings indicated only a residual of potentially positive and negative initial impacts of biochars on residue decomposition, which fit in line with established feedstock and pyrolysis influences. Though no significant impacts were observed with field-weathered biochars, effective soil management may yet have to account for repeat applications of biochar.

  7. Use of clinoptilolite amendment as a countermeasure for contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widespread contamination with radiocaesium and radiostrontium of large areas in Ukraine, Belarus and Russia occurred after the Chernobyl accident. The intervention potential of man to reduce food contamination and consequently to decrease the radiation dose to the population basically consists of trying to reduce the radionuclide levels in the soil solution by specific soil treatments or amendments. Laboratory tests, using freshwater sediments (for which the sorption mechanisms are similar to those of soils) and a zeolite material (clinoptilolite) as adsorbent, have been carried out in order to provide reliable tools for predicting the amendment effectiveness and the required dose for a given scenario. Results for radiostrontium and radiocaesium partitioning between sediments and clinoptilolite, and values of the distribution coefficient Kd for adsorption and desorption for sediments and clinoptilolite have been obtained, using two protocols. These protocols differ merely in the sequence of the addition of reagents, the entire procedure being a common final state experiment. The results show that for radiostrontium the desorption yields from sediments are consistent with complete reversibility, the cation exchange capacity values and the Sr/Ca selectivity behaviour in both systems. On the other hand, for radiocaesium, significant fractions are irreversibly retained in sediments. It is concluded that in the area of terrestrial radioecology the efficiency of the use of zeolites in soil amendments can be predicted on the basis of measurements of radionuclide Kd values for soil and adsorbent in a solution of a composition identical with that of the 'in situ' soil solution. (author). 12 refs, 3 tabs

  8. Stable Isotope Probing of Peat and Forest Floor Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quideau, Sylvie; Béasse, Mark

    2013-04-01

    In Alberta, Canada, land reclamation efforts utilize peat as an organic amendment to help reclaim decommissioned oil sands mine sites to upland boreal forests. This study investigates the rhizosphere microbial communities of two pioneer species, aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.), a species not known for strong associations with the soil microbial community, and alder (Alnus crispa Ait.), a species well known for mutualism with actinomycetes. Specifically, the objective was to determine how different organic amendments (peat versus forest floor) influenced the rhizosphere microbial communities and how this could be linked to plant growth. Seedlings were grown for 20 weeks in forest floor material, peat, and a combination of both. They were pulse labelled with 13CO2 (g) and subsequently harvested for plant growth measurements. While analysis of plant growth attributes did not indicate any effect of the organic amendment on aspen growth, alder reported significantly less growth in peat treatments. The rhizosphere soils were extracted for compound-specific analysis of δ13C in microbial phospholipid fatty acids. Stable isotope probing showed greater carbon flow between trees and their rhizosphere communities when seedlings were grown in forest floor material.

  9. Speciation and bioavailability of zinc in amended sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Aaron G.B.; Scheckel, Kirk G.; McDermott, Gregory; Gratson, David; Neptune, Dean; Ryan, James A.

    2011-12-09

    The speciation and bioavailability of zinc (Zn) in smelter-contaminated sediments were investigated as a function of phosphate (apatite) and organic amendment loading rate. Zinc species identified in preamendment sediment were zinc hydroxide-like phases, sphalerite, and zinc sorbed to an iron oxide via X-ray adsorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. Four months after adding the amendments to the contaminated sediment, hopeite, a Zn phosphate mineral, was identified indicating phosphate was binding and sequestering available Zn and Zn pore water concentrations were decreased at levels of 90% or more. Laboratory experiments indicate organic amendments exhibit a limited effect and may hinder sequestration of pore water Zn when mixed with apatite. The acute toxicity of the sediment Zn was evaluated with Hyalella azteca, and bioaccumulation of Zn with Lumbriculus variegates. The survivability of H. azteca increased as a function of phosphate (apatite) loading rate. In contaminated sediment without apatite, no specimens of H. azteca survived. The bioaccumulation of Zn in L. variegates also followed a trend of decreased bioaccumulation with increased phosphate loading in the contaminated sediment. The research supports an association between Zn speciation and bioavailability.

  10. Enhanced Remedial Amendment Delivery to Subsurface Using Shear Thinning Fluid and Aqueous Foam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Lirong; Szecsody, James E.; Oostrom, Martinus; Truex, Michael J.; Shen, Xin; Li, Xiqing

    2011-04-23

    A major issue with in situ subsurface remediation is the ability to achieve an even spatial distribution of remedial amendments to the contamination zones in an aquifer or vadose zone. Delivery of amendment to the aquifer using shear thinning fluid and to the vadose zone using aqueous foam has the potential to enhance the amendment distribution into desired locations and improve the remediation. 2-D saturated flow cell experiments were conducted to evaluate the enhanced sweeping, contaminant removal, and amendment persistence achieved by shear thinning fluid delivery. Bio-polymer xanthan gum solution was used as the shear thinning fluid. Unsaturated 1-D column and 2-D flow cell experiments were conducted to evaluate the mitigation of contaminant mobilization, amendment uniform distribution enhancement, and lateral delivery improvement by foam delivery. Surfactant sodium lauryl ether sulfate was used as the foaming agent. It was demonstrated that the shear thinning fluid injection enhanced the fluid sweeping over a heterogeneous system and increased the delivery of remedial amendment into low-permeability zones. The persistence of the amendment distributed into the low-perm zones by the shear thinning fluid was prolonged compared to that of amendment distributed by water injection. Foam delivery of amendment was shown to mitigate the mobilization of highly mobile contaminant from sediments under vadose zone conditions. Foam delivery also achieved more uniform amendment distribution in a heterogeneous unsaturated system, and demonstrated remarkable increasing in lateral distribution of the injected liquid compared to direct liquid injection.

  11. Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act Section 120(e)(5)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is committed to conducting its operations. In a safe and environmentally sound manner. High priorities for the Department are identifying and correcting environmental problems at DOE facilities that resulted from past operations, and preventing environmental problems from occurring during present and future operations. In this regard, the Department is committed to the 30-year goal of cleanup of all facilities by the year 2019. DOE has issued an Order and guidance establishing policy and procedures for activities conducted under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA), and has developed a Five-Year Plan, updated annually, that integrates planing for corrective activities, environmental restoration, and waste management operations at its facilities. During Calendar Year 1991 and early 1992, DOE made significant progress in reaching agreements with regulatory entities, undertaking cleanup actions, and initiating preventive measures designed to eliminate future environmental problems. These accomplishments are described

  12. Dry FGD by-products as amendments for acid mine spoil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reclamation of mine-sites with acid overburden requires the use of alkaline amendments and represents a potential high-volume use of alkaline dry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products. In a greenhouse study, 25-cm columns of acid mine spoil were amended with two FGD by-products: lime injection multistage burners (LIMB) fly ash or pressurized fluidized bed (PFBC) fly ash at rates of 0, 4, 8, 16, and 32% by weight (0, 40, 80, 160, and 320 tons/acre). Amended spoil was covered with 20 cm of acid topsoil amended with the corresponding FGD by-product to pH 7. Column leachate pH increased with FGD amendment rate while leachate Fe, Mn, and Zn decreased. Leachate Ca, S, and Mg decreased with LIMB amendment rate and increased with PFBC amendment. Leachate concentrations of regulated metals were decreased or unaffected by FGD amendment except for Se which was increased by PFBC. Spoil pH was increased up to 8.9 by PFBC, and up to 9.2 by LIMB amendment. Spoil pH also increased with depth with FGD amendments of 16 and 32%. Yield of fescue was increased by FGD amendment of 4 to 8%. Plant tissue content of most elements was unaffected by FGD amendment rate, and no toxicity symptoms were observed. Plant Ca and Mg were increased by LIMB and PFBC respectively, while plant S, Mn and Sr were decreased. Plant Ca and B was increased by LIMB, and plant Mg and S by PFBC amendment. These results indicate dry FGD by-products are effective in ameliorating acid spoils and have a low potential for creating adverse environmental impacts

  13. Chloropicrin Emission Reduction by Soil Amendment with Biochar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiuxia; Yan, Dongdong; Liu, Pengfei; Mao, Liangang; Wang, Dong; Fang, Wensheng; Li, Yuan; Ouyang, Canbin; Guo, Meixia; Cao, Aocheng

    2015-01-01

    Biochar has sorption capacity, and can be used to enhance the sequestration of volatile organic contaminants such as pesticides in soil. Chloropicrin (CP) is an important soil fumigant for the production of many fruit and vegetable crops, but its emissions must be minimized to reduce exposure risks and air pollution. The objective of this study was to determine the capacity of biochar to adsorb CP and the effect of biochar amendments to soil on CP emission, concentration in the soil gas phase, degradation in soil and CP bioactivity for controlling soil borne pests. CP emission and concentration in the soil air phase were measured from packed soil columns after fumigant injection at 20-cm depth and application of selected doses of biocharto the surface 5 cm soil. Laboratory incubation and fumigation experiments were conducted to determine the capacity of biochar to adsorb CP, the effects on CP degradation and, separately, CP's bioactivity on soil borne pests in soil amended with biochar. Biochar amendment at 2% to 5% (w/w) greatly reduced total CP emission losses by 85.7% - 97.7% compared to fumigation without biochar. CP concentrations in the soil gas-phase, especially in the top 5 cm of soil, were reduced within 48 h following application. The half-life of CP decreased from 13.6 h to 6.4 h as the biochar rate increased from 0% to 5%. CP and its metabolite (dichloronitromethane) both degraded more rapidly in pure biochar than in soil. The biochar used in the present study had a maximum adsorption capacity for CP of less than 5 mg g(-1). There were no negative effects on pathogen and nematode control when the biochar used in this study was less than 1% (on a weight basis) in soil. Biochar amendment to soil reduced the emissions of CP. CP concentrations in the top 5 cm of soil gas-phase were reduced. CP degradation was accelerated with the addition of biochar. The biochar used in the present study had a low adsorption capacity for CP. There were no negative effects

  14. Chloropicrin Emission Reduction by Soil Amendment with Biochar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuxia Wang

    Full Text Available Biochar has sorption capacity, and can be used to enhance the sequestration of volatile organic contaminants such as pesticides in soil. Chloropicrin (CP is an important soil fumigant for the production of many fruit and vegetable crops, but its emissions must be minimized to reduce exposure risks and air pollution. The objective of this study was to determine the capacity of biochar to adsorb CP and the effect of biochar amendments to soil on CP emission, concentration in the soil gas phase, degradation in soil and CP bioactivity for controlling soil borne pests. CP emission and concentration in the soil air phase were measured from packed soil columns after fumigant injection at 20-cm depth and application of selected doses of biocharto the surface 5 cm soil. Laboratory incubation and fumigation experiments were conducted to determine the capacity of biochar to adsorb CP, the effects on CP degradation and, separately, CP's bioactivity on soil borne pests in soil amended with biochar. Biochar amendment at 2% to 5% (w/w greatly reduced total CP emission losses by 85.7% - 97.7% compared to fumigation without biochar. CP concentrations in the soil gas-phase, especially in the top 5 cm of soil, were reduced within 48 h following application. The half-life of CP decreased from 13.6 h to 6.4 h as the biochar rate increased from 0% to 5%. CP and its metabolite (dichloronitromethane both degraded more rapidly in pure biochar than in soil. The biochar used in the present study had a maximum adsorption capacity for CP of less than 5 mg g(-1. There were no negative effects on pathogen and nematode control when the biochar used in this study was less than 1% (on a weight basis in soil. Biochar amendment to soil reduced the emissions of CP. CP concentrations in the top 5 cm of soil gas-phase were reduced. CP degradation was accelerated with the addition of biochar. The biochar used in the present study had a low adsorption capacity for CP. There were no

  15. Heavy metals and yield of cowpea cultivated under composted tannery sludge amendment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuna Carmo Ribeiro Gonçalves

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to evaluate the phytoavailability of heavy metals (Cr, Cd, Ni and Pb concentrations in leaves and grains, and yield of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L grown in soil amended with composted tannery sludge (CTS for two consecutive years. The experiments were carried out in 2009 and 2010 in soil amended with CTS at 0, 5, 10, 20, and 40 Mg ha-1. The CTS amendment rates applied were above 10 Mg ha-1, increased Cr concentrations in cowpea leaves. There were not increases in the heavy metals concentrations in cowpea grains after two years. In 2009, the application of CTS amendment did not promote increase in plant yield. However, in 2010, CTS amendment at 10 and 20 Mg ha-1 increased cowpea yield. The amendment of composted tannery sludge linearly increased linearly the concentration of Cr in the leaves of cowpea after two years. Composted tannery sludge promoted increases in cowpea yield.

  16. Germination and seedling growth of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) as influenced by organic amendments

    OpenAIRE

    Banashree Sarma; Nirmali Gogoi

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to understand the effects of different soil organic amendments on germination and seedling vigour of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.). Five treatments with organic amendments (farmyard manure, vermicompost and biochar) and mineral fertilizers were designed in randomized block design with three replications. Results showed that organic amendments significantly enhanced per cent seed germination and emergence speed index compared to inorganic fertilizer. Highest homogene...

  17. Safeguarding the Dignity of Women under the Criminal Law Amendment Act 2013-A Critical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    R C Borpatragohain

    2013-01-01

    This viewpoint aims to analyse the Criminal Law Amendment Act 2013 from a legal perspective. In doing so, it discusses the statutory safeguards of rights to a dignified life of a woman by analysing the various existing laws, which have been significantly amended to build the Criminal Act, 2013. These laws are: Indian Penal Code (IPC) 1860; Indian Evidence Act 1872, Code of Criminal Procedure as amended in 1973, Immoral Trafficking Prevention Act 1956, Information Technology Act 2000, The Juve...

  18. Protein and Chlorophyll Contents of Solanum melongena on Diesel Oil Polluted Soil Amended with Nutrient Supplements

    OpenAIRE

    C.O. Akujobi; R.A. Onyeagba; V.O. Nwaugo; N.N. Odu

    2011-01-01

    The study investigated the remediation effect of nutrient amendments of diesel oil polluted soil on protein and chlorophyll contents of eggplant (Solanum melongena). Soil samples were polluted and amended separately with different weights of poultry waste, pig waste, cow dung and inorganic fertilizer. Soil samples were also polluted with diesel oil without amendment to achieve 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10% pollution. Samples were analyzed at two weeks interval for sixteen weeks. The plant protein and ch...

  19. Effect of Nutrient Amendments of Diesel Oil Polluted Soil on Plant Growth Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    C.O. Akujobi; R.A. Onyeagba; V.O. Nwaugo; N.N. Odu

    2011-01-01

    The study investigated the effect of nutrient amendments of diesel oil polluted soil on plant height, leaf area and leaf numbers of eggplant (Solanum melongena). Soil samples were polluted and amended separately with different weights of poultry waste, pig waste, cow dung and inorganic fertilizer. Soil samples were also polluted with diesel oil without amendment to achieve 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10% pollution. Samples were analyzed at two weeks interval for sixteen weeks. The plant growth parameters ...

  20. Organic amendment addition enhances phosphate fertiliser uptake and wheat growth in an acid soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schefe, C.R.; Patti, A.F.; Clune, T.S.; Jackson, W.R. [Rutherglen Centre, Rutherglen, Vic. (Australia). Dept. of Primary Industries

    2008-07-01

    The effect of 2 organic amendments (lignite and compost) on wheat growth and phosphate fertiliser efficiency (triple superphosphate, TSP; di-ammonium phosphate, DAP) in an acid soil was investigated in a glasshouse experiment. Organic amendments were incorporated into the top 40 mm of soil at rates resulting in a 1% and 2.5% increase in soil C, and fertilisers were banded within the seed row at rates equivalent to 5, 10, and 25 kg P/ ha. When no P was applied, addition of both organic amendments increased shoot height, with greatest growth recorded in the compost-amended treatments. Addition of organic amendments and P fertiliser resulted in additive effects, with increased shoot height, tiller number, and shoot dry matter (DM) in both the lignite-and compost-amended soils with fertiliser addition. The addition of 1% C resulted in plant growth equal to that measured at a higher rate of addition (2.5% C), resulting in a higher relative efficiency of application. Tissue P uptake was significantly increased when soil amendment was combined with 25 kg P/ ha DAP addition. Significant differences in nutrient uptake were also measured for other important plant nutrients. As the addition of organic amendments resulted in increased DM compared with untreated soil per unit of P fertiliser applied, it is feasible that this growth response may translate into increased yield. However, further study is required to de. ne the agronomic and economic feasibility of broad-scale application of such amendments for production gains.

  1. Progress of research and utilization of soil amendments in phytoremediation of radioactive contamination soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the increasing of soil pollution and degradation, it becomes more important to research and apply soil amendments in agriculture. This paper reviewed different kinds of soil amendments and their impacts on phytostabilization and phytoextraction techniques, and summarized the application of soil amendments in the radio-contaminated soils as well as their effects on the phytoremediation. The main repair mechanisms of the soil amendments are involved in adsorption, ion exchange, chelation, and complexation. The potential applications in the phytoremediation on radio-contaminated soils, as well as the main repair mechanisms and the existing problems were discussed. (authors)

  2. Tenth act amending the German atomic energy act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On January 14, 2009, the German federal government introduced into parliament the 10th Act Amending the Atomic Energy Act. In the first reading in the federal parliament, Federal Minister for the Environment Gabriel emphasized 2 main points: Intensified protection of nuclear facilities and of transports of radioactive substances against unauthorized interventions; transfer by law to the Federal Office for Radiological Protection (BfS) of decommissioning of the Asse mine. Reliability review: The amendment to Sec.12 b of the Atomic Energy Act is to meet the different safety and security conditions after the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001 in the United States and other terrorist activities afterwards (London, Madrid) also with respect to hazards arising to nuclear facilities and nuclear transports. The bill must be seen in conjunction with the Ordinance on Reliability Reviews under the Atomic Energy Act dated July 1, 1999 which covers reviews of reliability of persons holding special responsibilities. Asse II mine: The competence of the Federal Office for Radiological Protection is achieved by an amendment to Sec.23, Para.1, Number 2, Atomic Energy Act, in which the words ''and for the Asse II mine'' are added after the word ''waste.'' Further proceedings depend on the additional provision in a new Sec.57 b, Atomic Energy Act. Accordingly, the operation and decommissioning of the Asse II mine are subject to the regulations applicable to facilities of the federation pursuant to Sec.9a, Para.3. In this way, Asse II is given the same legal status as the federal waste management facilities. Moreover, it is stipulated that the mine is to be shut down immediately. (orig.)

  3. Biological responses of agricultural soils to fly-ash amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajeev Pratap; Sharma, Bhavisha; Sarkar, Abhijit; Sengupta, Chandan; Singh, Pooja; Ibrahim, Mahamad Hakimi

    2014-01-01

    The volume of solid waste produced in the world is increasing annually, and disposing of such wastes is a growing problem. Fly ash (FA) is a form of solid waste that is derived from the combustion of coal. Research has shown that fly ash may be disposed of by using it to amend agricultural soils. This review addresses the feasibility of amending agricultural field soils with fly ash for the purpose of improvings oil health and enhancing the production of agricultural crops. The current annual production of major coal combustion residues (CCRs) is estimated to be -600 million worldwide, of which about 500 million t (70-80%) is FA (Ahmaruzzaman 2010). More than 112 million t of FA is generated annually in India alone, and projections show that the production (including both FA and bottom ash) may exceed 170 million t per annum by 2015 (Pandey et al. 2009; Pandey and Singh 20 I 0). Managing this industrial by-product is a big challenge, because more is produced each year, and disposal poses a growing environmental problem.Studies on FA clearly shows that its application as an amendment to agricultural soils can significantly improve soil quality, and produce higher soil fertility. What FA application method is best and what level of application is appropriate for any one soil depends on the following factors: type of soil treated, crop grown, the prevailing agro climatic condition and the character of the FA used. Although utilizing FA in agricultural soils may help address solid waste disposal problems and may enhance agricultural production, its use has potential adverse effects also. In particular, using it in agriculture may enhance amounts of radionuclides and heavy metals that reach soils, and may therefore increase organism exposures in some instances. PMID:24984834

  4. Metal and nanoparticle occurrence in biosolid-amended soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metals can accumulate in soils amended with biosolids in which metals have been concentrated during wastewater treatment. The goal of this study is to inspect agricultural sites with long-term biosolid application for a suite of regulated and unregulated metals, including some potentially present as commonly used engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). Sampling occurred in fields at a municipal and a privately operated biosolid recycling facilities in Texas. Depth profiles of various metals were developed for control soils without biosolid amendment and soils with different rates of biosolid application (6.6 to 74 dry tons per hectare per year) over 5 to 25 years. Regulated metals of known toxicity, including chromium, copper, cadmium, lead, and zinc, had higher concentrations in the upper layer of biosolid-amended soils (top 0–30 cm or 0–15 cm) than in control soils. The depth profiles of unregulated metals (antimony, hafnium, molybdenum, niobium, gold, silver, tantalum, tin, tungsten, and zirconium) indicate higher concentrations in the 0–30 cm soil increment than in the 70–100 cm soil increment, indicating low vertical mobility after entering the soils. Titanium-containing particles between 50 nm and 250 nm in diameter were identified in soil by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) coupled with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis. In conjunction with other studies, this research shows the potential for nanomaterials used in society that enter the sewer system to be removed at municipal biological wastewater treatment plants and accumulate in agricultural fields. The metal concentrations observed herein could be used as representative exposure levels for eco-toxicological studies in these soils. - Highlights: • Biosolid land application increased the unregulated metal contents in surface soil. • Metals (e.g., Ag) associated with ENMs show accumulation and low mobility in soils. • Titanium-containing nanoparticle (50 nm in diameter) was

  5. Using different amendments to reduce heavy metals movement in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With long-term use of sewage waste, heavy metals can accumulate to phyto toxic levels and resulted in reduced plant growth and/or enhanced metal concentrations in plants, as a result food chain. If these metals penetrate too rapidly in a particular soil, especially with high water table, they can pollute ground water supplies. The aim of this research is prevention of movement of waste water-borne heavy metals in soils of southern parts of Tehran. These waste waters are used for irrigation of agricultural lands at regions since many years ago. For this purpose, 6 soil samples from southern parts of Tehran city and 2 ones Zanjan city without lime and organic matter were selected. In laboratory, sorption capacities of the soils for Ni, Cd and Pb were compared with those of calcite, Na-bentonite, Zeolite, illite and hematite amendments. The method was carried out by equilibration of known quantities of these adsorbents and soils with solutions containing these elements. The results showed that among the 5 amendments, Calcite and Na-bentonite had the greatest sorption percentages of the 3 elements and illite had the least one. The retention capacity of calcite and Na-bentonite for Cd was highest in all 8 soils. However, retention capacities of these 2 minerals for Pb and Ni were higher than those of loamy soils without lime and organic matter and also sandy soils. Because of abundance and low price of calcite, this amendment is preferred to Na-bentonite. Therefore, calcite is recommended for adding to soils with low sorption capacity of Ni, Cd and Pb

  6. Act No. 15 amending the Radiation Protection Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This amendment to the Radiation Protection Act of 26 April 1957 (No. 174/57) provides that non ionizing electromagnetic radiation now falls within the scope of the Radiation Protection Act. Any plant or device emitting this type of radiation must be approved by the competent authority before it can be operated or sold. However, no safety permit is needed in their respect. The authority competent for implementing these regulations will be designated by decree; in all likelihood this will be the Radiation Protection Centre (NEA)

  7. Proposed general amendments to the atomic energy control regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada's Atomic Energy Control Act defines the powers and responsibilities of the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB). Among these is to make regulations to control the development, application and use of atomic energy. In these proposed general amendments to the Atomic Energy Control Regulations substantial changes are proposed in the designation of the authority of AECB staff, exemptions from licensing, international safeguards, duties of licensees and atomic radiation workers, security of information, and provision for hearings. The scope of the control of atomic energy has been redefined as relating to matters of health, safety, security, international safeguards, and the protection of the environment

  8. Drug policy in Indonesia; Law amendment but punitive approach remains

    OpenAIRE

    Sudirman Nasir, PhD

    2015-01-01

    The first Indonesian law on narcotics (Law Number 22 year 1997) was amended and the Indonesian???s government and parliament introduced a new law on narcotics i.e. Law Number 35 year 2009. This article argues that though the new law does introduce some positive measures e.g. addressing health concerns through the requirement to provide medical and social rehabilitation for individuals who are dependent on drugs, the law in fact still preserves most of the spirit of Indonesia???s ???war on dru...

  9. Implementation of legislation amending the Price--Anderson Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proposed amendments for the implementation of the Price-Anderson Act require both persons licensed to possess plutonium in the amount of 5 kilograms or more and persons licensed to process plutonium in the amount of 1 kilogram or more for use in plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants to maintain financial protection in the amount of $125 million. Indemnity coverage would be extended to such licensee at $5,000 per year. The Commission does not intend to extend separate coverage under the Act to transportation of nuclear materials. A proposed date of implementation is August 1977

  10. Amendments to the Rules of the Pension Fund - Family Composition

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    On the recommendation by the Governing Board of the Pension Fund, the Director-General submits this proposal to the Finance Committee for recommendation to the Council, and to the Council for approval. The corresponding modifications of the Rules of the Pension Fund are set out in Annex to this document. They consist of the introduction of new Articles II 5.08, II 5.09 and II 6.09, and of an amendment to existing article II 7.01. The proposed measures are aimed at protecting the Pension Fund (The Fund) against situations which must be considered outside the scope of its responsibility.

  11. Amendments to the Rules of the Pension Fund - Family Composition

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    On the recommendation by the Governing Board of the Pension Fund, the Director-General submits this proposal to the Finance Committee for recommendation to the Council, and to the Council for approval. The corresponding modifications of the Rules of the Pension Fund are set out in Annex to this document. They consist of the introduction of new Articles II 5.08, II 5.09 and II 6.09, and of amendments to existing article II 7.01 a). The proposed measures are aimed at protecting the Pension Fund (The Fund) against situations which must be considered outside the scope of its responsibility.

  12. Amendments to the Law on Value Added Tax in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simeana Beshi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Main purpose of this paper is to explore and analyze the objectives and effects of amendments in the Law on Value Added Tax (VAT as part of the new fiscal package in Kosovo. This paper is based on a quantitative analysis. Some of the methods used in this paperwork are: historical- , descriptive-, and comparative method. It relies on facts and researches conducted by international organizations, based on productive forces and on the development of economic capacities in general, also a comparative overview of the fiscal policies applied in different states. This paper presents also the challenges of Kosovo, towards EU, by harmonizing tax legislation, fiscal policy and combating tax evasion.

  13. Mobility of heavy metals in soils amended with sewage sludge

    OpenAIRE

    Morera Luzán, María Teresa; Echeverría Morrás, Jesús; Garrido Segovia, Julián José

    2001-01-01

    Sewage sludges added to arable land can improve soil fertility and physical properties. However, the concentrations of heavy metals commonly found in sludges limits their application to soil. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the mobility of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) in four soils amended with different rates (0, 80, 60 and 320 t ha-1) of anaerobically stabilized urban sewage sludge. Total metal content in the sewage sludge was Zn much greater than Cu > Pb > Ni much grea...

  14. Soil degradation and amendment effects on soil properties, microbial communities, and plant growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhardt, M.; Fehmi, J. S.; Rasmussen, C.; Gallery, R. E.

    2015-12-01

    Human activities that disrupt soil properties are fundamentally changing ecosystems. Soil degradation, caused by anthropogenic disturbance can decrease microbial abundance and activity, leading to changes in nutrient availability, soil organic matter, and plant establishment. The addition of amendments to disturbed soils have the potential ameliorate these negative consequences. We studied the effects of soil degradation, via an autoclave heat shock method, and the addition of amendments (biochar and woodchips) on microbial activity, soil carbon and nitrogen availability, microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen content, and plant growth of ten plant species native to the semi-arid southwestern US. Relative to non-degraded soils, microbial activity, measured via extracellular enzyme assays, was significantly lower for all seven substrates assayed. These soils also had significantly lower amounts of carbon assimilated into microbial biomass but no change in microbial biomass nitrogen. Soil degradation had no effect on plant biomass. Amendments caused changes in microbial activity: biochar-amended soils had significant increases in potential activity with five of the seven substrates measured; woodchip amended soils had significant increases with two. Soil carbon increased with both amendments but this was not reflected in a significant change in microbial biomass carbon. Biochar-amended soils had increases in soil nitrogen availability but neither amendment caused changes in microbial biomass nitrogen. Biochar amendments had no significant effect on above- or belowground plant biomass while woodchips significantly decreased aboveground plant biomass. Results show that soil degradation decreases microbial activity and changes nutrient dynamics, but these are not reflected in changes in plant growth. Amendments provide nutrient sources and change soil pore space, which cause microbial activities to fluctuate and may, in the case of woodchips, increase plant drought

  15. Amendment of regulations on radiation protection in medicine in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The regulations of radiation protection for medicine are planning an amendment based on the ICRP recommendations in 1977 very soon in Japan. The main points of amendment are as follows : (1) SI quantities and units, that is Sv and Bq, are adopted ; (2) An effective dose equivalent is adopted and in lieu of the effective dose equivalent, 1 cm-dose-equivalent is used in the radiation protection practice ; (3) Annual effective dose-equivalent limit and each organ dose-equivalent limit for workers are setting at 50 mSv and 0.5 Sv, respectively ; (4) Radioactive concentration in effluent from institute are setting new values based on annual dose limits for public, that is 1 mSv/y and (5) Health surveillance for radiation workers are exempted in cases of annual dose equivalent under three tenth of the limits. Many people have indicated that the present situation of radiation protection in medicine is very poor. Therefore, improvements in the radiation protection practice in medicine, i.e., the setting of systems of administration and responsibility of protection and performance of education and training for workers, should be promoted. Radiological technicians should be practical leaders in promoting radiation protection in medicine from now on. (author)

  16. Vanadium bioavailability in soils amended with blast furnace slag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blast furnace (BF) slags are commonly applied as soil amendments and in road fill material. In Sweden they are also naturally high in vanadium. The aim of this study was to assess the vanadium bioavailability in BF slags when applied to soil. Two soils were amended with up to 29% BF slag (containing 800 mg V kg−1) and equilibrated outdoors for 10 months before conducting a barley shoot growth assay. Additional soil samples were spiked with dissolved vanadate(V) for which assays were conducted two weeks (freshly spiked) and 10 months (aged) after spiking. The BF slag vanadium was dominated by vanadium(III) as shown by V K-edge XANES spectroscopy. In contrast, results obtained by HPLC-ICP-MS showed that vanadium(V), the most toxic vanadium species, was predominant in the soil solution. Barley shoot growth was not affected by the BF slag additions. This was likely due to limited dissolution of vanadium from the BF slag, preventing an increase of dissolved vanadium above toxic thresholds. The difference in vanadium bioavailability among treatments was explained by the vanadium concentration in the soil solution. It was concluded that the vanadium in BF slag is sparingly available. These findings should be of importance in environmental risk assessment

  17. Nitrous oxide emission reduction in temperate biochar-amended soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felber, R.; Hüppi, R.; Leifeld, J.; Neftel, A.

    2012-01-01

    Biochar, a pyrolysis product of organic residues, is an amendment for agricultural soils to improve soil fertility, sequester CO2 and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In highly weathered tropical soils laboratory incubations of soil-biochar mixtures revealed substantial reductions for nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2). In contrast, evidence is scarce for temperate soils. In a three-factorial laboratory incubation experiment two different temperate agricultural soils were amended with green waste and coffee grounds biochar. N2O and CO2 emissions were measured at the beginning and end of a three month incubation. The experiments were conducted under three different conditions (no additional nutrients, glucose addition, and nitrate and glucose addition) representing different field conditions. We found mean N2O emission reductions of 60 % compared to soils without addition of biochar. The reduction depended on biochar type and soil type as well as on the age of the samples. CO2 emissions were slightly reduced, too. NO3- but not NH4+ concentrations were significantly reduced shortly after biochar incorporation. Despite the highly significant suppression of N2O emissions biochar effects should not be transferred one-to-one to field conditions but need to be tested accordingly.

  18. Vanadium bioavailability in soils amended with blast furnace slag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Maja A; Baken, Stijn; Smolders, Erik; Cubadda, Francesco; Gustafsson, Jon Petter

    2015-10-15

    Blast furnace (BF) slags are commonly applied as soil amendments and in road fill material. In Sweden they are also naturally high in vanadium. The aim of this study was to assess the vanadium bioavailability in BF slags when applied to soil. Two soils were amended with up to 29% BF slag (containing 800 mg V kg(-1)) and equilibrated outdoors for 10 months before conducting a barley shoot growth assay. Additional soil samples were spiked with dissolved vanadate(V) for which assays were conducted two weeks (freshly spiked) and 10 months (aged) after spiking. The BF slag vanadium was dominated by vanadium(III) as shown by V K-edge XANES spectroscopy. In contrast, results obtained by HPLC-ICP-MS showed that vanadium(V), the most toxic vanadium species, was predominant in the soil solution. Barley shoot growth was not affected by the BF slag additions. This was likely due to limited dissolution of vanadium from the BF slag, preventing an increase of dissolved vanadium above toxic thresholds. The difference in vanadium bioavailability among treatments was explained by the vanadium concentration in the soil solution. It was concluded that the vanadium in BF slag is sparingly available. These findings should be of importance in environmental risk assessment. PMID:25917693

  19. Nitrous oxide emission reduction in temperate biochar-amended soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Felber

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biochar, a pyrolysis product of organic residues, is an amendment for agricultural soils to improve soil fertility, sequester CO2 and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. In highly weathered tropical soils laboratory incubations of soil-biochar mixtures revealed substantial reductions for nitrous oxide (N2O and carbon dioxide (CO2. In contrast, evidence is scarce for temperate soils. In a three-factorial laboratory incubation experiment two different temperate agricultural soils were amended with green waste and coffee grounds biochar. N2O and CO2 emissions were measured at the beginning and end of a three month incubation. The experiments were conducted under three different conditions (no additional nutrients, glucose addition, and nitrate and glucose addition representing different field conditions. We found mean N2O emission reductions of 60 % compared to soils without addition of biochar. The reduction depended on biochar type and soil type as well as on the age of the samples. CO2 emissions were slightly reduced, too. NO3 but not NH4+ concentrations were significantly reduced shortly after biochar incorporation. Despite the highly significant suppression of N2O emissions biochar effects should not be transferred one-to-one to field conditions but need to be tested accordingly.

  20. Vanadium bioavailability in soils amended with blast furnace slag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Maja A., E-mail: maja.larsson@slu.se [Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7014, 750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Baken, Stijn, E-mail: stijn.baken@ees.kuleuven.be [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Leuven University, Kasteelpark Arenberg 20 bus 2459, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Smolders, Erik, E-mail: erik.smolders@ees.kuleuven.be [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Leuven University, Kasteelpark Arenberg 20 bus 2459, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Cubadda, Francesco, E-mail: francesco.cubadda@iss.it [Department of Food Safety and Veterinary Public Health, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Viale Regina Elena 299, Rome 00161 (Italy); Gustafsson, Jon Petter, E-mail: jon-petter.gustafsson@slu.se [Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7014, 750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Division of Land and Water Resources Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Brinellvägen 28, 100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2015-10-15

    Blast furnace (BF) slags are commonly applied as soil amendments and in road fill material. In Sweden they are also naturally high in vanadium. The aim of this study was to assess the vanadium bioavailability in BF slags when applied to soil. Two soils were amended with up to 29% BF slag (containing 800 mg V kg{sup −1}) and equilibrated outdoors for 10 months before conducting a barley shoot growth assay. Additional soil samples were spiked with dissolved vanadate(V) for which assays were conducted two weeks (freshly spiked) and 10 months (aged) after spiking. The BF slag vanadium was dominated by vanadium(III) as shown by V K-edge XANES spectroscopy. In contrast, results obtained by HPLC-ICP-MS showed that vanadium(V), the most toxic vanadium species, was predominant in the soil solution. Barley shoot growth was not affected by the BF slag additions. This was likely due to limited dissolution of vanadium from the BF slag, preventing an increase of dissolved vanadium above toxic thresholds. The difference in vanadium bioavailability among treatments was explained by the vanadium concentration in the soil solution. It was concluded that the vanadium in BF slag is sparingly available. These findings should be of importance in environmental risk assessment.

  1. On the draft amendment to the radiation protection ordinance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Federal Republic of Germany radiation protection procedures are covered by the 'First Ordinance on the Protection against Damage from Radiation Emitted by Radioactive Materials'. Even this first ordinance, which dates from 1960 and is presently applied in the version as amended on October 15, 1965, is hardly a model of lucidity. Yet this ordinance, which is still valid, has been quite useful in practical applicability. The draft published in late 1974 and the other versions of the amendment of the First Radiation Protection Ordinance were intended to do away with the shortcomings of the present version and make the ordinance a clearer instrument easier to understand. However, it now appears in practice that the new wording is even more difficult to comprehend, lacking in clarity and, in some places, so contradictory as to be actually false. These comments were written in the light of practical experience; they list and criticize in detail the mistakes, ill adviled alterations, ambiguous wording and problematic rules as well as those passages which should be revised. In the opinion of those concerned, the large number of complaints arising from practical application of the ordinance have so far not found their way into the present revisions. (orig.)

  2. Sand amendment enhances bioelectrochemical remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaojing; Wang, Xin; Ren, Zhiyong Jason; Zhang, Yueyong; Li, Nan; Zhou, Qixing

    2015-12-01

    Bioelectrochemical system is an emerging technology for the remediation of soils contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons. However, performance of such systems can be limited by the inefficient mass transport in soil. Here we report a new method of sand amendment, which significantly increases both oxygen and proton transports, resulting to increased soil porosity (from 44.5% to 51.3%), decreased Ohmic resistance (by 46%), and increased charge output (from 2.5 to 3.5Cg(-1)soil). The degradation rates of petroleum hydrocarbons increased by up to 268% in 135d. The degradation of n-alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with high molecular weight was accelerated, and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis showed that the microbial community close to the air-cathode was substantially stimulated by the induced current, especially the hydrocarbon degrading bacteria Alcanivorax. The bioelectrochemical stimulation imposed a selective pressure on the microbial community of anodes, including that far from the cathode. These results suggested that sand amendment can be an effective approach for soil conditioning that will enhances the bioelectrochemical removal of hydrocarbons in contaminated soils. PMID:26135976

  3. 75 FR 70018 - Iowa; Amendment No. 12 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-16

    ...) 646-3886. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) hereby gives... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Iowa; Amendment No. 12 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice amends...

  4. 75 FR 26976 - Rhode Island; Amendment No. 3 to Notice of an Emergency Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-13

    ... 20472, (202) 646-3886. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) hereby... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Rhode Island; Amendment No. 3 to Notice of an Emergency Declaration AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice amends...

  5. 78 FR 78992 - New Jersey; Amendment No. 5 to Notice of an Emergency Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... 20472, (202) 646-2833. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) hereby... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency New Jersey; Amendment No. 5 to Notice of an Emergency Declaration AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice amends...

  6. 18 CFR 341.4 - Filing requirements for amendments to tariffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... amendments to tariffs. 341.4 Section 341.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... TARIFFS: OIL PIPELINE COMPANIES SUBJECT TO SECTION 6 OF THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT § 341.4 Filing requirements for amendments to tariffs. (a) Supplements to tariffs. (1) Supplements are limited to...

  7. 75 FR 54390 - Biweekly Notice; Applications and Amendments to Facility Operating Licenses Involving No...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-07

    ... August 24, 2010 (75 FR 52039). Notice of Consideration of Issuance of Amendments to Facility Operating... accordance with the NRC E-Filing rule (72 FR 49139, August 28, 2007). The E-Filing process requires.... Therefore, accident analyses results are not impacted. All changes proposed by EGC in this amendment...

  8. Interactions between organic amendments and phosphate fertilizers modify phosphate sorption processes in an acid soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sckefe, C.R.; Patti, A.F.; Clune, T.S.; Jackson, W.R. [Rutherglen Center, Rutherglen, Vic. (Australia)

    2008-07-15

    To determine how organic amendments and phosphate fertilizers interact to modify P sorption processes, three phosphate fertilizers were applied to lignite- and compost-amended acid soil and incubated for either 3 or 26 days. The fertilizers applied were potassium dihydrogen phosphate, triple superphosphate, and diammonium phosphate (DAP). After 3 days of incubation, sorption of all three P sources was decreased in the lignite-amended treatments, whereas P sorption was increased in the compost-amended treatments. Increased incubation time (26 days) resulted in significantly decreased P sorption when DAP was added to lignite-amended treatments. Addition of triple superphosphate increased P sorption in lignite- and compost-amended treatments and decreased solution pH compared with DAP application. In addition to the effect of P source, differences in P sorption between the lignite- and compost-amended treatments were driven by differences in solution chemistry, predominantly solution pH and cation dynamics. Soil amendment and fertilizer addition also increased microbial activity in the incubation systems, as measured by carbon dioxide respiration. It is proposed that the combination of lignite and DAP may contribute to decreased P sorption in acid soils, with the positive effects likely caused by both chemical and biological processes, including the formation of soluble organic-metal complexes.

  9. 78 FR 4170 - License Amendment Request for Analytical Bio-Chemistry Laboratories, Inc., Columbia, MO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ... COMMISSION License Amendment Request for Analytical Bio-Chemistry Laboratories, Inc., Columbia, MO AGENCY... issuance of a license amendment to Materials License No. 24-13365-01 issued to Analytical Bio-Chemistry... Electronic Reading Room at http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/adams.html . From this site, you can access the...

  10. Sticks and Stones: Why First Amendment Absolutism Fails When Applied to Campus Harassment Codes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumsden, Linda

    This paper analyzes how absolutist arguments against campus harassment codes violate the spirit of the first amendment, examining in particular the United States Supreme Court ruling in "RAV v. St. Paul." The paper begins by tracing the current development of first amendment doctrine, analyzing its inadequacy in the campus hate speech debate.…

  11. 75 FR 77521 - National Organic Program; Amendments to the National List of Allowed and Prohibited Substances...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    ...), July 6, 2010 (75 FR 38693), and August 24, 2010 (75 FR 51919). Additionally, a proposed amendment to... established, the National List has been amended thirteen times, October 31, 2003 (68 FR 61987), November 3, 2003 (68 FR 62215), October 21, 2005 (70 FR 61217), June 7, 2006 (71 FR 32803), September 11, 2006...

  12. 78 FR 8040 - National Organic Program; Proposed Amendments to the National List of Allowed and Prohibited...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ... has published multiple amendments to the National List beginning on October 31, 2003 (68 FR 61987). AMS published the most recent amendment to the National List on September 27, 2012 (77 FR 59287). This... November 3, 2003 (68 FR 61987). AMS added peracetic acid to the National List for use in...

  13. 77 FR 8089 - National Organic Program (NOP); Amendments to the National List of Allowed and Prohibited...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ...). Additionally, a proposed amendment to the National List was published on May 5, 2011 (76 FR 25612). This final... multiple amendments to the National List: October 31, 2003 (68 FR 61987); November 3, 2003 (68 FR 62215); October 21, 2005 (70 FR 61217); June 7, 2006 (71 FR 32803); September 11, 2006 (71 FR 53299); June...

  14. 50 CFR 679.92 - Amendment 80 Program use caps and sideboard limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ITAC that is assigned as CQ or to the Amendment 80 limited access fishery. (b) GOA sideboard limits—(1) GOA groundfish sideboard limits. Amendment 80 vessels may not be used to catch more than the amounts... December 31 of each year, except that GOA groundfish sideboard limits specified in Table 37 to this part...

  15. 26 CFR 1.411(a)-9 - Amendment of break in service rules; transitional period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amendment of break in service rules... TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.411(a)-9 Amendment of break in service rules; transitional period. (a) In general. Under...

  16. 77 FR 3742 - India Infrastructure Business Development Mission-Clarification and Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    ... Mission, 76 FR, No. 247, December 23, 2011, to amend the Notice to revise the dates of the application... Infrastructure Business Development Mission, 76 FR, No. 247, December 23, 2011, is amended to read as follows... International Trade Administration India Infrastructure Business Development Mission--Clarification...

  17. 26 CFR 1.401(a)(4)-5 - Plan amendments and plan terminations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... turnover of employees prior to the plan amendment. In addition, the relevant facts and circumstances... benefits based on an employee's service prior to the amendment, the relevant facts and circumstances also... used to determine an employee's benefit for all preceding plan years shall not be less than...

  18. To Keep and Bear Arms: Gun Control and the Second Amendment. Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Amy N.; Walker, Tim

    This teacher's guide is designed to accompany the two-part videotape "To Keep and Bear Arms: Gun Control and the Second Amendment." The videotape and teacher's guide should help students to: (1) understand the history of the Second Amendment; (2) examine how guns and gun control laws affect people's lives; (3) compare and contrast the many…

  19. Persistence of Escherichia coli in manure-amended soil in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potential for pathogen transfer from soils amended with untreated animal manure to crops and the frequent occurrence of foodborne illness outbreaks involving Escherichia coli O157:H7 prompted the FDA proposal requiring a 9-month waiting period before harvesting produce from manure-amended fields. A...

  20. 75 FR 8377 - Pulmonary-Allergy Drugs Advisory Committee; Amendment of Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... Administration (FDA) is announcing an amendment to the notice of a meeting of the Pulmonary-Allergy Drugs Advisory Committee. This meeting was announced in the Federal Register of February 2, 2010 (75 FR 5334... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Pulmonary-Allergy Drugs Advisory Committee; Amendment...

  1. 76 FR 6687 - Bank Secrecy Act Compliance; Fair Credit Reporting; Technical Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-08

    ... CFR Part 103 to 31 CFR Chapter X. See 75 FR 65806, October 26, 2010. The OCC is amending provisions of.... Administrative Procedure Act and Effective Date Under 5 U.S.C. 553(b)(B) of the Administrative Procedure Act (APA... by the APA are unnecessary because the final rule makes technical amendments to citations...

  2. 77 FR 65493 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; Amendments to West...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-29

    ... Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Carbon monoxide, Incorporation...; Amendments to West Virginia's Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... Legislative Rule, 45 CSR 8- Ambient Air Quality Standards. The amendments change the effective date of...

  3. 45 CFR 400.7 - Submittal of the State plan and plan amendments for Governor's review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... for Governor's review. 400.7 Section 400.7 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... Submittal of the State plan and plan amendments for Governor's review. A plan or plan amendment under title IV of the Act must be submitted to the State Governor or his or her designee, for review,...

  4. 78 FR 3454 - Prairie Island, Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation; Notice of Docketing of Amendment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-16

    ... COMMISSION Prairie Island, Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation; Notice of Docketing of Amendment... Technical Specifications of the TN-40HT cask utilized at its Prairie Island independent spent fuel storage... transfer spent fuel from Prairie Island Nuclear Station Units 1 and 2. Specifically, the amendment seeks...

  5. 46 CFR 530.10 - Amendment, correction, cancellation, and electronic transmission errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Amendment, correction, cancellation, and electronic..., cancellation, and electronic transmission errors. (a) Terms. When used in this section, the following terms will have these meanings: (1) Amendment means any change to a service contract which has...

  6. Effect of biochar amendment on the bioavailability of pesticide chlorantraniliprole in soil to earthworm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting-Ting; Cheng, Jie; Liu, Xian-Jin; Jiang, Wayne; Zhang, Chao-Lan; Yu, Xiang-Yang

    2012-09-01

    To evaluate the effect of biochar amendment on the bioavailability of chlorantraniliprole (CAP) in soils with different physico-chemical properties, the uptake of CAP from various soils by earthworms was studied. It was observed that the biochar amendment of the soils affected the sorption of CAP, but the magnitude of the sorption enhancement by biochar amendment among the soils was varied, presumably due to the attenuation of the sorptivity of the biochar when amended in the soil. The amendment with biochars leads to a decrease in the bioavailability of CAP in the soils to earthworms, and more prominent for biochar BC850 amendment. In the soil with a CAP concentration of 10 mg kg(-1), the residue of CAP in the earthworm tissues was found to be 9.65 mg kg(-1), in comparison with that the CAP residue was 4.05 mg kg(-1) in BC450 amended soil and 0.59 mg kg(-1) in BC850, respectively. The degree of bioavailability reduction by same level of biochar amendment was different among soils with different properties. The results demonstrate that the properties of soils are important to performance of biochar in soil. PMID:22776710

  7. 76 FR 63330 - Policy Regarding Submittal of Amendments for Processing of Equivalent Feed at Licensed Uranium...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ... COMMISSION Policy Regarding Submittal of Amendments for Processing of Equivalent Feed at Licensed Uranium... processing, without a license amendment, of equivalent feed at an NRC and Agreement State-licensed uranium... to read ``(see Page A2 of SECY-99-011, ``Draft Rulemaking Plan: Domestic Licensing of Uranium...

  8. 37 CFR 1.351 - Amendments to rules will be published.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... published. 1.351 Section 1.351 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE... Rules § 1.351 Amendments to rules will be published. All amendments to the regulations in this part will be published in the Official Gazette and in the Federal Register....

  9. 78 FR 59704 - Medicare, Medicaid, and CLIA Programs; Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-27

    ... requirements of the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988 (CLIA) for a period of 6 years. DATES... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Medicare, Medicaid, and CLIA Programs; Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988 Exemption of Laboratories Licensed by the State of...

  10. 78 FR 27960 - Charles Hotchkin and Claire Fay; Notice of Application for Amendment of Exemption, Soliciting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ... of the two units at any given time. The proposed amendment would not change the project's hydraulic... inspection: a. Type of Application: Amendment of Exemption. b. Project No.: 13565-001. c. Date Filed: February 4, 2013. d. Applicant: Charles Hotchkin and Claire Fay. e. Name of Project: Alder...

  11. Freedom and Responsibility in First Amendment Theory: Defamation Law and Media Credibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunsaker, David M.

    1979-01-01

    Explores the concepts of freedom and responsibility in the context of First Amendment theory through an examination of the interrelationships between defamation law, access to media, and media credibility. Calls for a reassessment of the importance of defamation law in First Amendment theory. (JMF)

  12. 15 CFR 9.8 - Amendment or revision of voluntary energy conservation specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Amendment or revision of voluntary energy conservation specifications. 9.8 Section 9.8 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of... ENERGY CONSERVATION § 9.8 Amendment or revision of voluntary energy conservation specifications....

  13. 76 FR 29238 - Methyl Bromide; Cancellation Order for Registration Amendments To Terminate Certain Soil Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-20

    ... provided, EPA received no comments in response to the February 9, 2011, Federal Register notice (76 FR 7200... AGENCY Methyl Bromide; Cancellation Order for Registration Amendments To Terminate Certain Soil Uses... for the amendments to terminate soil uses, voluntarily requested by the registrants and accepted...

  14. 75 FR 57056 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Buffalo Resource Management Plan Amendment for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Availability of the Draft Buffalo Resource Management Plan Amendment... Assessment (RMPA/EA) for the Buffalo Field Office (BFO) and by this notice is announcing the opening of the comment period. The RMPA/EA will amend the 1985 Buffalo Resource Management Plan. The BLM also...

  15. 77 FR 68799 - District of Columbia; Amendment No. 1 to Notice of an Emergency Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-16

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency District of Columbia; Amendment No. 1 to Notice of an... amends the notice of an emergency declaration for the District of Columbia (FEMA-3352-EM), dated October...) are to be used for reporting and drawing funds: 97.030, Community Disaster Loans; 97.031, Cora...

  16. 77 FR 73486 - District of Columbia; Amendment No. 3 to Notice of an Emergency Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency District of Columbia; Amendment No. 3 to Notice of an... amends the notice of an emergency declaration for the District of Columbia (FEMA-3352-EM), dated October..., Community Disaster Loans; 97.031, Cora Brown Fund; 97.032, Crisis Counseling; 97.033, Disaster...

  17. 76 FR 56211 - District of Columbia; Amendment No. 1 to Notice of an Emergency Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency District of Columbia; Amendment No. 1 to Notice of an... amends the notice of an emergency declaration for the District of Columbia (FEMA-3337-EM), dated August..., Community Disaster Loans; 97.031, Cora Brown Fund; 97.032, Crisis Counseling; 97.033, Disaster...

  18. 31 CFR 15.737-16 - Proof; variance; amendment of pleadings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proof; variance; amendment of... POST EMPLOYMENT CONFLICT OF INTEREST Administrative Enforcement Proceedings § 15.737-16 Proof; variance; amendment of pleadings. In the case of a variance between the allegations in a pleading and the...

  19. Nuclear Liability Act of 8 June 1972 as amended by the Act of 15 September 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1972 Nuclear Liability Act has been amended by an Act 1989 to bring its provisions in line with those of the Paris Convention and the Brussels Supplementary Convention as amended respectively by the 1982 Protocols. The 1989 Act also raises the limit of the nuclear operator's liability from 42 million Finnish marks (approximately 8 million Special Draing Rights - SDRs) to 100 million SDRs

  20. 76 FR 13083 - Amendment to VOR Federal Airway V-358; TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-10

    ... Federal Register amending thirteen Federal airways in the vicinity of Dallas/ Fort Worth, TX (65 FR 61087... (66 FR 50101). The realignment around P-49 was necessary to assist the United States Secret Service in... in the Federal Register amending the V-358 airway description (74 FR 54896). That rule renamed...

  1. 78 FR 59731 - License Amendment Request for Closure of Calcium Fluoride Ponds at Honeywell Metropolis Works...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-27

    ... COMMISSION License Amendment Request for Closure of Calcium Fluoride Ponds at Honeywell Metropolis Works... Honeywell International, Inc. (Honeywell) for its Metropolis Works Facility (MWF) in Metropolis, Illinois...: (1) License Amendment Request Report NRC License Number SUB-526, Closure of Retention Ponds B, C,...

  2. 75 FR 49408 - Navigation and Navigable Waters; Technical, Organizational, and Conforming Amendments, Bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... Waters; Technical, Organizational, and Conforming Amendments, Bridges AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... corrections and editorial, organizational, and conforming amendments and these changes will have no...(c), and the word ``evidence'' with ``information'' in Sec. 116.01(d). This change has no...

  3. 45 CFR 5b.7 - Procedures for correction or amendment of records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... making a request to amend or correct his record shall address his request to the responsible Department... informed of the responsible Department official's decision on the request within that 10 day period. (c) If... individual will be informed in writing of the correction, amendment, or deletion and, if accounting was...

  4. 34 CFR 5b.7 - Procedures for correction or amendment of records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... necessary to accomplish a Department function. A subject individual making a request to amend or correct his... official's decision on the request within that 10 day period. (c) If the responsible Department official... correction, amendment, or deletion and, if accounting was made of prior disclosures of the record,...

  5. 42 CFR 137.362 - May construction project agreements be amended?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May construction project agreements be amended? 137... of the Secretary in Establishing and Implementing Construction Project Agreements § 137.362 May construction project agreements be amended? Yes, the Self-Governance Tribe, at its discretion, may request...

  6. 76 FR 60751 - Shipping and Transportation; Technical, Organizational, and Conforming Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    ... Guard's ``Amendment to Electrical Engineering Requirements for Merchant Vessels'' 61 FR 28260 (June 4... Coast Guard's ``Lifesaving Equipment Rule'' 61 FR 25272, at 25308, May 20, 1996, but was erroneously changed in the 2000 Coast Guard ``Technical Amendment'' 65 FR 58455, at 58463, September 29, 2000....

  7. 46 CFR 502.9 - Suspension, amendment, etc., of rules in this part.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension, amendment, etc., of rules in this part. 502.9 Section 502.9 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE General Information § 502.9 Suspension, amendment, etc., of rules in this part....

  8. 37 CFR 1.471 - Corrections and amendments during international processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... during international processing. 1.471 Section 1.471 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES International Processing Provisions Amendments § 1.471 Corrections and amendments during...

  9. 78 FR 6810 - U.S. Infrastructure Trade Mission to Colombia and Panama-Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    ... 77 FR 71778, December 4, 2012, is amended to read as follows: Timeframe for Recruitment and... published at 77 FR 71778, December 4, 2012, to amend the Notice to revise the dates of the application... recruitment and marketing in support of the mission. Applications will be now be accepted through March...

  10. 77 FR 232 - Implementation of the 2010 Amendments to the International Convention on Standards of Training...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-04

    ... published a Supplemental Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (SNPRM) on August 1, 2011 (76 FR 45908), proposing... response to the Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) published on November 17, 2009 (74 FR 59354), and to... final rule (FR) to implement amendments to the STCW, including the 2010 amendments, and ensure that...

  11. 78 FR 71675 - License Amendment Application for Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ... COMMISSION License Amendment Application for Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... Operating License No. DPR-28 for the Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station, located in Windham County, VT... proposed amendment to Facility Operating License No. DPR-28 for the Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power...

  12. 76 FR 44376 - Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station; Notice of Withdrawal of Application for Amendment to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-25

    ... COMMISSION Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station; Notice of Withdrawal of Application for Amendment to... request of Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station (the licensee) to withdraw its August 19, 2010, application for proposed amendment to Facility Operating License No. DPR-28 for the Vermont Yankee...

  13. 77 FR 28243 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; Cocoa Beach, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    .... FAA-2012-0099, Airspace Docket No. 12- ASO-11, published on April 11, 2012 (77 FR 21662), amends Class... Beach, FL, as published in the Federal Register of April 11, 2012 (77 FR 21662) (FR Doc. 2012-8558) is... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class D Airspace; Cocoa Beach, FL...

  14. 75 FR 73951 - Amendments to General Regulations of the Food and Drug Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 1, 14, and 17 RIN 0910-AG55 Amendments to General Regulations of the Food and Drug Administration AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Direct final rule. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending certain of its...

  15. 75 FR 73984 - Amendments to General Regulations of the Food and Drug Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 1, 14, and 17 RIN 0910-AG55 Amendments to General Regulations of the Food and Drug Administration AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is proposing to amend certain of its...

  16. 76 FR 18801 - Biweekly Notice; Applications and Amendments to Facility Operating Licenses Involving No...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ... its modes of operation. In addition, the risk-informed configuration management program will be...: The amendments revised the Technical Specifications (TSs) 5.5.9, ``Steam Generator (SG) Program,'' to... and the subsequent operating cycle. In addition, this amendment revised TS 5.6.10, ``Steam...

  17. Protocol to amend the Vienna convention on civil liability for nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document reproduces the text of the Protocol to Amend the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage which was adopted by a Diplomatic Conference, 8-12 September 1997, and the consolidated text of the 1963 Vienna Convention as amended by the Protocol

  18. 37 CFR 2.72 - Amendments to description or drawing of the mark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... drawing of the mark. 2.72 Section 2.72 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND....72 Amendments to description or drawing of the mark. (a) In an application based on use in commerce under section 1(a) of the Act, the applicant may amend the description or drawing of the mark only...

  19. Statutory Instrument No. 205, The Food (Control of irradiation) (Amendment) Regulations 1972

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These Regulations amend the Food (Control of Irradiation) Regulations 1967, which had already been amended by 1969 Regulations. The purpose of the present modification is to increase the low level of irradiation that is permitted under the regulations from 10 rad to 50 rad. These Regulations also revoke the 1969 Regulations (NEA)

  20. Statutory Instrument No. 307 (S.21) The Food (Control of irradiation) (Scotland) Amendment Regulations 1972

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These Regulations amend the Food (Control of Irradiation) (Scotland) Regulations 1967, which had already been amended by 1969 Regulations. The purpose of the present modification is to increase the low level of irradiation that is permitted under the regulations from 10 rad to 50 rad. These regulations also revoke the 1969 Regulations. (NEA)

  1. 77 FR 51693 - Milk in the Mideast Marketing Area; Order Amending the Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1033 Milk in the Mideast Marketing Area; Order Amending the Order AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This final rule amends the... detailed in the final decision (77 FR 38536). This administrative action is governed by the provisions...

  2. 75 FR 37288 - Kiwifruit Grown in California; Order Amending Marketing Order No. 920

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-29

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 920 Kiwifruit Grown in California; Order Amending Marketing Order No. 920 AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule amends... published in the November 19, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 69588); a Recommended...

  3. 78 FR 44602 - Amendment of Statement of Organization and Functions; Restructuring of National Labor Relations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... Subregional Offices was published at 65 FR 53228-53229 on August 29, 2000, as amended at 77 FR 72886-01 on... BOARD Amendment of Statement of Organization and Functions; Restructuring of National Labor Relations... restructuring its Regional Offices in Puerto Rico and Milwaukee to designate them as Subregional...

  4. 14 CFR 125.373 - Original flight release or amendment of flight release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Original flight release or amendment of flight release. 125.373 Section 125.373 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... Flight Release Rules § 125.373 Original flight release or amendment of flight release. (a) A...

  5. 75 FR 4295 - Premanufacture Notification Exemption for Polymers; Amendment of Polymer Exemption Rule to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 723 RIN 2070-AD58 Premanufacture Notification Exemption for Polymers; Amendment of Polymer Exemption Rule to Exclude Certain Perfluorinated Polymers AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is amending the polymer exemption rule, which provides...

  6. Compost and Biological Amendment Effects on Soilborne Disease and Soil Microbial Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effects of compost and biological amendments on soilborne diseases and microorganisms were assessed in field trials in northern Maine under both conventional and organic potato production practices. Three different biocontrol amendments, hypovirulent Rhizoctonia solani Rhs 1A1 (HvRs), Bacillus subti...

  7. 21 CFR 316.26 - Amendment to orphan-drug designation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amendment to orphan-drug designation. 316.26... (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE ORPHAN DRUGS Designation of an Orphan Drug § 316.26 Amendment to orphan-drug designation. (a) At any time prior to approval of a marketing application for a designated orphan drug,...

  8. 75 FR 47211 - Navigation and Navigable Waters; Technical, Organizational, and Conforming Amendments, Sector...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-05

    ..., Organizational, and Conforming Amendments, Sector Puget Sound, WA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Final rule... 5, 2010. ADDRESSES: Comments and material received from the public, as well as documents mentioned..., organizational, and conforming amendments and these changes will have no substantive effect on the public....

  9. 75 FR 48564 - Navigation and Navigable Waters; Technical, Organizational, and Conforming Amendments, Sector...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-11

    ..., Organizational, and Conforming Amendments, Sector Columbia River, WA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Final rule....m. on August 16, 2010. ADDRESSES: Comments and material received from the public, as well as..., organizational, and conforming amendments and these changes will have no substantive effect on the public....

  10. 78 FR 16302 - Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant, Application for Amendment to Facility Operating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    ... Consideration of Issuance of Amendment published in the Federal Register on January 11, 2012 (77 FR 1743), and a... published in the Federal Register on January 16, 2013 (78 FR 3458). However, by letter dated February 7... COMMISSION Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant, Application for Amendment to Facility...

  11. 75 FR 76319 - Amendments to National Marine Sanctuary Regulations Regarding Low Overflights in Designated Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ...NOAA proposes to amend the regulations of the Channel Islands, Monterey Bay, Gulf of the Farallones, and Olympic Coast national marine sanctuaries relating to sanctuary overflights. Specifically, NOAA proposes to: amend the regulations requiring that motorized aircraft maintain certain minimum altitudes above specified locations within the boundaries of the listed sanctuaries; and state that......

  12. When less is more: a simple Western blotting amendment allowing data acquisition on human single fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas Elbenhardt; Richter, Erik A

    2011-01-01

    This editorial discusses a simple western blotting-amendment allowing rapid data-acquisition on single fibers obtained from freeze-dried human skeletal muscle biopsies.......This editorial discusses a simple western blotting-amendment allowing rapid data-acquisition on single fibers obtained from freeze-dried human skeletal muscle biopsies....

  13. Sor/88-391, 21 July 1988, uranium mines (Ontario) occupational health and safety regulations, amendment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These Regulations (SOR/84-435) were made to establish uniformity in the laws governing occupational health and safety in mines in the Province of Ontario. To ensure conformity, the legal references in the Regulations have been amended to accord with the 1987 amendment of the Ontario Occupational Health and Safety Act

  14. 46 CFR 251.11 - Applications under Title VI, Merchant Marine Act, 1936, as amended.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Applications under Title VI, Merchant Marine Act, 1936, as amended. 251.11 Section 251.11 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... AID § 251.11 Applications under Title VI, Merchant Marine Act, 1936, as amended. (a)...

  15. 76 FR 10609 - Tobacco Products Scientific Advisory Committee; Amendment of Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-25

    ...) is announcing an amendment to the notice of a meeting of the Tobacco Products Scientific Advisory Committee. This meeting was announced in the Federal Register of January 26, 2011 (76 FR 4705). The... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Tobacco Products Scientific Advisory Committee; Amendment...

  16. 75 FR 36432 - Tobacco Products Scientific Advisory Committee; Amendment of Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ... Register of May 19, 2010 (75 FR 28027), FDA announced that a meeting of the Tobacco Products Scientific... Committee. This meeting was announced in the Federal Register of May 19, 2010 (75 FR 28027). The amendment... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Tobacco Products Scientific Advisory Committee; Amendment...

  17. 43 CFR 44.54 - What happens if a State repeals or amends distribution legislation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... distribution legislation? 44.54 Section 44.54 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior... Distributes Payments § 44.54 What happens if a State repeals or amends distribution legislation? (a) If a State repeals or amends distribution legislation, the State must immediately notify the Department...

  18. The effect of organic amendment on mobility of cesium in tropical soils - The effect of organic amendment on sorption mechanisms for cesium and cobalt in tropical soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasserman, M.A.V.; Santos-Oliveira, R. [Instituto de Engenharia nuclear/CNEN. Rua Helio de Almeida, 75. Cidade Universitaria - Ilha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro, RJ. CEP 21941-906 (Brazil); Garcia, R.J.L.; Ferreira, A.C.M.; Rochedo, E.R.R.; Sobrinho, G.A.N. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria/CNEN. Av. Salvador Allende s /no. Rio de Janeiro, RJ. CEP: 22780-160 (Brazil); Perez, D.V. [Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Solos/EMBRAPA. R. Jardim Botanico, 1024.Rio de Janeiro, RJ, CEP: 22460-000 (Brazil); Wasserman, J.C. [dUFF Network of Environment and Sustainable Development (REMADS-UFF), University Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    This work aimed to investigate the mechanisms involved in the sorption of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co as a function of the physico-chemical properties of some types of Brazilian soils and the changes on the behavior of these radionuclides due to changes in soil properties promoted by organic amendment. The experimental study was conducted in a controlled area, where pots containing different types of soils (Ferralsol, Nitisol and Histosol) and different doses of organic amendment (no amendment; 2 kg.m{sup -2} and 4 kg.m{sup -2}) were spiked with {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co. The organic amendment used in this experiment was obtained in the Unit of Compost of the Organic Material of Pinheiral (RJ, Brazil), where the compost is made up from the leaves swept from the streets of the Pinheiral city. The mobility of these radionuclides in the soil was assessed through sequential chemical extraction and desorption studies as a function of pH. The bioavailability was evaluated through the effective absorption of radionuclide by root crops (Raphanus sativus, L). This study evidenced that the organic amendment plays an important role in the desorption processes of cobalt and cesium, reducing desorption of both nuclides beneath higher organic amendment dose. This behavior was observed in acid conditions as well in alkaline. However extreme acid conditions may mobilize both radionuclides, although cobalt mobility was shown to be more sensitive to low pH than cesium. (authors)

  19. The effect of organic amendment on mobility of cesium in tropical soils - The effect of organic amendment on sorption mechanisms for cesium and cobalt in tropical soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work aimed to investigate the mechanisms involved in the sorption of 137Cs and 60Co as a function of the physico-chemical properties of some types of Brazilian soils and the changes on the behavior of these radionuclides due to changes in soil properties promoted by organic amendment. The experimental study was conducted in a controlled area, where pots containing different types of soils (Ferralsol, Nitisol and Histosol) and different doses of organic amendment (no amendment; 2 kg.m-2 and 4 kg.m-2) were spiked with 137Cs and 60Co. The organic amendment used in this experiment was obtained in the Unit of Compost of the Organic Material of Pinheiral (RJ, Brazil), where the compost is made up from the leaves swept from the streets of the Pinheiral city. The mobility of these radionuclides in the soil was assessed through sequential chemical extraction and desorption studies as a function of pH. The bioavailability was evaluated through the effective absorption of radionuclide by root crops (Raphanus sativus, L). This study evidenced that the organic amendment plays an important role in the desorption processes of cobalt and cesium, reducing desorption of both nuclides beneath higher organic amendment dose. This behavior was observed in acid conditions as well in alkaline. However extreme acid conditions may mobilize both radionuclides, although cobalt mobility was shown to be more sensitive to low pH than cesium. (authors)

  20. 15 CFR Supplement No. 3 to Part 715 - Deadlines for Submission of Declarations, No Changes Authorization Forms, Amendments for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Declarations, No Changes Authorization Forms, Amendments for Unscheduled Discrete Organic Chemical (UDOC... COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES INVOLVING UNSCHEDULED DISCRETE ORGANIC... Changes Authorization Forms, Amendments for Unscheduled Discrete Organic Chemical (UDOC) Facilities,...

  1. 76 FR 67205 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Amendment to the Cascade-Siskiyou National Monument Resource...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    ... Act of 1969, as amended (NEPA), and the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976, as amended... mineral and geothermal leasing, other than by exchange that furthers the protective purposes of...

  2. Germination and seedling growth of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. as influenced by organic amendments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banashree Sarma

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to understand the effects of different soil organic amendments on germination and seedling vigour of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.. Five treatments with organic amendments (farmyard manure, vermicompost and biochar and mineral fertilizers were designed in randomized block design with three replications. Results showed that organic amendments significantly enhanced per cent seed germination and emergence speed index compared to inorganic fertilizer. Highest homogeneity of seed germination (CVgt = 20.74 was observed in vermicompost. Plant height, root length and leaf area were higher in vermicompost and biochar than farmyard manure. Both allocation of biomass to above ground parts and Dickson quality index were highest in seedlings from the plots amended with vermicompost. The study revealed that compared to biochar, vermicompost and farmyard manure significantly enhanced the germination and growth of Okra seedling, but the stimulation was best in vermicompost-amended plots.

  3. Effect of Nutrient Amendments of Diesel Oil Polluted Soil on Plant Growth Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.O. Akujobi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the effect of nutrient amendments of diesel oil polluted soil on plant height, leaf area and leaf numbers of eggplant (Solanum melongena. Soil samples were polluted and amended separately with different weights of poultry waste, pig waste, cow dung and inorganic fertilizer. Soil samples were also polluted with diesel oil without amendment to achieve 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10% pollution. Samples were analyzed at two weeks interval for sixteen weeks. The plant growth parameters were affected adversely by the diesel oil pollution and the higher the level of pollution, the more the effect. The nutrient amendments were able to remedy the effect of the diesel oil pollution. The remediation effect was nutrient weight dependent and the best remediation effect was observed in poultry waste amended samples. This study has shown that diesel oil contaminated soil may have adverse effect on plants, but this can be remedied by addition of organic nutrient supplements especially poultry waste.

  4. Stability and Hydrological Modifications in a Tilled Soil under Selected Organic Amendments in South-Eastern Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    AHAMEFULE, HENRY EMEKA; NWOKOCHA, CHRIS CHUKWUMA; AMANA, SANNI MATHEW

    2015-01-01

    A 36 months study was carried out in Nsukka, south-eastern Nigeria to determine the effect of organic amendment on the stability and hydrological properties of a tilled fragile Ultisol. The experiment was of a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three (3) organic amendments and a control replicated thrice. The soil amendments were comprised of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (PE), Palm Bunch Refuse (PR), Cassava Peels (CS) at 12 Mg/ha and No Amendment/control (NA). Results indicat...

  5. Effect of Eucalyptus camaldulensis amendment on soil chemical properties, enzymatic activity, Acacia species growth and roots symbioses

    OpenAIRE

    Soumare, A; Manga, A. (collab.); Fall, S.; Hafidi, M; Ndoye, I.; Duponnois, Robin

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to test the effect of Eucalyptus litter on growth, roots symbioses status and nutrition of Sahelian acacia's seedlings. Sangalkam sandy soil was amended with two levels (1 and 5 %) of Eucalyptus litter. As control of the effect of litter addition, sandy soil was amended with 1 and 5 % of maize litter. In addition, a control without amendment was established to highlight any changes caused by amendments. Eucalyptus litter impact on A. senegal, A. seyal and A. albida was determ...

  6. Organic amendments affecting sorption, leaching and dissipation of fungicides in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, María C; Cox, Lucía; Hermosín, María C; Cornejo, Juan

    2006-12-01

    Metalaxyl and tricyclazole are two fungicides widely used in Spain in vineyard and rice crops respectively. In this study an investigation has been made of the effect of three organic amendments [two commercial amendments, solid fertiormont (SF) and liquid fertiormont (LF), and a residue from the olive oil production industry, alperujo (OW)] on fungicide fate in soils. Changes in soil porosity on amendment were studied by mercury intrusion porosimetry, sorption-desorption studies were performed by the batch equilibration method, dissipation of metalaxyl and tricyclazole in the soil was studied at - 33 kPa moisture content and 20 degrees C and leaching was studied in hand-packed soil columns. Amendments with SF and LF reduced soil porosity, while OW increased porosity through an increase in pore volume in the highest range studied. Tricyclazole sorbed to soils to a much higher extent than metalaxyl. With some exceptions, sorption of both fungicides increased on amendment, especially in the case of SF-amended soils, which rendered the highest K(oc) values. In soils amended with the liquid amendment LF, sorption either remained unaffected or decreased, and this decrease was much higher in the case of metalaxyl and a soil with 70% clay. In this clay soil, amendment with OW, of very high soluble organic matter content, also decreased metalaxyl sorption. Tricyclazole is more persistent in soil than metalaxyl, and both fungicides were found to be more persistent in amended soils than in unamended soils. Leaching of metalaxyl and tricyclazole in soil columns was inversely related to sorption capacity. The low recoveries of tricyclazole in leachates and in soil columns when compared with metalaxyl, a less persistent fungicide, were attributed to diffusion into micropores and to increase in sorption with residence time in the soil, both processes favoured by the low mobility of tricyclazole. PMID:17051652

  7. 76 FR 33809 - Amendment and Update to the Entry for an Individual Named in the Annex to Executive Order 13219...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-09

    ... Amendment and Update to the Entry for an Individual Named in the Annex to Executive Order 13219, as Amended by Executive Order 13304 AGENCY: Office of Foreign Assets Control, Department of the Treasury. ACTION... Persons (``SDN List''). The individual's date of birth has been amended and two addresses and an...

  8. 78 FR 78165 - List of Approved Spent Fuel Storage Casks: HI-STORM 100 Cask System; Amendment No. 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... RIN 3150-AJ12 List of Approved Spent Fuel Storage Casks: HI-STORM 100 Cask System; Amendment No. 9... amends the NRC's spent fuel storage regulations by revising the Holtec International HI-STORM 100 Cask System listing within the ``List of Approved Spent Fuel Storage Casks'' to include Amendment No. 9...

  9. 76 FR 36511 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab; Amendment 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ... United States; Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab; Amendment 3 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... Fishery Management Council (Council) has submitted Amendment 3 to the Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fishery... envelope, ``Comments on Red Crab Amendment 3.'' Instructions: All comments received are part of the...

  10. 3 CFR 13484 - Executive Order 13484 of January 9, 2009. Amending the Order of Succession Within the Department...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the Order of Succession Within the Department of Agriculture 13484 Order 13484 Presidential Documents Executive Orders Executive Order 13484 of January 9, 2009 EO 13484 Amending the Order of Succession Within... amended as follows: Section 1. Section 2 is amended to read as follows: “Sec. 2. Order of Succession....

  11. 78 FR 33040 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Fisheries of the Gulf of Alaska; Amendment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Fisheries of the Gulf of Alaska; Amendment 89 to the Fishery Management Plan for Groundfish of the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and... Amendment 89 to the Fishery Management Plan for Groundfish of the Gulf of Alaska (FMP). Amendment 89...

  12. (Reprint of) National Cancer Act Amendments of 1974. Conference Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-07-10

    This is a conference committee report of the House and Senate to amend the Public Health Service Act to improve the national cancer program and to authorize appropriations for such programs. Title 1, Extension of Cancer Program, deals with administrative, budgetary, and personnel matters; programs of routine exfoliative cytology tests; and requirements of peer review of grant applications and contract projects. Title 2, Biomedical Research, establishes a President's Biomedical Research Panel to study and make recommendations concerning the subject, content, organization, and operation of biomedical and behavioral reserach conducted and supported under programs of the National Institutes of Health and the National Institutes of Mental Health. After 15 months, the panel will submit to the President and Congress a comprehensive report of its findings and recomendations. The 7-member panel shall expire after 18 months. PMID:12229414

  13. Amended version of the Radiation Protection Ordinance. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new version has the following focal points: Adaptation to the guidelines of the Commission of the EC, which were directed at the Federal Government and which had to be converted into German law; Revision of regulations on medical application of radioactive substances; Revised version of the regulations on tasks and responsibilities of persons responsible and in charge of radiation protection; Introduction of stipulations on quality control in medicine and dental medicine; Revision of regulations on health physics monitoring including introduction of stricter provisions on dose limits; Reform of waste management regulations; Revision of regulations on the protection of the population. A number of amendments not being understandable without explanations on requirements, the Government's reasons for changing the Radiation Protection Ordinance are included as well, and there is an explanation specially directed to physicians and those assisting them. (orig./HP)

  14. Assessing biochar ecotoxicology for soil amendment by root phytotoxicity bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visioli, Giovanna; Conti, Federica D; Menta, Cristina; Bandiera, Marianna; Malcevschi, Alessio; Jones, Davey L; Vamerali, Teofilo

    2016-03-01

    Soil amendment with biochar has been proposed as effective in improving agricultural land fertility and carbon sequestration, although the characterisation and certification of biochar quality are still crucial for widespread acceptance for agronomic purposes. We describe here the effects of four biochars (conifer and poplar wood, grape marc, wheat straw) at increasing application rates (0.5, 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50% w/w) on both germination and root elongation of Cucumis sativus L., Lepidium sativum L. and Sorghum saccharatum Moench. The tested biochars varied in chemical properties, depending on the type and quality of the initial feedstock batch, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) being high in conifer and wheat straw, Cd in poplar and Cu in grape marc. We demonstrate that electrical conductivity and Cu negatively affected both germination and root elongation at ≥5% rate biochar, together with Zn at ≥10% and elevated pH at ≥20%. In all species, germination was less sensitive than root elongation, strongly decreasing at very high rates of chars from grape marc (>10%) and wheat straw (>50%), whereas root length was already affected at 0.5% of conifer and poplar in cucumber and sorghum, with marked impairment in all chars at >5%. As a general interpretation, we propose here logarithmic model for robust root phytotoxicity in sorghum, based on biochar Zn content, which explains 66% of variability over the whole dosage range tested. We conclude that metal contamination is a crucial quality parameter for biochar safety, and that root elongation represents a stable test for assessing phytotoxicity at recommended in-field amendment rates (<1-2%). PMID:26884353

  15. The First Amendment and the End of the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart Harris

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a serious question that is largely unaddressed by the U.S. or international legal systems: how should society deal with inherently, catastrophically dangerous information—information that, in the wrong hands, could lead to the destruction of a city, a continent, or, conceivably, the entire planet? Such information includes, but is not limited to, blueprints for nuclear weapons, as well as specific formulae for chemical and biological weapons of mass destruction. The paper is not a critique of the existing statutes and regulations that various governments use to keep their secrets secret. Rather, it is a discussion of what to do when some such secrets are inevitably disclosed, or, more generally, how to deal with catastrophically dangerous information that is generated outside of governmental control. Addressing these issues is primarily a matter of policy, but policy with significant constitutional dimensions. Perhaps the most fundamental of thosedimensions is the question of whether a governmental restriction on receipt, dissemination, and even mere possession of information can be reconciled with the speech and press clauses of the First Amendment. Although existing authorities do not directly address the subject, what little authority there is suggests that reasonable restrictions upon the possession and dissemination of catastrophically dangerous information—even when that information is already within the public domain—can be implemented in a way that is consistent with the First Amendment. Given the growing urgency of the subject and the need for a comprehensive approach, I advocate a statutory solution in the United States that defines and limits access to catastrophically dangerous information, but which also limits governmental seizures and restrictions to only the most dangerous types of information, and which provides for a pre-seizure warrant requirement and expedited post-seizure judicial review. Given

  16. Mitigation of the Adverse Effects of Salt Stress on Maize (Zea Mays L. Through Organic Amendments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debasish Kumar Das

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is a major limiting factor for crop production in coastal areas of Bangladesh. Organic amendments could contribute to the improvement of crop production in coastal areas. Two maize cultivars (BARI Hybrid Maize-5 and Hybrid Maize Pacific-987 were grown in pots to investigate the mitigating adverse effects of salt stress in maize by organic amendments. Two doses of farmyard manure (FYM and poultry manure (PM were mixed with soils before seed sowing. Plants were subjected to salinity (0-50 mM NaCl at vegetative stage. Salt stress caused a significant reduction in growth and yield of both maize cultivars. Higher NaCl (50 mM stress caused a drastic decrease in growth and yield of both maize cultivars. Salinity also decreased reproductive growth, chlorophyll contents and K+/Na+ ratio in both maize cultivars. Organic amendments with FYM and PM improved salt tolerances of maize that were associated with increased yield components, chlorophyll content and K+/Na+ ratio. Hybrid Maize Pacific-987 grown in low salinity with FYM or PM amendments produced higher yield than control condition. On the contrary, BARI Hybrid Maize-5 conferred tolerance to high salinity, when soils were amended with FYM or PM. Furthermore, organic amendments improved electrical conductivity, exchangeable Na and organic matter status under salinity condition. The present study suggests that organic amendments with FYM or PM confer tolerance to salinity in maize by increasing chlorophyll content and K+/Na+ ratio.

  17. Development of a New Manure Amendment for Reducing Ammonia Volatilization and Phosphorus Runoff from Poultry Litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Philip A

    2016-07-01

    Treating poultry litter with alum is a best management practice that reduces phosphorus (P) runoff and ammonia (NH) emissions. However, alum prices have increased substantially during the past decade. The goal of this research was to develop inexpensive manure amendments that are as effective as alum in reducing NH volatilization and P runoff. Sixteen amendments were developed using mixtures of alum mud, bauxite ore, sulfuric acid, liquid alum, and water. Alum mud is the residual left over from alum manufacture when produced by reacting bauxite with sulfuric acid. A laboratory NH volatilization study was conducted using 11 treatments: untreated poultry litter, poultry litter treated with liquid or dry alum, or eight new mixtures. All of the litter amendments tested resulted in significantly lower NH volatilization than untreated litter. Dry and liquid alum reduced NH losses by 86 and 75%, respectively. The eight new litter amendments reduced NH losses from 62 to 73% compared with untreated litter, which was not significantly different from liquid alum; the three most effective mixtures were not significantly different from dry alum. Water-extractable P (WEP) was significantly reduced by all of the amendments, three of which resulted in significantly lower WEP than dry alum. The most promising new amendments were mixtures of alum mud, bauxite, and sulfuric acid. The potential impact of these amendments could be enormous because they could be produced for less than half the price of alum while being as effective in reducing NH emissions and P runoff. PMID:27380093

  18. Potential adverse effects of applying phosphate amendments to immobilize soil contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majs, Frantisek

    2011-01-01

    Seven-day batch equilibrium experiments were conducted to measure the efficacy of four phosphate amendments (trisodium trimetaphosphate [TP3], dodecasodium phytate [Na-IP6], precipitated calcium phytate [Ca-IP6], and hydroxyapatite [HA]) for immobilizing Ni and U in organic-rich sediment. Using the eight-step modified Miller's sequential extraction procedure and the USEPA's Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure, the effect of these amendments on the distribution of Ni and U was assessed. Relative to unamended controls, equilibrium aqueous-phase U concentrations were lower following HA and Ca-IP6 additions but higher following TP3 and Na-IP6 amendments, whereas aqueous Ni concentrations were not decreased only in the Na-IP6 amended treatment relative to the control. The poor rates of contaminant immobilization following TP3 and Na-IP6 amendments correlate with the dispersion of organic matter and organo-mineral colloids, which probably contain sorbed U and Ni. While all amendments shifted the U distribution toward more recalcitrant soil fractions, Ni was redistributed to more labile soil fractions. This study cautions that the addition of orthophosphates and organophosphates as contaminant immobilizing amendments may in fact have adverse effects, especially in high-organic soils. Particular attention is warranted at sites with mixed contaminants with varying geochemical behaviors. PMID:21712583

  19. Amendment to the Staff Regulations - Amendment to Article R II 6 04 of the Staff Regulations Age Limit

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    The Finance Committee is invited to recommend the Council, and the Council is invited to approve, the proposal set out in paragraph 3.1 of this document allowing the Director-General to retain the services of a few staff members with their consent beyond the age of 65 where the interests of the Organization so require. Pursuant to Article I 1.02 of the Staff Rules, the Finance Committee is invited to approve, with effect from 1st July 2005, the corresponding amendment to Article R II 6.04 of the Staff Regulations set out in paragraph 3.2 of this document, subject to the Council's approval of the above-mentioned proposal.

  20. Marine microbial community response to inorganic and organic sediment amendments in laboratory mesocosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Jinjun; Wang, Yanbing; Obraztsova, Anna; Rosen, Gunther; Leather, James; Scheckel, Kirk G; Nealson, Kenneth H; Arias-Thode, Y Meriah

    2011-10-01

    Sediment amendments provide promising strategies of enhancing sequestration of heavy metals and degradation of organic contaminants. The impacts of sediment amendments for metal and organic remediation including apatite, organoclay (and apatite and organoclay in geotextile mats), acetate, and chitin on environmental microbial communities in overlying water and sediment profiles are reported here. These experiments were performed concurrent with an ecotoxicity evaluation (data submitted in companion paper) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy of zinc speciation post apatite amendments. X-ray absorption spectra showed that a modest modification of zinc speciation occurred in amended treatments. Significant changes in both bacterial cell densities and populations were observed in response to amendments of apatite+organoclay, chitin, and acetate. The enriched bacteria and breakdown of these amendments were likely attributed to water quality degradation (e.g. ammonia and dissolved oxygen). Molecular fingerprints of bacterial communities by denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) showed that distinct bacterial populations occurred in overlying waters from different amendments: apatite+organoclay led to the dominance of Gammaproteobacteria, acetate enriched Alphaproteobacteria, and chitin treatment led to a dominance of Bacteroidetes and Alphaproteobacteria. In amended sediments, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Deltaproteobacteria (Desulfovibrio) were commonly found with chitin and apatite+chitin treatments. Finally, sulfate-reducing bacteria (e.g. Desulfovibrio) and metal-reducing bacteria were also recovered with most probable number (MPN) analyses in treatments with acetate, chitin, and apatite+chitin. These geochemically important bacteria were stimulated by amendments and may play critical functional roles in the metal and organic contaminant remediation process for future investigations of contaminated sediments. PMID:21784523

  1. CO2 mitigation potential in farmland of China by altering current organic matter amendment pattern

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CADISCH; Georg

    2010-01-01

    The estimation of the global warming mitigation potential in terrestrial ecosystems is of great importance for decision makers to adopt measures to increase soil organic carbon (SOC) as well as to reduce greenhouse gas (GHGs) emissions. In this paper, we compiled data published in peer-reviewed journals, and conducted a holistic analysis of the effects of organic matter amendment on soil organic carbon sequestration, methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions in paddy and upland systems. Results showed that organic matter amendment increased soil organic carbon content, and apparent conversion rate of organic matter carbon to soil organic carbon in paddies was constant, while that in uplands decreased along with amendment years at 25 years time scale. Organic matter amendment during the rice season led to large CH4-C emissions, e.g on average 99.5 g CH4-C per kg organic carbon input under intermittent flood conditions, and 191.7 g CH4-C per kg organic carbon input under continuous flood conditions, respectively. By alteration of organic matter amendment from rice season to off-rice upland crop season, estimated CH4-C emissions in China could be cut by 3.5 Tg yr-1, accounting for 63% of current CH4-C emissions (5.5 Tg). If organic matter amendment percentage was increased from current 30% to future 50% of organic matter production and by alteration of organic matter amendment from rice season to off-rice upland crop season, the equivalent CO2-C mitigation potential in farmland of China would be 49.2 Tg yr-1 at the 10th year organic matter amendment and 36.0 Tg yr-1 at the 30th year amendment. These findings are important not only for China but also for the other rice production countries to increase farmland global warming mitigation.

  2. Effect of Crotalaria juncea Amendment on Nematode Communities in Soil with Different Agricultural Histories

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, K.-H.; McSorley, R.; Gallaher, R. N.

    2003-01-01

    Effect of sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea) hay amendment on nematode community structure in the soil surrounding roots of yellow squash (Cucurbita pepo) infected with root-knot nematodes was examined in two greenhouse experiments. Soils were from field plots treated long-term (LT) with yard-waste compost or no yard-waste compost in LT experiment, and from a short-term (ST) agricultural site in ST experiment. Soils collected were either amended or not amended with C. juncea hay. Nematode communit...

  3. Short communication. Growth and nodulation of cowpea after 5 years of consecutive composted tannery sludge amendment

    OpenAIRE

    Ana R. L. Miranda; Luis A. P. L. Nunes; Mara L. J. Oliveira; Wanderley J. Melo; Ademir S. F. Araujo

    2014-01-01

    Tannery industry releases high amounts of tannery sludge which are currently composted and used in agricultural soils. The consecutive amendment of such composted tannery sludge (CTS) may affect soil microrganisms, such as rhizobia. In this study, we evaluated the effects of 5-year repeated CTS amendment on growth, nodulation, and yield of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) CTS was applied in different amounts (0, 2.5, 5, 10 and 20 Mg/ha) to a sandy soil. Amendment of CTS increased soil pH, electr...

  4. Economic analysis of proposed amendment to Canada's energy efficiency regulations -- Electric motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the auspices of the Energy Efficiency Act, the Government of Canada is proposing an amendment to the Energy Efficiency Regulations for integral horsepower electric motors. The amendment specified revisions to: the definition of electric motor, the reporting requirements of dealers, and the minimum energy-efficiency standards to 1 to 200 horsepower electric motors relative to the regulations which came into effect on February 3, 1995. This paper addresses the analysis of the revisions to the minimum energy-efficiency standards proposed in the amendment

  5. [Effect of inorganic amendments on the stabilization of heavy metals in contaminated soils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Meng-hua; Zhu, Xi; Liu, Huang-cheng; Wang, Lin-ling; Chen, Jing

    2013-09-01

    Effects of single and mixed inorganic amendments on the stabilization of heavy metals in contaminated soils were investigated. Significant synergistic effects on the stabilization of Zn and Cu were observed with the mixed inorganic amendments of KH2PO4 and Ca(OH)2 in the laboratory test. In the field test, the stabilization ratios of Zn, Cu and Cd were 41.8%, 28.2% and 48.4%, respectively, with the dosage of 0.5 kg x m(-2). The growth of peanut was inhibited by the addition of the inorganic amendments. Meanwhile, the uptake of heavy metals was reduced in peanut. PMID:24289030

  6. Heavy metals and yield of cowpea cultivated under composted tannery sludge amendment

    OpenAIRE

    Iuna Carmo Ribeiro Gonçalves; Ademir Sérgio Ferreira de Araújo; Luis Alfredo Pinheiro Nunes; Antônio Aécio Carvalho Bezerra; Wanderley José de Melo

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the phytoavailability of heavy metals (Cr, Cd, Ni and Pb) concentrations in leaves and grains, and yield of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L) grown in soil amended with composted tannery sludge (CTS) for two consecutive years. The experiments were carried out in 2009 and 2010 in soil amended with CTS at 0, 5, 10, 20, and 40 Mg ha-1. The CTS amendment rates applied were above 10 Mg ha-1, increased Cr concentrations in cowpea leaves. There were not increases in the heavy ...

  7. Fate of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Manure-Amended Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Xiuping; Morgan, Jennie; Doyle, Michael P.

    2002-01-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 cells survived for up to 77, >226, and 231 days in manure-amended autoclaved soil held at 5, 15, and 21°C, respectively. Pathogen populations declined more rapidly in manure-amended unautoclaved soil under the same conditions, likely due to antagonistic interactions with indigenous soil microorganisms. E. coli O157:H7 cells were inactivated more rapidly in both autoclaved and unautoclaved soils amended with manure at a ratio of 1 part manure to 10 parts soil at 15 and...

  8. Effect of in situ soil amendments on arsenic uptake in successive harvests of ryegrass (Lolium perenne cv Elka) grown in amended As-polluted soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartley, William [School of Biological and Earth Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Byrom Street, L3 3AF Liverpool (United Kingdom)], E-mail: biewhart@livjm.ac.uk; Lepp, Nicholas W. [School of Biological and Earth Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Byrom Street, L3 3AF Liverpool (United Kingdom)

    2008-12-15

    Several iron-bearing additives, selected for their potential ability to adsorb anions, were evaluated for their effectiveness in attenuation of arsenic (As) in three soils with different sources of contamination. Amendments used were lime, goethite ({alpha}-FeOOH) (crystallised iron oxide) and three iron-bearing additives, iron grit, Fe{sup II} and Fe{sup III} sulphates plus lime, applied at 1% w/w. Sequential extraction schemes conducted on amended soils determined As, Cu, Zn and Ni fractionation. Plant growth trials using perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne var. Elka) assessed shoot As uptake. This was grown in the contaminated soils for 4 months, during which time grass shoots were successively harvested every 3 weeks. Goethite increased biomass yields, but clear differences were observed in As transfer rates with the various iron oxides. In conclusion, whilst Fe-oxides may be effective in situ amendments, reducing As bioavailability, their effects on plant growth require careful consideration. Soil-plant transfer of As was not completely halted by any amendment. - Arsenic attenuation is illustrated using Fe-based amendments, their efficacy providing different indicators of success.

  9. Nitric oxide emissions from soils amended with municipal waste biosolids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Land spreading nitrogen-rich municipal waste biosolids (NO3--N-1 dry weight, NH3-N∼23,080mg Nkg-1 dry weight, Total Kjeldahl N∼41,700mg Nkg-1 dry weight) to human food and non-food chain land is a practice followed throughout the US. This practice may lead to the recovery and utilization of the nitrogen by vegetation, but it may also lead to emissions of biogenic nitric oxide (NO), which may enhance ozone pollution in the lower levels of the troposphere. Recent global estimates of biogenic NO emissions from soils are cited in the literature, which are based on field measurements of NO emissions from various agricultural and non-agricultural fields. However, biogenic emissions of NO from soils amended with biosolids are lacking. Utilizing a state-of-the-art mobile laboratory and a dynamic flow-through chamber system, in-situ concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) were measured during the spring/summer of 1999 and winter/spring of 2000 from an agricultural soil which is routinely amended with municipal waste biosolids. The average NO flux for the late spring/summer time period (10 June 1999-5 August 1999) was 69.4±34.9ngNm-2s-1. Biosolids were applied during September 1999 and the field site was sampled again during winter/spring 2000 (28 February 2000-9 March 2000), during which the average flux was 3.6±l.7ngNm-2s-1. The same field site was sampled again in late spring (2-9 June 2000) and the average flux was 64.8±41.0ng Nm-2s-1. An observationally based model, developed as part of this study, found that summer accounted for 60% of the yearly emission while fall, winter and spring accounted for 20%, 4% and 16% respectively. Field experiments were conducted which indicated that the application of biosolids increases the emissions of NO and that techniques to estimate biogenic NO emissions would, on a yearly average, underestimate the NO flux from this field by a factor of 26. Soil temperature and % water filled pore space (%WFPS) were observed to be significant

  10. Aerosol emissions from biochar-amended agricultural soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, S.; Sharratt, B. S.; Li, J. J.; Olshvevski, S.; Meng, Z.; Zhang, J.

    2015-12-01

    Agricultural production is a major contributor to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and associated global warming. In this regard, novel carbon sequestration strategies such as large-scale biochar application may provide sustainable pathways to increase the terrestrial storage of carbon in agricultural areas. Biochar has a long residence time in the soil and hence understanding the soil properties affected by biochar addition needs to be investigated to identify the tradeoffs and synergies of large-scale biochar application. Even though several studies have investigated the impacts of biochar application on a variety of soil properties, very few studies have investigated the impacts on soil erosion, in particular wind (aeolian) erosion and subsequent particulate emissions. Using a combination of wind tunnel studies and laboratory experiments, we investigated the dust emission potential of biochar-amended agricultural soils. We amended biochar (unsieved or sieved to appropriate particle size; application rates ranging from 1 - 5 % of the soil by weight) to three soil types (sand, sandy loam, and silt loam) and estimated the changes in threshold shear velocity for wind erosion and dust emission potential in comparison to control soils. Our experiments demonstrate that emissions of fine biochar particles may result from two mechanisms (a) very fine biochar particles (suspension size) that are entrained into the air stream when the wind velocity exceeds the threshold, and (b) production of fine biochar particles originating from the abrasion by quartz grains. The results indicate that biochar application significantly increased particulate emissions and more interestingly, the rate of increase was found to be higher in the intermediate range of biochar application. As fine biochar particles effectively adsorb/trap contaminants and pathogens from the soil, the preferential erosion of fine biochar particles by wind may lead to concentration of contaminants in the

  11. Hardwood tree growth on amended mine soils in west virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Kokes, Lindsay; Delong, Curtis; Thomas, Calene; Emerson, Paul; O'Dell, Keith; Skousen, Jeff

    2013-09-01

    Each year surface mining in Appalachia disrupts large areas of forested land. The Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act requires coal mine operators to establish a permanent vegetative cover after mining, and current practice emphasizes soil compaction and planting of competitive forage grasses to stabilize the site and control erosion. These practices hinder recolonization of native hardwood trees on these reclaimed sites. Recently reclamation scientists and regulators have encouraged re-establishment of hardwood forests on surface mined land through careful selection and placement of rooting media and proper selection and planting of herbaceous and tree species. To evaluate the effect of rooting media and soil amendments, a 2.8-ha experimental plot was established, with half of the plot being constructed of weathered brown sandstone and half constructed of unweathered gray sandstone. Bark mulch was applied to an area covering both sandstone types, and the ends of the plot were hydroseeded with a tree-compatible herbaceous seed mix, resulting in eight soil treatments. Twelve hardwood tree species were planted, and soil chemical properties and tree growth were measured annually from 2007 to 2012. After six growing seasons, average tree volume index was higher for trees grown on brown sandstone (5333 cm) compared with gray sandstone (3031 cm). Trees planted in mulch outperformed trees on nonmulched treatments (volume index of 6187 cm vs. 4194 cm). Hydroseeding with a tree-compatible mix produced greater ground cover (35 vs. 15%) and resulted in greater tree volume index than nonhydroseed areas (5809 vs. 3403 cm). Soil chemical properties were improved by mulch and improved tree growth, especially on gray sandstone. The average pH of brown sandstone was 5.0 to 5.4, and gray sandstone averaged pH 6.9 to 7.7. The mulch treatment on gray sandstone resulted in tree growth similar to brown sandstone alone and with mulch. After 6 yr, tree growth on brown sandstone was

  12. Biochar and compost amendments enhance copper immobilisation and support plant growth in contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sarah; Bardos, R Paul; Kidd, Petra S; Mench, Michel; de Leij, Frans; Hutchings, Tony; Cundy, Andrew; Joyce, Chris; Soja, Gerhard; Friesl-Hanl, Wolfgang; Herzig, Rolf; Menger, Pierre

    2016-04-15

    Contamination of soil with trace elements, such as Cu, is an important risk management issue. A pot experiment was conducted to determine the effects of three biochars and compost on plant growth and the immobilisation of Cu in a contaminated soil from a site formerly used for wood preservation. To assess Cu mobility, amended soils were analysed using leaching tests pre- and post-incubation, and post-growth. Amended and unamended soils were planted with sunflower, and the resulting plant material was assessed for yield and Cu concentration. All amendments significantly reduced leachable Cu compared to the unamended soil, however, the greatest reductions in leachable Cu were associated with the higher biochar application rate. The greatest improvements in plant yields were obtained with the higher application rate of biochar in combination with compost. The results suggest joint biochar and compost amendment reduces Cu mobility and can support biomass production on Cu-contaminated soils. PMID:26850677

  13. Final Amendment to the Comprehensive Conservation Plan & Environmental Assessment: Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is an amendment, accompanied by an Environmental Assessment EA, to the current 2000 Comprehensive Conservation Plan CCP for Flint Hills NWR. The purpose of...

  14. 78 FR 69430 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Amended; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-19

    ... Hotel Bethesda, (Formerly Holiday Inn Select), 8120 Wisconsin Avenue, Bethesda, MD, 20814 which was published in the Federal Register on September 20, 2013, 78 FR 57866. The notice is amended to change...

  15. Volatilization of cesium-137 from soil with chloride amendments during heating and vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During vitrification of soil and soil:limestone mixtures, significant volatilization (> 10%) of the radioisotope 137Cs occurred particularly in the presence of small amounts (99% of the 137Cs by repeated amendment and treatment at 1000 degree C. Amendment with sodium borate and subsequent heating to 1200 degree C also stimulated significant volatilization of 137Cs. However, amendments up to 10% of other chemicals including carbonates, nitrates, phosphates, sulfates, fluorides, polystyrene, graphite, stainless steels, iron, zinc oxide, and antimony oxide did not increase 137Cs volatilization compared to unamended samples. The majority of the chloride-induced volatilization occurred between 800 and 1000 degree C for sodium chloride-amended samples of both soil and soil:limestone mixtures. Thus, an effective and potentially efficient soil decontamination technique for 137Cs has been identified. 17 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  16. Effects of coal fly ash-amended composts on the yield and elemental uptake by plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility of coal fly ash-amended composts for use as an alternate manure for agricultural crops. Home-made organic composts was mixed in various proportions with fine fly ash collected from Savannah River Site, and allowed to decompose for two weeks while the mixture was kept wet. Water extracts from the amended composts were analyzed for selected major and trace elements. These amended composts were mixed with sifted sandy loam soil in a predetermined optimum ratio of 1:3 and used to grow corn and sorghum plants. It was shown that fly ash additions to home-made compost facilitated efficient plant utilization of nutrients when 20-40% fly ash in compost was applied to the soil. The maximum dry shoot yields correlated with the higher concentrations of K, Ca and N and lower concentrations of B in the amended compost treatment

  17. Short communication. Growth and nodulation of cowpea after 5 years of consecutive composted tannery sludge amendment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana R. L. Miranda

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Tannery industry releases high amounts of tannery sludge which are currently composted and used in agricultural soils. The consecutive amendment of such composted tannery sludge (CTS may affect soil microrganisms, such as rhizobia. In this study, we evaluated the effects of 5-year repeated CTS amendment on growth, nodulation, and yield of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. CTS was applied in different amounts (0, 2.5, 5, 10 and 20 Mg/ha to a sandy soil. Amendment of CTS increased soil pH, electrical conductivity (EC, sodium and chromium content. Plant growth, nodulation, N accumulation, and cowpea yield increased up to 10 Mg/ha; however, above this rate, these variables decreased. After 5 years of CTS amendment, the increase in soil chemical properties, particularly EC and Na content, exerted negative effects on the growth, nodulation, and yield of cowpea.

  18. 47 CFR 1.9060 - Amendments, waivers, and dismissals affecting spectrum leasing notifications and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... spectrum leasing notifications and applications. 1.9060 Section 1.9060 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Spectrum Leasing General Policies and Procedures § 1.9060 Amendments, waivers, and dismissals affecting spectrum leasing notifications and applications....

  19. 10 CFR 72.244 - Application for amendment of a certificate of compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE Approval of Spent Fuel Storage Casks § 72.244 Application for amendment of a...

  20. 10 CFR 72.246 - Issuance of amendment to a certificate of compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE Approval of Spent Fuel Storage Casks § 72.246 Issuance of amendment to a certificate...

  1. 76 FR 4201 - Kiwifruit Grown in California; Order Amending Marketing Order No. 920; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... Tuesday, June 29, 2010 (75 FR 37288). The final rule amended Marketing Order No. 920 (order), which... districts with the highest shipping volume. A final rule was published on June 29, 2010 (75 FR 37288)...

  2. 32 CFR 312.8 - OIG review of request for amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... Individuals, agencies or DoD components shown by disclosure accounting records to have received copies of the record, or to whom disclosure has been made, will be notified of the amendment by the responsible...

  3. Numerical evaluation of voltage gradient constraints on electrokinetic injection of amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ming Zhi; Reynolds, David A.; Prommer, Henning; Fourie, Andy; Thomas, David G.

    2012-03-01

    A new numerical model is presented that simulates groundwater flow and multi-species reactive transport under hydraulic and electrical gradients. Coupled into the existing, reactive transport model PHT3D, the model was verified against published analytical and experimental studies, and has applications in remediation cases where the geochemistry plays an important role. A promising method for remediation of low-permeability aquifers is the electrokinetic transport of amendments for in situ chemical oxidation. Numerical modelling showed that amendment injection resulted in the voltage gradient adjacent to the cathode decreasing below a linear gradient, producing a lower achievable concentration of the amendment in the medium. An analytical method is derived to estimate the achievable amendment concentration based on the inlet concentration. Even with low achievable concentrations, analysis showed that electrokinetic remediation is feasible due to its ability to deliver a significantly higher mass flux in low-permeability media than under a hydraulic gradient.

  4. BIOLOGICAL AMENDMENTS AND CROP ROTATIONS FOR MANAGING SOIL MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES AND SOILBORNE DISEASES OF POTATO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Various biological amendments, including commercial biocontrol agents, microbial inoculants, mycorrhizae, and an aerobic compost tea (CT), were evaluated, alone and in conjunction with different crop rotations, for their efficacy in introducing beneficial microorganisms, affecting soil microbial com...

  5. Amendment #2 to the Hunting and Fishing Plan : Mingo National Wildlife Refuge : Spring Firearm Turkey Hunting

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This amendment to the Mingo NWR Hunting and Fishing Plan expands the turkey hunting program to include the Missouri Spring Firearm turkey season.

  6. AFSC/REFM: Amendment 91 Chinook Salmon Economic Data Report Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Annual series of economic data collected for years 2012 and forward for the Amendment 91 (A91) Chinook Salmon Economic Data Report (EDR). Reporting is required of...

  7. 77 FR 25168 - Appraisal Subcommittee (ASC); ASC Rules of Operation; Amended

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ... Federal Housing Finance Agency. The ASC Rules of Operation serve as corporate bylaws outlining the ASC's... amended numerous provisions in Title XI. The ASC Rules of Operation serve as corporate bylaws...

  8. The Financial Regulations of the Agency. Amendment of Articles V, VI and VII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On 13 January 1960 the Board of Governors made certain changes in Articles V, VI and VII of the Financial Regulations. The Articles thus amended are reproduced in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency

  9. 21 CFR 861.34 - Amendment or revocation of a standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Standards Development and Publication § 861.34 Amendment or revocation of a standard. (a) The Food and Drug... should be changed to reflect new medical, scientific, or other technological data. (b) The Food and...

  10. 77 FR 15390 - Certain Mobile Electronic Devices Incorporating Haptics; Receipt of Amended Complaint...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Mobile Electronic Devices Incorporating Haptics; Receipt of Amended Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission....

  11. Amendment of the Measurement of Low Abundance 236U by Mass Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The low abundance isotope 236U is easily disturbed by strong peak tails in the measurement of Mass Spectrometry. So, the measurement of 236U is amended with the Background Amendment (BGA) tail calibration method and the dynamic background method. BGA method was used to measure the signal at 235.5 and 236.5 mass number, these signal could be regarded as strong peak tails which was eliminated in the measurement data. When 236U abundance was low, BGA calibration method had good effect, the emendation to measurement reached 2.24%, the amended value was more close to nominal value, and the effect of dynamic background amendment method is not significant. (authors)

  12. Testing Single and Combinations of Amendments for Stabilization of Metals in Contrasting Extremely Contaminated Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siebielec G.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Metals can be stabilized by soil amendments that increase metals adsorption or alter their chemical forms. Such treatments may limit the risk related to the contamination through reduction of metal transfer to the food chain (reduction of metal uptake by plants and its availability to soil organisms and metals migration within the environment. There is a need for experiments comparing various soil amendments available at reasonable amounts under similar environmental conditions. The other question is whether all components of soil environment or soil functions are similarly protected after remediation treatment. We conducted a series of pot studies to test some traditional and novel amendments and their combinations. The treatments were tested for several highly Zn/Cd/Pb contaminated soils. Among traditional amendments composts were the most effective – they ensured plant growth, increased soil microbial activity, reduced Cd in earthworms, reduced Pb bioaccessibility and increased share of unavailable forms of Cd and Pb.

  13. 75 FR 55304 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Atlantic Sea Scallops Amendment 10 Data Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-10

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Atlantic Sea Scallops Amendment 10 Data Collection AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration... copies of the information collection instrument and instructions should be directed to Peter...

  14. Amendments to the treaty for the prohibition of nuclear weapons in Latin America (Tlatelolco Treaty)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document reproduces the amendments to the Tlatelolco Treaty approved on 26 August 1992 by the Special Session of the General Conference of the Agency for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean

  15. Improving Phosphorus Availability in an Acid Soil Using Organic Amendments Produced from Agroindustrial Wastes

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    In acid soils, soluble inorganic phosphorus is fixed by aluminium and iron. To overcome this problem, acid soils are limed to fix aluminium and iron but this practice is not economical. The practice is also not environmentally friendly. This study was conducted to improve phosphorus availability using organic amendments (biochar and compost produced from chicken litter and pineapple leaves, resp.) to fix aluminium and iron instead of phosphorus. Amending soil with biochar or compost or a mixt...

  16. Enhanced Nematicidal Activity of Organic and Inorganic Ammonia-Releasing Amendments by Azadirachta indica Extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Oka, Yuji; Tkachi, Nadia; Shuker, Shimshon; Yerumiyahu, Uri

    2007-01-01

    The nematicidal activities of ammonium sulfate, chicken litter and chitin, alone or in combination with neem (Azadirachta indica) extracts were tested against Meloidogyne javanica. Soil application of these amendments or the neem extracts alone did not reduce the root galling index of tomato plants or did so only slightly, but application of the amendments in combination with the neem extracts reduced root galling significantly. Soil analysis indicated that the neem extract inhibited the nitr...

  17. Overview of Organic Amendments for Management of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes, with Case Studies from Florida

    OpenAIRE

    McSorley, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Organic amendments have been widely used for management of plant-parasitic nematodes. Relatively rapid declines in nematode population levels may occur when decomposing materials release toxic compounds, while longer-term effects might include increases in nematode antagonists. Improved crop nutrition and plant growth following amendment use may lead to tolerance of plant-parasitic nematodes. Results depend on a great variety of factors such as material used, processing/composting of material...

  18. Organic wastes as amendments to avoid soil degradation in semiarid zones

    OpenAIRE

    García Izquierdo, Carlos; F. Bastida; Hernández Fernández Muñoz, María Teresa

    2009-01-01

    A three-year experiment was set up under field conditions to test the potential of two organic amendments (sludge and compost) to improve soil quality and plant growth in a semiarid degraded Mediterranean area. Since little is known about N dynamics in such assisted ecosystems, we investigated the effects of this practice on key processes of the global N cycle (nitrification). Organic amendments influence resource availability, the size and the activity patterns of mic...

  19. Efficacy of Organic Soil Amendments for Management of Heterodera glycines in Greenhouse Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Grabau, Zane J.; Chen, Senyu

    2014-01-01

    In a repeated greenhouse experiment, organic soil amendments were screened for effects on population density of soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines, and soybean growth. Ten amendments at various rates were tested: fresh plant material of field pennycress, marigold, spring camelina, and Cuphea; condensed distiller’s solubles (CDS), ash of combusted CDS, ash of combusted turkey manure (TMA), marigold powder, canola meal, and pennycress seed powder. Soybeans were grown for 70 d in f...

  20. Effect of organic amendments on the retention and mobility of imazaquin in soils

    OpenAIRE

    Undabeytia López, Tomás; Sánchez Verdejo, Trinidad; Morillo González, Esmeralda; Maqueda Porras, Celia

    2004-01-01

    The influence of two organic amendments consisting of an urban waste compost (SUW) and a commercial amendment from olive mill wastes (OW) was assessed on the sorption properties and leaching of the ionizable herbicide imazaquin on four soils with different physicochemical characteristics. A loamy sand soil (CR), a loam soil (P44), a silt loam soil (AL), and a clay soil (TM), with low-medium organic matter contents, were chosen. Sorption-desorption experiments were performed on ...

  1. Mitigation of the Adverse Effects of Salt Stress on Maize (Zea Mays L.) Through Organic Amendments

    OpenAIRE

    Debasish Kumar Das; Bijaya Rani Dey; M.Joinul Abedin Mian; Md. Anamul Hoque

    2013-01-01

    Salinity is a major limiting factor for crop production in coastal areas of Bangladesh. Organic amendments could contribute to the improvement of crop production in coastal areas. Two maize cultivars (BARI Hybrid Maize-5 and Hybrid Maize Pacific-987) were grown in pots to investigate the mitigating adverse effects of salt stress in maize by organic amendments. Two doses of farmyard manure (FYM) and poultry manure (PM) were mixed with soils before seed sowing. Plants were subjected to salinity...

  2. Research Collaborations Can Improve the Use of Organic Amendments for Plant-Parasitic Nematode Management

    OpenAIRE

    Zasada, Inga A.

    2011-01-01

    The concept of utilizing organic amendments to manage plant-parasitic nematodes is not new, but the widespread implementation of this management practice has still not been realized. The use of organic amendments for plant-parasitic nematode management is a complex process requiring an understanding of the transformation and generation of active compounds. As a result, research endeavors to understand and maximize the use of this management practice require a multidisciplinary approach which ...

  3. 26 CFR 1.410(a)-6 - Amendment of break in service rules; Transition period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amendment of break in service rules; Transition period. 1.410(a)-6 Section 1.410(a)-6 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.410(a)-6 Amendment of break in...

  4. Biochar-mediated reductions in greenhouse gas emissions from soil amended with anaerobic digestates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This investigation examines nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes from soil with simultaneous amendments of anaerobic digestates and biochar. The main source of anthropogenic emissions of N2O is agriculture and in particular, manure and slurry application to fields. Anaerobic digestates are increasingly used as a fertiliser and interest is growing in their potential as sources of N2O via nitrification and denitrification. Biochar is a stable product of pyrolysis and may affect soil properties such as cation exchange capacity and water holding capacity. Whilst work has been conducted on the effects of biochar amendment on N2O emissions in soils fertilised with mineral fertilisers and raw animal manures, little work to date has focused on the effects of biochar on nitrogen transformations within soil amended with anaerobic digestates. The aim of the current investigation was to quantify the effects of biochar application on ammonification, nitrification and N2O fluxes within soil amended with three anaerobic digestates derived from different feedstocks. A factorial experiment was undertaken in which a sandy loam soil (Dunnington Heath series) was either left untreated, or amended with three different anaerobic digestates and one of three biochar treatments; 0%, 1% or 3%. Nitrous oxide emissions were greatest from soil amended with anaerobic digestate originating from a maize feedstock. Biochar amendment reduced N2O emissions from all treatments, with the greatest effect observed in treatments with maximum emissions. The degree of N2O production and efficacy of biochar amelioration of gas emissions is discussed in context of soil microbial biomass and soil available carbon. - Highlights: • Nitrous oxide was emitted from anaerobic digestates applied to soil. • Simultaneous amendment of soil with biochar and anaerobic digestate reduced N2O emissions. • Soil nitrate accumulation occurred but was digestate dependent

  5. Soil biochar amendment in a nature restoration area: effects on plant productivity and community composition

    OpenAIRE

    Van de Voorde, T.F.J.; Bezemer, T.M.; Groenigen, J. W.; Jeffery, S; Mommer, L.

    2014-01-01

    Biochar (pyrolyzed biomass) amendment to soils has been shown to have a multitude of positive effects, e.g., on crop yield, soil quality, nutrient cycling, and carbon sequestration. So far the majority of studies have focused on agricultural systems, typically with relatively low species diversity and annual cropping schemes. How biochar amendment affects plant communities in more complex and diverse ecosystems that can evolve over time is largely unknown. We investigated such effects in a fi...

  6. Effects of biochar amendment on geotechnical properties of landfill cover soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Krishna R; Yaghoubi, Poupak; Yukselen-Aksoy, Yeliz

    2015-06-01

    Biochar is a carbon-rich product obtained when plant-based biomass is heated in a closed container with little or no available oxygen. Biochar-amended soil has the potential to serve as a landfill cover material that can oxidise methane emissions for two reasons: biochar amendment can increase the methane retention time and also enhance the biological activity that can promote the methanotrophic oxidation of methane. Hydraulic conductivity, compressibility and shear strength are the most important geotechnical properties that are required for the design of effective and stable landfill cover systems, but no studies have been reported on these properties for biochar-amended landfill cover soils. This article presents physicochemical and geotechnical properties of a biochar, a landfill cover soil and biochar-amended soils. Specifically, the effects of amending 5%, 10% and 20% biochar (of different particle sizes as produced, size-20 and size-40) to soil on its physicochemical properties, such as moisture content, organic content, specific gravity and pH, as well as geotechnical properties, such as hydraulic conductivity, compressibility and shear strength, were determined from laboratory testing. Soil or biochar samples were prepared by mixing them with 20% deionised water based on dry weight. Samples of soil amended with 5%, 10% and 20% biochar (w/w) as-is or of different select sizes, were also prepared at 20% initial moisture content. The results show that the hydraulic conductivity of the soil increases, compressibility of the soil decreases and shear strength of the soil increases with an increase in the biochar amendment, and with a decrease in biochar particle size. Overall, the study revealed that biochar-amended soils can possess excellent geotechnical properties to serve as stable landfill cover materials. PMID:25898984

  7. Amendment application in a multicontaminated mine soil: Effects on trace element mobility

    OpenAIRE

    Manzano, Rebeca; Peñalosa, Jesús Manuel; Esteban, Elvira

    2014-01-01

    The final publication is available at Springer via http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11270-014-1874-4 Several amendments were tested for their effectiveness in aiding plant growth and immobilising contaminants in pots containing soil from an arsenopyrite mine contaminated with arsenic and heavy metals. Trace element solubility in pore water was monitored using Rhizon samplers for five weeks. Results showed that amendments containing ferrous sulphate and ferrous sulphate combined with paper mill l...

  8. Availability of triazine herbicides in aged soils amended with olive oil mill waste

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrera Mesa, Alegría; Cox, L.; Koskinen, W. C.; Sadowsky, M. J.

    2008-01-01

    Amendments are frequently added to agricultural soils to increase organic matter content. In this study, we examined the influence of alperujo, an olive oil mill waste, on the availability of two triazine herbicides, terbuthylazine and atrazine, in two different sandy soils, one from Sevilla, Spain, and the other from Minnesota. The effect of aging on herbicide sorption and bioavailability was also studied. Soils were amended with alperujo at a rate of 3-5% (w:w) in laboratory studies. Appare...

  9. Dissipation and Leachability of Formulated Chlorpyrifos and Atrazine in Organically-amended Soils

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Yunxiang III

    1997-01-01

    Dissipation and Leachability of Formulated Chlorpyrifos and Atrazine in Organically-amended Soils Yunxiang Xiao Dr. Donald E. Mullins, Chairperson Department of Entomology (ABSTRACT) Bioremediation was studied in soils containing high concentrations of formulated chlorpyrifos (5 mg kg-1 Dursban® 4E) and atrazine (5 mg kg-1 AAtrex® 4L) using amendments including lignocellulosic sorbents, microbial nutrients (vegetable oil, corn meal and fertilizers), and microbial e...

  10. Designing Iron-Amended Biosand Filters for Decentralized Safe Drinking Water Provision

    OpenAIRE

    Noubactep, Chicgoua; Temgoua, Emile; Rahman, Mohammad A.

    2012-01-01

    There are ongoing efforts to render conventional biosand filters (BSF) more efficient for safe drinking water provision. One promising option is to amend BSF with a reactive layer containing metallic iron (Fe0). The present communication presents some conceptual options for efficient Fe0-amended BSF in its fourth generation. It is shown that a second fine-sand layer should be placed downwards from the Fe0-reactive layer to capture dissolved Fe. This second fine-sand layer could advantageously...

  11. Assisted attenuation of a soil contaminated by diuron using hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin and organic amendments

    OpenAIRE

    Rubio Bellido, Marina; Madrid Díaz, Fernando; Morillo González, Esmeralda; Villaverde Capellán, J.

    2014-01-01

    Diuron desorption and mineralisation were studied on an amended and artificially contaminated soil. The amendments used comprised two different composted organic residues i.e., sewage sludge (SS) mixed with pruning wastes, and urban solid residues (USR), and two different solutions (with inorganic salts as the micronutrients and hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPBCD)). After applying micronutrients to activate the soil flora, 15.5% mineralisation could be reached after 150 days, indicating that...

  12. Effect of Organic Amendments and Inorganic Nitrogen on Biological and Chemical Degradation of Atrazine in Soil

    OpenAIRE

    E Ranjbar; G.H. Haghnia; A. Lakzian; A Fotovat

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare the impact of various organic amendments with different C/N ratios and chemical compositions on biological and chemical degradation of Atrazine in sterile and non-sterile soils. The experiment was carried out in a factorial arrangement (2×6×2) including two soil types (sterile and non sterile soils), six types of organic amendments (vermicompost, cow manure, glucose, starch and sawdust and without organic matter) and two levels of inorganic nitrogen fertili...

  13. IMPACT OF AN AMENDMENT FOR SOIL STRUCTURE IMPROVING ON SOIL AT SPRINKLING

    OpenAIRE

    Nozadze L. R.; Slabunov V. V.

    2015-01-01

    The article presents the research results of the impact of amendment improving soil structure on soil upon sprinkler irrigation of agricultural lands. It is proposed to use artificial aggregation of soil for water erosion control via composition of structure-forming materials. The developed composition includes slagheap rock, bentonitic clay, claydite screenings, and shell limestone. Adjusted analytical relations of the impact of the amendment on runoff coefficient depending on the intensity ...

  14. Soil Fertility and Biodiversity effects from Organic Amendments in Organic Farming

    OpenAIRE

    Zanen, M.; Bokhorst, J.G.; Koopmans, C.J.

    2008-01-01

    After a completed rotation of seven years, soils of the Manure as a Chance (MAC) trial were analysed for the effect of organic amendments on soil physical, chemical and biological properties. Yields suggest significant differences due to different organic amendments after seven years. In treatments receiving farm yard manure and bio waste compost yields increased over time. Soil properties indicate changes in soil carbon, nitrogen mineralization en plant feeding nematodes due to different org...

  15. The application of the First Amendment to corporations imperils commercial disclosure requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Goodman, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Recent cases on corporate personhood argue that the free speech protections of the First Amendment render many commercial disclosure requirements unconstitutional. Ellen Goodman traces the progression of these cases, arguing that the “more speech is better” ethos of First Amendment law, combined with consumer “rights to know” and the minimal interests of commercial speakers in avoiding disclosure, all work against a permissive review of reasonable commercial disclosure requirements. She write...

  16. Potato brown rot incidence and severity under different management and amendment regimes in different soil types

    OpenAIRE

    Messiha, N.A.S.; Bruggen, van, C.; Diepeningen, van, A.D.; Vos; Termorshuizen, A.J.; Tjou-Tam-Sin, N.N.A.; Janse, J.D.

    2007-01-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum race 3 biovar 2, the causative agent of potato brown rot (bacterial wilt), is an economically important disease in tropical, subtropical and temperate regions of the world. In view of previous reports on suppression of the disease by organic amendments, and the expansion of organic agriculture, it was timely to compare the effects of organic and conventional management and various amendments on brown rot development in different soils (type: sand or clay; origin: Egypt ...

  17. Chemical-Structural Changes of Organic Matter in a Semi-Arid Soil After Organic Amendment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C.NICOL(A)S; G.MASCIANDARO; T.HERN(A)NDEZ; C.GARCIA

    2012-01-01

    A 9-month incubation experiment using composted and non-composted amendments derived from vine pruning waste and sewage sludge was carried out to study the effects of the nature and stability of organic amendments on the structural composition of organic matter (OM) in a semi-arid soil. The changes of soil OM,both in the whole soil and in the extractable carbon with pyrophosphate,were evaluated by pyrolysis-gas chromatography and chemical analyses.By the end of the experiment,the soils amended with pruning waste exhibited less organic carbon loss than those receiving sewage sludge.The non-composted residues increased the aliphatic-pyrolytic products of the OM,both in the whole soil and also in the pyrophosphate extract,with the products derived from peptides and proteins being significantly higher.After 9 months,in the soils amended with pruning waste the relative abundance of phenolic-pyrolytic products derived from phenolic compounds,lignin and proteins in the whole soil tended to increase more than those in the soils amended with sewage sludge.However,the extractable OM with pyrophosphate in the soils amended with composted residues tended to have higher contents of these phenolic-pyrolytic products than that in non-composted ones.Thus,despite the stability of pruning waste,the composting of this material promoted the incorporation of phenolic compounds to the soil OM.The pyrolytic indices (furfural/pyrrole and aliphatic/aromatic ratios) showed the diminution of aliphatic compounds and the increase of aromatic compounds,indicating the stabilization of the OM in the amended soils after 9 months.In conclusion,the changes of soil OM depend on the nature and stability of the organic amendments,with composted vine pruning waste favouring humification.

  18. Remediation of Pb contaminated soils by phytoextraction and amendment induced immobilization : biological aspects

    OpenAIRE

    GEEBELEN, Wouter

    2002-01-01

    This study examines the biological aspects related to alternative remediation strategies for Pb contaminated soils: EDTA induced Pb phytoextraction and amendment induced immobilization of soil Pb by means of inorganic soil amendments. The physiological effects of Pb-EDTA and EDTA were studied on bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Limburgse vroege), grown under strictly controlled conditions on a Hoagland nutrient solution. Addition of Pb-EDTA to the growth medium increased the capacity of enz...

  19. Biochar and compost amendments enhance copper immobilisation and support plant growth in contaminated soils

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Sarah; Bardos, R. Paul; Kidd, Petra S.; Mench, Michel; de Leij, Frans; Hutchings, Tony; Cundy, Andrew; Joyce, Chris; Soja, Gerhard; Friesl-Hanl, Wolfgang; Herzig, Rolf; Menger, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Contamination of soil with trace elements, such as Cu, is an important risk management issue. A pot experiment was conducted to determine the effects of three biochars and compost on plant growth and the immobilisation of Cu in a contaminated soil from a site formerly used for wood preservation. To assess Cu mobility, amended soils were analysed using leaching tests pre- and post-incubation, and post-growth. Amended and unamended soils were planted with sunflower, and the resulting plant mate...

  20. Draft amendment to the X-Ray Ordinance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the draft amendment to the X-Ray Ordinance was to reduce radiation exposure of persons for medical reasons even beyond the current level of attainment. For instance, some of the changes to be made in the ordinance include casting the rules for medical use of X-rays into a more concise form, introducing a 'radiological safety officer', redefinition of 'industrial controlled areas', and the introduction of an 'X-ray voucher'. The latter is to help avoid duplication of exposure. The Ordinance focuses on the improvement of rules relating to adequate expert knowledge and the newly introduced quality assurance. Both of these are to help improve radiation protection by reducing the radiation exposure of patients. Quality assurance is to be carried through on the operator's own responsibility and is to be controlled by independent 'medical inspectorates'. This is a model of self-administration in which different objectives: radiation protection law, and the law for the practice of medicine as registered medical practitioner are combined. Adequate expert knowledge is to include in future, apart from practical knowledge, theoretical knowledge of basic elements of radiation physics, radiation biology, dosimetry, and legal bases in the field of radiation protection. (TRV)

  1. DISPOSAL OF AGRO-INDUSTRIALS WASTES AS SOIL AMENDMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mekki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the fertilizing potential of three agro-industrial wastes (Compost (C, Dehydrated Manures (DM and Digestate (D on soil properties, on seeds germination and the plants growth. Results showed that the addition of wastes modified several soil properties as pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC, Water Retention Capacity (WRC and Soil Organic Matter (SOM. Hence, SOM increase from 1.5% in unamended soil to 2, 2.3 and to 3.1% in soils amended with (D, with (DM and with (C respectively. A fast SOM biodegradation was illustrated in presence of compost where we noted a decrease of 20% of initial organic matter content. Besides, wastes improve strongly microbial and respirometric soil activities mainly in presence of DM and D. These same wastes stimulate seeds germination of two standard plants species (Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum and Alfalfa (Medicago sativa. The growth levels of three cultivated plants species (Wheat (Triticum durum, Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor and Alfalfa (Medicago sativa were enhanced in presence of wastes than those irrigated with water.

  2. Safe drinking water act: Amendments, regulations and standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book approaches the topic of safe drinking water by communicating how the EPA has responded to the mandates of Congress. Chapter 1 summarizes what is and will be involved in achieving safe drinking water. Chapter 2 describes the historical development of drinking water regulations. Chapter 3 summarizes the directives of the Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments of 1986. Chapters 4 through 9 discuss each phase of the regulatory program in turn. Specific problems associated with volatile organic chemicals, synthetic organics, inorganic chemicals, and microbiological contaminants are assessed in Chapter 4 and 5. The unique characteristics of radionuclides and their regulation are treated in Chapter 6. The disinfection process and its resultant disinfection by-products are presented in Chapter 7. The contaminant selection process and the additional contaminants to be regulated by 1989 and 1991 and in future years are discussed in Chapters 8 and 9. EPA's Office of Drinking Water's Health Advisory Program is explained in Chapter 10. The record of public water system compliance with the primary drinking water regulations is detailed in Chapter 11. Chapter 12 offers a nongovernmental perspective on the general quality of drinking water and how this is affected by a wide range of drinking water treatment technologies. Separate abstracts are processed for 5 chapters in this book for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  3. Use of oily waste organics as amendment to soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of oily waste organics (OWO) from petroleum wells used as amendment in soils of Tierra del Fuego (Argentina) was studied. The soil in Tierra del Fuego is dominated by a xeric heath community of very little forage value for sheep. In a pot experiment, applying OWO as a band 2 cm below the soil surface decreased water evaporation, increased the soil temperature by 15%, and decreased the growth of orchard grass (Dactylis glomerata) by 29% with respect to the control. In another pot experiment, OWO was mixed with soil, fertilized with N and P, and incubated for 0, 18, 39, and 75 days at 4 and 30 C. Incubation increased the population of nitrifier bacteria in soil only when OWO was applied at 0 or 10%; at 20% nitrifier bacteria were depressed. Fertilization increased the growth of orchard grass and overcame any depressive effect of OWO on shoot yield. In a third experiment, the percentage of germination of orchard seeds was not affected by adding up to 40% of OWO, although the addition of OWO depressed root elongation rate. In a field experiment, adding OWO between rows of potato plants increased soil water content and total potato yield

  4. Misrepresentation and amendment of soil moisture in conceptual hydrological modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Lu; Han, Dawei

    2016-04-01

    Although many conceptual models are very effective in simulating river runoff, their soil moisture schemes are generally not realistic in comparison with the reality (i.e., getting the right answers for the wrong reasons). This study reveals two significant misrepresentations in those models through a case study using the Xinanjiang model which is representative of many well-known conceptual hydrological models. The first is the setting of the upper limit of its soil moisture at the field capacity, due to the 'holding excess runoff' concept (i.e., runoff begins on repletion of its storage to the field capacity). The second is neglect of capillary rise of water movement. A new scheme is therefore proposed to overcome those two issues. The amended model is as effective as its original form in flow modelling, but represents more logically realistic soil water processes. The purpose of the study is to enable the hydrological model to get the right answers for the right reasons. Therefore, the new model structure has a better capability in potentially assimilating soil moisture observations to enhance its real-time flood forecasting accuracy. The new scheme is evaluated in the Pontiac catchment of the USA through a comparison with satellite observed soil moisture. The correlation between the XAJ and the observed soil moisture is enhanced significantly from 0.64 to 0.70. In addition, a new soil moisture term called SMDS (Soil Moisture Deficit to Saturation) is proposed to complement the conventional SMD (Soil Moisture Deficit).

  5. Restoration of rare earth mine areas: organic amendments and phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lingyan; Li, Zhaolong; Liu, Wen; Liu, Shenghong; Zhang, Limin; Zhong, Liyan; Luo, Ximei; Liang, Hong

    2015-11-01

    Overexploitation of rare earth mine has caused serious desertification and various environmental issues, and ecological restoration of a mining area is an important concern in China. In this study, experiments involving dry grass landfilling, chicken manure broadcasting, and plant cultivation were carried out to reclaim a rare earth mine area located in Heping County, Guangdong Province, China. The prime focus was to improve soil quality in terms of nutrients, microbial community, enzyme activity, and physicochemical properties so as to reclaim the land. After 2 years of restoration, an increase of organic matter (OM), available potassium (K), available phosphorus (P) levels, and acid phosphatase (ACP) activity and a reduction of the available nitrogen (N) level and urease (URE) activity in soil were achieved compared to the original mined land. The nutrients and enzyme activities in soil with 5 years of restoration were close to or surpass those in the unexploited land as control. The bulk density, total porosity, water holding capacity, pH, and electrical conductivity (EC) of soil were improved, and the number of cultivable microorganisms and the bacterial diversity in soil were greatly increased with time during ecological restoration, especially for surface soil. Furthermore, the artificial vegetation stably grew at the restored mining sites. The results indicated that organic amendments and phytoremediation could ecologically restore the rare earth mining sites and the mined land could finally be planted as farmland. PMID:26139395

  6. Mineralization of soil organic matter in biochar amended agricultural landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chintala, R.; Clay, D. E.; Schumacher, T. E.; Kumar, S.; Malo, D. D.

    2015-12-01

    Pyrogenic biochar materials have been identified as a promising soil amendment to enhance climate resilience, increase soil carbon recalcitrance and achieve sustainable crop production. A three year field study was initiated in 2013 to study the impact of biochar on soil carbon and nitrogen storage on an eroded Maddock soil series - Sandy, Mixed, Frigid Entic Hapludolls) and deposition Brookings clay loam (Fine-Silty, Mixed, Superactive, Frigid Pachic Hapludolls) landscape positions. Three biochars produced from corn stover (Zea mays L.), Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Lawson and C. Lawson) wood residue, and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) were incorporated at 9.75 Mg ha-1 rate (≈7.5 cm soil depth and 1.3 g/cm3 soil bulk density) with a rototiller. The changes in chemical fractionation of soil carbon (soluble C, acid hydrolyzable C, total C, and δ13 C) and nitrogen (soluble N, acid hydrolyzable N, total N, and δ14 N) were monitored for two soil depths (0-7.5 and 7.5 - 15 cm). Soluble and acid hydrolyzable fractions of soil C and N were influenced by soil series and were not significantly affected by incorporation of biochars. Based on soil and plant samples to be collected in the fall of 2015, C and N budgets are being developed using isotopic and non-isotopic techniques. Laboratory studies showed that the mean residence time for biochars used in this study ranged from 400 to 666 years. Laboratory and field studies will be compared in the presentation.

  7. Organic amendments increase soil solution phosphate concentrations in an acid soil: A controlled environment study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schefe, C.R.; Patti, A.F.; Clune, T.S.; Jackson, R. [Rutgers Centre, Rutherglen, Vic. (Australia)

    2008-04-15

    Soil acidification affects at least 4 million hectares of agricultural land in Victoria, Australia. Low soil pH can inhibit plant growth through increased soluble aluminum (Al) concentrations and decreased available phosphorus (P). The addition of organic amendments may increase P availability through competition for P binding sites, solubilization of poorly soluble P pools, and increased solution pH. The effect of two organic amendments (lignite and compost) on P solubility in an acid soil was determined through controlled environment (incubation) studies. Three days after the addition of lignite and compost, both treatments increased orthophosphate and total P measured in soil solution, with the compost treatments having the greatest positive effect. Increased incubation time (26 days) increased soil solution P concentrations in both untreated and amended soils, with the greatest effect seen in total P concentrations. The measured differences in solution P concentrations between the lignite- and compost-amended treatments were likely caused by differences in solution chemistry, predominantly solution pH and cation dynamics. Soil amendment with lignite or compost also increased microbial activity in the incubation systems, as measured by carbon dioxide respiration. Based on the results presented, it is proposed that the measured increase in soil solution P with amendment addition was likely caused by both chemical and biological processes, including biotic and abiotic P solubilization reactions, and the formation of soluble organic-metal complexes.

  8. Improving phosphorus availability in an acid soil using organic amendments produced from agroindustrial wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ch'ng, Huck Ywih; Ahmed, Osumanu Haruna; Majid, Nik Muhamad Ab

    2014-01-01

    In acid soils, soluble inorganic phosphorus is fixed by aluminium and iron. To overcome this problem, acid soils are limed to fix aluminium and iron but this practice is not economical. The practice is also not environmentally friendly. This study was conducted to improve phosphorus availability using organic amendments (biochar and compost produced from chicken litter and pineapple leaves, resp.) to fix aluminium and iron instead of phosphorus. Amending soil with biochar or compost or a mixture of biochar and compost increased total phosphorus, available phosphorus, inorganic phosphorus fractions (soluble inorganic phosphorus, aluminium bound inorganic phosphorus, iron bound inorganic phosphorus, redundant soluble inorganic phosphorus, and calcium bound phosphorus), and organic phosphorus. This was possible because the organic amendments increased soil pH and reduced exchangeable acidity, exchangeable aluminium, and exchangeable iron. The findings suggest that the organic amendments altered soil chemical properties in a way that enhanced the availability of phosphorus in this study. The amendments effectively fixed aluminium and iron instead of phosphorus, thus rendering phosphorus available by keeping the inorganic phosphorus in a bioavailable labile phosphorus pool for a longer period compared with application of Triple Superphosphate without organic amendments. PMID:25032229

  9. Defense Responses in Rice Induced by Silicon Amendment against Infestation by the Leaf Folder Cnaphalocrocis medinalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yongqiang; Li, Pei; Gong, Shaolong; Yang, Lang; Wen, Lizhang; Hou, Maolin

    2016-01-01

    Silicon (Si) amendment to plants can confer enhanced resistance to herbivores. In the present study, the physiological and cytological mechanisms underlying the enhanced resistance of plants with Si addition were investigated for one of the most destructive rice pests in Asian countries, the rice leaf folder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenée). Activities of defense-related enzymes, superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, and polyphenol oxidase, and concentrations of malondialdehyde and soluble protein in leaves were measured in rice plants with or without leaf folder infestation and with or without Si amendment at 0.32 g Si/kg soil. Silicon amendment significantly reduced leaf folder larval survival. Silicon addition alone did not change activities of defense-related enzymes and malondialdehyde concentration in rice leaves. With leaf folder infestation, activities of the defense-related enzymes increased and malondialdehyde concentration decreased in plants amended with Si. Soluble protein content increased with Si addition when the plants were not infested, but was reduced more in the infested plants with Si amendment than in those without Si addition. Regardless of leaf folder infestation, Si amendment significantly increased leaf Si content through increases in the number and width of silica cells. Our results show that Si addition enhances rice resistance to the leaf folder through priming the feeding stress defense system, reduction in soluble protein content and cell silicification of rice leaves. PMID:27124300

  10. Extractability and bioavailability of Pb and As in historically contaminated orchard soil: Effects of compost amendments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The availability of Pb and As in an historically contaminated orchard soil, after amendment with compost and aging in the field, was determined by single-step chemical extraction with 1.0 M ammonium acetate at pH 4.8, sequential extraction using the modified BCR test, and a redworm bioassay in the laboratory. The efficiency of soil Pb extraction by ammonium acetate was greater at higher total soil Pb but was reduced by compost amendment. Conversely, the extraction efficiency of total soil As increased with compost amendment, but was not sensitive to total soil As. The redworm bioassay indicated Pb (but not As) bioavailability to be reduced by soil amendment with compost, a result consistent with the ammonium acetate extraction test but not reflected in modified BCR test. Electron microprobe studies of the orchard soil revealed Pb and As to be spatially associated in discrete particles along with phosphorus and iron. -- Highlights: ► Soil Pb and As in an old orchard were concentrated in discrete particles. ► Compost amendment of contaminated soil reduced Pb bioavailability. ► Compost amendment of contaminated soil did not reduce As bioavailability. ► Ammonium acetate extraction test reflected bioavailability of soil Pb and As. -- Remediating metal-contaminated orchard soils with compost reduced lead bioavailability but had little effect on arsenic

  11. Behavior of Ag nanoparticles in soil: Effects of particle surface coating, aging and sewage sludge amendment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study addressed the relative importance of particle coating, sewage sludge amendment, and aging on aggregation and dissolution of manufactured Ag nanoparticles (Ag MNPs) in soil pore water. Ag MNPs with citrate (CIT) or polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) coatings were incubated with soil or municipal sewage sludge which was then amended to soil (1% or 3% sludge (w/w)). Pore waters were extracted after 1 week and 2 and 6 months and analyzed for chemical speciation, aggregation state and dissolution. Ag MNP coating had profound effects on aggregation state and partitioning to pore water in the absence of sewage sludge, but pre-incubation with sewage sludge negated these effects. This suggests that Ag MNP coating does not need to be taken into account to understand fate of AgMNPs applied to soil through biosolids amendment. Aging of soil also had profound effects that depended on Ag MNP coating and sludge amendment. -- Highlights: •Silver nanoparticle coating affects fate in unamended soils. •Citrated coated silver nanoparticles could be found in pore water for up to six months. •Pre-incubation of silver nanoparticles in sewage sludge negated effects of surface coating. •Weathered or reprecipitated particles found in pore water for up to two months in sludge amended soils. •Particle surface coating, sewage sludge amendment and aging all have important impacts. -- Behavior of manufactured silver nanoparticles in soil depends on surface coating, contact with sewage sludge, and aging

  12. Evaluation and selection of soil amendments for field testing to reduce P losses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connor, G.A.; Brinton, S.; Silveira, M.L. [University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Soil & Water Science

    2005-07-01

    The effectiveness of chemical amendments in reducing P losses from manure impacted Florida soil was evaluated using a variety of protocols, including total elemental analysis, short-term laboratory equilibrations, column leaching experiments, and simulated rainfall studies. Amendments used included: two Fe-humates (a Fe-water treatment residual (WTR) and a titanium-mine waste), two Al-WTRs, one Ca-WTR, a coal combustion slag, a Si-rich material (Pro-Sil), a Leonardite material (dinoSoil), and two agricultural materials (lime and gypsum). In equilibration studies, Al-WTRs were the most effective at sorbing P, while Fe-humate sorbed the least P of all treatments. Other amendments effectively reduced soluble P, but increased suspension pH and electrical conductivity (EC) to an extent expected to adversely affect plant growth. Gypsum was the most effective amendment in reducing P leaching in small column studies. DinoSoil treatment significantly altered the soil hydraulic properties, yielding the greatest runoff volumes in a simulated rainfall study. Total P loss (runoff + leachate) was largely determined by the leaching component, and was essentially all soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) for both bare and grassed soil surfaces. AD treatments reduced runoff SRP compared to the control. Amendment effects in the grassed rainfall study (dominated by leaching) were inconsistent with results from the small column leaching study, possibly due to the different hydraulic conditions and kinetic factors involved in the two studies. The Al-WTRs amendments were recommended for field evaluation.

  13. Assisted attenuation of a soil contaminated by diuron using hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin and organic amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Bellido, Marina; Madrid, Fernando; Morillo, Esmeralda; Villaverde, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Diuron desorption and mineralisation were studied on an amended and artificially contaminated soil. The amendments used comprised two different composted organic residues i.e., sewage sludge (SS) mixed with pruning wastes, and urban solid residues (USR), and two different solutions (with inorganic salts as the micronutrients and hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPBCD)). After applying micronutrients to activate the soil flora, 15.5% mineralisation could be reached after 150 days, indicating that the soil has a potential capacity to mineralise the herbicide through biostimulation-assisted attenuation. Diuron mineralisation was also improved when HPBCD solutions were applied. Indeed, the extent of herbicide mineralisation reached 29.7% with this application. Moreover, both the lag phase and the half-life time (DT50) were reduced to 33 and 1,778 days, respectively, relative to the application of just micronutrients (i.e., 39 and 6297 days, respectively). Organic amendments were also applied (i.e., USR and SS) on the contaminated soil: it was found that the diuron mineralisation rate was improved as the amendment concentration increased. The joint application of all treatments investigated at the best conditions tested was conducted to obtain the best diuron mineralisation results. The micronutrient amendment plus 4% USR or SS amendment plus HPBCD solution (10-fold diuron initially spiked) caused an extent of diuron mineralisation 33.2 or 46.5%, respectively. PMID:25310830

  14. Impact of Organic Amendments with and Without Mineral Fertilizers on Soil Microbial Respiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilani, S. S.; Bahmanyar, M. A.

    A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of Sewage Sludge (SS), Municipal Waste Compost (MWC) and Vermicompost (VC) with and without chemical fertilizer (Urea, 50 kg ha-1 + Potassium sulfate, 100 kg ha-1 + Triple super phosphate, 127.5 kg ha-1) on Soil Microbial Respiration (SMR) and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) in a soil cropped to soybean. Experiment was arranged in a complete block design with three replications. Organic amendments were added to soil at rate of 0 (control treatment), 20 and 40 Mg ha-1. Furthermore each level of organic fertilizers with ½ normal of chemical fertilizer was also enriched. Soil samples were taken after one year of fertilization. Results illustrated that application of organic amendments increased TOC and SMR and soybean yield compared to control and chemical fertilizer treatments. Sewage sludge amended soils showed higher SMR, TOC and soybean yield than that of other organic amendment treatments. An increasing trend was observed in all studied parameters, as rates of application increased. All parameters were greater in treatments receiving a combination of chemical fertilizers and organic amendments (enriched treatments) compared to soils receiving organic amendments alone. Results obtained by discriminate analysis indicated that rates of application were more effective to create discriminating among treatments. This study showed that TOC was significantly correlated with SMR. Significant correlation was also observed between SMR and soybean yield.

  15. Assessment of amendments for the immobilization of Cu in soils containing EDDS leachates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li; Jiang, Longfei; Wang, Guiping; Chen, Yahua; Shen, Zhenguo; Luo, Chunling

    2015-11-01

    In this study, the effectiveness of six soil amendments (ferrihydrite, manganese dioxide, gibbsite, calcium carbonate, biochar, and organic fertilizer) was investigated to assess the feasibility of minimizing possible environmental contaminant leaching during S,S-ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid (EDDS)-enhanced phytoextraction process based on 0.01-M CaCl2 extraction. Results showed that the application of EDDS could significantly increase Cu concentrations in the leaching solution. Compared with control, incorporation of six amendments (excluding organic fertilizer) significantly decreased CaCl2-extractable Cu concentrations in both soils. When EDDS-containing solutions leached from the soil columns (mimicking the upper soil layers) were added to soils with different amendments (mimicking the subsoil), CaCl2-extractable Cu in the soils amended with ferrihydrite, manganese dioxide, gibbsite, and calcium carbonate was significantly lower than that in the control soil (no amendments) and remained relatively constant during the first 14 days. Incorporation of biochar or organic fertilizer had no positive effect on the immobilization of Cu in EDDS leachates in soils. After 14 days, CaCl2-extractable Cu concentration decreased rapidly in soils incorporated with various amendments. Integrating soil washing with biodegradable chelating agents or chelant-enhanced phytoextraction and immobilization of heavy metals in subsoil could be used to rapidly reduce the concentration of bioavailable metal fractions in the upper soil layers and minimize environmental risks of secondary pollution. PMID:26077318

  16. Summer cover crops and soil amendments to improve growth and nutrient uptake of okra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Q.R.; Li, Y.C.; Klassen, W. [University of Florida, Homestead, FL (United States). Center for Tropical Research & Education

    2006-04-15

    A pot experiment with summer cover crops and soil amendments was conducted in two consecutive years to elucidate the effects of these cover crops and soil amendments on 'Clemson Spineless 80' okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) yields and biomass production, and the uptake and distribution of soil nutrients and trace elements. The cover crops were sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), velvetbean (Mucuna deeringiana), and sorghum sudan-grass (Sorghum bicolor x S. bicolor var. sudanense) with fallow as the control. The organic soil amendments were biosolids (sediment from wastewater plants), N-Viro Soil (a mixture of biosolids and coal ash), coal ash (a combustion by-product from power plants), co-compost (a mixture of 3 biosolids: 7 yard waste), and yard waste compost (mainly from leaves and branches of trees and shrubs, and grass clippings) with a soil-incorporated cover crop as the control. As a subsequent vegetable crop, okra was grown after the cover crops, alone or together with the organic soil amendments, had been incorporated. All of the cover crops, except sorghum sudangrass in 2002-03, significantly improved okra fruit yields and the total biomass production. Both cover crops and soil amendments can substantially improve nutrient uptake and distribution. The results suggest that cover crops and appropriate amounts of soil amendments can be used to improve soil fertility and okra yield without adverse environmental effects or risk of contamination of the fruit. Further field studies will be required to confirm these findings.

  17. Sugarcane Yield Response to Furrow-Applied Organic Amendments on Sand Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mabry McCray

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic amendments have been shown to increase sugarcane yield on sand soils in Florida. These soils have very low water and nutrient-holding capacities because of the low content of organic matter, silt, and clay. Because of high costs associated with broadcast application, this field study was conducted to determine sugarcane yield response to furrow application of two organic amendments on sand soils. One experiment compared broadcast application (226 m3 ha−1 of mill mud and yard waste compost, furrow application (14, 28, and 56 m3 ha−1 of these materials, and no amendment. Another experiment compared furrow applications (28 and 56 m3 ha−1 of mill mud and yard waste compost with no amendment. There were significant yield (t sucrose ha−1 responses to broadcast and furrow-applied mill mud but responses to furrow applications were not consistent across sites. There were no significant yield responses to yard waste compost suggesting that higher rates or repeated applications of this amendment will be required to achieve results comparable to mill mud. Results also suggest that enhancing water and nutrient availability in the entire volume of the root zone with broadcast incorporation of organic amendments is the more effective approach for low organic matter sands.

  18. INTERACTIONS AMONG PHOSPHATE AMENDMENTS, MICROBES AND URANIUM MOBILITY IN CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, A

    2007-08-30

    The use of sequestering agents for the transformation of radionuclides in low concentrations in contaminated soils/sediments offers considerable potential for long-term environmental cleanup. This study evaluated the influence of four phosphate amendments and two microbial amendments on U availability. The synchrotron X-ray fluorescence mapping of the untreated U-contaminated sediment showed that U was closely associated with Mn. All tested phosphate amendments reduced aqueous U concentration more than 90%, likely due to formation of insoluble phosphate precipitates. The addition of A. piechaudii and P. putida alone were found to reduce U concentrations 63% and 31% respectively. Uranium sorption in phosphate treatments was significantly reduced in the presence of microbes. However, increased microbial activity in the treated sediment led to reduction of phosphate effectiveness. The average U concentration in 1 M MgCl{sub 2} extract from U amended sediment was 437 {micro}g/kg, but in the same sediment without microbes (autoclaved sediment), the extractable U concentration was only 103 {micro}g/kg. When the autoclaved amended sediment was treated with autoclaved biological apatite, U concentration in the 1 M MgCl{sub 2} extract was {approx}0 {micro}g/kg. Together these tests suggest that microbes may enhance U leaching and reduce phosphate amendment remedial effectiveness.

  19. Defense Responses in Rice Induced by Silicon Amendment against Infestation by the Leaf Folder Cnaphalocrocis medinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yongqiang; Li, Pei; Gong, Shaolong; Yang, Lang; Wen, Lizhang; Hou, Maolin

    2016-01-01

    Silicon (Si) amendment to plants can confer enhanced resistance to herbivores. In the present study, the physiological and cytological mechanisms underlying the enhanced resistance of plants with Si addition were investigated for one of the most destructive rice pests in Asian countries, the rice leaf folder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenée). Activities of defense-related enzymes, superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, and polyphenol oxidase, and concentrations of malondialdehyde and soluble protein in leaves were measured in rice plants with or without leaf folder infestation and with or without Si amendment at 0.32 g Si/kg soil. Silicon amendment significantly reduced leaf folder larval survival. Silicon addition alone did not change activities of defense-related enzymes and malondialdehyde concentration in rice leaves. With leaf folder infestation, activities of the defense-related enzymes increased and malondialdehyde concentration decreased in plants amended with Si. Soluble protein content increased with Si addition when the plants were not infested, but was reduced more in the infested plants with Si amendment than in those without Si addition. Regardless of leaf folder infestation, Si amendment significantly increased leaf Si content through increases in the number and width of silica cells. Our results show that Si addition enhances rice resistance to the leaf folder through priming the feeding stress defense system, reduction in soluble protein content and cell silicification of rice leaves. PMID:27124300

  20. The Effect of the Amendments to the Tax Laws of Financial Leasing on Capital Budgeting Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Bal

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available With an amendment to the Tax Law in 2003 in Turkey, there have emerged some important tax implementations in financial leasing operations. Before the amendment, the whole financial leasing payment was regarded expense in terms of the leasing firm, on the other hand, the lease-holder was not able to allocate amortization since the property of the goods does not belong to the lease holder. Along with the amendment in the Tax Law, the lease-holder is now able to allocate amortization for the goods leased and not able to charge the goods leased as expense, only the interest fees are regarded as expense naturally, this affects the decision of the capital budgeting for the firms. The main objective of this study is to examine the extent to which this affects the capital budgeting decisions. In this paper, we examine the effect of before and after the amendment of the tax procedural law on the capital budgeting decisions, using the free cash flow to equity, to what extent this affect the net present value of the project with a sample investment project. The results obtained suggest that the net present value of a Project to be financed through financial leasing before the amendment to the tax laws might be lower after the amendment to the tax law.

  1. Temporal changes of selected chemical properties in three manure - amended soils of Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz Escobar, M E; Hue, N V

    2008-12-01

    Soil amendment with organic materials (crop residues animal manure, and green manure) reportedly has positive effects on soil properties, from acidity to plant-nutrient availability. To examine that hypothesis, an incubation study was conducted to assess the changes in some chemical properties of three different tropical soils (Andisol, Ultisol, and Oxisol) amended with chicken manure and green manure (Leucaena leucocephala) at the rate of 10tha(-1). The results showed that organic amendments raised soil pH and EC, regardless of the type of manure used. Manuring lowered the concentrations of Mehlich-3 extractable Ca, P, Mn and Si in all soils and decreased the concentration of Mg in the Ultisol and Oxisol. However, manure amendment led to increases in the concentrations of Mg and K in the Andisol. Organic amendments caused a decrease in KCl extractable Al. Initial soluble C levels were highest in the Oxisol (60micromolg(-1)) and lowest in the Andisol (20micromolg(-1)). The concentration of soluble C decreased exponentially with duration of incubation. Three low molecular weight organic molecules (acetic acid, catechol and oxalic acid) out of the eight tested were found in all manure-amended soils. This study quantified the release of some Al chelating organic acids, the reduction of exchangeable Al, and the changes in major plant-nutrients when organic materials were added to nutrient poor, tropical acid soils. PMID:18550367

  2. Application of mesotrione at different doses in an amended soil: Dissipation and effect on the soil microbial biomass and activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pose-Juan, Eva; Sánchez-Martín, María Jesús; Herrero-Hernández, Eliseo; Rodríguez-Cruz, María Sonia

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this work was to estimate the dissipation of mesotrione applied at three doses (2, 10 and 50 mg kg(-1) dw) in an unamended agricultural soil, and this same soil amended with two organic residues (green compost (C) and sewage sludge (SS)). The effects of herbicide and organic residue on the abundance and activity of soil microbial communities were also assessed by determining soil microbial parameters such as biomass, dehydrogenase activity (DHA), and respiration. Lower dissipation rates were observed for a higher herbicide dose. The highest half-life (DT50) values were observed in the SS-amended soil for the three herbicide doses applied. Biomass values increased in the amended soils compared to the unamended one in all the cases studied, and increased over the incubation period in the SS-amended soil. DHA mean values significantly decreased in the SS-amended soil, and increased in the C-amended soil compared to the unamended ones, under all conditions. At time 0 days, respiration values were significantly higher in SS-amended soils (untreated and treated with mesotrione) than in the unamended and C-amended soils. The effect of mesotrione on soil biomass, DHA and respiration was different depending on incubation time and soil amendment and herbicide dose applied. The results support the need to consider the possible non-target effects of pesticides and organic amendments simultaneously applied on soil microbial communities to prevent negative impacts on soil quality. PMID:26188530

  3. Linear spectral unmixing to monitor crop growth in typical organic and inorganic amended arid soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Battay, A.; Mahmoudi, H.

    2016-06-01

    The soils of the GCC countries are dominantly sandy which is typical of arid regions such as the Arabian Peninsula. Such soils are low in nutrients and have a poor water holding capacity associated with a high infiltration rate. Soil amendments may rehabilitate these soils by restoring essential soil properties and hence enable site revegetation and revitalization for crop production, especially in a region where food security is a priority. In this study, two inorganic amendments; AustraHort and Zeoplant pellet, and one organic locally produced compost were tested as soil amendments at the experimental field of the International Center for Biosaline Agriculture in Dubai, UAE. The main objective is to assess the remote sensing ability to monitor crop growth, for instance Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus), having these amendments, as background with the soil. Three biomass spectral vegetation indices were used namely; NDVI, TDVI and SAVI. Pure spectral signatures of the soil and the three amendments were collected, using a field spectroradiometer, in addition to the spectral signatures of Okra in two growing stages (vegetative and flowering) in the field with a mixed F.O.V of the plant and amended soil during March and May 2015. The spectral signatures were all collected using the FieldSpec® HandHeld 2 (HH2) in the spectral range 325 nm - 1075 nm over 12 plots. A set of 4 plots were assigned for each of the three amendments as follow: three replicates of a 1.5 by 1.5 meter plot with 3kg/m2 of each amendment and 54 plants, one plot as control and all plots were given irrigation treatments at 100% based on ETc. Spectra collected over the plots were inversed in the range of 400-900 nm via a Linear Mixture Model using pure soil and amendments spectral signatures as reference. Field pictures were used to determine the vegetation fraction (in term of area of the F.O.V). Hence, the Okra spectral signatures were isolated for all plots with the three types of amendments. The

  4. Evolution of plant colonization in acid and alkaline mine tailing ponds after amendments and microorganisms application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Jose Alberto; Faz, Ángel; Kabas, Sebla; Zornoza, Raúl; Martínez-Martínez, Silvia

    2014-05-01

    Intense mining activities in the past were carried out in Cartagena-La Unión mining district, SE Spain, and caused excessive accumulation of toxic metals in tailing ponds which poses a high environmental and ecological risk. One of the remediation options gaining considerable interest in recent years is the in situ immobilization of metals. A corresponding reduction in the plant-available metal fraction allows re-vegetation and ecosystem restoration of the heavily contaminated sites. In addition, the use of microorganisms to improve the soil condition is a new tool used to increase spontaneous plant colonization. The aim of this research was to assess the effect of amendments (pig manure, sewage sludge, and lime) and microorganisms on plant cover establishment, as a consequence of metal immobilization and the improvement of soil properties. The study was carried out in two mine ponds (acid and alkaline). Twenty seven square field plots, each one consisting of 4 m2, were located in each pond. Four different doses of microorganism (0 ml, 20 ml, 100 ml and 200 ml of microorganism solution in each plot) and one dose of pig manure (5 kg per plot), sewage sludge (4 kg per plot) and lime (22 kg per plot) were used. Organic amendment doses were calculated according to European nitrogen legislations, and lime dose was calculated according with the potential acid production through total sulphur oxidation. Three replicates of each treatment (organic amendment + lime + microorganism dose 0, 1, 2, or 3) and control soil (with no amendments) were carried out. Plots were left to the semi-arid climate conditions after the addition of amendments to simulate real potential applications of the results. Identification of plant species and biodiversity was determined on each plot, after 2, 4, 6 and 8 months of amendment addition. The results showed that, in those plots without application of microorganism, 8 months after applications the number of species and individuals of each

  5. Cadmium sorption characteristics of soil amendments and its relationship with the cadmium uptake by hyperaccumulator and normal plants in amended soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yan; Wu, Qi-Tang; Lee, Charles C C; Li, Baoqin; Long, Xinxian

    2014-01-01

    In order to select appropriate amendments for cropping hyperaccumulator or normal plants on contaminated soils and establish the relationship between Cd sorption characteristics of soil amendments and their capacity to reduce Cd uptake by plants, batch sorption experiments with 11 different clay minerals and organic materials and a pot experiment with the same amendments were carried out. The pot experiment was conducted with Sedum alfredii and maize (Zea mays) in a co-cropping system. The results showed that the highest sorption amount was by montmorillonite at 40.82 mg/g, while mica was the lowest at only 1.83 mg/g. There was a significant negative correlation between the n value of Freundlich equation and Cd uptake by plants, and between the logarithm of the stability constant K of the Langmuir equation and plant uptake. Humic acids (HAs) and mushroom manure increased Cd uptake by S. alfredii, but not maize, thus they are suitable as soil amendments for the co-cropping S. alfredii and maize. The stability constant K in these cases was 0.14-0.16 L/mg and n values were 1.51-2.19. The alkaline zeolite and mica had the best fixation abilities and significantly decreased Cd uptake by the both plants, with K > or = 1.49 L/mg and n > or = 3.59. PMID:24912231

  6. Treatment of sites contaminated with perfluorinated compounds using biochar amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupryianchyk, Darya; Hale, Sarah E; Breedveld, Gijs D; Cornelissen, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    Per- and polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have been attracting increasing attention due to their considerable persistence, bioaccumulation, and toxicity. Here, we studied the sorption behavior of three PFCs, viz. perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanecarboxylic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS), on one activated carbon (AC) and two biochars from different feedstocks, viz. mixed wood (MW) and paper mill waste (PMW). In addition, we explored the potential of remediating three natively PFC contaminated soils by the addition of AC or biochar. The sorption coefficient i.e. Freundlich coefficients LogKF, (μg/kg)/(μg/L)(n), for the two biochars were 4.61±0.11 and 4.41±0.05 for PFOS, 3.02±0.04 and 3.01±0.01 for PFOA, and 3.21±0.07 and 3.18±0.03 for PFHxS, respectively. The AC sorbed the PFCs so strongly that aqueous concentrations were reduced to below detection limits, implying that the LogKF values were above 5.60. Sorption capacities decreased in the order: AC>MW>PMW, which was consistent with the material's surface area and pore size distribution. PFC sorption to MW biochar was near-linear (Freundlich exponent nF of 0.87-0.90), but non-linear for PMW biochar (0.64-0.73). Addition of the AC to contaminated soils resulted in almost complete removal of PFCs from the water phase and a significant (i.e. 1-3 Log unit) increase in soil-water distribution coefficient LogKd. However, small to no reduction in pore water concentration, and no effect on LogKd was found for the biochars. We conclude that amendment with AC but not biochar can be a useful method for in situ remediation of PFC-contaminated soils. PMID:25956025

  7. Biochar: an effective amendment for remediating contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Lu-Lu; Liu, Wei-Tao; Zhou, Qi-Xing

    2014-01-01

    Biochar is a carbon-rich material derived from incomplete combustion of biomass.Applying biochar as an amendment to treat contaminated soils is receiving increasing attention, and is a promising way to improve soil quality. Heavy metals are persistent and are not environmentally biodegradable. However, they can be stabilized in soil by adding biochar. Moreover, biochar is considered to be a predominant sorptive agent for organic pollutants, having a removal efficiency of about 1 order of magnitude higher than does soil/sediment organic matter or their precursor substances alone.When trying to stabilize organic and inorganic pollutants in soil, several features of biochar' s sorption capacity should be considered, viz., the nature of the pollutants to be remediated, how the biochar is prepared, and the complexity of the soil systemin which biochar may be used. In addition, a significant portion of the biochar or some of its components that are used to remediate soils do change over time through abiotic oxidation and microbial decomposition. This change process is commonly referred to as "aging:" Biochar "aging" in nature is inevitable, and aged biochar exhibits an effect that is totally different than non-aged biochar on stabilizing heavy metals and organic contaminants in soils.Studies that have been performed to date on the use of biochar to remediate contaminated soil are insufficient to allow its use for wide-scale field application.Therefore, considerable new data are necessary to expand both our understanding of how biochar performs in the field, and where it can be best used in the future for soil remediation. For example, how biochar and soil biota (microbial and faunal communities)interact in soils is still poorly understood. Moreover, studies are needed on how to best remove new species of heavy metals, and on how biochar aging affects sorption capacity are also needed. PMID:24162093

  8. Suitability of marginal biomass-derived biochars for soil amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, Wolfram; Graham, Margaret C; Shepherd, Jessica G; Mašek, Ondřej

    2016-03-15

    The term "marginal biomass" is used here to describe materials of little or no economic value, e.g. plants grown on contaminated land, food waste or demolition wood. In this study 10 marginal biomass-derived feedstocks were converted into 19 biochars at different highest treatment temperatures (HTT) using a continuous screw-pyrolysis unit. The aim was to investigate suitability of the resulting biochars for land application, judged on the basis of potentially toxic element (PTE) concentration, nutrient content and basic biochar properties (pH, EC, ash, fixed carbon). It was shown that under typical biochar production conditions the percentage content of several PTEs (As, Al, Zn) and nutrients (Ca, Mg) were reduced to some extent, but also that biochar can be contaminated by Cr and Ni during the pyrolysis process due to erosion of stainless steel reactor parts (average+82.8% Cr, +226.0% Ni). This can occur to such an extent that the resulting biochar is rendered unsuitable for soil application (maximum addition +22.5 mg Cr kg(-1) biochar and +44.4 mg Ni kg(-1) biochar). Biomass grown on land heavily contaminated with PTEs yielded biochars with PTE concentrations above recommended threshold values for soil amendments. Cd and Zn were of particular concern, exceeding the lowest threshold values by 31-fold and 7-fold respectively, despite some losses into the gas phase. However, thermal conversion of plants from less severely contaminated soils, demolition wood and food waste anaerobic digestate (AD) into biochar proved to be promising for land application. In particular, food waste AD biochar contained very high nutrient concentrations, making it interesting for use as fertiliser. PMID:26789369

  9. Biochar amendment to lead-contaminated soil: Effects on fluorescein diacetate hydrolytic activity and phytotoxicity to rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xiaofei; Liu, Yunguo; Gu, Yanling; Zeng, Guangming; Hu, Xinjiang; Wang, Xin; Hu, Xi; Guo, Yiming; Zeng, Xiaoxia; Sun, Zhichao

    2015-09-01

    The amendment effects of biochar on total microbial activity was measured by fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolytic activity, and phytotoxicity in Pb(II)-contaminated soils was examined by the application of 4 different biochars to soil, with rice as a test plant. The FDA hydrolytic activities of biochar-amended soils were much higher than that of the control. The survival rate of rice in lead-contaminated biochar-amended soils showed significant improvement over the control, especially for bamboo biochar-amended soil (93.3%). In addition, rice grown in lead-contaminated control sediment displayed lower biomass production than that in biochar-amended soil. The immobilization of Pb(II) and the positive effects of biochar amendment on soil microorganisms may account for these effects. The results suggest that biochar may have an excellent ability to mitigate the toxic effects of Pb(II) on soil microorganisms and rice. PMID:25900615

  10. Evaluation of chemical amendments to control phosphorus losses from dairy slurry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brennan, R.B.; Fenton, O.; Rodgers, M.; Healy, M.G. [National University of Ireland, Galway (Ireland)

    2011-06-15

    Land application of dairy slurry can result in incidental losses of phosphorus (P) to runoff in addition to increased loss of P from soil as a result of a buildup in soil test P (STP). An agitator test was used to identify the most effective amendments to reduce dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) loss from the soil surface after land application of chemically amended dairy cattle slurry. This test involved adding slurry mixed with various amendments (mixed in a beaker using a jar test flocculator at 100 rpm), to intact soil samples at approximate field capacity. Slurry/amended slurry was applied with a spatula, submerged with overlying water and then mixed to simulate overland flow. In order of effectiveness, at optimum application rates, ferric chloride (FeCl{sub 2}) reduced the DRP in overlying water by 88%, aluminium chloride (AlCl{sub 2}) by 87%, alum (Al{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}{center_dot} nH{sub 2}O) by 83%, lime by 81%, aluminium water treatment residuals (Al-WTR; sieved to < 2 mm) by 77%, flyash by 72%, flue gas desulphurization by-product by 72% and Al-WTR sludge by 71%. Ferric chloride (eurO{sub 4}.82/m{sup 3} treated slurry) was the most cost-effective chemical amendment. However, Al compounds are preferred owing to stability of Al-P compared with Fe-P bonds. Alum is less expensive than AlCl{sub 2} (euro6.67/m{sup 3}), but the risk of effervescence needs further investigation at field-scale. Phosphorus sorbing materials (PSM) were not as efficient as chemicals in reducing DRP in overlying water. The amendments all reduced P loss from dairy slurry, but the feasibility of these amendments may be limited because of the cost of treatment.

  11. Reduction of arsenic bioavailability by amending seven inorganic materials in arsenic contaminated soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Yuan-yuan; LIU Rong-le; ZENG Xi-bai; LIN Qi-mei; BAI Ling-yu; LI Lian-fang; SU Shi-ming; WANG Ya-nan

    2015-01-01

    Seven inorganic amendment materials were added into arsenic (As) contaminated soil at a rate of 0.5%(w/w);the materials used were sepiolite, red mud, iron grit, phosphogypsum, ferrihydrite, iron phosphate, and layered double oxides (LDO). Plant growth trials using rape (edible rape, Brassia campestris L.) as a bio-indicator are commonly used to assess As bio-availability in soils. In this study, B. campestris was grown in a contaminated soil for 50 days. Al of the inorganic amend-ments signiifcantly inhibited the uptake of As by B. campestris. Fol owing soil treatment with the seven aforementioned inorganic ammendments, the As concentrations in the edible parts of B. campestris were reduced by 28.6, 10.5, 8.7, 31.0, 47.4, 25.3, and 28.8%, respectively, as compared with the plants grown in control soil. The most effective amendment was ferrihydrite, which reduced As concentration in B. campestris from 1.84 to 0.97 mg kg–1, compared to control. Furthermore, ferrihydrite-treated soils had a remarkable decrease in both non-speciifcal y sorbed As and available-As by 67 and 20%, respectively, comparing to control. Phosphogypsum was the most cost-effective amendment and it showed excel ent performance in reducing the water soluble As in soils by 31%and inhibiting As uptake in B. campestris by 21%comparing to control. Additional y, obvious differences in As transfer rates were observed in the various amendments. The seven amendment materials used in this study al showed potential reduction of As bioavailability and inlfuence on plant growth and other biological processes stil need to be further explored in the long term.

  12. Time-Lapse Electrical Geophysical Monitoring of Amendment-Based Biostimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Timothy C.; Versteeg, Roelof; Day-Lewis, Frederick D.; Major, William; Lane, John W.

    2015-12-02

    Biostimulation is increasingly used to accelerate microbial remediation of recalcitrant groundwater contaminants. Effective application of biostimulation requires successful emplacement of amendment in the contaminant target zone. Verification of remediation performance requires postemplacement assessment and contaminant monitoring. Sampling based approaches are expensive and provide low-density spatial and temporal information. Time-lapse electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) is an effective geophysical method for determining temporal changes in subsurface electrical conductivity. Because remedial amendments and biostimulation-related biogeochemical processes often change subsurface electrical conductivity, ERT can complement and enhance sampling-based approaches for assessing emplacement and monitoring biostimulation-based remediation. Field studies demonstrating the ability of time-lapse ERT to monitor amendment emplacement and behavior were performed during a biostimulation remediation effort conducted at the Department of Defense Reutilization and Marketing Office (DRMO) Yard, in Brandywine, Maryland, United States. Geochemical fluid sampling was used to calibrate a petrophysical relation in order to predict groundwater indicators of amendment distribution. The petrophysical relations were field validated by comparing predictions to sequestered fluid sample results, thus demonstrating the potential of electrical geophysics for quantitative assessment of amendment-related geochemical properties. Crosshole radar zero-offset profile and borehole geophysical logging were also performed to augment the data set and validate interpretation. In addition to delineating amendment transport in the first 10 months after emplacement, the time-lapse ERT results show later changes in bulk electrical properties interpreted as mineral precipitation. Results support the use of more cost-effective surfacebased ERT in conjunction with limited field sampling to improve spatial

  13. Impact of chemically amended pig slurry on greenhouse gas emissions, soil properties and leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O' Flynn, Cornelius J; Healy, Mark G; Lanigan, Gary J; Troy, Shane M; Somers, Cathal; Fenton, Owen

    2013-10-15

    The effectiveness of chemical amendment of pig slurry to ameliorate phosphorus (P) losses in runoff is well studied, but research mainly has concentrated only on the runoff pathway. The aims of this study were to investigate changes to leachate nutrient losses, soil properties and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions due to the chemical amendment of pig slurry spread at 19 kg total phosphorus (TP), 90 kg total nitrogen (TN), and 180 kg total carbon (TC) ha(-1). The amendments examined were: (1) commercial grade liquid alum (8% Al2O3) applied at a rate of 0.88:1 [Al:TP], (2) commercial-grade liquid ferric chloride (38% FeCl3) applied at a rate of 0.89:1 [Fe:TP] and (3) commercial-grade liquid poly-aluminium chloride (PAC) (10% Al2O3) applied at a rate of 0.72:1 [Al:TP]. Columns filled with sieved soil were incubated for 8 mo at 10 °C and were leached with 160 mL (19 mm) distilled water wk(-1). All amendments reduced the Morgan's phosphorus and water extractable P content of the soil to that of the soil-only treatment, indicating that they have the ability to reduce P loss in leachate following slurry application. There were no significant differences between treatments for nitrogen (N) or carbon (C) in leachate or soil, indicating no deleterious impact on reactive N emissions or soil C cycling. Chemical amendment posed no significant change to GHG emissions from pig slurry, and in the cases of alum and PAC, reduced cumulative N2O and CO2 losses. Chemical amendment of land applied pig slurry can reduce P in runoff without any negative impact on nutrient leaching and GHG emissions. Future work must be conducted to ascertain if more significant reductions in GHG emissions are possible with chemical amendments. PMID:23850764

  14. Efficacy of Organic Soil Amendments for Management of Heterodera glycines in Greenhouse Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabau, Zane J; Chen, Senyu

    2014-09-01

    In a repeated greenhouse experiment, organic soil amendments were screened for effects on population density of soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines, and soybean growth. Ten amendments at various rates were tested: fresh plant material of field pennycress, marigold, spring camelina, and Cuphea; condensed distiller's solubles (CDS), ash of combusted CDS, ash of combusted turkey manure (TMA), marigold powder, canola meal, and pennycress seed powder. Soybeans were grown for 70 d in field soil with amendments and SCN eggs incorporated at planting. At 40 d after planting (DAP), many amendments reduced SCN egg population density, but some also reduced plant height. Cuphea plant at application rate of 2.9% (amendment:soil, w:w, same below), marigold plant at 2.9%, pennycress seed powder at 0.5%, canola meal at 1%, and CDS at 4.3% were effective against SCN with population reductions of 35.2%, 46.6%, 46.7%, 73.2%, and 73.3% compared with control, respectively. For Experiment 1 at 70 DAP, canola meal at 1% and pennycress seed powder at 0.5% reduced SCN population density 70% and 54%, respectively. CDS at 4.3%, ash of CDS at 0.2%, and TMA at 1% increased dry plant mass whereas CDS at 4.3% and pennycress seed powder at 0.1% reduced plant height. For Experiment 2 at 70 DAP, amendments did not affect SCN population nor plant growth. In summary, some amendments were effective for SCN management, but phytoxicity was a concern. PMID:25276000

  15. Tracking Amendments to Legislation and Other Political Texts with a Novel Minimum-Edit-Distance Algorithm: DocuToads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansson, Henrik Alf Jonas; Cross, James

    2015-01-01

    Political scientists often nd themselves tracking amendments to political texts. As different actors weigh in, texts change as they are drafted and redrafted, reflecting political preferences and power. This study provides a novel solution to the problem of detecting amendments to political text......) and substantive amount of amendments made between version of texts. To illustrate the usefulness and eciency of the approach we replicate two existing studies from the field of legislative studies. Our results demonstrate that minimum edit distance methods can produce superior measures of text amendments to hand...

  16. The reduction of wheat Cd uptake in contaminated soil via biochar amendment: A two-year field experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Liqiang Cui; Genxing Pan; Lianqing Li; Jinlong Yan; Afeng Zhang; Rongjun Bian; Andrew Chang

    2012-01-01

    A field study involving wheat production was extended in order to study the effects of biochar (BC) amendment in paddy soil that had long-term contamination of Cd. The BC was used as an amendment in Cd-contaminated soil for its special property. BC was amended at rates of 10 to 40 t ha-1 during the rice season before rice transplantation in 2009. BC amendments increased soil pH by 0.11 to 0.24 and by 0.09 to 0.24 units, respectively, while the soil CaCl2-extracted Cd was reduced by 10.1% to 4...

  17. Contribution of wastes and biochar amendment to the sorption capacity of heavy metals by a minesoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forján, Rubén; Asensio, Verónica; Vega, Flora A.; Andrade, Luisa; Covelo, Emma F.

    2013-04-01

    The use of wastes as soil amendments is a technique applied to reduce the available concentration of heavy metals in polluted sites (Pérez-de-Mora et al., 2005). However, the used wastes sometimes have high concentration of metals such as Cu, Pb, and Zn. Therefore, the sorption capacity of the amendments is important to understand its behavior in soil. The settling pond soil in a mine (S) located at Touro (Spain) was amended with a mixture of sewage sludges, sludges from an aluminum plant, ash, food industry wastes, sands from a wastewater treatment plant and biochar (A). The present study was performed to determine the influence of the addition of the amendment (A) in the sorption capacity of Cu, Pb, and Zn of the studied soil (S). The amendment (A) and the soil (S) were mixed (SA) at 20, 40, 60% and then introduced into glass vessels. The amendment A and S the soil at 100% were also introduced in glass vials as control samples. Mixtures and controls were incubated to field capacity for one month. To evaluate the sorption capacity of the soil and the mixtures soil-amendment, sorption isotherms were constructed using multiple-metal solutions of Cu, Pb and Zn nitrates (0.03, 0.05, 0.08, 0.1 and 0.5 mmol L-1) containing 0.01 M NaNO3 as background electrolyte (Vega et al., 2009). The overall capacity of the soil to sorb Cu, Pb y Zn was evaluated as the slope Kr (Vega et al., 2008). The sorption capacity of the amendment (A) is higher than the soil (S) for the three studied elements, which reflects that this amendment has a binding capacity of Cu, Pb and Zn higher than soil (S) (P <0.05). The soil-amendment mixtures (SA) in all proportions used, except 20% for Zn, also showed higher sorption capacity than the soil (S). The amended soil has higher sorption capacity of Cu, Pb and Zn than the soil without amending (P < 0.05). The element preferably sorbed by SA in the proportions 20, 40 and 60% is Pb and the least sorbed is Zn. The amendment without mixing with the soil

  18. Addition of organic amendments contributes to C sequestration in trace element contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Mar Montiel Rozas, María; Panettier, Marco; Madejón Rodríguez, Paula; Madejón Rodríguez, Engracia

    2015-04-01

    Nowadays, the study of global C cycle and the different natural sinks of C have become especially important in a climate change context. Fluxes of C have been modified by anthropogenic activities and, presently, the global objective is the decrease of net CO2 emission. For this purpose, many studies are being conducted at local level for evaluate different C sequestration strategies. These techniques must be, in addition to safe in the long term, environmentally friendly. Restoration of contaminated and degraded areas is considered as a strategy for SOC sequestration. Our study has been carried out in the Guadiamar Green Corridor (Seville, Spain) affected by the Aznalcóllar mining accident. This accident occurred 16 years ago, due to the failure of the tailing dam which contained 4-5 million m3 of toxic tailings (slurry and acid water).The affected soils had a layer of toxic sludge containing heavy metals as As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn. Restoration techniques began to be applied just after the accident, including the removal of the toxic sludge and a variable layer of topsoil (10-30 cm) from the surface. In a second phase, in a specific area (experimental area) of the Green Corridor the addition of organic amendments (Biosolid compost (BC) and Leonardite (LE), a low grade coal rich in humic acids) was carried out to increase pH, organic matter and fertility in a soil which lost its richest layer during the clean-up operation. In our experimental area, half of the plots (A) received amendments for four years (2002, 2003, 2006 and 2007) whereas the other half (B) received amendments only for two years (2002-2003). To compare, plots without amendments were also established. Net balance of C was carried out using values of Water Soluble Carbon (WSC) and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) for three years (2012, 2013 and 2015). To eliminate artificial changes carried out in the plots, amendment addition and withdrawal of biomass were taken into account to calculate balance of kg TOC

  19. Organic carbon amendments for passive in situ treatment of mine drainage: Field experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Organic carbon amendments can support passive treatment of mine drainage. → Decreased transport of sulfide-oxidation products under sulfate-reducing conditions. → Treatment effectiveness dependent on organic carbon source and amendment rate. - Abstract: A field-scale experiment was conducted to evaluate various organic C sources as amendments for passive treatment of tailings pore water. Varied mixtures of peat, spent-brewing grain (SBG) and municipal biosolids (MB) were assessed for the potential to promote dissimilatory sulfate reduction (DSR) and metal-sulfide precipitation. Five amended cells and one control were constructed in the vadose zone of a sulfide- and carbonate-rich tailings deposit, and the geochemistry, microbiology and mineralogy were monitored for 4 a. Increases in pore-water concentrations of dissolved organic C (DOC) and decreases in aqueous SO4 concentrations of >2500 mg L-1 were observed in cells amended with peat + SBG and peat + SBG + MB. Removal of SO4 was accompanied by shifts in δ34S-SO4 values of >+30 per mille, undersaturation of pore water with respect to gypsum [CaSO4.2H2O], and increased populations of SO4-reducing bacteria (SRB). Decreases in aqueous concentrations of Zn, Mn, Ni, Sb and Tl were observed for these cells relative to the control. Organic C introduction also supported growth of Fe-reducing bacteria (IRB) and increases in Fe and As concentrations. Enhanced Fe and As mobility occurred in all cells; however, maximum concentrations were observed in cells amended with MB. Subsequent decreases in Fe and As concentrations were attributed to DSR and metal-sulfide precipitation. The common presence of secondary Zn-S and Fe-S phases was observed by field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDS) spectroscopy. Selective extractions indicated that large decreases in water-soluble SO4 occurred in cells that supported DSR. Furthermore, amendments that supported DSR generally

  20. Phosphorus Leaching in Soils Amended with Animal Manures Generated from Modified Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toor, Gurpal S; Sims, J Thomas

    2016-07-01

    New dietary modifications for dairy (reducing P content in feed) and poultry (addition of feed additives such as phytase) aim to reduce P excretion in manures. Our objective was to investigate if dietary changes were effective at reducing P leaching loss on land application of manures. We used 54 undisturbed lysimeters (30 cm diameter, 50 cm deep) collected from three typical mid-Atlantic soils. Lysimeters received 85 kg total P ha from fertilizer (superphosphate), dairy manures generated from low- or high-P diets, or broiler litters generated from normal diet or reduced P- and phytase-amended diets. Lysimeters were irrigated with 50 mm of water each week for 9 wk. The major forms of P in the leachate were dissolved (dissolved unreactive > dissolved reactive P [DRP]) rather than particulate (total particulate P). The higher P solubility (100%) in superphosphate resulted in greater leaching of DRP, whereas the lower P solubility (superphosphate-amended than in the manure/litter-amended lysimeters. The dairy and poultry dietary modification was effective at reducing the amount of P in manures and litters. However, the application of treatments at similar P rate (85 kg ha) resulted in the addition of a higher amount of manure (54-66%) in lysimeters that received low-P dairy manure-amended and phytase-amended broiler litter, which then controlled P leaching from soils. PMID:27380088

  1. Influence of amendments on soil arsenic fractionation and phytoavailability by Pteris vittata L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiulan; Zhang, Min; Liao, Xiaoyong; Tu, Shuxin

    2012-06-01

    Increasing availability of soil arsenic is of significance for accelerating phytoremediation efficiency of As-polluted sites. The effects of seven amendments, i.e., citrate, oxalate, EDTA, sodium polyacrylate (SPA), phosphate rock (PR), single superphosphate (SSP), and compost on fractionation and phytoavailability of soil As were investigated in lab culture experiment. The results showed that the addition of PR, SPA, EDTA or compost to soils significantly increased the concentration of NaHCO(3)-extractable As over a 120 d incubation period compared with the control (amendment-free) soil. Then, the four amendments were selected to add to As-contaminated soil growing Pteris vittata. It was concluded that As accumulation by the fern increased significantly under the treatments of PR and SPA by 25% and 31%, respectively. For As fractionation in soil, SPA increased Fe-As significantly by 51% and PR increased Ca-As significantly by 18%, while both the two amendments reduced occluded-As by 16% and 19%, respectively. Adding PR and SPA in soil increased the activities of urease and neutral phosphatase resulting from the improvement the fertility and physical structure of the soil, which benefits plant growth and As absorption of P. vittata. The results of the research revealed that both PR and SPA were effective amendments for improving phytoremediation of As-contaminated sites by P. vittata. PMID:22463947

  2. Fertilizer and organic amendment effects on mine soil properties and revegetation success

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitrogen deficiency frequently limits mine-soil revegetation in the eastern USA. Application of organic amendments to these systems may provide a long-term source of N and eliminate the need for repeated fertilization. A factorial experiment was conducted using lysimeters to determine the degree to which (i) organic amendments (control, 50 Mg ha-1 of whole-tree wood chips, or 500 Mg ha-1 of native topsoil) and (ii) inorganic N fertilizer (0 or 100 kg N ha-1 as NH4NO3) affected mine-soil properties and establishment of hernaceous vegetation and pitch x loblolly hybrid pine (Pinus rigida L. x P. taeda L.) seedlings on a newly exposed mine soil from the central Appalachian region. After 3 yr, total N, mineralizable N, and organic C in the wood-chip-amended mine soil were 10, 50 and 18% higher, respectively, than the control. Tree growth after 2 yr was highest with wood chips. A lack of wood-chip treatment effect on pine nutrition showed that higher soil moisture levels, resulting from lower evapotranspiration, probably accounted for improved tree growth. Organic amendment x fertilizer interactions were not significant for any measured parameters. Results show that the organic amendments provided more stable sources of soil N; however, early revegetation success was more a function of moisture than of soil nutrient availability

  3. Biodegradation of Used Motor Oil in Soil Using Organic Waste Amendments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. P. Abioye

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil and surface water contamination by used lubricating oil is a common occurrence in most developing countries. This has been shown to have harmful effects on the environment and human beings at large. Bioremediation can be an alternative green technology for remediation of such hydrocarbon-contaminated soil. Bioremediation of soil contaminated with 5% and 15% (w/w used lubricating oil and amended with 10% brewery spent grain (BSG, banana skin (BS, and spent mushroom compost (SMC was studied for a period of 84 days, under laboratory condition. At the end of 84 days, the highest percentage of oil biodegradation (92% was recorded in soil contaminated with 5% used lubricating oil and amended with BSG, while only 55% of oil biodegradation was recorded in soil contaminated with 15% used lubricating oil and amended with BSG. Results of first-order kinetic model to determine the rate of biodegradation of used lubricating oil revealed that soil amended with BSG recorded the highest rate of oil biodegradation (0.4361 day−1 in 5% oil pollution, while BS amended soil recorded the highest rate of oil biodegradation (0.0556 day−1 in 15% oil pollution. The results of this study demonstrated the potential of BSG as a good substrate for enhanced remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soil at low pollution concentration.

  4. Evolution of several soil properties following amendment with olive mill wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ali Mekki; Abdelhafidh Dhouib; Sami Sayadi

    2009-01-01

    Occurrences of olive mill wastewater (OMW) amendment on several chemical and biochemical properties of soil were investigated. Compared to the control, soils amended with untreated and treated OMW (by an integrated process based on aerobic fungal pre-treat-ment using Phanerochaete chrysosporium DSMZ 6909 followed by anaerobic treatment) showed high levels of organic and mineral mat-ters. Soil amended with untreated OMW presented low levels of total and inorganic nitrogen (0.38 and 0.08 mg g~(-1) dry soil). Treated OMW contained little content of pollutants (COD=4 gl~(-1); phenolic compounds=0.6 gl~(-1)); so, organic matter brought by these res-idues was rapidly mineralized in the soil. The number of heterotrophic bacteria was increased (from 54×10~5 CFU g~(-1) dry soil in control soil to 123×10~5 CFU g~(-1) dry soil) in response to the OMW amendment, mainly after C/N ratio correction. Untreated OMW applica-tion improved the soil carbon content (2.18 times higher), while the specific respiration remained very low. However, the treated OMW application positively affected the soil-specific respiration that increased from 6.1 in control soil to 9.75 in soil amended with treated OMW. This phenomenon was accompanied by an enhancement of nitrifiers number, urease and ammonium oxidases activities.

  5. Effects of chemically amended litter on broiler performances, atmospheric ammonia concentration, and phosphorus solubility in litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, J C; Choi, I H; Nahm, K H

    2005-05-01

    The effects of 6 different litter amendments on broiler performance, level of atmospheric ammonia (NH3) concentration, and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) in litter was determined. Through 3 experiments conducted on 2 different commercial farms, one chemical amendment was added to the litter and then was compared with a control. Broiler performance was not affected by any of the amendments except the ferrous sulfate amendment for which mortality was 25.5%. Application of aluminum chloride (AlCl3 x 6H2O) to the litter lowered atmospheric ammonia concentrations at 42 d by 97.2%, whereas ferrous sulfate (FeSO4 x 7H2O) lowered it by 90.77%. Ammonia concentrations were reduced by 86.18, 78.66, 75.52, and 69.00% by aluminum sulfate [alum or Al2(SO4)3 x 14H2O)], alum + CaCO3, aluminum chloride + CaCO3, and potassium permanganate (KMnO4), respectively, when compared with each control at 42 d. Each amendment except KMnO4 significantly reduced SRP contents. Alum and aluminum chloride were the effective compounds evaluated on the commercial farms with respect to reducing ammonia contents, phosphorus solubility, and mortality. PMID:15913178

  6. Rice Bran Amendment Suppresses Potato Common Scab by Increasing Antagonistic Bacterial Community Levels in the Rhizosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomihama, Tsuyoshi; Nishi, Yatsuka; Mori, Kiyofumi; Shirao, Tsukasa; Iida, Toshiya; Uzuhashi, Shihomi; Ohkuma, Moriya; Ikeda, Seishi

    2016-07-01

    Potato common scab (PCS), caused by pathogenic Streptomyces spp., is a serious disease in potato production worldwide. Cultural practices, such as optimizing the soil pH and irrigation, are recommended but it is often difficult to establish stable disease reductions using these methods. Traditionally, local farmers in southwest Japan have amended soils with rice bran (RB) to suppress PCS. However, the scientific mechanism underlying disease suppression by RB has not been elucidated. The present study showed that RB amendment reduced PCS by repressing the pathogenic Streptomyces population in young tubers. Amplicon sequencing analyses of 16S ribosomal RNA genes from the rhizosphere microbiome revealed that RB amendment dramatically changed bacterial composition and led to an increase in the relative abundance of gram-positive bacteria such as Streptomyces spp., and this was negatively correlated with PCS disease severity. Most actinomycete isolates derived from the RB-amended soil showed antagonistic activity against pathogenic Streptomyces scabiei and S. turgidiscabies on R2A medium. Some of the Streptomyces isolates suppressed PCS when they were inoculated onto potato plants in a field experiment. These results suggest that RB amendment increases the levels of antagonistic bacteria against PCS pathogens in the potato rhizosphere. PMID:27050572

  7. Behavior of oxyfluorfen in soils amended with different sources of organic matter. Effects on soil biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Isidoro; Rodríguez-Morgado, Bruno; Parrado, Juan; García, Carlos; Hernández, Teresa; Tejada, Manuel

    2014-05-30

    We performed a laboratory study on the effect of oxyfluorfen at a rate of 4lha(-1) on biological properties of a soil amended with four organic wastes (two biostimulants/biofertilizers, obtained from rice bran, RB1 and RB2; municipal solid waste, MSW; and sheep manure, SM). Soil was mixed with SM at a rate of 1%, MSW at a rate of 0.52%, RB1 at a rate of 0.39% and RB2 at a rate of 0.30%, in order to apply the same amount of organic matter to the soil. The enzymatic activities and microbial community in the soil were determined during the incubation times. The application of RB1 and RB2 to soil without oxyfluorfen increased the enzymatic activities and biodiversity, peaking at day 10 of the incubation period. This stimulation was higher in the soil amended with RB2 than in that amended with RB1. In SM and CF-amended soils, the stimulation of enzymatic activities and soil biodiversity increased during the experiment. The application of herbicide in organic-amended soils decreased the inhibition of soil enzymatic activities and soil biodiversity. Possibly the low molecular weight protein content easily assimilated by soil microorganisms and the higher fat content in the biostimulants/biofertilizers are responsible for the lower inhibition of these soil biological properties. PMID:24742665

  8. Effect of dairy manure rate and the stabilization time of amended soils on atrazine degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Paula; Briceño, Gabriela; Candia, Maribel; Mora, Maria de la Luz; Demanet, Rolando; Palma, Graciela

    2009-10-01

    The application rate of liquid cow manure (LCM) in the field and the stabilization time of amended soils before application of pre-plant herbicides are factors that determine their efficiency. This study includes evaluation of residual atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-1,3,5-triazine) in soil and amended soils with equivalent rate of 100,000; 200,000; and 300,000 L ha(-1) of LCM and the effect of pre-incubation time of amended soils on atrazine degradation. The study was carried out under controlled conditions using an Andisol with previous historical application of atrazine. The respiratory activity and fluorescein diacetate (FDA) studies indicated that the time necessary for stabilization of amended soils is over 20-30 d. During the measurement of respiratory and FDA activity, no significant differences were observed when atrazine was applied. The half-life of atrazine ranged from 5 to 8d and the relative distribution of degradation products seem to be affected by the application of LCM. The pre-incubation time of amended soil and LCM dose would not affect atrazine degradation rate, when the soil has a history of herbicide application. However, repeated applications of LCM in a long period of time could change the soil pH and increase the content of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) which could further contribute to a faster degradation of atrazine. Both effects would reduce the effectiveness of atrazine in weed control. PMID:19744695

  9. Protein and Chlorophyll Contents of Solanum melongena on Diesel Oil Polluted Soil Amended with Nutrient Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.O. Akujobi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the remediation effect of nutrient amendments of diesel oil polluted soil on protein and chlorophyll contents of eggplant (Solanum melongena. Soil samples were polluted and amended separately with different weights of poultry waste, pig waste, cow dung and inorganic fertilizer. Soil samples were also polluted with diesel oil without amendment to achieve 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10% pollution. Samples were analyzed at two weeks interval for sixteen weeks. The plant protein and chlorophyll were affected adversely by the diesel oil pollution and the higher the level of pollution, the more the effect. The nutrient amendments were able to remedy the effect of the diesel oil pollution. The remediation effect was nutrient weight dependent and the best remediation effect was observed in poultry waste amended samples. This study has shown that diesel oil contaminated soil may have adverse effect on the protein and chlorophyll contents of plants, but this can be remedied by addition of organic nutrient supplements especially poultry waste.

  10. Organic matter degradation in paper sludge amendments over gold mine tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long-term stability of paper sludge amendments as covers for reclaimed mine waste storage facilities must be assessed by the mining industry. This study examines a 6 yr old sequence of paper sludge amendments applied over wastes from historic Au mines located in Northern Ontario, Canada. As paper sludge is mostly comprised of C-rich organic compounds, elemental quantification, 13C cross polarization/magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (13C CP/MAS NMR) spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy were used to examine the minimal changes in the C content and speciation observed of the amendments over time. These results suggest that paper sludge covers are suitable for use in medium to long-term mining reclamation strategies.

  11. Phosphorus leaching from soils amended with thermally gasified piggery waste ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuligowski, Ksawery; Poulsen, Tjalfe

    2009-01-01

    In regions with intensive livestock farming, thermal treatment for local energy extraction from the manure and export of the P rich ash as a fertilizer has gained interest. One of the main risks associated with P fertilizers is eutrophication of water bodies. In this study P and K mobility in ash...... matter) as a function of precipitation rate (9.5 and 2.5 mm h−1), soil type (Jyndevad agricultural soil and sand), amount of time elapsed between ash amendment and onset of precipitation (0 and 5 weeks) and compared to leaching from soils amended with a commercial fertilizer (Na2HPO4). Water soluble P in...... GA and IA constituted 0.04% and 0.8% of total ash P. Ash amended soil released much less P (0.35% of total P applied in sand) than Na2HPO4 (97% and 12% of total P applied in Jyndevad and sand, respectively)....

  12. Proposal to negotiate an amendment to an existing contract for hydraulic presses

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    This document concerns the proposal to negotiate an amendment to an existing contract for three hydraulic presses for the assembly and welding of the LHC superconducting dipole magnets. For the reasons explained in this document, the Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of an amendment to the contract for hydraulic presses with the consortium CTE SISTEMI (IT) - CARPENTERIA S. ANTONIO (IT) for technical modifications to the presses installed at the premises of the dipole manufacturers for an amount exceeding the previously approved amount by 1 105 357 euros (1 635 929 Swiss francs), bringing the total contract amount to 7 581 709 euros (11 220 929 Swiss francs). The amounts in euros have been calculated using the present rate of exchange. The firm has indicated the following distribution by country of the amendment value: CAN - 58%, IT - 21%, US - 17%, FR - 4%.

  13. Copper amendment of agricultural soil selects for bacterial antibiotic resistance in the field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, J.; Tom-Petersen, A.; Nybroe, O.

    2005-01-01

    Aims: The objective of this study was to determine whether Cu-amendment of field plots affects the frequency of Cu resistance, and antibiotic resistance patterns in indigenous soil bacteria. Methods and Results: Soil bacteria were isolated from untreated and Cu-amended field plots. Cu......-amendment significantly increased the frequency of Cu-resistant isolates. A panel of isolates were characterized by Gram-reaction, amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis and resistance profiling against seven antibiotics. More than 95% of the Cu-resistant isolates were Gram-negative. Cu-resistant Gram......-negative isolates had significantly higher incidence of resistance to ampicillin, sulphanilamide and multiple (greater than or equal to3) antibiotics than Cu-sensitive Gram-negative isolates. Furthermore, Cu-resistant Gram-negative isolates from Cu-contaminated plots had significantly higher incidence of resistance...

  14. Influence of activated carbon amended ASBR on anaerobic fermentative hydrogen production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xie, Li; Wang, Lei; Zhou, Qi; Luo, Gang

    2013-01-01

    amended anazrobic seguencs batch reactor (ASBRs) was more stable than that of ASBRs without activated carbon addition regarding on hydrogen production and pH. Higher hydrogen yield(HY) and hydrogen producing rate(HPR) were observed in the activated carbon amended ASBRs, with 65%, 63%, 54%, 56% enhancement...... of hydrogen yield in smaller size activated carbon amended reactor under the tested HRT ranges, and the maximum HPR of (7.09±0.31)L·(L·d)-1 and HY of (1.42±0.03) mol·mol-1 was obtained at HRT of 12h. The major soluble products form hydrogen fermentation were n-butyric acid and acetic acid, accounting...

  15. Enhancing uranium solubilization in soils by citrate, EDTA, and EDDS chelating amendments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► The aim was to optimize uranium solubilization for the purposes of remediation. ► The most important factor in uranium solubilization was found to be the pH. ► Citrate treatment was the most efficient, with 63% of uranium solubilization. ► The uranium extraction yield with EDDS amendment was greater than with EDTA. - Abstract: A systematic study was made of the effects of three soil amendments on the solubilization of uranium from a granitic soil. The aim was to optimize solubilization so as to enhance bioavailability for the purposes of remediation. The three amendments tested were with citrate, EDTA, and EDDS as chelating agents. The effects of pH, chelator concentration, and leaching time were studied. The most important factor in uranium solubilization was found to be the pH. In the absence of chelating agents, the greatest solubilization was obtained for alkaline conditions, with values representing about 15% of the total uranium activity in the bulk soil. There were major differences in uranium solubilization between the different amendments. The citrate treatment was the most efficient at acidic pH, particularly with the greatest concentration of citrate tested (50 mmol kg−1) after 6 days of treatment. Under these conditions, the uranium concentration in solution was greater by a factor of 356 than in the control suspension, and represented some 63% of the uranium concentration in the bulk soil. Under alkaline conditions, the EDTA and EDDS treatments gave the greatest uranium activity concentrations in solution, but these concentrations were much lower than those with the citrate amendment, and were not very different from the control results. The uranium extraction yield with EDDS amendment was greater than with EDTA.

  16. Metolachlor Sorption and Degradation in Soil Amended with Fresh and Aged Biochars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigo, Carmen; Spokas, Kurt A; Hall, Kathleen E; Cox, Lucia; Koskinen, William C

    2016-04-27

    Addition of organic amendments such as biochar to soils can influence pesticide sorption-desorption processes and, in turn, the amount of pesticide readily availability for transport and biodegradation. Sorption-desorption processes are affected by both the physical and chemical properties of soils and pesticides, as well as soil-pesticide contact time, or aging. Changes in sorption-desorption of metolachlor with aging in soil amended with three macadamia nut shell biochars aged 0 (BCmac-fr), 1 year (BCmac-1yr), and 2 years (BCmac-2yr) and two wood biochars aged 0 (BCwood-fr) and 5 years (BCwood-5yr) were determined. Apparent sorption coefficient (Kd-app) values increased with incubation time to a greater extent in amended soil as compared to unamended soils; Kd-app increased by 1.2-fold for the unamended soil, 2.0-fold for BCwood-fr, 1.4-fold for BCwood-5yr, 2.4-fold for BCmac-fr, 2.5-fold for BCmac-1yr, and 1.9-fold for BCmac-4yr. The increase in calculated Kd-app value was the result of a 15% decrease in the metolachlor solution concentration extractable with CaCl2 solution with incubation time in soil as compared to a 50% decrease in amended soil with very little change in the sorbed concentration. Differences could possibly be due to diffusion to less accessible or stronger binding sites with time, a faster rate of degradation (in solution and on labile sites) than desorption, or a combination of the two in the amended soils. These data show that transport models would overpredict the depth of movement of metolachlor in soil if effects of aging or biochar amendments are not considered. PMID:27050383

  17. Dissipation of fungicides in a vineyard soil amended with different spent mushroom substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Benito, Jesús M; Andrades, M Soledad; Sánchez-Martín, María J; Rodríguez-Cruz, M Sonia

    2012-07-18

    The degradation kinetics and formation of metabolites for fungicides of different chemical classes (iprovalicarb, metalaxyl, penconazole, and pyrimethanil) and determination of bound residues for metalaxyl and penconazole were studied in both an unamended vineyard soil and in the same soil amended with two spent mushroom substrates (composted (C-SMS1) and fresh (F-SMS2)). The degradation kinetics was fitted to single first-order or first-order multicompartment patterns. Degradation rates decreased in C-SMS1-amended soils for all fungicides as compared to unamended soil, but in F-SMS2-amended soils, they decreased only for iprovalicarb and penconazole. The DT(50) values were higher by up to 1.8 (metalaxyl), 3.8 (pyrimethanil), 4.1 (iprovalicarb), and >1000 (penconazole) times in the soil plus C-SMS1 compared to those for soil plus F-SMS2 or unamended soil. The dissipation mechanism recorded the highest mineralization in the unamended soil for (14)C-metalaxyl and (14)C-penconazole, with the highest formation of nonextractable residues in the F-SMS2-amended soil for (14)C-metalaxyl. The results are consistent with (1) the chemical characteristics of each SMS (total and soluble organic carbon) controlling sorption and the bioavailability of fungicides and (2) the microbial activity of SMS-amended soils, which affects fungicide biodegradation. The findings of this work highlight the potential of SMS amendments with different characteristics to decrease or increase the degradation rate of a fungicide in a vineyard soil. PMID:22715816

  18. Influence of biochar amendment on greenhouse gases emission and rice production in paddy field, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X.; Pan, G. X.; Li, L. Q.; Zhou, T.

    2012-04-01

    Biochar incorporating into agricultural soils as a strategy to increase soil carbon content and mitigate climate change received great attention. We present a field study about biochar amendment into paddy field in Sichuan province 2010, China. The objective was to evaluate the impacts of biochar incorporation on rice production and greenhouse gas emissions. Biochar used in this study was produced from wheat straw at temperature 350-550°C. Biochar incorporated into paddy field before rice transplanting. Methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes were measured in situ using closed chamber method during whole rice growing season. Flux of greenhouse gases was monitored at about 7 day's interval. Two rates of N fertilizer (0 and 240 kg N/ha) were applied as urea in combination with 3 biochar rates (0, 20 and 40 t/ha). Amendment of biochar had no influence on rice yield even at the hightest rate of 40 t/ha. However, rice production was greatly relying on chemical N fertilization input. No interact effect was detected between biochar and N fertilizer. Amendment of biochar suppressed N2O emission. During the whole rice growing season, the total N2O emission from chemical fertilizer was reduce by 29% and 53% under biochar amendment rates of 20t/ha and 40t/ha respectively. Total amounts of CO2 and CH4 emitted from paddy fields during whole rice growing season were not greatly increased despite of much carbon brought into soil with biochar. However, biochar amendment slightly increased CO2 emission in the absence of N fertilizer. Our results showed that biochar amendment into paddy field did not increase the global warming potential (GPW) and greenhouse gases emission intensity (GHGI).

  19. Effect of biochar amendment on tylosin adsorption-desorption and transport in two different soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Chang Yoon; Wang, Jim J; Dodla, Syam K; Eberhardt, Thomas L; Groom, Les

    2012-01-01

    The role of biochar as a soil amendment on the adsorption-desorption and transport of tylosin, a macrolide class of veterinary antibiotic, is little known. In this study, batch and column experiments were conducted to investigate the adsorption kinetics and transport of tylosin in forest and agricultural corn field soils amended with hardwood and softwood biochars. Tylosin adsorption was rapid at initial stages, followed by slow and continued adsorption. Amounts of adsorption increased as the biochar amendment rate increased from 1 to 10%. For soils with the hardwood biochar, tylosin adsorption was 10 to 18% higher than that when using the softwood biochar. Adsorption kinetics was well described by Elovich equation ( ≥ 0.921). As the percent of biochar was increased, the rates of initial reactions were generally increased, as indicated by increasing α value at low initial tylosin concentration, whereas the rates during extended reaction times were generally increased, as indicated by decreasing β value at high initial tylosin concentration. A considerably higher amount of tylosin remained after desorption in the corn field soil than in the forest soil regardless of the rate of biochar amendment, which was attributed to the high pH and silt content of the former. The breakthrough curves of tylosin showed that the two soils with biochar amendment had much greater retardation than those of soils without biochar. The CXTFIT model for the miscible displacement column study described well the peak arrival time as well as the maximum concentration of tylosin breakthrough curves but showed some underestimation at advanced stages of tylosin leaching, especially in the corn field soil. Overall, the results indicate that biochar amendments enhance the retention and reduce the transport of tylosin in soils. PMID:22751061

  20. Enhancing uranium solubilization in soils by citrate, EDTA, and EDDS chelating amendments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lozano, J.C. [Departamento de Fisica Fundamental, Universidad de Salamanca, 37008 Salamanca (Spain); Blanco Rodriguez, P. [Natural Radioactivity Group, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. Elvas s/n, 06071 Badajoz (Spain); Vera Tome, F., E-mail: fvt@unex.es [Natural Radioactivity Group, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. Elvas s/n, 06071 Badajoz (Spain); Calvo, C. Prieto [Departamento de Fisica Fundamental, Universidad de Salamanca, 37008 Salamanca (Spain)

    2011-12-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The aim was to optimize uranium solubilization for the purposes of remediation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The most important factor in uranium solubilization was found to be the pH. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Citrate treatment was the most efficient, with 63% of uranium solubilization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The uranium extraction yield with EDDS amendment was greater than with EDTA. - Abstract: A systematic study was made of the effects of three soil amendments on the solubilization of uranium from a granitic soil. The aim was to optimize solubilization so as to enhance bioavailability for the purposes of remediation. The three amendments tested were with citrate, EDTA, and EDDS as chelating agents. The effects of pH, chelator concentration, and leaching time were studied. The most important factor in uranium solubilization was found to be the pH. In the absence of chelating agents, the greatest solubilization was obtained for alkaline conditions, with values representing about 15% of the total uranium activity in the bulk soil. There were major differences in uranium solubilization between the different amendments. The citrate treatment was the most efficient at acidic pH, particularly with the greatest concentration of citrate tested (50 mmol kg{sup -1}) after 6 days of treatment. Under these conditions, the uranium concentration in solution was greater by a factor of 356 than in the control suspension, and represented some 63% of the uranium concentration in the bulk soil. Under alkaline conditions, the EDTA and EDDS treatments gave the greatest uranium activity concentrations in solution, but these concentrations were much lower than those with the citrate amendment, and were not very different from the control results. The uranium extraction yield with EDDS amendment was greater than with EDTA.

  1. The New Zealand Construction Contracts Amendment Act 2015 - For Better or Worse?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Finnie

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Adjudication has been statutorily introduced as an alternative dispute resolution method in 14 jurisdictions including New Zealand. Whilst adjudication under the New Zealand Construction Contracts Act 2002 has been hailed a success, further refinements were proposed in the Construction Contracts Amendment Bill first published in 2013. As part of the legislative process, 48 submissions were made to the Commerce Committee. There was general support for most of the amendments, but some parties expressed concerns on some of the changes. A documentary analysis of the Amendment Bills and submissions to the Commerce Committee was made to critically evaluate the changes proposed and establish if they were improvements. The findings show the major changes proposed include (i removing most of the distinctions between the treatment of residential and commercial contracts under the Act, (ii extending the scope of the Act to apply to contracts for certain professional services, (iii removing the distinction between enforcement of payment determinations and of those relating to rights and obligations, and (iv making the enforcement process more efficient. The findings also show that during a period of over two years from when the Bill was first introduced in January 2013, one other significant improvement for retentions to be held in trust was made. A few proposals to further refine the Bill such as the suggestion to mandate retentions to be kepts in a separate trust account were however not accepted. The Construction Contract Amendment Bill (Bill 97-3 was uninanimously passed during the third and final reading in Parliament on 20 October 2015 with most of the amendments coming into force on 1 December 2015, those incorporating professional services on 1 September 2016, and the retention provisions on 31 March 2017. Royal assent was given on 11 October 2015 leading to the enactment of the Construction Contracts Amendment Act 2015.

  2. Application, chemistry, and environmental implications of contaminant-immobilization amendments on agricultural soil and water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udeigwe, Theophilus K; Eze, Peter N; Teboh, Jasper M; Stietiya, Mohammed H

    2011-01-01

    Contaminants such as nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), arsenic (As), heavy metals, and infectious pathogens are often associated with agricultural systems. Various soil and water remediation techniques including the use of chemical amendments have been employed to reduce the risks associated with these contaminants. This paper reviews the use of chemical amendments for immobilizing principal agricultural contaminants, the chemistry of contaminant immobilization, and the environmental consequences associated with the use of these chemical products. The commonly used chemical amendments were grouped into aluminum-, calcium-, and iron-containing products. Other products of interest include phosphorus-containing compounds and silicate clays. Mechanisms of contaminant immobilization could include one or a combination of the following: surface precipitation, adsorption to mineral surfaces (ion exchange and formation of stable complexes), precipitation as salts, and co-precipitation. The reaction pH, redox potential, clay minerals, and organic matter are potential factors that could control contaminant-immobilization processes. Reviews of potential environmental implications revealed that undesirable substances such as trace elements, fluoride, sulfate, total dissolved solids, as well as radioactive materials associated with some industrial wastes used as amendment could be leached to ground water or lost through runoff to receiving water bodies. The acidity or alkalinity associated with some of the industrial-waste amendments could also constitute a substantial environmental hazard. Chemical amendments could introduce elements capable of inducing or affecting the activities of certain lithotrophic microbes that could influence vital geochemical processes such as mineral dissolution and formation, weathering, and organic matter mineralization. PMID:20832118

  3. Breakdown of Azadirachtin A in a Tropical Soil Amended with Neem Leaves and Animal Manures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A field investigation was conducted to assess the breakdown of azadirachtin A in a tropical coastal savanna soil amended with neem leaves (NL) combined with poultry manure (PM) or cow dung (CD) using gas chromatography. Samples in polythene bags 15 cm long and 4.8 cm in diameter were randomly placed to a depth of 14 cm in the soil, and azadirachtin A concentration was assessed on days 0, 14, 28, 42, 56, 70, and 84. Azadirachtin A degradation in the soil followed first-order reaction kinetics with different half-lives obtained for varying combinations of the amendments. Higher neem amendment levels of 100 g gave shorter half-lives of azadirachtin A than the lower levels of 50 g. Within the 50 g NL group the additions of the poultry manure and the cow dung gave significantly shorter (P < 0.05) half-lives of azadirachtin A than the sole neem amendment, whereas in the 100 g NL group only additions of 10 g CD and 10 g PM were significantly less (P < 0.05) than the sole neem amendment. Different changes resulting from the kind and quantity of animal manure added were observed in the half-lives of azadirachtin A. The 100 g NL group had significantly higher (P < 0.05) moisture content, which, coupled with the likely differences in microbial biomass, could be the major factor responsible for variations in the half-life of the compound. Therefore, the quantity of the neem leaves applied and the addition of animal manure affected the breakdown of azadirachtin A in the soil amended with neem leaves.

  4. Microbial Profiling of a Suppressiveness-Induced Agricultural Soil Amended with Composted Almond Shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vida, Carmen; Bonilla, Nuria; de Vicente, Antonio; Cazorla, Francisco M

    2016-01-01

    This study focused on the microbial profile present in an agricultural soil that becomes suppressive after the application of composted almond shells (AS) as organic amendments. For this purpose, we analyzed the functions and composition of the complex communities present in an experimental orchard of 40-year-old avocado trees, many of them historically amended with composted almond shells. The role of microbes in the suppression of Rosellinia necatrix, the causative agent of avocado white root rot, was determined after heat-treatment and complementation experiments with different types of soil. Bacterial and fungal profiles obtained from natural soil samples based on the 16S rRNA gene and ITS sequencing revealed slight differences among the amended (AS) and unamended (CT) soils. When the soil was under the influence of composted almond shells as organic amendments, an increase in Proteobacteria and Ascomycota groups was observed, as well as a reduction in Acidobacteria and Mortierellales. Complementary to these findings, functional analysis by GeoChip 4.6 confirmed these subtle differences, mainly present in the relative abundance of genes involved in the carbon cycle. Interestingly, a group of specific probes included in the "soil benefit" category was present only in AS-amended soils, corresponding to specific microorganisms previously described as potential biocontrol agents, such as Pseudomonas spp., Burkholderia spp., or Actinobacteria. Considering the results of both analyses, we determined that AS-amendments to the soil led to an increase in some orders of Gammaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Dothideomycetes, as well as a reduction in the abundance of Xylariales fungi (where R. necatrix is allocated). The combination of microbial action and substrate properties of suppressiveness are discussed. PMID:26834725

  5. Enhanced Remedial Amendment Delivery through Fluid Viscosity Modifications: Experiments and numerical simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Lirong; Oostrom, Martinus; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Covert, Matthew A.

    2008-07-29

    Abstract Heterogeneity is often encountered in subsurface contamination characterization and remediation. Low-permeability zones are typically bypassed when remedial fluids are injected into subsurface heterogeneous aquifer systems. Therefore, contaminants in the bypassed areas may not be contacted by the amendments in the remedial fluid, which may significantly prolong the remediation operations. Laboratory experiments and numerical studies have been conducted to develop the Mobility-Controlled Flood (MCF) technology for subsurface remediation and to demonstrate the capability of this technology in enhancing the remedial amendments delivery to the lower permeability zones in heterogeneous systems. Xanthan gum, a bio-polymer, was used to modify the viscosity of the amendment-containing remedial solutions. Sodium mono-phosphate and surfactant were the remedial amendment used in this work. The enhanced delivery of the amendments was demonstrated in two-dimensional (2-D) flow cell experiments, packed with heterogeneous systems. The impact of polymer concentration, fluid injection rate, and permeability contract in the heterogeneous systems has been studied. The Subsurface Transport over Multiple Phases (STOMP) simulator was modified to include polymer-induced shear thinning effects. Shear rates of polymer solutions were computed from pore-water velocities using a relationship proposed in the literature. Viscosity data were subsequently obtained from empirical viscosity-shear rate relationships derived from laboratory data. The experimental and simulation results clearly show that the MCF technology is capable of enhancing the delivery of remedial amendments to subsurface lower permeability zones. The enhanced delivery significantly improved the NAPL removal from these zones and the sweeping efficiency on a heterogeneous system was remarkably increased when a polymer fluid was applied. MCF technology is also able to stabilize the fluid displacing front when there is a

  6. Environment Protection (Alligator Rivers Region) Amendment Act 1987 - No 17 of 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Act amends the Environment Protection (Alligator Rivers Region) Act 1978. The amendments mainly concern definition of general mining operations and specification of the functions of the Supervisory Scientist and the Research Institute in relation to general mining in an environment conservation zone (parts of the Alligator Rivers Region). The 1978 Act provided for the appointment of a Supervising Scientist responsible for supervising protection of the environment against the effects of uranium mining in the Region, and for the creation of a Research Institute under his management. (NEA)

  7. Sugarcane Yield Response to Furrow-Applied Organic Amendments on Sand Soils

    OpenAIRE

    J. Mabry McCray; Shangning Ji; Leslie E. Baucum

    2015-01-01

    Organic amendments have been shown to increase sugarcane yield on sand soils in Florida. These soils have very low water and nutrient-holding capacities because of the low content of organic matter, silt, and clay. Because of high costs associated with broadcast application, this field study was conducted to determine sugarcane yield response to furrow application of two organic amendments on sand soils. One experiment compared broadcast application (226 m3 ha−1) of mill mud and yard waste co...

  8. A Danish killer amendment-when judicial review was banned from the 1849 Constitution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, M. N.

    2014-01-01

    In real political life "killer amendments" are very rare. William H. Riker was the first political scientist to draw systematic attention to this special "heresthetic" phenomenon, but he was himself only able to identify a handful of successful "killer amendments". Subsequent systematic empirical...... research has brought a few more to attention. In this article what may be the first successful example from outside the US context is described. It took place, when the Danish Constituent Assembly in 1849 discussed, if a proper judicial review procedure should be institutionalized in the Danish...

  9. Initial water repellency affected organic matter depletion rates of manure amended soils in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leelamanie D.A.L.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The wetting rate of soil is a measure of water repellency, which is a property of soils that prevents water from wetting or penetrating into dry soil. The objective of the present research was to examine the initial water repellency of organic manure amended soil, and its relation to the soil organic matter (SOM depletion rates in the laboratory. Soil collected from the Wilpita natural forest, Sri Lanka, was mixed with organic manure to prepare soil samples with 0, 5, 10, 25, and 50% organic manure contents. Locally available cattle manure (CM, goat manure (GM, and Casuarina equisetifolia leaves (CE were used as the organic manure amendments. Organic matter content of soils was measured in 1, 3, 7, 14, and 30 days intervals under the laboratory conditions with 74±5% relative humidity at 28±1°C. Initial water repellency of soil samples was measured as the wetting rates using the water drop penetration time (WDPT test. Initial water repellency increased with increasing SOM content showing higher increasing rate for hydrophobic CE amended samples compared with those amended with CM and GM. The relation between water repellency and SOM content was considered to be governed by the original hydrophobicities of added manures. The SOM contents of all the soil samples decreased with the time to reach almost steady level at about 30 d. The initial SOM depletion rates were negatively related with the initial water repellency. However, all the CE amended samples initially showed prominent low SOM depletion rates, which were not significantly differed with the amended manure content or the difference in initial water repellency. It is explicable that the original hydrophobicity of the manure as well has a potentially important effect on initiation of SOM decomposition. In contrast, the overall SOM depletion rate can be attributed to the initial water repellency of the manure amended sample, however, not to the original hydrophobicity of the amended manure

  10. Amendments to the Tlatelolco treaty 1990-1992: a demonstration of international collaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The amendments to the Tlatelolco treaty made between 1990-1992, had a major impact on its full enforcement. The paper will analyze the different process for its achievement and their consequences. The first and second amendments were made with the intention of including the Caribbean Countries within the geographical scope of the Treaty; and the third and most important one dealt with the adaptation of the control system foreseen in the Tlatelolco Treaty, to permit the integration of Argentina, Brazil and Chile to it. This work also quotes some facts that implied international collaboration in achieving the complete military denuclearization of Latin America and the Caribbean. (author). 25 refs

  11. Guide to the IET wiring regulations BS 7671:2008 incorporating amendment no 1:2011)

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    This authoritative, best-selling guide has been extensively updated with the new technical requirements of the IET Wiring Regulations (BS 7671: 2008) Amendment No. 1:2011, also known as the IET Wiring Regulations 17th Edition. With clear description, it provides a practical interpretation of the amended regulations - effective January 2012 - offers real solutions to the problems that can occur in practice. This revised edition features:new material on hot topics such as electromagnetic compatibility (EMC), harmonics, surge protective devices, and new special locations incl

  12. Influence of Phosphate on Transformation and Plant Uptake of Cadmium in Cd—amended Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONGLI-MING; LURU-KUN

    1991-01-01

    Phosphate was found to have neither influence on Cd transformation nor effect on plant Cd uptake in three Cd-amended upland soils.However,on submerged red earth,high phosphate dressing inhibited the transformation of Cd from exchangeable fraction to other lower-available ones.Cadmium uptake by rice plants increased simultaneously with increasing phosphate supply though plant resistance to Cd also increased at high phosphate level.Application of phosphate as an amendment for Cd-contaminated soil was therefore not recommended in view of the increasing influx of Cd into food chain especially on flooded soils.

  13. Adsorption and transport of methane in landfill cover soil amended with waste-wood biochars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadasivam, Bala Yamini; Reddy, Krishna R

    2015-08-01

    The natural presence of methane oxidizing bacteria (MOB) in landfill soils can stimulate the bio-chemical oxidation of CH4 to CO2 and H2O under suitable environmental conditions. This mechanism can be enhanced by amending the landfill cover soil with organic materials such as biochars that are recalcitrant to biological degradation and are capable of adsorbing CH4 while facilitating the growth and activity of MOB within their porous structure. Several series of batch and small-scale column tests were conducted to quantify the CH4 sorption and transport properties of landfill cover soil amended with four types of waste hardwood biochars under different levels of amendment percentages (2, 5 and 10% by weight), exposed CH4 concentrations (0-1 kPa), moisture content (dry, 25% and 75% water holding capacity), and temperature (25, 35 and 45 °C). The linear forms of the pseudo second-order kinetic model and the Langmuir isotherm model were used to determine the kinetics and the maximum CH4 adsorption capacity of cover materials. The maximum CH4 sorption capacity of dry biochar-amended soils ranged from 1.03 × 10(-2) to 7.97 × 10(-2) mol kg(-1) and exhibited a ten-fold increase compared to that of soil with 1.9 × 10(-3) mol kg(-1). The isosteric heat of adsorption for soil was negative and ranged from -30 to -118 kJ/mol, while that of the biochar-amended soils was positive and ranged from 24 to 440 kJ/mol. The CH4 dispersion coefficients for biochar-amended soils obtained through predictive transport modeling indicated that amending the soil with biochar enhanced the methane transport rates by two orders of magnitude, thereby increasing their potential for enhanced exchange of gases within the cover system. Overall, the use of hardwood biochars as a cover soil amendment to reduce methane emissions from landfills appears to be a promising alternative to conventional soil covers. PMID:25935750

  14. Amendments to the Tlatelolco treaty 1990-1992: a demonstration of international collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vez, L.; Anaya, R. [Instituto Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Mexico City (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    The amendments to the Tlatelolco treaty made between 1990-1992, had a major impact on its full enforcement. The paper will analyze the different process for its achievement and their consequences. The first and second amendments were made with the intention of including the Caribbean Countries within the geographical scope of the Treaty; and the third and most important one dealt with the adaptation of the control system foreseen in the Tlatelolco Treaty, to permit the integration of Argentina, Brazil and Chile to it. This work also quotes some facts that implied international collaboration in achieving the complete military denuclearization of Latin America and the Caribbean. (author). 25 refs.

  15. Management of Plant-parasitic Nematodes with a Chitin-Urea Soil Amendment and Other Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Westerdahl, B. B.; Carlson, H. L.; Grant, J; Radewald, J. D.; Welch, N.; Anderson, C A; Darso, J.; Kirby, D.; Shibuya, F.

    1992-01-01

    Field trials were conducted with a chitin-urea soil amendment and several other nematicides on four crop-nematode combinations: tomato-Meloidogyne incognita; potato-Meloidogyne chitwoodi; walnut-Pratylenchus vulnus; and brussels sprouts-Heterodera schachtii. Significant (P ≤ 0.10) nematode population reductions were obtained with the chitin-urea soil amendment in the trims on potato and walnut. In the trials on brussels sprouts and on tomato, phytotoxicity occurred at rates of 1,868 and 1,093...

  16. Management of Plant-parasitic Nematodes with a Chitin-Urea Soil Amendment and Other Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerdahl, B B; Carlson, H L; Grant, J; Radewald, J D; Welch, N; Anderson, C A; Darso, J; Kirby, D; Shibuya, F

    1992-12-01

    Field trials were conducted with a chitin-urea soil amendment and several other nematicides on four crop-nematode combinations: tomato-Meloidogyne incognita; potato-Meloidogyne chitwoodi; walnut-Pratylenchus vulnus; and brussels sprouts-Heterodera schachtii. Significant (P soil amendment in the trims on potato and walnut. In the trials on brussels sprouts and on tomato, phytotoxicity occurred at rates of 1,868 and 1,093 kg/ha, respectively. Significant (P Yucca extract on tomato; and dazomet granules on brussels sprouts. PMID:19283044

  17. The Road to a Court of Appeal—Part I: History and Constitutional Amendment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butler, Graham

    2015-01-01

    In October 2013, the Irish electorate voted to approve the passing of the Thirty-third Amendment of the Constitution (Court of Appeal) Bill 2013. Its primary aim was to allow for the establishment of a Court of Appeal and, more subtly, to remove one of the two single-judgment scenarios from the...... the judicial system of the State. The creation of a new court requires a considerable effort from a number of branches of the State in formulating the correct path for its establishment to proceed. In this article, the history of a Court of Appeal is set out, before discussing the referendum to amend...

  18. Short-term effects of different organic amendments on soil chemical, biochemical and biological indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondelli, Donato; Aly, Adel; Yirga Dagnachew, Ababu; Piscitelli, Lea; Dumontet, Stefano; Miano, Teodoro

    2014-05-01

    The limited availability of animal manure and the high cost of good quality compost lead to difficult soil quality management under organic agriculture. Therefore, it is important to find out alternative organic soil amendments and more flexible strategies that are able to sustain crop productivity and maintain and enhance soil quality. A three years study was carried out in the experimental fields of the Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Bari located in Valenzano, Italy. The main objective of this research is to investigate the effects of different fertility management strategies on soil quality in order to estimate the role of innovative matrices for their use in organic farming. The experiment consists of seven treatments applied to a common crop rotation. The treatments include alternative organic amendments (1- olive mill wastewater OMW, 2- residues of mushroom cultivation MUS, 3- coffee chaff COF), common soil amendments (4- compost COM, 5- faba bean intercropping LEG, 6- cow manure - MAN) and as a reference treatment (7- mineral fertilizer COV). The soil quality was assessed before and after the application of the treatments, through biological (microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen, soil respiration and metabolic quotient), biochemical (soil enzymatic activities: β-glucosidase, alkaline phospatase, urease, fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolysis), and chemical (pH, soil organic carbon, soil organic matter, total nitrogen, available phosphorous, exchangeable potassium, dissolved organic carbon and total dissolved nitrogen) indicators. Based on the results obtained after the second year, all treatments were able to improve various soil chemical parameters as compared to mineral fertilizer. The incorporation of COF and OMW seemed to be more effective in improving soil total N and exchangeable K, while MAN significantly increased available P. All the amendments enhance dissolved organic C, soil respiration, microbial biomass and metabolic quotient as

  19. 7 CFR 205.621 - Submission and determination of proposed State organic programs and amendments to approved State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Submission of a request for amendment of an approved State organic program must contain supporting materials... official may submit a revised State organic program or amendment of such a program at any time. ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Submission and determination of proposed State...

  20. 26 CFR 54.4980F-1 - Notice requirements for certain pension plan amendments significantly reducing the rate of future...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice requirements for certain pension plan... (CONTINUED) PENSION EXCISE TAXES § 54.4980F-1 Notice requirements for certain pension plan amendments... a plan amendment of an applicable pension plan that significantly reduces the rate of future...

  1. 78 FR 48506 - Approval of Amendment to Special Withdrawal Liability Rules the I.A.M. National Pension Fund...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ... Request for Approval of the amendment on December 26, 2012 (77 FR 76090) (``Notice of Pendency''). In... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION Approval of Amendment to Special Withdrawal Liability Rules the I.A.M. National Pension...

  2. 77 FR 13141 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Master Leasing Plan, Amendments to the Resource Management Plans...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-05

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Intent To Prepare a Master Leasing Plan, Amendments to the Resource..., intend to prepare a Master Leasing Plan (MLP), amendments to the 2008 Moab and Monticello Resource Management Plans (RMPs), and a single environmental impact statement (EIS) to consider leasing for oil...

  3. 78 FR 73456 - List of Approved Spent Fuel Storage Casks: HI-STORM 100 Cask System; Amendment No. 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ...; ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 72 RIN 3150-AJ12 List of Approved Spent Fuel Storage Casks: HI.... SUMMARY: The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is proposing to amend its spent fuel storage... Approved Spent Fuel Storage Casks'' to include Amendment No. 9 to Certificate of Compliance (CoC) No....

  4. 78 FR 22411 - List of Approved Spent Fuel Storage Casks: HI-STORM 100, Amendment No. 8; Corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-16

    ... COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 72 RIN 3150-AJ05 List of Approved Spent Fuel Storage Casks: HI-STORM 100, Amendment No... direct final rule amending its spent fuel storage regulations by revising the Holtec International, Inc. (Holtec) HI-STORM 100 Cask System listing within the ``List of Approved Spent Fuel Storage Casks''...

  5. 42 CFR 121.13 - Definition of Human Organ Under section 301 of the National Organ Transplant Act, as amended.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... NETWORK § 121.13 Definition of Human Organ Under section 301 of the National Organ Transplant Act, as amended. “Human organ,” as covered by section 301 of the National Organ Transplant Act, as amended, means... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definition of Human Organ Under section 301 of...

  6. 77 FR 33782 - License Amendment To Construct and Operate New In Situ Leach Uranium Recovery Facility; Uranium...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-07

    ... COMMISSION License Amendment To Construct and Operate New In Situ Leach Uranium Recovery Facility; Uranium... referenced. The Ludeman facility In Situ Leach Uranium Recovery Project License Amendment Request is... construct and operate a new in situ leach uranium recovery (ISL) facility at its Ludeman facility...

  7. No Time to Lose: Why America Needs an Education Amendment to the US Constitution to Improve Public Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Education Foundation, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This report outlines the case for an education amendment to the US Constitution to reduce radical disparities in the allocation of resources and funds for the education of the nation's public school students. The report argues that an education amendment is the best way to fundamentally reform the "structural arrangements" that are wasting the…

  8. 77 FR 41716 - Amendment Relating to Reasonable Contract or Arrangement Under Section 408(b)(2)-Fee Disclosure...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-16

    ... Benefits Security Administration 29 CFR Part 2550 RIN 1210-AB54 Amendment Relating to Reasonable Contract....regulations.gov . Follow the instructions for submitting comments. Email: e-ORI@dol.gov . Mail or Hand... electronically to a specified email address (paragraph (c)(1)(ix)(F)). The direct final rule amends...

  9. 7 CFR 1.642 - When must a party supplement or amend information it has previously provided?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false When must a party supplement or amend information it has previously provided? 1.642 Section 1.642 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture... When must a party supplement or amend information it has previously provided? (a) Discovery. A...

  10. 78 FR 25701 - Certain Hot-Rolled Carbon Steel Flat Products From India: Notice of Second Amended Final Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-02

    ...: Final Results and Partial Rescission of Countervailing Duty Administrative Review, 74 FR 20,923 (May 6... Pursuant to Court Decision, 76 FR 7810 (February 11, 2011) (Amended Final Results). DATES: Effective Date... deposits for Essar at the cash deposit rate of 22.19 percent. \\17\\ Amended Final Results, 76 FR at...

  11. 78 FR 32414 - Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians; Amendment No. 1 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-30

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians; Amendment No. 1 to Notice of.... SUMMARY: This notice amends the notice of a major disaster for the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians (FEMA... follows: I have determined that the damage to the lands associated with the Eastern Band of...

  12. 77 FR 27487 - License Amendment Request From The State University of New York, University of Buffalo Reactor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-10

    ... accordance with the NRC E-Filing rule (72 FR 49139, August 28, 2007). The E-Filing process requires... COMMISSION License Amendment Request From The State University of New York, University of Buffalo Reactor....resource@nrc.gov . The University of Buffalo Decommissioning Plan and License Amendment Request...

  13. Uranium and thorium mining regulations: Amendments relating to financial assurances and decommissioning of uranium mining facilities. Consultative document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this document is to describe the objectives, scope, substance and application of proposed amendments to the Uranium and Thorium Mining Regulations; in particular, amendments relating to the provision of financial assurances for the decommissioning of Canadian uranium mines. (author)

  14. Comparison of soil amendments to decrease high strength in SE USA Coastal Plain soils using fuzzy decision-making analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cemented subsurface layers restrict root growth in many southeastern USA Coastal Plain soils. Though cementation is usually reduced by tillage, soil amendments can offer a more permanent solution if they develop aggregation. To increase aggregation, we amended 450 g of a Norfolk soil blend of 90% E ...

  15. 31 CFR 1.27 - Procedures for amendment of records pertaining to individuals-format, agency review and appeal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pertaining to individuals-format, agency review and appeal from initial adverse agency determination. 1.27... Privacy Act § 1.27 Procedures for amendment of records pertaining to individuals—format, agency review and..., or complete; or (ii) Inform the individual of the refusal to amend the record in accordance with...

  16. 78 FR 33255 - Amendment 4 to the Corals and Reef Associated Plants and Invertebrates Fishery Management Plan of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... availability for Amendment 4 and requested comments (78 FR 12703). On March 6, 2013, NMFS published a proposed rule for Amendment 4 to the Coral FMP and requested public comments (78 FR 14503). The proposed rule... Reef Associated Plants and Invertebrates Fishery Management Plan of Puerto Rico and the U.S....

  17. Bacterial communities in chitin-amended soil as revealed by 16S rRNA gene based pyrosequencing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cretoiu, Mariana Silvia; Kielak, Anna Maria; Schluter, Andreas; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Chitin and its derivatives are natural biopolymers that are often used as compounds for the control of soilborne plant pathogens. In spite of recent advances in agricultural practices involving chitin amendments, the microbial communities in chitin-amended soils remain poorly known. The objectives o

  18. 31 CFR 535.402 - Effect of amendment of sections of this part or of other orders, etc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effect of amendment of sections of this part or of other orders, etc. 535.402 Section 535.402 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... or of other orders, etc. Any amendment, modification, or revocation of any section of this part or...

  19. 31 CFR 500.402 - Effect of amendment of sections of this chapter or of other orders, etc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effect of amendment of sections of this chapter or of other orders, etc. 500.402 Section 500.402 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... chapter or of other orders, etc. Any amendment, modification, or revocation of any section of this...

  20. 31 CFR 515.402 - Effect of amendment of sections of this part or of other orders, etc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effect of amendment of sections of this part or of other orders, etc. 515.402 Section 515.402 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... or of other orders, etc. Any amendment, modification, or revocation of any section of this part or...

  1. 75 FR 55602 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment To Amend the Resource Management Plan for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-13

    ... compliance with the Geothermal Steam Act, as amended, and the legislative directives set forth in the Energy... Management Plan for the San Luis Resource Area for Geothermal Leasing in Colorado's San Luis Valley AGENCY... Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), as amended, and the Federal Land Policy and Management Act (FLPMA)...

  2. 76 FR 98 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Amendment 5 to the Golden Crab...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    ..., and South Atlantic; Amendment 5 to the Golden Crab Fishery Management Plan of the South Atlantic... management actions to be included in Amendment 5 to the Golden Crab Fishery Management Plan of the South... for the golden crab fishery. The purpose of this NOI is to solicit public comments on the scope...

  3. 17 CFR 230.486 - Effective date of post-effective amendments and registration statements filed by certain closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-effective amendments and registration statements filed by certain closed-end management investment companies....486 Effective date of post-effective amendments and registration statements filed by certain closed-end management investment companies. (a) Automatic effectiveness. Except as otherwise provided in...

  4. Efficiency of green waste compost and biochar soil amendments for reducing lead and copper mobility and uptake to ryegrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, Nadia; Clemente, Rafael; Moreno-Jiménez, Eduardo; Lepp, Nicholas W; Beesley, Luke

    2011-07-15

    Green waste compost and biochar amendments were assessed for their assistance in regulating the mobility of copper (Cu) and lead (Pb) and the resultant uptake of these metals into vegetation. The amendments were mixed with a heavily Cu and Pb contaminated soil (600 and 21,000 mg kg(-1), respectively) from a former copper mine in Cheshire (UK), on a volume basis both singly and in combination in greenhouse pot trials. Ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. var. Cadix) was grown for the following 4 months during which biomass, metals in soil pore water and plant uptake were measured in three consecutive harvests. Very high Pb concentrations in pore water from untreated soil (>80 mg l(-1)) were reduced furthest by compost amendment (treatment at reducing pore water Cu concentrations. Duly, ryegrass shoot Cu levels were reduced and large, significant reductions in shoot Pb levels were observed after biochar and compost amendments, respectively during successive harvests. However, because green waste compost singly and in combination with biochar vividly enhanced biomass yields, harvestable amounts of Pb were only significantly reduced by the compost amendment which had reduced shoot Pb levels furthest. The low biomass of ryegrass with biochar amendment meant that this was the only amendment which did not significantly increase harvestable amounts of Cu. Therefore the two amendments have opposing metal specific suitability for treating this contaminated soil regarding whether it is a maximum reduction in plant tissue metal concentration or a maximum reduction in harvestable amount of metal that is required. PMID:21565444

  5. 78 FR 11791 - Flavored Milk; Petition to Amend the Standard of Identity for Milk and 17 Additional Dairy Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-20

    ... and Goat's Milk Ice Cream'' (59 FR 47072, September 14, 1994) (Ref 2). Before FDA's amendment, the... Cream and Frozen Custard and Goat's Milk Ice Cream'' (59 FR 47072, September 14, 1994). Dated: February... Lowfat and Nonfat Yogurt and to Amend the Standard for Yogurt'' (74 FR 2443, January 15, 2009). Thus,...

  6. 76 FR 16285 - Amendments to the Water Quality Regulations, Water Code and Comprehensive Plan To Update Water...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... COMMISSION 18 CFR Part 410 Amendments to the Water Quality Regulations, Water Code and Comprehensive Plan To Update Water Quality Criteria for Toxic Pollutants in the Delaware Estuary and Extend These Criteria to... amendments to its Water Quality Regulations, Water Code and Comprehensive Plan to update the...

  7. 78 FR 17632 - Caribou-Targhee National Forest; Idaho and Wyoming; Amendment to the Targhee Revised Forest Plan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... Forest Service Caribou-Targhee National Forest; Idaho and Wyoming; Amendment to the Targhee Revised Forest Plan--Canada Lynx Habitat AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of intent to prepare an environmental impact statement. SUMMARY: The Caribou-Targhee National Forest proposes to amend the...

  8. 40 CFR 2.305 - Special rules governing certain information obtained under the Solid Waste Disposal Act, as amended.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... information obtained under the Solid Waste Disposal Act, as amended. 2.305 Section 2.305 Protection of... § 2.305 Special rules governing certain information obtained under the Solid Waste Disposal Act, as amended. (a) Definitions. For purposes of this section: (1) Act means the Solid Waste Disposal Act,...

  9. 76 FR 34618 - Domestic Dates Produced or Packed in Riverside County, CA; Proposed Amendments to Marketing Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-14

    ... part 900 (73 FR 49307; August, 21, 2008). The additional supplemental rules of practice authorize the... issuance or amendment of an order. The order was last amended on February 1, 1978 (43 FR 4253). Since that... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 987 Domestic Dates Produced or Packed in Riverside County,...

  10. 76 FR 60379 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab; Amendment 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... measures in Amendment 3 published in the Federal Register on July 6, 2011 (76 FR 39369), with public... Amendment 3 was published in the Federal Register on June 22, 2011 (76 FR 36511), with public comments... Magnuson-Stevens Act and the National Standard 1 (NS1) guidelines. As a result, the Council intended...

  11. 77 FR 4028 - Orders Granting, Amending and Vacating Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas and Liquefied...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-26

    ... Granting, Amending and Vacating Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas and Liquefied Natural Gas FE Docket Nos. Gas Natural Caxitlan, S. DE R.L 11-147-NG Jordan Cove Energy Project, L.P 11-127-LNG Irving..., amending and vacating authority to import and export natural gas and liquefied natural gas. These...

  12. 77 FR 38013 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Groundfish of the Gulf of Alaska; Amendment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-26

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Groundfish of the Gulf of Alaska; Amendment 88; Correction AGENCY: National..., 2011, that implemented Amendment 88 to the Fishery Management Plan for Groundfish of the Gulf of Alaska... share (QS) under the Central Gulf of Alaska (GOA) Rockfish Program only in proportion to the number...

  13. 77 FR 12213 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Shallow-Water Species by Amendment 80...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    ... limit specified for the shallow-water species fishery by Amendment 80 vessels in the GOA is 10 metric tons as established by the final 2011 and 2012 harvest specifications for groundfish of the GOA (76 FR... the shallow-water species fishery by Amendment 80 vessels in the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). This action...

  14. Ecological risk assessment of organic waste amendments using the species sensitivity distribution from a soil organisms test battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safe amendment rates (the predicted no-effect concentration or PNEC) of seven organic wastes were estimated from the species sensitivity distribution of a battery of soil biota tests and compared with different realistic amendment scenarios (different predicted environmental concentrations or PEC). None of the wastes was expected to exert noxious effects on soil biota if applied according either to the usual maximum amendment rates in Europe or phosphorus demands of crops (below 2 tonnes DM ha-1). However, some of the wastes might be problematic if applied according to nitrogen demands of crops (above 2 tonnes DM ha-1). Ammonium content and organic matter stability of the studied wastes are the most influential determinants of the maximum amendment rates derived in this study, but not pollutant burden. This finding indicates the need to stabilize wastes prior to their reuse in soils in order to avoid short-term impacts on soil communities. - Ecological risk assessment of organic waste amendments

  15. The influence of amendment material on biosolid composting of sludge from a waste-water treatment plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Torres Lozada

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Aerobic composting employing manual turning was evaluated by using the sludge produced by EMCALI EICE ESP's Cañaverlejo wastewater treatment plant (PTAR-C. Compost (in 1,0 ton piles consisted of sludge, a fixed proportion of bulking agent (10% and amendment material. Sugarcane waste and solid organic (marketplace waste were evaluated as amendment material using 20/80 and 40/60 weight/weight (amendment/sludge ratios. Incorporating the amendment material improved the compost, being reflected in a faster start for the thermophilic phase, higher temperatures beign maintained (>55°C and better C/N ratio obtained in the compost in all treatments compared to the pile which had no amendment added to it. Incorporating the bulking agent improved sludge manageability during composting; the best combination was 54% sludge + 10% sugacane bagasse + 36% liquid sugarcane waste.

  16. A lucrative technique to reduce Ni toxicity in Raphanus sativus plant by phosphate amendment: Special reference to plant metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anita; Prasad, Sheo Mohan

    2015-09-01

    Nickel (Ni) contamination is one of the serious environmental problems. It creates hazard in soil environment and also in crop quality. In the present study, response of Raphanus sativus (radish) to Ni (50mgkg(-1) soil) under different concentrations (100, 200, 500 and 1000 DAPmgkg(-1) soil) of phosphate as soil amendment was investigated after 40 days of growth. Ni-treated plants without amendment showed reduction in their growth as a result of appreciable decrease in the photosynthetic activity. Under this treatment, Ni accumulation significantly enhanced lipid peroxidation and level of oxidants showing oxidative stress and it was also associated with decrease in the activities of antioxidative enzymes except super oxide dismutase (SOD). Application of phosphate in Ni contaminated soil resulted into significant improvement in plant growth. Under phosphate amendment, the status of oxidative biomarkers: SOR, TBARS and H2O2 were under control by the higher activity of antioxidants: APX, CAT, POD, GST and DHAR compared to Ni contaminated soil without amendment. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to show the significant changes in biochemical traits under control and phosphate amendment. The values of PS II transient kinetics: Phi-E0, Psi-0 and PIABS increased and values of energy fluxes: ABC/RC, Tro/RC, Eto/RC and Dio/RC decreased in plants grown in Ni contaminated soil under phosphate amendment as compared to without amendment. Among all doses of phosphate amendment soil amended at 500mg DAPkg(-)(1) soil the yield of plant was the highest and Ni accumulation was the lowest. As compared to plants grown in Ni treated soil without amendment the yield of plant at 500mg DAPkg(-1) soil showed about 70% increment and the reduction in Ni accumulation was 63% in shoot and 64% in root. Because of these beneficial effects this technique can be easily applied at metal contaminated agricultural fields to reduce food chain contamination and to improve food quality

  17. Biosolids compost amendment for reducing soil lead hazards: a pilot study of Orgro amendment and grass seeding in urban yards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farfel, Mark R; Orlova, Anna O; Chaney, Rufus L; Lees, Peter S J; Rohde, Charles; Ashley, Peter J

    2005-03-20

    In situ inactivation of soil Pb is an alternative to soil removal and replacement that has been demonstrated in recent years at industrial sites with hazardous soil Pb concentrations. Most children exposed to elevated soil Pb, however, reside in urban areas, and no government programs exist to remediate such soils unless an industrial source caused the contamination. Modern regulated biosolids composts have low Pb concentrations and low bioaccessible Pb fractions and can improve grass growth on urban soils. High Fe and P biosolids composts can reduce the bioavailability and bioaccessibility of soil Pb and can aid in establishing vegetation that would reduce soil transfer into homes. For these reasons, we conducted a field test of their use to reduce Pb bioaccessibility in urban soils in Baltimore, MD USA. We chose biosolids compost for its expected reduction in the bioaccessible Pb fraction of urban soils, ease of use by urban residents, and ability to beautify urban areas. Nine urban yards with mean soil Pb concentrations >800 mg Pb kg(-1) were selected and sampled at several distances from the house foundation before soil treatment. The soils were rototilled to 20 cm depth to prepare the sites, and resampled. The yards were then amended with 6-8 cm depth of Orgro biosolids compost (110-180 dry t/ha) rich in Fe and P, mixed well by rototilling, and resampled. Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis) was seeded and became well established. Soils were resampled 1 year later. At each sampling time, total soil Pb was measured using a modified U.S. EPA nitric acid hotplate digestion method (SW 846 Method 3050) and bioaccessible Pb fraction was measured using the Solubility/Bioaccesibility Research Consortium standard operating procedure with modifications, including the use of glycine-buffered HCl at pH 2.2. Samples of untreated soils were collected from each yard and mixed well to serve as controls for the Pb bioaccessibility of field treated soils over time independent of

  18. 75 FR 64120 - Technical Amendments to Forms N-CSR and N-SAR in Connection With the Comprehensive Iran Sanctions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-19

    ... COMMISSION 17 CFR Parts 249 and 274 Technical Amendments to Forms N-CSR and N-SAR in Connection With the... adopting technical amendments to Forms N-CSR and N-SAR under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 and the... Securities and Exchange Commission (``Commission'') is adopting technical amendments to Form N-CSR \\1\\...

  19. 78 FR 9747 - Request To Amend A License To Import; Radioactive Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... COMMISSION Request To Amend A License To Import; Radioactive Waste Pursuant to 10 CFR 110.70 (b) ``Public... electronically through ADAMS and can be accessed through the Public Electronic Reading Room (PERR) link http... electronic filing, at least 5 (five) days prior to the filing deadline, the petitioner/requestor...

  20. 78 FR 7818 - Request To Amend a License To Export Radioactive Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... COMMISSION Request To Amend a License To Export Radioactive Waste Pursuant to 10 CFR 110.70 (b) ``Public... available electronically through ADAMS and can be accessed through the Public Electronic Reading Room (PERR... electronic filing, at least 5 (five) days prior to the filing deadline, the petitioner/requestor...